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Sample records for negative oral contrast

  1. Effect of Neonatal Clomipramine Treatment on Consummatory Successive Negative Contrast

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ruetti, Eliana; Burgueno, Adriana L.; Justel, Nadia R.; Pirola, Carlos J.; Mustaca, Alba E.

    2013-01-01

    Neonatal administration of clomipramine (CLI) produces physiological, neuroendocrinal and behavioral abnormalities in rats when they reach adulthood, which are similar to those observed in animal models of depression. In consummatory successive negative contrast (cSNC), rats that have had experience drinking 32% sucrose solution drink…

  2. Can Contextual Cues Control Consummatory Successive Negative Contrast?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Daniel, Alan M.; Wood, Michael; Pellegrini, Santiago; Norris, Jacob N.; Papini, Mauricio R.

    2008-01-01

    Rats exposed to incentive downshift show behavioral deterioration. This phenomenon, called successive negative contrast (SNC), occurs in instrumental and consummatory responses (iSNC, cSNC). Whereas iSNC is related to the violation of reward expectancies retrieved in anticipation of the goal (cued-recall), cSNC involves reward rejection and may…

  3. Contrast Negation and Texture Synthesis Differentially Disrupt Natural Texture Appearance

    PubMed Central

    Balas, Benjamin

    2012-01-01

    Natural textures have characteristic image statistics that make them discriminable from unnatural textures. For example, both contrast negation and texture synthesis alter the appearance of natural textures even though each manipulation preserves some features while disrupting others. Here, we examined the extent to which contrast negation and texture synthesis each introduce or remove critical perceptual features for discriminating unnatural textures from natural textures. We find that both manipulations remove information that observers use for distinguishing natural textures from transformed versions of the same patterns, but do so in different ways. Texture synthesis removes information that is relevant for discrimination in both abstract patterns and ecologically valid textures, and we also observe a category-dependent asymmetry for identifying an “oddball” real texture among synthetic distractors. Contrast negation exhibits no such asymmetry, and also does not impact discrimination performance in abstract patterns. We discuss our results in the context of the visual system’s tuning to ecologically relevant patterns and other results describing sensitivity to higher-order statistics in texture patterns. PMID:23181049

  4. Contrast negation and texture synthesis differentially disrupt natural texture appearance.

    PubMed

    Balas, Benjamin

    2012-01-01

    Natural textures have characteristic image statistics that make them discriminable from unnatural textures. For example, both contrast negation and texture synthesis alter the appearance of natural textures even though each manipulation preserves some features while disrupting others. Here, we examined the extent to which contrast negation and texture synthesis each introduce or remove critical perceptual features for discriminating unnatural textures from natural textures. We find that both manipulations remove information that observers use for distinguishing natural textures from transformed versions of the same patterns, but do so in different ways. Texture synthesis removes information that is relevant for discrimination in both abstract patterns and ecologically valid textures, and we also observe a category-dependent asymmetry for identifying an "oddball" real texture among synthetic distractors. Contrast negation exhibits no such asymmetry, and also does not impact discrimination performance in abstract patterns. We discuss our results in the context of the visual system's tuning to ecologically relevant patterns and other results describing sensitivity to higher-order statistics in texture patterns.

  5. ICE: Ionic contrast enhancement for organic solvent negative tone develop

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sundberg, Linda K.; Wallraff, Gregory M.; Bozano, Luisa D.; Truong, Hoa D.; Sanchez, Martha I.; Goldfarb, Dario L.; Petrillo, Karen E.; Hinsberg, William D.

    2014-03-01

    The use of organic solvents in the development of chemically amplified (CA) resists has been known since the introduction of DUV lithography into manufacturing over twenty years ago [1,2]. In this approach a negative tone image is produced using an aqueous base developable positive tone resist developed in an organic solvent. Recently there has been an increased interest in negative tone imaging due to superior performance for specific masking levels such as narrow trenches and contact holes [3]. Negative tone imaging of this type is based on differences in the polarity between the exposed and unexposed regions of the resist film. The dissolution contrast can be optimized by selecting a solvent with the proper match of solubility parameters (polarity, hydrogen bonding and dispersion) to attain good solubility of the relatively nonpolar unexposed resist and poor solubility of the deprotected acidic exposed film. Another approach is to tune the properties of the resist polymer for a given solvent, creating a new optimized resist. We have explored a third methodology to achieve a high contrast solvent developable system without a need to modify resist or solvent. In this report we describe a process that exploits the differences in solubility between ionic and organic materials. In this method an ionic species is introduced into the resist film following post-exposure bake to alter the polarity in such way that the resist contrast can be improved in organic solvent development. We describe processes using pre-rinses and developers containing salts. Lithographic response, characterized using contrast curves and imaging, is presented for a variety of resist platforms. We show evidence for ionic incorporation into the resist film using SIMS, XPS, QCM and FTIR characterization. We demonstrate the practical applicability of this method to 248nm, 193nm, e-beam and EUV exposures.

  6. Ontogeny of consummatory successive negative contrast in rats.

    PubMed

    Suárez, Andrea B; Mustaca, Alba E; Pautassi, Ricardo M; Kamenetzky, Giselle V

    2014-07-01

    Consummatory successive negative contrast (cSNC) occurs when organisms repeatedly exposed to a high-magnitude reward are suddenly given a low-magnitude reward. This results in a significant reduction in the consumption of the devalued reinforcer, at a level even below that of a group which had been always exposed to the low-magnitude reinforcer. A scarcity of animal studies assessed the expression of this phenomenon during early development. Three experiments assessed age of cSNC onset in preweanling rats. Percent body weight gained (%BWG) and taste reactions associated with reinforcement devaluation were measured. A reduction in %BWG and a significant increase in emission of aversive hedonic behaviors, indicative of cSNC, occurred on postnatal day 18 (PD 18; Experiments 1 and 2), but not on PD 14 or PD 17 (Experiments 3a and 3b). The neurobiological mechanisms underlying these effects and theoretical implications are discussed.

  7. S-100 Negative Granular Cell Tumor of the Oral Cavity.

    PubMed

    Solomon, Lynn W; Velez, Ines

    2016-09-01

    Classic granular cell tumor is a mesenchymal neoplasm that commonly occurs on the skin, but is not infrequently found in the oral cavity, primarily on the dorsal tongue. Diagnosis is usually straightforward with hematoxylin and eosin stained slides. Immunohistochemical studies on classic granular cell tumor shows positive immunostaining for S-100 and vimentin, while CD68 is variably positive. We report a case of otherwise unremarkable oral granular cell tumor that was immunohistochemically negative for S-100, and positive for vimentin and CD68, and discuss the differential diagnosis. The results of the immunohistochemical studies in our case are compared with those of classic S-100 positive oral granular cell tumors, as well as cutaneous and oral S-100 negative granular cell tumors. Classic S-100 positive granular cell tumors and S-100 negative granular cell tumors of the oral cavity can only be distinguished by immunohistochemical studies; however, the necessity of this distinction is unclear, as both are benign lesions in which recurrence is unlikely.

  8. Oral Human Papillomavirus Infection and Oral Lesions in HIV-Positive and HIV-Negative Dental Patients

    PubMed Central

    Muller, Katia; Kazimiroff, Julie; Fatahzadeh, Mahnaz; Smith, Richard V.; Wiltz, Mauricio; Polanco, Jacqueline; Grossberg, Robert M.; Belbin, Thomas J.; Strickler, Howard D.; Burk, Robert D.; Schlecht, Nicolas F.

    2015-01-01

    We evaluated the risk factors associated with oral human papillomavirus (HPV) infection and oral lesions in 161 human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)–positive patients and 128 HIV-negative patients presenting for oral examination at 2 urban healthcare centers. Patients were interviewed on risk factors and provided oral-rinse samples for HPV DNA typing by polymerase chain reaction. Statistical associations were assessed by logistic regression. Oral HPV was prevalent in 32% and 16% of HIV-positive patients and HIV-negative patients, respectively, including high-risk HPV type 16 (8% and 2%, respectively; P = .049) and uncommon HPV types 32/42 (6% and 5%, respectively; P = .715). Among HIV-negative patients, significant risk factors for oral HPV included multiple sex partners (≥21 vs ≤5; odds ratio [OR], 9.1; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.7–49.3), heavy tobacco smoking (>20 pack-years vs none; OR, 9.2; 95% CI, 1.4–59.4), and marijuana use (OR, 4.0; 95% CI, 1.3–12.4). Among HIV-positive patients, lower CD4+ T-cell count only was associated with oral HPV detection (≤200 vs ≥500 cells/mm3; OR, 4.5; 95% CI, 1.3–15.5). Detection of high-risk HPV was also associated with concurrent detection of potentially cancerous oral lesions among HIV-negative patients but not among HIV-positive patients. The observed risk factor associations with oral HPV in HIV-negative patients are consistent with sexual transmission and local immunity, whereas in HIV-positive patients, oral HPV detection is strongly associated with low CD4+ T-cell counts. PMID:25681375

  9. Pre-existing oral contrast from lanthanum carbonate: a confounding factor in CT mesenteric angiography.

    PubMed

    Bull, M D; Shrimanker, R; Thomas, M R M; Mulgrew, C J

    2012-04-01

    A 69-year-old male was referred from the renal unit to radiology for investigation of bleeding per rectum. A CT mesenteric angiogram was performed. However, it was noted on the pre-contrast images that the large bowel contained positive oral contrast media. The procedure was abandoned as it would have been difficult to see extravasation of intravenous contrast from a bleeding point in the large bowel. The initial belief was that either the patient had been given oral contrast by ward staff on the assumption that it would be needed, or had had a recent radiological study requiring contrast, which was still present. Neither was the case; it emerged that the patient was taking Fosrenol (Shire Pharmaceuticals, Wayne, PA), a lanthanum carbonate medication used in the treatment of hyperphosphataemia. Lanthanum is densely radio-opaque and appears as positive bowel contrast on CT and plain radiography studies. When considering radiological studies specifically requiring the absence of oral contrast, it is important to be aware of the patient's drug history to avoid non-diagnostic scans with the associated radiation exposure.

  10. Spontaneous Recovery of Consummatory Behavior, But Not of Consummatory Successive Negative Contrast

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Norris, Jacob N.; Daniel, Alan M.; Papini, Mauricio R.

    2008-01-01

    Five experiments were designed to study spontaneous recovery (SR) in two situations involving consummatory behavior: consummatory successive negative contrast (cSNC) and consummatory extinction (cE). SR of consummatory suppression should occur if incentive downshift induces an egocentric memory encoding information about the emotional reaction to…

  11. Successive Negative Contrast after Partial Reinforcement in the Consummatory Behavior of Rats

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pellegrini, Santiago; Muzio, Ruben N.; Mustaca, Alba E.; Papini, Mauricio R.

    2004-01-01

    Rats given access to a 32% sucrose solution later reject a 4% solution significantly more than controls that have only received the 4% solution. In Experiment 1, this consummatory successive negative contrast (cSNC) effect was attenuated by previous exposure to 50% partial reinforcement. Furthermore, recovery from cSNC was also facilitated by…

  12. Effectiveness of oral antibiotics for definitive therapy of Gram-negative bloodstream infections.

    PubMed

    Kutob, Leila F; Justo, Julie Ann; Bookstaver, P Brandon; Kohn, Joseph; Albrecht, Helmut; Al-Hasan, Majdi N

    2016-11-01

    There is paucity of data evaluating intravenous-to-oral antibiotic switch options for Gram-negative bloodstream infections (BSIs). This retrospective cohort study examined the effectiveness of oral antibiotics for definitive treatment of Gram-negative BSI. Patients with Gram-negative BSI hospitalised for <14 days at Palmetto Health Hospitals in Columbia, SC, from 1 January 2010 through 31 December 2013 and discharged on oral antibiotics were included in this study. The cohort was stratified into three groups based on bioavailability of oral antibiotics prescribed (high, ≥95%; moderate, 75-94%; and low, <75%). Kaplan-Meier analysis and multivariate Cox proportional hazards regression were used to examine treatment failure. Among the 362 patients, high, moderate and low bioavailability oral antibiotics were prescribed to 106, 179 and 77 patients, respectively, for definitive therapy of Gram-negative BSI. Mean patient age was 63 years, 217 (59.9%) were women and 254 (70.2%) had a urinary source of infection. Treatment failure rates were 2%, 12% and 14% in patients receiving oral antibiotics with high, moderate and low bioavailability, respectively (P = 0.02). Risk of treatment failure in the multivariate Cox model was higher in patients receiving antibiotics with moderate [adjusted hazard ratio (aHR) = 5.9, 95% CI 1.6-38.5; P = 0.005] and low bioavailability (aHR = 7.7, 95% CI 1.9-51.5; P = 0.003) compared with those receiving oral antimicrobial agents with high bioavailability. These data demonstrate the effectiveness of oral antibiotics with high bioavailability for definitive therapy of Gram-negative BSI. Risk of treatment failure increases as bioavailability of the oral regimen declines.

  13. Optimization of oral contrast agents for MR imaging of the small bowel.

    PubMed

    Lauenstein, Thomas C; Schneemann, Herbert; Vogt, Florian M; Herborn, Christoph U; Ruhm, Stefan G; Debatin, Jorg F

    2003-07-01

    Effect on small-bowel distention of additives to water as contrast agents for magnetic resonance (MR) imaging was assessed. Oral contrast agents included water and water in combination with mannitol, a bulk fiber laxative, locust bean gum, and a combination of mannitol and locust bean gum. Filling of the small bowel was quantified on coronal images obtained with two-dimensional true fast imaging with steady-state precession sequence; bowel diameters were measured. Ingestion of water with locust bean gum and mannitol provided the best distention of the small bowel. MR imaging of the small bowel with oral administration of water can be improved with addition of osmotic and nonosmotic substances that lead to decreased water resorption.

  14. Solute Transport of Negatively Charged Contrast Agents Across Articular Surface of Injured Cartilage.

    PubMed

    Kokkonen, H T; Chin, H C; Töyräs, J; Jurvelin, J S; Quinn, T M

    2017-04-01

    Solute transport through the extracellular matrix (ECM) is crucial to chondrocyte metabolism. Cartilage injury affects solute transport in cartilage due to alterations in ECM structure and solute-matrix interactions. Therefore, cartilage injury may be detected by using contrast agent-based clinical imaging. In the present study, effects of mechanical injury on transport of negatively charged contrast agents in cartilage were characterized. Using cartilage plugs injured by mechanical compression protocol, effective partition coefficients and diffusion fluxes of iodine- and gadolinium-based contrast agents were measured using high resolution microCT imaging. For all contrast agents studied, effective diffusion fluxes increased significantly, particularly at early times during the diffusion process (38 and 33% increase after 4 min, P < 0.05 for iodine and Gd-DTPA; and 76% increase after 10 min for diatrizoate, P < 0.05). Effective partition coefficients were unaffected in mechanically injured cartilage. Mechanical injury reduced PG content and collagen integrity in cartilage superficial zone. This study suggests that alterations in contrast agent diffusion flux, a non-equilibrium transport parameter, provides a more sensitive indicator for assessment of cartilage matrix integrity than partition coefficient and the equilibrium distribution of solute. These findings may help in developing clinical methods of contrast agent-based imaging to detect cartilage injury.

  15. Microstructural analysis of negative anticipatory contrast: A reconsideration of the devaluation account.

    PubMed

    Wright, Rebecca L; Gilmour, Gary; Dwyer, Dominic M

    2013-12-01

    An animal's appetitive behavior is not a fixed response to current stimulation but can be affected by the anticipation of future events. For example, rats regularly given access to a moderately valued solution followed by a higher value solution (e.g., 4 % sucrose → 32 % sucrose) consume less of the initial solution than in control conditions where the initial solution is not followed by a higher value solution (e.g., 4 % sucrose → 4 % sucrose). Previous analyses have suggested that this negative anticipatory contrast effect does not depend on the "expectation" of a valuable stimulus producing a functional devaluation of a currently available stimulus of lesser value. In a within-subjects anticipatory contrast procedure, this study revealed that both consumption and the mean size of licking clusters were smaller for a 4 % sucrose solution on days when it preceded 32 % sucrose than on days when 4 % preceded 4 %. Since lick cluster size typically bears a positive monotonic relationship with the concentration of palatable solutions, this reduction is indicative of a decrease in the palatability/hedonic value of the solution subject to contrast. As such, we provide direct evidence that negative anticipatory contrast does produce a functional devaluation of the solution, thus challenging prevailing theoretical assumptions.

  16. Oral manganese as an MRI contrast agent for the detection of nociceptive activity.

    PubMed

    Jacobs, Kathleen E; Behera, Deepak; Rosenberg, Jarrett; Gold, Garry; Moseley, Michael; Yeomans, David; Biswal, Sandip

    2012-04-01

    The ability of divalent manganese to enter neurons via calcium channels makes manganese an excellent MRI contrast agent for the imaging of nociception, the afferent neuronal encoding of pain perception. There is growing evidence that nociceptive neurons possess increased expression and activity of calcium channels, which would allow for the selective accumulation of manganese at these sites. In this study, we show that oral manganese chloride leads to increased enhancement of peripheral nerves involved in nociception on T(1)-weighted MRI. Oral rather than intravenous administration was chosen for its potentially better safety profile, making it a better candidate for clinical translation with important applications, such as pain diagnosis, therapy and research. The spared nerve injury (SNI) model of neuropathic pain was used for the purposes of this study. SNI rats were given, sequentially, increasing amounts of manganese chloride (lowest, 2.29 mg/100 g weight; highest, 20.6 mg/100 g weight) with alanine and vitamin D(3) by oral gavage. Compared with controls, SNI rats demonstrated increased signal-to-background ratios on T(1)-weighted fast spin echo MRI, which was confirmed by and correlated strongly with spectrometry measurements of nerve manganese concentration. We also found the difference between SNI and control rats to be greater at 48 h than at 24 h after dosing, indicating increased manganese retention in addition to increased manganese uptake in nociceptive nerves. This study demonstrates that oral manganese is a viable method for the imaging of nerves associated with increased nociceptive activity.

  17. Variance of high contrast textures is sensed using negative half-wave rectification.

    PubMed

    Chubb, C; Nam, J H

    2000-01-01

    A rectifying transformation is required to sense variations in texture contrast. Various theoretical and practical considerations have inclined researchers to suppose that this rectification is full-wave, rather than half-wave. In the studies reported here, observers are asked to judge which of two texture patches has higher texture variance. Textures are composed of small squares, with each square being painted with one of nine different luminances. Different texture variances are achieved by manipulating the histograms of the texture patches to be compared. When the nine luminances range linearly from 0 to 160 cd/m(2), the transformation mediating judgments of texture variance takes the form of a negative half-wave rectifier: texture variance judgments are determined exclusively by the frequencies of luminances below mean luminance in the textures being compared. However, when the nine luminances range linearly from 60 to 100 cd/m(2), two of three observers use a full-wave rectifying transformation in making texture variance judgments; the third observer continued to use a negative half-wave rectifier. The unexpectedly asymmetric roles played by low versus high luminances in texture variance judgments suggest that the off-center system may play a dominant role in human perception of texture contrast.

  18. Segmentation of the Clustered Cells with Optimized Boundary Detection in Negative Phase Contrast Images.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yuliang; Zhang, Zaicheng; Wang, Huimin; Bi, Shusheng

    2015-01-01

    Cell image segmentation plays a central role in numerous biology studies and clinical applications. As a result, the development of cell image segmentation algorithms with high robustness and accuracy is attracting more and more attention. In this study, an automated cell image segmentation algorithm is developed to get improved cell image segmentation with respect to cell boundary detection and segmentation of the clustered cells for all cells in the field of view in negative phase contrast images. A new method which combines the thresholding method and edge based active contour method was proposed to optimize cell boundary detection. In order to segment clustered cells, the geographic peaks of cell light intensity were utilized to detect numbers and locations of the clustered cells. In this paper, the working principles of the algorithms are described. The influence of parameters in cell boundary detection and the selection of the threshold value on the final segmentation results are investigated. At last, the proposed algorithm is applied to the negative phase contrast images from different experiments. The performance of the proposed method is evaluated. Results show that the proposed method can achieve optimized cell boundary detection and highly accurate segmentation for clustered cells.

  19. Amygdala reactivity to negative stimuli is influenced by oral contraceptive use

    PubMed Central

    Cahill, Larry

    2015-01-01

    The amygdala is a highly interconnected region of the brain that is critically important to emotional processing and affective networks. Previous studies have shown that the response of the amygdala to emotionally arousing stimuli can be modulated by sex hormones. Because oral contraceptive pills dramatically lower circulating sex hormone levels with potent analogs of those hormones, we performed a functional magnetic resonance imaging experiment to measure amygdala reactivity in response to emotional stimuli in women using oral contraceptives, and compared their amygdala reactivity with that of naturally cycling women. Here, we show that women who use oral contraceptive pills have significantly decreased bilateral amygdala reactivity in response to negatively valenced, emotionally arousing stimuli compared with naturally cycling women. We suggest that by modulating amygdala reactivity, oral contraceptive pills may influence behaviors that have previously been shown to be amygdala dependent—in particular, emotional memory. PMID:25688096

  20. Negative contrast electron microscopic techniques for diagnosis of viruses of veterinary importance.

    PubMed

    England, J J; Reed, D E

    1980-04-01

    Negative contrast electron microscopy (NCEM) was utilized as a routine tool in the diagnosis of viral infections of domestic and wild animals. Viruses identified by this technique were observed in infected culture systems or clinical specimens from several species including horses, cattle, sheep, dogs, cats, pigs, deer, Rocky Mountain bighorn sheep, antelope, and several avian species. Viruses were identified by NCEM based on their size, morphology, and symmetry and consisted of adenoviruses, herpesviruses, paramyxoviruses, myxoviruses, picornaviruses, parvoviruses, coronaviruses, reoviruses, rotaviruses, and poxviruses. Mixed populations were also readily demonstrable by this technique: the most common mixed infections consisted of coronaviruses and rotaviruses, and picorna- or parvo-viruses with coronaviruses, rotaviruses, herpesviruses, or adenoviruses. Immunoelectron microscopy was also used to serotype viral agents present in the specimens examined. Viruses identified by this technique were bovine rotaviruses, coronaviruses, and herpesviruses, and bovine and equine adenoviruses.

  1. Effects of oral contrast on dose in abdominopelvic computed tomography with pure iterative reconstruction

    PubMed Central

    Murphy, Kevin P; Healy, Liam J; Crush, Lee; Twomey, Maria; Moloney, Fiachra; Sexton, Sylvia; O’Connor, Owen J; Maher, Michael M

    2016-01-01

    AIM To assess the effect of neutral (NC) and positive (PC) oral contrast use on patient dose in low-dose abdominal computed tomography (CT). METHODS Low-dose clinically indicated CTs were performed on 79 Crohn’s patients (35 = PC, 1 L 2% gastrografin; 44 = NC, 1.5 L polyethylene glycol). Scanner settings for both acquisitions were identical apart from 25 s difference in intravenous contrast timing. Body mass index (BMI), scan-ranges, dose-length product and size-specific dose estimated were recorded. Data was reconstructed with pure model-based iterative reconstruction. Image quality was objectively and subjectively analysed. Data analysis was performed with Statistical Package for Social Scientists. RESULTS Higher doses were seen in neutral contrast CTs (107.60 ± 78.7 mGy.cm, 2.47 ± 1.21 mGy vs 85.65 ± 58.2 mGy.cm, 2.18 ± 0.96 mGy). The difference was significant in 2 of 4 BMI groups and in those that had both NC and PC investigations. Image-quality assessment yielded 6952 datapoints. NC image quality was significantly superior (P < 0.001) (objective noise, objective signal to noise ratio, subjective spatial resolution, subjective contrast resolution, diagnostic acceptability) at all levels. NC bowel distension was significantly (P < 0.001) superior. CONCLUSION The use of polyethylene glycol as a neutral OC agent leads to higher radiation doses than standard positive contrast studies, in low dose abdominal CT imaging. This is possibly related to the osmotic effect of the agent resulting in larger intraluminal fluid volumes and resultant increased overall beam attenuation. PMID:27721943

  2. Confocal Microscopy and Molecular-Specific Optical Contrast Agents for the Detection of Oral Neoplasia

    PubMed Central

    Carlson, Alicia L.; Gillenwater, Ann M.; Williams, Michelle D.; El-Naggar, Adel K.; Richards-Kortum, R. R.

    2009-01-01

    Using current clinical diagnostic techniques, it is difficult to visualize tumor morphology and architecture at the cellular level, which is necessary for diagnostic localization of pathologic lesions. Optical imaging techniques have the potential to address this clinical need by providing real-time, sub-cellular resolution images. This paper describes the use of dual mode confocal microscopy and optical molecular-specific contrast agents to image tissue architecture, cellular morphology, and sub-cellular molecular features of normal and neoplastic oral tissues. Fresh tissue slices were prepared from 33 biopsies of clinically normal and abnormal oral mucosa obtained from 14 patients. Reflectance confocal images were acquired after the application of 6% acetic acid, and fluorescence confocal images were acquired after the application of a fluorescence contrast agent targeting the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR). The dual imaging modes provided images similar to light microscopy of hematoxylin and eosin and immunohistochemistry staining, but from thick fresh tissue slices. Reflectance images provided information on the architecture of the tissue and the cellular morphology. The nuclear-to-cytoplasmic (N/C) ratio from the reflectance images was at least 7.5 times greater for the carcinoma than the corresponding normal samples, except for one case of highly keratinized carcinoma. Separation of carcinoma from normal and mild dysplasia was achieved using this ratio (p<0.01). Fluorescence images of EGFR expression yielded a mean fluorescence labeling intensity (FLI) that was at least 2.7 times higher for severe dysplasia and carcinoma samples than for the corresponding normal sample, and could be used to distinguish carcinoma from normal and mild dysplasia (p<0.01). Analyzed together, the N/C ratio and the mean FLI may improve the ability to distinguish carcinoma from normal squamous epithelium. PMID:17877424

  3. Emotion and relative reward processing: an investigation on instrumental successive negative contrast and ultrasonic vocalizations in the rat.

    PubMed

    Binkley, K A; Webber, E S; Powers, D D; Cromwell, H C

    2014-09-01

    Incentive contrast effects include changes in behavioral responses after a reward upshift (positive contrast) or downshift (negative contrast). Proposed influences on these behavioral changes are emotional state reactions after experiencing or anticipating a change in reward outcome. Rat ultrasonic vocalizations have been shown to be indicators of emotional state during behavior and anticipatory periods. The objective of the present study was to monitor rodent ultrasounds during incentive contrast using a classical runway procedure called instrumental successive negative contrast. The procedure is one that has been used often to examine incentive relativity because of its reliability in measuring negative contrast effects. Rats were trained to run in the alleyway to receive a high (12 pellets) or low magnitude (1 pellet) outcome. The high magnitude was then shifted to the low and running speeds in the alleyway for the reward and USV emission were compared. Replicating previous work, a negative contrast effect was observed with postshift running speeds significantly slower in the shifted group compared to the unshifted group. USVs did not follow the same pattern with an apparent lack of significant differences between the groups following the reward downshift. We also tested another group of animals using a visual predictive cue in the same runway test. When visual cues predicted high or low magnitude outcome, no incentive contrast was found for the running speeds following an outcome downshift, but a weak contrast effect was observed for the USV emission. These results demonstrate a separation between USVs and behavioral indicators of incentive contrast suggesting that concomitant shifts in negative affect may not be necessary for anticipatory relative reward processes.

  4. Susceptibility of Multidrug-Resistant Gram-Negative Urine Isolates to Oral Antibiotics

    PubMed Central

    Zucchi, Paola C.; Chen, Alice; Raux, Brian R.; Kirby, James E.; McCoy, Christopher; Eliopoulos, George M.

    2016-01-01

    Increasing resistance among Gram-negative uropathogens limits treatment options, and susceptibility data for multidrug-resistant isolates are limited. We assessed the activity of five oral agents against 91 multidrug-resistant Gram-negative urine isolates that were collected from emergency department/hospitalized patients. Fosfomycin and nitrofurantoin were most active (>75% susceptibility). Susceptibilities to sulfamethoxazole-trimethoprim, ciprofloxacin, and ampicillin were ≤40%; empirical use of these agents likely provides inadequate coverage in areas with a high prevalence of multidrug-resistant uropathogens. PMID:26883704

  5. Evaluation of a low-dose CT protocol with oral contrast for assessment of acute appendicitis.

    PubMed

    Platon, Alexandra; Jlassi, Helmi; Rutschmann, Olivier T; Becker, Christoph D; Verdun, Francis R; Gervaz, Pascal; Poletti, Pierre-Alexandre

    2009-02-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate a low-dose CT with oral contrast medium (LDCT) for the diagnosis of acute appendicitis and compare its performance with standard-dose i.v. contrast-enhanced CT (standard CT) according to patients' BMIs. Eighty-six consecutive patients admitted with suspicion of acute appendicitis underwent LDCT (30 mAs), followed by standard CT (180 mAs). Both examinations were reviewed by two experienced radiologists for direct and indirect signs of appendicitis. Clinical and surgical follow-up was considered as the reference standard. Appendicitis was confirmed by surgery in 37 (43%) of the 86 patients. Twenty-nine (34%) patients eventually had an alternative discharge diagnosis to explain their abdominal pain. Clinical and biological follow-up was uneventful in 20 (23%) patients. LDCT and standard CT had the same sensitivity (100%, 33/33) and specificity (98%, 45/46) to diagnose appendicitis in patients with a body mass index (BMI) >or= 18.5. In slim patients (BMI<18.5), sensitivity to diagnose appendicitis was 50% (2/4) for LDCT and 100% (4/4) for standard CT, while specificity was identical for both techniques (67%, 2/3). LDCT may play a role in the diagnostic workup of patients with a BMI >or= 18.5.

  6. Contexts Control Negative Contrast and Restrict the Expression of Flavor Preference Conditioning

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Consumption of a high concentration of sucrose can have either a detrimental, negative contrast effect or a facilitatory, preference conditioning effect on subsequent consumption of a low concentration of sucrose, depending on the cues that are present during consumption. The role of context and flavor cues in determining these effects were studied using analysis of the microstructure of licking in mice. Exposure to a high concentration followed by exposure to a low concentration resulted in a transient reduction in mean lick cluster size, which was context dependent (Experiment 1). However, there was no change in the total number of licks or overall consumption. When a flavor that had previously been paired with a high concentration was paired with a low concentration, there was an increase in the total number of licks, and overall consumption, but no change in the mean lick cluster size (Experiment 2). Pairing a high concentration with a flavor in a particular context before pairing the context and flavor compound with a low concentration resulted in abolishing the expression of the flavor preference conditioning effect on the total number of licks and consumption (Experiment 3). These results demonstrate that although context and flavor cues have dissociable effects on licking behavior, their interaction has an antagonistic effect on the behavioral expression of memory. PMID:26752234

  7. Esophagobronchial fistulae: Diagnosis by MDCT with oral contrast swallow examination of a benign and a malignant cause

    PubMed Central

    Hegde, Rahul G; Kalekar, Tushar M; Gajbhiye, Meenakshi I; Bandgar, Amol S; Pawar, Shephali S; Khadse, Gopal J

    2013-01-01

    We report two cases of esophagobronchial fistulae diagnosed by Multi-detector computed tomography (MDCT) oral contrast swallow examination. It is helpful to supplement the CT study with an oral contrast swallow as it aids in confirmation of a suspected fistula and also demonstrates the fistula tract better. We present the clinical details and the imaging findings on MDCT of two cases of esophagobronchial fistulae – one secondary to chronic chest tuberculosis and the other secondary to a squamous cell carcinoma of the upper esophagus – followed by discussion of the etiology, pathogenesis, and imaging of these fistulae. PMID:24082484

  8. Piperlongumine for enhancing oral bioavailability and cytotoxicity of docetaxel in triple negative breast cancer

    PubMed Central

    Patel, Ketan; Chowdhury, Nusrat; Doddapaneni, Ravi; Boakye, Cedar H. A.; Singh, Mandip

    2015-01-01

    Very low oral bioavailability due to extensive pre-systemic metabolism and P-gp efflux has constrained the oral metronomic chemotherapy of docetaxel (DTX). There is tremendous need of compounds facilitating oral delivery of DTX. The research was aimed to investigate the effect of piperlongumine (PPL) on human liver microsomal metabolism, Caco-2 permeability and cytotoxicity of DTX in triple negative breast cancer (TNBC) cell lines. Reduction in testosterone and DTX metabolism (2-fold increase in half-life) by piperlongumine was comparable to the standard CYP3A4 inhibitor, Cyclosporine A. P-gp efflux ratio of DTX across caco-2 monolayer was reduced from 2.37 to 1.52 on co-incubation with piperlongumine. The IC50 value of DTX was reduced 3-5 times and combination index values in all the cell lines were below 0.6. PPL at non-cytotoxic concentration showed significant enhancement of the anti-migration effect of DTX. Expression of tumor markers such as survivin, bcl2, C-myc and cyclin D1 were down regulated to a great extent with enhanced p53 expression when treated with combination instead of individual drug. Co-treatment with PPL led to 1.68 fold enhancement in DTX bioavailability in SD rats. Piperlongumine could be a potential candidate in overcoming the obstacles associated with oral docetaxel delivery with synergistic anticancer activity. PMID:26372815

  9. "Fortis/Lenis" Revisited One More Time: The Aerodynamics of Some Oral Stop Contrasts in Three Continents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Butcher, Andrew

    2004-01-01

    The terms "fortis" and "lenis" are variously regarded as having one single underlying phonetic correlate or many. An exploratory analysis of acoustic and aerodynamic data on contrasting stop series in a number of European and non-European languages confirms that a significant variation in peak intra-oral pressure and in articulatory stricture…

  10. Honokiol nanomicellar formulation produced increased oral bioavailability and anticancer effects in triple negative breast cancer (TNBC).

    PubMed

    Godugu, Chandraiah; Doddapaneni, Ravi; Singh, Mandip

    2017-01-23

    Triple negative breast cancer (TNBC), owing to its aggressive behavior and toxicity associated with available chemotherapy; currently no suitable therapy is available. Honokiol (HNK) is a promising anticancer drug but has poor bioavailability. In the current study, we evaluated the anticancer effects of an oral Honokiol nanomicellar (NM) formulation (size range of 20-40nm) in vitro against various TNBC cells lines. Cytotoxicity, clonogenic and wound healing assays demonstrated the promising anticancer effects. In vitro Caco-2 permeability studies suggested increased absorption of Honokiol. Compared to HNK-FD, nanomicellar formulations resulted in significant increase in the oral bioavailability. Cmax (4.06 and 3.60-fold) and AUC (6.26 and 5.83-fold) were significantly increased in comparison to oral 40 and 80mg/kg free drug respectively. Further, anticancer effects of these formulations were studied in BALB/c nude mice transplanted with orthotopic MDA-MB-231 cell induced xenografts. After 4 weeks of daily administration of HNK-NM formulation, significant reduction in the tumor volumes and weights compared to free drug (p<0.001) treated groups was observed. Surprisingly, in some of the animals (25%), the treatment resulted in complete eradication of tumors. Increased apoptosis and antiangiogenic effect was observed in HNK-NM groups compared to free drug and untreated control animals. This is the first report demonstrating that HNK-FD possesses anticancer effects against TNBC.

  11. A case of disseminated histoplasmosis diagnosed after oral presentation in an old HIV-negative patient in Sweden.

    PubMed

    Mota de Almeida, Fernando J; Kivijärvi, Kristina; Roos, Göran; Nylander, Karin

    2015-09-01

    Histoplasmosis is an endemic disease in various regions such as North America and South-East Asia but remains rare in Europe. Disseminated histoplasmosis is unusual in HIV-negative patients. Here, we describe a case of disseminated histoplasmosis in an HIV-negative patient diagnosed after oral presentation.

  12. Evidence for positive, but not negative, behavioral contrast with wheel-running reinforcement on multiple variable-ratio schedules.

    PubMed

    Belke, Terry W; Pierce, W David

    2016-12-01

    Rats responded on a multiple variable-ratio (VR) 10 VR 10 schedule of reinforcement in which lever pressing was reinforced by the opportunity to run in a wheel for 30s in both the changed (manipulated) and unchanged components. To generate positive contrast, the schedule of reinforcement in the changed component was shifted to extinction; to generate negative contrast, the schedule was shifted to VR 3. With the shift to extinction in the changed component, wheel-running and local lever-pressing rates increased in the unchanged component, a result supporting positive contrast; however, the shift to a VR 3 schedule in the changed component showed no evidence of negative contrast in the unaltered setting, only wheel running decreased in the unchanged component. Changes in wheel-running rates across components were consistent in showing a compensation effect, depending on whether the schedule manipulation increased or decreased opportunities for wheel running in the changed component. These findings are the first to demonstrate positive behavioral contrast on a multiple schedule with wheel running as reinforcement in both components.

  13. A Case Report of Post-Operative Jöd-Basedow Phenomennon Following Oral and IV Iodine Contrast Administration

    PubMed Central

    Hull, Erroll; Lujan, Eugenio

    2014-01-01

    This is a case of thyrotoxicosis, due to the Jöd-Basedow phenomenon following administration of oral and IV iodinated contrast in a patient with history of gastrointestinal stromal tumor (GIST) and small bowel obstruction. The patient developed atrial fibrillation and had an extended stay in the intensive care unit. Given the aging population with possible subclinical hyperthyroidism, multinodular goiter, and the rise in contrast administration for routine diagnostic studies, this case serves to raise awareness of the risks of “routine” tests administered to our aging patient population. PMID:24716009

  14. Inequality across Consonantal Contrasts in Speech Perception: Evidence from Mismatch Negativity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cornell, Sonia A.; Lahiri, Aditi; Eulitz, Carsten

    2013-01-01

    The precise structure of speech sound representations is still a matter of debate. In the present neurobiological study, we compared predictions about differential sensitivity to speech contrasts between models that assume full specification of all phonological information in the mental lexicon with those assuming sparse representations (only…

  15. Comparison of multispectral wide-field optical imaging modalities to maximize image contrast for objective discrimination of oral neoplasia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roblyer, Darren; Kurachi, Cristina; Stepanek, Vanda; Schwarz, Richard A.; Williams, Michelle D.; El-Naggar, Adel K.; Lee, J. Jack; Gillenwater, Ann M.; Richards-Kortum, Rebecca

    2010-11-01

    Multispectral widefield optical imaging has the potential to improve early detection of oral cancer. The appropriate selection of illumination and collection conditions is required to maximize diagnostic ability. The goals of this study were to (i) evaluate image contrast between oral cancer/precancer and non-neoplastic mucosa for a variety of imaging modalities and illumination/collection conditions, and (ii) use classification algorithms to evaluate and compare the diagnostic utility of these modalities to discriminate cancers and precancers from normal tissue. Narrowband reflectance, autofluorescence, and polarized reflectance images were obtained from 61 patients and 11 normal volunteers. Image contrast was compared to identify modalities and conditions yielding greatest contrast. Image features were extracted and used to train and evaluate classification algorithms to discriminate tissue as non-neoplastic, dysplastic, or cancer; results were compared to histologic diagnosis. Autofluorescence imaging at 405-nm excitation provided the greatest image contrast, and the ratio of red-to-green fluorescence intensity computed from these images provided the best classification of dysplasia/cancer versus non-neoplastic tissue. A sensitivity of 100% and a specificity of 85% were achieved in the validation set. Multispectral widefield images can accurately distinguish neoplastic and non-neoplastic tissue; however, the ability to separate precancerous lesions from cancers with this technique was limited.

  16. Using low-contrast negative-tone PMMA at cryogenic temperatures for 3D electron beam lithography.

    PubMed

    Schnauber, Peter; Schmidt, Ronny; Kaganskiy, Arsenty; Heuser, Tobias; Gschrey, Manuel; Rodt, Sven; Reitzenstein, Stephan

    2016-05-13

    We report on a 3D electron beam lithography (EBL) technique using polymethyl methacrylate (PMMA) in the negative-tone regime as a resist. First, we briefly demonstrate 3D EBL at room temperature. Then we concentrate on cryogenic temperatures where PMMA exhibits a low contrast, which allows for straightforward patterning of 3D nano- and microstructures. However, conventional EBL patterning at cryogenic temperatures is found to cause severe damage to the microstructures. Through an extensive study of lithography parameters, exposure techniques, and processing steps we deduce a hypothesis for the cryogenic PMMA's structural evolution under electron beam irradiation that explains the damage. In accordance with this hypothesis, a two step lithography technique involving a wide-area pre-exposure dose slightly smaller than the onset dose is applied. It enables us to demonstrate a >95% process yield for the low-temperature fabrication of 3D microstructures.

  17. Classic Kaposi's sarcoma presenting in the oral cavity of two HIV-negative Quechua patients.

    PubMed

    Mohanna, Salim; Bravo, Francisco; Ferrufino, Juan Carlos; Sanchez, Juvenal; Gotuzzo, Eduardo

    2007-09-01

    Traditionally, classic KS lesions have a general distribution, often involving the skin of the feet and legs, and to a lesser extent, that of the hands, arms, and trunk. Oral involvement is a rare manifestation. Initial oral involvement is an even rarer occurrence. We report two unusual cases of classic KS presenting in the oral cavity of two patients from indigenous origin; the first patient with primary oral KS lesion on the hard palate, with no other signs of the condition in any other region of the body; the second patient with generalized dermal KS lesions with lymph node and lower lip involvement. In conclusion, clinicians and pathologists should be aware of the typical clinical, gross, and histologic features of KS. Moreover, we would like to emphasize that oral KS may affect patients without AIDS or exposure to immunosuppression. The awareness of oral classic KS as a diagnostic possibility is important in the work-up of vascular lesions in the oral cavity of non-immunosuppressed individuals.

  18. Oral Gram-negative anaerobic bacilli as a reservoir of β-lactam resistance genes facilitating infections with multiresistant bacteria.

    PubMed

    Dupin, Clarisse; Tamanai-Shacoori, Zohreh; Ehrmann, Elodie; Dupont, Anais; Barloy-Hubler, Frédérique; Bousarghin, Latifa; Bonnaure-Mallet, Martine; Jolivet-Gougeon, Anne

    2015-02-01

    Many β-lactamases have been described in various Gram-negative bacilli (Capnocytophaga, Prevotella, Fusobacterium, etc.) of the oral cavity, belonging to class A of the Ambler classification (CepA, CblA, CfxA, CSP-1 and TEM), class B (CfiA) or class D in Fusobacterium nucleatum (FUS-1). The minimum inhibitory concentrations of β-lactams are variable and this variation is often related to the presence of plasmids or other mobile genetic elements (MGEs) that modulate the expression of resistance genes. DNA persistence and bacterial promiscuity in oral biofilms also contribute to genetic transformation and conjugation in this particular microcosm. Overexpression of efflux pumps is facilitated because the encoding genes are located on MGEs, in some multidrug-resistant clinical isolates, similar to conjugative transposons harbouring genes encoding β-lactamases. All these facts lead us to consider the oral cavity as an important reservoir of β-lactam resistance genes and a privileged place for genetic exchange, especially in commensal strictly anaerobic Gram-negative bacilli.

  19. Performance of 18F-FDG PET/contrast-enhanced CT in the staging of squamous cell carcinoma of the oral cavity and oropharynx.

    PubMed

    Krabbe, C A; Balink, H; Roodenburg, J L N; Dol, J; de Visscher, J G A M

    2011-11-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the diagnostic value of integrated whole body positron emission tomography/contrast-enhanced CT (PET/CECT) as a one step examination in the initial staging of oral and oropharyngeal squamous cell carcinoma (OOSCC). Seventy three consecutive OOSCC patients who underwent PET/CECT for initial staging and tumour resection and neck dissection as primary treatment, were included. For each PET/CECT result, the contribution of fluorine-18 fluorodeoxyglucose ((18)F-FDG)-uptake and radiologic criteria was assessed. PET/CECT results were correlated to histological specimens obtained with tumour resection and neck dissection. For detecting the primary tumour PET/CECT showed a sensitivity of 96% and for detecting cervical metastases a sensitivity and specificity of 89% and 81%, respectively. In the clinically N0 subgroup (n=37), PET/CECT showed a sensitivity and specificity of 64% and 81%, respectively. In five of six patients PET/CECT detected a second primary tumour. The results show that the use of diagnostic PET/CECT as a one step examination is a reliable alternative for PET/CT in combination with a separate diagnostic CT in patients with OOSC for initial staging. The need for treatment of the neck in the clinically negative neck should not be based on PET/CECT results only, due to the risk of missing a small metastasis.

  20. Preventive effect of oral nicorandil on contrast-induced nephropathy in patients with renal insufficiency undergoing elective cardiac catheterization.

    PubMed

    Fan, Yanming; Wei, Qingmin; Cai, Junna; Shi, Yongtang; Zhang, Youliang; Yao, Limei; Wang, Xiaogang; Lin, Shupo; Li, Yilin; Lv, Jing; Zhou, Bin; Du, Ruijuan

    2016-11-01

    This study aims to investigate the preventive effect of oral nicorandil on contrast-induced nephropathy (CIN) in patients with renal insufficiency undergoing elective cardiac catheterization. A total of 240 patients with an estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) of 60 mL/min or less, who were undergoing elective cardiac catheterization, were randomly assigned to nicorandil group (n = 120, 10 mg nicorandil, three times daily from 2 days before to 3 days after procedure) or control group (n = 120, matching placebo as the same method). The primary endpoint was the incidence of CIN defined as 25 % increase in serum creatinine (SCr) from baseline or 44 μmol/L (0.5 mg/dL) increase in absolute value within 72 h after exposure to contrast medium. The secondary endpoints were: (1) the changes of SCr, Cystatin-C (Cys-C) and eGFR within 72 h; (2) major adverse events (MACE) occurring within 30 days. Baseline characteristics of the patients in the two groups were similar. The incidence of CIN was significantly lower in nicorandil group compared with control group (6.67 vs. 17.5 %, P = 0.017). Compared with the control group, nicorandil group tended to have a lower SCr and Cys-C levels as well as a higher eGFR at 48 h after the procedure (all P < 0.05). There was no difference about the incidence of MACE within 30 days between nicorandil group and control group (4.16 vs. 5.83 %, P = 0.767). Multivariate logistic analysis showed that nicorandil was an independent protective factor against CIN (OR = 0.260, 95 % CI = 0.1-0.676, P = 0.006). Therefore, we concluded that oral nicorandil was associated with a decline in the incidence of CIN in patients with renal insufficiency undergoing elective cardiac catheterization.

  1. A novel orally bioavailable compound KPT-9274 inhibits PAK4, and blocks triple negative breast cancer tumor growth

    PubMed Central

    Rane, Chetan; Senapedis, William; Baloglu, Erkan; Landesman, Yosef; Crochiere, Marsha; Das-Gupta, Soumyasri; Minden, Audrey

    2017-01-01

    Breast cancer is a heterogeneous disease consisting of several subtypes. Among these subtypes, triple negative breast cancer is particularly difficult to treat. This is due to a lack of understanding of the mechanisms behind the disease, and consequently a lack of druggable targets. PAK4 plays critical roles in cell survival, proliferation, and morphology. PAK4 protein levels are high in breast cancer cells and breast tumors, and the gene is often amplified in basal like breast cancers, which are frequently triple negative. PAK4 is also overexpressed in other types of cancer, making it a promising drug target. However, its inhibition is complicated by the fact that PAK4 has both kinase-dependent and -independent functions. Here we investigate a new clinical compound KPT-9274, which has been shown to inhibit PAK4 and NAMPT. We find that KPT-9274 (and its analog, KPT-8752) can reduce the steady state level of PAK4 protein in triple negative breast cancer cells. These compounds also block the growth of the breast cancer cells in vitro, and stimulate apoptosis. Most importantly, oral administration of KPT-9274 reduces tumorigenesis in mouse models of human triple negative breast cancer. Our results indicate that KPT-9274 is a novel therapeutic option for triple negative breast cancer therapy. PMID:28198380

  2. Characterization of key transcription factors as molecular signatures of HPV-positive and HPV-negative oral cancers.

    PubMed

    Verma, Gaurav; Vishnoi, Kanchan; Tyagi, Abhishek; Jadli, Mohit; Singh, Tejveer; Goel, Ankit; Sharma, Ankita; Agarwal, Kiran; Prasad, Subhash Chandra; Pandey, Durgatosh; Sharma, Shashi; Mehrotra, Ravi; Singh, Sukh Mahendra; Bharti, Alok Chandra

    2017-03-01

    Prior studies established constitutively active AP-1, NF-κB, and STAT3 signaling in oral cancer. Differential expression/activation of specific members of these transcription factors has been documented in HPV-positive oral lesions that respond better to therapy. We performed a comprehensive analysis of differentially expressed, transcriptionally active members of these pivotal signaling mediators to develop specific signatures of HPV-positive and HPV-negative oral lesions by immunohistochemical method that is applicable in low-resource settings. We examined a total of 31 prospective and 30 formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded tissues from treatment-naïve, histopathologically and clinically confirmed cases diagnosed as oral or oropharyngeal squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC/OPSCC). Following determination of their HPV status by GP5 + /GP6 +  PCR, the sequential sections of the tissues were evaluated for expression of JunB, JunD, c-Fos, p50, p65, STAT3, and pSTAT3(Y705), along with two key regulatory proteins pEGFR and p16 by IHC. Independent analysis of JunB and p65 showed direct correlation with HPV positivity, whereas STAT3 and pSTAT3 were inversely correlated. A combined analysis of transcription factors revealed a more restrictive combination, characterized by the presence of AP-1 and NF-κB lacking involvement of STAT3 that strongly correlated with HPV-positive tumors. Presence of STAT3/pSTAT3 with NF-κB irrespective of the presence or absence of AP-1 members was present in HPV-negative lesions. Expression of pSTAT3 strongly correlated with all the AP-1/NF-κB members (except JunD), its upstream activator pEGFR(Y)(1092) , and HPV infection-related negative regulator p16. Overall, we show a simple combination of AP-1, NF-κB, and STAT3 members' expression that may serve as molecular signature of HPV-positive lesions or more broadly the tumors that show better prognosis.

  3. In vitro sensitivity of oral, gram-negative, facultative bacteria to the bactericidal activity of human neutrophil defensins.

    PubMed Central

    Miyasaki, K T; Bodeau, A L; Ganz, T; Selsted, M E; Lehrer, R I

    1990-01-01

    Neutrophils play a major role in defending the periodontium against infection by oral, gram-negative, facultative bacteria, such as Actinobacillus actinomycetemcomitans, Eikenella corrodens, and Capnocytophaga spp. We examined the sensitivity of these bacteria to a mixture of low-molecular-weight peptides and highly purified individual defensin peptides (HNP-1, HNP-2, and HNP-3) isolated from human neutrophils. Whereas the Capnocytophaga spp. strains were killed significantly by the mixed human neutrophil peptides, the A. actinomycetemcomitans and E. corrodens strains were resistant. Killing was attributable to the defensins. The bactericidal activities of purified defensins HNP-1 and HNP-2 were equal, and both of these activities were greater than HNP-3 activity against strains of Capnocytophaga sputigena and Capnocytophaga gingivalis. The strain of Capnocytophaga ochracea was more sensitive to defensin-mediated bactericidal activity than either C. sputigena or C. gingivalis was. The three human defensins were equipotent in killing C. ochracea. C. ochracea was killed under aerobic and anaerobic conditions and over a broad pH range. Killing was most effective under hypotonic conditions but also occurred at physiologic salt concentrations. We concluded that Capnocytophaga spp. are sensitive to oxygen-independent killing by human defensins. Additional studies will be required to identify other components that may equip human neutrophils to kill A. actinomycetemcomitans, E. corrodens, and other oral gram-negative bacteria. Images PMID:2254020

  4. Diagnosis and treatment of an oral base-metal contact lesion following negative dermatologic patch tests.

    PubMed

    Lyzak, W A; Flaitz, C M; McGuckin, R S; Eichmiller, F; Brown, R S

    1994-08-01

    We report a confirmed case of intraoral contact mucositis secondary to nickel dental alloy hypersensitivity. The lesion resolved after removal of the offending prosthesis. The patient responded negatively to dermatologic patch tests, but a positive intraoral rechallenge confirmed the mucositis diagnosis. A nonreactive, gold alloy prosthesis was inserted for a successful result.

  5. Positive fantasies or negative contrasts: the effect of media body ideals on restrained eaters' mood, weight satisfaction, and food intake.

    PubMed

    Boyce, Jessica A; Kuijer, Roeline G; Gleaves, David H

    2013-09-01

    Although viewing media body ideals promotes body dissatisfaction and problematic eating among women (e.g., extreme restraint/overeating), some argue that women only report such negative effects because they think that they are meant to (i.e., demand characteristics). Because restrained eaters are trying to lose weight, they might be vulnerable to such media exposure. However, because of demand characteristics, evidence is mixed. Therefore, we minimized demand characteristics and explored whether media body ideals would trigger restrained eaters to report negative (negative mood, weight dissatisfaction) or positive (positive mood, weight satisfaction) effects. We also hypothesized that this change (negative or positive) would encourage food intake. Restrained and unrestrained eaters (n=107) memorized media or control images. Restrained eaters exposed to media images reported decreased weight satisfaction and increased negative mood, but their food intake was not significantly affected. Perhaps paying advertent attention to the images caused goal-related negative affect, which triggered restraint.

  6. Tests of the Aversive Summation Hypothesis in Rats: Effects of Restraint Stress on Consummatory Successive Negative Contrast and Extinction in the Barnes Maze

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ortega, Leonardo A.; Prado-Rivera, Mayerli A.; Cardenas-Poveda, D. Carolina; McLinden, Kristina A.; Glueck, Amanda C.; Gutierrez, German; Lamprea, Marisol R.; Papini, Mauricio R.

    2013-01-01

    The present research explored the effects of restraint stress on two situations involving incentive downshift: consummatory successive negative contrast (cSNC) and extinction of escape behavior in the Barnes maze. First, Experiment 1 confirmed that the restraint stress procedure used in these experiments increased levels of circulating…

  7. The impact of introducing a no oral contrast abdominopelvic CT examination (NOCAPE) pathway on radiology turn around times, emergency department length of stay, and patient safety.

    PubMed

    Razavi, Seyed Amirhossein; Johnson, Jamlik-Omari; Kassin, Michael T; Applegate, Kimberly E

    2014-12-01

    This investigation evaluates the impact of the no oral contrast abdominopelvic CT examination (NOCAPE) on radiology turn around time (TAT), emergency department (ED) length of stay (LOS), and patient safety metrics. During a 12-month period at two urban teaching hospitals, 6,409 ED abdominopelvic (AP) CTs were performed to evaluate acute abdominal pain. NOCAPE represented 70.9 % of all ED AP CT examinations with intravenous contrast. Data collection included patient demographics, use of intravenous (IV) and/or oral contrast, order to complete and order to final interpretation TAT, ED LOS, admission, recall and bounce back rates, and comparison and characterization of impressions. The NOCAPE pathway reduced median order to complete TAT by 32 min (22.9 %) compared to IV and oral contrast AP CT examinations (traditional pathway) (P < 0.001). Median order to final TAT was 2.9 h in NOCAPE patients and 3.5 h in the traditional pathway, a 36-min (17.1 %) reduction (P < 0.001). Overall, the NOCAPE pathway reduced ED LOS by a median of 43 min (8.8 %) compared to the traditional pathway (8.2 vs 7.5 h) (P = 0.003). Recall and bounce back rates were 3.2 %, and only one patient had change in impression after oral contrast CT was repeated. The NOCAPE pathway is associated with decreased radiology TAT and ED LOS metrics. The authors suggest that NOCAPE implementation in the ED setting is safe and positively impacts both radiology and emergency medicine workflow.

  8. In-Vivo Imaging Of Transplanted Human Hepatic Stem Cells: Negative Contrast Labeling And 7t Micro-MRI Tracking

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2004-12-01

    The goals of the current study are to develop effective procedures for labeling stem cells with contrast agents for magnetic resonance imaging (MRI...ms, 2 averages) were obtained. For the fixed whole mouse experiments, a 4.0 cm-diameter birdcage RF coil was used, and interleaved multislice...stem cells, EpCAM+ cells, were labeled to induce magnetic resonance imaging contrast by either magnetodendrimers or a novel microbead-antibody

  9. Negative findings for use of coconut water as an oral rehydration solution in childhood diarrhea.

    PubMed

    Fagundes Neto, U; Franco, L; Tabacow, K; Machado, N L

    1993-04-01

    This study reports the chemical composition of coconut water during its maturation. Composition was measured at 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, 11 and 12 months maturation. Concentrations of sodium and glucose, and the osmolality values showed great variation throughout maturation. The concentration of sodium remained constant between the 5th and 7th months (mean 2.9 mEq/l), but increased after the 8th month (mean 12.5 mEq/l). The concentration of glucose remained constant between the 5th and 8th months (mean 3392.4 mg%), but abruptly decreased after the 9th month (mean 820 mg%). Osmolality followed the variation of the glucose concentration averaging 377.3 mOsm/l up to the 8th month, then decreasing to 310.3 mOsm/l after the 9th month. This study showed great variability in coconut water composition during maturation of the fruit. In no instance did the coconut water contain sodium and glucose concentrations of potential value as an oral rehydration solution.

  10. Negative regulation of natural killer cell in tumor tissue and peripheral blood of oral squamous cell carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Dutta, Anupam; Banerjee, Arunabha; Saikia, Nabajyoti; Phookan, Jyotirmoy; Baruah, Munindra Narayan; Baruah, Shashi

    2015-12-01

    Natural killer (NK) cells are the key lymphocytes in solid tumors. Its activity is regulated by both germline encoded receptors and cytokine microenvironment. We conducted a case-control study to investigate the activation status of NK cell in oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC). NK cell activation was assessed in context of NK cell cytotoxicity and transcript expression of NK cell receptors (NKp46 and KIRs) and NK cell associated cytokines (IL-1β, IL-2, IL-10, IL-12β, IL-15, IL-18, IL-21, IFN-γ, TNF-α and TGF-β). The results revealed possible mechanisms involved in reduced NK cell activation in peripheral circulation: quantitative deficiency of NK cell number and lowered cytotoxicity together with qualitative NK impairments caused by--(1) decreased expression of NK activating receptor NKp46, (2) increased expression of NK suppressive cytokines--IL-10 and TGF-β and (3) induction of FOXP3(+)CTLA4(+) suppressor cells. On the other hand, in the tumor tissue, escape of NK immune surveillance appeared to be modulated by upregulation of TGF-β and IL-10 together with downregulation of NK cell activating cytokines (IL-2, IL-12β, IL-15, IL-18, IL-21 and IFN-γ) and NK receptors (NKp46 and KIRs). In addition, our study supported the earlier contention that TNF-α and IL-1β expression levels may be used as markers of malignant transformation in oral leukoplakia. In conclusion, the study provided an insight into the negative regulation of NK cell in tumor tissue and peripheral blood of OSCC patients, which can be exploited to boost the current NK cell and cytokine based immunotherapy for the treatment of oral cancer.

  11. Immunohistochemical staining of Langerhans cells in HPV-positive and HPV-negative cases of oral squamous cells carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    PEREIRA, Karuza Maria Alves; SOARES, Rosilene Calazans; OLIVEIRA, Márcio Campos; PINTO, Leão Pereira; COSTA, Antônio de Lisboa Lopes

    2011-01-01

    The Human Papillomavirus (HPV) has been strongly implicated in development of some cases of oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC). However, the immunological system somehow reacts against the presence of this virus. Among the cells involved in such mechanism of defense Langerhans cells (LC) stand out, which are responsible for processing and presenting antigens. Objectives The purposes of this study were to investigate the presence of HPV DNA and to evaluate the immunohistochemical reactivity for Langerhans cells between HPV-positive and HPV-negative OSCC. Twenty-seven cases of OSSC were evaluated. Material and Methods DNA was extracted from paraffin-embedded tissue samples and amplified by Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR) for the detection of HPV DNA. Viral typing was performed by dot blot hybridization. Immunohistochemistry was performed by the Streptavidin-biotin technique. Results From the 27 cases, 9 (33.3%) were HPV-positive and 18 (66.0%) HPV-negative. HPV 18 was the most prevalent viral type (100% cases) and infection with HPV-16 (co-infection) was detected in only 1 case. In the OSCC specimens examined, immunoreactivity to S-100 antibody was detected in all cases, with a mean number of 49.48±30.89 Langerhans cells positive for immunostaining. The mean number of immunostained Langerhans cells was smaller in the HPV-positive cases (38 cells/case) than in the HPV-negative cases (42.5 cells/case), but this difference was not significant (p=0.38). Conclusions The low frequency of detection of HPV DNA in OSCC indicates a possible participation of the virus in the development and progression of only a subgroup of these tumors. There was no association between the immunohistochemical labeling for Langerhans cells (S-100+) and HPV infection of in OSSC. These findings suggest that the presence of HPV in such OSCC cases could not alter the immunological system, particularly the Langerhans cells. PMID:21710097

  12. S-100 Negative Granular Cell Tumor (So-called Primitive Polypoid Non-neural Granular Cell Tumor) of the Oral Cavity.

    PubMed

    Rawal, Yeshwant B; Dodson, Thomas B

    2016-10-05

    Four cases of cutaneous S-100 negative granular cell tumor were described in 1991. Until now, only 3 cases of oral involvement have been documented in English literature. Two additional cases of oral S-100 negative granular cell tumor are described. Immunohistochemical markers were applied to exclude other lesions that may show the presence of granular cells. The clinical findings were correlated with the histopathological and immunohistochemical features to arrive at the appropriate diagnosis. S-100 negative granular cell tumors are erythematous polypoid masses commonly mistaken for granulation tissue or a pyogenic granuloma. Any part of the oral cavity may be affected. Histopathologically, the lesions consist of sheets, nests, and fascicles of granular cells that are S-100 negative. The granular cells are non-reactive to SMA, HMB45, Melan A, and CD163. The intracytoplasmic granules are diffusely and strongly positive to NKI/C3. The cell lineage of the S-100 negative granular cell tumor is obscure. Absence of staining with CD163 excludes a histiocytic lineage. Absence of staining with S-100 excludes a neural origin. Absence of staining with S-100 and key melanoma markers HMB45 and Melan A also excludes a melanocytic origin. In this context, positive reactivity with NKI/C3 is indicative of presence of intracytoplasmic lysosomal granules only. Greater awareness of this lesion in the oral cavity will result in better characterization of its biologic potential.

  13. Metal-containing components in medicinal plants. III. Manganese-containing components in Theae folium as oral magnetic resonance imaging contrast materials.

    PubMed

    Mino, Y; Yamada, K; Takeda, T; Nagasawa, O

    1996-12-01

    A manganese-containing component from the water-extract of Theae folium (green tea) was found to exert an augmentative effect in magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) contrast and may possibly be a manganese(II) complex with a pectin-like polysaccharide capable of shortening the spin-lattice relaxation time (T1) of water protons. Even though only the manganese(II) ion with S = 5/2 is active in T1-shortening ability, which should enhance contrast, complexation of this ion with the polysaccharide causes a marked increase in its activity. This manganese-containing pectin-like polysaccharides should prove useful as a low-toxic oral gastrointestinal contrast material in MRI.

  14. Positive/negative surface charge of chitosan based nanogels and its potential influence on oral insulin delivery.

    PubMed

    Wang, Juan; Xu, Mengxue; Cheng, Xiaojie; Kong, Ming; Liu, Ya; Feng, Chao; Chen, Xiguang

    2016-01-20

    To develop insulin delivery system for the treatment of diabetes, two insulin-loaded nanogels with opposite zeta potential (-15.94 ± 0.449 mV for insulin:CMCS/CS-NGs(-) and +17.15 ± 0.492 mV for insulin:CMCS/CS-NGs(+)) were obtained. Ex vivo results showed that the nanogels with opposite surface charge exhibited different adhesion and permeation in specific intestinal segments. There was no significant differences in adhesion and permeation in rat duodenum, but in rat jejunum, insulin:CMCS/CS-NGs(-) exhibited enhanced adhesion and permeation, which were about 3 folds (adhesion) and 1.7 folds (permeation) higher than insulin:CMCS/CS-NGs(+). These results demonstrated that the surface charge property of nanogels determined the absorption sites of CMCS/CS-NGs in small intestine. In vivo study, the blood glucose level in insulin:CMCS/CS-NGs(-) group had 3 mmol/L lower than insulin:CMCS/CS-NGs(+) group during 1h to 11h after the oral administration, which demonstrated that negative insulin:CMCS/CS-NGs had a better management of blood glucose than positive ones.

  15. Orally Administered Nano-curcumin to Attenuate Morphine Tolerance: Comparison between Negatively Charged PLGA and Partially and Fully PEGylated Nanoparticles

    PubMed Central

    Shen, Hao; Hu, Xiaoyu; Szymusiak, Magdalena; Wang, Zaijie Jim; Liu, Ying

    2014-01-01

    We have formulated hydrophobic curcurmin [1,7-bis-(4-hydroxy-3-methoxyphenyl)-1,6-heptadiene-3,5-dione] into stable nanoparticle suspensions (nano-curcumin) to overcome its relatively low bioavailability, high rate of metabolism and rapid elimination and clearance from the body. Employing the curcumin nanoformulations as the platform, we discovered that curcumin has the potential to alleviate morphine tolerance. The two types of stable polymeric nanoparticles - poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid) (PLGA) and poly(ethylene glycol)-b-poly(lactic acid) (PEG-b-PLA) - and the hybrid of the two were generated using flash nanoprecipitation integrated with spray drying. The optimized formulations have high drug loading (>45%), small particles size with narrow distribution, and controlled surface properties. Mice behavioral studies (tail-flick and hot-plate tests) were conducted to verify the effects of nano-curcumin on attenuating morphine tolerance. Significant analgesia was observed in mice during both tail-flick and hot-plate tests using orally administrated nano-curcumin following subcutaneous injections of morphine. However, unformulated curcumin at the same dose showed no effect. Compared with PEGylated nano-curcumin, negatively charged PLGA nanoparticles showed better functionality. PMID:24195658

  16. Orally administered nanocurcumin to attenuate morphine tolerance: comparison between negatively charged PLGA and partially and fully PEGylated nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Shen, Hao; Hu, Xiaoyu; Szymusiak, Magdalena; Wang, Zaijie Jim; Liu, Ying

    2013-12-02

    We have formulated hydrophobic curcurmin [1,7-bis-(4-hydroxy-3-methoxyphenyl)-1,6-heptadiene-3,5-dione] into stable nanoparticle suspensions (nanocurcumin) to overcome its relatively low bioavailability, high rate of metabolism, and rapid elimination and clearance from the body. Employing the curcumin nanoformulations as the platform, we discovered that curcumin has the potential to alleviate morphine tolerance. The two types of stable polymeric nanoparticles, poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid) (PLGA) and poly(ethylene glycol)-b-poly(lactic acid) (PEG-b-PLA), and the hybrid of the two were generated using flash nanoprecipitation integrated with spray drying. The optimized formulations have high drug loading (>45%), small particles size with narrow distribution, and controlled surface properties. Mice behavioral studies (tail-flick and hot-plate tests) were conducted to verify the effects of nanocurcumin on attenuating morphine tolerance. Significant analgesia was observed in mice during both tail-flick and hot-plate tests using orally administered nanocurcumin following subcutaneous injections of morphine. However, unformulated curcumin at the same dose showed no effect. Compared with PEGylated nanocurcumin, negatively charged PLGA nanoparticles showed better functionality.

  17. Discrimination of native and non-native vowel contrasts in bilingual Turkish-German and monolingual German children: Insight from the Mismatch Negativity ERP component.

    PubMed

    Rinker, Tanja; Alku, Paavo; Brosch, Sibylle; Kiefer, Markus

    2010-05-01

    The development of native-like memory traces for foreign phonemes can be measured by using the Mismatch Negativity (MMN), a component of the auditory event-related potential. Previous studies have shown that the MMN is sensitive to changes in neural organization depending on language experience. Here we measured the MMN response in 5-6year-old monolingual German and bilingual Turkish-German kindergarten children growing up in Germany. MMN was investigated to a German vowel contrast and to a vowel contrast that exists in Turkish and in German. The results show that compared to a German control group, the MMN response is less robust in Turkish-German children to the German vowel contrast. The response to the contrast that exists in both languages does not differ between groups. Overall, the results suggest that the Turkish-German children have not yet fully acquired the German phonetic inventory despite living in Germany since birth and being immersed in a German-speaking environment.

  18. Contrasting effects of hemiparasites on ecosystem processes: can positive litter effects offset the negative effects of parasitism?

    PubMed Central

    Suding, Katharine N.

    2010-01-01

    Hemiparasites are known to influence community structure and ecosystem functioning, but the underlying mechanisms are not well studied. Variation in the impacts of hemiparasites on diversity and production could be due to the difference in the relative strength of two interacting pathways: direct negative effects of parasitism and positive effects on N availability via litter. Strong effects of parasitism should result in substantial changes in diversity and declines in productivity. Conversely, strong litter effects should result in minor changes in diversity and increased productivity. We conducted field-based surveys to determine the association of Castillejaoccidentalis with diversity and productivity in the alpine tundra. To examine litter effects, we compared the decomposition of Castilleja litter with litter of four other abundant plant species, and examined the decomposition of those four species when mixed with Castilleja. Castilleja was associated with minor changes in diversity but almost a twofold increase in productivity and greater foliar N in co-occurring species. Our decomposition trials suggest litter effects are due to both the rapid N loss of Castilleja litter and the effects of mixing Castilleja litter with co-occurring species. Castilleja produces litter that accelerates decomposition in the alpine tundra, which could accelerate the slow N cycle and boost productivity. We speculate that these positive effects of litter outweigh the effects of parasitism in nutrient-poor systems with long-lived hemiparasites. Determining the relative importance of parasitism and litter effects of this functional group is crucial to understand the strong but variable roles hemiparasites play in affecting community structure and ecosystem processes. PMID:20658151

  19. The link between a negative high resolution resist contrast/developer performance and the Flory-Huggins parameter estimated from the Hansen solubility sphere

    SciTech Connect

    StCaire, Lorri; Olynick, Deirdre L.; Chao, Weilun L.; Lewis, Mark D.; Lu, Haoren; Dhuey, Scott D.; Liddle, J. Alexander

    2008-07-01

    We have implemented a technique to identify candidate polymer solvents for spinning, developing, and rinsing for a high resolution, negative electron beam resist hexa-methyl acetoxy calix(6)arene to elicit the optimum pattern development performance. Using the three dimensional Hansen solubility parameters for over 40 solvents, we have constructed a Hansen solubility sphere. From this sphere, we have estimated the Flory Huggins interaction parameter for solvents with hexa-methyl acetoxy calix(6)arene and found a correlation between resist development contrast and the Flory-Huggins parameter. This provides new insights into the development behavior of resist materials which are necessary for obtaining the ultimate lithographic resolution.

  20. Genome-Wide Loss of Heterozygosity and DNA Copy Number Aberration in HPV-Negative Oral Squamous Cell Carcinoma and Their Associations with Disease-Specific Survival.

    PubMed

    Chen, Chu; Zhang, Yuzheng; Loomis, Melissa M; Upton, Melissa P; Lohavanichbutr, Pawadee; Houck, John R; Doody, David R; Mendez, Eduardo; Futran, Neal; Schwartz, Stephen M; Wang, Pei

    2015-01-01

    Oral squamous cell cancer of the oral cavity and oropharynx (OSCC) is associated with high case-fatality. For reasons that are largely unknown, patients with the same clinical and pathologic staging have heterogeneous response to treatment and different probability of recurrence and survival, with patients with Human Papillomavirus (HPV)-positive oropharyngeal tumors having the most favorable survival. To gain insight into the complexity of OSCC and to identify potential chromosomal changes that may be associated with OSCC mortality, we used Affymtrix 6.0 SNP arrays to examine paired DNA from peripheral blood and tumor cell populations isolated by laser capture microdissection to assess genome-wide loss of heterozygosity (LOH) and DNA copy number aberration (CNA) and their associations with risk factors, tumor characteristics, and oral cancer-specific mortality among 75 patients with HPV-negative OSCC. We found a highly heterogeneous and complex genomic landscape of HPV-negative tumors, and identified regions in 4q, 8p, 9p and 11q that seem to play an important role in oral cancer biology and survival from this disease. If confirmed, these findings could assist in designing personalized treatment or in the creation of models to predict survival in patients with HPV-negative OSCC.

  1. Identifying Triple-Negative Breast Cancer Using Background Parenchymal Enhancement Heterogeneity on Dynamic Contrast-Enhanced MRI: A Pilot Radiomics Study

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Jeff; Kato, Fumi; Oyama-Manabe, Noriko; Li, Ruijiang; Cui, Yi; Tha, Khin Khin; Yamashita, Hiroko; Kudo, Kohsuke; Shirato, Hiroki

    2015-01-01

    Objectives To determine the added discriminative value of detailed quantitative characterization of background parenchymal enhancement in addition to the tumor itself on dynamic contrast-enhanced (DCE) MRI at 3.0 Tesla in identifying “triple-negative" breast cancers. Materials and Methods In this Institutional Review Board-approved retrospective study, DCE-MRI of 84 women presenting 88 invasive carcinomas were evaluated by a radiologist and analyzed using quantitative computer-aided techniques. Each tumor and its surrounding parenchyma were segmented semi-automatically in 3-D. A total of 85 imaging features were extracted from the two regions, including morphologic, densitometric, and statistical texture measures of enhancement. A small subset of optimal features was selected using an efficient sequential forward floating search algorithm. To distinguish triple-negative cancers from other subtypes, we built predictive models based on support vector machines. Their classification performance was assessed with the area under receiver operating characteristic curve (AUC) using cross-validation. Results Imaging features based on the tumor region achieved an AUC of 0.782 in differentiating triple-negative cancers from others, in line with the current state of the art. When background parenchymal enhancement features were included, the AUC increased significantly to 0.878 (p<0.01). Similar improvements were seen in nearly all subtype classification tasks undertaken. Notably, amongst the most discriminating features for predicting triple-negative cancers were textures of background parenchymal enhancement. Conclusions Considering the tumor as well as its surrounding parenchyma on DCE-MRI for radiomic image phenotyping provides useful information for identifying triple-negative breast cancers. Heterogeneity of background parenchymal enhancement, characterized by quantitative texture features on DCE-MRI, adds value to such differentiation models as they are strongly

  2. Six-Month Incidence and Persistence of Oral HPV Infection in HIV-Negative and HIV-Infected Men Who Have Sex with Men

    PubMed Central

    Mooij, Sofie H.; Speksnijder, Arjen G. C. L.; Meijer, Chris J. L. M.; King, Audrey J.; Verhagen, Dominique W. M.; de Vries, Henry J. C.; Quint, Wim G. V.; Molijn, Anco; de Koning, Maurits N. C.; van der Sande, Marianne A. B.; van der Loeff, Maarten F. Schim

    2014-01-01

    Objectives Our aim was to assess incidence and persistence of oral HPV infection in HIV-negative and HIV-infected men who have sex with men (MSM). Methods MSM aged ≥18 years were included in Amsterdam (the Netherlands) in 2010–2011, and followed up 6 months later. Participants completed risk factor questionnaires. HPV DNA was analyzed in oral-rinse and gargle specimens using the SPF10-PCR DEIA/LiPA25 system (version 1). A subset of oral samples was subjected to SPF10 sequencing to identify additional HPV types. Multivariable logistic regression analyses using generalized estimating equations (GEE) were performed to assess determinants for oral high-risk HPV incidence and persistence. Results 689/795 participant MSM provided both baseline and 6-month data. Baseline prevalence of high-risk HPV was 9.4% in HIV-negative and 23.9% in HIV-infected MSM (P<0.001). 56/689 MSM acquired ≥1 high-risk HPV infection (6-month incidence 8.1%; 95%CI 6.2–10.4%); incidence was 4.1% in HIV-negative and 14.1% in HIV-infected MSM (P<0.001). HIV infection and recent use of cannabis were both independently associated with high-risk HPV incidence. Persistent high-risk HPV was observed in 48/130 (36.9%) infections. Conclusion Incidence of oral high-risk HPV infection in MSM is substantial, and is associated with HIV infection. Over a third of HPV infections persisted over a 6-month period. PMID:24896848

  3. Oral cyclophosphamide was effective for Coombs-negative autoimmune hemolytic anemia in CD16+CD56- chronic lymphoproliferative disorder of NK-cells.

    PubMed

    Sekiguchi, Nodoka; Nishina, Sayaka; Kawakami, Toru; Sakai, Hitoshi; Senoo, Noriko; Senoo, Yasushi; Ito, Toshiro; Saito, Hiroshi; Nakazawa, Hideyuki; Koizumi, Tomonobu; Ishida, Fumihiro

    2016-12-27

    An 84-year-old woman was referred to our hospital presenting anemia. Her hemoglobin level was 5.8 g/dL, and white blood cell count was 9400/μL, consisting of 82% lymphocytes. Given the lymphocyte phenotype (CD2+, CD3-, CD16+, and CD56-) and negative whole blood EBV viral load, we made a diagnosis of chronic lymphoproliferative disorder of NK cells (CLPD-NK). We suspected hemolytic anemia because of the high levels of reticulocytes in the peripheral blood and the low haptoglobin value. Although the direct Coombs test was negative and there was no cold agglutination, we examined her red-blood-cell-bound IgG (RBC-IgG), which was elevated. She was diagnosed as having as Coombs-negative autoimmune hemolytic anemia (AIHA). We report the effectiveness of oral cyclophosphamide for Coombs-negative autoimmune hemolytic anemia in CLPD-NK.

  4. False-negative contrast-enhanced spectral mammography: use of more than one imaging modality and application of the triple test avoids misdiagnosis.

    PubMed

    Taylor, Donna; O'Hanlon, Susan; Latham, Bruce

    2017-03-31

    A 50-year-old woman presented with chest tenderness. On examination, both breasts were lumpy. Bilateral mammography showed heterogeneously dense parenchyma, with possible stromal distortion laterally on the right at the 0900 position. On ultrasound (US), a corresponding 13×9×10 mm irregular hypoechoic mass with internal vascularity was noted and both breasts had a complex heterogeneous fibroglandular background pattern. US-guided core biopsy with marker clip insertion was performed with the diagnosis of a grade 2 invasive ductal carcinoma (IDC). In view of the parenchymal pattern on mammography and US, contrast-enhanced spectral mammography (CESM) was performed for local staging. Mild background enhancement was noted, but there was no enhancement at the lesion site. The patient elected to have bilateral mastectomies and sentinel node biopsies. Final histopathology showed a node negative 11 mm grade 2 oestrogen and progesterone receptor positive, IDC.

  5. Evaluation of Laser Speckle Contrast Imaging for the Assessment of Oral Mucosal Blood Flow following Periodontal Plastic Surgery: An Exploratory Study.

    PubMed

    Molnár, Eszter; Molnár, Bálint; Lohinai, Zsolt; Tóth, Zsuzsanna; Benyó, Zoltán; Hricisák, Laszló; Windisch, Péter; Vág, János

    2017-01-01

    The laser speckle contrast imaging (LSCI) is proved to be a reliable tool in flap monitoring in general surgery; however, it has not been evaluated in oral surgery yet. We applied the LSCI to compare the effect of a xenogeneic collagen matrix (Geistlich Mucograft®) to connective tissue grafts (CTG) on the microcirculation of the modified coronally advanced tunnel technique (MCAT) for gingival recession coverage. Gingival microcirculation and wound fluid were measured before and after surgery for six months at twenty-seven treated teeth. In males, the flap microcirculation was restored within 3 days for both grafts followed by a hyperemic response. During the first 8 days the blood flow was higher at xenogeneic graft comparing to the CTG. In females, the ischemic period lasted for 7-12 days depending on the graft and no hyperemic response was observed. Females had more intense and prolonged wound fluid production. The LSCI method is suitable to capture the microcirculatory effect of the surgical intervention in human oral mucosa. The application of xenogeneic collagen matrices as a CTG substitute does not seem to restrain the recovery of graft bed circulation. Gender may have an effect on postoperative circulation and inflammation.

  6. Evaluation of Laser Speckle Contrast Imaging for the Assessment of Oral Mucosal Blood Flow following Periodontal Plastic Surgery: An Exploratory Study

    PubMed Central

    Molnár, Eszter; Molnár, Bálint; Lohinai, Zsolt; Tóth, Zsuzsanna; Benyó, Zoltán; Hricisák, Laszló; Windisch, Péter

    2017-01-01

    The laser speckle contrast imaging (LSCI) is proved to be a reliable tool in flap monitoring in general surgery; however, it has not been evaluated in oral surgery yet. We applied the LSCI to compare the effect of a xenogeneic collagen matrix (Geistlich Mucograft®) to connective tissue grafts (CTG) on the microcirculation of the modified coronally advanced tunnel technique (MCAT) for gingival recession coverage. Gingival microcirculation and wound fluid were measured before and after surgery for six months at twenty-seven treated teeth. In males, the flap microcirculation was restored within 3 days for both grafts followed by a hyperemic response. During the first 8 days the blood flow was higher at xenogeneic graft comparing to the CTG. In females, the ischemic period lasted for 7–12 days depending on the graft and no hyperemic response was observed. Females had more intense and prolonged wound fluid production. The LSCI method is suitable to capture the microcirculatory effect of the surgical intervention in human oral mucosa. The application of xenogeneic collagen matrices as a CTG substitute does not seem to restrain the recovery of graft bed circulation. Gender may have an effect on postoperative circulation and inflammation. PMID:28232940

  7. Human papillomavirus 16 (HPV16) enhances tumor growth and cancer stemness of HPV-negative oral/oropharyngeal squamous cell carcinoma cells via miR-181 regulation.

    PubMed

    Lee, Sung Hee; Lee, Chang-Ryul; Rigas, Nicole Kristina; Kim, Reuben H; Kang, Mo K; Park, No-Hee; Shin, Ki-Hyuk

    2015-12-01

    High-risk human papillomaviruses (e.g., HPV16, HPV18) are closely associated with the development of head and neck cancers including oral/oropharyngeal squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC). We previously demonstrated immortalization of normal human oral keratinocytes by introducing high-risk HPV whole genome, suggesting that HPV infection plays an important role in the early stage of oral carcinogenesis. Although HPV infection may occur in different stages of cancer development, roles of HPV in exacerbating malignant phenotypes in already-transformed cells in the context of cancer stemness are not clearly defined. In this study, we investigated the role of HPV16 in promoting the virulence of HPV-negative OSCC. Introducing HPV16 whole genome in HPV-negative OSCC increased malignant growth and self-renewal capacity, a key characteristic of cancer stem cells (CSCs). HPV16 also enhanced other CSC properties, including aldehyde dehydrogenase 1 (ALDH1) activity, migration/invasion, and CSC-related factor expression. Mechanistically, we found that HPV16 inhibited the expression of miR-181a and miR-181d (miR-181a/d) at the transcriptional level. Ectopic expression of miR-181a/d decreased anchorage independent growth and CSC phenotype of HPV16-transfected OSCC. Furthermore, silencing of miR-181a/d target genes, i.e., K-ras and ALDH1, abrogated the effects of HPV16 in HPV16-transfected OSCC, supporting the functional importance of HPV16/miR-181a/d axis in HPV-mediated oral carcinogenesis. Our study suggests that high-risk HPV infection further promotes malignancy in HPV-negative OSCC by enhancing cancer stemness via miR-181a/d regulation. Consequently, miR-181a/d may represent a novel therapeutic agent for the treatment of HPV-positive OSCC.

  8. The effect of partial reinforcement on instrumental successive negative contrast in inbred Roman High- (RHA-I) and Low- (RLA-I) Avoidance rats.

    PubMed

    Cuenya, L; Sabariego, M; Donaire, R; Fernández-Teruel, A; Tobeña, A; Gómez, M J; Mustaca, A; Torres, C

    2012-03-20

    Frustration is an emotional response that can be induced by the sudden devaluation of a reinforcer in the presence of greater reinforcement expectancies (e.g. instrumental successive negative contrast, iSNC). This emotional response seems to be similar to anxiety and can be attenuated by previous experiences of reward loss (e.g. partial reinforcement, PR, as opposed to continuous reinforcement, CR). In this study we used iSNC and PR procedures in order to compare the performance of two strains of rats psychogenetically selected on the basis of their emotional reactivity: the inbred Roman High- (RHA-I, low anxiety) and Low- (RLA-I, high anxiety) Avoidance rats. Animals were exposed to a straight alley, where they were changed from 12 pellets in the preshift phase (presented in 100% of trials-CR vs. 50% of trials-PR) to 2 pellets in the postshift phase, or exposed to 2 pellets throughout the training. The results indicated that the iSNC only appeared in RLA-I rats exposed to CR, as opposed to RLA-I animals exposed to PR and to RHA-I rats exposed to PR or CR. These data seem to support the implication of emotional responses in both iSNC and PR situations, and indicate that the behavioral reactivity to reward loss experiences is modulated by genetic variables.

  9. The effect of long-acting paliperidone palmitate once-monthly on negative and depressive symptoms in patients with schizophrenia switched from previous unsuccessful treatment with oral aripiprazole

    PubMed Central

    Schreiner, Andreas; Bergmans, Paul; Cherubin, Pierre; Hargarter, Ludger

    2016-01-01

    Background: The negative symptoms of schizophrenia are generally harder to recognize, more difficult to treat than positive symptoms, and have a significant impact on patient functioning and overall outcomes. Treatment with aripiprazole may be associated with benefits on negative symptoms and functioning given its partial agonism to the dopamine D2 receptor. The aim of this subanalysis was to explore the impact of flexibly dosed, long-acting paliperidone palmitate once monthly (PP1M) on negative and depressive symptoms, disorganized thoughts, anxiety, extrapyramidal symptoms, and patient functioning in nonacute adult patients with schizophrenia previously unsuccessfully treated with oral aripiprazole monotherapy. Methods: Post-hoc subanalysis of 46 nonacute but symptomatic patients enrolled in a prospective, interventional, single-arm, multicenter, open-label 6-month study. Results: At endpoint, improvements of ⩾ 20% and ⩾ 50% in the Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale (PANSS) total score were observed in 52.2% and 21.7% of patients, respectively. Significant and clinically relevant improvements were observed at endpoint in mean (standard deviation [SD]) PANSS negative subscale score (−3.0 (5.0); p < 0.0001) and in the PANSS Marder factor scores for negative symptoms (−2.9 (5.4); p = 0.0006), disorganized thoughts (−2.8 (4.3); p < 0.0001) and anxiety/depression (−1.8 (3.9); p = 0.0031). Patient functioning assessed by mean (SD) Personal and Social Performance scale score (3.9 (13.2); p = 0.0409), Mini International Classification of Functioning rating for Activity and Participation Disorders in Psychological Illnesses total scores (−2.9 (7.1); p = 0.0079), and Extrapyramidal Symptom Rating Scale scores (−0.6 (3.4); p = 0.0456) improved significantly at endpoint. PP1M was well tolerated with no new safety signals. Conclusions: Six-month treatment with flexibly dosed PP1M was associated with significant and clinically relevant improvements in

  10. Novel diindolylmethane derivatives based NLC formulations to improve the oral bioavailability and anticancer effects in triple negative breast cancer.

    PubMed

    Godugu, Chandraiah; Doddapaneni, Ravi; Safe, Stephen H; Singh, Mandip

    2016-11-01

    The present study demonstrates the promising anticancer effects of novel C-substituted diindolylmethane (DIM) derivatives DIM-10 and DIM-14 in aggressive TNBC models. In vitro studies demonstrated that these compounds possess strong anticancer effects. Caco-2 permeability studies resulted in poor permeability and poor oral bioavailability was demonstrated by pharmacokinetic studies. Nano structured lipid carrier (NLC) formulations were prepared to increase the clinical acceptance of these compounds. Significant increase in oral bioavailability was observed with NLC formulations. Compared to DIM-10, DIM-10 NLC formulation showed increase in Cmax and AUC values by 4.73 and 11.19-folds, respectively. Similar pattern of increase was observed with DIM-14 NLC formulations. In dogs DIM-10 NLC formulations showed an increase of 2.65 and 2.94-fold in Cmax and AUC, respectively. The anticancer studies in MDA-MB-231 orthotopic TNBC models demonstrated significant reduction in tumor volumes in DIM-10 and DIM-14 NLC treated animals. Our studies suggest that NLC formulation of both DIM-10 and 14 is effective in TNBC models.

  11. Systematic oral hydration with water is similar to parenteral hydration for prevention of contrast-induced nephropathy: an updated meta-analysis of randomised clinical data

    PubMed Central

    Agarwal, Shiv Kumar; Mohareb, Sameh; Patel, Achint; Yacoub, Rabi; DiNicolantonio, James J; Konstantinidis, Ioannis; Pathak, Ambarish; Fnu, Shailesh; Annapureddy, Narender; Simoes, Priya K; Kamat, Sunil; El-Hayek, Georges; Prasad, Ravi; Kumbala, Damodar; Nascimento, Rhanderson M; Reilly, John P; Nadkarni, Girish N; Benjo, Alexandre M

    2015-01-01

    Background Contrast-induced nephropathy (CIN) is the third most common cause of hospital-acquired kidney injury and is related to increased long-term morbidity and mortality. Adequate intravenous (IV) hydration has been demonstrated to lessen its occurrence. Oral (PO) hydration with water is inexpensive and readily available but its role for CIN prevention is yet to be determined. Methods PubMed, EMBASE and the Cochrane Central register of controlled trials (CENTRAL) databases were searched until April 2015 and studies were selected using the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses (PRISMA) checklist. All randomised clinical trials with head-to-head comparison between PO and IV hydration were included. Results A total of 5 studies with 477 patients were included in the analysis, 255 of those receiving PO water. The incidence of CIN was statistically similar in the IV and PO arms (7.7% and 8.2%, respectively; relative risk 0.97; 95% CI 0.36 to 2.94; p=0.95). The incidence of CIN was statistically similar in the IV and PO arms in patients with chronic kidney disease and with normal renal function. Rise in creatinine at 48–72 h was lower in the PO hydration group compared with IV hydration (pooled standard mean difference 0.04; 95% CI 0.03 to 0.06; p<0.001; I2=62%). Conclusions Our meta-analysis shows that systematic PO hydration with water is at least as effective as IV hydration with saline to prevent CIN. PO hydration is cheaper and more easily administered than IV hydration, thus making it more attractive and just as effective. PMID:26468404

  12. Oral health care for children in countries using dental therapists in public, school-based programs, contrasted with that of the United States, using dentists in a private practice model.

    PubMed

    Mathu-Muju, Kavita R; Friedman, Jay W; Nash, David A

    2013-09-01

    The United States faces a significant problem with access to oral health care, particularly for children. More than 50 countries have developed an alternative dental provider, a dental therapist, practicing in public, school-based programs, to address children's access to care. This delivery model has been demonstrated to improve access to care and oral health outcomes while providing quality care economically. We summarize elements of a recent major review of the global literature on the use of dental therapists, "A Review of the Global Literature on Dental Therapists: In the Context of the Movement to Add Dental Therapists to the Oral Health Workforce in the United States." We contrast the success of a school-based model of caring for children by dental therapists with that of the US model of dentists providing care for children in private practices.

  13. Oral Health Care for Children in Countries Using Dental Therapists in Public, School-Based Programs, Contrasted with That of the United States, Using Dentists in a Private Practice Model

    PubMed Central

    Friedman, Jay W.; Nash, David A.

    2013-01-01

    The United States faces a significant problem with access to oral health care, particularly for children. More than 50 countries have developed an alternative dental provider, a dental therapist, practicing in public, school-based programs, to address children’s access to care. This delivery model has been demonstrated to improve access to care and oral health outcomes while providing quality care economically. We summarize elements of a recent major review of the global literature on the use of dental therapists, “A Review of the Global Literature on Dental Therapists: In the Context of the Movement to Add Dental Therapists to the Oral Health Workforce in the United States.” We contrast the success of a school-based model of caring for children by dental therapists with that of the US model of dentists providing care for children in private practices. PMID:23865650

  14. Contrast cystography.

    PubMed

    Essman, Stephanie C

    2005-02-01

    Cystography is a radiographic study performed to aid in evaluation of the urinary bladder for extramural, mural, or intraluminal lesions. These lesions may primarily involve the urinary bladder or may be an extension of disease from adjacent organs. Cystography is easy to perform with relatively few complications. Different types of cystography (positive versus negative contrast) may be used depending on the type of information that the clinician hopes to obtain. Although a valuable technique, it is important to correlate the findings on cystography with other clinical information to arrive at the final diagnosis.

  15. Implicit attention to negative social, in contrast to nonsocial, words in the Stroop task differs between individuals high and low in loneliness: Evidence from event-related brain microstates.

    PubMed

    Cacioppo, Stephanie; Balogh, Stephen; Cacioppo, John T

    2015-09-01

    Being on the social perimeter is not only sad, it is dangerous. Our evolutionary model of the effects of perceived social isolation (loneliness) on the brain as well as a growing body of behavioral research suggests that loneliness promotes short-term self-preservation, including an increased implicit vigilance for social, in contrast to nonsocial, threats. However, this hypothesis has not been tested previously in a neuroimaging study. We therefore used high density EEG and a social Stroop interference task to test the hypothesis that implicit attention to negative social, in contrast to nonsocial, Words in the Stroop task differs between individuals high versus low in loneliness and to investigate the brain dynamics of implicit processing for negative social (vs nonsocial) stimuli in lonely individuals, compared to nonlonely individuals (N = 70). The present study provides the first evidence that negative social stimuli are differentiated from negative nonsocial stimuli more quickly in the lonely than nonlonely brains. Given the timing of this differentiation in the brain and the fact that participants were performing a Stroop task, these results also suggest that these differences reflect implicit rather than explicit attentional differences between lonely and nonlonely individuals. Source estimates were performed for purposes of hypothesis generation regarding underlying neural mechanisms, and the results implicated the neural circuits reminiscent of orienting and executive control aspects of attention as contributing to these differences. Together, the results are in accord with the evolutionary model of loneliness.

  16. One-pot fabricating Fe3O4/graphene nanocomposite with excellent biocompatibility and non-toxicity as a negative MR contrast agent.

    PubMed

    Zan, Ping; Yang, Chunyan; Sun, Huan; Zhao, Lijun; Lv, Zhongwen; He, Yuquan

    2016-09-01

    We report a facile approach to synthesize water-dispersible nanocomposite with Fe3O4 nanoparticles (NPs) attached to graphene (G), which combines the growth of Fe3O4NPs and the reduction of graphene oxide (GO) in one single step. The unique hydrophilic surface structure of Fe3O4/G nanocomposite leads to it being colloidally stable, non-cytotoxic, well-dispersible and biocompatible in aqueous solution verified via bio-experiments. In vivo tests also prove that Fe3O4/G nanocomposite, which can be cleared from the body through the metabolic processes, is harmless to the living body. Most importantly, the Fe3O4/G nanocomposite showed T2relaxivity (123.04mM(-1)s(-1)) indicating its potential as a sensitive T2 contrast agent.

  17. Treatment of Amaranthus cruentus with chemical and biological inducers of resistance has contrasting effects on fitness and protection against compatible Gram positive and Gram negative bacterial pathogens.

    PubMed

    Casarrubias-Castillo, Kena; Martínez-Gallardo, Norma A; Délano-Frier, John P

    2014-07-01

    Amaranthus cruentus (Ac) plants were treated with the synthetic systemic acquired resistance (SAR) inducer benzothiadiazole (BTH), methyl jasmonate (MeJA) and the incompatible pathogen, Pseudomonas syringae pv. syringae (Pss), under greenhouse conditions. The treatments induced a set of marker genes in the absence of pathogen infection: BTH and Pss similarly induced genes coding for pathogenesis-related and antioxidant proteins, whereas MeJA induced the arginase, LOX2 and amarandin 1 genes. BTH and Pss were effective when tested against the Gram negative pathogen Ps pv. tabaci (Pst), which was found to have a compatible interaction with grain amaranth. The resistance response appeared to be salicylic acid-independent. However, resistance against Clavibacter michiganensis subsp. michiganensis (Cmm), a Gram positive tomato pathogen also found to infect Ac, was only conferred by Pss, while BTH increased susceptibility. Conversely, MeJA was ineffective against both pathogens. Induced resistance against Pst correlated with the rapid and sustained stimulation of the above genes, including the AhPAL2 gene, which were expressed both locally and distally. The lack of protection against Cmm provided by BTH, coincided with a generalized down-regulation of defense gene expression and chitinase activity. On the other hand, Pss-treated Ac plants showed augmented expression levels of an anti-microbial peptide gene and, surprisingly, of AhACCO, an ethylene biosynthetic gene associated with susceptibility to Cmm in tomato, its main host. Pss treatment had no effect on productivity, but compromised growth, whereas MeJA reduced yield and harvest index. Conversely, BTH treatments led to smaller plants, but produced significantly increased yields. These results suggest essential differences in the mechanisms employed by biological and chemical agents to induce SAR in Ac against bacterial pathogens having different infection strategies. This may determine the outcome of a particular

  18. Routine Use of Contrast Swallow After Total Gastrectomy and Esophagectomy: Is it Justified?

    PubMed Central

    El-Sourani, Nader; Bruns, Helge; Troja, Achim; Raab, Hans-Rudolf; Antolovic, Dalibor

    2017-01-01

    Summary Background After gastrectomy or esophagectomy, esophagogastrostomy and esophagojejunostomy are commonly used for reconstruction. Water-soluble contrast swallow is often used as a routine screening to exclude anastomotic leakage during the first postoperative week. In this retrospective study, the sensitivity and specificity of oral water-soluble contrast swallow for the detection of anastomotic leakage and its clinical symptoms were analysed. Material/Methods Records of 104 consecutive total gastrectomies and distal esophagectomies were analysed. In all cases, upper gastrointestinal contrast swallow with the use of a water-soluble contrast agent was performed on the 5th postoperative day. Extravasation of the contrast agent was defined as anastomotic leakage. When anastomotic insufficiency was suspected but no extravasation was present, a computed tomography (CT) scan and upper endoscopy were performed. Results Oral contrast swallow detected 7 anastomotic leaks. Based on CT-scans and upper endoscopy, the true number of anastomotic leakage was 15. The findings of the oral contrast swallow were falsely positive in 4 and falsely negative in 12 patients, respectively. The sensitivity and specificity of the oral contrast swallow was 20% and 96%, respectively. Conclusions Routine radiological contrast swallow following total gastrectomy or distal esophagectomy cannot be recommended. When symptoms of anastomotic leakage are present, a CT-scan and endoscopy are currently the methods of choice.

  19. Comparison between 2-(18) F-fluoro-2-deoxy-d-glucose positron emission tomography and contrast-enhanced computed tomography for measuring gross tumor volume in cats with oral squamous cell carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Yoshikawa, Hiroto; Randall, Elissa K; Kraft, Susan L; Larue, Susan M

    2013-01-01

    Feline oral squamous cell carcinoma is one of the most refractory feline malignancies. Most patients succumb due to failure in local tumor control. 2-(18) F-fluoro-2-deoxy-D-glucose positron emission tomography ((18) F-FDG PET) is increasingly being used for veterinary oncology staging as it highlights areas with higher glucose metabolism. The goal of the current prospective study was to compare gross tumor volume measurements using (18) F-FDG PET vs. those using computed tomography (CT) for stereotactic radiation therapy planning in cats with oral squamous cell carcinoma. Twelve cats with confirmed oral squamous cell carcinoma underwent pretreatment (18) F-FDG PET/CT. Gross tumor volumes based on contrast-enhanced CT and (18) F-FDG PET were measured and compared among cats. Mean PET gross tumor volume was significantly smaller than mean CT gross tumor volume in the mandibular/maxillary squamous cell carcinoma group (n = 8, P = 0.002) and for the total number of patients (n = 12, P = 0.006), but not in the lingual/laryngeal group (n = 4, P = 0.57). Mismatch fraction analysis revealed that most of the lingual/laryngeal patients had a large region of high-(18) F-FDG activity outside of the CT gross tumor volume. This mismatch fraction was significantly greater in the lingual/laryngeal group than the mandibular/maxillary group (P = 0.028). The effect of poor spatial resolution of PET imaging was greater when the absolute tumor volume was small. Findings from this study indicated that (18) F-FDG PET warrants further investigation as a supplemental imaging modality in cats with oral squamous cell carcinoma because it detected regions of possible primary tumor that were not detected on CT images.

  20. The negative regulators of Wnt pathway-DACH1, DKK1, and WIF1 are methylated in oral and oropharyngeal cancer and WIF1 methylation predicts shorter survival.

    PubMed

    Paluszczak, Jarosław; Sarbak, Joanna; Kostrzewska-Poczekaj, Magdalena; Kiwerska, Katarzyna; Jarmuż-Szymczak, Małgorzata; Grenman, Reidar; Mielcarek-Kuchta, Daniela; Baer-Dubowska, Wanda

    2015-04-01

    The deregulation of Wnt signaling has recently emerged as one of the drivers of head and neck cancers. This is frequently related to the methylation of several antagonists of this pathway. This study aimed at the assessment of the profile of methylation of Wnt pathway antagonists and the determination of the prognostic value of the methylation of selected genes in oral carcinomas. The methylation of DACH1, DKK1, LKB1, PPP2R2B, RUNX3, SFRP2, and WIF-1 was analyzed in 16 oral squamous cell carcinoma cell lines using the methylation-specific polymerase chain reaction. The methylation of selected genes was further analyzed in tumor sections from 43 primary oral carcinoma patients. The analysis of oral carcinoma cell lines showed very frequent methylation of SFRP2 and WIF-1 and also a less frequent methylation of DACH1 and DKK1. On the other hand, RUNX3 was methylated only in one cell line, while LKB1 and PPP2R2B were not methylated in any of the cell lines. The biallelic methylation of DKK1 correlated with the low level of expression of this gene. Further evaluation of the methylation of DACH1, DKK1, and WIF1 in a clinical patient group confirmed the frequent methylation of WIF1 and intermediate or low frequency of methylation of DACH1 or DKK1, respectively. Importantly, the methylation of WIF-1 correlated with shorter survival in oral cancer patients. Overall, the methylation of the antagonists of Wnt pathway is frequently detected in oral squamous cell carcinomas. The methylation of WIF1 may be considered a prognostic marker in oral cancers.

  1. Contrast Materials

    MedlinePlus

    ... veins of the body, including vessels in the brain, neck, chest, abdomen, pelvis and legs soft tissues of the body, including the muscles, fat and skin brain breast Microbubble Contrast Materials Microbubble contrast materials are ...

  2. Repeat Targeted Prostate Biopsy under Guidance of Multiparametric MRI-Correlated Real-Time Contrast-Enhanced Ultrasound for Patients with Previous Negative Biopsy and Elevated Prostate-Specific Antigen: A Prospective Study

    PubMed Central

    Jang, Dong Ryul; Jung, Dae Chul; Oh, Young Taik; Noh, Songmi; Han, Kyunghwa; Kim, Kiwook; Rha, Koon-Ho; Choi, Young Deuk; Hong, Sung Joon

    2015-01-01

    Objectives To prospectively determine whether multi-parametric MRI (mpMRI) - contrast-enhanced ultrasound (CEUS) correlated, imaging-guided target biopsy (TB) method could improve the detection of prostate cancer in re-biopsy setting of patients with prior negative biopsy. Methods From 2012 to 2014, a total of 42 Korean men with a negative result from previous systematic biopsy (SB) and elevated prostate-specific antigen underwent 3T mpMRI and real-time CEUS guided TB. Target lesions were determined by fusion of mpMRI and CEUS. Subsequently, 12-core SB was performed by a different radiologist. We compared core-based cancer detection rates (CaDR) using the generalized linear mixed model (GLIMMIX) for each biopsy method. Results Core-based CaDR was higher in TB (17.92%, 38 of 212 cores) than in SB (6.15%, 31 of 504 cores) (p < 0.0001; GLIMMIX). In the cancer-positive TB cores, CaDR with suspicious lesions by mpMRI was higher than that by CEUS (86.8% vs. 60.5%, p= 0.02; paired t-test) and concordant rate between mpMRI and CEUS was significantly different with discordant rate (48% vs. 52%, p=0.04; McNemar’s test). Conclusion The mpMRI-CEUS correlated TB technique for the repeat prostate biopsy of patients with prior negative biopsy can improve CaDR based on the number of cores taken. PMID:26083348

  3. Contrastive Lexicology.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hartmann, R. R. K.

    This paper deals with the relation between etymologically related words in different languages. A survey is made of seven stages in the development of contrastive lexicology. These are: prelinguistic word studies, semantics, lexicography, translation, foreign language learning, bilingualism, and finally contrastive analysis. Concerning contrastive…

  4. Contrastive Analysis.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    James, Carl

    Contrastive analysis is viewed as an interlinguistic, bidirectional phenomenon which is concerned with both the form and function of language. As such, contrastive analysis must view language psycholinguistically and sociolinguistically as a system to be both described and acquired. Due to the need for a psychological component in the analysis,…

  5. Literacy and Orality in Our Times

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ong, Walter J.

    1978-01-01

    Points out the importance of orality in past centuries and in some contemporary cultures (including that of the black urban ghetto); discusses the problems in moving from oral expression to writing; and notes contrasts between primary orality, writing and printing, and secondary orality--the orality induced by radio and television. (GW)

  6. Long interspersed nuclear element-1 hypomethylation is a potential biomarker for the prediction of response to oral fluoropyrimidines in microsatellite stable and CpG island methylator phenotype-negative colorectal cancer.

    PubMed

    Kawakami, Kazuyuki; Matsunoki, Aika; Kaneko, Mami; Saito, Kenichiro; Watanabe, Go; Minamoto, Toshinari

    2011-01-01

    We investigated the clinical value of methylation of long interspersed nuclear element-1 (LINE-1) for the prognosis of colorectal cancer (CRC) and for the survival benefit from adjuvant chemotherapy with oral fluoropyrimidines. LINE-1 methylation in tumor DNA was measured by quantitative methylation-specific PCR in 155 samples of stage II and stage III CRC. The presence of microsatellite instability and CpG island methylator phenotype (CIMP) were assessed and 131 microsatellite stable/CIMP- cases were selected for survival analysis, of which 77 patients had received postoperative adjuvant chemotherapy with oral fluoropyrimidines. The CRC cell lines were used to investigate possible mechanistic links between LINE-1 methylation and effects of 5-fluorouracil (5-FU). High LINE-1 methylation was a marker for better prognosis in patients treated by surgery alone. Patients with low LINE-1 methylation who were treated with adjuvant chemotherapy survived longer than those treated by surgery alone, suggestive of a survival benefit from the use of oral fluoropyrimidines. In contrast, a survival benefit from chemotherapy was not observed for patients with high LINE-1 methylation. The CRC cell lines treated with 5-FU showed increased expression of LINE-1 mRNA. This was associated with upregulation of the phospho-histone H2A.X in cells with low LINE-1 methylation, but not in cells with high LINE-1 methylation. The 5-FU-mediated induction of phospho-histone H2A.X, a marker of DNA damage, was inhibited by knockdown of LINE-1. These results suggest that LINE-1 methylation is a novel predictive marker for survival benefit from adjuvant chemotherapy with oral fluoropyrimidines in CRC patients. This finding could be important for achieving personalized chemotherapy.

  7. Viscosity-mediated negative food effect on oral absorption of poorly-permeable drugs with an absorption window in the proximal intestine: In vitro experimental simulation and computational verification.

    PubMed

    Cvijić, Sandra; Parojčić, Jelena; Langguth, Peter

    2014-09-30

    Concomitant food intake can diminish oral absorption of drugs with limited permeability and an absorption window in the proximal intestine, due to viscosity-mediated decrease in dosage form disintegration time and drug dissolution rate. Three poorly-permeable drugs (atenolol, metformin hydrochloride, and furosemide) exhibiting negative food effect, and one highly-soluble and highly-permeable (metoprolol tartrate), serving as a negative control, were selected for the study. In vitro and in silico tools were used to evaluate the influence of media viscosity on drug bioperformance under fasted and fed conditions. The obtained results demonstrated that increased medium viscosity in the presence of food is one of the key factors limiting oral absorption of drugs with limited permeability and absorption restricted to the upper parts of the intestine, while having negligible effect on pharmacokinetic profile of drugs with pH- and site-independent absorption. Dissolution medium pH 4.6 with the addition of hydroxypropyl methylcellulose was suggested to simulate postprandial gastric conditions for drugs whose solubility under these conditions is not the limiting factor for drug absorption. In addition, drug formulation was found to be an interfering factor in relation to the impact of medium viscosity on the rate and extent of drug absorption.

  8. Contrast lipocryolysis

    PubMed Central

    Pinto, Hernán; Melamed, Graciela

    2014-01-01

    Alternative crystal structures are possible for all lipids and each different crystal structure is called a polymorphic form. Inter-conversion between polymorphisms would imply the possibility of leaning crystal formation toward the most effective polymorphism for adipocyte destruction. Food industry has been tempering lipids for decades. Tempering technology applied to lipocryolysis gave birth to “contrast lipocryolysis”, which involves pre- and post-lipocryolysis fat layer heating as part of a specific tempering protocol. In this study, we evaluated the skinfold thickness of 10 subjects after a single contrast lipocryolysis session and witnessed important and fast reductions. PMID:25068088

  9. Oral Cancer

    MedlinePlus

    Oral Cancer Basic description Cancer can affect any part of the oral cavity, including the lips, tongue, mouth, and throat. There are 2 kinds of oral cancer: oral cavity cancer and oropharyngeal cancer. The most ...

  10. Safety and efficacy of oral febuxostat for treatment of HLA-B*5801-negative gout: a randomized, open-label, multicentre, allopurinol-controlled study

    PubMed Central

    Yu, K-H; Lai, J-H; Hsu, P-N; Chen, D-Y; Chen, C-J; Lin, H-Y

    2016-01-01

    Objectives: This phase IIIB study compared the efficacy and safety of febuxostat and allopurinol in gout patients with or without tophi who were HLA-B*5801 negative. Method: Eligible patients were randomized to a febuxostat group (80 mg QD) or an allopurinol group (300 mg QD). Following an initial 2-week washout period, over the next 12 weeks we made five measurements of serum urate levels along with assessments of adverse events (AEs). Results: Forty-three out of 152 screened subjects (28.3%) were ineligible either because of the presence of the HLA-B*5801 allele or for various other reasons. The febuxostat group (n = 54) and the allopurinol group (n = 55) had no significant differences in demographic or baseline characteristics. From week 2 to week 12, the febuxostat group had a significantly lower serum urate level than the allopurinol group (p ≤ 0.001 for all comparisons) and significantly more patients with serum urate levels less than 6.0 mg/dL. The serum urate levels of the febuxostat group declined by more than 40% from week 2 to week 12 and this decrease was greater than that in the allopurinol group (~30%). The two groups were similar in terms of AEs. Conclusions: Febuxostat was more effective than allopurinol in reducing the serum urate levels of Han Chinese patients with gout or tophaceous gout who were HLA-B*5801 negative, without causing any serious skin reactions. Febuxostat should be considered for treatment of Han Chinese patients with gout who are HLA-B*5801 negative. PMID:26771445

  11. 18F-FDG-PET/CT parameters as imaging biomarkers in oral cavity squamous cell carcinoma, is visual analysis of PET and contrast enhanced CT better than the numbers?

    PubMed Central

    Kendi, AT; Corey, A; Magliocca, KR; Nickleach, DC; Galt, J; Switchenko, Jeffrey M.; El-Deiry, MW; Wadsworth, JT; Hudgins, PA; Saba, NF; Schuster, DM

    2015-01-01

    Purpose This study was designed to seek associations between positron emission tomography/computed tomography (PET/CT) parameters, contrast enhanced neck computed tomography (CECT) and pathological findings, and to determine the potential prognostic value of PET/CT and CECT parameters in oral cavity squamous cell carcinoma (OCSCC). Materials and method 36 OCSCC patients underwent staging PET/CT and 30/36 of patients had CECT. PET/CT parameters were measured for the primary tumor and the hottest involved node, including maximum, mean, and peak standardized uptake values (SUV max, SUV mean, and SUV peak), metabolic tumor volume (MTV), total lesion glycolysis (TLG), standardized added metabolic activity (SAM), and normalized standardized added metabolic activity (N SAM). Qualitative assessment of PET/CT and CECT were also performed. Pathological outcomes included: perineural invasion, lymphovascular invasion, nodal extracapsular spread, grade, pathologic T and N stages. Multivariable logistic regression models were fit for each parameter and outcome adjusting for potentially confounding variables. Multivariable Cox proportional hazards models were used for progression free survival (PFS), locoregional recurrence free survival (LRFS), overall survival (OS) and distant metastasis free survival (DMFS). Results In multivariable analysis, patients with high (>=median) tumor SUV max (OR 6.3), SUV mean (OR 6.3), MTV (OR 19.0), TLG (OR 19.0), SAM (OR 11.7) and N SAM (OR 19.0) had high pathological T-stage (T3/T4) (p<0.05). Ring/heterogeneous pattern on CECT qualitative assessment was associated with worse DMFS and OS. Conclusion High PET/CT parameters were associated with pathologically advanced T stage (T3/T4). Qualitative assessment of CECT has prognostic value. PET/CT parameters did not predict clinical outcome. PMID:25816993

  12. Prevention of bone mineral changes induced by bed rest: Modification by static compression simulating weight bearing, combined supplementation of oral calcium and phosphate, calcitonin injections, oscillating compression, the oral diophosphonatedisodium etidronate, and lower body negative pressure

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schneider, V. S.; Hulley, S. B.; Donaldson, C. L.; Vogel, J. M.; Rosen, S. N.; Hantman, D. A.; Lockwood, D. R.; Seid, D.; Hyatt, K. H.; Jacobson, L. B.

    1974-01-01

    The phenomenon of calcium loss during bed rest was found to be analogous to the loss of bone material which occurs in the hypogravic environment of space flight. Ways of preventing this occurrence are investigated. A group of healthy adult males underwent 24-30 weeks of continuous bed rest. Some of them were given an exercise program designed to resemble normal ambulatory activity; another subgroup was fed supplemental potassium phosphate. The results from a 12-week period of treatment were compared with those untreated bed rest periods. The potassium phosphate supplements prevented the hypercalciuria of bed rest, but fecal calcium tended to increase. The exercise program did not diminish the negative calcium balance. Neither treatment affected the heavy loss of mineral from the calcaneus. Several additional studies are developed to examine the problem further.

  13. Interaction of inflammatory cells and oral microorganisms. VIII. Detection of leukotoxic activity of a plaque-derived gram-negative microorganism.

    PubMed Central

    Baehni, P; Tsai, C C; McArthur, W P; Hammond, B F; Taichman, N S

    1979-01-01

    In the present study we identified a gram-negative anaerobic rod referred to as Y4 which was cytotoxic for human polymorphonuclear leukocytes. Y4 was isolated from dental plaque of a patient with juvenile periodontitis and presented most of the taxonomic characteristics of Actinobacillus species. Under experimental conditions, viable Y4 were cytotoxic for human peripheral blood polymorphonuclear leukocytes in serum-free cultures. Cytotoxicity was dependent on bacterial concentrations and was enhanced in the presence of a fresh or heat-inactivated (56 degrees C, 30 min) autologous serum. Leukotoxicity was independent of phagocytosis. Y4 leukotoxic effect was abolished when bacteria were heat treated (56 degrees C, 30 min) or when incubations were carried out at 4 degrees C instead of at 37 degrees C. The leukotoxicity was monitored by electron microscopy and biochemically by measuring lactate dehydrogenase indicator of cell viability. No cytotoxic effects of Y4 on human mononuclear cells, chicken fibroblasts, or mouse macrophages were detected under the conditions studied. Polymorphonuclear leukocytes may play an important role in the host defense against bacteria in periodontal disease. The cytotoxic effect of Y4 for polymorphonuclear leukocytes presented in this study is the first report of a direct offensive microbial vector in a plaque-derived microorganism and may prove to be relevant in the pathogenesis of juvenile periodontitis. Images PMID:222679

  14. Irf6 directly regulates Klf17 in zebrafish periderm and Klf4 in murine oral epithelium, and dominant-negative KLF4 variants are present in patients with cleft lip and palate

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Huan; Leslie, Elizabeth J.; Jia, Zhonglin; Smith, Tiffany; Eshete, Mekonen; Butali, Azeez; Dunnwald, Martine; Murray, Jeffrey; Cornell, Robert A.

    2016-01-01

    Non-syndromic (NS) cleft lip with or without cleft palate (CL/P) is a common disorder with a strong genetic underpinning. Genome-wide association studies have detected common variants associated with this disorder, but a large portion of the genetic risk for NSCL/P is conferred by unidentified rare sequence variants. Mutations in IRF6 (Interferon Regulatory Factor 6) and GRHL3 (Grainyhead-like 3) cause Van der Woude syndrome, which includes CL/P. Both genes encode members of a regulatory network governing periderm differentiation in model organisms. Here, we report that Krüppel-like factor 17 (Klf17), like Grhl3, acts downstream of Irf6 in this network in zebrafish periderm. Although Klf17 expression is absent from mammalian oral epithelium, a close homologue, Klf4, is expressed in this tissue and is required for the differentiation of epidermis. Chromosome configuration capture and reporter assays indicated that IRF6 directly regulates an oral-epithelium enhancer of KLF4. To test whether rare missense variants of KLF4 contribute risk for NSCL/P, we sequenced KLF4 in approximately 1000 NSCL/P cases and 300 controls. By one statistical test, missense variants of KLF4 as a group were enriched in cases versus controls. Moreover, two patient-derived KLF4 variants disrupted periderm differentiation upon forced expression in zebrafish embryos, suggesting that they have dominant-negative effect. These results indicate that rare NSCL/P risk variants can be found in members of the gene regulatory network governing periderm differentiation. PMID:26692521

  15. Oral Cancer

    MedlinePlus

    Oral cancer can form in any part of the mouth. Most oral cancers begin in the flat cells that cover the ... your mouth, tongue, and lips. Anyone can get oral cancer, but the risk is higher if you are ...

  16. Oral Cancer

    MedlinePlus

    ... Are the Signs & Symptoms? Should You Have an Oral Cancer Exam? U.S. DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health About Oral Cancer Oral cancer includes cancers of the mouth and ...

  17. Oral Medication

    MedlinePlus

    ... Size: A A A Listen En Español Oral Medication The first treatment for type 2 diabetes blood ... new — even over-the-counter items. Explore: Oral Medication How Much Do Oral Medications Cost? Save money ...

  18. A Cost-Utility and Cost-Effectiveness Analysis of Different Oral Antiviral Medications in Patients With HBeAg-Negative Chronic Hepatitis B in Iran: An Economic Microsimulation Decision Model

    PubMed Central

    Keshavarz, Khosro; Kebriaeezadeh, Abbas; Alavian, Seyed Moayed; Akbari Sari, Ali; Rezaei Hemami, Mohsen; Lotfi, Farhad; Hashemi Meshkini, Amir; Javanbakht, Mehdi; Keshvari, Maryam; Nikfar, Shekoufeh

    2016-01-01

    Background Although hepatitis B infection is the major cause of chronic liver disease in Iran, no studies have employed economic evaluations of the medications used to treat Iranian patients with chronic hepatitis B (CHB). Therefore, the cost-effectiveness of the different treatment options for this disease in Iran is unknown. Objectives The aim of this study was to compare the cost utility and cost-effectiveness of medication strategies tailored to local conditions in patients with HB e antigen (HBeAg)-negative CHB infection in Iran. Methods An economic evaluation of the cost utility of the following five oral medication strategies was conducted: adefovir (ADV), lamivudine (LAM), ADV + LAM, entecavir (ETV), and tenofovir (TDF). A Markov microsimulation model was used to estimate the clinical and economic outcomes over the course of the patient’s lifetime and based on a societal perspective. Medical and nonmedical direct costs and indirect costs were included in the study and life-years gained (LYG) and quality-adjusted life-years (QALY) were determined as measures of effectiveness. The results are presented in terms of the incremental cost-effectiveness ratio (ICER) per QALY or LYG. The model consisted of nine stages of the disease. The transition probabilities for the movement between the different stages were based on clinical evidence and international expert opinion. A probabilistic sensitivity analysis (PSA) was used to measure the effects of uncertainty in the model parameters. Results The results revealed that the TDF treatment strategy was more effective and less costly than the other options. In addition, TDF had the highest QALY and LYG in the HBeAg-negative CHB patients, with 13.58 and 21.26 (discounted) in all comparisons. The PSA proved the robustness of the model results. The cost-effectiveness acceptability curves showed that TDF was the most cost-effective treatment in 59% - 78% of the simulations of HBeAg-negative patients, with WTP thresholds

  19. Epstein-Barr virus-negative, CD5-positive diffuse large B-cell lymphoma developing after treatment with oral tacrolimus for mixed connective tissue disease : a case report and review of the literature.

    PubMed

    Sekiguchi, Yasunobu; Shimada, Asami; Imai, Hidenori; Wakabayashi, Mutsumi; Sugimoto, Keiji; Nakamura, Noriko; Sawada, Tomonori; Komatsu, Norio; Noguchi, Masaaki

    2012-01-01

    A 69-year-old woman, who had been diagnosed as having Sjögren's syndrome at 37 years old and mixed connective tissue disease at 42 years old, was under treatment with oral prednisolone. In 2009, she was diagnosed as having active systemic lupus erythematosus, and started on treatment with tacrolimus at 3 mg/day. In 2010, para-aortic lymphadenopathy and superficial multiple lymphadenopathy were detected. Tacrolimus was discontinued. Axillary lymph node biopsy revealed Epstein-Barr (EB) virus-negative CD5-positive diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL). The patient was classified into clinical stage IIIA and as being at high risk according to the international prognostic index. After the discontinuation of tacrolimus, the lymph nodes reduced temporarily in size. In January 2011, the lymphadenopathy increased again, and the patient received a total of 8 courses of therapy with rituximab, pirarubicin, vincristine, cyclophosphamide and prednisolone, followed by intrathecal injection to prevent central nervous system infiltration, which was followed by complete remission. In February 2012, fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography showed relapse in multiple lymph nodes and central nervous system infiltration. The patient was considered to have iatrogenic lymphoproliferative disorder classified as "other iatrogenic immunodeficiency-associated lymphoproliferative disorders" by the WHO, and this is the first reported case of CD5-positive DLBCL and central nervous system infiltration following administration of the drug. The patient was considered to have a poor prognosis as EB virus was negative, discontinuation of tacrolimus was ineffective and there was evidence of central nervous system infiltration.

  20. [Schizophrenia and oral health].

    PubMed

    Moullan, M; Denis, F

    2017-03-24

    Mental health is an essential component of general health. Schizophrenia is a severe and chronic mental illness that affects higher brain functions. It is characterized by the presence of a mental dissociation, dampened or inappropriate affects, hallucinations and delirium. Schizophrenia has also a negative impact on oral health. As schizophrenia affects 1% of the population, every practitioner concerned with oral sphere will be confronted one day or another with a patient suffering from this disease. It is therefore important to acquire essential notions. The aim of our work was to make an update about factors that may affect oral health in patients with schizophrenia.

  1. Le Discours Oral (Oral Discourse). Melanges Pedagogiques, 1972.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boulanger, C.; And Others

    The contrast between written language and oral language did not really begin to attract attention until second language teaching defined as its goal the acquisition of a communicative tool rather than a literary tool. This focus on communication made necessary the distinction between language used for oral communication and language used for…

  2. Thai Negation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alam, Samsul

    A study analyzed the structure of negative sentences in the Thai language, based on data gathered from two native speakers. It is shown that the Thai negative marker generally occurs between the noun phrase (subject) and the verb phrase in simple active sentences and in passive sentences. Negation of noun phrases is also allowed in Thai, with a…

  3. [Oral ulcers].

    PubMed

    Bascones-Martínez, Antonio; Figuero-Ruiz, Elena; Esparza-Gómez, Germán Carlos

    2005-10-29

    Ulcers commonly occur in the oral cavity, their main symptom being pain. There are different ways to classify oral ulcers. The most widely accepted form divides them into acute ulcers--sudden onset and short lasting--and chronic ulcers--insidious onset and long lasting. Commonest acute oral ulcers include traumatic ulcer, recurrent aphthous stomatitis, viral and bacterial infections and necrotizing sialometaplasia. On the other hand, oral lichen planus, oral cancer, benign mucous membrane pemphigoid, pemphigus and drug-induced ulcers belong to the group of chronic oral ulcers. It is very important to make a proper differential diagnosis in order to establish the appropriate treatment for each pathology.

  4. The influence of gender on the relationship between dental anxiety and oral health-related emotional well-being.

    PubMed

    Carrillo-Diaz, Maria; Crego, Antonio; Romero-Maroto, Martin

    2013-05-01

    BACKGROUND AND AIM.  Children's dental fear and/or anxiety (DFA) has been associated with declines in oral health and quality of life. The influence of gender on the relationship between DFA and oral health-related well-being in children is analysed. DESIGN.  The decayed, missing and filled permanent teeth (DMFT) index was obtained from 161 school-aged children (7-14 years old). Data from children's self-assessed oral health, oral health-related emotional well-being and dental anxiety were collected using questionnaires. RESULTS.  Low scores of emotional well-being were associated with negative self-assessment of oral health and high levels of dental anxiety. Females reported decreased oral health-related emotional well-being compared with males. The analysis of possible moderating effects confirmed that gender influenced the relationship between oral health and DFA. The DMFT index was not associated with self-assessed oral health status, emotional well-being or DFA. CONCLUSION.  For girls, high levels of DFA were associated with low levels of oral health-related emotional well-being. In contrast, dental fear and/or anxiety did not influence oral health-related emotional well-being in boys.

  5. Oral cancer

    MedlinePlus

    Cancer - mouth; Mouth cancer; Head and neck cancer; Squamous cell cancer - mouth; Malignant neoplasm - oral ... Oral cancer most commonly involves the lips or the tongue. It may also occur on the: Cheek lining Floor ...

  6. Oral candidosis.

    PubMed

    McIntyre, G T

    2001-04-01

    Oral candidoses are frequently encountered in the practice of dentistry. Although most oral candidoses are symptomless, the can indicate the presence of an underlying systemic disease, and the persistence of oral candidosis following appropriate conventional management may be one of the first signs of undiagnosed immunosuppression. The opportunistic pathogen Candida albicans is the most commonly isolated species from oral candidal lesions; however, the non-albicans Candida spp. are also implicated in the aetiology of oral candidoses. The effective management of oral candidosis is dependent on an accurate diagnosis, identification and elimination of any predisposing factors (where possible), and the prescription of either topical or systemic antifungal agents. Oral candidosis may have significant implications for the general health of immunosuppressed patients, particularly when caused by the non-albicans spp. and, in cases of severe immunosuppression, systemic candidosis can be life-threatening. This article outlines the clinical presentation and appropriate management for the commonly presenting oral candidal conditions.

  7. NEGATIVE SYMPTOMS AND NEGATIVE SCHIZOPHRENIA

    PubMed Central

    Chaturvedi, S.K.; Gopinath, P.S.; Mathai, P. John; Michael, Albert

    1984-01-01

    SUMMARY This study determines the frequency distribution of prominent negative symptoms in a group of chronic, hospitalised schizophrenics. Thirty chronic Schizophrenic (D.S.M. III) patients were rated on the scale for Assessment of Negative Symptoms (SANS) and the prominent negative symptoms were correlated with age, sex and certain illness variables. Majority (80%) of patients had some or the other negative symptom, except thought blocking which was found in none. The subjective awareness of the symptoms was poor. Most negative symptoms were present to a severe degree in about 40% of cases. However, no significant correlation was found between severe negative symptoms and age or sex. Similarly, duration of illness, duration of hospitalisation or current medications did not influence negative symptoms to any appreciable degree. The implications are discussed. PMID:21965985

  8. Disposition of Cannabinoids in Oral Fluid after Controlled Around-the-Clock Oral THC Administration

    PubMed Central

    Milman, Garry; Barnes, Allan J.; Schwope, David M.; Schwilke, Eugene W.; Darwin, William D.; Goodwin, Robert S.; Kelly, Deanna L.; Gorelick, David A.; Huestis, Marilyn A.

    2011-01-01

    Background Oral fluid, a promising alternative matrix for drug monitoring in clinical and forensic investigations, offers noninvasive sample collection under direct observation. Cannabinoid distribution into oral fluid is complex and incompletely characterized due to the lack of controlled drug administration studies. Methods To characterize cannabinoid disposition in oral fluid, we administered around-the-clock oral Δ9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) (Marinol®) doses to 10 participants with current daily cannabis use. We obtained oral fluid samples (n = 440) by use of Quantisal™ collection devices before, during, and after 37 20-mg THC doses over 9 days. Samples were extracted with multiple elution solvents from a single SPE column and analyzed by 2-dimensional GC-MS with electron-impact ionization for THC, 11-hydroxy-THC (11-OH-THC), cannabidiol, and cannabinol and negative chemical ionization for 11-nor-9-carboxy-THC (THCCOOH). Linear ranges were 0.5–50 μg/L, with the exception of cannabinol (1–50 μg/L) and THCCOOH (7.5–500 ng/L). Results THCCOOH was the most prevalent analyte in 432 samples (98.2%), with concentrations up to 1117.9 ng/L. In contrast, 11-OH-THC was not identified in any sample; cannabidiol and cannabinol were quantified in 3 and 8 samples, respectively, with maximum concentrations of 2.1 and 13 μg/L. THC was present in only 20.7% of samples, with highest concentrations near admission (median 4.2 μg/L, range 0.6–481.9) from previously self-administered smoked cannabis. Conclusions Measurement of THCCOOH in OF not only identifies cannabis exposure, but also minimizes the possibility of passive inhalation. THCCOOH may be a better analyte for detection of cannabis use. PMID:20530732

  9. Negative Certainty

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ariso, José María

    2017-01-01

    The definitions of "negative knowledge" and the studies in this regard published to date have not considered the categorial distinction Wittgenstein established between knowledge and certainty. Hence, the important role that certainty, despite its omission, should have in these definitions and studies has not yet been shown. In this…

  10. Negative Numbers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Galbraith, Mary J.

    1974-01-01

    Examination of models for representing integers demonstrates that formal operational thought is required for establishing the operations on integers. Advocated is the use of many models for introducing negative numbers but, apart from addition, it is recommended that operations on integers be delayed until the formal operations stage. (JP)

  11. Oral Histoplasmosis.

    PubMed

    Folk, Gillian A; Nelson, Brenda L

    2017-02-20

    A 44-year-old female presented to her general dentist with the chief complaint of a painful mouth sore of 2 weeks duration. Clinical examination revealed an irregularly shaped ulcer of the buccal and lingual attached gingiva of the anterior mandible. A biopsy was performed and microscopic evaluation revealed histoplasmosis. Histoplasmosis, caused by Histoplasma capsulate, is the most common fungal infection in the United States. Oral lesions of histoplasmosis are generally associated with the disseminated form of histoplasmosis and may present as a fungating or ulcerative lesion of the oral mucosa. The histologic findings and differential diagnosis for oral histoplasmosis are discussed.

  12. Oral pathology.

    PubMed

    Niemiec, Brook A

    2008-05-01

    Oral disease is exceedingly common in small animal patients. In addition, there is a very wide variety of pathologies that are encountered within the oral cavity. These conditions often cause significant pain and/or localized and systemic infection; however, the majority of these conditions have little to no obvious clinical signs. Therefore, diagnosis is not typically made until late in the disease course. Knowledge of these diseases will better equip the practitioner to effectively treat them. This article covers the more common forms of oral pathology in the dog and cat, excluding periodontal disease, which is covered in its own chapter. The various pathologies are presented in graphic form, and the etiology, clinical signs, recommended diagnostic tests, and treatment options are discussed. Pathologies that are covered include: persistent deciduous teeth, fractured teeth, intrinsically stained teeth, feline tooth resorption, caries, oral neoplasia, eosinophilic granuloma complex, lymphoplasmacytic gingivostomatitis, enamel hypoplasia, and "missing" teeth.

  13. The Contrastive Analysis Hypothesis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wardhaugh, Ronald

    1970-01-01

    Discusses the strong contrastive analysis hypothesis, which claims predictive powers for contrastive analysis, and the weak hypothesis, which claims only that contrastive analysis can help account for observed difficulties in second language learning. The strong hypothesis is found untenable, and difficulties with the weak hypothesis are discussed…

  14. Nonspeech Oral Movements and Oral Motor Disorders: A Narrative Review

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Purpose Speech and other oral functions such as swallowing have been compared and contrasted with oral behaviors variously labeled quasispeech, paraspeech, speechlike, and nonspeech, all of which overlap to some degree in neural control, muscles deployed, and movements performed. Efforts to understand the relationships among these behaviors are hindered by the lack of explicit and widely accepted definitions. This review article offers definitions and taxonomies for nonspeech oral movements and for diverse speaking tasks, both overt and covert. Method Review of the literature included searches of Medline, Google Scholar, HighWire Press, and various online sources. Search terms pertained to speech, quasispeech, paraspeech, speechlike, and nonspeech oral movements. Searches also were carried out for associated terms in oral biology, craniofacial physiology, and motor control. Results and Conclusions Nonspeech movements have a broad spectrum of clinical applications, including developmental speech and language disorders, motor speech disorders, feeding and swallowing difficulties, obstructive sleep apnea syndrome, trismus, and tardive stereotypies. The role and benefit of nonspeech oral movements are controversial in many oral motor disorders. It is argued that the clinical value of these movements can be elucidated through careful definitions and task descriptions such as those proposed in this review article. PMID:26126128

  15. Normal Oral Flora and the Oral Ecosystem.

    PubMed

    Samaranayake, Lakshman; Matsubara, Victor H

    2017-04-01

    The oral ecosystem comprises the oral flora, so-called oral microbiome, the different anatomic microniches of the oral cavity, and its bathing fluid, saliva. The oral microbiome comprises a group of organisms and includes bacteria, archaea, fungi, protozoa, and viruses. The oral microbiome exists suspended in saliva as planktonic phase organisms or attached to oral surfaces as a plaque biofilm. Homeostasis of the plaque biofilm and its symbiotic relationship with the host is critical for oral health. Disequilibrium or dysbiosis within the plaque biofilms is the initiating event that leads to major oral diseases, such as caries and periodontal disease.

  16. Oral myiasis

    PubMed Central

    Pereira, Treville; Tamgadge, Avinash P.; Chande, Mayura S.; Bhalerao, Sudhir; Tamgadge, Sandhya

    2010-01-01

    Myiasis is a relatively rare condition arising from the invasion of body tissues or cavities of living animals or humans by maggots or larvae of certain species of flies. It is an uncommon clinical condition, being more frequent in underdeveloped countries and hot climate regions, and is associated with poor hygiene, suppurative oral lesions; alcoholism and senility. Its diagnosis is made basically by the presence of larvae. The present article reports a case of oral myiasis involving 20 larvae in a patient with neurological deficiency. PMID:22114438

  17. Oral medications.

    PubMed

    Albretsen, Jay C

    2002-03-01

    Many medications are available today by prescription or in over-the-counter preparations. This article reviews the pharmacokinetics, mechanism of action, toxicity, clinical signs, and management procedures necessary for some oral medications. The medications reviewed include selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors, benzodiazepines, amphetamines or amphetamine like drugs, carprofen, cyclooxygenase-2 inhibitors, pseudoephedrine, calcium channel blockers, and baclofen.

  18. Oral Tumours

    PubMed Central

    Lecavalier, D.R.; Main, J.H.P.

    1988-01-01

    The authors of this article review briefly the anatomy of the oral soft tissues and describe the more common benign and malignant tumours of the mouth, giving emphasis to their clinical features. ImagesFigure 1Figure 2Figure 3Figure 4Figure 5Figure 6Figure 7Figure 8 PMID:21253197

  19. Oral Health and Aging

    MedlinePlus

    ... please turn JavaScript on. Feature: Oral Health and Aging Oral Health and Aging Past Issues / Summer 2016 Table of Contents Jerrold ... they may need. Read More "Oral Health and Aging" Articles Oral Health and Aging / 4 Myths About ...

  20. Ultrasound contrast agents

    PubMed Central

    Ignee, Andre; Atkinson, Nathan S. S.; Schuessler, Gudrun; Dietrich, Christoph F.

    2016-01-01

    Endoscopic ultrasound (EUS) plays an important role in imaging of the mediastinum and abdominal organs. Since the introduction of US contrast agents (UCA) for transabdominal US, attempts have been made to apply contrast-enhanced US techniques also to EUS. Since 2003, specific contrast-enhanced imaging was possible using EUS. Important studies have been published regarding contrast-enhanced EUS and the characterization of focal pancreatic lesions, lymph nodes, and subepithelial tumors. In this manuscript, we describe the relevant UCA, their application, and specific image acquisition as well as the principles of image tissue characterization using contrast-enhanced EUS. Safety issues, potential future developments, and EUS-specific issues are reviewed. PMID:27824024

  1. Milk and oral health.

    PubMed

    Johansson, Ingegerd; Lif Holgerson, Pernilla

    2011-01-01

    Oral health includes freedom from disease in the gums, the mucosa and the teeth. There has been a striking reduction in dental caries and periodontitis in industrialized countries, although the proportion with severe disease has remained at 10-15%, and the prevalence increases in less developed countries. If left untreated, these diseases may lead to pain, and impaired quality of life and nutritional status. Prevention and treatment need, besides traditional implementation of proper oral hygiene, sugar restriction and use of fluoride, newer cost-effective strategies. Non-sweetened dairy products, which are proven non-cariogenic, or specific bioactive components from alike sources might prove to be part of such strategies. Thus, milk proteins, such as bovine and human caseins and lactoferrin, inhibit initial attachment of cariogenic mutans streptococci to hydroxyapatite coated with saliva or purified saliva host ligands. In contrast, both bovine and human milk coated on hydroxyapatite promotes attachment of commensal Actinomyces naeslundii and other streptococci in vitro, and phosphorylated milk-derived peptides promote maintenance of tooth minerals, as shown for the β-casein-derived caseino-phosphate peptide. Observational studies are promising, but randomized clinical trials are needed to reveal if dairy products could be a complementary treatment for oral health.

  2. Improving Oral Cancer Survival: The Role of Dental Providers

    PubMed Central

    MESSADI, DIANA V.; WILDER-SMITH, PETRA; WOLINSKY, LAWRENCE

    2010-01-01

    Oral cancer accounts for 2 percent to 4 percent of all cancers diagnosed each year in the United States. In contrast to other cancers, the overall U.S. survival rate from oral cancer has not improved during the past 50 years, mostly due to late-stage diagnosis. Several noninvasive oral cancer detection techniques that emerged in the past decade will be discussed, with a brief overview of most common oral cancer chemopreventive agents. PMID:19998655

  3. Comparison of SGA oral medications and a long-acting injectable SGA: the PROACTIVE study.

    PubMed

    Buckley, Peter F; Schooler, Nina R; Goff, Donald C; Hsiao, John; Kopelowicz, Alexander; Lauriello, John; Manschreck, Theo; Mendelowitz, Alan J; Miller, Del D; Severe, Joanne B; Wilson, Daniel R; Ames, Donna; Bustillo, Juan; Mintz, Jim; Kane, John M

    2015-03-01

    Until relatively recently, long-acting injectable (LAI) formulations were only available for first-generation antipsychotics and their utilization decreased as use of oral second-generation antipsychotics (SGA) increased. Although registry-based naturalistic studies show LAIs reduce rehospitalization more than oral medications in clinical practice, this is not seen in recent randomized clinical trials. PROACTIVE (Preventing Relapse Oral Antipsychotics Compared to Injectables Evaluating Efficacy) relapse prevention study incorporated efficacy and effectiveness features. At 8 US academic centers, 305 patients with schizophrenia or schizoaffective disorder were randomly assigned to LAI risperidone (LAI-R) or physician's choice oral SGAs. Patients were evaluated during the 30-month study by masked, centralized assessors using 2-way video, and monitored biweekly by on-site clinicians and assessors who knew treatment assignment. Relapse was evaluated by a masked Relapse Monitoring Board. Differences between LAI-R and oral SGA treatment in time to first relapse and hospitalization were not significant. Psychotic symptoms and Brief Psychiatric Rating Scale total score improved more in the LAI-R group. In contrast, the LAI group had higher Scale for Assessment of Negative Symptoms Alogia scale scores. There were no other between-group differences in symptoms or functional improvement. Despite the advantage for psychotic symptoms, LAI-R did not confer an advantage over oral SGAs for relapse or rehospitalization. Biweekly monitoring, not focusing specifically on patients with demonstrated nonadherence to treatment and greater flexibility in changing medication in the oral treatment arm, may contribute to the inability to detect differences between LAI and oral SGA treatment in clinical trials.

  4. An immunohistological study of cytokeratin 20 in human and mammalian oral epithelium.

    PubMed

    Barrett, A W; Cort, E M; Patel, P; Berkovitz, B K

    2000-10-01

    Cytokeratin (CK) 20 is a low molecular-weight intermediate filament reportedly expressed only by benign and malignant gastrointestinal epithelium, urothelium and Merkel cells. The main aims here were to map its expression in normal oral mucosa of humans and other mammals, and to determine whether it was expressed by abnormal human oral epithelium. Salivary and odontogenic epithelium were also analysed. An immunoperoxidase method was used on wax-embedded and cryostat sections. In addition, double-labelling experiments were undertaken to determine the association between CK 20 expression and that of CK 8/18 or S100 protein. Normal human oral mucosa from four sites, together with abdominal skin, was studied in autopsy samples from 32 individuals. CK 20-positive, basally situated, round or angular cells, consistent with Merkel cells, were recorded in 24/32 (75.0%) samples of mandibular gingiva, 25/32 (78.1%) samples of hard palate, 7/32 (21.9%) samples of buccal mucosa, 0/32 samples of lateral border of tongue, and 2/32 (6.3%) samples of abdominal skin. Double-labelling showed that all CK 20-positive Merkel cells also expressed CK 8/18 and S100. The only other cells to express CK 20 were human taste buds. There was no expression by dysplastic or invasive oral epithelium from biopsy samples. Colonic mucosa showed luminal-cell positivity in man, marmoset, ferret, rabbit and guinea-pig, but oral mucosa was universally negative in non-human species. It is concluded that in oral mucosa CK 20 is a specific marker of Merkel cells and taste buds, that Merkel cells are more frequently present in keratinized than non-keratinized oral mucosa, that CK 20-positive Merkel cells are also S100-positive, that there may be interspecies variations in CK 20 polypeptide composition and that, by contrast to urothelium, CK 20 has no value in the diagnosis of oral epithelial dysplasia.

  5. Oral contraceptives.

    PubMed

    Oesterheld, Jessica R; Cozza, Kelly; Sandson, Neil B

    2008-01-01

    Nearly 50 years ago, the introduction of Enovid (norethynodrel 10 microg and mestranol 150 microg), which provided convenient and reliable contraception, revolutionized birth control. Reports of interactions between oral contraceptives (OCs) and other drugs began to trickle into the literature. At first, these drug interactions appeared to be random and unrelated. Increased understanding of P450 enzymes and phase II reactions of sulfation and glucuronidation has permitted preliminary categorization and assessment of the clinical relevance of these drug interactions.

  6. Protection of oral or intestinal candidiasis in mice by oral or intragastric administration of herbal food, clove (Syzygium aromaticum).

    PubMed

    Taguchi, Yuuki; Ishibashi, Hiroko; Takizawa, Toshio; Inoue, Shigeharu; Yamaguchi, Hideyo; Abe, Shigeru

    2005-01-01

    We examined the effect of a clove (Syzygium aromaticum) administered by two different routes on Candida albicans growth, using a murine oral candidiasis model. When the clove preparation was administered into the oral cavity of Candida-infected mice, their oral symptoms were improved and the number of viable Candida cells in the cavity was reduced. In contrast, when the clove preparation was administered intragastrically, oral symptoms were not improved, but viable cell numbers of Candida in the stomach and feces were decreased. These findings demonstrate that oral intake of an herbal food, clove, may suppress the overgrowth of C. albicans in the alimentary tract including the oral cavity.

  7. Compressive Phase Contrast Tomography

    SciTech Connect

    Maia, Filipe; MacDowell, Alastair; Marchesini, Stefano; Padmore, Howard A.; Parkinson, Dula Y.; Pien, Jack; Schirotzek, Andre; Yang, Chao

    2010-09-01

    When x-rays penetrate soft matter, their phase changes more rapidly than their amplitude. Interference effects visible with high brightness sources creates higher contrast, edge enhanced images. When the object is piecewise smooth (made of big blocks of a few components), such higher contrast datasets have a sparse solution. We apply basis pursuit solvers to improve SNR, remove ring artifacts, reduce the number of views and radiation dose from phase contrast datasets collected at the Hard X-Ray Micro Tomography Beamline at the Advanced Light Source. We report a GPU code for the most computationally intensive task, the gridding and inverse gridding algorithm (non uniform sampled Fourier transform).

  8. Phase-contrast radiography.

    PubMed

    Gao, D; Pogany, A; Stevenson, A W; Wilkins, S W

    1998-01-01

    For the past 100 years, the paradigm for radiography has been premised on absorption as the sole means of contrast formation and on ray optics as the basis for image interpretation. A new conceptual approach to radiography has been developed that includes phase (ie, refractive) contrast and requires wave optics for proper treatment. This new approach greatly increases the amount of information that can be obtained with radiographic techniques and is particularly well suited to the imaging of soft tissue and of very small features in biologic samples. A key feature of the present technique of phase-contrast radiography is the use of a microfocus x-ray source about an order of magnitude (< or = 20 microm) smaller than that used in conventional radiography. Phase-contrast radiography offers a number of improvements over conventional radiography in a clinical setting, especially in soft-tissue imaging. These improvements include increased contrast resulting in improved visualization of anatomic detail, reduced absorbed dose to the patient, inherent image magnification and high spatial resolution, use of harder x rays, and relative ease of implementation. More technologically advanced detectors are currently being developed and commercialized, which will help fully realize the considerable potential of phase-contrast imaging.

  9. Oral contraceptives.

    PubMed

    Ellsworth, A J; Leversee, J H

    1990-09-01

    Management of oral contraception requires an understanding of the relationships between the method's effectiveness, noncontraceptive benefits, and hormonal adverse effects. The new multiphasic combinations or OCs containing 35 micrograms of ethinyl estradiol and 0.5-1.0 mg of norethindrone or equivalent result in a maximum combination of efficacy and safety for the patient with minimal annoying problems for the patient and the prescriber. Patient education regarding early warning symptoms of adverse effects, breakthrough bleeding, and lack of withdrawal bleeding adds an additional margin of safety and reduces patient questions and uncertainties.

  10. Oral contraceptives.

    PubMed

    Maclennan, A H

    1987-12-01

    Over 60 million women use highly efficient and safe modern combined oral contraceptives (OCs) every day. A women who takes the oral contraceptive for 5 years before the age of 30 will actually live 12 days longer, although a woman taking the pill for the 1st time for 5 years after the age of 30 will have her life span reduced on the average by 80 days. OC related morbidity and mortality mostly occur in women over 35 who smoke. Combined low dose OCs are safe for women who do not smoke, at least to 45 years of age and probably to the menopause. The prescription of OCs is also safe to the young adolescent. The pill does not interfere with maturation of the hypothalamic-pituitary ovarian axis and does not increase the incidence of amenorrhoea, oligomenorrhoea or infertility in later life. Patients with contraindications to estrogen therapy are excluded from OC use (history of thromboembolism, major heart disease, liver disease, breast cancer). Low-dose (30-35 mcg estrogen-containing monophasic or triphasic) pills are recommended. Combined oral contraceptives contain either ethinyl estradiol (1.7 to 2 times more potent) or mestranol. After absorption the progestagens, norethisterone acetate, ethynodiol diacetate and lynoestrenol are all metabolized to norethisterone. The progestagen-only pill has about a 2% failure rate and poorer cycle control than the combined pill, but it lacks estrogenic, progestagenic and androgenic side effects. This pill is suitable for the lactating mother, for smokers over 35, for hypertensive patients, and for those with a history of thrombosis. The efficacy of the progestagen-only pill is restored in 3 days of pill taking. Postcoital contraception is an alternative: treatment can be given for at least 72 hours after intercourse. The Yuzpe method calls for the patient to take 2 combined oral contraceptive tablets containing levonorgestrel and ethinyl estradiol (Eugynon or Ovral) followed by a further 2 tablets 12 hours later. This regimen

  11. Piezoelectric enhancement under negative pressure

    PubMed Central

    Kvasov, Alexander; McGilly, Leo J.; Wang, Jin; Shi, Zhiyong; Sandu, Cosmin S.; Sluka, Tomas; Tagantsev, Alexander K.; Setter, Nava

    2016-01-01

    Enhancement of ferroelectric properties, both spontaneous polarization and Curie temperature under negative pressure had been predicted in the past from first principles and recently confirmed experimentally. In contrast, piezoelectric properties are expected to increase by positive pressure, through polarization rotation. Here we investigate the piezoelectric response of the classical PbTiO3, Pb(Zr,Ti)O3 and BaTiO3 perovskite ferroelectrics under negative pressure from first principles and find significant enhancement. Piezoelectric response is then tested experimentally on free-standing PbTiO3 and Pb(Zr,Ti)O3 nanowires under self-sustained negative pressure, confirming the theoretical prediction. Numerical simulations verify that negative pressure in nanowires is the origin of the enhanced electromechanical properties. The results may be useful in the development of highly performing piezoelectrics, including lead-free ones. PMID:27396411

  12. Piezoelectric enhancement under negative pressure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kvasov, Alexander; McGilly, Leo J.; Wang, Jin; Shi, Zhiyong; Sandu, Cosmin S.; Sluka, Tomas; Tagantsev, Alexander K.; Setter, Nava

    2016-07-01

    Enhancement of ferroelectric properties, both spontaneous polarization and Curie temperature under negative pressure had been predicted in the past from first principles and recently confirmed experimentally. In contrast, piezoelectric properties are expected to increase by positive pressure, through polarization rotation. Here we investigate the piezoelectric response of the classical PbTiO3, Pb(Zr,Ti)O3 and BaTiO3 perovskite ferroelectrics under negative pressure from first principles and find significant enhancement. Piezoelectric response is then tested experimentally on free-standing PbTiO3 and Pb(Zr,Ti)O3 nanowires under self-sustained negative pressure, confirming the theoretical prediction. Numerical simulations verify that negative pressure in nanowires is the origin of the enhanced electromechanical properties. The results may be useful in the development of highly performing piezoelectrics, including lead-free ones.

  13. Psychophysical contrast calibration

    PubMed Central

    To, Long; Woods, Russell L; Goldstein, Robert B; Peli, Eli

    2013-01-01

    Electronic displays and computer systems offer numerous advantages for clinical vision testing. Laboratory and clinical measurements of various functions and in particular of (letter) contrast sensitivity require accurately calibrated display contrast. In the laboratory this is achieved using expensive light meters. We developed and evaluated a novel method that uses only psychophysical responses of a person with normal vision to calibrate the luminance contrast of displays for experimental and clinical applications. Our method combines psychophysical techniques (1) for detection (and thus elimination or reduction) of display saturating nonlinearities; (2) for luminance (gamma function) estimation and linearization without use of a photometer; and (3) to measure without a photometer the luminance ratios of the display’s three color channels that are used in a bit-stealing procedure to expand the luminance resolution of the display. Using a photometer we verified that the calibration achieved with this procedure is accurate for both LCD and CRT displays enabling testing of letter contrast sensitivity to 0.5%. Our visual calibration procedure enables clinical, internet and home implementation and calibration verification of electronic contrast testing. PMID:23643843

  14. Negative magnetoresistivity in holography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, Ya-Wen; Yang, Qing

    2016-09-01

    Negative magnetoresistivity is a special magnetotransport property associated with chiral anomaly in four dimensional chiral anomalous systems, which refers to the transport behavior that the DC longitudinal magnetoresistivity decreases with increasing magnetic field. We calculate the longitudinal magnetoconductivity in the presence of back-reactions of the magnetic field to gravity in holographic zero charge and axial charge density systems with and without axial charge dissipation. In the absence of axial charge dissipation, we find that the quantum critical conductivity grows with increasing magnetic field when the backreaction strength is larger than a critical value, in contrast to the monotonically decreasing behavior of quantum critical conductivity in the probe limit. With axial charge dissipation, we find the negative magnetoresistivity behavior. The DC longitudinal magnetoconductivity scales as B in the large magnetic field limit, which deviates from the exact B 2 scaling of the probe limit result. In both cases, the small frequency longitudinal magnetoconductivity still agrees with the formula obtained from the hydrodynamic linear response theory, even in the large magnetic field limit.

  15. Extracellular Ca(2+)-dependent enhancement of cytocidal potency of zoledronic acid in human oral cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Inoue, Sayaka; Arai, Naoya; Tomihara, Kei; Takashina, Michinori; Hattori, Yuichi; Noguchi, Makoto

    2015-08-15

    Direct antitumor effects of bisphosphonates (BPs) have been demonstrated in various cancer cells in vitro. However, the effective concentrations of BPs are typically much higher than their clinically relevant concentrations. Oral cancers frequently invade jawbone and may lead to the release of Ca(2+) in primary lesions. We investigated the effects of the combined application of zoledronic acid (ZA) and Ca(2+) on proliferation and apoptosis of oral cancer cells. Human oral cancer cells, breast cancer cells, and colon cancer cells were treated with ZA at a wide range of concentrations in different Ca(2+) concentration environments. Under a standard Ca(2+) concentration (0.6mM), micromolar concentrations of ZA were required to inhibit oral cancer cell proliferation. Increasing extracellular Ca(2+) concentrations greatly enhanced the potency of the ZA cytocidal effect. The ability of Ca(2+) to enhance the cytocidal effects of ZA was negated by the Ca(2+)-selective chelator EGTA. In contrast, the cytocidal effect of ZA was less pronounced in breast and colon cancer cells regardless of whether extracellular Ca(2+) was elevated. In oral cancer cells incubated with 1.6mM Ca(2+), ZA up-regulated mitochondrial Bax expression and increased mitochondrial Ca(2+) uptake. This was associated with decreased mitochondrial membrane potential and increased release of cytochrome c. We suggest that ZA can specifically produce potent cytocidal activity in oral cancer cells in an extracellular Ca(2+)-dependent manner, implying that BPs may be useful for treatment of oral squamous cell carcinoma with jawbone invasion leading to the hypercalcemic state.

  16. Mechanisms of contrast agent destruction.

    PubMed

    Chomas, J E; Dayton, P; Allen, J; Morgan, K; Ferrara, K W

    2001-01-01

    Various applications of contrast-assisted ultrasound, including blood vessel detection, perfusion estimation, and drug delivery, require controlled destruction of contrast agent microbubbles. The lifetime of a bubble depends on properties of the bubble shell, the gas core, and the acoustic waveform impinging on the bubble. Three mechanisms of microbubble destruction are considered: fragmentation, acoustically driven diffusion, and static diffusion. Fragmentation is responsible for rapid destruction of contrast agents on a time scale of microseconds. The primary characteristics of fragmentation are a very large expansion and subsequent contraction, resulting in instability of the bubble. Optical studies using a novel pulsed-laser optical system show the expansion and contraction of ultrasound contrast agent microbubbles with the ratio of maximum diameter to minimum diameter greater than 10. Fragmentation is dependent on the transmission pressure, occurring in over 55% of bubbles insonified with a peak negative transmission pressure of 2.4 MPa and in less than 10% of bubbles insonified with a peak negative transmission pressure of 0.8 MPa. The echo received from a bubble decorrelates significantly within two pulses when the bubble is fragmented, creating an opportunity for rapid detection of bubbles via a decorrelation-based analysis. Preliminary findings with a mouse tumor model verify the occurrence of fragmentation in vivo. A much slower mechanism of bubble destruction is diffusion, which is driven by both a concentration gradient between the concentration of gas in the bubble compared with the concentration of gas in the liquid, as well as convective effects of motion of the gas-liquid interface. The rate of diffusion increases during insonation, because of acoustically driven diffusion, producing changes in diameter on the time scale of the acoustic pulse length, thus, on the order of microseconds. Gas bubbles diffuse while they are not being insonified, termed

  17. Oral Cancer Foundation

    MedlinePlus

    ... Today! Limited Edition T-Shirt Buy Today! The Oral Cancer Foundation The Oral Cancer Foundation is a national ... trustworthy health information: verify here. Social Networks The Oral Cancer Foundation 3419 Via Lido #205 Newport Beach Ca ...

  18. Oral Lichen Planus

    MedlinePlus

    Oral lichen planus Overview By Mayo Clinic Staff Oral lichen planus (LIE-kun PLAY-nus) is an ongoing (chronic) ... that affects mucous membranes inside your mouth. Oral lichen planus may appear as white, lacy patches; red, ...

  19. Phonation in Tonal Contrasts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kuang, Jianjing

    2013-01-01

    Phonation is used in many tonal languages, but how it should be incorporated into tonal systems is not well understood. The purpose of this dissertation thus is to examine the role of phonation in tonal contrasts, and to investigate how phonation and pitch interact in the tonal space. This dissertation presents close studies of tonal contrasts…

  20. Simultaneous blur contrast

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Webster, Shernaaz M.; Webster, Michael A.; Taylor, John; Jaikumar, Jaikishan; Verma, Richa

    2001-06-01

    How well-focused an image appears can be strongly influenced by the surroundings context. A blurred surround can cause a central image to appear too sharp, while sharped surrounds can induce blur. We examined some spatial properties and stimulus selectivities of this 'simultaneous blur contrast.' Observers adjusted the focus of a central test image by a 2AFC staircase procedure that varied the slope of the image amplitude spectrum. The test were surrounded by 8 identical images with biased spectra, that were presented concurrently with the test for 0.5 sec on a uniform gray background. Contrast effects were comparable in magnitude for image sizes ranging from 1-deg to 4-deg in visual angle, but were stronger for test that were viwe4 in the periphery rather than fixated directly. Consistent biases were found for different types of grayscale images, including natural images, filtered noise, and simple edges. However, effects were weaker when surrounds and tests were drawn from different images, or differed in contrast-polarity or color, and thus do not depend on blur or on average spatial- frequency content per se. These induction effects may in part reflect a manifestation of selective contrast gain control

  1. Contrasting Views on Censorship.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Riel, Arthur R., Jr.

    This paper asserts that public demands for book censorship are but one aspect of a deep public dissatisfaction with the educational establishment, and develops the thesis that the cause of this dissatisfaction is the contrast in world views and religions of those in the educational establishment and the censors. The educational establishment…

  2. Producing VOT contrasts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lofqvist, Anders

    2001-05-01

    The development of voice onset time (VOT) as an acoustic index for studying and classifying stop consonants also prompted a large number of studies examining laryngeal activity and interarticulator timing related to VOT. A collaboration between the Research Institute of Logopedics and Phoniatrics at the University of Tokyo and Haskins Laboratories resulted in a long line of studies using electromyographic and other techniques that provided much of the empirical foundations for what we know about laryngeal function in speech, in particular the production of voiced and voiceless consonants. This presentation will review the articulatory control of VOT differences. To make a consonant voiceless, a speaker uses a combination of glottal abduction and vocal fold tensing. The distinction between voiceless stops with long and short VOT is basically due to a difference in the timing between the glottal abduction gesture and the oral closing and opening gestures. Variations in the size of the glottal gesture also occur. More generally, variations in interarticulator timing between glottal and oral movements are used to produce the different stop categories that occur in the languages of the world. [Work supported by NIH.

  3. Apparatus for separating particles utilizing engineered acoustic contrast capture particles

    DOEpatents

    Kaduchak, Gregory; Ward, Michael D

    2016-05-17

    An apparatus for separating particles from a medium includes a capillary defining a flow path therein that is in fluid communication with a medium source. The medium source includes engineered acoustic contrast capture particle having a predetermined acoustic contrast. The apparatus includes a vibration generator that is operable to produce at least one acoustic field within the flow path. The acoustic field produces a force potential minima for positive acoustic contrast particles and a force potential minima for negative acoustic contrast particles in the flow path and drives the engineered acoustic contrast capture particles to either the force potential minima for positive acoustic contrast particles or the force potential minima for negative acoustic contrast particles.

  4. Apparatus for separating particles utilizing engineered acoustic contrast capture particles

    DOEpatents

    Kaduchak, Gregory; Ward, Michael D.

    2011-12-27

    An apparatus for separating particles from a medium includes a capillary defining a flow path therein that is in fluid communication with a medium source. The medium source includes engineered acoustic contrast capture particle having a predetermined acoustic contrast. The apparatus includes a vibration generator that is operable to produce at least one acoustic field within the flow path. The acoustic field produces a force potential minima for positive acoustic contrast particles and a force potential minima for negative acoustic contrast particles in the flow path and drives the engineered acoustic contrast capture particles to either the force potential minima for positive acoustic contrast particles or the force potential minima for negative acoustic contrast particles.

  5. Apparatus for separating particles utilizing engineered acoustic contrast capture particles

    SciTech Connect

    Kaduchak, Gregory; Ward, Michael D

    2014-10-21

    An apparatus for separating particles from a medium includes a capillary defining a flow path therein that is in fluid communication with a medium source. The medium source includes engineered acoustic contrast capture particle having a predetermined acoustic contrast. The apparatus includes a vibration generator that is operable to produce at least one acoustic field within the flow path. The acoustic field produces a force potential minima for positive acoustic contrast particles and a force potential minima for negative acoustic contrast particles in the flow path and drives the engineered acoustic contrast capture particles to either the force potential minima for positive acoustic contrast particles or the force potential minima for negative acoustic contrast particles.

  6. Oral Administration of a Select Mixture of Bacillus Probiotics Affects the Gut Microbiota and Goblet Cell Function following Escherichia coli Challenge in Newly Weaned Pigs of Genotype MUC4 That Are Supposed To Be Enterotoxigenic E. coli F4ab/ac Receptor Negative.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Wei; Zhu, Yao-Hong; Zhou, Dong; Wu, Qiong; Song, Dan; Dicksved, Johan; Wang, Jiu-Feng

    2017-02-01

    Structural disruption of the gut microbiota and impaired goblet cell function are collateral etiologic factors in enteric diseases. Low, moderate, or high doses of a Bacillus licheniformis-B. subtilis mixture (BLS mix) were orally administered to piglets of genotype MUC4 that are supposed to be F4-expressing enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli strain (F4(+) ETEC) F4ab/ac receptor negative (i.e., MUC4-resistant piglets) for 1 week before F4(+) ETEC challenge. The luminal contents were collected from the mucosa of the colon on day 8 after F4(+) ETEC challenge. The BLS mix attenuated E. coli-induced expansion of Bacteroides uniformis, Eubacterium eligens, Acetanaerobacterium, and Sporobacter populations. Clostridium and Turicibacter populations increased following F4(+) ETEC challenge in pigs pretreated with low-dose BLS mix. Lactobacillus gasseri and Lactobacillus salivarius populations increased after administration of BLS mix during E. coli infection. The beneficial effects of BLS mix were due in part to the expansion of certain Clostridium, Lactobacillus, and Turicibacter populations, with a corresponding increase in the number of goblet cells in the ileum via upregulated Atoh1 expression, in turn increasing MUC2 production and thus preserving the mucus barrier and enhancing host defenses against enteropathogenic bacteria. However, excessive BLS mix consumption may increase the risk for enteritis, partly through disruption of colonic microbial ecology, characterized by expansion of Proteobacteria and impaired goblet cell function in the ileum. Our findings suggest that oral administration of BLS mix reprograms the gut microbiota and enhances goblet cell function to ameliorate enteritis.

  7. Chromatography: concepts and contrasts

    SciTech Connect

    Miller, J.M.

    1988-01-01

    As the author states in the Preface, this text attempts to provide a unified approach to chromatography (hence the title) by way of contrasting similarities and differences between gas chromatography (GC), column liquid chromatography (LC), and thin-layer chromatography (TLC). This book is also said to be pitched at an elementary level, suitable for most newcomers to the field (e.g., advanced undergraduates and beginning graduate students in the academic world, as well as bench-level chemists in industry).

  8. Human immunodeficiency virus-negative plasmablastic lymphoma

    PubMed Central

    Lin, Li; Zhang, Xudong; Dong, Meng; Li, Ling; Wang, Xinhua; Zhang, Lei; Fu, Xiaorui; Sun, Zhenchang; Wu, Jingjing; Li, Zhaoming; Chang, Yu; Wang, Yingjun; Zhou, Zhiyuan; Zhang, Mingzhi; Chen, Qingjiang

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Rationale: Plasmablastic lymphoma (PBL) is a rare subtype of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-related non-Hodgkin's lymphoma that predominantly manifests in the oral cavity. Patient concerns: Three cases of HIV-negative PBL were reported. Diagnoses: HIV-negative PBL Interventions: The patient had undergone chemotherapy. Outcomes: Clinical outcomes were very poor in Cases 1 and 3; Case 2, whose diagnosis suggested no bone marrow involvement, is still alive. Lessons subsections: These cases served to broaden the reported clinical spectrum of HIV-negative PBL. Clinicians and pathologists need to be familiar with lymphoma in the identified extra-oral PBL variation and there levant differential diagnosis procedures for this particular disease. PMID:28207555

  9. Polychromatic diffraction contrast tomography

    SciTech Connect

    King, A.; Reischig, P.; Adrien, J.; Peetermans, S.; Ludwig, W.

    2014-11-15

    This tutorial review introduces the use of polychromatic radiation for 3D grain mapping using X-ray diffraction contrast tomography. The objective is to produce a 3D map of the grain shapes and orientations within a bulk, millimeter-sized polycrystalline sample. The use of polychromatic radiation enables the standard synchrotron X-ray technique to be applied in a wider range of contexts: 1) Using laboratory X-ray sources allows a much wider application of the diffraction contrast tomography technique. 2) Neutron sources allow large samples, or samples containing high Z elements to be studied. 3) Applied to synchrotron sources, smaller samples may be treated, or faster measurements may be possible. Challenges and particularities in the data acquisition and processing, and the limitations of the different variants, are discussed. - Highlights: • We present a tutorial review of polychromatic diffraction contrast tomography techniques. • The use of polychromatic radiation allows the standard synchrotron DCT technique to be extended to a range of other sources. • The characteristics and limitations of all variants of the techniques are derived, discussed and compared. • Examples using laboratory X-ray and cold neutron radiation are presented. • Suggestions for the future development of these techniques are presented.

  10. Anisotropic contrast optical microscope.

    PubMed

    Peev, D; Hofmann, T; Kananizadeh, N; Beeram, S; Rodriguez, E; Wimer, S; Rodenhausen, K B; Herzinger, C M; Kasputis, T; Pfaunmiller, E; Nguyen, A; Korlacki, R; Pannier, A; Li, Y; Schubert, E; Hage, D; Schubert, M

    2016-11-01

    An optical microscope is described that reveals contrast in the Mueller matrix images of a thin, transparent, or semi-transparent specimen located within an anisotropic object plane (anisotropic filter). The specimen changes the anisotropy of the filter and thereby produces contrast within the Mueller matrix images. Here we use an anisotropic filter composed of a semi-transparent, nanostructured thin film with sub-wavelength thickness placed within the object plane. The sample is illuminated as in common optical microscopy but the light is modulated in its polarization using combinations of linear polarizers and phase plate (compensator) to control and analyze the state of polarization. Direct generalized ellipsometry data analysis approaches permit extraction of fundamental Mueller matrix object plane images dispensing with the need of Fourier expansion methods. Generalized ellipsometry model approaches are used for quantitative image analyses. These images are obtained from sets of multiple images obtained under various polarizer, analyzer, and compensator settings. Up to 16 independent Mueller matrix images can be obtained, while our current setup is limited to 11 images normalized by the unpolarized intensity. We demonstrate the anisotropic contrast optical microscope by measuring lithographically defined micro-patterned anisotropic filters, and we quantify the adsorption of an organic self-assembled monolayer film onto the anisotropic filter. Comparison with an isotropic glass slide demonstrates the image enhancement obtained by our method over microscopy without the use of an anisotropic filter. In our current instrument, we estimate the limit of detection for organic volumetric mass within the object plane of ≈49 fg within ≈7 × 7 μm(2) object surface area. Compared to a quartz crystal microbalance with dissipation instrumentation, where contemporary limits require a total load of ≈500 pg for detection, the instrumentation demonstrated here improves

  11. Anisotropic contrast optical microscope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peev, D.; Hofmann, T.; Kananizadeh, N.; Beeram, S.; Rodriguez, E.; Wimer, S.; Rodenhausen, K. B.; Herzinger, C. M.; Kasputis, T.; Pfaunmiller, E.; Nguyen, A.; Korlacki, R.; Pannier, A.; Li, Y.; Schubert, E.; Hage, D.; Schubert, M.

    2016-11-01

    An optical microscope is described that reveals contrast in the Mueller matrix images of a thin, transparent, or semi-transparent specimen located within an anisotropic object plane (anisotropic filter). The specimen changes the anisotropy of the filter and thereby produces contrast within the Mueller matrix images. Here we use an anisotropic filter composed of a semi-transparent, nanostructured thin film with sub-wavelength thickness placed within the object plane. The sample is illuminated as in common optical microscopy but the light is modulated in its polarization using combinations of linear polarizers and phase plate (compensator) to control and analyze the state of polarization. Direct generalized ellipsometry data analysis approaches permit extraction of fundamental Mueller matrix object plane images dispensing with the need of Fourier expansion methods. Generalized ellipsometry model approaches are used for quantitative image analyses. These images are obtained from sets of multiple images obtained under various polarizer, analyzer, and compensator settings. Up to 16 independent Mueller matrix images can be obtained, while our current setup is limited to 11 images normalized by the unpolarized intensity. We demonstrate the anisotropic contrast optical microscope by measuring lithographically defined micro-patterned anisotropic filters, and we quantify the adsorption of an organic self-assembled monolayer film onto the anisotropic filter. Comparison with an isotropic glass slide demonstrates the image enhancement obtained by our method over microscopy without the use of an anisotropic filter. In our current instrument, we estimate the limit of detection for organic volumetric mass within the object plane of ≈49 fg within ≈7 × 7 μm2 object surface area. Compared to a quartz crystal microbalance with dissipation instrumentation, where contemporary limits require a total load of ≈500 pg for detection, the instrumentation demonstrated here improves

  12. Endoluminal contrast for abdomen and pelvis magnetic resonance imaging.

    PubMed

    Gupta, Mohit K; Khatri, Gaurav; Bailey, April; Pinho, Daniella F; Costa, Daniel; Pedrosa, Ivan

    2016-07-01

    Magnetic resonance (MR) imaging of the abdomen and pelvis can be limited for assessment of different conditions when imaging inadequately distended hollow organs. Endoluminal contrast agents may provide improved anatomic definition and detection of subtle pathology in such scenarios. The available routes of administration for endoluminal contrast agents include oral, endorectal, endovaginal, intravesicular, and through non-physiologic accesses. Appropriate use of endoluminal contrast agents requires a thorough understanding of the clinical indications, available contrast agents, patient preparation, and interaction of the contrast agent with the desired MR imaging protocol. For example, biphasic oral enteric contrast agents are preferred in MR enterography as their signal properties on T1- and T2-weighted imaging allow for evaluation of both intraluminal and bowel wall pathology. In specific situations such as with MR enterography, MR defecography, and accurate local staging of certain pelvic tumors, the use of an endoluminal contrast agent is imperative in providing adequate diagnostic imaging. In other clinical scenarios, the use of an endoluminal contrast agent may serve as an indispensable problem-solving tool.

  13. Oral health and the symptoms of schizophrenia.

    PubMed

    Arnaiz, Ainara; Zumárraga, Mercedes; Díez-Altuna, Izaskun; Uriarte, Jose J; Moro, Juan; Pérez-Ansorena, Maria A

    2011-06-30

    The objectives of this study were to evaluate the oral health of a group of schizophrenic outpatients and a control group without psychiatric illness. The study also aimed to assess the influence of positive and negative symptomatology on oral health among outpatients with schizophrenia. The DMF-T Index (sum of decayed, missing and filled teeth) and the Community Periodontal Index of Treatment Needs (CPITN) were assessed in both groups. We evaluated the psychopathological state of the patient group using the Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale (PANSS). The schizophrenic patients had higher scores than the control group with respect to decayed teeth (4.39 vs. 0.72), missing teeth (5.66 vs. 1.50), the DMF-T index (13.51 vs. 7.8) and CPITN (2.32 vs. 1.04); and lower scores for filled teeth (3.53 vs. 5.54). The PANSS negative subscale score correlated positively with the oral health variables studied, whereas the PANSS positive subscale score correlated negatively and exclusively with the number of missing teeth. Age and smoking status affected oral health in both groups, but even when the influence of these factors was considered, the oral health of the patients was poorer than that of the control group.

  14. On Multiplying Negative Numbers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Crowley, Mary L.; Dunn, Kenneth A.

    1985-01-01

    Comments on the history of negative numbers, some methods that can be used to introduce the multiplication of negative numbers to students, and an explanation of why the product of two negative numbers is a positive number are included. (MNS)

  15. High Contrast CRT.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1980-02-01

    form brown sulfides or sulfates. By con- trast, No. 1720 glass does not acquire a brown coloration . How- ever, preliminary tests with 1723 glass show...TR-77-2639-F NL -mmo mhhmhul IIII,. BwII ---- i 11111--- IIIIIN III i 8’ II.I25 .11111 I .6 MCROCOPY RESOLUTION TEST CHART NATIONAL BUREAU Of...High Contrast Displays Two- Color CRT Laminar Flow Electron Gun Thin Film Phosphor Color Penetration Tube 2% AS~iTACT (ConIlm. a" Pove.. 0fdo if

  16. [Prevention of oral diseases].

    PubMed

    Vodanović, Marin

    2013-06-01

    Oral health is essential to general health and quality of life. Ever more people are affected with oral diseases. Dental caries, gingivitis and periodontitis are the most common oral diseases and they can be prevented. Oral health promotion and oral disease prevention programs should be incorporated in national health strategies. Inability to understand health information can be a profound disadvantage to patients when asked to take responsibility for their health. Increasing the level of oral health literacy and improvement of communication between patients and dentists by avoiding the usage of professional dental terminology should be included in each oral prevention program.

  17. Contrast and depth perception: effects of texture contrast and area contrast.

    PubMed

    Ichihara, Shigeru; Kitagawa, Norimichi; Akutsu, Hiromi

    2007-01-01

    Many objects in natural scenes have textures on their surfaces. Contrast of the texture surfaces (the texture contrast) reduces when the viewing distance increases. Similarly, contrast between the surfaces of the objects and the background (the area contrast) reduces when the viewing distance increases. The texture contrast and the area contrast were defined by the contrast between random dots, and by the contrast between the average luminance of the dot pattern and the luminance of the background, respectively. To examine how these two types of contrast influence depth perception, we ran two experiments. In both experiments two areas of random-dot patterns were presented against a uniform background, and participants rated relative depth between the two areas. We found that the rated depth of the patterned areas increased with increases in texture contrast. Furthermore, the effect of the texture contrast on depth judgment increased when the area contrast became low.

  18. Contrastive and contextual vowel nasalization in Ottawa

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Klopfenstein, Marie

    2005-09-01

    Ottawa is a Central Algonquian language that possesses the recent innovation of contrastive vowel nasalization. Most phonetic studies done to date on contrastive vowel nasalization have investigated Indo-European languages; therefore, a study of Ottawa could prove to be a valuable addition to the literature. To this end, a percentage of nasalization (nasal airflow/oral + nasal airflow) was measured during target vowels produced by native Ottawa speakers using a Nasometer 6200-3. Nasalized vowels in the target word set were either contrastively or contextually nasalized: candidates for contextual nasalization were either regressive or perserverative in word-initial and word-final syllables. Subjects were asked to read words containing target vowels in a carrier sentence. Mean, minimum, and maximum nasalance were obtained for each target vowel across its full duration. Target vowels were compared across context (regressive or perseverative and word-initial or word-final). In addition, contexts were compared to determine whether a significant difference existed between contrastive and contextual nasalization. Results for Ottawa will be compared with results for vowels in similar contexts in other languages including Hindi, Breton, Bengali, and French.

  19. MALT1 Inhibition of Oral Carcinoma Cell Invasion and ERK/MAPK Activation.

    PubMed

    Chiba, T; Soeno, Y; Shirako, Y; Sudo, H; Yagishita, H; Taya, Y; Kawashiri, S; Okada, Y; Imai, K

    2016-04-01

    The expression of mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue 1 (MALT1) that activates nuclear factor (NF)-κB in lymphocyte lineages is rapidly inactivated in oral carcinoma cells at the invasive front and the patients with worst prognosis. However, its mechanism to accelerate carcinoma progression remains unknown, and this study was carried out to examine the role in invasion. HSC2 oral carcinoma cells stably expressing wild-type MALT1 (wtMALT1) reduced the invasion of basement membrane matrices and collagen gels, and the dominant-negative form (∆MALT1)-expressing cells aggressively invaded into collagen gels. MALT1 decelerated proliferation and migration of cells and downregulated expression of matrix metalloproteinase 2 and 9, which were confirmed by short interfering RNA transfections. Reporter assays and immunoblot analysis showed that MALT1 does not affect the NF-κB pathway but inhibits ERK/MAPK activation. This was confirmed by endogenous MALT1 expression in oral carcinoma cell lines. Orthotopic implantation of ∆MALT1-expressing HSC2 cells in mice grew rapid expansive and invasive tongue tumors in contrast to an absence of tumor formation by wtMALT1-expressing cells. These results demonstrate that MALT1 suppresses oral carcinoma invasion by inhibiting proliferation, migration, and extracellular matrix degradation and that the ERK/MAPK pathway is a target of MALT1 and further suggests a role as a suppressor of carcinoma progression.

  20. Oral Exams as a Tool for Teaching and Assessment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sayre, Eleanor C.

    2014-01-01

    Oral exams are a fruitful and practical alternative to written exams in small-enrolment Science classes. In an oral exam, the instructor can assess conceptual understanding, problem-solving, scientific communication skills, and a student's philosophy of science. In contrast, a written exam gives a much poorer picture of how students learn and…

  1. On Establishing Underlying Tonal Contrast

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Snider, Keith

    2014-01-01

    Phonological field work is largely about establishing contrast in comparable environments. The notion of phonological contrast, however, can be confusing, particularly in its application to tone analysis. Does it mean phonemic contrast in the structuralist sense, or does it mean underlying contrast in the generative sense? Many linguists, in…

  2. Applications of OralCDx ® methodology in the diagnosis of oral leukoplakia

    PubMed Central

    García-Carnicero, Tamara; Gándara-Vila, Pilar; Couso-Folgueiras, Elena; Pérez-Sayáns, Mario; Gándara-Vila, Rafael; García-García, Abel; Gándara-Rey, José-Manuel

    2012-01-01

    Objective: We aim to evaluate the effectiveness of the brush biopsy technique using OralCDx ® (OralScan Laboratories Inc., Suffern, NY) as a new method for early diagnosis and control of a “potentially malignant disorder” such as oral leukoplakia. Design of the study: We performed a study in which samples were taken using OralCDx ® on 24 patients who visited the Master of Oral Medicine, Oral Surgery and Implantology of the University of Santiago de Compostela between February 2009 and May 2010. These patients presented clinical and histological lesions that were consistent with oral leukoplakia. We evaluated the relationship between the keratinization degree of the lesions and cell representation; the diagnosis obtained through OralCDx ® and biopsies; and sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value (PPV) and negative predictive value (NPV). Results: 50% of patients were men and 50% women with an average age of 62.38 years. The Kappa coefficient relating keratinization of lesions and cell representation was 0.33, the OralCDx ® - biopsy diagnostic rate reached a Kappa value of 0.66, recording 72.7%,sensitivity and 92.3% specificity, PPV was 88.8%, while NPV reached 80%. Conclusions: cytology sampling with OralCDx ® showed high sensitivity and specificity values, which make it a good tool for monitoring oral leukoplakia, but nowadays the most reliable method that allows us to confirm the exact diagnosis of the lesions and their anatomical and pathological characteristics still is conventional biopsy using a surgical scalpel. Key words: OralCDx®, brush biopsy, oral leukoplakia. PMID:21743402

  3. Helicobacter pylori colonization of the oral cavity: A milestone discovery

    PubMed Central

    Yee, John KC

    2016-01-01

    Over the past several years, the severity of Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) infections has not significantly diminished. After successful eradication, the annual H. pylori recurrence rate is approximately 13% due to oral H. pylori infection. Established clinical diagnostic techniques do not identify an oral etiologic basis of H. pylori prior to gastric infection. There has been disagreement as to whether oral infection of H. pylori exists or not, with no definite conclusion. In medical practice, negative results with the urea breath test suggest that the stomach infection of H. pylori is cured in these patients. In fact, patients can present negative urea breath test results and yet exhibit H. pylori infection due to oral infection. The present paper provides evidence that H. pylori oral infection is nonetheless present, and the oral cavity represents a secondary site for H. pylori colonization. PMID:26811613

  4. Helicobacter pylori colonization of the oral cavity: A milestone discovery.

    PubMed

    Yee, John K C

    2016-01-14

    Over the past several years, the severity of Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) infections has not significantly diminished. After successful eradication, the annual H. pylori recurrence rate is approximately 13% due to oral H. pylori infection. Established clinical diagnostic techniques do not identify an oral etiologic basis of H. pylori prior to gastric infection. There has been disagreement as to whether oral infection of H. pylori exists or not, with no definite conclusion. In medical practice, negative results with the urea breath test suggest that the stomach infection of H. pylori is cured in these patients. In fact, patients can present negative urea breath test results and yet exhibit H. pylori infection due to oral infection. The present paper provides evidence that H. pylori oral infection is nonetheless present, and the oral cavity represents a secondary site for H. pylori colonization.

  5. Contrasting Martian Terrains

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    NASA's Mars Exploration Rover Spirit captured this interesting view of martian topography just below the 'West Spur' portion of the 'Columbia Hills' on sol 208 (Aug. 2, 2004). The view is looking southwest. The rover's wheel tracks show the contrast between soft martian soil and the harder 'Clovis' rock outcrop, which scientists are now studying.

    The angle of the horizon indicates the tilt of the rover to be about 20 degrees. On the horizon is a small peak informally named 'Grissom Hill,' about 15 kilometers (9.3 miles) away. To the right of the peak is the edge of a 2-kilometer-wide (1.2-mile-wide) crater. A few weeks ago, Spirit stopped to conduct scientific studies of rocks in 'Hank's Hollow,' located on the right side of the image approximately one-third of the way down from the top. This photo was taken with Spirit's right rear hazard-avoidance camera.

  6. Wound biofilms: lessons learned from oral biofilms

    PubMed Central

    Mancl, Kimberly A.; Kirsner, Robert S.; Ajdic, Dragana

    2013-01-01

    Biofilms play an important role in the development and pathogenesis of many chronic infections. Oral biofilms, more commonly known as dental plaque,are a primary cause of oral diseases including caries, gingivitis and periodontitis. Oral biofilms are commonly studied as model biofilm systems as they are easily accessible, thus biofilm research in oral diseases is advanced with details of biofilm formation and bacterial interactions being well-elucidated. In contrast, wound research has relatively recently directed attentionto the role biofilms have in chronic wounds. This review discusses the biofilms in periodontal disease and chronic wounds with comparisons focusing on biofilm detection, biofilm formation, the immune response to biofilms, bacterial interaction and quorum sensing. Current treatment modalities used by both fields as well as future therapies are also discussed. PMID:23551419

  7. Contrast agents for MRI.

    PubMed

    Shokrollahi, H

    2013-12-01

    Contrast agents are divided into two categories. The first one is paramagnetic compounds, including lanthanides like gadolinium, which mainly reduce the longitudinal (T1) relaxation property and result in a brighter signal. The second class consists of super-paramagnetic magnetic nanoparticles (SPMNPs) such as iron oxides, which have a strong effect on the transversal (T2) relaxation properties. SPMNPs have the potential to be utilized as excellent probes for magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). For instance, clinically benign iron oxide and engineered ferrite nanoparticles provide a good MRI probing capability for clinical applications. Furthermore, the limited magnetic property and inability to escape from the reticuloendothelial system (RES) of the used nanoparticles impede their further advancement. Therefore, it is necessary to develop the engineered magnetic nanoparticle probes for the next-generation molecular MRI. Considering the importance of MRI in diagnosing diseases, this paper presents an overview of recent scientific achievements in the development of new synthetic SPMNP probes whereby the sensitive and target-specific observation of biological events at the molecular and cellular levels is feasible.

  8. The Use of Corpora and IT in Evaluating Oral Task Competence for Tourism English

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fuentes, Alejandro Curado

    2004-01-01

    This paper describes a method in oral fluency evaluation for Tourism English according to a corpus-based lexical approach. Our main research focus is placed on measuring oral skill competence among Tourism English (TE) learners by contrasting their word use and linguistic fluency, achieved in two types of oral tasks, with corpus data frequencies.…

  9. Efficacy of miswak on oral pathogens.

    PubMed

    Sukkarwalla, Adnan; Ali, Salima Mehboob; Lundberg, Pranee; Tanwir, Farzeen

    2013-05-01

    The oral cavity harbors a diverse and abundant number of complex oral pathogens causing different oral diseases. The development of dental caries and periodontal diseases has been found to be closely associated with various gram positive and gram negative microrganisms. Miswak, a natural toothbrush, has been documented as a potent antibacterial aid and its use is encouraged in different countries because of its good taste, texture, availability, cost and beneficial effect on teeth and supporting tissues. Different researches have been carried out to evaluate the antimicrobial effects of Miswak. This review encompasses the efficacy of Miswak on suppression of oral pathogens with respect to conducted on fungi as well as cariogenic, periodontal and endodontic bacteria.

  10. Efficacy of Miswak on Oral Pathogens

    PubMed Central

    Sukkarwalla, Adnan; Ali, Salima Mehboob; Lundberg, Pranee; Tanwir, Farzeen

    2013-01-01

    The oral cavity harbors a diverse and abundant number of complex oral pathogens causing different oral diseases. The development of dental caries and periodontal diseases has been found to be closely associated with various gram positive and gram negative microrganisms. Miswak, a natural toothbrush, has been documented as a potent antibacterial aid and its use is encouraged in different countries because of its good taste, texture, availability, cost and beneficial effect on teeth and supporting tissues. Different researches have been carried out to evaluate the antimicrobial effects of Miswak. This review encompasses the efficacy of Miswak on suppression of oral pathogens with respect to conducted on fungi as well as cariogenic, periodontal and endodontic bacteria. PMID:24019798

  11. Oral verrucous carcinoma. Treatment with radiotherapy

    SciTech Connect

    Nair, M.K.; Sankaranarayanan, R.; Padmanabhan, T.K.; Madhu, C.S.

    1988-02-01

    Fifty-two cases of oral verrucous carcinoma treated with radiotherapy at the Regional Cancer Centre, Trivandrum, Kerala, India in 1982 were evaluated to determine the distribution within the oral cavity, clinical extent, and effectiveness of radiotherapy in controlling the disease. The most common site was the buccal mucosa. Fifty percent of the patients had clinically negative regional lymph nodes and 33% were in earlier stages (T1, T2, N0, and M0). The overall 3-year no evidence of disease (NED) survival rate was 44%. The 3-year NED survival rate with radium implant was 86%. We cannot comment on anaplastic transformation after radiotherapy because our treatment failures have not been subjected for biopsy concerning this matter. Because the results are comparable with those of well-differentiated squamous cell carcinoma, we think that the treatment policies advocated for oral squamous cell carcinoma are also applicable to oral verrucous carcinoma.

  12. Oral Overcorrection: Side Effects and Extended Applications

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Doke, Larry A.; Epstein, Leonard H.

    1975-01-01

    Three experiments are reported in which the effects of oral overcorrection, used as negative reinforcer, were determined for thumb sucking and other behaviors in two 4-year-old children enrolled in a day care program for culturally disadvantaged behavior-disordered preschoolers. (GO)

  13. Peptides in oral diseases.

    PubMed

    Lucchese, Alberta; Guida, Agostino; Petruzzi, Massimo; Capone, Giovanni; Laino, Luigi; Serpico, Rosario

    2012-01-01

    The oral cavity is home to numerous viruses and micro-organisms recognized as having a role in various oral diseases as well as in infections in other parts of the body. Indeed, in general a microbial infection underlies or is believed to underlie the ample spectrum of oral diseases, from tooth enamel decay to periodontal lesions, from candidiasis to virus-induced oral squamous cell carcinomas, and bullous autoimmune oral disorders. This clinico-pathological context stresses the need of targeted therapies to specifically kill infectious agents in a complex environment such as the oral cavity, and explains the current interest in exploring peptide-based therapeutic approaches in oral and dental research. Here, we review the therapeutic potential of antimicrobial peptides such as LL-37, beta defensins, adrenomedullin, histatins, and of various peptides modulating gene expression and immuno-biological interaction(s) in oral diseases.

  14. Phase Contrast Imaging

    SciTech Connect

    Menk, Ralf Hendrik

    2008-11-13

    All standard (medical) x-ray imaging technologies, rely primarily on the amplitude properties of the incident radiation, and do not depend on its phase. This is unchanged since the discovery by Roentgen that the intensity of an x-ray beam, as measured by the exposure on a film, was related to the relative transmission properties of an object. However, recently various imaging techniques have emerged which depend on the phase of the x-rays as well as the amplitude. Phase becomes important when the beam is coherent and the imaging system is sensitive to interference phenomena. Significant new advances have been made in coherent optic theory and techniques, which now promise phase information in medical imaging. The development of perfect crystal optics and the increasing availability of synchrotron radiation facilities have contributed to a significant increase in the application of phase based imaging in materials and life sciences. Unique source characteristics such as high intensity, monochromaticity, coherence and high collimating provide an ideal source for advanced imaging. Phase contrast imaging has been applied in both projection and computed tomography modes, and recent applications have been made in the field of medical imaging. Due to the underlying principle of X-ray detection conventional image receptors register only intensities of wave fields and not their phases. During the last decade basically five different methods were developed that translate the phase information into intensity variations. These methods are based on measuring the phase shift {phi} directly (using interference phenomena), the gradient {nabla}{sub {phi}}, or the Laplacian {nabla}{sup 2}{phi}. All three methods can be applied to polychromatic X-ray sources keeping in mind that the native source is synchrotron radiation, featuring monochromatic and reasonable coherent X-ray beams. Due to the vast difference in the coefficients that are driven absorption and phase effects (factor 1

  15. HAD Oral History Project

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Holbrook, Jarita

    2014-01-01

    The Historical Astronomy Division is the recipient of an American Institute of Physics Neils Bohr Library Grant for Oral History. HAD has assembled a team of volunteers to conduct oral history interviews since May 2013. Each oral history interview varies in length between two and six hours. This presentation is an introduction to the HAD Oral History Project and the activities of the team during the first six months of the grant.

  16. Oral Steroids for Dermatitis.

    PubMed

    Fisher, Andrew D; Clarke, Jesse; Williams, Timothy K

    2015-01-01

    Contact/allergic dermatitis is frequently treated inappropriately with lower-than-recommended doses or inadequate duration of treatment with oral and intramuscular glucocorticoids. This article highlights a case of dermatitis in a Ranger Assessment and Selection Program student who was improperly treated over 2 weeks with oral steroids after being bit by Cimex lectularius, commonly known as bed bugs. The article also highlights the pitfalls of improper oral steroid dosing and provides reasoning for longer-duration oral steroid treatment.

  17. Recognition memory reveals just how CONTRASTIVE contrastive accenting really is

    PubMed Central

    Fraundorf, Scott H.; Watson, Duane G.; Benjamin, Aaron S.

    2010-01-01

    The effects of pitch accenting on memory were investigated in three experiments. Participants listened to short recorded discourses that contained contrast sets with two items (e.g. British scientists and French scientists); a continuation specified one item from the set. Pitch accenting on the critical word in the continuation was manipulated between non-contrastive (H* in the ToBI system) and contrastive (L+H*). On subsequent recognition memory tests, the L+H* accent increased hits to correct statements and correct rejections of the contrast item (Experiments 1–3), but did not impair memory for other parts of the discourse (Experiment 2). L+H* also did not facilitate correct rejections of lures not in the contrast set (Experiment 3), indicating that contrastive accents do not simply strengthen the representation of the target item. These results suggest comprehenders use pitch accenting to encode and update information about multiple elements in a contrast set. PMID:20835405

  18. Contrastive Analysis and Language Development.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ferguson, Charles A.

    Contrastive analysis is basic to all linguistics since only by this approach can a general theory of language (language universals) be constructed and only with at least implicit contrastive analysis can a particular language be fully characterized. Two kinds of contrastive analysis have been basic to diachronic linguistics: the comparison of…

  19. Culture-negative endocarditis

    MedlinePlus

    ... inflammation of the lining of one or more heart valves, but no endocarditis-causing germs can be found ... the heart, where they can settle on damaged heart valves. Alternative Names Endocarditis (culture-negative) Images Culture-negative ...

  20. Oral Communication K-9.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cottrell, June, Ed.

    This speech communication curriculum guide is designed to provide a comprehensive oral language curriculum, to suggest ways for integrating oral activities into other curriculum areas, and to stimulate ideas for using oral language in a holistic rather than a fragmentary learning environment. Following an introductory chapter on "creating the…

  1. Understanding Oral Learners

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moon, W. Jay

    2012-01-01

    A five-year research project of seminary students from various cultural backgrounds revealed that the slight majority of contemporary seminary students studied are oral learners. Oral learners learn best and have their lives most transformed when professors utilize oral teaching and assessment methods. After explaining several preferences of oral…

  2. Head, Neck, and Oral Cancer

    MedlinePlus

    ... find out more. Head, Neck and Oral Pathology Head, Neck and Oral Pathology Close to 49,750 Americans ... find out more. Head, Neck and Oral Pathology Head, Neck and Oral Pathology Close to 49,750 Americans ...

  3. Peculiar observations in measuring testosterone in women treated with oral contraceptives supplemented with dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA).

    PubMed

    Heijboer, Annemieke C; Zimmerman, Yvette; de Boer, Theo; Coelingh Bennink, Herjan; Blankenstein, Marinus A

    2014-03-20

    Total testosterone is considered to be decreased during the use of combined oral contraceptives. There is, however, considerable concern about the quality of testosterone assays, especially at low levels. We aimed to confirm testosterone levels measured by direct radioimmunoassay in a recent clinical trial with a state-of-the-art LC-MSMS method. Surplus specimens with known testosterone levels collected during the study (Clinical Trial Registration number ISRCTN06414473) were reanalyzed with an LC-MSMS method. This method was compared to another LC-MSMS method that had shown to concur excellently to a reference method. Follow-up experiments were designed to explain the results. In contrast to our expectation, LC-MSMS measurements did not corroborate the data obtained by radioimmunoassay. Subsequent experiments showed that this could be attributed to a strong dependency of the radioimmunoassay on SHBG. Testosterone results (n = 198) obtained by direct radioimmunoassay showed a negative correlation to SHBG levels (r = -0.676; p<0.001). By contrast, testosterone results obtained by LC-MSMS were not related to SHBG (r = 0.100; NS). In conclusion, our results indicate that total testosterone measurements during oral contraceptive use are unreliable when performed with assays sensitive to the SHBG concentration. The discrepancy with the literature can most likely be explained by the sensitivity of the immunoassay used to SHBG. Given the sharp increase in SHBG during the use of many oral contraceptives, total testosterone may not decrease, whereas its bioavailability, estimated by free testosterone levels, will be diminished. Studies aiming at restoration of testosterone homeostasis during oral contraception need to take this into account.

  4. Negative ion generator

    DOEpatents

    Stinnett, Regan W.

    1984-01-01

    A negative ion generator is formed from a magnetically insulated transmission line having a coating of graphite on the cathode for producing negative ions and a plurality of apertures on the opposed anode for the release of negative ions. Magnetic insulation keeps electrons from flowing from the cathode to the anode. A transverse magnetic field removes electrons which do escape through the apertures from the trajectory of the negative ions.

  5. Negative ion generator

    DOEpatents

    Stinnett, R.W.

    1984-05-08

    A negative ion generator is formed from a magnetically insulated transmission line having a coating of graphite on the cathode for producing negative ions and a plurality of apertures on the opposed anode for the release of negative ions. Magnetic insulation keeps electrons from flowing from the cathode to the anode. A transverse magnetic field removes electrons which do escape through the apertures from the trajectory of the negative ions. 8 figs.

  6. [Mercilon - the optimal oral contraceptive].

    PubMed

    Rachev, E; Damianov, L; Kolarov, G; Novachkov, V; Ivanov, S

    2000-01-01

    The authors review the effect of the oral contraceptive Mercilon on menstrual cycle, contraceptive efficacy, lipid profile, safety profile and adverse effects in a group of 32 women, included in the survey. The results of the trial show excellent contraceptive effect with Pearl Index of 0.00 and good control over the menstrual cycle. No negative or unfavorable effects were seen on the lipid profile as well as on the liver kidney and coangulant system function. Minor side effects were seen in only 5% of the patients.

  7. Sentential Negation in English

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mowarin, Macaulay

    2009-01-01

    This paper undertakes a detailed analysis of sentential negation in the English language with Chomsky's Government-Binding theory of Transformational Grammar as theoretical model. It distinguishes between constituent and sentential negation in English. The essay identifies the exact position of Negation phrase in an English clause structure. It…

  8. Endoscopy imaging intelligent contrast improvement.

    PubMed

    Sheraizin, S; Sheraizin, V

    2005-01-01

    In this paper, we present a medical endoscopy video contrast improvement method that provides intelligent automatic adaptive contrast control. The method fundamentals are video data clustering and video data histogram modification. The video data clustering allows an effective use the low noise two channel contrast enhancement processing. The histogram analysis permitted to determine the video exposure type for simple and complicated contrast distribution. We determined the needed gamma value for automatic local area contrast improvement for the following exposure types: dark, normal, light, dark light, dark normal etc. The experimental results of medical endoscopy video processing allow defining the automatic gamma control range from 0.5 to 2.0.

  9. Recognizing the Need for Oral Communication Skills in Workforce Development Programs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hopson, Carol Stein

    Many changes in job training and distance education have had a negative effect on the traditional oral communication class, while the need for better oral communication skills is increasing dramatically. Instructors now face the challenge of convincing administrators that the need for oral communication education is too important to be eliminated…

  10. Oral steroid contraception.

    PubMed

    Sech, Laura A; Mishell, Daniel R

    2015-11-01

    Oral steroid contraception is a popular method of family planning worldwide. Over the past several decades, this method of contraception has changed significantly by decreasing the estrogen dose, changing the progestin component, and reducing the hormone free interval. Despite the popularity of oral steroid contraception, there has been much criticism regarding the associated risks of venous thromboembolism and stroke. Despite these established, yet uncommon risks, oral steroid contraception has many important health benefits. This review highlights the available formulations of oral contraceptives along with their evidence-based associated risks and benefits. Highlights regarding future directions for development of novel oral contraceptives are also addressed.

  11. Essentials of oral cancer.

    PubMed

    Rivera, César

    2015-01-01

    Oral cancer is one of the 10 most common cancers in the world, with a delayed clinical detection, poor prognosis, without specific biomarkers for the disease and expensive therapeutic alternatives. This review aims to present the fundamental aspects of this cancer, focused on squamous cell carcinoma of the oral cavity (OSCC), moving from its definition and epidemiological aspects, addressing the oral carcinogenesis, oral potentially malignant disorders, epithelial precursor lesions and experimental methods for its study, therapies and future challenges. Oral cancer is a preventable disease, risk factors and natural history is already being known, where biomedical sciences and dentistry in particular are likely to improve their poor clinical indicators.

  12. Essentials of oral cancer

    PubMed Central

    Rivera, César

    2015-01-01

    Oral cancer is one of the 10 most common cancers in the world, with a delayed clinical detection, poor prognosis, without specific biomarkers for the disease and expensive therapeutic alternatives. This review aims to present the fundamental aspects of this cancer, focused on squamous cell carcinoma of the oral cavity (OSCC), moving from its definition and epidemiological aspects, addressing the oral carcinogenesis, oral potentially malignant disorders, epithelial precursor lesions and experimental methods for its study, therapies and future challenges. Oral cancer is a preventable disease, risk factors and natural history is already being known, where biomedical sciences and dentistry in particular are likely to improve their poor clinical indicators. PMID:26617944

  13. [Oral treatments in multiple sclerosis].

    PubMed

    Meca-Lallana, José Eustasio; Hernández-Clares, Rocío; Carreón-Guarnizo, Ester

    2014-12-01

    The development of new disease-modifying drugs (DMD) in relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis (RRMS), which share the common denominator of oral administration, considerably improves patient expectations in terms of effectiveness, tolerability and treatment adherence compared with currently available drugs. However, the common route of administration of these drugs does not mean that they are equivalent, since the heading of "oral route" encompasses drugs with distinct indications and mechanisms of action, as well as heterogeneous results in terms of efficacy and safety, allowing treatment to be personalized according to the each patient' s characteristics. Currently, four oral DMD are available or in an advanced stage of clinical development: fingolimod, teriflunomide, dimethyl fumarate and laquinimod. In pivotal trials versus placebo, these molecules reduced the annualized rate of exacerbations versus placebo by 54%, 31%, 53% and 23%, respectively, the risk of progression of disability by 31%, 30%, 38% and 36%, and the number of active lesions showing contrast uptake on magnetic resonance imaging by 82%, 80%, 90% and 37%, respectively. Based on the risk/benefit ratio, fingolimod is indicated in patients with suboptimal response to initial DMD or in severe rapidly progressing RRMS, while the remaining drugs can be used as first-line options. Clinical experience with these treatments will provide new data on safety and effectiveness, which will be determinant when establishing therapeutic algorithms.

  14. Oral Chromium Exposure and Toxicity

    PubMed Central

    Sun, Hong; Brocato, Jason

    2015-01-01

    Hexavalent chromium [Cr(VI)] is a known carcinogen when inhaled. However, inhalational exposure to Cr(VI) affects only a small portion of the population, mainly by occupational exposures. In contrast, oral exposure to Cr(VI) is widespread and affects many people throughout the globe. In 2008, the National Toxicology Program (NTP) released a 2-year study demonstrating that ingested Cr(VI) was carcinogenic in rats and mice. The effects of Cr(VI) oral exposure is mitigated by reduction in the gut, however a portion evades the reductive detoxification and reaches target tissues. Once Cr(VI) enters the cell, it ultimately gets reduced to Cr(III), which mediates its toxicity via induction of oxidative stress during the reduction while Cr intermediates react with protein and DNA. Cr(III) can form adducts with DNA that may lead to mutations. This review will discuss the potential adverse effects of oral exposure to Cr(VI) by presenting up-to-date human and animal studies, examining the underlying mechanisms that mediate Cr(VI) toxicity, as well as highlighting opportunities for future research. PMID:26231506

  15. Case report: brain and liver abscesses caused by oral infection with Streptococcus intermedius.

    PubMed

    Wagner, Kai Wolfgang; Schön, Ralf; Schumacher, Martin; Schmelzeisen, Rainer; Schulze, Dirk

    2006-10-01

    Organ abscesses are a rare and life-threatening complication mostly of hematogenously disseminated infections. We report a case of brain and liver abscesses. Identification of the lesions was made by contrast-enhanced computed tomography (CT) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), respectively. An oral examination comprised an oral focus of infection. Streptococcus intermedius was isolated from oral smear, liver and ventricular drainage, and blood sample. After the commencement of antibiotic therapy, drainage of abscesses and oral rehabilitation, complete recovery was noted.

  16. Negative symptoms: psychopathological models.

    PubMed Central

    Ananth, J; Djenderdjian, A; Shamasunder, P; Costa, J; Herrera, J; Sramek, J

    1991-01-01

    The psychopathological manifestations of schizophrenia have been broadly divided into positive and negative symptom groups. Even though there is no definitive consensus, psychomotor agitation, motor excitement, hallucinations, delusions and thought disorder constitute positive and psychomotor retardation, amotivation, apathy and decreased emotional expression are grouped into negative symptoms. The negative symptoms have been reported to appear late in the course of the illness and resistant to treatment with neuroleptics. While these claims have not been substantiated, the current interest on negative symptoms is related to the fact that many nonfunctioning institutionalized as well as ambulatory schizophrenics manifest negative symptoms. As chronic psychiatric beds have become scarce, many patients with negative symptoms who were harbored in the chronic mental hospitals have been released to the community care and some of these patients live on the streets. Thus their visibility has challenged psychiatry to focus its efforts on the etiology and treatment of negative symptoms. PMID:2049366

  17. Eye contrast polarity is critical for face recognition by infants.

    PubMed

    Otsuka, Yumiko; Motoyoshi, Isamu; Hill, Harold C; Kobayashi, Megumi; Kanazawa, So; Yamaguchi, Masami K

    2013-07-01

    Just as faces share the same basic arrangement of features, with two eyes above a nose above a mouth, human eyes all share the same basic contrast polarity relations, with a sclera lighter than an iris and a pupil, and this is unique among primates. The current study examined whether this bright-dark relationship of sclera to iris plays a critical role in face recognition from early in development. Specifically, we tested face discrimination in 7- and 8-month-old infants while independently manipulating the contrast polarity of the eye region and of the rest of the face. This gave four face contrast polarity conditions: fully positive condition, fully negative condition, positive face with negated eyes ("negative eyes") condition, and negated face with positive eyes ("positive eyes") condition. In a familiarization and novelty preference procedure, we found that 7- and 8-month-olds could discriminate between faces only when the contrast polarity of the eyes was preserved (positive) and that this did not depend on the contrast polarity of the rest of the face. This demonstrates the critical role of eye contrast polarity for face recognition in 7- and 8-month-olds and is consistent with previous findings for adults.

  18. β-Glucan microparticles are good candidates for mucosal antigen delivery in oral vaccination.

    PubMed

    De Smet, Rebecca; Demoor, Tine; Verschuere, Stephanie; Dullaers, Melissa; Ostroff, Gary R; Leclercq, Georges; Allais, Liesbeth; Pilette, Charles; Dierendonck, Marijke; De Geest, Bruno G; Cuvelier, Claude A

    2013-12-28

    Continuously improving the developmental process and the efficacy of oral vaccines is essential in the fight against intestinal pathogens. A promising strategy for vaccination applying safe, biodegradable and non-replicating antigen delivery systems has gained increased interest for eliciting cellular and humoral immune responses. The current study evaluates the potential of β-glucan particles (GP) as an oral antigen delivery system and their adjuvant characteristics. GP are efficiently internalized by human intestinal epithelial cell lines (Caco-2 and HT-29 cells), without exerting negative effects on cell viability. GP triggered the expression of pro-inflammatory cytokines IL-23p19, IL-8 and the β-glucan receptors dectin-1 and TLR2 by activated Caco-2 cells, and CCL20 in HT-29 cells. In contrast, the expression level of TGF-β, an important mediator of oral tolerance, was significantly downregulated in HT-29 cells. Additionally, adoptive transfer experiments showed proliferating ovalbumin (OVA)-specific CD4(+) T cells mainly in the spleens of GP-OVA-fed mice. Furthermore, we detected a significantly increased IL-17 and a trend towards increased IFN-γ production in the spleen of GP-OVA-fed mice upon antigen restimulation. Oral administration of GP-OVA induced increased OVA-specific IgA, secretory-IgA (S-IgA) and secretory component (SC) production in intestinal fluids. Our data show that GP vehicles are able to deliver OVA via an oral route allowing efficient antigen presentation alongside adaptive immune activation, resulting in a Th17-biased response and the production of OVA-specific IgA, secretory-IgA and secretory component antibodies.

  19. Optimization of the protocols for the use of contrast agents in PET/CT studies.

    PubMed

    Pelegrí Martínez, L; Kohan, A A; Vercher Conejero, J L

    The introduction of PET/CT scanners in clinical practice in 1998 has improved care for oncologic patients throughout the clinical pathway, from the initial diagnosis of disease through the evaluation of the response to treatment to screening for possible recurrence. The CT component of a PET/CT study is used to correct the attenuation of PET studies; CT also provides anatomic information about the distribution of the radiotracer. CT is especially useful in situations where PET alone can lead to false positives and false negatives, and CT thereby improves the diagnostic performance of PET. The use of intravenous or oral contrast agents and optimal CT protocols have improved the detection and characterization of lesions. However, there are circumstances in which the systematic use of contrast agents is not justified. The standard acquisition in PET/CT scanners is the whole body protocol, but this can lead to artifacts due to the position of patients and respiratory movements between the CT and PET acquisitions. This article discusses these aspects from a constructive perspective with the aim of maximizing the diagnostic potential of PET/CT and providing better care for patients.

  20. Action Learning, Performativity and Negative Capability

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Edmonstone, John

    2016-01-01

    The paper examines the concept of negative capability as a human capacity for containment and contrasts it with well-valued positive capability as expressed through performativity in organisations and society. It identifies the problem of dispersal--the complex ways we behave in order to avoid the emotional challenges of living with uncertainty.…

  1. Spatial frequency, phase, and the contrast of natural images.

    PubMed

    Bex, Peter J; Makous, Walter

    2002-06-01

    We examined contrast sensitivity and suprathreshold apparent contrast with natural images. The spatial-frequency components within single octaves of the images were removed (notch filtered), their phases were randomized, or the polarity of the images was inverted. Of Michelson contrast, root-mean-square (RMS) contrast, and band-limited contrast, RMS contrast was the best index of detectability. Negative images had lower apparent contrast than their positives. Contrast detection thresholds showed spatial-frequency-dependent elevation following both notch filtering and phase randomization. The peak of the spatial-frequency tuning function was approximately 0.5-2 cycles per degree (c/deg). Suprathreshold contrast matching functions also showed spatial-frequency-dependent contrast loss for both notch-filtered and phase-randomized images. The peak of the spatial-frequency tuning function was approximately 1-3 c/deg. There was no detectable difference between the effects of phase randomization and notch filtering on contrast sensitivity. We argue that these observations are consistent with changes in the activity within spatial-frequency channels caused by the higher-order phase structure of natural images that is responsible for the presence of edges and specularities.

  2. Spatial frequency, phase, and the contrast of natural images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bex, Peter J.; Makous, Walter

    2002-06-01

    We examined contrast sensitivity and suprathreshold apparent contrast with natural images. The spatial-frequency components within single octaves of the images were removed (notch filtered), their phases were randomized, or the polarity of the images was inverted. Of Michelson contrast, root-mean-square (RMS) contrast, and band-limited contrast, RMS contrast was the best index of detectability. Negative images had lower apparent contrast than their positives. Contrast detection thresholds showed spatial-frequency-dependent elevation following both notch filtering and phase randomization. The peak of the spatial-frequency tuning function was approximately 0.5-2 cycles per degree (c/deg). Suprathreshold contrast matching functions also showed spatial-frequency-dependent contrast loss for both notch-filtered and phase-randomized images. The peak of the spatial-frequency tuning function was approximately 1-3 c/deg. There was no detectable difference between the effects of phase randomization and notch filtering on contrast sensitivity. We argue that these observations are consistent with changes in the activity within spatial-frequency channels caused by the higher-order phase structure of natural images that is responsible for the presence of edges and specularities.

  3. Recurrent flexural exanthema (SDRIFE or baboon syndrome) after administration of two different iodinated radio contrast media.

    PubMed

    Arnold, A W; Hausermann, P; Bach, S; Bircher, A J

    2007-01-01

    In 1984, the baboon syndrome was described as a particular form of systemic contact dermatitis that occurred after the administration of a contact allergen in individuals previously sensitized by topical exposure to the same allergen. Its clinical picture presents as an erythema of the buttocks and upper inner thighs resembling the red bottom of baboons. This specific reaction was originally observed with mercury, nickel and ampicillin. Since then over 100 cases have been described, most of them without known prior sensitization to the causative agent. In 2004, our group proposed the acronym SDRIFE specifically for cases associated with systemic drugs; it stands for symmetrical drug-related intertriginous and flexural exanthema, as a distinct reaction pattern related to systemic drugs. Here we describe a case of SDRIFE after administration of the iodinated radio contrast medium (RCM) iomeprol (Iomeron), accidentally reproduced by the RCM iopromide (Ultravist). Positive delayed skin tests with both drugs were observed indicating that the pathomechanism of SDRIFE is likely a cell-mediated type IV allergy. Oral potassium iodide and a skin-test-negative RCM were administered and both tolerated, indicating that the antigen is related to the molecules and not to iodine itself. Therefore, in our case skin tests had a good positive and negative predictive value.

  4. Speech motor development during acquisition of the voicing contrast.

    PubMed

    Grigos, Maria I; Saxman, John H; Gordon, Andrew M

    2005-08-01

    Lip and jaw movements were studied longitudinally in 19-month-old children as they acquired the voicing contrast for /p/ and /b/. A movement tracking system obtained lip and jaw kinematics as participants produced the target utterances /papa/ and /baba/. Laryngeal adjustments were also tracked through acoustically recorded voice onset time (VOT) of the consonants. Across this period of developmental phonological change, the children began to produce VOTs in 2 distinct categories for voiced and voiceless plosives. Specific kinematic differences were observed during oral opening and closing and between spatial and temporal parameters of movement. The development of the voicing contrast was most closely associated with changes in jaw kinematics for oral opening in comparison to that of the lip. Conversely, movements into oral closing were not accompanied by significant increases in jaw, upper lip, or lower lip displacement or velocity, although a decrease in jaw movement variability was found. There was no evidence of phoneme-specific movement differences between /p/ and /b/ in the children or in the adults studied. Spatial coupling between the jaw and upper lip changed significantly across sessions, whereas changes in temporal coupling were not observed. Findings indicate that oral opening and closing have different task requirements and that children modify their articulatory movements to meet the demands of each task. Overall, the findings illustrate how orofacial movements and laryngeal function change in parallel during linguistic development.

  5. Faithful contrastive features in learning.

    PubMed

    Tesar, Bruce

    2006-09-10

    This article pursues the idea of inferring aspects of phonological underlying forms directly from surface contrasts by looking at optimality theoretic linguistic systems (Prince & Smolensky, 1993/2004). The main result proves that linguistic systems satisfying certain conditions have the faithful contrastive feature property: Whenever 2 distinct morphemes contrast on the surface in a particular environment, at least 1 of the underlying features on which the 2 differ must be realized faithfully on the surface. A learning procedure exploiting the faithful contrastive feature property, contrast analysis, can set the underlying values of some features, even where featural minimal pairs do not exist, but is nevertheless fundamentally limited in what it can set. This work suggests that observation of surface contrasts between pairs of words can contribute to the learning of underlying forms, while still supporting the view that interaction with the phonological mapping will be necessary to fully determine underlying forms.

  6. The utility of toluidine blue staining and brush cytology as adjuncts in clinical examination of suspicious oral mucosal lesions.

    PubMed

    Güneri, P; Epstein, J B; Kaya, A; Veral, A; Kazandı, A; Boyacioglu, H

    2011-02-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate the utility of toluidine blue and brush cytology in patients with clinically detected oral mucosal lesions. Clinical examination of 35 patients was completed before toluidine blue application, oral brush cytology and scalpel biopsy. Lesions were photographed before and after stain application; followed by brush cytology. All findings were compared with histopathologic results. Severe dysplasia and carcinoma-in-situ were determined as 'positive'; no dysplasia and mild to moderate dysplasia were defined as 'negative'. The sensitivity, specificity, positive and negative predictive values of clinical examination and toluidine blue were the same: 0.923, 0.433, 0.414, and 0.929, respectively. Those of brush cytology were 0.923, 0.517, 0.462, and 0.938. The concordance of all methods was 30% for benign and 61% for malignant lesions. Adjuncts identified 92% of carcinoma-in-situ and squamous cell carcinoma as confirmed by histopathology, in contrast to clinical findings alone in which 62% of these lesions were identified (p=0.046). In conclusion, adjunct diagnostic methods decreased the level of uncertainty for the diagnosis of oral malignancies and lichenoid dysplasias when applied as adjuncts to clinical examination.

  7. Oral pathogens change proliferation properties of oral tumor cells by affecting gene expression of human defensins.

    PubMed

    Hoppe, T; Kraus, D; Novak, N; Probstmeier, R; Frentzen, M; Wenghoefer, M; Jepsen, S; Winter, J

    2016-10-01

    The impact of oral pathogens onto the generation and variability of oral tumors has only recently been investigated. To get further insights, oral cancer cells were treated with pathogens and additionally, as a result of this bacterial cellular infection, with human defensins, which are as anti-microbial peptide members of the innate immune system. After cell stimulation, proliferation behavior, expression analysis of oncogenic relevant defensin genes, and effects on EGFR signaling were investigated. The expression of oncogenic relevant anti-microbial peptides was analyzed with real-time PCR and immunohistochemistry. Cell culture experiments were performed to examine cellular impacts caused by stimulation, i.e., altered gene expression, proliferation rate, and EGF receptor-dependent signaling. Incubation of oral tumor cells with an oral pathogen (Porphyromonas gingivalis) and human α-defensins led to an increase in cell proliferation. In contrast, another oral bacterium used, Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans, enhanced cell death. The bacteria and anti-microbial peptides exhibited diverse effects on the transcript levels of oncogenic relevant defensin genes and epidermal growth factor receptor signaling. These two oral pathogens exhibited opposite primary effects on the proliferation behavior of oral tumor cells. Nevertheless, both microbe species led to similar secondary impacts on the proliferation rate by modifying expression levels of oncogenic relevant α-defensin genes. In this respect, oral pathogens exerted multiplying effects on tumor cell proliferation. Additionally, human defensins were shown to differently influence epidermal growth factor receptor signaling, supporting the hypothesis that these anti-microbial peptides serve as ligands of EGFR, thus modifying the proliferation behavior of oral tumor cells.

  8. Polymeric gastrointestinal MR contrast agents.

    PubMed

    Tilcock, C; Unger, E C; Ahkong, Q F; Fritz, T; Koenig, S H; Brown, R D

    1991-01-01

    Combining either paramagnetic (gadolinium chelates) or superparamagnetic (ferrite) contrast agents with polymers such as polyethylene glycol or cellulose, or with simple sugars such as dextrose, results in mixtures that exhibit improved T1 and/or T2 relaxivity compared with that of the contrast agent alone. It is suggested that the addition of such inexpensive and nontoxic polymers or saccharides may improve the effectiveness and decrease the cost of enteric contrast agents.

  9. Phase contrast MR angiography techniques.

    PubMed

    Dumoulin, C L

    1995-08-01

    Phase contrast MR methods encode information from macroscopic motion into the phase of the MR signal. Phase contrast methods can be applied with small and large fields-of-view, can give quantitative measures of velocity, and provide excellent suppression of signals from stationary tissue. Unlike time-of-flight methods, phase contrast methods directly measure flow and thus are not hindered by the artifactual appearance of tissue having short T1. Phase contrast angiograms can be two-dimensional (thin slice or projectile), three-dimensional, and/or time resolved and have applications throughout the body.

  10. Fuzzy-Contextual Contrast Enhancement.

    PubMed

    Parihar, Anil; Verma, Om; Khanna, Chintan

    2017-02-08

    This paper presents contrast enhancement algorithms based on fuzzy contextual information of the images. We introduce fuzzy similarity index and fuzzy contrast factor to capture the neighborhood characteristics of a pixel. A new histogram, using fuzzy contrast factor of each pixel is developed, and termed as the fuzzy dissimilarity histogram (FDH). A cumulative distribution function (CDF) is formed with normalized values of FDH and used as a transfer function to obtain the contrast enhanced image. The algorithm gives good contrast enhancement and preserves the natural characteristic of the image. In order to develop a contextual intensity transfer function, we introduce a fuzzy membership function based on fuzzy similarity index and coefficient of variation of the image. The contextual intensity transfer function is designed using the fuzzy membership function to achieve final contrast enhanced image. The overall algorithm is referred as the fuzzy contextual contrast-enhancement (FCCE) algorithm. The proposed algorithms are compared with conventional and state-of-art contrast enhancement algorithms. The quantitative and visual assessment of the results is performed. The results of quantitative measures are statistically analyzed using t-test. The exhaustive experimentation and analysis show the proposed algorithm efficiently enhances contrast and yields in natural visual quality images.

  11. Nuclear magnetic resonance contrast agents

    DOEpatents

    Smith, P.H.; Brainard, J.R.; Jarvinen, G.D.; Ryan, R.R.

    1997-12-30

    A family of contrast agents for use in magnetic resonance imaging and a method of enhancing the contrast of magnetic resonance images of an object by incorporating a contrast agent of this invention into the object prior to forming the images or during formation of the images. A contrast agent of this invention is a paramagnetic lanthanide hexaazamacrocyclic molecule, where a basic example has the formula LnC{sub 16}H{sub 14}N{sub 6}. Important applications of the invention are in medical diagnosis, treatment, and research, where images of portions of a human body are formed by means of magnetic resonance techniques. 10 figs.

  12. Nuclear magnetic resonance contrast agents

    DOEpatents

    Smith, Paul H.; Brainard, James R.; Jarvinen, Gordon D.; Ryan, Robert R.

    1997-01-01

    A family of contrast agents for use in magnetic resonance imaging and a method of enhancing the contrast of magnetic resonance images of an object by incorporating a contrast agent of this invention into the object prior to forming the images or during formation of the images. A contrast agent of this invention is a paramagnetic lanthanide hexaazamacrocyclic molecule, where a basic example has the formula LnC.sub.16 H.sub.14 N.sub.6. Important applications of the invention are in medical diagnosis, treatment, and research, where images of portions of a human body are formed by means of magnetic resonance techniques.

  13. Deficient DNA damage signaling leads to chemoresistance to cisplatin in oral cancer

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Ling; Mosel, Adam J.; Oakley, Gregory G.; Peng, Aimin

    2012-01-01

    Activation of the cellular DNA damage response (DDR) is an important determinant of cell sensitivity to cisplatin and other chemotherapeutic drugs that eliminate tumor cells through induction of DNA damage. It is therefore important to investigate whether alterations of the DNA damage signaling pathway confer chemoresistance in cancer cells, and whether pharmacological manipulation of the DDR pathway can re-sensitize these cells to cancer therapy. In a panel of oral/laryngeal squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) cell lines, we observed deficiencies in DNA damage signaling in correlation with cisplatin-resistance, but not with DNA repair. These deficiencies are consistent with reduced expression of components of the ATM-dependent signaling pathway and, in particular, strong up-regulation of Wip1, a negative regulator of the ATM pathway. Wip1 knockdown or inhibition enhanced DNA damage signaling and re-sensitized oral SCC cells to cisplatin. In contrast to the previously reported involvement of Wip1 in cancer, Wip1 up-regulation and function in these SCC cells is independent of p53. Finally, using xenograft tumor models, we demonstrated that Wip1 up-regulation promotes tumorigenesis and its inhibition improves the tumor response to cisplatin. Thus, this study reveals that chemoresistance in oral SCCs is partially attributed to deficiencies in DNA damage signaling, and Wip1 is an effective drug target for enhanced cancer therapy. PMID:22973056

  14. Dominant mutations in GRHL3 cause Van der Woude Syndrome and disrupt oral periderm development.

    PubMed

    Peyrard-Janvid, Myriam; Leslie, Elizabeth J; Kousa, Youssef A; Smith, Tiffany L; Dunnwald, Martine; Magnusson, Måns; Lentz, Brian A; Unneberg, Per; Fransson, Ingegerd; Koillinen, Hannele K; Rautio, Jorma; Pegelow, Marie; Karsten, Agneta; Basel-Vanagaite, Lina; Gordon, William; Andersen, Bogi; Svensson, Thomas; Murray, Jeffrey C; Cornell, Robert A; Kere, Juha; Schutte, Brian C

    2014-01-02

    Mutations in interferon regulatory factor 6 (IRF6) account for ∼70% of cases of Van der Woude syndrome (VWS), the most common syndromic form of cleft lip and palate. In 8 of 45 VWS-affected families lacking a mutation in IRF6, we found coding mutations in grainyhead-like 3 (GRHL3). According to a zebrafish-based assay, the disease-associated GRHL3 mutations abrogated periderm development and were consistent with a dominant-negative effect, in contrast to haploinsufficiency seen in most VWS cases caused by IRF6 mutations. In mouse, all embryos lacking Grhl3 exhibited abnormal oral periderm and 17% developed a cleft palate. Analysis of the oral phenotype of double heterozygote (Irf6(+/-);Grhl3(+/-)) murine embryos failed to detect epistasis between the two genes, suggesting that they function in separate but convergent pathways during palatogenesis. Taken together, our data demonstrated that mutations in two genes, IRF6 and GRHL3, can lead to nearly identical phenotypes of orofacial cleft. They supported the hypotheses that both genes are essential for the presence of a functional oral periderm and that failure of this process contributes to VWS.

  15. Cytotoxicity and Antimicrobial Activity of Oral Rinses In Vitro

    PubMed Central

    Müller, Heinz-Dieter; Moritz, Andreas; Lussi, Adrian

    2017-01-01

    While oral rinses used for cosmetic purposes only do not necessarily have to be antiseptic, antimicrobial activity is required for medical indications, including oral and periodontal surgery. So the question arises—is the antimicrobial activity of oral rinses associated with any destructive changes in cell viability in vitro? To answer this question, we examined twelve oral rinses with respect to their antimicrobial and cytotoxic activity. Antimicrobial activity was screened against five bacterial strains using disc diffusion. Cytotoxicity was determined by mitochondrial reductase activity with primary gingival fibroblasts, L929 cells, and HSC-2 epithelial cells. Phase contrast microscopy and trypan blue staining were then performed to reveal cell morphology. Cells remained vital after exposure to oral rinses that were only used for cosmetic purposes. Moderate cytotoxic effects were observed for oral rinses containing 0.05% chlorhexidine, ethanol, or pegylated hydrogenated castor oil and sodium dodecyl sulfate. Other oral rinses containing 0.2% chlorhexidine and cocamidopropyl betaine exhibited strong cytotoxic and antimicrobial activity. Strong cytotoxic but moderate antimicrobial activity was observed in oral rinses containing cetylpyridinium chloride. The in vitro data show that oral rinses are heterogeneous with respect to their cytotoxic and antimicrobial effects. Based on their respective properties, oral rinses can be selected either to reduce the microbial load or for cosmetic purposes.

  16. Negative Ion Density Fronts

    SciTech Connect

    Igor Kaganovich

    2000-12-18

    Negative ions tend to stratify in electronegative plasmas with hot electrons (electron temperature Te much larger than ion temperature Ti, Te > Ti ). The boundary separating a plasma containing negative ions, and a plasma, without negative ions, is usually thin, so that the negative ion density falls rapidly to zero-forming a negative ion density front. We review theoretical, experimental and numerical results giving the spatio-temporal evolution of negative ion density fronts during plasma ignition, the steady state, and extinction (afterglow). During plasma ignition, negative ion fronts are the result of the break of smooth plasma density profiles during nonlinear convection. In a steady-state plasma, the fronts are boundary layers with steepening of ion density profiles due to nonlinear convection also. But during plasma extinction, the ion fronts are of a completely different nature. Negative ions diffuse freely in the plasma core (no convection), whereas the negative ion front propagates towards the chamber walls with a nearly constant velocity. The concept of fronts turns out to be very effective in analysis of plasma density profile evolution in strongly non-isothermal plasmas.

  17. Immunohistochemical expression of Skp2 protein in oral nevi and melanoma

    PubMed Central

    León, Jorge E.; Carlos, Román; Delgado-Azañero, Wilson; Mosqueda-Taylor, Adalberto; Paes-de-Almeida, Oslei

    2013-01-01

    Objective: The aim of this study was to analyze the immunohistochemical expression of Skp2 protein in 38 oral nevi and 11 primary oral melanomas. Study Design: Expression of this ubiquitin protein was evaluated by immunohistochemistry in 49 oral melanocytic lesions, including 38 intramucosal nevi and 11 primary oral melanomas. The labeling index (LI) was assessed considering the percentage of cells expressing nuclear positivity out of the total number of cells, counting 1000 cells per slide. Results: Skp2 protein was rarely expressed in intramucosal nevi, in contrast to oral melanomas, which showed high levels of this protein. Conclusion: These results indicate that Skp2 protein may play a role in the development and progression of oral melanomas, and it also could be useful as an immunohistochemical marker for differential diagnosis of oral benign and malignant melanocytic lesions. Key words:Oral melanoma, oral nevi, Skp2, cell cycle, immunohistochemistry. PMID:23385514

  18. Predicting contrast in sentences with and without focus marking

    PubMed Central

    Carlson, Katy

    2014-01-01

    How do we know when a contrast is coming? This study explores the prediction of parallel contrastive phrases, especially NPs, in sentences with and without overt focus marking. A written sentence-completion questionnaire with clauses followed by the conjunction “but” compared unmarked initial clauses to ones with the focus marker “only” on the subject or object. Both conditions with “only” elicited more contrasts overall than the condition without focus marking, and many of the contrasts were with the focus-marked NP. While the baseline (no-only) condition had full clauses for half of the completions, subject focus increased clausal completions and object focus increased negative ellipsis completions (“not”+NP structures), both changes in syntax which make a contrast with the marked NP easy. The production of negative ellipsis sentences primarily in the object-focus condition suggests that the object bias of these sentences in comprehension could relate to their being used more frequently with this meaning. Finally, the overall pattern of results shows that overt marking of contrastive focus increases continuations with contrasts, and the conjunction “but” does not reliably predict explicitly-stated contrasts within a sentence without overt focus marking. PMID:25177047

  19. Radiation Induced Oral Mucositis

    PubMed Central

    PS, Satheesh Kumar; Balan, Anita; Sankar, Arun; Bose, Tinky

    2009-01-01

    Patients receiving radiotherapy or chemotherapy will receive some degree of oral mucositis The incidence of oral mucositis was especially high in patients: (i) With primary tumors in the oral cavity, oropharynx, or nasopharynx; (ii) who also received concomitant chemotherapy; (iii) who received a total dose over 5,000 cGy; and (iv) who were treated with altered fractionation radiation schedules. Radiation-induced oral mucositis affects the quality of life of the patients and the family concerned. The present day management of oral mucositis is mostly palliative and or supportive care. The newer guidelines are suggesting Palifermin, which is the first active mucositis drug as well as Amifostine, for radiation protection and cryotherapy. The current management should focus more on palliative measures, such as pain management, nutritional support, and maintenance, of good oral hygiene PMID:20668585

  20. Studies of oral malodor in the dog.

    PubMed

    Rawlings, J M; Culham, N

    1998-12-01

    We compared currently used methods for assessing oral malodor and found a significant, positive correlation between the concentration of volatile sulfur compounds (VSCs) in breath and the human perception of malodor, but only within a limited range of VSC production. Daily tooth-brushing from an early age maintains a low and consistent level of oral malodor that does not differ significantly throughout the day. In contrast, dogs with elevated concentrations of VSC production suffer from the highest level of malodor early in the morning, prior to feeding and daily activities. Even in older dogs, periodontal therapy can result in a substantial reduction of oral malodor that remains significantly below pre-treatment values for up to 3 months after treatment.

  1. The effect of interocular phase difference on perceived contrast.

    PubMed

    Baker, Daniel H; Wallis, Stuart A; Georgeson, Mark A; Meese, Tim S

    2012-01-01

    Binocular vision is traditionally treated as two processes: the fusion of similar images, and the interocular suppression of dissimilar images (e.g. binocular rivalry). Recent work has demonstrated that interocular suppression is phase-insensitive, whereas binocular summation occurs only when stimuli are in phase. But how do these processes affect our perception of binocular contrast? We measured perceived contrast using a matching paradigm for a wide range of interocular phase offsets (0-180°) and matching contrasts (2-32%). Our results revealed a complex interaction between contrast and interocular phase. At low contrasts, perceived contrast reduced monotonically with increasing phase offset, by up to a factor of 1.6. At higher contrasts the pattern was non-monotonic: perceived contrast was veridical for in-phase and antiphase conditions, and monocular presentation, but increased a little at intermediate phase angles. These findings challenge a recent model in which contrast perception is phase-invariant. The results were predicted by a binocular contrast gain control model. The model involves monocular gain controls with interocular suppression from positive and negative phase channels, followed by summation across eyes and then across space. Importantly, this model--applied to conditions with vertical disparity--has only a single (zero) disparity channel and embodies both fusion and suppression processes within a single framework.

  2. Faithful Contrastive Features in Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tesar, Bruce

    2006-01-01

    This article pursues the idea of inferring aspects of phonological underlying forms directly from surface contrasts by looking at optimality theoretic linguistic systems (Prince & Smolensky, 1993/2004). The main result proves that linguistic systems satisfying certain conditions have the faithful contrastive feature property: Whenever 2…

  3. Negative Human Interaction

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brannan, John M.

    1972-01-01

    This study is an effort to examine man's most negative experiences as he perceives them. The results indicated that teachers were involved more often than any other person in the most negative experience reported. Improved human relations skills are clearly indicated for those in higher education as well as in public schools. (Author)

  4. [Oral precancer and cancer].

    PubMed

    López-López, José; Omaña-Cepeda, Carlos; Jané-Salas, Enric

    2015-11-06

    We reviewed the concept of oral precancerous lesions, oral cancer, and the possibility of early diagnosis. With the keywords: premalignant oral lesions prevention, a search was performed over the past 10 years. Also clinical trials are searched from January 2011 until today with the keywords: oral cancer prevention AND dentistry. It is emphasized that there can be no significant changes related to the concept of precancerous lesions and cancer, and those relating to the early diagnosis. Despite the numerous described methods of screening, biopsy remains the most useful test, and therefore it is essential, mainly if we consider the new possibilities of molecular studies.

  5. Towards understanding oral health.

    PubMed

    Zaura, Egija; ten Cate, Jacob M

    2015-01-01

    During the last century, dental research has focused on unraveling the mechanisms behind various oral pathologies, while oral health was typically described as the mere absence of oral diseases. The term 'oral microbial homeostasis' is used to describe the capacity of the oral ecosystem to maintain microbial community stability in health. However, the oral ecosystem itself is not stable: throughout life an individual undergoes multiple physiological changes while progressing through infancy, childhood, adolescence, adulthood and old age. Recent discussions on the definition of general health have led to the proposal that health is the ability of the individual to adapt to physiological changes, a condition known as allostasis. In this paper the allostasis principle is applied to the oral ecosystem. The multidimensionality of the host factors contributing to allostasis in the oral cavity is illustrated with an example on changes occurring in puberty. The complex phenomenon of oral health and the processes that prevent the ecosystem from collapsing during allostatic changes in the entire body are far from being understood. As yet individual components (e.g. hard tissues, microbiome, saliva, host response) have been investigated, while only by consolidating these and assessing their multidimensional interactions should we be able to obtain a comprehensive understanding of the ecosystem, which in turn could serve to develop rational schemes to maintain health. Adapting such a 'system approach' comes with major practical challenges for the entire research field and will require vast resources and large-scale multidisciplinary collaborations.

  6. Measurement of visual contrast sensitivity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vongierke, H. E.; Marko, A. R.

    1985-04-01

    This invention involves measurement of the visual contrast sensitivity (modulation transfer) function of a human subject by means of linear or circular spatial frequency pattern on a cathode ray tube whose contrast is automatically decreasing or increasing depending on the subject pressing or releasing a hand-switch button. The threshold of detection of the pattern modulation is found by the subject by adjusting the contrast to values which vary about the subject's threshold thereby determining the threshold and also providing by the magnitude of the contrast fluctuations between reversals some estimate of the variability of the subject's absolute threshold. The invention also involves the slow automatic sweeping of the spatial frequency of the pattern over the spatial frequencies after preset time intervals or after threshold has been defined at each frequency by a selected number of subject-determined threshold crossings; i.e., contrast reversals.

  7. The new numbers contrast sensitivity chart for contrast sensitivity measurement

    PubMed Central

    Khambhiphant, Bharkbhum; Tulvatana, Wasee; Busayarat, Mathu

    2012-01-01

    Purpose To develop and assess the agreement between the 3 newly made numbers contrast sensitivity charts and the MARS contrast sensitivity chart (MARS) in contrast sensitivity measurement. Methods We developed 3 numbers contrast sensitivity charts for right, left and both eyes. Two hundred subjects were assigned to read numbers 0-9 for determining the degree of difficulty. Selected seven numbers were randomly arranged and the contrast of each number was decreased by the constant factor of 0.04 log units in the units as in the MARS. We assigned 112 subjects with visual acuity range from 20/480 to 20/20 to test once with the new chart and then with MARS Chart monocularly and binocularly by random order. Bland-Altman analysis for comparing two charts was performed. Results Bland-Altman analysis between 2 charts showed the mean differences were 0.04, 0.03, 0.04 log CS and the 95% limit of agreement (LOA) of the bias were (+0.26, −0.19), (+0.26, −0.20), (+0.25, −0.17) log CS for right, left and binocular. The Bland-Altman plot indicates a good concordance in 3 charts. Conclusions These charts show reasonable agreement and can be used interchangeably with the MARS. It is helpful for Thai people who can only read numbers in doing the test. We can use them in routinely contrast sensitivity measurement.

  8. Contrasting Rhetorics/Contrasting Cultures: Why Contrastive Rhetoric Needs a Better Conceptualization of Culture

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Atkinson, Dwight

    2004-01-01

    This paper deals with an underdeveloped notion in the EAP sub-discipline of contrastive rhetoric: culture. It argues that a better conceptualization of contrastive rhetoric needs to include a better conceptualization of culture. After engaging with the complex question "What is culture?" the paper moves on to consider four sets of current issues…

  9. Materials with negative stiffness

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jaglinski, Tim

    Negative stiffness, or a reversal in the usual assumed direction between causal forces and ensuing deformations, has been proposed as a pathway to materials which exceed theoretical performance bounds. Negative stiffness, as a concept, represents a relaxation of tacitly assumed material behavior, but it violates no natural laws. Negative stiffness, normally unstable without constraint, is permissible for stability under special conditions, for example a rigid boundary constraint so long as the material satisfies strong ellipticity in the parlance of elasticity. Hence, negative stiffness is not observed in materials or structures which are not constrained. If negative stiffness is allowed for inclusions of material, which are surrounded by a stabilizing positive stiffness matrix, composite theory predicts large increases in the mechanical damping and composite stiffness. The work herein explores several material systems which possess negative stiffness, and seeks to characterize the composite mechanical properties of these systems. Two metal matrix composite systems, namely Sn-VO2 and Sn-BaTIO3, were investigated. Here, negative stiffness arises from the ferroelastic phase transformations in the ceramic inclusions; stability is imparted by the tin matrix. Polycrystalline In-Tl and BaTIO 3 were also studied. Here, the entire material volume is phase transforming. Constraint is imparted on a small volume fraction of crystallites by the surrounding material. Various manifestations of negative stiffness were observed. Thermally broad damping peaks which depended upon thermal cycling were observed in the Sn-VO2 composites. Furthermore, mechanical instabilities were seen in composites intentionally designed to be unstable. Negative stiffness was indicated in the In-Tl alloy by magnification of damping peaks over those observed in single crystals, increases in damping peaks with increased cooling rates, occurrence of damping peaks before the appearance of martensite and

  10. Negative tandem mirror

    SciTech Connect

    Poulsen, P.; Allen, S.L.; Casper, T.A.; Grubb, D.P.; Jong, R.A.; Nexsen, W.E.; Porter, G.D.; Simonen, T.C.

    1981-11-30

    A tandem mirror configuration can be created by combining hot electron end cell plasmas with neutral beam pumping. A region of large negative potential formed in each end cell confines electrons in the central cell. The requirement of charge neutrality causes the central cell potential to become negative with respect to ground in order to confine ions as well as electrons. We discuss the method of producing and calculating the desired axial potential profile, and show the calculated axial potential profile and plasma parameters for a negative configuration of TMX-Upgrade.

  11. Negative birefringent polyimide films

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Harris, Frank W. (Inventor); Cheng, Stephen Z. D. (Inventor)

    1994-01-01

    A negative birefringent film, useful in liquid crystal displays, and a method for controlling the negative birefringence of a polyimide film is disclosed which allows the matching of an application to a targeted amount of birefringence by controlling the degree of in-plane orientation of the polyimide by the selection of functional groups within both the diamine and dianhydride segments of the polyimide which affect the polyimide backbone chain rigidity, linearity, and symmetry. The higher the rigidity, linearity and symmetry of the polyimide backbone, the larger the value of the negative birefringence of the polyimide film.

  12. Contrasts and synergies in different biofuel reports

    PubMed Central

    Michalopoulos, A.; Landeweerd, L.; Van der Werf-Kulichova, Z.; Puylaert, P. G. B.; Osseweijer, P.

    2011-01-01

    The societal debate on biofuels is characterised by increased complexity. This can hinder the effective governance of the field. This paper attempts a quantitative bird's eye meta-analysis of this complexity by mapping different stakeholder perspectives and expected outcomes as seen in the secondary literature on biofuels, along the lines of the People-Planet-Profit framework. Our analysis illustrates the tension between stated and actual drivers of large scale biofuel development, especially for first generation biofuels. Although environmental (Planet) aspects have dominated the biofuel debate, their overall assessment is mostly negative with regard to first generation biofuels. By contrast, economic (Profit) aspects are the only ones that are assessed positively with regard to first generation biofuels. Furthermore, positive and negative assessments of biofuel development are strongly influenced by the differences in focus between different stakeholder clusters. Stakeholders who appear generally supportive to biofuel development (industry) focus relatively more on aspects that are generally assessed as positive (Profit). By contrast, non-supportive stakeholders (NGO's) tend to focus mainly on aspects that are generally assessed as negative (Planet). Moreover, our analysis of reference lists revealed few citations of primary scientific data, and also that intergovernmental organizations produce the most influential publications in the debate. The surprising lack of listed references to scientific (primary) data reveals a need to assess in which arena the transition of scientific data towards secondary publications takes place, and how one can measure its quality. This work should be understood as a first effort to take some control over a complex and contradictory number of publications, and to allow the effective governance of the field through the identification of areas of overlapping consensus and persisting controversy, without reverting to claims on

  13. Oral contraceptives in migraine.

    PubMed

    Allais, Gianni; Gabellari, Ilaria Castagnoli; De Lorenzo, Cristina; Mana, Ornella; Benedetto, Chiara

    2009-03-01

    Combined oral contraceptives are a safe and highly effective method of birth control, but they can also raise problems of clinical tolerability and/or safety in migraine patients. It is now commonly accepted that, in migraine with aura, the use of combined oral contraceptives is always contraindicated, and that their intake must also be suspended by patients suffering from migraine without aura if aura symptoms appear. The newest combined oral contraceptive formulations are generally well tolerated in migraine without aura, and the majority of migraine without aura sufferers do not show any problems with their use; nevertheless, the last International Classification of Headache Disorders identifies at least two entities evidently related to the use of combined oral contraceptives: exogenous hormone-induced headache and estrogen-withdrawal headache. As regards the safety, even if both migraine and combined oral contraceptive intake are associated with an increased risk of ischemic stroke, migraine without aura per se is not a contraindication for combined oral contraceptive use. Other risk factors (tobacco use, hypertension, hyperlipidemia, obesity and diabetes) must be carefully considered when prescribing combined oral contraceptives in migraine without aura patients, in particular in women aged over 35 years. Furthermore, the exclusion of a hereditary thrombophilia and of alterations of coagulative parameters should precede any decision of combined oral contraceptive prescription in migraine patients.

  14. Oral surgery. Basic techniques.

    PubMed

    Ross, D L; Goldstein, G S

    1986-09-01

    Some of the clinical problems most frequently seen in veterinary dentistry and their surgical solutions are discussed. Extraction of teeth, surgical repositioning of teeth, tooth transplant, oral abscesses of tooth origin, impaction of teeth, repair of maxillary canine oronasal fistula, and simple techniques for oral wiring are among the issues considered.

  15. Oral environment and cancer.

    PubMed

    Kudo, Yasusei; Tada, Hidesuke; Fujiwara, Natsumi; Tada, Yoshiko; Tsunematsu, Takaaki; Miyake, Yoichiro; Ishimaru, Naozumi

    2016-01-01

    Cancer is now the leading cause of death in Japan. A rapid increase in cancer mortality is expected as Japan is facing a super-aged society. Many causes of cancer are known to be closely linked to life style factors, such as smoking, drinking, and diet. The oral environment is known to be involved in the pathogenesis and development of various diseases such as bronchitis, pneumonia, diabetes, heart disease, and dementia. Because the oral cavity acts as the bodily entrance for air and food, it is constantly exposed to foreign substances, including bacteria and viruses. A large number of bacteria are endemic to the oral cavity, and indigenous oral flora act to prevent the settlement of foreign bacteria. The oral environment is influenced by local factors, including dental plaque, tartar, teeth alignment, occlusion, an incompatible prosthesis, and bad lifestyle habits, and systemic factors, including smoking, consumption of alcohol, irregular lifestyle and eating habits, obesity, stress, hormones, and heredity. It has recently been revealed that the oral environment is associated with cancer. In particular, commensal bacteria in the oral cavity are involved in the development of cancer. Moreover, Candida, human papilloma virus and Epstein-Barr virus as well as commensal bacteria have been reported to be associated with the pathogenesis of cancer. In this review, we introduce recent findings of the correlation between the oral environment and cancer.

  16. ORAL AMELANOTIC MELANOMA

    PubMed Central

    Adisa, A.O.; Olawole, W.O.; Sigbeku, O.F.

    2012-01-01

    Malignant melanomas of the mucosal regions of the head and neck are extremely rare neoplasms accounting for less than 1% of all melanomas. Approximately half of all head and neck melanomas occur in the oral cavity. Less than 2% of all melanomas lack pigmentation, in the oral mucosa however, up to 75% of cases are amelanotic. No etiologic factors or risk factors have been recognized for oral melanomas. Some authors have suggested that oral habits and selfmedication may be of etiological significance. Oral melanoma is rare but it is relatively frequent in countries like Japan, Uganda, and India. It is rarely identified under the age of 20 years. In Australia where cutaneous melanomas are relatively common primary melanoma of the oral mucosa is rare. The surface architecture of oral melanomas ranges from macular to ulcerated and nodular. The lesion is said to be asymptomatic in the early stages but may become ulcerated and painful in advanced lesions. The diagnosis of amelanotic melanoma is more difficult than that of pigmented lesions. The neoplasm consists of spindle-shaped cells with many mitotic figures and no cytoplasmic melanin pigmentation. Immunohistochemistry using S-100, HMB-45, Melan-A and MART-1 will help in establishing the correct diagnosis. Radical surgery with ample margins and adjuvant chemotherapy are appropriate management protocol for malignant melanoma. Oral melanoma is associated with poor prognosis but its amelanotic variant has even worse prognosis because it exhibits a more aggressive biology and because of difficulty in diagnosis which leads to delayed treatment. PMID:25161399

  17. Oral Transliterating. PEPNet Tipsheet

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Troiano, Claire A.

    2010-01-01

    An oral transliterator provides communication access to a person who is deaf or hard of hearing and who uses speechreading and speaking as a means of communicating. The oral transliterator, positioned in front of the speechreader, inaudibly repeats the spoken message, making it as speechreadable as possible. This is called Expressive Oral…

  18. Epilepsy and oral care.

    PubMed

    Fiske, Janice; Boyle, Carole

    2002-05-01

    Epilepsy is a common symptom of an underlying neurological disorder. The seizures can take a variety of forms. Both the condition and its medical management can affect oral health. Prevention of oral disease and carefully planned dental treatment are essential to the well-being of people with epilepsy.

  19. Migraine and oral contraceptives.

    PubMed

    Mousa, G Y

    1982-10-01

    Migraine is a common complaint in optometric practice. Three cases of migrainous patients taking oral contraceptives are presented in this report. The role of oral contraceptives in triggering a migraine attack and possibly elevating the risk of a stroke in a patient with migraine is discussed. The counseling an optometrist can provide in such cases in discussed.

  20. [Oral fluid bacteriocidal activity in complex diagnostics of oral disbiosis].

    PubMed

    Rabinovich, O F; Abramova, E S

    2012-01-01

    The possibility of examination of oral fluid bacteriocidal activity in complex diagnostics of oral mucosa disbiosis was evaluated. Thirty-seven patients were included in complex clinical and laboratory studies. The patients were divided in two groups: main group (30 patients exhibiting various grades of oral mucosa disbiosis) and control group (7 patients with no signs of oral disbiosis). The oral fluid bacteriocidal activity was examined by means of laser flow cytometry. Study results proved oral fluid bacteriocidal activity increase to correlate with the grade of oral mucosa disbiosis thus confirming the usefulness of the method in complex diagnostics of oral disbiosis.

  1. Oral contraceptives: current status.

    PubMed

    Burkman, R T

    2001-03-01

    During the past four decades, oral contraceptives have remained a safe and effective method of birth control. Reductions in the estrogen and progestin dosages have significantly decreased the incidence of cardiovascular complications. The association between oral contraceptives and breast cancer appears to be primarily because of detection bias or possibly a promotional effect. Despite the changes in formulation, the problems related to side effects have not been totally solved. Because compliance and successful use is strongly affected by side effects, improvement in this area is probably the biggest challenge faced by developers of oral contraceptives. It is also clear that there are a growing number of significant noncontraceptive benefits that accrue in oral contraceptive users. Unfortunately, many women do not know about these benefits. Thus, one of the issues that providers need to continue to address is how to provide better information about oral contraceptives and contraception in general to patients.

  2. Oral Sex, Young People, and Gendered Narratives of Reciprocity.

    PubMed

    Lewis, Ruth; Marston, Cicely

    2016-09-01

    Young people in many countries report gender differences in giving and receiving oral sex, yet examination of young people's own perspectives on gender dynamics in oral heterosex are relatively rare. We explored the constructs and discourses 16- to 18-year-old men and women in England used in their accounts of oral sex during in-depth interviews. Two contrasting constructs were in circulation in the accounts: on one hand, oral sex on men and women was narrated as equivalent, while on the other, oral sex on women was seen as "a bigger deal" than oral sex on men. Young men and women used a "give and take" discourse, which constructed the mutual exchange of oral sex as "fair." Appeals to an ethic of reciprocity in oral sex enabled women to present themselves as demanding equality in their sexual interactions, and men as supporting mutuality. However, we show how these ostensibly positive discourses about equality also worked in narratives to obscure women's constrained agency and work with respect to giving oral sex.

  3. Oral Sex, Young People, and Gendered Narratives of Reciprocity

    PubMed Central

    Lewis, Ruth; Marston, Cicely

    2016-01-01

    Young people in many countries report gender differences in giving and receiving oral sex, yet examination of young people’s own perspectives on gender dynamics in oral heterosex are relatively rare. We explored the constructs and discourses 16- to 18-year-old men and women in England used in their accounts of oral sex during in-depth interviews. Two contrasting constructs were in circulation in the accounts: on one hand, oral sex on men and women was narrated as equivalent, while on the other, oral sex on women was seen as “a bigger deal” than oral sex on men. Young men and women used a “give and take” discourse, which constructed the mutual exchange of oral sex as “fair.” Appeals to an ethic of reciprocity in oral sex enabled women to present themselves as demanding equality in their sexual interactions, and men as supporting mutuality. However, we show how these ostensibly positive discourses about equality also worked in narratives to obscure women’s constrained agency and work with respect to giving oral sex. PMID:26849152

  4. Negative electrode composition

    DOEpatents

    Kaun, Thomas D.; Chilenskas, Albert A.

    1982-01-01

    A secondary electrochemical cell and a negative electrode composition for use therewith comprising a positive electrode containing an active material of a chalcogen or a transiton metal chalcogenide, a negative electrode containing a lithium-aluminum alloy and an amount of a ternary alloy sufficient to provide at least about 5 percent overcharge capacity relative to a negative electrode solely of the lithium-aluminum alloy, the ternary alloy comprising lithium, aluminum, and iron or cobalt, and an electrolyte containing lithium ions in contact with both of the positive and the negative electrodes. The ternary alloy is present in the electrode in the range of from about 5 percent to about 50 percent by weight of the electrode composition and may include lithium-aluminum-nickel alloy in combination with either the ternary iron or cobalt alloys. A plurality of series connected cells having overcharge capacity can be equalized on the discharge side without expensive electrical equipment.

  5. Logo and Negative Numbers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Strawn, Candace A.

    1998-01-01

    Describes LOGO's turtle graphics capabilities based on a sixth-grade classroom's activities with negative numbers and Logo programming. A sidebar explains LOGO and offers suggestions to teachers for using LOGO effectively. (LRW)

  6. Oral Contraceptive Pill and PCOS

    MedlinePlus

    ... Health Gynecology Medical Conditions Nutrition & Fitness Emotional Health PCOS: The Oral Contraceptive Pill Posted under Health Guides . ... of oral contraceptive pills for young women with PCOS? Regular and Lighter Periods: Oral contraceptive pills can ...

  7. Small intestine contrast injection (image)

    MedlinePlus

    ... and throat, through the stomach into the small intestine. When in place, contrast dye is introduced and ... means of demonstrating whether or not the small intestine is normal when abnormality is suspected.

  8. No to negative data

    SciTech Connect

    Wiley, H. S.

    2008-04-01

    A frequent criticism in biology is that we don’t publish our negative data. As a result, the literature has become biased towards papers that favor specific hypotheses1. Some scientists have become so concerned about this trend that they have created journals dedicated to publishing negative results (e.g. the Journal of Negative Results in Biomedicine). Personally, I don’t think they should bother. I say this because I believe negative results are not worth publishing. Rest assured that I do not include drug studies that show a lack of effectiveness towards a specific disease or condition. This type of finding is significant in a societal context, not a scientific one, and thus we all have a vested interest in seeing this type of result published. I am talking about a set of experimental results that fail to support a particular hypothesis. The problem with these types of negative results is that they don’t actually advance science. Science is a set of ideas that can be supported by observations. A negative result does not support any specific idea, but only tells you what isn’t right. Well, there are only a small number of potential hypotheses that are correct, but essentially an infinite number of ideas are not correct. I don’t want to waste my time reading a paper about what doesn’t happen, just about those things that do. I can remember a positive result because I can associate it with a specific concept. What do I do with a negative one? It is hard enough to following the current literature. A flood of negative results would make that task all but impossible

  9. Negative Impact of Total Body Irradiation on the Antitumor Activity of Rhenium-(I)-diselenoether.

    PubMed

    Collery, Philippe; Santoni, Francois; Mohsen, Ahmed; Mignard, Caroline; Desmaele, Didier

    2016-11-01

    It has been shown that a rhenium-(I)-diselenoether complex had significant antitumor activity in MDA-MB231 tumor-bearing mice after repeated oral or intraperitoneal administrations for 4 weeks at safe doses of 10 mg/kg/day. It has also been suggested that lower doses could be as effective as this dose. We, thus, tested two doses (5 and 10 mg/kg). The drug was orally administered daily by gavage for 4 weeks and for a further 2 weeks with or without 15 mg/kg paclitaxel treatment (intravenously, once a week). This experiment was performed in MDA-MB 231 tumor-bearing mice, as a model of resistant breast tumor. However, in contrast to previous studies, the mice were pretreated with total body irradiation to increase the tumor growth. These two doses were safe, even in combination with paclitaxel. The expected tumor regression was not observed with the rhenium-(I)-diselenoether complex, and there was even a significant increase of the tumor volume in mice treated with 10 mg/kg versus controls. No synergism was observed with paclitaxel. We comment on the possible negative impact of radiotherapy on the antitumor activity of the drug. Plasma and tumor rhenium and selenium concentrations are also reported.

  10. Literatura Oral Hispanica (Hispanic Oral Literature).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McAlpine, Dave

    As part of a class in Hispanic Oral Literature, students collected pieces of folklore from various Hispanic residents in the region known as "Siouxland" in Iowa. Consisting of some of the folklore recorded from the residents, this paper includes 18 "cuentos y leyendas" (tales and legends), 48 "refranes" (proverbs), 17…

  11. A theory of behavioral contrast.

    PubMed

    Killeen, Peter R

    2014-11-01

    The reinforcers that maintain target instrumental responses also reinforce other responses that compete with them for expression. This competition, and its imbalance at points of transition between different schedules of reinforcement, causes behavioral contrast. The imbalance is caused by differences in the rates at which different responses come under the control of component stimuli. A model for this theory of behavioral contrast is constructed by expanding the coupling coefficient of MPR (Killeen, 1994). The coupling coefficient gives the degree of association of a reinforcer with the target response (as opposed to other competing responses). Competing responses, often identified as interim or adjunctive or superstitious behavior, are intrinsic to reinforcement schedules, especially interval schedules. In addition to that base-rate of competition, additional competing responses may spill over from the prior component, causing initial contrast; and they may be modulated by conditioned reinforcement or punishment from stimuli associated with subsequent component change, causing terminal contrast. A formalization of these hypotheses employed (a) a hysteresis model of off-target responses giving rise to initial contrast, and (b) a competing traces model of the suppression or enhancement of ongoing competitive responses by signals of following-schedule transition. The theory was applied to transient contrast, the following schedule effect, and the component duration effect.

  12. Impact of oral mucosa lesions on the quality of life related to oral health. An etiopathogenic study

    PubMed Central

    Villanueva-Vilchis, María-del-Carmen; López-Ríos, Patricia; García, Ixchel-Maya

    2016-01-01

    Background To assess the impact of oral mucosa lesions on quality of life related to oral health (QLROH) and additionally to establish whether the etiopathogenicy of oral lesion is associated to the degree of QLROH impact. Material and Methods In this cross-sectional study performed on a non-probability sample of 247 consecutively patients attending the oral medicine and pathology clinic the Spanish version of Oral Health Impact Profile-49 questionnaire (OHIP-49-mx) was applied. Responses were recorded on Likert-type scale whose values ranged from 0 (never) to 4 (always). Values greater than the 50 percentile (median) were considered as indicative of poor quality of life. All patients were orally examined and diagnosed. In accordance to their etiopathogenicy 6 study groups were formed: 4 corresponded to MIND classification for diseases (Metabolic, Inflammatory, Neoplastic, and Development groups), with ≥2 diseases and no-lesion group. To identify possible differences of OHIP-49 values between study groups an ANOVA (one factor) parametric and a chi square tests were performed (SPSS®20.0). Results The OHIP-49-mx values were higher than the 50 percentile (established at 39) in metabolic, inflammatory, development, and ≥2 diseases groups, suggesting that this type of oral lesions negatively impact the quality of life. ≥2 diseasesgroup followed by metabolic and inflammatory diseases group (p 0.001) depicted worst quality of life. Functional limitation (p 0.003), pain, physical inability (p 0.001) and psychological disabilities dimensions exhibited greater values in all groups. Conclusions Injured oral mucosa negatively impacts quality of life, specifically functional limitation, physical inability and psychological disabilities could lead to social isolation.To our knowledge, this is the first time that an association between QLROH and the etiopathogenicy of oral mucosal diseases is established. Key words:Quality of life, quality of life related to oral health

  13. Photoacoustic effect induced by negative luminescence device

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kuusela, T.; Peura, J.; Matveev, B. A.; Remennyy, M. A.; Stus', N. M.

    2010-07-01

    The cantilever enhanced photoacoustic trace gas detection technique has been combined with mid-infrared light emitting diodes (LEDs) producing significant negative luminescence at a reverse bias. In contrast to normal positive photoacoustic phenomenon the negative luminescence of the LED creates wavelength specific cooling of the gas under study and pressure drop in the photoacoustic sample cell, which can be detected by a cantilever microphone. In experiments a LED operating at 5.5 μm wavelength range was used to detect acetone vapor.

  14. [Oral cytology: historical development, current status, and perspectives].

    PubMed

    Hullmann, M; Reichert, T E; Dahse, R; von Eggeling, F; Pistner, H; Kosmehl, H; Driemel, O

    2007-01-01

    Oral cytology has aroused new interest caused by introduction of the cytobrush as a sampling device and the use of additional analytical methods. By brushing it is possible to reach deeper layers of the oral mucosa where squamous intraepithelial neoplasia (SIN) begins. The biological potential of the oral epithelial cells obtained can be evaluated by the following additional methods: computer-assisted image analysis (OralCDx), DNA cytometry, immunohistochemistry, monolayer cytology, and molecular biological analysis. All of those methods can increase sensitivity (up to 100%) and specificity (up to 100%) of oral brush biopsy. Nevertheless, there are reports that oral epithelial carcinomas were not identified. No comparative study exists allowing conclusions to be drawn about the value of the single methods. Immunocytochemistry with commercial antibodies against laminin-5 is generally available and methodologically easy. Oral brush biopsy as a non invasive diagnostic method can be useful for the early detection of oral mucosal lesions. Positive findings or progression of the lesion despite negative findings are indications to refer the patient to a specialized clinic where a surgical biopsy should be performed, followed by histopathological analysis. Histopathology remains the gold standard for the definitive diagnosis of oral malignant lesions.

  15. Examining the association between oral health and oral HPV infection.

    PubMed

    Bui, Thanh Cong; Markham, Christine M; Ross, Michael Wallis; Mullen, Patricia Dolan

    2013-09-01

    Oral human papillomavirus (HPV) infection is the cause of 40% to 80% of oropharyngeal cancers; yet, no published study has examined the role of oral health in oral HPV infection, either independently or in conjunction with other risk factors. This study examined the relation between oral health and oral HPV infection and the interactive effects of oral health, smoking, and oral sex on oral HPV infection. Our analyses comprised 3,439 participants ages 30 to 69 years for whom data on oral HPV and oral health were available from the nationally representative 2009-2010 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey. Results showed that higher unadjusted prevalence of oral HPV infection was associated with four measures of oral health, including self-rated oral health as poor-to-fair [prevalence ratio (PR) = 1.56; 95% confidence interval (CI), 1.25-1.95], indicated the possibility of gum disease (PR = 1.51; 95% CI, 1.13-2.01), reported use of mouthwash to treat dental problems in the past week (PR = 1.28; 95% CI, 1.07-1.52), and higher number of teeth lost (Ptrend = 0.035). In multivariable logistic regression models, oral HPV infection had a statistically significant association with self-rated overall oral health (OR = 1.55; 95% CI, 1.15-2.09), independent of smoking and oral sex. In conclusion, poor oral health was an independent risk factor of oral HPV infection, irrespective of smoking and oral sex practices. Public health interventions may aim to promote oral hygiene and oral health as an additional measure to prevent HPV-related oral cancers.

  16. ELECTRON MICROSCOPY OF AXIAL FIBRILS, OUTER ENVELOPE, AND CELL DIVISION OF CERTAIN ORAL SPIROCHETES

    PubMed Central

    Listgarten, M. A.; Socransky, S. S.

    1964-01-01

    Listgarten, M. A. (Harvard School of Dental Medicine and Forsyth Dental Center, Boston, Mass.), and S. S. Socransky. Electron microscopy of axial fibrils, outer envelope, and cell division of certain oral spirochetes. J. Bacteriol. 88:1087–1103. 1964.—The ultrastructure of axial fibrils and outer envelopes of a number of oral spirochetes was studied in thin sections and by negative contrast. The axial fibrils measured 150 to 200 A in diameter. Only one end of each fibril was inserted subterminally into the protoplasmic cylinder by means of a 400 A wide disc. The free ends of fibrils inserted near one end of the cylinder extended toward, and overlapped in close apposition, the free ends of fibrils inserted at the other end. In thin sections, some axial fibrils showed a substructure, suggestive of a dense central core. The outer envelopes of most spirochetes appeared to consist of 80 A wide polygonal structural subunits. However, in one large spirochete, the outer envelope demonstrated a “pin-striped” pattern. Cell division in a pure culture of Treponema microdentium was studied by negative contrast. Results suggested that this organism divides by transverse fission, the outer envelope being last to divide. During the course of division, new axial fibrils appeared to originate on either side of the point of constriction of the protoplasmic cylinder. Flagellalike extensions which were found in rapidly dividing organisms were due to protruding axial fibrils, and appeared to be the result of cell division. Some evidence is presented to support the concept of a homologous origin for axial fibrils and flagella. Images PMID:14219024

  17. Superparamagnetic maghemite nanoparticles from solid-state synthesis - their functionalization towards peroral MRI contrast agent and magnetic carrier for trypsin immobilization.

    PubMed

    Kluchova, Katerina; Zboril, Radek; Tucek, Jiri; Pecova, Michaela; Zajoncova, Ludmila; Safarik, Ivo; Mashlan, Miroslav; Markova, Ingrid; Jancik, Dalibor; Sebela, Marek; Bartonkova, Helena; Bellesi, Vassiliki; Novak, Pavel; Petridis, Dimitris

    2009-05-01

    Nearly monodispersed superparamagnetic maghemite nanoparticles (15-20nm) were prepared by a one-step thermal decomposition of iron(II) acetate in air at 400 degrees C. The presented synthetic route is simple, cost effective and allows to prepare the high-quality superparamagnetic particles in a large scale. The as-prepared particles were exploited for the development of magnetic nanocomposites with the possible applicability in medicine and biochemistry. For the purposes of the MRI diagnostics, the maghemite particles were simply dispersed in the bentonite matrix. The resulting nanocomposite represents very effective and cheap oral negative contrast agent for MRI of the gastrointestinal tract and reveals excellent contrast properties, fully comparable with those obtained for commercial contrast material. The results of the clinical research of this maghemite-bentonite contrast agent for imaging of the small bowel are discussed. For biochemical applications, the primary functionalization of the prepared maghemite nanoparticles with chitosan was performed. In this way, a highly efficient magnetic carrier for protein immobilization was obtained as demonstrated by conjugating thermostable raffinose-modified trypsin (RMT) using glutaraldehyde. The covalent conjugation resulted in a further increase in trypsin thermostability (T(50)=61 degrees C) and elimination of its autolysis. Consequently, the immobilization of RMT allowed fast in-solution digestion of proteins and their identification by MALDI-TOF mass spectrometry.

  18. Does oral experience terminate ingestion?

    PubMed

    Swithers, S E; Hall, W G

    1994-10-01

    Using data from studies of ingestive behavior in developing rat pups we demonstrate how oral experience can contribute to the termination of ingestion. In rat pups, repeated oral stimulation with sweet solutions causes a decline in oral responsiveness. The diminished responsiveness is specific to the flavor of the stimulus experienced orally and can persist for several hours. We suggest that this experience-based decrement in responsiveness is best considered "oral habituation" and that oral habituation largely accounts for the onset of satiety. Post-ingestive feedback signals may have their influence through the oral habituation process or act in the context of oral habituation. Oral habituation is also shown to depend on the pattern of stimulus presentation, a phenomenon that adds considerable complexity to assessing the contributions of oral experience to satiety. The concept of oral habituation may be useful in understanding the immediate control of ingestion and the moment-to-moment expression of ingestive behavior in adult animals.

  19. Oral Lesions in Neonates

    PubMed Central

    Rao, Roopa S; Majumdar, Barnali; Jafer, Mohammed; Maralingannavar, Mahesh; Sukumaran, Anil

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Oral lesions in neonates represent a wide range of diseases often creating apprehension and anxiety among parents. Early examination and prompt diagnosis can aid in prudent management and serve as baseline against the future course of the disease. The present review aims to enlist and describe the diagnostic features of commonly encountered oral lesions in neonates. How to cite this article: Patil S, Rao RS, Majumdar B, Jafer M, Maralingannavar M, Sukumaran A. Oral Lesions in Neonates. Int J Clin Pediatr Dent 2016;9(2):131-138. PMID:27365934

  20. Etiology of oral habits.

    PubMed

    Bayardo, R E; Mejia, J J; Orozco, S; Montoya, K

    1996-01-01

    The pedodontic admission histories of 1600 Mexican children were analyzed, to determine general epidemiologic factors or oral habits, as well as their relationship with identifiable biopsychosociologic factors. Fifty-six percent of the children gave evidence of an oral habit, with significant predisposition among female patients, single children, subjects in poor physical health (particularly from allergies), as well as children with histories of chronic health problems. Oral habits should be considered a major health hazard because of their high incidence. Successful treatment requires a multidisciplinary approach to the basic cause of the problem.

  1. Probiotics and Oral Health

    PubMed Central

    Haukioja, Anna

    2010-01-01

    The number of products containing probiotics, viable bacteria with proven health benefits, entering the market is increasing. Traditionally, probiotics have been associated with gut health, and most clinical interest has been focused on their use for prevention or treatment of gastrointestinal infections and diseases; however, during the last decade several investigators have also suggested the use of probiotics for oral health purposes. The aim of this review is to examine potential mechanisms of probiotic bacteria in the oral cavity and summarize observed effects of probiotics with respect to oral health. The review focuses on probiotic lactobacilli and bifidobacteria, genera that are most used in various probiotic products. PMID:20613927

  2. Erlotinib and the Risk of Oral Cancer

    PubMed Central

    William, William N.; Papadimitrakopoulou, Vassiliki; Lee, J. Jack; Mao, Li; Cohen, Ezra E.W.; Lin, Heather Y.; Gillenwater, Ann M.; Martin, Jack W.; Lingen, Mark W.; Boyle, Jay O.; Shin, Dong M.; Vigneswaran, Nadarajah; Shinn, Nancy; Heymach, John V.; Wistuba, Ignacio I.; Tang, Ximing; Kim, Edward S.; Saintigny, Pierre; Blair, Elizabeth A.; Meiller, Timothy; Gutkind, J. Silvio; Myers, Jeffrey; El-Naggar, Adel; Lippman, Scott M.

    2016-01-01

    IMPORTANCE Standard molecularly based strategies to predict and/or prevent oral cancer development in patients with oral premalignant lesions (OPLs) are lacking. OBJECTIVE To test if the epidermal growth factor receptor inhibitor erlotinib would reduce oral cancer development in patients with high-risk OPLs defined by specific loss of heterozygosity (LOH) profiles. Secondary objectives included prospective determination of LOH as a prognostic marker in OPLs. DESIGN The Erlotinib Prevention of Oral Cancer (EPOC) study was a randomized, placebo-controlled, double-bind trial. Accrual occurred from November 2006 through July 2012, with a median follow-up time of 35 months in an ambulatory care setting in 5 US academic referral institutions. Patients with OPLs were enrolled in the protocol, and each underwent LOH profiling (N = 379); they were classified as high-risk (LOH-positive) or low-risk (LOH-negative) patients based on their LOH profiles and oral cancer history. The randomized sample consisted of 150 LOH-positive patients. INTERVENTIONS Oral erlotinib treatment (150mg/d) or placebo for 12 months. MAIN OUTCOMES AND MEASURES Oral cancer–free survival (CFS). RESULTS A total of 395 participants were classified with LOH profiles, and 254 were classified LOH positive. Of these, 150 (59%) were randomized, 75 each to the placebo and erlotinib groups. The 3-year CFS rates in placebo- and erlotinib-treated patients were 74%and 70%, respectively (hazard ratio [HR], 1.27; 95%CI, 0.68–2.38; P = .45). The 3-year CFS was significantly lower for LOH-positive compared with LOH-negative groups (74%vs 87%, HR, 2.19; 95%CI, 1.25–3.83; P = .01). Increased EGFR gene copy number correlated with LOH-positive status (P < .001) and lower CFS (P = .01). The EGFR gene copy number was not predictive of erlotinib efficacy. Erlotinib-induced skin rash was associated with improved CFS (P = .01). CONCLUSIONS AND RELEVANCE In this trial, LOH was validated as a marker of oral cancer risk and

  3. Hemodynamic and tubular changes induced by contrast media.

    PubMed

    Caiazza, Antonella; Russo, Luigi; Sabbatini, Massimo; Russo, Domenico

    2014-01-01

    The incidence of acute kidney injury induced by contrast media (CI-AKI) is the third cause of AKI in hospitalized patients. Contrast media cause relevant alterations both in renal hemodynamics and in renal tubular cell function that lead to CI-AKI. The vasoconstriction of intrarenal vasculature is the main hemodynamic change induced by contrast media; the vasoconstriction is accompanied by a cascade of events leading to ischemia and reduction of glomerular filtration rate. Cytotoxicity of contrast media causes apoptosis of tubular cells with consequent formation of casts and worsening of ischemia. There is an interplay between the negative effects of contrast media on renal hemodynamics and on tubular cell function that leads to activation of renin-angiotensin system and increased production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) within the kidney. Production of ROS intensifies cellular hypoxia through endothelial dysfunction and alteration of mechanisms regulating tubular cells transport. The physiochemical characteristics of contrast media play a critical role in the incidence of CI-AKI. Guidelines suggest the use of either isoosmolar or low-osmolar contrast media rather than high-osmolar contrast media particularly in patients at increased risk of CI-AKI. Older age, presence of atherosclerosis, congestive heart failure, chronic renal disease, nephrotoxic drugs, and diuretics may multiply the risk of CI-AKI.

  4. Patterns of oral bacterial infection in captive snakes.

    PubMed

    Draper, C S; Walker, R D; Lawler, H E

    1981-12-01

    The bacterial isolates from culture specimens of snakes with infectious stomatitis were compared with those from culture specimens of the oral cavity of healthy captive snakes. Cloacal swab specimens were also taken from healthy snakes to compare their intestinal and oral bacterial populations. The healthy snakes had a predominantly gram-positive oral flora, with Corynebacterium spp and coagulase-negative Staphylococcus spp being the organisms isolated most frequently. The specimens from snakes with infectious stomatitis yielded predominantly gram-negative bacteria. The organisms most frequently isolated from these specimens were Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Providencia rettgeri, and P maltophilia. The cloacal swabbing of healthy snakes also resulted in the isolation of predominantly gram-negative organisms, suggesting that these bacteria are not exogenous pathogens but opportunistic invaders.

  5. Contrasting coloration in terrestrial mammals

    PubMed Central

    Caro, Tim

    2008-01-01

    Here I survey, collate and synthesize contrasting coloration in 5000 species of terrestrial mammals focusing on black and white pelage. After briefly reviewing alternative functional hypotheses for coloration in mammals, I examine nine colour patterns and combinations on different areas of the body and for each mammalian taxon to try to identify the most likely evolutionary drivers of contrasting coloration. Aposematism and perhaps conspecific signalling are the most consistent explanations for black and white pelage in mammals; background matching may explain white pelage. Evidence for contrasting coloration is being involved in crypsis through pattern blending, disruptive coloration or serving other functions, such as signalling dominance, lures, reducing eye glare or in temperature regulation has barely moved beyond anecdotal stages of investigation. Sexual dichromatism is limited in this taxon and its basis is unclear. Astonishingly, the functional significance of pelage coloration in most large charismatic black and white mammals that were new to science 150 years ago still remains a mystery. PMID:18990666

  6. Multiscale image contrast amplification (MUSICA)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vuylsteke, Pieter; Schoeters, Emile P.

    1994-05-01

    This article presents a novel approach to the problem of detail contrast enhancement, based on multiresolution representation of the original image. The image is decomposed into a weighted sum of smooth, localized, 2D basis functions at multiple scales. Each transform coefficient represents the amount of local detail at some specific scale and at a specific position in the image. Detail contrast is enhanced by non-linear amplification of the transform coefficients. An inverse transform is then applied to the modified coefficients. This yields a uniformly contrast- enhanced image without artefacts. The MUSICA-algorithm is being applied routinely to computed radiography images of chest, skull, spine, shoulder, pelvis, extremities, and abdomen examinations, with excellent acceptance. It is useful for a wide range of applications in the medical, graphical, and industrial area.

  7. Negative Concord in Child African American English: Implications for Specific Language Impairment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Coles-White, D'Jaris

    2004-01-01

    In this study, African American English (AAE)-speaking children's comprehension of 2 different types of double negative sentences was examined and contrasted with that of a comparison group of Standard American English (SAE)-speaking children. The first type of double negative, negative concord, involves 2 negative elements in a sentence that are…

  8. Incentive contrast in domestic dogs (Canis familiaris).

    PubMed

    Bentosela, Mariana; Jakovcevic, Adriana; Elgier, Angel M; Mustaca, Alba E; Papini, Mauricio R

    2009-05-01

    Dogs (Canis familiaris) trained to receive a preferred food (dry beef liver) from an experimenter learned to maintain a longer gaze on the experimenter than dogs receiving a less preferred food (dog pellets). Dogs downshifted from dry liver to pellets rejected food more frequently than nonshifted controls. Gaze duration also decreased in downshifted dogs below the level of a group always reinforced with pellets. In addition, downshifted dogs tended to move away from the experimenter, adopting a lying down posture. This phenomenon, called successive negative contrast, has been described in analogous experiments with a variety of mammalian species, but has failed to occur in similar experiments with nonmammalian vertebrates. Unlike similar previous observations, the present data were obtained in an environment involving interspecific communication.

  9. Budesonide Oral Inhalation

    MedlinePlus

    Budesonide is used to prevent difficulty breathing, chest tightness, wheezing, and coughing caused by asthma. Budesonide powder for oral inhalation (Pulmicort Flexhaler) is used in adults and children 6 ...

  10. Albuterol Oral Inhalation

    MedlinePlus

    Albuterol is used to prevent and treat difficulty breathing, wheezing, shortness of breath, coughing, and chest tightness ... for oral inhalation is also used to prevent breathing difficulties during exercise. Albuterol inhalation aerosol (Proair HFA, ...

  11. Oral Cancer Screening

    MedlinePlus

    ... the thin, flat cells that line the lips, oral cavity, and oropharynx. Cancer that forms in squamous cells is called squamous cell carcinoma . See the following PDQ summaries for more information ...

  12. Ipratropium Oral Inhalation

    MedlinePlus

    Ipratropium oral inhalation is used to prevent wheezing, shortness of breath, coughing, and chest tightness in people ... damage to the air sacs in the lungs). Ipratropium is in a class of medications called bronchodilators. ...

  13. Beclomethasone Oral Inhalation

    MedlinePlus

    ... other medical conditions, such as asthma, arthritis, or eczema (a skin disease), they may worsen when your oral steroid dose is decreased. Tell your doctor if this happens or if you experience any ...

  14. Mometasone Oral Inhalation

    MedlinePlus

    ... other medical conditions, such as asthma, arthritis, or eczema (a skin disease), they may worsen when your oral steroid dose is decreased. Tell your doctor if this happens or if you experience any ...

  15. Oral compound nevus.

    PubMed

    Cardoso, Lyzete Berriel; Consalaro, Alberto; da Silva Santos, Paulo Sérgio; da Silva Sampieri, Marcelo Bonifácio; Tinoco-Araújo, José Endrigo

    2014-02-18

    The melanocytic nevus is a benign and focal proliferation of nevus cells that can be congenital or acquired. Intraoral lesions are uncommon, and the etiology and pathogenesis are poorly understood. The occurrence rate of oral compound nevus is about 5.9% to 16.5% of all oral melanocytic nevi. A 22-year-old male patient presented with a dark brown macule on the buccal mucosa of the maxilla in the region of tooth 26. The lesion was elliptical, 0.7 x 0.5 cm, well circumscribed, asymptomatic, and the evolution time was unknown. An excisional biopsy was performed and microscopic analysis revealed nests of nevus cells in the epithelium and underlying connective tissue that were compatible with melanocytic compound nevus. Owing to the clinical similarity between oral melanocytic nevus and oral melanoma, a histopathological analysis is mandatory for definitive diagnosis.

  16. Stability of orally administered immunoglobulin in the gastrointestinal tract.

    PubMed

    Lee, Jeongmin; Kang, Hae-Eun; Woo, Hee-Jong

    2012-10-31

    Oral administration of immunoglobulin in the colostrum or egg yolk has been considered an effective tool for preventing enterobacterial infection via passive immunization. During this process, the transmission and residence of the active immunoglobulin are the most important conditions for successful protection. We investigated the stability of encapsulated colostrum and egg yolk immunoglobulin for the effective transmission of immunoglobulin in the gastrointestinal (GI) tract. First, we measured GI transit time. Contrast media passed through and reached the stomach within 10 min, the small intestine within 3.5 h, and the cecum within 5 h. Both the encapsulated colostrum containing anti-hepatitis A virus (HAV) antibody (IgG) and egg yolk with anti-rotavirus antibody (IgY) showed lower antibody activity than the non-encapsulated colostrum did in the stomach after administration; however, significantly higher antibody activities were observed in the encapsulated groups than in the non-encapsulated groups in the small intestine 3.5 h after the administration. In the large intestine, the antibody activities of the encapsulated groups were maintained or slightly increased in a time-dependent manner; however, the titers of each non-capsulated control were as low as the negative controls. Therefore, this encapsulation is considered a useful tool for the delivery of active antibody through the GI tract.

  17. Oral and esophageal disorders.

    PubMed

    Noyer, C M; Simon, D

    1997-06-01

    This article focused on the approach to oral and esophageal disorders in patients with AIDS. Most of these disorders respond to various therapeutic regimens. Some of the oral complications can be prevented with dental prophylaxis, whereas recurrent esophageal disease in some patients may require long-term suppressive therapy. As patients with AIDS live longer with lower CD4 counts, gastroenterologists need to become familiar with the approach to and management of the more common lesions of the mouth and esophagus.

  18. Oral vs. salivary diagnostics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marques, Joana; Corby, Patricia M.; Barber, Cheryl A.; Abrams, William R.; Malamud, Daniel

    2015-05-01

    The field of "salivary diagnostics" includes studies utilizing samples obtained from a variety of sources within the oral cavity. These samples include; whole unstimulated saliva, stimulated whole saliva, duct saliva collected directly from the parotid, submandibular/sublingual glands or minor salivary glands, swabs of the buccal mucosa, tongue or tonsils, and gingival crevicular fluid. Many publications state "we collected saliva from subjects" without fully describing the process or source of the oral fluid. Factors that need to be documented in any study include the time of day of the collection, the method used to stimulate and collect the fluid, and how much fluid is being collected and for how long. The handling of the oral fluid during and post-collection is also critical and may include addition of protease or nuclease inhibitors, centrifugation, and cold or frozen storage prior to assay. In an effort to create a standard protocol for determining a biomarker's origin we carried out a pilot study collecting oral fluid from 5 different sites in the mouth and monitoring the concentrations of pro- and anti-inflammatory cytokines detected using MesoScaleDiscovery (MSD) electrochemiluminesence assays. Our data suggested that 3 of the cytokines are primarily derived from the submandibular gland, while 7 of the cytokines come from a source other than the major salivary glands such as the minor salivary glands or cells in the oral mucosae. Here we review the literature on monitoring biomarkers in oral samples and stress the need for determining the blood/saliva ratio when a quantitative determination is needed and suggest that the term oral diagnostic be used if the source of an analyte in the oral cavity is unknown.

  19. Maintaining women's oral health.

    PubMed

    McCann, A L; Bonci, L

    2001-07-01

    Women must adopt health-promoting strategies for both general health and the oral cavity, because the health of a woman's body and oral cavity are bidirectional. For general health-maintenance strategies, dental practitioners should actively advise women to minimize alcohol use, abstain from or cease smoking, stay physically active, and choose the right foods to nourish both the body and mind. For oral health-maintenance strategies, dental practitioners should advise women on how to prevent or control oral infections, particularly dental caries and periodontal diseases. Specifically, women need to know how to remove plaque from the teeth mechanically, use appropriate chemotherapeutic agents and dentifrices, use oral irrigation, and control halitosis. Dental practitioners also need to stress the importance of regular maintenance visits for disease prevention. Adolescent women are more prone to gingivitis and aphthous ulcers when they begin their menstrual cycles and need advice about cessation of tobacco use, mouth protection during athletic activities, cleaning orthodontic appliances, developing good dietary habits, and avoiding eating disorders. Women in early to middle adulthood may be pregnant or using oral contraceptives with concomitant changes in oral tissues. Dental practitioners need to advise them how to take care of the oral cavity during these changes and how to promote the health of their infants, including good nutrition. Older women experience the onset of menopause and increased vulnerability to osteoporosis. They may also experience xerostomia and burning mouth syndrome. Dental practitioners need to help women alleviate these symptoms and encourage them to continue good infection control and diet practices.

  20. Oral pigmentation: A review.

    PubMed

    Sreeja, C; Ramakrishnan, K; Vijayalakshmi, D; Devi, M; Aesha, I; Vijayabanu, B

    2015-08-01

    Pigmentations are commonly found in the mouth. They represent in various clinical patterns that can range from just physiologic changes to oral manifestations of systemic diseases and malignancies. Color changes in the oral mucosa can be attributed to the deposition of either endogenous or exogenous pigments as a result of various mucosal diseases. The various pigmentations can be in the form of blue/purple vascular lesions, brown melanotic lesions, brown heme-associated lesions, gray/black pigmentations.

  1. Oral contraception and sexuality.

    PubMed

    Dennerstein, L; Burrows, G

    1976-05-22

    A search of the literature has been carried out to determined how oral contraceptives affect sexuality in women. Some studies featured a high incidence of loss of libido. This could perhaps be attributed to preparations containing progestational compounds. However, no adequate double-blind trial has confirmed this observation. Some psychological and pharmacological aspects of contraceptions are discussed. More research is needed to ascertain why women often lose their sexual interest when taking oral contraceptives.

  2. Oral pigmentation: A review

    PubMed Central

    Sreeja, C.; Ramakrishnan, K.; Vijayalakshmi, D.; Devi, M.; Aesha, I.; Vijayabanu, B.

    2015-01-01

    Pigmentations are commonly found in the mouth. They represent in various clinical patterns that can range from just physiologic changes to oral manifestations of systemic diseases and malignancies. Color changes in the oral mucosa can be attributed to the deposition of either endogenous or exogenous pigments as a result of various mucosal diseases. The various pigmentations can be in the form of blue/purple vascular lesions, brown melanotic lesions, brown heme-associated lesions, gray/black pigmentations. PMID:26538887

  3. The Negative Repetition Effect

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mulligan, Neil W.; Peterson, Daniel J.

    2013-01-01

    A fundamental property of human memory is that repetition enhances memory. Peterson and Mulligan (2012) recently documented a surprising "negative repetition effect," in which participants who studied a list of cue-target pairs twice recalled fewer targets than a group who studied the pairs only once. Words within a pair rhymed, and…

  4. Oral and systemic photoprotection.

    PubMed

    Chen, Andrew C; Damian, Diona L; Halliday, Gary M

    2014-01-01

    Photoprotection can be provided not only by ultraviolet (UV) blockers but also by oral substances. Epidemiologically identified associations between foods and skin cancer and interventional experiments have discovered mechanisms of UV skin damage. These approaches have identified oral substances that are photoprotective in humans. UV inhibits adenosine triphosphate (ATP) production causing an energy crisis, which prevents optimal skin immunity and DNA repair. Enhancing ATP production with oral nicotinamide protects from UV immunosuppression, enhances DNA repair and reduces skin cancer in humans. Reactive oxygen species also contribute to photodamage. Nontoxic substances consumed in the diet, or available as oral supplements, can protect the skin by multiple potential mechanisms. These substances include polyphenols in fruit, vegetables, wine, tea and caffeine-containing foods. UV-induced prostaglandin E2 (PGE2 ) contributes to photodamage. Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs and food substances reduce production of this lipid mediator. Fish oils are photoprotective, at least partially by reducing PGE2 . Orally consumed substances, either in the diet or as supplements, can influence cutaneous responses to UV. A current research goal is to develop an oral supplement that could be used in conjunction with other sun protective strategies in order to provide improved protection from sunlight.

  5. Melatonin and Oral Cavity

    PubMed Central

    Cengiz, Murat İnanç; Cengiz, Seda; Wang, Hom-Lay

    2012-01-01

    While initially the oral cavity was considered to be mainly a source of various bacteria, their toxins and antigens, recent studies showed that it may also be a location of oxidative stress and periodontal inflammation. Accordingly, this paper focuses on the involvement of melatonin in oxidative stress diseases of oral cavity as well as on potential therapeutic implications of melatonin in dental disorders. Melatonin has immunomodulatory and antioxidant activities, stimulates the proliferation of collagen and osseous tissue, and acts as a protector against cellular degeneration associated with aging and toxin exposure. Arising out of its antioxidant actions, melatonin protects against inflammatory processes and cellular damage caused by the toxic derivates of oxygen. As a result of these actions, melatonin may be useful as a coadjuvant in the treatment of certain conditions of the oral cavity. However, the most important effect of melatonin seems to result from its potent antioxidant, immunomodulatory, protective, and anticancer properties. Thus, melatonin could be used therapeutically for instance, locally, in the oral cavity damage of mechanical, bacterial, fungal, or viral origin, in postsurgical wounds caused by tooth extractions and other oral surgeries. Additionally, it can help bone formation in various autoimmunological disorders such as Sjorgen syndrome, in periodontal diseases, in toxic effects of dental materials, in dental implants, and in oral cancers. PMID:22792106

  6. Six-month natural history of oral versus cervical human papillomavirus infection.

    PubMed

    D'Souza, Gypsyamber; Fakhry, Carole; Sugar, Elizabeth A; Seaberg, Eric C; Weber, Kathleen; Minkoff, Howard L; Anastos, Kathryn; Palefsky, Joel M; Gillison, Maura L

    2007-07-01

    Human papillomavirus (HPV) infection is etiologically associated with a subset of oral cancers, and yet, the natural history of oral HPV infection remains unexplored. The feasibility of studying oral HPV natural history was evaluated by collecting oral rinse samples on 2 occasions at a 6-month interval from 136 HIV-positive and 63 HIV-negative participants. Cervical vaginal lavage samples were concurrently collected for comparison. HPV genomic DNA was detected in oral and cervical samples by consensus primer PCR and type-specified for 37 HPV types. The six-month cumulative prevalence of oral HPV infection was significantly less than for cervical infection (p < 0.0001). HIV-positive women were more likely than HIV-negative women to have an oral (33 vs. 15%, p = 0.016) or cervical (78 vs. 51%, p < 0.001) infection detected. Oral HPV infections detected at baseline were as likely as cervical infections to persist to 6 months among HIV-negative (60% vs. 51%, p = 0.70) and HIV-positive (55% vs. 63%, p = 0.27) women. Factors that independently elevated odds for oral HPV persistence differed from cervical infection and included current smoking (OR = 8, 95% CI = 1.3-53), age above 44 years (OR = 20, 95% CI = 4.1-83), CD4 < 500 (OR = 6, 95% CI = 1.1-26), use of HAART therapy (OR = 12, 95% CI = 1.0-156), and time on HAART therapy (trend p = 0.04). The rate of oral HPV infections newly detected at follow-up was significantly lower than cervical infection among HIV-positive (p < 0.001) and HIV-negative women (p < 0.001). Our study not only demonstrates that it is feasible to study the natural history of oral HPV infection with oral rinse sampling, but also indicates that oral and cervical HPV natural history may differ.

  7. A Bibliography of Contrastive Linguistics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hammer, John H.; Rice, Frank A.

    This 484-item bibliography is a revised and expanded version of William W. Gage's "Contrastive Studies in Linguistics: A Bibliographical Checklist" (CAL, 1961). Following a general section, the entries are arranged alphabetically by foreign language. The language headings are: Afrikaans, Arabic, Armenian, Azerbaijani, Bantu, Batak, Bengali,…

  8. Simultaneous density contrast is bidirectional.

    PubMed

    Sun, Hua-Chun; Baker, Curtis L; Kingdom, Frederick A A

    2016-11-01

    Simultaneous density contrast, or SDC, is the phenomenon in which the perceived density of a textured region is altered by a surround of different density (Mackay, 1973). SDC provides an experimental tool to investigate mechanisms of density coding, yet has not been systematically examined. We measured SDC with a 2AFC staircase procedure in which human observers judged which of two patterns, one with and one without a surround, appeared more dense. We used a range of surround densities varying from very sparse to very dense (0-76.8 dots/deg2), and two center test densities (6.4 and 12.8 dots/deg2). Psychometric functions were used to estimate both the points of subjective equality (PSE) and their precision. Unexpectedly we find a bidirectional SDC effect across the five observers: Not only does a denser surround reduce perceived density of the center, but a sparser surround enhances its perceived density. We also show that SDC is not mediated by either contrast-contrast or spatial-frequency contrast. Our results suggest the presence of multiple channels selective for texture density, with lateral inhibitory interactions between them.

  9. Environmental Enteropathy, Oral Vaccine Failure and Growth Faltering in Infants in Bangladesh

    PubMed Central

    Naylor, Caitlin; Lu, Miao; Haque, Rashidul; Mondal, Dinesh; Buonomo, Erica; Nayak, Uma; Mychaleckyj, Josyf C.; Kirkpatrick, Beth; Colgate, Ross; Carmolli, Marya; Dickson, Dorothy; van der Klis, Fiona; Weldon, William; Steven Oberste, M.; Ma, Jennie Z.; Petri, William A.

    2015-01-01

    Background Environmental enteropathy (EE) is a subclinical enteric condition found in low-income countries that is characterized by intestinal inflammation, reduced intestinal absorption, and gut barrier dysfunction. We aimed to assess if EE impairs the success of oral polio and rotavirus vaccines in infants in Bangladesh. Methods We conducted a prospective observational study of 700 infants from an urban slum of Dhaka, Bangladesh from May 2011 to November 2014. Infants were enrolled in the first week of life and followed to age one year through biweekly home visits with EPI vaccines administered and growth monitored. EE was operationally defied as enteric inflammation measured by any one of the fecal biomarkers reg1B, alpha-1-antitrypsin, MPO, calprotectin, or neopterin. Oral polio vaccine success was evaluated by immunogenicity, and rotavirus vaccine response was evaluated by immunogenicity and protection from disease. This study is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov, number NCT01375647. Findings EE was present in greater than 80% of infants by 12 weeks of age. Oral poliovirus and rotavirus vaccines failed in 20.2% and 68.5% of the infants respectively, and 28.6% were malnourished (HAZ < − 2) at one year of age. In contrast, 0%, 9.0%, 7.9% and 3.8% of infants lacked protective levels of antibody from tetanus, Haemophilus influenzae type b, diphtheria and measles vaccines respectively. EE was negatively associated with oral polio and rotavirus response but not parenteral vaccine immunogenicity. Biomarkers of systemic inflammation and measures of maternal health were additionally predictive of both oral vaccine failure and malnutrition. The selected biomarkers from multivariable analysis accounted for 46.3% variation in delta HAZ. 24% of Rotarix® IgA positive individuals can be attributed to the selected biomarkers. Interpretation EE as well as systemic inflammation and poor maternal health were associated with oral but not parenteral vaccine

  10. HPV-associated oral warts.

    PubMed

    Feller, L; Khammissa, R A G; Wood, N H; Marnewick, J C; Meyerov, R; Lemmer, J

    2011-03-01

    Human papillomavirus (HPV) is strictly epitheliotropic, infecting stratified squamous cutaneous and mucosal epithelial cells. Oral HPV infection may be subclinical or putatively associated with benign or malignant oral neoplasms. The benign HPV-associated oral lesions, focal epithelial hyperplasia (Heck disease), oral squamous cell papilloma, oral verruca vulgaris (common wart) and oral condyloma acuminatum, are collectively referred to as oral warts. Oral warts are usually asymptomatic, may be persistent or uncommonly, may regress spontaneously. HPV-associated oral warts have a prevalence of 0.5% in the general population, occur in up to 5% of HIV-seropositive subjects, and in up to 23% of HIV-seropositive subjects on highly active antiretroviral therapy. This paper is a clinico-pathological review of HPV-associated oral warts.

  11. Magsat magnetic anomaly contrast across Labrador Sea passive margins

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bradley, Lauren M.; Frey, Herbert

    1991-01-01

    Many passive margins not complicated by nearby anomalous crustal structure have satellite elevation crustal magnetic anomaly contrasts across them that are recognizable in reduced-to-pole versions of the Magsat and POGO data. In the Labrador Sea region this contrast is particularly well developed with strong positive anomalies overlying the continental crust of Greenland and eastern Canada and prominent negative anomalies situated over the Labrador Sea and Baffin Bay. In this work, forward modeling of the large-scale crustal bodies in this region (continental, oceanic, passive margin, several anomalous structures) was used to show that the Magsat anomaly contrast is due simply to the change in crustal susceptibility and thickness at the continental/oceanic crustal transition. Because the thickness varies more than the average susceptibility from continental to oceanic crust, the strong anomaly contrast is essentially an edge effect due mostly to the change in crustal structure.

  12. Citraturic response to oral citric acid load

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sakhaee, K.; Alpern, R.; Poindexter, J.; Pak, C. Y.

    1992-01-01

    It is possible that some orally administered citrate may appear in urine by escaping oxidation in vivo. To determine whether this mechanism contributes to the citraturic response to potassium citrate, we measured serum and urinary citrate for 4 hours after a single oral load of citric acid (40 mEq.) in 6 normal subjects. Since citric acid does not alter acid-base balance, the effect of absorbed citrate could be isolated from that of alkali load. Serum citrate concentration increased significantly (p less than 0.05) 30 minutes after a single oral dose of citric acid and remained significantly elevated for 3 hours after citric acid load. Commensurate with this change, urinary citrate excretion peaked at 2 hours and gradually decreased during the next 2 hours after citric acid load. In contrast, serum and urinary citrate remained unaltered following the control load (no drug). Differences of the citratemic and citraturic effects between phases were significant (p less than 0.05) at 2 and 3 hours. Urinary pH, carbon dioxide pressure, bicarbonate, total carbon dioxide and ammonium did not change at any time after citric acid load, and did not differ between the 2 phases. No significant difference was noted in serum electrolytes, arterialized venous pH and carbon dioxide pressure at any time after citric acid load and between the 2 phases. Thus, the citraturic and citratemic effects of oral citric acid are largely accountable by provision of absorbed citrate, which has escaped in vivo degradation.

  13. Assessing oral cancer knowledge among Saudi medical undergraduates.

    PubMed

    Kujan, Omar; Abuderman, Abdulwahab; Azzegahiby, Saleh; Alenzi, Faris Q; Idrees, Majdy

    2013-12-01

    Oral cancer is the sixth most common malignancy worldwide with more than 263,000 patients diagnosed in 2008. Nonspecialists' negative attitudes and poor working knowledge of oral cancer significantly contribute to suboptimal detection of early-stage disease which leads to delays in diagnosis. We aimed to assess the working knowledge and views associated with oral cancer prevention among medical students in Saudi Arabia. A cross-sectional questionnaire-based survey of 4th, 5th, and 6th year undergraduate medical students was undertaken. Questions included knowledge of oral cancer, risk factors, and opinions on oral cancer prevention. The overall response rate was 82 % (137/167). Mean score of cancer knowledge was 57.8 % which was below the expected standard of 70 %. Only 53 % correctly answered all questions related to oral cancer. This result had no association with either the academic year (p = 0.23) or gender (p = 0.37). Interestingly, 72 % of the respondents did not feel confident in performing an oral examination. Sixty-three percent of the medical students believed it to be beyond their role to aid patients in smoking cessation measures or to take part in other disease preventative strategies. This study demonstrates a dearth of knowledge relating to the diagnosis and management of oral cancer among clinical students within an established Saudi medical school. An immediate refinement of current medical curricula to address these deficiencies is warranted.

  14. Negative refraction and superconductivity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Amariti, Antonio; Forcella, Davide; Mariotti, Alberto; Siani, Massimo

    2011-10-01

    We discuss exotic properties of charged hydrodynamical systems, in the broken superconducting phase, probed by electromagnetic waves. Motivated by general arguments from hydrodynamics, we observe that negative refraction, namely the propagation in opposite directions of the phase velocities and of the energy flux, is expected for low enough frequencies. We corroborate this general idea by analyzing a holographic superconductor in the AdS/CFT correspondence, where the response functions can be explicitly computed. We study the dual gravitational theory both in the probe and in the backreacted case. We find that, while in the first case the refractive index is positive at every frequency, in the second case there is negative refraction at low enough frequencies. This is in agreement with hydrodynamic considerations.

  15. Negative Emissions Technology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Day, Danny

    2006-04-01

    Although `negative emissions' of carbon dioxide need not, in principle, involve use of biological processes to draw carbon out of the atmosphere, such `agricultural' sequestration' is the only known way to remove carbon from the atmosphere on time scales comparable to the time scale for anthropogenic increases in carbon emissions. In order to maintain the `negative emissions' the biomass must be used in such a way that the resulting carbon dioxide is separated and permanently sequestered. Two options for sequestration are in the topsoil and via geologic carbon sequestration. The former has multiple benefits, but the latter also is needed. Thus, although geologic carbon sequestration is viewed skeptically by some environmentalists as simply a way to keep using fossil fuels---it may be a key part of reversing accelerating climate forcing if rapid climate change is beginning to occur. I will first review the general approach of agricultural sequestration combined with use of resulting biofuels in a way that permits carbon separation and then geologic sequestration as a negative emissions technology. Then I discuss the process that is the focus of my company---the EPRIDA cycle. If deployed at a sufficiently large scale, it could reverse the increase in CO2 concentrations. I also estimate of benefits --carbon and other---of large scale deployment of negative emissions technologies. For example, using the EPRIDA cycle by planting and soil sequestering carbon in an area abut In 3X the size of Texas would remove the amount of carbon that is being accumulated worldwide each year. In addition to the atmospheric carbon removal, the EPRIDA approach also counters the depletion of carbon in the soil---increasing topsoil and its fertility; reduces the excess nitrogen in the water by eliminating the need for ammonium nitrate fertilizer and reduces fossil fuel reliance by providing biofuel and avoiding natural gas based fertilizer production.

  16. Adapted polarization state contrast image.

    PubMed

    Richert, Michael; Orlik, Xavier; De Martino, Antonello

    2009-08-03

    We propose a general method to maximize the polarimetric contrast between an object and its background using a predetermined illumination polarization state. After a first estimation of the polarimetric properties of the scene by classical Mueller imaging, we evaluate the incident polarized field that induces scattered polarization states by the object and background, as opposite as possible on the Poincar e sphere. With a detection method optimized for a 2-channel imaging system, Monte Carlo simulations of low flux coherent imaging are performed with various objects and backgrounds having different properties of retardance, dichroism and depolarization. With respect to classical Mueller imaging, possibly associated to the polar decomposition, our results show a noticeable increase in the Bhattacharyya distance used as our contrast parameter.

  17. High-contrast imaging testbed

    SciTech Connect

    Baker, K; Silva, D; Poyneer, L; Macintosh, B; Bauman, B; Palmer, D; Remington, T; Delgadillo-Lariz, M

    2008-01-23

    Several high-contrast imaging systems are currently under construction to enable the detection of extra-solar planets. In order for these systems to achieve their objectives, however, there is considerable developmental work and testing which must take place. Given the need to perform these tests, a spatially-filtered Shack-Hartmann adaptive optics system has been assembled to evaluate new algorithms and hardware configurations which will be implemented in these future high-contrast imaging systems. In this article, construction and phase measurements of a membrane 'woofer' mirror are presented. In addition, results from closed-loop operation of the assembled testbed with static phase plates are presented. The testbed is currently being upgraded to enable operation at speeds approaching 500 hz and to enable studies of the interactions between the woofer and tweeter deformable mirrors.

  18. Monitoring stiffness contrast in elastography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kiss, Miklos; Bharat, Shyam; Varghese, Tomy; Techavipoo, Udomchai; Liu, Wu

    2005-03-01

    Elastography is an imaging modality used to image tissue strains resulting from external quasi-static compression of tissue. Therefore, elastograms can be used to study variations in the stiffness of thermally coagulated regions of tissue. In this study, the variations in stiffness contrast of lesions formed by radio frequency (RF) ablation of canine liver tissue have been investigated. RF ablation was performed on in vitro canine liver tissue over a range of temperatures from 70 - 100 degrees C, and over a range of ablation times from 1 -- 8 minutes. Elastography was then performed on these samples and on normal tissue. It was expected that stiffness contrast would increase with increasing lesion temperature and ablation duration, on the basis that higher temperature and greater ablation durations lead to increased protein denaturation. This increase was seen with ablation duration, but is not obvious with ablation temperature. These and other results will be discussed.

  19. Interference of medical contrast media on laboratory testing.

    PubMed

    Lippi, Giuseppe; Daves, Massimo; Mattiuzzi, Camilla

    2014-01-01

    The use of contrast media such as organic iodine molecules and gadolinium contrast agents is commonplace in diagnostic imaging. Although there is widespread perception that side effects and drug interactions may be the leading problems caused by these compounds, various degrees of interference with some laboratory tests have been clearly demonstrated. Overall, the described interference for iodinate contrast media include inappropriate gel barrier formation in blood tubes, the appearance of abnormal peaks in capillary zone electrophoresis of serum proteins, and a positive bias in assessment of cardiac troponin I with one immunoassay. The interference for gadolinium contrast agents include negative bias in calcium assessment with ortho-cresolphthalein colorimetric assays and occasional positive bias using some Arsenazo reagents, negative bias in measurement of angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE) and zinc (colorimetric assay), as well as positive bias in creatinine (Jaffe reaction), total iron binding capacity (TIBC, ferrozine method), magnesium (calmagite reagent) and selenium (mass spectrometry) measurement. Interference has also been reported in assessment of serum indices, pulse oximetry and methaemoglobin in samples of patients receiving Patent Blue V. Under several circumstances the interference was absent from manufacturer-supplied information and limited to certain type of reagents and/or analytes, so that local verification may be advisable to establish whether or not the test in use may be biased. Since the elimination half-life of these compounds is typically lower than 2 h, blood collection after this period may be a safer alternative in patients who have received contrast media for diagnostic purposes.

  20. Oral Insulin Reloaded

    PubMed Central

    Heinemann, Lutz; Plum-Mörschel, Leona

    2014-01-01

    Optimal coverage of insulin needs is the paramount aim of insulin replacement therapy in patients with diabetes mellitus. To apply insulin without breaking the skin barrier by a needle and/or to allow a more physiological provision of insulin are the main reasons triggering the continuous search for alternative routes of insulin administration. Despite numerous attempts over the past 9 decades to develop an insulin pill, no insulin for oral dosing is commercially available. By way of a structured approach, we aim to provide a systematic update on the most recent developments toward an orally available insulin formulation with a clear focus on data from clinical-experimental and clinical studies. Thirteen companies that claim to be working on oral insulin formulations were identified. However, only 6 of these companies published new clinical trial results within the past 5 years. Interestingly, these clinical data reports make up a mere 4% of the considerably high total number of publications on the development of oral insulin formulations within this time period. While this picture clearly reflects the rising research interest in orally bioavailable insulin formulations, it also highlights the fact that the lion’s share of research efforts is still allocated to the preclinical stages. PMID:24876606

  1. Electrofluidic systems for contrast management

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rebello, Keith J.; Maranchi, Jeffrey P.; Tiffany, Jason E.; Brown, Christopher Y.; Maisano, Adam J.; Hagedon, Matthew A.; Heikenfeld, Jason C.

    2012-06-01

    Operating in dynamic lighting conditions and in greatly varying backgrounds is challenging. Current paints and state-ofthe- art passive adaptive coatings (e.g. photochromics) are not suitable for multi- environment situations. A semi-active, low power, skin is needed that can adapt its reflective properties based on the background environment to minimize contrast through the development and incorporation of suitable pigment materials. Electrofluidic skins are a reflective display technology for electronic ink and paper applications. The technology is similar to that in E Ink but makes use of MEMS based microfluidic structures, instead of simple black and white ink microcapsules dispersed in clear oil. Electrofluidic skin's low power operation and fast switching speeds (~20 ms) are an improvement over current state-ofthe- art contrast management technologies. We report on a microfluidic display which utilizes diffuse pigment dispersion inks to change the contrast of the underlying substrate from 5.8% to 100%. Voltage is applied and an electromechanical pressure is used to pull a pigment dispersion based ink from a hydrophobic coated reservoir into a hydrophobic coated surface channel. When no voltage is applied, the Young-Laplace pressure pushes the pigment dispersion ink back down into the reservoir. This allows the pixel to switch from the on and off state by balancing the two pressures. Taking a systems engineering approach from the beginning of development has enabled the technology to be integrated into larger systems.

  2. Severe Strongyloidiasis with Negative Serology after Corticosteroid Treatment

    PubMed Central

    Rodriguez, Eduardo A.; Abraham, Thomas; Williams, Frederick K.

    2015-01-01

    Patient: Male, 77 Final Diagnosis: Deere strongyloidiasis Symptoms: Abdominal pain • apetite loss • diarrhea Medication: Prednisolon Clinical Procedure: Upper endoscopy Specialty: Gastroenterology and Hepatology Objective: Unusual clinical course Background: Strongyloidiasis usually presents as a chronic and limited disease, but in some immunocompromised patients it may become a life-threatening disease. Case Report: A 77-year-old Haitian male, with history of temporal arteritis on 40 mg of oral prednisone presented complaining of decreased oral intake, epigastric pain, and non-bloody diarrhea. He had bi-temporal wasting and a distended abdomen but without guarding or tenderness. Laboratory examination included mild leukocytosis, anemia, negative HIV antibody, negative parasite stool exam, and negative serology for Giardia and Strongyloides. CT of the abdomen showed multiple distended loops, without obstruction. During the admission he had a 4 g hemoglobin drop and a positive occult blood test, requiring blood transfusions, IV pantoprazole, and upper endoscopy. Findings included severe duodenitis, blunted villi, and intramucosal and luminal helminthic worms and eggs. Pathology showed Strongyloides stercoralis infection, confirmed by subsequent PCR. He was given 1 day of 15 mg oral ivermectin, diarrhea resolved, and was discharged with a percutaneous endoscopic gastrostomy tube because of the persistent lack of appetite. Conclusions: Given the persistent nature of strongyloidiasis and its high susceptibility to ivermectin, it potentially would be worth consider treating high-risk patients in the appropriate clinical and epidemiological setting, irrespective of screening test results, in order to avoid false-negative result consequences. PMID:25690926

  3. [MICROFLORA AND ORAL DISEASE].

    PubMed

    Khavkin, A I; Ippolitov, Y A; Aleshina, E O; Komarova O N

    2015-01-01

    Acid-producing microorganisms are base etiological agents of lesions of tooth enamel and destruction of dentin. The process start by specific microflora of tooth deposit--Streptococcus mutans, Lactobacteria and Actinomycetis viscosus which ferment food carbogydrate to form acids. High titre of them in oral cavity may be considered like a marker of carbohydrate food. But the pathogenic bacteria don't have aggression to host organism until they will have virulent factors which help to get over protection of host organism. At the same time, microflora of oral cavity is involved to form pellicula. Pellicula is a biofilm which to protect tooth enamel and dentin. Understanding relationships between safety factors of host and pathogenic microflora of oral cavity will give to create effective methods of prevention and treatment.

  4. Oral contraceptives: a reassessment.

    PubMed

    Derman, R

    1989-09-01

    Cardiovascular risks attributable to oral contraceptive use may now be subdivided into those that appear to be secondary to the estrogen component, i.e., venous thrombosis, pulmonary embolism, and those linked to the progestin component, i.e., small vessel disease including myocardial infarction and cerebrovascular accident. It appears that venous risk is attributable to subtle changes in clotting factors, while arterial risk may be secondary to changes in glucose and lipid metabolism. In order to determine which women are at greatest risk from oral contraceptive use, Spellacy et al. has developed a risk scoring form that aids in the screening process. After excluding women with an absolute contraindication to pill use, women at greatest risk for cardiovascular disease related to oral contraceptive use are those with a family history of hyperlipidemia, gestational or overt diabetics, hypertensives, and smokers over the age of 35. The gradual reduction by manufacturers of the steroid content of oral contraceptives appears to have lessened the incidence of adverse effects. Our current knowledge of risk factors permits the clinician to reduce exposure to oral contraceptive-related mortality by as much as 86 per cent. As we continue to search for ways to reduce risk among oral contraceptive users, it is important to note that more than 25 per cent of women are still taking formulations containing 50 micrograms of estrogen. It becomes the responsibility of the practicing physician to "step-down" these patients to lower-dose preparations such as the multiphasics. Such preparations also represent optimal therapy for first-time pill users.

  5. Maintaining oral health after stroke.

    PubMed

    Dickinson, Hazel

    Oral care is essential to maintain oral health and prevent complications such as tooth loss, gingivitis and periodontitis. Poor oral hygiene in dependent, hospitalised patients could lead to serious complications such as chest infection, pneumonia, poor nutritional intake and increased length of hospital stay. Patients who have had a stroke may have physical and cognitive problems that make them dependent on others for their personal care, including oral care. It is essential that nurses and carers understand why maintaining oral hygiene is important following stroke and the consequences of poor oral care.

  6. Oral inflammation in small animals.

    PubMed

    Lommer, Milinda J

    2013-05-01

    The oral cavity can be affected by a wide variety of disorders characterized by inflammation of the gingiva and/or oral mucosa. In dogs and cats, differential diagnoses for generalized oral inflammatory disorders include plaque-reactive mucositis, chronic gingivostomatitis, eosinophilic granuloma complex, pemphigus and pemphigoid disorders, erythema multiforme, and systemic lupus erythematosus. In addition, endodontic or periodontal abscesses, infectious conditions, reactive lesions, and neoplastic conditions may initially present with localized or generalized inflammation of the oral mucosa. Determination of the underlying cause of an oral inflammatory condition relies on a thorough history, complete physical and oral examination, and incisional biopsy and histopathologic examination of lesions.

  7. Per-oral cholangioscopy

    PubMed Central

    Monga, Amitabh; Ramchandani, Mohan

    2011-01-01

    Direct endoscopic views of bile duct have been described in literature since the 1970s. Since then rapid strides have been made with the advent of technologically advanced systems with better image quality and maneuverability. The single operator semi-disposable per-oral cholangioscope and other novel methods such as the cholangioscopy access balloon are likely to revolutionize this field. Even though cholangioscopy is currently used primarily for characterization of indeterminate strictures and management of large bile duct stones, the diagnostic and therapeutic indications are likely to expand in future. The following is an overview of the currently available per-oral cholangioscopy equipments, indications for use and future directions. PMID:21776429

  8. Oral myiasis in children.

    PubMed

    Reddy, M H Raghunath; Das, Nagarajappa; Vivekananda, M R

    2012-04-01

    Oral myiasis is a rare condition in humans and is associated with poor oral hygiene, severe halitosis, mouth breathing during sleep, mental handicap, cerebral palsy, epilepsy, anterior open bite, incompetent lips, and other conditions. In this report, a 14 year-old boy who had an orofacial trauma in the maxillary dentoalveolar region,which was neglected, has been described. There was a deep lacerated wound on the upper vestibule which was infected and maggots were found on the same wound. The clinical features, management, treatment are discussed and relevant literature is reviewed.

  9. In Defense of Dirty Words: The Case against Judicial Censorship in Oral Interpretation Events.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kugler, Drew B.

    Within the realm of forensic oral interpretation, concern over the use of profanity in presentations has aroused repressive criticism from some judges, who then express their offense by ranking the performance negatively. This judicial opposition is deleterious not only to the precepts of oral interpretation, but also--in a larger sense--to the…

  10. Oral microbiome and oral and gastrointestinal cancer risk.

    PubMed

    Ahn, Jiyoung; Chen, Calvin Y; Hayes, Richard B

    2012-03-01

    A growing body of evidence implicates human oral bacteria in the etiology of oral and gastrointestinal cancers. Epidemiological studies consistently report increased risks of these cancers in men and women with periodontal disease or tooth loss, conditions caused by oral bacteria. More than 700 bacterial species inhabit the oral cavity, including at least 11 bacterial phyla and 70 genera. Oral bacteria may activate alcohol and smoking-related carcinogens locally or act systemically, through chronic inflammation. High-throughput genetic-based assays now make it possible to comprehensively survey the human oral microbiome, the totality of bacteria in the oral cavity. Establishing the association of the oral microbiome with cancer risk may lead to significant advances in understanding of cancer etiology, potentially opening a new research paradigm for cancer prevention.

  11. Classroom Management and Negative Reinforcement.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tauber, Robert T.

    Of the four simple consequences for behavior, none is more misunderstood than negative reinforcement. A Negative Reinforcement Quiz administered to 233 student teachers from two universities revealed that the vast majority of respondents mistakenly viewed negative reinforcement as a synonym for punishment, and believe that negative reinforcement…

  12. Polarized negative ions

    SciTech Connect

    Haeberli, W.

    1981-04-01

    This paper presents a survey of methods, commonly in use or under development, to produce beams of polarized negative ions for injection into accelerators. A short summary recalls how the hyperfine interaction is used to obtain nuclear polarization in beams of atoms. Atomic-beam sources for light ions are discussed. If the best presently known techniques are incorporated in all stages of the source, polarized H/sup -/ and D/sup -/ beams in excess of 10 ..mu..A can probably be achieved. Production of polarized ions from fast (keV) beams of polarized atoms is treated separately for atoms in the H(25) excited state (Lamb-Shift source) and atoms in the H(1S) ground state. The negative ion beam from Lamb-Shift sources has reached a plateau just above 1 ..mu..A, but this beam current is adequate for many applications and the somewhat lower beam current is compensated by other desirable characteristics. Sources using fast polarized ground state atoms are in a stage of intense development. The next sections summarize production of polarized heavy ions by the atomic beam method, which is well established, and by optical pumping, which has recently been demonstrated to yield very large nuclear polarization. A short discussion of proposed ion sources for polarized /sup 3/He/sup -/ ions is followed by some concluding remarks.

  13. Double-negative acoustic metamaterial.

    PubMed

    Li, Jensen; Chan, C T

    2004-11-01

    We show here the existence of acoustic metamaterial, in which both the effective density and bulk modulus are simultaneously negative, in the true and strict sense of an effective medium. Our double-negative acoustic system is an acoustic analogue of Veselago's medium in electromagnetism, and shares many unique consequences, such as negative refractive index. The double negativity in acoustics is derived from low-frequency resonances, as in the case of electromagnetism, but the negative density and modulus are derived from a single resonance structure as distinct from electromagnetism in which the negative permeability and negative permittivity originates from different resonance mechanisms.

  14. Contrasting strategic and Milan therapies.

    PubMed

    MacKinnon, L

    1983-12-01

    Three related models of therapy are often grouped together as the strategic therapies. These are brief therapy model associated with the Mental Research Institute, approaches developed by Jay Haley and Cloë Madanes, and the model developed by the Milan associates. Controversy exists, however, as to whether the Milan model should be included as a strategic therapy. It appears that the similarities among the three models can mask deeper differences, thus confounding the confusion. This paper contrast the models in their development, theory, and practice.

  15. Building better oral health: a dental home for all Texans.

    PubMed

    2008-01-01

    Poor oral health affects more than just the mouth. It can seriously compromise a person's general health, quality of life and life expectancy. Oral diseases can and do lead to systemic problems--damaging other parts of the body and resulting in the need for expensive emergency department visits, hospital stays and medications. The consequences of poor oral health, however, go far beyond damaging medical effects. Oral disease can also wreak economic havoc--keeping children out of school and adults home from work--not to mention lower productivity of workers in pain. Untreated oral diseases can also drive up health care costs in general. The good news is that with proper oral health care, both at home and in professional settings, many of the negative consequences associated with poor oral health can be prevented. The State of Texas has a unique and unprecedented opportunity to significantly increase access to oral health care for all Texans. Complying with the Frew agreement is a key priority. However, there are additional ways that Texas policymakers can improve the oral health of the state. In an effort to begin a constructive dialogue about improving the oral health of all Texans, the Texas Dental Association (TDA) with grant funding from the American Dental Association (ADA) commissioned an independent third-party report on the issue of access to oral health care in Texas modeled after the 2000 groundbreaking surgeon general's report, Oral Health in America. The TDA assembled a team of five nationally recognized dentists from both academia and private practice to oversee the project. The dentists (hereafter called the editorial review board or ERB) were asked to identify the state's most pressing issues, needs and challenges associated with improving the oral health of all Texans, with a special focus on the state's most vulnerable. The ERB looked carefully at the economic, medical and social consequences of untreated oral disease in Texas. It reviewed the

  16. Metabolomic Studies of Oral Biofilm, Oral Cancer, and Beyond.

    PubMed

    Washio, Jumpei; Takahashi, Nobuhiro

    2016-06-02

    Oral diseases are known to be closely associated with oral biofilm metabolism, while cancer tissue is reported to possess specific metabolism such as the 'Warburg effect'. Metabolomics might be a useful method for clarifying the whole metabolic systems that operate in oral biofilm and oral cancer, however, technical limitations have hampered such research. Fortunately, metabolomics techniques have developed rapidly in the past decade, which has helped to solve these difficulties. In vivo metabolomic analyses of the oral biofilm have produced various findings. Some of these findings agreed with the in vitro results obtained in conventional metabolic studies using representative oral bacteria, while others differed markedly from them. Metabolomic analyses of oral cancer tissue not only revealed differences between metabolomic profiles of cancer and normal tissue, but have also suggested a specific metabolic system operates in oral cancer tissue. Saliva contains a variety of metabolites, some of which might be associated with oral or systemic disease; therefore, metabolomics analysis of saliva could be useful for identifying disease-specific biomarkers. Metabolomic analyses of the oral biofilm, oral cancer, and saliva could contribute to the development of accurate diagnostic, techniques, safe and effective treatments, and preventive strategies for oral and systemic diseases.

  17. Curriculum Guidelines for Predoctoral Oral Diagnosis/Oral Medicine.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Journal of Dental Education, 1987

    1987-01-01

    Oral diagnosis is the area of dental practice that deals with gathering, recording, and evaluating information contributing to the identification of abnormalities of the head and neck region. A statement of general curricular goals in oral diagnosis/oral medicine is presented. (MLW)

  18. The New Orality: Oral Characteristics of Computer-Mediated Communication.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ferris, Sharmila Pixy; Montgomery, Maureen

    1996-01-01

    Considers the characteristics of orality and literacy developed in the work of scholars such as Walter Ong to consider computer-mediated communication (CMC) as the potential site of a "new orality" which is neither purely oral or literate. Notes that the medium of CMC is writing, which has traditionally represented the…

  19. Oral Communication in Reading.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ediger, Marlow

    Noting that oral communication skills need continuous refinement, this document outlines various methods of practicing these skills, such as literature circles in reading; a reader's theater; presentations of book reports; story telling; a poetry reading club; and choral reading. The document describes literature circles as small groups of readers…

  20. History of oral contraception.

    PubMed

    Dhont, Marc

    2010-12-01

    On the 50th birthday of the pill, it is appropriate to recall the milestones which have led to its development and evolution during the last five decades. The main contraceptive effect of the pill being inhibition of ovulation, it may be called a small miracle that this drug was developed long before the complex regulation of ovulation and the menstrual cycle was elucidated. Another stumbling block on its way was the hostile climate with regard to contraception that prevailed at the time. Animal experiments on the effect of sex steroids on ovulation, and the synthesis of sex steroids and orally active analogues were the necessary preliminaries. We owe the development of oral contraceptives to a handful of persons: two determined feminists, Margaret Sanger and Katherine McCormick; a biologist, Gregory Pincus; and a gynaecologist, John Rock. Soon after the introduction of the first pills, some nasty and life-threatening side effects emerged, which were due to the high doses of sex steroids. This led to the development of new preparations with reduced oestrogen content, progestins with more specific action, and alternative administration routes. Almost every decade we have witnessed a breakthrough in oral contraception. Social and moral objections to birth control have gradually disappeared and, notwithstanding some pill scares, oral contraceptives are now one of the most used methods of contraception. Finally, all's well that ends well: recent reports have substantiated the multiple noncontraceptive health benefits paving the way for a bright future for this 50-year-old product.

  1. WRITING ORAL DRILLS.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    NEY, JAMES W.

    ALL ORAL LANGUAGE DRILLS MAY BE SEPARATED INTO TWO TYPES--(1) MIM-MEM OR MIMICRY MEMORIZATION DRILLS OR (2) PATTERN PRACTICE DRILLS. THESE TWO LARGER CATEGORIES CAN BE SUB-DIVIDED INTO A NUMBER OF OTHER TYPES, SUCH AS TRANSFORMATION AND SUBSTITUTION DRILLS. THE USE OF ANY PARTICULAR TYPE DEPENDS ON THE PURPOSE TO WHICH THE DRILL IS PUT. IN ANY…

  2. Oral focal epithelial hyperplasia.

    PubMed

    Bassioukas, K; Danielides, V; Georgiou, I; Photos, E; Zagorianakou, P; Skevas, A

    2000-01-01

    Focal epithelial hyperplasia (FEH) or Heck disease, is a rare viral infection of the oral mucosa caused by HPV 13 or HPV 32. In Caucasians there have been only a few cases reported. We present the first case in Greece in a young Caucasian girl in which HPV 13 was detected with PCR analysis. The patient was successfully treated with CO2 laser.

  3. Oral Language Continuum.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fresno County Dept. of Education, Fresno, CA.

    An oral language continuum designed to help elementary students develop techniques for a variety of speech situations, learn to listen, and learn to be aware of the responsibility of the speaker is presented. The continuum is divided into four sections. Student needs, implications for teaching, and suggested activities are arranged sequentially.…

  4. AAS Oral History Project

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Buxner, Sanlyn; Holbrook, Jarita; AAS Oral History Team

    2016-06-01

    Now in its fourth year, the AAS Oral History Project has interviewed over 80 astronomers from all over the world. Led by the AAS Historical Astronomy Division (HAD) and partially funded by the American Institute of Physics Niels Bohr Library and ongoing support from the AAS, volunteers have collected oral histories from astronomers at professional meetings starting in 2015, including AAS, DPS, and the IAU general assembly. Each interview lasts one and a half to two hours and focuses on interviewees’ personal and professional lives. Questions include those about one’s family, childhood, strong influences on one’s scientific career, career path, successes and challenges, perspectives on how astronomy is changing as a field, and advice to the next generation. Each interview is audio recorded and transcribed, the content of which is checked with each interviewee. Once complete, interview transcripts are posted online as part of a larger oral history library at https://www.aip.org/history-programs/niels-bohr-library/oral-histories. Future analysis will reveal a rich story of astronomers and will help the community address issues of diversity, controversies, and the changing landscape of science. We are still recruiting individuals to be interviewed from all stages of career from undergraduate students to retired and emeritus astronomers. Contact Jarita Holbrook to schedule an interview or to find out more information about the project (astroholbrook@gmail.com). Also, contact Jarita Holbrook if you would like to become an interviewer for the project.

  5. The novel oral anticoagulants.

    PubMed

    Rojas-Hernandez, Cristhiam M; Garcia, David A

    2013-03-01

    After the introduction of warfarin, long-term oral anticoagulation treatment remained unchanged for more than 50 years. Most recently, with the development and approval of new oral anticoagulants, the treatment of medical conditions that require thrombosis prophylaxis and long-term anticoagulation has become more complex. In the case of venous thromboembolism (VTE) prevention after orthopedic surgery, the new oral agents will be less costly than the parenteral alternative. In other settings (such as atrial fibrillation or treatment of acute VTE), the new agents will offer additional convenience at higher cost, but the degree to which they will reduce clinically important events such as thrombosis or bleeding will be limited, especially for patients on optimally controlled warfarin. As the use of the new oral anticoagulants becomes more widespread, it will be important for all clinicians to have a basic understanding of their pharmacology, advantages, and limitations. Although the need to measure or reverse the effect of these drugs will arise infrequently, clinicians--especially hematologists--will desire evidence-based recommendations about how to manage such scenarios, which will require research studies.

  6. Oral Anticoagulant Therapy

    PubMed Central

    Gallus, Alexander S.; Wittkowsky, Ann; Crowther, Mark; Hylek, Elaine M.; Palareti, Gualtiero

    2012-01-01

    Background: The objective of this article is to summarize the published literature concerning the pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics of oral anticoagulant drugs that are currently available for clinical use and other aspects related to their management. Methods: We carried out a standard review of published articles focusing on the laboratory and clinical characteristics of the vitamin K antagonists; the direct thrombin inhibitor, dabigatran etexilate; and the direct factor Xa inhibitor, rivaroxaban Results: The antithrombotic effect of each oral anticoagulant drug, the interactions, and the monitoring of anticoagulation intensity are described in detail and discussed without providing specific recommendations. Moreover, we describe and discuss the clinical applications and optimal dosages of oral anticoagulant therapies, practical issues related to their initiation and monitoring, adverse events such as bleeding and other potential side effects, and available strategies for reversal. Conclusions: There is a large amount of evidence on laboratory and clinical characteristics of vitamin K antagonists. A growing body of evidence is becoming available on the first new oral anticoagulant drugs available for clinical use, dabigatran and rivaroxaban. PMID:22315269

  7. Research in Oral Language.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Petty, Walter T., Ed.

    This collection of six articles on oral language is a product of the cooperative efforts of the National Conference on Research in English, the Association for Supervision and Curriculum Development, the International Reading Association, the Association for Childhood Education International, and the National Council of Teachers of English. It is…

  8. Lakota Oral Literature.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    One Feather, Vivian

    Course objectives for the three credit hour Lakota Oral Literature (college level English) course presented in this publication are to: perceive through the reading and hearing of Lakota legends a better understanding of the known world of the Lakota people which existed prior to white contact; understand the origin of the laws which the Lakota…

  9. Biophysical mechanisms of MRI signal frequency contrast in multiple sclerosis

    PubMed Central

    Yablonskiy, Dmitriy A.; Luo, Jie; Sukstanskii, Alexander L.; Iyer, Aditi; Cross, Anne H.

    2012-01-01

    Phase images obtained with gradient echo MRI provide image contrast distinct from T1- and T2-weighted images. It is commonly assumed that the local contribution to MRI signal phase directly relates to local bulk tissue magnetic susceptibility. Here, we use Maxwell’s equations and Monte Carlo simulations to provide theoretical background to the hypothesis that the local contribution to MRI signal phase does not depend on tissue bulk magnetic susceptibility but tissue magnetic architecture—distribution of magnetic susceptibility inclusions (lipids, proteins, iron, etc.) at the cellular and subcellular levels. Specifically, we show that the regular longitudinal structures forming cylindrical axons (myelin sheaths and neurofilaments) can be locally invisible in phase images. Contrary to an expectation that the phase contrast in multiple sclerosis lesions should always increase in degree along with worsening of lesion severity (which happens for all known MR magnitude-based contrast mechanisms), we show that phase contrast can actually disappear with extreme tissue destruction. We also show that the phase contrast in multiple sclerosis lesions could be altered without loss of nervous system tissue, which happens in mild injury to the myelin sheaths or axonal neurofilaments. Moreover, we predict that the sign of phase contrast in multiple sclerosis lesions indicates the predominant type of tissue injury—myelin damage (positive sign) vs. axonal neurofilament damage (negative sign). Therefore, our theoretical and experimental results shed light on understanding the relationship between gradient echo MRI signal phase and multiple sclerosis pathology. PMID:22891307

  10. Antibiotics and oral contraceptives.

    PubMed

    DeRossi, Scott S; Hersh, Elliot V

    2002-10-01

    With the exception of rifampin-like drugs, there is a lack of scientific evidence supporting the ability of commonly prescribed antibiotics, including all those routinely employed in outpatient dentistry, to either reduce blood levels and/or the effectiveness of oral contraceptives. To date, all clinical trials studying the effects of concomitant antibiotic therapy (with the exception of rifampin and rifabutin) have failed to demonstrate an interaction. Like all drugs, oral contraceptives are not 100% effective with the failure rate in the typical United States population reported to be as high as 3%. It is thus possible that the case reports of unintended pregnancies during antibiotic therapy may simply represent the normal failure rate of these drugs. Considering that both drug classes are prescribed frequently to women of childbearing potential, one would expect a much higher rate of oral contraceptive failure in this group of patients if a true drug:drug interaction existed. On the other hand, if the interaction does exist but is a relatively rare event, occurring in, say, 1 in 5000 women, clinical studies such as those described in this article would not detect the interaction. The pharmacokinetic studies of simultaneous antibiotic and oral contraceptive ingestion, and the retrospective studies of pregnancy rates among oral contraceptive users exposed to antibiotics, all suffer from one potential common weakness, i.e., their relatively small sample size. Sample sizes in the pharmacokinetic trials ranged from 7 to 24 participants, whereas the largest retrospective study of pregnancy rates still evaluated less than 800 total contraceptive users. Still, the incidence of such a rare interaction would not differ from the accepted normal failure rate of oral contraceptive therapy. The medico-legal ramifications of what looks like at best a rare interaction remains somewhat "murky." On one hand, we have medico-legal experts advising the profession to exercise caution

  11. Detection of Helicobacter pylori in Oral Lesions

    PubMed Central

    Irani, Soussan; Monsef Esfahani, Alireza; Bidari Zerehpoush, Farahnaz

    2013-01-01

    Background and aims. Helicobacter pylori is a microaerophilic gram-negative spiral organism. It is recognized as the etiologic factor for peptic ulcers, gastric adenocarcinoma and gastric lymphoma. Recently, it has been isolated from dental plaque and the dorsum of the tongue. This study was designed to assess the association between H. pylori and oral lesions such as ulcerative/inflammatory lesions, squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) and primary lymphoma. Materials and methods. A total of 228 biopsies diagnosed as oral ulcerative/inflammatory lesions, oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) and oral primary lymphoma were selected from the archives of the Pathology Department. Thirty-two samples that were diagnosed as being without any pathological changes were selected as the control group. All the paraffin blocks were cut for hematoxylin and eosin staining to confirm the diagnoses and then the samples were prepared for immunohistochemistry staining. Data were collected and analyzed. Results. Chi-squared test showed significant differences between the frequency of H. pylori positivity in normal tissue and the lesions were examined (P=0.000). In addition, there was a statistically significant difference between the lesions examined (P=0.042). Chi-squared test showed significant differences between H. pylori positivity and different tissue types except inside the muscle layer as follows: in epithelium and in lamina propria (P=0.000), inside the blood vessels (P=0.003), inside the salivary gland duct (P=0.036), and muscle layer (P=0.122). Conclusion. There might be a relation between the presence of H. pylori and oral lesions. Therefore, early detection and eradication of H. pylori in high-risk patients are suggested. PMID:24578822

  12. Serology of oral Actinobacillus actinomycetemcomitans and serotype distribution in human periodontal disease.

    PubMed Central

    Zambon, J J; Slots, J; Genco, R J

    1983-01-01

    Actinobacillus actinomycetemcomitans from the human oral cavity was serologically characterized with rabbit antisera to the type strain NCTC 9710; a number of reference strains, including Y4, ATCC 29522, ATCC 29523, ATCC 29524, NCTC 9709; and our own isolates representative of each of 10 biotypes. Using immunoabsorbed antisera, we identified three distinct serotypes by immunodiffusion and indirect immunofluorescence. Serotype a was represented by ATCC 29523 and SUNYaB 75; serotype b was represented by ATCC 29522 and Y4; and serotype c was represented by NCTC 9710 and SUNYaB 67. Indirect immunofluorescence revealed no reaction between the three A. actinomycetemcomitans serotype-specific antisera and 62 strains representing 23 major oral bacterial species. Distinct from the serotype antigens were at least one A. actinomycetemcomitans species common antigen and an antigen shared with other Actinobacillus species, Haemophilus aphrophilus, and Haemophilus paraphrophilus. All serotype a A. actinomycetemcomitans strains failed to ferment xylose, whereas all serotype b organisms fermented xylose. Serotype c included xylose-positive as well as xylose-negative strains. A total of 301 isolates of A. actinomycetemcomitans from the oral cavity of 74 subjects were serologically categorized by indirect immunofluorescence with serotype-specific rabbit antisera. Each patient harbored only one serotype of A. actinomycetemcomitans. Fourteen healthy subjects, five diabetics, and seventeen adult periodontitis patients exhibited serotypes a and b in approximately equal frequency, whereas serotype c was found less frequently. In contrast, in 29 localized juvenile periodontitis patients, the incidence of serotype b was approximately two times higher than that of serotypes a or c, suggesting a particularly high periodontopathic potential of A. actinomycetemcomitans serotype b strains. In subjects infected with A. actinomycetemcomitans, serum antibodies were detected to the serotype

  13. Assessing the patient at risk for oral squamous cell carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Epstein, J B; Scully, C

    1997-01-01

    Patients and health care workers require continuing education to promote knowledge of the signs, symptoms, and risk factors for oral cancer. This paper reviews the literature assessing diagnostic tools that are currently available or being developed, in order to assist in the biopsy site selection and subsequent diagnosis of patients at risk for oral cancer. There is a general consensus that oral examination of patients at risk for oral squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) should be conducted on a routine basis. However, there can be false-positive and false-negative findings. Toluidine blue has been shown to be useful as an adjunct to the clinical examination when used by experienced clinicians. Exfoliative cytology is not currently used as a routine measure for the evaluation of lesions of the oral mucosa, but further development and the application of biologic markers to cytologic specimens may increase its value. Fluorescent imaging of malignant lesions of the oral mucosa has been shown to be sensitive and specific in animal models but thus far has been reported in only one human trial. The sensitivity and specificity of these techniques when used by general practitioners need to be assessed. Further, none of the above procedures has yet been shown to be a cost-effective public health measure in screening for oral cancer.

  14. Oral Health Related Quality of Life in Diabetic Patients

    PubMed Central

    Sadeghi, Rokhsareh; Taleghani, Ferial; Farhadi, Sareh

    2014-01-01

    Background and aims. Diabetic patients display an increased risk of oral disorders, and oral health related quality of life (OHRQL) might affect their management and treatment modalities. The aim of the present study was to determine OHRQL and associated parameters in patients with diabetes. Materials and methods. In this study two hundred patients were recruited from the diabetes clinic in Mustafa Khomeini Hospital in Tehran, Iran. OHRQL was assessed using Oral Health Impact Profile Questionnaire (OHIP-20). Also, another questionnaire was designed which contained questions regarding participants’ knowledge about oral complications of diabetes and oral health behavior. OHRQL was categorized as low and good. Data were analyzed using logistic regression at P = 0.05. Results. Of the diabetic patients assessed, 77.5% were in good and 22.5% were in low categories of OHRQL. This quality was significantly associated with age (OR = 4.03, 95% CI = 1.63-11.29), knowledge about diabetes oral complications (OR = 18.17 95% CI = 4.42-158.6), educational level (OR = 26.31 95% CI = 4.2-1080.3), referred for dental visit by physician (OR = 3.16 95% CI = 1.48-6.69), frequency of brushing (OR = 10.29 95% CI = 3.96-31.2) and length of time diagnosed with diabetes (OR = 6.21 95% CI = 2.86-13.63). Conclusion. Oral health related quality of life was not negatively affected by diabetes mellitus in the assessed sample. PMID:25587385

  15. Negative ion source

    DOEpatents

    Leung, Ka-Ngo; Ehlers, Kenneth W.

    1984-01-01

    An ionization vessel is divided into an ionizing zone and an extraction zone by a magnetic filter. The magnetic filter prevents high-energy electrons from crossing from the ionizing zone to the extraction zone. A small positive voltage impressed on a plasma grid, located adjacent an extraction grid, positively biases the plasma in the extraction zone to thereby prevent positive ions from migrating from the ionizing zone to the extraction zone. Low-energy electrons, which would ordinarily be dragged by the positive ions into the extraction zone, are thereby prevented from being present in the extraction zone and being extracted along with negative ions by the extraction grid. Additional electrons are suppressed from the output flux using ExB drift provided by permanent magnets and the extractor grid electrical field.

  16. Negative ion source

    DOEpatents

    Leung, K.N.; Ehlers, K.W.

    1982-08-06

    An ionization vessel is divided into an ionizing zone and an extraction zone by a magnetic filter. The magnetic filter prevents high-energy electrons from crossing from the ionizing zone to the extraction zone. A small positive voltage impressed on a plasma grid, located adjacent an extraction grid, positively biases the plasma in the extraction zone to thereby prevent positive ions from migrating from the ionizing zone to the extraction zone. Low-energy electrons, which would ordinarily be dragged by the positive ions into the extraction zone, are thereby prevented from being present in the extraction zone and being extracted along with negative ions by the extraction grid. Additional electrons are suppressed from the output flux using ExB drift provided by permanent magnets and the extractor grid electrical field.

  17. Negative ion source

    DOEpatents

    Leung, K.N.; Ehlers, K.W.

    1984-12-04

    An ionization vessel is divided into an ionizing zone and an extraction zone by a magnetic filter. The magnetic filter prevents high-energy electrons from crossing from the ionizing zone to the extraction zone. A small positive voltage impressed on a plasma grid, located adjacent an extraction grid, positively biases the plasma in the extraction zone to thereby prevent positive ions from migrating from the ionizing zone to the extraction zone. Low-energy electrons, which would ordinarily be dragged by the positive ions into the extraction zone, are thereby prevented from being present in the extraction zone and being extracted along with negative ions by the extraction grid. Additional electrons are suppressed from the output flux using ExB drift provided by permanent magnets and the extractor grid electrical field. 14 figs.

  18. Do `negative' temperatures exist?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lavenda, B. H.

    1999-06-01

    A modification of the second law is required for a system with a bounded density of states and not the introduction of a `negative' temperature scale. The ascending and descending branches of the entropy versus energy curve describe particle and hole states, having thermal equations of state that are given by the Fermi and logistic distributions, respectively. Conservation of energy requires isentropic states to be isothermal. The effect of adiabatically reversing the field is entirely mechanical because the only difference between the two states is their energies. The laws of large and small numbers, leading to the normal and Poisson approximations, characterize statistically the states of infinite and zero temperatures, respectively. Since the heat capacity also vanishes in the state of maximum disorder, the third law can be generalized in systems with a bounded density of states: the entropy tends to a constant as the temperature tends to either zero or infinity.

  19. Negative Optical Torque

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Jun; Ng, Jack; Ding, Kun; Fung, Kin Hung; Lin, Zhifang; Chan, C. T.

    2014-09-01

    Light carries angular momentum, and as such it can exert torques on material objects. Applications of these opto-mechanical effects were limited initially due to their smallness in magnitude, but later becomes powerful and versatile after the invention of laser. Novel and practical approaches for harvesting light for particle rotation have since been demonstrated, where the structure is always subjected to a positive optical torque along a certain axis if the incident angular momentum has a positive projection on the same axis. We report here an interesting phenomenon of ``negative optical torque'', meaning that incoming photons carrying angular momentum rotate an object in the opposite sense. Surprisingly this can be realized quite straightforwardly in simple planar structures. Field retardation is a necessary condition and discrete rotational symmetry of material object plays an important role. The optimal conditions are explored and explained.

  20. Negative optical torque.

    PubMed

    Chen, Jun; Ng, Jack; Ding, Kun; Fung, Kin Hung; Lin, Zhifang; Chan, C T

    2014-09-17

    Light carries angular momentum, and as such it can exert torques on material objects. Applications of these opto-mechanical effects were limited initially due to their smallness in magnitude, but later becomes powerful and versatile after the invention of laser. Novel and practical approaches for harvesting light for particle rotation have since been demonstrated, where the structure is always subjected to a positive optical torque along a certain axis if the incident angular momentum has a positive projection on the same axis. We report here an interesting phenomenon of "negative optical torque", meaning that incoming photons carrying angular momentum rotate an object in the opposite sense. Surprisingly this can be realized quite straightforwardly in simple planar structures. Field retardation is a necessary condition and discrete rotational symmetry of material object plays an important role. The optimal conditions are explored and explained.

  1. Negative Entropy of Life

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goradia, Shantilal

    2015-10-01

    We modify Newtonian gravity to probabilistic quantum mechanical gravity to derive strong coupling. If this approach is valid, we should be able to extend it to the physical body (life) as follows. Using Boltzmann equation, we get the entropy of the universe (137) as if its reciprocal, the fine structure constant (ALPHA), is the hidden candidate representing the negative entropy of the universe which is indicative of the binary information as its basis (http://www.arXiv.org/pdf/physics0210040v5). Since ALPHA relates to cosmology, it must relate to molecular biology too, with the binary system as the fundamental source of information for the nucleotides of the DNA as implicit in the book by the author: ``Quantum Consciousness - The Road to Reality.'' We debate claims of anthropic principle based on the negligible variation of ALPHA and throw light on thermodynamics. We question constancy of G in multiple ways.

  2. Oral Manifestations of Vitiligo

    PubMed Central

    Nagarajan, Anitha; Masthan, Mahaboob Kader; Sankar, Leena Sankari; Narayanasamy, Aravindha Babu; Elumalai, Rajesh

    2015-01-01

    Background: Vitiligo is one of the disorder that has social impact. Both skin and mucous membrane show depigmentation in vitiligo. Depigmentation in oral cavity can be more easily observed and the patient can be given awareness regarding the condition if they are unaware of vitiligo elsewhere in their body and can be guided for treatment. Aim and objectives: The aim of this study is to determine the frequency of occurrence of oral mucosal vitiligo in vitiligo patients and to determine the most commonly involved oral mucosal site. Materials and methods: The study sample included 100 vitiligo patients. The patients of all age groups and both genders were included. Vitiligo patients associated with systemic conditions such as thyroid disorders, juvenile diabetes mellitus, pernicious anemia, Addison's disease were excluded in this study. Results: Out of 100 vitiligo patients 44 % male and 56% were female. The oral presentation of vitiligo in this study showed depigmentation of buccal mucosa in 5% of patients, labial mucosa in 5% of patients, palate in 8% of patients, gingiva in 2% of patients and alveolar mucosa 1%. Depigmentation of lip was seen in 42% of patients. Lip involvement refers to depigmentation of both the lips or either lip. Also vermilion border involvement was noted in majority of cases. In some cases, the depigmentation of lip extended to the facial skin also. Conclusion: In this study 55 patients out of 100 patients showed depigmentation in the oral cavity. Lip involvement was most common in this study showing about 42% of patients. Intraoral mucosal involvement was found in 21% of patients. Among intraoral mucosal site palate was common followed by buccal and labial mucosa, gingiva. Two patients had lip pigmentation as the only manifestation without any depigmentation in the skin. PMID:25657420

  3. [Oral manifestations in systemic diseases].

    PubMed

    Pedersen, Anne Marie Lynge; Jensen, Siri Beier

    2010-11-01

    Systemic diseases may affect the oral tissues, i.e. oral mucosa, salivary glands, teeth or bone, and oral manifestations will frequently present early, i.e. in association with (non-fulminant) systemic disease. Thus, recognition and proper diagnosis is essential to initiate appropriate treatment schedules. Key examples of systemic disease groups with oral manifestations include dermatological, inflammatory connective tissue diseases, haematological and inflammatory gastrointestinal diseases, as well as neurological and endocrine diseases.

  4. The Oral Bacterial Communities of Children with Well-Controlled HIV Infection and without HIV Infection

    PubMed Central

    Goldberg, Brittany E.; Mongodin, Emmanuel F.; Jones, Cheron E.; Chung, Michelle; Fraser, Claire M.; Tate, Anupama; Zeichner, Steven L.

    2015-01-01

    The oral microbial community (microbiota) plays a critical role in human health and disease. Alterations in the oral microbiota may be associated with disorders such as gingivitis, periodontitis, childhood caries, alveolar osteitis, oral candidiasis and endodontic infections. In the immunosuppressed population, the spectrum of potential oral disease is even broader, encompassing candidiasis, necrotizing gingivitis, parotid gland enlargement, Kaposi’s sarcoma, oral warts and other diseases. Here, we used 454 pyrosequencing of bacterial 16S rRNA genes to examine the oral microbiome of saliva, mucosal and tooth samples from HIV-positive and negative children. Patient demographics and clinical characteristics were collected from a cross-section of patients undergoing routine dental care. Multiple specimens from different sampling sites in the mouth were collected for each patient. The goal of the study was to observe the potential diversity of the oral microbiota among individual patients, sample locations, HIV status and various dental characteristics. We found that there were significant differences in the microbiome among the enrolled patients, and between sampling locations. The analysis was complicated by uneven enrollment in the patient cohorts, with only five HIV-negative patients enrolled in the study and by the rapid improvement in the health of HIV-infected children between the time the study was conceived and completed. The generally good oral health of the HIV-negative patients limited the number of dental plaque samples that could be collected. We did not identify significant differences between well-controlled HIV-positive patients and HIV-negative controls, suggesting that well-controlled HIV-positive patients essentially harbor similar oral flora compared to patients without HIV. Nor were significant differences in the oral microbiota identified between different teeth or with different dental characteristics. Additional studies are needed to better

  5. A History of Oral Interpretation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bahn, Eugene; Bahn, Margaret L.

    This historical account of the oral interpretation of literature establishes a chain of events comprehending 25 centuries of verbal tradition from the Homeric Age through 20th Century America. It deals in each era with the viewpoints and contributions of major historical figures to oral interpretation, as well as with oral interpretation's…

  6. Oral and perioral piercing complications.

    PubMed

    Escudero-Castaño, N; Perea-García, M A; Campo-Trapero, J; Cano-Sánchez; Bascones-Martínez, A

    2008-12-04

    BACKGROUND.: The oral an perioral piercing has a long history as part of religious, tribal,cultural or sexual symbolism and nowdays there is a high incidence of oral and perioral piercing in the adolescent population. This practice has a long history as part of religious, tribal, cultural or sexual symbolism. This article reviews current knowledge on injuries or diseases that might be produced by piercing in the oral cavity. We propose a classification to diagnosed the pathologies related to oral an perioral piercing METHODS.: A search was conducted of articles in PubMed, Scielo published between 1997 and 2007, using the key words ;;oral and perioral, piercing , ;;oral, piercing and disease", ;;recessions and oral piercing . It has reviewed about twentythree articles 17 were narrative reviews and 6 case series RESULTS.: A review was carried out on the origins of oral and perioral body piercing and its local implications, classifying the different alterations like recessions, systemic implications that it can produce in the oral and perioral cavity. CONCLUSION.: Patients with oral and perioral piercing should be regularly followed up because of the possible development of different types of adverse effects. CLINICAL IMPLICATIONS.: Adverse effects of oral and perioral piercing can be systemic, with transmission of infectious diseases such as hepatitis B or C, or can be local, with alteration of oral mucosae or even of dental structures.

  7. Oral Manifestations and Molecular Basis of Oral Genodermatoses: A Review

    PubMed Central

    Shilpasree, A.S.; Chaudhary, Meenakshi

    2016-01-01

    Genodermatoses refers to group of inherited monogenic disorders with skin manifestations. Many of these disorders are rare and also have oral manifestations, called oral genodermatoses. This article provides a focused review of molecular basis of important genodermatoses that affects the oral cavity and also have prominent associated dermatologic features. In several conditions discussed here, the oral findings are distinct and may provide the first clue of an underlying genetic diagnosis. The article also emphasises on the prenatal diagnosis, genetic counselling and the treatment oral genodermatoses. PMID:27437377

  8. Negative impact of manganese on honeybee foraging

    PubMed Central

    Søvik, Eirik; Perry, Clint J.; LaMora, Angie; Barron, Andrew B.; Ben-Shahar, Yehuda

    2015-01-01

    Anthropogenic accumulation of metals such as manganese is a well-established health risk factor for vertebrates. By contrast, the long-term impact of these contaminants on invertebrates is mostly unknown. Here, we demonstrate that manganese ingestion alters brain biogenic amine levels in honeybees and fruit flies. Furthermore, we show that manganese exposure negatively affects foraging behaviour in the honeybee, an economically important pollinator. Our findings indicate that in addition to its direct impact on human health, the common industrial contaminant manganese might also have indirect environmental and economical impacts via the modulation of neuronal and behavioural functions in economically important insects. PMID:25808001

  9. Single-resonator double-negative metamaterial

    SciTech Connect

    Warne, Larry K.; Basilio, Lorena I.; Langston, William L.; Johnson, William A.; Ihlefeld, Jon; Ginn, III, James C.; Clem, Paul G.; Sinclair, Michael B.

    2016-06-21

    Resonances can be tuned in dielectric resonators in order to construct single-resonator, negative-index metamaterials. For example, high-contrast inclusions in the form of metallic dipoles can be used to shift the first electric resonance down (in frequency) to the first magnetic resonance, or alternatively, air splits can be used to shift the first magnetic resonance up (in frequency) near the first electric resonance. Degenerate dielectric designs become especially useful in infrared- or visible-frequency applications where the resonator sizes associated with the lack of high-permittivity materials can become of sufficient size to enable propagation of higher-order lattice modes in the resulting medium.

  10. Contrastive divergence in gaussian diffusions.

    PubMed

    Movellan, Javier R

    2008-09-01

    This letter presents an analysis of the contrastive divergence (CD) learning algorithm when applied to continuous-time linear stochastic neural networks. For this case, powerful techniques exist that allow a detailed analysis of the behavior of CD. The analysis shows that CD converges to maximum likelihood solutions only when the network structure is such that it can match the first moments of the desired distribution. Otherwise, CD can converge to solutions arbitrarily different from the log-likelihood solutions, or they can even diverge. This result suggests the need to improve our theoretical understanding of the conditions under which CD is expected to be well behaved and the conditions under which it may fail. In, addition the results point to practical ideas on how to improve the performance of CD.

  11. Multi-contrast Photoacoustic Microscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yao, Junjie

    Photoacoustic microscopy is a hybrid imaging modality with high spatial resolution, moderate imaging depth, excellent imaging contrast and functional imaging capability. Taking full advantage of this powerful weapon, we have investigated different anatomical, functional, flow dynamic and metabolic parameter measurements using photoacoustic microscopy. Specifically, Evans-blue dye was used to enhance photoacoustic microscopy of capillaries; label-free transverse and axial blood flow was measured based on bandwidth broadening and time shift of the photoacoustic signals; metabolic rate of oxygen was quantified in vivo from all the five parameters measured by photoacoustic microcopy; whole cross-sectional imaging of small intestine was achieved on a double-illumination photoacoustic microscopy with extended depth of focus and imaging depth; hemodynamic imaging was performed on a MEMS-mirror enhanced photoacoustic microscopy with a cross-sectional imaging rate of 400 Hz. As a maturing imaging technique, PAM is expected to find new applications in both fundamental life science and clinical practice.

  12. Contrast, induction, facilitation, suppression, and conservation1

    PubMed Central

    Allison, James

    1976-01-01

    Ten rats received all of their water in daily 1-hr sessions. Following a baseline phase in which lever and water spout were freely available throughout each session, subjects were trained to press the lever for water on mixed schedules composed of two alternating components. Each component gave access to water for a fixed cumulation of drinking time every time the rat cumulated a fixed amount of lever-pressing time. Changes in one component produced contrast and induction effects, both positive and negative, with respect to both lever pressing and drinking in the unchanged component. All schedules facilitated lever pressing relative to baseline. All schedules suppressed drinking relative to baseline, even though contingency sessions allowed ample time to perform the baseline amount of drinking. The entire pattern of results was predicted in quantitative detail by assuming that the total amount of a dimension apportioned to lever pressing and drinking is conserved between baseline and contingency sessions. Conservation theory was shown to predict several effects produced by simple fixed-ratio schedules, and was compared favorably with probability-differential (Premack, 1971) and response-deprivation (Timberlake and Allison, 1974) theory. PMID:16811902

  13. Effect of atropine on oral clearance of a radiolabeled sulfur colloid

    SciTech Connect

    LaForce, F.M.; Thompson, B.; Trow, R.

    1984-11-01

    Physical clearance is an important oral defense mechanism against gram-negative rods. The authors describe a simple technique that uses commercially available technetium-99m sulfur colloid to measure oral clearance. Technetium-99m sulfur colloid was sprayed into the mouth, and clearance was measured as the percent decrease in radiolabel counts over 2 hours using a radioisotope camera. Results using this technique compared favorably with clearance data using Tc-99m radiolabeled Escherichia coli. Atropine significantly decreased oral clearance rates of the colloid. Decreased clearance may be an important risk factor in the development of gram-negative rod colonization in hospitalized patients. 15 references, 3 figures.

  14. Coagulase-negative staphylococci.

    PubMed

    Becker, Karsten; Heilmann, Christine; Peters, Georg

    2014-10-01

    The definition of the heterogeneous group of coagulase-negative staphylococci (CoNS) is still based on diagnostic procedures that fulfill the clinical need to differentiate between Staphylococcus aureus and those staphylococci classified historically as being less or nonpathogenic. Due to patient- and procedure-related changes, CoNS now represent one of the major nosocomial pathogens, with S. epidermidis and S. haemolyticus being the most significant species. They account substantially for foreign body-related infections and infections in preterm newborns. While S. saprophyticus has been associated with acute urethritis, S. lugdunensis has a unique status, in some aspects resembling S. aureus in causing infectious endocarditis. In addition to CoNS found as food-associated saprophytes, many other CoNS species colonize the skin and mucous membranes of humans and animals and are less frequently involved in clinically manifested infections. This blurred gradation in terms of pathogenicity is reflected by species- and strain-specific virulence factors and the development of different host-defending strategies. Clearly, CoNS possess fewer virulence properties than S. aureus, with a respectively different disease spectrum. In this regard, host susceptibility is much more important. Therapeutically, CoNS are challenging due to the large proportion of methicillin-resistant strains and increasing numbers of isolates with less susceptibility to glycopeptides.

  15. Improved negative ion source

    DOEpatents

    Delmore, J.E.

    1984-05-01

    A method and apparatus for providing a negative ion source accelerates electrons away from a hot filament electron emitter into a region of crossed electric and magnetic fields arranged in a magnetron configuration. During a portion of the resulting cycloidal path, the electron velocity is reduced below its initial value. The electron accelerates as it leaves the surface at a rate of only slightly less than if there were no magnetic field, thereby preventing a charge buildup at the surface of the emitter. As the electron traverses the cycloid, it is decelerated during the second, third, and fourth quadrants, then reaccelerated as it approaches the end of the fourth quadrant to regain its original velocity. The minimum velocity occurs during the fourth quadrant, and corresponds to an electron temperature of 200 to 500/sup 0/C for the electric and magnetic fields commonly encountered in the ion sources of magnetic sector mass spectrometers. An ion source using the above-described thermalized electrons is also disclosed.

  16. Negative ion source

    DOEpatents

    Delmore, James E.

    1987-01-01

    A method and apparatus for providing a negative ion source accelerates electrons away from a hot filament electron emitter into a region of crossed electric and magnetic fields arranged in a magnetron configuration. During a portion of the resulting cycloidal path, the electron velocity is reduced below its initial value. The electron accelerates as it leaves the surface at a rate of only slightly less than if there were no magnetic field, thereby preventing a charge buildup at the surface of the emitter. As the electron traverses the cycloid, it is decelerated during the second, third, and fourth quadrants, then reeccelerated as it approaches the end of the fourth quadrant to regain its original velocity. The minimum velocity occurs during the fourth quadrant, and corresponds to an electron temperature of 200.degree. to 500.degree. for the electric and magnetic fields commonly encountered in the ion sources of magnetic sector mass spectrometers. An ion source using the above-described thermalized electrons is also disclosed.

  17. Coagulase-Negative Staphylococci

    PubMed Central

    Heilmann, Christine; Peters, Georg

    2014-01-01

    SUMMARY The definition of the heterogeneous group of coagulase-negative staphylococci (CoNS) is still based on diagnostic procedures that fulfill the clinical need to differentiate between Staphylococcus aureus and those staphylococci classified historically as being less or nonpathogenic. Due to patient- and procedure-related changes, CoNS now represent one of the major nosocomial pathogens, with S. epidermidis and S. haemolyticus being the most significant species. They account substantially for foreign body-related infections and infections in preterm newborns. While S. saprophyticus has been associated with acute urethritis, S. lugdunensis has a unique status, in some aspects resembling S. aureus in causing infectious endocarditis. In addition to CoNS found as food-associated saprophytes, many other CoNS species colonize the skin and mucous membranes of humans and animals and are less frequently involved in clinically manifested infections. This blurred gradation in terms of pathogenicity is reflected by species- and strain-specific virulence factors and the development of different host-defending strategies. Clearly, CoNS possess fewer virulence properties than S. aureus, with a respectively different disease spectrum. In this regard, host susceptibility is much more important. Therapeutically, CoNS are challenging due to the large proportion of methicillin-resistant strains and increasing numbers of isolates with less susceptibility to glycopeptides. PMID:25278577

  18. DNA from oral bacteria by sodium hydroxide-paper method suitable for polymerase chain reaction.

    PubMed

    Lefimil, Claudia; Lozano, Carla; Morales-Bozo, Irene; Plaza, Anita; Maturana, Cristian; Urzúa, Blanca

    2013-02-15

    In the oral cavity, we can find a complex mixture of microorganisms, commensals, and pathogens. The studies of normal oral microbiota, as well as the studies of much oral pathology (e.g., caries, periodontitis), involve the isolation and cultivation of these microorganisms and their molecular analysis. The aim of this study was to validate a quick, easy, efficient, and inexpensive DNA extraction method for the recovery of genomic DNA from gram-positive and gram-negative oral bacteria to be used in polymerase chain reaction amplification. This method worked great with all samples analyzed, providing an approach to extract DNA for different microorganisms.

  19. Negative Pressure Wound Therapy

    PubMed Central

    2006-01-01

    Executive Summary Objective This review was conducted to assess the effectiveness of negative pressure wound therapy. Clinical Need: Target Population and Condition Many wounds are difficult to heal, despite medical and nursing care. They may result from complications of an underlying disease, like diabetes; or from surgery, constant pressure, trauma, or burns. Chronic wounds are more often found in elderly people and in those with immunologic or chronic diseases. Chronic wounds may lead to impaired quality of life and functioning, to amputation, or even to death. The prevalence of chronic ulcers is difficult to ascertain. It varies by condition and complications due to the condition that caused the ulcer. There are, however, some data on condition-specific prevalence rates; for example, of patients with diabetes, 15% are thought to have foot ulcers at some time during their lives. The approximate community care cost of treating leg ulcers in Canada, without reference to cause, has been estimated at upward of $100 million per year. Surgically created wounds can also become chronic, especially if they become infected. For example, the reported incidence of sternal wound infections after median sternotomy is 1% to 5%. Abdominal surgery also creates large open wounds. Because it is sometimes necessary to leave these wounds open and allow them to heal on their own (secondary intention), some may become infected and be difficult to heal. Yet, little is known about the wound healing process, and this makes treating wounds challenging. Many types of interventions are used to treat wounds. Current best practice for the treatment of ulcers and other chronic wounds includes debridement (the removal of dead or contaminated tissue), which can be surgical, mechanical, or chemical; bacterial balance; and moisture balance. Treating the cause, ensuring good nutrition, and preventing primary infection also help wounds to heal. Saline or wet-to-moist dressings are reported as

  20. Oral manifestations of hyperoxaluria.

    PubMed

    Guerra, Eliete Neves da Silva; Vianna, Leonora; Sobreira, Maria Nazareth; de Araújo, Flavio Nader Gross; de Melo, Nilce Santos

    2011-11-01

    Primary hyperoxaluria is a rare, inherited autosomal recessive disease caused by defects in the metabolism of glyoxylate. Oral manifestations of hyperoxaluria are rare. However, bone and tooth resorption may be the result of chronic inflammation and the presence of osteoclastic cells surrounding the oxalate crystal deposit. A deposit of calcium oxalate in the periodontium was identified in a patient with end-stage renal disease. Dental radiographs indicated bone loss and external tooth resorption. Radiolucent image in the inferior incisor region was observed and removed. The tissue showed granulomatous inflammation with foreign body reaction and associated crystalline deposits. When viewed in polarized light, these deposits are green and presented a birefringent aspect, which were interpreted as calcium oxalate crystals compatible with oxaluria. Oral manifestations of hyperoxaluria are of particular interest because of the unusual location of the oxalate crystal deposition, resulting in aggressive tooth resorption and alveolar bone loss, which may be misdiagnosed.

  1. Damaging Oral Habits

    PubMed Central

    Kamdar, Rajesh J; Al-Shahrani, Ibrahim

    2015-01-01

    Oral habits, if persist beyond certain developmental age, can pose great harm to the developing teeth, occlusion, and surrounding oral tissues. In the formative years, almost all children engage in some non-nutritive sucking habits. Clinicians, by proper differential diagnosis and thorough understanding of natural growth and developmental processes, should take a decision for intervening. This article describes case series reports of thumb sucking, finger sucking, and tongue thrusting habits, which have been successfully treated by both removable and fixed orthodontic appliances. The cases shown are ranging from the age group of 9-19 years presenting combination of both mixed and permanent dentition development. All cases show satisfactory correction of habits and stable results. PMID:25954079

  2. Immunologically mediated oral diseases

    PubMed Central

    Jimson, Sudha; Balachader, N.; Anita, N.; Babu, R.

    2015-01-01

    Immune mediated diseases of oral cavity are uncommon. The lesions may be self-limiting and undergo remission spontaneously. Among the immune mediated oral lesions the most important are lichen planus, pemphigus, erythema multiformi, epidermolysis bullosa, systemic lupus erythematosis. Cellular and humoral mediated immunity play a major role directed against epithelial and connective tissue in chronic and recurrent patterns. Confirmatory diagnosis can be made by biopsy, direct and indirect immunoflouresence, immune precipitation and immunoblotting. Therapeutic agents should be selected after thorough evaluation of immune status through a variety of tests and after determining any aggravating or provoking factors. Early and appropriate diagnosis is important for proper treatment planning contributing to better prognosis and better quality of life of patient. PMID:26015713

  3. Oral chemotherapy in tinnitus.

    PubMed

    Kay, N J

    1981-05-01

    A double-blind triple cross-over trial was designed for 21 patients suffering from tinnitus; mexiletine, diazapam, betahistine and placebo were taken each for a month sequentially during which time the patients recorded their tinnitus loudness subjectively on a visual analogue scale. The results showed that these medications did not influence the tinnitus loudness. Since mexiletine is an oral analogue of lignocaine and a cardiovascular drug, any untoward cardiovascular history and clinical finding disqualified such patients from the trial. Twenty-one such patients were rejected from an original group of 42 patients. In a volunteer trial mexiletine unrelated to this, it was reported that a vasovagal attack was suffered by someone who had just consumed 400 mg mexiletine orally. After ethical considerations the tinnitus trial was stopped. Eleven patients completed the cycle of medications, 10 did not. The dangers of using a cardiovascular drug for a non-cardiovascular condition is thus exposed.

  4. Lasers in oral surgery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Keller, Ulrich; Hibst, Raimund

    1994-12-01

    The indications of lasers in oral surgery are defined by the laser-tissue interaction types. These are mainly thermal effects depending especially on the absorption of laser light in varying biological tissues. In histological sections different laser effects are demonstrated on oral mucosa, bone and cartilage, which have a great influence on wound healing and subsequently on clinical indications of the different wavelengths. On the one hand the good coagulation effect of the Nd:YAG laser is wanted for hemostasis in soft tissue surgery. On the other hand, for the treatment of precancerous dysplasias or neoplasias an effective cutting with a coagulation effect like using the CO2 laser is necessary. However, the excision of benign mucosal lesions as well as performing osteotomies or shaping of cartilage should be undertaken with the Er:YAG laser without greater coagulation and consequently without any delay of wound healing.

  5. Oral health & HIV/AIDS.

    PubMed

    Gennaro, Susan; Naidoo, Sudeshi; Berthold, Peter

    2008-01-01

    Oral lesions are common in women and children with HIV/AIDS and may decrease the overall quality of life in these patients because of pain, dry mouth, and difficulty in eating. An oral cavity screening is an easy, noninvasive, quick, and inexpensive procedure that provides nurses with invaluable information about the need for referral, treatment, and health education. Nurses can use the information obtained from a careful oral screening to decrease the symptoms experienced with oral lesions and optimize a patient's ability to chew and enjoy food. Common oral manifestations of HIV infection include fungal, viral, and bacterial infections, although neoplasms, periodontal disease, salivary gland disease, and lesions of uncertain origin are also seen. Oral lesions such as candidiasis, oral hairy leukoplakia, herpetic ulcers, and Kaposi's sarcoma are often among the first symptoms of HIV infection.

  6. Good Oral Health and Diet

    PubMed Central

    Scardina, G. A.; Messina, P.

    2012-01-01

    An unhealthy diet has been implicated as risk factors for several chronic diseases that are known to be associated with oral diseases. Studies investigating the relationship between oral diseases and diet are limited. Therefore, this study was conducted to describe the relationship between healthy eating habits and oral health status. The dentistry has an important role in the diagnosis of oral diseases correlated with diet. Consistent nutrition guidelines are essential to improve health. A poor diet was significantly associated with increased odds of oral disease. Dietary advice for the prevention of oral diseases has to be a part of routine patient education practices. Inconsistencies in dietary advice may be linked to inadequate training of professionals. Literature suggests that the nutrition training of dentists and oral health training of dietitians and nutritionists is limited. PMID:22363174

  7. Negative results: negative perceptions limit their potential for increasing reproducibility.

    PubMed

    Teixeira da Silva, Jaime A

    2015-07-07

    Negative results are an important building block in the development of scientific thought, primarily because most likely the vast majority of data is negative, i.e., there is not a favorable outcome. Only very limited data is positive, and that is what tends to get published, albeit alongside a sub-set of negative results to emphasize the positive nature of the positive results. Yet, not all negative results get published. Part of the problem lies with a traditional mind-set and rigid publishing frame-work that tends to view negative results in a negative light, or that only tends to reward scientists primarily for presenting positive findings. This opinion piece indicates that in addition to a deficient mind-set, there are also severe limitations in the availability of publishing channels where negative results could get published.

  8. Fluoride and Oral Health.

    PubMed

    O'Mullane, D M; Baez, R J; Jones, S; Lennon, M A; Petersen, P E; Rugg-Gunn, A J; Whelton, H; Whitford, G M

    2016-06-01

    The discovery during the first half of the 20th century of the link between natural fluoride, adjusted fluoride levels in drinking water and reduced dental caries prevalence proved to be a stimulus for worldwide on-going research into the role of fluoride in improving oral health. Epidemiological studies of fluoridation programmes have confirmed their safety and their effectiveness in controlling dental caries. Major advances in our knowledge of how fluoride impacts the caries process have led to the development, assessment of effectiveness and promotion of other fluoride vehicles including salt, milk, tablets, toothpaste, gels and varnishes. In 1993, the World Health Organization convened an Expert Committee to provide authoritative information on the role of fluorides in the promotion of oral health throughout the world (WHO TRS 846, 1994). This present publication is a revision of the original 1994 document, again using the expertise of researchers from the extensive fields of knowledge required to successfully implement complex interventions such as the use of fluorides to improve dental and oral health. Financial support for research into the development of these new fluoride strategies has come from many sources including government health departments as well as international and national grant agencies. In addition, the unique role which industry has played in the development, formulation, assessment of effectiveness and promotion of the various fluoride vehicles and strategies is noteworthy. This updated version of 'Fluoride and Oral Health' has adopted an evidence-based approach to its commentary on the different fluoride vehicles and strategies and also to its recommendations. In this regard, full account is taken of the many recent systematic reviews published in peer reviewed literature.

  9. [Reiter's syndrome oral manifestations].

    PubMed

    Fotiou, G; Laskaris, G

    1988-01-01

    Reiter's syndrome is characterized by arthritis, non-gonococcal urethritis, conjunctivitis and mucocutaneous lesions. Oral lesions occur in 20-40% of the cases. They appear as papules and ulcerations on the buccal mucosa, gingiva and lips. Lesions on the tongue resemple "geographic tongue". One case of Reiter's syndrome is described. The significance of the clinical lesions, their microscopic appearance and the differential diagnosis are discussed.

  10. Skylab oral health studies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brown, L. R.; Frome, W. J.; Handler, S.; Wheatcroft, M. G.; Rider, L. J.

    1977-01-01

    Evaluation of Skylab crewmembers for mission related effects on oral health in relation to possible dental injuries provided the following distinctive changes: (1) increased counts of specific anaerobic and streptococcal components; (2) elevations in levels of secretory IgA concurrent with diminutions of salivary lysozyme; and (3) increases in dental calculus and gingival inflammations. The clinical changes are considered to be more influenced by the preexisting state of dental health than by any mission related effects.

  11. The impact of an educational pamphlet on the awareness of parents about 4‒6-year-old children’s oral habits and dentofacial discrepancies

    PubMed Central

    Momeni Danaei, Shahla; Faghihi, Fatemeh; Golkari, Ali; Saki, Maryam

    2016-01-01

    Background. This study aimed to evaluate whether the parents’ knowledge about the adverse effects of oral habits and dentoskeletal discrepancies would improve by an educational pamphlet. Methods. A parallel-group randomized clinical trial was conducted on parents in kindergartens of Shiraz, Iran, 2013. The parents completed a designed questionnaire to determine the pre-intervention score. The study group received an educational pamphlet on the oral habits and dentoskeletal discrepancies, in contrast to the control group. Three weeks later, the parents in both groups took the questionnaire again (post-intervention score). The primary outcome was a change in the parents’ knowledge about oral habits and dentoskeletal discrepancies, which was measured by 13 questions of the questionnaire. Each correct answer was given a positive point and each incorrect answer a negative point. The total pre- and post-intervention scores were calculated by summing up the points and compared using Mann–Whitney U test. Results. A total of 550 subjects were assessed for eligibility and 413 were randomized. Of the study group, 203 subjects (98.56%), and of the control group, 204 parents (98.54%) completed the questionnaire for the second time. The score of the study group in the "normal occlusion" section of the questionnaire had significantly improved (P < 0.001) and in the "oral habits" section the score of both groups had improved but in the study group the improvement was significantly higher (P < 0.001). Conclusion. The educational pamphlet can be effective in increasing the level of parents’ knowledge about normal occlusion and complications of oral habits. PMID:27092216

  12. Negative Ions in Space.

    PubMed

    Millar, Thomas J; Walsh, Catherine; Field, Thomas A

    2017-02-08

    Until a decade ago, the only anion observed to play a prominent role in astrophysics was H(-). The bound-free transitions in H(-) dominate the visible opacity in stars with photospheric temperatures less than 7000 K, including the Sun. The H(-) anion is also believed to have been critical to the formation of molecular hydrogen in the very early evolution of the Universe. Once H2 formed, about 500 000 years after the Big Bang, the expanding gas was able to lose internal gravitational energy and collapse to form stellar objects and "protogalaxies", allowing the creation of heavier elements such as C, N, and O through nucleosynthesis. Although astronomers had considered some processes through which anions might form in interstellar clouds and circumstellar envelopes, including the important role that polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons might play in this, it was the detection in 2006 of rotational line emission from C6H(-) that galvanized a systematic study of the abundance, distribution, and chemistry of anions in the interstellar medium. In 2007, the Cassini mission reported the unexpected detection of anions with mass-to-charge ratios of up to ∼10 000 in the upper atmosphere of Titan; this observation likewise instigated the study of fundamental chemical processes involving negative ions among planetary scientists. In this article, we review the observations of anions in interstellar clouds, circumstellar envelopes, Titan, and cometary comae. We then discuss a number of processes by which anions can be created and destroyed in these environments. The derivation of accurate rate coefficients for these processes is an essential input for the chemical kinetic modeling that is necessary to fully extract physics from the observational data. We discuss such models, along with their successes and failings, and finish with an outlook on the future.

  13. Low resistivity, low contrast pays

    SciTech Connect

    Sneider, R.M.; Kulha, J.T. |

    1996-08-01

    Major hydrocarbon accumulations have been produced over the past 40 years in low resistivity, low contrast (LRLC) sands in the Gulf of Mexico Basin (GOM). LRLC reservoirs were commonly considered wet, tight, misidentified as a shale or overlooked, but are being re-evaluated now in other world basins, including Latin America. Seismic response, drill cuttings, cores, log response, petrophysical models, and production testing provide an integrated LRLC evaluation. Causes of LRLC pay in the GOM include: laminated clean sands with shales; silts or shaly sands; clay-coated sands; glauconitic sands; sands with interstitial dispersed clay; sands with disseminated pyrite or other conductive minerals; clay-lined burrows; clay clasts; altered volcanic/feldspathic framework grains; and very fine-grained sand with very saline water. LRLC depositional systems include: deepwater fans, with levee-channel complexes; delta front and toe deposits; shingle turbidites; and alluvial and deltaic channel fills. Geological and petrophysical models developed in the GOM for evaluation of LRLC pay are applicable in Latin America. An Archie clean sand or Waxman-Smits shaly sand model are commonly used to evaluate LRLC anomalies. Often, shaly sand models are not necessarily suited for LRLC evaluation. The Archie lithology exponent (m) and saturation exponent (n) for many LRLC reservoirs range from 1.4 to 1.85, and 1.2 to 1.8, respectively. In thinly laminated LRLC reservoirs, net sand distribution is identified with high resolution logging tools, rock examination and interval testing.

  14. Laser Image Contrast Enhancement System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kurtz, Robert L. (Inventor); Holmes, Richard R. (Inventor); Witherow, William K. (Inventor)

    2002-01-01

    An optical image enhancement system provides improved image contrast in imaging of a target in high temperature surroundings such as a furnace. The optical system includes a source of vertically polarized light such as laser and a beam splitter for receiving the light and directing the light toward the target. A retardation plate is affixed to a target-facing surface of the beam splitter and a vertical polarizer is disposed along a common optical path with the beam splitter between the retardation plate and the target. A horizontal polarizer disposed in the common optical path, receives light passing through a surface of the beam splitter opposed to the target-facing surface. An image detector is disposed at one end of the optical path. A band pass filter having a band pass filter characteristic matching the frequency of the vertically polarized light source is disposed in the path between the horizontal polarizer and the image detector. The use of circular polarization, together with cross polarizers, enables the reflected light to be passed to the detector while blocking thermal radiation.

  15. Brute force absorption contrast microtomography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Davis, Graham R.; Mills, David

    2014-09-01

    In laboratory X-ray microtomography (XMT) systems, the signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) is typically determined by the X-ray exposure due to the low flux associated with microfocus X-ray tubes. As the exposure time is increased, the SNR improves up to a point where other sources of variability dominate, such as differences in the sensitivities of adjacent X-ray detector elements. Linear time-delay integration (TDI) readout averages out detector sensitivities on the critical horizontal direction and equiangular TDI also averages out the X-ray field. This allows the SNR to be increased further with increasing exposure. This has been used in dentistry to great effect, allowing subtle variations in dentine mineralisation to be visualised in 3 dimensions. It has also been used to detect ink in ancient parchments that are too damaged to physically unroll. If sufficient contrast between the ink and parchment exists, it is possible to virtually unroll the tomographic image of the scroll in order that the text can be read. Following on from this work, a feasibility test was carried out to determine if it might be possible to recover images from decaying film reels. A successful attempt was made to re-create a short film sequence from a rolled length of 16mm film using XMT. However, the "brute force" method of scaling this up to allow an entire film reel to be imaged presents a significant challenge.

  16. Effects of Hangeshashinto on Growth of Oral Microorganisms

    PubMed Central

    Fukamachi, Haruka; Matsumoto, Chinami; Omiya, Yuji; Arimoto, Takafumi; Morisaki, Hirobumi; Kataoka, Hideo; Kadena, Miki; Funatsu, Takahiro; Fukutake, Masato; Kase, Yoshio; Kuwata, Hirotaka

    2015-01-01

    Oral mucositis (OM) in cancer patients induced by chemotherapy or radiotherapy has a significant impact on quality of life, and causes considerable morbidity. Oral microorganisms are likely to intensify the inflammatory process and aggravate the formation of ulcers. Hangeshashinto (HST), a Japanese kampo medicine, has been reported to be effective when used as a gargle for the treatment of OM. To clarify the effects of HST on oral microorganisms, we assessed its antimicrobial activity against 27 microbial species, including 19 oral bacteria and one fungus. HST extract inhibited the growth of Gram-negative bacteria, including Fusobacterium nucleatum, Porphyromonas gingivalis, Porphyromonas endodontalis, Prevotella intermedia, Prevotella melaninogenica, Tannerella forsythia, Treponema denticola, and Porphyromonas asaccharolytica, though inhibitory effects were less pronounced for Gram-positive bacteria and the fungal strain. We then investigated the effects of antibacterial activities on 15 purified ingredients of HST and determined that baicalein, berberine, coptisine, [6]-shogaol, and homogentisic acid actively inhibited the growth of these bacteria. These findings showed that HST inhibits the growth of specific Gram-negative periodontopathogenic bacteria, which are significant pathogens in OM, without disturbing the normal oral flora. Our data suggest that HST may be a useful treatment for OM in patients undergoing anticancer treatment. PMID:26170876

  17. Liaison between micro-organisms and oral cancer

    PubMed Central

    Srinivasprasad, Vijayan; Dineshshankar, Janardhanam; Sathiyajeeva, J.; Karthikeyan, M.; Sunitha, J.; Ragunathan, Ramachandran

    2015-01-01

    Oral cancer which is a subtype of head and neck, cancer is any neoplastic tissue growth in the oral cavity. It comprises an abnormal mass of cells that foists genetic mutation and impedes the normal cell cycle, resulting in its unrestrained growth. Various studies on the plausible link between oral microbial flora and cancer notwithstanding, our understanding of their link remains obscure and inadequate. The multitude of mechanisms by which the microflora initiate or spur Carcinogenesis are still under study and scrutiny. As is widely known, the oral cavity is an abode to a wide assortment of microbes, each present in contrasting amounts. It is observed that increased growth of the microflora is concomitant with known clinical risk factors for oral cancer. Manifold bacterial species have been found to interfere directly with eukaryotic cellular signaling, adopting a style typical of tumor promoters. Bacteria are also known to impede apoptosis thereby potentially promoting carcinogenesis. The viral role in carcinogenesis (by annulling of p53 tumor suppressor gene and other cellular proteins with subsequent alteration in host genome function) is well documented. Furthermore, the changes occurring in the commensal microflora in accompaniment with cancer development could possibly be used as a diagnostic indicator for early cancer detection. The intention of this review is to obtain a better understanding of the “role” that micro-organisms play in oral cancer etiology. PMID:26538877

  18. Betel nut chewing, oral premalignant lesions, and the oral microbiome.

    PubMed

    Hernandez, Brenda Y; Zhu, Xuemei; Goodman, Marc T; Gatewood, Robert; Mendiola, Paul; Quinata, Katrina; Paulino, Yvette C

    2017-01-01

    Oral cancers are attributed to a number of causal agents including tobacco, alcohol, human papillomavirus (HPV), and areca (betel) nut. Although betel nut chewing has been established as an independent cause of oral cancer, the mechanisms of carcinogenesis are poorly understood. An investigation was undertaken to evaluate the influence of betel nut chewing on the oral microbiome and oral premalignant lesions. Study participants were recruited from a dental clinic in Guam. Structured interviews and oral examinations were performed. Oral swabbing and saliva samples were evaluated by 454 pyrosequencing of the V3- V5 region of the 16S rRNA bacterial gene and genotyped for HPV. One hundred twenty-two adults were enrolled including 64 current betel nut chewers, 37 former chewers, and 21 with no history of betel nut use. Oral premalignant lesions, including leukoplakia and submucous fibrosis, were observed in 10 chewers. Within-sample bacterial diversity was significantly lower in long-term (≥10 years) chewers vs. never chewers and in current chewers with oral lesions vs. individuals without lesions. Between-sample bacterial diversity based on Unifrac distances significantly differed by chewing status and oral lesion status. Current chewers had significantly elevated levels of Streptococcus infantis and higher and lower levels of distinct taxa of the Actinomyces and Streptococcus genera. Long-term chewers had reduced levels of Parascardovia and Streptococcus. Chewers with oral lesions had significantly elevated levels of Oribacterium, Actinomyces, and Streptococcus, including Streptococcus anginosus. In multivariate analyses, controlling for smoking, oral HPV, S.anginosus, and S. infantis levels, current betel nut chewing remained the only predictor of oral premalignant lesions. Our study provides evidence that betel nut chewing alters the oral bacterial microbiome including that of chewers who develop oral premalignant lesions. Nonetheless, whether microbial changes

  19. Betel nut chewing, oral premalignant lesions, and the oral microbiome

    PubMed Central

    Hernandez, Brenda Y.; Zhu, Xuemei; Goodman, Marc T.; Gatewood, Robert; Mendiola, Paul; Quinata, Katrina; Paulino, Yvette C.

    2017-01-01

    Oral cancers are attributed to a number of causal agents including tobacco, alcohol, human papillomavirus (HPV), and areca (betel) nut. Although betel nut chewing has been established as an independent cause of oral cancer, the mechanisms of carcinogenesis are poorly understood. An investigation was undertaken to evaluate the influence of betel nut chewing on the oral microbiome and oral premalignant lesions. Study participants were recruited from a dental clinic in Guam. Structured interviews and oral examinations were performed. Oral swabbing and saliva samples were evaluated by 454 pyrosequencing of the V3- V5 region of the 16S rRNA bacterial gene and genotyped for HPV. One hundred twenty-two adults were enrolled including 64 current betel nut chewers, 37 former chewers, and 21 with no history of betel nut use. Oral premalignant lesions, including leukoplakia and submucous fibrosis, were observed in 10 chewers. Within-sample bacterial diversity was significantly lower in long-term (≥10 years) chewers vs. never chewers and in current chewers with oral lesions vs. individuals without lesions. Between-sample bacterial diversity based on Unifrac distances significantly differed by chewing status and oral lesion status. Current chewers had significantly elevated levels of Streptococcus infantis and higher and lower levels of distinct taxa of the Actinomyces and Streptococcus genera. Long-term chewers had reduced levels of Parascardovia and Streptococcus. Chewers with oral lesions had significantly elevated levels of Oribacterium, Actinomyces, and Streptococcus, including Streptococcus anginosus. In multivariate analyses, controlling for smoking, oral HPV, S.anginosus, and S. infantis levels, current betel nut chewing remained the only predictor of oral premalignant lesions. Our study provides evidence that betel nut chewing alters the oral bacterial microbiome including that of chewers who develop oral premalignant lesions. Nonetheless, whether microbial changes

  20. Dual-contrast MR imaging of liver cancer in rats.

    PubMed

    Weissleder, R; Saini, S; Stark, D D; Wittenberg, J; Ferrucci, J T

    1988-03-01

    MR contrast agents increase hepatic tumor conspicuity, as measured in terms of contrast-to-noise (C/N) ratios. With an animal model of hepatic metastases from breast cancer, IV administration of Gd-DTPA (0.2 mmol/kg) shows a biphasic time response, transiently increasing the signal intensity of liver relative to tumor, with C/N ratio magnitudes increasing from -5.7 to -16.3 (SE 250/20); after a delay, the signal intensity of tumor increases relative to liver with a reversal of the C/N sign from negative to positive and an increase in the C/N magnitude to +25.0. IV administration of ferrite particles (0.05 mmol Fe/kg) shows a monophasic time response, increasing signal intensity of tumor relative to liver from +1.5 to +49.5 (SE 500/30). When both contrast agents were administered together (dual-contrast technique), the tumor-liver C/N magnitude reached a maximum of +67.8 (SE 500/30) 12 min after drug infusion. Analysis of individual contrast and noise factors contributing to this technique revealed a strong correlation between the signal intensity of liver and the signal intensity of ghost artifacts, which increase after administration of Gd-DTPA (r = .89) and decrease after administration of ferrite (r = 1.0). Dual-contrast imaging shows a synergistic addition of contrast and suppression of noise from ghost artifacts, maximizing the C/N and increasing the conspicuity of focal liver lesions.

  1. Oral yeast colonization throughout pregnancy

    PubMed Central

    Rio, Rute; Simões-Silva, Liliana; Garro, Sofia; Silva, Mário-Jorge; Azevedo, Álvaro

    2017-01-01

    Background Recent studies suggest that placenta may harbour a unique microbiome that may have origin in maternal oral microbiome. Although the major physiological and hormonal adjustments observed in pregnant women lead to biochemical and microbiological modifications of the oral environment, very few studies evaluated the changes suffered by the oral microbiota throughout pregnancy. So, the aim of our study was to evaluate oral yeast colonization throughout pregnancy and to compare it with non-pregnant women. Material and Methods The oral yeast colonization was assessed in saliva of 30 pregnant and non-pregnant women longitudinally over a 6-months period. Demographic information was collected, a non-invasive intra-oral examination was performed and saliva flow and pH were determined. Results Pregnant and non-pregnant groups were similar regarding age and level of education. Saliva flow rate did not differ, but saliva pH was lower in pregnant than in non-pregnant women. Oral yeast prevalence was higher in pregnant than in non-pregnant women, either in the first or in the third trimester, but did not attain statistical significance. In individuals colonized with yeast, the total yeast quantification (Log10CFU/mL) increase from the 1st to the 3rd trimester in pregnant women, but not in non-pregnant women. Conclusions Pregnancy may favour oral yeast growth that may be associated with an acidic oral environment. Key words:Oral yeast, fungi, pregnancy, saliva pH. PMID:28160578

  2. Oral health problems and mortality

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Jung Ki; Baker, Lindsey A.; Davarian, Shieva; Crimmins, Eileen

    2013-01-01

    Background/purpose Previous studies have shown the relationship between individual oral health conditions and mortality; however, the relationship between mortality and multiple oral health conditions has not been examined. This study investigates the link between individual oral health problems and oral comorbidity and mortality risk. Materials and methods Data are derived from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 1999–2004, which is linked to the National Death Index for mortality follow-up through 2006. We estimated the risk of mortality among people with three individual oral health conditions—tooth loss, root caries, and periodontitis as well as with oral comorbidity—or having all three conditions. Results Significant tooth loss, root caries, and periodontal disease were associated with increased odds of dying. The relationship between oral health conditions and mortality disappeared when controlling for sociodemographic, health, and/or health behavioral indicators. Having multiple oral health problems was associated with an even higher rate of mortality. Conclusion Individual oral health conditions—tooth loss, root caries, and periodontal disease—were not related to mortality when sociodemographic, health, and/or health behavioral factors were considered, and there was no differential pattern between the three conditions. Multiple oral health problems were associated with a higher risk of dying. PMID:24416472

  3. Intraperitoneal contrast agents for computed tomography

    SciTech Connect

    Stork, J.

    1985-08-01

    Intraperitoneal contrast agents have been used to diagnose mass lesions, adhesions, and hernias using conventional radiographic techniques. The use of intraperitoneal contrast agents in conjunction with computed tomography (CT) has been limited and is the subject of this report.

  4. Double-Negative Mechanical Metamaterials Displaying Simultaneous Negative Stiffness and Negative Poisson's Ratio Properties.

    PubMed

    Hewage, Trishan A M; Alderson, Kim L; Alderson, Andrew; Scarpa, Fabrizio

    2016-12-01

    A scalable mechanical metamaterial simultaneously displaying negative stiffness and negative Poisson's ratio responses is presented. Interlocking hexagonal subunit assemblies containing 3 alternative embedded negative stiffness (NS) element types display Poisson's ratio values of -1 and NS values over two orders of magnitude (-1.4 N mm(-1) to -160 N mm(-1) ), in good agreement with model predictions.

  5. Oral hygiene, dentition, sexual habits and risk of oral cancer

    PubMed Central

    Talamini, R; Vaccarella, S; Barbone, F; Tavani, A; Vecchia, C La; Herrero, R; Muñoz, N; Franceschi, S

    2000-01-01

    In an Italian case-control study of oral cancer, number of missing teeth and other aspects of dental care were similar, but the general condition of the mouth, as indicated by gum bleeding, tartar deposits and mucosal irritation, was worse among oral cancer cases than controls. No differences were detected in sexual practices (including oral sex) and (previous) sexually transmitted infections. © 2000 Cancer Research Campaign PMID:11027440

  6. The negation bias: when negations signal stereotypic expectancies.

    PubMed

    Beukeboom, Camiel J; Finkenauer, Catrin; Wigboldus, Daniël H J

    2010-12-01

    Research on linguistic biases shows that stereotypic expectancies are implicitly reflected in language and are thereby subtly communicated to message recipients. We examined whether these findings extend to the use of negations (e.g., not smart instead of stupid). We hypothesized that people use more negations in descriptions of stereotype-inconsistent behavior than in descriptions of stereotype-consistent behavior. In 3 studies, participants either judged the applicability of experimentally controlled person descriptions or spontaneously produced person descriptions themselves. Results provided support for this hypothesis. Moreover, a 4th study demonstrated that negations have communicative consequences. When a target person's behavior was described with negations, message recipients inferred that this behavior was an exception to the rule and that it was more likely caused by situational circumstances than by dispositional factors. These findings indicate that by using negations people implicitly communicate stereotypic expectancies and that negations play a subtle but powerful role in stereotype maintenance.

  7. Binocular contrast discrimination needs monocular multiplicative noise

    PubMed Central

    Ding, Jian; Levi, Dennis M.

    2016-01-01

    The effects of signal and noise on contrast discrimination are difficult to separate because of a singularity in the signal-detection-theory model of two-alternative forced-choice contrast discrimination (Katkov, Tsodyks, & Sagi, 2006). In this article, we show that it is possible to eliminate the singularity by combining that model with a binocular combination model to fit monocular, dichoptic, and binocular contrast discrimination. We performed three experiments using identical stimuli to measure the perceived phase, perceived contrast, and contrast discrimination of a cyclopean sine wave. In the absence of a fixation point, we found a binocular advantage in contrast discrimination both at low contrasts (<4%), consistent with previous studies, and at high contrasts (≥34%), which has not been previously reported. However, control experiments showed no binocular advantage at high contrasts in the presence of a fixation point or for observers without accommodation. We evaluated two putative contrast-discrimination mechanisms: a nonlinear contrast transducer and multiplicative noise (MN). A binocular combination model (the DSKL model; Ding, Klein, & Levi, 2013b) was first fitted to both the perceived-phase and the perceived-contrast data sets, then combined with either the nonlinear contrast transducer or the MN mechanism to fit the contrast-discrimination data. We found that the best model combined the DSKL model with early MN. Model simulations showed that, after going through interocular suppression, the uncorrelated noise in the two eyes became anticorrelated, resulting in less binocular noise and therefore a binocular advantage in the discrimination task. Combining a nonlinear contrast transducer or MN with a binocular combination model (DSKL) provides a powerful method for evaluating the two putative contrast-discrimination mechanisms. PMID:26982370

  8. Binocular contrast discrimination needs monocular multiplicative noise.

    PubMed

    Ding, Jian; Levi, Dennis M

    2016-01-01

    The effects of signal and noise on contrast discrimination are difficult to separate because of a singularity in the signal-detection-theory model of two-alternative forced-choice contrast discrimination (Katkov, Tsodyks, & Sagi, 2006). In this article, we show that it is possible to eliminate the singularity by combining that model with a binocular combination model to fit monocular, dichoptic, and binocular contrast discrimination. We performed three experiments using identical stimuli to measure the perceived phase, perceived contrast, and contrast discrimination of a cyclopean sine wave. In the absence of a fixation point, we found a binocular advantage in contrast discrimination both at low contrasts (<4%), consistent with previous studies, and at high contrasts (≥34%), which has not been previously reported. However, control experiments showed no binocular advantage at high contrasts in the presence of a fixation point or for observers without accommodation. We evaluated two putative contrast-discrimination mechanisms: a nonlinear contrast transducer and multiplicative noise (MN). A binocular combination model (the DSKL model; Ding, Klein, & Levi, 2013b) was first fitted to both the perceived-phase and the perceived-contrast data sets, then combined with either the nonlinear contrast transducer or the MN mechanism to fit the contrast-discrimination data. We found that the best model combined the DSKL model with early MN. Model simulations showed that, after going through interocular suppression, the uncorrelated noise in the two eyes became anticorrelated, resulting in less binocular noise and therefore a binocular advantage in the discrimination task. Combining a nonlinear contrast transducer or MN with a binocular combination model (DSKL) provides a powerful method for evaluating the two putative contrast-discrimination mechanisms.

  9. Oral toxicity produced by chemotherapy: A systematic review

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Introduction: Antineoplastic chemotherapy remains one of the most widely used management strategies in cancer, either alone or in combination with other types of treatment. The main inconvenience of chemotherapy is its lack of selectivity, since it acts upon both tumor cells and rapidly multiplying normal cells such as bone marrow cells, hair follicle cells and oral and gastrointestinal mucosal cells. Material and method: An exhaustive search was made of the main oral toxic effects of chemotherapy in the PubMed-Medline, Cochrane Library and Scopus databases. A total of 1293 articles were identified, of which 333 met the study inclusion criteria. Results: The toxic effects of chemotherapy at oral mucosal level comprise mucositis, osteonecrosis of the jaws secondary to bisphosphonate use, susceptibility to infections, dental alterations, salivary and neurological disorders, dysgeusia and bleeding tendency. These complications have a negative impact upon patient quality of life, and in some cases can prove life-threatening. Conclusions: Evaluation of patient oral and dental health is essential before administering chemotherapy, in order to minimize the risk of oral and systemic complications of such treatment. Key words:Chemotherapy, oral complications, dental, saliva and osteonecrosis jaw. PMID:24596641

  10. Oral transit time: a critical review of the literature

    PubMed Central

    SOARES, Thais Jacóe; MORAES, Danielle Pedroni; de MEDEIROS, Gisele Chagas; SASSI, Fernanda Chiarion; ZILBERSTEIN, Bruno; de ANDRADE, Claudia Regina Furquim

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Oral transit time is one of the parameters observed during the clinical assessment of the swallowing function. The importance of this parameter is due to its impact on the total duration of a meal, whose consequence can be an unfavorable nutritional prognostic. Objective To document scientific papers that measure oral transit time in healthy subjects. Method The review followed the steps proposed by the Cochrane Handbook. The search was done via the PubMed database through the use of descriptors related to the oral phase of swallowing, as well as to types of food consistency. Results The articles on the theme had different definitions for oral transit time, as well as heterogeneity of tested volumes, age and gender of the participants. The times found varied from 0.35 s to 1.54 s for liquids, from 0.39 s to 1.05 s for pasty foods and from 1 s to 12.8 s for solid foods. Also, regardless of volume or consistency, oral transit time in elderly people is significantly longer than in adults. Conclusion There's no consensus in the literature about oral transit time in healthy subjects. However, this parameter should be valued during the assessment of the swallowing function due to its negative impact on the dynamics of swallowing, which can cause high energy expenditure during feeding. PMID:26176255

  11. Prevalence of oral Candida in the first year of life.

    PubMed

    Stecksén-Blicks, C; Granström, E; Silfverdal, S A; West, C E

    2015-09-01

    Colonisation of the gastrointestinal tract is influenced by primary microbial exposure and bioactive factors in breastmilk. The aim was to explore the prevalence of oral Candida in the first year of life in relation to selected exposures. Oral Candida was studied in 100 healthy infants at 4 and 8 weeks, 3, 6 and 12 months of age and related to delivery mode, birth weight, infant health and feeding, antibiotics, antimycotics, steroids and probiotics in mother and infant, living conditions, maternal smoking and infections The association between lactoferrin and antisecretory factor in breastmilk and maternal serum haemoglobin, transferrin, and ferritin levels in relation to oral Candida was also explored. About 11% to 15% of the infants had oral Candida at the respective age. Colonisation was fairly stable until 6 months of age. There was no conclusive impact of the investigated exposures at entry. Infants with a furry pet at home had a lower frequency of Candida at 3 months, (P < 0.05) whereas all but one colonised infant had older siblings at 12 months (P < 0.01). Lactoferrin in breastmilk was negatively associated with colonisation at 6 months of age. It is concluded that 11 to 15% had oral Candida. Exposure to furry pets and siblings impacted oral Candida.

  12. On the Distinction between Positive and Negative Reinforcement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Iwata, Brian A.

    2006-01-01

    In this article, the author presents his views on Michael's (1975) and Baron and Galizio's (2005) arguments on eliminating the distinction between positive and negative reinforcement. He first discusses Michael's concept of these two types of operations and contrasts it with the notions of Baron and Galizio. The author provides the readers his own…

  13. Negation and Nonveridicality in the History of Greek

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chatzopoulou, Aikaterini

    2012-01-01

    This study provides a thorough investigation of the expression primarily of sentential negation in the history of Greek, through quantitative data from representative texts from three major stages of vernacular Greek (Attic Greek, Koine, Late Medieval Greek), and qualitative data from Homeric Greek until Standard Modern. The contrast between two…

  14. Engaging the U.S. Congress in the oral health of special-needs adults: lessons from pediatric oral health policy.

    PubMed

    Edelstein, Burton L

    2013-01-01

    The U.S. Congress has a long history of attending to insurance coverage for children's oral health services while being relatively silent about adult dental care. Yet many adults, made vulnerable by their disabilities and illnesses, are dependent upon governmental programs. This paper contrasts the robust history of federal legislative action in support of children's oral health with the lack of attention to adults' oral health to identify approaches that advocates may consider when engaging Congress in improving oral health for disabled and older adults. It provides a historical context of Congressional action on dental coverage from Medicaid and Medicare in the 1960s through passage of the Affordable Care Act in 2010 and explicates the misconception that Congress has demonstrated about the importance of oral health for adults' well-being and general health. Drivers and strategies for policy change are described and recommendations are made to expand coverage for vulnerable adults.

  15. Topical Antimycotics for Oral Candidiasis in Warfarin Users.

    PubMed

    Hellfritzsch, Maja; Pottegård, Anton; Pedersen, Andreas James Thestrup; Burghle, Alaa; Mouaanaki, Fatima; Hallas, Jesper; Grove, Erik Lerkevang; Damkier, Per

    2017-04-01

    Treatment for oral candidiasis in warfarin users may be complicated by drug-drug interactions (DDIs) between warfarin and topically applied antimycotics. However, current knowledge of these putative DDIs is merely based on case series. We therefore performed a cohort cross-over study with the objective to evaluate the potential DDIs between warfarin and miconazole oral gel or nystatin oral solution. The cohort consisted of individuals using warfarin in the period of 1998-2012 (n ≈ 7400). We collected data on cohort members' measurements of the international normalized ratio (INR) from a clinical database, and obtained information on their use of topically applied miconazole and nystatin from a regional prescription register. Potential DDIs were assessed by comparing INR values before and after initiation of an antimycotic drug. Among 17 warfarin users exposed to miconazole oral gel, the mean INR increased from 2.5 (95% CI: 2.1-2.8) to 3.8 (95% CI: 2.8-4.8) after exposure, corresponding to a mean INR increase of 1.4 (95% CI: 0.3-2.4). Among 30 warfarin users exposed to nystatin oral solution, the mean INR was 2.7 (95% CI: 2.3-3.1) before and 2.5 (95% CI: 2.2-2.9) after exposure. In conclusion, we found evidence supporting a clinically relevant drug-drug interaction between warfarin and miconazole oral gel. In contrast, we did not find any indication of an interaction between warfarin and nystatin oral solution. Nystatin rather than miconazole should be preferred when treating warfarin users for oral candidiasis.

  16. Using Contrastive Rhetoric in the ESL Classroom

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Quinn, Janet M.

    2012-01-01

    Contrastive rhetoric studies the writing of second language learners to understand how it is affected by their first language and culture. The field of contrastive rhetoric is as multidimensional as second language writing is complex. It draws on the work of contrastive analysis, anthropology, linguistics, pedagogy, culture studies, translation…

  17. Contrastive Analysis and the Classroom Teacher.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fowler, Dennis G.

    1984-01-01

    Discusses the history, framework, and psychological basis of contrastive analysis. Presents three main points of view of contrastive analysis: (1) predictive (strong), (2) retrospective (weak), and (3) intralingual error analysis (a rejection of the contrastive analysis hypothesis). Suggests that the second viewpoint is more applicable and useful…

  18. Spatial contrast sensitivity in clinical neurology.

    PubMed

    Bulens, C; Meerwaldt, J D; van der Wildt, G J; Keemink, C J

    1988-01-01

    We studied contrast sensitivity function in normal subjects and in three illustrative cases with various neurological disorders. This was done by measuring contrast sensitivity over a range of spatial frequencies for vertical sinewave grating stimuli. It is demonstrated that contrast sensitivity function can give information about visual function not obtainable by conventional test procedures.

  19. Planned Contrasts: An Overview of Comparison Methods.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chatham, Kathy

    Contrasts or comparisons can be used to investigate specific differences between means. Contrasts, as explained by B. Thompson (1985, 1994) are coding vectors that mathematically express hypotheses. The most basic categories of contrasts are planned and unplanned. The purpose of this paper is to explain the relative advantages of using planned…

  20. A Contrast Analysis Approach to Change

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Furr, R. Michael

    2008-01-01

    This paper presents the foundations of contrast analysis as a method for examining change. Contrast analysis is a relatively high-powered, simple, and informative procedure for evaluating hypotheses about specific patterns of change. This paper reviews the general purpose and nature of contrast analysis, it discusses some of the advantages of…

  1. Contrast agent enhanced pQCT of articular cartilage

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kallioniemi, A. S.; Jurvelin, J. S.; Nieminen, M. T.; Lammi, M. J.; Töyräs, J.

    2007-02-01

    The delayed gadolinium enhanced MRI of cartilage (dGEMRIC) technique is the only non-invasive means to estimate proteoglycan (PG) content in articular cartilage. In dGEMRIC, the anionic paramagnetic contrast agent gadopentetate distributes in inverse relation to negatively charged PGs, leading to a linear relation between T1,Gd and spatial PG content in tissue. In the present study, for the first time, contrast agent enhanced peripheral quantitative computed tomography (pQCT) was applied, analogously to dGEMRIC, for the quantitative detection of spatial PG content in cartilage. The suitability of two anionic radiographic contrast agents, gadopentetate and ioxaglate, to detect enzymatically induced PG depletion in articular cartilage was investigated. First, the interrelationships of x-ray absorption, as measured with pQCT, and the contrast agent solution concentration were investigated. Optimal contrast agent concentrations for the following experiments were selected. Second, diffusion rates for both contrast agents were investigated in intact (n = 3) and trypsin-degraded (n = 3) bovine patellar cartilage. The contrast agent concentration of the cartilaginous layer was measured prior to and 2-27 h after immersion. Optimal immersion time for the further experiments was selected. Third, the suitability of gadopentetate and ioxaglate enhanced pQCT to detect the enzymatically induced specific PG depletion was investigated by determining the contrast agent concentrations and uronic acid and water contents in digested and intact osteochondral samples (n = 16). After trypsin-induced PG loss (-70%, p < 0.05) the penetration of gadopentetate and ioxaglate increased (p < 0.05) by 34% and 48%, respectively. Gadopentetate and ioxaglate concentrations both showed strong correlation (r = -0.95, r = -0.94, p < 0.01, respectively) with the uronic acid content. To conclude, contrast agent enhanced pQCT provides a technique to quantify PG content in normal and experimentally

  2. Compound negative binomial distribution with negative multinomial summands

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jordanova, Pavlina K.; Petkova, Monika P.; Stehlík, Milan

    2016-12-01

    The class of Negative Binomial distributions seems to be introduced by Greenwood and Yule in 1920. Due to its wide spread application, investigations of distributions, closely related with it will be always contemporary. Bates, Neyman and Wishart introduce Negative Multinomial distribution. They reach it considering the mixture of independent Poisson distributed random variables with one and the same Gamma mixing variable. This paper investigates a particular case of multivariate compound distribution with one and the same compounding variable. In our case it is Negative Binomial or Sifted Negative Binomial. The summands with equal indexes in different coordinates are Negative Multinomially distributed. In case without shifting, considered as a mixture, the resulting distribution coincides with Mixed Negative Multinomial distribution with scale changed Negative Binomially distributed first parameter. We prove prove that it is Multivariate Power Series Distributed and find explicit form of its parameters. When the summands are geometrically distributed this distribution is stochastically equivalent to a product of independent Bernoulli random variable and appropriate multivariate Geometrically distributed random vector. We show that Compound Shifted Negative Binomial Distribution with Geometric Summands is a particular case of Negative Multinomial distribution with new parameters.

  3. Negative poisson's ratio in single-layer black phosphorus.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Jin-Wu; Park, Harold S

    2014-08-18

    The Poisson's ratio is a fundamental mechanical property that relates the resulting lateral strain to applied axial strain. Although this value can theoretically be negative, it is positive for nearly all materials, though negative values have been observed in so-called auxetic structures. However, nearly all auxetic materials are bulk materials whose microstructure has been specifically engineered to generate a negative Poisson's ratio. Here we report using first-principles calculations the existence of a negative Poisson's ratio in a single-layer, two-dimensional material, black phosphorus. In contrast to engineered bulk auxetics, this behaviour is intrinsic for single-layer black phosphorus, and originates from its puckered structure, where the pucker can be regarded as a re-entrant structure that is comprised of two coupled orthogonal hinges. As a result of this atomic structure, a negative Poisson's ratio is observed in the out-of-plane direction under uniaxial deformation in the direction parallel to the pucker.

  4. Internal polarization limits coronagraph contrast

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Breckinridge, James Bernard; Lam, Wai Sze T.; Chipman, Russell A.

    2015-08-01

    The performance of exoplanet imaging coronagraphs is limited by internal polarization. The point spread function (PSF) of these systems is determined by the details of the opto-mechanical layout selected to package the system and by the highly reflective metal thin films needed to maintain high optical system transmittance. To obtain the high contrast levels needed for terrestrial exoplanet science requires a comprehensive understanding of the vector electromagnetic wave from the source through the system. The literature contains many studies of polarization transmissivity of telescopes and instruments for the purpose of photo-polarimetry. Here we report for the first time the effects of polarization on high-performance image quality.We modeled a typical 2.4-meter Cassegrain telescope system with one 90-degree fold mirror and analyzed the system for polarization aberrations.We find: 1. The image plane irradiance distribution is the linear superposition of four PSF images: One for each of the two orthogonal polarizations and one for each of two cross-product polarization terms. 2. The PSF image is brighter by 9% for one polarization component compared to its orthogonal state. 3. The image of the PSF for orthogonal components are shifted across the focal plane with respect to each other, causing the PSF image for astronomical sources (polarized or unpolarized) to become slightly elongated (elliptical) with a centroid separation of about 0.6 masec. 4. The orthogonally polarized components of unpolarized sources contain different wavefront aberrations, which are separated by approximately 32 milliwaves. This implies that a wavefront correction system cannot optimally correct the aberrations for all polarizations simultaneously. 5. The polarization aberrations couple small parts (~1E-5) of each polarization component of the light into the orthogonal polarization to create highly distorted secondary, or “ghost” PSF image.. The radius of the spatial extent of the 90

  5. Oral Lesions and Lymphoproliferative Disorders

    PubMed Central

    Castellarin, P.; Pozzato, G.; Tirelli, G.; Di Lenarda, R.; Biasotto, M.

    2010-01-01

    Lymphoproliferative disorders are heterogeneous malignancy characterized by the expansion of a lymphoid clone more or less differentiated. At the level of the oral cavity, the lymphoproliferative disorder can occur in various ways, most commonly as lymphoid lesions with extranodal externalization, but sometimes, oral lesions may represent a localization of a disease spread. With regard to the primary localizations of lymphoproliferative disorders, a careful examination of the head and neck, oral, and oropharyngeal area is necessary in order to identify suspicious lesions, and their early detection results in a better prognosis for the patient. Numerous complications have been described and frequently found at oral level, due to pathology or different therapeutic strategies. These complications require precise diagnosis and measures to oral health care. In all this, oral pathologists, as well as dental practitioners, have a central role in the treatment and long-term monitoring of these patients. PMID:20871659

  6. Oral manifestations in transplant patients

    PubMed Central

    Nappalli, Deepika; Lingappa, Ashok

    2015-01-01

    Organ transplantation is a widely undertaken procedure and has become an important alternative for the treatment of different end-stage organ diseases that previously had a poor prognosis. The field of organ transplant and hematopoietic stem cell transplant is developing rapidly. The increase in the number of transplant recipients also has an impact on oral and dental services. Most of the oral problems develop as a direct consequence of drug-induced immunosuppression or the procedure itself. These patients may present with oral complaints due to infections or mucosal lesions. Such lesions should be identified, diagnosed, and treated. New treatment strategies permit continuous adaptation of oral care regimens to the changing scope of oral complications. The aim of this review is to analyze those oral manifestations and to discuss the related literature. PMID:26005458

  7. Oral sex and oropharyngeal cancer

    PubMed Central

    Nguyen, Nam P.; Nguyen, Ly M.; Thomas, Sroka; Hong-Ly, Bevan; Chi, Alexander; Vos, Paul; Karlsson, Ulf; Vinh-Hung, Vincent

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Background: We aimed to study the prevalence of oral sex and its possible association with human papillomavirus (HPV) 16 infection in the development of oropharyngeal cancer in the US population for possible prevention. Methods: We conduct a systemic review on the prevalence of oral sex among Americans among different age groups, the prevalence of HPV 16 infection reported in oropharyngeal cancer, and correlation between oral sex and oropharyngeal cancer. Results: Oral sex is prevalent among adolescents and sexually active adults. Sixty percent of oropharyngeal cancer reported in the United States is associated with HPV 16 infections. Individuals who practiced oral sex with multiple partners are at risk for developing oropharyngeal cancer and need to be informed about practicing safe sex or getting vaccination. Conclusion: Family physicians will play a key role in prevention and educating the public about the risk of oral sex. PMID:27428229

  8. Oral tuberculosis: unusual radiographic findings.

    PubMed

    Sansare, K; Gupta, A; Khanna, V; Karjodkar, F

    2011-05-01

    Oral tuberculosis and its radiographic findings are not commonly encountered in an oral and maxillofacial radiology practice. Literature has occasional mention of the radiographic findings of oral tuberculosis, which are still ambiguous. When affected, it is manifested majorly in the oral mucosa and rarely in the jaw bones. Here, we report certain unusual radiographic findings of oral tuberculosis which have been rarely mentioned in the literature. Four illustrative cases describe bony resorption, condylar resorption, resorption of the inferior border of the mandible and rarefaction of the alveolar bone as radiographic findings of oral tuberculosis. Follow up of the first case demonstrated regeneration of the condylar head after anti-Kochs therapy was completed, a hitherto unreported phenomenon. The importance of including tuberculosis in the differential diagnosis of some of the unusual radiographic manifestations is emphasized.

  9. Serum progranulin concentrations are not responsive during oral lipid tolerance test and oral glucose tolerance test.

    PubMed

    Schmid, A; Leszczak, S; Ober, I; Schäffler, A; Karrasch, T

    2015-07-01

    The postprandial regulation of progranulin by oral uptake of lipids and carbohydrates in healthy individuals has not yet been investigated. The regulation of progranulin in 2 large cohorts of healthy volunteers during oral lipid tolerance test (OLTT; n=100) and oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT; n=100) was analyzed. One hundred healthy volunteers underwent OLTT and OGTT in an outpatient setting. Venous blood was drawn at 0 hours (h) (fasting) and at 2, 4, and 6 h in OLTT or 1 and 2 h in OGTT. A novel OLTT solution completely free of carbohydrates and protein was applied. Subjects were characterized by anthropometric and laboratory parameters. Serum concentrations of progranulin were measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Circulating progranulin levels remained unchanged during OLTT and OGTT. Fasting progranulin levels ranged between 31.3±8.7 and 40.6±7.7 ng/ml and were not different in subgroups addressing BMI, gender, family history, smoking habits, and hormonal contraception. There was a reciprocal correlation of progranulin with HDL (negative) and LDL cholesterol levels (positive). In healthy adults, fasting and postprandial circulating progranulin levels are not different in BMI subgroups. Oral uptake of carbohydrates and lipids does not influence circulating progranulin levels in a short-term manner. A postprandial and short-term regulation of this adipokine is absent, at least in healthy subjects. There is a negative correlation of progranulin with HDL cholesterol, but a positive correlation with LDL cholesterol. This reciprocal association might be of physiological importance for an individual's atherosclerotic risk.

  10. Oral epithelioid hemangioendothelioma

    PubMed Central

    Bhattacharya, Preeti Tomar; Guledgud, Mahima V.; Patil, Karthikeya

    2015-01-01

    Epithelioid hemangioendothelioma (HE) is an intermediate malignant potential vascular neoplasm with uncertain clinical behavior, wide variations in microscopic findings, and prognosis. According to the World Health Organization (2002) classification, epithelioid HE has been considered under malignant tumors which rarely metastasize. The epithelioid variant, the most aggressive one, has similar gender predilection and sporadic occurrence in children. The patients usually present with an asymptomatic oral mass whereas few cases may report with the painful bleeding lesion. We attempt to present a case in an adolescent male with previously never described biological behavior, diverse histopathological features, and immunohistochemistry findings. PMID:26681871

  11. Oral verruciform xanthoma

    PubMed Central

    Harris, Lydia; Staines, Konrad; Pring, Miranda

    2015-01-01

    Verruciform xanthoma (VX) of the oral cavity is a benign mucosal growth that often presents as a pink, yellow or grey raised plaque or papule with granular, papillary or verrucous surface morphology. Intraorally this often presents on the masticatory mucosa and extraorally often involves the skin and anogenital mucosa. There are several proposed aetiological factors and the clinical features of VX can be misleading; clinically it can resemble malignancy. Histopathological diagnosis is a key for the correct management of this lesion. Excision of this lesion is curative. PMID:25819830

  12. Oral complications in cancer patients

    SciTech Connect

    Carl, W.

    1983-02-01

    Ionizing radiation used in treating the head and neck area produces oral side effects such as mucositis, salivary changes, trismus and radiation caries. Sequelae of cancer chemotherapy often include oral stomatitis, myelosuppression and immunosuppression. Infections of dental origin in compromised patients are potentially lethal. Specific programs to eliminate dental pathology before radiation and chemotherapy, and to maintain oral hygiene during and after therapy, will minimize these complications.

  13. [Physiopathology of nephropathy studied with contrast media].

    PubMed

    Morales Buenrostro, L E; Tellez Zenteno, J F; Torre Delgadillo, A

    2000-01-01

    For the technological advances in diagnostic and therapeutic procedures, the use of intravenous contrast media in the hospital is more and more frequent. It can produce acute renal failure secondary to its nephrotoxicity known as contrast media nephropathy. This review describes the pathophysiologic mechanisms of contrast media injury, including cytotoxicity caused by hyperosmoloarity of contrast media, the hemodynamic factors and the role of the renin-angiotensin system, prostaglandins, oxygen free radicals, endothelin-1, adenosine, nitric oxide and others. The understanding of this information is of vital importance for the development of prophylactic strategies for contrast media nephropathy.

  14. Immune tolerance elicited via unique ocular and oral routes.

    PubMed

    Ashour, H M

    2015-01-01

    Immune tolerance can be induced by numerous methods. This review article aims to draw lines of similarity and contrast between two unique models of immune tolerance, namely Anterior Chamber Associated Immune Deviation (ACAID) and Nickel-induced oral tolerance. ACAID is an immune tolerance model that leads to the generation of CD4(+) T regulatory cells and CD8(+) T regulatory cells in the periphery after the injection of an antigen into the anterior chamber of the eye. Nickel-induced oral tolerance is another immune tolerance model that is induced by the contact allergen Nickel and leads to the generation of Nickel-specific CD4(+) CD25(+) T regulatory cells after oral exposure. The goal of comparing different models of immune tolerance is to identify which mechanisms are universal and which mechanisms are model-specific. The knowledge of such mechanisms would allow scientists and clinicians to better intervene in different immune deregulation scenarios.

  15. Negative hydrogen ion production mechanisms

    SciTech Connect

    Bacal, M.; Wada, M.

    2015-06-15

    Negative hydrogen/deuterium ions can be formed by processes occurring in the plasma volume and on surfaces facing the plasma. The principal mechanisms leading to the formation of these negative ions are dissociative electron attachment to ro-vibrationally excited hydrogen/deuterium molecules when the reaction takes place in the plasma volume, and the direct electron transfer from the low work function metal surface to the hydrogen/deuterium atoms when formation occurs on the surface. The existing theoretical models and reported experimental results on these two mechanisms are summarized. Performance of the negative hydrogen/deuterium ion sources that emerged from studies of these mechanisms is reviewed. Contemporary negative ion sources do not have negative ion production electrodes of original surface type sources but are operated with caesium with their structures nearly identical to volume production type sources. Reasons for enhanced negative ion current due to caesium addition to these sources are discussed.

  16. Negative hydrogen ion production mechanisms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bacal, M.; Wada, M.

    2015-06-01

    Negative hydrogen/deuterium ions can be formed by processes occurring in the plasma volume and on surfaces facing the plasma. The principal mechanisms leading to the formation of these negative ions are dissociative electron attachment to ro-vibrationally excited hydrogen/deuterium molecules when the reaction takes place in the plasma volume, and the direct electron transfer from the low work function metal surface to the hydrogen/deuterium atoms when formation occurs on the surface. The existing theoretical models and reported experimental results on these two mechanisms are summarized. Performance of the negative hydrogen/deuterium ion sources that emerged from studies of these mechanisms is reviewed. Contemporary negative ion sources do not have negative ion production electrodes of original surface type sources but are operated with caesium with their structures nearly identical to volume production type sources. Reasons for enhanced negative ion current due to caesium addition to these sources are discussed.

  17. Electronic magnification and perceived contrast of video.

    PubMed

    Haun, Andrew; Woods, Russell L; Peli, Eli

    2012-11-01

    Electronic magnification of an image results in a decrease in its perceived contrast. The decrease in perceived contrast could be due to a perceived blur or to limited sampling of the range of contrasts in the original image. We measured the effect on perceived contrast of magnification in two contexts: either a small video was enlarged to fill a larger area, or a portion of a larger video was enlarged to fill the same area as the original. Subjects attenuated the source video contrast to match the perceived contrast of the magnified videos, with the effect increasing with magnification and decreasing with viewing distance. These effects are consistent with expectations based on both the contrast statistics of natural images and the contrast sensitivity of the human visual system. We demonstrate that local regions within videos usually have lower physical contrast than the whole, and that this difference accounts for a minor part of the perceived differences. Instead, visibility of 'missing content' (blur) in a video is misinterpreted as a decrease in contrast. We detail how the effects of magnification on perceived contrast can be measured while avoiding confounding factors.

  18. Oral Human Papillomavirus Infection Incidence and Clearance: A Systematic Review of the Literature.

    PubMed

    Wood, Zoe C; Bain, Christopher J; Smith, David D; Whiteman, David C; Antonsson, Annika

    2017-02-01

    Subclinical oral HPV infection that persists for decades is likely to precede a HPV-driven HNSCC, however little is known about the natural history of oral HPV. We systematically reviewed and abstracted data from nine manuscripts that examined HIV-negative and cancer-free subjects for oral HPV DNA to determine the pooled baseline prevalence and incidence of newly acquired oral HPV infections, and specifically for HPV-16. We also documented the clearance rate and the median time to clearance, where data existed. Of 3,762 individuals, 7.5% had an oral infection with any HPV type (1.6% for HPV-16). Meta-regression analysis estimated the 12-month cumulative incidence to be 4.8% (95% CI 3.2-7.3%). The overall oral HPV clearance was reported to be 0% to 80% between studies, and the median time to clearance from 6.5 months to 18 months. Oral HPV-16 clearance was 43%-83%, and median time to clearance for HPV-16 was 7 to 22 months. Oral HPV prevalence, incidence and clearance vary considerably between published studies from different geographical regions. Further research is required to identify predictors of persistent oral HPV infection. Measurable baseline prevalence was observed in all studies, as well non-trivial incidence of newly acquired oral HPV infections and incomplete clearance.

  19. [Oral transmission of Chagas' disease].

    PubMed

    Toso M, Alberto; Vial U, Felipe; Galanti, Norbel

    2011-02-01

    The traditional transmission pathways of Chagas' disease are vectorial, transfusional, transplacental and organ transplantation. However, oral transmission is gaining importance. The first evidence of oral transmission was reported in Brazil in 1965. Nowadays the oral route is the transmission mode in 50% of cases in the Amazon river zone. Oral infection is produced by the ingestion of infected triatomine bugs or their feces, undercooked meat from infested host animals and food contaminated with urine or anal secretion of infected marsupials. Therefore travelers to those zones should be advised about care to be taken with ingested food. In Chile, this new mode of transmission should be considered in public health policies.

  20. Complications of equine oral surgery.

    PubMed

    Dixon, Padraic M; Hawkes, Claire; Townsend, Neil

    2008-12-01

    The vast majority of equine oral procedures are dental-related and, unless great care is taken, almost all such procedures have the potential to cause marked short- or long-term damage to other oral structures. This review of the more common complications of oral surgery begins at the rostral oral cavity with procedures of the incisors, and then moves caudally to deal with complications related to procedures of wolf teeth and cheek teeth, including salivary duct disruption and dental sinusitis. Finally, complications associated with maxillary and mandibular fractures are discussed.

  1. Improving oral hygiene for patients.

    PubMed

    Bonetti, Debbie; Hampson, Victoria; Queen, Kerry; Kirk, Donna; Clarkson, Jan; Young, Linda

    2015-01-13

    Systematic reviews and patient safety initiatives recommend that oral hygiene should be part of routine patient care. However, evidence suggests it is often neglected in hospitals and care homes. Research recommends encouraging beliefs that support oral hygiene, and teaching nurses appropriate skills, as necessary prerequisites to implementing best practice in hospital wards. This article describes a pilot study of an educational workshop on oral hygiene. Results from the pilot study suggest that this workshop is a feasible intervention for a service-wide trial. The literature suggests that other interventions are required to complement this approach if nurses are to make oral hygiene a priority in daily patient care.

  2. Contrasting Effects of Starting Age and Input on the Oral Performance of Foreign Language Learners

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Muñoz, Carmen

    2014-01-01

    The present study focuses on the influence of starting age and input on foreign language learning. In relation to starting age, the study investigates whether early starters in instructional settings achieve the same kind of long-term advantage as learners in naturalistic settings and it complements previous research by using data from oral…

  3. Oral contrast agents for small bowel MRI: comparison of different additives to optimize bowel distension.

    PubMed

    Ajaj, Waleed; Goehde, Susanne C; Schneemann, Hubert; Ruehm, Stefan G; Debatin, Jörg F; Lauenstein, Thomas C

    2004-03-01

    The purpose of this study was to compare two osmotic carbohydrate sugar alcohols (mannitol 2.5% and sorbitol 2.5%, 2.0%, and 1.5% watery solutions) in combination with 0.2% locust bean gum (LBG) for small bowel distension for MR imaging. Small bowel distension was quantified on coronal 2D TrueFISP images by measuring the diameters of 16 small bowel loops in each of 12 healthy subjects (age range 31-55 years). Additionally, the grade of small bowel distension was rated qualitatively. Patient acceptance concerning nausea, vomiting, flatulence, and diarrhea was noted for each solution, and all results were compared by a Wilcoxon test or t test, respectively. The ingestion of water combined with LBG and either 2.5% mannitol or 2.0% sorbitol showed the best distension of the small bowel. The lowest side effect rate was observed following ingestion of sorbitol in a concentration of 2.0 and 1.5%. Based on these data, we recommend a combination of LBG and 2% sorbitol use for optimal bowel distension and minimal side effects resulting in enhanced patient acceptance.

  4. 24. Duplicate negative of an historic negative. 'AERIAL VIEW OF ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    24. Duplicate negative of an historic negative. 'AERIAL VIEW OF AREA 'B' HOLSTON ORDNANCE WORKS.' 1944. #OCMH 4-12.2ASAV3 in Super Explosives Program RDX and Its Composition A, B, & C, Record Group No. 319, National Archives, Washington, D.C. - Holston Army Ammunition Plant, RDX-and-Composition-B Manufacturing Line 9, Kingsport, Sullivan County, TN

  5. A Negative Result About Some Concepts of Negative Dependence.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1985-07-01

    It seems that either a very strong negative dependence holds with the monotonicity condition while without it, even a somewhat weak condition does...not hold. This brings out the crucial role played by the PF2 (log concave density) property in conditional negative dependence .

  6. Contrast Adaptation Contributes to Contrast-Invariance of Orientation Tuning of Primate V1 Cells

    PubMed Central

    Nowak, Lionel G.; Barone, Pascal

    2009-01-01

    Background Studies in rodents and carnivores have shown that orientation tuning width of single neurons does not change when stimulus contrast is modified. However, in these studies, stimuli were presented for a relatively long duration (e. g., 4 seconds), making it possible that contrast adaptation contributed to contrast-invariance of orientation tuning. Our first purpose was to determine, in marmoset area V1, whether orientation tuning is still contrast-invariant with the stimulation duration is comparable to that of a visual fixation. Methodology/Principal Findings We performed extracellular recordings and examined orientation tuning of single-units using static sine-wave gratings that were flashed for 200 msec. Sixteen orientations and three contrast levels, representing low, medium and high values in the range of effective contrasts for each neuron, were randomly intermixed. Contrast adaptation being a slow phenomenon, cells did not have enough time to adapt to each contrast individually. With this stimulation protocol, we found that the tuning width obtained at intermediate contrast was reduced to 89% (median), and that at low contrast to 76%, of that obtained at high contrast. Therefore, when probed with briefly flashed stimuli, orientation tuning is not contrast-invariant in marmoset V1. Our second purpose was to determine whether contrast adaptation contributes to contrast-invariance of orientation tuning. Stationary gratings were presented, as previously, for 200 msec with randomly varying orientations, but the contrast was kept constant within stimulation blocks lasting >20 sec, allowing for adaptation to the single contrast in use. In these conditions, tuning widths obtained at low contrast were still significantly less than at high contrast (median 85%). However, tuning widths obtained with medium and high contrast stimuli no longer differed significantly. Conclusions/Significance Orientation tuning does not appear to be contrast-invariant when

  7. Three chamber negative ion source

    DOEpatents

    Leung, K.N.; Ehlers, K.W.; Hiskes, J.R.

    1983-11-10

    It is an object of this invention provide a negative ion source which efficiently provides a large flux of negatively ionized particles. This invention provides a volume source of negative ions which has a current density sufficient for magnetic fusion applications and has electrons suppressed from the output. It is still another object of this invention to provide a volume source of negative ions which can be electrostatically accelerated to high energies and subsequently neutralized to form a high energy neutral beam for use with a magnetically confined plasma.

  8. Neurobiological background of negative symptoms.

    PubMed

    Galderisi, Silvana; Merlotti, Eleonora; Mucci, Armida

    2015-10-01

    Studies investigating neurobiological bases of negative symptoms of schizophrenia failed to provide consistent findings, possibly due to the heterogeneity of this psychopathological construct. We tried to review the findings published to date investigating neurobiological abnormalities after reducing the heterogeneity of the negative symptoms construct. The literature in electronic databases as well as citations and major articles are reviewed with respect to the phenomenology, pathology, genetics and neurobiology of schizophrenia. We searched PubMed with the keywords "negative symptoms," "deficit schizophrenia," "persistent negative symptoms," "neurotransmissions," "neuroimaging" and "genetic." Additional articles were identified by manually checking the reference lists of the relevant publications. Publications in English were considered, and unpublished studies, conference abstracts and poster presentations were not included. Structural and functional imaging studies addressed the issue of neurobiological background of negative symptoms from several perspectives (considering them as a unitary construct, focusing on primary and/or persistent negative symptoms and, more recently, clustering them into factors), but produced discrepant findings. The examined studies provided evidence suggesting that even primary and persistent negative symptoms include different psychopathological constructs, probably reflecting the dysfunction of different neurobiological substrates. Furthermore, they suggest that complex alterations in multiple neurotransmitter systems and genetic variants might influence the expression of negative symptoms in schizophrenia. On the whole, the reviewed findings, representing the distillation of a large body of disparate data, suggest that further deconstruction of negative symptomatology into more elementary components is needed to gain insight into underlying neurobiological mechanisms.

  9. Negative ions of polyatomic molecules.

    PubMed Central

    Christophorou, L G

    1980-01-01

    In this paper general concepts relating to, and recent advances in, the study of negative ions of polyatomic molecules area discussed with emphasis on halocarbons. The topics dealt with in the paper are as follows: basic electron attachment processes, modes of electron capture by molecules, short-lived transient negative ions, dissociative electron attachment to ground-state molecules and to "hot" molecules (effects of temperature on electron attachment), parent negative ions, effect of density, nature, and state of the medium on electron attachment, electron attachment to electronically excited molecules, the binding of attached electrons to molecules ("electron affinity"), and the basic and the applied significance of negative-ion studies. PMID:7428744

  10. Negative ions of polyatomic molecules.

    PubMed

    Christophorou, L G

    1980-06-01

    In this paper general concepts relating to, and recent advances in, the study of negative ions of polyatomic molecules area discussed with emphasis on halocarbons. The topics dealt with in the paper are as follows: basic electron attachment processes, modes of electron capture by molecules, short-lived transient negative ions, dissociative electron attachment to ground-state molecules and to "hot" molecules (effects of temperature on electron attachment), parent negative ions, effect of density, nature, and state of the medium on electron attachment, electron attachment to electronically excited molecules, the binding of attached electrons to molecules ("electron affinity"), and the basic and the applied significance of negative-ion studies.

  11. Neuroimaging correlates of negative priming.

    PubMed

    Steel, C; Haworth, E J; Peters, E; Hemsley, D R; Sharma, T; Gray, J A; Pickering, A; Gregory, L; Simmons, A; Bullmore, E T; Williams, S C

    2001-11-16

    Many theoretical accounts of selective attention and memory retrieval include reference to active inhibitory processes, such as those argued to underlie the negative priming effect. fMRI was used in order to investigate the areas of cortical activation associated with Stroop interference, Stroop facilitation and Stroop negative priming tasks. The most significant activation within the negative priming task was within the inferior parietal lobule, left temporal lobe and frontal lobes. Areas of cortical activation are discussed with reference to theoretical accounts of the negative priming effect.

  12. Brain representations of negative numbers.

    PubMed

    Parnes, Michael; Berger, Andrea; Tzelgov, Joseph

    2012-12-01

    Participants performed a physical comparison task of pairs of positive and pairs of negative one-digit numbers while their electrophysiological brain activity was measured. The numerical value of the presented digits was either congruent or incongruent with the physical size of the digits. Analysis has shown that the earliest event-related potential (ERP) difference between positive and negative numbers was found in the P300 ERP component peak, where there was an inverse effect of congruity in the negative pairs, compared with the positive ones. This pattern of results supports the idea that natural numbers serve as primitives of the human cognitive system, whereas negative numbers are apparently generated if needed.

  13. Apixaban and oral implications

    PubMed Central

    Bagán, Jose V.

    2015-01-01

    Background Thrombotic disorders remain a leading cause of death in the Western world, and in this regard a number of anticoagulation treatment have been used, including heparins, fondaparinux, vitamin K antagonists (warfarin, acenocoumarol), and new oral anticoagulants such as apixaban. For years there has been great controversy regarding the use of anticoagulants in planning dental treatments that imply bleeding. The main concerns about using new oral anticoagulants in invasive dental procedures are bleeding due to the lack of an antidote, and the thrombotic risk of the disease for which anticoagulation was indicated in the first place. Material and Methods A literature search was conducted through May 2014 using the keyword “apixaban” for publications in the ISI Web of Knowledge. The search was extended to other databases (PubMed, Scopus and the Cochrane Library). Results Based on the results of the different studies, apixaban seems to be a good alternative to conventional anticoagulation and a reasonable treatment option, though its main and most common adverse effect is bleeding. Dose adjustment is needed in some patients, though regular laboratory monitoring is not required. The use of the drug in different patient populations will define its final indications and doses. Conclusions Regarding the use of apixaban in the dental setting, there is a compelling need for further clinical studies in order to establish more evidence-based guidelines for patients requiring antithrombotic treatment. Key words:Apixaban, dental treatment, dental implications. PMID:26535102

  14. Combined use of crystalline salt forms and precipitation inhibitors to improve oral absorption of celecoxib from solid oral formulations.

    PubMed

    Guzmán, Héctor R; Tawa, Mark; Zhang, Zhong; Ratanabanangkoon, Pasut; Shaw, Paul; Gardner, Colin R; Chen, Hongming; Moreau, Jean-Pierre; Almarsson, Orn; Remenar, Julius F

    2007-10-01

    Biopharmaceutical evaluation of crystalline celecoxib salts in novel solid formulations, which were designed to simultaneously facilitate dissolution and inhibit precipitation in vitro, showed fast and complete absorption in beagle dogs at doses up to 7.5 mg/kg orally. In contrast, 5 mg/kg celecoxib in the form of Celebrex(R) showed approximately 40% absolute bioavailability in a cross-over experiment. An in vitro-in vivo correlation was observed in dog, and a threshold level of in vitro dissolution needed to maximize in vivo performance was highlighted. Oral bioavailability was limited in the absence of excipient combinations that delayed precipitation of celecoxib free acid as the salt neutralized in the GI fluid. Formulations of crystal forms having high energy (a 'spring'), thus transiently increasing solubility in aqueous solution relative to the free acid, combined with excipients functioning as precipitation inhibitors ('parachutes') were shown to provide both enhanced dissolution and high oral bioavailability.

  15. Role of oral microbiome on oral cancers, a review.

    PubMed

    Gholizadeh, Pourya; Eslami, Hosein; Yousefi, Mehdi; Asgharzadeh, Mohammad; Aghazadeh, Mohammad; Kafil, Hossein Samadi

    2016-12-01

    The oral cavity is inhibited by many of the bacterial species. Some of them have a key role in the development of oral disease. Interrelationships between oral microbiome and systemic conditions such as head-and-neck cancer have become increasingly appreciated in recent years. Emerging evidence also suggests a link between periodontal disease and oral cancer, and the explanation being that chronic inflammation could be a major factor in both diseases. Squamous cell carcinoma is that the most frequently occurring malignancy of the oral cavity and adjacent sites, representing over 90% of all cancers. The incidence of oral cancer is increasing, significantly among young people and women. Worldwide there are 350,000-400,000 new cases diagnosed every year. Bacteria, viruses, and fungi are strongly implicated as etiological factors in certain cancers. In this review we will discuss the association between the development of oral cancer in potentially malignant oral lesions with chronic periodontitis, chronic Porphyromonas gingivalis, Fusobacterium nucleatum, candida, other microbes and described mechanisms which may be involved in these carcinoma.

  16. [Intra-oral and peri-oral piercing].

    PubMed

    Zadik, Y; Becker, T; Levin, L

    2007-01-01

    Oral Piercing is a practice that is gaining acceptance in the western world as a sign of individuality, marginality, decoration, or group membership. In a recent large-scale survey among Israeli young adults, more than half of the study population was not aware of any of the complications of oral piercing. Pain, bleeding, edema, inhalation, dental and gingival trauma, allergic reaction, contact lesions, impaired mastication, deglutition, and speech, are all potential complications of intra-oral and peri-oral piercing. Piercing can induce local as well as distant site infection and inflammation such as Ludwig's angina, endocarditis and cerebellar abscess. Moreover, Piercing is recognized as a potential vector of viral transmitting. Nevertheless, not all piercers have adequate knowledge in infection control techniques. With the increase number of patients with pierced intra and peri-oral sites, dentists should be prepared to address issues, such as potential damage to the teeth and gingival, and risk of oral infection that could arise as a result of Piercing, as well as provide appropriate guidance to patients contemplating body piercing that involve the oral sites. Since common knowledge is poor, patients should be educated regarding the dangers that may follow Piercing of the oral cavity.

  17. Assessing Oral Hygiene in Hospitalized Older Veterans.

    PubMed

    Jennings, Andrea

    2015-01-01

    Poor oral health for all older adults can result in higher risk for heart disease, stroke, diabetes, and oral cancer. Findings from this study indicated older veterans needed to improve their oral hygiene habits but barriers to oral hygiene performance prevented them from receiving and performing oral hygiene measures.

  18. Flash Infrared Thermography Contrast Data Analysis Technique

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Koshti, Ajay

    2014-01-01

    This paper provides information on an IR Contrast technique that involves extracting normalized contrast versus time evolutions from the flash thermography inspection infrared video data. The analysis calculates thermal measurement features from the contrast evolution. In addition, simulation of the contrast evolution is achieved through calibration on measured contrast evolutions from many flat-bottom holes in the subject material. The measurement features and the contrast simulation are used to evaluate flash thermography data in order to characterize delamination-like anomalies. The thermal measurement features relate to the anomaly characteristics. The contrast evolution simulation is matched to the measured contrast evolution over an anomaly to provide an assessment of the anomaly depth and width which correspond to the depth and diameter of the equivalent flat-bottom hole (EFBH) similar to that used as input to the simulation. A similar analysis, in terms of diameter and depth of an equivalent uniform gap (EUG) providing a best match with the measured contrast evolution, is also provided. An edge detection technique called the half-max is used to measure width and length of the anomaly. Results of the half-max width and the EFBH/EUG diameter are compared to evaluate the anomaly. The information provided here is geared towards explaining the IR Contrast technique. Results from a limited amount of validation data on reinforced carbon-carbon (RCC) hardware are included in this paper.

  19. "Basic MR Relaxation Mechanisms & Contrast Agent Design"

    PubMed Central

    De León-Rodríguez, Luis M.; Martins, André F.; Pinho, Marco; Rofsky, Neil; Sherry, A. Dean

    2015-01-01

    The diagnostic capabilities of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) have undergone continuous and substantial evolution by virtue of hardware and software innovations and the development and implementation of exogenous contrast media. Thirty years since the first MRI contrast agent was approved for clinical use, a reliance on MR contrast media persists largely to improve image quality with higher contrast resolution and to provide additional functional characterization of normal and abnormal tissues. Further development of MR contrast media is an important component in the quest for continued augmentation of diagnostic capabilities. In this review we will detail the many important considerations when pursuing the design and use of MR contrast media. We will offer a perspective on the importance of chemical stability, particularly kinetic stability, and how this influences one's thinking about the safety of metal-ligand based contrast agents. We will discuss the mechanisms involved in magnetic resonance relaxation in the context of probe design strategies. A brief description of currently available contrast agents will be accompanied by an in-depth discussion that highlights promising MRI contrast agents in development for future clinical and research applications. Our intention is to give a diverse audience an improved understanding of the factors involved in developing new types of safe and highly efficient MR contrast agents and, at the same time, provide an appreciation of the insights into physiology and disease that newer types of responsive agents can provide. PMID:25975847

  20. Inverse modeling of human contrast response.

    PubMed

    Katkov, Mikhail; Tsodyks, Misha; Sagi, Dov

    2007-10-01

    Mathematical singularities found in the Signal Detection Theory (SDT) based analysis of the 2-Alternative-Forced-Choice (2AFC) method [Katkov, M., Tsodyks, M., & Sagi, D. (2006a). Analysis of two-alternative force-choice Signal Detection Theory model. Journal of Mathematical Psychology, 50, 411-420; Katkov, M., Tsodyks, M., & Sagi, D. (2006b). Singularities in the inverse modeling of 2AFC contrast discrimination data. Vision Research, 46, 256-266; Katkov, M., Tsodyks, M., & Sagi, D. (2007). Singularities explained: Response to Klein. Vision Research, doi:10.1016/j.visres.2006.10.030] imply that contrast discrimination data obtained with the 2AFC method cannot always be used to reliably estimate the parameters of the underlying model (internal response and noise functions) with a reasonable number of trials. Here we bypass this problem with the Identification Task (IT) where observers identify one of N contrasts. We have found that identification data varies significantly between experimental sessions. Stable estimates using individual session data showed Contrast Response Functions (CRF) with high gain in the low contrast regime and low gain in the high contrast regime. Noise Amplitudes (NA) followed a decreasing function of contrast at low contrast levels, and were practically constant above some contrast level. The transition between these two regimes corresponded approximately to the position of the dipper in the Threshold versus Contrast (TvC) curves that were computed using the estimated parameters and independently measured using 2AFC.

  1. [Minimally invasive brush-biopsy: innovative method for early diagnosis of oral squamous cell carcinoma].

    PubMed

    Remmerbach, Torsten W; Hemprich, Alexander; Böcking, Alfred

    2007-01-01

    The aim of this prospective and blinded study was to investigate the diagnostic accuracy of conventional cytopathology of oral brush biopsies taken from suspicious oral lesions. In addition we checked slide based DNA image cytometry as an adjuvant diagnostic tool. Our hypothesis is that DNA aneuploidy is a sensitive and specific marker for earliest detection of oral cancer using brush biopsies. Therefore the nuclear DNA contents were measured after Feulgen re-staining using a TV image analysis system. DNA aneuploidy was assumed if abnormal DNA stemlines or cells with DNA content greater 9c were observed. Sensitivity of our cytological diagnosis in oral smears for the detection of cancer cells thus was 91.3%, specificity for the detection of non-neoplastic cells was 95.1%, positive predictive value 94.4% and negative predictive value 92.3%. The adjuvant DNA image cytometry reached a sensitivity of 97.8%, the specificity and the positive predictive value were 100% and negative predictive value was 98.1%, respectively. Smears from oral brush biopsies of all visible oral lesions are an easily practicable, cheap, minimal invasive, painless and safe screening method for detection of oral precancerous lesions and squamous cell carcinomas in all stages. We conclude that DNA image cytometry is a very sensitive and highly specific, objective and reproducible adjuvant tool for identification of neoplastic cells in oral smears.

  2. Be Aware of Negative Reinforcement.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cipani, Ennio C.

    1995-01-01

    This article examines the concept of negative reinforcement in relation to the maintenance of off-task and disruptive behaviors in classrooms. Suggestions are given for determining whether negative reinforcement (in the form of escape from the instructional task) or teacher attention is maintaining the behavior. Suggestions for making tasks less…

  3. Negation in the Chaamling Language.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rai, Vishnu S.

    This paper examines the different ways of forming negative sentences in the Chaamling language, an indigenous language spoken in the eastern, hilly districts of Nepal. It explains that negation, or negativization, in the Chaamling language is done with the help of affixation. In imperative sentences, the prefix mi- is added to the verb, which is…

  4. Negative-Frequency Resonant Radiation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rubino, E.; McLenaghan, J.; Kehr, S. C.; Belgiorno, F.; Townsend, D.; Rohr, S.; Kuklewicz, C. E.; Leonhardt, U.; König, F.; Faccio, D.

    2012-06-01

    Optical solitons or solitonlike states shed light to blueshifted frequencies through a resonant emission process. We predict a mechanism by which a second propagating mode is generated. This mode, called negative resonant radiation, originates from the coupling of the soliton mode to the negative-frequency branch of the dispersion relation. Measurements in both bulk media and photonic-crystal fibers confirm our predictions.

  5. The potential of immobilized artificial membrane chromatography to predict human oral absorption.

    PubMed

    Tsopelas, Fotios; Vallianatou, Theodosia; Tsantili-Kakoulidou, Anna

    2016-01-01

    The potential of immobilized artificial membrane (IAM) chromatography to estimate human oral absorption (%HOA) was investigated. For this purpose, retention indices on IAM stationary phases reported previously by our group or measured by other authors under similar conditions were used to model %HOA data, compiled from literature sources. Considering the pH gradient in gastrointestinal tract, the highest logkw(IAM) values were considered, obtained either at pH7.4 or 5.5, defined as logkw(IAM)(best). Non linear models were established upon introduction of additional parameters and after exclusion of drugs which are substrates either to efflux or uptake transporters. The best model included Abraham's hydrogen-bond acidity parameter, molecular weight as well as the positively and negatively charged molecular fractions. For reasons of comparison between IAM chromatography and traditional lipophilicity, corresponding models were derived by replacing IAM retention factors with octanol-water distribution coefficients (logD). An overexpression of electrostatic interactions with phosphate anions was observed in the case of IAM retention as expressed by the negative contribution of the positively charged fraction F(+). The same parameter is statistically significant also in the logD model, but with a positive sign, indicating the attraction of basic drugs in the negatively charged inner membrane. To validate the obtained models a blind test set of 22 structurally diverse drugs was used, whose logkw(IAM)(best) values were determined and analyzed in the present study under similar conditions. IAM retention factors were further compared with MDCK cell lines permeability data taken from literature for a set of validation drugs. The overexpression of electrostatic interactions with phosphate anions on IAM surface was also evident in respect to MDCK permeability. In contrast to the clear classification between drugs with high and poor (or intermediate) absorption provided by MDCK

  6. Context, Contrast, and Tone of Voice in Auditory Sarcasm Perception.

    PubMed

    Voyer, Daniel; Thibodeau, Sophie-Hélène; Delong, Breanna J

    2016-02-01

    Four experiments were conducted to investigate the interplay between context and tone of voice in the perception of sarcasm. These experiments emphasized the role of contrast effects in sarcasm perception exclusively by means of auditory stimuli whereas most past research has relied on written material. In all experiments, a positive or negative computer-generated context spoken in a flat emotional tone was followed by a literally positive statement spoken in a sincere or sarcastic tone of voice. Participants indicated for each statement whether the intonation was sincere or sarcastic. In Experiment 1, a congruent context/tone of voice pairing (negative/sarcastic, positive/sincere) produced fast response times and proportions of sarcastic responses in the direction predicted by the tone of voice. Incongruent pairings produced mid-range proportions and slower response times. Experiment 2 introduced ambiguous contexts to determine whether a lower context/statements contrast would affect the proportion of sarcastic responses and response time. Results showed the expected findings for proportions (values between those obtained for congruent and incongruent pairings in the direction predicted by the tone of voice). However, response time failed to produce the predicted pattern, suggesting potential issues with the choice of stimuli. Experiments 3 and 4 extended the results of Experiments 1 and 2, respectively, to auditory stimuli based on written vignettes used in neuropsychological assessment. Results were exactly as predicted by contrast effects in both experiments. Taken together, the findings suggest that both context and tone influence how sarcasm is perceived while supporting the importance of contrast effects in sarcasm perception.

  7. Early oral sensory experiences and feeding development in children with CHARGE syndrome: a report of five cases.

    PubMed

    Dobbelsteyn, Cindy; Marche, Darlene M; Blake, Kim; Rashid, Mohsin

    2005-01-01

    Children with CHARGE syndrome commonly experience feeding and swallowing problems. Difficulties may be associated with congenital structural anomalies, motor impairment, and/or oral sensory impairment. For many children with CHARGE syndrome, the introduction of functional oral feeding is delayed and there are often long-term feeding complications. Oral aversion or defensiveness is a frequent serious issue; however, it is uncertain whether this is a primary sensory disorder or secondary to delayed and/or negative oral sensory and feeding experiences. This article examines in detail the early oral sensory and feeding experiences of five children with CHARGE syndrome, through a review of medical records and caregiver questionnaires. Findings indicate variable early oral sensory experiences in this group of children, with all of the children having some difficulty or delay in the development of oral feeding and swallowing. The nature of these difficulties and the potential contributory factors are discussed.

  8. Physics of negative absolute temperatures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abraham, Eitan; Penrose, Oliver

    2017-01-01

    Negative absolute temperatures were introduced into experimental physics by Purcell and Pound, who successfully applied this concept to nuclear spins; nevertheless, the concept has proved controversial: a recent article aroused considerable interest by its claim, based on a classical entropy formula (the "volume entropy") due to Gibbs, that negative temperatures violated basic principles of statistical thermodynamics. Here we give a thermodynamic analysis that confirms the negative-temperature interpretation of the Purcell-Pound experiments. We also examine the principal arguments that have been advanced against the negative temperature concept; we find that these arguments are not logically compelling, and moreover that the underlying "volume" entropy formula leads to predictions inconsistent with existing experimental results on nuclear spins. We conclude that, despite the counterarguments, negative absolute temperatures make good theoretical sense and did occur in the experiments designed to produce them.

  9. Embracing Plurality through Oral Language

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nguyen, Bich; Oliver, Rhonda; Rochecouste, Judith

    2015-01-01

    The transmission and dissemination of knowledge in Aboriginal societies for the most part occurs orally in an Aboriginal language or in Aboriginal English. However, whilst support is given to speaking skills in Indigenous communities, in our education system less emphasis is given to developing equivalent oral communicative competence in Standard…

  10. [Drug-induced oral ulcerations].

    PubMed

    Madinier, I; Berry, N; Chichmanian, R M

    2000-06-01

    Different side effects of drugs have been described in the oral cavity, including oral ulcerations. Direct contact between drugs and oral mucosa may induce chemical burn or local hypersensitivity. Less frequently, these drug-induced oral ulcerations are part of a complex reaction with cutaneous or systemic manifestations. Sometimes, one or more oral ulcerations appear as the main side-effect of a drug, or exceptionally as solitary lesions. Solitary oral ulcerations usually appear after few weeks of treatment. In most of cases, these lesions resist to conventional treatments, with a rapid healing following the suppression of the responsible drug. This diagnosis is usually difficult, particularly with patients receiving multiple drug therapy. Besides, special attention must be paid to new drugs. Oral ulcerations following symptoms of burning mouth, metallic taste, dysgueusia or agueusia are strongly suggestive of a pharmacological origin. Most of the molecules able to induce solitary oral ulcerations are commonly prescribed in a) rheumatology: NSAI (diclofenac, flurbiprofen, indomethacin, naproxen), long-term rheumatoid arthritis therapy (azathioprine, methotrexate, penicillamine, gold compounds, tiopronin); b) cardiology: angiotensin-converting-enzyme inhibitors (captopril, enalapril), angiotensin 2-receptor antagonist (losartan), anti-angorous (nicorandil), c) psychiatry: antidepressants (fluoxetine, lithium), d) AIDS therapy (foscarnet, zalcitabine).

  11. Oral Fluency and Its Evaluation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hieke, Adolf E.

    It is proposed that a speech-dynamic analysis of oral fluency phenomena serves best to highlight the nondiscrete nature of the sound stream and to capture English syllable structure. Some current concepts and practices in oral testing are criticized, and previously neglected evidence concerning temporal variables in speech, automatic speech…

  12. Tobacco Use and Oral Health.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Seffrin, John R.; Randall, B. Grove

    1982-01-01

    Oral disease risks regarding the use of tobacco arise not only from smoking but also from the oral use of tobacco in the form of snuff. Such diseases range from simple tooth decay to various forms of cancer. A fact list is suggested for presenting the risks to school-age youth. (JN)

  13. 75 FR 56146 - Oral Argument

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-09-15

    ... given of the scheduling of oral argument in the matters of Rhonda K. Conyers v. Department of Defense, MSPB Docket No. CH-0752-09-0925-I-1, and Devon H. Northover v. Department of Defense, MSPB Docket No... hear oral argument in the matters of Rhonda K. Conyers v. Department of Defense, MSPB Docket No....

  14. The Oral Language Proficiency Test.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lowe, Pardee, Jr.

    This booklet describes the test used by the federal government to determine oral proficiency in a foreign language. The test is essentially an oral interview, conducted by two testers, and lasting from 15 to 30 minutes, although the format can vary. Proficiency levels range from 0 (for no practical speaking proficiency) to 5 (for speaking…

  15. Contrast enhancement in microplanar beam radiography.

    PubMed

    Company, F Z; Allen, B J; Mino, C

    1999-12-01

    In x-ray radiography, the target produces a useful shadow from absorption of the primary beam, while the scattered radiation into the off-target region decreases the contrast of the target image. A bundle of closely spaced microplanar beams can reduce the scattered radiation and give superior image contrast compared with a single macrobeam of the same dimensions. To further reduce the scattered radiation and increase the image contrast, we place an air gap between the tissue phantom and the detector. The primary and scattered photon flux of a single microplanar beam is measured as a function of thickness inside the phantom and in the air gap. Results show that a bundle of closely spaced, microplanar beams increase the image contrast by 22% and a 2 cm air gap decreases the scattered photon flux by about half, improving the contrast by an additional 16%. Thus an overall improvement of 41% in contrast can be achieved with microplanar beam radiography.

  16. Cell uptake and oral absorption of titanium dioxide nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Janer, G; Mas del Molino, E; Fernández-Rosas, E; Fernández, A; Vázquez-Campos, S

    2014-07-15

    Large efforts are invested on the development of in vitro tests to evaluate nanomaterial (NM) toxicity. In order to assess the relevance of the adverse effects identified in in vitro toxicity tests a thorough understanding of the biokinetics of NMs is critical. We used different in vitro and in vivo test methods to evaluate cell uptake and oral absorption of titanium dioxide nanoparticles (TiO2 NPs). These NPs were readily uptaken by A549 cells (carcinomic human alveolar basal epithelial cells) in vitro. Such rapid uptake contrasted with a very low oral absorption in a differentiated Caco-2 monolayer system (human epithelial colorectal adenocarcinoma cells) and after oral gavage administration to rats. In this oral study, no significant increase in the levels of titanium was recorded by ICP-MS in any of the tissues evaluated (including among other: small intestine, Peyer's patches, mesenteric lymph nodes, liver, and spleen). No NPs were observed by TEM in sections of the small intestine, except for several particles in the cytoplasm of a cell from a Peyer's Patch area. The observation of NPs in Peyer's Patch suggests that the Caco-2 monolayer system is likely to underestimate the potential for oral absorption of NPs and that the model could be improved by including M-cells in co-culture.

  17. Factors affecting the association of oral contraceptives and ovarian cancer.

    PubMed

    Cramer, D W; Hutchison, G B; Welch, W R; Scully, R E; Knapp, R C

    1982-10-21

    We investigated the relation between epithelial ovarian cancer and the use of oral contraceptives in a case-control study of 144 white women under the age of 60 who had ovarian cancer and 139 white women under 60 who were selected from the general population. We observed a decreased risk for ovarian cancer associated with the use of oral contraceptives in subjects 40 through 59 years of age at the time of the study. The relative risk, adjusted for parity, was 0.11, with 95 per cent confidence limits of 0.04 to 0.33. In contrast to the findings in older women, a decreased risk for ovarian cancer associated with oral-contraceptive use was not found in women under 40. In this group, the adjusted relative risk associated with any use of oral contraceptives was 1.98, with 95 per cent confidence limits of 0.74 to 5.27. The lowest risk for ovarian cancer associated with the use of oral contraceptives was observed in older parous subjects and in women who had discontinued use more than 10 years previously.

  18. Multi-step contrast sensitivity gauge

    DOEpatents

    Quintana, Enrico C; Thompson, Kyle R; Moore, David G; Heister, Jack D; Poland, Richard W; Ellegood, John P; Hodges, George K; Prindville, James E

    2014-10-14

    An X-ray contrast sensitivity gauge is described herein. The contrast sensitivity gauge comprises a plurality of steps of varying thicknesses. Each step in the gauge includes a plurality of recesses of differing depths, wherein the depths are a function of the thickness of their respective step. An X-ray image of the gauge is analyzed to determine a contrast-to-noise ratio of a detector employed to generate the image.

  19. Clouds of high contrast on Uranus.

    PubMed

    Karkoschka, E

    1998-04-24

    Near-infrared images of Uranus taken with the Hubble Space Telescope in July and October 1997 revealed discrete clouds with contrasts exceeding 10 times the highest contrast observed before with other techniques. At visible wavelengths, these 10 clouds had lower contrasts than clouds seen by Voyager 2 in 1986. Uranus' rotational rates for southern latitudes were identical in 1986 and 1997. Clouds in northern latitudes rotate slightly more slowly than clouds in opposite southern latitudes.

  20. Effect of contrast on human speed perception

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stone, Leland S.; Thompson, Peter

    1992-01-01

    This study is part of an ongoing collaborative research effort between the Life Science and Human Factors Divisions at NASA ARC to measure the accuracy of human motion perception in order to predict potential errors in human perception/performance and to facilitate the design of display systems that minimize the effects of such deficits. The study describes how contrast manipulations can produce significant errors in human speed perception. Specifically, when two simultaneously presented parallel gratings are moving at the same speed within stationary windows, the lower-contrast grating appears to move more slowly. This contrast-induced misperception of relative speed is evident across a wide range of contrasts (2.5-50 percent) and does not appear to saturate (e.g., a 50 percent contrast grating appears slower than a 70 percent contrast grating moving at the same speed). The misperception is large: a 70 percent contrast grating must, on average, be slowed by 35 percent to match a 10 percent contrast grating moving at 2 deg/sec (N = 6). Furthermore, it is largely independent of the absolute contrast level and is a quasilinear function of log contrast ratio. A preliminary parametric study shows that, although spatial frequency has little effect, the relative orientation of the two gratings is important. Finally, the effect depends on the temporal presentation of the stimuli: the effects of contrast on perceived speed appears lessened when the stimuli to be matched are presented sequentially. These data constrain both physiological models of visual cortex and models of human performance. We conclude that viewing conditions that effect contrast, such as fog, may cause significant errors in speed judgments.

  1. Biomechanics of oral mucosa

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Junning; Ahmad, Rohana; Li, Wei; Swain, Michael; Li, Qing

    2015-01-01

    The prevalence of prosthodontic treatment has been well recognized, and the need is continuously increasing with the ageing population. While the oral mucosa plays a critical role in the treatment outcome, the associated biomechanics is not yet fully understood. Using the literature available, this paper provides a critical review on four aspects of mucosal biomechanics, including static, dynamic, volumetric and interactive responses, which are interpreted by its elasticity, viscosity/permeability, apparent Poisson's ratio and friction coefficient, respectively. Both empirical studies and numerical models are analysed and compared to gain anatomical and physiological insights. Furthermore, the clinical applications of such biomechanical knowledge on the mucosa are explored to address some critical concerns, including stimuli for tissue remodelling (interstitial hydrostatic pressure), pressure–pain thresholds, tissue displaceability and residual bone resorption. Through this review, the state of the art in mucosal biomechanics and their clinical implications are discussed for future research interests, including clinical applications, computational modelling, design optimization and prosthetic fabrication. PMID:26224566

  2. Potencies of oral contraceptives.

    PubMed

    Chihal, H J; Peppler, R D; Dickey, R P

    1978-02-01

    This letter is a response to the discussion by Edgren and Sturtevant (125:1029, 1976) on potencies of oral contraceptives (OCs). It is agreed that the results of studies in animal models on OC potencies may not necessarily reflect true potencies in human subjects, however, these animal models do allow the evaluation of the biological effects and interactions of the components of OCs. Data obtained in animal studies are acknowledged to be valuable aids in the study of human diseases. Likewise, mouse uterine response to contraceptive steroids is 1 criterion to be used in evaluating steroid potency. As previously reported, the importance of the mouse uterine response is that the contribution of the progestin component to the total estrogenic potency of the OC is demonstrated.

  3. Oral mucosal disease: pemphigus.

    PubMed

    Scully, Crispian; Mignogna, Michele

    2008-06-01

    Pemphigus defines a group of rare mucocutaneous autoimmune diseases of which pemphigus vulgaris (PV) is the most common. The aetiology and pathogenesis of PV are not completely clear, but there is a fairly strong genetic background: ethnic groups such as Ashkenazi Jews and people of Mediterranean and Indian origin are particularly susceptible and there is a link to HLA class II alleles. The initiating event in PV is not clear, but circulating IgG autoantibodies develop, directed particularly against the intercellular cadherin desmoglein 3 (Dsg3) in desmosomes of stratified squamous epithelium. Oral lesions often herald the disease and are initially vesiculobullous, but they rupture readily to leave ulcers. Involvement of other mucosa and skin is almost inevitable and PV is potentially life threatening. The diagnosis is confirmed by biopsy with histological examination and immunostaining. Management is largely by systemic immunosuppression with corticosteroids, usually azathioprine or other agents, but newer treatments with potentially fewer adverse effects look promising.

  4. Oral lichen planus: An overview

    PubMed Central

    Krupaa, R. Jayasri; Sankari, S. Leena; Masthan, K. M. K.; Rajesh, E.

    2015-01-01

    Lichen planus is an immunologically mediated mucocutaneous disease that is triggered by varied etiological agents. The oral lichenoid reaction is considered a variant of the disease that needs to be clearly diagnosed as a separate entity from oral lichen planus and treated. They follow a strict cause-effector relationship, protocols that suggest the differentiation. Lichen planus has varied clinical forms in the oral mucosa and cutaneously that has different prognosis. This condition also arises in association with various other systemic conditions such as hypertension, diabetes mellitus. There have been cases reported in the esophagus, larynx, scalp, nail, cutaneous areas, especially arms and wrists, trunk. There is reported malignant transformation that essentiates careful examination, treatment protocol and regular follow-up sessions. This article throws light on the disease condition of oral lichen planus and oral lichenoid reaction that is essential for the differentiation and treatment. PMID:26015696

  5. Oral candidiasis and angular cheilitis.

    PubMed

    Sharon, Victoria; Fazel, Nasim

    2010-01-01

    Candidiasis, an often encountered oral disease, has been increasing in frequency. Most commonly caused by the overgrowth of Candida albicans, oral candidiasis can be divided into several categories including acute and chronic forms, and angular cheilitis. Risk factors for the development of oral candidiasis include immunosuppression, wearing of dentures, pharmacotherapeutics, smoking, infancy and old age, endocrine dysfunction, and decreased salivation. Oral candidiasis may be asymptomatic. More frequently, however, it is physically uncomfortable, and the patient may complain of burning mouth, dysgeusia, dysphagia, anorexia, and weight loss, leading to nutritional deficiency and impaired quality of life. A plethora of antifungal treatments are available. The overall prognosis of oral candidiasis is good, and rarely is the condition life threatening with invasive or recalcitrant disease.

  6. Potencies of oral contraceptives.

    PubMed

    Edgren, R A; Sturtevant, F M

    1976-08-15

    Oral contraceptives are combinations of estrogens and progestogens or, in the case of the mini-pills, progestogens alone. With specific test procedures in laboratory animals or human subjects, it is possible to assign potency evaluations to the components relative to the progestational, estrogenic, or antiestrogenic activities of the progestogen or to the estrogenic potencies of the estrogenic component. It might even be possible to quantify the synergistic effects of the estrogen on the progestational agent. Unfortunately, however, it is impossible now to amalgamate such assay results into single estimates of the potencies of the combinations (either the combination products per se or the combination tablets of sequential products). For example, an over-all estrogenic potency of a combination preparation would involve the integration of contributions form the estrogen itself plus the estrogenic products of metabolism of the progestogen minus the antagonistic effect of the progestational agent, if any. These factors cannot now be quantified independently, much less merged into a single figure of clinical significance. Further, even if it were possible to produce such an estimate, it is unlikely that the evaluation would be meaningful in relation to any putative side effect or adverse reaction, i.e., the alleged thrombogenic effects of oral contraceptives cannot currently be related directly to any measure of potency that will allow prediction of these clinical conditions from laboratory models. Any evaluation of the potential of a given contraceptive to produce a specific side effect will depend upon data generated with specific regard to that adverse reaction and the individual product in question.

  7. Integrating oral health throughout cancer care.

    PubMed

    Hartnett, Erin

    2015-10-01

    Oral health is often not a priority during cancer treatment; however, patients with cancer are at increased risk for oral complications during and after treatment. This article focuses on the importance of oral health care before, during, and after cancer treatment using the head, eyes, ears, nose, oral cavity, and throat, or HEENOT, approach. AT A GLANCE: Oral health is linked to overall health, and healthcare providers must be cognizant of the oral-systemic connection with patients undergoing cancer treatment, which may cause acute and chronic oral health problems. 
Oral assessment, prevention, early recognition, and treatment of oral problems must be incorporated into cancer care, particularly with the aid of an interprofessional team to meet patients' oral care needs. 
The head, eyes, ears, nose, oral cavity, and throat, or HEENOT, approach integrates oral care into patients' history taking, physical examination, and plan of cancer care.
.

  8. The Fungal Biome of the Oral Cavity.

    PubMed

    Chandra, Jyotsna; Retuerto, Mauricio; Mukherjee, Pranab K; Ghannoum, Mahmoud

    2016-01-01

    Organisms residing in the oral cavity (oral microbiota) contribute to health and disease, and influence diseases like gingivitis, periodontitis, and oral candidiasis (the most common oral complication of HIV-infection). These organisms are also associated with cancer and other systemic diseases including upper respiratory infections. There is limited knowledge regarding how oral microbes interact together and influence the host immune system. Characterizing the oral microbial community (oral microbiota) in health and disease represents a critical step in gaining insight into various members of this community. While most of the studies characterizing oral microbiota have focused on bacterial community, there are few encouraging studies characterizing the oral mycobiome (the fungal component of the oral microbiota). Our group recently characterized the oral mycobiome in health and disease focusing on HIV. In this chapter we will describe the methods used by our group for characterization of the oral mycobiome.

  9. Why Is Oral Health Important for Women?

    MedlinePlus

    ... desktop! more... Why Is Oral Health Important for Women? Article Chapters Why Is Oral Health Important for ... changing. Reviewed: January 2012 Previous Next Related Articles: Women's Oral Health Burning Mouth Syndrome in Middle-aged ...

  10. Literacy and Orality in Our Times.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ong, Walter J.

    1980-01-01

    Treats orality and literacy in two ways: (1) examines the ubiquitous problem of moving from oral expression to writing, and (2) considers briefly the new, secondary orality that surrounds viewers on radio and television. (JMF)

  11. Decreased inhibitory control of negative information in directed forgetting.

    PubMed

    Yang, Tianliang; Lei, Xu; Anderson, Michael

    2016-02-01

    A great deal of evidence suggests that emotion enhances memory. Thus, it may be harder to forget emotional information. By means of fMRI, this question was investigated in the item-method directed forgetting paradigm. Behavioral results demonstrated that although all kinds of material could be forgotten, negative words showed reduced directed forgetting effect. At the neural level, the initial viewing of negative words elicited increased activities in inferior frontal gyrus and superior parietal lobule when contrasted with neutral words, which reflected the capture of attention by negative content. Forgetting instructions for negative and neutral words led to enhanced activations in frontal and parietal cortex, consistent with the engagement of an active inhibitory process. Surprisingly, whereas successful directed forgetting of neutral words elicited stronger activations in right middle frontal gyrus compared with incidental forgetting, no such activation was observed for negative words. The lack of activation for negative words may be due to an attentional bias in processing negative words, which may briefly interfere with the deployment of inhibitory control. The present findings are consistent with the engagement of an active forgetting mechanism that contributes to the item-method directed forgetting. However, evidence of impeded inhibitory control suggests that forgetting negative words is harder.

  12. The clinical applications of contrast echocardiography.

    PubMed

    Olszewski, Robert; Timperley, Jon; Szmigielski, Cezary; Cezary, Szmigielski; Monaghan, Mark; Nihoyannopoulos, Petros; Nihoyannopoulis, Petros; Senior, Roxy; Becher, Harald

    2007-06-01

    Ultrasound contrast agents are approved for opacification of the heart chambers and to improve endocardial border definition. The myocardial contrast enhancement is also very useful for assessing thickening of the myocardium and myocardial perfusion. Several multicentre and numerous single-centre trials have demonstrated the usefulness of contrast echocardiography in clinical practice. Contrast echocardiography is probably one of the best validated echocardiographic techniques. Improved accuracy of contrast-enhanced images is not restricted to patients with a poor baseline image quality. Even with an optimal baseline image quality the borders are not as well defined as after LV opacification. Usage of contrast can improve image alignment and helps to avoid off-axis scanning. Contrast studies are particularly useful when a precise measurement of LV function is needed: 1. To decide about the need of implantable cardioverter-defibrillators (ICDs), cardiac resynchronization therapy (CRT), 2. Follow-up of patients with moderate valvular disease and decision for surgical treatment, 3. Selection and monitoring of patients undergoing chemotherapy with cardiotoxic drugs, 4. Assessment of LV function in patients in intensive care and coronary care units. Optimal endocardial border delineation is crucial and often can be achieved only by ultrasound contrast: 1. Assessment of LV thrombi and masses, 2. Left ventricular non-compaction/apical hypertrophy, 3. Right ventricular dysplasia, right ventricular thrombus, 4. Stress echocardiography and regional wall motion assessment. Future echocardiography will be more 3D and more quantitative than current echocardiography. And contrast echocardiography has already proven its value for both applications.

  13. Improving the oral health of older people in long-term residential care: a review of the literature.

    PubMed

    Miegel, Karen; Wachtel, Tracey

    2009-06-01

    Background.  Unrefutable evidence now links poor oral health with the development of preventable systemic illnesses and debilitating conditions that threaten quality of life and life itself. This is especially significant for an increasing older population who are dependent on others for care. Aims and objectives.  The majority of studies analysing the oral health of older dependent people in long-term residential care have been undertaken by dental professionals. This critical literature review examines the issue from a nursing perspective because nursing care providers have a fundamental role in daily oral health provision for dependent residents. Conclusions.  Multiple barriers were found to negatively impact on daily oral healthcare provision, including lack of care provider education, oral health values, availability of resources, implementation of supportive policies, documentation and oral health assessment tools. Relevance to clinical practice.  The nursing profession, at all levels, must become pro-active in removing financial, political and workforce barriers that impact negatively on oral health outcomes. A multi-faceted approach is required to address these barriers, including development and implementation of oral health education programmes, assessment screening tools, care plans, documentation, supply of oral hygiene aids and the appointment of oral care 'champions'.

  14. Renal effects of continuous negative pressure breathing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kinney, M. J.; Discala, V. A.

    1975-01-01

    Continuous negative pressure breathing (CNPB) was utilized to simulate the thoracic vascular distension of zero g or space, in 11 anesthetized rats. The animals underwent renal clearance and micropuncture renal nephron studies before, during, and after CNPB. Rats were pretreated with a high salt diet and I-M desoxycorticosterone (DOCA) in excess. None of these rats diuresed with CNPB. In contrast 5 of the 7 remaining rats increased the fraction of the filtered sodium excreted (C sub Na/GFR, p .05) and their urinary flow rate (V, p .05). Potassium excretion increased (U sub k V, p .05). End proximal tubular fluid specimen's TF/P inulin ratios were unchanged. Whole kidney and single nephron glomerular filtration rates fell 10%. CNPB, a mechanism for atrial distension, appears to cause, in rats, a decrease in distal tubular sodium, water and potassium reabsorption. Exogenous mineral-corticoid prevents the diuresis, saluresis, and kaluresis.

  15. Molecular analyses of oral polio vaccine samples.

    PubMed

    Poinar, H; Kuch, M; Pääbo, S

    2001-04-27

    It has been suggested that the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), and thus the acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) it causes, was inadvertently introduced to humans by the use of an oral polio vaccine (OPV) during a vaccination campaign launched by the Wistar Institute, Philadelphia, PA, USA, in the Belgian Congo in 1958 and 1959. The "OPV/AIDS hypothesis" suggests that the OPV used in this campaign was produced in chimpanzee kidney epithelial cell cultures rather than in monkey kidney cell cultures, as stated by H. Koprowski and co-workers, who produced the OPV. If chimpanzee cells were indeed used, this would lend support to the OPV/AIDS hypothesis, since chimpanzees harbor a simian immunodeficiency virus, widely accepted to be the origin of HIV-1. We analyzed several early OPV pools and found no evidence for the presence of chimpanzee DNA; by contrast, monkey DNA is present.

  16. Effect of Atmospheric-Pressure Cold Plasma on Pathogenic Oral Biofilms and In Vitro Reconstituted Oral Epithelium

    PubMed Central

    Zago, Chaiene Evelin; Tyhovych, Natalia

    2016-01-01

    Considering the ability of atmospheric-pressure cold plasma (ACP) to disrupt the biofilm matrix and rupture cell structure, it can be an efficient tool against virulent oral biofilms. However, it is fundamental that ACP does not cause damage to oral tissue. So, this study evaluated (1) the antimicrobial effect of ACP on single- and dual-species biofilms of Candida albicans and Staphylococcus aureus as well as (2) the biological safety of ACP on in vitro reconstituted oral epithelium. Standardized cell suspensions of each microorganism were prepared for biofilm culture on acrylic resin discs at 37°C for 48 hours. The biofilms were submitted to ACP treatment at 10 mm of plasma tip-to-sample distance during 60 seconds. Positive controls were penicillin G and fluconazole for S. aureus and C. albicans, respectively. The biofilms were analyzed through counting of viable colonies, confocal laser scanning microscopy, scanning electron microscopy and fluorescence microscopy for detection of reactive oxygen species. The in vitro reconstituted oral epithelium was submitted to similar ACP treatment and analyzed through histology, cytotoxocity test (LDH release), viability test (MTT assay) and imunnohistochemistry (Ki67 expression). All plasma-treated biofilms presented significant log10 CFU/mL reduction, alteration in microorganism/biofilm morphology, and reduced viability in comparison to negative and positive controls. In addition, fluorescence microscopy revealed presence of reactive oxygen species in all plasma-treated biofilms. Low cytotoxicity and high viability were observed in oral epithelium of negative control and plasma group. Histology showed neither sign of necrosis nor significant alteration in plasma-treated epithelium. Ki67-positive cells revealed maintenance of cell proliferation in plasma-treated epithelium. Atmospheric-pressure cold plasma is a promissing approach to eliminate single- and dual-species biofilms of C. albicans and S. aureus without having

  17. Influence of porcine intestinal pH and gastric digestion on antigenicity of F4 fimbriae for oral immunisation.

    PubMed

    Snoeck, Veerle; Cox, Eric; Verdonck, Frank; Joensuu, Jussi J; Goddeeris, Bruno M

    2004-01-14

    Newly weaned piglets can be orally immunised against F4+ enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli (ETEC) infection with F4 fimbriae. However, to efficiently develop a vaccine against ETEC induced postweaning diarrhoea, knowledge of the stability of the F4 fimbriae to different pH and gastric digestion is needed. The gastrointestinal pH in suckling and recently weaned piglets was measured and the stability of F4 fimbriae to different pH and to pepsin was assessed in vitro. In the stomach the lowest pH was found in the fundus gland region. Gastric pH values below 2.5 were not found in suckling piglets or at the day of weaning, in contrast to piglets 1 and 2 weeks postweaning. Along the first half of the small intestine and in the caecum, a negative correlation was found between pH and age. The F4 fimbriae were stable to pH 1.5 and 2 for 2 h, whereas longer incubation periods resulted in conversion of the multimeric forms into monomers. The F4 fimbriae were partially degraded by incubation for 15-30 min in simulated gastric fluid at pH 1.5 and 2, and completely digested from 3 h onwards. At pH 3, the fimbriae maintained their antigenicity for at least 4h. The results demonstrate that gastric digestion will only have a limited impact on oral immunisation since liquid passes through the stomach relatively quickly (50% within 2 h). However, we previously demonstrated that the transit times are prolonged shortly after weaning. Shortly after weaning it could be necessary to protect the F4 fimbriae against gastric digestion to obtain efficient oral immunisation of the piglets.

  18. Isotropic Negative Thermal Expansion Metamaterials.

    PubMed

    Wu, Lingling; Li, Bo; Zhou, Ji

    2016-07-13

    Negative thermal expansion materials are important and desirable in science and engineering applications. However, natural materials with isotropic negative thermal expansion are rare and usually unsatisfied in performance. Here, we propose a novel method to achieve two- and three-dimensional negative thermal expansion metamaterials via antichiral structures. The two-dimensional metamaterial is constructed with unit cells that combine bimaterial strips and antichiral structures, while the three-dimensional metamaterial is fabricated by a multimaterial 3D printing process. Both experimental and simulation results display isotropic negative thermal expansion property of the samples. The effective coefficient of negative thermal expansion of the proposed models is demonstrated to be dependent on the difference between the thermal expansion coefficient of the component materials, as well as on the circular node radius and the ligament length in the antichiral structures. The measured value of the linear negative thermal expansion coefficient of the three-dimensional sample is among the largest achieved in experiments to date. Our findings provide an easy and practical approach to obtaining materials with tunable negative thermal expansion on any scale.

  19. Three chamber negative ion source

    DOEpatents

    Leung, Ka-Ngo; Ehlers, Kenneth W.; Hiskes, John R.

    1985-01-01

    A negative ion vessel is divided into an excitation chamber, a negative ionization chamber and an extraction chamber by two magnetic filters. Input means introduces neutral molecules into a first chamber where a first electron discharge means vibrationally excites the molecules which migrate to a second chamber. In the second chamber a second electron discharge means ionizes the molecules, producing negative ions which are extracted into or by a third chamber. A first magnetic filter prevents high energy electrons from entering the negative ionization chamber from the excitation chamber. A second magnetic filter prevents high energy electrons from entering the extraction chamber from the negative ionizing chamber. An extraction grid at the end of the negative ion vessel attracts negative ions into the third chamber and accelerates them. Another grid, located adjacent to the extraction grid, carries a small positive voltage in order to inhibit positive ions from migrating into the extraction chamber and contour the plasma potential. Additional electrons can be suppressed from the output flux using ExB forces provided by magnetic field means and the extractor grid electric potential.

  20. Efficacy of oral administration and oral intake of edible vaccines.

    PubMed

    Lauterslager, Tosca G M; Hilgers, Luuk A T

    2002-12-03

    To evaluate whether vaccine administration via intragastric gavage is indicative for the outcome of edible vaccines, mice were orally immunised with ovalbumin (OVA) mixed with or without Vibrio cholerae toxin (CT) in various compositions via various routes: (1) OVA dissolved in saline and intragastrically (IG) administered ('IG'); (2) OVA mixed with food extract and administered IG ('food IG'); (3) food chow absorbed with OVA dissolved in saline and fed to the animals ('food'); and (4) OVA dissolved in saline and administered via drinking bottles ('drinking'). When given to naive mice, 'IG' and 'food IG' but not 'food' or 'drinking' induced anti-OVA IgG1 responses in serum, but oral boost immunisations were necessary. Serum IgA was not induced. Oral boosting of subcutaneously (SC) primed mice enhanced the IgG1 and IgA response in serum regardless of the route of immunisation or the vaccine composition. CT did not dramatically enhance the immune response. All immunisation routes except 'drinking' induced antigen-specific IgA antibody secreting cells (ASC) in the lamina propria of naive mice. But antigen-specific antibody responses in faeces were not observed. We concluded that oral (i.e. IG) administration is distinct from oral intake. The composition of the vaccine (food or saline) did not influence oral administration. We thus suggested that the route of administration greatly influenced the outcome of oral immunisation. Although oral administration is a well-accepted route to test the potentials of oral vaccines, our study demonstrated that it is merely indicative for the effectiveness of edible vaccines. Studies on the feasibility of edible vaccines should thus be performed by eating the vaccine.

  1. Oral Contraceptive Use and Affective Changes Across the Menstral Cycle,

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-11-02

    41(61. 785-791. Bancroft, J, & Rennie, D. (1993). The impact of oral contraceptives on the experience of perimenstrual mood, clumsiness, food craving ...Confusion 10. Cramps - uterine or pelvic 11. Craving for specific foods or tastes* 12. Craving for alcohol 13. Decreased appetite 14. Decreased food ...evaluated separately from non-users. A questionnaire and modified Keye calendar were used to prospectively collect data. They found that negative

  2. Tunable acoustic double negativity metamaterial.

    PubMed

    Liang, Z; Willatzen, M; Li, J; Christensen, J

    2012-01-01

    Man-made composite materials called "metamaterials" allow for the creation of unusual wave propagation behavior. Acoustic and elastic metamaterials in particular, can pave the way for the full control of sound in realizing cloaks of invisibility, perfect lenses and much more. In this work we design acousto-elastic surface modes that are similar to surface plasmons in metals and on highly conducting surfaces perforated by holes. We combine a structure hosting these modes together with a gap material supporting negative modulus and collectively producing negative dispersion. By analytical techniques and full-wave simulations we attribute the observed behavior to the mass density and bulk modulus being simultaneously negative.

  3. Cognitive representation of negative numbers.

    PubMed

    Fischer, Martin H

    2003-05-01

    To understand negative numbers, must we refer to positive number representations (the phylogenetic hypothesis), or do we acquire a negative mental number line (the ontogenetic hypothesis)? In the experiment reported here, participants made lateralized button responses to indicate the larger of two digits from the range -9 to 9. Digit pairs were displayed spatially congruent or incongruent with either a phylogenetic or an ontogenetic mental number line. The pattern of decision latencies suggests that negative numbers become associated with left space, thus supporting the ontogenetic view.

  4. Statistical analysis of Chinese phonemic contrast.

    PubMed

    Yu, Shuiyuan; Xu, Chunshan; Liu, Haitao; Chen, Yudong

    2011-01-01

    Two phonemes that may induce minimal pairs constitute a phonemic contrast. Some phonemic contrasts may disappear for various reasons, which, nevertheless, does not seem to seriously impede linguistic communication. Does it mean that the disappeared phonemic contrasts are unimportant? In our study, we calculated the proportions (here termed degree of contrast) of minimal pairs to the words in which the two contrastive phonemes occur and explored the role of phonemic contrasts in the phonemic combinations. The degree of contrast of phonemes reflects the relation between phonemes. Our results indicate that (1) the average degree of contrast of Chinese phonemes declines exponentially with the increase in the number of syllables, rapidly approaching zero; (2) the average degree of contrast of Chinese consonants that differ from each other in only one distinctive feature and of the consonants that are absent in some Chinese dialects is significantly higher than that of other consonants; (3) the degree of contrast of Chinese consonants that differ from each other in only one distinctive feature is not significantly different from that of the consonants absent in some Chinese dialects; (4) Chinese phonemic combinations exhibit high degree of sparsity, which increases exponentially with the number of syllables and rapidly approaches 1. All these results show that the high degree of sparsity and the low degree of contrast of human languages not only leave enough room for new words, new dialects and new languages to appear but also contribute to effective and reliable communication, because a few phonemic mistakes are not likely to cause wrong decoding (sound recognition) and failed communication.

  5. Motion contrast using optical coherence tomography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fingler, Jeffrey Paul

    Diagnosis of ophthalmic diseases like age-related macular degeneration is very important for treatment of the disease as well as the development of future treatments. Optical coherence tomography (OCT) is an optical interference technique which can measure the three-dimensional structural information of the reflecting layers within a sample. In retinal imaging, OCT is used as the primary diagnostic tool for structural abnormalities such as retinal holes and detachments. The contrast within the images of this technique is based upon reflectivity changes from different regions of the retina. This thesis demonstrates the developments of methods used to produce additional contrast to the structural OCT images based on the tiny fluctuations of motion experienced by the mobile scatterers within a sample. Motion contrast was observed for motions smaller than 50 nm in images of a variety of samples. Initial contrast method demonstrations used Brownian motion differences to separate regions of a mobile Intralipid solution from a static agarose gel, chosen in concentration to minimize reflectivity contrast. Zebrafish embryos in the range of 3-4 days post fertilization were imaged using several motion contrast methods to determine the capabilities of identifying regions of vascular flow. Vasculature identification was demonstrated in zebrafish for blood vessels of all orientations as small as 10 microns in diameter. Mouse retinal imaging utilized the same motion contrast methods to determine the contrast capabilities for motions associated with vasculature within the retina. Improved contrast imaging techniques demonstrated comparable images to fluorescein angiography, the gold standard of retinal vascular imaging. Future studies can improve the demonstrated contrast analysis techniques and apply them towards human retinal motion contrast imaging for ophthalmic diagnostic purposes.

  6. Oral health-related quality of life and oral status in a German working population.

    PubMed

    Walter, Michael H; Schuette, Ursula; Raedel, Michael; Koch, Rainer; Wolf, Burkhard; Scheuch, Klaus; Kirch, Wilhelm

    2011-12-01

    The study aim was to identify predictors of impaired oral health-related quality of life (OHRQoL). Employees of five companies were offered a clinical full-mouth examination. Oral health-related quality of life was measured with the German version of the Oral Health Impact Profile (OHIP) and summarized as additive scores (OHIP-ADD) and as prevalence of negative impacts (OHIP-SC). Two logistic regression models were developed for the odds of increased scores of the target variables OHIP-ADD and OHIP-SC. The target variables were dichotomized, and for the OHIP-ADD, the cut-off point for having impaired OHRQoL was heuristically defined as OHIP-ADD > 34. For the OHIP-SC, the corresponding threshold was OHIP-SC > 0. In the model for the OHIP-ADD, female gender, impaired aesthetics, few posterior occluding pairs, and painful masticatory muscles proved to be significant independent variables. For the OHIP-SC, female gender, impaired aesthetics, painful masticatory muscles, joint sounds, missing mandibular teeth, and carious teeth were significant. This cross-sectional study showed that within the models for both OHIP-ADD and OHIP-SC the high-risk person for impaired OHRQoL is a woman with impaired aesthetics and painful masticatory muscles.

  7. Molecular mechanisms of Trypanosoma cruzi infection by oral route.

    PubMed

    Yoshida, Nobuko

    2009-07-01

    Frequent reports on outbreaks of acute Chagas' disease by ingestion of food contaminated with parasites from triatomine insects illustrate the importance of this mode of transmission. Studies on oral Trypanosoma cruzi infection in mice have indicated that metacyclic trypomastigotes invade the gastric mucosal epithelium. A key molecule in this process is gp82, a stage-specific surface glycoprotein that binds to both gastric mucin and to target epithelial cells. By triggering Ca2+ signalling, gp82 promotes parasite internalisation. Gp82 is relatively resistant to peptic digestion at acidic pH, thus preserving the properties critical for oral infection. The infection process is also influenced by gp90, a metacyclic stage-specific molecule that negatively regulates the invasion process. T. cruzi strains expressing high gp90 levels invade cells poorly in vitro. However, their infectivity by oral route varies considerably due to varying susceptibilities of different gp90 isoforms to peptic digestion. Parasites expressing pepsin-susceptible gp90 become highly invasive against target cells upon contact with gastric juice. Such is the case of a T. cruzi isolate from an acute case of orally acquired Chagas' disease; the gp90 from this strain is extensively degraded upon short period of parasite permanence in the gastric milieu. If such an exacerbation of infectivity occurs in humans, it may be responsible for the severity of Chagas' disease reported in outbreaks of oral infection.

  8. Effects of baking-soda-containing dentifrices on oral malodor.

    PubMed

    Brunette, D M

    1997-01-01

    Oral malodor, also known as bad breath or halitosis, is an extremely common problem. Bad breath can arise from many sources in the body, but most frequently is produced in the mouth by the action of gram-negative anaerobic bacteria on sulfur-containing proteinaceous substrates in the saliva, such as debris and plaque. The primary molecules responsible for oral malodor are volatile sulfur compounds (VSC), such as hydrogen sulfide and methylmercaptan. Increased malodor production is related to greater bacterial numbers, reducing conditions, availability of protein substrates, and a pH above neutral. Bad breath is more common in the elderly, as well as those with unhygienic mouths, gingivitis, and periodontitis, but bad breath can also be found in some individuals who are periodontally healthy. The major source of oral malodor is the tongue. Approaches to controlling malodor have included masking, oral hygiene, antibacterial agents, conversion of VSC to nonodorous forms, oxidizing agents, and traditional approaches, including the use of backing soda. Results of controlled double-blind crossover studies, using both organoleptic (sensory) and gas chromatographic analysis of mouth air VSC, indicate that two dentifrices with high baking-soda concentrations, Arm & Hammer Dental Care and Arm & Hammer PeroxiCare, reduce oral malodor.

  9. Effects of baking-soda-containing dentifrices on oral malodor.

    PubMed

    Brunette, D M

    1996-01-01

    Oral malodor, also known as bad breath or halitosis, is an extremely common problem. Bad breath can arise from many sources in the body, but most frequently is produced in the mouth by the action of gram-negative anaerobic bacteria on sulfur-containing proteinaceous substrates in the saliva, such as debris and plaque. The primary molecules responsible for oral malodor are volatile sulfur compounds (VSC), such as hydrogen sulfide and methylmercaptan. Increased malodor production is related to greater bacterial numbers, reducing conditions, availability of protein substrates, and a pH above neutral. Bad breath is more common in the elderly, as well as those with unhygienic mouths, gingivitis, and periodontitis, but bad breath can also be found in some individuals who are periodontally healthy. The major source of oral malodor is the tongue. Approaches to controlling malodor have included masking, oral hygiene, antibacterial agents, conversion of VSC to nonodorous forms, oxidizing agents, and traditional approaches, including the use of baking soda. Results of controlled double-blind crossover studies, using both organoleptic (sensory) and gas chromatographic analysis of mouth air VSC, indicate that two dentifrices with high baking-soda concentrations, Arm & Hammer Dental Care and Arm & Hammer PeroxiCare, reduce oral malodor.

  10. Unmet oral health needs among persons with intellectual disability.

    PubMed

    Petrovic, Bojan B; Peric, Tamara O; Markovic, Dejan L J; Bajkin, Branislav B; Petrovic, Djorde; Blagojevic, Duska B; Vujkov, Sanja

    2016-12-01

    The aim of this study was to examine the factors affecting oral health status among intellectually disabled individuals in Serbia. The sample population was categorized according to age, sex, living arrangements, general health and the level of intellectual disability (ID). The diagnosis of dental caries was performed using the DMFT/dmft criteria. The oral hygiene and gingival health were assessed with the plaque index (Silness&Löe) and gingival index (Löe&Silness), respectively. Descriptive analysis, step-wise and logistic regression were performed to analyze related influential factors for caries presence, number of extracted teeth, teeth restored, the oral hygiene level and the extent of gingival inflammation. Odds ratios for caries were significantly higher among adult persons with ID, in persons with co-occurring developmental disorders (DDS) and increased with the level of ID. Group with DDS was associated with a 1.6 times greater odds of untreated decay, while the institutionalization was associated with 2.4 times greater odds of untreated decay. Institutionalization and co-occurring disabilities have been found to be significantly associated with a higher probability of developing gingivitis. Targeting oral health services to individuals with ID are encouraged and may help to reduce overall negative effect on oral and general health associated with delayed treatments, chronic dental pain, emergency dental care, tooth loss and advanced periodontal disease.

  11. Estrogen and Progesterone hormone receptor expression in oral cavity cancer

    PubMed Central

    Biegner, Thorsten; Teriete, Peter; Hoefert, Sebastian; Krimmel, Michael; Munz, Adelheid; Reinert, Siegmar

    2016-01-01

    Background Recent studies have shown an increase in the incidence of oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) in younger patients. The hypothesis that tumors could be hormonally induced during pregnancy or in young female patients without the well-known risk factors alcohol or tobacco abuse seems to be plausible. Material and Methods Estrogen Receptor alpha (ERα) and Progesterone Receptor (PR) expression were analyzed in normal oral mucosa (n=5), oral precursor lesions (simple hyperplasia, n=11; squamous intraepithelial neoplasia, SIN I-III, n=35), and OSCC specimen. OSCCs were stratified in a young female (n=7) study cohort and older patients (n=46). In the young female study cohort three patients (n=3/7) developed OSCC during or shortly after pregnancy. Breast cancer tissues were used as positive control for ERα and PR expression. Results ERα expression was found in four oral precursor lesions (squamous intraepithelial neoplasia, SIN I-III, n=4/35, 11%) and in five OSCC specimen (n=5/46, 11%). The five ERα positive OSCC samples were older male patients. All patients within the young female study cohort were negatively stained for both ERα and PR. Conclusions ER expression could be regarded as a seldom risk factor for OSCC. PR expression seems to be not relevant for the development of OSCC. Key words:Oral squamous cell carcinoma, estrogen receptor, progesterone receptor, hormone receptor. PMID:27475696

  12. Traditional Medicinal Plant Extracts and Natural Products with Activity against Oral Bacteria: Potential Application in the Prevention and Treatment of Oral Diseases

    PubMed Central

    Palombo, Enzo A.

    2011-01-01

    Oral diseases are major health problems with dental caries and periodontal diseases among the most important preventable global infectious diseases. Oral health influences the general quality of life and poor oral health is linked to chronic conditions and systemic diseases. The association between oral diseases and the oral microbiota is well established. Of the more than 750 species of bacteria that inhabit the oral cavity, a number are implicated in oral diseases. The development of dental caries involves acidogenic and aciduric Gram-positive bacteria (mutans streptococci, lactobacilli and actinomycetes). Periodontal diseases have been linked to anaerobic Gram-negative bacteria (Porphyromonas gingivalis, Actinobacillus, Prevotella and Fusobacterium). Given the incidence of oral disease, increased resistance by bacteria to antibiotics, adverse affects of some antibacterial agents currently used in dentistry and financial considerations in developing countries, there is a need for alternative prevention and treatment options that are safe, effective and economical. While several agents are commercially available, these chemicals can alter oral microbiota and have undesirable side-effects such as vomiting, diarrhea and tooth staining. Hence, the search for alternative products continues and natural phytochemicals isolated from plants used as traditional medicines are considered as good alternatives. In this review, plant extracts or phytochemicals that inhibit the growth of oral pathogens, reduce the development of biofilms and dental plaque, influence the adhesion of bacteria to surfaces and reduce the symptoms of oral diseases will be discussed further. Clinical studies that have investigated the safety and efficacy of such plant-derived medicines will also be described. PMID:19596745

  13. Living in limbo: Being diagnosed with oral tongue cancer

    PubMed Central

    Philiponis, Genevieve; Malloy, Kelly M.; Kagan, Sarah H.

    2015-01-01

    Objective: Oral tongue cancer presents clinical challenges to effective diagnosis that affect patient experience. Patient experience of the diagnostic process is poorly described, making opportunities for nursing intervention unclear. Methods: We qualitatively describe, using constant comparative analysis, oral tongue cancer diagnosis using data from a larger grounded theory study of oral tongue cancer survivorship. Using constant comparative analysis — in keeping with the methodology of the main study — we analyzed 16 survivor interviews for themes explaining the patient experience of oral tongue cancer diagnosis. Results: We termed the broader diagnostic process “living in limbo.” This process includes the themes describing the peri-diagnostic process itself — “self-detected lesion,” “lack of concern,” “seeking help,” “not a straightforward diagnosis,” and “hearing the diagnosis.” Entry into treatment concludes “Living in Limbo” and is described by the theme “worry and trust.” Conclusions: Our findings are limited by retrospective interviews and participant homogeneity among other features. Future research with prospective designs and diverse groups of people at risk for and diagnosed with oral tongue cancer, as well as targeting those who have had negative biopsies with no eventual diagnosis of oral tongue cancer, will build on our findings. Further, study of patient experience in other sociocultural context and healthcare systems is needed to inform nursing science and practice. Finally, “living in limbo” suggests that clinician and public education about oral tongue cancer diagnosis is needed. PMID:27981120

  14. Microbial signatures of oral dysbiosis, periodontitis and edentulism revealed by Gene Meter methodology.

    PubMed

    Hunter, M Colby; Pozhitkov, Alex E; Noble, Peter A

    2016-12-01

    Conceptual models suggest that certain microorganisms (e.g., the "red" complex) are indicative of a specific disease state (e.g., periodontitis); however, recent studies have questioned the validity of these models. Here, the abundances of 500+ microbial species were determined in 16 patients with clinical signs of one of the following oral conditions: periodontitis, established caries, edentulism, and oral health. Our goal was to determine if the abundances of certain microorganisms reflect dysbiosis or a specific clinical condition that could be used as a 'signature' for dental research. Microbial abundances were determined by the analysis of 138,718 calibrated probes using Gene Meter methodology. Each 16S rRNA gene was targeted by an average of 194 unique probes (n=25nt). The calibration involved diluting pooled gene target samples, hybridizing each dilution to a DNA microarray, and fitting the probe intensities to adsorption models. The fit of the model to the experimental data was used to assess individual and aggregate probe behavior; good fits (R(2)>0.90) were retained for back-calculating microbial abundances from patient samples. The abundance of a gene was determined from the median of all calibrated individual probes or from the calibrated abundance of all aggregated probes. With the exception of genes with low abundances (<2 arbitrary units), the abundances determined by the different calibrations were highly correlated (r~1.0). Seventeen genera were classified as 'signatures of dysbiosis' because they had significantly higher abundances in patients with periodontitis and edentulism when contrasted with health. Similarly, 13 genera were classified as 'signatures of periodontitis', and 14 genera were classified as 'signatures of edentulism'. The signatures could be used, individually or in combination, to assess the clinical status of a patient (e.g., evaluating treatments such as antibiotic therapies). Comparisons of the same patient samples revealed

  15. In Vitro Ability of a Novel Nanohydroxyapatite Oral Rinse to Occlude Dentine Tubules

    PubMed Central

    Hill, Robert G.; Chen, Xiaohui; Gillam, David G.

    2015-01-01

    Objectives. The aim of the study was to investigate the ability of a novel nanohydroxyapatite (nHA) desensitizing oral rinse to occlude dentine tubules compared to selected commercially available desensitizing oral rinses. Methods. 25 caries-free extracted molars were sectioned into 1 mm thick dentine discs. The dentine discs (n = 25) were etched with 6% citric acid for 2 minutes and rinsed with distilled water, prior to a 30-second application of test and control oral rinses. Evaluation was by (1) Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) of the dentine surface and (2) fluid flow measurements through a dentine disc. Results. Most of the oral rinses failed to adequately cover the dentine surface apart from the nHa oral rinse. However the hydroxyapatite, 1.4% potassium oxalate, and arginine/PVM/MA copolymer oral rinses, appeared to be relatively more effective than the nHA test and negative control rinses (potassium nitrate) in relation to a reduction in fluid flow measurements. Conclusions. Although the novel nHA oral rinse demonstrated the ability to occlude the dentine tubules and reduce the fluid flow measurements, some of the other oral rinses appeared to demonstrate a statistically significant reduction in fluid flow through the dentine disc, in particular the arginine/PVM/MA copolymer oral rinse. PMID:26161093

  16. The Prevalence of Oral Inflammation Among Denture Wearing Patients with Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease.

    PubMed

    Przybyłowska, D; Rubinsztajn, R; Chazan, R; Swoboda-Kopeć, E; Kostrzewa-Janicka, J; Mierzwińska-Nastalska, E

    2015-01-01

    Oral inflammation is an important contributor to the etiology of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, which can impact patient's health status. Previous studies indicate that people with poor oral health are at higher risk for nosocomial pneumonia. Denture wearing is one promoting factor in the development of mucosal infections. Colonization of the denture plaque by Gram-negative bacteria, Candida spp., or other respiratory pathogens, occurring locally, may be aspirated to the lungs. The studies showed that chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) patients treated with combinations of medicines with corticosteroids more frequently suffer from Candida-associated denture stomatitis. Treatment of oral candidiasis in patients with COPD constitutes a therapeutic problem. Therefore, it is essential to pay attention to the condition of oral mucosal membrane and denture hygiene habits. The guidelines for care and maintenance of dentures for COPD patients are presented in this paper. The majority of patients required improvement of their prosthetic and oral hygiene. Standard oral hygiene procedures in relation to dentures, conducted for prophylaxis of stomatitis complicated by mucosal infection among immunocompromised patients, are essential to maintain healthy oral tissues. The elimination of traumatic denture action in dental office, compliance with oral and denture hygiene, proper use and storage of prosthetic appliances in a dry environment outside the oral cavity can reduce susceptibility to infection. Proper attention to hygiene, including brushing and rinsing the mouth, may also help prevent denture stomatitis in these patients.

  17. Measuring the impact of oral mucosa disease on quality of life.

    PubMed

    López-Jornet, Pía; Camacho-Alonso, Fabio; Lucero Berdugo, Mayra

    2009-01-01

    Our objective was to study the quality of life in patients with oral mucosa disease. Two hundred sixteen consecutive patients with oral pathology were studied at the Department of Oral Medicine, University of Murcia (Spain). Sixty patients had burning mouth syndrome, 100 oral lichen planus, 41 recurrent aphthous stomatitis and 15 had and other oral mucosa disorders. The instruments applied were the Spanish version of the SF-36, used to evaluate general quality of life, and the OHIP-49, Spanish version, to measure oral health-related quality of life. With respect to oral quality of life (OHIP-49 all items), the worst scores were found for burning mouth syndrome. The group formed by other mucosal lesions presented the lowest scores for the domains role physical and general health in the SF-36. Oral mucosa diseases have a negative impact on health and quality of life. Administration of specific and generic questionnaires provides a detailed picture of the impact of oral diseases on patients, which adds information that may be useful in clinical practice.

  18. Role of cholecystokinin in anorexia induction following oral exposure to the 8-ketotrichothecenes deoxynivalenol, 15-acetyldeoxynivalenol, 3-acetyldeoxynivalenol, fusarenon X, and nivalenol.

    PubMed

    Wu, Wenda; Zhou, Hui-Ren; He, Kaiyu; Pan, Xiao; Sugita-Konishi, Yoshiko; Watanabe, Maiko; Zhang, Haibin; Pestka, James J

    2014-04-01

    Cereal grain contamination by trichothecene mycotoxins is known to negatively impact human and animal health with adverse effects on food intake and growth being of particular concern. The head blight fungus Fusarium graminearum elaborates five closely related 8-ketotrichothecene congeners: (1) deoxynivalenol (DON), (2) 3-acetyldeoxynivalenol (3-ADON), (3) 15-acetyldeoxynivalenol (15-ADON), (4) fusarenon X (FX), and (5) nivalenol (NIV). While anorexia induction in mice exposed intraperitoneally to DON has been linked to plasma elevation of the satiety hormones cholecystokinin (CCK) and peptide YY₃₋₃₆ (PYY₃₋₃₆), the effects of oral gavage of DON or of other 8-keotrichothecenes on release of these gut peptides have not been established. The purpose of this study was to (1) compare the anorectic responses to the aforementioned 8-ketotrichothecenes following oral gavage at a common dose (2.5 mg/kg bw) and (2) relate these effects to changes plasma CCK and PYY₃₋₃₆ concentrations. Elevation of plasma CCK markedly corresponded to anorexia induction by DON and all other 8-ketotrichothecenes tested. Furthermore, the CCK1 receptor antagonist SR 27897 and the CCK2 receptor antagonist L-365,260 dose-dependently attenuated both CCK- and DON-induced anorexia, which was consistent with this gut satiety hormone being an important mediator of 8-ketotrichothecene-induced food refusal. In contrast to CCK, PYY₃₋₃₆ was moderately elevated by oral gavage with DON and NIV but not by 3-ADON, 15-ADON, or FX. Taken together, the results suggest that CCK plays a major role in anorexia induction following oral exposure to 8-ketotrichothecenes, whereas PYY₃₋₃₆ might play a lesser, congener-dependent role in this response.

  19. Contrastive Analysis: Is It a Living Fossil?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Abbas, Ali K.

    1995-01-01

    This paper discusses the validity and utility of contrastive analysis for language teaching, focusing on the utility of contrastive analysis over error analysis in analyzing adverbial positioning in sentences produced by two groups of native speakers of English and Arabic. Contains 13 references. (MDM)

  20. Comparison and Contrast in Perceptual Categorization

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hampton, James A.; Estes, Zachary; Simmons, Claire L.

    2005-01-01

    People categorized pairs of perceptual stimuli that varied in both category membership and pairwise similarity. Experiments 1 and 2 showed categorization of 1 color of a pair to be reliably contrasted from that of the other. This similarity-based contrast effect occurred only when the context stimulus was relevant for the categorization of the…