Science.gov

Sample records for needle sharing

  1. Mental Health Status, Drug Treatment Use, and Needle Sharing among Injection Drug Users

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lundgren, Lena M.; Amodeo, Maryann; Chassler, Deborah

    2005-01-01

    This study examined the relationship among mental health symptoms, drug treatment use, and needle sharing in a sample of 507 injection drug users (IDUs). Mental health symptoms were measured through the ASI psychiatric scale. A logistic regression model identified that some of the ASI items were associated with needle sharing in an opposing…

  2. Changes in needle sharing behavior among intravenous drug users: San Francisco, 1986-88.

    PubMed Central

    Guydish, J R; Abramowitz, A; Woods, W; Black, D M; Sorensen, J L

    1990-01-01

    We analyzed data for San Francisco intravenous drug users entering treatment, April 1986-September 1988 (N = 7,660). The proportion of cases reporting any needle sharing in the month preceding treatment decreased from 50 percent in 1986 to 28 percent in 1988. Similar decreases were reported by two longitudinal cohorts (needle sharing by the same individuals) admitted in 1986 and 1987 (n = 303), and in 1986 and 1988 (n = 205). In a multiple logistic regression model four variables predicted needle sharing: earlier time of admission, cocaine use, younger age, and being White rather than Black. PMID:2368868

  3. Using shared needles for subcutaneous inoculation can transmit bluetongue virus mechanically between ruminant hosts

    PubMed Central

    Darpel, Karin E.; Barber, James; Hope, Andrew; Wilson, Anthony J.; Gubbins, Simon; Henstock, Mark; Frost, Lorraine; Batten, Carrie; Veronesi, Eva; Moffat, Katy; Carpenter, Simon; Oura, Chris; Mellor, Philip S.; Mertens, Peter P. C.

    2016-01-01

    Bluetongue virus (BTV) is an economically important arbovirus of ruminants that is transmitted by Culicoides spp. biting midges. BTV infection of ruminants results in a high viraemia, suggesting that repeated sharing of needles between animals could result in its iatrogenic transmission. Studies defining the risk of iatrogenic transmission of blood-borne pathogens by less invasive routes, such as subcutaneous or intradermal inoculations are rare, even though the sharing of needles is common practice for these inoculation routes in the veterinary sector. Here we demonstrate that BTV can be transmitted by needle sharing during subcutaneous inoculation, despite the absence of visible blood contamination of the needles. The incubation period, measured from sharing of needles, to detection of BTV in the recipient sheep or cattle, was substantially longer than has previously been reported after experimental infection of ruminants by either direct inoculation of virus, or through blood feeding by infected Culicoides. Although such mechanical transmission is most likely rare under field condition, these results are likely to influence future advice given in relation to sharing needles during veterinary vaccination campaigns and will also be of interest for the public health sector considering the risk of pathogen transmission during subcutaneous inoculations with re-used needles. PMID:26853457

  4. Beyond needle sharing: meta-analyses of social context risk behaviors of injection drug users attending needle exchange programs.

    PubMed

    Ksobiech, Kate

    2006-01-01

    This study gathered data from U.S. and international needle exchange programs (NEPs). Of particular interest were outcome measures of dependent variables related to behaviors within social contexts of injection drug users (IDUs), an area not well understood. Thirty-one studies, with a total of 86 separate measures of 36 dependent variables were included. Because combining all results into a single meta-analysis would be inappropriate, dependent variables were placed into five categories for five separate meta-analyses: risky contexts, injection frequency, sharing drug paraphernalia, drug preparation, and syringe use. NEP attendance was inversely related to declines in all categorical behaviors except for "risky context." NEP attenders are slightly more likely to be in a risky circumstance when injecting drugs than non-attenders. While injection frequency declined only slightly among NEP attenders, that result may be interpreted as a positive outcome, given the often-stated criticism that providing clean needles encourages increased drug use. NEP use was weakly associated with a decrease in the sharing of drug paraphernalia. Clean needles alone do not appear to be sufficient motivation to motivate major changes in contextual risk behaviors analyzed herein. Research is needed to assess the impact of interpersonal IDU relationships with other stakeholders (clinic employees, van drivers, medical personnel, nutritionists, sexual partners, etc.) on IDU drug-using behaviors at many levels.

  5. Correlates of receptive and distributive needle sharing among injection drug users in Kabul, Afghanistan.

    PubMed

    Todd, Catherine S; Abed, Abdullah M S; Scott, Paul T; Botros, Boulos A; Safi, Naqibullah; Earhart, Kenneth C; Strathdee, Steffanie A

    2008-01-01

    We describe receptive and distributive needle/syringe sharing among injection drug users (IDUs) in Kabul, Afghanistan. In this cross-sectional study, IDUs completed an interviewer-administered questionnaire. Logistic regression identified correlates of needle sharing in the last six months. Receptive and distributive sharing in the last six months were reported by 28.2% and 28.7% of participants, respectively, and were both independently associated with reported difficulty obtaining new syringes (Receptive sharing: AOR = 2.60, 95% CI: 1.66-4.06; Distributive: AOR = 1.56, 95% CI: 1.02-2.39). Receptive and distributive sharing are common among IDU in Kabul; scaling up availability of sterile, no-cost injecting equipment is urgently needed.

  6. Sharing of Needles and Syringes among Men Who Inject Drugs: HIV Risk in Northwest Bangladesh

    PubMed Central

    Pasa, M. Kamal; Alom, Kazi Robiul; Bashri, Zubaida; Vermund, Sten H.

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Injection drug use is prevalent in northwestern Bangladesh. We sought to explore the context of needle/syringe sharing among persons who inject drugs (PWID), examining risk exposures to blood-borne infections like the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and hepatitis in a region where these dual epidemics are likely to expand. Methods We used a qualitative research approach to learn about injection practices, conducting 60 in-depth interviews among PWID. We then conducted 12 focus group discussions (FGDs) that generated a checklist of salient issues, and followed up with personal observations of typical days at the drug-use venues. Content and interpretative frameworks were used to analyze qualitative information and socio-demographic information, using SPSS software. Results We found that needle/syringe-sharing behaviours were integrated into the overall social and cultural lives of drug users. Sharing behaviours were an central component of PWID social organization. Sharing was perceived as an inherent element within reciprocal relationships, and sharing was tied to beliefs about drug effects, economic adversity, and harassment due to their drug user status. Carrying used needles/syringes to drug-use venues was deemed essential since user-unfriendly needle-syringe distribution schedules of harm reduction programmes made it difficult to access clean needles/syringes in off-hours. PWID had low self-esteem. Unequal power relationships were reported between the field workers of harm reduction programmes and PWID. Field workers expressed anti-PWID bias and judgmental attitudes, and also had had misconceptions about HIV and hepatitis transmission. PWID were especially disturbed that no assistance was forthcoming from risk reduction programme staff when drug users manifested withdrawal symptoms. Conclusion Interventions must take social context into account when scaling up programmes in diverse settings. The social organization of PWID include values that

  7. Innate Activation of MDC and NK Cells in High-risk HIV-1 Exposed, Sero-Negative (HESN) IV-Drug Users that Share Needles When Compared to Low-risk Non-sharing IV-Drug User Controls

    PubMed Central

    Tomescu, Costin; Seaton, Kelly E.; Smith, Peter; Taylor, Mack; Tomaras, Georgia D.; Metzger, David S.; Montaner, Luis J.

    2014-01-01

    Background Previous studies have described increased innate immune activation in HIV-1 exposed, sero-negative intra-venous drug users (HESN-IDU), but have not addressed the independent role of injected drugs and/or repeated injections in driving immune activation. Methods Here, we investigated innate (NK cells and dendritic cells) and adaptive (HIV-specific antibody and CD8+ T cell) immune parameters among a high-risk cohort of needle-sharing HESN-IDU subjects and compared them to low-risk non-sharing IDU subjects (NS-IDU) and non drug-user controls. Results We observed that HIV-specific antibody and CD8+ T cell responses were not detected in HESN-IDU subjects, yet innate immune cell activation was found to be significantly increased on NK cells (CD69 and CD107a upregulation) and MDCs (CD40 and CD83 upregulation) when compared to NS-IDU subjects or non drug-user controls (p<0.01, and p<0.05, respectively). HESN-IDU subjects maintained strong NK cell CD107a degranulation and cytokine (IFN-gamma, TNF-alpha and MIP-1 beta) production following target cell-incubation suggesting that constitutive innate activation does not induce functional exhaustion of innate cells in HESN-IDU subjects. NK activation in HESN-IDU subjects was independent of drug use patterns but was durable over time and correlated with plasma levels of IP-10 by Luminex analysis (rho=0.5073, p=0.0059, n=28). Conclusions Our results indicate that heightened innate immune cell activation in HESN-IDU subjects is not the result of the IV-drugs and repeated injection practice itself, but to repeated exposure to factors intrinsic to sharing needles (i.e., exposure to pathogens or heterologous cells among donor blood). PMID:25514793

  8. Pinus flexilis and Picea engelmannii share a simple and consistent needle endophyte microbiota with a potential role in nitrogen fixation

    PubMed Central

    Carrell, Alyssa A.; Frank, Anna C.

    2014-01-01

    Conifers predominantly occur on soils or in climates that are suboptimal for plant growth. This is generally attributed to symbioses with mycorrhizal fungi and to conifer adaptations, but recent experiments suggest that aboveground endophytic bacteria in conifers fix nitrogen (N) and affect host shoot tissue growth. Because most bacteria cannot be grown in the laboratory very little is known about conifer–endophyte associations in the wild. Pinus flexilis (limber pine) and Picea engelmannii (Engelmann spruce) growing in a subalpine, nutrient-limited environment are potential candidates for hosting endophytes with roles in N2 fixation and abiotic stress tolerance. We used 16S rRNA pyrosequencing to ask whether these conifers host a core of bacterial species that are consistently associated with conifer individuals and therefore potential mutualists. We found that while overall the endophyte communities clustered according to host species, both conifers were consistently dominated by the same phylotype, which made up 19–53% and 14–39% of the sequences in P. flexilis and P. engelmannii, respectively. This phylotype is related to Gluconacetobacter diazotrophicus and other N2 fixing acetic acid bacterial endophytes. The pattern observed for the P. flexilis and P. engelmannii needle microbiota—a small number of major species that are consistently associated with the host across individuals and species—is unprecedented for an endophyte community, and suggests a specialized beneficial endophyte function. One possibility is endophytic N fixation, which could help explain how conifers can grow in severely nitrogen-limited soil, and why some forest ecosystems accumulate more N than can be accounted for by known nitrogen input pathways. PMID:25071746

  9. Needle Exchange Programs and Drug Injection Behavior

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    DeSimone, Jeff

    2005-01-01

    This study examines how drug injection and needle sharing propensities respond when a needle exchange program (NEP) is introduced into a city. I analyze 1989-1995 Drug Use Forecasting data on adult male arrestees from 24 large U.S. cities, in nine of which NEPs opened during the sample period. After controlling for cocaine and heroin prices, AIDS…

  10. Emergency physician's needle holder.

    PubMed

    Abidin, M R; Towler, M A; Lombardi, S A; Becker, D G; Thacker, J G; McGregor, W; Edlich, R F

    1989-01-01

    A new needle holder is described that has jaws metallurgically bonded with tungsten carbide particles that enhance needle holding security without causing sutural damage during instrument ties. Scissors have also been incorporated into the needle holder to cut sutures. One ringlet on a handle has been offset to facilitate retrieval of the needle holder from a flat surface.

  11. Drug injectors and the cleaning of needles and syringes.

    PubMed

    Hughes, R A

    2000-03-01

    When people share needles and syringes they risk transmitting human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and other infections including hepatitis B virus (HBV) and hepatitis C virus (HCV). Cleaning needles and syringes can help to reduce, although not eliminate, these risks. This article begins by engaging with some of the literature on the cleaning of needles and syringes. Drawing on qualitative research conducted with drug injectors in England, the article then goes on to explore drug injectors' perceptions and experiences of cleaning needles and syringes inside and outside prison. The article concludes by highlighting the implications for future research and policy making. Ultimately there should be a stronger policy response to reduce the risks associated with sharing needles and syringes inside prison, which should include the piloting of prison needle and syringe exchange schemes.

  12. Towards synergistic control of hands-on needle insertion with automated needle steering for MRI-guided prostate interventions.

    PubMed

    Wartenberg, Marek; Patel, Niravkumar; Gang Li; Fischer, Gregory S

    2016-08-01

    A significant hurdle of accurate needle tip placement in percutaneous needle-based prostate interventions is unmodeled needle deflection and tissue deformation during insertion. This paper introduces a robotic platform for developing synergistic, cooperatively controlled needle insertion algorithms decoupled from closed-loop image-guided needle steering. Shared control of the surgical workspace through human-robot synergy creates a balance between the accuracy of robotic autonomy while still providing ultimate control of the procedure to the physician. Validation tests were performed using camera-based image-guided feedback control of needle steering with cooperative hands-on needle insertion. Locations were targeted inside a transparent gelatin phantom with an average total error of 2.68 ± 0.34mm and in-plane error of 2.59 ± 0.30mm.

  13. Needle and Syringe Cleaning Practices among Injection Drug Users.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fisher, Dennis G.; Harbke, Colin R.; Canty, John R.; Reynolds, Grace L.

    2002-01-01

    Evaluates the effect of needle exchange on the bleach-mediated disinfection (BMD) practices of 176 needle and syringe sharing injection drug users (IDUs). Results reveal that IDUs who traded sex for money or drugs were less likely to practice BMD, and IDUs who reported a reduced number of sex partners were more likely to practice BMD. (Contains 36…

  14. Dry needling versus acupuncture: the ongoing debate.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Kehua; Ma, Yan; Brogan, Michael S

    2015-12-01

    Although Western medical acupuncture (WMA) is commonly practised in the UK, a particular approach called dry needling (DN) is becoming increasingly popular in other countries. The legitimacy of the use of DN by conventional non-physician healthcare professionals is questioned by acupuncturists. This article describes the ongoing debate over the practice of DN between physical therapists and acupuncturists, with a particular emphasis on the USA. DN and acupuncture share many similarities but may differ in certain aspects. Currently, little information is available from the literature regarding the relationship between the two needling techniques. Through reviewing their origins, theory, and practice, we found that DN and acupuncture overlap in terms of needling technique with solid filiform needles as well as some fundamental theories. Both WMA and DN are based on modern biomedical understandings of the human body, although DN arguably represents only one subcategory of WMA. The increasing volume of research into needling therapy explains its growing popularity in the musculoskeletal field including sports medicine. To resolve the debate over DN practice, we call for the establishment of a regulatory body to accredit DN courses and a formal, comprehensive educational component and training for healthcare professionals who are not physicians or acupuncturists. Because of the close relationship between DN and acupuncture, collaboration rather than dispute between acupuncturists and other healthcare professionals should be encouraged with respect to education, research, and practice for the benefit of patients with musculoskeletal conditions who require needling therapy.

  15. Precessing Ferromagnetic Needle Magnetometer.

    PubMed

    Jackson Kimball, Derek F; Sushkov, Alexander O; Budker, Dmitry

    2016-05-13

    A ferromagnetic needle is predicted to precess about the magnetic field axis at a Larmor frequency Ω under conditions where its intrinsic spin dominates over its rotational angular momentum, Nℏ≫IΩ (I is the moment of inertia of the needle about the precession axis and N is the number of polarized spins in the needle). In this regime the needle behaves as a gyroscope with spin Nℏ maintained along the easy axis of the needle by the crystalline and shape anisotropy. A precessing ferromagnetic needle is a correlated system of N spins which can be used to measure magnetic fields for long times. In principle, by taking advantage of rapid averaging of quantum uncertainty, the sensitivity of a precessing needle magnetometer can far surpass that of magnetometers based on spin precession of atoms in the gas phase. Under conditions where noise from coupling to the environment is subdominant, the scaling with measurement time t of the quantum- and detection-limited magnetometric sensitivity is t^{-3/2}. The phenomenon of ferromagnetic needle precession may be of particular interest for precision measurements testing fundamental physics.

  16. Needle breakage: incidence and prevention.

    PubMed

    Malamed, Stanley F; Reed, Kenneth; Poorsattar, Susan

    2010-10-01

    Since the introduction of nonreusable, stainless steel dental local anesthetic needles, needle breakage has become an extremely rare complication of dental local anesthetic injections. But although rare, dental needle breakage can, and does, occur. Review of the literature and personal experience brings into focus several commonalities which, when avoided, can minimize the risk of needle breakage with the fragment being retained from occurring.

  17. Buffon's needle problem

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schröer, H.

    We accidentally let a needle fall with the length L on a table. On the table are drawn parallel lines with distance D. We assume L is smaller than D. We introduce the rotation probability. Then we generalize the Buffon's needle problem. We view a general convex set. We have to solve a two-dimensional integral. There is an english and a german edition.

  18. Needle Federated Search Engine

    SciTech Connect

    2009-12-01

    The Idaho National Laboratory (INL) has combined a number of technologies, tools, and resources to accomplish a new means of federating search results. The resulting product is a search engine called Needle, an open-source-based tool that the INL uses internally for researching across a wide variety of information repositories. Needle has a flexible search interface that allows end users to point at any available data source. A user can select multiple sources such as commercial databases (Web of Science, Engineering Index), external resources (WorldCat, Google Scholar), and internal corporate resources (email, document management system, library collections) in a single interface with one search query. In the future, INL hopes to offer this open-source engine to the public. This session will outline the development processes for making Needle™s search interface and simplifying the federation of internal and external data sources.

  19. Trigger Point Dry Needling.

    PubMed

    2017-03-01

    Increasingly, physical therapists in the United States and throughout the world are using dry needling to treat musculoskeletal pain, even though this treatment has been a controversial addition to practice. To better generalize to physical therapy practice the findings about dry needling thus far, the authors of a study published in the March 2017 issue of JOSPT identified the need for a systematic review examining the effectiveness of dry needling performed by physical therapists on people with musculoskeletal pain. Their review offers a meta-analysis of data from several included studies and assesses the evidence for risks of bias. J Orthop Sports Phys Ther 2017;47(3):150. doi:10.2519/jospt.2017.0502.

  20. Evaluation of nonholonomic needle steering using a robotic needle driver

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wilson, Emmanuel; Ding, Jeinan; Carignan, Craig; Krishnan, Karthik; Avila, Rick; Turner, Wes; Stoianovici, Dan; Yankelevitz, David; Banovac, Filip; Cleary, Kevin

    2010-02-01

    Accurate needle placement is a common need in the medical environment. While the use of small diameter needles for clinical applications such as biopsy, anesthesia and cholangiography is preferred over the use of larger diameter needles, precision placement can often be challenging, particularly for needles with a bevel tip. This is due to deflection of the needle shaft caused by asymmetry of the needle tip. Factors such as the needle shaft material, bevel design, and properties of the tissue penetrated determine the nature and extent to which a needle bends. In recent years, several models have been developed to characterize the bending of the needle, which provides a method of determining the trajectory of the needle through tissue. This paper explores the use of a nonholonomic model to characterize needle bending while providing added capabilities of path planning, obstacle avoidance, and path correction for lung biopsy procedures. We used a ballistic gel media phantom and a robotic needle placement device to experimentally assess the accuracy of simulated needle paths based on the nonholonomic model. Two sets of experiments were conducted, one for a single bend profile of the needle and the second set of tests for double bending of the needle. The tests provided an average error between the simulated path and the actual path of 0.8 mm for the single bend profile and 0.9 mm for the double bend profile tests over a 110 mm long insertion distance. The maximum error was 7.4 mm and 6.9 mm for the single and double bend profile tests respectively. The nonholonomic model is therefore shown to provide a reasonable prediction of needle bending.

  1. Social context of needle selling in Baltimore, Maryland.

    PubMed

    Latkin, Carl A; Davey, Melissa A; Hua, Wei

    2006-01-01

    Although much of the debate surrounding the distribution of sterile syringes to injection drug users (IDUs) has focused on needle exchange programs (NEPs), IDUs acquire their syringes from three major sources: NEPs, pharmacies, and secondary exchangers or needle sellers. The purpose of the present study is to examine types and frequencies of social interactions among drug injectors who sell needles, most of which come from NEPs, compared with individuals who do not sell needles. Specifically, we compared engagement in drug-related behaviors, roles in the drug economy, and social network membership. Data were collected as part of the SHIELD study, an HIV prevention intervention targeted at drug users and their social networks (n=910) from February 2001 through September 2003 in Baltimore, Maryland (USA). In this sample, 56 participants reported selling needles. Needle sellers had higher levels of engagement in drug-related social interactions, including using drugs with others, giving or receiving drugs from others, and buying drugs with other users. Participants who sold needles had a significantly higher number of roles in the drug economy. Also, they had more social network members who were injectors, with whom they talked about risky drug behaviors, gave needles to, and shared cookers and bleach with. Compared with nonselling injectors, needle sellers engage in HIV risk-related behaviors, such as injecting daily and sharing injection equipment, more frequently. The study's findings may be useful to determine whether secondary exchangers should be targeted for HIV prevention activities both to reduce their own risk and to diffuse risk reduction information throughout the drug using community.

  2. A "Needling" Complication.

    PubMed

    Banerji, John S; Govier, Fred E

    2016-11-01

    Intracavernosal injection therapy with vasoactive agents for treatment of erectile dysfunction has been around for more than 3 decades since its advent in the early 1980s. Common complications include ecchymosis and hematoma at the site of injection, priapism, and fibrosis. We describe a rare but potentially dangerous complication of breakage of needle during administering of injections, and discuss its successful retrieval.

  3. NEEDLE TRADES, MATHEMATICS - I.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    COLICCHIO, ANTOINETTE J.

    THE NEEDLE TRADES INDUSTRY CONSISTS OF THREE TYPES OF ESTABLISHMENTS -- THE REGULAR MANUFACTURERS, THE APPAREL JOBBERS, AND THE CONTRACTORS. THE FUNCTIONS INCLUDED COVER A WIDE SCOPE FROM BUYING OF RAW MATERIAL TO SELLING OF THE FINISHED APPAREL. THE PURPOSE OF THIS STUDY GUIDE IS TO FURNISH BASIC KNOWLEDGE IN MATHEMATICS AND DEVELOP SKILL IN…

  4. Robot-Assisted Needle Steering

    PubMed Central

    Reed, Kyle B.; Majewicz, Ann; Kallem, Vinutha; Alterovitz, Ron; Goldberg, Ken; Cowan, Noah J.; Okamura, Allison M.

    2012-01-01

    Needle insertion is a critical aspect of many medical treatments, diagnostic methods, and scientific studies, and is considered to be one of the simplest and most minimally invasive medical procedures. Robot-assisted needle steering has the potential to improve the effectiveness of existing medical procedures and enable new ones by allowing increased accuracy through more dexterous control of the needle tip path and acquisition of targets not accessible by straight-line trajectories. In this article, we describe a robot-assisted needle steering system that uses three integrated controllers: a motion planner concerned with guiding the needle around obstacles to a target in a desired plane, a planar controller that maintains the needle in the desired plane, and a torsion compensator that controls the needle tip orientation about the axis of the needle shaft. Experimental results from steering an asymmetric-tip needle in artificial tissue demonstrate the effectiveness of the system and its sensitivity to various environmental and control parameters. In addition, we show an example of needle steering in ex vivo biological tissue to accomplish a clinically relevant task, and highlight challenges of practical needle steering implementation. PMID:23028210

  5. Biopsy needle tips with markers--MR compatible needles for high-precision needle tip positioning.

    PubMed

    Müller-Bierl, Bernd M; Martirosian, Petros; Graf, Hansjörg; Boss, Andreas; König, Claudius; Pereira, Philippe L; Schick, Fritz

    2008-06-01

    Needle tip visualization is of high importance in magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) guided interventional procedures, for example for taking biopsies from suspicious lesions in the liver or kidney. The exact position of the needle tip is often obscured by image artifacts arising from the magnetic properties of the needle. The authors investigated two special biopsy needle tip designs using diamagnetic coatings. For common interventional MR sequences, the needle tip can be identified in the MR image by several equidistant dark spots arranged along a straight line. A dotted instead of a solid line allows for an improved control of the movement of the needle, not only if the needle is tilted toward the imaging plane, but also if the needle leaves an empty canal with signal extinction, which cannot be distinguished from the needle material itself. With the proposed design the position of the needle tip can be estimated with a precision of approximately 1 mm using conventional FLASH, FISP, and TSE sequences, as used for interventional MR. Furthermore, the size of the biopsy probe can be estimated from the artifact. In using needles with a properly designed tip coating, taking biopsies under MR control is beginning to be greatly simplified. The approach to design artifacts using diamagnetic material in combination with paramagnetic material paves the way toward new instruments and implants, suitably tailored to the needs of the interventional radiologist.

  6. Needle bar for warp knitting machines

    DOEpatents

    Hagel, Adolf; Thumling, Manfred

    1979-01-01

    Needle bar for warp knitting machines with a number of needles individually set into slits of the bar and having shafts cranked to such an extent that the head section of each needle is in alignment with the shaft section accommodated by the slit. Slackening of the needles will thus not influence the needle spacing.

  7. Fine needle aspiration cytology.

    PubMed Central

    Lever, J V; Trott, P A; Webb, A J

    1985-01-01

    Fine needle aspiration cytology is an inexpensive, atraumatic technique for the diagnosis of disease sites. This paper describes the technique and illustrates how it may be applied to the management of tumours throughout the body. The limitations of the method, the dangers of false positive reports, and the inevitability of false negative diagnoses are emphasised. In a clinical context the method has much to offer by saving patients from inappropriate operations and investigations and allowing surgeons to plan quickly and more rationally. It is an economically valuable technique and deserves greater recognition. Images PMID:2578481

  8. Needling the early universe

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hawkins, Isabel; Wright, Edward L.

    1988-01-01

    The possibility that the whole microwave background can be produced by a bright population of pregalactic stars at a redshift of a few hundred is explored. The radiation is thermalized by a combination of amorphous silicate, amorphous carbon, graphite, and needle-shaped conducting grains which give rise to the opacity needed at wavelengths greater than 3 cm. The occurrence of distortion in a primordial microwave background spectrum due to its interaction with Population III stars and dust is investigated. The possibility of producing deviations small enough to be consistent with the best available observations, but still detectable by COBE, is considered.

  9. Ban on needle swaps.

    PubMed

    1999-10-01

    A District of Columbia appropriations bill banning spending for needle-exchange programs will be going to President Clinton for signature. The House voted to approve the bill, and the Senate voted to accept it. Politicians from both parties are lobbying the President about the bill. Clinton's budget director, Jacob J. Lew, and D.C. Del. Eleanor Holmes Norton, argue against signing the bill. Rep. Thomas M. Davis warns a veto would scuttle legislation that funds education reforms and cleanup of the Anacostia River.

  10. SHARE and Share Alike

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baird, Jeffrey Marshall

    2006-01-01

    This article describes a reading comprehension program adopted at J. E. Cosgriff Memorial Catholic School in Salt Lake City, Utah. The program is called SHARE: Students Helping Achieve Reading Excellence, and involves seventh and eighth grade students teaching first and second graders reading comprehension strategies learned in middle school…

  11. 21 CFR 880.5580 - Acupuncture needle.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Acupuncture needle. 880.5580 Section 880.5580 Food... § 880.5580 Acupuncture needle. (a) Identification. An acupuncture needle is a device intended to pierce the skin in the practice of acupuncture. The device consists of a solid, stainless steel needle....

  12. 21 CFR 880.5580 - Acupuncture needle.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Acupuncture needle. 880.5580 Section 880.5580 Food... § 880.5580 Acupuncture needle. (a) Identification. An acupuncture needle is a device intended to pierce the skin in the practice of acupuncture. The device consists of a solid, stainless steel needle....

  13. 21 CFR 880.5580 - Acupuncture needle.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Acupuncture needle. 880.5580 Section 880.5580 Food... § 880.5580 Acupuncture needle. (a) Identification. An acupuncture needle is a device intended to pierce the skin in the practice of acupuncture. The device consists of a solid, stainless steel needle....

  14. 21 CFR 880.5580 - Acupuncture needle.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Acupuncture needle. 880.5580 Section 880.5580 Food... § 880.5580 Acupuncture needle. (a) Identification. An acupuncture needle is a device intended to pierce the skin in the practice of acupuncture. The device consists of a solid, stainless steel needle....

  15. 21 CFR 880.5580 - Acupuncture needle.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Acupuncture needle. 880.5580 Section 880.5580 Food... § 880.5580 Acupuncture needle. (a) Identification. An acupuncture needle is a device intended to pierce the skin in the practice of acupuncture. The device consists of a solid, stainless steel needle....

  16. 'Til the Needle Breaks

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hawkins, B. Denise

    2011-01-01

    After more than half a century, the music of Motown not only thrives, it transcends generations. The iconic sound of Motown has led a handful of scholars to write, teach, lecture and share the music, history and business of Motown on their campuses. In its golden age, from 1959 to 1972, the sound Berry Gordy pioneered at Motown Records in Detroit…

  17. Iron needles in supernova remnants?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gomez (née Morgan), Haley L.; Dunne, Loretta; Eales, Stephen A.; Gomez, Edward L.; Edmunds, Michael G.

    2005-08-01

    It has been suggested by Dwek that iron needles could explain the submillimetre emission from the Cas A supernova remnant (SNR) with only a very small total mass. We investigate whether a similar model holds for the Kepler SNR, and find that its emission could indeed be explained by a dust mass of less than 10-2Msolar, dependent on the axial ratio l/a of the needles - which we constrain to be less than 700. But the implied needle model for Kepler is inconsistent with that suggested for Cas A since either the needles would have to have a resistivity one or two orders of magnitude greater than those in Cas A or the electron density in Kepler's shocked plasma must be 40 times greater than suggested by X-ray observations. An additional problem with the needle model is that the implied thickness of the needles seems to be implausibly small, if the emission properties are calculated under the usual approximations.

  18. Fabrication of tungsten wire needles

    SciTech Connect

    Roder, A.

    1983-02-01

    Fine point needles for field emissoin are conventionally produced by electrolytically or chemically etching tungsten wire. Points formed in this manner have a typical tip radius of about 0.5 microns and a cone angle of some 30 degrees. The construction of needle matrix detector chambers has created a need for tungsten needles whose specifications are: 20 mil tungsten wire, 1.5 inch total length, 3 mm-long taper (resulting in a cone angle of about 5 degrees), and 25 micron-radius point (similar to that found on sewing needles). In the process described here for producing such needles, tungsten wire, immersed in a NaOH solution and in the presence of an electrode, is connected first to an ac voltage and then to a dc supply, to form a taper and a point on the end of the wire immersed in the solution. The process parameters described here are for needles that will meet the above specifications. Possible variations will be discussed under each approprite heading.

  19. Needle exchange ends HIV transmission in Swiss jail.

    PubMed

    1996-07-26

    According to Swiss researchers, making drug injection equipment available to inmates in a low-security prison has prevented new HIV infections without disrupting prison life. Inmates often shared smuggled drug equipment, creating an enormous potential for HIV infection. During a 12-month pilot project, the prison distributed more than 5,000 sterile syringes through 6 needle-exchange machines and offered inmates counseling and information about HIV risks. The prison detected no new cases of HIV or hepatitis B, and only one instance of needle-sharing was reported. According to Swiss Federal Office of Public Health researchers, fears that the project would encourage drug consumption or needles would be used as weapons against guards proved unfounded. As a result of the findings, the prison is continuing the HIV prevention program. In another study, researchers at Canada's Matsqui Institution in Abbottsford, British Columbia, found that a pilot project of bleach distribution to prison inmates who share injection-drug equipment proved successful. A total of 305 bleach kits was distributed. Results were so positive that the pilot program is being extended to all Federal prisons in Canada by the end of September.

  20. Interactive simulation of needle insertion models.

    PubMed

    DiMaio, Simon P; Salcudean, Septimiu E

    2005-07-01

    A novel interactive virtual needle insertion simulation is presented. The simulation models are based on measured planar tissue deformations and needle insertion forces. Since the force-displacement relationship is only of interest along the needle shaft, a condensation technique is shown to reduce the computational complexity of linear simulation models significantly. As the needle penetrates or is withdrawn from the tissue model, the boundary conditions that determine the tissue and needle motion change. Boundary condition and local material coordinate changes are facilitated by fast low-rank matrix updates. A large-strain elastic needle model is coupled to the tissue models to account for needle deflection and bending during simulated insertion. A haptic environment, based on these novel interactive simulation techniques, allows users to manipulate a three-degree-of-freedom virtual needle as it penetrates virtual tissue models, while experiencing steering torques and lateral needle forces through a planar haptic interface.

  1. Does Needle Rotation Improve Lesion Targeting?

    PubMed Central

    Badaan, Shadi; Petrisor, Doru; Kim, Chunwoo; Mozer, Pierre; Mazilu, Dumitru; Gruionu, Lucian; Patriciu, Alex; Cleary, Kevin; Stoianovici, Dan

    2011-01-01

    Background Image-guided robots are manipulators that operate based on medical images. Perhaps the most common class of image-guided robots are robots for needle interventions. Typically, these robots actively position and/or orient a needle guide, but needle insertion is still done by the physician. While this arrangement may have safety advantages and keep the physician in control of needle insertion, actuated needle drivers can incorporate other useful features. Methods We first present a new needle driver that can actively insert and rotate a needle. With this device we investigate the use of needle rotation in controlled in-vitro experiments performed with a specially developed revolving needle driver. Results These experiments show that needle rotation can improve targeting and may reduce errors by as much as 70%. Conclusion The new needle driver provides a unique kinematic architecture that enables insertion with a compact mechanism. Perhaps the most interesting conclusion of the study is that lesions of soft tissue organs may not be perfectly targeted with a needle without using special techniques, either manually or with a robotic device. The results of this study show that needle rotation may be an effective method of reducing targeting errors. PMID:21360796

  2. Superficial versus deep dry needling.

    PubMed

    Baldry, Peter

    2002-08-01

    Ninety percent of my patients with myofascial trigger point (MTrP) pain have this alone and are treated with superficial dry needling. Approximately 10% have concomitant MTrP pain and nerve root compression pain. These are treated with deep dry needling. SUPERFICIAL DRY NEEDLING (SDN): The activated and sensitised nociceptors of a MTrP cause it to be so exquisitely tender that firm pressure applied to it gives rise to a flexion withdrawal reflex (jump sign) and in some cases the utterance of an expletive (shout sign). The optimum strength of SDN at a MTrP site is the minimum necessary to abolish these two reactions. With respect to this patients are divided into strong, average and weak responders. The responsiveness of each individual is determined by trial and error. It is my practice to insert a needle (0.3mm x 30mm) into the tissues immediately overlying the MTrP to a depth of 5-10 mm and to leave it in situ long enough for the two reactions to be abolished. For an average reactor this is about 30secs. For a weak reactor it is several minutes. And for a strong reactor the insertion of the needle and its immediate withdrawal is all that is required. Following treatment muscle stretching exercises should be carried out, and any steps taken to eliminate factors that might lead to the reactivation of the MTrPs. DEEP DRY NEEDLING (DDN): This in my practice is only used either when primary MTrP activity causes shortening of muscle sufficient enough to bring about compression of nerve roots. Or when there is nerve compression pain usually from spondylosis or disc prolapse and the secondary development of MTrP activity. Unlike SDN, DDN is a painful procedure and one which gives rise to much post-treatment soreness.

  3. Magnetic needles and superparamagnetic cells

    PubMed Central

    Bryant, H C; Sergatskov, D A; Lovato, Debbie; Adolphi, Natalie L; Larson, Richard S; Flynn, Edward R

    2007-01-01

    Superparamagnetic nanoparticles can be attached in great numbers to pathogenic cells using specific antibodies so that the magnetically-labeled cells themselves become superparamagnets. The cells can then be manipulated and drawn out of biological fluids, as in a biopsy, very selectively using a magnetic needle. We examine the origins and uncertainties in the forces exerted on magnetic nanoparticles by static magnetic fields, leading to a model for trajectories and collection times of dilute superparamagnetic cells in biological fluids. We discuss the design and application of such magnetic needles and the theory of collection times. We compare the mathematical model to measurements in a variety of media including blood. PMID:17664592

  4. Toward effective needle steering in brain tissue.

    PubMed

    Engh, J A; Podnar, G; Kondziolka, D; Riviere, C N

    2006-01-01

    Recent research has exploited the inherent bending of a bevel-tipped needle during insertion, accomplishing steering of the needle by rotating the needle shaft. Combining this technique with the observation that a straight trajectory can be accomplished by spinning the needle at a constant rate during insertion, this paper presents a novel technique for proportional control of the curvature of the trajectory via duty-cycled spinning of the needle. In order to accommodate this technique to very soft tissues such as the brain, several custom needle prototypes have also been designed in order to increase the steering versatility of the system by maximizing the attainable curvature. The paper describes the needle-steering system and the needle prototypes, and presents preliminary results from tests in an artificial brain tissue substitute.

  5. Biomechanics of a new atraumatic surgical needle holder.

    PubMed

    Towler, M A; Chen, N C; Moody, F P; McGregor, W; Thacker, J G; Rodeheaver, G T; Edlich, R F

    1991-01-01

    It is the purpose of this report to design, develop, and evaluate a needle holder whose jaws improve needle-holding security without altering the geometry of the curved surgical needle. The configuration of the jaws of this new needle holder is curved, conforming to the curvature of the surgical needle. A biomechanical study of this curved surgical needle holder demonstrates that it holds the curved needle securely without needle deformation.

  6. Sharing code.

    PubMed

    Kubilius, Jonas

    2014-01-01

    Sharing code is becoming increasingly important in the wake of Open Science. In this review I describe and compare two popular code-sharing utilities, GitHub and Open Science Framework (OSF). GitHub is a mature, industry-standard tool but lacks focus towards researchers. In comparison, OSF offers a one-stop solution for researchers but a lot of functionality is still under development. I conclude by listing alternative lesser-known tools for code and materials sharing.

  7. Compensating for Torsion Windup in Steerable Needles

    PubMed Central

    Reed, Kyle B.

    2010-01-01

    Long, flexible, bevel-tip needles curve during insertion into tissue, and rotations of the needle base reorient the tip to steer subsequent insertions. Friction between the tissue and the needle shaft, however, can cause a severe discrepancy between the needle base and tip angles. In this paper, I demonstrate an algorithm to properly align the entire length of the needle using torque measured at the base. My algorithm uses several intermediate base rotations to align the orientation of points along the shaft with the desired angle, with minimal remaining torque exerted by the base. I performed an experimental validation with four angle sensors attached to the needle throughout the tissue. My compensation algorithm decreased the lag throughout the needle by up to 88%. PMID:20640198

  8. Shared Attention.

    PubMed

    Shteynberg, Garriy

    2015-09-01

    Shared attention is extremely common. In stadiums, public squares, and private living rooms, people attend to the world with others. Humans do so across all sensory modalities-sharing the sights, sounds, tastes, smells, and textures of everyday life with one another. The potential for attending with others has grown considerably with the emergence of mass media technologies, which allow for the sharing of attention in the absence of physical co-presence. In the last several years, studies have begun to outline the conditions under which attending together is consequential for human memory, motivation, judgment, emotion, and behavior. Here, I advance a psychological theory of shared attention, defining its properties as a mental state and outlining its cognitive, affective, and behavioral consequences. I review empirical findings that are uniquely predicted by shared-attention theory and discuss the possibility of integrating shared-attention, social-facilitation, and social-loafing perspectives. Finally, I reflect on what shared-attention theory implies for living in the digital world.

  9. Ultrasound guided spine needle insertion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Elvis C. S.; Mousavi, Parvin; Gill, Sean; Fichtinger, Gabor; Abolmaesumi, Purang

    2010-02-01

    An ultrasound (US) guided, CT augmented, spine needle insertion navigational system is introduced. The system consists of an electromagnetic (EM) sensor, an US machine, and a preoperative CT volume of the patient anatomy. Three-dimensional (3D) US volume is reconstructed intraoperatively from a set of two-dimensional (2D) freehand US slices, and is coregistered with the preoperative CT. This allows the preoperative CT volume to be used in the intraoperative clinical coordinate. The spatial relationship between the patient anatomy, surgical tools, and the US transducer are tracked using the EM sensor, and are displayed with respect to the CT volume. The pose of the US transducer is used to interpolate the CT volume, providing the physician with a 2D "x-ray vision" to guide the needle insertion. Many of the system software components are GPU-accelerated, allowing real-time performance of the guidance system in a clinical setting.

  10. Sharing code

    PubMed Central

    Kubilius, Jonas

    2014-01-01

    Sharing code is becoming increasingly important in the wake of Open Science. In this review I describe and compare two popular code-sharing utilities, GitHub and Open Science Framework (OSF). GitHub is a mature, industry-standard tool but lacks focus towards researchers. In comparison, OSF offers a one-stop solution for researchers but a lot of functionality is still under development. I conclude by listing alternative lesser-known tools for code and materials sharing. PMID:25165519

  11. Vaccines, our shared responsibility.

    PubMed

    Pagliusi, Sonia; Jain, Rishabh; Suri, Rajinder Kumar

    2015-05-05

    The Developing Countries Vaccine Manufacturers' Network (DCVMN) held its fifteenth annual meeting from October 27-29, 2014, New Delhi, India. The DCVMN, together with the co-organizing institution Panacea Biotec, welcomed over 240 delegates representing high-profile governmental and nongovernmental global health organizations from 36 countries. Over the three-day meeting, attendees exchanged information about their efforts to achieve their shared goal of preventing death and disability from known and emerging infectious diseases. Special praise was extended to all stakeholders involved in the success of polio eradication in South East Asia and highlighted challenges in vaccine supply for measles-rubella immunization over the coming decades. Innovative vaccines and vaccine delivery technologies indicated creative solutions for achieving global immunization goals. Discussions were focused on three major themes including regulatory challenges for developing countries that may be overcome with better communication; global collaborations and partnerships for leveraging investments and enable uninterrupted supply of affordable and suitable vaccines; and leading innovation in vaccines difficult to develop, such as dengue, Chikungunya, typhoid-conjugated and EV71, and needle-free technologies that may speed up vaccine delivery. Moving further into the Decade of Vaccines, participants renewed their commitment to shared responsibility toward a world free of vaccine-preventable diseases.

  12. Estimation of Model Parameters for Steerable Needles

    PubMed Central

    Park, Wooram; Reed, Kyle B.; Okamura, Allison M.; Chirikjian, Gregory S.

    2010-01-01

    Flexible needles with bevel tips are being developed as useful tools for minimally invasive surgery and percutaneous therapy. When such a needle is inserted into soft tissue, it bends due to the asymmetric geometry of the bevel tip. This insertion with bending is not completely repeatable. We characterize the deviations in needle tip pose (position and orientation) by performing repeated needle insertions into artificial tissue. The base of the needle is pushed at a constant speed without rotating, and the covariance of the distribution of the needle tip pose is computed from experimental data. We develop the closed-form equations to describe how the covariance varies with different model parameters. We estimate the model parameters by matching the closed-form covariance and the experimentally obtained covariance. In this work, we use a needle model modified from a previously developed model with two noise parameters. The modified needle model uses three noise parameters to better capture the stochastic behavior of the needle insertion. The modified needle model provides an improvement of the covariance error from 26.1% to 6.55%. PMID:21643451

  13. Dimensions of stabident intraosseous perforators and needles.

    PubMed

    Ramlee, R A; Whitworth, J

    2001-09-01

    Problems can be encountered inserting intraosseous injection needles through perforation sites. This in vitro study examined the variability and size compatibility of Stabident intraosseous injection components. The diameters of 40 needles and perforators from a single Stabident kit were measured in triplicate with a toolmakers microscope. One-way ANOVA revealed that mean needle diameter (0.411 mm) was significantly narrower than mean perforator diameter (0.427 mm) (p < 0.001). A frequency distribution plot revealed that needle diameter followed a normal distribution, indicating tight quality control during manufacture. The diameter of perforators was haphazardly distributed, with a clustering of 15% at the lower limit of the size range. However on no occasion was the diameter of a perforator smaller than that of an injection needle. We conclude that components of the Stabident intraosseous anaesthetic system are size-compatible, but there is greater and more haphazard variability in the diameter of perforators than injection needles.

  14. Observations of Needle-Tissue Interactions

    PubMed Central

    Misra, Sarthak; Reed, Kyle B.; Ramesh, K. T.; Okamura, Allison M.

    2010-01-01

    Needles with asymmetric bevel tips naturally bend when they are inserted into soft tissue. In this study, we present an analytical model for the loads developed at the bevel tip during needle-tissue interaction. The model calculates the loads based on the geometry of the bevel edge and gel material properties. The modeled transverse force developed at the tip is compared to forces measured experimentally. The analytical model explains the trends observed in the experiments. In addition to macroscopic studies, we also present microscopic observations of needle-tissue interactions. These results contribute to a mechanics-based model of robotic needle steering, extending previous work on kinematic models. PMID:19963709

  15. Metallurgically bonded needle holder jaws. A technique to enhance needle holding security without sutural damage.

    PubMed

    Abidin, M R; Dunlapp, J A; Towler, M A; Becker, D G; Thacker, J G; McGregor, W; Edlich, R F

    1990-10-01

    A new needle holder jaw face has been specifically designed and developed to increase needle holding security without sutural damage. Tungsten carbide particles have been metallurgically bonded into the stainless steel jaw to create a fine granular surface. This bonded jaw enhances needle holding security by limiting either twisting or rotation of the clamped needle. In addition, compression of the monofilament synthetic sutures by the bonded jaws does not reduce suture breaking strength.

  16. [Pulmonary needle biopsy in children].

    PubMed

    Gerbeaux, J

    1975-01-01

    Pulmonary biopsy done with a needle of circular bore, can be performed on very young children. A sample of tissue, big enough to establish a precise diagnosis in 2/3 of cases, can be obtained. The main complication is pneumothorax occuring about once in five. Hemoptysia or hemorrhage has never been observed. A proposed indication of premortem biopsy accelerated the death of a child with congenital pulmonary fibrosis. The search of a diagnosis in diffuse pulmonary diseases is the major indication for pulmonary biopsy in the child.

  17. Geographical and climatic limits of needle types of one- and two-needled pinyon pines

    PubMed Central

    Cole, Kenneth L; Fisher, Jessica; Arundel, Samantha T; Cannella, John; Swift, Sandra

    2008-01-01

    Aim The geographical extent and climatic tolerances of one- and two-needled pinyon pines (Pinus subsect. Cembroides) are the focus of questions in taxonomy, palaeoclimatology and modelling of future distributions. The identification of these pines, traditionally classified by one- versus two-needled fascicles, is complicated by populations with both one- and two-needled fascicles on the same tree, and the description of two more recently described one-needled varieties: the fallax-type and californiarum-type. Because previous studies have suggested correlations between needle anatomy and climate, including anatomical plasticity reflecting annual precipitation, we approached this study at the level of the anatomy of individual pine needles rather than species. Location Western North America. Methods We synthesized available and new data from field and herbarium collections of needles to compile maps of their current distributions across western North America. Annual frequencies of needle types were compared with local precipitation histories for some stands. Historical North American climates were modelled on a c. 1-km grid using monthly temperature and precipitation values. A geospatial model (ClimLim), which analyses the effect of climate-modulated physiological and ecosystem processes, was used to rank the importance of seasonal climate variables in limiting the distributions of anatomical needle types. Results The pinyon needles were classified into four distinct types based upon the number of needles per fascicle, needle thickness and the number of stomatal rows and resin canals. The individual needles fit well into four categories of needle types, whereas some trees exhibit a mixture of two needle types. Trees from central Arizona containing a mixture of Pinus edulis and fallax-type needles increased their percentage of fallax-type needles following dry years. All four needle types occupy broader geographical regions with distinctive precipitation regimes

  18. Geographical and climatic limits of needle types of one- and two-needled pinyon pines.

    PubMed

    Cole, Kenneth L; Fisher, Jessica; Arundel, Samantha T; Cannella, John; Swift, Sandra

    2008-02-01

    AIM: The geographical extent and climatic tolerances of one- and two-needled pinyon pines (Pinus subsect. Cembroides) are the focus of questions in taxonomy, palaeoclimatology and modelling of future distributions. The identification of these pines, traditionally classified by one- versus two-needled fascicles, is complicated by populations with both one- and two-needled fascicles on the same tree, and the description of two more recently described one-needled varieties: the fallax-type and californiarum-type. Because previous studies have suggested correlations between needle anatomy and climate, including anatomical plasticity reflecting annual precipitation, we approached this study at the level of the anatomy of individual pine needles rather than species. LOCATION: Western North America. METHODS: We synthesized available and new data from field and herbarium collections of needles to compile maps of their current distributions across western North America. Annual frequencies of needle types were compared with local precipitation histories for some stands. Historical North American climates were modelled on a c. 1-km grid using monthly temperature and precipitation values. A geospatial model (ClimLim), which analyses the effect of climate-modulated physiological and ecosystem processes, was used to rank the importance of seasonal climate variables in limiting the distributions of anatomical needle types. RESULTS: The pinyon needles were classified into four distinct types based upon the number of needles per fascicle, needle thickness and the number of stomatal rows and resin canals. The individual needles fit well into four categories of needle types, whereas some trees exhibit a mixture of two needle types. Trees from central Arizona containing a mixture of Pinus edulis and fallax-type needles increased their percentage of fallax-type needles following dry years. All four needle types occupy broader geographical regions with distinctive precipitation regimes

  19. Geographical and climatic limits of needle types of one- and two-needled pinyon pines

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Cole, K.L.; Fisher, J.; Arundel, S.T.; Cannella, J.; Swift, S.

    2008-01-01

    Aim: The geographical extent and climatic tolerances of one- and two-needled pinyon pines (Pinus subsect. Cembroides) are the focus of questions in taxonomy, palaeoclimatology and modelling of future distributions. The identification of these pines, traditionally classified by one- versus two-needled fascicles, is complicated by populations with both one- and two-needled fascicles on the same tree, and the description of two more recently described one-needled varieties: the fallax-type and californiarum-type. Because previous studies have suggested correlations between needle anatomy and climate, including anatomical plasticity reflecting annual precipitation, we approached this study at the level of the anatomy of individual pine needles rather than species. Location: Western North America. Methods: We synthesized available and new data from field and herbarium collections of needles to compile maps of their current distributions across western North America. Annual frequencies of needle types were compared with local precipitation histories for some stands. Historical North American climates were modelled on a c. 1-km grid using monthly temperature and precipitation values. A geospatial model (ClimLim), which analyses the effect of climate-modulated physiological and ecosystem processes, was used to rank the importance of seasonal climate variables in limiting the distributions of anatomical needle types. Results: The pinyon needles were classified into four distinct types based upon the number of needles per fascicle, needle thickness and the number of stomatal rows and resin canals. The individual needles fit well into four categories of needle types, whereas some trees exhibit a mixture of two needle types. Trees from central Arizona containing a mixture of Pinus edulis and fallax-type needles increased their percentage of fallax-type needles following dry years. All four needle types occupy broader geographical regions with distinctive precipitation regimes

  20. Characterization of needle-assisted jet injections.

    PubMed

    Li, Xinxin; Ruddy, Bryan; Taberner, Andrew

    2016-12-10

    Hypodermic injections have been the standard for transcutaneous drug delivery for many years. However, needle phobia, pain, and risks of needle-stick injuries have manifested in poor patient compliance. Needle-free jet injections (NFJI) have been developed to address these drawbacks but the reliability of dose and depth of delivery have been limited by a lack of control over jet parameters, and by variability in the skin's mechanical properties among individuals. Moreover, the device size and cost have been restrained by the high pressure (>20MPa) required to penetrate the skin. Needle-assisted jet injections have been proposed to improve delivery reliability of conventional jet injectors by penetrating the skin with a short needle (<5mm) and thereby allowing jet delivery to a desired injection depth at a reduced pressure. This study characterized needle-assisted jet injections performed after first penetrating the skin with a 1.5mm needle, examining the effect of needle size on jet parameters, and evaluating injection performance in porcine skin. A voice-coil actuated jet injector was modified to incorporate needles of 30G, 31G and 32G. A series of pulse tests was performed to compare jet velocity and injection volume across the needle sizes, where it was found that the jet velocity and injection volume achieved with 32G needles were 13% and 16% lower, respectively, than with 30G. In contrast, there was no significant difference in jet velocity and injection volume between 30G and 31G needles, suggesting that a reduction of 10μm in the mean inner diameter of the 31G needle has minimal impact on jet velocity and injection volume. Injection studies performed in porcine skin revealed that injections driven by fluid pressures ranging between 0.8MPa and 1.4MPa were able to achieve substantial injectate penetration (~10mm) and delivery (~100μL) into subcutaneous fat regardless of needle size, in a period of 40ms. The required pressures are an order of magnitude lower

  1. Ultrasound-Guided Fine Needle Aspiration Biopsy of the Thyroid

    MedlinePlus

    ... Index A-Z Ultrasound-Guided Fine Needle Aspiration Biopsy of the Thyroid An ultrasound-guided thyroid biopsy ... Thyroid? What is Ultrasound-Guided Fine Needle Aspiration Biopsy of the Thyroid? During a fine needle aspiration ...

  2. Estimating needle-tissue interaction forces for hollow needles using fiber Bragg grating sensors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kumar, Saurabh; Shrikanth, V.; Bharadwaj, Amrutur; Asokan, Sundarrajan; Bobji, M. S.

    2016-03-01

    Brachytherapy and neurological procedures can benefit from real-time estimation of needle-tissue interaction forces, specifically for robotic or robot-assisted procedures. Fiber Bragg Grating Sensors provide advantages of very small size and electromagnetic immunity for use in measurement of the forces directly at the needle tip. This has advantages compared to measurements at the needle shaft which require extensive models of the friction between needle and tissues with varying depth. This paper presents the measurement of tip forces for a hollow needle and compensation for bending when encountering regions of varying stiffness in phantoms with multiple layers prepared using Polydimethylsiloxane.

  3. [Academic origin of round magnetic needle and standardization operation].

    PubMed

    Cheng, Yan-Ting; Zhang, Tian-Sheng; Meng, Li-Qiang; Shi, Rui-Qi; Ji, Lai-Xi

    2014-07-01

    The origin and development of round magnetic needle was explored, and the structure of round magnetic needle was introduced in detail, including the handle, the body and the tip of the needle. The clinical opera tion of round magnetic needle were standardized from the aspects of the methods of holding needle, manipulation skill, tapping position, strength of manipulation, application scope and matters needing attention, which laid foundation for the popularization and application of round magnetic needle.

  4. 21 CFR 882.1350 - Needle electrode.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Needle electrode. 882.1350 Section 882.1350 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES NEUROLOGICAL DEVICES Neurological Diagnostic Devices § 882.1350 Needle electrode....

  5. 21 CFR 882.1350 - Needle electrode.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Needle electrode. 882.1350 Section 882.1350 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES NEUROLOGICAL DEVICES Neurological Diagnostic Devices § 882.1350 Needle electrode....

  6. 21 CFR 882.1350 - Needle electrode.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Needle electrode. 882.1350 Section 882.1350 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES NEUROLOGICAL DEVICES Neurological Diagnostic Devices § 882.1350 Needle electrode....

  7. 21 CFR 882.1350 - Needle electrode.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Needle electrode. 882.1350 Section 882.1350 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES NEUROLOGICAL DEVICES Neurological Diagnostic Devices § 882.1350 Needle electrode....

  8. 21 CFR 882.1350 - Needle electrode.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Needle electrode. 882.1350 Section 882.1350 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES NEUROLOGICAL DEVICES Neurological Diagnostic Devices § 882.1350 Needle electrode....

  9. Clean switch: the case for prison needle and syringe programs.

    PubMed

    Chu, Sandra

    2009-12-01

    In Canada and in many other countries, prisons have become incubators for the transmission of HIV and hepatitis C virus (HCV). Estimates of HIV and HCV prevalence in Canadian prisons are at least 10 and 20 times, respectively, the reported prevalence in the population as a whole--and prevalence rates have been reported to be significantly higher for people who inject drugs. Although people who inject drugs may inject less frequently while incarcerated, the risks of injection drug use are amplified because of the scarcity of sterile syringes and the sharing of injecting equipment in prison. Making sterile injection equipment available to people in prison is an important response to evidence of the risk of HIV and HCV transmission through sharing syringes to inject drugs. In this article, Sandra Chu explains why the government is obligated under international human rights standards and Canadian correctional and constitutional law to provide prison-based needle and syringe programs (PNSPs).

  10. [Comparative investigation of the discharge characteristics of a single needle jet and needle-plate jet].

    PubMed

    Li, Xue-Chen; Chang, Yuan-Yuan; Jia, Peng-Ying; Zhao, Huan-Huan; Liu, Run-Fu; Di, Cong

    2013-04-01

    In the present paper, discharge characteristics were studied in atmospheric pressure argon by a single needle jet and needle-plate jet through combination of optical measurement and electrical one. Results show that the length and cross-sectional area of the plasmas generated in the two jets increase with increasing the peak value of the applied voltage. The cross-sectional area generated by needle-plate jet is bigger than that of the single needle jet at the same voltage. A lower inception voltage is needed for the needle-plate jet compared with the single needle jet at the same U(p). Through the spectra emitted from the two jets, electron temperature and vibration temperature wee compared for the plasmas generated by the single needle jet and needle-plate jet, respectively. It can be found that the electron temperature and the vibrational temperature of the two jets increase with increasing U(p). The needle-plate jet has higher values of electron temperature and vibrational temperature than the single needle jet at the same U(p). These results have significant values for the industrial application of the atmospheric pressure plasma jet.

  11. The Biological Safety of Stainless Steel Needles Used in Warm-needling.

    PubMed

    Lim, Sabina; Lee, Seunghun; Yi, Seung-Ho; Son, Yang-Sun; Choi, Sung-Min; Kim, Young-Kon

    2010-06-01

    Warm-needling (also called thermo-acupuncture) is a combination of acupuncture and moxibustion. Due to the intense heat involved, there have been concerns over the biological safety of the acuneedles used in the treatment. This paper reports two phases of a safety test. For a preliminary test, we compared the temperature change patterns of stainless steel (SS304) needles and traditional gold alloy needles, which have been increasingly replaced by the former. To verify the effects of the presence of coating materials, the main test involved three different kinds of SS304: silicone-coated, salicylic acid-coated and non-coated needles. Each group of needles was tested for pH level, heavy metals and UV absorbance spectrum along with biological tests on the cytotoxicity and hemolysis of the needle. All the tests on the extractants from the needles were negative. In the biological tests, each test result showed a significant difference from the positive control samples, while no significant difference was observed compared with the negative control samples. In the hemolysis tests, all samples satisfied the Korean Government Standards. All the results suggest that SS304 needles are biologically safe to be used in warm-needling, though they can be improved to perform as well as the gold alloy needles in terms of temperature fluctuations.

  12. [Approach to teaching methods of the needling skill of filiform needle].

    PubMed

    Wang, Cai-Hong; Xu, Jian-Min; Wang, Yin-Ping; Li, Yi

    2008-08-01

    The present paper is armed at approach to a set of teaching method about the needling skill of filiform needle, so as to increase teaching quality. After review and analysis on present situation of teaching methods about the needling skill of filiform needle, it is raised that traditional teaching methods are unable to objectively and comprehensively reflect characteristics and requirement of manipulation, so try to adopt acupuncture manipulation detection instrument, on the basis of traditional teaching methods about the needling skill of filiform needle. And the parameters and figures of manipulation examine of real-time collection in 131 students and information of 120 copies of questionnaire are analyzed and summarized. It is indicated that combined teaching method of traditional model and the manipulation instrument is more reasonable, and basic manipulation training most he strengthened in manipulation skill training, particularly, pay attention to training of twirling manipulation.

  13. Needle-Tissue Interaction Forces for Bevel-Tip Steerable Needles

    PubMed Central

    Misra, Sarthak; Reed, Kyle B.; Douglas, Andrew S.; Ramesh, K. T.; Okamura, Allison M.

    2010-01-01

    The asymmetry of a bevel-tip needle results in the needle naturally bending when it is inserted into soft tissue. As a first step toward modeling the mechanics of deflection of the needle, we determine the forces at the bevel tip. In order to find the forces acting at the needle tip, we measure rupture toughness and nonlinear material elasticity parameters of several soft tissue simulant gels and chicken tissue. We incorporate these physical parameters into a finite element model that includes both contact and cohesive zone models to simulate tissue cleavage. We investigate the sensitivity of the tip forces to tissue rupture toughness, linear and nonlinear tissue elasticity, and needle tip bevel angle. The model shows that the tip forces are sensitive to the rupture toughness. The results from these studies contribute to a mechanics-based model of bevel-tip needle steering, extending previous work on kinematic models. PMID:22020139

  14. Needle-Tissue Interaction Forces for Bevel-Tip Steerable Needles.

    PubMed

    Misra, Sarthak; Reed, Kyle B; Douglas, Andrew S; Ramesh, K T; Okamura, Allison M

    2008-10-19

    The asymmetry of a bevel-tip needle results in the needle naturally bending when it is inserted into soft tissue. As a first step toward modeling the mechanics of deflection of the needle, we determine the forces at the bevel tip. In order to find the forces acting at the needle tip, we measure rupture toughness and nonlinear material elasticity parameters of several soft tissue simulant gels and chicken tissue. We incorporate these physical parameters into a finite element model that includes both contact and cohesive zone models to simulate tissue cleavage. We investigate the sensitivity of the tip forces to tissue rupture toughness, linear and nonlinear tissue elasticity, and needle tip bevel angle. The model shows that the tip forces are sensitive to the rupture toughness. The results from these studies contribute to a mechanics-based model of bevel-tip needle steering, extending previous work on kinematic models.

  15. [Discussion on needling sensation, arrival of qi and needling response (Deqi)].

    PubMed

    Zhang, Fang; Wang, Hong-Du

    2012-12-01

    The current appointed teaching material of Science of Acupuncture and Moxibustion holds that there is no difference among the needling sensation, arrival of qi and needling response. However, the author has a different understanding. Therefore, Neijing (Internal Classic), its annotation, exposition and understandings of ancient and modern famous experts are cited to analyze their meanings. And the result indicates that the needling sensation is subjective feelings and perceived responses of doctors and patients. Arrival of qi is the healing process of the organ through activating the anti-pathogenic qi to expel the pathogens. The needling response is the final aim of acupuncture therapy. Thus, the meaning of needling sensation, arrival of qi, and needling response are different. And an accurate understanding can better guide acupuncture treatment.

  16. Pine needle abortion biomarker detected in bovine fetal fluids

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Pine needle abortion is a naturally occurring condition in free-range cattle caused by the consumption of pine needles from select species of cypress, juniper, pine, and spruce trees. Confirmatory diagnosis of pine needle abortion has previously relied on a combined case history of pine needle cons...

  17. Science off the Sphere: Knitting Needles

    NASA Video Gallery

    International Space Station Expedition 30 astronaut Don Pettit uses knitting needles and water droplets to demonstrate physics in space for 'Science off the Sphere.' Through a partnership between N...

  18. Sliding Mode Control of Steerable Needles

    PubMed Central

    Rucker, D. Caleb; Das, Jadav; Gilbert, Hunter B.; Swaney, Philip J.; Miga, Michael I.; Sarkar, Nilanjan; Webster, Robert J.

    2014-01-01

    Steerable needles can potentially increase the accuracy of needle-based diagnosis and therapy delivery, provided they can be adequately controlled based on medical image information. We propose a novel sliding mode control law that can be used to deliver the tip of a flexible asymmetric-tipped needle to a desired point, or to track a desired trajectory within tissue. The proposed control strategy requires no a priori knowledge of model parameters, has bounded input speeds, and requires little computational resources. We show that if the standard nonholonomic model for tip-steered needles holds, then the control law will converge to desired targets in a reachable workspace, within a tolerance that can be defined by the control parameters. Experimental results validate the control law for target points and trajectory following in phantom tissue and ex vivo liver. Experiments with targets that move during insertion illustrate robustness to disturbances caused by tissue deformation. PMID:25400527

  19. Sliding Mode Control of Steerable Needles.

    PubMed

    Rucker, D Caleb; Das, Jadav; Gilbert, Hunter B; Swaney, Philip J; Miga, Michael I; Sarkar, Nilanjan; Webster, Robert J

    2013-10-01

    Steerable needles can potentially increase the accuracy of needle-based diagnosis and therapy delivery, provided they can be adequately controlled based on medical image information. We propose a novel sliding mode control law that can be used to deliver the tip of a flexible asymmetric-tipped needle to a desired point, or to track a desired trajectory within tissue. The proposed control strategy requires no a priori knowledge of model parameters, has bounded input speeds, and requires little computational resources. We show that if the standard nonholonomic model for tip-steered needles holds, then the control law will converge to desired targets in a reachable workspace, within a tolerance that can be defined by the control parameters. Experimental results validate the control law for target points and trajectory following in phantom tissue and ex vivo liver. Experiments with targets that move during insertion illustrate robustness to disturbances caused by tissue deformation.

  20. Inverse Kinematics of Concentric Tube Steerable Needles

    PubMed Central

    Sears, Patrick; Dupont, Pierre E.

    2013-01-01

    Prior papers have introduced steerable needles composed of precurved concentric tubes. The curvature and extent of these needles can be controlled by the relative rotation and translation of the individual tubes. Under certain assumptions on the geometry and design of these needles, the forward kinematics problem can be solved in closed form by means of algebraic equations. The inverse kinematics problem, however, is not as straightforward owing to the nonlinear map between relative tube displacements and needle tip configuration as well as to the multiplicity of solutions as the number of tubes increases. This paper presents a general approach to solving the inverse kinematics problem using a pseudoinverse solution together with gradients of nullspace potential functions to enforce geometric and mechanical constraints. PMID:23685532

  1. An illuminated flute needle for vitreoretinal surgery.

    PubMed

    Davison, C N; Rosen, P H

    1994-06-01

    We have developed a simple self-illuminated flute needle for internal drainage of subretinal fluid during three-port vitrectomy. This instrument facilitates visualization and drainage through peripheral retinal breaks.

  2. A Multi-Layered Needle Injection Simulator.

    PubMed

    Laufer, Shlomi; Kempton, Steve J; Maciolek, Kimberly; Terry, Aliyya; Ray, Rebeca D; Pugh, Carla M; Afifi, Ahmed M

    2016-01-01

    Insuring correct needle location is crucial in many medical procedures. This can be even more challenging for physicians injecting in a new location for the first time. Since they do not necessarily know how the tissue is supposed to feel, finding the correct location and correct depth can be difficult. In this study we designed a simulator for training needle injection. The simulator was fabricated to give a realistic feeling of injecting Botox® in the temporalis and the semispinalis muscles as part of migraine treatment. In addition the simulator provided real-time feedback of correct needle location. Nine residents and medical students evaluated the simulator. They made several errors that were corrected real time using the real time feedback provided. They found the simulator to be very useful and that the training significantly improved their confidence. The methods described in this study can easily be implemented for developing needle injection simulators for other anatomical locations.

  3. Ultrasound-Guided Needle Technique Accuracy

    PubMed Central

    Johnson, Angela N.; Peiffer, Jeffery S.; Halmann, Nahi; Delaney, Luke; Owen, Cindy A.; Hersh, Jeff

    2017-01-01

    Background and Objectives Ultrasound-guided regional anesthesia facilitates an approach to sensitive targets such as nerve clusters without contact or inadvertent puncture. We compared accuracy of needle placement with a novel passive magnetic ultrasound needle guidance technology (NGT) versus conventional ultrasound (CU) with echogenic needles. Methods Sixteen anesthesiologists and 19 residents performed a series of 16 needle insertion tasks each, 8 using NGT (n = 280) and 8 using CU (n = 280), in high-fidelity porcine phantoms. Tasks were stratified based on aiming to contact (target-contact) or place in close proximity with (target-proximity) targets, needle gauge (no. 18/no. 22), and in-plane (IP) or out-of-plane (OOP) approach. Distance to the target, task completion by aim, number of passes, and number of tasks completed on the first pass were reported. Results Needle guidance technology significantly improved distance, task completion, number of passes, and completion on the first pass compared with CU for both IP and OOP approaches (P ≤ 0.001). Average NGT distance to target was lower by 57.1% overall (n = 560, 1.5 ± 2.4 vs 3.5 ± 3.7 mm), 38.5% IP (n = 140, 1.6 ± 2.6 vs 2.6 ± 2.8 mm), and 68.2% OOP (n = 140, 1.4 ± 2.2 vs 4.4 ± 4.3 mm) (all P ≤ 0.01). Subgroup analyses revealed accuracy gains were largest among target-proximity tasks performed by residents and for OOP approaches. Needle guidance technology improved first-pass completion from 214 (76.4%) per 280 to 249 (88.9%) per 280, a significant improvement of 16.4% (P = 0.001). Conclusions Passive magnetic NGT can improve accuracy of needle procedures, particularly among OOP procedures requiring close approach to sensitive targets, such as nerve blocks in anesthesiology practice. PMID:28079754

  4. The improvement on the falling needle viscometer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sha, Zhen-Shun

    1997-04-01

    To overcome the shortcomings of the conventional falling needle viscometer, many improvements have been made, e.g., adopting new design of needle structure, collector, and launcher. Furthermore, Hall magnetic sensors and single-board computer are used in the system, which makes the measurement automatic and intelligent. It is proved in the experiment that the instrument is accurate enough and has excellent performance. The technique can also be applied in falling ball viscometers.

  5. Sharing values, sharing a vision

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-12-31

    Teamwork, partnership and shared values emerged as recurring themes at the Third Technology Transfer/Communications Conference. The program drew about 100 participants who sat through a packed two days to find ways for their laboratories and facilities to better help American business and the economy. Co-hosts were the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory and the Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory, where most meetings took place. The conference followed traditions established at the First Technology Transfer/Communications Conference, conceived of and hosted by the Pacific Northwest Laboratory in May 1992 in Richmond, Washington, and the second conference, hosted by the National Renewable Energy Laboratory in January 1993 in Golden, Colorado. As at the other conferences, participants at the third session represented the fields of technology transfer, public affairs and communications. They came from Department of Energy headquarters and DOE offices, laboratories and production facilities. Continued in this report are keynote address; panel discussion; workshops; and presentations in technology transfer.

  6. Dominant hand operating probe vs needle: a comparison study of ultrasound-guided needle placement in phantom models.

    PubMed

    Johnston, D F; Stafford, M

    2015-08-01

    We conducted a replicated crossover design study to assess if using one's dominant hand for operating a probe vs directing a needle would affect the time taken, the number of needle passes and the accuracy of an ultrasound-guided procedure in phantom models. Twenty ultrasound-novice participants completed the task 10 times for each hand arrangement (alternating between attempts). The time taken and number of needle passes required for both dominant hand-probe and hand-needle decreased over time (p = 0.001). Dominant hand-needle had a lower mean time used (p = 0.001) and fewer needle passes (p = 0.02) compared with hand-probe. Sixty-five per cent of participants preferred using their dominant hand to direct the needle. When learning ultrasound-guided needle procedures on phantom models, use of the dominant hand to operate the needle is associated with a shorter procedure time and fewer needle passes.

  7. Comparison of Spinal Needle Deflection in a Ballistic Gel Model

    PubMed Central

    Rand, Ethan; Christolias, George; Visco, Christopher; R. Singh, Jaspal

    2016-01-01

    Background Percutaneous diagnostic and therapeutic procedures are commonly used in the treatment of spinal pain. The success of these procedures depends on the accuracy of needle placement, which is influenced by needle size and shape. Objectives The purpose of this study is to examine and quantify the deviation of commonly used spinal needles based on needle tip design and gauge, using a ballistic gel tissue simulant. Materials and Methods Six needles commonly used in spinal procedures (Quincke, Short Bevel, Chiba, Tuohy, Hustead, Whitacre) were selected for use in this study. Ballistic gel samples were made in molds of two depths, 40mm and 80 mm. Each needle was mounted in a drill press to ensure an accurate needle trajectory. Distance of deflection was recorded for each needle. Results In comparing the mean deflection of 22 gauge needles of all types at 80 mm of depth, deflection was greatest among beveled needles [Short Bevel (9.96 ± 0.77 mm), Quincke (8.89 ± 0.17 mm), Chiba (7.71 ± 1.16 mm)], moderate among epidural needles [Tuohy (7.64 ± 0.16 mm) and least among the pencil-point needles [Whitacre (0.73 ± 0.34 mm)]. Increased gauge (25 g) led to a significant increase in deflection among beveled needles. The direction of deflection was away from the bevel with Quincke, Chiba and Short Beveled needles and toward the bevel of the Tuohy and Hustead needles. Deflection of the Whitacre pencil-point needle was minimal. Conclusions There is clinical utility in knowing the relative deflection of various needle tips. When a procedure requires a needle to be steered around obstacles, or along non-collinear targets, the predictable and large amount of deflection obtained through use of a beveled spinal needle may prove beneficial. PMID:27847693

  8. Transbronchial needle aspiration with a new electromagnetically-tracked TBNA needle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Choi, Jae; Popa, Teo; Gruionu, Lucian

    2009-02-01

    Transbronchial needle aspiration (TBNA) is a common method used to collect tissue for diagnosis of different chest diseases and for staging lung cancer, but the procedure has technical limitations. These limitations are mostly related to the difficulty of accurately placing the biopsy needles into the target mass. Currently, pulmonologists plan TBNA by examining a number of Computed Tomography (CT) scan slices before the operation. Then, they manipulate the bronchoscope down the respiratory track and blindly direct the biopsy. Thus, the biopsy success rate is low. The diagnostic yield of TBNA is approximately 70 percent. To enhance the accuracy of TBNA, we developed a TBNA needle with a tip position that can be electromagnetically tracked. The needle was used to estimate the bronchoscope's tip position and enable the creation of corresponding virtual bronchoscopic images from a preoperative CT scan. The TBNA needle was made with a flexible catheter embedding Wang Transbronchial Histology Needle and a sensor tracked by electromagnetic field generator. We used Aurora system for electromagnetic tracking. We also constructed an image-guided research prototype system incorporating the needle and providing a user-friendly interface to assist the pulmonologist in targeting lesions. To test the feasibility of the accuracy of the newly developed electromagnetically-tracked needle, a phantom study was conducted in the interventional suite at Georgetown University Hospital. Five TBNA simulations with a custom-made phantom with a bronchial tree were performed. The experimental results show that our device has potential to enhance the accuracy of TBNA.

  9. Modeling of Needle-Tissue Interaction Forces During Surgical Suturing

    PubMed Central

    Jackson, Russell C.; Çavuşoğlu, M. Cenk

    2013-01-01

    This paper presents a model of needle tissue interaction forces that a rigid suture needle experiences during surgical suturing. The needle-tissue interaction forces are modeled as the sum of lumped parameters. The model has three main components; friction, tissue compression, and cutting forces. The tissue compression force uses the area that the needle sweeps out during a suture to estimate both the force magnitude and force direction. The area that the needle sweeps out is a direct result of driving the needle in a way that does not follow the natural curve of the needle. The friction force is approximated as a static friction force along the shaft of the needle. The cutting force acts only on the needle tip. The resulting force and torque model is experimentally validated using a tissue phantom. These results indicate that the proposed lumped parameter model is capable of accurately modeling the forces experienced during a suture. PMID:24683499

  10. Characterization of Pre-Curved Needles for Steering in Tissue

    PubMed Central

    Wedlick, Thomas R.; Okamura, Allison M.

    2010-01-01

    Needles with tip asymmetry deflect upon insertion into soft tissue, an effect that can be used to steer needles within the body. This paper presents a phenomenological characterization of the steering behavior of pre-curved needles, which have tip asymmetry due to curvature of the needle near the tip. We describe needle construction methods and a needle shaft triangulation algorithm to compute the shape of the needle based on images. Experimental results show that pre-curved needles possess greater dexterity than bevel-tipped needles and achieve radii of curvature similar to pre-bent needles. For long pre-curve arc lengths, the radius of curvature of the needle was found to approach the radius of curvature of the pre-curve. Pre-curved needles were found to display behaviors not seen with bevel-tipped needles, such as the insertion velocity influencing the path of the tip within the tissue and the ability to plastically deform the needle during steering. PMID:19963994

  11. Cosmic Needles versus Cosmic Microwave Background Radiation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Aigen

    2003-02-01

    It has been suggested by a number of authors that the 2.7 K cosmic microwave background (CMB) radiation might have arisen from the radiation of ``Population III'' objects thermalized by conducting cosmic graphite/iron needle-shaped dust. Due to a lack of an accurate solution to the absorption properties of exceedingly elongated grains, in existing literature which studies the CMB thermalizing process they are generally modeled as (1) needle-like spheroids in terms of the Rayleigh approximation, (2) infinite cylinders, and (3) antennae. We show here that the Rayleigh approximation is not valid since the Rayleigh criterion is not satisfied for highly conducting needles. We also show that the available intergalactic iron dust, if modeled as infinite cylinders, is not sufficient to supply the required opacity at long wavelengths to obtain the observed isotropy and Planckian nature of the CMB. If appealing to the antenna theory, conducting iron needles with exceedingly large elongations ( >104) appear able to provide sufficient opacity to thermalize the CMB within the iron density limit. But the applicability of the antenna theory to exceedingly thin needles of nanometer/micrometer thickness has not yet been verified.

  12. Medically relevant ElectroNeedle technology development.

    SciTech Connect

    Schmidt, Carrie Frances; Thomas, Michael Loren; McClain, Jaime L.; Harper, Jason C.; Achyuthan, Komandoor E.; Ten Eyck, Gregory A.

    2008-11-01

    ElectroNeedles technology was developed as part of an earlier Grand Challenge effort on Bio-Micro Fuel Cell project. During this earlier work, the fabrication of the ElectroNeedles was accomplished along with proof-of-concept work on several electrochemically active analytes such as glucose, quinone and ferricyanide. Additionally, earlier work demonstrated technology potential in the field of immunosensors by specifically detecting Troponin, a cardiac biomarker. The current work focused upon fabrication process reproducibility of the ElectroNeedles and then using the devices to sensitively detect p-cresol, a biomarker for kidney failure or nephrotoxicity. Valuable lessons were learned regarding fabrication assurance and quality. The detection of p-cresol was accomplished by electrochemistry as well as using fluorescence to benchmark ElectroNeedles performance. Results from these studies will serve as a guide for the future fabrication processes involving ElectroNeedles as well as provide the groundwork necessary to expand technology applications. One paper has been accepted for publication acknowledging LDRD funding (K. E. Achyuthan et al, Comb. Chem. & HTS, 2008). We are exploring the scope for a second paper describing the applications potential of this technology.

  13. Optical Coherence Tomography in a Needle Format

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lorenser, Dirk; McLaughlin, Robert A.; Sampson, David D.

    In this chapter, we review the technology and applications of needle probes for optical coherence tomography (OCT). Needle probes are miniaturized fiber-optic probes that can be mounted inside hypodermic needles, allowing them to be inserted deep into the body during OCT imaging. This overcomes the very limited imaging depth of OCT of only 2-3 mm in biological tissue, enabling access to deep-tissue locations that are beyond the reach of free-space optical scan heads or catheters. This chapter provides an in-depth review of the current state-of-the art in needle probe technology, including optical design and fabrication, scan mechanisms (including three-dimensional scanning), and integration into OCT systems. It also provides an overview of emerging applications of this fascinating new imaging tool in areas such as cancer diagnosis, pulmonary imaging, imaging of the eye and imaging of the brain. Finally, two case studies are presented, illustrating needle-based OCT imaging in breast cancer and lungs.

  14. Perception and Action in Teleoperated Needle Insertion

    PubMed Central

    Nisky, Ilana; Pressman, Assaf; Pugh, Carla M.; Mussa-Ivaldi, Ferdinando A.; Karniel, Amir

    2015-01-01

    We studied the effect of delay on perception and action in contact with a force field that emulates elastic soft tissue with a rigid nonlinear boundary. Such field is similar to forces exerted on a needle during teleoperated needle insertion. We found that delay causes motor underestimation of the stiffness of this nonlinear soft tissue, without perceptual change. These experimental results are supported by simulation of a simplified mechanical model of the arm and neural controller, and a model for perception of stiffness, which is based on regression in the force-position space. In addition, we show that changing the gain of the teleoperation channel cancels the motor effect of delay without adding perceptual distortion. We conclude that it is possible to achieve perceptual and motor transparency in virtual one-dimensional remote needle insertion task. PMID:26379813

  15. Mechanics of Flexible Needles Robotically Steered through Soft Tissue

    PubMed Central

    Misra, S.; Reed, K. B.; Schafer, B. W.; Ramesh, K. T.; Okamura, A. M.

    2010-01-01

    The tip asymmetry of a bevel-tip needle results in the needle naturally bending when it is inserted into soft tissue. This enables robotic needle steering, which can be used in medical procedures to reach subsurface targets inaccessible by straight-line trajectories. However, accurate path planning and control of needle steering requires models of needle-tissue interaction. Previous kinematic models required empirical observations of each needle and tissue combination in order to fit model parameters. This study describes a mechanics-based model of robotic needle steering, which can be used to predict needle behavior and optimize system design based on fundamental mechanical and geometrical properties of the needle and tissue. We first present an analytical model for the loads developed at the tip, based on the geometry of the bevel edge and material properties of soft-tissue simulants (gels). We then present a mechanics-based model that calculates the deflection of a bevel-tipped needle inserted through a soft elastic medium. The model design is guided by microscopic observations of needle-gel interactions. The energy-based formulation incorporates tissue-specific parameters, and the geometry and material properties of the needle. Simulation results follow similar trends (deflection and radius of curvature) to those observed in experimental studies of robotic needle insertion. PMID:21170164

  16. Needle free injection technology: A complete insight

    PubMed Central

    Ravi, Ansh Dev; Sadhna, D; Nagpaal, D; Chawla, L

    2015-01-01

    Needle free injection technology (NFIT)is an extremely broad concept which include a wide range of drug delivery systems that drive drugs through the skin using any of the forces as Lorentz, Shock waves, pressure by gas or electrophoresis which propels the drug through the skin, virtually nullifying the use of hypodermic needle. This technology is not only touted to be beneficial for the pharma industry but developing world too find it highly useful in mass immunization programmes, bypassing the chances of needle stick injuries and avoiding other complications including those arising due to multiple use of single needle. The NFIT devices can be classified based on their working, type of load, mechanism of drug delivery and site of delivery. To administer a stable, safe and an effective dose through NFIT, the sterility, shelf life and viscosity of drug are the main components which should be taken care of. Technically superior needle-free injection systems are able to administer highly viscous drug products which cannot be administered by traditional needle and syringe systems, further adding to the usefulness of the technology. NFIT devices can be manufactured in a variety of ways; however the widely employed procedure to manufacture it is by injection molding technique. There are many variants of this technology which are being marketed, such as Bioject® ZetaJetTM, Vitajet 3, Tev-Tropin® and so on. Larger investment has been made in developing this technology with several devices already being available in the market post FDA clearance and a great market worldwide. PMID:26682189

  17. New needle-crystalline CR detector

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leblans, Paul J. R.; Struye, Luc; Willems, Peter

    2001-06-01

    The storage phosphor RbBr:Tl+ can be grown in needles via vacuum deposition. Thanks to reduced lateral light diffusion thick needle screens still offer acceptable resolution. Due to its low intrinsic X-ray absorption, however, a RbBr:Tl+ needle screen does not lead to a better absorption/resolution compromise than a BaFBr1-xIx:Eu2+ powder screen. CsBr:Eu2+ does combine high specific X-ray absorption and the possibility of needle growth. Its blue emission, peaking at 440 nm and near IR stimulation band, with maximum at 685 nm, make it well suited for use in CR systems. Sensitivity and sharpness of a 500 (mu) thick CsBr:Eu2+ needle screen were measured in a flying-spot scanner. The number of photostimulated light quanta per absorbed X-ray quantum is higher than for BaFBr1-xIx:Eu2+. At 70 kVp and 0.5 mm Cu filtration, equal sharpness is obtained for 85% vs. 46% X-ray absorption in BaFBr1-xIx:Eu2+ screens. DQE was measured at 2.5 (mu) Gy, 70 kVp, and 0.5 mm Cu filtration for a CsBr:Eu2+ needle screen in a flying-spot scanner. Up to 3 lp/mm, DQE was 2 times higher than for state-of-the-art CR systems and equal to the DQE claimed for flat panel DR systems, based on a-Si photodiodes combined with a CsI:Tl scintillator layer.

  18. Syringe and Needle Size, Syringe Type, Vacuum Generation, and Needle Control in Aspiration Procedures

    SciTech Connect

    Haseler, Luke J.; Sibbitt, Randy R.; Sibbitt, Wilmer L.; Michael, Adrian A.; Gasparovic, Charles M.; Bankhurst, Arthur D.

    2011-06-15

    Purpose: Syringes are used for diagnostic fluid aspiration and fine-needle aspiration biopsy in interventional procedures. We determined the benefits, disadvantages, and patient safety implications of syringe and needle size on vacuum generation, hand force requirements, biopsy/fluid yield, and needle control during aspiration procedures. Materials and Methods: Different sizes (1, 3, 5, 10, and 20 ml) of the conventional syringe and aspirating mechanical safety syringe, the reciprocating procedure device, were studied. Twenty operators performed aspiration procedures with the following outcomes measured: (1) vacuum (torr), (2) time to vacuum (s), (3) hand force to generate vacuum (torr-cm{sup 2}), (4) operator difficulty during aspiration, (5) biopsy yield (mg), and (6) operator control of the needle tip position (mm). Results: Vacuum increased tissue biopsy yield at all needle diameters (P < 0.002). Twenty-milliliter syringes achieved a vacuum of -517 torr but required far more strength to aspirate, and resulted in significant loss of needle control (P < 0.002). The 10-ml syringe generated only 15% less vacuum (-435 torr) than the 20-ml device and required much less hand strength. The mechanical syringe generated identical vacuum at all syringe sizes with less hand force (P < 0.002) and provided significantly enhanced needle control (P < 0.002). Conclusions: To optimize patient safety and control of the needle, and to maximize fluid and tissue yield during aspiration procedures, a two-handed technique and the smallest syringe size adequate for the procedure should be used. If precise needle control or one-handed operation is required, a mechanical safety syringe should be considered.

  19. Improvements to the Processing and Characterization of Needled Composite Laminates

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-01-01

    that mode I fracture toughness improves up to 270% compared to non- needled baseline material. In-plane compressive strength of needled material... fracture toughness improves up to 270% compared to non-needled baseline material. In-plane compressive strength of needled material improves by up to 475...shear (DLS) tests are performed to assess improvements in mode-I fracture toughness and shear strength. Tension and compression tests are

  20. Needle Path Planning for Autonomous Robotic Surgical Suturing

    PubMed Central

    Jackson, Russell C.; Çavuşoğlu, M. Cenk

    2013-01-01

    This paper develops a path plan for suture needles used with solid tissue volumes in endoscopic surgery. The path trajectory is based on the best practices that are used by surgeons. The path attempts to minimize the interaction forces between the tissue and the needle. Using surgical guides as a basis, two different techniques for driving a suture needle are developed. The two techniques are compared in hardware experiments by robotically driving the suture needle using both of the motion plans. PMID:24683500

  1. Needle Path Planning for Autonomous Robotic Surgical Suturing.

    PubMed

    Jackson, Russell C; Cavuşoğlu, M Cenk

    2013-12-31

    This paper develops a path plan for suture needles used with solid tissue volumes in endoscopic surgery. The path trajectory is based on the best practices that are used by surgeons. The path attempts to minimize the interaction forces between the tissue and the needle. Using surgical guides as a basis, two different techniques for driving a suture needle are developed. The two techniques are compared in hardware experiments by robotically driving the suture needle using both of the motion plans.

  2. Evaluation of Robotic Needle Steering in ex vivo Tissue

    PubMed Central

    Majewicz, Ann; Wedlick, Thomas R.; Reed, Kyle B.; Okamura, Allison M.

    2010-01-01

    Insertion velocity, tip asymmetry, and shaft diameter may influence steerable needle insertion paths in soft tissue. In this paper we examine the effects of these variables on needle paths in ex vivo goat liver, and demonstrate practical applications of robotic needle steering for ablation, biopsy, and brachytherapy. All experiments were performed using a new portable needle steering robot that steers asymmetric-tip needles under fluoroscopic imaging. For bevel-tip needles, we found that larger diameter needles resulted in less curvature, i.e. less steerability, confirming previous experiments in artificial tissue. The needles steered with radii of curvature ranging from 3:4 cm (for the most steerable pre-bent needle) to 2:97m (for the least steerable bevel needle). Pre-bend angle significantly affected needle curvature, but bevel angle did not. We hypothesize that biological tissue characteristics such as inhomogeneity and viscoelasticity significantly increase path variability. These results underscore the need for closed-loop image guidance for needle steering in biological tissues with complex internal structure. PMID:21339851

  3. Modeling and Control of Needles with Torsional Friction

    PubMed Central

    Reed, Kyle B.; Okamura, Allison M.; Cowan, Noah J.

    2010-01-01

    A flexible needle can be accurately steered by robotically controlling the bevel tip orientation as the needle is inserted into tissue. Friction between the long, flexible needle shaft and the tissue can cause a significant discrepancy between the orientation of the needle tip and the orientation of the base where the needle angle is controlled. Our experiments show that several common phantom tissues used in needle steering experiments impart substantial friction forces to the needle shaft, resulting in a lag of over 45° for a 10 cm insertion depth in some phantoms; clinical studies report torques large enough to cause similar errors during needle insertions. Such angle discrepancies will result in poor performance or failure of path planners and image-guided controllers, since the needles used in percutaneous procedures are too small for state-of-the-art imaging to accurately measure the tip angle. To compensate for the angle discrepancy, we develop an estimator using a mechanics-based model of the rotational dynamics of a needle being inserted into tissue. Compared to controllers that assume a rigid needle in a frictionless environment, our estimator-based controller improves the tip angle convergence time by nearly 50% and reduces the path deviation of the needle by 70%. PMID:19695979

  4. The Double-Needle Felling Machine. Module 17.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    South Carolina State Dept. of Education, Columbia. Office of Vocational Education.

    This module on the double-needle felling machine, one in a series dealing with industrial sewing machines, their attachments, and operation, covers two topics: performing special operations on the double-needle felling machine (straight seams) and performing special operations on the double-needle felling machine (curved flat-felled seams). For…

  5. 21 CFR 868.5150 - Anesthesia conduction needle.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Anesthesia conduction needle. 868.5150 Section 868...) MEDICAL DEVICES ANESTHESIOLOGY DEVICES Therapeutic Devices § 868.5150 Anesthesia conduction needle. (a) Identification. An anesthesia conduction needle is a device used to inject local anesthetics into a patient...

  6. 21 CFR 868.5150 - Anesthesia conduction needle.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Anesthesia conduction needle. 868.5150 Section 868...) MEDICAL DEVICES ANESTHESIOLOGY DEVICES Therapeutic Devices § 868.5150 Anesthesia conduction needle. (a) Identification. An anesthesia conduction needle is a device used to inject local anesthetics into a patient...

  7. 21 CFR 884.6100 - Assisted reproduction needles.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Assisted reproduction needles. 884.6100 Section... (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES OBSTETRICAL AND GYNECOLOGICAL DEVICES Assisted Reproduction Devices § 884.6100 Assisted reproduction needles. (a) Identification. Assisted reproduction needles are devices used in...

  8. 21 CFR 884.6100 - Assisted reproduction needles.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Assisted reproduction needles. 884.6100 Section... (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES OBSTETRICAL AND GYNECOLOGICAL DEVICES Assisted Reproduction Devices § 884.6100 Assisted reproduction needles. (a) Identification. Assisted reproduction needles are devices used in...

  9. 21 CFR 884.6100 - Assisted reproduction needles.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Assisted reproduction needles. 884.6100 Section... (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES OBSTETRICAL AND GYNECOLOGICAL DEVICES Assisted Reproduction Devices § 884.6100 Assisted reproduction needles. (a) Identification. Assisted reproduction needles are devices used in...

  10. 21 CFR 884.6100 - Assisted reproduction needles.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Assisted reproduction needles. 884.6100 Section... (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES OBSTETRICAL AND GYNECOLOGICAL DEVICES Assisted Reproduction Devices § 884.6100 Assisted reproduction needles. (a) Identification. Assisted reproduction needles are devices used in...

  11. 21 CFR 884.6100 - Assisted reproduction needles.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Assisted reproduction needles. 884.6100 Section... (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES OBSTETRICAL AND GYNECOLOGICAL DEVICES Assisted Reproduction Devices § 884.6100 Assisted reproduction needles. (a) Identification. Assisted reproduction needles are devices used in...

  12. 21 CFR 868.5150 - Anesthesia conduction needle.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Anesthesia conduction needle. 868.5150 Section 868...) MEDICAL DEVICES ANESTHESIOLOGY DEVICES Therapeutic Devices § 868.5150 Anesthesia conduction needle. (a) Identification. An anesthesia conduction needle is a device used to inject local anesthetics into a patient...

  13. 21 CFR 868.5150 - Anesthesia conduction needle.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Anesthesia conduction needle. 868.5150 Section 868...) MEDICAL DEVICES ANESTHESIOLOGY DEVICES Therapeutic Devices § 868.5150 Anesthesia conduction needle. (a) Identification. An anesthesia conduction needle is a device used to inject local anesthetics into a patient...

  14. 21 CFR 868.5150 - Anesthesia conduction needle.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Anesthesia conduction needle. 868.5150 Section 868...) MEDICAL DEVICES ANESTHESIOLOGY DEVICES Therapeutic Devices § 868.5150 Anesthesia conduction needle. (a) Identification. An anesthesia conduction needle is a device used to inject local anesthetics into a patient...

  15. Transthoracic needle aspiration in solitary pulmonary nodule

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Wen; Jiang, Hongli; Khan, Ali Nawaz; Allen, Carolyn; Bertolaccini, Luca

    2017-01-01

    With improved awareness of public health and the recent advances in various imaging technologies, the detection rate of solitary pulmonary nodules (SPN) is continuously increasing. Transthoracic needle aspiration (TTNA) has represented a major approach for the diagnosis and differential diagnosis of pulmonary masses, owing to its simplicity and minimal invasiveness. This paper demonstrates the role of TTNA in SPN. PMID:28331827

  16. A Modification to Maxwell's Needle Apparatus

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Soorya, Tribhuvan N.

    2015-01-01

    Maxwell's needle apparatus is used to determine the shear modulus (?) of the material of a wire of uniform cylindrical cross section. Conventionally, a single observation is taken for each observable, and the value of ? is calculated in a single shot. A modification to the above apparatus is made by varying one of the observables, namely the mass…

  17. The Single Needle Lockstitch Machine. Module 1.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    South Carolina State Dept. of Education, Columbia. Office of Vocational Education.

    This module on parts of the machine, one in a series on the single needle lockstitch sewing machine for student self-study, contains eight sections. Each section contains the following parts: an introduction, directions, an objective, learning activities, student information, student self-check, check-out activities, and an instructor's final…

  18. Transthoracic needle biopsy. What size syringe?

    PubMed

    Yankelevitz, D F; Hayt, D; Henschke, C I

    1995-01-01

    Using a vacuum gauge we demonstrated that with less effort, the identical vacuum can be obtained using a 10-cc syringe as opposed to a 50-cc syringe. We recommend using a 20 cc syringe during transthoracic needle aspiration since the syringe is easier to handle and still allows sufficient vacuum to be developed, even if a small amount of air enters the syringe.

  19. Bubble Growth and Detachment from a Needle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shusser, Michael; Rambod, Edmond; Gharib, Morteza

    1999-11-01

    The release of bubbles from an underwater nozzle or orifice occurs in large number of applications, such as perforated plate columns, blood oxygenators and various methods of water treatment. It is also a widely used method in laboratory research on multiphase flow and acoustics for generating small bubbles in a controlled fashion. We studied experimentally the growth and pinch-off of air bubbles released from a submerged needle into a quiescent liquid or a liquid flowing parallel to the needle. Micron-sized bubbles were generated by an air-liquid dispenser. High-speed imaging was performed to study the formation and detachment of bubbles from the tip of the needle. The impact of the needle diameter was investigated and the size and number of produced bubbles were assessed for different flow rates of air and for different velocities of the imposed upward liquid flow. The results were compared with available theoretical models and numerical computations. The existence of a critical gas flow rate and two regimes of bubble growth were verified.

  20. Distribution of elements in needles of Pinus massoniana (Lamb.) was uneven and affected by needle age.

    PubMed

    Kuang, Yuan Wen; Wen, Da Zhi; Zhou, Guoyi; Liu, Shi Zhong

    2007-02-01

    Macronutrients (P, S, K, Na, Mg, Ca), heavy metals (Fe, Zn, Mn, Cu, Pb, Cr, Ni, Cd,) and Al concentrations as well as values of Ca/Al in the tip, middle and base sections, and sheaths of current year and previous year needles of Pinus massoniana from Xiqiao Mountain were analyzed and the distribution patterns of those elements were compared. The results indicated that many elements were unevenly distributed among the different components of needles. Possible deficiency of P, K, Ca, Mn and Al toxicity occurred in needles under air pollution. Heavy metals may threaten the health of Masson pine. Needle sheaths were good places to look for particulate pollutants, in this case including Fe, Cu, Zn, Pb, Cr, Cd and Al.

  1. Distribution of elements in needles of Pinus massoniana (Lamb.) was uneven and affected by needle age.

    PubMed

    Kuang, Yuan Wen; Wen, Da Zhi; Zhou, Guo Yi; Liu, Shi Zhong

    2007-01-01

    Macronutrients (P, S, K, Na, Mg, Ca), heavy metals (Fe, Zn, Mn, Cu, Pb, Cr, Ni, Cd) and Al concentrations as well as values of Ca/Al in the tip, middle, base sections and sheaths of current year and previous year needles of Pinus massoniana from Xiqiao Mountain were analyzed and the distribution patterns of those elements were compared. The results indicated that many elements were unevenly distributed among the different components of needles. Possible deficiency of P, K, Ca, Mn and Al toxicity occurred in needles under air pollution. Heavy metals may threaten the health of Masson pine. Needle sheaths were good places to look for particulate pollutants, in this case including Fe, Cu, Zn, Pb, Cr, Cd and Al.

  2. The effectiveness and safety of syringe vending machines as a component of needle syringe programmes in community settings.

    PubMed

    Islam, Mofizul; Wodak, Alex; Conigrave, Katherine M

    2008-12-01

    Syringe vending machines (SVMs) have been introduced in Europe and Australasia as part of the effort to increase the availability of sterile needles and syringes to injecting drug users (IDUs). This qualitative review of 14 published and grey literature studies examines whether community-based SVMs as a component of a comprehensive needle syringe programme (NSP) assist to reduce the spread of HIV and other blood-borne viruses amongst IDUs. The available evidence suggests that SVMs increase access to sterile injecting equipment, reduce needle and syringe sharing, and are likely to be cost efficient. SVMs also complement other modes of NSP delivery as they are used by IDUs who are less likely to attend staffed NSPs or pharmacies. If installed and properly maintained in a well-chosen location and with the local community well prepared, SVMs can enhance the temporal and geographical availability of sterile injecting equipment.

  3. Dual mode fuel injector with one piece needle valve member

    DOEpatents

    Lawrence, Keith E.; Hinrichsen, Michael H.; Buckman, Colby

    2005-01-18

    A fuel injector includes a homogenous charge nozzle outlet set and a conventional nozzle outlet set controlled respectively by inner and outer needle value members. The homogenous charged nozzle outlet set is defined by an outer needle value member that is moveably positioned in an injector body, which defines the conventional nozzle outlet set. The inner needle valve member is positioned in the outer needle valve member. The outer needle valve member is a piece component that includes at least one external guide surface, an external value surface and an internal valve seat.

  4. Molecular ruler determines needle length for the Salmonella Spi-1 injectisome

    PubMed Central

    Hughes, Kelly T.

    2015-01-01

    The type-III secretion (T3S) systems of bacteria are part of self-assembling nanomachines: the bacterial flagellum that enables cells to propel themselves through liquid and across hydrated surfaces, and the injectisome that delivers pathogenic effector proteins into eukaryotic host cells. Although the flagellum and injectisome serve different purposes, they are evolutionarily related and share many structural similarities. Core features to these T3S systems are intrinsic length control mechanisms for external cellular projections: the hook of the flagellum and the injectisome needle. We present evidence that the Spi-1 injectisome, like the Salmonella flagellar hook, uses a secreted molecular ruler, InvJ, to determine needle length. This result supports a universal length control mechanism using molecular rulers for T3S systems. PMID:25775540

  5. The research of knitting needle status monitoring setup

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Lu; Liao, Xiao-qing; Zhu, Yong-kang; Yang, Wei; Zhang, Pei; Zhao, Yong-kai; Huang, Hui-jie

    2013-09-01

    In textile production, quality control and testing is the key to ensure the process and improve the efficiency. Defect of the knitting needles is the main factor affecting the quality of the appearance of textiles. Defect detection method based on machine vision and image processing technology is universal. This approach does not effectively identify the defect generated by damaged knitting needles and raise the alarm. We developed a knitting needle status monitoring setup using optical imaging, photoelectric detection and weak signal processing technology to achieve real-time monitoring of weaving needles' position. Depending on the shape of the knitting needle, we designed a kind of Glass Optical Fiber (GOF) light guides with a rectangular port used for transmission of the signal light. To be able to capture the signal of knitting needles accurately, we adopt a optical 4F system which has better imaging quality and simple structure and there is a rectangle image on the focal plane after the system. When a knitting needle passes through position of the rectangle image, the reflected light from needle surface will back to the GOF light guides along the same optical system. According to the intensity of signals, the computer control unit distinguish that the knitting needle is broken or curving. The experimental results show that this system can accurately detect the broken needles and the curving needles on the knitting machine in operating condition.

  6. Needle insertion with duty-cycled rotation into multiple media.

    PubMed

    Lehocky, Craig A; Riviere, Cameron N

    2012-01-01

    Thin, flexible needles can be steered along nonlinear paths to reach deep anatomical structures within the human body. This study builds upon previous work involving steering of bevel-tipped needles by inserting while rotating in a duty-cycled fashion. Here we investigate how needle material and radius, duty cycle, and tissue stiffness affect needle curvature. Needles were inserted into media while rotated at a specified duty cycle and the curvature was measured. A linear relationship between duty cycle and curvature was observed across all needle materials and radii, and tissue stiffnesses. Following these observations, we developed a model that encapsulates needle and tissue parameters in order to predict the duty cycle needed to achieve a desired curvature.

  7. Tip-holed spinal needle: a new design concept.

    PubMed

    Jahangir, S M

    2000-01-01

    Dura-arachnoid puncture for spinal anesthesia is associated with several complications. Postdural puncture headache (PDPH) and needle bending are significant among these. The incidence of PDPH has been reduced significantly with the advent of pencil-point needles. However, these needles also have their limitations, such as obstruction of the delivery port by tissues affecting both cerebrospinal fluid flash back and drug delivery. Increasing the size of the lateral hole has led to mechanical complications, such as tip bending. A new spreading beveled spinal needle tip has been designed to overcome the disadvantages of all the currently used spinal needles. To assess the feasibility, a 26-gauge Quincke spinal needle (B. Braun, Melsungen, Germany) has been modified manually. The new tip-holed design seems to be sound both from theoretical and practical point of view. Searching Medline Plus through their Internet Web site (www.nlm.nih.com) did not reveal the existence of any such spinal needle.

  8. Mixed mode fuel injector with individually moveable needle valve members

    DOEpatents

    Stewart, Chris; Chockley, Scott A.; Ibrahim, Daniel R.; Lawrence, Keith; Tomaseki, Jay; Azam, Junru H.; Tian, Steven Ye; Shafer, Scott F.

    2004-08-03

    A fuel injector includes a homogenous charge nozzle outlet set and a conventional nozzle outlet set controlled respectively, by first and second needle valve members. One of the needle valve members moves to an open position while the other needle valve member remains stationary for a homogeneous charge injection event. The former needle valve member stays stationary while the other needle valve member moves to an open position for a conventional injection event. One of the needle valve members is at least partially positioned in the other needle valve member. Thus, the injector can perform homogeneous charge injection events, conventional injection events, or even a mixed mode having both types of injection events in a single engine cycle.

  9. Torsional dynamics of steerable needles: modeling and fluoroscopic guidance.

    PubMed

    Swensen, John P; Lin, MingDe; Okamura, Allison M; Cowan, Noah J

    2014-11-01

    Needle insertions underlie a diversity of medical interventions. Steerable needles provide a means by which to enhance existing needle-based interventions and facilitate new ones. Tip-steerable needles follow a curved path and can be steered by twisting the needle base during insertion, but this twisting excites torsional dynamics that introduce a discrepancy between the base and tip twist angles. Here, we model the torsional dynamics of a flexible rod-such as a tip-steerable needle-during subsurface insertion and develop a new controller based on the model. The torsional model incorporates time-varying mode shapes to capture the changing boundary conditions inherent during insertion. Numerical simulations and physical experiments using two distinct setups-stereo camera feedback in semitransparent artificial tissue and feedback control with real-time X-ray imaging in optically opaque artificial tissue-demonstrate the need to account for torsional dynamics in control of the needle tip.

  10. MR-compatible biopsy needle with enhanced tip force sensing.

    PubMed

    Elayaperumal, Santhi; Bae, Jung Hwa; Christensen, David; Cutkosky, Mark R; Daniel, Bruce L; Costa, Joannes M; Black, Richard J; Faridian, Fereydoun; Moslehi, Behzad

    2013-04-01

    We describe an instrumented biopsy needle that provides physicians the capability to sense interaction forces directly at the tip of the needle's inner stylet. The sensors consist of optical fiber Bragg gratings (FBGs), and are unaffected by electromagnetic fields; hence the needle is suitable for MR-guided procedures. In comparison to previous instrumented needles that measure bending strains, the new design has additional sensors and a series of micro-machined holes at the tip. The holes increase strain sensitivity, especially to axial forces, without significantly reducing the stiffness or strength. A comparison of the dynamic forces measured with the new needle and those obtained using a force/torque sensor at the needle base shows that the enhanced tip sensitivity is particularly noticeable when there is significant friction along the needle sleeve.

  11. Needle Insertion with Duty-Cycled Rotation into Multiple Media

    PubMed Central

    Lehocky, Craig A.; Riviere, Cameron N.

    2012-01-01

    Thin, flexible needles can be steered along nonlinear paths to reach deep anatomical structures within the human body. This study builds upon previous work involving steering of bevel-tipped needles by inserting while rotating in a duty-cycled fashion. Here we investigate how needle material and radius, duty cycle, and tissue stiffness affect needle curvature. Needles were inserted into media while rotated at a specified duty cycle and the curvature was measured. A linear relationship between duty cycle and curvature was observed across all needle materials and radii, and tissue stiffnesses. Following these observations, we developed a model that encapsulates needle and tissue parameters in order to predict the duty cycle needed to achieve a desired curvature. PMID:23366042

  12. Basic technique in endoscopic ultrasound-guided fine needle aspiration for solid lesions: What needle is the best?

    PubMed Central

    Lachter, Jesse

    2014-01-01

    Basic technique for endoscopic ultrasound (EUS) of solid lesions has developed during 30 years of EUS, as endoscopes and accessory equipment, particularly needles, have been developed. Systematic high-quality examinations require understanding and planning. Needles used for EUS-guided fine needle aspiration (FNA) have gone through many improvements; some 18 characteristics of any needle are presented and these come under consideration whenever choosing the best needle for each procedure. The bright future of EUS and FNA for solid lesions currently still leaves much room for continued developments. PMID:24949410

  13. An Exploration of the Needling Depth in Acupuncture: The Safe Needling Depth and the Needling Depth of Clinical Efficacy

    PubMed Central

    Lin, Jaung-Geng; Chou, Pei-Chi; Chu, Heng-Yi

    2013-01-01

    Objective. To explore the existing scientific information regarding safe needling depth of acupuncture points and the needling depth of clinical efficacy. Methods. We searched the PubMed, EMBASE, Cochrane, Allied and Complementary Medicine (AMED), The National Center for Complementary and Alternative Medicine (NCCAM), and China National Knowledge Infrastructure (CNKI) databases to identify relevant monographs and related references from 1991 to 2013. Chinese journals and theses/dissertations were hand searched. Results. 47 studies were recruited and divided into 6 groups by measuring tools, that is, MRI, in vivo evaluation, CT, ultrasound, dissected specimen of cadavers, and another group with clinical efficacy. Each research was analyzed for study design, definition of safe depth, and factors that would affect the measured depths. Depths of clinical efficacy were discussed from the perspective of de-qi and other clinical observations. Conclusions. Great inconsistency in depth of each point measured from different subject groups and tools exists. The definition of safe depth should be established through standardization. There is also lack of researches to compare the clinical efficacy. A well-designed clinical trial selecting proper measuring tools to decide the actual and advisable needling depth for each point, to avoid adverse effects or complications and promote optimal clinical efficacy, is a top priority. PMID:23935678

  14. [Needling technique of Professor Li Yan-Fang].

    PubMed

    Li, Li-Jun

    2014-01-01

    Experiences of needling techniques of Professor LI Ya- fang is introduced in this article. Gentle and superficial insertion is adopted by Professor LI in clinic. Emphases are put on the qi regulation function, needling sensation to the affected region and insertion with both hands, especially the function of the left hand as pressing hand. The gentle and superficial insertion should be done as the follows: hold the needle with the right hand, press gently along the running course of meridians with the left hand to promote qi circulation, hard pressing should be applied at acupoints to disperse the local qi and blood, insert the needle gently and quickly into the subcutaneous region with the right hand, and stop the insertion when patient has the needling sensation. While the fast needling is characterized with shallow insertion and swift manipulation: the left hand of the manipulator should press first along the running course of the meridian, and fix the local skin, hold the needle with the right hand and insert the needle quickly into the acupoint. Withdrawal of the needle should be done immediately after the reinforcing and reducing manipulations. Professor LI is accomplished in qi regulation. It is held by him that regulating qi circulation is essence of acupuncture, letting the patient get the needling sensation is the most important task of needling. Lifting, thrusting and rotation manipulations should be applied to do reinforcing or reducing. The tissue around the tip of the needle should not be too contracted or too relaxed, and the resistance should not be too strong or too weak. The feeling of the insertion hand of the practitioner should not be too smooth or too hesitant. Needle should be inserted into the skin quickly at the moment of hard pressing by the left hand. And then, slow rotation and gentle lifting and thrusting can be applied to promote the needling sensation like electric current pass through and to reach the affected region along the

  15. SHARING EDUCATIONAL SERVICES.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Catskill Area Project in Small School Design, Oneonta, NY.

    SHARED SERVICES, A COOPERATIVE SCHOOL RESOURCE PROGRAM, IS DEFINED IN DETAIL. INCLUDED IS A DISCUSSION OF THEIR NEED, ADVANTAGES, GROWTH, DESIGN, AND OPERATION. SPECIFIC PROCEDURES FOR OBTAINING STATE AID IN SHARED SERVICES, EFFECTS OF SHARED SERVICES ON THE SCHOOL, AND HINTS CONCERNING SHARED SERVICES ARE DESCRIBED. CHARACTERISTICS OF THE SMALL…

  16. Detecting stages of needle penetration into tissues through force estimation at needle tip using fiber Bragg grating sensors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kumar, Saurabh; Shrikanth, Venkoba; Amrutur, Bharadwaj; Asokan, Sundarrajan; Bobji, Musuvathi S.

    2016-12-01

    Several medical procedures involve the use of needles. The advent of robotic and robot assisted procedures requires dynamic estimation of the needle tip location during insertion for use in both assistive systems as well as for automatic control. Most prior studies have focused on the maneuvering of solid flexible needles using external force measurements at the base of the needle holder. However, hollow needles are used in several procedures and measurements of forces in proximity of such needles can eliminate the need for estimating frictional forces that have high variations. These measurements are also significant for endoscopic procedures in which measurement of forces at the needle holder base is difficult. Fiber Bragg grating sensors, due to their small size, inert nature, and multiplexing capability, provide a good option for this purpose. Force measurements have been undertaken during needle insertion into tissue mimicking phantoms made of polydimethylsiloxane as well as chicken tissue using an 18-G needle instrumented with FBG sensors. The results obtained show that it is possible to estimate the different stages of needle penetration including partial rupture, which is significant for procedures in which precise estimation of needle tip position inside the organ or tissue is required.

  17. Maxillofacial Changes in Melnick-Needles Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Albuquerque do Nascimento, Leilane Larissa; Salgueiro, Monica da Consolação Canuto; Quintela, Mariana; Mota, Ana Carolina Costa

    2016-01-01

    Background. Melnick-Needles Syndrome is rare congenital hereditary skeletal dysplasia caused by mutations in the FLNA gene, which codifies the protein filamin A. This condition leads to serious skeletal abnormalities, including the stomatognathic region. Case Presentation. This paper describes the case of a 13-year-old girl diagnosed with Melnick-Needles Syndrome presenting with different forms of skeletal dysplasia, such as cranial hyperostosis, short upper limbs, bowed long bones, metaphyseal thickening, genu valgum (knock-knee), shortened distal phalanges, narrow pelvis and shoulders, rib tapering and irregularities, elongation of the vertebrae, kyphoscoliosis, micrognathia, hypoplastic coronoid processes of the mandible, left stylohyoid ligament suggesting ossification, and dental development anomalies. Conclusion. Knowledge of this rare syndrome on the part of dentists is important due to the fact that this condition involves severe abnormalities of the stomatognathic system that cause an impact on the development of the entire face as well as functional and esthetic impairments. PMID:27478655

  18. Intraoperative Optical Coherence Tomography Guided Bleb Needling.

    PubMed

    Dada, Tanuj; Angmo, Dewang; Midha, Neha; Sidhu, Talvir

    2016-01-01

    Two patients with history of trabeculectomy presented with uncontrolled intraocular pressure (IOP) postoperatively. The first patient had a flat and vasularized bleb 10 weeks after the surgery, and the second subject developed encapsulated bleb 3 months postoperatively. Both patients were taken to the operating room and intraoperative optical coherence tomography (OCT) guided bleb needling was performed to restore aqueous egress into the subconjunctival space. Postoperatively, IOP of the operated eyes ranged 14-18 mmHg at week 6 and month 3. None of the eyes had any intraoperative or postoperative complications. This novel application of the intraoperative OCT for bleb needling facilitates precision surgery under direct visualization and reduces the risk of complications.

  19. Intraoperative Optical Coherence Tomography Guided Bleb Needling

    PubMed Central

    Dada, Tanuj; Angmo, Dewang; Midha, Neha; Sidhu, Talvir

    2016-01-01

    Two patients with history of trabeculectomy presented with uncontrolled intraocular pressure (IOP) postoperatively. The first patient had a flat and vasularized bleb 10 weeks after the surgery, and the second subject developed encapsulated bleb 3 months postoperatively. Both patients were taken to the operating room and intraoperative optical coherence tomography (OCT) guided bleb needling was performed to restore aqueous egress into the subconjunctival space. Postoperatively, IOP of the operated eyes ranged 14-18 mmHg at week 6 and month 3. None of the eyes had any intraoperative or postoperative complications. This novel application of the intraoperative OCT for bleb needling facilitates precision surgery under direct visualization and reduces the risk of complications. PMID:27994819

  20. Melnick- needles osteodysplasty presenting with quadriparesis.

    PubMed

    Bandyopadhyay, S K; Ghosal, J; Chakrabarti, Nandini; Dutta, Anita

    2006-03-01

    Melnick-Needles syndrome or osteodysplasty, a monogenic heritable bone dysplasia, is characterized by a typical facies and characteristic radiological findings. Less than 70 well-documented cases have been reported in literature; most of them were sporadic. We report the first case from Eastern India in an adolescent male, who had cranio-vertebral junction anomalies and presented with spastic quadriparesis at the age of 13 years.

  1. Electrical needle therapy of uremic pruritus.

    PubMed

    Duo, L J

    1987-01-01

    Six patients with intractable uremic pruritus were treated with a modified acupuncture technique, the electrical needle stimulation (ENS). Results were followed with a pruritic score scale based on severity, frequency and distribution of itching, together with sleeping hours and waking up at night. The results were encouraging: pruritus was drastically improved during or after ENS in several patients. A control treatment with superficial electrical stimulation was ineffective.

  2. Yield of new versus reused endobronchial ultrasound-guided transbronchial needle aspiration needles: A retrospective analysis of 500 patients

    PubMed Central

    Dhooria, Sahajal; Sehgal, Inderpaul Singh; Gupta, Nalini; Ram, Babu; Aggarwal, Ashutosh Nath; Behera, Digambar; Agarwal, Ritesh

    2016-01-01

    Background: Endobronchial ultrasound (EBUS)-guided transbronchial needle aspiration (TBNA) requires a dedicated needle for aspiration of mediastinal lesions. There is no data on reuse of these needles. Methods: This is a retrospective study of patients who underwent EBUS-TBNA with either new or reused EBUS-TBNA needles. The needles were reused after thorough cleaning with filtered water and organic cleaning solution, disinfection with 2.4% glutaraldehyde solution followed by ethylene oxide sterilization. The yield of EBUS-TBNA was compared between the two groups. Results: A total of 500 EBUS-TBNA procedures (351 new, 149 reused needles) were performed. The baseline characteristics were different in the two groups with suspected granulomatous disorders (sarcoidosis or tuberculosis) being significantly more common in the new compared to the reused needle group. Similarly, the median, interquartile range number of lymph node stations sampled, and the total number of passes were significantly higher in the new versus the reused needle group. The diagnostic yield was significantly higher with new needle as compared to reused needle (65.2% vs. 53.7%, P = 0.02). On multivariate logistic regression analysis, clinical suspicion of granulomatous disorders (odds ratio 1.86 [95% confidence interval, 1.20-2.87], P = 0.005) was the only predictor of diagnostic yield, after adjusting for the type of needle (new or reused), total number of passes and the number of lymph node stations sampled. No case of mediastinitis was encountered in either group. Conclusions: The yield of EBUS-TBNA might be similar with single reuse of needles as compared to new needles. However, reuse of needle should be performed only when absolutely necessary. PMID:27578927

  3. Randomized Trial of Conventional Transseptal Needle Versus Radiofrequency Energy Needle Puncture for Left Atrial Access (the TRAVERSE‐LA Study)

    PubMed Central

    Hsu, Jonathan C.; Badhwar, Nitish; Gerstenfeld, Edward P.; Lee, Randall J.; Mandyam, Mala C.; Dewland, Thomas A.; Imburgia, Kourtney E.; Hoffmayer, Kurt S.; Vedantham, Vasanth; Lee, Byron K.; Tseng, Zian H.; Scheinman, Melvin M.; Olgin, Jeffrey E.; Marcus, Gregory M.

    2013-01-01

    Background Transseptal puncture is a critical step in achieving left atrial (LA) access for a variety of cardiac procedures. Although the mechanical Brockenbrough needle has historically been used for this procedure, a needle employing radiofrequency (RF) energy has more recently been approved for clinical use. We sought to investigate the comparative effectiveness of an RF versus conventional needle for transseptal LA access. Methods and Results In this prospective, single‐blinded, controlled trial, 72 patients were randomized in a 1:1 fashion to an RF versus conventional (BRK‐1) transseptal needle. In an intention‐to‐treat analysis, the primary outcome was time required for transseptal LA access. Secondary outcomes included failure of the assigned needle, visible plastic dilator shavings from needle introduction, and any procedural complication. The median transseptal puncture time was 68% shorter using the RF needle compared with the conventional needle (2.3 minutes [interquartile range {IQR}, 1.7 to 3.8 minutes] versus 7.3 minutes [IQR, 2.7 to 14.1 minutes], P=0.005). Failure to achieve transseptal LA access with the assigned needle was less common using the RF versus conventional needle (0/36 [0%] versus 10/36 [27.8%], P<0.001). Plastic shavings were grossly visible after needle advancement through the dilator and sheath in 0 (0%) RF needle cases and 12 (33.3%) conventional needle cases (P<0.001). There were no differences in procedural complications (1/36 [2.8%] versus 1/36 [2.8%]). Conclusions Use of an RF needle resulted in shorter time to transseptal LA access, less failure in achieving transseptal LA access, and fewer visible plastic shavings. Clinical Trial Registration URL: http://www.clinicaltrials.gov. Unique identifier: NCT01209260. PMID:24045120

  4. [Design and application of silver needle-knife].

    PubMed

    Sun, Guodong; Shi, Bin; Zhang, Benwu; Xu, Haidong

    2015-04-01

    A silver needle-knife which has the dual function of silver needle and needle-knife is designed. The main components of this silver needle-knife are approximately 50% silver and approximately 50% nichrome. The silver needle-knife is composed of five parts, including needle-knife tail, spiral handle; steering handle, needle-knife body and needle-knife edge. It converges the advantages of needle-knife and silver needle, which can cut loose of diseased tissue and peel adhesion of lesions, but also be heated with moxa cone and thermal therapeutic instrument, and connect with electroacupuncture apparatus. It has the function of warming channel and removing coldness, dispelling wind and eliminating dampness, resolving spasm and relieving pain, dredging the channel and so on. Due to the spiral handle and the steering handle, the operation is easier, which reduces the blindness of cutting and increase the safety. It is mainly used for soft tissue injury, rheumatism and rheumatoid arthritis, as well as degenerative diseases of spine and joint, and it has obvious efficacy on some internal medical diseases.

  5. Manually controlled steerable needle for MRI-guided percutaneous interventions.

    PubMed

    Henken, Kirsten R; Seevinck, Peter R; Dankelman, Jenny; van den Dobbelsteen, John J

    2017-02-01

    This study aims to develop and evaluate a manually controlled steerable needle that is compatible with and visible on MRI to facilitate full intra-procedural control and accurate navigation in percutaneous interventions. The steerable needle has a working channel that provides a lumen to a cutting stylet or a therapeutic instrument. A steering mechanism based on cable-operated compliant elements is integrated in the working channel. The needle can be steered by adjusting the orientation of the needle tip through manipulation of the handle. The steering mechanism is evaluated by recording needle deflection at constant steering angles. A steering angle of 20.3° results in a deflection of 9.1-13.3 mm in gelatin and 4.6-18.9 mm in porcine liver tissue at an insertion depth of 60 mm. Additionally, the possibility to control the needle path under MRI guidance is evaluated in a gelatin phantom. The needle can be steered to targets at different locations while starting from the same initial position and orientation under MRI guidance with generally available sequences. The steerable needle offers flexibility to the physician in control and choice of the needle path when navigating the needle toward the target position, which allows for optimization of individual treatment and may increase target accuracy.

  6. Electrotactile display using microfabricated micro-needle array

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kitamura, N.; Chim, J.; Miki, N.

    2015-02-01

    This paper describes an electrotactile display with micro-needle electrodes. The electrotactile display can produce tactile sensations by stimulating tactile receptors using an electric current. Micro-needle electrodes can drastically decrease the threshold voltage required to stimulate tactile receptors by penetrating the stratum corneum, which has a higher impedance than the dermis. In addition, the optimized length of the needle allows us to stimulate tactile receptors painlessly. In the present study, we developed a process for fabricating a micro-needle array in which the length and tip radius can be controlled using electrochemical etching. A micro-needle array was successfully fabricated to form an electrotactile display. In addition, we experimentally determined the suitable shape of the micro-needle electrodes for electrotactile display applications. When the tip radius of the needle is too small, the impedance between the finger and micro-needles becomes large due to the small contact area. On the other hand, when the tip radius is too large, the needle cannot penetrate the skin surface and the impedance is not sufficiently small. The experiments verified the superiority of needle electrode devices to flat electrode devices with respect to the threshold voltage at each frequency.

  7. Turbulent flow evaluation of the venous needle during hemodialysis.

    PubMed

    Unnikrishnan, Sunil; Huynh, Thanh N; Brott, B C; Ito, Y; Cheng, C H; Shih, A M; Allon, M; Anayiotos, Andreas S

    2005-12-01

    Arteriovenous (AV) grafts and fistulas used for hemodialysis frequently develop intimal hyperplasia (IH) at the venous anastomosis of the graft, leading to flow-limiting stenosis, and ultimately to graft failure due to thrombosis. Although the high AV access blood flow has been implicated in the pathogenesis of graft stenosis, the potential role of needle turbulence during hemodialysis is relatively unexplored. High turbulent stresses from the needle jet that reach the venous anastomosis may contribute to endothelial denudation and vessel wall injury. This may trigger the molecular and cellular cascade involving platelet activation and IH, leading to eventual graft failure. In an in-vitro graft/needle model dye injection flow visualization was used for qualitative study of flow patterns, whereas laser Doppler velocimetry was used to compare the levels of turbulence at the venous anastomosis in the presence and absence of a venous needle jet. Considerably higher turbulence was observed downstream of the venous needle, in comparison to graft flow alone without the needle. While turbulent RMS remained around 0.1 m/s for the graft flow alone, turbulent RMS fluctuations downstream of the needle soared to 0.4-0.7 m/s at 2 cm from the tip of the needle and maintained values higher than 0.1 m/s up to 7-8 cm downstream. Turbulent intensities were 5-6 times greater in the presence of the needle, in comparison with graft flow alone. Since hemodialysis patients are exposed to needle turbulence for four hours three times a week, the role of post-venous needle turbulence may be important in the pathogenesis of AV graft complications. A better understanding of the role of needle turbulence in the mechanisms of AV graft failure may lead to improved design of AV grafts and venous needles associated with reduced turbulence, and to pharmacological interventions that attenuate IH and graft failure resulting from turbulence.

  8. Collaboratively Sharing Scientific Data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Fusheng; Vergara-Niedermayr, Cristobal

    Scientific research becomes increasingly reliant on multi-disciplinary, multi-institutional collaboration through sharing experimental data. Indeed, data sharing is mandatory by government research agencies such as NIH. The major hurdles for data sharing come from: i) the lack of data sharing infrastructure to make data sharing convenient for users; ii) users’ fear of losing control of their data; iii) difficulty on sharing schemas and incompatible data from sharing partners; and iv) inconsistent data under schema evolution. In this paper, we develop a collaborative data sharing system SciPort, to support consistency preserved data sharing among multiple distributed organizations. The system first provides Central Server based lightweight data integration architecture, so data and schemas can be conveniently shared across multiple organizations. Through distributed schema management, schema sharing and evolution is made possible, while data consistency is maintained and data compatibility is enforced. With this data sharing system, distributed sites can now consistently share their research data and their associated schemas with much convenience and flexibility. SciPort has been successfully used for data sharing in biomedical research, clinical trials and large scale research collaboration.

  9. Ultrasound probe and needle-guide calibration for robotic ultrasound scanning and needle targeting.

    PubMed

    Kim, Chunwoo; Chang, Doyoung; Petrisor, Doru; Chirikjian, Gregory; Han, Misop; Stoianovici, Dan

    2013-06-01

    Image-to-robot registration is a typical step for robotic image-guided interventions. If the imaging device uses a portable imaging probe that is held by a robot, this registration is constant and has been commonly named probe calibration. The same applies to probes tracked by a position measurement device. We report a calibration method for 2-D ultrasound probes using robotic manipulation and a planar calibration rig. Moreover, a needle guide that is attached to the probe is also calibrated for ultrasound-guided needle targeting. The method is applied to a transrectal ultrasound (TRUS) probe for robot-assisted prostate biopsy. Validation experiments include TRUS-guided needle targeting accuracy tests. This paper outlines the entire process from the calibration to image-guided targeting. Freehand TRUS-guided prostate biopsy is the primary method of diagnosing prostate cancer, with over 1.2 million procedures performed annually in the U.S. alone. However, freehand biopsy is a highly challenging procedure with subjective quality control. As such, biopsy devices are emerging to assist the physician. Here, we present a method that uses robotic TRUS manipulation. A 2-D TRUS probe is supported by a 4-degree-of-freedom robot. The robot performs ultrasound scanning, enabling 3-D reconstructions. Based on the images, the robot orients a needle guide on target for biopsy. The biopsy is acquired manually through the guide. In vitro tests showed that the 3-D images were geometrically accurate, and an image-based needle targeting accuracy was 1.55 mm. These validate the probe calibration presented and the overall robotic system for needle targeting. Targeting accuracy is sufficient for targeting small, clinically significant prostatic cancer lesions, but actual in vivo targeting will include additional error components that will have to be determined.

  10. Socio-Economic Status Determines Risk of Receptive Syringe Sharing Behaviors among Iranian Drug Injectors; A National Study

    PubMed Central

    Assari, Shervin; Ahmadi, Khodabakhsh; Rezazade, Majid

    2015-01-01

    Background: Although needle and syringe sharing is one of the main routs of transmission of HIV in several countries in the middle east, very little is known about how socio-economic status of injecting drug users (IDUs) is linked to the receptive syringe sharing behaviors in these countries. Aim: To study socio-economic correlates of receptive needle and syringe sharing among IDUs in Iran. Methods: The study used data from the Unhide Risk Study, a national survey of IDUs. This study sampled 636 IDUs (91% male) via snowball sampling from eight provinces in Iran in 2009. Socio-demographic and drug use characteristics were collected. We used a logistic regression to determine factors associated with receptive needle and syringe sharing during the past 6 months. Results: From 636 IDUs enrolled in this study, 68% (n = 434) reported receptive needle and syringe sharing behaviors in the past 6 months. Odds of receptive needle and syringe sharing in the past 6 months was lower among IDUs who were male [odds ratios (OR) = 0.29, 95% confidence interval (CI) = 0.12–0.70], had higher education (OR = 0.74, 95% CI = 0.64–0.86) but higher among those who were unemployed (OR = 4.05, 95% CI = 1.50–10.94), and were single (OR = 1.47, 95% CI = 1.02–2.11). Conclusion: This study presented factors associated with risk of receptive needle and syringe sharing among Iranian IDUs. This information may be used for HIV prevention and harm reduction purposes. Socio-economic status of Iranian IDUs may be closely linked to high-risk injecting behaviors among them. PMID:25852577

  11. MR-compatible biopsy needle with enhanced tip force sensing

    PubMed Central

    Elayaperumal, Santhi; Bae, Jung Hwa; Christensen, David; Cutkosky, Mark R.; Daniel, Bruce L.; Costa, Joannes M.; Black, Richard J.; Faridian, Fereydoun; Moslehi, Behzad

    2015-01-01

    We describe an instrumented biopsy needle that provides physicians the capability to sense interaction forces directly at the tip of the needle’s inner stylet. The sensors consist of optical fiber Bragg gratings (FBGs), and are unaffected by electromagnetic fields; hence the needle is suitable for MR-guided procedures. In comparison to previous instrumented needles that measure bending strains, the new design has additional sensors and a series of micro-machined holes at the tip. The holes increase strain sensitivity, especially to axial forces, without significantly reducing the stiffness or strength. A comparison of the dynamic forces measured with the new needle and those obtained using a force/torque sensor at the needle base shows that the enhanced tip sensitivity is particularly noticeable when there is significant friction along the needle sleeve. PMID:26509189

  12. Evaluating the advances and use of hypodermic needles in dentistry.

    PubMed

    Boynes, Sean G

    2014-10-01

    Different injection techniques and patient management methodologies have been proposed to decrease the fear patients may have concerning dental needles. Dental providers should have an understanding of the technological advances, changes in techniques, and patient perceptions associated with the hypodermic needle. This article provides an overview of the pain perception process associated with dental injections. It reviews the two main sensory nerve fibers associated with injection pain and discusses needle properties as well as complications and adverse occurrences.

  13. [Pneumothorax following dry needling treatment: legal and ethical aspects].

    PubMed

    Ronconi, Gianpaolo; De Giorgio, Fabio; Ricci, Eleonora; Maggi, Loredana; Spagnolo, Antonio G; Ferrara, Paola Emilia

    2016-01-01

    Trigger point "dry needling" is a technique used to treat myofascial pain. It involves using filiform needles which are inserted into muscles to give local pain relief. Few cases of serious adverse events following this treatment have been reported in the literature. In this paper we describe the case of a professional swimmer who developed pneumothorax after dry needling treatment and discuss the medicolegal and ethical aspects related to competencies and responsibilities of medical doctors and physiotherapists performing the procedure.

  14. Chest Wall Dissemination of Nocardiosis after Percutaneous Transthoracic Needle Biopsy

    SciTech Connect

    Shimamoto, Hiroshi Inaba, Yoshitaka; Yamaura, Hidekazu; Sato, Yozo; Kamiya, Mika; Miyazaki, Masaya; Arai, Yasuaki; Horio, Yoshitsugu

    2007-07-15

    We described a case of chest wall dissemination after percutaneous transthoracic needle biopsy. A 65-year-old man had a lung nodule which was suspected to be lung carcinoma. He underwent percutaneous transthoracic needle biopsy using an 18G semiautomated biopsy needle and pathologic diagnosis showed organizing pneumonia. Two months after the biopsy, chest wall dissemination occurred. Implantation of carcinoma along the biopsy route was suspected, but the mass was actually due to pulmonary nocardiosis.

  15. Generalized quantum secret sharing

    SciTech Connect

    Singh, Sudhir Kumar; Srikanth, R.

    2005-01-01

    We explore a generalization of quantum secret sharing (QSS) in which classical shares play a complementary role to quantum shares, exploring further consequences of an idea first studied by Nascimento, Mueller-Quade, and Imai [Phys. Rev. A 64, 042311 (2001)]. We examine three ways, termed inflation, compression, and twin thresholding, by which the proportion of classical shares can be augmented. This has the important application that it reduces quantum (information processing) players by replacing them with their classical counterparts, thereby making quantum secret sharing considerably easier and less expensive to implement in a practical setting. In compression, a QSS scheme is turned into an equivalent scheme with fewer quantum players, compensated for by suitable classical shares. In inflation, a QSS scheme is enlarged by adding only classical shares and players. In a twin-threshold scheme, we invoke two separate thresholds for classical and quantum shares based on the idea of information dilution.

  16. The biopolitics of needle exchange in the United States

    PubMed Central

    McLean, Katherine

    2012-01-01

    Needle exchange began in the United States as a fragmented and illegal practice initiated by actors at the grassroots level; since the late 1980s, needle exchange has achieved increasing yet variable levels of institutional support across the country, receiving official sanction and funding from state and municipal governments. In turn, the practice(s) and discourse(s) of needle exchange have shifted significantly in many locales, becoming the purview of professional administration that advocates needle exchange as a necessary public health measure. This article is interested in the ways in which needle exchange has become implicated in and appropriated by networks of power seeking to discipline and regulate injection drug use. Drawing theoretically on Michel Foucault’s writings concerning biopower and governmentality, it will examine the proliferation of discourses, knowledges, and rules surrounding needle exchange in the United States. At the same time, this article will avoid a characterization of needle exchange that envisions the unilateral control of drug users by governmental power, illuminating instead both its negative and productive effects for drug users. Namely, it will explore how needle exchange creates both subjects of interest and subjects of resistance among drug users – that is to say, the governmentalization of needle exchange and its ‘clients’. PMID:22389572

  17. Lab in a needle for epidural space identification

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carotenuto, B.; Micco, A.; Ricciardi, A.; Amorizzo, E.; Mercieri, M.; Cutolo, A.; Cusano, A.

    2016-05-01

    This work relies on the development of a sensorized medical needle with an all-optical guidance (Lab in a Needle) system for epidural space identification. The device is based on the judicious integration of a Fiber Bragg grating sensor inside the lumen of an epidural needle to discriminate between different types of tissue and thus providing continuous and real time measurements of the pressure experienced by the needle tip during its advancement. Experiments carried out on an epidural training phantom demonstrate the validity of our approach for the correct and effective identification of the epidural space.

  18. Steerable real-time sonographically guided needle biopsy.

    PubMed

    Buonocore, E; Skipper, G J

    1981-02-01

    A method for dynamic real-time ultrasonic guidance for percutaneous needle biopsy has been successful in obtaining cytologic and histologic specimens from abdominal masses. The system depends on a real-time ultrasonic transducer that has been rigidly attached to a laterally placed steerable needle holder. Using simple trigonometric functions, a chart has been derived that gives the exact angulation and needle length to produce quick, reliable, guided needle placements. Examples of successful renal, hepatobiliary, and retroperitoneal biopsies are presented. Advantages of this technique include speed, accuracy, low cost, three-dimensional format, and the omission of contrast media and radiation.

  19. Thinking ethically about needle and syringe programs.

    PubMed

    Kleinig, John

    2006-01-01

    Accepting-for the sake of argument-our current legal policies concerning heroin use and its users, what ethical questions are raised for needle and syringe program (NSPs)? Do they weaken drug laws, send the wrong message or obscure the right message, do little to eliminate the harm of drugs, detract from alternatives, and/or constitute a counsel of despair? I suggest that in the absence of established better alternatives, NSPs constitute a morally acceptable and in some cases even desirable option despite the continued criminalization of injecting drug use. Yet they must be conceived and administered in ways that do not reinforce prevailing social prejudices.

  20. Three-dimensional needle-tip localization by electric field potential and camera hybridization for needle electromyography exam robotic simulator

    PubMed Central

    He, Siyu; Gomez-Tames, Jose; Yu, Wenwei

    2016-01-01

    As one of neurological tests, needle electromygraphy exam (NEE) plays an important role to evaluate the conditions of nerves and muscles. Neurology interns and novice medical staff need repetitive training to improve their skills in performing the exam. However, no training systems are able to reproduce multiple pathological conditions to simulate real needle electromyogram exam. For the development of a robotic simulator, three components need to be realized: physical modeling of upper limb morphological features, position-dependent electromyogram generation, and needle localization; the latter is the focus of this study. Our idea is to couple two types of sensing mechanism in order to acquire the needle-tip position with high accuracy. One is to segment the needle from camera images and calculate its insertion point on the skin surface by a top-hat transform algorithm. The other is voltage-based depth measurement, in which a conductive tissue-like phantom was used to realize both needle-tip localization and physical sense of needle insertion. For that, a pair of electrodes was designed to generate a near-linear voltage distribution along the depth direction of the tissue-like phantom. The accuracy of the needle-tip position was investigated by the electric field potential and camera hybridization. The results showed that the needle tip could be detected with an accuracy of 1.05±0.57 mm. PMID:27382339

  1. A new needle on the block: EchoTip ProCore endobronchial ultrasound needle

    PubMed Central

    Dincer, H Erhan; Andrade, Rafael; Zamora, Felix; Podgaetz, Eitan

    2016-01-01

    Endobronchial ultrasound has become the first choice standard of care procedure to diagnose benign or malignant lesions involving mediastinum and lung parenchyma adjacent to the airways owing to its characteristics of being real-time and minimally invasive. Although the incidence of lung cancer has been decreasing, it is and will be the leading cause of cancer-related mortality in the next few decades. When compared to other cancers, lung cancer kills more females than breast and colon cancers combined and more males than colon and prostate cancers combined. The type of lung cancer has changed in recent decades and adenocarcinoma has become the most frequent cell type. Prognosis of lung cancer depends upon the cell type and the staging at the time of diagnosis. The cell type and molecular characteristics of adenocarcinoma may allow individualized targeted treatment. Other malignant conditions in the mediastinum and lung (eg, metastatic lung cancers and lymphoma) can be biopsied using endobronchial ultrasound needles. Endobronchial ultrasound needle biopsies provides mostly cytology specimens due to its small sizes of needles (22 gauge or larger) which may not give enough tissue to make a definitive diagnosis in malignant (eg, lymphoma) or benign conditions (eg, sarcoidosis). EchoTip ProCore endobronchial needle released in early 2014 provides histologic biopsy material. Larger tissue biopsies may potentially provide a higher diagnostic yield and it eliminates mediastinoscopy or other surgical interventions. Here we aim to review bronchoscopic approach in the diagnosis of mediastinal lesions with emphasis of EchoTip ProCore needles. PMID:27099535

  2. Preschool Needle Pain Responding: Establishing 'Normal'.

    PubMed

    Waxman, Jordana A; DiLorenzo, Miranda G; Pillai Riddell, Rebecca R; Flora, David B; Greenberg, Saul; Garfield, Hartley

    2017-02-11

    The current study sets forth to provide both descriptive data for preschool vaccination pain responding and examine longitudinal relationships over early childhood. Growth mixture modeling (GMM) was first used to describe stable subgroups of preschoolers based on their pain response patterns over 2-minutes post-needle. Secondly, a parallel-process growth curve model was used to assess the stability of acute pain responding from 12-months of age to preschool age. Specifically, we examined whether preschool pain-related distress or regulation could be predicted from 12-month acute pain responding. Preschool participants were part of a Canadian longitudinal cohort (The OUCH Cohort; N = 302). GMM analyses discerned 3 distinct groups of preschoolers, with an important minority not regulating to low-no pain by 2 minutes post-needle. There were no significant associations between 12-month and preschool pain responding. These results highlight the steep trajectory of development between these different stages of early childhood and the variability of pain responding at the preschool vaccination.

  3. Cryosurgery and needle ablation of renal lesions.

    PubMed

    Johnson, D B; Nakada, S Y

    2001-05-01

    Laparoscopic renal cryoablation is a minimally invasive alternative for treating renal tumors utilizing narrow probes cooled with a compressed gas such as argon or carbon dioxide. At this time, cryotherapy has shown the most promise as an alternative to partial nephrectomy as a nephron-sparing treatment for renal tumors. Radiofrequency ablation employs needle electrodes placed percutaneously directly into renal lesions to deliver energy, creating high temperatures leading to cell death. High-intensity focused ultrasound is a noninvasive technique in which focused ultrasound energy is applied to cause cell death within the focal zone. Microwave thermotherapy uses small applicators to deliver microwave energy to tissues, resulting in the generation of heat. Although RF, HIFU, and microwave thermotherapy show promise as energy sources for tumor ablation, they are in the early stages of development. Little is known about their acute and chronic histologic effects and long-term efficacy as a treatment for malignant disease. Further work is needed to develop cryosurgery and needle ablation in order to delineate what role these techniques will ultimately play in the management of RCC.

  4. Sensorless Motion Planning for Medical Needle Insertion in Deformable Tissues

    PubMed Central

    Alterovitz, Ron; Goldberg, Kenneth Y.; Pouliot, Jean; Hsu, I-Chow

    2009-01-01

    Minimally invasive medical procedures such as biopsies, anesthesia drug injections, and brachytherapy cancer treatments require inserting a needle to a specific target inside soft tissues. This is difficult because needle insertion displaces and deforms the surrounding soft tissues causing the target to move during the procedure. To facilitate physician training and preoperative planning for these procedures, we develop a needle insertion motion planning system based on an interactive simulation of needle insertion in deformable tissues and numerical optimization to reduce placement error. We describe a 2-D physically based, dynamic simulation of needle insertion that uses a finite-element model of deformable soft tissues and models needle cutting and frictional forces along the needle shaft. The simulation offers guarantees on simulation stability for mesh modications and achieves interactive, real-time performance on a standard PC. Using texture mapping, the simulation provides visualization comparable to ultrasound images that the physician would see during the procedure. We use the simulation as a component of a sensorless planning algorithm that uses numerical optimization to compute needle insertion offsets that compensate for tissue deformations. We apply the method to radioactive seed implantation during permanent seed prostate brachytherapy to minimize seed placement error. PMID:19126473

  5. Synthesis of nano-crystalline multifibrous zirconia needle

    SciTech Connect

    Biswas, Mridula; Bandyopadhyay, Siddhartha

    2013-06-01

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • Zirconia needles have been successfully prepared by simple inorganic sol–gel route. • The shape of the needles was retained after firing with aspect ratio > 400. • Needles are composed of multiple fibres. • Fibres are composed of nano crystals. - Abstract: Zirconia needles have been successfully synthesized using a simple inorganic sol–gel process without using any template. The method employs mixture of zirconium oxychloride octahydrate and sulphuric acid in aqueous medium. This process requires heat treatment at 40 °C for 2 h in an oven for nucleus formation. Complete formation of needle occurs after 17 days. The green needle retained its original shape after calcination at 1200 °C. Fired needles were of 1–2 cm in length and 5–50 μm in diameter and possess monoclinic phase. Needles are composed of multiple fibres. Depending on the heat treatment temperature, crystallite size varies in the range of 8 to around 300 nm.

  6. Needle Steering in 3-D Via Rapid Replanning

    PubMed Central

    Patil, Sachin; Burgner, Jessica; Webster, Robert J.; Alterovitz, Ron

    2014-01-01

    Steerable needles have the potential to improve the effectiveness of needle-based clinical procedures such as biopsy and drug delivery by improving targeting accuracy and reaching previously inaccessible targets that are behind sensitive or impenetrable anatomical regions. We present a new needle steering system capable of automatically reaching targets in 3-D environments while avoiding obstacles and compensating for real-world uncertainties. Given a specification of anatomical obstacles and a clinical target (e.g., from preoperative medical images), our system plans and controls needle motion in a closed-loop fashion under sensory feedback to optimize a clinical metric. We unify planning and control using a new fast algorithm that continuously replans the needle motion. Our rapid replanning approach is enabled by an efficient sampling-based rapidly exploring random tree (RRT) planner that achieves orders-of-magnitude reduction in computation time compared with prior 3-D approaches by incorporating variable curvature kinematics and a novel distance metric for planning. Our system uses an electromagnetic tracking system to sense the state of the needle tip during the procedure. We experimentally evaluate our needle steering system using tissue phantoms and animal tissue ex vivo. We demonstrate that our rapid replanning strategy successfully guides the needle around obstacles to desired 3-D targets with an average error of less than 3 mm. PMID:25435829

  7. Design of a Slender Tuned Ultrasonic Needle for Bone Penetration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cleary, Rebecca; Mathieson, Andrew; Wallace, Robert; Simpson, Hamish; Lucas, Margaret

    This paper reports on an ultrasonic bone biopsy needle, particularly focusing on design guidelines applicable for any slender tuned ultrasonic device component. Ultrasonic surgical devices are routinely used to cut a range of biological tissues, such as bone. However the realisation of an ultrasonic bone biopsy needle is particularly challenging. This is due to the requirement to generate sufficient vibrational amplitude capable of penetrating mineralised tissue, while avoiding flexural vibrational responses, which are known to reduce the performance and reliability of slender ultrasonic devices. This investigation uses finite element analysis (FEA) to predict the vibrational behaviour of a resonant needle which has dimensions that match closely to an 8Gx4inch bone marrow biopsy needle. Features of the needle, including changes in material and repeated changes in diameter, have been included and systematically altered to demonstrate that the location of and geometry of these features can significantly affect the resonant frequency of bending and torsional modes of vibration while having a limited effect on the frequency and shape of the tuned longitudinal mode. Experimental modal analysis was used to identify the modal parameters of the selected needle design, validating the FEA model predictions of the longitudinal mode and the close flexural modes. This verifies that modal coupling can be avoided by judicious small geometry modifications. Finally, the tuned needle assembly was driven under typical operational excitation conditions to demonstrate that an ultrasonic biopsy needle can be designed to operate in a purely longitudinal motion.

  8. Needle Steering in 3-D Via Rapid Replanning.

    PubMed

    Patil, Sachin; Burgner, Jessica; Webster, Robert J; Alterovitz, Ron

    2014-08-01

    Steerable needles have the potential to improve the effectiveness of needle-based clinical procedures such as biopsy and drug delivery by improving targeting accuracy and reaching previously inaccessible targets that are behind sensitive or impenetrable anatomical regions. We present a new needle steering system capable of automatically reaching targets in 3-D environments while avoiding obstacles and compensating for real-world uncertainties. Given a specification of anatomical obstacles and a clinical target (e.g., from preoperative medical images), our system plans and controls needle motion in a closed-loop fashion under sensory feedback to optimize a clinical metric. We unify planning and control using a new fast algorithm that continuously replans the needle motion. Our rapid replanning approach is enabled by an efficient sampling-based rapidly exploring random tree (RRT) planner that achieves orders-of-magnitude reduction in computation time compared with prior 3-D approaches by incorporating variable curvature kinematics and a novel distance metric for planning. Our system uses an electromagnetic tracking system to sense the state of the needle tip during the procedure. We experimentally evaluate our needle steering system using tissue phantoms and animal tissue ex vivo. We demonstrate that our rapid replanning strategy successfully guides the needle around obstacles to desired 3-D targets with an average error of less than 3 mm.

  9. Observations on rotating needle insertions using a brachytherapy robot

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meltsner, M. A.; Ferrier, N. J.; Thomadsen, B. R.

    2007-09-01

    A robot designed for prostate brachytherapy implantations has the potential to greatly improve treatment success. Much of the research in robotic surgery focuses on measuring accuracy. However, there exist many factors that must be optimized before an analysis of needle placement accuracy can be determined. Some of these parameters include choice of the needle type, insertion velocity, usefulness of the rotating needle and rotation speed. These parameters may affect the force at which the needle interacts with the tissue. A reduction in force has been shown to decrease the compression of the prostate and potentially increase the accuracy of seed position. Rotating the needle as it is inserted may reduce frictional forces while increasing accuracy. However, needle rotations are considered to increase tissue damage due to the drilling nature of the insertion. We explore many of the factors involved in optimizing a brachytherapy robot, and the potential effects each parameter may have on the procedure. We also investigate the interaction of rotating needles in gel and suggest the rotate-cannula-only method of conical needle insertion to minimize any tissue damage while still maintaining the benefits of reduced force and increased accuracy.

  10. Coaxial needle insertion assistant with enhanced force feedback.

    PubMed

    De Lorenzo, Danilo; Koseki, Yoshihiko; De Momi, Elena; Chinzei, Kiyoyuki; Okamura, Allison M

    2013-02-01

    Many medical procedures involving needle insertion into soft tissues, such as anesthesia, biopsy, brachytherapy, and placement of electrodes, are performed without image guidance. In such procedures, haptic detection of changing tissue properties at different depths during needle insertion is important for needle localization and detection of subsurface structures. However, changes in tissue mechanical properties deep inside the tissue are difficult for human operators to sense, because the relatively large friction force between the needle shaft and the surrounding tissue masks the smaller tip forces. A novel robotic coaxial needle insertion assistant, which enhances operator force perception, is presented. This one-degree-of-freedom cable-driven robot provides to the operator a scaled version of the force applied by the needle tip to the tissue, using a novel design and sensors that separate the needle tip force from the shaft friction force. The ability of human operators to use the robot to detect membranes embedded in artificial soft tissue was tested under the conditions of 1) tip force and shaft force feedback, and 2) tip force only feedback. The ratio of successful to unsuccessful membrane detections was significantly higher (up to 50%) when only the needle tip force was provided to the user.

  11. Sensorless motion planning for medical needle insertion in deformable tissues.

    PubMed

    Alterovitz, Ron; Goldberg, Kenneth Y; Pouliot, Jean; Hsu, I-Chow Joe

    2009-03-01

    Minimally invasive medical procedures such as biopsies, anesthesia drug injections, and brachytherapy cancer treatments require inserting a needle to a specific target inside soft tissues. This is difficult because needle insertion displaces and deforms the surrounding soft tissues causing the target to move during the procedure. To facilitate physician training and preoperative planning for these procedures, we develop a needle insertion motion planning system based on an interactive simulation of needle insertion in deformable tissues and numerical optimization to reduce placement error. We describe a 2-D physically based, dynamic simulation of needle insertion that uses a finite-element model of deformable soft tissues and models needle cutting and frictional forces along the needle shaft. The simulation offers guarantees on simulation stability for mesh modifications and achieves interactive, real-time performance on a standard PC. Using texture mapping, the simulation provides visualization comparable to ultrasound images that the physician would see during the procedure. We use the simulation as a component of a sensorless planning algorithm that uses numerical optimization to compute needle insertion offsets that compensate for tissue deformations. We apply the method to radioactive seed implantation during permanent seed prostate brachytherapy to minimize seed placement error.

  12. Spain: government orders distribution of clean needles in prisons.

    PubMed

    2002-03-01

    In a previous issue of the Review we published an article about the positive results of the evaluation of the first needle exchange programs in Spanish prisons. Recently it was reported that Spain's Ministry of the Interior has ordered that sterile needles be distributed in prisons.

  13. Balloon needle for the atraumatic transcortical ventricular approach: technical note.

    PubMed

    Madrazo, I; Franco-Bourland, R; Aguilera, M; Reyes, P; Guízar-Sahagún, G

    1990-03-01

    We have designed a double-lumen inflatable needle for the atraumatic dissection of brain substance. This balloon needle has been successfully used for the ventricular approach in brain grafting procedures to obtain a rounded corticotomy with a diameter of 1.5-2 cm in the treatment of Parkinson's disease.

  14. Modeling Electric Fields of Peripheral Nerve Block Needles.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Davis, James Ch.; Ramirez, Jason G.

    2005-11-01

    Peripheral nerve blocks present an alternative to general anesthesia in certain surgical procedures and a means of acute pain relief through continuous blockades. They have been shown to decrease the incidence of postoperative nausea and vomiting, reduce oral narcotic side effects, and improve sleep quality. Injecting needles, which carry small stimulating currents, are often used to aid in locating the target nerve bundle. With this technique, muscle responses indicate needle proximity to the corresponding nerve bundle. Failure rates in first injection attempts prompted our study of electric field distributions. Finite difference methods were used to solve for the electric fields generated by two widely used needles. Differences in geometry between needles are seen to effect changes in electric field and current distributions. Further investigations may suggest needle modifications that result in a reduction of initial probing failures.

  15. Modeling Electric Fields of Peripheral Nerve Block Needles.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Davis, James Ch.; Anderson, Norman E.; Meisel, Mark W.; Ramirez, Jason G.; Kayser Enneking, F.

    2006-03-01

    Peripheral nerve blocks present an alternative to general anesthesia in certain surgical procedures and a means of acute pain relief through continuous blockades. They have been shown to decrease the incidence of postoperative nausea and vomiting, reduce oral narcotic side effects, and improve sleep quality. Injecting needles, which carry small stimulating currents, are often used to aid in locating the target nerve bundle. With this technique, muscle responses indicate needle proximity to the corresponding nerve bundle. Failure rates in first injection attempts prompted our study of electric field distributions. Finite difference methods were used to solve for the electric fields generated by two widely used needles. Geometric differences in the needles effect variations in their electric field and current distributions. Further investigations may suggest needle modifications that result in a reduction of initial probing failures.

  16. [Brief introduction of acupuncture needling and teaching keypoint].

    PubMed

    Hou, Shu-wei; Guo, Li; Kong, Su-ping

    2014-09-01

    We summarized our accumulated clinical and teaching experiences and explored the regularity of acupuncture needling and teaching. It is of great importance in pressing hand during inserting needle. Stroking and pressing are two crucial parts which deserve more attention, and seldom useage of pressing hand should be abolished. Operating hand needs practice before inserting needle, while it should fully relaxed during inserting. Blending "touching", "stretch" "gathering" "erupting" and "advancing" in single moment, applying appropriate dynamic mode of inserting needle such as "join 3 forces as one" "3 points in a line" expertly and naturally. In addition, enough attention should be paid on "altering direction" and "shifting point". Inserting deftly and powerfully, no/slight sensation, deqi when inserting needle are the highest reflection as an acupuncturist.

  17. Design of an Optically Controlled MR-Compatible Active Needle

    PubMed Central

    Ryu, Seok Chang; Quek, Zhan Fan; Koh, Je-Sung; Renaud, Pierre; Black, Richard J.; Moslehi, Behzad; Daniel, Bruce L.; Cho, Kyu-Jin; Cutkosky, Mark R.

    2015-01-01

    An active needle is proposed for the development of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI)-guided percutaneous procedures. The needle uses a low-transition-temperature shape memory alloy (LT SMA) wire actuator to produce bending in the distal section of the needle. Actuation is achieved with internal optical heating using laser light transported via optical fibers and side coupled to the LT SMA. A prototype, with a size equivalent to a standard 16-gauge biopsy needle, exhibits significant bending, with a tip deflection of more than 14° in air and 5° in hard tissue. A single-ended optical sensor with a gold-coated tip is developed to measure the curvature independently of temperature. The experimental results in tissue phantoms show that human tissue causes fast heat dissipation from the wire actuator; however, the active needle can compensate for typical targeting errors during prostate biopsy. PMID:26512231

  18. Proactive quantum secret sharing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qin, Huawang; Dai, Yuewei

    2015-11-01

    A proactive quantum secret sharing scheme is proposed, in which the participants can update their key shares periodically. In an updating period, one participant randomly generates the EPR pairs, and the other participants update their key shares and perform the corresponding unitary operations on the particles of the EPR pairs. Then, the participant who generated the EPR pairs performs the Bell-state measurement and updates his key share according to the result of the Bell-state measurement. After an updating period, each participant can change his key share, but the secret is changeless, and the old key shares will be useless even if they have been stolen by the attacker. The proactive property of our scheme is very useful to resist the mobile attacker.

  19. Optical Flow-Based Tracking of Needles and Needle-Tip Localization Using Circular Hough Transform in Ultrasound Images

    PubMed Central

    Ayvali, Elif; Desai, Jaydev P.

    2014-01-01

    Image-guided interventions have become the standard of care for needle-based procedures. The success of the image-guided procedures depends on the ability to precisely locate and track the needle. This work is primarily focused on 2D ultrasound-based tracking of a hollow needle (cannula) that is composed of straight segments connected by shape memory alloy actuators. An in-plane tracking algorithm based on optical flow was proposed to track the cannula configuration in real-time. Optical flow is a robust tracking algorithm that can easily run on a CPU. However, the algorithm does not perform well when it is applied to the ultrasound images directly due to the intensity variation in the images. The method presented in this work enables using the optical flow algorithm on ultrasound images to track features of the needle. By taking advantage of the bevel tip, Circular Hough transform was used to accurately locate the needle tip when the imaging is out-of-plane. Through experiments inside tissue phantom and ex-vivo experiments in bovine kidney, the success of the proposed tracking methods were demonstrated. Using the methods presented in this work, quantitative information about the needle configuration is obtained in real-time which is crucial for generating control inputs for the needle and automating the needle insertion. PMID:25503523

  20. [Acupuncture therapy for regaining consciousness in terms of acupoint location, needle insertion and needle manipulation].

    PubMed

    Meng, Xianggang; Gu, Wenlong; Ma, Fen; Du, Yuzheng; Zhao, Qi

    2015-03-01

    Acupuncture therapy for regaining consciousness activates soreness, numbness, distention, heaviness, radiating and moving, electric shock and ant climbing sensations at the specific acupoints in the stroke patients. Radiating and moving sensations are the summary of needling sensations such as soreness, numbness and twitching presenting during lifting and thrusting manipulation. These sensations are the essential factors of the therapeutic effect of regaining consciousness. Radiating sensation refers to the conduction along meridians and radiation of soreness and numbness. Moving sensation refers to the local muscular twitching at acupoints and the involuntary movement of limbs, joints and the distal. Acupuncture at the specific acupoints achieves radiating and moving sensations for promoting the circulation in meridians, regulating qi and mind and balancing yin and yang in stroke patients. This therapy was introduced in the paper in view of acupoint location, needle insertion and manipulation.

  1. Fine needle aspiration cytology in fibromatosis

    PubMed Central

    Tanwar, Pranay; Gupta, Nalini; Vasishta, Rakesh Kumar; Singh, Gurpreet

    2012-01-01

    Fibromatosis form a spectrum of clinicopathologic entities characterized by the infiltrative proliferation of fibroblasts that lack malignant cytologic features. The fibromatosis can be localized or infiltrative and multicentric and can involve internal tissues and organs as the mesentery, retroperitoneum, breast, and almost every organ and region of the body, including the bones, the meninges and the central nervous system. We report a case of 37-year-old male who presented with a right supraclavicular mass with superficial infiltrative type of fibromatosis and fine needle aspiration cytology (FNAC) was performed. We report this case because of limited literature of FNAC in fibromatosis and quick role of FNAC in the diagnosis of fibromatosis. PMID:22438623

  2. Multiple needle puncturing: balancing the varus knee.

    PubMed

    Bellemans, Johan

    2011-09-09

    The so-called "pie crusting" technique using multiple stab incisions is a well-established procedure for correcting tightness of the iliotibial band in the valgus knee. It is, however, not applicable for balancing the medial side in varus knees because of the risk for iatrogenic transsection of the medial collateral ligament (MCL). This article presents our experience with a safer alternative and minimally invasive technique for medial soft tissue balancing, where we make multiple punctures in the MCL using a 19-gauge needle to progressively stretch the MCL until a correct ligament balance is achieved. Our technique requires minimal to no additional soft tissue dissection and can even be performed percutaneously when necessary. This technique, therefore, does not impact the length of the skin or soft tissue incisions. We analyzed 61 cases with varus deformity that were intraoperatively treated using this technique. In 4 other cases, the technique was used as a percutaneous procedure to correct postoperative medial tightness that caused persistent pain on the medial side. The procedure was considered successful when a 2- to 4-mm mediolateral joint line opening was obtained in extension and 2 to 6 mm in flexion. In 62 cases (95%), a progressive correction of medial tightness was achieved according to the above-described criteria. Three cases were overreleased and required compensatory release of the lateral structures and use of a thicker insert. Based on these results, we consider needle puncturing an effective and safe technique for progressive correction of MCL tightness during minimally invasive total knee arthroplasty.

  3. Needle-based confocal laser endomicroscopy

    PubMed Central

    Giovannini, Marc

    2015-01-01

    New applications of confocal laser endomicroscopy were developed as pCLE in the bile duct and nCLE for pancreatic cystic tumors, pancreatic masses and lymph nodes. The aim of this paper would be to give you an update in this new technology and to try to define its place in the diagnosis of cystic and solid pancreatic masses. The material used was a 19G EUS-needle in which the stylet was replaced by the Confocal mini-probe. The mini-probe (0.632 mm of diameter) is pre-loaded and screwed by a locking device in the EUS-Needle and guided endosonographically in the target. Regarding pancreatic cystic lesion, the presence of epithelial villous structures based on nCLE was associated with pancreatic cystic neoplasm (IPMN) (P = 0.004) and provided a sensitivity of 59%, specificity of 100%, positive predictive value of 100%, and negative predictive value of 50%. A superficial vascular network pattern visualized on nCLE was identified in serous cystadenomas. It corresponded on pathological specimen to a dense and subepithelial capillary vascularization. The accuracy, sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value, and negative predictive value of this sign for the diagnosis of SCA were 87%, 69%, 100%, 100%, and 82%, respectively. In pancreatic adenocarcinomas, nCLE found vascular leakage with irregular vessels with leakage of fluorescein into the tumor, large dark clumps which correspond to humps of malignant cells. These criteria correlate with the histological structure of those tumors which are characterized by tumoral glands, surrounded by fibrosis in case of fibrous stroma tumor. Neuroendocrine tumors showed a dense network of small vessels on a dark background, which fits with the histological structure based on cord of cells surrounded by vessels and by fibrosis. nCLE is feasible during a EUS examination; these preliminary results are very encouraging and may be used in the future in case of inconclusive EUS-FNA. PMID:26643694

  4. Remote Electromagnetic Vibration of Steerable Needles for Imaging in Power Doppler Ultrasound

    PubMed Central

    Cabreros, Sarah S.; Jimenez, Nina M.; Greer, Joseph D.; Adebar, Troy K.; Okamura, Allison M.

    2015-01-01

    Robotic needle steering systems for minimally invasive medical procedures require complementary medical imaging systems to track the needles in real time. Ultrasound is a promising imaging modality because it offers relatively low-cost, real-time imaging of the needle. Previous methods applied vibration to the base of the needle using a voice coil actuator, in order to make the needle visible in power Doppler ultrasound. We propose a new method for needle tip vibration, using electromagnetic actuation of small permanent magnets placed inside the needle to improve needle tip visibility in power Doppler imaging. Robotic needle insertion experiments using artificial tissue and ex vivo porcine liver showed that the electromagnetic tip vibration method can generate a stronger Doppler response compared to the previous base vibration method, resulting in better imaging at greater needle depth in tissue. It also eliminates previous issues with vibration damping along the shaft of the needle. PMID:26413379

  5. Remote Electromagnetic Vibration of Steerable Needles for Imaging in Power Doppler Ultrasound.

    PubMed

    Cabreros, Sarah S; Jimenez, Nina M; Greer, Joseph D; Adebar, Troy K; Okamura, Allison M

    2015-05-01

    Robotic needle steering systems for minimally invasive medical procedures require complementary medical imaging systems to track the needles in real time. Ultrasound is a promising imaging modality because it offers relatively low-cost, real-time imaging of the needle. Previous methods applied vibration to the base of the needle using a voice coil actuator, in order to make the needle visible in power Doppler ultrasound. We propose a new method for needle tip vibration, using electromagnetic actuation of small permanent magnets placed inside the needle to improve needle tip visibility in power Doppler imaging. Robotic needle insertion experiments using artificial tissue and ex vivo porcine liver showed that the electromagnetic tip vibration method can generate a stronger Doppler response compared to the previous base vibration method, resulting in better imaging at greater needle depth in tissue. It also eliminates previous issues with vibration damping along the shaft of the needle.

  6. Needle steering for robot-assisted insertion into soft tissue: A survey

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gao, Dedong; Lei, Yong; Zheng, Haojun

    2012-07-01

    Needle insertion is a common surgical procedure used in diagnosis and treatment. The needle steering technologies make continuous developments in theoretical and practical aspects along with the in-depth research on needle insertion. It is necessary to summarize and analyze the existing results to promote the future development of theories and applications of needle insertion. Thus, a survey of the state of the art of research is presented on algorithms of needle steering techniques, the surgical robots and devices. Based on the analysis of the needle insertion procedure, the concept of needle steering is defined as a kinematics problem, which is to place the needle at the target and avoid the obstacles. The needle steering techniques, including the artificial potential field method and the nonholonomic model, are introduced to control the needles for improving the accuracy. Based on the quasi-static thinking, the virtual spring model and the cantilever-beam model are developed to calculate the amount of needle deflection and generate the needle path. The phantoms instead of the real tissue are used to verify the models mentioned in most of the experimentations. For the desired needle trajectories, the image-guided robotic devices and some novel needles are presented to achieve the needle steering. Finally, the challenges are provided involving the controllability of the long flexible needle and the properties of soft tissue. The results and investigations can be used for further study on the precision and accuracy of needle insertion.

  7. Models, Norms and Sharing.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harris, Mary B.

    To investigate the effect of modeling on altruism, 156 third and fifth grade children were exposed to a model who either shared with them, gave to a charity, or refused to share. The test apparatus, identified as a game, consisted of a box with signal lights and a chute through which marbles were dispensed. Subjects and the model played the game…

  8. Shared Parenting Dysfunction.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Turkat, Ira Daniel

    2002-01-01

    Joint custody of children is the most prevalent court ordered arrangement for families of divorce. A growing body of literature indicates that many parents engage in behaviors that are incompatible with shared parenting. This article provides specific criteria for a definition of the Shared Parenting Dysfunction. Clinical aspects of the phenomenon…

  9. Intelligence Sharing in Bosnia

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-11-02

    increases with the demands of near real time accurate intelligence for operational decision-making. Given this environment, intelligence-sharing...operating system providing actionable near-real- time intelligence to commanders for coalition synchronization and the requirement to protect national...real time accurate intelligence for operational decision-making. Given this environment, intelligence-sharing requirements across an ad hoc coalition

  10. Prevalence and correlates of needle-stick injuries among active duty police officers in Tijuana, Mexico

    PubMed Central

    Mittal, María Luisa; Beletsky, Leo; Patiño, Efraín; Abramovitz, Daniela; Rocha, Teresita; Arredondo, Jaime; Bañuelos, Arnulfo; Rangel, Gudelia; Strathdee, Steffanie A

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Police officers are at an elevated risk for needle-stick injuries (NSI), which pose a serious and costly occupational health risk for HIV and viral hepatitis. However, research on NSIs among police officers is limited, especially in low- and middle-income countries. Despite the legality of syringe possession in Mexico, half of people who inject drugs (PWID) in Tijuana report extrajudicial syringe-related arrests and confiscation by police, which has been associated with needle-sharing and HIV infection. We assessed the prevalence and correlates of NSIs among Tijuana police officers to inform efforts to improve occupational safety and simultaneously reduce HIV risks among police and PWID. Methods Tijuana's Department of Municipal Public Safety (SSPM) is among Mexico's largest. Our binational, multi-sectoral team analyzed de-identified data from SSPM's 2014 anonymous self-administered occupational health survey. The prevalence of NSI and syringe disposal practices was determined. Logistic regression with robust variance estimation via generalized estimating equations identified factors associated with ever having an occupational NSI. Results Approximately one-quarter of the Tijuana police force was given the occupational health survey (N=503). Respondents were predominantly male (86.5%) and ≤35 years old (42.6%). Nearly one in six officers reported ever having a NSI while working at SSPM (15.3%), of whom 14.3% reported a NSI within the past year. Most participants reported encountering needles/syringes while on duty (n=473, 94%); factors independently associated with elevated odds of NSIs included frequently finding syringes that contain drugs (adjusted odds ratio (AOR): 2.98; 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.56–5.67) and breaking used needles (AOR: 2.25; 95% CI: 1.29–3.91), while protective factors included being willing to contact emergency services in case of NSIs (AOR: 0.39; 95% CI: 0.22–0.69), and wearing needle-stick resistant gloves (AOR: 0

  11. Comparison of a needle-free high-pressure injection system with needle-tipped injection of intracavernosal alprostadil for erectile dysfunction.

    PubMed

    Harding, L M; Adeniyi, A; Everson, R; Barker, S; Ralph, D J; Baranowski, A P

    2002-12-01

    Patients identified from hospital records as using alprostadil injections for erectile dysfunction were invited to take part in this open crossover study. On alternate weeks eight patients were given intracavernosal needle injections and transdermal needle-free injection of alprostadil in a randomized order. Efficacy of injection and associated pain were assessed and compared for the two methods. Pain produced during injection was significantly greater with the needle-free system than with the needle-tipped injection whilst efficacy was significantly less. Bruising was reported in all except one patient following needle-free injection only. Patient ratings of the needle-free injector were significantly lower than ratings for needle-tipped alprostadil delivery and when asked to express a preference, every patient chose the needle-tipped injection over the needle-free device.

  12. Image Guidance of Flexible Tip-Steerable Needles.

    PubMed

    Kallem, Vinutha; Cowan, Noah J

    2009-02-03

    Image guidance promises to improve targeting accuracy and broaden the scope of medical procedures performed with needles. This paper takes a step toward automating the guidance of a flexible tip-steerable needle as it is inserted into human tissue. We build upon a previously proposed nonholonomic model of needles that derive steering from asymmetric bevel forces at the tip. The bevel-tip needle is inserted and rotated at its base in order to steer it in six degrees of freedom. As a first step for control, we show that the needle tip can be automatically guided to a planar slice of tissue as it is inserted. Our approach keeps the physician in the loop to control insertion speed. The distance of the needle tip position from the plane of interest is used to drive an observer-based feedback controller which we prove is locally asymptotically stable. Numerical simulations demonstrate a large domain of attraction and robustness of the controller in the face of parametric uncertainty and measurement noise. Physical experiments with tip-steerable Nitinol needles inserted into a transparent plastisol tissue phantom under stereo image guidance validate the effectiveness of our approach.

  13. In vivo Monitoring of Serotonin by Nanomaterial Functionalized Acupuncture Needle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Yu-Tao; Tang, Li-Na; Ning, Yong; Shu, Qing; Liang, Feng-Xia; Wang, Hua; Zhang, Guo-Jun

    2016-06-01

    Acupuncture treatment is amazing but controversial. Up to now, the mechanism of treating diseases by acupuncture and moxibustion is still unclear, especially the occurrence of the molecular events in local acupoints. Herein, we report an extremely stable microsensor by modifying carbon nanotube (CNT) to the tip surface of acupuncture needle and applying this CNT-modified acupuncture needle for real time monitoring of serotonin (5-HT) in vivo. To stabilize CNT modification on the needle tip surface, poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene)(PEDOT) was employed as glue water to stick CNT on the needle. The detection limit of the CNT-modified needle was found to be approximately 50 nM and 78 nM in the PBS and the cell medium, respectively. In addition, the needle showed good selectivity to some inflammatory mediators and some electroactive molecules. For the first time, the CNT-modified needle could be directly probed into rat body for real time monitoring of 5-HT in vivo, showing a great potential for better understanding the mechanism of acupuncture treatment.

  14. Carbon Nanotube Micro-Needles for Rapid Transdermal Drug Delivery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lyon, Bradley; Aria, Adrianus Indrat; Gat, Amir; Cosse, Julia; Montemayor, Lauren; Beizaie, Masoud; Gharib, Morteza

    2012-11-01

    By catalyst patterning, bundles of vertically-aligned carbon nanotubes (CNT) can be assembled to create 2D arrays of hollow micro-needles with feature size as small as a few microns. For transdermal drug delivery, the most challenging mechanical requirement is to make the CNT micro-needle small enough so that delivery is painless yet large enough so that the micro-needle can achieve skin penetration. By taking advantage of capillary action and the nanoporosity of CNT bundles, we can wick high strength polymer into the inter-spacing between nanotubes to augment the stiffness of our micro-needles. For low viscous polymers, the large ratio between the micron sized center hole of the micro-needle and the nanopores of the surrounding CNT allow us to wick polymer through the nanotubes while maintaining an open central hole for drug transport. For a transdermal patch prototype with a delivery area less than 1cm x 1cm square, we can fabricate 50 CNT micro-needles that produces a total flow rate up to 100 uL/s with actuation pressure provided by a mere finger tap. From in vitro experiments, we will demonstrate that CNT micro-needles provide a much faster convective delivery of drugs than conventional topical diffusion based patches. We acknowledge Zcube s.r.l for their support of this work.

  15. Image Guidance of Flexible Tip-Steerable Needles

    PubMed Central

    Kallem, Vinutha; Cowan, Noah J

    2010-01-01

    Image guidance promises to improve targeting accuracy and broaden the scope of medical procedures performed with needles. This paper takes a step toward automating the guidance of a flexible tip-steerable needle as it is inserted into human tissue. We build upon a previously proposed nonholonomic model of needles that derive steering from asymmetric bevel forces at the tip. The bevel-tip needle is inserted and rotated at its base in order to steer it in six degrees of freedom. As a first step for control, we show that the needle tip can be automatically guided to a planar slice of tissue as it is inserted. Our approach keeps the physician in the loop to control insertion speed. The distance of the needle tip position from the plane of interest is used to drive an observer-based feedback controller which we prove is locally asymptotically stable. Numerical simulations demonstrate a large domain of attraction and robustness of the controller in the face of parametric uncertainty and measurement noise. Physical experiments with tip-steerable Nitinol needles inserted into a transparent plastisol tissue phantom under stereo image guidance validate the effectiveness of our approach. PMID:20431694

  16. Development of plasma needle to be used for biomedical applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bora, B.; Jain, J.; Inestrosa-Izurieta, M. J.; Avaria, G.; Moreno, J.; Pavez, C.; Marcelain, K.; Armisen, R.; Soto, L.

    2016-05-01

    Plasma needle is a novel design of a plasma source at atmospheric pressure to achieve a non-thermal plasma jet. The advantage of the plasma needle is that it can be operated in open air, outside a vessel. The plasma that is generated with the plasma needle is small (about one millimetre) and non-thermal, the temperature of the neutral particles and ions is in about room temperature and suitably can interact with living biological cell without damaging the cell. In this work, we report the development of a plasma needle, which is operated by a dc power source and produced a stable plasma jet on water surface. Argon gas is used to operate the plasma needle. The preliminary electrical diagnostics of the plasma needle shows that the discharge is filamentary in nature. For diagnostic of the plasma jet produced by the developed plasma needle, the produced plasma jet is directed to water surface and characterization are carried out by means of electrical discharge characteristics and optical emission spectroscopy. In this work, preliminary results of the diagnostic will be presented.

  17. In vivo Monitoring of Serotonin by Nanomaterial Functionalized Acupuncture Needle

    PubMed Central

    Li, Yu-Tao; Tang, Li-Na; Ning, Yong; Shu, Qing; Liang, Feng-Xia; Wang, Hua; Zhang, Guo-Jun

    2016-01-01

    Acupuncture treatment is amazing but controversial. Up to now, the mechanism of treating diseases by acupuncture and moxibustion is still unclear, especially the occurrence of the molecular events in local acupoints. Herein, we report an extremely stable microsensor by modifying carbon nanotube (CNT) to the tip surface of acupuncture needle and applying this CNT-modified acupuncture needle for real time monitoring of serotonin (5-HT) in vivo. To stabilize CNT modification on the needle tip surface, poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene)(PEDOT) was employed as glue water to stick CNT on the needle. The detection limit of the CNT-modified needle was found to be approximately 50 nM and 78 nM in the PBS and the cell medium, respectively. In addition, the needle showed good selectivity to some inflammatory mediators and some electroactive molecules. For the first time, the CNT-modified needle could be directly probed into rat body for real time monitoring of 5-HT in vivo, showing a great potential for better understanding the mechanism of acupuncture treatment. PMID:27301303

  18. Characteristics of Children Who Undergo Intraosseous Needle Placement.

    PubMed

    Reuter-Rice, Karin; Patrick, Dana; Kantor, Elizabeth; Nolin, Cathy; Foley, Jennifer

    2015-01-01

    Intraosseous (IO) access is a standard of care for pediatric emergencies in the absence of conventional intravenous access. Intraosseous needles provide access for resuscitation fluids and medications and are often placed in the emergency department. However, there are no studies to date that describe the characteristics of pediatric IO needle recipients or their dispositions and outcomes. This study examined the characteristics and disposition of children following IO needle placement by prehospital and emergency room teams before being transported to a children's hospital. We conducted a retrospective descriptive analysis of pediatric patients who had an IO needle placed as a part of their transport care. Data was extracted from a Level 1 trauma tertiary care children's hospital transport database from 1993 to 2009. We measured diagnosis, insertion reason, insertion time (day vs. night shift), complications, and disposition of patients after IO needle placement. There were 143 eligible patients in the study; 65% were males. Mean patient's age was 1.2 years (range: 0.01-13 years). Intraosseous needles were placed most often for patients with cardiopulmonary compromise. Of the 143 patients transported, 53% (n = 76) were placed for no intravenous access and 34% (n = 49) were placed for nonperfusing rhythm. The majority of the IO needles were placed during the daytime (0700-1900 hr), and most patients experienced no complications (n = 67; 47%). However, of those who experienced a complication, 27% were due to infiltration of the IO needle. Of those admitted to hospital, 58% (n = 83) were ultimately discharged home. Intraosseous access provides a safe and reliable method for rapidly achieving a route for administration of medications, fluids and blood products. It is a lifesaving measure with most IO needles successfully placed by referring facilities prior to transport, with few reported complications.

  19. A novel curvature-controllable steerable needle for percutaneous intervention.

    PubMed

    Bui, Van Khuyen; Park, Sukho; Park, Jong-Oh; Ko, Seong Young

    2016-08-01

    Over the last few decades, flexible steerable robotic needles for percutaneous intervention have been the subject of significant interest. However, there still remain issues related to (a) steering the needle's direction with less damage to surrounding tissues and (b) increasing the needle's maximum curvature for better controllability. One widely used approach is to control the fixed-angled bevel-tip needle using a "duty-cycle" algorithm. While this algorithm has shown its applicability, it can potentially damage surrounding tissue, which has prevented the widespread adoption of this technology. This situation has motivated the development of a new steerable flexible needle that can change its curvature without axial rotation, while at the same time producing a larger curvature. In this article, we propose a novel curvature-controllable steerable needle. The proposed robotic needle consists of two parts: a cannula and a stylet with a bevel-tip. The curvature of the needle's path is controlled by a control offset, defined by the offset between the bevel-tip and the cannula. As a result, the necessity of rotating the whole needle's body is decreased. The duty-cycle algorithm is utilized to a limited degree to obtain a larger radius of curvature, which is similar to a straight path. The first prototype of 0.46 mm (outer diameter) was fabricated and tested with both in vitro gelatin phantom and ex vivo cow liver tissue. The maximum curvatures measured 0.008 mm(-1) in 6 wt% gelatin phantom, 0.0139 mm(-1) in 10 wt% gelatin phantom, and 0.0038 mm(-1) in cow liver. The experimental results show a linear relationship between the curvature and the control offset, which can be utilized for future implementation of this control algorithm.

  20. Concurrent fine needle aspirations and core needle biopsies: a comparative study of substrates for next-generation sequencing in solid organ malignancies.

    PubMed

    Roy-Chowdhuri, Sinchita; Chen, Hui; Singh, Rajesh R; Krishnamurthy, Savitri; Patel, Keyur P; Routbort, Mark J; Manekia, Jawad; Barkoh, Bedia A; Yao, Hui; Sabir, Sharjeel; Broaddus, Russell R; Medeiros, L Jeffrey; Staerkel, Gregg; Stewart, John; Luthra, Rajyalakshmi

    2017-01-13

    Minimally invasive procedures, such as fine needle aspiration and core needle biopsy, are commonly used for the diagnosis in solid organ malignancies. In the era of targeted therapy, it is crucial for molecular testing to be performed on these limited volume specimens. Although several recent studies have demonstrated the utility of small biopsy specimens for molecular testing, there remains debate as to whether core needle biopsy specimens are more reliable than fine needle aspiration for molecular studies. In this study, we reviewed concurrently acquired fine needle aspiration and core needle biopsy samples (n=24), and compared overall cellularity, tumor fraction, and the results of next-generation sequencing. All somatic mutations detected in core needle biopsy samples were also detected in fine needle aspiration samples. The estimated tumor fraction was significantly higher in fine needle aspiration smears than core needle biopsy samples (P=0.003), whereas the overall DNA yield from smears was significantly lower than that obtained from the core needle biopsy specimens (P=0.01). The normalized average amplicon coverage for the genes analyzed was significantly higher in cytology smears than paired core needle biopsy samples, with lower numbers of failed amplicons and higher overall mutation allelic frequencies seen in the former. We further evaluated 100 malignant fine needle aspiration and core needle biopsy samples, acquired concurrently, for overall cellularity and tumor fraction. Overall cellularity and tumor fraction of fine needle aspiration samples was significantly higher than concurrently acquired core needle biopsy samples (P<0.001). In conclusion, we show that fine needle aspiration samples frequently provide better cellularity, higher tumor fraction, and superior sequencing metrics than concurrently acquired core needle biopsy samples. Cytologic specimens, therefore, should be better integrated into routine molecular diagnostics workflow to maximize

  1. Robotic Image-Guided Needle Interventions of the Prostate

    PubMed Central

    Mozer, Pierre C; Partin, Alan W; Stoianovici, Dan

    2009-01-01

    Prostate biopsy and needle-directed prostate therapies are currently performed free-handed or with needle external templates under ultrasound guidance. Direct image-guided intervention robots are modern instruments that have the potential to substantially enhance these procedures. These may increase the accuracy and repeatability with which needles are placed in the gland. The authors’ group has developed a robot for precise prostate targeting that operates remotely alongside the patient in the magnetic resonance imaging scanner, as guided according to the image. PMID:19390670

  2. Automated Analysis of PIN-4 Stained Prostate Needle Biopsies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sabata, Bikash; Babenko, Boris; Monroe, Robert; Srinivas, Chukka

    Prostate Needle biopsies are stained with the PIN-4 marker cocktail to help the pathologist distinguish between HGPIN and adenocarcinoma. The correct interpretation of multiple IHC markers can be challenging. Therefore we propose the use of computer aided diagnosis algorithms for the identification and classification of glands in a whole slide image of prostate needle biopsy. The paper presents the different issues related to the automated analysis of prostate needle biopsies and the approach taken by BioImagene in its first generation algorithms.

  3. Modification of commercial force feedback hardware for needle insertion simulation.

    PubMed

    Coles, Timothy R; John, Nigel W; Sofia, Giuseppe; Gould, Derek A; Caldwell, Darwin G

    2011-01-01

    A SensAble Omni force feedback device has been modified to increase the face validity of a needle insertion simulation. The new end effector uses a real needle hub and shortened needle shaft in place of the Omni's pre-fitted pen shaped end effector. This modification facilitates correct procedural training through the simulation of co-located visual and haptic cues in an augmented reality approach to simulation. The development of the new end effector is described and a pictorial guide to its manufacture and the fitting process is provided. Initial results from face validation studies bode well for the fidelity of this low cost device.

  4. Diagenesis of conifer needles in a coastal marine environment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hedges, John I.; Weliky, K.

    1989-10-01

    Physically intact fir, hemlock and cedar needles were isolated from different horizons of a sediment core from a coastal marine bay (Dabob Bay, Washington State, U.S.A.) and from nearby trees and forest litter. Green fir, hemlock and cedar needles were all characterized by glucose-rich aldose mixtures (~30% of tissue carbon), the production of vanillyl and cinnamyl CuO-derived phenols (~8% of tissue carbon) and the presence of both pinitol and myo-inositol (1-2% of tissue carbon). Needles from forest litter were enriched in lignin phenols and non-glucose aldoses and depleted in glucose and cyclitols. The sediment core contained an average of 10 mg/1 of physically intact fir, hemlock and cedar needles, which occurred in similar relative abundances and accounted for less than 1% of the total nonwoody gymnosperm tissue. Compared to the green and litter counterparts, all sedimentary needles were greatly depleted in cyclitols, glucose and p-coumaric acid and enriched in vanillyl phenol precursors. The degree of elevation of vanillyl phenol yield from the degraded needles was used to estimate minimal carbon losses from the samples, which ranged from near 40% for needle litter to almost 70% for the deepest (~100 years old) sedimentary fir/hemlock samples. Although downcore increases in carbon loss and refractory organic components indicated in situ diagenesis, the bulk of overall degradation occurred either on land or during the first 10-20 years after deposition. Atomic C/N ratios of degraded needles were lower than for green counterparts, but nitrogen was lost overall. These relative changes indicate the following stability series: vanillyl phenols > N > ferulic acid, p-hydroxy phenols, most aldoses and bulk tissue > glucose and p-coumaric acid > cyclitols (near 100% loss). Vanillic acid to vanillin ratios, (Ad/Al)v, of the green fir and hemlock needles were unusually high (0.36-0.38) and decreased downcore. Diagenesis also decreased the cinnamyl/vanillyl phenol ratio

  5. Share with thy neighbors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chandra, Surendar; Yu, Xuwen

    2007-01-01

    Peer to peer (P2P) systems are traditionally designed to scale to a large number of nodes. However, we focus on scenarios where the sharing is effected only among neighbors. Localized sharing is particularly attractive in scenarios where wide area network connectivity is undesirable, expensive or unavailable. On the other hand, local neighbors may not offer the wide variety of objects possible in a much larger system. The goal of this paper is to investigate a P2P system that shares contents with its neighbors. We analyze the sharing behavior of Apple iTunes users in an University setting. iTunes restricts the sharing of audio and video objects to peers within the same LAN sub-network. We show that users are already making a significant amount of content available for local sharing. We show that these systems are not appropriate for applications that require access to a specific object. We argue that mechanisms that allow the user to specify classes of interesting objects are better suited for these systems. Mechanisms such as bloom filters can allow each peer to summarize the contents available in the neighborhood, reducing network search overhead. This research can form the basis for future storage systems that utilize the shared storage available in neighbors and build a probabilistic storage for local consumption.

  6. Modeling, Production, and Testing of an Echogenic Needle for Ultrasound-Guided Nerve Blocks.

    PubMed

    Bigeleisen, Paul E; Hess, Aaron; Zhu, Richard; Krediet, Annelot

    2016-06-01

    We have designed, produced, and tested an echogenic needle based on a sawtooth pattern where the height of the tooth was 1.25 times the wavelength of the ultrasound transducer. A numeric solution to the time-independent wave equation (Helmholtz equation) was used to create a model of backscattering from a needle. A 21-gauge stainless steel prototype was manufactured and tested in a water bath. Backscattering from the needle was compared to theoretical predications from our model. Based on these results, an 18-gauge prototype needle was fabricated from stainless steel and tested in a pig cadaver. This needle was compared to a commercial 18-gauge echogenic needle (Pajunk Medical Systems, Tucker, GA) by measuring the brightness of the needle relative to the background of sonograms of a needle in a pig cadaver. The backscattering from the 21-gauge prototype needle reproduced the qualitative predictions of our model. At 30° and 45° of insonation, our prototype performed equivalently to the Pajunk needle. At 60°, our prototype was significantly brighter than the Pajunk needle (P = .017). In conclusion, we chose a model for the design of an echogenic needle and modeled it on the basis of a solution to the Helmholtz equation. A prototype needle was tested in a water bath and compared to the model prediction. After verification of our model, we designed an 18-gauge needle, which performed better than an existing echogenic needle (Pajunk) at 60° of insonation. Our needle will require further testing in human trials.

  7. 24. DETAIL VIEW OF NEEDLE BEAM. NOTE THE WIRE ROPE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    24. DETAIL VIEW OF NEEDLE BEAM. NOTE THE WIRE ROPE TIED AROUND THE HANGER CABLE AND THE RAILING POST. March 1987 - Verde River Sheep Bridge, Spanning Verde River (Tonto National Forest), Cave Creek, Maricopa County, AZ

  8. CT-guided percutaneous needle placement in forensic medicine.

    PubMed

    Hyodoh, Hideki; Shimizu, Jyunya; Mizuo, Keisuke; Okazaki, Shunichiro; Watanabe, Satoshi; Inoue, Hiromasa

    2015-03-01

    We have developed a technique of CT-guided needle placement in the destructed human body in forensic practice. A sixty-year-old male was found in a burned car and he was also destructed severely. Although blood was needed for the external examination, it was difficult to approach the vessels because of the severely burned condition of the cadaver. Thus, we attempted to obtain a blood sample from a vessel using a CT-guided technique. Postmortem CT demonstrated the presence of blood-containing vessels in the pelvis. Indeed, CT-guided needle placement had no difficulty with surface markers, table location, or depth measurement from the surface. CT-guide needle placement is a feasible and reliable technique, so that when the tissue/blood sample is at risk of being spoiled, CT-guided needle placement could be a substitute for conventional sampling techniques.

  9. A pilot/introducer needle for central vein cannulation.

    PubMed

    Suzuki, T; Kanazawa, M; Kinefuchi, Y; Fukuyama, H; Takiguchi, M; Yamamoto, M; Abe, K; Okuda, Y

    1995-12-01

    A kit for safe and easy insertion of a central vein cannula was devised. A small gauge (22 gauge) metal pilot needle was equipped with a Y-shaped hub which had a side-port to accept a small gauge (0.46 mm) Seldinger guide wire. Once the needle reached the vein, guidewire was threaded in through the side-port. There was no need to remove the pilot needle and no need to repeat vein puncture with a larger-bore needle. Three puncture methods were used with the kit: (1) the central approach via the internal jugular vein, (2) the supraclavicular approach via the junction of the internal jugular vein and subclavian vein, and (3) the infraclavicular approach via the subclavian vein. Each method was used on 20 patients, for total of 60 patients, with a high success rate. Less than 3 minutes were required from puncture to catheter insertion. No serious complications were encountered.

  10. [Doctor HUANG Shi-ping's acupuncture with golden needles].

    PubMed

    Chen, Teng-Fei; Ma, Zeng-Bin; Xin, Si-Yuan; Zhu, Jiang

    2013-08-01

    Taking Doctor HUANG Shi-ping as the representative, the school of Huang's golden needle is based on Chinese martial art. Golden needles are adopted as main tool. Attaching great importance on the combination of acupuncture and moxibustioin, it is also characterized with penetrating needling with long needles. Through the development of three generations, it once outshone other schools in the field of acupuncture, and became famous all over the world. It made great contribution to the development of the course of acupuncture. However, with the development of the history, the form of acupuncture education as well as apparatus were all undergone an unified reform. Therefore, Doctor HUANG Shi-ping's acupuncture school be lost gradually.

  11. 20. GENERATOR #1 NEEDLE VALVE CONTROL WHEEL, WATERWHEEL GOVERNOR, PENSTOCK ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    20. GENERATOR #1 NEEDLE VALVE CONTROL WHEEL, WATERWHEEL GOVERNOR, PENSTOCK PRESSURE GAUGE, AND GOVERNOR OIL SET. VIEW TO EAST. - Santa Ana River Hydroelectric System, SAR-2 Powerhouse, Redlands, San Bernardino County, CA

  12. NEEDLE ANATOMY CHANGES WITH INCREASING TREE AGE IN DOUGLAS FIR

    EPA Science Inventory

    Morphological differences between old growth and sapling (Pseudotsuga menziesii, (Mirb.) Franco) Douglas fir trees may extend to differences in needle anatomy. We used microscopy with image analysis to compare and quantify anatomical parameters in cross-sections of previous year...

  13. UK: legal action on needle exchange programs in prisons dismissed.

    PubMed

    Valette, Delphine

    2005-08-01

    In April 2005, a judicial review application against the UK Home Secretary for his failure to introduce needle exchange programs in prisons in England and Wales was dismissed by a judge at the Royal Courts of Justice (Administrative Court Division).

  14. 10. NEEDLE SHOWER IN COOLING ROOM. Hot Springs National ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    10. NEEDLE SHOWER IN COOLING ROOM. - Hot Springs National Park, Bathhouse Row, Fordyce Bathhouse: Mechanical & Piping Systems, State Highway 7, 1 mile north of U.S. Highway 70, Hot Springs, Garland County, AR

  15. 9. NEEDLE SHOWER IN MEN'S PACK ROOM. Hot Springs ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    9. NEEDLE SHOWER IN MEN'S PACK ROOM. - Hot Springs National Park Bathhouse Row, Maurice Bathhouse: Mechanical & Piping Systems, State Highway 7, 1 mile north of U.S. Highway 70, Hot Springs, Garland County, AR

  16. 21 CFR 872.4730 - Dental injecting needle.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... dental injecting needle is a slender, hollow metal device with a sharp point intended to be attached to a syringe to inject local anesthetics and other drugs. (b) Classification. Class I (general controls)....

  17. 64. Penstock housing with outlet needle valve at lower left. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    64. Penstock housing with outlet needle valve at lower left. Roadway support work is visible at top. Photographer Mark Durben. Source: Salt River Project. - Waddell Dam, On Agua Fria River, 35 miles northwest of Phoenix, Phoenix, Maricopa County, AZ

  18. Graphitized needle cokes and natural graphites for lithium intercalation

    SciTech Connect

    Tran, T.D.; Spellman, L.M.; Pekala, R.W.; Goldberger, W.M.; Kinoshita, K.

    1996-05-10

    This paper examined effects of heat treatment and milling (before or after heat treatment) on the (electrochemical) intercalating ability of needle petroleum coke; natural graphite particles are included for comparison. 1 tab, 4 figs, 7 refs.

  19. Conchotome and needle percutaneous biopsy of skeletal muscle.

    PubMed Central

    Dietrichson, P; Coakley, J; Smith, P E; Griffiths, R D; Helliwell, T R; Edwards, R H

    1987-01-01

    Percutaneous muscle biopsy is an important and acceptable technique in the study of conditions involving human skeletal muscle. A review of 436 conchotome and needle muscle biopsies obtained over 18 months in this centre is presented. Images PMID:3694206

  20. Image-guided Control of Flexible Bevel-Tip Needles

    PubMed Central

    Kallem, Vinutha; Cowan, Noah J.

    2010-01-01

    Physicians perform percutaneous therapies in many diagnostic and therapeutic procedures. Image guidance promises to improve targeting accuracy and broaden the scope of needle interventions. In this paper, we consider the possibility of automating the guidance of a flexible bevel-tip needle as it is inserted into human tissue. We build upon a previously proposed nonholonomic kinematic model to develop a nonlinear observer-based controller. As a first step for control, we show that flexible needles can be automatically controlled to remain within a planar slice of tissue as they are inserted by a physician; our approach keeps the physician in the loop to control insertion speed. In the proposed controller, the distance of the needle tip position from the plane of interest is used as a feedback signal. Numerical simulations demonstrate the stability and robustness of the controller in the face of parametric uncertainty. We also present results from pilot physical experiments with phantom tissue under stereo image guidance. PMID:21359170

  1. How to run a successful needle exchange program.

    PubMed

    1997-11-01

    Two recent case studies for successful needle exchange programs in Massachusetts and Washington underscore the need for widespread community support for similar programs. The studies were conducted by the Association of State and Territorial Health Officials (ASTHO) and the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). In Massachusetts, the law designates two dollars in substance abuse treatment programs for every dollar spent on needle exchange. Washington established their programs through court cases. Needle exchanges are an important component in each State's prevention programs; however, the programs also incorporate substance abuse and HIV treatment, outreach, public education, and coordination with the law enforcement communities into their overall program. More than one-quarter of all AIDS cases and half of the AIDS cases in women are attributable to injection drug use. Needle exchange programs, while proven effective, remain politically sensitive. A major barrier to implementing them is the public perception of drug users. Information for ordering the full study is included.

  2. Accelerating Spectrum Sharing Technologies

    SciTech Connect

    Juan D. Deaton; Lynda L. Brighton; Rangam Subramanian; Hussein Moradi; Jose Loera

    2013-09-01

    Spectrum sharing potentially holds the promise of solving the emerging spectrum crisis. However, technology innovators face the conundrum of developing spectrum sharing technologies without the ability to experiment and test with real incumbent systems. Interference with operational incumbents can prevent critical services, and the cost of deploying and operating an incumbent system can be prohibitive. Thus, the lack of incumbent systems and frequency authorization for technology incubation and demonstration has stymied spectrum sharing research. To this end, industry, academia, and regulators all require a test facility for validating hypotheses and demonstrating functionality without affecting operational incumbent systems. This article proposes a four-phase program supported by our spectrum accountability architecture. We propose that our comprehensive experimentation and testing approach for technology incubation and demonstration will accelerate the development of spectrum sharing technologies.

  3. A Sharing Proposition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sturgeon, Julie

    2002-01-01

    Describes how the University of Vermont and St. Michael's College in Burlington, Vermont cooperated to share a single card access system. Discusses the planning, financial, and marketplace advantages of the cooperation. (EV)

  4. Enterobacter aerogenes Needle Stick Leads to Improved Biological Management System

    SciTech Connect

    Johanson, Richard E.

    2004-08-01

    A laboratory worker who received a needle stick from a contaminated needle while working with a culture containing Enterobactor aerogenes developed a laboratory acquired infection. Although this organism has been shown to cause community and nosocomial infections, there have been no documented cases of a laboratory acquired infections. Lessons learned from the event led to corrective actions which included modification of lab procedures, development of a biological inventory tracking and risk identification system and the establishment of an effective biological safety program.

  5. Hollow needle cataract aspiration in antiquity.

    PubMed

    Pérez-Cambrodí, Rafael J; Ascaso, Francisco J; Diab, Fathi; Alzamora-Rodríguez, Antonio; Grzybowski, Andrzej

    2015-12-01

    The dislocation of the crystalline lens or couching technique was the predominant procedure to surgically remove cataracts until the 18th century A.D. However, in the Middle Ages, some Arab physicians tried to aspirate the opaque lens by means of a glass tube following a paracentesis. Some literary sources attributed the origins of this technique to Antyllus of Alexandria, a Greek surgeon who lived in the 2nd century A.D. in the Roman Empire. Nevertheless, this statement remains unclear and is probably the consequence of posterior interpretations or incorrect translations of the manuscripts. In recent years, the discovery of the hollow needles from Montbellet (France) and Viladamat (Spain), in archaeological settlements dated between the 1st century and 3rd century A.D., has reopened the possibility of cataract extraction as an option in the surgical management of soft cataracts in the antiquity. In any case, these findings are exceptional, and thus, probably this technique was not widely practised and very likely disparaged by the medical community.

  6. [Research and thinking on needling sensation of acupoint Huantiao (GB 30)].

    PubMed

    Bai, Jiejing; Han, Junying; Zhu, Dan; Zhang, Xiaoqing; Xu, Xiuzhu; Wu, Jiulong; Zhang, Jian-bin

    2015-03-01

    Taken Huantiao (GB 30) as breakthrough point, acupuncture manipulations of generating various needling sensations by different physicians are sorted. Types of acupoint needling sensations and conducting directions after acupuncture and all kinds of factors that affect needling sensations are analyzed from new perspectives. It is considered that attention should be paid to acupoint location, postures of patients, manipulation methods, types of needling sensations, transmission lines and duration time of needling sensations, etc.

  7. Picosecond optical vortex pulse illumination forms a monocrystalline silicon needle

    PubMed Central

    Takahashi, Fuyuto; Miyamoto, Katsuhiko; Hidai, Hirofumi; Yamane, Keisaku; Morita, Ryuji; Omatsu, Takashige

    2016-01-01

    The formation of a monocrystalline silicon needle by picosecond optical vortex pulse illumination was demonstrated for the first time in this study. The dynamics of this silicon needle formation was further revealed by employing an ultrahigh-speed camera. The melted silicon was collected through picosecond pulse deposition to the dark core of the optical vortex, forming the silicon needle on a submicrosecond time scale. The needle was composed of monocrystalline silicon with the same lattice index (100) as that of the silicon substrate, and had a height of approximately 14 μm and a thickness of approximately 3 μm. Overlaid vortex pulses allowed the needle to be shaped with a height of approximately 40 μm without any changes to the crystalline properties. Such a monocrystalline silicon needle can be applied to devices in many fields, such as core–shell structures for silicon photonics and photovoltaic devices as well as nano- or microelectromechanical systems. PMID:26907639

  8. Vertical Small-Needle Caudal Epidural Injection Technique

    PubMed Central

    Maniquis Smigel, Liza; Dean Reeves, Kenneth; Jeffrey Rosen, Howard; Patrick Rabago, David

    2016-01-01

    Background Anecdotal evidence suggests that a vertical small-needle injection method enters the caudal epidural space with comparable efficacy to cephalad-directed methods, with less intravascular injection. Objectives Assess the success rate of vertical caudal epidural injection using epidurography and the frequency of intravascular injection using a vertical small-needle approach. Patients and Methods Participants had chronic generalized non-surgical low back pain and either gluteal and/or leg pain and were enrolled in a simultaneous clinical trial assessing the analgesic effect of 5% dextrose epidural injection. A 25 gauge 3.7 cm hypodermic needle was placed at the sacral hiatus using a fingertip-guided vertical technique without imaging assistance, followed by fluoroscopic epidurography. Minimal needle redirection was allowed up to 10 degrees from the vertical plane if the initial epidurogram showed an extradural pattern, followed by repeat epidurography. Results First needle placement without imaging resulted in blood return in 1/199 participants and positive epidurography in 179/199 (90%). Minimal needle repositioning resulted in a positive epidurogram in the remaining 19 attempts. No intravascular injection patterns were observed. Conclusions This compares favorably to published success rates of fluoroscopically-guided technique and was well tolerated. Vertical caudal epidural injection may be suitable for combination with ultrasound-guided methods with Doppler flow monitoring. PMID:27826539

  9. Magnetic Resonance Imaging Guided Vacuum Assisted and Core Needle Biopsies

    PubMed Central

    Kılıç, Fahrettin; Eren, Abdulkadir; Tunç, Necmettin; Velidedeoğlu, Mehmet; Bakan, Selim; Aydoğan, Fatih; Çelik, Varol; Gazioğlu, Ertuğrul; Yılmaz, Mehmet Halit

    2016-01-01

    Objective The purpose of this study to present the results of Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) guided cutting needle biopsy procedures of suspicious breast lesions that can be solely detected on Magnetic resonance (MR) examination. Materials and Methods The study included 48 patients with 48 lesions which were solely be observed in breast MRI, indistinguishable in ultrasonography and mammography, for MR guided vacuum-assisted cutting needle biopsy and 42 patients with 42 lesions for MR guided cutting needle biopsy for the lesions of the same nature. MR imaging was performed using a 1.5-Tesla MRI device. Acquired MR images were determined and biopsy protocol was performed using computer-aided diagnosis system on the workstation. Vacuum biopsies were performed using 10 G or 12 G automatic biopsy systems, cutting needle biopsy procedures were performed using fully automated 12 G biopsy needle. Results All biopsy procedures were finalized successfully without major complications. The lesions were 54 mass (60%), 28 were non-mass contrast enhancement (31%) and 8 were foci (9%) in the MR examination. Histopathological evaluation revealed 18 malignant (invasive, in-situ ductal carcinoma and lobular carcinoma), 66 benign (apocrine metaplasia, fibrosis, fibroadenomatoid lesion, sclerosing adenosis, fibrocystic disease and mild-to-severe epithelial proliferation) and 6 high-risk (atypical ductal hyperplasia, intraductal papilloma, radial scar) lesions. Conclusion Magnetic resonance guided vacuum and cutting needle biopsy methods are successful methods fort he evaluation of solely MRI detected suspicious breast lesions. There are several advantages relative to each other in both methods.

  10. Antioxidant, antimutagenic, and antitumor effects of pine needles (Pinus densiflora).

    PubMed

    Kwak, Chung Shil; Moon, Sung Chae; Lee, Mee Sook

    2006-01-01

    Pine needles (Pinus densiflora Siebold et Zuccarini) have long been used as a traditional health-promoting medicinal food in Korea. To investigate their potential anticancer effects, antioxidant, antimutagenic, and antitumor activities were assessed in vitro and/or in vivo. Pine needle ethanol extract (PNE) significantly inhibited Fe(2+)-induced lipid peroxidation and scavenged 1,1-diphenyl- 2-picrylhydrazyl radical in vitro. PNE markedly inhibited mutagenicity of 2-anthramine, 2-nitrofluorene, or sodium azide in Salmonella typhimurium TA98 or TA100 in Ames tests. PNE exposure effectively inhibited the growth of cancer cells (MCF-7, SNU-638, and HL-60) compared with normal cell (HDF) in 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide assay. In in vivo antitumor studies, freeze-dried pine needle powder supplemented (5%, wt/wt) diet was fed to mice inoculated with Sarcoma-180 cells or rats treated with mammary carcinogen, 7,12-dimethylbenz[a]anthracene (DMBA, 50 mg/kg body weight). Tumorigenesis was suppressed by pine needle supplementation in the two model systems. Moreover, blood urea nitrogen and aspartate aminotransferase levels were significantly lower in pine needle-supplemented rats in the DMBA-induced mammary tumor model. These results demonstrate that pine needles exhibit strong antioxidant, antimutagenic, and antiproliferative effects on cancer cells and also antitumor effects in vivo and point to their potential usefulness in cancer prevention.

  11. Mechanics of Dynamic Needle Insertion into a Biological Material

    PubMed Central

    Mahvash, Mohsen; Dupont, Pierre E.

    2010-01-01

    During needle-based procedures, transitions between tissue layers often lead to rupture events that involve large forces and tissue deformations and produce uncontrollable crack extensions. In this paper, the mechanics of these rupture events is described, and the effect of insertion velocity on needle force, tissue deformation, and needle work is analyzed. Using the J integral method from fracture mechanics, rupture events are modeled as sudden crack extensions that occur when the release rate J of strain energy concentrated at the tip of the crack exceeds the fracture toughness of the material. It is shown that increasing the velocity of needle insertion will reduce the force of the rupture event when it increases the energy release rate. A nonlinear viscoelastic Kelvin model is then used to predict the relationship between the deformation of tissue and the rupture force at different velocities. The model predicts that rupture deformation and work asymptotically approach minimum values as needle velocity increases. Consequently, most of the benefit of using a higher needle velocity can be achieved using a finite velocity that is inversely proportional to the relaxation time of the tissue. Experiments confirm the analytical predictions with multilayered porcine cardiac tissue. PMID:19932986

  12. Mechanics of dynamic needle insertion into a biological material.

    PubMed

    Mahvash, Mohsen; Dupont, Pierre E

    2010-04-01

    During needle-based procedures, transitions between tissue layers often lead to rupture events that involve large forces and tissue deformations and produce uncontrollable crack extensions. In this paper, the mechanics of these rupture events is described, and the effect of insertion velocity on needle force, tissue deformation, and needle work is analyzed. Using the J integral method from fracture mechanics, rupture events are modeled as sudden crack extensions that occur when the release rate J of strain energy concentrated at the tip of the crack exceeds the fracture toughness of the material. It is shown that increasing the velocity of needle insertion will reduce the force of the rupture event when it increases the energy release rate. A nonlinear viscoelastic Kelvin model is then used to predict the relationship between the deformation of tissue and the rupture force at different velocities. The model predicts that rupture deformation and work asymptotically approach minimum values as needle velocity increases. Consequently, most of the benefit of using a higher needle velocity can be achieved using a finite velocity that is inversely proportional to the relaxation time of the tissue. Experiments confirm the analytical predictions with multilayered porcine cardiac tissue.

  13. Percutaneous CT-Guided Core Needle Biopsy Versus Fine Needle Aspiration in Diagnosing Pneumonia and Mimics of Pneumonia

    SciTech Connect

    Thanos, Loukas; Galani, Panagiota Mylona, Sophia; Pomoni, Maria; Mpatakis, Nikolaos

    2004-08-15

    The purpose of this study was to determine the diagnostic value of percutaneous core needle biopsy (CNB) relative to fine needle aspiration (FNA) in patients with pneumonia and pneumonia mimics. In this prospective study we present our experience with 48 thoracic FNAs and CNBs carried out on 48 patients with pneumonia and pneumonia mimics. Samples were obtained from all patients using both CNB (with an automated 18-G core biopsy needle and a gun) and FNA (with a 22-G needle). A specific diagnosis was made in 10/48 cases (20.83%) by FNA and in 42/48 (87.5%) by CNB. The main complications encountered were pneumothorax (n = 4) and hemoptysis (n = 2), yielding a total complication rate of 12.5%. We concluded that CNB using an automated biopsy gun results in a higher diagnostic accuracy for pneumonia and pneumonia mimic biopsies than FNA. Complications should be considered and proper patient observation should follow the procedure.

  14. Behavior of tip-steerable needles in ex vivo and in vivo tissue.

    PubMed

    Majewicz, Ann; Marra, Steven P; van Vledder, Mark G; Lin, MingDe; Choti, Michael A; Song, Danny Y; Okamura, Allison M

    2012-10-01

    Robotic needle steering is a promising technique to improve the effectiveness of needle-based clinical procedures, such as biopsies and ablation, by computer-controlled, curved insertions of needles within solid organs. In this paper, we explore the capabilities, challenges, and clinical relevance of asymmetric-tip needle steering through experiments in ex vivo and in vivo tissue. We evaluate the repeatability of needle insertion in inhomogeneous biological tissue and compare ex vivo and in vivo needle curvature and insertion forces. Steerable needles curved more in kidney than in liver and prostate, likely due to differences in tissue properties. Pre-bent needles produced higher insertion forces in liver and more curvature in vivo than ex vivo. When compared to straight stainless steel needles, steerable needles did not cause a measurable increase in tissue damage and did not exert more force during insertion. The minimum radius of curvature achieved by prebent needles was 5.23 cm in ex vivo tissue, and 10.4 cm in in vivo tissue. The curvatures achieved by bevel tip needles were negligible for in vivo tissue. The minimum radius of curvature for bevel tip needles in ex vivo tissue was 16.4 cm; however, about half of the bevel tip needles had negligible curvatures. We also demonstrate a potential clinical application of needle steering by targeting and ablating overlapping regions of cadaveric canine liver.

  15. Behavior of Tip-Steerable Needles in ex vivo and in vivo Tissue

    PubMed Central

    Majewicz, Ann; Marra, Steven P.; van Vledder, Mark G.; Lin, MingDe; Choti, Michael A.; Song, Danny Y.; Okamura, Allison M.

    2012-01-01

    Robotic needle steering is a promising technique to improve the effectiveness of needle-based clinical procedures, such as biopsies and ablation, by computer-controlled, curved insertions of needles within solid organs. In this paper, we explore the capabilities, challenges, and clinical relevance of asymmetric-tip needle steering though experiments in ex vivo and in vivo tissue. We evaluate the repeatability of needle insertion in inhomogeneous biological tissue and compare ex vivo and in vivo needle curvature and insertion forces. Steerable needles curved more in kidney than in liver and prostate, likely due to differences in tissue properties. Pre-bent needles produced higher insertion forces in liver and more curvature in vivo than ex vivo. When compared to straight stainless steel needles, steerable needles did not cause a measurable increase in tissue damage and did not exert more force during insertion. The minimum radius of curvature achieved by pre-bent needles was 5.23 cm in ex vivo tissue, and 10.4 cm in in vivo tissue. The curvatures achieved by bevel tip needles were negligible for in vivo tissue. The minimum radius of curvature for bevel tip needles in ex vivo tissue was 16.4 cm; however, about half of the bevel tip needles had negligible curvatures. We also demonstrate a potential clinical application of needle steering by targeting and ablating overlapping regions of cadaveric canine liver. PMID:22711767

  16. Scaling of phloem structure and optimality of photoassimilate transport in conifer needles

    PubMed Central

    Ronellenfitsch, Henrik; Liesche, Johannes; Jensen, Kaare H.; Holbrook, N. Michele; Schulz, Alexander; Katifori, Eleni

    2015-01-01

    The phloem vascular system facilitates transport of energy-rich sugar and signalling molecules in plants, thus permitting long-range communication within the organism and growth of non-photosynthesizing organs such as roots and fruits. The flow is driven by osmotic pressure, generated by differences in sugar concentration between distal parts of the plant. The phloem is an intricate distribution system, and many questions about its regulation and structural diversity remain unanswered. Here, we investigate the phloem structure in the simplest possible geometry: a linear leaf, found, for example, in the needles of conifer trees. We measure the phloem structure in four tree species representing a diverse set of habitats and needle sizes, from 1 (Picea omorika) to 35 cm (Pinus palustris). We show that the phloem shares common traits across these four species and find that the size of its conductive elements obeys a power law. We present a minimal model that accounts for these common traits and takes into account the transport strategy and natural constraints. This minimal model predicts a power law phloem distribution consistent with transport energy minimization, suggesting that energetics are more important than translocation speed at the leaf level. PMID:25567645

  17. Scaling of phloem structure and optimality of photoassimilate transport in conifer needles.

    PubMed

    Ronellenfitsch, Henrik; Liesche, Johannes; Jensen, Kaare H; Holbrook, N Michele; Schulz, Alexander; Katifori, Eleni

    2015-02-22

    The phloem vascular system facilitates transport of energy-rich sugar and signalling molecules in plants, thus permitting long-range communication within the organism and growth of non-photosynthesizing organs such as roots and fruits. The flow is driven by osmotic pressure, generated by differences in sugar concentration between distal parts of the plant. The phloem is an intricate distribution system, and many questions about its regulation and structural diversity remain unanswered. Here, we investigate the phloem structure in the simplest possible geometry: a linear leaf, found, for example, in the needles of conifer trees. We measure the phloem structure in four tree species representing a diverse set of habitats and needle sizes, from 1 (Picea omorika) to 35 cm (Pinus palustris). We show that the phloem shares common traits across these four species and find that the size of its conductive elements obeys a power law. We present a minimal model that accounts for these common traits and takes into account the transport strategy and natural constraints. This minimal model predicts a power law phloem distribution consistent with transport energy minimization, suggesting that energetics are more important than translocation speed at the leaf level.

  18. Scaling of phloem structure and optimality of sugar transport in conifer needles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jensen, Kaare H.; Ronellenfitsch, Henrik; Liesche, Johannes; Holbrook, N. Michele; Schulz, Alexander; Katifori, Eleni

    2015-11-01

    The phloem vascular system facilitates transport of energy-rich sugar and signalling molecules in plants, thus permitting long-range communication within the organism and growth of non-photosynthesizing organs such as roots and fruits. The flow is driven by osmotic pressure, generated by differences in sugar concentration between distal parts of the plant. The phloem is an intricate distribution system, and many questions about its regulation and structural diversity remain unanswered. Here, we investigate the phloem structure in the simplest possible geometry: a linear leaf, found, for example, in the needles of conifer trees. We measure the phloem structure in four tree species representing a diverse set of habitats and needle sizes, from 1 cm (Picea omorika) to 35 cm (Pinus palustris). We show that the phloem shares common traits across these four species and find that the size of its conductive elements obeys a power law. We present a minimal model that accounts for these common traits and takes into account the transport strategy and natural constraints. This minimal model predicts a power law phloem distribution consistent with transport energy minimization, suggesting that energetics are more important than translocation speed at the leaf level.

  19. Impact of Needle Diameter on Long-Term Dry Needling Treatment of Chronic Lumbar Myofascial Pain Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Gang; Gao, Qian; Li, Jun; Tian, Yuling; Hou, Jingshan

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Objective To investigate the impact of diameter of needles on the effect of dry needling treatment of chronic lumbar myofascial pain syndrome. Design Forty-eight patients with chronic lumbar myofascial pain syndrome were randomly allocated to 3 groups. They received dry needling with needles of diameter 0.25 (group A), 0.5 (group B), and 0.9 mm (group C). Visual analog scale evaluation and health survey were conducted at baseline and 3 months after the treatment. Results Visual analog scale scores were significantly different in all groups from baseline to 3 months. Visual analog scale scores at 3 months showed differences between group C and the other 2 groups. When baseline and 3 months after treatment (0 day and 3 months) in each of the 3 groups was compared, there was a difference between group C and group B. The Short Form (36) Health Survey scores from baseline to 3 months were different within the treatment groups. Conclusions Visual analog scale score evaluations at 3 months showed efficacy in all groups. Results of 3 months showed that efficacy of treatment with larger needles (0.9-mm diameter) was better than that of smaller ones (0.5-mm diameter). The Short Form (36) Health Survey scores at 3 months indicated that treatments with needles of varying diameters were all effective, and when the results of 3 months were compared, there was no difference between the 3 groups. PMID:27333534

  20. Coordinating Shared Activities

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Clement, Bradley

    2004-01-01

    Shared Activity Coordination (ShAC) is a computer program for planning and scheduling the activities of an autonomous team of interacting spacecraft and exploratory robots. ShAC could also be adapted to such terrestrial uses as helping multiple factory managers work toward competing goals while sharing such common resources as floor space, raw materials, and transports. ShAC iteratively invokes the Continuous Activity Scheduling Planning Execution and Replanning (CASPER) program to replan and propagate changes to other planning programs in an effort to resolve conflicts. A domain-expert specifies which activities and parameters thereof are shared and reports the expected conditions and effects of these activities on the environment. By specifying these conditions and effects differently for each planning program, the domain-expert subprogram defines roles that each spacecraft plays in a coordinated activity. The domain-expert subprogram also specifies which planning program has scheduling control over each shared activity. ShAC enables sharing of information, consensus over the scheduling of collaborative activities, and distributed conflict resolution. As the other planning programs incorporate new goals and alter their schedules in the changing environment, ShAC continually coordinates to respond to unexpected events.

  1. Labia Majora Share

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Hanjing; Yap, Yan Lin; Low, Jeffrey Jen Hui

    2017-01-01

    Defects involving specialised areas with characteristic anatomical features, such as the nipple, upper eyelid, and lip, benefit greatly from the use of sharing procedures. The vulva, a complex 3-dimensional structure, can also be reconstructed through a sharing procedure drawing upon the contralateral vulva. In this report, we present the interesting case of a patient with chronic, massive, localised lymphedema of her left labia majora that was resected in 2011. Five years later, she presented with squamous cell carcinoma over the left vulva region, which is rarely associated with chronic lymphedema. To the best of our knowledge, our management of the radical vulvectomy defect with a labia majora sharing procedure is novel and has not been previously described. The labia major flap presented in this report is a shared flap; that is, a transposition flap based on the dorsal clitoral artery, which has consistent vascular anatomy, making this flap durable and reliable. This procedure epitomises the principle of replacing like with like, does not interfere with leg movement or patient positioning, has minimal donor site morbidity, and preserves other locoregional flap options for future reconstruction. One limitation is the need for a lax contralateral vulva. This labia majora sharing procedure is a viable option in carefully selected patients. PMID:28194353

  2. Shared care (comanagement).

    PubMed

    Montero Ruiz, E

    2016-01-01

    Surgical departments have increasing difficulties in caring for their hospitalised patients due to the patients' advanced age and comorbidity, the growing specialisation in medical training and the strong political-healthcare pressure that a healthcare organisation places on them, where surgical acts take precedence over other activities. The pressure exerted by these departments on the medical area and the deficient response by the interconsultation system have led to the development of a different healthcare organisation model: Shared care, which includes perioperative medicine. In this model, 2 different specialists share the responsibility and authority in caring for hospitalised surgical patients. Internal Medicine is the most appropriate specialty for shared care. Internists who exercise this responsibility should have certain characteristics and must overcome a number of concerns from the surgeon and anaesthesiologist.

  3. Collaborate, compete and share

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pugliese, Emanuele; Castellano, Claudio; Marsili, Matteo; Pietronero, Luciano

    2009-02-01

    We introduce and study a model of an interacting population of agents who collaborate in groups which compete for limited resources. Groups are formed by random matching agents and their worth is determined by the sum of the efforts deployed by agents in group formation. Agents, on their side, have to share their effort between contributing to their group’s chances to outcompete other groups and resource sharing among partners, when the group is successful. A simple implementation of this strategic interaction gives rise to static and evolutionary properties with a very rich phenomenology. A robust emerging feature is the separation of the population between agents who invest mainly in the success of their group and agents who concentrate in getting the largest share of their group’s profits.

  4. Thermoelectric needle probe for temperature measurements in biological materials.

    PubMed

    Korn, U; Rav-Noy, Z; Shtrikman, S; Zafrir, M

    1980-04-01

    In certain biological and medical applications it is important to measure and follow temperature changes inside a body or tissue. Any probe inserted into a tissue causes damage to tissue and distortion to the initial temperature distribution. To minimize this interference, a fine probe is needed. Thus, thin film technology is advantageous and was utilized by us to produce sensitive probes for these applications. The resulting probe is a small thermocouple at the tip of a thin needle (acupuncture stainless steel needle, approximately 0.26 mm in diameter and length in the range 5-10 cm was used). The junction was produced at the needle's tip by coating the needle with thin layers of insulating and thermoelectric materials. The first layer is an insulating one and is composed of polyacrylonitrile (PAN) and polymide produced by plasma polymerization and dip-coating respectively. This layer covers all the needle except the tip. The second layer is a vacuum deposited thermoelectric thin layer of Bi-5% Sb alloy coating also the tip. The third layer is for insulation and protection and is composed of PAN and polyimide. In this arrangement the junction is at the needle's tip, the needle is one conductor, the thermoelectric layer is the other and they are isolated by the plastic layer. The probe is handy and mechanically sturdy. The sensitivity is typically 77 microV/degrees C at room temperature and is constant to within 2% up to 90 degrees C. The response is fast (less than 1 sec) the noise is small, (less than 0.05 degrees C) and because of the small dimension, damage to tissue and disturbance to the measured temperature field are minimal.

  5. Multiparty quantum secret sharing

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang Zhanjun; Li Yong; Man Zhongxiao

    2005-04-01

    Based on a quantum secure direct communication (QSDC) protocol [Phys. Rev. A 69 052319 (2004)], we propose a (n,n)-threshold scheme of multiparty quantum secret sharing of classical messages (QSSCM) using only single photons. We take advantage of this multiparty QSSCM scheme to establish a scheme of multiparty secret sharing of quantum information (SSQI), in which only all quantum information receivers collaborate can the original qubit be reconstructed. A general idea is also proposed for constructing multiparty SSQI schemes from any QSSCM scheme.

  6. The Sharing Tree: Preschool Children Learn to Share.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wolf, Arlene; Fine, Elaine

    1996-01-01

    This article describes a learning activity in which preschool children learn cooperative skills and metacognitive strategies as they master sharing strategies guided by leaves on a "sharing tree." Leaf colors (red, yellow, green) cue the child to stop, slow down and think about sharing and playing with others, and go ahead with a sharing activity.…

  7. Evaluation of an automatic needle-loading system.

    PubMed

    Morrier, Janelle; Varfalvy, Nicolas; Chrétien, Mario; Beaulieu, Luc

    2004-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to evaluate the dosimetric capabilities and the radiation protection (RP) performance of a new automatic needle-loading system for permanent prostate implants, the Isoloader (Mentor Corp.). The unit has been used in more than 100 clinical cases at our institution. The Isoloader is a computerized workstation that allows automated seed testing by a solid-state CdZnTe radiation detector and loading in surgical needles. The seeds are received in a shielded and ready-to-use cartridge. Radiation protection measurements were done on a cartridge filled with 67 (125)I seeds and during dosimetric seed verification and needle loading. The reproducibility of the detector was tested and its accuracy was determined by comparison to specified activities of six calibration seeds and to their measurements in a calibrated well-chamber (WC). Finally, the times required to complete dosimetric verification and needle loading were evaluated. The cartridge was found to be adequately shielded, since no significant amount of radiation was detected around it. Radiation during seed assay was found to be worst at the cartridge's bottom, where it has a value of 15.2 microSv/h (1.4 microSv/h at 10 cm). For the needle-loading task, measurements were performed with a typical needle (three seeds) at the shielded needle holder surface yielding 307.2 microSv/h (8.3 microSv/h at 20 cm). Seed dosimetric verification takes an average of 15 s/seed, while it takes a mean time of 50 s/needle to complete the loading task. Measurements of the six seed activities were within 0.65% of the ordered activities and 1.9% higher on average than those from the WC (min = 0.7%; max = 3.5%). The reproducibility of the measurements of the CdZnTe detector was excellent, with an average of 0.01% of deviation from a reference measurement (N = 120; = 1.9%). We therefore conclude that the Isoloader is a safe, fast, and effective needle-loading system.

  8. Sharing Research Results

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ashbrook, Peggy

    2011-01-01

    There are many ways to share a collection of data and students' thinking about that data. Explaining the results of science inquiry is important--working scientists and amateurs both contribute information to the body of scientific knowledge. Students can collect data about an activity that is already happening in a classroom (e.g., the qualities…

  9. Shared Governance of Schools.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thomas, M. Donald

    Shared decision-making can help schools keep sight of their true goals. In the educational sector the conflicts that arise in collective bargaining disputes can be destructive to the organization. Schools require more than the mere coexistence of labor and management. They require cooperation and strong, supportive relationships. To establish a…

  10. Learning to Share

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Raths, David

    2010-01-01

    In the tug-of-war between researchers and IT for supercomputing resources, a centralized approach can help both sides get more bang for their buck. As 2010 began, the University of Washington was preparing to launch its first shared high-performance computing cluster, a 1,500-node system called Hyak, dedicated to research activities. Like other…

  11. Shared decision making

    MedlinePlus

    ... communicate openly and build a relationship of trust. Alternative Names Patient-centered care References Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality. The SHARE Approach. Updated September 2016. www.ahrq.gov/professionals/education/curriculum-tools/shareddecisionmaking/index.html . Accessed October 19, ...

  12. Illegal File Sharing 101

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wada, Kent

    2008-01-01

    Much of higher education's unease arises from the cost of dealing with illegal file sharing. Illinois State University, for example, calculated a cost of $76 to process a first claim of copyright infringement and $146 for a second. Responses range from simply passing along claims to elaborate programs architected with specific goals in mind.…

  13. Share the Power.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mitchell, James E.

    1990-01-01

    Site-based management cannot work without the school board's active involvement and determined support. Suggestions are offered from School District 12, Adams County, Colorado, which has been moving away from a centralized administrative system to shared decision-making. (MLF)

  14. Shared Decision Making.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lashway, Larry

    1997-01-01

    In shared decision making (SDM), principals collaborate with teachers and sometimes parents to take actions aimed at improving instruction and school climate. While research on SDM outcomes is still inconclusive, the literature shows that SDM brings both benefits and problems, and that the principal is a key figure. This brief offers a sampling of…

  15. Computer-vision-based inspecting system for needle roller bearing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Wei; He, Tao; Zhong, Fei; Wu, Qinhua; Zhong, Yuning; Shi, Teiling

    2006-11-01

    A Computer Vision based Inspecting System for Needle Roller Bearing (CVISNRB) is proposed in the paper. The characteristic of technology, main functions and principle of CVISNRB are also introduced. CVISNRB is composed of a mechanic transmission and an automatic feeding system, an imaging system, software arithmetic, an automatic selecting system of inspected bearing, a human-computer interaction, a pneumatic control system, an electric control system and so on. The computer vision technique is introduced in the inspecting system for needle roller bearing, which resolves the problem of the small needle roller bearing inspecting in bearing production business enterprise, raises the speed of the inspecting, and realizes the automatic untouched and on-line examination. The CVISNRB can effectively examine the loss of needle and give the accurate number. The accuracy can achieve 99.5%, and the examination speed can arrive 15 needle roller bearings each minute. The CVISNRB has none malfunction in the actual performance in the past half year, and can meet the actual need.

  16. Method for fabricating arrays of micro-needles

    DOEpatents

    Kenney, Christopher J.

    2003-04-22

    An array of micro-needles is created by forming an array pattern on the upper surface of a silicon wafer and etching through openings in the pattern to define micro-needle sized cavities having a desired depth. The mold thus formed may be filled with electrically conductive material, after which a desired fraction of the silicon wafer bulk is removed from the bottom-up by etching, to expose an array of projecting micro-needles. The mold may instead be filled with a flexible material to form a substrate useful in gene cell probing. An array of hollow micro-needles may be formed by coating the lower wafer surface with SiN, and etching through pattern openings in the upper surface down to the SiN layer, and then conformally coating the upper surface with thermal silicon dioxide. The SiN layer is then stripped away and a desired fraction of the bulk of the wafer removed from the bottom-up to expose an array of projecting hollow micro-needles.

  17. Development of Needle Insertion Manipulator for Central Venous Catheterization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kobayashi, Yo; Hong, Jaesung; Hamano, Ryutaro; Hashizume, Makoto; Okada, Kaoru; Fujie, Masakatsu G.

    Central venous catheterization is a procedure, which a doctor insert a catheter into the patient’s vein for transfusion. Since there are risks of bleeding from arterial puncture or pneumothorax from pleural puncture. Physicians are strictly required to make needle reach up into the vein and to stop the needle in the middle of vein. We proposed a robot system for assisting the venous puncture, which can relieve the difficulties in conventional procedure, and the risks of complication. This paper reports the design structuring and experimental results of needle insertion manipulator. First, we investigated the relationship between insertion force and angle into the vein. The results indicated that the judgment of perforation using the reaction force is possible in case where the needling angle is from 10 to 20 degree. The experiment to evaluate accuracy of the robot also revealed that it has beyond 0.5 mm accuracy. We also evaluated the positioning accuracy in the ultrasound images. The results displays that the accuracy is beyond 1.0 mm and it has enough for venous puncture. We also carried out the venous puncture experiment to the phantom and confirm our manipulator realized to make needle reach up into the vein.

  18. An allelopathic substance in red pine needles (Pinus densiflora).

    PubMed

    Kato-Noguchi, Hisashi; Fushimi, Yoshiko; Shigemori, Hideyuki

    2009-03-01

    Aqueous methanol extracts of red pine (Pinus densiflora) needles inhibited the growth of roots and shoots of cress (Lepidium sativum), lettuce (Lactuca sativa), alfalfa (Medicago sativa), ryegrass (Lolium multiflorum), timothy (Pheleum pratense), Digitaria sanguinalis and Echinochloa crus-galli. Increasing the extract concentration increased inhibition, suggesting that the pine needles may have growth inhibitory substances and possess allelopathic potential. The aqueous methanol extract of the pine needles was purified, and a main inhibitory substance was isolated and determined by spectral data as 9alpha,13beta-epidioxyabeit-8(14)en-18-oic acid. This substance inhibited root and shoot growth of cress and Echinochloa crus-galli seedlings at concentrations greater than 0.1 mM. The endogenous concentration of the substance was 0.13 mmol/kg pine needle. These results suggest that 9alpha,13beta-epidioxyabeit-8(14)en-18-oic acid may contribute to the growth inhibitory effect of the pine needles and may play an important role in the allelopathy of red pine.

  19. Single Crystal Diamond Needle as Point Electron Source

    PubMed Central

    Kleshch, Victor I.; Purcell, Stephen T.; Obraztsov, Alexander N.

    2016-01-01

    Diamond has been considered to be one of the most attractive materials for cold-cathode applications during past two decades. However, its real application is hampered by the necessity to provide appropriate amount and transport of electrons to emitter surface which is usually achieved by using nanometer size or highly defective crystallites having much lower physical characteristics than the ideal diamond. Here, for the first time the use of single crystal diamond emitter with high aspect ratio as a point electron source is reported. Single crystal diamond needles were obtained by selective oxidation of polycrystalline diamond films produced by plasma enhanced chemical vapor deposition. Field emission currents and total electron energy distributions were measured for individual diamond needles as functions of extraction voltage and temperature. The needles demonstrate current saturation phenomenon and sensitivity of emission to temperature. The analysis of the voltage drops measured via electron energy analyzer shows that the conduction is provided by the surface of the diamond needles and is governed by Poole-Frenkel transport mechanism with characteristic trap energy of 0.2–0.3 eV. The temperature-sensitive FE characteristics of the diamond needles are of great interest for production of the point electron beam sources and sensors for vacuum electronics. PMID:27731379

  20. Single Crystal Diamond Needle as Point Electron Source

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kleshch, Victor I.; Purcell, Stephen T.; Obraztsov, Alexander N.

    2016-10-01

    Diamond has been considered to be one of the most attractive materials for cold-cathode applications during past two decades. However, its real application is hampered by the necessity to provide appropriate amount and transport of electrons to emitter surface which is usually achieved by using nanometer size or highly defective crystallites having much lower physical characteristics than the ideal diamond. Here, for the first time the use of single crystal diamond emitter with high aspect ratio as a point electron source is reported. Single crystal diamond needles were obtained by selective oxidation of polycrystalline diamond films produced by plasma enhanced chemical vapor deposition. Field emission currents and total electron energy distributions were measured for individual diamond needles as functions of extraction voltage and temperature. The needles demonstrate current saturation phenomenon and sensitivity of emission to temperature. The analysis of the voltage drops measured via electron energy analyzer shows that the conduction is provided by the surface of the diamond needles and is governed by Poole-Frenkel transport mechanism with characteristic trap energy of 0.2–0.3 eV. The temperature-sensitive FE characteristics of the diamond needles are of great interest for production of the point electron beam sources and sensors for vacuum electronics.

  1. NPIP: A skew line needle configuration optimization system for HDR brachytherapy

    SciTech Connect

    Siauw, Timmy; Cunha, Adam; Berenson, Dmitry; Atamtuerk, Alper; Hsu, I-Chow; Goldberg, Ken; Pouliot, Jean

    2012-07-15

    Purpose: In this study, the authors introduce skew line needle configurations for high dose rate (HDR) brachytherapy and needle planning by integer program (NPIP), a computational method for generating these configurations. NPIP generates needle configurations that are specific to the anatomy of the patient, avoid critical structures near the penile bulb and other healthy structures, and avoid needle collisions inside the body. Methods: NPIP consisted of three major components: a method for generating a set of candidate needles, a needle selection component that chose a candidate needle subset to be inserted, and a dose planner for verifying that the final needle configuration could meet dose objectives. NPIP was used to compute needle configurations for prostate cancer data sets from patients previously treated at our clinic. NPIP took two user-parameters: a number of candidate needles, and needle coverage radius, {delta}. The candidate needle set consisted of 5000 needles, and a range of {delta} values was used to compute different needle configurations for each patient. Dose plans were computed for each needle configuration. The number of needles generated and dosimetry were analyzed and compared to the physician implant. Results: NPIP computed at least one needle configuration for every patient that met dose objectives, avoided healthy structures and needle collisions, and used as many or fewer needles than standard practice. These needle configurations corresponded to a narrow range of {delta} values, which could be used as default values if this system is used in practice. The average end-to-end runtime for this implementation of NPIP was 286 s, but there was a wide variation from case to case. Conclusions: The authors have shown that NPIP can automatically generate skew line needle configurations with the aforementioned properties, and that given the correct input parameters, NPIP can generate needle configurations which meet dose objectives and use as many

  2. Acupuncture needles and the Seebeck effect: do temperature gradients produce electrostimulation?

    PubMed

    Cohen, M; Kwok, G; Cosic, I

    1997-01-01

    Acupuncture may act through modifying bioelectric events and this may occur through different mechanisms including the application of external currents. According to the Seebeck effect which produces a potential difference when a temperature gradient is placed across a conductor, the physical properties of acupuncture needles may produce internal currents due to the temperature gradient across the needle when placed insitu. Such currents were detected when needles were differentially heated and these currents were found to be in the range capable of producing biological effects. The traditional design of acupuncture needles and traditional needle manipulations seem to maintain a temperature gradient across the needle and thus enhance the Seebeck effect.

  3. A case of psychosis induced self-insertion of intracranial hypodermic needles causing seizures

    PubMed Central

    Chandran, Arjun S.; Honeybul, Stephen

    2015-01-01

    Self-insertion of foreign bodies is a rare event. This report details a 56-year-old male who had self-inserted six hypodermic needles into his left frontal lobe 6 years previously. He subsequently presented with seizures and went on to have the needles surgically removed. This represents the first case of its type involving hypodermic needles. Given that intracranial needles are a rare finding, the management of such patients is complex. Two management issues in particular that require consideration are: (i) can the needles be left in situ and (ii) does removal of the needles reduce the risk of seizures in the long term? PMID:25600130

  4. Policy enabled information sharing system

    DOEpatents

    Jorgensen, Craig R.; Nelson, Brian D.; Ratheal, Steve W.

    2014-09-02

    A technique for dynamically sharing information includes executing a sharing policy indicating when to share a data object responsive to the occurrence of an event. The data object is created by formatting a data file to be shared with a receiving entity. The data object includes a file data portion and a sharing metadata portion. The data object is encrypted and then automatically transmitted to the receiving entity upon occurrence of the event. The sharing metadata portion includes metadata characterizing the data file and referenced in connection with the sharing policy to determine when to automatically transmit the data object to the receiving entity.

  5. Treatment of supraspinatus tendinopathy with ultrasound guided dry needling

    PubMed Central

    Settergren, Roy

    2013-01-01

    Objective The purpose of this case study is to describe the treatment of a patient with tendinopathy using sonographically guided dry needling. Tendinopathies are a highly prevalent problem in musculoskeletal medicine, and no one form of treatment has gained universal acceptance as being superior to another. Clinical Features A 30-year-old woman with a 4-month history of anterolateral right shoulder pain was diagnosed with supraspinatus tendinopathy upon physical examination, which was confirmed with diagnostic sonography. Intervention and Outcome Sonography was used to guide an acupuncture needle into the pathologic tissue to induce a humoral healing response. Therapeutic exercise was also prescribed. At 10-day follow-up, increased echogenicity was found in the previously heterogenous hypoechoic areas. The patient also experienced a subjective resolution of her shoulder pain, which did not return with increased physical activity. Conclusions Sonographically guided dry needling was shown to be beneficial for this patient as evident by sonographic changes pre- and postprocedure. PMID:23997721

  6. Transrectal fine needle aspiration cytology of granulomatous prostatitis.

    PubMed

    Mondal, A; Mukherjee, B; Ghosh, E

    1994-07-01

    Transrectal fine needle aspiration cytology by Franzen technique was carried out from January, 1985 till January, 1992 on 567 patients having prostatomegaly which were suspicious of malignancy by clinical per rectal examination. Granulomatous prostatitis was diagnosed in 56 cases. Analysis showed 34 cases were tuberculous prostatitis and 22 cases were nonspecific granulomatous prostatitis. Comparison of aspiration cytology with bacteriological study of the aspirated material and histopathology showed correct diagnosis of granulomatous prostatitis by fine needle aspiration. The findings indicate that transrectal fine needle aspiration cytology is a reliable procedure for diagnosis of granulomatous prostatitis which can clinically mimic prostatic malignancy when it presents as a diffuse or nodular enlargement with firm to hard consistency.

  7. Electrostatic Droplet Ejection Using Planar Needle Inkjet Head

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hakiai, Kazunori; Ishida, Yuji; Baba, Akiyoshi; Asano, Tanemasa

    2005-07-01

    For the purpose of investigating the electrostatic droplet ejection event, a planar needle inkjet head with a projected cone-shaped needle (3-D head) was prepared to observe the phenomenon of droplet ejection. As the initial approach to developing a liquid ejection monitoring method, electric current was also measured. The ejection was found to take place as a series of single events that are composed of fine droplet ejections forming the Taylor cone and the subsequent swing back of the liquid front owing to the relationship between surface tension and electrostatic force. The critical factors for ejecting fine droplets in the case of using the inkjet head having a protruding needle were back pressure from the reservoir and the wetting control of the structures. The fast Fourier transform of electric current revealed the appearance of periodic signals during ejection, which may be used in developing a technique of sensing droplet ejection.

  8. Understanding the Physiology of Postharvest Needle Abscission in Balsam Fir.

    PubMed

    Lada, Rajasekaran R; MacDonald, Mason T

    2015-01-01

    Balsam fir (Abies balsamea) trees are commonly used as a specialty horticultural species for Christmas trees and associated greenery in eastern Canada and United States. Postharvest needle abscission has always been a problem, but is becoming an even bigger challenge in recent years presumably due to increased autumn temperatures and earlier harvesting practices. An increased understanding of postharvest abscission physiology in balsam fir may benefit the Christmas tree industry while simultaneously advancing our knowledge in senescence and abscission of conifers in general. Our paper describes the dynamics of needle abscission in balsam fir while identifying key factors that modify abscission patterns. Concepts such as genotypic abscission resistance, nutrition, environmental factors, and postharvest changes in water conductance and hormone evolution are discussed as they relate to our understanding of the balsam fir abscission physiology. Our paper ultimately proposes a pathway for needle abscission via ethylene and also suggests other potential alternative pathways based on our current understanding.

  9. Understanding the Physiology of Postharvest Needle Abscission in Balsam Fir

    PubMed Central

    Lada, Rajasekaran R.; MacDonald, Mason T.

    2015-01-01

    Balsam fir (Abies balsamea) trees are commonly used as a specialty horticultural species for Christmas trees and associated greenery in eastern Canada and United States. Postharvest needle abscission has always been a problem, but is becoming an even bigger challenge in recent years presumably due to increased autumn temperatures and earlier harvesting practices. An increased understanding of postharvest abscission physiology in balsam fir may benefit the Christmas tree industry while simultaneously advancing our knowledge in senescence and abscission of conifers in general. Our paper describes the dynamics of needle abscission in balsam fir while identifying key factors that modify abscission patterns. Concepts such as genotypic abscission resistance, nutrition, environmental factors, and postharvest changes in water conductance and hormone evolution are discussed as they relate to our understanding of the balsam fir abscission physiology. Our paper ultimately proposes a pathway for needle abscission via ethylene and also suggests other potential alternative pathways based on our current understanding. PMID:26635863

  10. Endoscopic Ultrasound Guided Rendezvous Drainage of Biliary Obstruction Using a New Flexible 19-Gauge Fine Needle Aspiration Needle

    PubMed Central

    Tang, Zhouwen; Igbinomwanhia, Efehi; Elhanafi, Sherif

    2016-01-01

    Background and Aim. A successful endoscopic ultrasound guided rendezvous (EUS-RV) biliary drainage is dependent on accurate puncture of the bile duct and precise guide wire manipulation across the ampulla of Vater. We aim to study the feasibility of using a flexible 19-gauge fine aspiration needle in the performance of EUS-RV biliary drainage. Method. This is a retrospective case series of EUS-RV biliary drainage procedures at a single center. Patients who failed ERCP during the same session for benign or malignant biliary obstruction underwent EUS-RV using a flexible, nitinol covered, 19-gauge needle for biliary access and guide wire manipulation. Result. 24 patients underwent EUS-RV biliary drainage via extrahepatic access while 1 attempt was via intrahepatic access. The technical success rate was 80%, including 83.3% of cases via extrahepatic access. There was no significant difference in success rate of inpatient and outpatient procedures, benign or malignant indications, or type of guide wire used. Adverse events included mild pancreatitis (3 patients) and cholangitis (1 patient). Conclusion. A flexible 19-gauge needle for biliary access can be safe and effective when used to perform EUS-RV biliary drainage. Direct comparison between the nitinol needle and conventional metal needles in the performance of EUS guided biliary drainage is needed. PMID:27822005

  11. A model to predict deflection of bevel-tipped active needle advancing in soft tissue.

    PubMed

    Datla, Naresh V; Konh, Bardia; Honarvar, Mohammad; Podder, Tarun K; Dicker, Adam P; Yu, Yan; Hutapea, Parsaoran

    2014-03-01

    Active needles are recently being developed to improve steerability and placement accuracy for various medical applications. These active needles can bend during insertion by actuators attached to their bodies. The bending of active needles enables them to be steered away from the critical organs on the way to target and accurately reach target locations previously unachievable with conventional rigid needles. These active needles combined with an asymmetric bevel-tip can further improve their steerability. To optimize the design and to develop accurate path planning and control algorithms, there is a need to develop a tissue-needle interaction model. This work presents an energy-based model that predicts needle deflection of active bevel-tipped needles when inserted into the tissue. This current model was based on an existing energy-based model for bevel-tipped needles, to which work of actuation was included in calculating the system energy. The developed model was validated with needle insertion experiments with a phantom material. The model predicts needle deflection reasonably for higher diameter needles (11.6% error), whereas largest error was observed for the smallest needle diameter (24.7% error).

  12. The hydraulic conductivity of the xylem in conifer needles (Picea abies and Pinus mugo).

    PubMed

    Charra-Vaskou, Katline; Mayr, Stefan

    2011-08-01

    Main resistances of the plant water transport system are situated in leaves. In contrast to angiosperm leaves, knowledge of conifer needle hydraulics and of the partitioning of resistances within needles is poor. A new technique was developed which enabled flow-meter measurements through needles embedded in paraffin and thus quantification of the specific hydraulic conductivity (K(s)) of the needle xylem. In Picea abies, xylem K(s) of needle and axes as well as in needles of different age were compared. In Pinus mugo, resistance partitioning within needles was estimated by measurements of xylem K(s) and leaf conductance (K(leaf), measured via 'rehydration kinetics'). Mean K(s) in P. abies needles was 3.5×10(-4) m(2) s(-1) MPa(-1) with a decrease in older needles, and over all similar to K(s) of corresponding axes xylem. In needles of P. mugo, K(s) was 0.9×10(-4) m(2) s(-1) MPa(-1), and 24% of total needle resistance was situated in the xylem. The results indicate species-specific differences in the hydraulic efficiency of conifer needle xylem. The vascular section of the water transport system is a minor but relevant resistance in needles.

  13. Operational characteristics of a prototype x-ray needle device.

    PubMed

    Karnas, S J; Avvakumov, N; Yu, E; Battista, J J

    2001-01-01

    A prototype x-ray needle, which emits 62.5 kVp x-rays at the tip of a 20 cm long, 4 mm diameter steel needle, has been developed by Titan Pulse Sciences Incorporated (PSI) (Albuquerque, NM) and was tested for its suitability in brachytherapy applications in comparison with a similar device by the Photoelectron Corporation. The depth dose profiles were also compared with those of two common brachytherapy sources (125I and 192Ir). The depth dose characteristics of the radiation were comparable with the two brachytherapy sources with a slightly reduced attenuation gradient. The dose rate from the x-ray needle tip was relatively isotropic at the needle tip and was continuously adjustable over the range of 0 cGy min(-1) to upwards of 62 cGy min(-1) at a reference distance of 1 cm in air. We detected a significant proportion of x-rays generated along the needle shaft, and not at the needle tip, as intended. The energy spectrum emitted from this device had a peak intensity at 21 keV and an average energy of 28 keV. The beam was attenuated in both aluminium (the first half-value layer being less than 0.1 mm) and in water (50% dose at approximately 2 mm). These studies confirm that although there is potential for a system similar to this one for clinical applications, the simplistic electron guidance used in this particular prototype device limits it to research applications. Further optimization is required in focusing and steering the electron beam to the target, improving x-ray production efficiency and using x-ray target cooling to achieve higher dose rates.

  14. Operational characteristics of a prototype x-ray needle device

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Karnas, S. J.; Avvakumov, N.; Yu, E.; Battista, J. J.

    2001-01-01

    A prototype x-ray needle, which emits 62.5 kVp x-rays at the tip of a 20 cm long, 4 mm diameter steel needle, has been developed by Titan Pulse Sciences Incorporated (PSI) (Albuquerque, NM) and was tested for its suitability in brachytherapy applications in comparison with a similar device by the Photoelectron Corporation. The depth dose profiles were also compared with those of two common brachytherapy sources (125I and 192Ir). The depth dose characteristics of the radiation were comparable with the two brachytherapy sources with a slightly reduced attenuation gradient. The dose rate from the x-ray needle tip was relatively isotropic at the needle tip and was continuously adjustable over the range of 0 cGy min-1 to upwards of 62 cGy min-1 at a reference distance of 1 cm in air. We detected a significant proportion of x-rays generated along the needle shaft, and not at the needle tip, as intended. The energy spectrum emitted from this device had a peak intensity at 21 keV and an average energy of 28 keV. The beam was attenuated in both aluminium (the first half-value layer being less than 0.1 mm) and in water (50% dose at approximately 2 mm). These studies confirm that although there is potential for a system similar to this one for clinical applications, the simplistic electron guidance used in this particular prototype device limits it to research applications. Further optimization is required in focusing and steering the electron beam to the target, improving x-ray production efficiency and using x-ray target cooling to achieve higher dose rates.

  15. Elastomeric load sharing device

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Isabelle, Charles J. (Inventor); Kish, Jules G. (Inventor); Stone, Robert A. (Inventor)

    1992-01-01

    An elastomeric load sharing device, interposed in combination between a driven gear and a central drive shaft to facilitate balanced torque distribution in split power transmission systems, includes a cylindrical elastomeric bearing and a plurality of elastomeric bearing pads. The elastomeric bearing and bearing pads comprise one or more layers, each layer including an elastomer having a metal backing strip secured thereto. The elastomeric bearing is configured to have a high radial stiffness and a low torsional stiffness and is operative to radially center the driven gear and to minimize torque transfer through the elastomeric bearing. The bearing pads are configured to have a low radial and torsional stiffness and a high axial stiffness and are operative to compressively transmit torque from the driven gear to the drive shaft. The elastomeric load sharing device has spring rates that compensate for mechanical deviations in the gear train assembly to provide balanced torque distribution between complementary load paths of split power transmission systems.

  16. Stilbene biosynthesis in the needles of spruce Picea jezoensis.

    PubMed

    Kiselev, K V; Grigorchuk, V P; Ogneva, Z V; Suprun, A R; Dubrovina, A S

    2016-11-01

    Stilbenes are valuable phenolic compounds that are synthesized in plants via the phenylpropanoid pathway where stilbene synthase (STS) directly catalyzes resveratrol or pinosylvin formation. Currently, there is a lack of information about the stilbene biosynthetic pathway in spruce (Picea). Resveratrol and piceatannol derivatives have been detected in the spruce bark, needles, and roots. We analyzed seasonal variation in stilbene spectrum and content in the needles of different ages of one tree of spruce Picea jezoensis. HPLC analysis revealed the presence of nine stilbenes: t- and cis-astringin, t- and cis-piceid, t- and cis-isorhapontin, and t-piceatannol were present in amounts of 0.01-6.07 mg/g of dry weight (DW), while t-isorhapontigenin and t-resveratrol were present in traces (0.001-0.312 μg/g DW). T-astringin prevailed over other stilbenoid compounds (66-86% of all stilbenes). The highest total stilbene content was detected in one-year-old needles collected in the autumn and spring (5.4-7.77 mg/g DW). We previously cloned and sequenced full-length cDNAs of the four STS transcripts (PjSTS1a, PjSTS1b, PjSTS2, and PjSTS3) of P. jezoensis. This study presents a detailed analysis of seasonal variations in PjSTS1a, 1b, 2, and 3 transcript levels in the needles of P. jezoensis of different ages using qRT-PCR. PjSTS1a and PjSTS1b transcription was higher in the needles collected in the autumn, spring, or summer than in the winter. PjSTS2 was actively transcribed in the needles of all ages collected in the winter, spring, and summer. PjSTS3 expression did not significantly change during the year and did not depend on the age of the needles. Therefore, the data show that high levels of the stilbene glucosides and PjSTS expression are present in the needles of P. jezoensis.

  17. Micromachined needles and lancets with design adjustable bevel angles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sparks, Douglas; Hubbard, Timothy

    2004-08-01

    A new method of micromachining hollow needles and two-dimensional needle arrays from single crystal silicon is described. The process involves a combination of fusion bonding, photolithography and anisotropic plasma etching. The cannula produced with this process can have design adjustable bevel angles, wall thickness and channel dimensions. A subset of processing steps can be employed to produce silicon blades and lancets with design adjustable bevel angles and shaft dimensions. Applications for this technology include painless drug infusion, blood diagnosis, glucose monitoring, cellular injection and the manufacture of microkeratomes for ocular, vascular and neural microsurgery.

  18. An augmented reality simulator for ultrasound guided needle placement training.

    PubMed

    Magee, D; Zhu, Y; Ratnalingam, R; Gardner, P; Kessel, D

    2007-10-01

    Details are presented of a low cost augmented-reality system for the simulation of ultrasound guided needle insertion procedures (tissue biopsy, abscess drainage, nephrostomy etc.) for interventional radiology education and training. The system comprises physical elements; a mannequin, a mock ultrasound probe and a needle, and software elements; generating virtual ultrasound anatomy and allowing data collection. These two elements are linked by a pair of magnetic 3D position sensors. Virtual anatomic images are generated based on anatomic data derived from full body CT scans of live humans. Details of the novel aspects of this system are presented including; image generation, registration and calibration.

  19. The Gothic arch (needle point) tracing and condylar inclination.

    PubMed

    el-Gheriani, A S; Winstanley, R B

    1987-11-01

    The records of 11 patients referred for treatment of TMJ disorders were used to compare condylar inclination found by drawing a tangent and by using a mathematic technique. Needle point tracing angles were also measured for the same patients and were compared with the condylar inclination. It can be concluded that (1) the mathematic technique outlined records a more accurate condylar angulation, and (2) there is a great variation in condylar inclination values between patients and between left and right sides of the same patient, and (3) there is no direct relationship between condylar inclination and the needle point tracing angle.

  20. Shared Health Governance

    PubMed Central

    Ruger, Jennifer Prah

    2014-01-01

    Health and Social Justice (Ruger 2009a) developed the “health capability paradigm,” a conception of justice and health in domestic societies. This idea undergirds an alternative framework of social cooperation called “shared health governance” (SHG). SHG puts forth a set of moral responsibilities, motivational aspirations, and institutional arrangements, and apportions roles for implementation in striving for health justice. This article develops further the SHG framework and explains its importance and implications for governing health domestically. PMID:21745082

  1. Sharing our knowledge.

    PubMed

    Griffiths, Matt

    2017-01-25

    There are more than 70,000 nurse prescribers in the UK, many of whom have years of experience that should be shared with trainee prescribers. In November, the General Pharmaceutical Council launched a consultation on whether pharmacist independent prescribers (PIPs) should be able to mentor trainee PIPs. This discussion, which closes on 1 February, should be expanded to our own and other professional groups, because we could all gain so much from each other.

  2. Intelligence Sharing in Counterproliferation

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-09-01

    Routledge, 2004), 75. 3 Dieter Mahncke, Wyn Rees , and Wayne C. Thompson, Redefining transatlantic security relations: The Challenge of Change...Redefining Transatlantic Security Relations, by Dieter Mahncke, Wyn Rees , and Wayne C. Thompson, it is argued that these differences coupled with...Regarding Weapons of Mass Destruction” by U.S. Senators Laurence Silbermann and Charles Robb, “the information sharing problem manifested itself in

  3. University Reactor Sharing Program

    SciTech Connect

    Dr. W.D. Reece

    1999-09-01

    The University Reactor Sharing Program provides funding for reactor experimentation to institutions that do not normally have access to a research reactor. Research projects supported by the program include items such as dating geological material to producing high current super conducting magnets. The funding also gives small colleges and universities the opportunity to use the facility for teaching courses in nuclear processes; specifically neutron activation analysis and gamma spectroscopy.

  4. Efficient quantum secret sharing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qin, Huawang; Dai, Yuewei

    2016-05-01

    An efficient quantum secret sharing scheme is proposed, in which the dealer generates some single particles and then uses the operations of quantum-controlled-not and Hadamard gate to encode a determinate secret into these particles. The participants get their shadows by performing the single-particle measurements on their particles, and even the dealer cannot know their shadows. Compared to the existing schemes, our scheme is more practical within the present technologies.

  5. Toward worldwide data sharing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Walker, Raymond; Joy, Steven; King, Todd

    2012-07-01

    Over the past decade the nature of space science research has changed dramatically. Earlier investigators could carry out meaningful research by looking at observations from a single instrument on a single spacecraft. Today that is rapidly changing and researchers regularly use data from multiple instruments on multiple spacecraft as well as observations from ground observatories. Increasingly those observations come from missions flown by many countries. Recent advances in distributed data management have made it possible for researchers located around the world to access and use data from multiple nations. By using virtual observatory technology it no longer matters where data are housed they can be freely accessed wherever they reside. In this presentation we will discuss two initiatives designed to make space science data access worldwide. One is the International Planetary Data Alliance (IPDA) and the other is the Heliophysics Data and Model Consortium (HDMC). In both cases the key to worldwide data sharing is adopting common metadata standards. In this talk we will review how these two groups are addressing the worldwide data sharing and their progress in achieving their goals. IPDA and HDMC are two of several efforts to promote broad based data sharing. Talks in the remainder of the symposium will discuss this is more detail.

  6. Transcaval migration of an acupuncture needle from the abdominal cavity to the heart.

    PubMed

    Neely, David; Jeganathan, Reubendra; Campalani, Gianfranco

    2010-11-01

    We report the case of a patient who was noted to have inserted an acupuncture needle into his abdomen. The needle migrated to the heart and was removed from the right ventricle using cardiopulmonary bypass.

  7. High-resolution electrohydrodynamic printing of silver nanoparticle ink via commercial hypodermic needles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Yeongjun; Jang, Shin; Oh, Je Hoon

    2015-01-01

    The effect of the needle shape on electrohydrodynamic (EHD) printing was investigated by comparing flat outlet needles and hypodermic needles. Line fabrication was performed to confirm the tendency of jetting stability and the printed line width with various driving voltage and stage speed by using Ag nanoparticle ink as a jetting solution on a hydrophobic surface. We verified that the hypodermic needle greatly improves the resolution in EHD printing. The ink slips down the inner wall of the hypodermic needle, and a very small meniscus is generated at the tip of the needle. Due to this phenomenon, high-resolution printing can be accomplished. The narrowest line that was fabricated using a hypodermic needle has a line width of 0.7 μm, and it is smaller than 1% of the needle inner diameter.

  8. Consideration of different heating lengths of needles with induction heating and resistance system: A novel design of needle module for thermal ablation.

    PubMed

    Bui, Huy-Tien; Hwang, Sheng-Jye; Lee, Huei-Huang; Huang, Durn-Yuan

    2017-04-01

    Thermal ablation using alternating electromagnetic fields is a promising method to treat tissues including tumors. With this approach, an electromagnetic field is generated around an induction coil, which is supplied with high frequency current from a power source. Any electrically conducting object, which is placed in the electromagnetic field, is then heated due to eddy currents. Basic principles underlying this novel thermotherapy needle system are internal induction and resistance heating. This presents a new design of a standard gauge 18 percutaneous trans-hepatic cholangiography needle module combined with a compact power source. Three needle modules containing coils of different lengths were used to locally heat up different volumes of tissues in in vitro experiments on pig livers. Temperature on the inside surface of the needle was controlled and monitored through a K-type thermocouple. By using this needle module system, no two-section or ferromagnetic nanoparticle-coated needles were required; the system worked well with the SUS-304 stainless-steel needle. Successful results were demonstrated in the in vitro experiments on pig livers with different heating lengths of 10, 20, and 30 mm needles. With low power sources, needles could be heated up to a high temperature. The novel design of the needle module incorporated with a high frequency power source was thus shown to be a promising technology for tissue ablation. Bioelectromagnetics.38:220-226, 2017. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  9. Effects of elevated carbon dioxide concentration and temperature on needle growth, respiration and carbohydrate status in field-grown Scots pines during the needle expansion period.

    PubMed

    Zha, T; Ryyppö, A; Wang, K Y; Kellomäki, S

    2001-11-01

    We determined effects of long-term elevation of carbon dioxide concentration ([CO2]) and temperature on growth, respiration and carbohydrate concentration in needles of field-grown Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) trees during the needle expansion period. Sixteen 20-year-old Scots pine trees were individually enclosed in closed-top, environmentally controlled chambers for 4 years in one of four environments: ambient conditions (CON); elevated [CO2] (EC); elevated temperature (ET); and a combination of both (EC + ET). Needle growth, carbohydrate concentration and dark respiration were measured at 3-day intervals throughout the needle expansion period. Dark respiration was partitioned into growth and maintenance components by regressing specific respiration rate against specific growth rate. In all treatments, growth, carbohydrate concentration and daily dark respiration rates of needles followed a similar seasonal pattern throughout the needle expansion period. Treatments EC, ET and EC + ET increased individual needle area and dry weight compared with the CON treatment. Carbohydrate concentrations in needles were increased by EC, but reduced by ET and EC + ET. Daily respiration rates increased slightly in the early stage of needle expansion and decreased gradually in the late stage when needles were exposed to EC, but increased consistently throughout the growing period when needles were exposed to ET or EC + ET. Partitioning of respiration into its two functional components showed that the growth respiration coefficient was unaffected by the treatments, whereas maintenance respiration was reduced by EC but increased by ET and EC + ET. Maintenance respiration was more sensitive to elevated temperature than growth respiration. We conclude that the difference in respiration rates between expanding and expanded needles should be taken into account when estimating the respiratory responses of needles to elevated [CO2] and temperature.

  10. A systematic approach to fabricate high aspect ratio silicon micro-needles for transdermal drug delivery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ng, H. B.; Shearwood, C.

    2007-12-01

    The successful development of micro-needles can help transport drugs and vaccines both effectively and painlessly across the skin. However, not all micro-needles are strong enough to withstand the insertion forces and viscoelasticity of the skin. The work here focuses on the micro-fabrication of high aspect ratio needles with careful control of needle-profile using dry etching technologies. Silicon micro-needles, 150μm in length with base-diameters ranging from 90 to 240μm have been investigated in this study. A novel, multiple-sacrificial approach has been demonstrated as suited to the fabrication of long micro-needle bodies with positive profiles. The parameters that control the isotropic etching are adjusted to control the ratio of the needle-base diameter to needle length. By careful control of geometry, the needle profile can be engineered to give a suitable tip size for penetration, as well as a broad needle base to facilitate the creation of either single or multiple-through holes. This approach allows the mechanical properties of the otherwise brittle needles to be optimized. Finite element analysis indicates that the micro-needles will fracture prematurely due to buckling, with forces ranging from 10 to 30mN.

  11. Computational design optimization of an SMA-based active steerable needle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Konh, Bardia; Hutapea, Parsaoran

    2015-04-01

    Shape memory alloy (SMA) actuated needle is currently being developed to assist surgeons/physicians in their percutaneous interventional procedures. The proposed active surgical needle can potentially compensate the possible misplacements of the needle tip in the tissue benefiting from the improved navigation provided by the attached SMA actuators. In this study finite element tools have been utilized in order to maintain an optimum design of the active needle configuration. There are several parameters involved in the design affecting the active needle's applicability and maneuverability; among them are the length, diameter and the maximum residual strain of the SMA wires, the stiffness and diameters of the surgical needle and the offset distance between the needle and the actuator. For analyzing the response of the active needle structure a parametric model was developed in ANSYS. This model was linked to the automated optimization tools for an improved design of the active needle. The most sensitive parameters affecting the active needle's steerability were found to be the offset distance and the length of the needle. Considering the results and the clinical limitations, an improved design of the active needle was presented.

  12. 21 CFR 878.5350 - Needle-type epilator.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... hair by applying electric current at the tip of a fine needle that has been inserted close to the hair shaft, under the skin, and into the dermal papilla. The electric current may be high-frequency AC current, high-frequency AC combined with DC current, or DC current only. (b) Classification. Class...

  13. 21 CFR 878.5350 - Needle-type epilator.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... hair by applying electric current at the tip of a fine needle that has been inserted close to the hair shaft, under the skin, and into the dermal papilla. The electric current may be high-frequency AC current, high-frequency AC combined with DC current, or DC current only. (b) Classification. Class...

  14. 21 CFR 878.5350 - Needle-type epilator.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... hair by applying electric current at the tip of a fine needle that has been inserted close to the hair shaft, under the skin, and into the dermal papilla. The electric current may be high-frequency AC current, high-frequency AC combined with DC current, or DC current only. (b) Classification. Class...

  15. 21 CFR 878.5350 - Needle-type epilator.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... hair by applying electric current at the tip of a fine needle that has been inserted close to the hair shaft, under the skin, and into the dermal papilla. The electric current may be high-frequency AC current, high-frequency AC combined with DC current, or DC current only. (b) Classification. Class...

  16. 21 CFR 878.5350 - Needle-type epilator.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... hair by applying electric current at the tip of a fine needle that has been inserted close to the hair shaft, under the skin, and into the dermal papilla. The electric current may be high-frequency AC current, high-frequency AC combined with DC current, or DC current only. (b) Classification. Class...

  17. Core needle biopsy guidance based on EMOCT imaging (Conference Presentation)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Iftimia, Nicusor V.; Park, Jesung; Maguluri, Gopi

    2016-03-01

    We present a novel method, based on encoder mapping OCT imaging, for real-time guidance of core biopsy procedures. This method provides real-time feedback to the interventional radiologist, such that he/she can reorient the needle during the biopsy and sample the most representative area of the suspicious mass that is being investigated. This aspect is very important for tailoring therapy to the specific cancer based on biomarker analysis, which will become one of the next big advances in our search for the optimal cancer therapy. To enable individualized treatment, the genetic constitution and the DNA repair status in the affected areas is needed for each patient. Thus, representative sampling of the tumor is needed for analyzing various biomarkers, which are used as a tool to personalize cancer therapy. The encoder-based OCT enables samping of large size masses and provides full control on the imaging probe, which is passed through the bore of the biopsy guidance needle. The OCT image is built gradually, based on the feedback of an optical encoder which senses the incremental movement of the needle with a few microns resolution. Tissue mapping is independent of the needle speed, while it is advanced through the tissue. The OCT frame is analyzed in real-time and tissue cellularity is reported in a very simple manner (pie chart). Our preliminary study on a rabbit model of cancer has demonstrated the capability of this technology for accurately differentiating between viable cancer and heterogeneous or necrotic tissue.

  18. Removing Phosphorus from Aqueous Solutions Using Lanthanum Modified Pine Needles

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Xianze; Liu, Zhongmou; Liu, Jiancong; Huo, Mingxin; Huo, Hongliang; Yang, Wu

    2015-01-01

    The renewable pine needles was used as an adsorbent to remove phosphorus from aqueous solutions. Using batch experiments, pine needles pretreated with alkali-isopropanol (AI) failed to effectively remove phosphorus, while pine needles modified with lanthanum hydroxide (LH) showed relatively high removal efficiency. LH pine needles were effective at a wide pH ranges, with the highest removal efficiency reaching approximately 85% at a pH of 3. The removal efficiency was kept above 65% using 10 mg/L phosphorus solutions at desired pH values. There was no apparent significant competitive behavior between co-existing anions of sulfate, nitrate, and chloride (SO42-, NO3- and Cl-); however, CO32- exhibited increased interfering behavior as concentrations increased. An intraparticle diffusion model showed that the adsorption process occurred in three phases, suggesting that a boundary layer adsorption phenomena slightly affected the adsorption process, and that intraparticle diffusion was dominant. The adsorption process was thermodynamically unfavorable and non-spontaneous; temperature increases improved phosphorus removal. Total organic carbon (TOC) assays indicated that chemical modification reduced the release of soluble organic compounds from 135.6 mg/L to 7.76 mg/L. This new information about adsorption performances provides valuable information, and can inform future technological applications designed to remove phosphorus from aqueous solutions. PMID:26630014

  19. Mathematics in the Needle Trades. Computing Piecework. Module 2.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    South Carolina State Dept. of Education, Columbia. Office of Vocational Education.

    This module on computing piecework, one in a series on the needle trades, contains the following components: an introduction, directions, an objective, learning activities, student information, student self-check, check-out activities, and an instructor's final checklist. The module presents information on the piecework pay plan, such as…

  20. The Single Needle Lockstitch Machine. [Setting a Collar.] Module 5.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    South Carolina State Dept. of Education, Columbia. Office of Vocational Education.

    This module on sewing collars, one in a series on the single needle lockstitch sewing machine for student self-study, contains three sections. Each section includes the following parts: an introduction, directions, an objective, learning activities, student information, student self-check, check-out activities, and an instructor's final checklist.…

  1. The Single Needle Lockstitch Machine. [Constructing Darts.] Module 3.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    South Carolina State Dept. of Education, Columbia. Office of Vocational Education.

    This module on constructing darts, one in a series on the single needle lockstitch sewing machine for student self-study, contains two sections. Each section includes the following parts: an introduction, directions, an objective, learning activities, student information, student self-check, check-out activities, and an instructor's final…

  2. 21 CFR 890.1385 - Diagnostic electromyograph needle electrode.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Diagnostic electromyograph needle electrode. 890.1385 Section 890.1385 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES PHYSICAL MEDICINE DEVICES Physical Medicine Diagnostic Devices §...

  3. 21 CFR 890.1385 - Diagnostic electromyograph needle electrode.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Diagnostic electromyograph needle electrode. 890.1385 Section 890.1385 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES PHYSICAL MEDICINE DEVICES Physical Medicine Diagnostic Devices §...

  4. 21 CFR 890.1385 - Diagnostic electromyograph needle electrode.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Diagnostic electromyograph needle electrode. 890.1385 Section 890.1385 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES PHYSICAL MEDICINE DEVICES Physical Medicine Diagnostic Devices §...

  5. 21 CFR 868.5090 - Emergency airway needle.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Emergency airway needle. 868.5090 Section 868.5090 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED... provide an emergency airway during upper airway obstruction. (b) Classification. Class II...

  6. Percutaneous needle placement using laser guidance: a practical solution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Sheng; Kapoor, Ankur; Abi-Jaoudeh, Nadine; Imbesi, Kimberly; Hong, Cheng William; Mazilu, Dumitru; Sharma, Karun; Venkatesan, Aradhana M.; Levy, Elliot; Wood, Bradford J.

    2013-03-01

    In interventional radiology, various navigation technologies have emerged aiming to improve the accuracy of device deployment and potentially the clinical outcomes of minimally invasive procedures. While these technologies' performance has been explored extensively, their impact on daily clinical practice remains undetermined due to the additional cost and complexity, modification of standard devices (e.g. electromagnetic tracking), and different levels of experience among physicians. Taking these factors into consideration, a robotic laser guidance system for percutaneous needle placement is developed. The laser guidance system projects a laser guide line onto the skin entry point of the patient, helping the physician to align the needle with the planned path of the preoperative CT scan. To minimize changes to the standard workflow, the robot is integrated with the CT scanner via optical tracking. As a result, no registration between the robot and CT is needed. The robot can compensate for the motion of the equipment and keep the laser guide line aligned with the biopsy path in real-time. Phantom experiments showed that the guidance system can benefit physicians at different skill levels, while clinical studies showed improved accuracy over conventional freehand needle insertion. The technology is safe, easy to use, and does not involve additional disposable costs. It is our expectation that this technology can be accepted by interventional radiologists for CT guided needle placement procedures.

  7. Measuring static and dynamic contact angles using a liquid needle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sanedrin, Raymond; Jin, Ming; Frese, Daniel; Scheithauer, Carsten; Willers, Thomas

    2016-11-01

    The optical determination of static and advancing contact angle is made on drops applied or extended, respectively, onto a substrate through the use of thin solid needles. Although this method has been used extensively, this method of dosing can be time consuming, cumbersome and if not meticulously performed can lead to erroneous contact angle results. Herein, we present an alternative way of applying drops onto substrates using a small liquid jet, which is produced by a liquid pressure dosing system acting as a "liquid needle." A comparative static contact angle study on 14 different surfaces with two different liquids were performed utilizing two different ways of dosing: the conventional solid and a novel liquid needle based technique. We found, for all but one sample, that the obtained results were highly comparable. Observed differences can be explained by the characteristics of either way of dosing. In addition, we used the liquid pressure based dosing system for optical advancing contact angle measurement on two different samples. The liquid needle based method facilitates the expansion of a drop from 0.1 to 22 μL within less than 1.2 seconds, which provided constant contact angle versus drop base diameter curves. The obtained results were highly comparable with dynamic Wilhelmy contact angle measurements.

  8. The Single Needle Lockstitch Machine. [Sewing Seams.] Module 4.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    South Carolina State Dept. of Education, Columbia. Office of Vocational Education.

    This module on sewing seams, one in a series on the single needle lockstitch sewing machine for student self-study, contains three sections. Each section includes the following parts: an introduction, directions, an objective, learning activities, student information, student self-check, check-out activities, and an instructor's final checklist.…

  9. 21 CFR 890.1385 - Diagnostic electromyograph needle electrode.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Diagnostic electromyograph needle electrode. 890.1385 Section 890.1385 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES PHYSICAL MEDICINE DEVICES Physical Medicine Diagnostic Devices §...

  10. 21 CFR 890.1385 - Diagnostic electromyograph needle electrode.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Diagnostic electromyograph needle electrode. 890.1385 Section 890.1385 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES PHYSICAL MEDICINE DEVICES Physical Medicine Diagnostic Devices §...

  11. 21 CFR 882.4650 - Neurosurgical suture needle.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Neurosurgical suture needle. 882.4650 Section 882.4650 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES NEUROLOGICAL DEVICES Neurological Surgical Devices § 882.4650 Neurosurgical suture...

  12. 21 CFR 882.4650 - Neurosurgical suture needle.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Neurosurgical suture needle. 882.4650 Section 882.4650 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES NEUROLOGICAL DEVICES Neurological Surgical Devices § 882.4650 Neurosurgical suture...

  13. 21 CFR 882.4650 - Neurosurgical suture needle.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Neurosurgical suture needle. 882.4650 Section 882.4650 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES NEUROLOGICAL DEVICES Neurological Surgical Devices § 882.4650 Neurosurgical suture...

  14. 21 CFR 882.4650 - Neurosurgical suture needle.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Neurosurgical suture needle. 882.4650 Section 882.4650 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES NEUROLOGICAL DEVICES Neurological Surgical Devices § 882.4650 Neurosurgical suture...

  15. 21 CFR 882.4650 - Neurosurgical suture needle.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Neurosurgical suture needle. 882.4650 Section 882.4650 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES NEUROLOGICAL DEVICES Neurological Surgical Devices § 882.4650 Neurosurgical suture...

  16. Retrograde dacryocystography (RDC) utilizing a round-tipped needle.

    PubMed

    Kosaka, Masaaki; Kamiishi, Hiroshi

    2001-09-01

    Because the application of conventional anterograde dacryocystography has been restricted in cases with an intact lacrimal punctum, the indications are rather limited. The authors developed a new method for retrograde dacryocystography (RDC) using a hand-made round-tipped needle inserted directly into the orifice of the nasolacrimal duct. A 60 mm long aluminum tube (3 mm in diameter) was used to prepare the round-tipped needle. The distal portion of the tube was bent to an angle of about 80 degrees. The tip was then coated with synthetic resin adhesive to make it round. Following the insertion of the round-tipped needle directly into the inferior meatus, the tip was moved back and forth to find the orifice without visual observation. The complete insertion of the tip of the needle into the nasolacrimal duct was recognized by a fixed sensation of the tip. Contrast medium was then injected, and PA radiography was carried out. In the present paper, the authors report the usefulness of RDC, which is applicable even in cases of injury or obstruction in the upper lacrimal system. In 16 of 20 patients, the quality of the RDC images was judged as excellent. RDC can be carried out within a few seconds after acquiring the technical skills, and is thought to be a useful method, especially in cases of upper lacrimal injury.

  17. Pulmonary Paragonimiasis Diagnosed by Fine-Needle Aspiration Biopsy▿

    PubMed Central

    Zarrin-Khameh, Neda; Citron, Deborah R.; Stager, Charles E.; Laucirica, Rodolfo

    2008-01-01

    We report a case of paragonimiasis involving a 12-year-old Latin American boy. The diagnosis was made by fine-needle aspiration biopsy of a pulmonary nodule. Identification of the species by morphometric analysis of the eggs indicated that the infection was caused by Paragonimus mexicanus. PMID:18385444

  18. Robotic systems for percutaneous needle-guided interventions.

    PubMed

    Kettenbach, Joachim; Kronreif, Gernot

    2015-02-01

    Several groups have developed robotic systems for invasive medical procedures. In this article we will focus on selected robotic systems for percutaneous needle-guided interventions using CT or MR imaging. We present six interventional robotic systems designed to work with imaging modalities such as CT, Cone-beam CT and MRI. The details of each system are given along with any phantom, animal, or human trials performed with each particular robot. Although each of these systems has specific features, they are all of great clinical value since they provide very stable needle guidance -- even for angulated approaches, they may allow access to lesions when the width of the CT- or MR- gantry would limit the access for a biopsy needle or other interventional tools such as thermal ablation probes. Then, such a robot may be able to guide the needle into the most promising region of the lesion without the need for a second contrast injection. Thus, more efficacious characterization and treatment, particularly for lesions that are difficult to target, can be anticipated. Although more research and clinical trials are certainly needed, it is, however, our belief that robotic systems will be an important part of future interventions.

  19. Structural peculiarities of single crystal diamond needles of nanometer thickness

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Orekhov, Andrey S.; Tuyakova, Feruza T.; Obraztsova, Ekaterina A.; Loginov, Artem B.; Chuvilin, Andrey L.; Obraztsov, Alexander N.

    2016-11-01

    Diamond is attractive for various applications due to its unique mechanical and optical properties. In particular, single crystal diamond needles with high aspect ratios and sharp apexes of nanometer size are demanded for different types of optical sensors including optically sensing tip probes for scanning microscopy. This paper reports on electron microscopy and Raman spectroscopy characterization of the diamond needles having geometrically perfect pyramidal shapes with rectangular atomically flat bases with (001) crystallography orientation, 2-200 nm sharp apexes, and with lengths from about 10-160 μm. The needles were produced by selective oxidation of (001) textured polycrystalline diamond films grown by chemical vapor deposition. Here we study the types and distribution of defects inside and on the surface of the single crystal diamond needles. We show that sp3 type point defects are incorporated into the volume of the diamond crystal during growth, while the surface of the lateral facets is enriched by multiple extended defects. Nitrogen addition to the reaction mixture results in increase of the growth rate on {001} facets correlated with the rise in the concentration of sp3 type defects.

  20. Experimental platform for intra-uterine needle placement procedures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Madjidi, Yashar; Haidegger, Tamás.; Ptacek, Wolfgang; Berger, Daniel; Kirisits, Christian; Kronreif, Gernot; Fichtinger, Gabor

    2013-03-01

    A framework has been investigated to enable a variety of comparative studies in the context of needle-based gynaecological brachytherapy. Our aim was to create an anthropomorphic phantom-based platform. The three main elements of the platform are the organ model, needle guide, and needle drive. These have been studied and designed to replicate the close environment of brachytherapy treatment for cervical cancer. Key features were created with the help of collaborating interventional radio-oncologists and the observations made in the operating room. A phantom box, representing the uterus model, has been developed considering available surgical analogies and operational limitations, such as organs at risk. A modular phantom-based platform has been designed and prototyped with the capability of providing various boundary conditions for the target organ. By mimicking the female pelvic floor, this framework has been used to compare a variety of needle insertion techniques and configurations for cervical and uterine interventions. The results showed that the proposed methodology is useful for the investigation of quantifiable experiments in the intraabdominal and pelvic regions.

  1. The Single Needle Lockstitch Machine. [Setting Zippers.] Module 8.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    South Carolina State Dept. of Education, Columbia. Office of Vocational Education.

    This module on setting zippers, one in a series on the single needle lockstitch sewing machine for student self-study, contains five sections. Each section includes the following parts: an introduction, directions, an objective, learning activities, student information, student self-check, check-out activities, and an instructor's final checklist.…

  2. Fixed Access Network Sharing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cornaglia, Bruno; Young, Gavin; Marchetta, Antonio

    2015-12-01

    Fixed broadband network deployments are moving inexorably to the use of Next Generation Access (NGA) technologies and architectures. These NGA deployments involve building fiber infrastructure increasingly closer to the customer in order to increase the proportion of fiber on the customer's access connection (Fibre-To-The-Home/Building/Door/Cabinet… i.e. FTTx). This increases the speed of services that can be sold and will be increasingly required to meet the demands of new generations of video services as we evolve from HDTV to "Ultra-HD TV" with 4k and 8k lines of video resolution. However, building fiber access networks is a costly endeavor. It requires significant capital in order to cover any significant geographic coverage. Hence many companies are forming partnerships and joint-ventures in order to share the NGA network construction costs. One form of such a partnership involves two companies agreeing to each build to cover a certain geographic area and then "cross-selling" NGA products to each other in order to access customers within their partner's footprint (NGA coverage area). This is tantamount to a bi-lateral wholesale partnership. The concept of Fixed Access Network Sharing (FANS) is to address the possibility of sharing infrastructure with a high degree of flexibility for all network operators involved. By providing greater configuration control over the NGA network infrastructure, the service provider has a greater ability to define the network and hence to define their product capabilities at the active layer. This gives the service provider partners greater product development autonomy plus the ability to differentiate from each other at the active network layer.

  3. Tripartite quantum state sharing.

    PubMed

    Lance, Andrew M; Symul, Thomas; Bowen, Warwick P; Sanders, Barry C; Lam, Ping Koy

    2004-04-30

    We demonstrate a multipartite protocol to securely distribute and reconstruct a quantum state. A secret quantum state is encoded into a tripartite entangled state and distributed to three players. By collaborating, any two of the three players can reconstruct the state, while individual players obtain nothing. We characterize this (2,3) threshold quantum state sharing scheme in terms of fidelity, signal transfer, and reconstruction noise. We demonstrate a fidelity averaged over all reconstruction permutations of 0.73+/-0.04, a level achievable only using quantum resources.

  4. Health trends among drug users attending needle exchange programmes in Switzerland (1994-2000).

    PubMed

    Benninghoff, F; Morency, P; Geense, R; Huissoud, T; Dubois-Arber, F

    2006-05-01

    As a part of an assessment of the Swiss drug harm-reduction policy, cross-sectional surveys were conducted in 1994, 1996 and 2000 among attenders of all needle exchange programmes (NEP) in Switzerland to assess changes in specific aspects of their health related to drug use. Data were gathered in each NEP over one week, using a questionnaire completed partly with an interviewer and partly self administered. The questionnaire covered socio-demographic characteristics, drug consumption, risk, prevention behaviour and state of health. Over a 6-year period (1994-2000), the average age of NEP attenders rose by 4 years. The prevalence of reported HIV remained fairly stable at around 10%. Reported level of Hepatitis C prevalence was high (59%). Incidence of used injection equipment sharing during the last 6 months was low and stable (9% in 1994, 12% in 2000); however, other forms of risk behaviour linked to intravenous drug use, such as sharing spoons, cotton or water, were more frequently reported. The HIV epidemic among NEP attenders seems to be contained, but this is not the case with Hepatitis C, and more attention should be paid to its prevention.

  5. Combination of needle aspiration and core needle biopsy: A new technique of stereotactic biopsy

    PubMed Central

    Wani, Abrar Ahad; Wani, M. Afzal; Ramzan, Altaf U.; Nizami, Furqan A.; Malik, Nayil K.; Shafiq, S.; Ahmad, Rais; Kumar, Ashish; Lone, Iqbal; Makhdoomi, Rumana

    2016-01-01

    Aim: The study aims at describing the results of using a new technique to acquire the tissue sample in stereotactic biopsy of brain lesions. Materials and Methods: The study was performed in 19 patients over a period of 5 years in which we used the new technique, i.e., Abrar and Afzal technique (AT) of obtaining tissue biopsy. It is a combination of core tissue biopsy and needle aspiration techniques. The technique was devised to acquire greater amount of tissue for pathologic study. Results: While we could give pathologic diagnosis in 18 patients out of 19 (94.7%), in one patient, the tissue sample revealed only inflammatory cells and definitive diagnosis could not be reached. There was no significant morbidity or any mortality in the series. Conclusion: Abrar and Afzal technique is a reasonably accurate technique of acquiring larger tissue sample in stereotactic brain biopsy without any additional risks. It can be done with little modification of the conventional equipment available with the stereotactic system. PMID:27057212

  6. Model Sharing and Collaboration using HydroShare

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goodall, J. L.; Morsy, M. M.; Castronova, A. M.; Miles, B.; Merwade, V.; Tarboton, D. G.

    2015-12-01

    HydroShare is a web-based system funded by the National Science Foundation (NSF) for sharing hydrologic data and models as resources. Resources in HydroShare can either be assigned a generic type, meaning the resource only has Dublin Core metadata properties, or one of a growing number of specific resource types with enhanced metadata profiles defined by the HydroShare development team. Examples of specific resource types in the current release of HydroShare (http://www.hydroshare.org) include time series, geographic raster, Multidimensional (NetCDF), model program, and model instance. Here we describe research and development efforts in HydroShare project for model-related resources types. This work has included efforts to define metadata profiles for common modeling resources, execute models directly through the HydroShare user interface using Docker containers, and interoperate with the 3rd party application SWATShare for model execution and visualization. These examples demonstrate the benefit of HydroShare to support model sharing and address collaborative problems involving modeling. The presentation will conclude with plans for future modeling-related development in HydroShare including supporting the publication of workflow resources, enhanced metadata for additional hydrologic models, and linking model resources with other resources in HydroShare to capture model provenance.

  7. School Nurses Share a Job.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Merwin, Elizabeth G.; Voss, Sondra

    1981-01-01

    Job sharing is a relatively new idea in which two or more people share the hours, the work, and the responsibilities of one job. Advantages and disadvantages to this situation are discussed in relation to the experiences of two nurses who shared a position as district nurse. (JN)

  8. Sharing Educational Services. PREP-13.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jongeward, Ray; Heesacker, Frank

    The focus of this report is on shared services in the rural setting. The kit contains three documents of useful information for any school planning a shared service activity to improve rural education. 13-A identifies 215 shared services in 50 states along with an indexing of each service by subject area and by state. 13-B is a series of 10…

  9. Fractions: How to Fair Share

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilson, P. Holt; Edgington, Cynthia P.; Nguyen, Kenny H.; Pescosolido, Ryan S.; Confrey, Jere

    2011-01-01

    Children learn from a very early age what it means to get their "fair share." Whether it is candy or birthday cake, many children successfully create equal-size groups or parts of a collection or whole but later struggle to create fair shares of multiple wholes, such as fairly sharing four pies among a family of seven. Recent research suggests…

  10. Shared Governance: Balancing the Euphoria.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Guffey, J. Stephen; Rampp, Lary C.

    This paper presents an alternative view of shared governance within higher education institutions, examining the major problems encountered by institutions as they implement a shared governance model. Based on a review of the literature, it argues that shared governance, though increasingly popular in recent years, is an issue that should be…

  11. SHARED TECHNOLOGY TRANSFER PROGRAM

    SciTech Connect

    GRIFFIN, JOHN M. HAUT, RICHARD C.

    2008-03-07

    The program established a collaborative process with domestic industries for the purpose of sharing Navy-developed technology. Private sector businesses were educated so as to increase their awareness of the vast amount of technologies that are available, with an initial focus on technology applications that are related to the Hydrogen, Fuel Cells and Infrastructure Technologies (Hydrogen) Program of the U.S. Department of Energy. Specifically, the project worked to increase industry awareness of the vast technology resources available to them that have been developed with taxpayer funding. NAVSEA-Carderock and the Houston Advanced Research Center teamed with Nicholls State University to catalog NAVSEA-Carderock unclassified technologies, rated the level of readiness of the technologies and established a web based catalog of the technologies. In particular, the catalog contains technology descriptions, including testing summaries and overviews of related presentations.

  12. Sharing a disparate landscape

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ali-Khan, Carolyne

    2010-06-01

    Working across boundaries of power, identity, and political geography is fraught with difficulties and contradictions. In Tali Tal and Iris Alkaher's, " Collaborative environmental projects in a multicultural society: Working from within separate or mutual landscapes?" the authors describe their efforts to do this in the highly charged atmosphere of Israel. This forum article offers a response to their efforts. Writing from a framework of critical pedagogy, I use the concepts of space and time to anchor my analysis, as I examine the issue of power in this Jew/Arab collaborative environmental project. This response problematizes "sharing" in a landscape fraught with disparities. It also looks to further Tal and Alkaher's work by geographically and politically grounding it in the broader current conflict and by juxtaposing sustainability with equity.

  13. University Reactor Sharing Program

    SciTech Connect

    W.D. Reese

    2004-02-24

    Research projects supported by the program include items such as dating geological material and producing high current super conducting magnets. The funding continues to give small colleges and universities the valuable opportunity to use the NSC for teaching courses in nuclear processes; specifically neutron activation analysis and gamma spectroscopy. The Reactor Sharing Program has supported the construction of a Fast Neutron Flux Irradiator for users at New Mexico Institute of Mining and Technology and the University of Houston. This device has been characterized and has been found to have near optimum neutron fluxes for A39/Ar 40 dating. Institution final reports and publications resulting from the use of these funds are on file at the Nuclear Science Center.

  14. Precision grid and hand motion for accurate needle insertion in brachytherapy

    SciTech Connect

    McGill, Carl S.; Schwartz, Jonathon A.; Moore, Jason Z.; McLaughlin, Patrick W.; Shih, Albert J.

    2011-08-15

    Purpose: In prostate brachytherapy, a grid is used to guide a needle tip toward a preplanned location within the tissue. During insertion, the needle deflects en route resulting in target misplacement. In this paper, 18-gauge needle insertion experiments into phantom were performed to test effects of three parameters, which include the clearance between the grid hole and needle, the thickness of the grid, and the needle insertion speed. Measurement apparatus that consisted of two datum surfaces and digital depth gauge was developed to quantify needle deflections. Methods: The gauge repeatability and reproducibility (GR and R) test was performed on the measurement apparatus, and it proved to be capable of measuring a 2 mm tolerance from the target. Replicated experiments were performed on a 2{sup 3} factorial design (three parameters at two levels) and analysis included averages and standard deviation along with an analysis of variance (ANOVA) to find significant single and two-way interaction factors. Results: Results showed that grid with tight clearance hole and slow needle speed increased precision and accuracy of needle insertion. The tight grid was vital to enhance precision and accuracy of needle insertion for both slow and fast insertion speed; additionally, at slow speed the tight, thick grid improved needle precision and accuracy. Conclusions: In summary, the tight grid is important, regardless of speed. The grid design, which shows the capability to reduce the needle deflection in brachytherapy procedures, can potentially be implemented in the brachytherapy procedure.

  15. In vivo motion and force measurement of surgical needle intervention during prostate brachytherapy

    SciTech Connect

    Podder, Tarun; Clark, Douglas; Sherman, Jason; Fuller, Dave; Messing, Edward; Rubens, Deborah; Strang, John; Brasacchio, Ralph; Liao, Lydia; Ng, W.-S.; Yu Yan

    2006-08-15

    In this paper, we present needle insertion forces and motion trajectories measured during actual brachytherapy needle insertion while implanting radioactive seeds in the prostate glands of 20 different patients. The needle motion was captured using ultrasound images and a 6 degree-of-freedom electromagnetic-based position sensor. Needle velocity was computed from the position information and the corresponding time stamps. From in vivo data we found the maximum needle insertion forces to be about 15.6 and 8.9 N for 17 gauge (1.47 mm) and 18 gauge (1.27 mm) needles, respectively. Part of this difference in insertion forces is due to the needle size difference (17G and 18G) and the other part is due to the difference in tissue properties that are specific to the individual patient. Some transverse forces were observed, which are attributed to several factors such as tissue heterogeneity, organ movement, human factors in surgery, and the interaction between the template and the needle. However, theses insertion forces are significantly responsible for needle deviation from the desired trajectory and target movement. Therefore, a proper selection of needle and modulated velocity (translational and rotational) may reduce the tissue deformation and target movement by reducing insertion forces and thereby improve the seed delivery accuracy. The knowledge gleaned from this study promises to be useful for not only designing mechanical/robotic systems but also developing a predictive deformation model of the prostate and real-time adaptive controlling of the needle.

  16. Enhanced needle localization in ultrasound using beam steering and learning-based segmentation.

    PubMed

    Hatt, Charles R; Ng, Gary; Parthasarathy, Vijay

    2015-04-01

    Segmentation of needles in ultrasound images remains a challenging problem. In this paper, we introduce a machine learning-based method for needle segmentation in 2D beam-steered ultrasound images. We used a statistical boosting approach to train a pixel-wise classifier for needle segmentation. The Radon transform was then used to find the needle position and orientation from the segmented image. We validated our method with data from ex vivo specimens and clinical nerve block procedures, and compared the results to those obtained using previously reported needle segmentation methods. Results show improved localization success and accuracy using the proposed method. For the ex vivo datasets, assuming that the needle orientation was known a priori, the needle was successfully localized in 86.2% of the images, with a mean targeting error of 0.48mm. The robustness of the proposed method to a lack of a priori knowledge of needle orientation was also demonstrated. For the clinical datasets, assuming that the needle orientation was closely aligned with the beam steering angle selected by the physician, the needle was successfully localized in 99.8% of the images, with a mean targeting error 0.19mm. These results indicate that the learning-based segmentation method may allow for increased targeting accuracy and enhanced visualization during ultrasound-guided needle procedures.

  17. Biopsy Needle Artifact Localization in MRI-guided Robotic Transrectal Prostate Intervention

    PubMed Central

    Song, Sang-Eun; Cho, Nathan B.; Iordachita, Iulian; Guion, Peter; Fichtinger, Gabor; Kaushal, Aradhana; Camphausen, Kevin; Whitcomb, Louis L.

    2013-01-01

    Recently a number of robotic intervention systems for magnetic resonance image (MRI) guided needle placement in the prostate have been reported. In MRI-guided needle interventions, after a needle is inserted, the needle position is often confirmed with a volumetric MRI scan. Commonly used titanium needles are not directly visible in an MR image, but they generate a susceptibility artifact in the immediate neighborhood of the needle. This paper reports the results of a quantitative study of the relationship between the true position of titanium biopsy needle and the corresponding needle artifact position in MR images, thereby providing a better understanding of the influence of needle artifact on targeting errors. The titanium needle tip artifact extended 9 mm beyond the actual needle tip location with tendency to bend towards the scanner’s B0 magnetic field direction, and axially displaced 0.38 mm and 0.32 mm (mean) in scanner’s frequency and phase encoding direction, respectively. PMID:22481805

  18. Autonomous real-time interventional scan plane control with a 3-D shape-sensing needle.

    PubMed

    Elayaperumal, Santhi; Plata, Juan Camilo; Holbrook, Andrew B; Park, Yong-Lae; Pauly, Kim Butts; Daniel, Bruce L; Cutkosky, Mark R

    2014-11-01

    This study demonstrates real-time scan plane control dependent on three-dimensional needle bending, as measured from magnetic resonance imaging (MRI)-compatible optical strain sensors. A biopsy needle with embedded fiber Bragg grating (FBG) sensors to measure surface strains is used to estimate its full 3-D shape and control the imaging plane of an MR scanner in real-time, based on the needle's estimated profile. The needle and scanner coordinate frames are registered to each other via miniature radio-frequency (RF) tracking coils, and the scan planes autonomously track the needle as it is deflected, keeping its tip in view. A 3-D needle annotation is superimposed over MR-images presented in a 3-D environment with the scanner's frame of reference. Scan planes calculated based on the FBG sensors successfully follow the tip of the needle. Experiments using the FBG sensors and RF coils to track the needle shape and location in real-time had an average root mean square error of 4.2 mm when comparing the estimated shape to the needle profile as seen in high resolution MR images. This positional variance is less than the image artifact caused by the needle in high resolution SPGR (spoiled gradient recalled) images. Optical fiber strain sensors can estimate a needle's profile in real-time and be used for MRI scan plane control to potentially enable faster and more accurate physician response.

  19. [Research thoughts and methodology on efficacy specificity of needling and moxibustion methods based upon data mining].

    PubMed

    Jia, Chun-sheng; Li, Xiao-feng; Wang, Jian-ling; Xu, Jing

    2011-02-01

    The method for needling and moxibustion is an indispensable component of acupuncturology. In clinical practice of acupuncture and moxibustion, efficacy specificity of different needling and moxibustion methods for different clinical conditions or different phases of a disease exists objectively, which is in a close relation with the results of clinical interventions. Starting with the correlation between the efficacy specificity of different needling and moxibustion methods and different clinical conditions or syndromes, the authors of the present paper put forward to collect abundant literature on needling and moxibustion methods, extract and analyze standard formats of information, establish literature database on needling and moxibustion methods and then design literature data application platform. On the basis of those mentioned above, a data mining model of needling and moxibustion methods will be established for revealing the potential knowledge and regularities about application of needling and moxibustion methods from the related abundant fuzzy and incomplete literature data according to data analysis and designed research program on efficacy specificity.

  20. Closed loop control of a robot assisted smart flexible needle for percutaneous intervention.

    PubMed

    Maria Joseph, F O; Hutapea, P; Dicker, A; Yu, Y; Podder, T

    2015-08-01

    This paper presents the experimental evaluation of a coordinated control system for a robot and robot-driven shape memory alloy (SMA) actuated smart flexible needle capable of following a curved path for percutaneous intervention. The robot driving the needle is considered the outer loop and the non-linear SMA actuated flexible needle system comprises the inner loop. The two feedback control loops are coordinated in such a way that the robot drives the needle while monitoring the needle's actual deflection against a preplanned ideal trajectory, so that the needle tip reaches the target location within an acceptable accuracy. In air and in water experimental results are presented to validate the ability of the proposed coordinated controller to track the overall desired trajectory which includes the combined trajectory of the robot driver and the needle.

  1. [Discussion on different methods of painless needle insertion based on positions].

    PubMed

    Chen, Chao; Shi, Xuemin

    2016-03-01

    Based on multiple painless needle insertion skills in clinic combined with own experience, the authors propose the opinion that different painless needle insertion methods need to be used according to the positions where acupoints are. The appropriate needle insertion mean must be selected in accord with the anatomical characteristic of acupoint position, namely, tapping insertion is applied in scalp part, skin-pinching up needle insertion is used in forehead and superficial nerve trunk, fingernail-pressure needle insertion in ocular region and positions where large blood vessels distribute, flying acupuncture insertion in face and finger tip, vibrating needle in occipitonuchal region, quivering insertion in abdomen, quick pricking by single hand in the four limbs and back, and chop acupuncture in palm and pelma. The insertion methods are systematically discussed in terms of preparation, acupoint position, manipulation and attention, etc, so that to provide the reference for painless needle insertion.

  2. Effects of vibration excitation methodology and configuration of an acoustic needle on its tip vibration.

    PubMed

    Li, Ning; Hu, Junhui

    2013-04-01

    One of design purposes of an acoustic needle is to obtain a big vibration displacement at its tip. In this paper, vibration characteristics of the tip of the acoustic needle driven by a sandwich type ultrasonic transducer, is investigated to obtain the guidelines for increasing the tip vibration. It is found that the tip vibration can be increased by employing acoustic needles with proper vibration excitation structure and configuration. The effective measures include using a sandwich type piezoelectric transducer with flexurally vibrating end plates and an acoustic needle with conical tip section, decreasing the length of vibration excitation section at the needle root, bonding the needle root at a proper location of the transducer end plate, and tuning the length ratio of the conical tip section to the whole needle.

  3. Using rotation for steerable needle detection in 3D color-Doppler ultrasound images.

    PubMed

    Mignon, Paul; Poignet, Philippe; Troccaz, Jocelyne

    2015-08-01

    This paper demonstrates a new way to detect needles in 3D color-Doppler volumes of biological tissues. It uses rotation to generate vibrations of a needle using an existing robotic brachytherapy system. The results of our detection for color-Doppler and B-Mode ultrasound are compared to a needle location reference given by robot odometry and robot ultrasound calibration. Average errors between detection and reference are 5.8 mm on needle tip for B-Mode images and 2.17 mm for color-Doppler images. These results show that color-Doppler imaging leads to more robust needle detection in noisy environment with poor needle visibility or when needle interacts with other objects.

  4. Toward robotic needle steering in lung biopsy: a tendon-actuated approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kratchman, Louis B.; Rahman, Mohammed M.; Saunders, Justin R.; Swaney, Philip J.; Webster, Robert J., III

    2011-03-01

    Needle tip dexterity is advantageous for transthoracic lung biopsies, which are typically performed with rigid, straight biopsy needles. By providing intraoperative compensation for trajectory error and lesion motion, tendon-driven biopsy needles may reach smaller or deeper nodules in fewer attempts, thereby reducing trauma. An image-guided robotic system that uses these needles also has the potential to reduce radiation exposure to the patient and physician. In this paper, we discuss the design, workflow, kinematic modeling, and control of both the needle and a compact and inexpensive robotic prototype that can actuate the tendon-driven needle for transthoracic lung biopsy. The system is designed to insert and steer the needle under Computed Tomography (CT) guidance. In a free-space targeting experiment using a discrete proportional control law with digital camera feedback, we show a position error of less than 1 mm achieved using an average of 8.3 images (n=3).

  5. Modulation of an optical needle's reflectivity alters the average photon path through scattering media.

    PubMed

    Simonson, Paul; D'Amico, Enrico; Gratton, Enrico

    2006-01-01

    We introduce the concept of deliberate placement of absorbers to alter the average path of photons through tissue for a biomedical optical device. By changing the reflectivity of a needle that separates a source and detector, the average photon path through a turbid medium can be changed. Totally reflective needles have photon scattering density functions similar to a point source and detector in an infinite medium. An absorbing needle moves the average photon path of photons that reach the detector away from the needle. Thus, by modulating the reflectivity of the needle, it is possible to modify the sensitive volume, and simple tomography data should be possible. These results are confirmed by Monte Carlo simulations and experiment. Experiments include moving a black target relative to an optical "needle" and measuring the resulting intensity and phase lag of light reaching a detector at the distal end of the needle.

  6. The Path-of-Probability Algorithm for Steering and Feedback Control of Flexible Needles

    PubMed Central

    Park, Wooram; Wang, Yunfeng; Chirikjian, Gregory S.

    2010-01-01

    In this paper we develop a new framework for path planning of flexible needles with bevel tips. Based on a stochastic model of needle steering, the probability density function for the needle tip pose is approximated as a Gaussian. The means and covariances are estimated using an error propagation algorithm which has second order accuracy. Then we adapt the path-of-probability (POP) algorithm to path planning of flexible needles with bevel tips. We demonstrate how our planning algorithm can be used for feedback control of flexible needles. We also derive a closed-form solution for the port placement problem for finding good insertion locations for flexible needles in the case when there are no obstacles. Furthermore, we propose a new method using reference splines with the POP algorithm to solve the path planning problem for flexible needles in more general cases that include obstacles. PMID:21151708

  7. Optimizing prostate needle biopsy through 3D simulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zeng, Jianchao; Kaplan, Charles; Xuan, Jian Hua; Sesterhenn, Isabell A.; Lynch, John H.; Freedman, Matthew T.; Mun, Seong K.

    1998-06-01

    Prostate needle biopsy is used for the detection of prostate cancer. The protocol of needle biopsy that is currently routinely used in the clinical environment is the systematic sextant technique, which defines six symmetric locations on the prostate surface for needle insertion. However, this protocol has been developed based on the long-term observation and experience of urologists. Little quantitative or scientific evidence supports the use of this biopsy technique. In this research, we aim at developing a statistically optimized new prostate needle biopsy protocol to improve the quality of diagnosis of prostate cancer. This new protocol will be developed by using a three-dimensional (3-D) computer- based probability map of prostate cancer. For this purpose, we have developed a computer-based 3-D visualization and simulation system with prostate models constructed from the digitized prostate specimens, in which the process of prostate needle biopsy can be simulated automatically by the computer. In this paper, we first develop an interactive biopsy simulation mode in the system, and evaluate the performance of the automatic biopsy simulation with the sextant biopsy protocol by comparing the results by the urologist using the interactive simulation mode with respect to 53 prostate models. This is required to confirm that the automatic simulation is accurate and reliable enough for the simulation with respect to a large number of prostate models. Then we compare the performance of the existing protocols using the automatic biopsy simulation system with respect to 107 prostate models, which will statistically identify if one protocol is better than another. Since the estimation of tumor volume is extremely important in determining the significance of a tumor and in deciding appropriate treatment methods, we further investigate correlation between the tumor volume and the positive core volume with 89 prostate models. This is done in order to develop a method to

  8. The science of sharing and the sharing of science

    PubMed Central

    Milkman, Katherine L.; Berger, Jonah

    2014-01-01

    Why do members of the public share some scientific findings and not others? What can scientists do to increase the chances that their findings will be shared widely among nonscientists? To address these questions, we integrate past research on the psychological drivers of interpersonal communication with a study examining the sharing of hundreds of recent scientific discoveries. Our findings offer insights into (i) how attributes of a discovery and the way it is described impact sharing, (ii) who generates discoveries that are likely to be shared, and (iii) which types of people are most likely to share scientific discoveries. The results described here, combined with a review of recent research on interpersonal communication, suggest how scientists can frame their work to increase its dissemination. They also provide insights about which audiences may be the best targets for the diffusion of scientific content. PMID:25225360

  9. A Wrist for Needle-Sized Surgical Robots

    PubMed Central

    York, Peter A.; Swaney, Philip J.; Gilbert, Hunter B.; Webster, Robert J.

    2015-01-01

    The needle-sized surgical tools used in arthroscopy, otolaryngology, and other surgical fields could become even more valuable to surgeons if endowed with the ability to navigate around sharp corners to manipulate or visualize tissue. We present a needle-sized wrist design that grants this ability. It can be easily interfaced with manual tools or concentric tube robots and is straightforward and inexpensive to manufacture. The wrist consists of a nitinol tube with several asymmetric cutouts, actuated by a tendon. Perhaps counter-intuitively, within this seemingly simple design concept, design optimization is challenging due to the number of parameters available and nonlinearities in material properties. In this paper, we examine a subset of possible geometries and derive kinematic and static models. Experimental results with a 1.16 mm diameter prototype validate the models. Lastly, we provide a discussion summarizing the lessons learned in our early experience designing and fabricating wrists of this type. PMID:26405562

  10. Interferon and the fear of needles: a case report.

    PubMed

    López, Maria; Moreno, Laura; Dosal, Angelina; Pujol, Marta Maria; Vergara, Mercedes; Gil, Montserrat

    2011-01-01

    The treatment of viral hepatitis C infection uses a combination of pegylated interferon and ribavirin. Psychological preparation of the patient is vital to ensure adherence to the treatment. In our center, the nurse prepares this treatment according to an established educative protocol; however, some patients have special needs that require individualized attention. One such situation observed by the nurse is that the patients frequently admit to the fear of needle puncture (the peginterferon treatment is administered subcutaneously) and are unable to inject themselves. We describe a representative case and the care plan to manage the patient's fear so that the patient acquires confidence in his or her ability to self-inject. This facilitates autonomy and coresponsibility for the treatment, and the nurse can develop care approaches to combat the patient's fear of needles.

  11. Existence of needle crystals in local models of solidification

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Langer, J. S.

    1986-01-01

    The way in which surface tension acts as a singular perturbation to destroy the continuous family of needle-crystal solutions of the steady-state growth equations is analyzed in detail for two local models of solidification. All calculations are performed in the limit of small surface tension or, equivalently, small velocity. The basic mathematical ideas are introduced in connection with a quasilinear, isotropic version of the geometrical model of Brower et al., in which case the continuous family of solutions dissappears completely. The formalism is then applied to a simplified boundary-layer model with an anisotropic kinetic attachment coefficient. In the latter case, the solvability condition for the existence of needle crystals can be satisfied whenever the coefficient of anisotropy is arbitrarily small but nonzero.

  12. Ultrasound-guided needle aspiration of amoebic liver abscess.

    PubMed Central

    Ramani, A.; Ramani, R.; Kumar, M. S.; Lakhkar, B. N.; Kundaje, G. N.

    1993-01-01

    This prospective study was carried out on 200 patients with clinically, ultrasonographically and serologically confirmed amoebic liver abscess. The role of ultrasound-guided needle aspiration in addition to medications was evaluated compared to drug treatment alone. Both the groups were monitored clinically and sonographically for up to 6 months after diagnosis. The initial response (after 15 days) was better in the aspirated group (P < 0.05) but resolution of abscess after 6 months were similar. There was a more rapid clinical response in the aspirated group, particularly in those with larger (> 6 cm) abscesses and there were no complications. Percutaneous ultrasound-guided needle aspiration is a safe diagnostic and therapeutic approach which enhances clinical recovery, accelerates resolution, especially in large abscesses, and prevents complications. PMID:8346134

  13. Silica needle template fabrication of metal hollow microneedle arrays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhu, M. W.; Li, H. W.; Chen, X. L.; Tang, Y. F.; Lu, M. H.; Chen, Y. F.

    2009-11-01

    Drug delivery through hollow microneedle (HMN) arrays has now been recognized as one of the most promising techniques because it minimizes the shortcomings of the traditional drug delivery methods and has many exciting advantages—pain free and tunable release rates, for example. However, this drug delivery method has been hindered greatly from mass clinical application because of the high fabrication cost of HMN arrays. Hence, we developed a simple and cost-effective procedure using silica needles as templates to massively fabricate HMN arrays by using popular materials and industrially applicable processes of micro- imprint, hot embossing, electroplating and polishing. Metal HMN arrays with high quality are prepared with great flexibility with tunable parameters of area, length of needle, size of hollow and array dimension. This efficient and cost-effective fabrication method can also be applied to other applications after minor alterations, such as preparation of optic, acoustic and solar harvesting materials and devices.

  14. CT guided percutaneous needle biopsy of the chest: initial experience

    PubMed Central

    Lazguet, Younes; Maarouf, Rachid; Karrou, Marouan; Skiker, Imane; Alloubi, Ihsan

    2016-01-01

    The objective of this article is to report our first experience of CT guided percutaneous thoracic biopsy and to demonstrate the accuracy and safety of this procedure. This was a retrospective study of 28 CT-Guided Percutaneous Needle Biopsies of the Chest performed on 24 patients between November 2014 and April 2015. Diagnosis was achieved in 18 patients (75%), negative results were found in 3 patients (12,5%). Biopsy was repeated in these cases with two positive results. Complications were seen in 7 patients (29%), Hemoptysis in 5 patients (20%), Pneumothorax in 1 patient (4,1%) and vaso-vagal shock in 1 patient (4,1%). CT Guided Percutaneous Needle Biopsy of the Chest is a safe, minimally invasive procedure with high sensitivity, specificity and accuracy for diagnosis of lung lesions. PMID:27347300

  15. A Wrist for Needle-Sized Surgical Robots.

    PubMed

    York, Peter A; Swaney, Philip J; Gilbert, Hunter B; Webster, Robert J

    2015-05-01

    The needle-sized surgical tools used in arthroscopy, otolaryngology, and other surgical fields could become even more valuable to surgeons if endowed with the ability to navigate around sharp corners to manipulate or visualize tissue. We present a needle-sized wrist design that grants this ability. It can be easily interfaced with manual tools or concentric tube robots and is straightforward and inexpensive to manufacture. The wrist consists of a nitinol tube with several asymmetric cutouts, actuated by a tendon. Perhaps counter-intuitively, within this seemingly simple design concept, design optimization is challenging due to the number of parameters available and nonlinearities in material properties. In this paper, we examine a subset of possible geometries and derive kinematic and static models. Experimental results with a 1.16 mm diameter prototype validate the models. Lastly, we provide a discussion summarizing the lessons learned in our early experience designing and fabricating wrists of this type.

  16. Data sharing in neuroimaging research

    PubMed Central

    Poline, Jean-Baptiste; Breeze, Janis L.; Ghosh, Satrajit; Gorgolewski, Krzysztof; Halchenko, Yaroslav O.; Hanke, Michael; Haselgrove, Christian; Helmer, Karl G.; Keator, David B.; Marcus, Daniel S.; Poldrack, Russell A.; Schwartz, Yannick; Ashburner, John; Kennedy, David N.

    2012-01-01

    Significant resources around the world have been invested in neuroimaging studies of brain function and disease. Easier access to this large body of work should have profound impact on research in cognitive neuroscience and psychiatry, leading to advances in the diagnosis and treatment of psychiatric and neurological disease. A trend toward increased sharing of neuroimaging data has emerged in recent years. Nevertheless, a number of barriers continue to impede momentum. Many researchers and institutions remain uncertain about how to share data or lack the tools and expertise to participate in data sharing. The use of electronic data capture (EDC) methods for neuroimaging greatly simplifies the task of data collection and has the potential to help standardize many aspects of data sharing. We review here the motivations for sharing neuroimaging data, the current data sharing landscape, and the sociological or technical barriers that still need to be addressed. The INCF Task Force on Neuroimaging Datasharing, in conjunction with several collaborative groups around the world, has started work on several tools to ease and eventually automate the practice of data sharing. It is hoped that such tools will allow researchers to easily share raw, processed, and derived neuroimaging data, with appropriate metadata and provenance records, and will improve the reproducibility of neuroimaging studies. By providing seamless integration of data sharing and analysis tools within a commodity research environment, the Task Force seeks to identify and minimize barriers to data sharing in the field of neuroimaging. PMID:22493576

  17. Growth of Ferrite Needles in Compacted Graphite Cast Iron

    SciTech Connect

    Duran, G.A.; Mercader, R.C.; Desimoni, J.; Perez, T.; Gregorutti, R.W.

    2005-04-26

    The austempering kinetics transformation of compacted graphite cast irons austempered at 623K is studied. The length (l) and the number per unit volume (N) of ferrite needles were followed by Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM), while Moessbauer spectroscopy (MS) was used to determine the austenite relative areas. The SEM results are compared with theoretical calculations available in the literature and indicate that the diffusion of C atoms in austenite controls the transformation, confirming the indirect MS determinations.

  18. Diminished suture strength after robotic needle driver manipulation.

    PubMed

    Ricchiuti, Daniel; Cerone, Jeffrey; Shie, Scott; Jetley, Ajay; Noe, Donald; Kovacik, Mark

    2010-09-01

    Robot-assisted minimally invasive surgery has become a routine surgical option for the treatment of prostate cancer. Despite its technical advancements, the da Vinci(®) Surgical System still lacks haptic feedback to the surgeon, resulting in a maximally applied compressive force by the robotic needle driver during every grasping maneuver. Without this perceptional sense of touch and grip control, repetitive robotic needle driver manipulation may unknowingly lead to irreparable damage to fine sutures used during delicate anastomotic repairs. For robotic prostatectomy, any such loss of integrity can potentially lead to premature breakdown of the urethrovesical anastomosis and urine extravasation, especially important for a less-than-perfectly fashioned anastomotic repair. Although it has already been established that overhandling of sutures using handheld laparoscopic instruments can lead to reduced suture strength, it has not been established to what extent this may occur after robotic surgical procedures. We present analytical data and analyses concerning the failure strength of fine sutures commonly used for urethrovesical anastomotic repair during robotic prostatectomy, after repetitive robotic needle driver manipulation. When compared with noncompromised monofilament suture controls, the average maximal failure force after repetitive robotic manipulation was significantly reduced by 35% (p < 0.0001). Similarly, the average maximal failure force of braided sutures was significantly reduced after repetitive robotic manipulation by 3% (p = 0.009). This work demonstrates that significant reductions in monofilament and braided suture strength integrity can occur after customary repetitive manipulation by robotic needle drivers in an ex vivo model, with further research warranted in the in vivo setting.

  19. Riedel thyroiditis: Fine needle aspiration findings of a rare entity.

    PubMed

    Weidner, Anna-Sophie; Molina, David; DeSimone, Robert A; Cohen, Marc A; Giorgadze, Tamar; Scognamiglio, Theresa; Hoda, Rana S

    2015-09-01

    Riedel thyroiditis is a rare fibrosing disorder characterized by extension of the fibroinflammatory process beyond the thyroid capsule. Due to the nature of this lesion, fine-needle aspiration often yields scant material and may be interpreted as non-diagnostic. In this report, we describe cytologic features that allow the cytopathologist to favor a diagnosis of Riedel thyroiditis, thereby guiding appropriate further work-up and management.

  20. Needle placement for piriformis injection using 3-D imaging.

    PubMed

    Clendenen, Steven R; Candler, Shawn A; Osborne, Michael D; Palmer, Scott C; Duench, Stephanie; Glynn, Laura; Ghazi, Salim M

    2013-01-01

    Piriformis syndrome is a pain syndrome originating in the buttock and is attributed to 6% - 8% of patients referred for the treatment of back and leg pain. The treatment for piriformis syndrome using fluoroscopy, computed tomography (CT), electromyography (EMG), and ultrasound (US) has become standard practice. The treatment of Piriformis Syndrome has evolved to include fluoroscopy and EMG with CT guidance. We present a case study of 5 successful piriformis injections using 3-D computer-assisted electromagnet needle tracking coupled with ultrasound. A 6-degree of freedom electromagnetic position tracker was attached to the ultrasound probe that allowed the system to detect the position and orientation of the probe in the magnetic field. The tracked ultrasound probe was used to find the posterior superior iliac spine. Subsequently, 3 points were captured to register the ultrasound image with the CT or magnetic resonance image scan. Moreover, after the registration was obtained, the navigation system visualized the tracked needle relative to the CT scan in real-time using 2 orthogonal multi-planar reconstructions centered at the tracked needle tip. Conversely, a recent study revealed that fluoroscopically guided injections had 30% accuracy compared to ultrasound guided injections, which tripled the accuracy percentage. This novel technique exhibited an accurate needle guidance injection precision of 98% while advancing to the piriformis muscle and avoiding the sciatic nerve. The mean (± SD) procedure time was 19.08 (± 4.9) minutes. This technique allows for electromagnetic instrument tip tracking with real-time 3-D guidance to the selected target. As with any new technique, a learning curve is expected; however, this technique could offer an alternative, minimizing radiation exposure.

  1. Efficacy of needle biopsy in postradiation thyroid disease

    SciTech Connect

    Rosen, I.B.; Palmer, J.A.; Bain, J.; Strawbridge, H.; Walfish, P.G.

    1983-12-01

    Retrospective review was carried out of 124 patients with nodular disease of the thyroid gland and a history of radiation exposure who had undergone needle aspiration biopsy. Latency period from time of radiation varied from 2 to 50 years; but in 92 patients it exceeded 2 decades. Our patient group included those with occupational exposure and a past history of radiation for cancer. Incidence of cancer in the entire group was 49% but, for solitary lesions, this was increased to 56%, while only a 30% incidence of cancer was found in cases of multinodular goiters. Accuracy of needle aspiration biopsy overall was 74%: for the group with cancer--90%, for the group with adenomas--65%, and for the group with ''benign'' tumors--83%. Further assessment of needle technique indicated a sensitivity of 70%, specificity of 90%, positive predictive value of 90%, and negative predictive value of 83% to 65%. The accuracy could be increased to 84% if all adenomas were considered as possible malignancies. Eighteen percent of our patients had second tumors in the head and neck or breast area. Near-total thyroidectomy was considered to be the preferred procedure without accidental nerve injury and was done in one case of hypoparathyroidism after excision of an extensive tracheal invasive cancer. No evidence of death, recurrence, or metastasis as a result of thyroid cancer has been noted. While needle biopsy is indispensable to intelligent management, the history of radiation to the head and neck area must be preeminent in the selection of patients for surgical treatment. Conservative management appears to be reasonable in those patients with ''benign'' cytology, a less than 1 cm nodule, multinodularity, a functioning thyroid scan result, but persistence in the face of a lack of response to conservative management does not appear to be warranted.

  2. Contexts as Shared Commitments

    PubMed Central

    García-Carpintero, Manuel

    2015-01-01

    Contemporary semantics assumes two influential notions of context: one coming from Kaplan (1989), on which contexts are sets of predetermined parameters, and another originating in Stalnaker (1978), on which contexts are sets of propositions that are “common ground.” The latter is deservedly more popular, given its flexibility in accounting for context-dependent aspects of language beyond manifest indexicals, such as epistemic modals, predicates of taste, and so on and so forth; in fact, properly dealing with demonstratives (perhaps ultimately all indexicals) requires that further flexibility. Even if we acknowledge Lewis (1980)'s point that, in a sense, Kaplanian contexts already include common ground contexts, it is better to be clear and explicit about what contexts constitutively are. Now, Stalnaker (1978, 2002, 2014) defines context-as-common-ground as a set of propositions, but recent work shows that this is not an accurate conception. The paper explains why, and provides an alternative. The main reason is that several phenomena (presuppositional treatments of pejoratives and predicates of taste, forces other than assertion) require that the common ground includes non-doxastic attitudes such as appraisals, emotions, etc. Hence the common ground should not be taken to include merely contents (propositions), but those together with attitudes concerning them: shared commitments, as I will defend. PMID:26733087

  3. Contexts as Shared Commitments.

    PubMed

    García-Carpintero, Manuel

    2015-01-01

    Contemporary semantics assumes two influential notions of context: one coming from Kaplan (1989), on which contexts are sets of predetermined parameters, and another originating in Stalnaker (1978), on which contexts are sets of propositions that are "common ground." The latter is deservedly more popular, given its flexibility in accounting for context-dependent aspects of language beyond manifest indexicals, such as epistemic modals, predicates of taste, and so on and so forth; in fact, properly dealing with demonstratives (perhaps ultimately all indexicals) requires that further flexibility. Even if we acknowledge Lewis (1980)'s point that, in a sense, Kaplanian contexts already include common ground contexts, it is better to be clear and explicit about what contexts constitutively are. Now, Stalnaker (1978, 2002, 2014) defines context-as-common-ground as a set of propositions, but recent work shows that this is not an accurate conception. The paper explains why, and provides an alternative. The main reason is that several phenomena (presuppositional treatments of pejoratives and predicates of taste, forces other than assertion) require that the common ground includes non-doxastic attitudes such as appraisals, emotions, etc. Hence the common ground should not be taken to include merely contents (propositions), but those together with attitudes concerning them: shared commitments, as I will defend.

  4. Sharing Lessons Learned

    SciTech Connect

    Mohler, Bryan L.

    2004-09-01

    Workplace safety is inextricably tied to the culture – the leadership, management and organization – of the entire company. Nor is a safety lesson fundamentally different from any other business lesson. With these points in mind, Pacific Northwest National Laboratory recast its lessons learned program in 2000. The laboratory retained elements of a traditional lessons learned program, such as tracking and trending safety metrics, and added a best practices element to increase staff involvement in creating a safer, healthier work environment. Today, the Lessons Learned/Best Practices program offers the latest business thinking summarized from current external publications and shares better ways PNNL staff have discovered for doing things. According to PNNL strategic planning director Marilyn Quadrel, the goal is to sharpen the business acumen, project management ability and leadership skills of all staff and to capture the benefits of practices that emerge from lessons learned. A key tool in the PNNL effort to accelerate learning from past mistakes is one that can be easily implemented by other firms and tailored to their specific needs. It is the weekly placement of Lessons Learned/Best Practices articles in the lab’s internal electronic newsletter. The program is equally applicable in highly regulated environments, such as the national laboratories, and in enterprises that may have fewer external requirements imposed on their operations. And it is cost effective, using less than the equivalent of one fulltime person to administer.

  5. The effect of Pencan needle orientation on spinal anesthesia outcomes.

    PubMed

    Wofford, Kenneth; Kase, Shawn; Moore, Jennifer; Kelly, Joseph; Pellegrini, Joseph E

    2005-04-01

    Slow resolution of block and incidence of side effects deter many practitioners from choosing spinal anesthesia for out-patient surgical procedures. Some studies suggest that controlling bevel or side port orientation of a spinal needle during anesthetic injection can affect occurrence of side effects and time to block resolution. The objective of this study was to determine the effects of varying Pencan spinal needle (B-Braun, Bethlehem, Pa) side port orientations on duration of block and incidence of side effects in groups of patients receiving spinal anesthesia. We randomized 87 subjects scheduled for spinal anesthesia to receive a spinal anesthesia injection using a cephalad, lateral, or caudad side port orientation. Onset, duration, block height, incidence of side effects, and analgesic requirements were among the variables measured. No difference in onset, duration, or analgesic requirements was noted among groups. Differences were noted in time to discharge from the hospital (P = .027) and time to first voiding (P = .023) in the lateral compared with the cephalad and caudad orientation groups. Patients in whom the lateral needle side port orientation was used for injection were discharged earlier and had fewer side effects. This could translate into significant savings, financially and in terms of staff requirements.

  6. Xylem Wall Collapse in Water-Stressed Pine Needles

    PubMed Central

    Cochard, Hervé; Froux, Fabienne; Mayr, Stefan; Coutand, Catherine

    2004-01-01

    Wall reinforcement in xylem conduits is thought to prevent wall implosion by negative pressures, but direct observations of xylem geometry during water stress are still largely lacking. In this study, we have analyzed the changes in xylem geometry during water stress in needles of four pine species (Pinus spp.). Dehydrated needles were frozen with liquid nitrogen, and xylem cross sections were observed, still frozen, with a cryo-scanning electron microscope and an epifluorescent microscope. Decrease in xylem pressure during drought provoked a progressive collapse of tracheids below a specific threshold pressure (Pcollapse) that correlates with the onset of cavitation in the stems. Pcollapse was more negative for species with smaller tracheid diameter and thicker walls, suggesting a tradeoff between xylem efficiency, xylem vulnerability to collapse, and the cost of wall stiffening. Upon severe dehydration, tracheid walls were completely collapsed, but lumens still appeared filled with sap. When dehydration proceeded further, tracheids embolized and walls relaxed. Wall collapse in dehydrated needles was rapidly reversed upon rehydration. We discuss the implications of this novel hydraulic trait on the xylem function and on the understanding of pine water relations. PMID:14657404

  7. Probable Mechanisms of Needling Therapies for Myofascial Pain Control

    PubMed Central

    Chou, Li-Wei; Kao, Mu-Jung; Lin, Jaung-Geng

    2012-01-01

    Myofascial pain syndrome (MPS) has been defined as a regional pain syndrome characterized by muscle pain caused by myofascial trigger points (MTrPs) clinically. MTrP is defined as the hyperirritable spot in a palpable taut band of skeletal muscle fibers. Appropriate treatment to MTrPs can effectively relieve the clinical pain of MPS. Needling therapies, such as MTrP injection, dry needling, or acupuncture (AcP) can effectively eliminate pain immediately. AcP is probably the first reported technique in treating MPS patients with dry needling based on the Traditional Chinese Medicine (TCM) theory. The possible mechanism of AcP analgesia were studied and published in recent decades. The analgesic effect of AcP is hypothesized to be related to immune, hormonal, and nervous systems. Compared to slow-acting hormonal system, nervous system acts in a faster manner. Given these complexities, AcP analgesia cannot be explained by any single mechanism. There are several principles for selection of acupoints based on the TCM principles: “Ah-Shi” point, proximal or remote acupoints on the meridian, and extra-meridian acupoints. Correlations between acupoints and MTrPs are discussed. Some clinical and animal studies of remote AcP for MTrPs and the possible mechanisms of remote effectiveness are reviewed and discussed. PMID:23346211

  8. Effects of Rotational Motion in Robotic Needle Insertion

    PubMed Central

    Ramezanpour, H.; Yousefi, H.; Rezaei, M.; Rostami, M.

    2015-01-01

    Background Robotic needle insertion in biological tissues has been known as one the most applicable procedures in sampling, robotic injection and different medical therapies and operations. Objective In this paper, we would like to investigate the effects of angular velocity in soft tissue insertion procedure by considering force-displacement diagram. Non-homogenous camel liver can be exploited as a tissue sample under standard compression test with Zwick/Roell device employing 1-D axial load-cell. Methods Effects of rotational motion were studied by running needle insertion experiments in 5, 50 and 200 mm/min in two types of with or without rotational velocity of 50, 150 and 300 rpm. On further steps with deeper penetrations, friction force of the insertion procedure in needle shaft was acquired by a definite thickness of the tissue. Results Designed mechanism of fixture for providing different frequencies of rotational motion is available in this work. Results for comparison of different force graphs were also provided. Conclusion Derived force-displacement graphs showed a significant difference between two procedures; however, tissue bleeding and disorganized micro-structure would be among unavoidable results. PMID:26688800

  9. Treatment of temporomandibular myofascial pain with deep dry needling

    PubMed Central

    Gonzalez-Perez, Luis M.; Granados-Nuñez, Mercedes; Urresti-Lopez, Francisco J.

    2012-01-01

    Objectives: The present study was designed to evaluate the usefulness of deep dry needling in the treatment of temporomandibular myofascial pain. Study Design: We selected 36 patients with myofascial pain located in the external pterygoid muscle (30 women/6 men, mean age=27 years with SD±6,5). We studied differences in pain with a visual analog scale and range of mandibular movements before and after intervention. Results: We found a statistically significant relationship (p<0,01) between therapeutic intervention and the improvement of pain and jaw movements, which continued up to 6 months after treatment. Pain reduction was greater the higher was the intensity of pain at baseline. Conclusions: Although further studies are needed, our findings suggest that deep dry needling in the trigger point in the external pterygoid muscle can be effective in the management of patients with myofascial pain located in that muscle. Key words:Temporomandibular joint, myofascial pain, external pterygoid muscle, trigger point, deep dry needling. PMID:22549679

  10. Relationships between Swiss needle cast and ectomycorrhizal fungus diversity.

    PubMed

    Luoma, Daniel L; Eberhart, Joyce L

    2014-01-01

    Swiss needle cast (SNC) is a disease specific to Douglas-fir (Pseudotsuga menziesii) caused by the ascomycete Phaeocryptopus gaeumannii. Here we examine characteristics of the EM fungus community that are potentially useful in predictive models that would monitor forest health. We found that mean EM density (number of colonized root tips/soil core) varied nearly 10-fold among sites of varying levels of SNC, while mean EM fungus species richness (number of species/soil core) varied by about 2.5 times. Strong relationships were found between EM and SNC parameters: EM species richness was positively correlated with both Douglas-fir needle retention (R(2) = 0.93) and EM density (R(2) = 0.65); EM density also was significantly correlated with Douglas-fir needle retention (R(2) = 0.70). These simple characteristics of the EM fungus community could be used to monitor forest health and generate predictive models of site suitability for Douglas-fir. Based on previous findings that normally common EM types were reduced in frequency on sites with severe SNC, we also hypothesized that some EM fungi would be stress tolerant-dominant species. Instead, we found that various fungi were able to form EM with the stressed trees, but none were consistently dominant across samples in the severely diseased areas.

  11. Needle catheter duodenostomy: a technique for duodenal alimentation of birds.

    PubMed

    Goring, R L; Goldman, A; Kaufman, K J; Roberts, C; Quesenberry, K E; Kollias, G V

    1986-11-01

    A technique for duodenal alimentation (needle catheter duodenostomy) of birds was developed, using the domestic pigeon (Columba livia) as the experimental model. A needle catheter was inserted into the descending duodenum of 5 pigeons and was secured to the body wall and dorsum of each bird. A liquid diet was administered daily (in equal amounts of 0, 4, 8, 12, and 16 hours) for 14 days without adverse effects. On day 15, the catheters were removed, and the birds immediately resumed normal consumption of a pigeon ration and water diet. Although 4 of the 5 birds had minor weight loss, dietary alterations probably could be used on an individual basis to alleviate this problem. After oral alimentation was resumed, the 5 birds exceeded their initial body weight within 7 days. Four weeks after catheter removal, positive-contrast radiographic evaluations indicated that the duodenum of each pigeon appeared normal. Needle catheter duodenostomy was a viable method of alimentation in the domestic pigeon. This technique should be applicable for other avian species requiring bypass of the upper gastrointestinal tract proximal to the region of catheter insertion in the duodenum.

  12. Tomographic needles and catheters for optical imaging of prostatic cancer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jacques, Steven L.; Motamedi, Massoud

    1995-05-01

    Early detection of prostatic cancer currently depends on Prostate Serum Antigen or TransRectal UltraSound. Unfortunately, these techniques are not always reliable indicators for early small lesions still localized within the prostate. This paper presents a feasibility study on the use of `tomographic needles and catheters' for optical imaging of early lesions. Three needles are inserted perianeally into the prostate or two catheters are inserted into the rectal and urethral passages. Each contains a set of optical fibers which terminate at evenly spaced positions along the needle. Each termination serves as either a source or collector for light transmission as each fiber is sequentially illuminated. Application of a tomographic algorithm based on diffuse light transmission between each source/collector pair yields a fuzzy but spectrally informative image of the prostate. This paper addresses the issue of feasibility by asking whether such a technique can distinguish a large zone of slightly alter optical properties (essentially a region of normal tissue) from a small zone of strongly altered optical properties (a tumor). The paper simulates both steady-state and 3-GHz frequency-domain optical measurements.

  13. Serological response to administration of Brucella abortus strain RB51 vaccine in beef and dairy heifers, using needle-free and standard needle-based injection systems

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The purpose of this study was to compare immunologic responses of heifers vaccinated with 10**10 colony-forming units (CFU) of Brucella abortus strain RB51 (SRB51) by standard needle-and-syringe system or a needle-free injection system. Heifers were randomly assigned to control and vaccination gro...

  14. Controlling a Robotically Steered Needle in the Presence of Torsional Friction

    PubMed Central

    Reed, Kyle B.; Okamura, Allison M.; Cowan, Noah J.

    2010-01-01

    A flexible needle can be accurately steered by robotically controlling the orientation of the bevel tip as the needle is inserted into tissue. Here, we demonstrate the significant effect of friction between the long, flexible needle shaft and the tissue, which can cause a significant discrepancy between the orientation of the needle tip and the orientation of the base where the needle is controlled. Our experiments show that several common phantom tissues used in needle steering experiments impart substantial frictional forces to the needle shaft, resulting in a lag of over 45° for a 10 cm insertion depth in some phantoms; clinical studies have reported torques large enough to could cause similar errors during needle insertions. Such angle discrepancies will result in poor performance or failure of path planners and image-guided controllers, since the needles used in percutaneous procedures are too small for state-of-the-art imaging to accurately measure the tip angle. To compensate for the angle discrepancy, we develop a model for the rotational dynamics of a needle being continuously inserted into tissue and show how a PD controller is sufficient to compensate for the rotational dynamics. PMID:21461175

  15. Integrated Planning and Image-Guided Control for Planar Needle Steering

    PubMed Central

    Reed, Kyle B.; Kallem, Vinutha; Alterovitz, Ron; Goldberg, Ken; Okamura, Allison M.; Cowan, Noah J.

    2010-01-01

    Flexible, tip-steerable needles promise to enhance physicians’ abilities to accurately reach targets and maneuver inside the human body while minimizing patient trauma. Here, we present a functional needle steering system that integrates two components: (1) a patient-specific 2D pre- and intra-operative planner that finds an achievable route to a target within a planar slice of tissue (Stochastic Motion Roadmap), and (2) a low-level image-guided feedback controller that keeps the needle tip within that slice. The planner generates a sequence of circular arcs that can be realized by interleaving pure insertions with 180° rotations of the needle shaft. This preplanned sequence is updated in realtime at regular intervals. Concurrently, the low-level image-based controller servos the needle to remain close to the desired plane between plan updates. Both planner and controller are predicated on a previously developed kinematic nonholonomic model of bevel-tip needle steering. We use slighly different needles here that have a small bend near the tip, so we extend the model to account for discontinuities of the tip position caused by 180° rotations. Further, during large rotations of the needle base, we maintain the desired tip angle by compensating for torsional compliance in the needle shaft, neglected in previous needle steering work. By integrating planning, control, and torsion compensation, we demonstrate both accurate targeting and obstacle avoidance. PMID:20640197

  16. The Problem of Metal Needles in Acupuncture-fMRI Studies.

    PubMed

    Beissner, Florian; Nöth, Ulrike; Schockert, Thomas

    2011-01-01

    Acupuncture is a therapy based on sensory stimulation of the human body by means of metal needles. The exact underlying mechanisms of acupuncture have not been clarified so far. Functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) has become an important tool in acupuncture research. Standard acupuncture needles, which are made of ferromagnetic steel, however, are problematic in acupuncture-fMRI studies for several reasons, such as attraction by the scanner's magnetic field, significant image distortions and signal-dropouts, when positioned close to the head or even heating due to absorption of radio frequency (RF). The aim of this study was to compare two novel types of acupuncture needles with a standard needle for their effect on MRI image quality. The standard needle severely reduced image quality, when located inside the RF coil. The nonferromagnetic metal needle may pose a risk due to RF heating, while the plastic needle has a significantly larger diameter. In conclusion, our recommendations are: (1) standard needles should not be used in MRI; (2) Nonferromagnetic metal needles seem to be the best choice for acupoints outside of the transmitter coil; and (3) only plastic needles are suited for points inside the coil. Laser acupuncture may be a safe alternative, too.

  17. NOTE: Optimal needle arrangement for intraoperative planning in permanent I-125 prostate implants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thompson, S. A.; Fung, A. Y. C.; Zaider, M.

    2002-08-01

    One limitation of intraoperative planning of permanent prostate implants is that needles must already be in the gland before planning images are acquired. Improperly placed needles often restrict the capability of generating optimal seed placement. We developed guiding principles for the proper layout of needles within the treatment volume. The Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center planning system employs a genetic algorithm to find the optimal seed implantation pattern consistent with pre-assigned constraints (needle geometry, uniformity, conformity and the avoidance of high doses to urethra and rectum). Ultrasound volumes for twelve patients with I-125 implants were used to generate six plans per patient (total 72 plans) with different needle arrangements. The plans were evaluated in terms of V100 (percentage prostate volume receiving at least the prescription dose), U135 (percentage urethra volume receiving at least 135% of prescription dose), and CI (conformity index, the ratio of treatment volume to prescription dose volume.) The method termed POSTCTR, in which needles were placed on the periphery of the largest ultrasound slice and posterior central needles were placed as needed, consistently gave superior results for all prostate sizes. Another arrangement, labelled POSTLAT, where the needles were placed peripherally with additional needles in the posterior lateral lobes, also gave satisfactory results. We advocate two needle arrangements, POSTCTR and POSTLAT, with the former giving better results.

  18. Local gene expression and immune responses of vaginal DNA vaccination using a needle-free injector.

    PubMed

    Kanazawa, Takanori; Takashima, Yuuki; Tamura, Toshiaki; Tsuchiya, Miki; Shibata, Yasunori; Udagawa, Haruhide; Okada, Hiroaki

    2010-08-30

    The vaginal mucosa is the most common site of initiation of virus infections that are transmitted through heterosexual intercourse, including HIV and papillomavirus. Thus, in order to prevent or treat these infections, strong vaginal immunity is required as the first line of defense. In this study, to establish a less invasive, safe, convenient and effective immunization method, we examined the local (skin and vagina) gene transfection efficiency of a non-needle jet injector for daily insulin injection. In the skin experiment, the needle-free injector resulted in a marked increase in marker gene expression, compared to the conventional needle-syringe injection. In addition, intradermal DNA vaccination using the needle-free injector dramatically induced IFN-gamma and antibody systemic responses in mice. Furthermore, we investigated the applicability of the needle-free injector as a vaginal vaccination tool in rabbits. Vaginal gene expression using the needle-free injector was significantly greater than that using needle-syringe injection. Moreover, intravaginal vaccination by the needle-free injector promoted vaginal IgA secretion and IFN-gamma mRNA expression in the blood lymphocytes, to a degree significantly higher than that by needle-syringe injection. In conclusion, local vaginal DNA vaccination using a needle-free jet injector is a promising approach for the prevention and treatment of mucosal infectious diseases.

  19. Percutaneous Biopsy of Osteoid Osteomas Prior to Percutaneous Treatment Using Two Different Biopsy Needles

    SciTech Connect

    Laredo, Jean-Denis Hamze, Bassam; Jeribi, Riadh

    2009-09-15

    Biopsy is usually performed as the first step in percutaneous treatment of osteoid osteomas prior to laser photocoagulation. At our institution, 117 patients with a presumed diagnosis of osteoid osteoma had a trephine biopsy before a percutaneous laser photocoagulation. Biopsies were made using two different types of needles. A Bonopty biopsy needle (14-gauge cannula, 16-gauge trephine needle; Radi Medical Systems, Uppsala, Sweden) was used in 65 patients, and a Laurane biopsy needle (11-gauge cannula, 12.5-gauge trephine needle; Laurane Medical, Saint-Arnoult, France) in 43 patients. Overall biopsy results were positive for osteoid osteoma in 83 (70.9%) of the 117 cases. The Laurane needle provided a significantly higher positive rate (81.4%) than the Bonopty needle (66.1%; p < 0.05). This difference was not due to the size of the nidus, which was similar in the two groups (p < 0.05) and may be an effect of differences in needle caliber (12.5 vs. 14 gauge) as well as differences in needle design. The rate of positive biopsy results obtained in the present series with the Laurane biopsy needle is, to our knowledge, the highest rate reported in series dealing with percutaneous radiofrequency ablation and laser photocoagulation of osteoid osteomas.

  20. Needle puncture in rabbit functional spinal units alters rotational biomechanics

    PubMed Central

    Hartman, Robert A.; Bell, Kevin M.; Quan, Bichun; Nuzhao, Yao; Sowa, Gwendolyn A.; Kang, James D.

    2014-01-01

    Study Design An in vitro biomechanical study for rabbit lumbar functional spinal units (FSUs) using a robot-based spine testing system. Objective To elucidate the effect of annular puncture with a 16G needle on mechanical properties in flexion/extension, axial rotation, and lateral bending. Summary of Background Data Needle puncture of the intervertebral disc has been shown to alter mechanical properties of the disc in compression, torsion, and bending. The effect of needle puncture in FSUs, where intact spinal ligaments and facet joints may mitigate or amplify these changes in the disc, on spinal motion segment stability subject to physiological rotations remains unknown. Methods Rabbit FSUs were tested using a robot testing system whose force/moment and position precision were assessed to demonstrate system capability. Flexibility testing methods were developed by load-to-failure testing in flexion/extension, axial rotation, and lateral bending. Subsequent testing methods were used to examine a 16G needle disc puncture and No. 11 blade disc stab (positive control for mechanical disruption). Flexibility testing was used to assess segmental range-of-motion (°), neutral zone stiffness (Nm/°) and width (° and Nm), and elastic zone stiffness before and after annular injury. Results The robot-based system was capable of performing flexibility testing on FSUs—mean precision of force/moment measurements and robot system movements were less than 3% and 1%, respectively, of moment-rotation target values. Flexibility moment targets were 0.3 Nm for flexion and axial rotation and 0.15 Nm for extension and lateral bending. Needle puncture caused significant (p<0.05) changes only in flexion/extension range-of-motion and neutral zone stiffness and width (Nm) compared to pre-intervention. No.11 blade-stab significantly increased range-of-motion in all motions, decreased neutral zone stiffness and width (Nm) in flexion/extension, and increased elastic zone stiffness in

  1. Technology Mediated Information Sharing (Monitor Sharing) in Primary Care Encounters

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Asan, Onur

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this dissertation study was to identify and describe the use of electronic health records (EHRs) for information sharing between patients and clinicians in primary-care encounters and to understand work system factors influencing information sharing. Ultimately, this will promote better design of EHR technologies and effective training…

  2. On the Hazard Caused by the Heat of Acupuncture Needles in Warm Needling (溫針Wēn Zhēn)

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Tsung-Chieh; Cheng, Tsung-Lin; Chen, Wen-Jiuan; Lo, Lun-Chien

    2013-01-01

    Due to its simplicity and convenience, acupuncture has become popular as a complementary therapy. In this Chinese medicine, doctors have to find the traditional meridian acupuncture points before puncturing the needles into them. Moxibustion (艾灸 Ài Jiǔ) is also an important part of the acupuncture remedy. Treatment by acupuncture can be classified roughly into two types – direct moxibustion and indirect moxibustion. Warm-needling acupuncture (溫針灸 Wēn Zhēn Jiǔ) is classified under the method of indirect moxibustion. In the present study, 10 standard stainless steel acupuncture needles with 10 pieces of cylinder-shaped moxa cone (艾柱 Ài Zhù) as the heat source of warm needles were used. In order to prevent the practitioners from getting burns, it is necessary to study the temperature changes in some designated parts of the needles. Two sizes, 0.6 g and 1.0 g, of moxa cones were used for comparison of the measured temperatures. The needles are typically divided into two parts – the handle part and the needle body. In our experiment, the temperatures of WNA at different parts of the needles were measured. The larger the size of moxa cone is, the longer is the burning time. Based on the observations we suggest that when 0.6 g moxa is used, the physicians should better pick out the needles around 9 min after ignition; however, while using the 1 g moxa, it might be safer to pick out the needles around 13 min after ignition. PMID:24716166

  3. Barnes-Jewish Hospital applies lean methodology to acute stroke care, maximizing resources and slashing door-to-needle times.

    PubMed

    2013-02-01

    To improve door-to-needle times for stroke victims, a multidisciplinary team at Barnes-Jewish Hospital in St. Louis, MO, used lean methodology to identify opportunities for improvement and implement changes aimed at streamlining the care process. As a result, since first implemented in February 2011, average door-to-needle times have improved by nearly 40%, and the number of patients treated within 60 minutes has increased from 52% to 78%. To accelerate care, pre-hospital providers are now empowered to activate the hospital's stroke team from the field. Also, potential stroke victims are brought directly to the hospital's CT scanners rather than the typical entry point in the ED. While patients are at the CT scanner, all the stroke team members assemble to assess the patient and ask critical questions so that all information is shared up front with all the clinicians at the same time. This replaces a process that relied more on serial processing, in which patients would see clinicians more on a one-on-one basis The ED introduced point-of-care testing for PT/INR.The move has enabled clinicians to get test results within 10 minutes rather than 40 minutes. This facilitates quicker decisions on the use of thrombolytic drugs.

  4. Longitudinal Analysis of the Relationship Between Perceived Norms and Sharing Injection Paraphernalia

    PubMed Central

    Latkin, Carl A.; Tobin, Karin E.

    2010-01-01

    Despite decline in needle sharing in some countries, many injectors continue to share injection paraphernalia such as cookers and cotton. While individual and structural factors are associated with injection risk behavior, little attention has been given to the influence of social network members, such as norms, on injection paraphernalia sharing. The present study is a longitudinal analysis of the association between perceived norms and sharing syringes and non-syringe injection paraphernalia. Participants were enrolled in the STEP into Action study and reported injection drug use at both baseline and follow-up assessments (n = 398). Results showed that descriptive norms, or believing that peers practiced risky injection behaviors, predicted sharing both syringes and nonsyringe paraphernalia. However, there was no association between injunctive norms (i.e., perceived peer approval) and either syringe or non-syringe paraphernalia sharing. Changing norms may lead to sustained behavior change. Accessible, norms-based interventions are needed to discourage drug injectors from sharing injection paraphernalia. PMID:19148743

  5. Dry needling for management of pain in the upper quarter and craniofacial region.

    PubMed

    Kietrys, David M; Palombaro, Kerstin M; Mannheimer, Jeffrey S

    2014-01-01

    Dry needling is a therapeutic intervention that has been growing in popularity. It is primarily used with patients that have pain of myofascial origin. This review provides background about dry needling, myofascial pain, and craniofacial pain. We summarize the evidence regarding the effectiveness of dry needling. For patients with upper quarter myofascial pain, a 2013 systematic review and meta-analysis of 12 randomized controlled studies reported that dry needling is effective in reducing pain (especially immediately after treatment) in patients with upper quarter pain. There have been fewer studies of patients with craniofacial pain and myofascial pain in other regions, but most of these studies report findings to suggest the dry needling may be helpful in reducing pain and improving other pain related variables such as the pain pressure threshold. More rigorous randomized controlled trials are clearly needed to more fully elucidate the effectiveness of dry needling.

  6. Fabrication of a hollow needle structure by dicing, wet etching and metal deposition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shikida, Mitsuhiro; Hasada, Takehiko; Sato, Kazuo

    2006-10-01

    We previously proposed a novel fabrication process, which combined mechanical dicing and anisotropic wet etching, to reduce the cost of micro-electro-mechanical system devices, and fabricated various solid-type microneedle structures using this process for trans-dermal drug delivery systems. The current research involved us enhancing our previous processes by applying metal plating and using a minimum number of photolithography steps, and we fabricated a hollow-type micro-needle structure, in which a flow channel was formed at the center of the needle projection, for supplying medical solutions from the area behind the needle. We fabricated two different shaped needle structures, pyramidal and flattened needles. The height and pitch of both needle types were 120-250 µm and 230-280 µm, respectively. The developed process is useful for producing disposable microneedles for bio-medical applications.

  7. Feasibility Study of an Optically Actuated MR-compatible Active Needle

    PubMed Central

    Ryu, Seok Chang; Renaud, Pierre; Black, Richard J.; Daniel, Bruce L.; Cutkosky, Mark R.

    2015-01-01

    An active needle is proposed for the development of MRI guided percutaneous procedures. The needle uses internal laser heating, conducted via optical fibers, of a shape memory alloy (SMA) actuator to produce bending in the distal section of the needle. Active bending of the needle as it is inserted allows it to reach small targets while overcoming the effects of interactions with surrounding tissue, which can otherwise deflect the needle away from its ideal path. The active section is designed to bend preferentially in one direction under actuation, and is also made from SMA for its combination of MR and bio-compatibility and its superelastic bending properties. A prototype, with a size equivalent to standard 16G biopsy needle, exhibits significant bending with a tip rotation of more than 10°. A numerical analysis and experiments provide information concerning the required amount of heating and guidance for design of efficient optical heating systems. PMID:26509100

  8. Feasibility Study of an Optically Actuated MR-compatible Active Needle.

    PubMed

    Ryu, Seok Chang; Renaud, Pierre; Black, Richard J; Daniel, Bruce L; Cutkosky, Mark R

    2011-09-01

    An active needle is proposed for the development of MRI guided percutaneous procedures. The needle uses internal laser heating, conducted via optical fibers, of a shape memory alloy (SMA) actuator to produce bending in the distal section of the needle. Active bending of the needle as it is inserted allows it to reach small targets while overcoming the effects of interactions with surrounding tissue, which can otherwise deflect the needle away from its ideal path. The active section is designed to bend preferentially in one direction under actuation, and is also made from SMA for its combination of MR and bio-compatibility and its superelastic bending properties. A prototype, with a size equivalent to standard 16G biopsy needle, exhibits significant bending with a tip rotation of more than 10°. A numerical analysis and experiments provide information concerning the required amount of heating and guidance for design of efficient optical heating systems.

  9. Effect of orifice-area reduction on flow characteristics during injection through spinal needles.

    PubMed

    Myers, M R; Malinauskas, R A

    1998-02-01

    A reduction in hole size for certain side-port spinal needles has been advocated in recent reports. While the influence of orifice-area reduction on the aspiration capability of the needle has been studied, the influence on the anaesthetic delivery properties is relatively unknown. As a first step in understanding the effects of hole-size reduction on anaesthetic distribution within the subarachnoid space, we studied flows emanating from isolated needles using computer simulations. Following validation of the numerical model using experimental particle visualisation, trajectories of anaesthetic particles injected through 25 G Whitacre needles of various orifice areas were computed and used to determine the orientation and rate of spread of the anaesthetic jet exiting the needle. Two factors impacting the concentration distribution were observed: the rate of spread of the anaesthetic jet increases markedly with decreasing orifice area and the jet alignment shifts toward perpendicular to the needle axis.

  10. Different Approaches to Shared Services.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hall, Calvin W.

    Divided into four major sections, this collection of articles addresses the sharing of services in California by school districts or by districts and other agencies. The section on advertising and recruitment makes a case for districts to share in the purchase of employment ads or in the hiring of a recruiter. A reprint of an article about a…

  11. Food Sharing: An Evolutionary Perspective.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Feinman, Saul

    Food altruism and the consumption of food are examined from a sociological perspective which assumes that humans share food as inclusive fitness actors. Inclusive fitness implies the representation of an individual's genes in future generations through his own or others' offspring. The discussion includes characteristics of food sharing among kin…

  12. Resource Sharing. SPEC Kit 42.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Association of Research Libraries, Washington, DC. Office of Management Studies.

    A 1977 Association of Research Libraries (ARL) survey indicated that nearly all respondents viewed enhanced access to needed information and service capabilities as the primary benefit of resource sharing. Most responding libraries participated in more than one type of resource sharing activity, ranging from informal understandings among a few…

  13. Transforming Institutions through Shared Governance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bornstein, Rita

    2012-01-01

    Shared governance is a basic tenet of higher education and is frequently referred to. For shared governance to be successful, board members, administrators, and faculty members must learn to have respect for and confidence in each other, acting inclusively, transparently, and responsibly. Boards need to be active and involved, participating in…

  14. Resource Sharing in Community Colleges.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Meyer, Frank; Hines, Edward; Lupo, Anita; Ley, Connie

    1998-01-01

    Presents a study analyzing voluntary resource sharing practices in a state population of 49 community colleges. Asserts that while resource sharing has been used primarily to solve short-term needs, it should be integrated in strategic and long-term fiscal planning. (JDI)

  15. Successful Shared Governance Through Education.

    PubMed

    Brull, Stacey

    2015-01-01

    Shared governance is one way nurses can attain a healthy work environment. Having direct-care nurses involved in raising relevant clinical and operational issues and creating systematic approaches has been linked to greater levels of empowerment which is often transposed into shared governance. Nurse leaders at one hospital used a comprehensive educational strategy to implement shared governance in less than 2 years. An authoritative style of leadership and decision making does not meet the needs of today's complex health care environment; nor does it meet the needs of today's employees. The focus on a very deliberate and educational strategy for shared governance was successful in building the structures and processes needed to take a unit and division from traditional governance to shared governance in less than 2 years.

  16. Comparison of the Effectiveness of Four Different Types of Needles in Irrigating Endodontically Treated Teeth.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1980-02-08

    perforations along 15,16 the shaft as suggested by Goldman et al. 3. A prototype endodontic needle made by cutting off the pointed tip of a standard 26-gauge...different types of irrigating needles in the removal of contamination in vitro from the root canals of forty endodontically treated single-rooted...TYPES OF NEEDLES IN IRRIGATING ENDODONTICALLY TREATED TEETH E. Drobotij, DDS, MS Resident, Endodontics Dept. of Dentistry - PO Box 59 Madigan Army

  17. High ac-voltage sensitivity of a quartz needle sensor used in noncontact scanning force microscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hartmann, C.; Mertin, W.; Bacher, G.

    2005-11-01

    The ac-voltage sensitivity of a needle sensor used in a scanning force microscope has been investigated. The voltage sensitivity varies depending if the needle sensor is used as an active or passive device. Using it as an active device, we achieve a voltage sensitivity down to 100μV if the frequency and phase of the excitation voltage of the needle sensor is matched to the voltage of the device under test.

  18. Fine-needle aspiration of breast carcinomas with prominent lymphocytic infiltrate.

    PubMed

    Kleer, C G; Michael, C W

    2000-07-01

    Carcinomas of the breast with prominent lymphoplasmacytic background are commonly encountered in cytology. The aim of this study was to assess the prevalence of different types of carcinomas that share this common feature, identify possible distinguishing cytologic features, and evaluate the diagnostic pitfalls in this group of tumors. Eighteen fine-needle aspirations (FNAs) of breast carcinomas with heavy lymphoplasmacytic background were reviewed. Histologic follow-up was reviewed in all cases. Of 18 cases, there were 9 invasive ductal carcinomas (IDC), and 9 medullary carcinomas (6 typical and 3 atypical). FNAs from typical medullary carcinomas (TMC) showed more severe nuclear atypia and macronucleoli than the cases of IDC and atypical medullary carcinomas (AMC). Gland formation was absent in the TMC but was common in IDC and AMC. No cytologic differences were noted between IDC and AMC. Nucleoli were larger in TMC (mean 4, microm) than in AMC (mean, 2 microm) and IDC (mean, 1.5 microm). We conclude that lymphocytes and plasma cells may be seen in different types of breast carcinomas and should not be considered a diagnostic feature of TMC. Features potentially helpful in the cytologic differential diagnosis of a carcinoma with prominent lymphoplasmacytic background are nucleolar size (4 microm in MC, vs. 1.5 and 2 microm in IDC and AMC, respectively) and the degree of nuclear atypia. Lymphocytosis may be part of the carcinoma or may originate from a lymph node involved by metastases. In rare cases, a prominent neutrophilic infiltrate may also be present.

  19. Evaluation of heat transfer in acupuncture needles: convection and conduction approaches.

    PubMed

    Tzou, Chieh-Han John; Yang, Tzyy-Yih; Chung, Ya-Chien

    2015-04-01

    Originating in ancient China, acupuncture using needles has been developed for thousands of years and has received attention for its reported medical remedies, such as pain relief and chronic disease treatment. Heat transfer through the needles, which might have effects on the biomechanism of acupuncture, providing a stimulus and regulating homeostasis, has never been studied. This article analyzes the significance of heat transfer through needles via convection and conduction, approached by means of computational analysis. The needle is a cylindrical body, and an axis symmetrical steady-state heat-transfer model that viscosity and static pressure was not applied. This article evaluates heat transfer via acupuncture needles by using five metal materials: silver, copper, brass, iron, and stainless steel. A silver needle of the type extensively applied in acupuncture can dissipate more than seven times as much heat as a stainless steel needle of the same type. Heat transfer through such a needle is significant, compared to natural body-energy consumption over a range of ambient temperatures. The mechanism by which heat flows in or out of the body through the needles may be crucial in the remedial efficacy of acupuncture.

  20. Registration and motion compensation of a needle placement robot for CT-guided spinal procedures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Sheng; Cleary, Kevin R.; Stoianovici, Dan; Fichtinger, Gabor

    2005-04-01

    Computed tomography (CT) guided needle placement is an established practice in the medical field. The efficacy of these procedures is related to the accuracy of needle placement. Current free-hand techniques have limitations in accuracy, which is often affected by the patient motion. In response to these problems and as a testbed for future developments, we propose a robotically assisted needle placement system consisting of a mobile CT scanner, a needle insertion robot, and an optical localizer. This paper presents the overall system concept and concentrates on the system registration and compensation of the patient motion. Accuracy results using an abdominal phantom are also presented.

  1. Autonomous Real-Time Interventional Scan Plane Control With a 3-D Shape-Sensing Needle

    PubMed Central

    Plata, Juan Camilo; Holbrook, Andrew B.; Park, Yong-Lae; Pauly, Kim Butts; Daniel, Bruce L.; Cutkosky, Mark R.

    2016-01-01

    This study demonstrates real-time scan plane control dependent on three-dimensional needle bending, as measured from magnetic resonance imaging (MRI)-compatible optical strain sensors. A biopsy needle with embedded fiber Bragg grating (FBG) sensors to measure surface strains is used to estimate its full 3-D shape and control the imaging plane of an MR scanner in real-time, based on the needle’s estimated profile. The needle and scanner coordinate frames are registered to each other via miniature radio-frequency (RF) tracking coils, and the scan planes autonomously track the needle as it is deflected, keeping its tip in view. A 3-D needle annotation is superimposed over MR-images presented in a 3-D environment with the scanner’s frame of reference. Scan planes calculated based on the FBG sensors successfully follow the tip of the needle. Experiments using the FBG sensors and RF coils to track the needle shape and location in real-time had an average root mean square error of 4.2 mm when comparing the estimated shape to the needle profile as seen in high resolution MR images. This positional variance is less than the image artifact caused by the needle in high resolution SPGR (spoiled gradient recalled) images. Optical fiber strain sensors can estimate a needle’s profile in real-time and be used for MRI scan plane control to potentially enable faster and more accurate physician response. PMID:24968093

  2. Multi-resolution Gabor wavelet feature extraction for needle detection in 3D ultrasound

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pourtaherian, Arash; Zinger, Svitlana; Mihajlovic, Nenad; de With, Peter H. N.; Huang, Jinfeng; Ng, Gary C.; Korsten, Hendrikus H. M.

    2015-12-01

    Ultrasound imaging is employed for needle guidance in various minimally invasive procedures such as biopsy guidance, regional anesthesia and brachytherapy. Unfortunately, a needle guidance using 2D ultrasound is very challenging, due to a poor needle visibility and a limited field of view. Nowadays, 3D ultrasound systems are available and more widely used. Consequently, with an appropriate 3D image-based needle detection technique, needle guidance and interventions may significantly be improved and simplified. In this paper, we present a multi-resolution Gabor transformation for an automated and reliable extraction of the needle-like structures in a 3D ultrasound volume. We study and identify the best combination of the Gabor wavelet frequencies. High precision in detecting the needle voxels leads to a robust and accurate localization of the needle for the intervention support. Evaluation in several ex-vivo cases shows that the multi-resolution analysis significantly improves the precision of the needle voxel detection from 0.23 to 0.32 at a high recall rate of 0.75 (gain 40%), where a better robustness and confidence were confirmed in the practical experiments.

  3. Benchmarking of state-of-the-art needle detection algorithms in 3D ultrasound data volumes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pourtaherian, Arash; Zinger, Svitlana; de With, Peter H. N.; Korsten, Hendrikus H. M.; Mihajlovic, Nenad

    2015-03-01

    Ultrasound-guided needle interventions are widely practiced in medical diagnostics and therapy, i.e. for biopsy guidance, regional anesthesia or for brachytherapy. Needle guidance using 2D ultrasound can be very challenging due to the poor needle visibility and the limited field of view. Since 3D ultrasound transducers are becoming more widely used, needle guidance can be improved and simplified with appropriate computer-aided analyses. In this paper, we compare two state-of-the-art 3D needle detection techniques: a technique based on line filtering from literature and a system employing Gabor transformation. Both algorithms utilize supervised classification to pre-select candidate needle voxels in the volume and then fit a model of the needle on the selected voxels. The major differences between the two approaches are in extracting the feature vectors for classification and selecting the criterion for fitting. We evaluate the performance of the two techniques using manually-annotated ground truth in several ex-vivo situations of different complexities, containing three different needle types with various insertion angles. This extensive evaluation provides better understanding on the limitations and advantages of each technique under different acquisition conditions, which is leading to the development of improved techniques for more reliable and accurate localization. Benchmarking results that the Gabor features are better capable of distinguishing the needle voxels in all datasets. Moreover, it is shown that the complete processing chain of the Gabor-based method outperforms the line filtering in accuracy and stability of the detection results.

  4. Needle position estimation from sub-sampled k-space data for MRI-guided interventions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schmitt, Sebastian; Choli, Morwan; Overhoff, Heinrich M.

    2015-03-01

    MRI-guided interventions have gained much interest. They profit from intervention synchronous data acquisition and image visualization. Due to long data acquisition durations, ergonomic limitations may occur. For a trueFISP MRI-data acquisition sequence, a time sparing sub-sampling strategy has been developed that is adapted to amagnetic needle detection. A symmetrical and contrast rich susceptibility needle artifact, i.e. an approximately rectangular gray scale profile is assumed. The 1-D-Fourier transformed of a rectangular function is a sinc-function. Its periodicity is exploited by sampling only along a few orthogonal trajectories in k-space. Because a needle moves during intervention, its tip region resembles a rectangle in a time-difference image that is reconstructed from such sub-sampled k-spaces acquired at different time stamps. In different phantom experiments, a needle was pushed forward along a reference trajectory, which was determined from a needle holders geometric parameters. In addition, the trajectory of the needle tip was estimated by the method described above. Only ca. 4 to 5% of the entire k-space data was used for needle tip estimation. The misalignment of needle orientation and needle tip position, i.e. the differences between reference and estimated values, is small and even in its worst case less than 2 mm. The results show that the method is applicable under nearly real conditions. Next steps are addressed to the validation of the method for clinical data.

  5. Clarification of the characteristics of needle-tip movement during vacuum venipuncture to improve safety

    PubMed Central

    Fujii, Chieko

    2013-01-01

    Background Complications resulting from venipuncture include vein and nerve damage, hematoma, and neuropathic pain. Although the basic procedures are understood, few analyses of actual data exist. It is important to improve the safety standards of this technique during venipuncture. This study aimed to obtain data on actual needle movement during vacuum venipuncture in order to develop appropriate educational procedures. Methods Six experienced nurses were recruited to collect blood samples from 64 subjects. These procedures were recorded using a digital camera. Software was then used to track and analyze motion without the use of a marker in order to maintain the sterility of the needle. Movement along the X- and Y-axes during blood sampling was examined. Results Approximately 2.5 cm of the needle was inserted into the body, of which 6 mm resulted from advancing or moving the needle following puncture. The mean calculated puncture angle was 15.2°. Given the hazards posed by attaching and removing the blood collection tube, as well as by manipulating the needle to fix its position, the needle became unstable whether it was fixed or not fixed. Conclusion This study examined venipuncture procedures and showed that the method was influenced by increased needle movement. Focusing on skills for puncturing the skin, inserting the needle into the vein, and changing hands while being conscious of needle-tip stability may be essential for improving the safety of venipuncture. PMID:23901281

  6. Nonlinear Secret Image Sharing Scheme

    PubMed Central

    Shin, Sang-Ho; Yoo, Kee-Young

    2014-01-01

    Over the past decade, most of secret image sharing schemes have been proposed by using Shamir's technique. It is based on a linear combination polynomial arithmetic. Although Shamir's technique based secret image sharing schemes are efficient and scalable for various environments, there exists a security threat such as Tompa-Woll attack. Renvall and Ding proposed a new secret sharing technique based on nonlinear combination polynomial arithmetic in order to solve this threat. It is hard to apply to the secret image sharing. In this paper, we propose a (t, n)-threshold nonlinear secret image sharing scheme with steganography concept. In order to achieve a suitable and secure secret image sharing scheme, we adapt a modified LSB embedding technique with XOR Boolean algebra operation, define a new variable m, and change a range of prime p in sharing procedure. In order to evaluate efficiency and security of proposed scheme, we use the embedding capacity and PSNR. As a result of it, average value of PSNR and embedding capacity are 44.78 (dB) and 1.74t⌈log2⁡m⌉ bit-per-pixel (bpp), respectively. PMID:25140334

  7. Nonlinear secret image sharing scheme.

    PubMed

    Shin, Sang-Ho; Lee, Gil-Je; Yoo, Kee-Young

    2014-01-01

    Over the past decade, most of secret image sharing schemes have been proposed by using Shamir's technique. It is based on a linear combination polynomial arithmetic. Although Shamir's technique based secret image sharing schemes are efficient and scalable for various environments, there exists a security threat such as Tompa-Woll attack. Renvall and Ding proposed a new secret sharing technique based on nonlinear combination polynomial arithmetic in order to solve this threat. It is hard to apply to the secret image sharing. In this paper, we propose a (t, n)-threshold nonlinear secret image sharing scheme with steganography concept. In order to achieve a suitable and secure secret image sharing scheme, we adapt a modified LSB embedding technique with XOR Boolean algebra operation, define a new variable m, and change a range of prime p in sharing procedure. In order to evaluate efficiency and security of proposed scheme, we use the embedding capacity and PSNR. As a result of it, average value of PSNR and embedding capacity are 44.78 (dB) and 1.74t⌈log2 m⌉ bit-per-pixel (bpp), respectively.

  8. Fine-needle aspiration biopsy: a historical overview.

    PubMed

    Rosa, Marilin

    2008-11-01

    Fine needle aspiration biopsy is a safe, inexpensive and accurate technique for the diagnosis of benign and malignant conditions. Its increase in popularity in the present days has made it a technique used on daily basis in the majority of medical centers in United States and around the world. However, the situation was not always like this. In its beginnings the procedure suffered from all kinds of criticism and attacks. The purpose of this manuscript is to provide an overview about the development of this technique from its birth to our days.

  9. Laplacian Growth of Parallel Needles: Their Mullins-Sekerka Instability

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2000-01-01

    conformal mapping allows to obtain analytical results as shown by Derrida and Hakim 6 for radial needles. An important question in such systems is the...and Bensimon1 °, Sz6p and Lugosi11 , Peterson and Furry 12 , Kurtze13 , and Derrida and Hakim6 . For the dynamics, we will follow here Derrida et al...Kassner, P. Meakin, and F. Family, Europhys. Lett. 27, 527 (1993). 5. J. Krug, Adv. Phys. 46, 158 (1997). 6. B. Derrida , and V. Hakim, Phys. Rev. A

  10. Adaptive controller for a needle free jet-injector system.

    PubMed

    Modak, Ashin; Hogan, N Catherine; Hunter, Ian W

    2015-01-01

    A nonlinear, sliding mode adaptive controller was created for a needle-free jet injection system. The controller was based on a simplified lumped-sum parameter model of the jet-injection mechanics. The adaptive control scheme was compared to a currently-used Feed-forward+PID controller in both ejection of water into air, and injection of dye into ex-vivo porcine tissue. The adaptive controller was more successful in trajectory tracking and was more robust to the biological variations caused by a tissue load.

  11. Needle track seeding following percutaneous procedures for hepatocellular carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Cabibbo, Giuseppe; Craxì, Antonio

    2009-01-01

    Neoplastic seeding may arise after diagnostic or therapeutic percutaneous procedures for hepatocellular carcinoma. The true incidence of seeding with hepatocellular carcinoma is difficult to assess precisely, but a significant risk of seeding exists and is greater when performing diagnostic biopsy as compared to therapeutic percutaneous procedures [radiofrequency ablation, radiofrequency ablation (RFA); percutaneous ethanol injection, Percutaneous ethanol injection (PEI)]. Whenever liver transplantation is feasible, diagnostic needle biopsies should be avoided, but RFA and PEI are often needed as “bridge” treatments. The role of adjuvant treatments in reducing the incidence of seeding following RFA or PEI requires further evaluation. PMID:21160966

  12. Fine needle aspiration cytology of thymic carcinoid tumor.

    PubMed

    Wang, D Y; Kuo, S H; Chang, D B; Yang, P C; Lee, Y C; Hsu, H C; Luh, K T

    1995-01-01

    Carcinoid tumors of the thymus are very rare, and their cytologic findings have not been reported previously in English. Retrospective study of fine needle aspiration (FNA) cytologic features in four histopathologically verified thymic carcinoid tumors are described here in detail. The FNA cytology of thymic carcinoids is characterized by predominantly single and some loose clusters of small, round to oval cells with scanty cytoplasm, interspersed with some larger cells with moderate to abundant, granular cytoplasm. The differential diagnosis of the cytologic features between carcinoid tumor and other mediastinal tumors is also discussed.

  13. Metastatic Chordoma: A Diagnostic Challenge on Fine Needle Aspiration

    PubMed Central

    Tranesh, Ghassan; Nassar, Aziza

    2016-01-01

    Chordomas are primary low grade malignant tumors of bone that usually arise within both ends of axial skeleton. The Notochord is a midline, ectoderm-derived structure that defines the phylum of chordates. Chordomas may pose difficult diagnostic challenges when encountered in secondary locations, such as lungs or other parenchymatous organs. We report the cytologic findings of a metastatic chordoma sampled through CT-scan guided fine needle aspiration (FNA) of lower lobe lung nodule in a 54-year-old man diagnosed with recurrent chordoma involving the lumber spine and paraspinal region. PMID:26881166

  14. Sclerosing hemangioma: A diagnostic dilemma in fine needle aspiration cytology

    PubMed Central

    Zeng, Jennifer; Zhou, Fang; Wei, Xiao-Jun; Kovacs, Sandor; Simsir, Aylin; Shi, Yan

    2016-01-01

    Sclerosing hemangioma of the lung is a benign neoplasm with a widely debated histogenesis. It has a polymorphic histomorphology characterized by a biphasic cell population of “surface cells” and “round cells” arranged in four general patterns: Papillary, solid, angiomatous, and sclerotic. This variability in histomorphology makes it difficult to diagnose sclerosing hemangioma by fine needle aspiration (FNA). We present a case of sclerosing hemangioma diagnosed on FNA with immunohistochemistry performed on an accompanied cell block. The clinical presentation, cytomorphology, immunohistochemistry, and differential diagnoses are discussed. PMID:27168758

  15. Fine-Needle Aspiration in the Evaluation of Thyroid Neoplasms.

    PubMed

    Oertel, Yolanda C.

    1997-01-01

    Fine-needle aspiration (FNA) is a safe, rapid, and accurate diagnostic tool. Although it continues to gain acceptance, the pace is slow. Probably, if more pathologists master the basics (i.e., learn how to obtain a good sample), this simple technique could be utilized to its fullest advantage. If the sample is not adequate or representative of the lesion, the diagnosis will not be correct. Based on personal experience, we believe that suction should be minimal when obtaining thyroid aspirates. Cytologic diagnostic criteria for the most common neoplasms of the thyroid gland are provided.

  16. Postoperative nutritional support using needle catheter feeding jejunostomy.

    PubMed Central

    Delany, H M; Carnevale, N; Garvey, J W; Moss, G M

    1977-01-01

    Needle catheter jejunostomy was used as an adjunctive surgical procedure in 110 patients. In 19 patients (or 17%) the jejunostomy was of value for the administration of post-operative nutritional support using an elemental diet and it may serve as an alternative route for the administration of supplementing fluids and electrolytes if intestinal function is intact. The clinical experience with the catheter jejunostomy establishes it as a satisfactory technique for postoperative nutritional support in patients requiring esophageal and proximal gastric resection and repair, and gastric surgery in the elderly and debilitated. It is also useful in patients undergoing complicated biliary, pancreatic, and duodenal surgery in whom anastomotic difficulties are anticipated. PMID:407853

  17. International pact limits airline's liability for needle injury.

    PubMed

    1998-09-18

    [Name removed] sued Mexicana de Aviacion S.A. de C.V. for liability after he was pricked in the leg by a hypodermic needle that was found in the plane's seat cushion. A Federal judge ruled that since liability claims resulting from injuries on international flights are covered by the Warsaw Convention, [name removed] could not recover more than $75,000 for his fear-of-AIDS liability lawsuit. The judge also stated that the Signature Support Corporation, a second defendant named in the case because they are subcontracted to clean Mexicana's planes, may also be covered by the Warsaw Convention.

  18. Focused high frequency needle transducer for ultrasonic imaging and trapping

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hsu, Hsiu-Sheng; Zheng, Fan; Li, Ying; Lee, Changyang; Zhou, Qifa; Kirk Shung, K.

    2012-07-01

    A miniature focused needle transducer (<1 mm) was fabricated using the press-focusing technique. The measured pulse-echo waveform showed the transducer had center frequency of 57.5 MHz with 54% bandwidth and 14 dB insertion loss. To evaluate the performance of this type of transducer, invitro ultrasonic biomicroscopy imaging on the rabbit eye was obtained. Moreover, a single beam acoustic trapping experiment was performed using this transducer. Trapping of targeted particle size smaller than the ultrasonic wavelength was observed. Potential applications of these devices include minimally invasive measurements of retinal blood flow and single beam acoustic trapping of microparticles.

  19. Inhibition of methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus by a plasma needle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miletić, Maja; Vuković, Dragana; Živanović, Irena; Dakić, Ivana; Soldatović, Ivan; Maletić, Dejan; Lazović, Saša; Malović, Gordana; Petrović, Zoran; Puač, Nevena

    2014-03-01

    In numerous recent papers plasma chemistry of non equilibrium plasma sources operating at atmospheric pressure has been linked to plasma medical effects including sterilization. In this paper we present a study of the effectiveness of an atmospheric pressure plasma source, known as plasma needle, in inhibition of the growth of biofilm produced by methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA). Even at the lowest powers the biofilms formed by inoculi of MRSA of 104 and 105 CFU have been strongly affected by plasma and growth in biofilms was inhibited. The eradication of the already formed biofilm was not achieved and it is required to go to more effective sources.

  20. Expansible quantum secret sharing network

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, Ying; Xu, Sheng-Wei; Chen, Xiu-Bo; Niu, Xin-Xin; Yang, Yi-Xian

    2013-08-01

    In the practical applications, member expansion is a usual demand during the development of a secret sharing network. However, there are few consideration and discussion on network expansibility in the existing quantum secret sharing schemes. We propose an expansible quantum secret sharing scheme with relatively simple and economical quantum resources and show how to split and reconstruct the quantum secret among an expansible user group in our scheme. Its trait, no requirement of any agent's assistant during the process of member expansion, can help to prevent potential menaces of insider cheating. We also give a discussion on the security of this scheme from three aspects.

  1. Effectiveness and Complications of Percutaneous Needle Tenotomy with a Large Needle for Muscle Contractures: A Cadaver Study

    PubMed Central

    Chesnel, Camille; Genêt, François; Almangour, Waleed; Denormandie, Philippe; Parratte, Bernard; Schnitzler, Alexis

    2015-01-01

    Background Twenty-two percent of institutionalised elderly persons have muscle contractures. Contractures have important functional consequences, rendering hygiene and positioning in bed or in a chair difficult. Medical treatment (such as botulinum toxin injections, physiotherapy or positioning) is not very effective and surgery may be required. Surgery is carried out in the operating theatre, under local or general anaesthesia but is often not possible in fragile patients. Mini-invasive tenotomy could be a useful alternative as it can be carried out in ambulatory care, under local anaesthesia. Objective To evaluate the effectiveness of percutaneous needle tenotomy and the risks of damage to adjacent structures in cadavers. Method Thirty two doctors who had never practiced the technique (physical medicine and rehabilitation specialists, geriatricians and orthopaedic surgeons) carried out 401 tenotomies on the upper and lower limbs of 8 fresh cadavers. A 16G needle was used percutaneous following location of the tendons. After each tenotomy, a neuro-orthopaedic surgeon and an anatomist dissected the area in order to evaluate the success of the tenotomy and any adjacent lesions which had occurred. Results Of the 401 tenotomies, 72% were complete, 24.9% partial and 2.7% failed. Eight adjacent lesions occurred (2%): 4 (1%) in tendons or muscles, 3 (0.7%) in nerves and 1 (0.2%) in a vessel. Conclusion This percutaneous needle technique effectively ruptured the desired tendons, with few injuries to adjacent structures. Although this study was carried out on cadavers, the results suggest it is safe to carry out on patients. PMID:26624990

  2. Bilevel shared control for teleoperators

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hayati, Samad A. (Inventor); Venkataraman, Subramanian T. (Inventor)

    1992-01-01

    A shared system is disclosed for robot control including integration of the human and autonomous input modalities for an improved control. Autonomously planned motion trajectories are modified by a teleoperator to track unmodelled target motions, while nominal teleoperator motions are modified through compliance to accommodate geometric errors autonomously in the latter. A hierarchical shared system intelligently shares control over a remote robot between the autonomous and teleoperative portions of an overall control system. Architecture is hierarchical, and consists of two levels. The top level represents the task level, while the bottom, the execution level. In space applications, the performance of pure teleoperation systems depend significantly on the communication time delays between the local and the remote sites. Selection/mixing matrices are provided with entries which reflect how each input's signals modality is weighted. The shared control minimizes the detrimental effects caused by these time delays between earth and space.

  3. Information sharing promotes prosocial behaviour

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Szolnoki, Attila; Perc, Matjaž

    2013-05-01

    More often than not, bad decisions are bad regardless of where and when they are made. Information sharing might thus be utilized to mitigate them. Here we show that sharing information about strategy choice between players residing on two different networks reinforces the evolution of cooperation. In evolutionary games, the strategy reflects the action of each individual that warrants the highest utility in a competitive setting. We therefore assume that identical strategies on the two networks reinforce themselves by lessening their propensity to change. Besides network reciprocity working in favour of cooperation on each individual network, we observe the spontaneous emergence of correlated behaviour between the two networks, which further deters defection. If information is shared not just between individuals but also between groups, the positive effect is even stronger, and this despite the fact that information sharing is implemented without any assumptions with regard to content.

  4. The value of shared services.

    PubMed

    Wallace, Beverly B

    2011-07-01

    A multisite shared services organization, combined with a robust business continuity plan, provides infrastructure and redundancies that mitigate risk for hospital CFOs. These structures can position providers to do the following: move essential operations out of a disaster impact zone, if necessary. Allow resources to focus on immediate patient care needs. Take advantage of economies of scale in temporary staffing. Leverage technology. Share in investments in disaster preparedness and business continuity solutions

  5. Neck schwannoma diagnosed by core needle biopsy: a case report.

    PubMed

    Nasrollah, N; Trimboli, P; Bianchi, D; Taccogna, S

    2015-12-01

    Here we present a case of a 58 year old man referred to our hospital to undergo neck and thyroid ultrasonography (US) following palpable neck mass. US revealed a solid hypoechoic nodule in right thyroid lobe, and a solid lesion on the right laterocervical neck region with ultrasound suspicious features of neoplastic lymph node. In order to achieve a diagnosis of the neck mass and to get a proper evaluation of the thyroid nodule, we decided to perform a fine-needle aspiration (FNA) of both lesions. At cytopathologic examination the thyroid nodule appeared as benign, while cytologic sampling of the neck lesion was inadequate for a proper evaluation. Thus, we performed core needle biopsy (CNB) of the neck lesion like recently proposed for thyroid lesions; also, to definitively exclude malignancy of thyroid nodule, this also underwent CNB. Histologic report of CNB confirmed benign thyroid nodule, while the neck lesion revealed a proliferation of neuronal type consistent with schwannoma. The patient has been addressed to clinical and ultrasonographic follow-up. CNB appears as a safe and minimally-invasive approach to diagnose indeterminate neck masses and avoid unnecessary diagnostic surgery.

  6. Dual-element needle transducer for intravascular ultrasound imaging

    PubMed Central

    Yoon, Sangpil; Kim, Min Gon; Williams, Jay A.; Yoon, Changhan; Kang, Bong Jin; Cabrera-Munoz, Nestor; Shung, K. Kirk; Kim, Hyung Ham

    2015-01-01

    Abstract. A dual-element needle transducer for intravascular ultrasound imaging has been developed. A low-frequency element and a high-frequency element were integrated into one device to obtain images which conveyed both low- and high-frequency information from a single scan. The low-frequency element with a center frequency of 48 MHz was fabricated from the single crystal form of lead magnesium niobate-lead titanate solid solution with two matching layers (MLs) and the high frequency element with a center frequency of 152 MHz was fabricated from lithium niobate with one ML. The measured axial and lateral resolutions were 27 and 122  μm, respectively, for the low-frequency element, and 14 and 40  μm, respectively, for the high-frequency element. The performance of the dual-element needle transducer was validated by imaging a tissue-mimicking phantom with lesion-mimicking area, and ex vivo rabbit aortas in water and rabbit whole blood. The results suggest that a low-frequency element effectively provides depth resolved images of the whole vessel and its adjacent tissue, and a high-frequency element visualizes detailed structure near the surface of the lumen wall in the presence of blood within the lumen. The advantages of a dual-element approach for intravascular imaging are also discussed. PMID:26158118

  7. Sharp Central Venous Recanalization by Means of a TIPS Needle

    SciTech Connect

    Honnef, Dagmar Wingen, Markus; Guenther, Rolf W.; Haage, Patrick

    2005-06-15

    The purpose of this study was to perform an alternative technique for recanalization of a chronic occlusion of the left brachiocephalic vein that could not be traversed with a guidewire. Restoration of a completely thrombosed left brachiocephalic vein was attempted in a 76-year-old male hemodialysis patient with massive upper inflow obstruction, massive edema of the face, neck, shoulder, and arm, and occlusion of the stented right brachiocephalic vein/superior vena cava. Vessel negotiation with several guidewires and multipurpose catheters proved unsuccessful. The procedure was also non-viable using a long, 21G puncture needle. Puncture of the superior vena cava (SVC) at the distal circumference of the stent in the right brachiocephalic vein/superior vena cava, however, was feasible with a transjugular intrahepatic portosystemic shunt (TIPS) set under biplanar fluoroscopy using the distal end of the right brachiocephalic vein as a target, followed by balloon dilatation and partial extraction of thrombotic material of the left brachiocephalic vein with a wire basket. Finally, two overlapping stents were deployed to avoid early re-occlusion. Venography demonstrated complete vessel patency with free contrast media flow via the stents into the SVC, which was reconfirmed in follow-up examinations. Immediate clinical improvement was observed. Venous vascular recanalization of chronic venous occlusion by means of a TIPS needle is feasible as a last resort under certain precautions.

  8. Transthoracic needle aspiration: the past, present and future

    PubMed Central

    Chockalingam, Arun

    2015-01-01

    Transthoracic needle aspiration (TTNA) has been used to diagnose disease in the lung for many decades. Thanks to advances in technology and cytopathology, the diagnostic power, accuracy, safety, and efficacy of TTNA are constantly improving. The transition from fluoroscopy to computed tomography (CT) has yielded better visualization, and ability to enhance sophistication of tools used to biopsy. In addition, needles are being refined for obtaining better biopsy samples and increased capabilities. Because of the minimally invasive nature of TTNA, it is becoming a strong alternative to surgical intervention. In the future, these developments will continue and TTNA will become more efficient, and potentially open a door to personalized medicine. However, there are complications due to this procedure, which include pneumothorax, hemorrhage, air embolism, and others which are very rare. Probability of complication increases when patients are older, have significant past medical history, have larger lesions, and are uncooperative during procedure. Indications, contraindications, and other considerations should be contemplated before a patient is elected for TTNA. PMID:26807277

  9. Transistor needle chip for recording in brain tissue

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Felderer, Florian; Fromherz, Peter

    2011-07-01

    We report on a proof-of-principle experiment for the direct interfacing of transistors with intact brain tissue. A transistor needle chip (TNC) with a TiO2 surface is fabricated from a silicon-on-insulator wafer and impaled into an acute brain slice cut from hippocampus of the rat. While stimulating the Schaffer collateral, a local field potential is recorded in stratum radiatum of the CA1 region with field-effect transistors in the central part of the slice where the tissue is not damaged by the cutting process. After the impalement, the signal amplitude is small. Within an hour, it increases to a stable level around -2 mV as is recorded with a conventional micropipette electrode. The recovery indicates that the tissue is able to adapt to the impaled chip. Upon repeated impalements at the same position, the large signal is observed without delay. A profile of the transistor signal across the slice is due to the boundary conditions of a brain slice with both surfaces held near ground potential. The experiments with the TNC prototype are a basis for the development of silicon needle chips with a large multi-transistor array (MTA) for applications in brain-computer interfacing.

  10. Mitochondrial genome diversity in dagger and needle nematodes (Nematoda: Longidoridae).

    PubMed

    Palomares-Rius, J E; Cantalapiedra-Navarrete, C; Archidona-Yuste, A; Blok, V C; Castillo, P

    2017-02-02

    Dagger and needle nematodes included in the family Longidoridae (viz. Longidorus, Paralongidorus, and Xiphinema) are highly polyphagous plant-parasitic nematodes in wild and cultivated plants and some of them are plant-virus vectors (nepovirus). The mitochondrial (mt) genomes of the dagger and needle nematodes, Xiphinema rivesi, Xiphinema pachtaicum, Longidorus vineacola and Paralongidorus litoralis were sequenced in this study. The four circular mt genomes have an estimated size of 12.6, 12.5, 13.5 and 12.7 kb, respectively. Up to date, the mt genome of X. pachtaicum is the smallest genome found in Nematoda. The four mt genomes contain 12 protein-coding genes (viz. cox1-3, nad1-6, nad4L, atp6 and cob) and two ribosomal RNA genes (rrnL and rrnS), but the atp8 gene was not detected. These mt genomes showed a gene arrangement very different within the Longidoridae species sequenced, with the exception of very closely related species (X. americanum and X. rivesi). The sizes of non-coding regions in the Longidoridae nematodes were very small and were present in a few places in the mt genome. Phylogenetic analysis of all coding genes showed a closer relationship between Longidorus and Paralongidorus and different phylogenetic possibilities for the three Xiphinema species.

  11. MRI-Compatible Pneumatic Robot for Transperineal Prostate Needle Placement

    PubMed Central

    Fischer, Gregory S.; Iordachita, Iulian; Csoma, Csaba; Tokuda, Junichi; DiMaio, Simon P.; Tempany, Clare M.; Hata, Nobuhiko; Fichtinger, Gabor

    2010-01-01

    Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) can provide high-quality 3-D visualization of prostate and surrounding tissue, thus granting potential to be a superior medical imaging modality for guiding and monitoring prostatic interventions. However, the benefits cannot be readily harnessed for interventional procedures due to difficulties that surround the use of high-field (1.5T or greater) MRI. The inability to use conventional mechatronics and the confined physical space makes it extremely challenging to access the patient. We have designed a robotic assistant system that overcomes these difficulties and promises safe and reliable intraprostatic needle placement inside closed high-field MRI scanners. MRI compatibility of the robot has been evaluated under 3T MRI using standard prostate imaging sequences and average SNR loss is limited to 5%. Needle alignment accuracy of the robot under servo pneumatic control is better than 0.94 mm rms per axis. The complete system workflow has been evaluated in phantom studies with accurate visualization and targeting of five out of five 1 cm targets. The paper explains the robot mechanism and controller design, the system integration, and presents results of preliminary evaluation of the system. PMID:21057608

  12. MRI-Compatible Pneumatic Robot for Transperineal Prostate Needle Placement.

    PubMed

    Fischer, Gregory S; Iordachita, Iulian; Csoma, Csaba; Tokuda, Junichi; Dimaio, Simon P; Tempany, Clare M; Hata, Nobuhiko; Fichtinger, Gabor

    2008-06-01

    Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) can provide high-quality 3-D visualization of prostate and surrounding tissue, thus granting potential to be a superior medical imaging modality for guiding and monitoring prostatic interventions. However, the benefits cannot be readily harnessed for interventional procedures due to difficulties that surround the use of high-field (1.5T or greater) MRI. The inability to use conventional mechatronics and the confined physical space makes it extremely challenging to access the patient. We have designed a robotic assistant system that overcomes these difficulties and promises safe and reliable intraprostatic needle placement inside closed high-field MRI scanners. MRI compatibility of the robot has been evaluated under 3T MRI using standard prostate imaging sequences and average SNR loss is limited to 5%. Needle alignment accuracy of the robot under servo pneumatic control is better than 0.94 mm rms per axis. The complete system workflow has been evaluated in phantom studies with accurate visualization and targeting of five out of five 1 cm targets. The paper explains the robot mechanism and controller design, the system integration, and presents results of preliminary evaluation of the system.

  13. Mitochondrial genome diversity in dagger and needle nematodes (Nematoda: Longidoridae)

    PubMed Central

    Palomares-Rius, J. E.; Cantalapiedra-Navarrete, C.; Archidona-Yuste, A.; Blok, V. C.; Castillo, P.

    2017-01-01

    Dagger and needle nematodes included in the family Longidoridae (viz. Longidorus, Paralongidorus, and Xiphinema) are highly polyphagous plant-parasitic nematodes in wild and cultivated plants and some of them are plant-virus vectors (nepovirus). The mitochondrial (mt) genomes of the dagger and needle nematodes, Xiphinema rivesi, Xiphinema pachtaicum, Longidorus vineacola and Paralongidorus litoralis were sequenced in this study. The four circular mt genomes have an estimated size of 12.6, 12.5, 13.5 and 12.7 kb, respectively. Up to date, the mt genome of X. pachtaicum is the smallest genome found in Nematoda. The four mt genomes contain 12 protein-coding genes (viz. cox1-3, nad1-6, nad4L, atp6 and cob) and two ribosomal RNA genes (rrnL and rrnS), but the atp8 gene was not detected. These mt genomes showed a gene arrangement very different within the Longidoridae species sequenced, with the exception of very closely related species (X. americanum and X. rivesi). The sizes of non-coding regions in the Longidoridae nematodes were very small and were present in a few places in the mt genome. Phylogenetic analysis of all coding genes showed a closer relationship between Longidorus and Paralongidorus and different phylogenetic possibilities for the three Xiphinema species. PMID:28150734

  14. Split torque transmission load sharing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Krantz, T. L.; Rashidi, M.; Kish, J. G.

    1992-01-01

    Split torque transmissions are attractive alternatives to conventional planetary designs for helicopter transmissions. The split torque designs can offer lighter weight and fewer parts but have not been used extensively for lack of experience, especially with obtaining proper load sharing. Two split torque designs that use different load sharing methods have been studied. Precise indexing and alignment of the geartrain to produce acceptable load sharing has been demonstrated. An elastomeric torque splitter that has large torsional compliance and damping produces even better load sharing while reducing dynamic transmission error and noise. However, the elastomeric torque splitter as now configured is not capable over the full range of operating conditions of a fielded system. A thrust balancing load sharing device was evaluated. Friction forces that oppose the motion of the balance mechanism are significant. A static analysis suggests increasing the helix angle of the input pinion of the thrust balancing design. Also, dynamic analysis of this design predicts good load sharing and significant torsional response to accumulative pitch errors of the gears.

  15. A rare mode of entry for needles observed in the abdomen of children: Penetration

    PubMed Central

    Bakal, Unal; Tartar, Tugay; Kazez, Ahmet

    2012-01-01

    Report of incidentally detected sewing needles on plain abdominal radiographs in two patients without any prior history of ingestion or of being pierced: one in the liver and the other in the peritoneum encased by omentum. These case reports point out a rare mode of entry of needles into the abdominal cavity by penetration from outside. PMID:22869982

  16. Detecting bacteria in food- harder than searching for a needle in a haystack

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Actually, I think it would have been easier to find a needle in a haystack than to locate variables pertaining to that time-honored question and mathematically compute the relative difficulty of detecting bacteria versus searching for aforementioned needle. Perhaps it might be unusual given that I ...

  17. [Research progress of needles with knife-edge for carotid cardiac syndrome].

    PubMed

    Tan, Lingqiong; Zhao, Yanling

    2015-04-01

    According to topographic anatomy, pathogenesis and by retrieving, summarizing and analyzing literature regarding needle-knife and needles with knife-edge for carotid cardiac syndrome, it is found out that clinical misdiagnosis rate of carotid cardiac syndrome is considerably high. Needle-knife and needles with knife-edge could significantly improve the clinical symptoms of carotid cardiac syndrome, showing characteristic and advantage in treatment, but it is deficient in technique standard and efficacy criteria that should be united and authoritative. Researches regarding pathogenesis of carotid cardiac syndrome are not systematic. Clinical observation regarding long-term efficacy and relapse of needle-knife and needles with knife-edge treatment is rare. It is believed that the awareness on carotid cardiac syndrome should be increased to reduce misdiagnosis; scientific and standardized technique standard and efficacy criteria should be established; systematic and comprehensive researches regarding mechanism of needle-knife and needles with knife-edge for carotid cardiac syndrome should be launched; besides, clinical discussion regarding its long-term efficacy should start to provide a better clinical guideline.

  18. Final Report for Organic Partitioning Resulting from Operation of an INTEC Double-needle Sampler

    SciTech Connect

    Michael B. Heiser

    2003-09-01

    The double needle sampler testing is a continuation of previous test series that investigated the fate of organic species in the Process Equipment Waste Evaporator (PEWE) system at the Idaho Nuclear Technology and Engineering Center (INTEC). This test series was designed to investigate the effects of operation of the double needle sampling systems on volatile organic constituents in an acidic feed matrix.

  19. Numerical investigation of root canal irrigation adopting innovative needles with dimple and protrusion.

    PubMed

    Li, Ping; Zhang, Di; Xie, Yonghui; Lan, Jibing

    2013-01-01

    As important passive flow control methods, dimples and protrusions have been successfully implemented via geometric modifications to manipulate flow fields to get a desired flow parameters enhancement. In this research, two novel needles were proposed based on a prototype by means of the dimple and protrusion, and flow patterns within a root canal during final irrigation with these needles were numerically investigated. The calculation cases consistent with the clinically realistic irrigant flow rates, which are 0.02, 0.16 and 0.26 mL s(-1) are marked as case A, B and C, respectively. The characteristic parameters to estimate irrigation efficiency, such as shearing effect, mean apical pressure, irrigation replacement and fluid agitation, were compared and the optimal geometry in every calculation case was obtained. As shown from the results, flow rates and needle geometries were the causes of irrigation parameters variations. The sum of shear stress, irrigation replacement and fluid agitation were equal in the low flow rate case A, however, the needle with a protrusion on its tip had advantages in the three irrigation characteristic parameters above in calculation case B, and the needle with a dimple on its tip had advantages in calculation case C. Furthermore, the needles proposed did not give rise to the risk of irrigant extrusion. These needles can be better choices at larger flow rates. Therefore, needle geometry optimizations utilizing passive flow control methods are worthy to be investigated in the root canal irrigation enhancement.

  20. In vivo neuronal action potential recordings via three-dimensional microscale needle-electrode arrays

    PubMed Central

    Fujishiro, Akifumi; Kaneko, Hidekazu; Kawashima, Takahiro; Ishida, Makoto; Kawano, Takeshi

    2014-01-01

    Very fine needle-electrode arrays potentially offer both low invasiveness and high spatial resolution of electrophysiological neuronal recordings in vivo. Herein we report the penetrating and recording capabilities of silicon-growth-based three-dimensional microscale-diameter needle-electrodes arrays. The fabricated needles exhibit a circular-cone shape with a 3-μm-diameter tip and a 210-μm length. Due to the microscale diameter, our silicon needles are more flexible than other microfabricated silicon needles with larger diameters. Coating the microscale-needle-tip with platinum black results in an impedance of ~600 kΩ in saline with output/input signal amplitude ratios of more than 90% at 40 Hz–10 kHz. The needles can penetrate into the whisker barrel area of a rat's cerebral cortex, and the action potentials recorded from some neurons exhibit peak-to-peak amplitudes of ~300 μVpp. These results demonstrate the feasibility of in vivo neuronal action potential recordings with a microscale needle-electrode array fabricated using silicon growth technology. PMID:24785307

  1. Accumulation of organic air constituents by plant surfaces. Spruce needles for monitoring airborne chlorinated hydrocarbons

    SciTech Connect

    Reischl, A.; Thoma, H.; Reissinger, M.; Hutzinger, O. )

    1988-10-01

    The needles of the spruce (Picea abies) were used to monitor ambient air for organic trace substances. Analyses of spruce needles in an industrialized area demonstrated that the concentrations of these substances were much higher than those in a nonindustrialized area.

  2. Pelton turbine Needle erosion prediction based on 3D three- phase flow simulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chongji, Z.; Yexiang, X.; Wei, Z.; Yangyang, Y.; Lei, C.; Zhengwei, W.

    2014-03-01

    Pelton turbine, which applied to the high water head and small flow rate, is widely used in the mountainous area. During the operation period the sediment contained in the water does not only induce the abrasion of the buckets, but also leads to the erosion at the nozzle which may damage the needle structure. The nozzle and needle structure are mainly used to form high quality cylindrical jet and increase the efficiency of energy exchange in the runner to the most. Thus the needle erosion will lead to the deformation of jet, and then may cause the efficiency loss and cavitation. The favourable prediction of abrasion characteristic of needle can effectively guide the optimization design and maintenance of needle structure. This paper simulated the unsteady three-dimensional multi-phase flow in the nozzle and injected jet flow. As the jet containing water and sediment is injected into the free atmosphere air with high velocity, the VOF model was adopted to predict the water and air flow. The sediment is simplified into round solid particle and the discrete particle model (DPM) was employed to predict the needle abrasion characteristic. The sand particle tracks were analyzed to interpret the mechanism of sand erosion on the needle surface. And the numerical result of needle abrasion was obtained and compared with the abrasion field observation. The similarity of abrasion pattern between the numerical results and field observation illustrated the validity of the 3D multi-phase flow simulation method.

  3. 78 FR 72597 - Descriptive Designation for Needle- or Blade-Tenderized (Mechanically Tenderized) Beef Products

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-12-03

    ... Needle- or Blade-Tenderized (Mechanically Tenderized) Beef Products AGENCY: Food Safety and Inspection... needle- or blade-tenderized (mechanically tenderized) beef products that appeared in the Federal Register...-tenderized (Mechanically Tenderized) Beef Products'' (78 FR 34589). The Agency proposed to require the use...

  4. Statistical Estimation of Some Irrational Numbers Using an Extension of Buffon's Needle Experiment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Velasco, S.; Roman, F. L.; Gonzalez, A.; White, J. A.

    2006-01-01

    In the nineteenth century many people tried to seek a value for the most famous irrational number, [pi], by means of an experiment known as Buffon's needle, consisting of throwing randomly a needle onto a surface ruled with straight parallel lines. Here we propose to extend this experiment in order to evaluate other irrational numbers, such as…

  5. Melnick-Needles Syndrome: report of a case associated with bilateral hypoplasia of the cochlea.

    PubMed

    Belfield, J C; Witana, J S; Connolly, D J A

    2007-01-01

    Melnick-Needles Syndrome is a rare disorder associated with many abnormalities. This case report describes a patient with Melnick-Needles Syndrome who was found to have bilateral hypoplasia of the cochlea, a finding not previously described in the literature. The case report describes the syndrome and demonstrates the findings on CT and MR imaging of temporal bones.

  6. Edward Tuohy: the man, his needle, and its place in obstetric analgesia.

    PubMed

    Martini, Joshua A; Bacon, Douglas R; Vasdev, Gary M

    2002-01-01

    The introduction of a needle designed by Ralph Huber and Edward Tuohy made continuous epidural anesthesia for labor possible. Neither the needle nor the regional anesthetic technique evolved in a vacuum; both were the culmination of a range of ideas developed by individuals around the world.

  7. Detection of Membrane Puncture with Haptic Feedback using a Tip-Force Sensing Needle.

    PubMed

    Elayaperumal, Santhi; Bae, Jung Hwa; Daniel, Bruce L; Cutkosky, Mark R

    2014-09-01

    This paper presents calibration and user test results of a 3-D tip-force sensing needle with haptic feedback. The needle is a modified MRI-compatible biopsy needle with embedded fiber Bragg grating (FBG) sensors for strain detection. After calibration, the needle is interrogated at 2 kHz, and dynamic forces are displayed remotely with a voice coil actuator. The needle is tested in a single-axis master/slave system, with the voice coil haptic display at the master, and the needle at the slave end. Tissue phantoms with embedded membranes were used to determine the ability of the tip-force sensors to provide real-time haptic feedback as compared to external sensors at the needle base during needle insertion via the master/slave system. Subjects were able to determine the position of the embedded membranes with significantly better accuracy using FBG tip feedback than with base feedback using a commercial force/torque sensor (p = 0.045) or with no added haptic feedback (p = 0.0024).

  8. Detection of Membrane Puncture with Haptic Feedback using a Tip-Force Sensing Needle

    PubMed Central

    Elayaperumal, Santhi; Bae, Jung Hwa; Daniel, Bruce L.; Cutkosky, Mark R.

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents calibration and user test results of a 3-D tip-force sensing needle with haptic feedback. The needle is a modified MRI-compatible biopsy needle with embedded fiber Bragg grating (FBG) sensors for strain detection. After calibration, the needle is interrogated at 2 kHz, and dynamic forces are displayed remotely with a voice coil actuator. The needle is tested in a single-axis master/slave system, with the voice coil haptic display at the master, and the needle at the slave end. Tissue phantoms with embedded membranes were used to determine the ability of the tip-force sensors to provide real-time haptic feedback as compared to external sensors at the needle base during needle insertion via the master/slave system. Subjects were able to determine the position of the embedded membranes with significantly better accuracy using FBG tip feedback than with base feedback using a commercial force/torque sensor (p = 0.045) or with no added haptic feedback (p = 0.0024). PMID:26509101

  9. Numerical Simulation of Unsteady Flows and Shape Oscillations in Liquid Droplets Induced by Deployment Needle Retraction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yan, Jin; Shaw, Benjamin D.

    2010-02-01

    Retractable opposed needles are often used in reduced-gravity droplet combustion experiments to deploy droplets prior to ignition. Needle retraction induces droplet shape oscillations and internal flows that can have important effects on subsequent droplet behaviors. In the present paper, the unsteady flows and droplet shape oscillations associated with deployment needle retraction are investigated using the commercial CFD software package Fluent. A volume-of-fluid method with a second-order upwind scheme and a dual time stepping solver is employed to solve the conservation equations in 2-d and 3-d simulations of droplets prior to ignition. A moving-mesh method is employed to model needle movements. Calculations indicate that rapid needle retraction causes ligament formation between a droplet and a needle, with ligament breakage sometimes resulting in the formation of satellite droplets. Needle retraction also induces droplet shape oscillations that rapidly decay, though significant internal flows are predicted to remain within droplets even after droplet shape oscillations have damped to low levels. The calculations indicate that the initial needle spacing can have important effects on droplet shape oscillations and internal flow characteristics. Comparison of model predictions and experimental data is favorable.

  10. Antioxidants and Manganese Deficiency in Needles of Norway Spruce (Picea abies L.) Trees 1

    PubMed Central

    Polle, Andrea; Chakrabarti, Krisanu; Chakrabarti, Sila; Seifert, Friederike; Schramel, Peter; Rennenberg, Heinz

    1992-01-01

    Chlorotic and green needles from Norway spruce (Picea abies L.) trees were sampled in the Calcareous Bavarian Alps in winter. The needles were used for analysis of the mineral and pigment contents, the levels of antioxidants (ascorbate, glutathione), and the activities of protective enzymes (superoxide dismutase, catalase, ascorbate peroxidase, monodehydroascorbate radical reductase, dehydroascorbate reductase, glutathione reductase). In addition, the activities of two respiratory enzymes (glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase, NAD-malate dehydrogenase), which might provide the NADPH necessary for functioning of the antioxidative system, were determined. We found that chlorotic needles were severely manganese deficient (3 to 6 micrograms Mn per gram dry weight as compared with up to 190 micrograms Mn per gram dry weight in green needles) but had a similar dry weight to fresh weight ratio, had a similar protein content, and showed no evidence for enhanced lipid peroxidation as compared with green needles. In chlorotic needles, the level of total ascorbate and the activities of superoxide dismutase, monodehydroascorbate radical reductase, NAD-malate dehydrogenase, and glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase were significantly increased, whereas the levels of ascorbate peroxidase, dehydroascorbate reductase, glutathione reductase, and glutathione were not affected. The ratio of ascorbate to dehydroascorbate was similar in both green and chlorotic needles. These results suggest that in spruce needles monodehydroascorbate radical reductase is the key enzyme involved in maintaining ascorbate in its reduced state. The reductant necessary for this process may have been supplied at the expense of photosynthate. PMID:16668974

  11. Needle longevity, photosynthetic rate and nitrogen concentration of eight spruce taxa planted in northern Japan.

    PubMed

    Kayama, Masazumi; Kitaoka, Satoshi; Wang, Wenjie; Choi, Dongsu; Koike, Takayoshi

    2007-11-01

    Growth characteristics of Picea glehnii Masters, P. jezoensis (Sieb. et Zucc) Carr., P. jezoensis var. hondoensis (Mayr) Rehder and P. shirasawae Hayashi from Japan, P. abies (L.) Karst. from Europe and P. glauca Voss, P. mariana Britt., Sterns and Pogg. and P. rubens Sarg. from North America were compared. The trees were grown in similar conditions at the Tomakomai Experimental Forest of Hokkaido University in northern Japan. Tree growth, needle biomass, longevity, photosynthetic rate, nitrogen concentration and specific leaf area (SLA) were measured, and photosynthetic nitrogen-use efficiency was calculated. Picea jezoensis, P. jezoensis var. hondoensis, P. abies and P. glauca had high growth rates, high photosynthetic rates in young needles, high needle nitrogen concentrations and short needle life spans. In contrast, P. glehnii, P. shirasawae, P. mariana and P. rubens had low growth and photosynthetic rates, low needle nitrogen concentrations, long needle life spans and maintained a high photosynthetic nitrogen-use efficiency in older needles. Examination of relationships between several growth parameters of the eight taxa revealed positive correlations between SLA and mass-based photosynthetic rate and between SLA and mass-based nitrogen concentration, whereas mass-based photosynthetic rate and mass-based nitrogen concentration were negatively correlated with needle longevity. The species differed greatly in growth characteristics despite being grown in similar conditions.

  12. 78 FR 78296 - Proposed Establishment of Class E Airspace; Needles, CA

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-12-26

    ...This action proposes to establish Class E airspace at the Needles VHF Omni-Directional Radio Range Tactical Air Navigation Aid (VORTAC), Needles, CA, to facilitate vectoring of Instrument Flight Rules (IFR) aircraft under control of Los Angeles Air Route Traffic Control Center (ARTCC). The FAA is proposing this action to enhance the safety and management of aircraft operations within the......

  13. 7 CFR 1980.391 - Equity sharing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... property. Shared equity will be the lesser of the interest assistance granted or the amount of value appreciation available for shared equity. Value appreciation available for shared equity means the market value... amount of shared equity. The RHS approval official will calculate shared equity when a borrower's...

  14. Seasonal changes in needle water content and needle ABA concentration of Japanese red pine, Pinus densiflora, in declining forests on Mt. Gokurakuji, Hiroshima prefecture, Japan.

    PubMed

    Kume, Atsushi; Hanba, Yuko T; Nakane, Kaneyuki; Sakurai, Naoki; Sakugawa, Hiroshi

    2006-05-01

    To evaluate the effects of air pollution on the decline of Pinus densiflora forests, various research has been conducted around Mt. Gokurakuji (34 degrees 23'N, 132 degrees 19'E, 693 m a.s.l.) north of the Seto Inland Sea, west Japan. To investigate the mechanisms responsible for decreases in photosynthesis (Pn) and stomatal conductance (gl), delta13C of needles and seasonal changes in the water content (WC) and abscisic acid concentration (ABA) of needles were measured in various stands. The delta13C values were less negative in declining stands and younger needles. ABA and WC were not correlated with each other. WC decreased consistently with needle age while the ABA showed a minimum in August and a smaller content in older needles. Monthly precipitation and the daily maximum vapor pressure were not correlated with ABA and WC. In declining stands, WC and ABA tended to be higher and lower, respectively, than in nondeclining stands. These results suggest that the trees in declining stands received less water stress than those in nondeclining stands and the differences in gl and delta13C are not caused by the difference in water stress. The possibilities of the effects of air pollution and the infection of pine-wood nematode on the physiological decline on the pine needles are discussed.

  15. Needle track seeding after radiofrequency ablation for hepatocellular carcinoma: prevalence, impact, and management challenge

    PubMed Central

    Francica, Giampiero

    2017-01-01

    Neoplastic seeding may arise after radiofrequency ablation (RFA) for hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). A low risk of seeding after RFA (0–1.1%) has been reported, which may rise up to 2.5% if ablation followed diagnostic biopsy. Needle track seeding presents with one or multiple rounded nodules along the needle track located within the peritoneum, along the abdominal muscles, which were penetrated by the needle, pleural surface, or in the subcutaneous and cutaneous tissues. The most widely used method for the assessment of seeding nodules is ultrasound (US), which usually displays hypoechoic nodules with intralesional vascularization. Fine needle aspiration biopsy of the nodule suspicious for malignant implant is mandatory to confirm the diagnosis and plan therapy. Wide surgical excision is the treatment of choice for neoplastic seeding. Thanks to early diagnosis and prompt treatment, development of needle track seeding is not likely to affect the long-term survival of patients. PMID:28176952

  16. A Prototype Body-Mounted MRI-Compatible Robot for Needle Guidance in Shoulder Arthrography

    PubMed Central

    Monfaredi, R.; Seifabadi, R.; Iordachita, I.; Sze, R.; Safdar, N. M.; Sharma, K.; Fricke, S.; Krieger, A.; Cleary, K.

    2014-01-01

    A novel compact and lightweight patient-mounted MRI-compatible robot has been designed for MRI image-guided interventions. This robot is intended to enable MRI-guided needle placement as done in shoulder arthrography. The robot could make needle placement more accurate and simplify the current workflow by converting the traditional two-stage arthrography procedure (fluoroscopy-guided needle insertion followed by a diagnostic MRI scan) to a one-stage procedure (streamlined workflow all in MRI suite). The robot has 4 degrees of freedom (DOF), two for orientation of the needle and two for needle positioning. The mechanical design was based on several criteria including rigidity, MRI compatibility, compact design, sterilizability, and adjustability. The proposed workflow is discussed and initial MRI compatibility experiments are presented. The results show that artifacts in the region of interest are minimal and that MRI images of the shoulder were not adversely affected by placing the robot on a human volunteer. PMID:25473653

  17. Controlled adsorption of droplets onto anti-nodes of an ultrasonically vibrating needle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hu, Junhui; Li, Ning; Zhou, Jinjuan

    2011-09-01

    We show that droplets adsorb onto the anti-nodes of a stainless needle in flexural vibration when the needle is lifted from a layer of liquid thin film. The adsorbed liquid includes water, saline, and olive oil, which cannot adsorb onto a stainless surface if the surface does not vibrate. The adsorbed droplets take on the shape of an ellipsoid when the needle vibration is large enough, and the size of adsorbed droplets may be controlled by the needle vibration. The properties of adsorbed liquid such as viscosity, specific acoustic impedance, and density, and the needle diameter, may affect the absorption capability. A physical model based on the hypothesis that sound pressure decreases the cohesive force among molecules of liquid has been proposed, which can explain the experimental phenomena quite well.

  18. Enhanced Visualization of Fine Needles Under Sonographic Guidance Using a MEMS Actuator

    PubMed Central

    Shen, Zhiyuan; Zhou, Yufeng; Miao, Jianmin; Vu, Kien Fong

    2015-01-01

    Localization of a needle tip is important for biopsy examinations in clinics. However, the needle tip is sometimes difficult to discern under the guidance of sonography due to its poor visibility. A mini actuator that radiates a low-intensity ultrasound wave was manufactured using micro-electro-mechanical system (MEMS) technology. Interference between the radiated and diagnostic ultrasound pulses was observed as bright lines in the B-mode ultrasound image, from which the mini actuator could be recognized with ease. Because the distance between the mini actuator and the needle tip is fixed, the needle tip can be determined despite its inconsistent appearance in the sonography. Both gel phantom and ex vivo tissue evaluation showed that the needle tip can be determined reliably utilizing the acoustic interference pattern. PMID:25647740

  19. An asymptomatic needle in the left ventricular anterolateral wall: a prison inmate's strange radio antenna.

    PubMed

    Akpinar, Ibrahim; Sayin, Muhammet Rasit; Karabag, Turgut; Dogan, Sait Mesut; Aydin, Mustafa

    2012-09-01

    A foreign body such as a needle in the heart can be life-threatening. While this may occur accidentally, needles may be inserted into the body by psychiatric patients or in cases involving domestic violence. A needle can migrate through the thorax toward the heart. In drug users, needles may also reach the right ventricle via the peripheral veins. Cardiac injury can occur via the esophagus after swallowing a needle. The clinical outcome may vary from an asymptomatic situation to tamponade or shock, depending on how severely the cardiac structures are affected. In injuries involving the thorax, pneumothorax may cause sudden shortness of breath. Here, we report the case of a 34-year-old male prison inmate who accidentally lodged a pin in his left ventricle while asleep. As he has refused surgery, it was decided to follow the patient carefully.

  20. Analysis of High Speed Liquid Jets Emitted from Needle Free Jet Injectors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Portaro, Rocco; Gunter, Amy-Lee; Ng, Hoi Dick

    2012-11-01

    The replacement of the traditional hypodermic needle by needle free liquid jet injectors has been of great interest to the scientific community over recent years. This study utilizes a specially designed needle free injector in order to describe the behavior of high speed liquid jets. High speed photography is used to depict the injection process, as the jet emitted from the injector penetrates biological tissue. The penetration depth of the jet will be studied by varying parameter such as the jet diameter, geometry and power. This analysis will then be used in improving the performance of liquid free injectors by maintaining more consistent injection depths and minimizing the power required to penetrate human tissue. This in turn leads to painless injections with less risk of contamination and aids in making needle free liquid jet injectors a viable alternative to hypodermic needles. This work is supported by Fonds de recherche du Quebec - Nature et technologies.

  1. Usefulness of Curved-Shaft Needles for Infiltrating the Sphenopalatine Area.

    PubMed

    Choi, So Young; Lee, Ho Yun; Choi, Myoung Su

    2015-12-01

    The objective of this study is to evaluate what types of needles are optimal and efficient for infiltrating the sphenopalatine area during endoscopic sinus surgery. Prospective, randomized, open-labeled study was designed. Sixty-three sides of nasal cavities of 45 patients were randomly assigned to three groups with different needle shapes. The group 1 needles had a straight shaft, the group 2 had an obtuse curved shaft, and the group 3 had an arch-shape shaft. The infiltration time for group 1 was longer than that for group 2 and group 3. There was significant difference in the secondary infiltration time between group 1 and group 3 (p = 0.005). We devised new curved-shaft needles that can utilize the 'lever effect' and showed that they are more efficient than straight shaft needles for infiltrating the sphenopalatine area.

  2. Enhanced visualization of fine needles under sonographic guidance using a MEMS actuator.

    PubMed

    Shen, Zhiyuan; Zhou, Yufeng; Miao, Jianmin; Vu, Kien Fong

    2015-01-30

    Localization of a needle tip is important for biopsy examinations in clinics. However, the needle tip is sometimes difficult to discern under the guidance of sonography due to its poor visibility. A mini actuator that radiates a low-intensity ultrasound wave was manufactured using micro-electro-mechanical system (MEMS) technology. Interference between the radiated and diagnostic ultrasound pulses was observed as bright lines in the B-mode ultrasound image, from which the mini actuator could be recognized with ease. Because the distance between the mini actuator and the needle tip is fixed, the needle tip can be determined despite its inconsistent appearance in the sonography. Both gel phantom and ex vivo tissue evaluation showed that the needle tip can be determined reliably utilizing the acoustic interference pattern.

  3. The case of a needle exchange policy debate in Fresno, California

    PubMed Central

    Clarke, KRIS

    2016-01-01

    Needle exchange is one of the most effective public health interventions to prevent the transmission of infectious disease by injecting drug users. Despite the preponderance of scientific evidence, US federal funding for needle exchange programmes has been banned since 1988. This prohibition has resulted in the lack of a centralised policy on needle exchange and has given birth to a patchwork of diverse practices and regulations throughout the nation. This article focuses on how various local players interpreted the meaning of needle exchange through the debate on an unauthorised site in Fresno, California. In exploring a specific context, this study delineates the narratives used to outline competing views about needle exchange and to offer a snapshot of how the issue of widespread injecting drug use was handled in an impoverished and socially conservative region of the United States. PMID:28035171

  4. Planning Fireworks Trajectories for Steerable Medical Needles to Reduce Patient Trauma.

    PubMed

    Xu, Jijie; Duindam, Vincent; Alterovitz, Ron; Pouliot, Jean; Cunha, J Adam M; Hsu, I-Chow; Goldberg, Ken

    Accurate insertion of needles to targets in 3D anatomy is required for numerous medical procedures. To reduce patient trauma, a "fireworks" needle insertion approach can be used in which multiple needles are inserted from a single small region on the patient's skin to multiple targets in the tissue. In this paper, we explore motion planning for "fireworks" needle insertion in 3D environments by developing an algorithm based on Rapidly-exploring Random Trees (RRTs). Given a set of targets, we propose an algorithm to quickly explore the configuration space by building a forest of RRTs and to find feasible plans for multiple steerable needles from a single entry region. We present two path selection algorithms with different optimality considerations to optimize the final plan among all feasible outputs. Finally, we demonstrate the performance of the proposed algorithm with a simulation based on a prostate cancer treatment environment.

  5. Locating steel needles in the human body using a SQUID magnetometer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Costa Monteiro, E.; Hall Barbosa, C.; Lima, E. Andrade; Costa Ribeiro, P.; Boechat, P.

    2000-08-01

    A technique has been developed, based on magnetic field measurements, to localize, in three dimensions, hypodermic and sewing needles lost in the human body. A theoretical model for the magnetic field generated by needles has been elaborated and experimentally validated. Using this model, the localization technique gives information about needle's centre, orientation and depth. The clinical measurements have been made using a SQUID system, with patients being moved under the sensor with the aid of an X-Y bed. The magnetic field associated with the remanent magnetization of the needle is acquired on-line and mapped over a plane. In all six cases that occurred, the technique allowed surgical localization of the needles with ease and high precision. This procedure can decrease the surgery time for extraction of foreign bodies by a large factor, and also reduce the generally high odds of failure.

  6. Planning Fireworks Trajectories for Steerable Medical Needles to Reduce Patient Trauma

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Jijie; Duindam, Vincent; Alterovitz, Ron; Pouliot, Jean; Cunha, J. Adam M.; Hsu, I-Chow; Goldberg, Ken

    2012-01-01

    Accurate insertion of needles to targets in 3D anatomy is required for numerous medical procedures. To reduce patient trauma, a “fireworks” needle insertion approach can be used in which multiple needles are inserted from a single small region on the patient’s skin to multiple targets in the tissue. In this paper, we explore motion planning for “fireworks” needle insertion in 3D environments by developing an algorithm based on Rapidly-exploring Random Trees (RRTs). Given a set of targets, we propose an algorithm to quickly explore the configuration space by building a forest of RRTs and to find feasible plans for multiple steerable needles from a single entry region. We present two path selection algorithms with different optimality considerations to optimize the final plan among all feasible outputs. Finally, we demonstrate the performance of the proposed algorithm with a simulation based on a prostate cancer treatment environment. PMID:25946259

  7. A flexure-based steerable needle: high curvature with reduced tissue damage.

    PubMed

    Swaney, Philip J; Burgner, Jessica; Gilbert, Hunter B; Webster, Robert J

    2013-04-01

    In the quest to design higher curvature bevel-steered needles, kinked bevel-tips have been one of the most successful approaches yet proposed. However, the price to be paid for enhancing steerability in this way has been increased tissue damage, since the prebent tip cuts a local helical path into tissue when axially rotated. This is problematic when closed-loop control is desired, because the controller will typically require the needle to rotate rapidly, and it is particularly problematic when duty cycling (i.e., continual needle spinning) is used to adjust curvature. In this paper, we propose a new flexure-based needle tip design that provides the enhanced steerability of kinked bevel-tip needles, while simultaneously minimizing tissue damage.

  8. A Flexure-Based Steerable Needle: High Curvature With Reduced Tissue Damage

    PubMed Central

    Burgner, Jessica; Gilbert, Hunter B.; Webster, Robert J.

    2013-01-01

    In the quest to design higher curvature bevel-steered needles, kinked bevel-tips have been one of the most successful approaches yet proposed. However, the price to be paid for enhancing steerability in this way has been increased tissue damage, since the prebent tip cuts a local helical path into tissue when axially rotated. This is problematic when closed-loop control is desired, because the controller will typically require the needle to rotate rapidly, and it is particularly problematic when duty cycling (i.e., continual needle spinning) is used to adjust curvature. In this paper, we propose a new flexure-based needle tip design that provides the enhanced steerability of kinked bevel-tip needles, while simultaneously minimizing tissue damage. PMID:23204267

  9. 3D Motion Planning Algorithms for Steerable Needles Using Inverse Kinematics

    PubMed Central

    Duindam, Vincent; Xu, Jijie; Alterovitz, Ron; Sastry, Shankar; Goldberg, Ken

    2010-01-01

    Steerable needles can be used in medical applications to reach targets behind sensitive or impenetrable areas. The kinematics of a steerable needle are nonholonomic and, in 2D, equivalent to a Dubins car with constant radius of curvature. In 3D, the needle can be interpreted as an airplane with constant speed and pitch rate, zero yaw, and controllable roll angle. We present a constant-time motion planning algorithm for steerable needles based on explicit geometric inverse kinematics similar to the classic Paden-Kahan subproblems. Reachability and path competitivity are analyzed using analytic comparisons with shortest path solutions for the Dubins car (for 2D) and numerical simulations (for 3D). We also present an algorithm for local path adaptation using null-space results from redundant manipulator theory. Finally, we discuss several ways to use and extend the inverse kinematics solution to generate needle paths that avoid obstacles. PMID:21359051

  10. Complete prevention of blood loss with self-sealing haemostatic needles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shin, Mikyung; Park, Sung-Gurl; Oh, Byung-Chang; Kim, Keumyeon; Jo, Seongyeon; Lee, Moon Sue; Oh, Seok Song; Hong, Seon-Hui; Shin, Eui-Cheol; Kim, Ki-Suk; Kang, Sun-Woong; Lee, Haeshin

    2017-01-01

    Bleeding is largely unavoidable following syringe needle puncture of biological tissues and, while inconvenient, this typically causes little or no harm in healthy individuals. However, there are certain circumstances where syringe injections can have more significant side effects, such as uncontrolled bleeding in those with haemophilia, coagulopathy, or the transmission of infectious diseases through contaminated blood. Herein, we present a haemostatic hypodermic needle able to prevent bleeding following tissue puncture. The surface of the needle is coated with partially crosslinked catechol-functionalized chitosan that undergoes a solid-to-gel phase transition in situ to seal punctured tissues. Testing the capabilities of these haemostatic needles, we report complete prevention of blood loss following intravenous and intramuscular injections in animal models, and 100% survival in haemophiliac mice following syringe puncture of the jugular vein. Such self-sealing haemostatic needles and adhesive coatings may therefore help to prevent complications associated with bleeding in more clinical settings.

  11. Real-Time Estimation of 3-D Needle Shape and Deflection for MRI-Guided Interventions

    PubMed Central

    Park, Yong-Lae; Elayaperumal, Santhi; Daniel, Bruce; Ryu, Seok Chang; Shin, Mihye; Savall, Joan; Black, Richard J.; Moslehi, Behzad; Cutkosky, Mark R.

    2015-01-01

    We describe a MRI-compatible biopsy needle instrumented with optical fiber Bragg gratings for measuring bending deflections of the needle as it is inserted into tissues. During procedures, such as diagnostic biopsies and localized treatments, it is useful to track any tool deviation from the planned trajectory to minimize positioning errors and procedural complications. The goal is to display tool deflections in real time, with greater bandwidth and accuracy than when viewing the tool in MR images. A standard 18 ga × 15 cm inner needle is prepared using a fixture, and 350-μm-deep grooves are created along its length. Optical fibers are embedded in the grooves. Two sets of sensors, located at different points along the needle, provide an estimate of the bent profile, as well as temperature compensation. Tests of the needle in a water bath showed that it produced no adverse imaging artifacts when used with the MR scanner. PMID:26405428

  12. Low cost augmented reality for training of MRI-guided needle biopsy of the spine.

    PubMed

    George, Sandeep; Kesavadas, Thenkurussi

    2008-01-01

    In needle biopsy of the spine, an Augmented Reality (AR) image guidance system can be very effective in ensuring that while targeting the lesion with the biopsy needle, vital organs near the spine are not damaged and that the approach path is accurate. This procedure requires skill that is hard to master on patients. In this paper, we present a low cost AR based training set-up which consists of a software that uses one static single-camera tracking mechanism to locate the biopsy needle in the patient and which then augments the camera feed of the patient with virtual data providing real-time guidance to the surgeon for insertion of the biopsy needle. The setup is implemented using a phantom model consisting of a set of carefully modeled holes to simulate the needle insertion task. The lack of requirement of elaborate infrared tracking systems and high computing power makes this system very effective for educational and training purposes.

  13. [Comparison of port needle with safety device between Huber Plus (HP) and Poly PERF Safe (PPS)].

    PubMed

    Shimono, Chigusa; Tanaka, Atsuko; Fujita, Ai; Ishimoto, Miki; Oura, Shoji; Yamaue, Hiroki; Sato, Morio

    2010-05-01

    An embedded port is frequently used for outpatients with advanced cancer in central venous chemotherapy or hepatic arterial chemoinfusion. The port needle with a safety device in an ambulatory treatment center is indispensable for medical employees and patient plus family to reduce the risk of a needle puncture accident and to prevent iatrogenic infection. The port needle with safety system has been already introduced in our chemotherapy center. There are two types of port needle with safety device; Huber Plus (HP, Medicon Co., Ltd.) and POLY PERF Safe (PPS, Pyolax Device, Co., Ltd.). The comparison of the feasibility between HP and PPS was conducted by both medical employees and patients plus family using an inquiry score method. HP was highly regarded for its stability plus fixation and PPS for its usefulness in puncture and extraction of the needle. PPS was found to be preferable to HP based on the overall evaluation.

  14. An acupuncture needle remaining in a lung for 17 years: case study and review.

    PubMed

    Lewek, Pawel; Lewek, Joanna; Kardas, Przemyslaw

    2012-09-01

    The case of a 67-year-old patient with an acupuncture needle remaining in his left lung is described. This foreign body was a remnant of a procedure performed by a doctor 17 years previously for osteoarthritic back pain. On the basis of this case, a review was performed of literature available in the PubMed database dealing with acupuncture needles remaining in a patient's body. A total of 25 articles were found. The articles describe needles found in the bladder, shoulder girdle, spinal cord, right ventricle, L5 nerve root, medulla oblongata, skin, carpal tunnel, nuchal and occipital area, calf and paraspinal muscle. Migration of needle fragments to the liver, pancreas, stomach, colon, breast, kidney, muscles, and spinal cord has been reported in the literature. In cases where patients were operated on, the needles were removed without subsequent complications and the patients recovered fully.

  15. Display Sharing: An Alternative Paradigm

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brown, Michael A.

    2010-01-01

    The current Johnson Space Center (JSC) Mission Control Center (MCC) Video Transport System (VTS) provides flight controllers and management the ability to meld raw video from various sources with telemetry to improve situational awareness. However, maintaining a separate infrastructure for video delivery and integration of video content with data adds significant complexity and cost to the system. When considering alternative architectures for a VTS, the current system's ability to share specific computer displays in their entirety to other locations, such as large projector systems, flight control rooms, and back supporting rooms throughout the facilities and centers must be incorporated into any new architecture. Internet Protocol (IP)-based systems also support video delivery and integration. IP-based systems generally have an advantage in terms of cost and maintainability. Although IP-based systems are versatile, the task of sharing a computer display from one workstation to another can be time consuming for an end-user and inconvenient to administer at a system level. The objective of this paper is to present a prototype display sharing enterprise solution. Display sharing is a system which delivers image sharing across the LAN while simultaneously managing bandwidth, supporting encryption, enabling recovery and resynchronization following a loss of signal, and, minimizing latency. Additional critical elements will include image scaling support, multi -sharing, ease of initial integration and configuration, integration with desktop window managers, collaboration tools, host and recipient controls. This goal of this paper is to summarize the various elements of an IP-based display sharing system that can be used in today's control center environment.

  16. Smart surgical needle actuated by shape memory alloys for percutaneous procedures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Konh, Bardia

    Background: Majority of cancer interventions today are performed percutaneously using needle-based procedures, i.e. through the skin and soft tissue. Insufficient accuracy using conventional surgical needles motivated researchers to provide actuation forces to the needle's body for compensating the possible errors of surgeons/physicians. Therefore, active needles were proposed recently where actuation forces provided by shape memory alloys (SMAs) are utilized to assist the maneuverability and accuracy of surgical needles. This work also aims to introduce a novel needle insertion simulation to predict the deflection of a bevel tip needle inside the tissue. Methods: In this work first, the actuation capability of a single SMA wire was studied. The complex response of SMAs was investigated via a MATLAB implementation of the Brinson model and verified via experimental tests. The material characteristics of SMAs were simulated by defining multilinear elastic isothermal stress-strain curves. Rigorous experiments with SMA wires were performed to determine the material properties as well as to show the capability of the code to predict a stabilized SMA transformation behavior with sufficient accuracy. The isothermal stress-strain curves of SMAs were simulated and defined as a material model for the Finite Element Analysis of the active needle. In the second part of this work, a three-dimensional finite element (FE) model of the active steerable needle was developed to demonstrate the feasibility of using SMA wires as actuators to bend the surgical needle. In the FE model, birth and death method of defining boundary conditions, available in ANSYS, was used to achieve the pre-strain condition on SMA wire prior to actuation. This numerical model was validated with needle deflection experiments with developed prototypes of the active needle. The third part of this work describes the design optimization of the active using genetic algorithm aiming for its maximum flexibility

  17. The Tip of the Tail Needle Affects the Rate of DNA Delivery by Bacteriophage P22

    PubMed Central

    Leavitt, Justin C.; Gogokhia, Lasha; Gilcrease, Eddie B.; Bhardwaj, Anshul; Cingolani, Gino; Casjens, Sherwood R.

    2013-01-01

    The P22-like bacteriophages have short tails. Their virions bind to their polysaccharide receptors through six trimeric tailspike proteins that surround the tail tip. These short tails also have a trimeric needle protein that extends beyond the tailspikes from the center of the tail tip, in a position that suggests that it should make first contact with the host’s outer membrane during the infection process. The base of the needle serves as a plug that keeps the DNA in the virion, but role of the needle during adsorption and DNA injection is not well understood. Among the P22-like phages are needle types with two completely different C-terminal distal tip domains. In the phage Sf6-type needle, unlike the other P22-type needle, the distal tip folds into a “knob” with a TNF-like fold, similar to the fiber knobs of bacteriophage PRD1 and Adenovirus. The phage HS1 knob is very similar to that of Sf6, and we report here its crystal structure which, like the Sf6 knob, contains three bound L-glutamate molecules. A chimeric P22 phage with a tail needle that contains the HS1 terminal knob efficiently infects the P22 host, Salmonella enterica, suggesting the knob does not confer host specificity. Likewise, mutations that should abrogate the binding of L-glutamate to the needle do not appear to affect virion function, but several different other genetic changes to the tip of the needle slow down potassium release from the host during infection. These findings suggest that the needle plays a role in phage P22 DNA delivery by controlling the kinetics of DNA ejection into the host. PMID:23951045

  18. Distribution of persistent organohalogen compounds in pine needles from selected locations in Kentucky and Georgia, USA.

    PubMed

    Loganathan, Bommanna G; Kumar, Kurunthachalam Senthil; Seaford, Kosta D; Sajwan, Kenneth S; Hanari, Nobuyasu; Yamashita, Nobuyoshi

    2008-04-01

    Epicuticular wax of pine needles accumulates organic pollutants from the atmosphere, and the pine needle samples have been used for monitoring both local and regional distributions of semivolatile organic air pollutants. One-year-old pine needles collected from residential and industrial locations in western Kentucky and the vicinity of Linden Chemicals and Plastics, a Superfund Site at Brunswick, Georgia, were analyzed for polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), major chlorinated pesticides, and polychlorinated naphthalenes (PCNs). Total PCB concentrations in pine needles from Kentucky ranged from 5.2 to 12 ng/g dry weight (dw). These sites were comparatively less polluted than those from the Superfund Site, which had total PCB concentrations in pine needles in the range of 15-34 ng/g dw. Total chlorinated pesticides concentrations in pine needles ranged from 3.5 to 10 ng/g dw from Kentucky. A similar range of concentrations of chlorinated pesticides (7.3-12 ng/g dw) was also found in pine needle samples from the Superfund site. Total PCN concentrations in pine needles ranged from 76 to 150 pg/g dw in Kentucky. At the Superfund Site, total PCN concentrations ranged from 610 pg/g dw to 38,000 pg/g dw. When the toxic equivalencies (TEQs) of PCBs in pine needles were compared, Kentucky was relatively lower (0.03-0.11 pg/g dry wt) than the TEQs at the Superfund Site (0.24-0.48 pg/g dry wt). The TEQs of PCNs from Kentucky (0.004-0.067 pg/g dw) were much lower than the TEQs from locations near the Superfund Site (0.30-19 pg/g dry wt). The results revealed that pine needles are excellent, passive, nondestructive bioindicators for monitoring and evaluating PCBs, chlorinated pesticides, and PCNs.

  19. New Coaxial Transseptal Needle for Creation of Atrial Septal Defects in Adult Sheep

    SciTech Connect

    Uchida, Barry T.; Pavcnik, Dusan Shimohira, Masashi; Choi, Young Ho; Jeromel, Miran; Keller, Frederick S.; Roesch, Josef

    2011-06-15

    Objectives: To introduce a new transseptal (TS) needle assembled in our laboratory-the coaxial TS (CTS) needle-and describe our experience with it in creating experimental atrial septal defects (ASD) in adult sheep.BackgroundWith commercially available TS needles, we were not able to consistently perform TS puncture at the fossa ovalis in adult sheep.Material and MethodsTen adult sheep with a mean weight of 63.5 kg were used. The CTS needle consists of four components: a 9F Teflon catheter, a 14-gauge blunt curved-tip metal cannula, a 4F tapered catheter, and a 20-gauge open needle. A transjugular 5F pigtail catheter was used to display the septal anatomy by angiocardiography and was left in place to mark the level of the fossa ovalis. The septum was then probed by a transfemoral 5F curved-tip end-hole catheter. The CTS needle was aligned with the tip of the transjugular catheter, and the TS puncture was performed under fluoroscopic guidance. After documenting a left atrial position, a balloon angioplasty catheter was used for creation of the ASD. Results: A small patent foramen ovale was discovered by septal probing in one sheep. All sheep underwent successful TS punctures without complications. The ASD size ranged from 13 to 15 mm. In eight sheep, the ASD was in fossa ovalis. In the first two sheep where the needle was not well aligned with the marking catheter, the ASD was in the septum secundum. No damage to the atrial or other heart structures was found at necropsy. Conclusion: The CTS needle is a suitable needle for TS puncture and ASD creation in adult sheep. Proper alignment of the CTS needle with a catheter marking the fossa ovalis is essential for successful puncture.

  20. Interventions for Individuals With High Levels of Needle Fear

    PubMed Central

    Noel, Melanie; Taddio, Anna; Antony, Martin M.; Asmundson, Gordon J.G.; Riddell, Rebecca Pillai; Chambers, Christine T.; Shah, Vibhuti

    2015-01-01

    Background: This systematic review evaluated the effectiveness of exposure-based psychological and physical interventions for the management of high levels of needle fear and/or phobia and fainting in children and adults. Design/Methods: A systematic review identified relevant randomized and quasi-randomized controlled trials of children, adults, or both with high levels of needle fear, including phobia (if not available, then populations with other specific phobias were included). Critically important outcomes were self-reported fear specific to the feared situation and stimulus (psychological interventions) or fainting (applied muscle tension). Data were pooled using standardized mean difference (SMD) or relative risk with 95% confidence intervals. Results: The systematic review included 11 trials. In vivo exposure-based therapy for children 7 years and above showed benefit on specific fear (n=234; SMD: −1.71 [95% CI: −2.72, −0.7]). In vivo exposure-based therapy with adults reduced fear of needles posttreatment (n=20; SMD: −1.09 [−2.04, −0.14]) but not at 1-year follow-up (n=20; SMD: −0.28 [−1.16, 0.6]). Compared with single session, a benefit was observed for multiple sessions of exposure-based therapy posttreatment (n=93; SMD: −0.66 [−1.08, −0.24]) but not after 1 year (n=83; SMD: −0.37 [−0.87, 0.13]). Non in vivo e.g., imaginal exposure-based therapy in children reduced specific fear posttreatment (n=41; SMD: −0.88 [−1.7, −0.05]) and at 3 months (n=24; SMD: −0.89 [−1.73, −0.04]). Non in vivo exposure-based therapy for adults showed benefit on specific fear (n=68; SMD: −0.62 [−1.11, −0.14]) but not procedural fear (n=17; SMD: 0.18 [−0.87, 1.23]). Applied tension showed benefit on fainting posttreatment (n=20; SMD: −1.16 [−2.12, −0.19]) and after 1 year (n=20; SMD: −0.97 [−1.91, −0.03]) compared with exposure alone. Conclusions: Exposure-based psychological interventions and applied muscle tension show

  1. Coded excitation ultrasonic needle tracking: An in vivo study

    PubMed Central

    Xia, Wenfeng; Ginsberg, Yuval; West, Simeon J.; Nikitichev, Daniil I.; Ourselin, Sebastien; David, Anna L.; Desjardins, Adrien E.

    2016-01-01

    Purpose Accurate and efficient guidance of medical devices to procedural targets lies at the heart of interventional procedures. Ultrasound imaging is commonly used for device guidance, but determining the location of the device tip can be challenging. Various methods have been proposed to track medical devices during ultrasound-guided procedures, but widespread clinical adoption has remained elusive. With ultrasonic tracking, the location of a medical device is determined by ultrasonic communication between the ultrasound imaging probe and a transducer integrated into the medical device. The signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) of the transducer data is an important determinant of the depth in tissue at which tracking can be performed. In this paper, the authors present a new generation of ultrasonic tracking in which coded excitation is used to improve the SNR without spatial averaging. Methods A fiber optic hydrophone was integrated into the cannula of a 20 gauge insertion needle. This transducer received transmissions from the ultrasound imaging probe, and the data were processed to obtain a tracking image of the needle tip. Excitation using Barker or Golay codes was performed to improve the SNR, and conventional bipolar excitation was performed for comparison. The performance of the coded excitation ultrasonic tracking system was evaluated in an in vivo ovine model with insertions to the brachial plexus and the uterine cavity. Results Coded excitation significantly increased the SNRs of the tracking images, as compared with bipolar excitation. During an insertion to the brachial plexus, the SNR was increased by factors of 3.5 for Barker coding and 7.1 for Golay coding. During insertions into the uterine cavity, these factors ranged from 2.9 to 4.2 for Barker coding and 5.4 to 8.5 for Golay coding. The maximum SNR was 670, which was obtained with Golay coding during needle withdrawal from the brachial plexus. Range sidelobe artifacts were observed in tracking images

  2. Needle electrode-based electromechanical reshaping of cartilage.

    PubMed

    Manuel, Cyrus T; Foulad, Allen; Protsenko, Dmitriy E; Sepehr, Ali; Wong, Brian J F

    2010-11-01

    Electromechanical reshaping (EMR) of cartilage provides an alternative to the classic surgical techniques of modifying the shape of facial cartilages. The original embodiment of EMR required surface electrodes to be in direct contact with the entire cartilage region being reshaped. This study evaluates the feasibility of using needle electrode systems for EMR of facial cartilage and evaluates the relationships between electrode configuration, voltage, and application time in effecting shape change. Flat rabbit nasal septal cartilage specimens were deformed by a jig into a 90° bend, while a constant electric voltage was applied to needle electrodes that were inserted into the cartilage. The electrode configuration, voltage (0-7.5 V), and application time (1-9 min) were varied systematically to create the most effective shape change. Electric current and temperature were measured during voltage application, and the resulting specimen shape was assessed in terms of retained bend angle. In order to demonstrate the clinical feasibility of EMR, the most effective and practical settings from the septal cartilage experimentation were used to reshape intact rabbit and pig ears ex vivo. Cell viability of the cartilage after EMR was determined using confocal microscopy in conjunction with a live/dead assay. Overall, cartilage reshaping increased with increased voltage and increased application time. For all electrode configurations and application times tested, heat generation was negligible (<1 °C) up to 6 V. At 6 V, with the most effective electrode configuration, the bend angle began to significantly increase after 2 min of application time and began to plateau above 5 min. As a function of voltage at 2 min of application time, significant reshaping occurred at and above 5 V, with no significant increase in the bend angle between 6 and 7.5 V. In conclusion, electromechanical reshaping of cartilage grafts and intact ears can be effectively performed with

  3. Reducing door to needle time for stroke thrombolysis.

    PubMed

    Gill, Sumanjit

    2014-01-01

    Better outcomes are obtained with stroke thrombolysis the more rapidly it is given, both in terms of the patient's level of functional ability and also mortality. Current UK performance targets (outside London) aim for a time of 45 minutes or less. Thrombolysis pathways involve multidisciplinary working across departmental boundaries as well as senior level decision making. Our system used telemedicine out of hours adding additional complexity to the pathway. The initial planning stages started by auditing current practice and mapping the existing pathway. The figures for door to needle times were held on a database on the stroke unit and collected in detail for the purposes of national reporting. The pathway was mapped by combining personal experience of working within the stroke service with the experiences of the general medical registrars who worked the system out of hours. The initial action was to present this information throughout the hospital at departmental meetings. Opinions were canvassed at these meetings on where the biggest barriers were within the pathway and how we could address them. An awareness campaign was held by advertising over the intranet. An intervention comprising the following elements was introduced over the period of a year: introduction of an ambulance pre-alert, revision of the existing pathway, and education to all those involved in thrombolysis. The cases where particularly long delays were noted were audited in more depth to identify barriers to flow through the system. This was reported in ward meetings for staff to contribute experience and to offer solutions. We went to commissioning group meetings to gain the support of the local ambulance service, and talked to A&E seniors about the project and the ways in which they could help. Median times were calculated from a stroke database. There was a fall in median door to needle time of 65.5 to 49 minutes over a period of 18 months. A complex intervention to improve door to needle

  4. Needle Electrode-Based Electromechanical Reshaping of Cartilage

    PubMed Central

    Manuel, Cyrus T.; Foulad, Allen; Protsenko, Dmitriy E.; Sepehr, Ali

    2010-01-01

    Electromechanical reshaping (EMR) of cartilage provides an alternative to the classic surgical techniques of modifying the shape of facial cartilages. The original embodiment of EMR required surface electrodes to be in direct contact with the entire cartilage region being reshaped. This study evaluates the feasibility of using needle electrode systems for EMR of facial cartilage and evaluates the relationships between electrode configuration, voltage, and application time in effecting shape change. Flat rabbit nasal septal cartilage specimens were deformed by a jig into a 90° bend, while a constant electric voltage was applied to needle electrodes that were inserted into the cartilage. The electrode configuration, voltage (0–7.5 V), and application time (1–9 min) were varied systematically to create the most effective shape change. Electric current and temperature were measured during voltage application, and the resulting specimen shape was assessed in terms of retained bend angle. In order to demonstrate the clinical feasibility of EMR, the most effective and practical settings from the septal cartilage experimentation were used to reshape intact rabbit and pig ears ex vivo. Cell viability of the cartilage after EMR was determined using confocal microscopy in conjunction with a live/dead assay. Overall, cartilage reshaping increased with increased voltage and increased application time. For all electrode configurations and application times tested, heat generation was negligible (<1 °C) up to 6 V. At 6 V, with the most effective electrode configuration, the bend angle began to significantly increase after 2 min of application time and began to plateau above 5 min. As a function of voltage at 2 min of application time, significant reshaping occurred at and above 5 V, with no significant increase in the bend angle between 6 and 7.5 V. In conclusion, electromechanical reshaping of cartilage grafts and intact ears can be effectively performed with

  5. Efficacy of needle-free injection on antibody production against Clostridium chauvoei in beef calves under field conditions.

    PubMed

    Rey, Michel; Rodriguez-Lecompte, Juan; Undi, Michael; Joseph, Tomy; Morrison, Jason; Yitbarek, Alex; Wittenberg, Karin; Tremblay, Robert; Crow, Gary; Ominski, Kim

    2015-04-01

    This study compared needle-free and needle-based injection devices for vaccination of calves against Clostridium chauvoei in warm and cold conditions. Both devices elicited comparable antibody responses in calves. Needle-free injection devices can be used to vaccinate calves provided appropriate precautions are taken in cold weather.

  6. Efficacy of needle-free injection on antibody production against Clostridium chauvoei in beef calves under field conditions

    PubMed Central

    Rey, Michel; Rodriguez-Lecompte, Juan; Undi, Michael; Joseph, Tomy; Morrison, Jason; Yitbarek, Alex; Wittenberg, Karin; Tremblay, Robert; Crow, Gary; Ominski, Kim

    2015-01-01

    This study compared needle-free and needle-based injection devices for vaccination of calves against Clostridium chauvoei in warm and cold conditions. Both devices elicited comparable antibody responses in calves. Needle-free injection devices can be used to vaccinate calves provided appropriate precautions are taken in cold weather. PMID:25829562

  7. A data-driven soft sensor for needle deflection in heterogeneous tissue using just-in-time modelling.

    PubMed

    Rossa, Carlos; Lehmann, Thomas; Sloboda, Ronald; Usmani, Nawaid; Tavakoli, Mahdi

    2016-12-10

    Global modelling has traditionally been the approach taken to estimate needle deflection in soft tissue. In this paper, we propose a new method based on local data-driven modelling of needle deflection. External measurement of needle-tissue interactions is collected from several insertions in ex vivo tissue to form a cloud of data. Inputs to the system are the needle insertion depth, axial rotations, and the forces and torques measured at the needle base by a force sensor. When a new insertion is performed, the just-in-time learning method estimates the model outputs given the current inputs to the needle-tissue system and the historical database. The query is compared to every observation in the database and is given weights according to some similarity criteria. Only a subset of historical data that is most relevant to the query is selected and a local linear model is fit to the selected points to estimate the query output. The model outputs the 3D deflection of the needle tip and the needle insertion force. The proposed approach is validated in ex vivo multilayered biological tissue in different needle insertion scenarios. Experimental results in five different case studies indicate an accuracy in predicting needle deflection of 0.81 and 1.24 mm in the horizontal and vertical lanes, respectively, and an accuracy of 0.5 N in predicting the needle insertion force over 216 needle insertions.

  8. Hot wire needle probe for thermal conductivity detection

    DOEpatents

    Condie, Keith Glenn; Rempe, Joy Lynn; Knudson, Darrell lee; Daw, Joshua Earl; Wilkins, Steven Curtis; Fox, Brandon S.; Heng, Ban

    2015-11-10

    An apparatus comprising a needle probe comprising a sheath, a heating element, a temperature sensor, and electrical insulation that allows thermal conductivity to be measured in extreme environments, such as in high-temperature irradiation testing. The heating element is contained within the sheath and is electrically conductive. In an embodiment, the heating element is a wire capable of being joule heated when an electrical current is applied. The temperature sensor is contained within the sheath, electrically insulated from the heating element and the sheath. The electrical insulation electrically insulates the sheath, heating element and temperature sensor. The electrical insulation fills the sheath having electrical resistance capable of preventing electrical conduction between the sheath, heating element, and temperature sensor. The control system is connected to the heating element and the temperature sensor.

  9. Fine Needle Aspiration Cytology in Diagnosis of Pure Neuritic Leprosy

    PubMed Central

    Kumar, Bipin; Pradhan, Anju

    2011-01-01

    Leprosy is a chronic infection affecting mainly the skin and peripheral nerve. Pure neuritic form of this disease manifests by involvement of the nerve in the absence of skin lesions. Therefore, it can sometimes create a diagnostic problem. It often requires a nerve biopsy for diagnosis, which is an invasive procedure and may lead to neural deficit. Fine needle aspiration cytology (FNAC) of an affected nerve can be a valuable and less invasive procedure for the diagnosis of such cases. We report five suspected cases of pure neuritic Hansen's disease involving the common and superficial peroneal, ulnar, and median nerve, who underwent FNAC. Smears revealed nerve fibers infiltrated by chronic inflammatory cells in all cases, presence of epithelioid cells granulomas, and Langhans giant cells in three cases, and acid fast bacilli in two cases. In conclusion, FNAC is a safe, less invasive, and time saving procedure for the diagnosis of pure neuritic leprosy. PMID:21660285

  10. Treatment of Streptococcus mutans bacteria by a plasma needle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Xianhui; Huang, Jun; Liu, Xiaodi; Peng, Lei; Guo, Lihong; Lv, Guohua; Chen, Wei; Feng, Kecheng; Yang, Si-ze

    2009-03-01

    A dielectric barrier discharge plasma needle was realized at atmospheric pressure with a funnel-shaped nozzle. The preliminary characteristics of the plasma plume and its applications in the inactivation of Streptococcus mutans (S. mutans), the most important microorganism causing dental caries, were presented in this paper. The temperature of the plasma plume does not reach higher than 315 K when the power is below 28 W. Oxygen was injected downstream in the plasma afterglow region through the powered steel tube. Its effect was studied via optical-emission spectroscopy, both in air and in agar. Results show that addition of 26 SCCM O2 does not affect the plume length significantly (SCCM denotes cubic centimeter per minute at STP). The inactivation of S. mutans is primarily attributed to ultraviolet light emission, O, OH, and He radicals.

  11. Online parameter estimation for surgical needle steering model.

    PubMed

    Yan, Kai Guo; Podder, Tarun; Xiao, Di; Yu, Yan; Liu, Tien-I; Ling, Keck Voon; Ng, Wan Sing

    2006-01-01

    Estimation of the system parameters, given noisy input/output data, is a major field in control and signal processing. Many different estimation methods have been proposed in recent years. Among various methods, Extended Kalman Filtering (EKF) is very useful for estimating the parameters of a nonlinear and time-varying system. Moreover, it can remove the effects of noises to achieve significantly improved results. Our task here is to estimate the coefficients in a spring-beam-damper needle steering model. This kind of spring-damper model has been adopted by many researchers in studying the tissue deformation. One difficulty in using such model is to estimate the spring and damper coefficients. Here, we proposed an online parameter estimator using EKF to solve this problem. The detailed design is presented in this paper. Computer simulations and physical experiments have revealed that the simulator can estimate the parameters accurately with fast convergent speed and improve the model efficacy.

  12. Structure of Phage P22 Cell Envelope-Penetrating Needle

    SciTech Connect

    Olia,A.; Casjens, S.; Cingolani, G.

    2007-01-01

    Bacteriophage P22 infects Salmonella enterica by injecting its genetic material through the cell envelope. During infection, a specialized tail needle, gp26, is injected into the host, likely piercing a hole in the host cell envelope. The 2.1-Angstroms crystal structure of gp26 reveals a 240-Angstroms elongated protein fiber formed by two trimeric coiled-coil domains interrupted by a triple beta-helix. The N terminus of gp26 plugs the portal protein channel, retaining the genetic material inside the virion. The C-terminal tip of the fiber exposes beta-hairpins with hydrophobic tips similar to those seen in class II fusion peptides. The alpha-helical core connecting these two functionally polarized tips presents four trimerization octads with consensus sequence IXXLXXXV. The slender conformation of the gp26 fiber minimizes the surface exposed to solvent, which is consistent with the idea that gp26 traverses the cell envelope lipid bilayers.

  13. Continuous-wave laser generated jets for needle free applications

    PubMed Central

    Visser, Claas Willem; Schlautmann, Stefan

    2016-01-01

    We designed and built a microfluidic device for the generation of liquid jets produced by thermocavitation. A continuous wave (CW) laser was focused inside a micro-chamber filled with a light-absorbing solution to create a rapidly expanding vapor bubble. The chamber is connected to a micro-channel which focuses and ejects the liquid jet through the exit. The bubble growth and the jet velocity were measured as a function of the devices geometry (channel diameter D and chamber width A). The fastest jets were those for relatively large chamber size with respect to the channel diameter. Elongated and focused jets up to 29 m/s for a channel diameter of 250 μm and chamber size of 700 μm were obtained. The proposed CW laser-based device is potentially a compact option for a practical and commercially feasible needle-free injector. PMID:26858816

  14. Structure of Phage P22 Cell Envelope-Penetrating Needle

    SciTech Connect

    Olia, A.S.; Casjens, S.; Cingolani, G.

    2009-06-02

    Bacteriophage P22 infects Salmonella enterica by injecting its genetic material through the cell envelope. During infection, a specialized tail needle, gp26, is injected into the host, likely piercing a hole in the host cell envelope. The 2.1-{angstrom} crystal structure of gp26 reveals a 240-{angstrom} elongated protein fiber formed by two trimeric coiled-coil domains interrupted by a triple {beta}-helix. The N terminus of gp26 plugs the portal protein channel, retaining the genetic material inside the virion. The C-terminal tip of the fiber exposes {beta}-hairpins with hydrophobic tips similar to those seen in class II fusion peptides. The {alpha}-helical core connecting these two functionally polarized tips presents four trimerization octads with consensus sequence IXXLXXXV. The slender conformation of the gp26 fiber minimizes the surface exposed to solvent, which is consistent with the idea that gp26 traverses the cell envelope lipid bilayers.

  15. Incisional endometriosis: diagnosed by fine needle aspiration cytology.

    PubMed

    Veda, P; Srinivasaiah, M

    2010-07-01

    Incisional endometriosis (IE) is a rare entity reported in 0.03-1.08% of women following obstetric or gynecologic surgeries. Most cases reported in literature have appeared after cesarean sections and were often clinically mistaken for hernia, abscess, suture granuloma or lipoma. We hereby report a case of IE following a second trimester hysterotomy, which was diagnosed by fine needle aspiration cytology (FNAC). Our patient was 26 years old, presenting with a mass over anterior abdominal wall, associated with incapacitating pain during each menstrual cycle. FNAC showed epithelial cells, stromal cells and hemosiderin laden macrophages. Based on the typical history, clinical and cytological features, the diagnosis of IE was established. Wide surgical excision was done and the resulting rectus sheath defect was repaired. Patient was followed for 6 months during which time she was symptom free. This article also reviews the spectrum of cytological features and the rare possibility of malignant transformation that can occur in IE.

  16. Treatment of Streptococcus mutans bacteria by a plasma needle

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang Xianhui; Huang Jun; Lv Guohua; Liu Xiaodi; Peng Lei; Guo Lihong; Chen Wei; Feng Kecheng; Yang Size

    2009-03-15

    A dielectric barrier discharge plasma needle was realized at atmospheric pressure with a funnel-shaped nozzle. The preliminary characteristics of the plasma plume and its applications in the inactivation of Streptococcus mutans (S. mutans), the most important microorganism causing dental caries, were presented in this paper. The temperature of the plasma plume does not reach higher than 315 K when the power is below 28 W. Oxygen was injected downstream in the plasma afterglow region through the powered steel tube. Its effect was studied via optical-emission spectroscopy, both in air and in agar. Results show that addition of 26 SCCM O{sub 2} does not affect the plume length significantly (SCCM denotes cubic centimeter per minute at STP). The inactivation of S. mutans is primarily attributed to ultraviolet light emission, O, OH, and He radicals.

  17. Endotracheal tuberculous granuloma formation following endobronchial ultrasound transbronchial needle aspiration.

    PubMed

    Lee, Jeong-Won; Kim, Woo-Jin; Park, Chan-Woo; Kang, Hyun-Wook; Ban, Hee-Jung; Oh, In-Jae; Kwon, Yong-Soo; Kim, Kyu-Sik; Kim, Yu-Il; Lim, Sung-Chul; Kim, Young-Chul; Choi, Yoo-Duk

    2013-01-01

    Endobronchial ultrasound-transbronchial needle aspiration (EBUS-TBNA) is a useful and safe diagnostic test. We herein report a case of endotracheal granuloma formation that occurred after EBUS-TBNA in a 73-year-old woman. The patient was admitted due to coughing and dyspnea after 70 days of antituberculous therapy for mediastinal lymphadenitis. Computed tomography revealed decreases in the size of the lymph nodes with a new mass protruding into the tracheal lumen. The mass originated from the right paratracheal area, which was a previous puncture site. This case suggests that clinicians should pay attention to complications because tuberculosis can produce new granulomas via the sinus tract after EBUS-TBNA.

  18. Primary tibial adamantinoma diagnosed by fine needle aspiration.

    PubMed

    Bishop, Justin A; Ali, Syed Z

    2010-03-01

    Adamantinoma is one of the rarest primary bone tumors and is almost exclusively found in the tibia. Because of its scarcity, there are only a handful of reported cases of adamantinoma diagnosed by fine needle aspiration (FNA). We report a case of a 30-year-old woman seen at The Johns Hopkins Hospital for a 2.5-cm lytic lesion in the distal diaphysis of the tibia. A computed tomography-guided FNA of the lesion revealed a moderately cellular lesion consisting of a biphasic admixture of epithelioid cells seen singly and in fragments. These cells had round to oval nuclei with pale chromatin and well-formed nuclear grooves. The other population had more elongated nuclei and spindled appearance. An immunostain for cytokeratin was positive, supporting the diagnosis of adamantinoma. Due primarily to its rarity, the diagnosis of adamantinoma on FNA can be challenging and must be made in the context of its characteristic clinical and radiographic setting.

  19. Dry needling for the management of thoracic spine pain.

    PubMed

    Fernández-de-Las-Peñas, César; Layton, Michelle; Dommerholt, Jan

    2015-07-01

    Thoracic spine pain is as disabling as neck and low back pain without receiving the same level of attention in the scientific literature. Among the different structures that can refer pain to the thoracic spine, muscles often play a relevant role. Trigger points (TrPs) from neck, shoulder and spinal muscles can induce pain in the region of the thoracic spine. There is a lack of evidence reporting the presence of TrPs in the region of the thoracic spine, but clinical evidence suggests that TrPs can be a potential source of thoracic spine pain. The current paper discusses the role of TrPs in the thoracic spine and dry needling (DN) for the management of TrPs in the thoracic multifidi and longissimus thoracis. This paper also includes a brief discussion of the application of DN in other tissues such as tendons, ligaments and scars.

  20. Dry needling for the management of thoracic spine pain

    PubMed Central

    Fernández-de-las-Peñas, César; Layton, Michelle; Dommerholt, Jan

    2015-01-01

    Thoracic spine pain is as disabling as neck and low back pain without receiving the same level of attention in the scientific literature. Among the different structures that can refer pain to the thoracic spine, muscles often play a relevant role. Trigger points (TrPs) from neck, shoulder and spinal muscles can induce pain in the region of the thoracic spine. There is a lack of evidence reporting the presence of TrPs in the region of the thoracic spine, but clinical evidence suggests that TrPs can be a potential source of thoracic spine pain. The current paper discusses the role of TrPs in the thoracic spine and dry needling (DN) for the management of TrPs in the thoracic multifidi and longissimus thoracis. This paper also includes a brief discussion of the application of DN in other tissues such as tendons, ligaments and scars. PMID:26309385