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Sample records for negative smear results

  1. Microscopic examination and smear negative pulmonary tuberculosis in Ethiopia

    PubMed Central

    Keflie, Tibebe Seyoum; Ameni, Gobena

    2014-01-01

    Introduction Tuberculosis causes illness among millions of people each year and ranks as the second leading cause of death from infectious disease worldwide. The aim of this study was to investigate the detection rate of microscopic examination and estimate risk of transmission of TB by smear negative pulmonary TB patients. Methods A cross-sectional study and retrospective data analysis on TB were undertaken in Northwest Shewa, Ethiopia. Microscopic examination, bacterial culture and PCR were performed. The statistical analysis was made by using STATA software version 10. Results A total of 92 suspected TB cases was included in the study. Of these, 27.17% (25/92) were positive for microscopic examination and 51% (47/92) for culture. The sensitivity and specificity of microscopic examination with 95% CI were 48.94% (34.08% to 63.93%) and 95.56% (84.82 to 99.33%), respectively. The positive and negative predictive values were 92% (73.93% to 98.78%) and 64.18% (51.53% to 75.53%), respectively. Of 8150 pulmonary TB cases in the retrospective study, 58.9% was smear negative. The proportion of TB-HIV co-infection was 28.66% (96/335). Conclusion The sensitivity of microscopic examination was 48.94% which was very low. The poor sensitivity of this test together with the advent of HIV/AIDS elevated the prevalence of smear negative pulmonary TB. This in turn increased the risk of TB transmission. PMID:25810798

  2. Delays in diagnosis and treatment of pulmonary tuberculosis in AFB smear-negative patients with pneumonia.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Z X; Sng, L-H; Yong, Y; Lin, L M; Cheng, T W; Seong, N H; Yong, F K

    2017-03-16

    BACKGROUND:

    Diagnostic and treatment delays increase the severity and transmission of pulmonary tuberculosis (PTB). This study aimed to evaluate TB diagnostic and treatment delays in acid-fast bacilli (AFB) smear-negative patients.

    METHODS:

    This was a retrospective observational study. Patients with positive AFB culture of Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex (MTC) were selected from among hospitalised patients with a diagnosis of pneumonia. Admission ward, anti-tuberculosis treatment and the duration of AFB culture were compared between smear-positive and smear-negative patients.

    RESULTS:

    Of the 70 patients with positive isolation of MTC in AFB culture, 27 (38.5%) were smear-negative; of these, 18 (66.7%) were not isolated while in hospital, and 17 (63%) were neither diagnosed nor treated for TB. In contrast, 41 of the 43 smear-positive patients (95.3%) were directly admitted or quickly transferred to the isolation room and started on anti-tuberculosis treatment (P < 0.001). Samples from smear-negative patients required more time to grow MTC in AFB culture than those of smear-positive patients (23 days vs. 14 days, P < 0.001). Diabetes was significantly associated with AFB smear positivity, with an odds ratio of 12.2.

    CONCLUSIONS:

    Negative AFB smears caused significant diagnostic and treatment delay. Patients staying in the general ward were exposed to TB patients who were not diagnosed in time.

  3. Evaluation of the diagnostic utility of fiberoptic bronchoscopy for smear-negative pulmonary tuberculosis in routine clinical practice.

    PubMed

    Soto, Alonso; Salazar, Daniela; Acurio, Vilma; Segura, Patricia; Van der Stuyft, Patrick

    2012-01-01

    We evaluated the diagnostic yield of fiberoptic bronchoscopy for the diagnosis of smear-negative pulmonary tuberculosis in patients treated at a referral hospital in Lima, Peru. Of the 611 patients who underwent the procedure, 140 (23%) were diagnosed with tuberculosis based on the analysis of BAL samples. Being young and being male were significantly associated with positive cultures. In addition, 287 patients underwent post-bronchoscopic sputum smear testing for AFB, the results of which increased the diagnostic yield by 22% over that obtained through the analysis of BAL samples alone. We conclude that the analysis of BAL samples and post-bronchoscopic sputum samples provides a high diagnostic yield in smear-negative patients suspected of having pulmonary tuberculosis.

  4. Clinical value of whole-blood interferon-gamma assay in patients with suspected pulmonary tuberculosis and AFB smear- and polymerase chain reaction-negative bronchial aspirates.

    PubMed

    Lee, Jaehee; Lee, Shin Yup; Yoo, Seung Soo; Cha, Seung Ick; Won, Dong Il; Park, Jae Yong; Lee, Won-Kil; Kim, Chang Ho

    2012-07-01

    Combining a polymerase chain reaction (PCR) test with bronchoscopy is frequently performed to allow a rapid diagnosis of smear-negative pulmonary tuberculosis (PTB). However, limited data are available concerning clinical judgment in patients with suspected PTB and AFB smear- and PCR-negative bronchial aspirates (BA). The present study evaluated the usefulness of whole-blood QuantiFERON-TB Gold In-Tube (QFT) testing in these patients. Of 166 patients with suspected PTB who had undergone bronchoscopy because of smear-negative sputum or inadequate sputum production, 93 (56%) were diagnosed with culture-positive PTB. Seventy-four patients were either AFB smear- or PCR-positive. In the 75 patients whose BA AFB smear and PCR results were both negative, 19 were finally diagnosed with PTB by culture. The QFT test had a negative predictive value of 91% for PTB. The QFT test may be useful for excluding PTB in patients with suspected PTB whose BA AFB smear and PCR results are both negative.

  5. Clinical Predictors and Accuracy of Empiric Tuberculosis Treatment among Sputum Smear-Negative HIV-Infected Adult TB Suspects in Uganda

    PubMed Central

    Nakiyingi, Lydia; Bwanika, John Mark; Kirenga, Bruce; Nakanjako, Damalie; Katabira, Catherine; Lubega, Gloria; Sempa, Joseph; Nyesiga, Barnabas; Albert, Heidi; Manabe, Yukari C.

    2013-01-01

    Introduction The existing diagnostic algorithms for sputum smear-negative tuberculosis (TB) are complicated, time-consuming, and often difficult to implement. The decision to initiate TB treatment in resource-limited countries is often largely based on clinical predictors. We sought to determine the clinical predictors and accuracy of empiric TB treatment initiation in HIV-infected sputum smear-negative TB suspects using sputum culture as a reference standard. Setting Out-patient HIV-TB integrated urban clinic in Kampala, Uganda. Methods HIV-infected TB suspects were screened using sputum smear microscopy, and mycobacterial sputum liquid and solid cultures were performed. Smear results were made available to the clinician who made a clinical decision on empiric TB treatment initiation for sputum smear-negative patients. Clinic records were reviewed for patients whose sputum smears were negative to collect data on socio-demographics, TB symptomatology, chest X-ray findings, CD4 cell counts and TB treatment initiation. Results Of 253 smear-negative TB suspects, 56% (142/253) were females, median age 38 IQR (31–44) years, with a median CD4 cell count of 291 IQR (150–482) cells/mm3. Of the 85 (33.6%) smear-negative patients empirically initiated on TB treatment, 35.3% (n = 30) were sputum culture positive compared to only 18 (10.7%) of the 168 untreated patients (p<0.001). Abnormal chest X-ray [aOR 10.18, 95% CI (3.14–33.00), p<0.001] and advanced HIV clinical stage [aOR 3.92, 95% CI (1.20–12.85), p = 0.024] were significantly associated with empiric TB treatment initiation. The sensitivity and specificity of empiric TB treatment initiation in the diagnosis of TB in HIV-infected patients after negative smear microscopy was 62.5% and 73.7% respectively. Conclusion In resource-limited settings, clinically advanced HIV and abnormal chest X-ray significantly predict a clinical decision to empirically initiate TB treatment in smear-negative HIV

  6. Polymerase Chain Reaction in the Diagnosis of Visceral Leishmaniasis Recurrence in the Setting of Negative Splenic Smears.

    PubMed

    Hasnain, Golam; Basher, Ariful; Nath, Proggananda; Ghosh, Prakash; Hossain, Faria; Hossain, Shakhawat; Mondal, Dinesh

    2016-01-01

    This report presents two cases of visceral leishmaniasis (VL) recurrence where the microscopy of the splenic smear failed in diagnosis. However, a strong clinical suspicion compelled further evaluation by polymerase chain reaction (PCR), which validated the etiology. This short report highlights the usefulness of PCR in diagnosing cases of suspected smear-negative VL recurrence.

  7. Interferon release does not add discriminatory value to smear-negative HIV-tuberculosis algorithms.

    PubMed

    Rangaka, M X; Gideon, H P; Wilkinson, K A; Pai, M; Mwansa-Kambafwile, J; Maartens, G; Glynn, J R; Boulle, A; Fielding, K; Goliath, R; Titus, R; Mathee, S; Wilkinson, R J

    2012-01-01

    Clinical algorithms for evaluating HIV-infected individuals for tuberculosis (TB) prior to isoniazid preventive therapy (IPT) perform poorly, and interferon-γ release assays (IGRAs) have moderate accuracy for active TB. It is unclear whether, when used as adjunct tests, IGRAs add any clinical discriminatory value for active TB diagnosis in the pre-IPT assessment. 779 sputum smear-negative HIV-infected persons, established on or about to commence combined antiretroviral therapy (ART), were screened for TB prior to IPT. Stepwise multivariable logistic regression was used to develop clinical prediction models. The discriminatory ability was assessed by receiver operator characteristic area under the curve (AUC). QuantiFERON-TB Gold in-tube (QFT-GIT) was evaluated. The prevalence of smear-negative TB by culture was 6.4% (95% CI 4.9-8.4%). Used alone, QFT-GIT and the tuberculin skin test (TST) had comparable performance; the post-test probability of disease based on single negative tests was 3-4%. In a multivariable model, the QFT-GIT test did not improve the ability of a clinical algorithm, which included not taking ART, weight <60 kg, no prior history of TB, any one positive TB symptom/sign (cough ≥ 2 weeks) and CD4+ count <250 cells per mm(3), to discriminate smear-negative culture-positive and -negative TB (72% to 74%; AUC comparison p=0.33). The TST marginally improved the discriminatory ability of the clinical model (to 77%, AUC comparison p=0.04). QFT-GIT does not improve the discriminatory ability of current TB screening clinical algorithms used to evaluate HIV-infected individuals for TB ahead of preventive therapy. Evaluation of new TB diagnostics for clinical relevance should follow a multivariable process that goes beyond test accuracy.

  8. A First Insight into High Prevalence of Undiagnosed Smear-Negative Pulmonary Tuberculosis in Northern Ethiopian Prisons: Implications for Greater Investment and Quality Control

    PubMed Central

    Biadglegne, Fantahun; Rodloff, Arne C.; Sack, Ulrich

    2014-01-01

    Background Tuberculosis (TB) transmission in prisons poses significant risks to inmates as well as the general population. Currently, there are no data on smear-negative pulmonary TB cases in prisons and by extension no data on the impact such cases have on TB incidence. This study was designed to obtain initial data on the prevalence of smear-negative cases of TB in prisons as well as preliminary risk factor analysis for such TB cases. Methods This cross-sectional survey was conducted in November 2013 at eight main prisons located in the state of Amhara, Ethiopia. Interviews using a structured and pretested questionnaire were done first to identify symptomatic prisoners. Three consecutive sputum samples were collected and examined using acid fast bacilli (AFB) microscopy at the point of care. All smear-negative sputum samples were taken for culture and Xpert testing. Descriptive and multivariate analysis was done using SPSS version 16. Results Overall the prevalence of smear-negative pulmonary TB cases in the study prisons was 8% (16/200). Using multivariate analysis, a contact history to TB patients in prison, educational level, cough and night sweating were found to be predictors of TB positivity among smear-negative pulmonary TB cases (p≤ 0.05). Conclusions In the studied prisons, high prevalence of undiagnosed TB cases using AFB microscopy was documented, which is an important public health concern that urgently needs to be addressed. Furthermore, patients with night sweating, non-productive cough, a contact history with TB patients and who are illiterate merit special attention, larger studies are warranted in the future to assess the associations more precisely. Further studies are also needed to examine TB transmission dynamics by patients with smear-negative pulmonary TB in a prison setting. PMID:25203007

  9. An approach to the problems of diagnosing and treating adult smear-negative pulmonary tuberculosis in high-HIV-prevalence settings in sub-Saharan Africa.

    PubMed Central

    Harries, A. D.; Maher, D.; Nunn, P.

    1998-01-01

    The overlap between the populations in sub-Saharan Africa infected with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and Mycobacterium tuberculosis has led to an upsurge in tuberculosis cases over the last 10 years. The relative increase in the proportion of notified sputum-smear-negative pulmonary tuberculosis (PTB) cases is greater than that of sputum-smear-positive PTB cases. This is a consequence of the following: the association between decreased host immunity and reduced sputum smear positivity; the difficulty in excluding other HIV-related diseases when making the diagnosis of smear-negative PTB; and an increase in false-negative sputum smears because of overstretched resources. This article examines problems in the diagnosis and treatment of smear-negative PTB in high-HIV-prevalence areas in sub-Saharan Africa. The main issues in diagnosis include: the criteria used to diagnose smear-negative PTB; the degree to which clinicians actually follow these criteria in practice; and the problem of how to exclude other respiratory diseases that can resemble, and be misdiagnosed as, smear-negative PTB. The most important aspect of the treatment of smear-negative PTB patients is abandoning 12-month "standard" treatment regimens in favour of short-course chemotherapy. Operational research is necessary to determine the most cost-effective approaches to the diagnosis and treatment of smear-negative PTB. Nevertheless, substantial improvement could be obtained by implementing the effective measures already available, such as improved adherence to diagnostic and treatment guidelines. PMID:10191561

  10. Increasing Pap Smear Utilization Among Samoan Women: Results from a Community Based Participatory Randomized Trial

    PubMed Central

    Mishra, Shiraz I.; Luce, Pat H.; Baquet, Claudia R.

    2013-01-01

    Background We tested the effectiveness of a theory-guided, culturally tailored cervical cancer education program designed to increase Pap smear use among Samoan women residing in the U.S. Territory of American Samoa. Methods We used a two-group, pretest-posttest design. The sample comprised 398 Samoan women age 20 and older who we recruited from Samoan churches. Women in the intervention group received a culturally tailored cervical cancer education program in three weekly sessions. The primary outcome was self-reported receipt of a Pap smear. Results Overall, there was a significant intervention effect, with intervention compared with control group women twice (adjusted odds ratio = 2.0, 95% confidence interval = 1.3–3.2, p<.01) as likely to self-report Pap smear use at the posttest. Conclusions The findings support the efficacy of the multifaceted, theory-guided, culturally tailored community-based participatory cervical cancer education program for Samoan women in effecting positive changes in Pap smear use and cervical cancer related knowledge and attitudes. PMID:19711495

  11. Diagnosis of Carrion’s Disease by Direct Blood PCR in Thin Blood Smear Negative Samples

    PubMed Central

    Tinco Valdez, Carmen; Pons, Maria J.; del Valle, Luis J.; Oré, Verónica Casabona; Michelena, Denisse Champin; Mayra, Jorge Bazán; Gavidea, Víctor Zavaleta; Vargas, Martha; Ruiz, Joaquim

    2014-01-01

    Bartonella bacilliformis is the etiologic agent of Carrion's disease. This disease has two well established phases, the most relevant being the so called Oroya Fever, in which B. bacilliformis infect the erythrocytes resulting in severe anemia and transient immunosuppression, with a high lethality in the absence of adequate antibiotic treatment. The presence of B. bacilliformis was studied in 113 blood samples suspected of Carrion’s disease based on clinical criteria, despite the absence of a positive thin blood smear, by two different PCR techniques (using Bartonella-specific and universal 16S rRNA gene primers), and by bacterial culture. The specific 16S rRNA gene primers revealed the presence of 21 B. bacilliformis and 1 Bartonella elizabethae, while universal primers showed both the presence of 3 coinfections in which a concomitant pathogen was detected plus Bartonella, in addition to the presence of infections by other microorganisms such as Agrobacterium or Bacillus firmus. These data support the need to implement molecular tools to diagnose Carrion’s disease. PMID:24651298

  12. Aetiology of Pulmonary Symptoms in HIV-Infected Smear Negative Recurrent PTB Suspects in Kampala, Uganda: A Cross-Sectional Study

    PubMed Central

    Okwera, Alphonse; Bwanga, Freddie; Najjingo, Irene; Mulumba, Yusuf; Mafigiri, David K.; Whalen, Christopher C.; Joloba, Moses L.

    2013-01-01

    Introduction Previously treated TB patients with pulmonary symptoms are often considered recurrent TB suspects in the resource-limited settings, where investigations are limited to microscopy and chest x-ray. Category II anti-TB drugs may be inappropriate and may expose patients to pill burden, drug toxicities and drug-drug interactions. Objective To determine the causes of pulmonary symptoms in HIV-infected smear negative recurrent pulmonary tuberculosis suspects at Mulago Hospital, Kampala. Methods Between March 2008 and December 2011, induced sputum samples of 178 consented HIV-infected smear negative recurrent TB suspects in Kampala were subjected to MGIT and LJ cultures for mycobacteria at TB Reference Laboratory, Kampala. Processed sputum samples were also tested by PCR to detect 18S rRNA gene of P.jirovecii and cultured for other bacteria. Results Bacteria, M. tuberculosis and Pneumocystis jirovecii were detected in 27%, 18% and 6.7% of patients respectively and 53.4% of the specimens had no microorganisms. S. pneumoniae, M. catarrhalis and H. influenzae were 100% susceptible to chloramphenicol and erythromycin but co-trimoxazole resistant. Conclusion At least 81.5% of participants had no microbiologically-confirmed TB. However our findings call for thorough investigation of HIV-infected smear negative recurrent TB suspects to guide cost effective treatment. PMID:24312650

  13. Nucleic Acid Amplification Testing and Sequencing Combined with Acid-Fast Staining in Needle Biopsy Lung Tissues for the Diagnosis of Smear-Negative Pulmonary Tuberculosis

    PubMed Central

    Tian, Panwen; Chen, Xuerong; Liang, Zongan

    2016-01-01

    Background Smear-negative pulmonary tuberculosis (PTB) is common and difficult to diagnose. In this study, we investigated the diagnostic value of nucleic acid amplification testing and sequencing combined with acid-fast bacteria (AFB) staining of needle biopsy lung tissues for patients with suspected smear-negative PTB. Methods Patients with suspected smear-negative PTB who underwent percutaneous transthoracic needle biopsy between May 1, 2012, and June 30, 2015, were enrolled in this retrospective study. Patients with AFB in sputum smears were excluded. All lung biopsy specimens were fixed in formalin, embedded in paraffin, and subjected to acid-fast staining and tuberculous polymerase chain reaction (TB-PCR). For patients with positive AFB and negative TB-PCR results in lung tissues, probe assays and 16S rRNA sequencing were used for identification of nontuberculous mycobacteria (NTM). The sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value (PPV), negative predictive value (NPV), and diagnostic accuracy of PCR and AFB staining were calculated separately and in combination. Results Among the 220 eligible patients, 133 were diagnosed with TB (men/women: 76/57; age range: 17–80 years, confirmed TB: 9, probable TB: 124). Forty-eight patients who were diagnosed with other specific diseases were assigned as negative controls, and 39 patients with indeterminate final diagnosis were excluded from statistical analysis. The sensitivity, specificity, PPV, NPV, and accuracy of histological AFB (HAFB) for the diagnosis of smear-negative were 61.7% (82/133), 100% (48/48), 100% (82/82), 48.5% (48/181), and 71.8% (130/181), respectively. The sensitivity, specificity, PPV, and NPV of histological PCR were 89.5% (119/133), 95.8% (46/48), 98.3% (119/121), and 76.7% (46/60), respectively, demonstrating that histological PCR had significantly higher accuracy (91.2% [165/181]) than histological acid-fast staining (71.8% [130/181]), P < 0.001. Parallel testing of histological AFB

  14. Analysis of Sensitivity, Specificity, and Positive and Negative Predictive Values of Smear and Colposcopy in Diagnosis of Premalignant and Malignant Cervical Lesions.

    PubMed

    Barut, Mert Ulaş; Kale, Ahmet; Kuyumcuoğlu, Umur; Bozkurt, Murat; Ağaçayak, Elif; Özekinci, Server; Gül, Talip

    2015-12-10

    BACKGROUND This study aimed to examine the positive and negative predictive value in the diagnosis of premalignant and malignant lesions of cervical colposcopy, the sensitivity and specificity of smear, and to evaluate the correlation with histopathology of abnormal cytology and colposcopy. MATERIAL AND METHODS The criteria for inclusion of patients with unhealthy cervix in the study were: Erosion, Chronic cervicitis, and Healed lacerations, Hypertrophied cervix, bleeding on touch, suspicious growth/ulcer/polyp on the cervix, and abnormal discharges from the cervix. Women with frank carcinoma cervix, pregnant females, patients with bleeding per vaginum at the time of examination, and those who had used vaginal medications, vaginal contraceptives or douches in the last 48 h of examination were excluded from the study. Demographic analysis was performed for 450 patients who were admitted to the clinic. Sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value and negative predictive values of patients to identify cervical pathologies of smear and colposcopy were histopathologically calculated. The statistical software package SPSS 15.0 (SPSS Inc., Chicago, IL, USA) and Spearman's and Chi-Square tests were used for statistical analysis. RESULTS Sensitivity, specificity, PPD and NDP of smear were 0.57%, 0.76%, 0.26%, 0.92% respectively. Sensitivity, specificity, PPD and NDP of colposcopy were 0.92%, 0.67%, 0.52%, 0.96% respectively. A statistically significant correlation was found between abnormal cytology and histopathology, and abnormal colposcopy finding and histopathology. CONCLUSIONS Women with clinical diagnosis of unhealthy cervix should be evaluated by cytology to detect any premalignant or malignant lesions. It was concluded that Pap smear, colposcopy and histopathology should be collectively evaluated to evaluate cervical findings in low socio-economic regions.

  15. Analysis of Sensitivity, Specificity, and Positive and Negative Predictive Values of Smear and Colposcopy in Diagnosis of Premalignant and Malignant Cervical Lesions

    PubMed Central

    Barut, Mert Ulaş; Kale, Ahmet; Kuyumcuoğlu, Umur; Bozkurt, Murat; Ağaçayak, Elif; Özekinci, Server; Gul, Talip

    2015-01-01

    Background This study aimed to examine the positive and negative predictive value in the diagnosis of premalignant and malignant lesions of cervical colposcopy, the sensitivity and specificity of smear, and to evaluate the correlation with histopathology of abnormal cytology and colposcopy. Material/Methods The criteria for inclusion of patients with unhealthy cervix in the study were: Erosion, Chronic cervicitis, and Healed lacerations, Hypertrophied cervix, bleeding on touch, suspicious growth/ulcer/polyp on the cervix, and abnormal discharges from the cervix. Women with frank carcinoma cervix, pregnant females, patients with bleeding per vaginum at the time of examination, and those who had used vaginal medications, vaginal contraceptives or douches in the last 48 h of examination were excluded from the study. Demographic analysis was performed for 450 patients who were admitted to the clinic. Sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value and negative predictive values of patients to identify cervical pathologies of smear and colposcopy were histopathologically calculated. The statistical software package SPSS 15.0 (SPSS Inc., Chicago, IL, USA) and Spearman‘s and Chi-Square tests were used for statistical analysis. Results Sensitivity, specificity, PPD and NDP of smear were 0.57%, 0.76%, 0.26%, 0.92% respectively. Sensitivity, specificity, PPD and NDP of colposcopy were 0.92%, 0.67%, 0.52%, 0.96% respectively. A statistically significant correlation was found between abnormal cytology and histopathology, and abnormal colposcopy finding and histopathology. Conclusions Women with clinical diagnosis of unhealthy cervix should be evaluated by cytology to detect any premalignant or malignant lesions. It was concluded that Pap smear, colposcopy and histopathology should be collectively evaluated to evaluate cervical findings in low socio-economic regions. PMID:26655816

  16. Pap smear

    MedlinePlus

    ... AGUS - Pap; Atypical squamous cells - Pap; HPV - Pap; Human papilloma virus - Pap cervix - Pap; Colposcopy - Pap Images Female reproductive anatomy Pap smear Uterus Pap smear Cervical erosion References ...

  17. A novel method for diagnosis of smear-negative tuberculosis patients by combining a random unbiased Phi29 amplification with a specific real-time PCR.

    PubMed

    Pang, Yu; Lu, Jie; Yang, Jian; Wang, Yufeng; Cohen, Chad; Ni, Xin; Zhao, Yanlin

    2015-07-01

    In this study, we develop a novel method for diagnosis of smear-negative tuberculosis patients by performing a random unbiased Phi29 amplification prior to the use of a specific real-time PCR. The limit of detection (LOD) of the conventional real-time PCR was 100 colony-forming units (CFU) of MTB genome/reaction, while the REPLI real-time PCR assay could detect 0.4 CFU/reaction. In comparison with the conventional real-time PCR, REPLI real-time PCR shows better sensitivity for the detection of smear-negative tuberculosis (P = 0.015).

  18. Molecular Detection and Identification of Mycobacterium tuberculosis Complex and Four Clinically Important Nontuberculous Mycobacterial Species in Smear-Negative Clinical Samples by the GenoType Mycobacteria Direct Test ▿

    PubMed Central

    Bicmen, Can; Gunduz, Ayriz T.; Coskun, Meral; Senol, Gunes; Cirak, A. Kadri; Ozsoz, Ayse

    2011-01-01

    Although the sensitivity and specificity of nucleic acid amplification assays are high with smear-positive samples, the sensitivity with smear-negative and extrapulmonary samples for the diagnosis of tuberculosis in suspicious tuberculosis cases still remains to be investigated. This study evaluates the performance of the GenoType Mycobacteria Direct (GTMD) test for rapid molecular detection and identification of the Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex and four clinically important nontuberculous mycobacteria (M. avium, M. intracellulare, M. kansasii, and M. malmoense) in smear-negative samples. A total of 1,570 samples (1,103 bronchial aspiration, 127 sputum, and 340 extrapulmonary samples) were analyzed. When we evaluated the performance criteria in combination with a positive culture result and/or the clinical outcome of the patients, the overall sensitivity, specificity, and positive and negative predictive values were found to be 62.4, 99.5, 95.9, and 93.9%, respectively, whereas they were 63.2, 99.4, 95.7, and 92.8%, respectively, for pulmonary samples and 52.9, 100, 100, and 97.6%, respectively, for extrapulmonary samples. Among the culture-positive samples which had Mycobacterium species detectable by the GTMD test, three samples were identified to be M. intracellulare and one sample was identified to be M. avium. However, five M. intracellulare samples and an M. kansasii sample could not be identified by the molecular test and were found to be negative. The GTMD test has been a reliable, practical, and easy tool for rapid diagnosis of smear-negative pulmonary and extrapulmonary tuberculosis so that effective precautions may be taken and appropriate treatment may be initiated. However, the low sensitivity level should be considered in the differentiation of suspected tuberculosis and some other clinical condition until the culture result is found to be negative and a true picture of the clinical outcome is obtained. PMID:21653780

  19. Negative results: negative perceptions limit their potential for increasing reproducibility.

    PubMed

    Teixeira da Silva, Jaime A

    2015-07-07

    Negative results are an important building block in the development of scientific thought, primarily because most likely the vast majority of data is negative, i.e., there is not a favorable outcome. Only very limited data is positive, and that is what tends to get published, albeit alongside a sub-set of negative results to emphasize the positive nature of the positive results. Yet, not all negative results get published. Part of the problem lies with a traditional mind-set and rigid publishing frame-work that tends to view negative results in a negative light, or that only tends to reward scientists primarily for presenting positive findings. This opinion piece indicates that in addition to a deficient mind-set, there are also severe limitations in the availability of publishing channels where negative results could get published.

  20. Validation of a Clinical-Radiographic Score to Assess the Probability of Pulmonary Tuberculosis in Suspect Patients with Negative Sputum Smears

    PubMed Central

    Soto, Alonso; Solari, Lely; Díaz, Javier; Mantilla, Alberto; Matthys, Francine; van der Stuyft, Patrick

    2011-01-01

    Background Clinical suspects of pulmonary tuberculosis in which the sputum smears are negative for acid fast bacilli represent a diagnostic challenge in resource constrained settings. Our objective was to validate an existing clinical-radiographic score that assessed the probability of smear-negative pulmonary tuberculosis (SNPT) in high incidence settings in Peru. Methodology/Principal Findings We included in two referral hospitals in Lima patients with clinical suspicion of pulmonary tuberculosis and two or more negative sputum smears. Using a published but not externally validated score, patients were classified as having low, intermediate or high probability of pulmonary tuberculosis. The reference standard for the diagnosis of tuberculosis was a positive sputum culture in at least one of 2 liquid (MGIT or Middlebrook 7H9) and 1 solid (Ogawa) media. Prevalence of tuberculosis was calculated in each of the three probability groups. 684 patients were included. 184 (27.8%) had a diagnosis of pulmonary tuberculosis. The score did not perform well in patients with a previous history of pulmonary tuberculosis. In patients without, the prevalence of tuberculosis was 5.1%, 31.7% and 72% in the low, intermediate and high probability group respectively. The area under de ROC curve was 0.76 (95% CI 0.72–0.80) and scores ≥6 had a positive LR of 10.9. Conclusions/Significance In smear negative suspects without previous history of tuberculosis, the clinical-radiographic score can be used as a tool to assess the probability of pulmonary tuberculosis and to guide the decision to initiate or defer treatment or to requesting additional tests. PMID:21483690

  1. Prevalence of melioidosis in patients with suspected pulmonary tuberculosis and sputum smear negative for acid-fast bacilli in northeast Thailand.

    PubMed

    Suntornsut, Pornpan; Kasemsupat, Kriangsak; Silairatana, Santi; Wongsuvan, Gumphol; Jutrakul, Yaowaruk; Wuthiekanun, Vanaporn; Day, Nicholas P J; Peacock, Sharon J; Limmathurotsakul, Direk

    2013-11-01

    The clinical and radiological features of pulmonary melioidosis can mimic tuberculosis. We prospectively evaluated 118 patients with suspected pulmonary tuberculosis who were acid-fast bacilli (AFB) smear negative at Udon Thani Hospital, northeast Thailand. Culture of residual sputum from AFB testing was positive for Burkholderia pseudomallei in three patients (2.5%; 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.5-7.3%). We propose that in melioidosis-endemic areas, residual sputum from AFB testing should be routinely cultured for B. pseudomallei.

  2. CSF smear

    MedlinePlus

    ... Laboratory staff then view the sample under a microscope. The smear shows the color of the fluid and the number and shape of cells present in the fluid. Other tests may be done to check for bacteria or fungi in the sample. How to Prepare ...

  3. Incremental Yield of Serial Sputum Cultures for Diagnosis of Tuberculosis among HIV Infected Smear Negative Pulmonary TB Suspects in Kampala, Uganda

    PubMed Central

    Ssengooba, Willy; Kiwanuka, Noah; Kateete, David P.; Katamba, Achilles; Joloba, Moses L.

    2012-01-01

    Background Sputum culture is the gold standard for diagnosis of pulmonary tuberculosis (PTB). Although mostly used for research, culture is recommended by the World Health Organization for TB diagnosis among HIV infected smear negative PTB suspects. Even then, the number of sputum samples required remains unspecified. Here, we determined the Incremental Yield (IY) and number of samples required to diagnose an additional PTB case upon second and third serial sputum culture. Methods/Findings This was a cross sectional study done between January and March 2011. Serial sputum samples were provided by participants within two days and cultured using Lowenstein Jensen (LJ) and Mycobacteria Growth Indicator Tube (MGIT) methods. A PTB case was defined as a positive culture on either one or both methods. The IY from the second and third serial cultures was determined and the reciprocal of the product of the fractions of IY provided the number of samples required for an additional PTB case. Of the 170 smear negative PTB suspects, 62 (36.5%) met the case definition. The IY of the second sample culture was 12.7%, 23.6% and 12.6% and for the third sample culture was 6.8%, 7.5% and 7.3% with LJ, MGIT and LJ or MGIT, respectively. The number of samples required for an additional PTB case and 95% CI upon the second sample culture were 29.9 (16.6, 156.5), 11.3 (7.6, 21.9) and 20.8 (12.5, 62.7); while for the third sample culture were 55.6 (26.4, 500.4), 35.7 (19.0, 313.8) and 36.1 (19.1, 330.9) by LJ, MGIT and LJ or MGIT respectively. Conclusions/Significance Among HIV infected smear negative PTB suspects in Kampala, 93% of PTB cases are diagnosed upon the second serial sputum culture. The number of cultures needed to diagnose an additional PTB case, ranges from 11–30 and 35–56 by the second and third sputum samples, respectively. PMID:22629439

  4. Rapid Urine LAM Testing Improves Diagnosis of Expectorated Smear-Negative Pulmonary Tuberculosis in an HIV-endemic Region.

    PubMed

    Drain, Paul K; Gounder, Lilishia; Sahid, Faieza; Moosa, Mahomed-Yunus S

    2016-02-11

    We sought to determine if urine lipoarabinomannan (LAM) would improve diagnosis of pulmonary TB. We enrolled consecutive adults presenting with ≥2 TB-related symptoms, obtained one induced sputum sample for smear microscopy (AFB) and mycobacterial culture, and performed urine LAM testing (Determine(TM) TB LAM, Alere). We used culture-confirmed pulmonary TB as the gold standard, and compared accuracy with area under receiver operating characteristic curves (AUROC). Among 90 participants, 82 of 88 tested (93%) were HIV-infected with a median CD4 168/mm(3) (IQR 89-256/mm(3)). Diagnostic sensitivities of urine LAM and sputum AFB were 42.1% (95% CI 29.1-55.9%) and 21.1% (95% CI 11.4-33.9%), and increased to 52.6% (95% CI 39.0-66.0%) when combined. Sensitivity of LAM increased significantly among participants with a lower Karnofsky Performance score, anemia, hypoalbuminemia, and higher C-reactive protein. Combining LAM with AFB had an AUROC = 0.68 (95% CI 0.59-0.77), significantly better than AFB alone (AUROC=0.58; 95% CI 0.51-0.64). The combination of LAM and AFB was significantly better than AFB alone among patients with Karnofsky Performance score ≤90, hemoglobin ≤10 g/dL, albumin ≤25 g/L, C-reactive protein ≥25 mg/L, or CD4 <200/mm(3). Urine LAM testing may be most beneficial among patients with functional impairment, elevated inflammatory markers, or greater immunosuppression.

  5. Rapid Urine LAM Testing Improves Diagnosis of Expectorated Smear-Negative Pulmonary Tuberculosis in an HIV-endemic Region

    PubMed Central

    Drain, Paul K.; Gounder, Lilishia; Sahid, Faieza; Moosa, Mahomed-Yunus S.

    2016-01-01

    We sought to determine if urine lipoarabinomannan (LAM) would improve diagnosis of pulmonary TB. We enrolled consecutive adults presenting with ≥2 TB-related symptoms, obtained one induced sputum sample for smear microscopy (AFB) and mycobacterial culture, and performed urine LAM testing (DetermineTM TB LAM, Alere). We used culture-confirmed pulmonary TB as the gold standard, and compared accuracy with area under receiver operating characteristic curves (AUROC). Among 90 participants, 82 of 88 tested (93%) were HIV-infected with a median CD4 168/mm3 (IQR 89–256/mm3). Diagnostic sensitivities of urine LAM and sputum AFB were 42.1% (95% CI 29.1–55.9%) and 21.1% (95% CI 11.4–33.9%), and increased to 52.6% (95% CI 39.0–66.0%) when combined. Sensitivity of LAM increased significantly among participants with a lower Karnofsky Performance score, anemia, hypoalbuminemia, and higher C-reactive protein. Combining LAM with AFB had an AUROC = 0.68 (95% CI 0.59–0.77), significantly better than AFB alone (AUROC=0.58; 95% CI 0.51–0.64). The combination of LAM and AFB was significantly better than AFB alone among patients with Karnofsky Performance score ≤90, hemoglobin ≤10 g/dL, albumin ≤25 g/L, C-reactive protein ≥25 mg/L, or CD4 <200/mm3. Urine LAM testing may be most beneficial among patients with functional impairment, elevated inflammatory markers, or greater immunosuppression. PMID:26865526

  6. Women's understanding of abnormal cervical smear test results: a qualitative interview study.

    PubMed Central

    Kavanagh, A. M.; Broom, D. H.

    1997-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To describe how women interpret their experiences of diagnosis and treatment of a cervical abnormality and how healthcare services for such women can be improved. DESIGN: Qualitative study using detailed individual interviews. SETTING: Australian gynaecology clinics. SUBJECTS: 29 Women who had a cervical cytological abnormality and who attended a gynaecologist. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Women's views on their diagnosis and their information needs. RESULTS: Most women wanted to participate in decisions about their care but found it difficult to get the information they required from doctors because they were confused by what their doctors told them and felt unable to ask questions in the consultation. Medical terms such as wart virus and precancer were difficult to understand. Not being able to see their cervix also made it hard for women to understand what their abnormality meant and what treatment entailed. Most women tried to make sense of their abnormality in the context of their everyday lives. For some women their gynaecological care was not consistent with the way they understood their abnormality. CONCLUSIONS: The inherent power structure of medical practice combined with time pressures often make it difficult for doctors to give the detailed information and reassurance patients need when a diagnosis is distressing or when investigation and treatment are strange and upsetting. PMID:9161314

  7. A Negative Result About Some Concepts of Negative Dependence.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1985-07-01

    It seems that either a very strong negative dependence holds with the monotonicity condition while without it, even a somewhat weak condition does...not hold. This brings out the crucial role played by the PF2 (log concave density) property in conditional negative dependence .

  8. Analysis of the Prevalence of HTLV-1 Proviral DNA in Cervical Smears and Carcinomas from HIV Positive and Negative Kenyan Women.

    PubMed

    He, Xiaotong; Maranga, Innocent O; Oliver, Anthony W; Gichangi, Peter; Hampson, Lynne; Hampson, Ian N

    2016-09-05

    The oncogenic retrovirus human T-cell lymphotropic virus type 1 (HTLV-1) is endemic in some countries although its prevalence and relationship with other sexually transmitted infections in Sub-Saharan Africa is largely unknown. A novel endpoint PCR method was used to analyse the prevalence of HTLV-1 proviral DNA in genomic DNA extracted from liquid based cytology (LBC) cervical smears and invasive cervical carcinomas (ICCs) obtained from human immunodeficiency virus-positive (HIV+ve) and HIV-negative (HIV-ve) Kenyan women. Patient sociodemographic details were recorded by structured questionnaire and these data analysed with respect to HIV status, human papillomavirus (HPV) type (Papilocheck(®)) and cytology. This showed 22/113 (19.5%) of LBC's from HIV+ve patients were positive for HTLV-1 compared to 4/111 (3.6%) of those from HIV-ve women (p = 0.0002; odds ratio (OR) = 6.42 (2.07-26.56)). Only 1/37 (2.7%) of HIV+ve and none of the 44 HIV-ve ICC samples were positive for HTLV-1. There was also a significant correlation between HTLV-1 infection, numbers of sexual partners (p < 0.05) and smoking (p < 0.01). Using this unique method, these data suggest an unexpectedly high prevalence of HTLV-1 DNA in HIV+ve women in this geographical location. However, the low level of HTLV-1 detected in HIV+ve ICC samples was unexpected and the reasons for this are unclear.

  9. Analysis of the Prevalence of HTLV-1 Proviral DNA in Cervical Smears and Carcinomas from HIV Positive and Negative Kenyan Women

    PubMed Central

    He, Xiaotong; Maranga, Innocent O.; Oliver, Anthony W.; Gichangi, Peter; Hampson, Lynne; Hampson, Ian N.

    2016-01-01

    The oncogenic retrovirus human T-cell lymphotropic virus type 1 (HTLV-1) is endemic in some countries although its prevalence and relationship with other sexually transmitted infections in Sub-Saharan Africa is largely unknown. A novel endpoint PCR method was used to analyse the prevalence of HTLV-1 proviral DNA in genomic DNA extracted from liquid based cytology (LBC) cervical smears and invasive cervical carcinomas (ICCs) obtained from human immunodeficiency virus-positive (HIV+ve) and HIV-negative (HIV−ve) Kenyan women. Patient sociodemographic details were recorded by structured questionnaire and these data analysed with respect to HIV status, human papillomavirus (HPV) type (Papilocheck®) and cytology. This showed 22/113 (19.5%) of LBC’s from HIV+ve patients were positive for HTLV-1 compared to 4/111 (3.6%) of those from HIV−ve women (p = 0.0002; odds ratio (OR) = 6.42 (2.07–26.56)). Only 1/37 (2.7%) of HIV+ve and none of the 44 HIV−ve ICC samples were positive for HTLV-1. There was also a significant correlation between HTLV-1 infection, numbers of sexual partners (p < 0.05) and smoking (p < 0.01). Using this unique method, these data suggest an unexpectedly high prevalence of HTLV-1 DNA in HIV+ve women in this geographical location. However, the low level of HTLV-1 detected in HIV+ve ICC samples was unexpected and the reasons for this are unclear. PMID:27608036

  10. Factors Infuencing Women in Pap Smear Uptake

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wijayanti, K. E.; Alam, I. G.

    2017-03-01

    Objective: Pap smear has proven can decrease death caused by cervical cancer. However, in Indonesia, only few woman who already did pap smear. The aim of this study was to investigate women’s knowledge about pap smear cervical cancer, and to investigate factors influence women to do pap smear test. Methods: Quantitative data colected through questionairre towards 31 women who did pap smear and 55 women who did not do pap smear. Questionairre was made using Health Belief model as a guideline to examine percieved susceptibility, perceived serioussnes, perceived benefits and perceived barriers. Chi square and multiple logistic regresion were used to investigate difference in knowledge and what the most factor that influence women to take pap smear test. Results: There’s significance knowledge difference betweeen women who did and did not do pap smear. But furthermore, by using Multiple Logistic Regression test, appearantly knowledge was not a strong predictor factor for women to take pap smear test (koefisiensi β = -0,164) Conclusion: Perceived barriers were factors that affected pap smear uptake in women in Indonesia. Few respondents get the wrong informations about pap smear, cevical cancer and its symptoms

  11. Treatment Default amongst Patients with Tuberculosis in Urban Morocco: Predicting and Explaining Default and Post-Default Sputum Smear and Drug Susceptibility Results

    PubMed Central

    Ghali, Iraqi; Kizub, Darya; Billioux, Alexander C.; Bennani, Kenza; Bourkadi, Jamal Eddine; Benmamoun, Abderrahmane; Lahlou, Ouafae; Aouad, Rajae El; Dooley, Kelly E.

    2014-01-01

    Setting Public tuberculosis (TB) clinics in urban Morocco. Objective Explore risk factors for TB treatment default and develop a prediction tool. Assess consequences of default, specifically risk for transmission or development of drug resistance. Design Case-control study comparing patients who defaulted from TB treatment and patients who completed it using quantitative methods and open-ended questions. Results were interpreted in light of health professionals’ perspectives from a parallel study. A predictive model and simple tool to identify patients at high risk of default were developed. Sputum from cases with pulmonary TB was collected for smear and drug susceptibility testing. Results 91 cases and 186 controls enrolled. Independent risk factors for default included current smoking, retreatment, work interference with adherence, daily directly observed therapy, side effects, quick symptom resolution, and not knowing one’s treatment duration. Age >50 years, never smoking, and having friends who knew one’s diagnosis were protective. A simple scoring tool incorporating these factors was 82.4% sensitive and 87.6% specific for predicting default in this population. Clinicians and patients described additional contributors to default and suggested locally-relevant intervention targets. Among 89 cases with pulmonary TB, 71% had sputum that was smear positive for TB. Drug resistance was rare. Conclusion The causes of default from TB treatment were explored through synthesis of qualitative and quantitative data from patients and health professionals. A scoring tool with high sensitivity and specificity to predict default was developed. Prospective evaluation of this tool coupled with targeted interventions based on our findings is warranted. Of note, the risk of TB transmission from patients who default treatment to others is likely to be high. The commonly-feared risk of drug resistance, though, may be low; a larger study is required to confirm these findings

  12. Clay smear: Review of mechanisms and applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vrolijk, Peter J.; Urai, Janos L.; Kettermann, Michael

    2016-05-01

    Clay smear is a collection of fault processes and resulting fault structures that form when normal faults deform layered sedimentary sections. These elusive structures have attracted deep interest from researchers interested in subsurface fluid flow, particularly in the oil and gas industry. In the four decades since the association between clay-smear structures and oil and gas accumulations was introduced, there has been extensive research into the fault processes that create clay smear and the resulting effects of that clay smear on fluid flow. We undertake a critical review of the literature associated with outcrop studies, laboratory and numerical modeling, and subsurface field studies of clay smear and propose a comprehensive summary that encompasses all of these elements. Important fault processes that contribute to clay smear are defined in the context of the ratio of rock strength and in situ effective stresses, the geometric evolution of fault systems, and the composition of the faulted section. We find that although there has been progress in all avenues pursued, progress has been uneven, and the processes that disrupt clay smears are mostly overlooked. We highlight those research areas that we think will yield the greatest benefit and suggest that taking these emerging results within a more process-based framework presented here will lead to a new generation of clay smear models.

  13. STOUT SMEARING FOR TWISTED FERMIONS.

    SciTech Connect

    SCHOLZ,W.; JANSEN, K.; McNEILE, C.; MONTVAY, I.; RICHARDS, C.; URBACH, C.; WENGER, U.

    2007-07-30

    choice is the Stout smearing procedure as introduced in [7], since it can easily be implemented in the Hybrid Monte Carlo (HMC) based updating algorithms we are currently using. One should keep in mind that a possible caveat of this procedure is ''oversmearing'', i.e., removing too many small eigenvalues by applying too many smearing steps and/or using a too high value for the smearing parameter-because not every small eigenvalue is ''unphysical''. In addition, after many smearing steps the fermion action can become too delocalized which can lead to an unwanted slowing down of the approach to the continuum limit. In order to avoid this caveat we choose to work with only one step of very mild Stout smearing. Moreover we keep these smearing parameters fixed as we change the lattice spacing. In Section 1 we will shortly review the smearing procedure and the twisted mass formulation, as well as some details concerning the used updating algorithms. Section 2 is devoted to the presentation of the results of our numerical simulations using N{sub f} = 2 and N{sub f} = 2 + 1 + 1 flavors of twisted mass quarks.

  14. Identification of mycobacterium tuberculosis in sputum smear slide using automatic scanning microscope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rulaningtyas, Riries; Suksmono, Andriyan B.; Mengko, Tati L. R.; Saptawati, Putri

    2015-04-01

    Sputum smear observation has an important role in tuberculosis (TB) disease diagnosis, because it needs accurate identification to avoid high errors diagnosis. In development countries, sputum smear slide observation is commonly done with conventional light microscope from Ziehl-Neelsen stained tissue and it doesn't need high cost to maintain the microscope. The clinicians do manual screening process for sputum smear slide which is time consuming and needs highly training to detect the presence of TB bacilli (mycobacterium tuberculosis) accurately, especially for negative slide and slide with less number of TB bacilli. For helping the clinicians, we propose automatic scanning microscope with automatic identification of TB bacilli. The designed system modified the field movement of light microscope with stepper motor which was controlled by microcontroller. Every sputum smear field was captured by camera. After that some image processing techniques were done for the sputum smear images. The color threshold was used for background subtraction with hue canal in HSV color space. Sobel edge detection algorithm was used for TB bacilli image segmentation. We used feature extraction based on shape for bacilli analyzing and then neural network classified TB bacilli or not. The results indicated identification of TB bacilli that we have done worked well and detected TB bacilli accurately in sputum smear slide with normal staining, but not worked well in over staining and less staining tissue slide. However, overall the designed system can help the clinicians in sputum smear observation becomes more easily.

  15. Interpreting Negative Results in an Angle Maximization Problem.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Duncan, David R.; Litwiller, Bonnie H.

    1995-01-01

    Presents a situation in which differential calculus is used with inverse trigonometric tangent functions to maximize an angle measure. A negative distance measure ultimately results, requiring a reconsideration of assumptions inherent in the initial figure. (Author/MKR)

  16. Understanding why negative genetic test results sometimes fail to reassure.

    PubMed

    Michie, Susan; Smith, Jonathan A; Senior, Victoria; Marteau, Theresa M

    2003-06-15

    A proportion of those receiving negative results following predictive genetic testing desire future bowel screening. This is despite a negative result meaning a general population risk of 1:7500 and despite bowel screening being experienced as aversive and clinically unnecessary. This study aimed to investigate perceptions of risk, illness, and tests amongst those receiving negative results following predictive genetic testing. Interviews with nine people receiving negative genetic test results for familial adenomatous polyposis (FAP) were analyzed using the qualitative method, interpretative phenomenological analysis (IPA). Those not reassured by negative genetic test results perceived a continuing risk to themselves and to their children. Two sets of perceptions emerged that might explain this: (1). perceptions of the genetic basis of the condition (FAP). Although the condition was perceived to be genetic, genetic status was seen as transient, so a result today could not predict the future. The condition was also seen as caused by factors other than genes, so information about only one risk factor could not be reassuring. (2). Perceptions of the genetic test. There was a lack of conviction in the ability of the genetic test, based on a blood sample, to predict a disease located in the bowel. These results suggest that some individuals receiving negative test results are not reassured because of their representations of the cause of their condition and the nature of the tests they undergo. It may be that eliciting and, when appropriate, changing people's representations prior to testing may enable those receiving negative results to be more reassured about their residual risk.

  17. Negativity towards negative results: a discussion of the disconnect between scientific worth and scientific culture.

    PubMed

    Matosin, Natalie; Frank, Elisabeth; Engel, Martin; Lum, Jeremy S; Newell, Kelly A

    2014-02-01

    Science is often romanticised as a flawless system of knowledge building, where scientists work together to systematically find answers. In reality, this is not always the case. Dissemination of results are straightforward when the findings are positive, but what happens when you obtain results that support the null hypothesis, or do not fit with the current scientific thinking? In this Editorial, we discuss the issues surrounding publication bias and the difficulty in communicating negative results. Negative findings are a valuable component of the scientific literature because they force us to critically evaluate and validate our current thinking, and fundamentally move us towards unabridged science.

  18. Negativity towards negative results: a discussion of the disconnect between scientific worth and scientific culture

    PubMed Central

    Matosin, Natalie; Frank, Elisabeth; Engel, Martin; Lum, Jeremy S.; Newell, Kelly A.

    2014-01-01

    ABSTRACT Science is often romanticised as a flawless system of knowledge building, where scientists work together to systematically find answers. In reality, this is not always the case. Dissemination of results are straightforward when the findings are positive, but what happens when you obtain results that support the null hypothesis, or do not fit with the current scientific thinking? In this Editorial, we discuss the issues surrounding publication bias and the difficulty in communicating negative results. Negative findings are a valuable component of the scientific literature because they force us to critically evaluate and validate our current thinking, and fundamentally move us towards unabridged science. PMID:24713271

  19. Negative ions at Titan: New results using spacecraft attitude changes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wellbrock, A.; Coates, A. J.; Lewis, G. R.; Jones, G. H.; Arridge, C. S.; Magee, B. A.; Crary, F. J.; Waite, J. H.; Sittler, E. C.; Young, D. T.

    2009-04-01

    A. Wellbrock, A. J. Coates, G. R. Lewis, G. H. Jones, C. S. Arridge, B. A. Magee, F. J. Crary, J. H. Waite, E. C. Sittler, D. T. Young The ELS (ELectron Spectrometer) part of the Cassini Plasma Spectrometer (CAPS) revealed the existence of negative ions in Titan's ionosphere (Coates et al, 2007, Waite et al, 2007). The instrument is mounted on a rotating platform called the actuator. The negative ions are detected when this actuator points in the direction in which the spacecraft travels (the ‘ram direction'). This is because the negative ions have slow thermal speeds compared to the spacecraft speed, whereas electrons have much higher thermal speeds and are detected in any direction as their distribution is isotropic. Hence the negative ions can be identified as narrow spikes in the ELS electron spectrograms. During most Titan flybys, the spacecraft attitude is oriented such that the central anode of the instrument points in the ram direction. However, during Titan encounters when the spacecraft rotates, other anodes can point in the ram direction for short periods of time, or in a direction very close to the ram direction. In the latter case, only higher mass ions are detected. Comparing data from different anodes in and near the ram direction can be used to obtain information related to the ion velocity and temperature, which we discuss. The study of measurements from all anodes of the instrument also significantly increases the number of negative ion spikes available for analysis. The resulting set of data allows a statistical study of the different mass groups at a range of altitudes and latitudes, and their scale heights. We summarise and discuss the results. References: Coates, A.J., F.J. Crary, G.R. Lewis, D.T. Young, J.H. Waite, Jr., E.C.Sittler Jr., Discovery of heavy negative ions in Titan's ionosphere, Geophys. Res. Lett., 34, L22103, 2007. Waite, J. H., Jr., D. T. Young, T. E. Cravens, A. J. Coates, F. J. Crary, B. Magee and J. Westlake, The Process

  20. A comparison of liquid-based cytology with conventional Papanicolaou smears in cervical dysplasia diagnosis

    PubMed Central

    Haghighi, Fatemeh; Ghanbarzadeh, Nahid; Ataee, Marziee; Sharifzadeh, Gholamreza; Mojarrad, Javid Shahbazi; Najafi-Semnani, Fatemeh

    2016-01-01

    Background: Due to the high number of women affected by cervical cancer and the importance of an early diagnosis, combined with the frequent incidence of false-negative Papanicolaou (Pap) smear screening results for this disease, several studies have been conducted in recent years in order to find better tests. Liquid-based cytology (LBC) tests, including the liquid-based thin layer method, have demonstrated the highest potential for reducing false-negative cases and improved sample quality. This study aimed to compare the strength of the Pap smear test with fluid cytology and conventional tests in detecting cervical dysplasia. Materials and Methods: This descriptive-analytic study was conducted on 366 women who attended private laboratories for a Pap smear. The Pap smear sampling was conducted simultaneously using two methods: conventional Pap (CP) smear and LBC), from the cervix. Results: The mean age of the participants was 32 ± 8.8 years. Diagnostic results of endocervical cells, epithelial cells, vaginitis cells, and metaplastia were consistent with both conventional and liquid cytology smears, and the kappa coefficient was determined to be significant (P < 0.001). In total, 40.5% of diagnostic cases indicated bacterial inflammation 80.3% of the diagnoses in both methods were P1 and 3.9% of cases diagnosed were P2, the overall diagnostic consistency was 83.9% between the two sampling methods. The inflammation diagnosis was 40.5% and this was consistent in both methods of LBC and CP. There was one case of a false-negative diagnosis in the LBC method and 14 cases in the CP method. Conclusion: Results showed that the LBC may improve the sample's quality and reduce the number of unsatisfactory cases more than with the CP method. PMID:27995101

  1. [Usefulness and limit of Gram staining smear examination].

    PubMed

    Nagata, Kuniaki; Mino, Hirotoshi; Yoshida, Shunsuke

    2010-05-01

    Gram staining is one of the most simple and inexpensive methods for the rapid diagnosis of bacterial and fungal infections. It yields results much faster than culture, and provides important data for the patient's treatment and prognosis. However, a difference exists in the quality and quantity of information yielded by Gram staining smears based on the experience and knowledge of those conducting the tests. Therefore, a risk of misdiagnosis based on the information obtained from Gram staining smears is also present. The Gram staining conditions and morphology of bacteria sometimes change due to antimicrobial therapy. Species of Gram-negative rods sometimes become filamentous and pleomorphic. Gram-positive bacteria may become gram variable (change in staining condition) after antimicrobial therapy. Even bacteria that are easy to mis-identify exist, because the morphology of bacteria may be similar. Enterococcus faecalis is a Gram-positive diplococcus, forming Gram-positive clustered cocci in specimens from blood culture bottles, resembling Streptococcus pneumoniae. Acinetobacter baumannii is a Gram-negative diplococcus in sputum, resembling Moraxella (Branhamella) catarrhalis. Pasteurella multocida is a small-sized, Gram-negative short rod in the sputum, resembling Haemophilus influenzae. Prevotella intermedia is a small-sized, Gram-negative short rod in sputum, resembling Haemophilus influenzae. Capnocytophaga sp. is a Gram-negative fusiform (thin needle shape) rod present in clinical specimens, resembling Fusobacterium nucleatum.

  2. Associations between sexually transmitted infections, high-risk human papillomavirus infection, and abnormal cervical Pap smear results in OB/GYN outpatients

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Tae Jin

    2016-01-01

    Objective This study aimed to examine the meaning and usefulness of sexually transmitted infection (STI) test when caring for patients who have abnormal cervical cytology and/or positive high-risk human papillomavirus (HPV) DNA test results. Methods Among patients who underwent liquid-based cervical cytology and HPV DNA tests at the Obstetrics and Gynecology outpatient clinic, 800 patients who showed abnormal cervical cytology were compared with 200 patients in the control group. Both groups were simultaneously tested via multiplex real-time polymerase chain reaction for seven types of STI-causative microorganisms. Results The positive rate of high-risk HPV infection in total STIs positive group was 1.47 times higher than that of total STIs negative group. The probability of a cytological diagnosis of a grade equal to or higher than atypical squamous cells-cannot exclude high grade squamous intraepithelial lesion (ASC-H) was significantly higher in patients testing positive for total STIs (1.46 times), Chlamydia trachomatis (3.21 times), or Mycoplasma genitalicum (3.58 times) than in those testing negative. The total STIs positive rate was significantly higher for those having a cytological diagnosis of a grade equal to or higher than atypical squamous cells of undetermined significance (ASC-US) when high-risk HPV test result was negative. Conclusion Correlations were present not only between STIs and high-risk HPV infection but also between abnormal cervical cytology and STIs. Therefore, additional evaluation of STIs will be helpful to appropriately diagnose and treat patients with abnormal cervical cytology, positive results on high-risk HPV DNA test, or a cytological diagnosis of ASC-US despite negative high-risk HPV DNA test result. PMID:27329197

  3. Psychosocial burden of abnormal pap smears among HIV-infected women at Chon Buri hospital, Thailand.

    PubMed

    Jayathunge, Mangala P H; Bowanwatanuwong, Chureeratana; Maek-A-nantawat, Wirach; Pitisuttithum, Benjaluck Phonratland Punnee

    2010-01-01

    This retrospective case-control study assessed the psychological burden of abnormal Pap smears, and their prevalence and characteristics among HIV-infected women attending an HIV clinic. Women with positive (n = 73) and negative Pap-smear results (n = 317) were assessed for psychosocial burden using 4 questionnaires: Psycho-Social Impact of Abnormal Pap Smears (PEAPS-Q), Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS), Work Productivity and Impairment (WPAI) and the EURO-Qol Thermometer. The prevalence of pre-cervical cancer lesions in HIV infected woman was 17.5% (ASCUS 2.9%, LSIL 3.8%, HSIL 7.4%, SCC 1.7%, and atypical glandular cells including adenocarcinoma 1.7%). HIV infected women with abnormal Pap smears showed higher anxiety levels on the HADS questionnaire (p = 0.015); this had a significant effect on regular daily activities (p = 0.009) per the WPAI questionnaire compared to HIV positive women with normal Pap smear. Ever married HIV infected woman with an abnormal Pap smear had a significantly lower psychosocial burden using the PEAPS-Q questionnaire (p < 0.001). After adjusting for age and duration since last Pap smear, the education level of the patient was a strong predictor for anxiety. Patients, with a college education had significantly lower anxiety (p = 0.001, 95% CI -5.74 to -1.37) than those with lower or higher education. Women with HSIL were more anxious (p = 0.014, 95% CI 0.49 -4.39) than those with low grade or normal lesions.

  4. RESULTS OF EXPERIMENT ON NEGATIVE REINFORCEMENT IN AUTOMATED TEACHING.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    MELARAGNO, RALPH J.

    AN EXPERIMENT TO COMPARE SPACED NEGATIVE REINFORCEMENT, MASSED NEGATIVE REINFORCEMENT, AND POSITIVE REINFORCEMENT IN AUTOMATED TEACHING IS DESCRIBED. THREE GROUPS OF COLLEGE FRESHMEN WERE USED IN THE STUDY. EACH GROUP WAS GIVEN INSTRUCTIONAL MATERIAL CONTAINING AMBIGUOUS IMFORMATION INTERSPERSED AMONG MEANINGFUL INFORMATION. ONE GROUP RECEIVED A…

  5. Theory of smeared quantum phase transitions.

    PubMed

    Hoyos, José A; Vojta, Thomas

    2008-06-20

    We present an analytical strong-disorder renormalization group theory of the quantum phase transition in the dissipative random transverse-field Ising chain. For Ohmic dissipation, we solve the renormalization flow equations analytically, yielding asymptotically exact results for the low-temperature properties of the system. We find that the interplay between quantum fluctuations and Ohmic dissipation destroys the quantum critical point by smearing. We also determine the phase diagram and the behavior of observables in the vicinity of the smeared quantum phase transition.

  6. Optoelectronic hit/miss transform for screening cervical smear slides

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Narayanswamy, R.; Turner, R. M.; McKnight, D. J.; Johnson, K. M.; Sharpe, J. P.

    1995-06-01

    An optoelectronic morphological processor for detecting regions of interest (abnormal cells) on a cervical smear slide using the hit/miss transform is presented. Computer simulation of the algorithm tested on 184 Pap-smear images provided 95% detection and 5% false alarm. An optoelectronic implementation of the hit/miss transform is presented, along with preliminary experimental results.

  7. The Anal Pap Smear: Cytomorphology of squamous intraepithelial lesions.

    PubMed

    Arain, Shehla; Walts, Ann E; Thomas, Premi; Bose, Shikha

    2005-02-16

    BACKGROUND: Anal smears are increasingly being used as a screening test for anal squamous intraepithelial lesions (ASILs). This study was undertaken to assess the usefulness and limitations of anal smears in screening for ASILs. METHODS: The cytomorphological features of 200 consecutive anal smears collected in liquid medium from 198 patients were studied and findings were correlated with results of surgical biopsies and/or repeat smears that became available for 71 patients within six months. RESULTS: Adequate cellularity was defined as an average of 6 or more nucleated squamous cells/hpf. A glandular/transitional component was not required for adequacy. Dysplastic cells, atypical parakeratotic cells and bi/multinucleated cells were frequent findings in ASIL while koilocytes were infrequent. Smears from LSIL cases most frequently showed mildly dysplastic and bi/multinucleate squamous cells followed by parakeratotic cells (PK), atypical parakeratotic cells (APK), and koilocytes. HSIL smears contained squamous cells with features of moderate/severe dysplasia and many APKs. Features of LSIL were also found in most HSIL smears. CONCLUSIONS: In this study liquid based anal smears had a high sensitivity (98%) for detection of ASIL but a low specificity (50%) for predicting the severity of the abnormality in subsequent biopsy. Patients with cytologic diagnoses of ASC-US and LSIL had a significant risk (46-56%) of HSIL at biopsy. We suggest that all patients with a diagnosis of ASC-US and above be recommended for high resolution anoscopy with biopsy.

  8. Molecular genetic analysis of archival gliomas using diagnostic smears.

    PubMed

    Walker, C; Joyce, K; Du Plessis, D; MacHell, Y; Sibson, D R; Broome, J

    2000-10-01

    Investigation of the clinical significance of genetic alterations in gliomas requires molecular genetic analysis using samples from retrospective or prospective clinical studies. However, diagnostic tissue is often severely limited and because of fixation, paraffin-embedded tissues (PET) contain degraded DNA. Intra-operative cytological preparations (smears) archived after diagnosis may represent an additional source of clinical material for genetic analysis. In this study, tissue samples were obtained by precision microdissection of archived diagnostic smears from 20 cases (1961-1999). All samples produced polymerase chain reaction (PCR) products for the beta globin gene, but the most recent samples amplified best and gave longer amplimers. For six cases, direct comparison was made between samples microdissected from smears and the corresponding PET. Samples from smears showed improved PCR performance and similar alleles on microsatellite marker analysis. One case, with smears of uninvolved cortex and tumour tissue available for microdissection, showed allelic imbalance at 10q23 on the basis of the smear results alone. PCR products from smears were shown to be suitable for direct sequence analysis (p53 gene). A PTEN mutation, found previously in an anaplastic astrocytoma by analysis of PET, was detected in the corresponding diagnostic smear. The results of this study indicate that tissue samples microdissected from diagnostic intra-operative cytological preparations may be suitable for molecular genetic analysis of gliomas.

  9. Who is getting Pap smears in urban Peru?

    PubMed Central

    Paz Soldan, Valerie A; Lee, Frank H; Carcamo, Cesar; Holmes, King K; Garnett, Geoff P; Garcia, Patricia

    2008-01-01

    Background Cervical cancer, although usually preventable by Pap smear screening, remains the leading cause of cancer-related deaths among women in Peru. The percentages and characteristics of women in Peru who have or have not had a Pap smear have not been defined. Methods In an urban community randomized trial of sexually transmitted infection (STI)/HIV prevention in Peru, 6712 randomly selected women between the ages of 18 and 29 from 20 cities were interviewed regarding having had cervical Pap smears. Results Among women sampled, only 30.9% had had a Pap smear. By multivariate analysis, the main predictors of having a Pap smear were having had sex, having had children, completion of secondary education and increasing age. Regional variations were also found: women from the highlands and rainforest were less likely to have had Pap smears than women from the coast. Conclusion A norm of seeking and receiving Pap smears has not been established among sexually active young Peruvian women. To improve Pap smear coverage in Peru, promotion efforts should target underserved women and regions with less coverage. PMID:18653515

  10. Gauge action improvement and smearing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dürr, Stephan

    2005-11-01

    The effect of repeatedly smearing SU(3) gauge configurations is investigated. Six gauge actions (Wilson, Symanzik, Iwasaki, DBW2, Beinlich-Karsch-Laermann, Langfeld; combined with a direct SU(3)-overrelaxation step) and three smearings (APE, HYP, EXP) are compared. The impact on large Wilson loops is monitored, confirming the signal-to-noise prediction by Lepage. The fat-link definition of the "naive" topological charge proves most useful on improved action ensembles.

  11. False-negative results after stereotactically guided vacuum biopsy.

    PubMed

    Peter, D; Grünhagen, J; Wenke, R; Schäfer, F K W; Schreer, I

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the false negative rate of stereotactically guided vacuum biopsy (VB). Data of patients with benign lesions in VB were evaluated retrospectively during a median follow-up period of 21 months. A total of 404 VB were considered benign and representative and were recommended for follow-up. Of these 404 lesions, 195 were completely removed radiologically. Follow-up data were available for 354/404 patients (87.6%), with intervals ranging from 3 to 66 months (median 21, mean 22.4). Reintervention or surgery was necessary in 13/354 (3.7%) cases. Of these cases, 5/354 (1.4%) turned out to be false negatives. Four of these cases showed large areas of microcalcifications or several clusters, and only partial removal was possible due to the size of the lesions. Although VB is an accurate procedure for diagnosing nonpalpable breast lesions with a low cancer miss rate, we consider the exclusion of malignancy in cases of disseminated microcalcifications or several clusters as a limitation. The radiologic-pathologic correlation in these cases is a challenge, particularly in terms of the residuals. Strict follow-up of benign lesions is essential to avoid delayed cancer diagnosis.

  12. Preferred Negative Geotactic Orientation in Mobile Cells: Tetrahymena Results

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Noever, David A.; Cronise, Raymond; Matsos, Helen C.

    1994-01-01

    For the protozoan species Tetrahymena a series of airplane experiments are reported, which varied gravity as an active laboratory parameter and tested for corresponding changes in geotaxic orientation of single cells. The airplane achieved altemating periods of low (0.01 g) and high (1.8 g, g = 980 cm/s) gravity by flying repeated Keplerian parabolas. The experimental design was undertaken to clearly distinguish gravity from competing aerodynamic and chemical gradients. In this way, each culture served as its own control, with gravity level alone determining the orientational changes. On average, 6.3% of the Tetrahymena oriented vertically in low gravity, while 27% oriented vertically in high-gravity phases. Simplified physical models are explored for describing these cell trajectores as a function of gravity, aerodynamic drag, and lift. The notable effect of gravity on turning behavior is emphasized as the biophysical cause of the observed negative geotaxis in Tetrahymena. A fundamental investigation of the biological gravity receptor (it it exists) and improved modeling for vertical migration in important types of ocean plankton motivate the present research.

  13. Epithelioid sarcoma in FNAB smears.

    PubMed

    Pohar-Marinsek, Z; Zidar, A

    1994-12-01

    FNAB smears of eleven epithelioid sarcomas were reviewed and analysed. Ten cases had a very similar cytomorphologic picture composed predominantly of dissociated epithelioid-like cells with eccentrically placed nuclei. These tumors were clearly malignant but difficult to differentiate morphologically from melanoma, epithelioid leiomiosarcoma, and Schwannoma or adenocarcinoma. One case was composed of spindle cells and was reminiscent of a fibrohistiocytic tumor. Immunocytochemical reactions to vimentin and cytokeratin were performed in six cases on the Papanicolaou stained smears. The reactions to both antigens were positive in all six cases. Ultrastructural characteristics of eight of the tumors are also described. It seems that epithelioid sarcoma has a rather distinct cytomorphologic picture. Taking into consideration clinical data and using also immunocytochemistry, a definitive diagnosis of epithelioid sarcoma can probably be given from FNAB smears.

  14. Utility of Cell-Block of Bronchial Washings in Diagnosis of Lung Cancer- A Comparative Analysis with Conventional Smear Cytology

    PubMed Central

    Vadala, Rohit; Mandrekar, Suresh

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Bronchoscopy is a safe & effective means of diagnosing bronchogenic carcinoma with a varying diagnostic yield of different bronchoscopic procedures. Cell-Block (CB) preparation of cytology specimen has been shown to increase the diagnostic yield further. To the authors’ knowledge, the diagnostic value of CB as an adjunct to conventional smear cytology (CS) of bronchial washing specimens in the detection of bronchogenic carcinoma has not been well evaluated. Aim The present study was aimed to evaluate the diagnostic utility of CB of bronchial washings when compared with CS. Materials and Methods A total of 104 patients of suspected bronchogenic carcinoma were subjected to bronchoscopy as per British Thoracic Society (BTS) protocol. Bronchial biopsy, brushings and washings were collected. Smears were prepared immediately of bronchial washings and another aliquot was subjected to CB preparation and further processing by paraffin embedding and H&E staining. Results Out of 104 patients, 92 were diagnosed by bronchoscopy with a cumulative diagnostic yield of all sampling techniques being 88.46%. Yield of CB of bronchial washings (44.23%) was higher than Bronchial washings – conventional smears (36.53%). CB detected additional 8 cases of malignancy where corresponding bronchial washings-conventional smears were negative. Exclusive diagnosis by CB was obtained in 2 cases. Brushings and biopsy confirmed malignancy in 49.03% and 57.69% cases. Conclusion CB of bronchial washings had a higher yield as compared to corresponding conventional smears. Increase in yield was also noted when CB of bronchial washings was combined with biopsy and compared to bronchial washings- conventional smears combined with biopsy. In limited resource settings, CB preparation is a simple method that increases diagnostic yield of flexible bronchoscopy, is cost effective & hence can be routinely used. The immunohistochemical and molecular studies are possible with CB only, which is a

  15. Effect of different final irrigating solutions on smear layer removal in apical third of root canal: A scanning electron microscope study

    PubMed Central

    Vemuri, Sayesh; Kolanu, Sreeha Kaluva; Varri, Sujana; Pabbati, Ravi Kumar; Penumaka, Ramesh; Bolla, Nagesh

    2016-01-01

    Aim: The aim of this in vitro study is to compare the smear layer removal efficacy of different irrigating solutions at the apical third of the root canal. Materials and Methods: Forty human single-rooted mandibular premolar teeth were taken and decoronated to standardize the canal length to 14 mm. They were prepared by ProTaper rotary system to an apical preparation of file size F3. Prepared teeth were randomly divided into four groups (n = 10); saline (Group 1; negative control), ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (Group 2), BioPure MTAD (Group 3), and QMix 2 in 1 (Group 4). After final irrigation with tested irrigants, the teeth were split into two halves longitudinally and observed under a scanning electron microscope (SEM) for the removal of smear layer. The SEM images were then analyzed for the amount of smear layer present using a three score system. Statistical Analysis: Data are analyzed using the Kruskal-Wallis test and Mann-Whitney U-test. Results: Intergroup comparison of groups showed statistically significant difference in the smear layer removal efficacy of irrigants tested. QMix 2 in 1 is most effective in removal of smear layer when compared to other tested irrigants. Conclusion: QMix 2 in 1 is the most effective final irrigating solution for smear layer removal. PMID:26957801

  16. Smear Layer Outcome on Healing

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-07-31

    tetraacetic-acid (EDTA) and sodium hypochlorite (NaOCI). Smear layer removal is not the standard of care and its removal is debated. Currently, there are...ethylene-diamine-tetraacetic-acid sodium hypochlorite micrometers scanning electron microscopy computed tomography periapical 15 16 Chapter I...ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA) and sodium hypochlorite (NaOCL). The layer was unevenly distributed within the canal with the least amount was found in

  17. How to Interpret Abnormal Pap Smear Results

    MedlinePlus

    ... Medical VocabularyRead Article >>Healthcare ManagementCancer: Medical VocabularyLearn the definitions of various terms you will hear during your cancer experience.February 2014June 2002familydoctor.org editorial staff AboutAdvertise With ...

  18. A Scanning Electron Microscope Study on the Effect of an Experimental Irrigation Solution on Smear Layer Removal

    PubMed Central

    Zand, Vahid; Mokhtari, Hadi; Lotfi, Mehrdad; Rahimi, Saeed; Sohrabi, Aydin; Badamchi Zadeh, Sina; Mojaver Kahnamooie, Hanieh; Tehranchi, Pardis

    2014-01-01

    Introduction: The aim of this in vitro study was to evaluate the effect of an experimental irrigation solution, containing two different concentrations of papain, Tween 80, 2% chlorhexidine and EDTA, on removal of the smear layer. Methods and Materials: Thirty-six single-rooted teeth were divided into two experimental groups (n=12) and two positive and negative control groups of six. The canals were prepared with BioRaCe instruments up to BR7 (60/0.02). In group 1, canals were irrigated with a combination of 1% papain, 17% EDTA, Tween 80 and 2% CHX; in group 2, canals were irrigated with a combination of 0.1% papain, 17% EDTA, Tween 80 and 2% CHX. In group 3 (the negative control), the canal was irrigated with 2.5% NaOCl during instrumentation and at the end of preparation with 1 mL of 17% EDTA was used; in group 4 (positive control), normal saline was used for irrigation. The amount of the remaining smear layer was quantified according to Hulsmann method using scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Data was analyzed by the Kruskal-Wallis and Mann-Whitney tests. Results: Two-by-two comparisons of the groups revealed no significant differences in terms of smear layer removal at different canal sections between the negative control group (standard regiment for smear layer removal) and 1% papain groups (P<0.05). Conclusion: Under the limitations of the present study, combination of 1% papain, EDTA, 2% chlorhexidine and Tween 80 can effectively remove smear layer from canal walls. PMID:24688583

  19. Comparison of the Cobas 4800 HPV and HPV 9G DNA Chip Tests for Detection of High-Risk Human Papillomavirus in Cervical Specimens of Women with Consecutive Positive HPV Tests But Negative Pap Smears

    PubMed Central

    Jun, Sun-Young; Park, Eun Su; Kim, Jiyoung; Kang, Jun; Lee, Jae Jun; Bae, Yoonjin; Kim, Sang-Il; Maeng, Lee-So

    2015-01-01

    Detecting high-risk (HR) HPV is important for clinical management of women with persistent HPV-positive and Pap-negative results. The Cobas 4800 HPV test is the first FDA-approved HPV DNA test that can be used alone as a first-line screening tool. The HPV 9G DNA chip test is a PCR-based DNA microarray assay. We evaluated the patients of consecutive HPV-positivity on HPV 9G DNA chip test without cytologic abnormalities. We then compared the performances of HPV 9G DNA chip and the Cobas 4800 HPV tests for detecting HR HPV with each other and confirmed HPV genotyping using direct sequencing. All 214 liquid-based cytology specimens were collected from 100 women with consecutive HPV-positive and Pap-negative results on the HPV 9G DNA chip test between May 2012 and Dec 2013, but only 180 specimens were available for comparing HPV test results. The HPV 9G DNA chip and the Cobas 4800 HPV tests agreed with each other in 81.7% of the samples, and the concordance rate was greater than 97.2% for detecting HPV-16 or -18. For HR genotypes other than HPV types 16 and 18, the two tests agreed for 81.1% of the samples. The sensitivity of both assays for detecting HR HPV was 100%, regardless of HR genotypes. The HPV 9G DNA chip test may be as effective as the Cobas 4800 HPV test in detecting HR HPV, and has a similar ability to identify HPV-16 and -18. PMID:26469982

  20. A Comparison of 3 Ways of Conventional Pap Smear, Liquid-Based Cytology and Colposcopy vs Cervical Biopsy for Early Diagnosis of Premalignant Lesions or Cervical Cancer in Women with Abnormal Conventional Pap Test.

    PubMed

    Karimi-Zarchi, Mojgan; Peighmbari, Fateme; Karimi, Neda; Rohi, Mitra; Chiti, Zohre

    2013-12-01

    The most cost effective method of prevention and detection of cervical cancer is the Pap smear. In abnormal Pap smear, colposcopy, endocervical curettage and biopsy will be done. Gold standard method in detecting cervical lesion is biopsy. Now in two ways conventional Pap smear and liquid base are routine diagnostic technique in Iran and given easily and cost-effectiveness of this method in the detection of cervical lesions to determine the sensitivity the objective of this study was compare three methods of Pap smear and colposcopy in detection of any lesion to gold standard biopsy in the positive ASC cases who referred to gynecologic Oncology Clinic of shahid Sadoughi University of Medical Science. This study is a descriptive analytic in 2009-2010 years on 150 cases of patients with Atypical Squamose Cell (ASC) results in previous pap smear ,conventional pap smear, liquid based pap smear, colposcopy and cervical biopsy had been done for all patient and finally data were analyzed with chi-square statistical test on spss ver 16 saftware. Average age of patients in this study was, 42 ± 9.9 year and reason for referring patients in 35.4% of cases was due to follow-up of abnormal results of previous Pap smear, in 30% bleeding, 12% Pain and 2.6% percent of cases was checking-up. In final results of sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value (PPV), negative predictive value (NPV) and accuracy any of the methods conventional and liquid based Pap smear and colposcopy were compared with cervical biopsy as a gold standard. The conventional Pap smear method had a sensitivity 51%, specificity 66.6%, PPV 96%, NPV was 8% and accuracy was 92%, about the liquid base Pap smear method, sensitivity was 55.3%, specificity was 77.7%, PPV was 97.5%, NPV was 10% and accuracy was 56/6%. About the colposcopy, sensitivity was70/9 % specificity 44/4%, PPV was 95.2%, NPV was 8/8% and accuracy was 69.3%. The relationship between sensitivity results of conventional Pap smear and

  1. Ecological and aromatic impact of two Gram-negative bacteria (Psychrobacter celer and Hafnia alvei) inoculated as part of the whole microbial community of an experimental smear soft cheese.

    PubMed

    Irlinger, Françoise; Yung, Stéphane Ah Yuen In; Sarthou, Anne-Sophie; Delbès-Paus, Céline; Montel, Marie-Christine; Coton, Emmanuel; Coton, Monika; Helinck, Sandra

    2012-02-15

    The impact of the growth of two Gram-negative bacteria, Psychrobacter celer and Hafnia alvei, inoculated at 10(2) and 10(6) cfu/g, on the dynamics of a multispecies community as well as on volatile aroma compound production during cheese ripening was investigated. Results showed that P. celer was able to successfully implant itself in cheese, regardless of its inoculation level. However, when it was inoculated at a high level, the bacterial biodiversity was drastically lowered from day 25 to the end of ripening. Overall, the presence of P. celer led to the higher production of volatile aroma compounds such as aldehydes, ketones and sulfur compounds. Regardless of its inoculation level, H. alvei barely affected the growth of the bacterial community and was subdominant at the end of ripening. It influenced total volatile aroma compound production with volatile sulfur compounds being the most abundant. Overall, these two bacteria were able to implant themselves in a cheese community and significantly contributed to the aromatic properties of the cheese. Their role in flavoring and their interactions with the technological microorganisms must be considered during cheese ripening and should be further investigated.

  2. Field Comparison of the Sampling Efficacy of Two Smear Media: Cotton Fiber and Kraft Paper

    SciTech Connect

    Hogue, M.G.

    2002-02-07

    Two materials were compared in field tests at the Defense Waste Processing Facility: kraft paper (a strong, brown paper made from wood pulp prepared with a sodium sulfate solution) and cotton fiber. Based on a sampling of forty-six pairs of smears, the cotton fiber smears provide a greater sensitivity. The cotton fiber smears collected an average of forty-four percent more beta activity than the kraft paper smears and twenty-nine percent more alpha activity. Results show a greater sensitivity with cotton fiber over kraft paper at the 95 percent confidence level. Regulatory requirements for smear materials are vague. The data demonstrate that the difference in sensitivity of smear materials could lead to a large difference in reported results that are subsequently used for meeting shipping regulations or evaluating workplace contamination levels.

  3. Retinal image smear as a source of information about magnitude of eye movement.

    PubMed

    Festinger, L; Holtzman, J D

    1978-11-01

    A number of experiments were conducted to determine to what extent retinal image smearing during saccades provides information about the eye movement magnitude to the perceptual system. The technique involved obtaining measures of perceived movement when the total visual field was displaced in conjunction with saccadic eye movements. Trials with normal retinal smear were compared with trials on which smearing was greatly reduced or eliminated. The results are interpreted as showing that the absence of normal retinal smear during a saccade increases the uncertainty in the information available to the perceptual system and that this uncertainty results in a tendency to perceive smaller than veridical amounts of movement.

  4. Recognition of Pneumocystis carinii by gram stain in impression smears of lung tissue.

    PubMed Central

    Felegie, T P; Pasculle, A W; Dekker, A

    1984-01-01

    In 12 of 20 (60%) biopsy-proven cases of Pneumocystis carinii pneumonia, the diagnosis was first suggested by examination of routine Gram stains of impression smears made from infected lung tissue and later confirmed by methenamine-silver staining. The cysts appeared as 5- to 7-microns unstained spheres, each containing six to eight intracystic gram-negative bodies (sporozoites). Although the Gram stain does not appear to be as sensitive as more traditional staining techniques for the detection of P. carinii, clinical microbiologists should be aware of the morphology of this organism in gram-stained specimens because this relatively simple procedure gives quick results. Images PMID:6084017

  5. A Retrospective Analysis of Two-Month Sputum Smear Non-Conversion in New Sputum Smear Positive Tuberculosis Patients in the Free State Province, South Africa

    PubMed Central

    Chikobvu, Perpetual; Heunis, James Christoffel; van der Merwe, Sonja

    2014-01-01

    Little is known about the drivers of two-month sputum smear non-conversion in the South African context. Our study sought to determine these factors in new sputum smear positive tuberculosis (TB) patients in South Africa’s Free State Province. A retrospective record review was conducted for all TB patients on treatment between 2003 and 2009. Two-month sputum smear non-conversion was defined by a positive sputum smear result. Data was subjected to univariate, bivariate and regression analyses. Generalized linear regression models were used to estimate the risk for two-month sputum smear non-conversion. Age, pre-treatment sputum smear grading, HIV status and TB disease classification influenced two-month sputum smear non-conversion. Significant associations were thus established between health systems, microbiological, clinical and demographic factors, and two-month sputum smear non-conversion. This study provides program managers with evidence to support the development of more tailored TB care. PMID:28299125

  6. Analysis of smear in high-resolution remote sensing satellites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wahballah, Walid A.; Bazan, Taher M.; El-Tohamy, Fawzy; Fathy, Mahmoud

    2016-10-01

    High-resolution remote sensing satellites (HRRSS) that use time delay and integration (TDI) CCDs have the potential to introduce large amounts of image smear. Clocking and velocity mismatch smear are two of the key factors in inducing image smear. Clocking smear is caused by the discrete manner in which the charge is clocked in the TDI-CCDs. The relative motion between the HRRSS and the observed object obliges that the image motion velocity must be strictly synchronized with the velocity of the charge packet transfer (line rate) throughout the integration time. During imaging an object off-nadir, the image motion velocity changes resulting in asynchronization between the image velocity and the CCD's line rate. A Model for estimating the image motion velocity in HRRSS is derived. The influence of this velocity mismatch combined with clocking smear on the modulation transfer function (MTF) is investigated by using Matlab simulation. The analysis is performed for cross-track and along-track imaging with different satellite attitude angles and TDI steps. The results reveal that the velocity mismatch ratio and the number of TDI steps have a serious impact on the smear MTF; a velocity mismatch ratio of 2% degrades the MTFsmear by 32% at Nyquist frequency when the TDI steps change from 32 to 96. In addition, the results show that to achieve the requirement of MTFsmear >= 0.95 , for TDI steps of 16 and 64, the allowable roll angles are 13.7° and 6.85° and the permissible pitch angles are no more than 9.6° and 4.8°, respectively.

  7. Civil society perspectives on negative biomedical HIV prevention trial results and implications for future trials.

    PubMed

    Essack, Zaynab; Koen, Jennifer; Slack, Catherine; Lindegger, Graham; Newman, Peter A

    2012-01-01

    Community engagement is crucial to ongoing development and testing of sorely needed new biomedical HIV prevention technologies. Yet, negative trial results raise significant challenges for community engagement in HIV prevention trials, including the early termination of the Cellulose Sulfate microbicide trial and two Phase IIb HIV vaccine trials (STEP and Phambili). The present study aimed to explore the perspectives and experiences of civil society organization (CSO) representatives regarding negative HIV prevention trial results and perceived implications for future trials. We conducted in-depth interviews with 14 respondents from a broad range of South African and international CSOs, and analyzed data using thematic analysis. CSO representatives reported disappointment in response to negative trial results, but acknowledged such outcomes as inherent to clinical research. Respondents indicated that in theory negative trial results seem likely to impact on willingness to participate in future trials, but that in practice people in South Africa have continued to volunteer. Negative trial results were described as having contributed to improving ethical standards, and to a re-evaluation of the scientific agenda. Such negative results were identified as potentially impacting on funding for trials and engagement activities. Our findings indicate that trial closures may be used constructively to support opportunities for reflection and renewed vigilance in strategies for stakeholder engagement, communicating trial outcomes, and building research literacy among communities; however, these strategies require sustained resources for community engagement and capacity-building.

  8. Smeared star spot location estimation using directional integral method.

    PubMed

    Hou, Wang; Liu, Haibo; Lei, Zhihui; Yu, Qifeng; Liu, Xiaochun; Dong, Jing

    2014-04-01

    Image smearing significantly affects the accuracy of attitude determination of most star sensors. To ensure the accuracy and reliability of a star sensor under image smearing conditions, a novel directional integral method is presented for high-precision star spot location estimation to improve the accuracy of attitude determination. Simulations based on the orbit data of the challenging mini-satellite payload satellite were performed. Simulation results demonstrated that the proposed method exhibits high performance and good robustness, which indicates that the method can be applied effectively.

  9. Locally-smeared operator product expansions

    SciTech Connect

    Monahan, Christopher; Orginos, Kostantinos

    2014-12-01

    We propose a "locally-smeared Operator Product Expansion" (sOPE) to decompose non-local operators in terms of a basis of locally-smeared operators. The sOPE formally connects nonperturbative matrix elements of smeared degrees of freedom, determined numerically using the gradient flow, to non-local operators in the continuum. The nonperturbative matrix elements do not suffer from power-divergent mixing on the lattice, provided the smearing scale is kept fixed in the continuum limit. The presence of this smearing scale prevents a simple connection to the standard operator product expansion and therefore requires the construction of a two-scale formalism. We demonstrate the feasibility of our approach using the example of real scalar field theory.

  10. Negative symptom improvement during cognitive rehabilitation: results from a 2-year trial of Cognitive Enhancement Therapy.

    PubMed

    Eack, Shaun M; Mesholam-Gately, Raquelle I; Greenwald, Deborah P; Hogarty, Susan S; Keshavan, Matcheri S

    2013-08-30

    Cognitive rehabilitation has shown beneficial effects on cognition in patients with schizophrenia, which may also help to improve negative symptoms due to overlapping pathophysiology between these two domains. To better understand the possible relationship between these areas, we conducted an exploratory analysis of the effects of Cognitive Enhancement Therapy (CET) on negative symptoms. Early course schizophrenia outpatients (n=58) were randomized to 2 years of CET or an Enriched Supportive Therapy (EST) control condition. Results revealed significant and medium-sized (d=0.61) differential improvements favoring CET in overall negative symptoms, particularly social withdrawal, affective flattening, and motor retardation. Neurocognitive improvement was associated with reduced negative symptoms in CET, but not EST patients. No relationships were observed between improvements in emotion processing aspects of social cognition, as measured by the Mayer-Salovey-Caruso Emotional Intelligence Test, and negative symptoms. CET represents an effective cognitive rehabilitation intervention for schizophrenia that may also have benefits to negative symptoms. Future studies specifically designed to examine negative symptoms during the course of cognitive rehabilitation are needed.

  11. Reliability of environmental sampling culture results using the negative binomial intraclass correlation coefficient.

    PubMed

    Aly, Sharif S; Zhao, Jianyang; Li, Ben; Jiang, Jiming

    2014-01-01

    The Intraclass Correlation Coefficient (ICC) is commonly used to estimate the similarity between quantitative measures obtained from different sources. Overdispersed data is traditionally transformed so that linear mixed model (LMM) based ICC can be estimated. A common transformation used is the natural logarithm. The reliability of environmental sampling of fecal slurry on freestall pens has been estimated for Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis using the natural logarithm transformed culture results. Recently, the negative binomial ICC was defined based on a generalized linear mixed model for negative binomial distributed data. The current study reports on the negative binomial ICC estimate which includes fixed effects using culture results of environmental samples. Simulations using a wide variety of inputs and negative binomial distribution parameters (r; p) showed better performance of the new negative binomial ICC compared to the ICC based on LMM even when negative binomial data was logarithm, and square root transformed. A second comparison that targeted a wider range of ICC values showed that the mean of estimated ICC closely approximated the true ICC.

  12. 49 CFR 40.127 - What are the MRO's functions in reviewing negative test results?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... FOR TRANSPORTATION WORKPLACE DRUG AND ALCOHOL TESTING PROGRAMS Medical Review Officers and the Verification Process § 40.127 What are the MRO's functions in reviewing negative test results? As the MRO, you..., or stamp and date the verification statement. (f) Report the result in a confidential manner...

  13. 49 CFR 40.127 - What are the MRO's functions in reviewing negative test results?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... FOR TRANSPORTATION WORKPLACE DRUG AND ALCOHOL TESTING PROGRAMS Medical Review Officers and the Verification Process § 40.127 What are the MRO's functions in reviewing negative test results? As the MRO, you..., or stamp and date the verification statement. (f) Report the result in a confidential manner...

  14. 49 CFR 40.127 - What are the MRO's functions in reviewing negative test results?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... FOR TRANSPORTATION WORKPLACE DRUG AND ALCOHOL TESTING PROGRAMS Medical Review Officers and the Verification Process § 40.127 What are the MRO's functions in reviewing negative test results? As the MRO, you..., or stamp and date the verification statement. (f) Report the result in a confidential manner...

  15. 49 CFR 40.127 - What are the MRO's functions in reviewing negative test results?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... FOR TRANSPORTATION WORKPLACE DRUG AND ALCOHOL TESTING PROGRAMS Medical Review Officers and the Verification Process § 40.127 What are the MRO's functions in reviewing negative test results? As the MRO, you..., or stamp and date the verification statement. (f) Report the result in a confidential manner...

  16. 49 CFR 40.127 - What are the MRO's functions in reviewing negative test results?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... FOR TRANSPORTATION WORKPLACE DRUG AND ALCOHOL TESTING PROGRAMS Medical Review Officers and the Verification Process § 40.127 What are the MRO's functions in reviewing negative test results? As the MRO, you..., or stamp and date the verification statement. (f) Report the result in a confidential manner...

  17. Automated identification of cancerous smears using various competitive intelligent techniques.

    PubMed

    Dounias, G; Bjerregaard, B; Jantzen, J; Tsakonas, A; Ampazis, N; Panagi, G; Panourgias, E

    2006-01-01

    In this study the performance of various intelligent methodologies is compared in the task of pap-smear diagnosis. The selected intelligent methodologies are briefly described and explained, and then, the acquired results are presented and discussed for their comprehensibility and usefulness to medical staff, either for fault diagnosis tasks, or for the construction of automated computer-assisted classification of smears. The intelligent methodologies used for the construction of pap-smear classifiers, are different clustering approaches, feature selection, neuro-fuzzy systems, inductive machine learning, genetic programming, and second order neural networks. Acquired results reveal the power of most intelligent techniques to obtain high quality solutions in this difficult problem of medical diagnosis. Some of the methods obtain almost perfect diagnostic accuracy in test data, but the outcome lacks comprehensibility. On the other hand, results scoring high in terms of comprehensibility are acquired from some methods, but with the drawback of achieving lower diagnostic accuracy. The experimental data used in this study were collected at a previous stage, for the purpose of combining intelligent diagnostic methodologies with other existing computer imaging technologies towards the construction of an automated smear cell classification device.

  18. False-negative results for urinary phenothiazines and imipramine in Forrest's qualitative assays.

    PubMed

    James, G P; DJang, M H; Hamilton, H H

    1980-02-01

    When a series of patients' urine samples supplemented in vitro with chlorpromazine or imipramine was assayed with the Forrest qualitative assays, we observed an occasional false-negative result, which we found was attributable to interference by ascorbic acid. It interferes with the reagent, not with the analytes, in both assays. We easily eliminated this interference with the phenothiazine test by using an anion-exchange resin. Eliminating the interference with the assay for imipramine, however, is more difficult; false-negative results can be obtained even after ion-exchange chromatography if the imipramine concentration is less than 50 mg/L.

  19. Negative refraction and lensing at visible wavelength: experimental results using a waveguide array.

    PubMed

    Ferrari, José A; Frins, Erna

    2011-07-04

    Experimental results showing "negative refraction" and some kind of "lensing" -in the microwave-infrared range- are often presented in the literature as undisputable evidence of the existence of composite left-handed materials. The purpose of this paper is to present experimental results on "negative refraction" and "lensing" at visible wavelengths involving a waveguide array formed by a tight-packed bundle of glass fibers. We will demonstrate that the observed phenomena are not necessarily evidence of the existence of left-handed materials and that they can be fully explained by classical optic concepts, e.g. light propagation in waveguides.

  20. Critical analysis of cell block versus smear examination in effusions

    PubMed Central

    Thapar, Meenu; Mishra, Rajiv K; Sharma, Amit; Goyal, Vikas; Goyal, Vibhuti

    2009-01-01

    Objectives: To assess the utility of the cell block preparation method in increasing the sensitivity of cytodiagnosis of serous fluids and to know the primary site of malignant effusions. Materials and Methods: A total of 190 cases were subjected to routine smear examination as well as cell block preparation. After the cytological diagnosis, each case was objectively analysed for cellularity, arrangement (acini, papillae, cell balls, and proliferation spheres), cytoplasmic, and nuclear details. Results: Out of 190 cases, 70 cases were found to be malignant and had been examined in smears and paraffin-embedded cell blocks. Using a combination of the cell block and smear techniques yielded 13% more malignant cases than what were detected using smears by themselves. The combined technique helped to ascertain the primary site of malignancy in 83.3% of the cases, whereas the primary site could not be ascertained in 17.7% of the cases. Conclusions: The cell block technique not only increased the positive results, but also helped to demonstrate better architectural patterns, which could be of great help in making correct diagnosis of the primary site. The cell block technique was also useful for special stains and immunohistochemistry and can give morphological details by preserving the architectural patterns. PMID:21938154

  1. Clinical Validation of an Epigenetic Assay to Predict Negative Histopathological Results in Repeat Prostate Biopsies

    PubMed Central

    Partin, Alan W.; Van Neste, Leander; Klein, Eric A.; Marks, Leonard S.; Gee, Jason R.; Troyer, Dean A.; Rieger-Christ, Kimberly; Jones, J. Stephen; Magi-Galluzzi, Cristina; Mangold, Leslie A.; Trock, Bruce J.; Lance, Raymond S.; Bigley, Joseph W.; Van Criekinge, Wim; Epstein, Jonathan I.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose The DOCUMENT multicenter trial in the United States validated the performance of an epigenetic test as an independent predictor of prostate cancer risk to guide decision making for repeat biopsy. Confirming an increased negative predictive value could help avoid unnecessary repeat biopsies. Materials and Methods We evaluated the archived, cancer negative prostate biopsy core tissue samples of 350 subjects from a total of 5 urological centers in the United States. All subjects underwent repeat biopsy within 24 months with a negative (controls) or positive (cases) histopathological result. Centralized blinded pathology evaluation of the 2 biopsy series was performed in all available subjects from each site. Biopsies were epigenetically profiled for GSTP1, APC and RASSF1 relative to the ACTB reference gene using quantitative methylation specific polymerase chain reaction. Predetermined analytical marker cutoffs were used to determine assay performance. Multivariate logistic regression was used to evaluate all risk factors. Results The epigenetic assay resulted in a negative predictive value of 88% (95% CI 85–91). In multivariate models correcting for age, prostate specific antigen, digital rectal examination, first biopsy histopathological characteristics and race the test proved to be the most significant independent predictor of patient outcome (OR 2.69, 95% CI 1.60–4.51). Conclusions The DOCUMENT study validated that the epigenetic assay was a significant, independent predictor of prostate cancer detection in a repeat biopsy collected an average of 13 months after an initial negative result. Due to its 88% negative predictive value adding this epigenetic assay to other known risk factors may help decrease unnecessary repeat prostate biopsies. PMID:24747657

  2. Added value of molecular assay Xpert MTB/RIF compared to sputum smear microscopy to assess the risk of tuberculosis transmission in a low-prevalence country.

    PubMed

    Opota, O; Senn, L; Prod'hom, G; Mazza-Stalder, J; Tissot, F; Greub, G; Jaton, K

    2016-07-01

    Airborne precautions are required at hospital admission for patients with suspected pulmonary tuberculosis. The isolation is maintained until 3 serially collected sputum smears are acid-fast bacilli negative, a time- and labor-intensive method with limited sensitivity and specificity, which has a great impact on patient flow management. We evaluated the possibility of replacing the result of microscopy by the semiquantitative result of the molecular point-of-care test Xpert MTB/RIF to assess patients' transmission risk to quickly guide airborne isolation decisions in low-endemic countries. The performance of the Xpert MTB/RIF, used as a first-line test, was compared to the results of microscopy for specimens (n=242) collected from May 2010 to December 2014 in Lausanne, Switzerland. The sensitivity and specificity of Xpert MTB/RIF were 91.5% (65/71) and 99.6% (170/171), respectively, vs. 64.8% (46/71) and 94.2% (161/171) for microscopy. Samples with negative Xpert MTB/RIF were all smear negative for Mycobacterium tuberculosis (negative predictive value, 100%). The semiquantitative results of Xpert MTB/RIF-high, medium, low or very low-were found to correlate with acid-fast bacilli detection: positive predictive value of 100% (6/6), 96.5% (27/28), 52.2% (12/23) and 11.1% (1/9) respectively. Finally, when including clinical criteria, we identified 11 smear-negative but Xpert MTB/RIF-positive patients with a significant transmission potential. In conclusion, our data support the introduction of an Xpert MTB/RIF-based strategy as a replacement of smear microscopy for a faster and more accurate management of tuberculosis patients' transmission risk in a low-prevalence country.

  3. Unexplained False Negative Results in Noninvasive Prenatal Testing: Two Cases Involving Trisomies 13 and 18

    PubMed Central

    Hochstenbach, R.; Page-Christiaens, G. C. M. L.; van Oppen, A. C. C.; Lichtenbelt, K. D.; van Harssel, J. J. T.; Brouwer, T.; Manten, G. T. R.; van Zon, P.; Elferink, M.; Kusters, K.; Akkermans, O.; Ploos van Amstel, J. K.; Schuring-Blom, G. H.

    2015-01-01

    Noninvasive prenatal testing (NIPT) validation studies show high sensitivity and specificity for detection of trisomies 13, 18, and 21. False negative cases have rarely been reported. We describe a false negative case of trisomy 13 and another of trisomy 18 in which NIPT was commercially marketed directly to the clinician. Both cases came to our attention because a fetal anatomy scan at 20 weeks of gestation revealed multiple anomalies. Karyotyping of cultured amniocytes showed nonmosaic trisomies 13 and 18, respectively. Cytogenetic investigation of cytotrophoblast cells from multiple placental biopsies showed a low proportion of nontrisomic cells in each case, but this was considered too small for explaining the false negative NIPT result. The discordant results also could not be explained by early gestational age, elevated maternal weight, a vanishing twin, or suboptimal storage or transport of samples. The root cause of the discrepancies could, therefore, not be identified. The couples involved experienced difficulties in accepting the unexpected and late-adverse outcome of their pregnancy. We recommend that all parties involved in caring for couples who choose NIPT should collaborate to clarify false negative results in order to unravel possible biological causes and to improve the process of patient care from initial counseling to communication of the result. PMID:26137330

  4. Negative results of growing titania nanotubes on cellulose nanocrystals - Effect of hydrothermal reaction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chamakh, Mariem Mohamed; Ponnamma, Deepalekshmi; Al-Maadeed, Mariam Al Ali

    Titania nanotubes (TiO2 nanotubes or TNT) are grown hydrothermally on cellulose nanocrystals (CNC) synthesized from microcrystalline cellulose. It is observed that the CNC are lost during synthesis due to its low thermal stability. This negative result of metal growth on CNC and its influence on thermal degradation are reported here.

  5. Deletion status of p16 in effusion smear preparation correlates with that of underlying malignant pleural mesothelioma tissue.

    PubMed

    Hida, Tomoyuki; Matsumoto, Shinji; Hamasaki, Makoto; Kawahara, Kunimitsu; Tsujimura, Tohru; Hiroshima, Kenzo; Kamei, Toshiaki; Taguchi, Kenichi; Iwasaki, Akinori; Oda, Yoshinao; Honda, Hiroshi; Nabeshima, Kazuki

    2015-11-01

    Differentiating malignant pleural mesothelioma (MPM) cells morphologically from reactive mesothelial hyperplasia cells is problematic. Homozygous deletion (HD) of p16 (CDKN2A), detected by FISH, is a good marker of malignancy and is useful to differentiate between these cells. However, the correlation between the p16 status of effusion smears and that of the underlying MPM tissues has not been investigated. We used p16-specific FISH to investigate 20 cases of MPM from which both effusion cytologic smears and histologic specimens were available. In five cases, histologic specimens included both an invasive component and surface mesothelial proliferation. In 14 cases (70%), MPM cells in both tissue sections and effusion smears were p16 HD-positive. Conversely, MPM cells in the remaining six tumors (30%) were p16 HD-negative in both tissue sections and effusion smears. For all five MPM cases with surface mesothelial proliferations and invasive components, the effusion smears, surface mesothelial proliferations, and invasive MPM components all displayed p16 deletion. Moreover, the extent to which p16 was deleted in smears highly correlated with the extent of p16 deletion in tissues. The p16 deletion percentages were also similar among smears, tissue surface proliferations, and invasive components. In cases with clinical and radiologic evidence of a diffuse pleural tumor, detection of p16 deletion in cytologic smear samples may permit MPM diagnosis without additional tissue examination. However, the absence of p16 deletion in cytologic smear samples does not preclude MPM.

  6. 49 CFR 40.160 - What does the MRO do when a valid test result cannot be produced and a negative result is required?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... cannot be produced and a negative result is required? 40.160 Section 40.160 Transportation Office of the... result cannot be produced and a negative result is required? (a) If a valid test result cannot be produced and a negative result is required, (under § 40.159 (a)(5)(iii) and (e)(4)), as the MRO, you...

  7. Factors affecting abnormal Pap smear follow-up among HIV-infected women.

    PubMed

    Abercrombie, Priscilla D

    2003-01-01

    Women with HIV infection are at least 10 times more likely to have an abnormal Pap smear than women who are HIV negative. Unfortunately, many women with HIV do not return for care after an abnormal Pap smear. Through the use of focus groups and individual interviews, HIV-positive women's experiences with abnormal Pap smears and the factors that affected whether they returned for care were explored. Two thirds of the 18 participants were minority women, and the average age was 40. Using techniques of constant comparative analysis, five factors were identified that affected whether women came back for care. These factors included fear, the asymptomatic nature of the problem, life circumstances, the participant's perspectives on health, and the health care provider. The findings from this study have implications for clinical practice and future research regarding adherence and abnormal Pap smear follow-up among women with HIV.

  8. Diagnosis of intramammary infection in samples yielding negative results or minor pathogens in conventional bacterial culturing.

    PubMed

    Bexiga, Ricardo; Koskinen, Mikko T; Holopainen, Jani; Carneiro, Carla; Pereira, Helena; Ellis, Kathryn A; Vilela, Cristina L

    2011-02-01

    Up to half of quarter milk samples submitted for mastitis diagnosis are culture-negative results or lead to identification of coagulase-negative staphylococci or Corynebacterium bovis in conventional culturing, the so-called minor pathogens. The interpretation and usefulness of these results in terms of udder and animal health management is limited, even though the amount of resources spent is relatively high. This work aimed to test two methods of analysis of milk samples with the goal of increasing detection of intramammary pathogens. In the first study, 783 milk samples were processed in duplicate: before and after freezing at -20°C for 24 h, using standard bacteriological techniques. There was a significant difference between the two methods with samples frozen for 24 h yielding significantly fewer Gram-positive catalase-positive cocci, Gram-negative bacilli, Gram-positive bacilli and significantly more samples leading to no growth, than samples before freezing. The number of samples yielding Gram-positive catalase-negative cocci was not significantly affected by freezing. In the second study, a real-time PCR-based test was performed on milk samples with an individual quarter somatic cell count above 500,000 cells/ml that were either negative (n=51 samples) or that led to the isolation of minor pathogens in culturing: Corynebacterium bovis (n=79 samples) or non-aureus staphylococci (NAS, n=32). A mastitis pathogen, beyond the result obtained with standard bacteriology, was detected on 47% of the no-growth samples, on 35% of the samples from which C. bovis had been isolated and on 25% of the samples from which NAS had been isolated. The most commonly detected major pathogen was Escherichia coli, followed by Streptococcus uberis, Arcanobacterium pyogenes/Peptoniphilus indolicus and Streptococcus dysgalactiae. These results suggest that simply freezing milk samples for 24 h does not increase the detection of intramammary bacteria in milk samples and therefore

  9. Vectorcardiographic results from Skylab medical experiment M092: Lower body negative pressure

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hoffler, G. W.; Johnson, R. L.; Nicogossian, A. E.; Bergman, S. A., Jr.; Jackson, M. M.

    1974-01-01

    Vectorcardiograms were recorded via a modified Frank lead system from all crewmen of the three Skylab missions in conjuction with the Lower Body Negative Pressure - M092 Experiment. Data were analyzed by a specially developed computer program (VECTAN). Design of the test sequences allowed direct comparisons of supine resting, Earth based (reference) vectorcardiograms with those taken during lower body negative pressure stress and those obtained at rest in orbit, as well as combinations of these conditions. Results revealed several statistically significant space flight related changes; namely, increased testing and lower body negative pressure stressed heart rates, modestly increased PR interval and corrected QTC interval, and greatly increased P and QPS loop maximal amplitudes. In addition, orientation changes in the QRS maximum vector and the J-vector at rest in space seem quite consistent among crewmen and different from those caused by the application of lower body negative pressure. No clinical abnormalities were observed. Etiology of these findings is conjectured to be, at least in part, related to fluid mass shifts occurring in weightlessness and attendant alterations in cardiovascular dynamics and myocardial autonomic control mechanisms.

  10. The effect of smear layer on microbial coronal leakage of gutta-percha root fillings.

    PubMed

    Chailertvanitkul, P; Saunders, W P; MacKenzie, D

    1996-07-01

    The aim of this in vitro study was to determine the effect of removal of the smear layer on canal obturation as measured by penetration of bacteria from a coronal direction. One hundred and twenty extracted human teeth with straight, single root canals were decoronated. The canals were prepared using the modified double-flared technique with balanced force under copious irrigation. The apical matrix was prepared to size 40 and apical patency subsequently confirmed with a size 15 file. The teeth were divided randomly into experimental groups (80 teeth) and control groups (40 teeth). The root canals of 40 experimental and 20 control teeth were rinsed with 40% citric acid and 2% NaOCl to remove the smear layer before obturation. In experimental groups, 20 teeth with smear layer intact and 20 teeth with smear layer removed were obturated with lateral condensation of cold gutta-percha and Apexit sealer. A further 20 teeth with smear layer intact and 20 teeth with smear layer removed were obturated with the Trifecta technique with the same sealer. In control groups, 10 teeth with smear layer intact and 10 teeth with smear layer removed were obturated with lateral condensation of cold gutta-percha and Apexit sealer. These teeth were completely sealed both coronally and apically to serve as negative controls. The remaining 20 teeth with either smear layer intact or smear layer removed were not obturated and served as the positive controls. The root surface of each tooth was sealed with nail varnish. The cut end of a polypropylene tube was sealed around the coronal part of each root canal so that bacteria placed therein could move only through the obturated canal space. Each root was placed in a glass bottle containing sterile Todd-Hewitt Broth (THB) and aliquots of 0.5 ml of THB were injected into the polypropylene tube. The model system was centrifuged at 168 g. An innoculum of Streptococcus sanguis in THB was placed in each coronal chamber at 5-day intervals and daily

  11. A Scanning electron microscopic evaluation of intracanal smear layer removal by two different final irrigation activation systems

    PubMed Central

    Dua, Deepti; Dua, Ankur; Uppin, Veerendra M.

    2014-01-01

    Aim: The aim of this study was to compare smear layer removal at apical 1 mm level after final irrigation activation with an EndoVac system and Max-I probe. Materials and Methods: Fifty freshly extracted maxillary central incisors were randomly divided into two groups after completing cleaning and shaping with ProTaper rotary files. In one group, final irrigation was performed with an EndoVac system while in the other group final irrigation was performed with a 30 gauge Max-I probe. 3% sodium hypochlorite and 17% ethylenediaminetetracetic acid were used as final irrigants in all teeth. After instrumentation and irrigation, the teeth were sectioned longitudinally into buccal and palatal halves and viewed under a scanning electron microscope for evaluation of the smear layer. Statistical analysis was performed using the Kruskal Wallis and Mann-Whitney U tests. Results: The EndoVac group showed significantly better smear layer removal compared with the Max-I probe at the apical 1 mm level. Conclusion: An apical negative pressure system (EndoVac) results in better debridement at apical 1 mm when compared with side-vented closed ended needle irrigation (Max-I probe). PMID:24808693

  12. Effectiveness of Four Different Final Irrigation Activation Techniques on Smear Layer Removal in Curved Root Canals : A Scanning Electron Microscopy Study

    PubMed Central

    Ahuja, Puneet; Nandini, Suresh; Ballal, Suma; Velmurugan, Natanasabapathy

    2014-01-01

    Objective: The aim of this study was to assess the efficacy of apical negative pressure (ANP), manual dynamic agitation (MDA), passive ultrasonic irrigation (PUI) and needle irrigation (NI) as final irrigation activation techniques for smear layer removal in curved root canals. Materials and Methods: Mesiobuccal root canals of 80 freshly extracted maxillary first molars with curvatures ranging between 25° and 35° were used. A glide path with #08–15 K files was established before cleaning and shaping with Mtwo rotary instruments (VDW, Munich, Germany) up to size 35/0.04 taper. During instrumentation, 1 ml of 2.5% NaOCl was used at each change of file. Samples were divided into 4 equal groups (n=20) according to the final irrigation activation technique: group 1, apical negative pressure (ANP) (EndoVac); group 2, manual dynamic agitation (MDA); group 3, passive ultrasonic irrigation (PUI); and group 4, needle irrigation (NI). Root canals were split longitudinally and subjected to scanning electron microscopy. The presence of smear layer at coronal, middle and apical levels was evaluated by superimposing 300-μm square grid over the obtained photomicrographs using a four-score scale with X1,000 magnification. Results: Amongst all the groups tested, ANP showed the overall best smear layer removal efficacy (p < 0.05). Removal of smear layer was least effective with the NI technique. Conclusion: ANP (EndoVac system) can be used as the final irrigation activation technique for effective smear layer removal in curved root canals. PMID:24910670

  13. Effect of Poor Glycemic Control in Newly Diagnosed Patients with Smear-Positive Pulmonary Tuberculosis and Type-2 Diabetes Mellitus

    PubMed Central

    Mahishale, Vinay; Avuthu, Sindhuri; Patil, Bhagyashri; Lolly, Mitchelle; Eti, Ajith; Khan, Sujeer

    2017-01-01

    Background: There is growing evidence that diabetes mellitus (DM) is an important risk factor for tuberculosis (TB). A significant number of DM patients have poor glycemic control. This study was carried out to find the impact of poor glycemic control on newly diagnosed smear-positive pulmonary tuberculosis patients with type-2 diabetes mellitus in a tertiary care hospital. Methods: In a hospital-based prospective study, newly diagnosed smear-positive pulmonary TB with DM patients were classified as poorly controlled diabetes (HBA1C≥7%) and optimal control diabetics (HbA1c<7%). Patients were started on anti-TB treatment and followed for 2 years for severity and treatment outcome. ANOVA was used for numerical variables in the univariable analysis. Logistic regression analysis was used for multivariable analysis of treatment outcome. The significance level was kept at a P≤0.05. Results: A total of 630 individuals who met the inclusion criteria were analyzed; of which 423 patients had poor glycemic control (PGC) and 207 patients had optimal glycemic control (OGC). The average HbA1c was 10±2.6 and 5±1.50 in the PGC and OGC groups, respectively. The mean symptom score was significantly higher in the PGC group compared with patients in the OGC group (4.55±0.80 vs. 2.70±0.82, P<0.001). PGC was associated with more extensive lung disease, lung cavitation, and positive sputum smear at the baseline. In PGC, sputum smears were significantly more likely to remain positive after 2 months of treatment. PGC patients had significantly higher rates of treatment failure (adj. OR 0.72, 95% CI 0.58-0.74, P<0.001) and relapse (adj. OR 2.83, 95% CI 2.60-2.92, P<0.001). Conclusion: Poor glycemic control is associated with an increased risk of advanced and more severe TB disease in the form of lung cavitations, positive sputum smear, and slower smear conversion. It has a profound negative effect on treatment completion, cure, and relapse rates in patients with pulmonary

  14. Behavioral approach and reward processing: results on feedback-related negativity and P3 component.

    PubMed

    Lange, Sebastian; Leue, Anja; Beauducel, André

    2012-02-01

    This study examined the FRN, the P3, and individual differences in trait-BAS and trait-BIS in the context of reward expectation mismatch. A more negative FRN was predicted for higher vs. lower trait-BAS individuals and for higher vs. lower trait-BIS individuals. In the extinction-learning task, participants (N=102) chose between two response buttons to earn a maximum of points. In the acquisition phase, button 1 was continuously rewarded and button 2 was partially rewarded. In the extinction phase, one button was unexpectedly no longer rewarded. The FRN amplitude was more negative for higher vs. lower trait-BAS individuals and for lower vs. higher trait-BIS individuals within the extinction phase. The P3 was more positive in the extinction compared to the acquisition phase. Our results suggest that higher trait-BAS individuals have a more pronounced reward expectation mismatch.

  15. Evaluation of the phenol ammonium sulfate sedimentation smear microscopy method for diagnosis of pulmonary tuberculosis.

    PubMed

    Selvakumar, N; Rahman, Fathima; Garg, Renu; Rajasekaran, S; Mohan, Nalini Sunder; Thyagarajan, K; Sundaram, V; Santha, T; Frieden, Thomas R; Narayanan, P R

    2002-08-01

    We compared the sensitivity and specificity of the phenol ammonium sulfate (PhAS) sediment smear microscopy method for detection of acid-fast bacilli with those of direct smear microscopy, using culture results for Mycobacterium tuberculosis as the "gold standard." The sensitivities of the PhAS and direct smear methods were 85% (465 of 547) and 83% (454 of 547), respectively, and the specificity of each method was 97%. The PhAS method was better accepted by the laboratory technicians and safer but necessitates an overnight sedimentation, which delays reporting of results until 1 day after sputum collection.

  16. A transfection reporter for the prevention of false-negative results in molecular beacon experiments.

    PubMed

    Toga, Tatsuya; Kuraoka, Isao; Yasui, Akira; Iwai, Shigenori

    2013-09-01

    We previously developed a molecular beacon-type probe to detect the strand scission in cellular base excision repair and found that the phosphodiester linkages in the fluorophore/quencher linkers were cleaved. This reaction was applied to a transfection reporter, which contained the unmodified phosphodiester in the linker to another type of fluorophore. After cotransfection of cells with the probe and the reporter, the signals were used to detect the incision and to confirm the proper transfection, respectively. This method will contribute to the prevention of false-negative results in experiments using molecular beacon-type probes.

  17. Expression of Ki-67 as proliferation biomarker in imprint smears of endometrial carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Konstantinos, Kosmas; Marios, Stamoulas; Anna, Marouga; Nikolaos, Kavantzas; Efstratios, Patsouris; Paulina, Athanassiadou

    2013-03-01

    The aims of this study were to determine the expression of Ki-67 in type I and type II endometrial adenocarcinomas as well as normal endometrium in imprint smears and to correlate the results with clinicopathologic parameters of primary untreated endometrial cancer patients. During a 29-month period, 255 patients were evaluated with entometrial imprint cytology. Endometrial samples freshly resected from women who underwent total abdominal hysterectomy were studied. One hundred twenty-six patients had endometrial carcinoma and 129 cases were diagnosed as normal endometrium. The expression of Ki-67 was assessed by immunocytochemistry. Positive staining was correlated with increased stage, grade and lymph node metastases. High expression was more frequent in type II than type I endometrial adenocarcinoma and high-grade endometrial carcinoma had higher proportions of Ki-67 positive immunostaining compared with low-grade carcinoma. Proliferative endometrium showed high Ki-67 expression level, even higher than those of grade 1 and type I. On the other hand, secretory endometrium Ki-67 positive cells were markedly diminished and even disappeared. Completely negative staining was found to be related to atrophic endometrium. Immunocytochemical findings from Ki-67 stain, in addition to cytomorphologic features, appeared to be useful for the diagnosis of endometrial carcinoma in endometrial cytology with imprint smears. High Ki-67 expression correlates with morphologic features of aggressiveness and the expression pattern of Ki-67 correspond to the expected cyclic/atrophic pattern in normal endometrium.

  18. Integrated cervical smear screening using liquid based cytology and bioimpedance analysis

    PubMed Central

    Das, Lopamudra; Sarkar, Tandra; Maiti, Ashok K.; Naskar, Sukla; Das, Soumen; Chatterjee, Jyotirmoy

    2014-01-01

    Objective: To minimize the false negativity in cervical cancer screening with Papanicolaou (Pap) test, there is a need to explore novel cytological technique and identification of unique and important cellular features from the perspectives of morphological as well as biophysical properties. Materials and Methods: The present study explores the feasibility of low-cost cervical monolayer techniques in extracting cyto-pathological features to classify normal and abnormal conditions. The cervical cells were also analyzed in respect to their electrical bioimpedance. Result: The results show that newly developed monolayer technique for cervical smears is cost effective, capable of cyto-pathological evaluation. Electrical bioimpedance study evidenced distinction between abnormal and normal cell population at more than two order of magnitude difference. Conclusion: The integration of bioimpedance observation along with the proposed low-cost monolayer technology could increase the efficiency of the cervical screening to a greater extent thereby reducing the rates of faulty diagnosis. PMID:25745281

  19. Brain dead or not? CT angiogram yielding false-negative result on brain death confirmation.

    PubMed

    Johnston, Robyn; Kaliaperumal, Chandrasekaran; Wyse, Gerald; Kaar, George

    2013-01-08

    We describe a case of severe traumatic brain injury with multiple facial and skull fractures where CT angiogram (CTA) failed to yield a definite result of brain death as an ancillary test. A 28-year-old man was admitted following a road traffic accident with a Glasgow Coma Score (GCS) of 3/15 and fixed pupils. CT brain revealed uncal herniation and diffuse cerebral oedema with associated multiple facial and skull fractures. 72 h later, his clinical condition remained the same with high intracranial pressure refractory to medical management. Clinical confirmation on brain death was not feasible owing to facial injuries. A CTA, performed to determine brain perfusion, yielded a 'false-negative' result. Skull fractures have possibly led to venous prominence in the cortical and deep venous drainage system. This point needs to be borne in mind while considering CTA as an ancillary test to confirm brain death.

  20. Taste symmetry breaking with hypercubic-smeared staggered fermions

    SciTech Connect

    Bae, Taegil; Adams, David H.; Kim, Hyung-Jin; Kim, Jongjeong; Kim, Kwangwoo; Lee, Weonjong; Jung, Chulwoo; Sharpe, Stephen R.

    2008-05-01

    We study the impact of hypercubic (HYP) smearing on the size of taste-breaking for staggered fermions, comparing to unimproved and to asqtad-improved staggered fermions. As in previous studies, we find a substantial reduction in taste-breaking compared to unimproved staggered fermions (by a factor of 4-7 on lattices with spacing a{approx_equal}0.1 fm). In addition, we observe that discretization effects of next-to-leading order in the chiral expansion (O(a{sup 2}p{sup 2})) are markedly reduced by HYP smearing. Compared to asqtad valence fermions, we find that taste-breaking in the pion spectrum is reduced by a factor of 2.5-3, down to a level comparable to the expected size of generic O(a{sup 2}) effects. Our results suggest that, once one reaches a lattice spacing of a{approx_equal}0.09 fm, taste-breaking will be small enough after HYP smearing that one can use a modified power counting in which O(a{sup 2})<

  1. Analytical solution for vacuum preloading considering the nonlinear distribution of horizontal permeability within the smear zone.

    PubMed

    Peng, Jie; He, Xiang; Ye, Hanming

    2015-01-01

    The vacuum preloading is an effective method which is widely used in ground treatment. In consolidation analysis, the soil around prefabricated vertical drain (PVD) is traditionally divided into smear zone and undisturbed zone, both with constant permeability. In reality, the permeability of soil changes continuously within the smear zone. In this study, the horizontal permeability coefficient of soil within the smear zone is described by an exponential function of radial distance. A solution for vacuum preloading consolidation considers the nonlinear distribution of horizontal permeability within the smear zone is presented and compared with previous analytical results as well as a numerical solution, the results show that the presented solution correlates well with the numerical solution, and is more precise than previous analytical solution.

  2. Analytical solution for vacuum preloading considering the nonlinear distribution of horizontal permeability within the smear zone

    PubMed Central

    Peng, Jie; He, Xiang; Ye, Hanming

    2015-01-01

    The vacuum preloading is an effective method which is widely used in ground treatment. In consolidation analysis, the soil around prefabricated vertical drain (PVD) is traditionally divided into smear zone and undisturbed zone, both with constant permeability. In reality, the permeability of soil changes continuously within the smear zone. In this study, the horizontal permeability coefficient of soil within the smear zone is described by an exponential function of radial distance. A solution for vacuum preloading consolidation considers the nonlinear distribution of horizontal permeability within the smear zone is presented and compared with previous analytical results as well as a numerical solution, the results show that the presented solution correlates well with the numerical solution, and is more precise than previous analytical solution. PMID:26447973

  3. Comparison of the Efficacies of Loop-Mediated Isothermal Amplification, Fluorescence Smear Microscopy and Culture for the Diagnosis of Tuberculosis

    PubMed Central

    George, Geojith; Mony, Prem; Kenneth, John

    2011-01-01

    Background Despite the advent of novel diagnostic techniques, smear microscopy remains as the most practical test available in resource-limited settings for tuberculosis (TB) diagnosis. Due to the low sensitivity of microscopy and the long time required for culture, feasible and accessible rapid diagnostic methods are urgently needed. Loop-mediated Isothermal Amplification (LAMP) is a promising nucleic-acid amplification assay, which could be accessible, cost-effective and more suited for use with unpurified samples. Methodology/Principal Findings In the current study, the objective was to assess the efficacy of a LAMP assay for tuberculosis compared with fluorescence smear microscopy as well as Löwenstein-Jensen (LJ) and Mycobacteria Growth Indicator Tube (MGIT) cultures for the diagnosis of pulmonary tuberculosis using sputum samples. Smear microscopy and culture were performed for decontaminated and concentrated sputum from TB suspects and the LAMP was also performed on these specimens. The LAMP and smear microscopy were compared, in series and in parallel, to culture. LAMP and smear microscopy showed sensitivities of 79.5% and 82.1% respectively and specificities of 93.8% and 96.9% respectively, compared to culture. LAMP and smear in series had sensitivity and specificity of 79.5% and 100.0% respectively. LAMP and smear in parallel had sensitivity and specificity of 82.1% and 90.6% respectively. Conclusions/Significance The overall efficacies of LAMP and fluorescence smear microscopy in the current study were high and broadly similar. LAMP and smear in series had high specificity (100.0%) and can be used as a rule-in test combination. However, the performance of LAMP in smear negative samples was found to be insufficient. PMID:21695047

  4. Smeared quantum phase transition in the dissipative random quantum Ising model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vojta, Thomas; Hoyos, José A.

    2010-01-01

    We investigate the quantum phase transition in the random transverse-field Ising model under the influence of Ohmic dissipation. To this end, we numerically implement a strong-disorder renormalization-group scheme. We find that Ohmic dissipation destroys the quantum critical point and the associated quantum Griffiths phase by smearing. Our results quantitatively confirm a recent theory [J.A. Hoyos, T. Vojta, Phys. Rev. Lett. 100 (2008) 240601] of smeared quantum phase transitions.

  5. Limit of blank and limit of detection of Plasmodium falciparum thick blood smear microscopy in a routine setting in Central Africa

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Proper malaria diagnosis depends on the detection of asexual forms of Plasmodium spp. in the blood. Thick blood smear microscopy is the accepted gold standard of malaria diagnosis and is widely implemented. Surprisingly, diagnostic performance of this method is not well investigated and many clinicians in African routine settings base treatment decisions independent of microscopy results. This leads to overtreatment and poor management of other febrile diseases. Implementation of quality control programmes is recommended, but requires sustained funding, external logistic support and constant training and supervision of the staff. This study describes an easily applicable method to assess the performance of thick blood smear microscopy by determining the limit of blank and limit of detection. These two values are representative of the diagnostic quality and allow the correct discrimination between positive and negative samples. Methods Standard-conform methodology was applied and adapted to determine the limit of blank and the limit of detection of two thick blood smear microscopy methods (WHO and Lambaréné method) in a research centre in Lambaréné, Gabon. Duplicates of negative and low parasitaemia thick blood smears were read by several microscopists. The mean and standard deviation of the results were used to calculate the limit of blank and subsequently the limit of detection. Results The limit of blank was 0 parasites/μL for both methods. The limit of detection was 62 and 88 parasites/μL for the Lambaréné and WHO method, respectively. Conclusion With a simple, back-of-the-envelope calculation, the performance of two malaria microscopy methods can be measured. These results are specific for each diagnostic unit and cannot be generalized but implementation of a system to control microscopy performance can improve confidence in parasitological results and thereby strengthen malaria control. PMID:24929248

  6. Evaluation of Pre-Malignant and Malignant Lesions in Cervico Vaginal (PAP) Smears by Nuclear Morphometry

    PubMed Central

    Rani M.N, Divya; Kumar ML, Harendra; SR, Sheela

    2014-01-01

    Background: Cervical cancer is the second most common cancer occurring among women worldwide, with almost half a million new cases each year. Normal cells gradually transform to form cancer cells through several stages. So, the changes occurring during the transformational stages need to be assessed. Aim: Our aim was to study various nuclear parameters useful in evaluating pre-malignant and malignant cervico-vaginal pap smears. Materials and Methods: Bethesda System was used to categorize cervical pap smears into premalignant and malignant lesions. Nuclear parameters were calculated using J 1.44C morphometric software. Several nuclear size parameters were analysed. Results: The nuclear area, perimeter, diameter were found to be statistically significant (p<0.05) parameters in differentiating premalignant from malignant cervical smears. Conclusion: Nuclear morphometry was thus a useful objective tool in differentiating premalignant from malignant cervical smears. PMID:25584229

  7. qPCR detection of Mycobacterium leprae in biopsies and slit skin smear of different leprosy clinical forms.

    PubMed

    Azevedo, Michelle de Campos Soriani; Ramuno, Natália Mortari; Fachin, Luciana Raquel Vincenzi; Tassa, Mônica; Rosa, Patrícia Sammarco; Belone, Andrea de Faria Fernandes; Diório, Suzana Madeira; Soares, Cleverson Teixeira; Garlet, Gustavo Pompermaier; Trombone, Ana Paula Favaro

    Leprosy, whose etiological agent is Mycobacterium leprae, is a chronic infectious disease that mainly affects the skin and peripheral nervous system. The diagnosis of leprosy is based on clinical evaluation, whereas histopathological analysis and bacilloscopy are complementary diagnostic tools. Quantitative PCR (qPCR), a current useful tool for diagnosis of infectious diseases, has been used to detect several pathogens including Mycobacterium leprae. The validation of this technique in a robust set of samples comprising the different clinical forms of leprosy is still necessary. Thus, in this study samples from 126 skin biopsies (collected from patients on all clinical forms and reactional states of leprosy) and 25 slit skin smear of leprosy patients were comparatively analyzed by qPCR (performed with primers for the RLEP region of M. leprae DNA) and routine bacilloscopy performed in histological sections or in slit skin smear. Considering clinical diagnostic as the gold standard, 84.9% of the leprosy patients were qPCR positive in skin biopsies, resulting in 84.92% sensitivity, with 84.92 and 61.22% positive (PPV) and negative (NPV) predictive values, respectively. Concerning bacilloscopy of histological sections (BI/H), the sensitivity was 80.15% and the PPV and NPV were 80.15 and 44.44%, respectively. The concordance between qPCR and BI/H was 87.30%. Regarding the slit skin smear, 84% of the samples tested positive in the qPCR. Additionally, qPCR showed 100% specificity, since all samples from different mycobacteria, from healthy individuals, and from other granulomatous diseases presented negative results. In conclusion, the qPCR technique for detection of M. leprae using RLEP primers proved to be specific and sensitive, and qPCR can be used as a complementary test to diagnose leprosy irrespective of the clinical form of disease.

  8. Diagnostic value of Tzanck smear in various erosive, vesicular, and bullous skin lesions

    PubMed Central

    Yaeen, Atiya; Ahmad, Qazi Masood; Farhana, Anjum; Shah, Parveen; Hassan, Iffat

    2015-01-01

    Background: Cutaneous cytology has long been shown to be useful in the diagnosis of several erosive, vesicular, and bullous skin lesions. The Tzanck smear although an old tool, still remains a simple, rapid, easily applied, and inexpensive test for these skin lesions. Aims and Objectives: The aim of this study was to evaluate the diagnostic value of Tzanck smear by determining its sensitivity and specificity in various erosive, vesicular, and bullous skin lesions. Materials and Methods: One hundred and forty-two patients with erosive, vesicular, and/or bullous skin lesions were included in the study. Four groups of disorders were identified: infections, immunologic disorders, genodermatosis, and spongiotic dermatitis. All the study cases were evaluated by Tzanck smear. Definitive diagnosis was established by standard diagnostic techniques (including when appropriate, viral serology, bacterial culture, histopathology, direct immunoflourescence). Results: The sensitivity and specificity of cytologic findings was respectively 86.36% and 91.30% for viral infections; for bacterial infections, it was 85.7% and 66.6%. The sensitivity and specificity of Tzanck smear was respectively 85.0% and 83.33% for pemphigus; for bullous pemhigoid it was 11.11% and 100.0%. Tzanck smear sensitivity in genodermatoses was 100%. The sensitivity and specificity of the test in spongiotic dermatitis could not be calculated due to an insufficient number of patients. Conclusion: The Tzanck smear is a quick and reliable tool for the evaluation of various erosive and vesiculobullous skin lesions. PMID:26751561

  9. Preliminary results from the Small Negative Ion Facility (SNIF) at CCFE

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zacks, J.; McAdams, R.; Booth, J.; Flinders, K.; Holmes, A. J. T.; Simmonds, M.; Stevens, B.; Stevenson, P.; Surrey, E.; Warder, S.; Whitehead, A.; Young, D.

    2013-02-01

    At Culham Centre for Fusion Energy, a new beam extraction test facility has been built with the purpose of studying and enhancing negative ion beam production and transport. The multipole hydrogen ion source is based on a RF generated plasma using a continuous 5kW power supply operating at the industrial standard frequency of 13.56MHz. The cylindrical source has a diameter of 30cm and a depth of 20cm, with a flat spiral antenna driving the source through a quartz window. The magnet configuration is arranged to produce a dipole filter field across the ion source close to the plasma grid. The plasma load is matched to the RF generator using a Pi matching network. The accelerator uses a single extraction aperture of 14mm diameter, with a biased insert for electron suppression. The accelerator is a triode design with a beam energy of up to 30kV. The beamline consists of a turbomolecular pumped vacuum tank with an instrumented beam dump and ports for additional diagnostics. The ITER Neutral Beam source operates with the enhancement of caesium, which, when scaled up to a reactor, will be heavily consumed. The small size of SNIF allows for fast turn around of modifications and alternative materials to caesium can be tested. A full description of the facility and planned diagnostics is given. Initial results are presented, including measurements and calculations of the plasma load on the RF generator, and beam extraction measurements.

  10. Position but not color deviants result in visual mismatch negativity in an active oddball task.

    PubMed

    Berti, Stefan

    2009-05-06

    Changes in the visual environment might be detected automatically. This function is provided by the sensory systems and showed, for instance, by the pop-out phenomenon. Automatic change detection is also observable within visual oddball paradigms, where rare changes are introduced in an irrelevant stimulus feature; the detection of deviant stimuli is accompanied by a negative component (so-called visual mismatch negativity) in the human event-related brain potential. In this study, the deviating stimulus feature was embedded in a task-relevant object presented in the focus of attention. With this, visual mismatch negativity was observable only with position deviants presented in the upper visual half field but not by lower half field presentation or color deviants.

  11. Variability in results from negative binomial models for Lyme disease measured at different spatial scales.

    PubMed

    Tran, Phoebe; Waller, Lance

    2015-01-01

    Lyme disease has been the subject of many studies due to increasing incidence rates year after year and the severe complications that can arise in later stages of the disease. Negative binomial models have been used to model Lyme disease in the past with some success. However, there has been little focus on the reliability and consistency of these models when they are used to study Lyme disease at multiple spatial scales. This study seeks to explore how sensitive/consistent negative binomial models are when they are used to study Lyme disease at different spatial scales (at the regional and sub-regional levels). The study area includes the thirteen states in the Northeastern United States with the highest Lyme disease incidence during the 2002-2006 period. Lyme disease incidence at county level for the period of 2002-2006 was linked with several previously identified key landscape and climatic variables in a negative binomial regression model for the Northeastern region and two smaller sub-regions (the New England sub-region and the Mid-Atlantic sub-region). This study found that negative binomial models, indeed, were sensitive/inconsistent when used at different spatial scales. We discuss various plausible explanations for such behavior of negative binomial models. Further investigation of the inconsistency and sensitivity of negative binomial models when used at different spatial scales is important for not only future Lyme disease studies and Lyme disease risk assessment/management but any study that requires use of this model type in a spatial context.

  12. Herpes simplex virus in postradiation cervical smears. A morphologic and immunocytochemical study

    SciTech Connect

    Longatto Filho, A.; Maeda, M.Y.; Oyafuso, M.S.; Kanamura, C.T.; Alves, V.A. )

    1990-09-01

    From January 1987 to August 1988, cytomorphologic criteria of both herpes simplex virus (HSV) and radiation effects were observed in Papanicolaou smears from 3 of 1,340 patients who had received radiotherapy for squamous cell carcinoma of the cervix. Avidin-biotin immunoperoxidase staining, using a rabbit IgG polyclonal HSV antibody, confirmed the presence of HSV antigen in those three postradiation smears. Both multinucleated molded cells and epithelial cells that lacked cytopathic effects were positive for HSV. Three other postradiation smears from these cases were similarly positive for HSV antigen; the one preradiation smear was negative. In situ hybridization and immunoperoxidase studies on sections from the preradiation biopsies were negative: severely altered neoplastic cells showed no reactivity. The absence of HSV markers in the preradiation specimens suggests that the HSV infections were secondary to the radiotherapy; further studies are needed to prove this association and to assess the possible mechanisms. These cases clearly indicate that the overlapping features of radiation and viral effects (such as multinucleation) may be present simultaneously.

  13. The Set-Point Theory of Well-Being: Negative Results and Consequent Revisions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Headey, Bruce

    2008-01-01

    An adequate theory of happiness or subjective well-being (SWB) needs to link at least three sets of variables: stable person characteristics (including personality traits), life events and measures of well-being (life satisfaction, positive affects) and ill-being (anxiety, depression, negative affects). It also needs to be based on long-term data…

  14. 49 CFR 40.155 - What does the MRO do when a negative or positive test result is also dilute?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... Transportation PROCEDURES FOR TRANSPORTATION WORKPLACE DRUG AND ALCOHOL TESTING PROGRAMS Medical Review Officers and the Verification Process § 40.155 What does the MRO do when a negative or positive test result...

  15. 49 CFR 40.155 - What does the MRO do when a negative or positive test result is also dilute?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... Transportation PROCEDURES FOR TRANSPORTATION WORKPLACE DRUG AND ALCOHOL TESTING PROGRAMS Medical Review Officers and the Verification Process § 40.155 What does the MRO do when a negative or positive test result...

  16. 49 CFR 40.155 - What does the MRO do when a negative or positive test result is also dilute?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... Transportation PROCEDURES FOR TRANSPORTATION WORKPLACE DRUG AND ALCOHOL TESTING PROGRAMS Medical Review Officers and the Verification Process § 40.155 What does the MRO do when a negative or positive test result...

  17. 49 CFR 40.155 - What does the MRO do when a negative or positive test result is also dilute?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... Transportation PROCEDURES FOR TRANSPORTATION WORKPLACE DRUG AND ALCOHOL TESTING PROGRAMS Medical Review Officers and the Verification Process § 40.155 What does the MRO do when a negative or positive test result...

  18. 49 CFR 40.155 - What does the MRO do when a negative or positive test result is also dilute?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... Transportation PROCEDURES FOR TRANSPORTATION WORKPLACE DRUG AND ALCOHOL TESTING PROGRAMS Medical Review Officers and the Verification Process § 40.155 What does the MRO do when a negative or positive test result...

  19. Lymphoepithelioma-like carcinoma of cervix: Cytological Features on Conventional Cervical Smear.

    PubMed

    Rathore, Ruchi; Arora, Vinod K; Singh, Bharat

    2017-03-01

    Lymphoepithelioma-like carcinoma (LELC) is a rare neoplasm of the cervix. The importance of distinguishing this undifferentiated carcinoma with a predominant lymphocytic infiltrate lies in the fact that despite being poorly differentiated they have a better prognosis. The diagnosis however becomes more challenging when the pathologist is provided with a small cervical biopsy or a Papanicolaou smear. While the reports describing histology and their relation to Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) are many, there are only few case reports describing the cytology of these tumors. We describe the cytological features of LELC of cervix on conventional smear and correlate it with the histopathological findings of the same. A 67-year-old multiparous Hindu woman presented to the gynecology outpatient department with the history of postmenopausal bleeding for the past six months. The cytological examination of the cervical smear (Papanicolaou stain) was done followed by cervical and endometrial biopsy. Based on Papanicolaou smear and biopsy suggestive of a poorly differentiated carcinoma a radical hysterectomy with pelvic lymphadenectomy was performed. Hysterectomy specimen showed the morphology of LELC and was then correlated with the cervical smears retrospectively. On review of cytological smears it was seen that the tumor cell clusters had an abundant lymphoid background, which was overlooked earlier. Immunohistochemistry for EBV was negative. We conclude that the presence of undifferentiated tumor cell clusters with ill-defined cell borders and large number of lymphoid cells in the background suggest the diagnosis of LELC on cervical cytology. Diagn. Cytopathol. 2017;45:239-242. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  20. Risk factors for false positive and for false negative test results in screening with fecal occult blood testing.

    PubMed

    Stegeman, Inge; de Wijkerslooth, Thomas R; Stoop, Esther M; van Leerdam, Monique; van Ballegooijen, M; Kraaijenhagen, Roderik A; Fockens, Paul; Kuipers, Ernst J; Dekker, Evelien; Bossuyt, Patrick M

    2013-11-15

    Differences in the risk of a false negative or a false positive fecal immunochemical test (FIT) across subgroups may affect optimal screening strategies. We evaluate whether subgroups are at increased risk of a false positive or a false negative FIT result, whether such variability in risk is related to differences in FIT sensitivity and specificity or to differences in prior CRC risk. Randomly selected, asymptomatic individuals were invited to undergo colonoscopy. Participants were asked to undergo one sample FIT and to complete a risk questionnaire. We identified patient characteristics associated with a false negative and false positive FIT results using logistic regression. We focused on statistically significant differences as well as on variables influencing the false positive or negative risk for which the odds ratio exceeded 1.25. Of the 1,426 screening participants, 1,112 (78%) completed FIT and the questionnaire; 101 (9.1%) had advanced neoplasia. 102 Individuals were FIT positive, 65 (64%) had a false negative FIT result and 66 (65%) a false positive FIT result. Participants at higher age and smokers had a significantly higher risk of a false negative FIT result. Males were at increased risk of a false positive result, so were smokers and regular NSAID users. FIT sensitivity was lower in females. Specificity was lower for males, smokers and regular NSAID users. FIT sensitivity was lower in women. FIT specificity was lower in males, smokers and regular NSAID users. Our results can be used for further evidence based individualization of screening strategies.

  1. Vacuum energy density fluctuations in Minkowski and Casimir states via smeared quantum fields and point separation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Phillips, Nicholas G.; Hu, B. L.

    2000-10-01

    We present calculations of the variance of fluctuations and of the mean of the energy momentum tensor of a massless scalar field for the Minkowski and Casimir vacua as a function of an intrinsic scale defined by a smeared field or by point separation. We point out that, contrary to prior claims, the ratio of variance to mean-squared being of the order unity is not necessarily a good criterion for measuring the invalidity of semiclassical gravity. For the Casimir topology we obtain expressions for the variance to mean-squared ratio as a function of the intrinsic scale (defined by a smeared field) compared to the extrinsic scale (defined by the separation of the plates, or the periodicity of space). Our results make it possible to identify the spatial extent where negative energy density prevails which could be useful for studying quantum field effects in worm holes and baby universes, and for examining the design feasibility of real-life ``time machines.'' For the Minkowski vacuum we find that the ratio of the variance to the mean-squared, calculated from the coincidence limit, is identical to the value of the Casimir case at the same limit for spatial point separation while identical to the value of a hot flat space result with a temporal point separation. We analyze the origin of divergences in the fluctuations of the energy density and discuss choices in formulating a procedure for their removal, thus raising new questions about the uniqueness and even the very meaning of regularization of the energy momentum tensor for quantum fields in curved or even flat spacetimes when spacetime is viewed as having an extended structure.

  2. Serum albumin and globulin analysis for hepatocellular carcinoma detection avoiding false-negative results from alpha-fetoprotein test negative subjects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Jing; Feng, Shangyuan; Lin, Juqiang; Zeng, Yongyi; Li, Ling; Huang, Zufang; Li, Buhong; Zeng, Haishan; Chen, Rong

    2013-11-01

    Surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy (SERS) of serum albumin and globulin were employed to detect hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). Tentative assignments of SERS bands show specific biomolecular changes associated with cancer development. These changes include a decrease in relative amounts of tryptophan, glutamine, glycine, and serine, indicating excessive consumption of amino acids for protein duplication. Principal component analysis was also introduced to analyze the obtained spectra, resulting in both diagnostic sensitivity and specificity of 100%. More importantly, it reveals that this method can detect HCC patients with alpha-fetoprotein negative test results, suggesting its great potential as a new alternative to detect HCC.

  3. Identifying risk factors associated with smear positivity of pulmonary tuberculosis in Kazakhstan

    PubMed Central

    You, Paul; Aifah, Angela; Abildayev, Tleukhan; Akilzhanova, Ainur; Kozhamkulov, Ulan; Muminov, Talgat; Darisheva, Meruert; Zhussupov, Baurzhan; Terlikbayeva, Assel; El-Bassel, Nabila; Schluger, Neil

    2017-01-01

    Background Sputum smear-positive tuberculosis (TB) patients have a high risk of transmission and are of great epidemiological and infection control significance. Little is known about the smear-positive populations in high TB burden regions, such as Kazakhstan. The objective of this study is to characterize the smear-positive population in Kazakhstan and identify associated modifiable risk factors. Methods Data on incident TB cases’ (identified between April 2012 and March 2014) socio-demographic, risk behavior, and comorbidity characteristics were collected in four regions of Kazakhstan through structured survey and medical record review. We used multivariable logistic regression to determine factors associated with smear positivity. Results Of the total sample, 193 (34.3%) of the 562 study participants tested smear-positive. In the final adjusted multivariable logistic regression model, sex (adjusted odds ratio (aOR) = 2.0, 95% CI:1.3–3.1, p < 0.01), incarceration (aOR = 3.6, 95% CI:1.2–11.1, p = 0.03), alcohol dependence (aOR = 2.6, 95% CI:1.2–5.7, p = 0.02), diabetes (aOR = 5.0, 95% CI:2.4–10.7, p < 0.01), and physician access (aOR = 2.7, 95% CI:1.3–5.5p < 0.01) were associated with smear-positivity. Conclusions Incarceration, alcohol dependence, diabetes, and physician access are associated with smear positivity among incident TB cases in Kazakhstan. To stem the TB epidemic, screening, treatment and prevention policies should address these factors. PMID:28249005

  4. Extended ISIS sequences insensitive to T(1) smearing.

    PubMed

    Ljungberg, M; Starck, G; Vikhoff-Baaz, B; Alpsten, M; Ekholm, S; Forssell-Aronsson, E

    2000-10-01

    Image selected in vivo spectroscopy (ISIS) is a volume selection method often used for in vivo (31)P MRS, since it is suitable for measurements of substances with short T(2). However, ISIS can suffer from significant signal contributions caused by T(1) smearing from regions outside the VOI. A computer model was developed to simulate this contamination. The simulation results for the ISIS experiment order implemented in our MR system (ISIS-0) were in agreement with results obtained from phantom measurements. A new extended ISIS experiment order (E-ISIS) was developed, consisting of four "optimal" ISIS experiment orders (ISIS-1 to ISIS-4) performed consecutively with dummy ISIS experiments in between. The simulation results show that contamination due to T(1) smearing is, effectively, eliminated with E-ISIS and is significantly lower than for ISIS-0 and ISIS-1. E-ISIS offers increased accuracy for quantitative and qualitative determination of substances studied using in vivo MRS. Hence, E-ISIS can be valuable for both clinical and research applications.

  5. FALSE-NEGATIVE DENGUE CASES IN RORAIMA, BRAZIL: AN APPROACH REGARDING THE HIGH NUMBER OF NEGATIVE RESULTS BY NS1 AG KITS

    PubMed Central

    Acosta, Pablo O. A.; Granja, Fabiana; Meneses, Cátia A.; Nascimento, Ismael A. S.; Sousa, Débora D.; Lima, Wilson P.; Naveca, Felipe Gomes

    2014-01-01

    Serum samples from 150 NS1-negative (Platelia ELISA) patients presumptively diagnosed with dengue were analyzed by the TaqMan probed real-time reverse transcription PCR (TaqMan qRT-PCR) method. The qRT-PCR positive samples were tested for serotype by semi-nested RT-PCR and a qualitative immunochromatographic assay for IgG and IgM. Molecular detection methods showed 33 (22%) positive samples out of 150 NS1-antigen negative samples. Of these, 72% were collected up to day 2 after the onset of symptoms, when diagnostic sensitivity of NS1-antigen test assays is significantly enhanced. Most of the cases were not characterized as secondary infection. Twenty-eight samples were successfully serotyped, 75% of which for DENV-4, 14% for DENV-2, 7% for DENV-3 and 4% for DENV-1. These findings reaffirm the hyperendemic situation of the state of Roraima and suggest a lower sensitivity of the NS1 test, mainly when DENV-4 is the predominant serotype. Health care providers should therefore be aware of samples tested negative by NS1 antigen assays, especially when clinical symptoms and other laboratory data results show evidence of dengue infection. PMID:25229228

  6. Antenna induced range smearing in MST radars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Watkins, B. J.; Johnston, P. E.

    1984-01-01

    There is considerable interest in developing stratosphere troposphere (ST) and mesosphere stratosphere troposphere (MST) radars for higher resolution to study small-scale turbulent structures and waves. At present most ST and MST radars have resolutions of 150 meters or larger, and are not able to distinguish the thin (40 - 100 m) turbulent layers that are known to occur in the troposphere and stratosphere, and possibly in the mesosphere. However the antenna beam width and sidelobe level become important considerations for radars with superior height resolution. The objective of this paper is to point out that for radars with range resolutions of about 150 meters or less, there may be significant range smearing of the signals from mesospheric altitudes due to the finite beam width of the radar antenna. At both stratospheric and mesospheric heights the antenna sidelobe level for lear equally spaced phased arrays may also produce range aliased signals. To illustrate this effect the range smearing functions for two vertically directed antennas have been calculated, (1) an array of 32 coaxial-collinear strings each with 48 elements that simulates the vertical beam of the Poker Flat, Glaska, MST radar; and (2) a similar, but smaller, array of 16 coaxial-collinear strings each with 24 elements.

  7. The Effect of Preparation Size on Efficacy of Smear Layer Removal; A Scanning Electron Microscopic Study

    PubMed Central

    Tabrizizadeh, Mehdi; Shareghi, Ameneh

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: Enlargement of the root canal may potentially affect efficient smear layer (SL) removal. The aim of the present in vitro study was to compare SL removal following canal preparation with two different sizes/tapers by means of scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Methods and Materials: A total of 50 extracted human mandibular premolars were decoronated. The teeth were randomly divided into two experimental groups (n=20) and two negative control groups. In groups 1 and 2 the sizes of master apical file (MAF) were #25 and 40, respectively. Coronal part of the canals were flared with #2 Piezo drills in group 1 and sizes #2 to 6 in group 2. Finally FlexMaster NiTi rotary instruments were used to complete canal preparation (25/0.04 and 35/0.06 in groups 1 and 2, respectively). The irrigation protocol consisted of 10 mL of 17% ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA) for 1 min followed by 10 mL of 5.25% NaOCl for 3 min. The patency of dentinal tubules was evaluated under SEM with Hülsmann scores. Data were analyzed with the Kruskal-Wallis and Mann-Whitney U tests. Results: The number of patent dentinal tubules in coronal third of the group 1 was significantly more than group 2 (P<0.001). However, this difference was not significant for the middle and apical segments. There was a significant difference in the number of patent dentinal tubules between coronal, middle and apical thirds (P<0.05). Conclusion: Increasing the canal preparation size did not lead to better cleanliness of the canal walls and more efficient smear layer removal. PMID:26213539

  8. Use of p16 FISH for differential diagnosis of mesothelioma in smear preparations.

    PubMed

    Nabeshima, Kazuki; Matsumoto, Shinji; Hamasaki, Makoto; Hida, Tomoyuki; Kamei, Toshiaki; Hiroshima, Kenzo; Tsujimura, Tohru; Kawahara, Kunimitsu

    2016-09-01

    Because most of malignant pleural mesothelioma (MPM) patients first present with pleural effusion, detection of mesothelioma cells on effusion smears is critical for early diagnosis. Recently, accumulating evidence indicating that the cytological diagnosis of MPM supported by ancillary techniques is as reliable as that based on histopathology has led to new guidelines for the cytopathologic diagnosis of MPM. Based on the guidelines, a combination of cytomorphological criteria and verification by ancillary techniques is required for the cytologic diagnosis of MPM. Detection of p16 homozygous deletion by fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) is the most reliable ancillary technique for differentiating MPM from reactive mesothelial cells (RMC) because of its relatively high sensitivity and extremely high specificity. We showed that the p16 deletion status of MPM cells in pleural effusions reflected that of the underlying invasive MPM tissues, indicating the usefulness of p16 FISH in effusion smear cytology for MPM diagnosis. Thus, for differentiating MPM from RMC, we propose to perform p16 FISH as often as possible. A positive p16 homozygous deletion supports the diagnosis of MPM. However, a negative result does not rule out the possibility of MPM. In such cases, a morphological assessment is critical. Therefore, we analyzed the morphological characteristics of p16 deletion-positive mesothelioma cells using a combination of virtual microscopy and p16 FISH, and identified three morphological characteristics useful for the differentiation, including cell-in-cell engulfment with or without hump formation, multinucleate cells, and larger berry-like cell aggregates. Diagn. Cytopathol. 2016;44:774-780. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  9. Concepts and targets in triple-negative breast cancer: recent results and clinical implications

    PubMed Central

    Saha, Poornima; Nanda, Rita

    2016-01-01

    Triple-negative breast cancer (TNBC) is a heterogeneous disease in which tumors are defined by lack of expression of the estrogen receptor (ER), the progesterone receptor (PR), and the human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2) receptor. No targeted therapies are available for the treatment of TNBC, and chemotherapy remains the standard of care. Gene expression profiling has identified six distinct molecular subtypes of TNBC. The identification of novel targets, coupled with the development of therapies for different subsets of TNBC, holds great promise for the future treatment of this aggressive form of breast cancer. This review focuses on novel therapies in development for the treatment of TNBC. PMID:27583027

  10. Contradicting/negative results in clinical research: Why (do we get these)? Why not (get these published)? Where (to publish)?

    PubMed Central

    Kannan, S.; Gowri, S.

    2014-01-01

    Obtaining negative or contradicting results, whereas conducting a study has always been overlooked as inadequacies on the part of the researcher. Many-a-times, negative results are arrived at even after conducting the study with great care and effort. This cannot be considered, a flaw, always. Contradicting results may be arrived at because of various reasons and should be considered and published in order to arrive at a definitive result. Various journals are available which publish these contradicting results exclusively. It is the duty of the researcher to know in detail the cause and effect of these, considering the pros and cons. This article gives a bird's eye view of when, where and how to manage negative or contradicting results of a study. PMID:25276623

  11. Public Awareness and Knowledge of Pap Smear as a Screening Test for Cervical Cancer among Saudi Population in Riyadh City

    PubMed Central

    Al Khudairi, Hassan; Alomar, Osama; Salem, Hany

    2017-01-01

    Aims: To explore the public awareness, knowledge, and attitudes of Saudi women towards Pap smear as a screening test for cervical cancer. Methods: A descriptive cross-sectional study took place in four major secondary and tertiary healthcare hospitals located in the capital city Riyadh between January 2016 and June 2016. A self-administered, coded, close-ended survey was randomly distributed to 1000 non-single women attending the obstetrics/gynecology outpatient clinics or inpatient wards. Results: Five hundred and seven women participated in the survey (overall response rate: 50.7%). The vast majority of respondents aged between 20-40 years (88%) and were married (94.1%), Saudi citizens (96.5%), university educated (45.6%) and housewives (64.5%). A total of 234 women (46.2%) did not hear whatsoever about Pap smear previously. Only 273 women (53.9%) heard about it, mostly during their hospital visits for obstetric/gynecologic purposes (57.1%). A sum of 381 women (75.2%) did not do a single Pap smear previously. A sum of 383 women (75.5%) reported that their physicians never advised them to do Pap smear. Regarding knowledge of Pap smear, 415 women (82%) did not know when to start doing Pap smear, 471 women (92.9%) did not know how frequently they should do Pap smear and 476 women (93.9%) did not know when to stop doing Pap smear. Moreover, 456 women (89.9%) did not know the difference between Pap smear and high vaginal swap. A total of 429 women (84.6%) never requested their physician to do Pap smear. Almost all women (95.3%) expressed an interest in knowing more information about the Pap smear screening test. Conclusion: The awareness and knowledge of Pap smear as a screening test for cervical cancer among Saudi population living in Riyadh is unsatisfactory. There is an urgent necessity to educate and foster awareness concerning cervical cancer and its screening through Pap smear. PMID:28286720

  12. Negative feedback in ants: crowding results in less trail pheromone deposition.

    PubMed

    Czaczkes, Tomer J; Grüter, Christoph; Ratnieks, Francis L W

    2013-04-06

    Crowding in human transport networks reduces efficiency. Efficiency can be increased by appropriate control mechanisms, which are often imposed externally. Ant colonies also have distribution networks to feeding sites outside the nest and can experience crowding. However, ants do not have external controllers or leaders. Here, we report a self-organized negative feedback mechanism, based on local information, which downregulates the production of recruitment signals in crowded parts of a network by Lasius niger ants. We controlled crowding by manipulating trail width and the number of ants on a trail, and observed a 5.6-fold reduction in the number of ants depositing trail pheromone from least to most crowded conditions. We also simulated crowding by placing glass beads covered in nest-mate cuticular hydrocarbons on the trail. After 10 bead encounters over 20 cm, forager ants were 45 per cent less likely to deposit pheromone. The mechanism of negative feedback reported here is unusual in that it acts by downregulating the production of a positive feedback signal, rather than by direct inhibition or the production of an inhibitory signal.

  13. Classical Cyclophosphamide, Methotrexate, and Fluorouracil Chemotherapy Is More Effective in Triple-Negative, Node-Negative Breast Cancer: Results From Two Randomized Trials of Adjuvant Chemoendocrine Therapy for Node-Negative Breast Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Colleoni, Marco; Cole, Bernard F.; Viale, Giuseppe; Regan, Meredith M.; Price, Karen N.; Maiorano, Eugenio; Mastropasqua, Mauro G.; Crivellari, Diana; Gelber, Richard D.; Goldhirsch, Aron; Coates, Alan S.; Gusterson, Barry A.

    2010-01-01

    Purpose Retrospective studies suggest that primary breast cancers lacking estrogen receptor (ER) and progesterone receptor (PR) and not overexpressing human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2; triple-negative tumors) are particularly sensitive to DNA-damaging chemotherapy with alkylating agents. Patients and Methods Patients enrolled in International Breast Cancer Study Group Trials VIII and IX with node-negative, operable breast cancer and centrally assessed ER, PR, and HER2 were included (n = 2,257). The trials compared three or six courses of adjuvant classical cyclophosphamide, methotrexate, and fluorouracil (CMF) with or without endocrine therapy versus endocrine therapy alone. We explored patterns of recurrence by treatment according to three immunohistochemically defined tumor subtypes: triple negative, HER2 positive and endocrine receptor absent, and endocrine receptor present. Results Patients with triple-negative tumors (303 patients; 13%) were significantly more likely to have tumors > 2 cm and grade 3 compared with those in the HER2-positive, endocrine receptor–absent, and endocrine receptor–present subtypes. No clear chemotherapy benefit was observed in endocrine receptor–present disease (hazard ratio [HR], 0.90; 95% CI, 0.74 to 1.11). A statistically significantly greater benefit for chemotherapy versus no chemotherapy was observed in triple-negative breast cancer (HR, 0.46; 95% CI, 0.29 to 0.73; interaction P = .009 v endocrine receptor–present disease). The magnitude of the chemotherapy effect was lower in HER2-positive endocrine receptor–absent disease (HR, 0.58; 95% CI, 0.29 to 1.17; interaction P = .24 v endocrine receptor–present disease). Conclusion The magnitude of benefit of CMF chemotherapy is largest in patients with triple-negative, node-negative breast cancer. PMID:20458051

  14. Intervention effects on negative affect of CPS-referred children: results of a randomized clinical trial.

    PubMed

    Lind, Teresa; Bernard, Kristin; Ross, Emily; Dozier, Mary

    2014-09-01

    Exposure to early adversity places young children at risk for behavioral, physiological, and emotional dysregulation, predisposing them to a range of long-term problematic outcomes. Attachment and Biobehavioral Catch-up (ABC) is a 10-session intervention designed to enhance children's self-regulatory capabilities by helping parents to behave in nurturing, synchronous, and non-frightening ways. The effectiveness of the intervention was assessed in a randomized clinical trial, with parents who had been referred to Child Protective Services (CPS) for allegations of maltreatment. Parent-child dyads received either the ABC intervention or a control intervention. Following the intervention, children from the ABC intervention (n=56) expressed lower levels of negative affect during a challenging task compared to children from the control intervention (n=61).

  15. Intervention Effects on Negative Affect of CPS-Referred Children: Results of a Randomized Clinical Trial

    PubMed Central

    Lind, Teresa; Bernard, Kristin; Ross, Emily; Dozier, Mary

    2014-01-01

    Exposure to early adversity places young children at risk for behavioral, physiological, and emotional dysregulation, predisposing them to a range of long-term problematic outcomes. Attachment and Biobehavioral Catch-up (ABC) is a 10-session intervention designed to enhance children’s self-regulatory capabilities by helping parents to behave in nurturing, synchronous, and non-frightening ways. The effectiveness of the intervention was assessed in a randomized clinical trial, with parents who had been referred to Child Protective Services (CPS) for allegations of maltreatment. Parent-child dyads received either the ABC intervention or a control intervention. Following the intervention, children from the ABC intervention (n = 56) expressed lower levels of negative affect during a challenging task compared to children from the control intervention (n = 61). PMID:24814751

  16. Simplified Pan-species Real-time PCR-based Detection of Plasmodium Spp. in Blood Smear

    PubMed Central

    HASSANPOUR, Gholamreza; MIRHENDI, Hossein; MOHEBALI, Mehdi; RAEISI, Ahmad; ZERAATI, Hojjat; KESHAVARZ, Hossein

    2016-01-01

    Background: We aimed to quicken and simplify the detection of Plasmodium in blood samples by developing and testing a pan-Plasmodium real-time PCR for accurate screening of individuals suspected of malaria. Methods: A single primer/probe set for pan-species Plasmodium-specific real time PCR targeting a conserved region of the small subunit 18S ribosomal DNA was designed and evaluated for rapid diagnosis and screening of malaria infections using dried blood smears. FTA cards were used for rapid and simple DNA extraction. Results: The primers and probes showed a positive response with the DNA extracted from bloods infected with P. falciparum and P. vivax but not with DNA extracted from various smears from uninfected blood samples. Seven positive cases positive by both microscopy and nested PCR were found among 280 blood samples taken from in South and Southeast Iran. Five samples were identified as positive for P. vivax and two as positive for P. falciparum. All positive samples were positive by real-time PCR. Furthermore, all 38-blood samples positive by microscopy were positive by real-time PCR. No microscopy-negative samples were positive by real-time PCR. Conclusion: By using a simple FTA card for DNA extraction and by application of the real-time PCR developed in this study, sensitivity similar to nested-PCR and microscopy was achieved. This format simplifies the detection of Plasmodium in large numbers of samples. PMID:28127357

  17. LED fluorescence microscopy in the diagnosis of tuberculosis: Fading and restaining of smears for external quality assessment.

    PubMed

    Allassia, Sonia; Aranibar, Mónica; Boutonnet, Mónica; Caserío, Viviana; Etchart, Ana Alicia; Fajardo, Sandra; García, Mónica; Gomez, Noemí; Gunia, Alba Marisa; Gustincic, María Virginia; Izquierdo, Viviana; Jara, Arnaldo Andrés; Kozicky, Graciela; Matteo, Mario; Pellegrini, Carlos; Pellegrino, Silvia; Pérez Catalán, Sebastián; Poggi, Susana; Sacramone, Carina; Santiso, Gabriela María; Souto, Alejandro; Togneri, Ana María; Wolff, Lidia; Vilche, Sandra; Eletti, Daniel; Imaz, María Susana

    2016-01-01

    Blinded rechecking is a method proposed for external quality assurance (EQA) of auramine-stained acid-fast bacilli (AFB) smears using fluorescence microscopy (FM), however, this procedure is not well developed and slides fading over time could compromise its implementation. Since bleaching of fluorescent molecules involves temperature-dependent chemical reactions, it is likely that low temperatures could slow down this process. We stored auramine-stained slides under different environmental conditions, including -20°C, and examined them over time. The slides stored in all the environments faded. At -20°C, fading was not reduced in relation to room temperature. Restaining and re-examining smears after five months showed that the slides containing saliva and storage at -20°C were associated with failure in AFB reappearance. In conclusion, the practice of freezing slides until they are viewed should be discouraged as it has a negative effect on blinded rechecking by reducing reading concordance after restaining. Specimen quality should be considered when interpreting FM-EQA results.

  18. [Skin cancer: from smearing to cutting].

    PubMed

    Kelleners-Smeets, Nicole W J; Bekkenk, Marcel W; de Haas, Ellen R M

    2013-01-01

    The most common skin cancers are basal cell carcinoma (BCC) and squamous cell carcinoma (SCC). Conventional excision is still the current treatment of choice for these malignant tumours. Given the many subtypes and high incidence, the treatment of these skin tumours is not only a matter of surgical procedures. There are many different therapeutic options, from smearing to cutting. Those treating patients with non-melanoma skin cancer should have knowledge of the advantages and disadvantages of these many options. Radical surgical treatment is desired, but large margins are preferably avoided. Mohs micrographic surgery is a treatment option available for BCC and SCC in the face. Superficial BCC can be effectively treated with optimal cosmetic outcome in various, non-invasive ways.

  19. Knowledge about Cervical Cancer and Pap Smear and the Factors Influencing the Pap test Screening among Women

    PubMed Central

    Ashtarian, Hossein; Mirzabeigi, Elaheh; Mahmoodi, Elham; Khezeli, Mehdi

    2017-01-01

    ABSTRACT Background: Although the Pap smear is known as one of the effective methods to detect the cervical cancer, a large group of women are reluctant to do the test because of various reasons. Therefore, we carried out this study to determine the level of knowledge about cervical cancer and Pap smear and the factors influencing the Pap test screening among women. Methods: In this cross-sectional study, 355 women referred to the health centers of Gilan-e gharb city were randomly recruited in 2015. The participants asked to complete a self-administered questionnaire including five parts (questions about: demographic factors, knowledge about cervical cancer and Pap smear, Pap smear performance, barriers and facilitators related to Pap smear and the sources of information). Data were analyzed through SPSS version 19, using descriptive statistics, Independent T-test, and logistic regression. Results: The mean age of the participants was 34.08±7.81 years. Almost 50.4% of the subjects had a history of Pap smear test. Pap test performance was significantly higher in those who had higher knowledge (P<0.001). Knowledge about cervical cancer, Pap smear and age was the most important predictors of the Pap test performance (P<0.001). The most important barrier and facilitator to Pap smear test were inadequate knowledge and the recommendations received from family, friends and healthcare professionals (44.3% and 40.2%, respectively). Conclusion: Knowledge about Pap smear and cervical cancer was important in predicting Pap test doing. In addition, inadequate knowledge was introduced as the most important barrier to screening test from the perspective of women. Therefore, we suggest that health education and health promotion studies as interdisciplinary and targeted interventions should be implemented to improve the women’s knowledge.

  20. Utility of squash smear cytology in intraoperative diagnosis of central nervous system tumors

    PubMed Central

    Patil, Savita S; Kudrimoti, Jyoti K; Agarwal, Rachana D; Jadhav, Meenal V; Chuge, Ashish

    2016-01-01

    Background: Central nervous system (CNS) squash cytology (CSC) has established itself as a technically simple, rapid, inexpensive, fairly accurate, and dependable intraoperative diagnostic tool. It helps neurosurgeons immensely when management is dependent on it. Aims: This study aimed at finding out the utility of CSC as an intraoperative diagnostic tool from a neurosurgeon's perspective. Materials and Methods: Fifty prospectively registered patients with clinical diagnosis of CNS tumors were enrolled in the study. All the patients were subjected to magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Intraoperative CSC was performed and smears were stained with Leishman and rapid Hematoxylin and Eosin (H and E) stain. The diagnosis of CSC was compared with MRI diagnosis and histopathological diagnosis. The CNS tumors were categorized based on clinical and therapeutic implications. Diagnostic accuracy, sensitivity, specificity, and positive and negative predictive value of MRI and CSC were calculated by using appropriate formulae. Results and Conclusions: The age range of the CNS tumors included in the study was 2 to 68 years. There was a slight female preponderance. Sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value, and negative predictive value of preoperative MRI were 90.47%, 82.76%, 79.17%, and 92.31% respectively. These values of utility parameters for CSC were 100% for each of the clinical and therapeutic implications. It helped neurosurgeons in optimizing surgical procedure in 12 cases of meningioma. It influenced surgical management in 1 case of infratentorial pilocytic astrocytoma, and helped in the diagnosis and management of 9 unexpected tumors missed on MRI. PMID:28028335

  1. Opportunities for improving triple-negative breast cancer outcomes: results of a population-based study.

    PubMed

    Rapiti, Elisabetta; Pinaud, Kim; Chappuis, Pierre O; Viassolo, Valeria; Ayme, Aurélie; Neyroud-Caspar, Isabelle; Usel, Massimo; Bouchardy, Christine

    2017-03-01

    Triple-negative breast cancer (TNBC) is associated with a poor prognosis. Surgery, radiotherapy, chemotherapy, and referral for genetic counseling are the standard of care. We assessed TNBC prevalence, management, and outcome using data from the population-based Geneva cancer registry. 2591 women had a first invasive stage I-III breast cancer diagnosed between 2003 and 2011. We compared TNBC to other breast cancers (OBC) by χ(2) -test and logistic regression. Kaplan-Meier survival curves, up to 31-12-2014, were compared using log-rank test. TNBC risk of mortality overall (OS) and for breast cancer (BCSS) was evaluated through Cox models. Linkage with the Oncogenetics and Cancer Prevention Unit (OCPU) database of the Geneva University Hospitals provided genetic counseling information. TNBC patients (n = 192, 7.4%) were younger, more often born in Africa or Central-South America than OBC, had larger and more advanced tumors. 18% of TNBC patients did not receive chemotherapy. Thirty-one (17%) TNBC women consulted the OCPU, 39% among those aged <40 years. Ten-year survival was lower in TNBC than OBC (72% vs. 82% for BCSS; P < 0.001; 80% vs. 91% for OS; P < 0.001). The mortality risks remained significant after adjustment for other prognostic variables. The strongest determinants of mortality were age, place of birth, and lymph node status. A substantial proportion of TNBC patients in Geneva did not receive optimal care. Over 60% of eligible women did not receive genetic counseling and 18% did not receive chemotherapy. To improve TNBC prognosis, comprehensive care as recommended by standard guidelines should be offered to all patients.

  2. Uniform staining of Cyclospora oocysts in fecal smears by a modified safranin technique with microwave heating.

    PubMed

    Visvesvara, G S; Moura, H; Kovacs-Nace, E; Wallace, S; Eberhard, M L

    1997-03-01

    Cyclospora, a coccidian protist, is increasingly being identified as an important, newly emerging parasite that causes diarrhea, flatulence, fatigue, and abdominal pain leading to weight loss in immunocompetent persons with or without a recent travel history as well as in patients with AIDS. Modified Kinyoun's acid-fast stain is the most commonly used stain to identify the oocyst of this parasite in fecal smears. Oocysts of Cyclospora stain variably by the modified acid-fast procedure, resulting in the possible misidentification of this parasite. We examined fecal smears stained by six different procedures that included Giemsa, trichrome, chromotrope, Gram-chromotrope, acid-fast, and safranin stains. We report on safranin-based stain that uniformly stains oocysts of Cyclospora a brilliant reddish orange, provided that the fecal smears are heated in a microwave oven prior to staining. This staining procedure, besides being superior to acid-fast staining, is fast, reliable, and easy to perform in most clinical laboratories.

  3. Is bleach-sedimented smear microscopy an alternative to direct microscopy under programme conditions in India?

    PubMed

    Vishnu, P H; Bhat, P; Bansal, A; Satyanarayana, S; Alavadi, U; Ohri, B S; Shrinivas, M S Rao; Desikan, P; Jaju, J; Rao, V G; Moonan, P K

    2013-03-21

    This cross-sectional multi-centric study compared the yield of and potential benefit for detecting smear-positive pulmonary tuberculosis (PTB) by bleach sedimentation (2% sodium-hypochlorite) versus direct microscopy under programme conditions in India. Among 3168 PTB suspects, 684 (21.6%) were detected by bleach sedimentation vs. 625 (19.7%) by direct microscopy, with a proportional overall agreement of 96% (κ = 0.88). While 594 patients were smear-positive with both methods, 31 patients detected by direct microscopy were missed and an additional 90 patients were detected by bleach sedimentation. Overall, bleach sedimentation increased the yield of smear-positive TB detection; however; it also increased the time to results.

  4. False-negative BD MGIT™ TBc Identification Test results in routine tuberculosis diagnosis: a New Zealand perspective.

    PubMed

    Basu, I; Bower, J E; Henderson, G K; Lowe, O; Newton, S; Vaughan, R; Roberts, S A

    2015-09-01

    >We previously reported on a comparison of the AccuProbe(®) Gen-Probe(®) MTBC assay (AccuProbe) (BioMérieux, Marcy L'Etoile, France) with the Becton Dickinson (BD) MGIT™ TBc Identification (TBc) Test (BD, Franklin Lakes, NJ, USA) in our laboratory. In the period following the shift from the AccuProbe assay to the TBc test, we obtained six false-negative results. On sequencing the mpt64 gene, we found that these false-negative cases had mutations in the mpt64 gene due to deletion, insertion or substitution. Despite the occurrence of false-negative results, we found that the reduced cost and minimal technical expertise, combined with a new testing algorithm, still make this test the preferred option for rapidly identifying Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex in MGIT cultures in a low TB burden country such as New Zealand.

  5. Dentine sealing provided by smear layer/smear plugs vs. adhesive resins/resin tags.

    PubMed

    Carrilho, Marcela R; Tay, Franklin R; Sword, Jeremy; Donnelly, Adam M; Agee, Kelli A; Nishitani, Yoshihiro; Sadek, Fernanda T; Carvalho, Ricardo M; Pashley, David H

    2007-08-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the ability of five experimental resins, which ranged from hydrophobic to hydrophilic blends, to seal acid-etched dentine saturated with water or ethanol. The experimental resins (R1, R2, R3, R4, and R5) were evaluated as neat bonding agents (100% resin) or as solutions solvated with absolute ethanol (70% resin/30% ethanol). Fluid conductance was measured at 20 cm H(2)O hydrostatic pressure after sound dentine surfaces were: (i) covered with a smear layer; (ii) acid-etched; or (iii) bonded with neat or solvated resins, which were applied to acid-etched dentine saturated with water or ethanol. In general, the fluid conductance of resin-bonded dentine was significantly higher than that of smear layer-covered dentine. However, when the most hydrophobic neat resins (R1 and R2) were applied to acid-etched dentine saturated with ethanol, the fluid conductance was as low as that produced by smear layers. The fluid conductance of resin-bonded dentine saturated with ethanol was significantly lower than for resin bonded to water-saturated dentine, except for resin R4. Application of more hydrophobic resins may provide better sealing of acid-etched dentine if the substrate is saturated with ethanol instead of with water.

  6. Comparison of PCR, culturing and Pap smear microscopy for accurate diagnosis of genital Actinomyces.

    PubMed

    Kaya, Dilek; Demirezen, Şayeste; Hasçelik, Gülşen; Gülmez Kivanç, Dolunay; Beksaç, Mehmet Sinan

    2013-05-01

    Members of the genus Actinomyces, Gram-positive, non-spore-forming anaerobic bacteria, are normal inhabitants of the mucosal surfaces of the oral, gastrointestinal and genital tracts. Identification of these bacteria using conventional methods is generally difficult because of their complex transport and growth requirements and their fastidious and slow-growing nature. However, in recent years, the advancement of molecular techniques has provided much improved identification and differentiation of closely related Actinomyces species. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the efficacy of the PCR technique in the diagnosis of genital Actinomyces in comparison with culturing and Papanicolaou (Pap) smear microscopy. Multiple sampling was conducted from 200 women using smear microscopy, culturing and PCR. Cyto-brushes were smeared on glass slides and stained using the routine Pap technique. Culturing was performed from a sterile swab, and Actinomyces were determined using the BBL Crystal ANR ID kit. PCR was performed from a second swab, and the Actinomyces type was determined using type-specific primers designed in our laboratory. Only one vaginal fluid sample (0.5%) revealed Actinomyces-like organisms on Pap smear examination. Actinomyces were detected in nine samples (4.5%) using the BBL Crystal ANR ID kit. Using PCR, eight samples (4%) were found positive for Actinomyces. No specimens that gave positive results by Pap smear microscopy and culturing could be confirmed by PCR. Pap smear microscopy and culturing were both found to have zero sensitivity for Actinomyces. PCR appears to be a sensitive and reliable diagnostic method for the detection of Actinomyces, which are difficult to cultivate from genital samples. PCR can be used for diagnostic confirmation in cases diagnosed by conventional methods, to prevent false-positive results.

  7. Locally smeared operator product expansions in scalar field theory

    DOE PAGES

    Monahan, Christopher; Orginos, Kostas

    2015-04-01

    We propose a new locally smeared operator product expansion to decompose non-local operators in terms of a basis of smeared operators. The smeared operator product expansion formally connects nonperturbative matrix elements determined numerically using lattice field theory to matrix elements of non-local operators in the continuum. These nonperturbative matrix elements do not suffer from power-divergent mixing on the lattice, which significantly complicates calculations of quantities such as the moments of parton distribution functions, provided the smearing scale is kept fixed in the continuum limit. The presence of this smearing scale complicates the connection to the Wilson coefficients of the standardmore » operator product expansion and requires the construction of a suitable formalism. We demonstrate the feasibility of our approach with examples in real scalar field theory.« less

  8. Locally smeared operator product expansions in scalar field theory

    SciTech Connect

    Monahan, Christopher; Orginos, Kostas

    2015-04-01

    We propose a new locally smeared operator product expansion to decompose non-local operators in terms of a basis of smeared operators. The smeared operator product expansion formally connects nonperturbative matrix elements determined numerically using lattice field theory to matrix elements of non-local operators in the continuum. These nonperturbative matrix elements do not suffer from power-divergent mixing on the lattice, which significantly complicates calculations of quantities such as the moments of parton distribution functions, provided the smearing scale is kept fixed in the continuum limit. The presence of this smearing scale complicates the connection to the Wilson coefficients of the standard operator product expansion and requires the construction of a suitable formalism. We demonstrate the feasibility of our approach with examples in real scalar field theory.

  9. Sensitivity of the Quantiferon-Gold In-Tube Assay in Sputum Smear Positive TB Cases in Indonesia

    PubMed Central

    Rutherford, Merrin; Alisjahbana, Bachti; Maharani, Winni; Sampurno, Hedy; van Crevel, Reinout; Hill, Philip C.

    2010-01-01

    Background As part of a formal evaluation of the Quantiferon-Gold in-tube assay (QFT-IT) for latent TB infection we compared its sensitivity to the tuberculin skin test (TST) in confirmed adult TB cases in Indonesia. Smear-positive TB disease was used as a proxy gold standard for latent TB infection. Methods and Findings We compared the sensitivity of QFT-IT and TST in 98 sputum smear and chest x-ray positive TB cases and investigated risk factors for negative and discordant results in both tests. Both tests showed high sensitivity; (QFT-IT; 88.7%: TST; 94.9%), not significantly different from each other (p value 0.11). Very high sensitivity was seen when tests were combined (98.9%). There were no variables significantly associated with discordant results or with a negative TST. For QFT-IT which particular staff member collected blood was significantly associated with test positivity (p value 0.01). Study limitations include small sample size and lack of culture confirmation or HIV test results. Conclusions The QFT-IT has similar sensitivity in Indonesian TB cases as in other locations. However, QFT-IT, like the TST cannot distinguish active TB disease from LTBI. In countries such as Indonesia, with high background rates of LTBI, test specificity for TB disease will likely be low. While our study was not designed to evaluate the QFT-IT in the diagnosis of active TB disease in TB suspects, the data suggest that a combination of TST and QFT-IT may prove useful for ruling out TB disease. Further research is required to explore the clinical role of QFT-IT in combination with other TB diagnostic tests. PMID:20711257

  10. Prevalence of sexually transmitted infections in HIV positive and HIV negative females, in a tertiary care hospital - An observational study

    PubMed Central

    Chopra, Dimple; Sandhu, Ivy; Bahl, RK; Bhatia, Ruby; Goyal, Anupama

    2015-01-01

    The presentation and course of Sexually transmitted diseases(STI) may be altered by presence of coexisting HIV status. Aim of the study was to study the prevalence of STI in 50 females with HIV infection and 50 females without HIV infection and to study the pap smear of patients to look for any cellular changes (dysplasia) due to sexually transmitted infections. Material and methods: The present study was an observational study, which was undertaken on 100 females with STIs (50 females with coexistent HIV infection and 50 females without HIV infection), in the age group 15-49 years attending Skin and VD OPD of Rajindra hospital, Patiala. Results: In our study, the commonest presenting complaint in case of both HIV positive (66%) and HIV negative (80%) women was vaginal discharge. PAP smear abnormalities were present in 28 (56%) HIV positive women and 11 (22%) HIV negative women. In case of HIV positive women, the inflammation was trichomonal in 4 (8%), bacterial in 2 (4%), fungal in 2 (4%) and non-specific in 20 (40%) patients. In HIV negative women, the inflammation was trichomonal in 2 (4%) patients, bacterial in 2 (4%) patients and non-specific in 7 (14%) patients. The difference in abnormality seen in PAP smear between HIV positive and HIV negative women is statistically significant only in case of non-specific inflammation which is more common in case of HIV positive women. Conclusion: From the present study, it was concluded vaginal discharge was the commonest presenting complaint in both HIV positive and HIV negative women, though the commonest cause of vaginal discharge was candidiasis in HIV positive females and bacterial vaginosis in HIV negative females. Also, PAP smear abnormalities were significantly higher in HIV positive women than HIV negative women. So it is important that HIV positive women should have complete gynecological evaluation including a PAP smear with aggressive screening of STIs. PMID:26392656

  11. Numerical insight of a variational smeared approach to cohesive fracture

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Freddi, F.; Iurlano, F.

    2017-01-01

    In the present paper we numerically investigate and validate a variational smeared model for cohesive crack, recently proposed and theoretically justified by Γ-convergence. To achieve this main goal, we first analyze the response of a bar subjected to traction. Possible solutions are discussed, reconstructing the classical cohesive fracture energy and its related stress-crack opening law through a backtracking procedure. Preliminary 2D investigations are also conducted by using a regularized version of the adopted formulation. This permits to explore the transition phase of the damage evolution and to determine the peculiarities of the model, such as mesh-objectivity and Γ-convergence as damage concentration is forced. Therefore, the numerical simulations confirm the analytical results and put the basis for further engineering applications and possible improvements of the model.

  12. Left-Deviating Prism Adaptation in Left Neglect Patient: Reflexions on a Negative Result

    PubMed Central

    Luauté, Jacques; Jacquin-Courtois, Sophie; O'Shea, Jacinta; Christophe, Laure; Rode, Gilles; Boisson, Dominique; Rossetti, Yves

    2012-01-01

    Adaptation to right-deviating prisms is a promising intervention for the rehabilitation of patients with left spatial neglect. In order to test the lateral specificity of prism adaptation on left neglect, the present study evaluated the effect of left-deviating prism on straight-ahead pointing movements and on several classical neuropsychological tests in a group of five right brain-damaged patients with left spatial neglect. A group of healthy subjects was also included for comparison purposes. After a single session of exposing simple manual pointing to left-deviating prisms, contrary to healthy controls, none of the patients showed a reliable change of the straight-ahead pointing movement in the dark. No significant modification of attentional paper-and-pencil tasks was either observed immediately or 2 hours after prism adaptation. These results suggest that the therapeutic effect of prism adaptation on left spatial neglect relies on a specific lateralized mechanism. Evidence for a directional effect for prism adaptation both in terms of the side of the visuomanual adaptation and therefore possibly in terms of the side of brain affected by the stimulation is discussed. PMID:23050168

  13. Barriers to Follow-Up for Abnormal Papanicolaou Smears among Female Sex Workers in Lima, Peru

    PubMed Central

    Aharon, Devora; Calderon, Martha; Solari, Vicky; Alarcon, Patricia; Zunt, Joseph

    2017-01-01

    Background Cervical cancer is the most prevalent cancer among Peruvian women. Female sex workers (FSW) in Peru are at elevated risk for HPV infection, and receive annual Papanicolaou screening. The objective of this study was to identify barriers to follow-up for abnormal Pap smears among FSW in Peru. Methods 97 FSW attending the Alberto Barton Health Center in Lima were surveyed regarding their STI screening history. 17 women with a history of an abnormal Pap smear were interviewed about their experiences regarding follow-up care. Results Of the 27 HPV-positive women, only 8 (30%) received follow-up treatment. Of the 19 women who did not receive follow-up, 7 (37%) had not been informed of their abnormal result. Qualitative interviews revealed that the major barrier to follow-up was lack of knowledge about HPV and potential health consequences of an abnormal Pap smear. Conclusion HPV infection is highly prevalent in Peruvian FSW, yet only 30% of FSW with abnormal Pap smears receive follow-up care. The predominant barriers to follow-up were lack of standardization in recording and communicating results and insufficient FSW knowledge regarding health consequences of HPV infection. Standardization of record-keeping and distribution of educational pamphlets have been implemented to improve follow-up for HPV. PMID:28060937

  14. Galectin-1 is a useful marker for detecting neoplastic squamous cells in oral cytology smears.

    PubMed

    Noda, Yuri; Kondo, Yuko; Sakai, Manabu; Sato, Sunao; Kishino, Mitsunobu

    2016-06-01

    Cytologic diagnoses in the oral region are very difficult due to the small amount of cells in smears, which are also exposed to many stimulating factors and often show atypical changes. Galectin-1 (Gal1) is a β-galactoside binding protein that modulates tumor progression. Gal1 is very weakly expressed in normal cells, but is often overexpressed in neoplastic lesions. The aim of the present study was to determine whether it is possible to differentiate reactive changes from neoplastic changes in oral cytology smears based on the expression of Gal1. A total of 155 tissue biopsy specimens and 61 liquid-based cytology specimens were immunostained by an anti-Gal1 antibody, and Gal1 expression levels were subsequently evaluated. These samples consisted of oral squamous cell carcinomas, epithelial dysplasia, and oral mucosal diseases. The positive and negative expressions of Gal1 were examined in 37 specimens collected by scalpel and cytobrush biopsy. The sensitivity, specificity, and positive predictive value of Gal1 were also evaluated in smears. In tissue sections, the positive ratio of Gal1 in neoplastic lesions was high (72.3%). In cytology specimens, the positive ratio of Gal1 was higher in neoplastic lesions (79.0%) than in those negative for intraepithelial lesion or malignancy (22.2%). A correlation was found between immunocytochemical Gal1 expression and immunohistochemical Gal1 expression (P < .001). The sensitivity (75.0%), specificity (75.0%), and positive predictive value (91.3%) of Gal1 were also high in smears. In conclusion, Gal1 may be a useful marker for determining whether morphologic changes in cells are reactive or neoplastic.

  15. Standardization of blood smears prepared in transparent acetate: an alternative method for the microscopic diagnosis of malaria

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Due to students’ initial inexperience, slides are frequently broken and blood smears are damaged in microscopy training, leading to the need for their constant replacement. To minimize this problem a method of preparing blood smears on transparent acetate sheets was developed with the goal of implementing appropriate and more readily available teaching resources for the microscopic diagnosis of malaria. Methods Acetate sheets derived from polyester were used to standardize the preparation and staining of thin and thick blood smears on transparent acetate sheets. Thick and thin blood smears were also prepared using the conventional method on glass slides. The staining was conducted using Giemsa staining for the thick and thin smears. Results Microscopic examination (1,000x) of the thin and thick blood smears prepared on transparent acetate produced high-quality images for both the parasites and the blood cells. The smears showed up on a clear background and with minimal dye precipitation. It was possible to clearly identify the main morphological characteristics of Plasmodium, neutrophils and platelets. After 12 months of storage, there was no change in image quality or evidence of fungal colonization. Conclusion Preparation of thin and thick blood smears in transparent acetate for the microscopic diagnosis of malaria does not compromise the morphological and staining characteristics of the parasites or blood cells. It is reasonable to predict the applicability of transparent acetate in relevant situations such as the training of qualified professionals for the microscopic diagnosis of malaria and the preparation of positive specimens for competency assessment (quality control) of professionals and services involved in the diagnosis of malaria. PMID:24938886

  16. Effect of phytic acid used as etchant on bond strength, smear layer, and pulpal cells.

    PubMed

    Nassar, Mohannad; Hiraishi, Noriko; Islam, Md Sofiqul; Aizawa, Mamoru; Tamura, Yukihiko; Otsuki, Masayuki; Kasugai, Shohei; Ohya, Keiichi; Tagami, Junji

    2013-10-01

    This study aimed to evaluate the effect of phytic acid (IP6), used as etchant, on resin-dentin bond strength, smear layer removal, and the viability of pulpal cells. Flat dentin surfaces with smear layer were etched with 1% IP6 for 60, 30, or 15 s; in the control group 37% phosphoric acid (PA) was used. Dentin surfaces were rinsed, blot-dried, and bonded with an etch-and-rinse adhesive, followed by composite build-ups. The specimens were subjected to tensile testing after 24 h of water storage at 37°C, and failure modes were determined using scanning electron microscopy. The effectiveness of IP6 to remove the smear layer was observed using scanning electron microscopy. To evaluate the effect on pulpal cells, solutions of 0.1 and 0.01% IP6 and of 3.7 and 0.37% PA were prepared and rat pulpal cells were treated with these solutions for 6 and 24 h. Cell viability was measured using the 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT) assay. The results demonstrated that all application times of IP6 produced bond-strength values that were significantly higher than that of the control. Phytic acid effectively removed the smear layer and plugs, thus exposing the collagen network. Phytic acid had a minimal effect on pulpal cells, whereas PA resulted in a marked decrease in their viability.

  17. Mismatch Negativity Recording in Children With Duchenne Muscular Dystrophy: A Preliminary Study Integrating Neurophysiological and Neuropsychological Results.

    PubMed

    Filippini, Melissa; Guerra, Angelo; Negosanti, Alessandra; Santi, Sara; Sarajlija, Jasenka; Musti, Muriel Assunta; Gobbi, Giuseppe; Lassonde, Maryse; Pini, Antonella

    2016-11-01

    Many studies on Duchenne muscular dystrophy children support the hypothesis of a specific neuropsychological phenotype affecting mostly phonological skills. This prospective study aimed to shed light on the role of phonological abilities. Fourteen Duchenne muscular dystrophy children and 7 healthy children underwent mismatch negativity. Moreover, verbal intelligence, visuospatial attention, immediate verbal memory, working memory, grammar, vocabulary, visuomotor skills, reading, text comprehension, writing, and arithmetic were tested in Duchenne muscular dystrophy children. No significant difference between control and Duchenne muscular dystrophy children was found neither for mismatch negativity amplitude (P = .191 and .116, respectively) nor for latency (P = .135). Eight (57.14%) patients showed an impairment of immediate verbal memory and of visuomotor skills, 7 (63.64%) patients had a deficit in writing and arithmetic skills, even with a mean normal intelligence quotient. Taken together, the results put in evidence a heterogeneous neuropsychological profile not explainable on the basis of a phonological deficit.

  18. Pretreatment sputum smear grade and smear positivity during follow-up of TB patients in Ahmedabad, India.

    PubMed

    Patel, J; Dave, P; Satyanarayana, S; Kumar, A M V; Shah, A; Ananthakrishnan, R; Ratnu, A

    2013-12-21

    In Ahmedabad, India, a retrospective record review was undertaken among 2842 sputum smear-positive tuberculosis patients registered for treatment from April to September 2011 to assess the association of pretreatment sputum smear grade with sputum positivity and the additional yield of a second sputum sample during each follow-up examination. Respectively 39%, 26%, 28% and 7% of patients had pretreatment sputum grade 3+, 2+, 1+ and scanty. The higher the pretreatment sputum grade, the higher the proportion found positive during various follow-up periods. Overall, the additional yield of the second sputum sample was <2%; it did not vary with pretreatment smear grading.

  19. AFB (Acid-Fast Bacillus) Smear and Culture

    MedlinePlus

    ... Fast Bacillus Smear and Culture and Sensitivity; Mycobacteria tuberculosis Nucleic Acid Amplification Test Related tests: TB Screening ... is most commonly used to identify an active tuberculosis (TB) infection caused by the most medically important ...

  20. Oil-smeared models aid wind tunnel measurements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Katzoff, S.; Loving, D. K.

    1964-01-01

    For visualizing flow characteristics in wind tunnel tests, model surfaces are smeared with any common petroleum-base oils. These fluoresce under ultraviolet light and the flow patterns are readily visualized.

  1. [The effect of Kaviner and the smear layer on dentin permeability of permanent teeth in children].

    PubMed

    Tadmiscija, H; Kobaslija, S; Ganibegović, M; Jusufagić, H; Huseinbegović, A

    1996-01-01

    The dentin permeability is defined as a moving of fluid, of chemical substances and microbial products as well through the dentin. The clinical protection of children permanent teeth in other words the protection of pulp-dentin complex after their preparation makes a big problem into the restorative stomatology. Caviner is one of the newer means which is used in the protection of pulp-dentin complex which represents the components of powder dispersing within the ethyl-acetate mixture of polystirol. The important variable in this study is the presence or absence of smearing layer which has the important influence onto the dentin permeability. In order to confirm the Caviner and smearing layer working onto the dentin permeability of the children permanent teeth in vitro experiment was designed. We used for it the dentin disks made of the intact first premolar, extracted because of orthodontic reasons at the ten years old children. They were put into the split chamber which represents a part of apparatus made at our Faculty, which is, in fact, a modified apparatus which was formed by prof. D.H. Pashley (Georgia, USA), and it is used for measuring of dentin permeability with the help of hydraulic conductance (Lp) of dentin. The dentin permeability is expressed by the hydraulic conductance term, but the measures are still expressed as the Lp percentage maximum because of better survey of results. Comparing the obtained results with the other authors results we have come to the similar conclusions, and that is in fact, that the smearing layer significantly reduces the dentin permeability, and that the Caviner, as the other layners, reduces the dentin permeability. If we compare the reduction of dentin permeability at the dentin covered with the smearing layer and with the Caviner, it has been noticed that the smearing layer reduces more significantly. It should be accented that the Caviner reduces the dentin permeability less than the most earlier researched means for

  2. To evaluate the influence of smear layer with different instruments and obturation methods on microleakage of root canal filled teeth: In vitro study

    PubMed Central

    Likhitkar, Manoj S.; Kulkarni, Shantaram V.; Burande, Aravind; Solanke, Vishal; Kumar, C. Sushil; Kamble, Babasaheb

    2016-01-01

    Aims and Objectives: The success of root canal treatment depends on proper debridement, instrumentation, proper accessibility, and proper restoration. The presence of a smear layer is considered to be a significant factor. This in vitro study was conducted to assess the effect of the presence/absence of a smear layer on the microleakage of root canal filled teeth using different instruments and obturation methods. Materials and Methods: One hundred extracted mandibular premolars with closed apices and single roots were chosen and then divided into six groups, A to F, consisting of 15 teeth each. The control group included 10 teeth; 5 positive and 5 negative. The teeth were decoronated at the cementoenamel junction. Groups A, B, C, and D were instrumented with engine-driven rotary Protaper NiTi files. Groups E and F were instrumented with conventional stainless steel hand files. Groups A, C, and E were flushed with 3 ml of 17% EDTA to remove the smear layer prior to obturation. All teeth were flushed with 5.25% sodium hypochlorite solution and obturated with AH-Plus sealer with lateral condensation technique for Groups C, D, E, F and with thermoplasticized gutta-percha technique for Groups A and B. Using an electrochemical technique, leakages in the obturated canals were assessed for 45 days. The results were tabulated using Student's t-test (paired and unpaired t-test) with the Statistical Package for the Social Sciences Software Version 21 (IBM Company, New York, USA). Results: Group A showed the lowest mean value at intervals of 10, 20, 30, and 45 days. There was no current flow in the negative controls during the test period. There was leakage in the positive controls within a few minutes of immersion. Conclusion: The results showed that rotary instrumentation contributed toward an exceptional preparation of root canals compared to hand instrumentation. Elimination of the smear layer enhanced the resistance to microleakage; thermoplasticized gutta

  3. To Evaluate the Efficacy of an Innovative Irrigant on Smear Layer Removal – SEM Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Sukumaran, Vridhachalam Ganapathy; Subbiya, Arunajatesan

    2016-01-01

    Introduction The goal of endodontic therapy is to completely eliminate the microorganisms and the smear layer from the root canal in order to provide a good seal of the root filling materials. Aim The aim of this study was to find a viable alternative irrigant, which is easily available with less erosion and clinically acceptable smear layer removal by comparing the efficacy of EDTA and commercially available super-oxidized water, named Oxum, as a final rinse on smear layer removal and erosion in relation to coronal, middle and apical thirds of radicular dentin using Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM) analysis. Materials and Methods Freshly extracted 30 human lower second premolar teeth with straight roots and type I canal anatomy were selected. The root canals were cleaned and shaped using Universal Protaper Rotary System. Irrigation was performed with 1 ml of 2.5% of NaOCl solution after each instrument change. The final irrigation (5 ml) sequence was as follows: Group I- 17% EDTA, Group II – OXUM, and Group III - 0.9% saline (control) for one minute. Then, the root canals were finally irrigated with 5ml of distilled water to remove any precipitate. The roots were then gently split into two halves using a chisel and subjected to SEM analysis. Results The SEM photomicrographs were evaluated by two independent examiners and Mann Whitney results showed that there was no statistically significant difference between the two examiners. Non-parametric statistical analysis of all experimental groups showed significant difference between coronal, middle and apical third for smear layer removal with p-value<0.05. For erosion, in group II (oxum) showed statistically significant difference between coronal, middle and apical third and it showed significantly less dentine erosion when compared to EDTA. Conclusion Within the limitations of the present study, Oxum the commercially available super-oxidized water proved to be equally effective in smear layer removal with less

  4. A Study of Genotyping for Management of Human Papillomavirus-Positive, Cytology-Negative Cervical Screening Results

    PubMed Central

    Burk, R. D.; Boyle, S.; Raine-Bennett, T.; Katki, H. A.; Gage, J. C.; Wentzensen, N.; Kornegay, J. R.; Aldrich, C.; Tam, T.; Erlich, H.; Apple, R.; Befano, B.; Castle, P. E.

    2014-01-01

    The effective management of women with human papillomavirus (HPV)-positive, cytology-negative results is critical to the introduction of HPV testing into cervical screening. HPV typing has been recommended for colposcopy triage, but it is not clear which combinations of high-risk HPV types provide clinically useful information. This study included 18,810 women with Hybrid Capture 2 (HC2)-positive, cytology-negative results and who were age ≥30 years from Kaiser Permanente Northern California. The median follow-up was 475 days (interquartile range [IQR], 0 to 1,077 days; maximum, 2,217 days). The baseline specimens from 482 cases of cervical intraepithelial neoplasia grade 3 or cancer (CIN3+) and 3,517 random HC2-positive noncases were genotyped using 2 PCR-based methods. Using the case-control sampling fractions, the 3-year cumulative risks of CIN3+ were calculated for each individual high-risk HPV type. The 3-year cumulative risk of CIN3+ among all women with HC2-positive, cytology-negative results was 4.6%. HPV16 status conferred the greatest type-specific risk stratification; women with HC2-positive/HPV16-positive results had a 10.6% risk of CIN3+, while women with HC-2 positive/HPV16-negative results had a much lower risk of 2.4%. The next most informative HPV types and their risks in HPV-positive women were HPV33 (5.9%) and HPV18 (5.9%). With regard to the etiologic fraction, 20 of 71 cases of cervical adenocarcinoma in situ (AIS) and adenocarcinoma in the cohort were positive for HPV18. HPV16 genotyping provides risk stratification useful for guiding clinical management; the risk among HPV16-positive women clearly exceeds the U.S. consensus risk threshold for immediate colposcopy referral. HPV18 is of particular interest because of its association with difficult-to-detect glandular lesions. There is a less clear clinical value of distinguishing the other high-risk HPV types. PMID:25339396

  5. Chemical extraction versus direct smear for MALDI-TOF mass spectrometry identification of anaerobic bacteria.

    PubMed

    Fournier, Rémi; Wallet, Frédéric; Grandbastien, Bruno; Dubreuil, Luc; Courcol, René; Neut, Christel; Dessein, Rodrigue

    2012-06-01

    In the present study, two pre-analytic processes for mass spectrometric bacterial identification were compared: the time-consuming reference method, chemical extraction, and the direct smear technique directly using cultured colonies without any further preparation. These pre-analytic processes were compared in the identification of a total of 238 strains of anaerobic bacteria representing 34 species. The results showed that 218/238 strains were identified following chemical extraction, 185 identifications (77.7%) were secured to both genus and species [log(score) > 2.0] whereas 33 identifications (14%) were secured to genus only [log(score) between 1.7 and 2.0]. Following direct smear, 207/238 anaerobic bacteria were identified, 158 identifications (66.4%) were secured to both genus and species [log(score) > 2.0] whereas 49 identifications were secured to genus only [log(score) between 1.7 and 2.0]. Twenty strains were not identified [log(score) < 1.7] by MALDI-TOF MS following chemical extraction whereas 31 strains were not identified with the direct smear technique. Although direct smear led to a significant decrease of the log(score) values for the Clostridium genus and the Gram positive anaerobic bacteria (GPAC) group (p < 0.0001, Wilcoxon test), identification to both species and genus were not changed. However these differences were not statistically significant (p = 0.1, Chi square). Therefore, MALDI-TOF MS identification following the direct smear technique appears to both non-inferior to the reference method and relevant for anaerobic bacteria identification.

  6. Cervical Smears at Public Health Centres in Eastern Trinidad: Coverage and Follow-up, 2009–2010

    PubMed Central

    Lynch-George, G; Maharaj, RG

    2014-01-01

    ABSTRACT Background: The objective was to examine the cervical screening programme at selected health centres in the Eastern Regional Health Authority (ERHA), Trinidad and Tobago, specifically regarding Pap smear coverage, frequency distribution of abnormal smears and the adequacy of follow-up of abnormal smears, according to the Caribbean Frameworks for Developing National Screening and Clinical Guidelines for Cervical Cancer Prevention and Control. Methods: A retrospective analysis of secondary data from five health centres in the ERHA over the two-year period 2009–2010 was conducted. Data were entered into Microsoft Excel, cleaned and imported into SPSS (v 12) for analysis. Descriptive and Chi-squared analyses were carried out. Results: The cumulative cervical screening coverage for the years 2009 and 2010 was 2600 Pap smears for a population of 28 811 women (9% coverage). The proportion of cervical smears done per age group ranged from 1.6% to 8.6% in 2009 and from 1.9% to 12.9% in 2010. The proportion of Pap smears for the target population, 25–49 years, stood at 11% in 2009 and 13.2% in 2010. The distribution of abnormal Pap smears (n = 155) was: atypical squamous cell of undetermined significance (ASCUS), 68.4%; low-grade squamous intra-epithelial lesion (LSIL), 14.2%; atypical squamous cells – high-grade squamous intra-epithelial lesion cannot be excluded (ASC-H), 4.5%; atypical glandular cells of undetermined significance (AGUS), 1.3% and invasive squamous cervical carcinoma, 0.6%. Human papillomavirus was detected in 7.7% of the study population. More than half of the women with abnormal smears did not follow-up on recommendations for further care and there was a significant loss to follow-up especially among the women who were referred for repeat Pap smear. The significant predictor to whether follow-up care occurred or not was age (p < 0.05). Conclusion: The cervical screening services in the ERHA in Trinidad did not provide adequate coverage to

  7. Comparison of ONIX simulation results with experimental data from the BATMAN testbed for the study of negative ion extraction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mochalskyy, Serhiy; Fantz, Ursel; Wünderlich, Dirk; Minea, Tiberiu

    2016-10-01

    The development of negative ion (NI) sources for the ITER neutral beam injector is strongly accompanied by modelling activities. The ONIX (Orsay Negative Ion eXtraction) code simulates the formation and extraction of negative hydrogen ions and co-extracted electrons produced in caesiated sources. In this paper the 3D geometry of the BATMAN extraction system, and the source characteristics such as the extraction and bias potential, and the 3D magnetic field were integrated in the model. Calculations were performed using plasma parameters experimentally obtained on BATMAN. The comparison of the ONIX calculated extracted NI density with the experimental results suggests that predictive calculations of the extraction of NIs are possible. The results show that for an ideal status of the Cs conditioning the extracted hydrogen NI current density could reach ~30 mA cm-2 at 10 kV and ~20 mA cm-2 at 5 kV extraction potential, with an electron/NI current density ratio of about 1, as measured in the experiments under the same plasma and source conditions. The dependency of the extracted NI current on the NI density in the bulk plasma region from both the modeling and the experiment was investigated. The separate distributions composing the NI beam originating from the plasma bulk region and the PG surface are presented for different NI plasma volume densities and NI emission rates from the plasma grid (PG) wall, respectively. The extracted current from the NIs produced at the Cs covered PG surface, initially moving towards the bulk plasma and then being bent towards the extraction surfaces, is lower compared to the extracted NI current from directly extracted surface produced ions.

  8. Risk factors associated with negative in-vivo diagnostic results in bovine tuberculosis-infected cattle in Spain

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Despite great effort and investment incurred over decades to control bovine tuberculosis (bTB), it is still one of the most important zoonotic diseases in many areas of the world. Test-and-slaughter strategies, the basis of most bTB eradication programs carried out worldwide, have demonstrated its usefulness in the control of the disease. However, in certain countries, eradication has not been achieved due in part to limitations of currently available diagnostic tests. In this study, results of in-vivo and post-mortem diagnostic tests performed on 3,614 animals from 152 bTB-infected cattle herds (beef, dairy, and bullfighting) detected in 2007–2010 in the region of Castilla y León, Spain, were analyzed to identify factors associated with positive bacteriological results in cattle that were non-reactors to the single intradermal tuberculin test, to the interferon-gamma (IFN-γ) assay, or to both tests applied in parallel (Test negative/Culture + animals, T-/C+). The association of individual factors (age, productive type, and number of herd-tests performed since the disclosure of the outbreak) with the bacteriology outcome (positive/negative) was analyzed using a mixed multivariate logistic regression model. Results The proportion of non-reactors with a positive post-mortem result ranged from 24.3% in the case of the SIT test to 12.9% (IFN-γ with 0.05 threshold) and 11.9% (95% CI 9.9-11.4%) using both tests in parallel. Older (>4.5 years) and bullfighting cattle were associated with increased odds of confirmed bTB infection by bacteriology, whereas dairy cattle showed a significantly lower risk. Ancillary use of IFN-γ assay reduced the proportion of T-/C + animals in high risk groups. Conclusions These results demonstrate the likelihood of positive bacteriological results in non-reactor cattle is influenced by individual epidemiological factors of tested animals. Increased surveillance on non-reactors with an increased probability of being false

  9. Pretreatment in a high-pressure microwave processor for MIB-1 immunostaining of cytological smears and paraffin tissue sections to visualize the various phases of the mitotic cycle.

    PubMed

    Suurmeijer, A J; Boon, M E

    1999-08-01

    In many pathology laboratories, both microwave ovens and pressure cookers are used for pretreatment of cytologic smears and paraffin sections to allow MIB-1 staining. For both methods there are two problems. First, the results cannot be used for quantitation because standardization is impossible. Second, the staining results are often suboptimal, resulting in negative staining of cells in the G(1)- and S-phases. When pretreatment is performed in a microwave processor, allowing microwave heating under pressure, precise temperature monitoring becomes possible. In addition, the importance of the pH of the buffer was studied using a test battery series. Optimal staining is achieved at a temperature of 115C, 10 min, pH 6. This method proved to be highly reproducible. Because the immunostaining results are optimal, the various phases of the cell cycle can be defined in the sections and smears. In addition, the perinucleolar staining of the late G(1)-phase is optimally visualized and nuclei of the stable pKi-67 pathway can be identified. Under suboptimal conditions, in particular, the number of cells in the late G(1)-phase are underestimated in the MIB-1 counts.

  10. Antimicrobial activity of doripenem against Gram-negative pathogens: results from INVITA-A-DORI Brazilian study.

    PubMed

    Gales, Ana Cristina; Azevedo, Heber D; Cereda, Rosângela Ferraz; Girardello, Raquel; Xavier, Danilo Elias

    2011-01-01

    In vitro activity of doripenem and comparator antimicrobial agents was evaluated against Gram-negative bacilli recently isolated from Brazilian private hospitals that were enrolled in the INVITA-A-DORI Brazilian Study. A total of 805 unique Gram-negative bacilli were collected from patients hospitalized at 18 medical centers between May/08 and March/09. Each hospital was asked to submit 50 single Gram-negative bacilli isolated from blood, lower respiratory tract or intraabdominal secretions. Bacterial identification was confirmed and antimicrobial susceptibility testing was performed using Clinical Laboratory Standards Institute (CLSI) microdilution method at a central laboratory. CLSI M100-S21 (2011) or US-FDA package insert criteria (tigecycline) was used for interpretation of the antimicrobial susceptibility results. Doripenem was as active as meropenem and more active than imipenem against E. coli and K. pneumoniae isolates. A total of 50.0% of Enterobacter spp. isolates were resistant to ceftazidime but 85.7% of them were inhibited at doripenem MICs < 1 µg/mL. Polymyxin B was the only agent to show potent activity against Acinetobacter spp. (MIC50/90, < 0.5/1 µg/mL) and P. aeruginosa (MIC50/90, 1/2 µg/mL). Although high rates of imipenem (53.1%) and meropenem (44.5%) resistance were detected among P. aeruginosa, doripenem showed MIC50 of 16 µg/mL against imipenem-resistant P. aeruginosa and inhibited a greater number of imipenem-resistant P. aeruginosa (10.5%) at MIC values of < 4 µg/mL than did meropenem (0.0%). In this study, doripenem showed similar in vitro activity to that of meropenem and retained some activity against imipenem-resistant P. aeruginosa isolated from Brazilian medical centers.

  11. [Feasibility of cervical smear in HIV-positive women living in Chad].

    PubMed

    Mortier, E; Doudéadoum, N; Némian, F; Gaulier, A; Kemian, M

    2016-08-01

    Cervical cancer is the leading cause of cancerrelated death in Sub-Saharan African women. HIV-infected women are at increased risk for cervical intraepithelial lesions and invasive cervical cancer. WHO guidelines for screening and treatment of precancerous cervical lesions are regularly actualized. There are no data on cervical squamous intraepithelial lesions in Chad. Between August 2013 and May 2015, screening for cervical squamous intraepithelial lesions was proposed to HIV-infected women living in Moundou (Chad). Cytology examination was performed after with Papanicolaou coloration. Three hundred and eleven HIV-seropositive women accepted the screening without refusal. Mean age of the patients was 38 years (95% Confidence Interval: 37.7-39.9). The women declared a mean of 4.1 pregnancies (range: 0-12). The patients had been followed-up for their seropositivity for 8 years (range: 0-25). All were on highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART). Of the patients whose results were known (N = 231), 98% had a CD4 lymphocyte nadir count less than 350/mm(3). Cytological results were as follows: normal smear (N = 59; 19%), inflammatory or hemorrhagic smear (N = 139; 44%), low grade squamous intraepithelial lesion (N = 58; 19%), high grade squamous intraepithelial lesion (N = 28; 9%), epidermoid carcinoma (N = 13; 4%), and uninterpretable smear (N = 14; 5%). The inflammatory lesions were due to cervicitis (N = 54), vaginosis (N = 22), and trichomonas infection (N = 3). The patients' age, CD4 lymphocyte nadir count, and CD4 count at the time of the cervical smear were not different according to the cytological results. Only five patients had a cone biopsy. Three patients deceased during the study of whom two from a gynaecological cancer diagnosed too late. The screening of dysplasia and cervical cancer in HIV-seropositive women is possible in Chad. In our study, 13% of the women had highgrade dysplasia or carcinoma needing curative care. We also showed that simple

  12. Fabrication of shallow microchannels for highly uniform blood smear preparation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Raveendran, Jeethu; Stanley, John; Satheesh Babu, T. G.

    2016-09-01

    Polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) based microfluidic channels for blood cell analysis were fabricated using etched glass as the master for soft lithography. The design consisted of shallow microchannels with uniformly spaced micropillars that aid in the formation of thin blood films (smear) through capillary filling of the microchannels. The concentration of hydrofluoric acid (HF) and the time duration of etching were varied and conditions optimized for fabrication of microstructures of different depths. Morphological analysis revealed the structure and dimension of the microstructures to be highly consistent. It was also noted that the micropillars formed during soft lithography prevented the roof of the PDMS microchannel from collapsing, a common phenomena observed while using shallow microfluidic channels. The fabricated prototype was used for blood cell analysis and the blood smear formed due to capillary flow was found to eliminate the drawbacks associated with manual smear preparation. Thus, a novel cost effective microfluidic device for cell analysis using glass etching was successfully developed and tested.

  13. Target time smearing with short transmissions and multipath propagation.

    PubMed

    Harrison, Chris H

    2011-09-01

    In active sonar the target echo level is often estimated with a propagation model that adds all multipath arrivals. If the (post-correlator) transmitted pulse is short compared to the multipath time spread then there is effectively an extra loss (which may be substantial) since only a few of the paths contribute to the target echo at any one instant. This well known "time-smearing" loss is treated in a self-consistent manner with previous calculations of reverberation [Harrison, J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 114, 2744-2756 (2003)] to estimate the target response and the signal-to-reverberation-ratio. Again isovelocity water, Lambert's law, and reflection loss proportional to angle are assumed. In this important short pulse regime the target response becomes independent of boundary reflection properties but proportional to transmitted pulse length. Thus the signal-to-reverberation-ratio becomes independent of pulse length. The effect on signal-to-ambient-noise is also investigated and the resulting formulas presented in a table.

  14. Process improvement of pap smear tracking in a women's medicine center clinic in residency training.

    PubMed

    Calhoun, Byron C; Goode, Jeff; Simmons, Kathy

    2011-11-01

    Application of Six-Sigma methodology and Change Acceleration Process (CAP)/Work Out (WO) tools to track pap smear results in an outpatient clinic in a hospital-based residency-training program. Observational study of impact of changes obtained through application of Six-Sigma principles in clinic process with particular attention to prevention of sentinel events. Using cohort analysis and applying Six-Sigma principles to an interactive electronic medical record Soarian workflow engine, we designed a system of timely accession and reporting of pap smear and pathology results. We compared manual processes from January 1, 2007 to February 28, 2008 to automated processes from March 1, 2008 to December 31, 2009. Using the Six-Sigma principles, CAP/WO tools, including "voice of the customer" and team focused approach, no outlier events went untracked. Applying the Soarian workflow engine to track prescribed 7 day turnaround time for completion, we identified 148 pap results in 3,936, 3 non-gynecological results in 15, and 41 surgical results in 246. We applied Six-Sigma principles to an outpatient clinic facilitating an interdisciplinary team approach to improve the clinic's reporting system. Through focused problem assessment, verification of process, and validation of outcomes, we improved patient care for pap smears and critical pathology.

  15. Bubble-Facilitated VOC Transport from LNAPL Smear Zones and Its Potential Effect on Vapor Intrusion.

    PubMed

    Soucy, Nicole C; Mumford, Kevin G

    2017-02-10

    Most conceptual and mathematical models of soil vapor intrusion assume that the transport of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) from a source toward a building is limited by diffusion through the soil gas. Under conditions where advection occurs, transport rates are higher and can lead to higher indoor air concentrations. Advection-dominated conditions can be created by gas bubble flow in the saturated zone. A series of laboratory column experiments were conducted to measure mass flux due to bubble-facilitated VOC transport from light nonaqueous phase liquid (LNAPL) smear zones. Smear zones that contained both LNAPL residual and trapped gas, as well as those that contained only LNAPL residual, were investigated. Results showed that the VOC mass flux due to bubble-facilitated transport was orders-of-magnitude higher than under diffusion-limited conditions. Results also showed that the mass flux due to bubble-facilitated transport was intermittent, and increased with an increased supply of dissolved gases.

  16. Clinical diagnosis of cutaneous leishmaniasis: a comparison study between standardized graded direct microscopy and ITS1-PCR of Giemsa-stained smears.

    PubMed

    Al-Jawabreh, A; Schoenian, G; Hamarsheh, O; Presber, W

    2006-08-01

    Parasitological diagnosis of cutaneous leishmaniasis is absolutely necessary before treatment. Direct microscopy of scrapings taken from the margins of skin lesions is the most commonly used method for clinical diagnosis of leishmaniasis. In this study to evaluate the usage of stained smears as samples for PCR and the possible advantage of PCR, we compared the sensitivity of the diagnosis of Giemsa-stained skin scrapings by standardized graded direct microscopy with that of ITS1-PCR with the material of the same area of the slide. Three 5mm x 5mm squares were marked on each of the 20 Giemsa-stained touch smears from 20 clinically diagnosed Palestinian patients. Out of the 60 squares scanned for amastigotes under 100x oil-immersion light microscopy, 45 (75%) gave usable results and 23 of these were positive for Leishmania. Fifteen (25%) squares could not be scanned microscopically, 12 because of staining that was too thick and 3 because of inadequate staining. DNA from each scanned square was extracted separately after microscopy and run through ITS1-PCR. Of the 23 microscopy-positive squares, 20 (87%) of these were positive by PCR. Of the three that were negative, one failed to extract for DNA, the second showed only one amastigote in the entire square, and the third was normally graded as +1 but was not amplified for unknown reasons. Of the 22 squares negative for microscopy, 18 (82%) were ITS1-PCR positive. Additionally, all three improperly stained squares were ITS1-PCR positive. Of the 12 darkly stained squares, 11 were positive. A negative control group of 15 German individuals from which Giemsa-stained slides containing three squares each was prepared and these slides were also microscopically scanned and tested by ITS1-PCR. Both tests were negative with both methods. Compared to microscopy (data in parenthesis), PCR showed a sensitivity of 87% (37%) and a specificity of 100% (100%). We have concluded that Giemsa-stained smears are a readily usable sampling

  17. Real-Time PCR for Measles Virus Detection on Clinical Specimens with Negative IgM Result in Morocco.

    PubMed

    Benamar, Touria; Tajounte, Latifa; Alla, Amal; Khebba, Fatima; Ahmed, Hinda; Mulders, Mick N; Filali-Maltouf, Abdelkarim; El Aouad, Rajae

    2016-01-01

    Since the confirmation of measles cases represents an important indicator regarding the performance of the measles-elimination program, the aim of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of the routine procedures followed in Morocco for the laboratory confirmation of measles cases. Suspected cases reported between January 2010 and December 2012 were assessed for the timeliness of the sample collection, occurrence of measles clinical symptoms, and the results of the laboratory diagnoses. For 88% of the 2,708 suspected cases, a clinical specimen was collected within 7d of rash onset, of which 50% were IgM-positive and 2.6% were equivocal. The measles symptoms were reported in 91.4% of the cases; the occurrence of symptoms showed a positive association with the serological results (odds ratio [OR] = 2.9883, 95% confidence interval [CI] 2.2238-4.0157). Of the negative samples, 52% (n = 116) tested positive by real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR). These results are in favor of using molecular detection to complement serological diagnosis in the context of measles surveillance approach in Morocco. In addition, the introduction of additional laboratory methods for differential diagnosis is required for the final classification of suspected cases with maculopapular rash and fever in the context of the measles elimination program.

  18. Does the Evidence Make a Difference in Consumer Behavior? Sales of Supplements Before and After Publication of Negative Research Results

    PubMed Central

    Emanuel, Ezekiel J.; Miller, Franklin G.

    2008-01-01

    Objective To determine if the public consumption of herbs, vitamins, and supplements changes in light of emerging negative evidence. Methods We describe trends in annual US sales of five major supplements in temporal relationship with publication of research from three top US general medical journals published from 2001 through early 2006 and the number of news citations associated with each publication using the Lexus-Nexis database. Results In four of five supplements (St. John’s wort, echinacea, saw palmetto, and glucosamine), there was little or no change in sales trends after publication of research results. In one instance, however, dramatic changes in sales occurred following publication of data suggesting harm from high doses of vitamin E. Conclusion Results reporting harm may have a greater impact on supplement consumption than those demonstrating lack of efficacy. In order for clinical trial evidence to influence public behavior, there needs to be a better understanding of the factors that influence the translation of evidence in the public. PMID:18618194

  19. The research of smearing elimination of remote sensing images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Yuheng; Zhou, Wang; Shen, Weimin

    2008-03-01

    The remote camera developed by us is the exclusive functional load of the micro-satellite. The remote camera is based on the frame transfer CCD sensor DALSA FT18, and for the purpose of insuring system reliability, the development of the remote camera indispensably simplifies the design of mechanical and electrical shutter, which causes the problem of CCD smearing in remote sensors, and leads to the distortion of remote sensing images. In this paper we present a reversely stepwise method to solve the CCD smearing problem in remote sensors. The images retrieved from data after correction show great improvement in image contrast and quality.

  20. Technetium-99m white blood cell imaging: False-negative result in salmonella osteomyelitis associated with sickle cell disease

    SciTech Connect

    Guze, B.H.; Hawkins, R.A.; Marcus, C.S.

    1989-02-01

    The authors report a case of sickle cell anemia associated osteomyelitis where the Tc-99m white blood cell imaging was negative, and bone imaging showed increased uptake in the region in question. The reasons for the possible false-negative image are discussed.

  1. Knowledge, attitude and practice of the smear test and its relation with female age 1

    PubMed Central

    Silveira, Nara Sibério Pinho; Vasconcelos, Camila Teixeira Moreira; Nicolau, Ana Izabel Oliveira; Oriá, Mônica Oliveira Batista; Pinheiro, Patricia Neyva da Costa; Pinheiro, Ana Karina Bezerra

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Objective: to verify the association among the knowledge attitude and practice of women in relation to the smear test and the age range. Method: a cross-sectional research was undertaken, associated with the knowledge, attitude and practice survey at a Primary Health Care service. The sample consisted of 775 women, distributed in three age ranges: adolescent, young and elderly. Results: although high rates of inappropriate knowledge were found in all age ranges, it was significantly higher among the adolescents (p=0.000). A similar trend was found in the attitude component, with percentages of inappropriateness in adolescence that drop as age advances (p=0.000). Nevertheless, no statistical difference among the groups was found in terms of practice (p=0.852). Conclusion: the study demonstrated a relation between the age range and knowledge, attitude and practice of the smear test. PMID:27305183

  2. Chiral vortical effect from the compactified D4-branes with smeared D0-brane charge

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Chao; Chen, Yidian; Huang, Mei

    2017-03-01

    By using the boundary derivative expansion formalism of fluid/gravity correspondence, we study the chiral vortical effect from the compactified D4-branes with smeared D0-brane charge. This background corresponds to a strongly coupled, nonconformal relativistic fluid with a conserved vector current. The presence of the chiral vortical effect is induced by the addition of a Chern-Simons term in the bulk action. Except that the non-dissipative anomalous viscous coefficient and the sound speed rely only on the chemical potential, most of the other thermal and hydrodynamical quantities of the first order depend both on the temperature and the chemical potential. According to our result, the way that the chiral vortical effect coefficient depends on the chemical potential seems irrelevant with whether the relativistic fluid is conformal or not. Stability analysis shows that this anomalous relativistic fluid is stable and the doping of the smeared D0-brane charge will slow down the sound speed.

  3. Detection of some anaemia types in human blood smears using neural networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Elsalamony, Hany A.

    2016-08-01

    The identification process based on measuring the level of haemoglobin and the classification of red blood cells using microscopic examination of blood smears is the principal way to diagnose anaemia. This paper presents a proposed algorithm for detecting some anaemia types like sickle and elliptocytosis and trying to count them with healthy ones in human red blood smears based on the circular Hough transform and some morphological tools. Some cells with unknown shapes (not platelets or white cells) also have been detected. The extracted data from the detection process has been analyzed by neural network. The experimental results have demonstrated high accuracy, and the proposed algorithm has achieved the highest detection of around 98.9% out of all the cells in 27 microscopic images. Effectiveness rates up to 100%, 98%, and 99.3% have been achieved by using neural networks for sickle, elliptocytosis and cells with unknown shapes, respectively.

  4. Manual liquid based cytology for Pap smear preparation and HPV detection by PCR in Pakistan.

    PubMed

    Akbar, Shehla; Pervez, Shgufta Nasir; Shah, Walayat

    2015-01-01

    This study was conducted on female patients with different gynecological problems attending the gynecology out-patient departments of two tertiary care hospitals in Peshawar city of Khyber Pakhtunkhwa, Pakistan between August 2012 and October 2013. The 200 patients had an age range of 21-65 years. Smears were taken with cervical brushes and preserved in preservative medium and processed for manual liquid based cytology (MLBC) for Pap staining. Out of 200 collected samples, 30 samples were found inadequate on cytology. Of the remaining 170 samples, 164 (96.47%) were normal, 5 (2.94%) were of atypical squamous cells of unknown significance (ASCUS) and 1 (0.6%) was of high grade squamous intraepithelial lesion (HSIL). On PCR all the samples were positive for beta globin gene fragment including those reported inadequate on cytology. Out of the 5 ASCUS samples, 2 samples were positive for HPV, one each for HPV 16 and HPV 18, and the rest of the 3 samples were negative for HPV DNA. The 1 sample of HSIL was positive for HPV 16 on PCR. Out of 164 normal samples on cytology, only 1 sample was HPV 16 positive. So overall, 4 (2%) out of 200 samples were positive for HPV DNA, where 3 were HPV 16 (1.5%), and 1 was HPV 18 (0.5%) positive, and thus the ratio of infection with of HPV 16 to HPV 18 was 3:1 in the general population. In conclusion, PCR based HPV detection is a more sensitive method for screening of HPV infection than cytology as sample inadequacy does not affect the results. However, it can be combined with cytology methods in a HPV positive female to achieve the maximum results.

  5. [False negatives and quality assurance in cervico-uterine cytology].

    PubMed

    Labbé, S; Petitjean, A

    1999-10-01

    Determining the false negative rate of cervical smear interpretation is an important part of quality assessment and a necessary step for any improvement program. We report our experience of negative smear rescreening of 522 histologically proven high-grade lesions or cancers, over a 5 to 7 year preceding period. False negative rate was 6.88% as calculated with a narrow definition of error, i.e. intra-epithelial lesions and atypical squamous cells of undetermined significance. It was 10.78% as calculated with a broad definition of error, including minor anomalies such as repair and parakeratosis. Bibliographic data account for 0 to 94% false negative diagnoses, owing to great disparities in calculating the false negative rate as well as in rescreening. However, a 10% traditionally calculated and standardised false negative rate is a reasonable and achievable goal in a view of quality improvement. Systematic random rescreening of 10% of negative smears is ineffective.

  6. Tracking false-negative results in molecular diagnosis: proposal of a triplex-PCR based method for leishmaniasis diagnosis

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Molecular biological methods have become increasingly relevant to the diagnosis and control of infectious diseases, such as leishmaniasis. Since various factors may affect the sensitivity of PCR assays, including DNA yield and purity, an optimal extraction method is pivotal. Losses of a parasite’s DNA during extraction may significantly impair its detection by PCR and lead to false-negative results. This study proposes a triplex PCR assay targeting the parasite’s DNA, an external control (pUC18) and an internal control (G3PD) for accurate diagnosis of leishmaniasis. Results Two primer pairs were designed to detect the plasmid pUC18 and a triplex PCR assay targeting the Leishmania braziliensis kinetoplast DNA, the external control and the internal control was standardized. The triplex PCR assay was assessed for its ability to detect the three target DNA fragments simultaneously. PCR products from pUC18 DNA resulted in bands of 368 (P1) and 316 (P2) base pairs (bp). The triplex PCR optimized with the chosen external control system (P1) allowed the simultaneous detection of the internal control (G3PD – 567 bp) as well as of small quantities (10 pg) of the target parasite’s DNA, detected by amplification of a 138 bp product. Conclusions The new tool standardized herein enables a more reliable interpretation of PCR results, mainly by contributing to quality assurance of leishmaniasis diagnosis. Furthermore, after simple standardization steps, this protocol could be applied to the diagnosis of other infectious diseases in reference laboratories. This triplex PCR enables the assessment of small losses during the DNA extraction process, problems concerning DNA degradation (sample quality) and the detection of L. braziliensis kDNA. PMID:24808911

  7. Influence of vulvar hygiene on cytology of vaginal smears after sham artificial insemination in sows.

    PubMed Central

    Carabin, H; Desnoyers, M; Vaillancourt, D; Martineau, G P

    1995-01-01

    The description of vaginal cytology in the sow in relation to artificial insemination (AI) has never been reported. Poor vulvar hygiene is frequently imputed as a cause for the development of endometritis after AI and could thus enhance the inflammatory response of the genital tract. The goal of this study was to use cytology as an objective tool to evaluate the vulvar hygiene during sham AI. Sixty-eight sows were matched according to their parity and week of mating and divided into 2 groups: treatment sows (CVS) had their vulva cleaned with a 1:2000 Hibitane solution and control sows (SVS) had theirs soiled with feces. Both groups of sows were inseminated twice with saline following this vulvar treatment, once at detection of estrus and a 2nd time 24 hours later. Vestibular smears were taken before each AI, and vaginal smears were taken after each AI from the material present on the insemination spirette. Cytological smears were described by the predominant type of cells, namely epithelial, neutrophil, or no predominance. Results showed no significant differences between the 2 groups and no evolution in the predominance of neutrophils from the 1st to the 2nd AI (P > 0.05). The pooled results from the 2 groups showed an increase in cellularity from the 1st to the 2nd AI (P > 0.05). Neither the cellularity nor predominant cell type in vestibular or vaginal smears from estrus sows are predictors of vulvar hygiene during sham AI (P > 0.05). PMID:8521352

  8. Diagnosis of extrapulmonary tuberculosis by smear, culture, and PCR using universal sample processing technology.

    PubMed

    Chakravorty, Soumitesh; Sen, Manas Kamal; Tyagi, Jaya Sivaswami

    2005-09-01

    Definitive and rapid diagnosis of extrapulmonary tuberculosis is challenging since conventional techniques have limitations. We have developed a universal sample processing (USP) technology for detecting mycobacteria in clinical specimens. In this study, this technology was evaluated blindly on 99 extrapulmonary specimens collected from 87 patients. USP-processed specimens were submitted to smear microscopy for detection of acid-fast bacilli (AFB), culture, and two PCR tests targeting devR (Rv3133c) and IS6110 gene sequences. On the basis of clinical characteristics, histology and cytology, conventional microbiology results, and response to antitubercular therapy, 68 patients were diagnosed with tuberculosis. Although USP smear and culture were significantly superior to conventional microbiology, which was not optimized (P < 0.0001), these approaches fell short of PCR tests (P < 0.0001). The low yields by smear and culture are attributed to the paucibacillary load in the specimens. The highest sensitivity in PCR was achieved when devR and IS6110 test results were combined; the sensitivity and specificity values were 83 and 93.8%, 87.5 and 100%, and 66.7 and 75%, respectively, in pleural fluid, needle-biopsied pleural tissue, and lymph node specimens. In conclusion, the application of USP technology, together with clinicopathological characteristics, promises to improve the accuracy and confidence of extrapulmonary tuberculosis diagnosis.

  9. Scanning electron microscopy and dentinal permeability analysis of smear layer.

    PubMed

    Prati, C; Mongiorgi, R; Pashley, D H; Riva di Sanseverino, L

    1991-05-01

    The aim of the present study was to evaluate the surface morphology and the permeability of dentine after different acid treatments: polyacrylic acid, maleic acid, phosphoric acid and saline solution as control. Dentine permeability was expressed as hydraulic conductance. All the acid treatments removed the smear layer and increased the dentine permeability.

  10. Missed Opportunities for Health Education on Pap Smears in Peru

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bayer, Angela M.; Nussbaum, Lauren; Cabrera, Lilia; Paz-Soldan, Valerie A.

    2011-01-01

    Despite cervical cancer being one of the leading causes of cancer-related deaths among women in Peru, cervical Pap smear coverage is low. This article uses findings from 185 direct clinician observations in four cities of Peru (representing the capital and each of the three main geographic regions of the country) to assess missed opportunities for…

  11. Scanning Electron Microscopic Evaluation of Smear Layer Removal Using Isolated or Interweaving EDTA with Sodium Hypochlorite

    PubMed Central

    da Silva Beraldo, Ângelo José; Silva, Rogério Vieira; da Gama Antunes, Alberto Nogueira; Silveira, Frank Ferreira; Nunes, Eduardo

    2017-01-01

    Introduction: The aim of this study was to verify the effect of alternating 2.5% sodium hypochlorite (NaOCl) and 17% ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA) on the smear layer removal from root canal surfaces. Methods and Materials: A total of 15 single-rooted human teeth, instrumented with ProTaper files, were randomly distributed in 3 groups. In group 1 (n=7) the canals were irrigated with 1 mL of 2.5% NaOCl between files and final irrigation was done with 1 mL of 2,5% NaOCl, followe by 1 mL of 17% EDTA, for a perio of 15 sec with new irrigtion of 1 mL of 2,5% NaOCl at each change of files. In group 3 (control group) (n=1), saline solution was used. All samples were cleaved into two sections, metalized and analyzed under scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The presence or absence of smear layer in the cervical, middle and apical thirds, with scores varying from 1 to 3, respectively were evaluated. The data were submitted to nonparametric Mann-Whitney U test. The level of significance was set at 0.05. Results: It was observed that there was a greater discrepancy between groups with respect to the apical third. In the other areas there was a greater similarity between the scores attributed to the groups. There was a statistically significant difference between the groups only in the apical third, when group 1 presented the higher median (P<0.05). Conclusion: The alternating use of EDTA during instrumentation with NaOCl was the most effective irrigation method to remove the apical smear layer. Both forms of irrigation were effective on removal of the smear layer in the coronal and middle thirds of the canals. PMID:28179925

  12. Effect of chitosan-ethylenediamine tetraacetic acid on Enterococcus faecalis dentinal biofilm and smear layer removal

    PubMed Central

    Geethapriya, Nagarajan; Subbiya, Arunajatesan; Padmavathy, Kesavaram; Mahalakshmi, Krishnan; Vivekanandan, Paramasivam; Sukumaran, Virudhachalam Ganapathy

    2016-01-01

    Objective: The objective of the study was to evaluate the effectiveness of chitosan and chitosan-ethylenediamine tetraacetic acid (EDTA) (3:1,1:1,1:3) in comparison with 5.2% sodium hypochlorite (NaOCl) in disinfecting Enterococcus faecalis biofilm on root canal dentin and in the removal of smear layer with minimal erosion. Materials and Methods: Seventy single-rooted extracted human mandibular premolars (n = 70) were selected for the study. Forty tooth samples were biomechanically prepared, vertically sectioned, and sterilized by autoclaving. The tooth sections were artificially infected with E. faecalis (ATCC 29212 [n = 35] and clinical isolate [SBEF2, n = 35]) to form mature dentinal biofilm in vitro. The tooth samples were treated with the test solutions: chitosan and chitosan-EDTA (3:1, 1:1, 1:3), and the killing time was determined. The smear layer removal ability of the test solutions (Group A: chitosan-EDTA [1:1], Group B: EDTA, Group C: control) (n = 10 tooth/group) was assessed. Results: Chitosan and chitosan-EDTA (3:1, 1:1, 1:3) exhibited antibacterial activity against both the strains of E. faecalis. Chitosan and chitosan-EDTA caused 3 log reduction in the viable count of the sessile cells of E. faecalis at 15 min while 5.2% NaOCl exhibited 99.98% inhibition at 15 min. Chitosan-EDTA (1:1) was found to be effective in removing the smear layer and showed lesser erosion than EDTA at the coronal and middle portions. Conclusion: Chitosan-EDTA (1:1) is a potential root canal irrigant that performs a dual role – root canal disinfection and smear layer removal. PMID:27656070

  13. High throughput imaging of blood smears using white light diffraction phase microscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Majeed, Hassaan; Kandel, Mikhail E.; Bhaduri, Basanta; Han, Kevin; Luo, Zelun; Tangella, Krishnarao; Popescu, Gabriel

    2015-03-01

    While automated blood cell counters have made great progress in detecting abnormalities in blood, the lack of specificity for a particular disease, limited information on single cell morphology and intrinsic uncertainly due to high throughput in these instruments often necessitates detailed inspection in the form of a peripheral blood smear. Such tests are relatively time consuming and frequently rely on medical professionals tally counting specific cell types. These assays rely on the contrast generated by chemical stains, with the signal intensity strongly related to staining and preparation techniques, frustrating machine learning algorithms that require consistent quantities to denote the features in question. Instead we opt to use quantitative phase imaging, understanding that the resulting image is entirely due to the structure (intrinsic contrast) rather than the complex interplay of stain and sample. We present here our first steps to automate peripheral blood smear scanning, in particular a method to generate the quantitative phase image of an entire blood smear at high throughput using white light diffraction phase microscopy (wDPM), a single shot and common path interferometric imaging technique.

  14. Detection and Segmentation of Erythrocytes in Blood Smear Images Using a Line Operator and Watershed Algorithm

    PubMed Central

    Khajehpour, Hassan; Dehnavi, Alireza Mehri; Taghizad, Hossein; Khajehpour, Esmat; Naeemabadi, Mohammadreza

    2013-01-01

    Most of the erythrocyte related diseases are detectable by hematology images analysis. At the first step of this analysis, segmentation and detection of blood cells are inevitable. In this study, a novel method using a line operator and watershed algorithm is rendered for erythrocyte detection and segmentation in blood smear images, as well as reducing over-segmentation in watershed algorithm that is useful for segmentation of different types of blood cells having partial overlap. This method uses gray scale structure of blood cell, which is obtained by exertion of Euclidian distance transform on binary images. Applying this transform, the gray intensity of cell images gradually reduces from the center of cells to their margins. For detecting this intensity variation structure, a line operator measuring gray level variations along several directional line segments is applied. Line segments have maximum and minimum gray level variations has a special pattern that is applicable for detections of the central regions of cells. Intersection of these regions with the signs which are obtained by calculating of local maxima in the watershed algorithm was applied for cells’ centers detection, as well as a reduction in over-segmentation of watershed algorithm. This method creates 1300 sign in segmentation of 1274 erythrocytes available in 25 blood smear images. Accuracy and sensitivity of the proposed method are equal to 95.9% and 97.99%, respectively. The results show the proposed method's capability in detection of erythrocytes in blood smear images. PMID:24672764

  15. Morphological evaluation of canine platelets on Giemsa- and PAS-stained blood smears.

    PubMed

    Halmay, Dóra; Sótonyi, P; Vajdovich, P; Gaál, T

    2005-01-01

    The morphology of canine platelets (changes in size, shape, staining characteristics, degree of activation and clump formation, distribution of granules, appearance of vacuoles on Giemsa-stained smears) was investigated in 20 healthy control and 181 diseased dogs. In the group of the sick dogs 84 animals suffered from disorders affecting directly the haematological parameters or the haematopoietic organs such as bleeding, thymic haemorrhage, haemolytic disorders, lymphoma, immune-mediated thrombocytopenia, and other 97 dogs were affected by other diseases (hepatopathy, nephropathy, hepatic, splenic or intestinal neoplasm, skin diseases, diabetes mellitus, Cushing's syndrome, sepsis). The alterations found in platelet morphology were not specific for any disorder. The most common platelet abnormalities were polychromasia and the presence of giant platelets. These changes occurred in a high number in disorders accompanied by bleeding or haemolysis. Anisocytosis was the most frequent finding in hepatic, splenic or intestinal neoplasms and in certain endocrinopathies. Microcytosis was observed in immune-mediated thrombocytopenia, hepatic neoplasms and endocrine disorders. Extreme platelet activation was common in haemolysis, hepatopathies, neoplastic diseases and sepsis. Vacuolisation was present in thymic haemorrhage, pancreatitis, diabetes mellitus and Cushing's syndrome. A new morphologic phenomenon, i.e. a ring-like formation of granules, was described in the cytoplasm of the platelets both in healthy and diseased animals. In addition, two forms of pathologic granulation were also described for the first time in Giemsa-stained blood smears: the pseudonuclear and the spot-like formation of granules, which were observed especially in disorders affecting the blood cells. The granulation and morphological characteristics of platelets on smears stained by periodic acid-Schiff reaction (PAS) were also studied. Three localisations of granulation were observed, such as

  16. Factors Associated with Self-Reported Repeat HIV Testing after a Negative Result in Durban, South Africa

    PubMed Central

    Regan, Susan; Losina, Elena; Chetty, Senica; Giddy, Janet; Walensky, Rochelle P.; Ross, Douglas; Holst, Helga; Katz, Jeffrey N.; Freedberg, Kenneth A.; Bassett, Ingrid V.

    2013-01-01

    Background Routine screening for HIV infection leads to early detection and treatment. We examined patient characteristics associated with repeated screening in a high prevalence country. Methods We analyzed data from a cohort of 5,229 adults presenting for rapid HIV testing in the outpatient departments of 2 South African hospitals from November 2006 to August 2010. Patients were eligible if they were ≥18 years, reported no previous diagnosis with HIV infection, and not pregnant. Before testing, participants completed a questionnaire including gender, age, HIV testing history, health status, and knowledge about HIV and acquaintances with HIV. Enrollment HIV test results and CD4 counts were abstracted from the medical record. We present prevalence of HIV infection and median CD4 counts by HIV testing history (first-time vs. repeat). We estimated adjusted relative risks (ARR’s) for repeat testing by demographics, health status, and knowledge of HIV and others with HIV in a generalized linear model. Results Of 4,877 participants with HIV test results available, 26% (N = 1258) were repeat testers. Repeat testers were less likely than first-time testers to be HIV-infected (34% vs. 54%, p<0.001). Median CD4 count was higher among repeat than first-time testers (201/uL vs. 147/uL, p<0.001). Among those HIV negative at enrollment (N = 2,499), repeat testing was more common among those with family or friends living with HIV (ARR 1.50, 95% CI: 1.33–1.68), women (ARR: 1.24, 95% CI: 1.11–1.40), and those self-reporting very good health (ARR: 1.28, 95% CI: 1.12–1.45). Conclusions In this high prevalence setting, repeat testing was common among those undergoing HIV screening, and was associated with female sex, lower prevalence of HIV infection, and higher CD4 counts at diagnosis. PMID:23626808

  17. [Carbapenemases in gram-negative bacteria. Current data and trends of resistance resulting from the work of national reference centres].

    PubMed

    Kaase, M

    2012-11-01

    The spread of carbapenemase-producing gram-negative bacteria is one of the major challenges of the present. Since 2009, the National Reference Laboratory for gram-negative nosocomial pathogens has observed the molecular epidemiology of carbapenemases in Germany. In 2011, 1,454 referred bacterial isolates were tested for the presence of carbapenemases. Carbapenemase was found in 34.4% of Enterobacteriaceae isolates, in 19.9% of Pseudomonas aeruginosa isolates and in 96.3% of Acinetobacter baumannii isolates. The most frequent carbapenemases in Enterobacteriaceae were OXA-48, KPC and VIM-1; in P. aeruginosa it was VIM-2 and in A. baumannii OXA-23.

  18. Comparison of the thick smear and Kato-Katz techniques for diagnosis of intestinal helminth infections.

    PubMed

    Santos, Fred Luciano Neves; Cerqueira, Elúzio José Lima; Soares, Neci Matos

    2005-01-01

    This study compared the efficiency of Kato-Katz thick smear and thick smear techniques for the diagnosis of intestinal helminths. The sensitivity of the thick smear technique was higher than that of the Kato-Katz method for the diagnosis of all helminths except Schistosoma mansoni.

  19. [Potential for the cytochemical study of CSF smears in the determination of neuroleukemia variants].

    PubMed

    Berliner, G B; Mendeleev, I M; Kheĭfets, L M; Polezhaev, Iu N; Gavrilova, S A

    1986-01-01

    The cytochemical test for PAS-positive material in CSF smears can be used for identification of leukemic cells of the lymphoid line. Qualitative smears were obtained from the CSF by the sedimentation method. Five patients were examined. A very suggestive case is described. The cytochemical studies of CSF smears help diagnose neuroleukemia and evaluate the treatment efficacy.

  20. Missed Opportunities for Health Education on Pap Smears in Peru

    PubMed Central

    Bayer, Angela M.; Nussbaum, Lauren; Cabrera, Lilia; Paz-Soldan, Valerie A.

    2013-01-01

    Despite cervical cancer being one of the leading causes of cancer-related deaths among women in Peru, cervical Pap smear coverage is low. This article uses findings from 185 direct clinician observations in four cities of Peru (representing the capital and each of the three main geographic regions of the country) to assess missed opportunities for health education on Pap smears and other preventive women’s health behaviors during women’s visits to a health care provider. Various types of health establishments, provider settings, and provider types were observed. Opportunities for patient education on the importance of prevention were rarely exploited. In fact, health education provided was minimal. Policy and programmatic implications are discussed. PMID:21464205

  1. Improvement via hypercubic smearing in triplet and sextet QCD

    SciTech Connect

    Shamir, Yigal; Svetitsky, Benjamin; Yurkovsky, Evgeny

    2011-05-01

    We study nonperturbative improvement in SU(3) lattice gauge theory coupled to fermions in the fundamental and two-index symmetric representations. Our lattice action is defined with hypercubic smeared links incorporated into the Wilson-clover fermion kernel. Using standard Schroedinger-functional techniques, we estimate the clover coefficient c{sub SW} and find that discretization errors are much smaller than in thin-link theories.

  2. Comparative analysis of endodontic smear layer removal efficacy of 17% ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid, 7% maleic acid, and 2% chlorhexidine using scanning electron microscope: An in vitro study

    PubMed Central

    Attur, Kailash; Joy, Mathew T.; Karim, Riyas; Anil Kumar, V. J.; Deepika, C.; Ahmed, Haseena

    2016-01-01

    Aim: The aim of the present study was to evaluate the efficiency of different endodontic irrigants in the removal of smear layer through scanning electron microscopic image analysis. Materials and Methods: The present in vitro study was carried out on 45 single-rooted extracted human mandibular premolar teeth with single canal and complete root formation. Teeth were randomly assigned to three groups with 15 teeth in each group. Group I samples were irrigated with 17% ethylenediaminetetraacetic (EDTA) irrigation, Group II with 7% maleic acid irrigation, and Group III with 2% chlorhexidine irrigation. Scanning electron microscope evaluation was done for the assessment of smear layer removal in the coronal, middle, and apical thirds. Comparison of the smear layer removal between the three different groups was done by Kruskal–Wallis test, followed by Mann–Whitney U test for comparing individual groups. A P value less than 0.05 was considered to be statistically significant. Results: Statistically significant difference was seen between the two test groups (17% EDTA vs. 7% maleic acid and 17% EDTA vs. 2% chlorhexidine) in smear layer removal at coronal, middle, and apical thirds of the root canal. The most efficient smear layer removal was seen in Group I with 17% EDTA irrigation compared with other groups (P < 0.05) and the least by 2% chlorhexidine. Conclusion: The present study shows that 17% EDTA efficiently removes the smear layer from root canal walls. PMID:27652250

  3. In vitro evaluation of smear layer removal by Er:YAG laser application with five different fiberoptic tip withdrawl techniques

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brugnera, Aldo, Jr.; Zanello Guerisoli, Danilo M.; Marchesan, Melissa A.; Emboava Spano, Julio C.; Djalma Pecora, Jesus

    2003-06-01

    This study evaluated smear layer removal in apical and middle root thirds using five different fiberoptic tip withdrawal techniques. Thirty human canines were instrumented using 2.5% sodium hypochlorite, with a final irrigation of distilled water, and divided randomly in 6 different groups. Er:YAG laser was applied in 5 groups with a 50/28 fiberoptic tip (250 mJ input, 112 mJ output, 10 Hz, 1 mm from apex) with distinct withdrawal techniques. Group 6 did not receive laser irradiation. Two pieces of each root canal (middle and apical thirds) were obtained under the SEM and analyzed for the amount of smear layer. Results showed statistical differences (p<0.05) between treatments and significant differences (p<0.01) between radicular thirds. It can be concluded that 1) all withdrawal techniques produced the same results on smear layer removal and 2) the middle third presented less smear layer t han the apical third after Er:YAG laser irradiation.

  4. Surface microflora of four smear-ripened cheeses.

    PubMed

    Mounier, Jérôme; Gelsomino, Roberto; Goerges, Stefanie; Vancanneyt, Marc; Vandemeulebroecke, Katrien; Hoste, Bart; Scherer, Siegfried; Swings, Jean; Fitzgerald, Gerald F; Cogan, Timothy M

    2005-11-01

    The microbial composition of smear-ripened cheeses is not very clear. A total of 194 bacterial isolates and 187 yeast isolates from the surfaces of four Irish farmhouse smear-ripened cheeses were identified at the midpoint of ripening using pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE), repetitive sequence-based PCR, and 16S rRNA gene sequencing for identifying and typing the bacteria and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy and mitochondrial DNA restriction fragment length polymorphism (mtDNA RFLP) analysis for identifying and typing the yeast. The yeast microflora was very uniform, and Debaryomyces hansenii was the dominant species in the four cheeses. Yarrowia lipolytica was also isolated in low numbers from one cheese. The bacteria were highly diverse, and 14 different species, Corynebacterium casei, Corynebacterium variabile, Arthrobacter arilaitensis, Arthrobacter sp., Microbacterium gubbeenense, Agrococcus sp. nov., Brevibacterium linens, Staphylococcus epidermidis, Staphylococcus equorum, Staphylococcus saprophyticus, Micrococcus luteus, Halomonas venusta, Vibrio sp., and Bacillus sp., were identified on the four cheeses. Each cheese had a more or less unique microflora with four to nine species on its surface. However, two bacteria, C. casei and A. arilaitensis, were found on each cheese. Diversity at the strain level was also observed, based on the different PFGE patterns and mtDNA RFLP profiles of the dominant bacterial and yeast species. None of the ripening cultures deliberately inoculated onto the surface were reisolated from the cheeses. This study confirms the importance of the adventitious, resident microflora in the ripening of smear cheeses.

  5. Analysis for Ca --> 0 of smearing during gravure printing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ceyhan, Umut; Morris, S. J. S.

    2015-11-01

    During gravure printing, excess liquid must be wiped from the substrate, but wiping itself also smears liquid from the engraved wells onto the substrate. Assuming the wiping blade and substrate to be orthonormal, Ceyhan & Morris (BAPS.2014.DFD.G10.1) treat the case in which the blade-liquid contact angle θ --> π / 2 . Streamlines are then everywhere quasiparallel, and the evolution equation for thin films describes the entire process. Comparing the solution of that equation for an emerging single well in plane flow with that for 3-dimensional flow, we found that smearing can be treated as a problem in plane flow. We now extend the analysis to cover the range 0 <= θ < π / 2 . Streamlines are no longer everywhere quasiparallel, and inner-and-outer analysis of an unsteady plane flow is required. Though the problem might appear intractable, it has two redeeming features: (a) the interface, in effect, pins first at the distal edge of a well and, then later, at its proximal edge; (b) except near the pinning points, the pressure is hydrostatic. Using these features, we show that smearing, including the formation of a local maximum in film thickness, can be understood by combining Euclid (geometry of the circle) with Reynolds (squeeze-film flow).

  6. Integrative deficits in depression and in negative mood states as a result of fronto-parietal network dysfunctions.

    PubMed

    Brzezicka, Aneta

    2013-01-01

    Depression is a disorder characterized not only by persistent negative mood, lack of motivation and a "ruminative" style of thinking, but also by specific deficits in cognitive functioning. These deficits are especially pronounced when integration of information is required. Previous research on linear syllogisms points to a clear pattern of cognitive disturbances present in people suffering from depressive disorders, as well as in people with elevated negative mood. Such disturbances are characterized by deficits in the integration of piecemeal information into coherent mental representations. In this review, I present evidence which suggests that the dysfunction of specific brain areas plays a crucial role in creating reasoning and information integration problems among people with depression and with heightened negative mood. As the increasingly prevalent systems neuroscience approach is spreading into the study of mental disorders, it is important to understand how and which brain networks are involved in creating certain symptoms of depression. Two large brain networks are of particular interest when considering depression: the default mode network (DMN) and the fronto-parietal (executive) network (FNP). The DMN network shows abnormally high activity in the depressed population, whereas FNP circuit activity is diminished. Disturbances within the FNP network seem to be strongly associated with cognitive problems in depression, especially those concerning executive functions. The dysfunctions within the fronto-parietal network are most probably connected to ineffective transmission of information between prefrontal and parietal regions, and also to an imbalance between FNP and DMN circuits. Inefficiency of this crucial circuits functioning may be a more general mechanism leading to problems with flexible cognition and executive functions, and could be the cause of more typical symptoms of depression like persistent rumination.

  7. [Investigation of human papillomavirus prevalence in women in Eskişehir, Turkey by Pap smear, hybrid capture 2 test and consensus real-time polymerase chain reaction and typing with pyrosequencing method].

    PubMed

    Aslan, Ferhat Gürkan; Us, Tercan; Kaşifoğlu, Nilgün; Özalp, Sabit Sinan; Akgün, Yurdanur; Öge, Tufan

    2016-01-01

    Human papillomavirus (HPV) infections have a broad range of clinical spectrum from subclinical or asymptomatic infection to anogenital carcinoma. The detection of HPV-DNA and determination of the risk groups in cervical cancer (CC) screening is very important because CC is considered to be a preventable illness which is the third most common cancer type of women in the world. The aims of this study were to investigate the presence of HPV-DNA in women by two different molecular methods and to compare their results together with the results of cytology, in Eskişehir, Central Anatolia, Turkey. A total of 1081 women aged between 30-65 years, who applied to Eskişehir Early Diagnosis, Screening and Training of Cancer Center (KETEM) for screening were included in the study. Three separate cervical samples were collected simultaneously from the participants for cytologic examination and molecular studies. In the first step of the study, all cervical samples were investigated for the presence of HPV-DNA by Hybrid Capture 2 (HC2; Qiagen, Germany) method. In the second part of the study, consensus real-time polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) (Takara Bio Inc., Japan) was performed in 152 samples which included HC2 positive and randomly selected negative samples, and then the HPV genotypes were detected by using a commercial kit based on pyrosequencing method (Diatech Pharmacogenetics S.R.L, Italy). In the first part of the study, HC2 test was found positive in 3% (32/1081) of the women, while in 4.4% (47/1081) Pap smear was positive alone or with HC2 test. Five (0.5%) samples yielded positive results with both of the methods, and four of them were positive for high risk HPV types. Cytology results were negative in 19 out of 23 (23/1081, 2.1%) samples that were reported as high risk HPV by HC2 test. On the other hand, 42 (42/1081, 3.9%) samples that were positive by cytology yielded negative results by HC2 test. In the second part of the study, 32 (21.1%) of 152 selected

  8. Loss of accuracy using smeared properties in composite beam modeling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Ning

    Advanced composite materials have broad, proven applications in many engineering systems ranging from sports equipment sectors to components on the space shuttle because of their lightweight characteristics and significantly high stiffness. Together with this merit of composite materials is the challenge of improving computational simulation process for composites analysis. Composite structures, particularly composite laminates, usually consist of many layers with different lay-up angles. The anisotropic and heterogeneous features render 3D finite element analysis (FEA) computationally expensive in terms of the computational time and the computing power. At the constituent level, composite materials are heterogeneous. But quite often one homogenizes each layer of composites, i.e. lamina, and uses the homogenized material properties as averaged (smeared) values of those constituent materials for analysis. This is an approach extensively used in design and analysis of composite laminates. Furthermore, many industries tempted to use smeared properties at the laminate level to further reduce the model of composite structures. At this scale, smeared properties are averaged material properties that are weighted by the layer thickness. Although this approach has the advantage of saving computational time and cost of modeling significantly, the prediction of the structural responses may not be accurate, particularly the pointwise stress distribution. Therefore, it is important to quantify the loss of accuracy when one uses smeared properties. In this paper, several different benchmark problems are carefully investigated in order to exemplify the effect of the smeared properties on the global behavior and pointwise stress distribution of the composite beam. In the classical beam theory, both Newtonian method and variational method include several ad hoc assumptions to construct the model, however, these assumptions are avoided if one uses variational asymptotic method. VABS

  9. Single step modified ink staining for Tzanck test: quick detection of herpetic giant cells in Tzanck smear.

    PubMed

    Mizutani, Hitoshi; Akeda, Tomoko; Yamanaka, Kei-Ichi; Isoda, Kenichi; Gabazza, Esteban C

    2012-02-01

    Tzanck test has been recently re-evaluated as a method for the diagnosis of herpes virus infection. Giemsa staining for the Tzanck test is time-consuming and laborious. There is a need to develop simple and quick staining methods for bedside diagnosis of this disease. We report a single step and quick method for staining herpes giant cells in Tzanck smears using routinely available inks and physiological saline. A keratinocyte cell line (HaCaT) was cultured on a slide glass and stained with various commercially available blue, blue-black and black inks serially diluted with physiological saline. Clinical smear samples from herpes lesions were also stained with these solutions without specific pretreatment. The nuclei of HaCaT were clearly stained showing high contrast with the cytoplasm using 5% Parker-Quink blue-black ink saline solution. Concentration of ink solution higher or lower than 5% resulted in less contrast. Blue or black inks or other manufacturers' inks can also be used, but staining of the cultured keratinocytes was less clear. Smear of clinical samples from herpes lesions were also stained with 5% ink solution. The nuclei of the multinucleated giant cells were clearly stained, and the sample could be immediately used for microscopic examination. One step staining of Tzanck smear using this diluted ink solution is an inexpensive and a convenient bedside diagnostic tool for the dermatologist.

  10. Women's Understanding of the Term 'Pap smear': A Comparison of Spanish-Speaking Versus English-Speaking Women.

    PubMed

    Howard, David L; Soulli, Beth; Johnson, Nicole; Cooper, Saladin

    2016-11-01

    Objective To compare the understanding of the term 'Pap smear' among Spanish-speaking women, as compared to their English-speaking counterparts. Methods Surveys were distributed to English and Spanish speaking female patients in an urban Obstetrics and Gynecology clinic. Patients were at least 18 years old or they were less than 18 years old and pregnant. Results A majority of participants (77.3 % English-speaking vs. 74.1 % Spanish-speaking, respectively) were able to identify at least one correct descriptor for the term Pap smear. However, Spanish-speaking women were significantly less likely to choose incorrect descriptors. Spanish-speaking women were much less likely to say that a Pap smear was the same as a Pelvic exam (45.7 vs. 78.8 %; p = 0.001), or a test for a sexually transmitted disease (25 vs. 60.6 %; p = 0.001). Conclusions for Practice Compared to English-speaking women, Spanish-speaking women are much less likely to conflate a pelvic exam with a Pap smear. Overall understanding was suboptimal, regardless of primary language, indicating that major efforts are still needed to improve functional health literacy with respect to cervical cancer screening.

  11. Cervical cancer and pap smear awareness and utilization of pap smear test among Federal civil servants in North Central Nigeria.

    PubMed

    Hyacinth, Hyacinth I; Adekeye, Oluwatoyosi A; Ibeh, Joy N; Osoba, Tolulope

    2012-01-01

    Cervical cancer is a leading cause of cancer death in women in developing countries. A key factor linked to the relatively high levels of cervical cancer in these populations is the lack of awareness and access to preventive methods. This study aimed to determine the level of awareness of cervical cancer and Papanicolaou test (Pap smear test) and factors associated with the utilization of Pap test among female civil servants in Jos. Data was obtained from female workers (n = 388) aged 18-65 years in a Nigerian Federal establishment. Participants were randomly approached and instructed to complete validated questionnaires. Data was analyzed using Chi-square, t-tests and logistic regression analysis to determine if there was an association between variables and identify any predictors of awareness and utilization of the Pap test. Cervical cancer and Pap smear test awareness was 50.9% and 38.6% respectively, with the media as the major source of information. Pap smear test utilization rate was 10.2%, with routine antenatal care (ANC) as the major reason for getting screened. Personal barriers to screening include the lack of awareness, and belief that cervical cancer is not preventable. Opportunistic screening, mass media campaigns and ANC education were suggested as ways of improving awareness and utilization of cervical cancer screening services.

  12. Cervical Cancer and Pap Smear Awareness and Utilization of Pap Smear Test among Federal Civil Servants in North Central Nigeria

    PubMed Central

    Hyacinth, Hyacinth I.; Adekeye, Oluwatoyosi A.; Ibeh, Joy N.; Osoba, Tolulope

    2012-01-01

    Cervical cancer is a leading cause of cancer death in women in developing countries. A key factor linked to the relatively high levels of cervical cancer in these populations is the lack of awareness and access to preventive methods. This study aimed to determine the level of awareness of cervical cancer and Papanicolaou test (Pap smear test) and factors associated with the utilization of Pap test among female civil servants in Jos. Data was obtained from female workers (n = 388) aged 18–65 years in a Nigerian Federal establishment. Participants were randomly approached and instructed to complete validated questionnaires. Data was analyzed using Chi-square, t-tests and logistic regression analysis to determine if there was an association between variables and identify any predictors of awareness and utilization of the Pap test. Cervical cancer and Pap smear test awareness was 50.9% and 38.6% respectively, with the media as the major source of information. Pap smear test utilization rate was 10.2%, with routine antenatal care (ANC) as the major reason for getting screened. Personal barriers to screening include the lack of awareness, and belief that cervical cancer is not preventable. Opportunistic screening, mass media campaigns and ANC education were suggested as ways of improving awareness and utilization of cervical cancer screening services. PMID:23049708

  13. Can We Reduce Negative Blood Cultures With Clinical Scores and Blood Markers? Results From an Observational Cohort Study

    PubMed Central

    Laukemann, Svenja; Kasper, Nina; Kulkarni, Prasad; Steiner, Deborah; Rast, Anna Christina; Kutz, Alexander; Felder, Susan; Haubitz, Sebastian; Faessler, Lukas; Huber, Andreas; Fux, Christoph A.; Mueller, Beat; Schuetz, Philipp

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Only a small proportion of blood cultures routinely performed in emergency department (ED) patients is positive. Multiple clinical scores and biomarkers have previously been examined for their ability to predict bacteremia. Conclusive clinical validation of these scores and biomarkers is essential. This observational cohort study included patients with suspected infection who had blood culture sampling at ED admission. We assessed 5 clinical scores and admission concentrations of procalcitonin (PCT), C-reactive protein (CRP), lymphocyte and white blood cell counts, the neutrophil-lymphocyte count ratio (NLCR), and the red blood cell distribution width (RDW). Two independent physicians assessed true blood culture positivity. We used logistic regression models with area under the curve (AUC) analysis. Of 1083 patients, 104 (9.6%) had positive blood cultures. Of the clinical scores, the Shapiro score performed best (AUC 0.729). The best biomarkers were PCT (AUC 0.803) and NLCR (AUC 0.700). Combining the Shapiro score with PCT levels significantly increased the AUC to 0.827. Limiting blood cultures only to patients with either a Shapiro score of ≥4 or PCT > 0.1 μg/L would reduce negative sampling by 20.2% while still identifying 100% of positive cultures. Similarly, a Shapiro score ≥3 or PCT >0.25 μg/L would reduce cultures by 41.7% and still identify 96.1% of positive blood cultures. Combination of the Shapiro score with admission levels of PCT can help reduce unnecessary blood cultures with minimal false negative rates. The study was registered on January 9, 2013 at the ‘ClinicalTrials.gov’ registration web site (NCT01768494). PMID:26656373

  14. Can We Reduce Negative Blood Cultures With Clinical Scores and Blood Markers? Results From an Observational Cohort Study.

    PubMed

    Laukemann, Svenja; Kasper, Nina; Kulkarni, Prasad; Steiner, Deborah; Rast, Anna Christina; Kutz, Alexander; Felder, Susan; Haubitz, Sebastian; Faessler, Lukas; Huber, Andreas; Fux, Christoph A; Mueller, Beat; Schuetz, Philipp

    2015-12-01

    Only a small proportion of blood cultures routinely performed in emergency department (ED) patients is positive. Multiple clinical scores and biomarkers have previously been examined for their ability to predict bacteremia. Conclusive clinical validation of these scores and biomarkers is essential.This observational cohort study included patients with suspected infection who had blood culture sampling at ED admission. We assessed 5 clinical scores and admission concentrations of procalcitonin (PCT), C-reactive protein (CRP), lymphocyte and white blood cell counts, the neutrophil-lymphocyte count ratio (NLCR), and the red blood cell distribution width (RDW). Two independent physicians assessed true blood culture positivity. We used logistic regression models with area under the curve (AUC) analysis.Of 1083 patients, 104 (9.6%) had positive blood cultures. Of the clinical scores, the Shapiro score performed best (AUC 0.729). The best biomarkers were PCT (AUC 0.803) and NLCR (AUC 0.700). Combining the Shapiro score with PCT levels significantly increased the AUC to 0.827. Limiting blood cultures only to patients with either a Shapiro score of ≥4 or PCT > 0.1 μg/L would reduce negative sampling by 20.2% while still identifying 100% of positive cultures. Similarly, a Shapiro score ≥3 or PCT >0.25 μg/L would reduce cultures by 41.7% and still identify 96.1% of positive blood cultures.Combination of the Shapiro score with admission levels of PCT can help reduce unnecessary blood cultures with minimal false negative rates.The study was registered on January 9, 2013 at the 'ClinicalTrials.gov' registration web site (NCT01768494).

  15. Warm Autoimmune Hemolytic Anemia and Direct Antiglobulin Testing With a False-Negative Result in a 53-Year-Old Man: The DAT Will Set You Free.

    PubMed

    Losos, Michael; Hamad, Diane; Joshi, Sarita; Scrape, Scott; Chen, Jian

    2016-08-01

    Warm autoimmune hemolytic anemia (WAIHA), the most common of the relatively uncommon autoimmune-mediated hemolytic anemias (AIHAs), is mediated by polyclonal immunoglobulin (Ig)G autoantibodies in most cases. Herein, we present a case of WAIHA involving a direct antiglobulin test (DAT) with an initially negative result. Using a modified DAT protocol, repeat testing of the same specimen material from a previously healthy 53-year-old man yielded positive results. This case demonstrates that investigation of an apparently negative DAT result plays a critical role in the differential diagnosis of patients with rapidly progressing hemolytic anemia and the reversal of that decline.

  16. Significance of Theileria orientalis types in individual affected beef herds in New South Wales based on clinical, smear and PCR findings.

    PubMed

    Eamens, Graeme J; Bailey, Graham; Jenkins, Cheryl; Gonsalves, Jocelyn R

    2013-09-01

    Cattle within seven NSW herds with a history or risk of clinical Theileria orientalis disease associated with introductions of cattle were examined clinically and by haematological and PCR testing at sequential bleeds or at single sampling of different risk subgroups. The T. orientalis Ikeda type was detected in all herds and Chitose type was detected in six. Pale and jaundiced mucosal surfaces were associated with clinically affected groups of cattle, and herds containing cattle with ≥ 1% theilerias in erythrocytes were associated with high prevalence of Ikeda type, with or without Chitose type. In clinically normal cattle within these Ikeda-affected herds, over half of the smear negative animals were detected as infected with Ikeda type, while 90% of smear positive cases were positive for Ikeda type. Infection with Ikeda and Chitose organisms was detected in calves as young as 1-2 weeks, rapidly increased in prevalence within one month and was maintained until 4.5 months of age. In these calves Ikeda prevalence increased at a faster rate than the other MPSP types, particularly Buffeli which is generally considered to be avirulent, and suggests either an increased growth rate or rate of transmission of the Ikeda type or failure of the host immune system to clear this type. Particularly high T. orientalis prevalence rates were detected (in blood samples from a single time point) in adults that had been in direct contact with weaner cattle introduced from coastal areas; however, the lack of direct contact with affected cattle did not prevent infection with Ikeda type in some cases. Spread within previously naïve herds was variable, and results also depended on the sampling time point. In contrast, groups in which infection was already established gave repeatedly similar results at multiple samplings taken at one month intervals. Our results confirm that a large reservoir of infected but clinically normal animals exists within T. orientalis-affected cattle herds

  17. Probing the smearing effect by a pointlike graviton in the plane-wave matrix model

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, Bum-Hoon; Nam, Siyoung; Shin, Hyeonjoon

    2010-08-15

    We investigate the interaction between a flat membrane and pointlike graviton in the plane-wave matrix model. The one-loop effective potential in the large-distance limit is computed and is shown to be of r{sup -3} type where r is the distance between two objects. This type of interaction has been interpreted as the one incorporating the smearing effect due to the configuration of a flat membrane in a plane-wave background. Our results support this interpretation and provide more evidence about it.

  18. [Determination of Leishmania species by PCR-RFLP in the smear samples taken from the lesions of cutaneous leishmaniasis cases].

    PubMed

    Ertabaklar, Hatice; Ertuğ, Sema; Çalışkan, Serçin Özlem; Bozdoğan, Bülent

    2016-04-01

    The forms of the disease caused by Leishmania species in Turkey as well as in Aegean region are cutaneous and visceral leishmaniasis (CL and VL, respectively), and the agent of CL is commonly L.tropica. However, L.infantum was also reported as being CL agent recently. Direct microscopic examination, serological tests and culture are the conventional methods used for the diagnosis of CL. Since the specificities of these methods are high their sensitivities are variable and identification at species level is not possible. Recently, the use of polymerase chain reaction (PCR)-based molecular methods enabled the rapid and reliable diagnosis and species identification. The aim of this study was to investigate the performance of PCR-restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) method both for the detection and identification of Leishmania species simultaneously in CL patients. A total of 30 smear samples that were positive for Leishmania amastigotes with microscopic examination, obtained from CL-suspected cases admitted to Adnan Menderes University Medical School Hospital, Parasitology Laboratory (located at Aydin, in the Aegean region of Turkey) between 2012-2014 period were included in the study. Ten samples taken from the skin lesions caused by Staphylococcus aureus (n= 5) and Candida albicans (n= 5) were also included as negative controls. DNA extractions from the smears were performed by the use of a commercial kit (Macherey-Nagel NucleoSpin Tissue® Kit, Germany). DNA isolation was also performed from L.major, L.infantum and L.tropica promastigotes that were grown in culture as positive controls. In PCR method LITSR and L5.8S primers targeting to ITS (internal transcribed spacer)-1 region were used. In RFLP method, the amplified PCR products were cleaved by BsuRI (HaeIII) restriction enzyme for the species identification. As a result, restriction profiles of all samples (n= 30) were in accordance with L.tropica restriction profile. No band was observed in the

  19. Evaluation of the effects of two novel irrigants on intraradicular dentine erosion, debris and smear layer removal

    PubMed Central

    Görduysus, Melahat; Bayramgil, Nursel Pekel; Görduysus, Mehmet Ömer

    2015-01-01

    Objectives To evaluate the effects of copolymer of acrylic acid and maleic acid (Poly[AA-co-MA]) and calcium hypochlorite (Ca(OCl)2) on root canal dentin using scanning electron microscope (SEM). Materials and Methods Twenty-four single-rooted teeth were instrumented and the apical and coronal thirds of each root were removed, leaving the 5 mm middle thirds, which were then separated into two pieces longitudinally. The specimens were randomly divided into six groups and subjected to each irrigant for 5 min as follows: G1, Ca(OCl)2; G2, Poly(AA-co-MA); G3, Ca(OCl)2 + Poly(AA-co-MA); G4, sodium hypochlorite (NaOCl); G5, ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA); G6, NaOCl+EDTA. The specimens were prepared for SEM evaluation. Smear layer, debris and erosion scores were recorded by two blinded examiners. One image from G3 was analyzed with energy dispersive spectroscopy (EDS) on suspicion of precipitate formation. Data were analyzed using the Kruskal-Wallis and Dunn tests. Results G1 and G4 showed the presence of debris and smear layer and they were statistically different from G2, G3, G5 and G6 where debris and smear layer were totally removed (p < 0.05). In G1 and G4, erosion evaluation could not be done because of debris and smear layer. G2, G3 and G5 showed no erosion, and there was no significant difference between them. G6 showed severe erosion and was statistically different from G2, G3 and G5 (p < 0.05). EDS microanalysis showed the presence of Na, P, and Ca elements on the surface. Conclusions Poly(AA-co-MA) is effective in removing the smear layer and debris without causing erosion either alone or with Ca(OCl)2. PMID:26295025

  20. From undefined red smear cheese consortia to minimal model communities both exhibiting similar anti-listerial activity on a cheese-like matrix.

    PubMed

    Imran, M; Desmasures, N; Vernoux, J-P

    2010-12-01

    Starting from one undefined cheese smear consortium exhibiting anti-listerial activity (signal) at 15 °C, 50 yeasts and 39 bacteria were identified by partial rDNA sequencing. Construction of microbial communities was done either by addition or by erosion approach with the aim to obtain minimal communities having similar signal to that of the initial smear. The signal of these microbial communities was monitored in cheese microcosm for 14 days under ripening conditions. In the addition scheme, strains having significant signals were mixed step by step. Five-member communities, obtained by addition of a Gram negative bacterium to two yeasts and two Gram positive bacteria, enhanced the signal dramatically contrary to six-member communities including two Gram negative bacteria. In the erosion approach, a progressive reduction of 89 initial strains was performed. While intermediate communities (89, 44 and 22 members) exhibited a lower signal than initial smear consortium, eleven- and six-member communities gave a signal almost as efficient. It was noteworthy that the final minimal model communities obtained by erosion and addition approaches both had anti-listerial activity while consisting of different strains. In conclusion, some minimal model communities can have higher anti-listerial effectiveness than individual strains or the initial 89 micro-organisms from smear. Thus, microbial interactions are involved in the production and modulation of anti-listerial signals in cheese surface communities.

  1. Polymerase chain reaction-assisted papillomavirus detection in cervicovaginal smears: stratification by clinical risk and cytology reports.

    PubMed

    Kühler-Obbarius, C; Milde-Langosch, K; Helling-Giese, G; Salfelder, A; Peimann, C; Löning, T

    1994-01-01

    Seven hundred and twelve patients from cancer screening, pregnancy care, outpatient clinics for patients at risk for cervical dysplasia and human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection were tested simultaneously for cytological aberrations and human papillomavirus (HPV). Classification of these cases, and of all cytology records throughout 1991 and 1992 was performed according to the "Münchner Nomenklatur" and the Bethesda classification. HPV-directed polymerase chain reaction analysis was carried out with general primers, patients at risk for cervical dysplasia were tested by subsequent hybridization with HPV 16 and 18 probes. Patients from cancer screening and pregnancy care showed similar HPV prevalences ranging between 19.4%-24.6%. In contrast, patients from dysplasia and HIV units were infected in 56.2%-62.3% and 75.0%-76.9% respectively in centre of disease control stage III-IV, HPV detection rates in patients from dysplasia and HIV units increased gradually from 40.1%-52.9% in non-suspicious smears to 80.8%-100% in atypical smears. High risk HPV 16 and 18 infections were detected in 64% of smears with cytological evidence of HPV infection (koilocytosis) to 84.2% in severe dysplasia. Following the Bethesda guidelines, 2.9%-14.7% of all smears initially reported as Pap 2 K (suggestive of HPV infection) would be qualified as risk lesions (low grade squamous intraepithelial lesions), although they tested HPV negative in more than a third of cases. Thus, when using the Bethesda system, HPV analysis is needed to prevent overclassification and overtreatment. The "Münchner Nomenklatur" avoids this dilemma by not mixing morphological statements on infection, atypia and cancer risk.

  2. Active Tuberculosis Case Finding in Port-au-Prince, Haiti: Experiences, Results, and Implications for Tuberculosis Control Programs

    PubMed Central

    Delva, Guesly J.; Fort, Dumesle St.

    2016-01-01

    Background. Haiti has the highest tuberculosis (TB) prevalence in the Americas with 254 cases per 100,000 persons. Case detection relies on passive detection and TB services in many regions suffer from poor diagnostic and clinical resources. Methods. Mache Chache (“Go and Seek”) was a TB REACH Wave 3 funded TB case finding project in Port-au-Prince between July 2013 and September 2014, targeting four intervention areas with insufficient TB diagnostic performance. Results. Based on a verbal symptom screen emphasizing the presence of cough, the project identified 11,150 (11.75%) of all screened persons as TB subjects and 2.67% as smear-positive (SS+) TB cases. Enhanced case finding and strengthening of laboratory services led to a 59% increase in bacteriologically confirmed cases in the evaluation population. In addition, smear grades dropped significantly, suggesting earlier case detection. Xpert® MTB/RIF was successfully introduced and improved TB diagnosis in HIV-infected, smear-negative clinic patients, but not in HIV-negative, smear-negative TB suspects in the community. However, the number needed to screen for one additional SS+ case varied widely between clinic and community screening activities. Conclusion. Enhanced and active TB case finding in Haiti can improve TB diagnosis and care. However, screening algorithms have to be tailored to individual settings, necessitating long-term commitment. PMID:27668093

  3. Documentation and treatment outcomes of smear-negative and extra-pulmonary tuberculosis in Ethiopia.

    PubMed

    Tesgaye, F; Defar, A; Beyene, T; Shafi, O; Klinkenberg, E; Howe, R

    2014-12-21

    Cadre : La tuberculose (TB) extra-pulmonaire et la TB à frottis négatif constituent deux tiers des cas déclarés en Ethiopie, mais les rapports de routine ne précisent pas les résultats du traitement ni les facteurs sous-jacents associés.Objectif : Evaluer les résultats du traitement et les facteurs de risque associés à la TB extra-pulmonaire et à frottis négatif par comparaison avec les cas à frottis positif.Schéma : Revue des dossiers de tous les cas enregistrés dans 14 structures de santé publiques et privées sélectionnées au hasard à Addis Abeba pendant une période d'une année.Résultats : Les proportions de TB à frottis négatif et extra-pulmonaire étaient indépendantes du statut à l'égard du virus de l'immunodéficience humaine (VIH) et n'étaient pas distribuées de façon égale dans les différentes structures. La TB extra-pulmonaire était surreprésentée dans le secteur privé et la TB à frottis négatif se trouvait plutôt dans les centres de santé que dans les hôpitaux. Les résultats rapportés par les centres de santé étaient plus favorables que ceux des hôpitaux ; aucune différence n'a été observée entre les structures publiques et privées. Seulement 54% des dossiers de TB étaient complets ; il y avait une corrélation entre le manque d'informations et des résultats défavorables. Un âge plus jeune était associé à un résultat favorable, mais le sexe et le statut VIH ne l'étaient pas.Conclusion : La distribution inégale de la TB à frottis négatif et extra-pulmonaire dans les différentes institutions justifie une nouvelle étude et pourrait révéler d'importantes perspectives en matière de diagnostic et de soins de ces patients. Le caractère incomplet des dossiers des patients tuberculeux pourrait être un facteur sous-estimé contribuant aux résultats défavorables.

  4. Mechanisms of clay smear formation in 3D - a field study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kettermann, Michael; Tronberens, Sebastian; Urai, Janos; Asmus, Sven

    2016-04-01

    Clay smears in sedimentary basins are important factors defining the sealing properties of faults. However, as clay smears are highly complex 3D structures, processes involved in the formation and deformation of clay smears are not well identified and understood. To enhance the prediction of sealing properties of clay smears extensive studies of these structures are necessary including the 3D information. We present extraordinary outcrop data from an open cast lignite mine (Hambach) in the Lower Rhine Embayment, Germany. The faults formed at a depth of 150 m, and have Shale Gouge Ratios between 0.1 and 0.3. Material in the fault zones is layered, with sheared sand, sheared clay and tectonically mixed sand-clay gouge. We studied the 3D thickness distribution of clay smear from a series of thin-spaced incremental cross-sections and several cross-sections in larger distances along the fault. Additionally, we excavated two large clay smear surfaces. Our observations show that clay smears are strongly affected by R- and R'-shears, mostly at the footwall side of our outcrops. These shears can locally cross and offset clay smears, forming holes. Thinnest parts of the clay smears are often located close to source layer cutoffs. Investigating the 3D thickness of the clay smears shows a heterogeneous distribution, rather than a continuous thinning of the smear with increasing distance to the source layers. We found two types of layered clay smears: one with continuous sheared sand between two clay smears providing vertical pathways for fluid flow, and one which consists of overlapping clay patches separated by sheared sand that provide a tortuous pathway across the clay smear. On smaller scale we identified grain-scale mixing as an important process for the formation of clay smears. Sand can be entrained into the clay smear by mixing from the surrounding host rock as well as due to intense shearing of sand lenses that were incorporated into the smear. This causes clay smears

  5. Dimethoate affects cholinesterases in Folsomia candida and their locomotion--false negative results of an avoidance behaviour test.

    PubMed

    Pereira, Cecília M S; Novais, Sara C; Soares, Amadeu M V M; Amorim, Mónica J B

    2013-01-15

    The main mode of action of organophosphate insecticides is to inhibit acetylcholinesterase (AChE), which causes neuromuscular paralysis leading ultimately to death. The collembolan Folsomia candida is an important and standard test species in ecotoxicology, where effects on avoidance behaviour are assessed. Being related to insects they represent potential targets of insecticides such as the organophosphate dimethoate. In the present study we exposed F. candida to dimethoate having 2 main aims: 1) to assess the ability of F. candida to avoid it, and 2) to assess its effect on the cholinergic synapses to explore the link. For the latter, several sub-steps were needed: a) to characterise the existing ChE types and b) assess ChE activity (via exposure in vitro and in vivo). No avoidance was observed within the tested concentration range (0-0.32-1-3.2-10-32 mg/kg), in fact an apparent "attraction" (more animals on the spiked side) was observed. As expected, there was a significant decrease of AChE activities (AChE being the main ChE type) with an increase of dimethoate dose (IC(50)=1.4 mg/kg). Further, post-exposure video records showed that organisms were still alive in the spiked soil but lacked the locomotion ability (immobilised). The AChE inhibition correlated positively with immobilisation. Hence, this observation also showed that the apparent "attraction" behaviour observed in the avoidance test is rather a direct effect of not being able to escape due to paralysis hence a false-negative avoidance. This can constitute a confounding factor in an avoidance behaviour test and consequent interpretation, which is not accounted for at present.

  6. An evaluation of blood smears made by a new method using a spinner and diluted blood.

    PubMed

    Nourbakhsh, M; Atwood, J G; Raccio, J; Seligson, D

    1978-12-01

    Blood smears were prepared with the use of a spinner, which rotated with a fixed velocity for a fixed time. All blood samples used for spun smears were diluted with a fixed ratio of buffered isotonic saline solution. Distribution of cells in these smears was found to be random. The average number of cells per unit area was substantially uniform from place to place on the same slide and on multiple slides made with the smae sample. The distribution of leukocytes by type was also iniform. For different blood samples, the average number of cells per unit area in the smears correlated well with the measured cell concentrations per unit volume in the samples for leukocytes, erythrocytes and platelets. Leukocyte differential counts on replicate spun smears using the same bloods also agreed to within the sampling error. They similarly agreed with differential counts on pulled smears made from undiluted samples of the same bloods. With few exceptions, erythrocytic morphology on the spun smears was comparable to that on the good areas of pulled smears made with undiluted samples of the same bloods. Nearly all the spun smears were suitable for both viual and fully automated hematologic examination for leukocytes, erythrocytes, and platelets. This was true over nearly the whole area of each spun slide. In these ways this spinner method makes smears whose consistently high quality is little affected by either the properties of the blood sample or the skill of maker.

  7. Refractive index matching applied to fecal smear clearing.

    PubMed

    Ferreira, Claúdio S

    2005-01-01

    Thick smears of human feces can be made adequate for identification of helminth eggs by means of refractive index matching. Although this effect can be obtained by simply spreading a fleck of feces on a microscope slide, a glycerol solution has been routinely used to this end. Aiming at practicability, a new quantitative technique has been developed. To enhance both sharpness and contrast of the images, a sucrose solution (refractive index = 1.49) is used, which reduces the effect of light-scattering particulates. To each slide a template-measured (38.5 mm3) fecal sample is transferred. Thus, egg counts and sensitivity evaluations are easily made.

  8. Treatment outcome of new smear positive pulmonary tuberculosis patients in Penang, Malaysia

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background According to the World Health Organization’s recent report, in Malaysia, tuberculosis (TB) treatment success rate for new smear positive pulmonary tuberculosis (PTB) patients is still below the global success target of 85%. In this study, we evaluated TB treatment outcome among new smear positive PTB patients, and identified the predictors of unsuccessful treatment outcome and longer duration of treatment (i.e., > 6 months). Methods The population in this study consisted of all new smear positive PTB patients who were diagnosed at the chest clinic of Penang General Hospital between March 2010 and February 2011. During the study period, a standardized data collection form was used to obtain socio-demographic, clinical and treatment related data of the patients from their medical charts and TB notification forms (Tuberculosis Information System; TBIS). These data sources were reviewed at the time of the diagnosis of the patients and then at the subsequent follow-up visits until their final treatment outcomes were available. The treatment outcomes of the patients were reported in line with six outcome categories recommended by World Health Organization. Multiple logistic regression analysis was used to find the independent risk factors for unsuccessful treatment outcome and longer treatment duration. Data were analyzed using the PASW (Predictive Analysis SoftWare, version 19.0. Armonk, NY: IBM Corp). Results Among the 336 PTB patients (236 male and 100 female) notified during the study period, the treatment success rate was 67.26% (n = 226). Out of 110 patients in unsuccessful outcome category, 30 defaulted from the treatment, 59 died and 21 were transferred to other health care facilities. The mean duration of TB treatment was 8.19 (SD 1.65) months. In multiple logistic regression analysis, risk factors for unsuccessful treatment outcome were foreign nationality, male gender and being illiterate. Similarly, risk factors for mortality due to TB

  9. Commercial ripening starter microorganisms inoculated into cheese milk do not successfully establish themselves in the resident microbial ripening consortia of a South german red smear cheese.

    PubMed

    Goerges, Stefanie; Mounier, Jérôme; Rea, Mary C; Gelsomino, Roberto; Heise, Valeska; Beduhn, Rüdiger; Cogan, Timothy M; Vancanneyt, Marc; Scherer, Siegfried

    2008-04-01

    Production of smear-ripened cheese critically depends on the surface growth of multispecies microbial consortia comprising bacteria and yeasts. These microorganisms often originate from the cheese-making facility and, over many years, have developed into rather stable, dairy-specific associations. While commercial smear starters are frequently used, it is unclear to what degree these are able to establish successfully within the resident microbial consortia. Thus, the fate of the smear starters of a German Limburger cheese subjected to the "old-young" smearing technique was investigated during ripening. The cheese milk was supplemented with a commercial smear starter culture containing Debaryomyces hansenii, Galactomyces geotrichum, Arthrobacter arilaitensis, and Brevibacterium aurantiacum. Additionally, the cheese surface was inoculated with an extremely stable in-house microbial consortium. A total of 1,114 yeast and 1,201 bacterial isolates were identified and differentiated by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy. Furthermore, mitochondrial DNA restriction fragment length polymorphism, random amplified polymorphic DNA, repetitive PCR, and pulsed field gel electrophoresis analyses were used to type selected isolates below the species level. The D. hansenii starter strain was primarily found early in the ripening process. The G. geotrichum starter strain in particular established itself after relocation to a new ripening room. Otherwise, it occurred at low frequencies. The bacterial smear starters could not be reisolated from the cheese surface at all. It is concluded that none of the smear starter strains were able to compete significantly and in a stable fashion against the resident microbial consortia, a result which might have been linked to the method of application. This finding raises the issue of whether addition of starter microorganisms during production of this type of cheese is actually necessary.

  10. Prognostic value of HPV E6/E7 mRNA assay in women with negative colposcopy or CIN1 histology result: a follow-up study.

    PubMed

    Giorgi Rossi, Paolo; Benevolo, Maria; Vocaturo, Amina; Caraceni, Donatella; Ciccocioppo, Lucia; Frega, Antonio; Terrenato, Irene; Zappacosta, Roberta; French, Deborah; Rosini, Sandra

    2013-01-01

    Pap test, and especially HPV DNA test, identify a large group of women who do not have any clinically relevant lesions, i.e., CIN2+ (Cervical Intraepithelial Neoplasia grade 2 or worse), but who are at greater risk of getting lesions in the future. The follow up of these women needs new biomarkers with prognostic value. The objective of this study is to evaluate the prognostic value of E6/E7 mRNA over-expression assay (PreTect HPV-Proofer, Norchip) for 5 HR-HPV types (16, 18, 31, 33, and 45) for progression to CIN2+ after a negative colposcopy. This prospective study, conducted at four Italian centres, enrolled 673 women with either a negative colposcopy or a negative or CIN1 histology. The clinical end-point was histological confirmation of CIN2+. Women were classified at baseline according to mRNA results and managed according to local colposcopy protocols. At least one conclusive follow-up test was obtained for 347 women (25 months average lapse since recruitment, range 5-74). Only seven CIN2+ were detected during follow up, three among the 82 women positive for mRNA at baseline, two among the 250 negative (Fisher exact test, p = 0.02), and two among the 12 with an invalid test. Absolute CIN2+ risk was 6.7/1,000 person/years in the whole cohort. The absolute CIN2+ risk was 18.4/1,000 person/years and 3.6/1,000 person/years in mRNA-positive and mRNA-negative women, respectively. In conclusion, E6/E7 mRNA over-expression appears to be a good candidate as a prognostic biomarker to manage HR-HPV DNA-positive women with negative colposcopy or histology, particularly in order to decrease follow-up intensity in those who are negative.

  11. Prognostic Value of HPV E6/E7 mRNA Assay in Women with Negative Colposcopy or CIN1 Histology Result: A Follow-Up Study

    PubMed Central

    Giorgi Rossi, Paolo; Benevolo, Maria; Vocaturo, Amina; Caraceni, Donatella; Ciccocioppo, Lucia; Frega, Antonio; Terrenato, Irene; Zappacosta, Roberta

    2013-01-01

    Pap test, and especially HPV DNA test, identify a large group of women who do not have any clinically relevant lesions, i.e., CIN2+ (Cervical Intraepithelial Neoplasia grade 2 or worse), but who are at greater risk of getting lesions in the future. The follow up of these women needs new biomarkers with prognostic value. The objective of this study is to evaluate the prognostic value of E6/E7 mRNA over-expression assay (PreTect HPV-Proofer, Norchip) for 5 HR-HPV types (16, 18, 31, 33, and 45) for progression to CIN2+ after a negative colposcopy. This prospective study, conducted at four Italian centres, enrolled 673 women with either a negative colposcopy or a negative or CIN1 histology. The clinical end-point was histological confirmation of CIN2+. Women were classified at baseline according to mRNA results and managed according to local colposcopy protocols. At least one conclusive follow-up test was obtained for 347 women (25 months average lapse since recruitment, range 5–74). Only seven CIN2+ were detected during follow up, three among the 82 women positive for mRNA at baseline, two among the 250 negative (Fisher exact test, p = 0.02), and two among the 12 with an invalid test. Absolute CIN2+ risk was 6.7/1,000 person/years in the whole cohort. The absolute CIN2+ risk was 18.4/1,000 person/years and 3.6/1,000 person/years in mRNA-positive and mRNA-negative women, respectively. In conclusion, E6/E7 mRNA over-expression appears to be a good candidate as a prognostic biomarker to manage HR-HPV DNA-positive women with negative colposcopy or histology, particularly in order to decrease follow-up intensity in those who are negative. PMID:23460880

  12. Surface microbial consortia from Livarot, a French smear-ripened cheese.

    PubMed

    Larpin-Laborde, Sandra; Imran, Muhammad; Bonaïti, Catherine; Bora, Nagamani; Gelsomino, Roberto; Goerges, Stefanie; Irlinger, Françoise; Goodfellow, Michael; Ward, Alan C; Vancanneyt, Marc; Swings, Jean; Scherer, Siegfried; Guéguen, Micheline; Desmasures, Nathalie

    2011-08-01

    The surface microflora (902 isolates) of Livarot cheeses from three dairies was investigated during ripening. Yeasts were mainly identified by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy. Geotrichum candidum was the dominating yeast among 10 species. Bacteria were identified using Biotype 100 strips, dereplicated by repetitive extragenic palindromic PCR (rep-PCR); 156 representative strains were identified by either BOX-PCR or (GTG)(5)-PCR, and when appropriate by 16S rDNA sequencing and SDS-PAGE analysis. Gram-positive bacteria accounted for 65% of the isolates and were mainly assigned to the genera Arthrobacter , Brevibacterium , Corynebacterium , and Staphylococcus . New taxa related to the genera Agrococcus and Leucobacter were found. Yeast and Gram-positive bacteria strains deliberately added as smearing agents were sometimes undetected during ripening. Thirty-two percent of the isolates were Gram-negative bacteria, which showed a high level of diversity and mainly included members of the genera Alcaligenes , Hafnia , Proteus , Pseudomonas , and Psychrobacter . Whatever the milk used (pasteurized or unpasteurized), similar levels of biodiversity were observed in the three dairies, all of which had efficient cleaning procedures and good manufacturing practices. It appears that some of the Gram-negative bacteria identified should now be regarded as potentially useful in some cheese technologies. The assessment of their positive versus negative role should be objectively examined.

  13. Testing negative means I’m lucky, making good choices, or immune: Diverse reactions to HIV test results are associated with risk behaviors

    PubMed Central

    Mustanski, Brian; Rendina, H. Jonathon; Greene, George J.; Sullivan, Patrick S.; Parsons, Jeffrey T.

    2014-01-01

    Background HIV testing may lead to behavioral changes among some individuals, but no scale has been developed to assess potential mechanisms. Purpose We aimed to develop and evaluate the psychometric properties of a scale to measure psychological reactions to the receipt of a negative HIV test and explore the scale’s associations with unprotected anal intercourse (UAI). Methods Two focus groups were conducted to develop the Inventory of Reactions to Testing HIV Negative, which was subsequently tested on 725 men who have sex with men in the New York City area. Results Factor analyses confirmed the presence of three subscales – Reinforced Safety, Invulnerability, and Luck. Regression analyses demonstrated that the subscales interacted with HIV testing behavior to influence UAI. Conclusions These findings support the notion that there is heterogeneity in how individuals respond to a negative HIV test, with some individuals subsequently being influenced towards increased engagement in HIV risk behaviors. PMID:24817015

  14. Genetic antimicrobial susceptibility testing in Gram-negative sepsis - impact on time to results in a routine laboratory.

    PubMed

    Kommedal, Øyvind; Aasen, Johanne Lind; Lindemann, Paul Christoffer

    2016-07-01

    Diagnostic testing of positive blood cultures is among the most critical tasks performed by clinical microbiology laboratories, and the total analysis time from sampling to results should be kept as short as possible. By providing identification of pelleted bacteria directly from positive blood-cultures, MALDI-TOF MS opens for relatively low-complex species-adjusted genetic susceptibility testing from the same bacterial pellet. In our lab routine, we prospectively evaluated a rapid in-house real-time PCR targeting the most common aminoglycoside and cephalosporin resistance genes in Escherichia coli and Klebsiella pneumoniae and measured time to preliminary susceptibility reporting for 138 samples. The results were compared to direct phenotypic susceptibility testing with interpretation after 6 h and overnight incubation respectively. Results from the genetic susceptibility testing were available for 69.5% (96/138) of the positive blood cultures within 24 h after sample collection. No phenotypic susceptibility results were available at this time. Compared to overnight direct susceptibility testing, the average time from sample collection to preliminary susceptibility reporting was reduced with 43%, from 45 h and 5 min to 25 h and 44 min, providing an earlier adjustment of antimicrobial therapy for 12 patients. Minor logistic adjustments have the potential to save yet another 4 h.

  15. Classification of Mycobacterium tuberculosis in images of ZN-stained sputum smears.

    PubMed

    Khutlang, Rethabile; Krishnan, Sriram; Dendere, Ronald; Whitelaw, Andrew; Veropoulos, Konstantinos; Learmonth, Genevieve; Douglas, Tania S

    2010-07-01

    Screening for tuberculosis (TB) in low- and middle-income countries is centered on the microscope. We present methods for the automated identification of Mycobacterium tuberculosis in images of Ziehl-Neelsen (ZN) stained sputum smears obtained using a bright-field microscope. We segment candidate bacillus objects using a combination of two-class pixel classifiers. The algorithm produces results that agree well with manual segmentations, as judged by the Hausdorff distance and the modified Williams index. The extraction of geometric-transformation-invariant features and optimization of the feature set by feature subset selection and Fisher transformation follow. Finally, different two-class object classifiers are compared. The sensitivity and specificity of all tested classifiers is above 95% for the identification of bacillus objects represented by Fisher-transformed features. Our results may be used to reduce technician involvement in screening for TB, and would be particularly useful in laboratories in countries with a high burden of TB, where, typically, ZN rather than auramine staining of sputum smears is the method of choice.

  16. Photometry of very bright stars with Kepler and K2 smear data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pope, B. J. S.; White, T. R.; Huber, D.; Murphy, S. J.; Bedding, T. R.; Caldwell, D. A.; Sarai, A.; Aigrain, S.; Barclay, T.

    2016-01-01

    High-precision time series photometry with the Kepler satellite has been crucial to our understanding both of exoplanets, and via asteroseismology, of stellar physics. After the failure of two reaction wheels, the Kepler satellite has been repurposed as Kepler-2 (K2), observing fields close to the ecliptic plane. As these fields contain many more bright stars than the original Kepler field, K2 provides an unprecedented opportunity to study nearby objects amenable to detailed follow-up with ground-based instruments. Due to bandwidth constraints, only a small fraction of pixels can be downloaded, with the result that most bright stars which saturate the detector are not observed. We show that engineering data acquired for photometric calibration, consisting of collateral `smear' measurements, can be used to reconstruct light curves for bright targets not otherwise observable with Kepler/K2. Here we present some examples from Kepler Quarter 6 and K2 Campaign 3, including the δ Scuti variables HD 178875 and 70 Aqr, and the red giant HR 8500 displaying solar-like oscillations. We compare aperture and smear photometry where possible, and also study targets not previously observed. These encouraging results suggest this new method can be applied to most Kepler and K2 fields.

  17. Classification of Mycobacterium tuberculosis in Images of ZN-Stained Sputum Smears

    PubMed Central

    Khutlang, Rethabile; Krishnan, Sriram; Dendere, Ronald; Whitelaw, Andrew; Veropoulos, Konstantinos; Learmonth, Genevieve; Douglas, Tania S.

    2010-01-01

    Screening for tuberculosis (TB) in low- and middle-income countries is centered on the microscope. We present methods for the automated identification of Mycobacterium tuberculosis in images of Ziehl–Neelsen (ZN) stained sputum smears obtained using a bright-field microscope. We segment candidate bacillus objects using a combination of two-class pixel classifiers. The algorithm produces results that agree well with manual segmentations, as judged by the Hausdorff distance and the modified Williams index. The extraction of geometric-transformation-invariant features and optimization of the feature set by feature subset selection and Fisher transformation follow. Finally, different two-class object classifiers are compared. The sensitivity and specificity of all tested classifiers is above 95% for the identification of bacillus objects represented by Fisher-transformed features. Our results may be used to reduce technician involvement in screening for TB, and would be particularly useful in laboratories in countries with a high burden of TB, where, typically, ZN rather than auramine staining of sputum smears is the method of choice. PMID:19726269

  18. Simulation of bright-field microscopy images depicting pap-smear specimen

    PubMed Central

    Malm, Patrik; Brun, Anders; Bengtsson, Ewert

    2015-01-01

    As digital imaging is becoming a fundamental part of medical and biomedical research, the demand for computer-based evaluation using advanced image analysis is becoming an integral part of many research projects. A common problem when developing new image analysis algorithms is the need of large datasets with ground truth on which the algorithms can be tested and optimized. Generating such datasets is often tedious and introduces subjectivity and interindividual and intraindividual variations. An alternative to manually created ground-truth data is to generate synthetic images where the ground truth is known. The challenge then is to make the images sufficiently similar to the real ones to be useful in algorithm development. One of the first and most widely studied medical image analysis tasks is to automate screening for cervical cancer through Pap-smear analysis. As part of an effort to develop a new generation cervical cancer screening system, we have developed a framework for the creation of realistic synthetic bright-field microscopy images that can be used for algorithm development and benchmarking. The resulting framework has been assessed through a visual evaluation by experts with extensive experience of Pap-smear images. The results show that images produced using our described methods are realistic enough to be mistaken for real microscopy images. The developed simulation framework is very flexible and can be modified to mimic many other types of bright-field microscopy images. © 2015 The Authors. Published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of ISAC PMID:25573002

  19. Diagnostic utility of the cell block method versus the conventional smear study in pleural fluid cytology

    PubMed Central

    Shivakumarswamy, Udasimath; Arakeri, Surekha U; Karigowdar, Mahesh H; Yelikar, BR

    2012-01-01

    Background: The cytological examinations of serous effusions have been well-accepted, and a positive diagnosis is often considered as a definitive diagnosis. It helps in staging, prognosis and management of the patients in malignancies and also gives information about various inflammatory and non-inflammatory lesions. Diagnostic problems arise in everyday practice to differentiate reactive atypical mesothelial cells and malignant cells by the routine conventional smear (CS) method. Aims: To compare the morphological features of the CS method with those of the cell block (CB) method and also to assess the utility and sensitivity of the CB method in the cytodiagnosis of pleural effusions. Materials and Methods: The study was conducted in the cytology section of the Department of Pathology. Sixty pleural fluid samples were subjected to diagnostic evaluation for over a period of 20 months. Along with the conventional smears, cell blocks were prepared by using 10% alcohol–formalin as a fixative agent. Statistical analysis with the ‘z test’ was performed to identify the cellularity, using the CS and CB methods. Mc. Naemer's χ2test was used to identify the additional yield for malignancy by the CB method. Results: Cellularity and additional yield for malignancy was 15% more by the CB method. Conclusions: The CB method provides high cellularity, better architectural patterns, morphological features and an additional yield of malignant cells, and thereby, increases the sensitivity of the cytodiagnosis when compared with the CS method. PMID:22438610

  20. Performance of low smeared density sodium-cooled fast reactor metal fuel

    SciTech Connect

    Porter, D. L.; H. J. M. Chichester; Medvedev, P. G.; Hayes, S. L.; Teague, M. C.

    2015-06-17

    An experiment was performed in the Experimental Breeder Rector-II (EBR-II) in the 1990s to show that metallic fast reactor fuel could be used in reactors with a single, once-through core. To prove the long duration, high burnup, high neutron exposure capability an experiment where the fuel pin was designed with a very large fission gas plenum and very low fuel smeared density (SD). The experiment, X496, operated to only 8.3 at. % burnup because the EBR-II reactor was scheduled for shut-down at that time. Many of the examinations of the fuel pins only funded recently with the resurgence of reactor designs using very high-burnup fuel. The results showed that, despite the low smeared density of 59% the fuel swelled radially to contact the cladding, fission gas release appeared to be slightly higher than demonstrated in conventional 75%SD fuel tests and axial growth was about the same as 75% SD fuel. There were axial positions in some of the fuel pins which showed evidence of fuel restructuring and an absence of fission products with low metaling points and gaseous precursors (Cs and Rb). Lastly, a model to investigate whether these areas may have overheated due to a loss of bond sodium indicates that it is a possible explanation for the fuel restructuring and something to be considered for fuel performance modeling of low SD fuel.

  1. Direct immunofluorescence for Chlamydia trachomatis on urogenital smears for epidemiological purposes.

    PubMed

    Ruijs, G J; Kauer, F M; van Gijssel, P M; Schirm, J; Schroder, F P

    1988-04-01

    A population of 197 asymptomatic women, attending an out-patient department for birth-control advice, was screened for urogenital infection with Chlamydia trachomatis by direct immunofluorescence on cervical and urethral smears. A blood sample was obtained for chlamydial serology and demographic, behavioural and clinical data were recorded. Eleven (5.5%) women had a chlamydial infection. Chlamydial infection, as diagnosed with direct immunofluorescence, correlated with a history of sexually transmitted disease (p less than 0.01), promiscuity (p less than 0.01), use of oral contraceptives (p less than 0.02) and high chlamydial antibody titres (p less than 0.01). These last also correlated with a history of sexually transmitted disease (p less than 0.02) and promiscuity (p less than 0.02). These results, obtained with direct immunofluorescence, are indistinguishable from those obtained previously with chlamydial culture. Direct immunofluorescence on urogenital smears seems a valuable tool for epidemiological investigation. Our data also support the hypothesis that oral contraceptive use is correlated with chlamydial infection because of increased cervical susceptibility to infection and not because of a sampling bias towards oral contraceptive users.

  2. Performance of low smeared density sodium-cooled fast reactor metal fuel

    DOE PAGES

    Porter, D. L.; H. J. M. Chichester; Medvedev, P. G.; ...

    2015-06-17

    An experiment was performed in the Experimental Breeder Rector-II (EBR-II) in the 1990s to show that metallic fast reactor fuel could be used in reactors with a single, once-through core. To prove the long duration, high burnup, high neutron exposure capability an experiment where the fuel pin was designed with a very large fission gas plenum and very low fuel smeared density (SD). The experiment, X496, operated to only 8.3 at. % burnup because the EBR-II reactor was scheduled for shut-down at that time. Many of the examinations of the fuel pins only funded recently with the resurgence of reactormore » designs using very high-burnup fuel. The results showed that, despite the low smeared density of 59% the fuel swelled radially to contact the cladding, fission gas release appeared to be slightly higher than demonstrated in conventional 75%SD fuel tests and axial growth was about the same as 75% SD fuel. There were axial positions in some of the fuel pins which showed evidence of fuel restructuring and an absence of fission products with low metaling points and gaseous precursors (Cs and Rb). Lastly, a model to investigate whether these areas may have overheated due to a loss of bond sodium indicates that it is a possible explanation for the fuel restructuring and something to be considered for fuel performance modeling of low SD fuel.« less

  3. Analysis of blood and bone marrow smears using multispectral imaging analysis techniques

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Qiongshui; Zeng, Libo; Ke, Hengyu; Xie, Wenjuan; Zheng, Hong; Zhang, Yan

    2005-04-01

    Counting of different classes of white blood cells in bone marrow smears can give pathologists valuable information regarding various cancers. But it is tedious to manually locate, identify, and count these classes of cells, even by skilled hands. This paper presents a novel approach for automatic detection of White Blood Cells in bone marrow microscopic images. Different from traditional color imaging method, we use multispectral imaging techniques for image acquisition. The combination of conventional digital imaging with spectroscopy can provide us with additional useful spectral information in common pathological samples. With our spectral calibration method, device-independent images can be acquired, which is almost impossible in conventional color imaging method. A novel segmentation algorithm using spectral operation is presented in this paper. Experiments show that the segmentation is robust, precise, with low computational cost and insensitive to smear staining and illumination condition. Once the nuclei and cytoplasm have been segmented, more than a hundred of features are extracted under the direction of a pathologist, including shape features, textural features and spectral ratio features. In pattern recognition, a maximum likelihood classifier(MLC) is implemented in a hierarchical tree. The classification results are also discussed. This paper is focused on image acquisition and segmentation.

  4. Performance of low smeared density sodium-cooled fast reactor metal fuel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Porter, D. L.; Chichester, H. J. M.; Medvedev, P. G.; Hayes, S. L.; Teague, M. C.

    2015-10-01

    An experiment was performed in the Experimental Breeder Rector-II (EBR-II) in the 1990s to show that metallic fast reactor fuel could be used in reactors with a single, once-through core. To prove the long duration, high burnup, high neutron exposure capability an experiment where the fuel pin was designed with a very large fission gas plenum and very low fuel smeared density (SD). The experiment, X496, operated to only 8.3 at.% burnup because the EBR-II reactor was scheduled for shut-down at that time. Many of the examinations of the fuel pins only funded recently with the resurgence of reactor designs using very high-burnup fuel. The results showed that, despite the low smeared density of 59% the fuel swelled radially to contact the cladding, fission gas release appeared to be slightly higher than demonstrated in conventional 75%SD fuel tests and axial growth was about the same as 75% SD fuel. There were axial positions in some of the fuel pins which showed evidence of fuel restructuring and an absence of fission products with low melting points and gaseous precursors (Cs and Rb). A model to investigate whether these areas may have overheated due to a loss of bond sodium indicates that it is a possible explanation for the fuel restructuring and something to be considered for fuel performance modeling of low SD fuel.

  5. Selection of the best features for leukocytes classification in blood smear microscopic images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sarrafzadeh, Omid; Rabbani, Hossein; Talebi, Ardeshir; Banaem, Hossein Usefi

    2014-03-01

    Automatic differential counting of leukocytes provides invaluable information to pathologist for diagnosis and treatment of many diseases. The main objective of this paper is to detect leukocytes from a blood smear microscopic image and classify them into their types: Neutrophil, Eosinophil, Basophil, Lymphocyte and Monocyte using features that pathologists consider to differentiate leukocytes. Features contain color, geometric and texture features. Colors of nucleus and cytoplasm vary among the leukocytes. Lymphocytes have single, large, round or oval and Monocytes have singular convoluted shape nucleus. Nucleus of Eosinophils is divided into 2 segments and nucleus of Neutrophils into 2 to 5 segments. Lymphocytes often have no granules, Monocytes have tiny granules, Neutrophils have fine granules and Eosinophils have large granules in cytoplasm. Six color features is extracted from both nucleus and cytoplasm, 6 geometric features only from nucleus and 6 statistical features and 7 moment invariants features only from cytoplasm of leukocytes. These features are fed to support vector machine (SVM) classifiers with one to one architecture. The results obtained by applying the proposed method on blood smear microscopic image of 10 patients including 149 white blood cells (WBCs) indicate that correct rate for all classifiers are above 93% which is in a higher level in comparison with previous literatures.

  6. AdS black holes, the bulk-boundary dictionary, and smearing functions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leichenauer, Stefan; Rosenhaus, Vladimir

    2013-07-01

    In Lorentzian AdS/CFT there exists a mapping between local bulk operators and nonlocal conformal field theory (CFT) operators. In global anti-de Sitter (AdS) this mapping can be found through use of bulk equations of motion and allows the nonlocal CFT operator to be expressed as a local operator smeared over a range of positions and times. We argue that such a construction is not possible if there are bulk normal modes with exponentially small near boundary imprint. We show that the AdS-Schwarzschild background is such a case, with the horizon introducing modes with angular momentum much larger than frequency, causing them to be trapped by the centrifugal barrier. More generally, we argue that any barrier in the radial effective potential which prevents null geodesics from reaching the boundary will lead to modes with vanishingly small near boundary imprint, thereby obstructing the existence of a smearing function. While one may have thought the bulk-boundary dictionary for low curvature regions, such as the exterior of a black hole, should be as in empty AdS, our results demonstrate otherwise.

  7. Value and feasibility of HPV DNA test in cervical scraping smears.

    PubMed

    Wu, Sufang; Chen, Gang; Wang, Wei; Xu, Qian; Gu, Hainian; Lu, Yunping; Zhou, Liping; Du, Juan; Li, Fujun; Liao, Guoning; Ma, Ding

    2005-01-01

    To investigate the reliability and feasibility of human papillomavirus (HPV) DNA test in cervical scraping smears with polymerase chain reaction (PCR), 131 cases of cervical scraping specimens were collected, and the positive rates and accuracy of HPV infection were determined in normal subjects and cervical cancer patients. GP5+/GP6+ and E7 primer pairs designed for detecting HPV L1 and HPV type 16 E7 were tested in this study. Our results showed that positive rates of HPV DNA in normal population and cervical cancer patients were 32.99% and 73.53% respectively and there was significant difference between them (P < 0.001). In normal subjects, detection rates of HPV DNA with GP5+/GP6+ and E7 primer pairs were 27.84% and 16.49% respectively, with statistically significant difference between them (P > 0.05). However the detection rates in cervical cancer patients were 38.24% and 67.65% for the two markers, with a significant difference found between them (P < 0.05). It is concluded that HPV DNA test with PCR for cervical scraping smears was feasible. GP5+/GP6+ primer pairs may be a useful probe to screen HPV infection in normal population, but they are not sensitive enough in cervical cancer patients. It is suggested that high risk type HPV DNA test was very useful in population with high risk of cervical cancer.

  8. Beijing strains of Mycobacterium tuberculosis in smear-positive tuberculosis patients in North-West and West of Iran

    PubMed Central

    Sahebi, Leyla; Ansarin, Khalil; Hoffner, Sven; Mohajeri, Parviz; Mohammadi, Abolghasem

    2016-01-01

    Background: Tuberculosis (TB) is the leading cause of morbidity and mortality among chronic infectious diseases. The goal of this cross-sectional study (2012–2014) was to examine the prevalence of Mycobacterium TB (MTB) Beijing strains in regions near the Iranian border and to identify any epidemiological links. Materials and Methods: To this end, MTB isolates were harvested, from 64 HIV-negative, pulmonary smear-positive TB patients from the Iranian border provinces of East Azerbaijan (North-West), Kurdistan (West), and Kermanshah (West) (2012–2014). Isolates were subjected to restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) analysis, using the insertion sequence IS6110 as a probe (IS6110 RFLP), and drug susceptibility testing by the proportion method. We gathered demographic and clinical data using a questionnaire and reviewing patient records. Results were analyzed with Gel Compare II 6.6 and SPSS-18. Results: The mean age of the patients was 54.4 years and 46.9% were male. The prevalence of Beijing strains among the isolates was 9.4% (17.6% in the Western provinces and 0% in East Azerbaijan). There was a statistically significant relationship between the Beijing strains and drug resistance and also between these strains, and the recurrence of TB in patients that had previously received treatment (P = 0.02 and P = 0.04, respectively). Conclusions: Finally, the prevalence of Beijing strains in Western Iran was greater than expected. Our results therefore indicate that regional and cross-border tracing may be necessary to control spread of this organism. PMID:28028521

  9. Frequency and perceived severity of negative experiences during medical education in Germany – Results of an online-survery of medical students

    PubMed Central

    Gágyor, Ildikó; Hilbert, Nadine; Chenot, Jean-François; Marx, Gabriella; Ortner, Tuulia; Simmenroth-Nayda, Anne; Scherer, Martin; Wedeken, Sven; Himmel, Wolfgang

    2012-01-01

    Aims: Negative experiences during the course of medical education have been reported in many countries, but little is known about the perceived severity of these experiences. We studied for the first time how often students at a medical university in Germany have had negative experiences, and how severe they perceive these to be. Method: We asked medical students in an online survey whether they felt adequately appreciated, had experienced peer rivalry, verbal abuse by their mentors, physical abuse or mistreatment, sexual harassment, racial or ethnic discrimination, or any other kind of mistreatment. Results: Of 391 students, 56% stated that they felt insufficiently appreciated, 51% had experienced rivalry, and 34% had suffered verbal abuse. Fifty-nine percent of the students felt highly aggrieved because of verbal abuse, while 46% were aggrieved by the ongoing rivalry and 32% by the lack of appreciation. Significantly fewer students felt upset because they were passed over or ignored (21%). Generally, female students felt more often aggrieved by these negative experiences than their male colleagues. Conclusion: Of the possible negative experiences, the less prominent ones such as lack of appreciation or verbal abuse are not only frequent, they are also perceived as very upsetting. Medical teachers should reflect this more in their day-to-day dealings with students and aim to improve on their contact with the students accordingly. PMID:22916081

  10. False negative result for amphetamines on the Triage Drug of Abuse panel? The cause of the unusual phenomenon with experimental analyses.

    PubMed

    Hikiji, Wakako; Kudo, Keiko; Sato, Shinji; Usumoto, Yosuke; Tsuji, Akiko; Ikeda, Noriaki

    2009-05-01

    On-site drug screening devices are widely used today for their simple test procedures and instantaneous results. Among other devices, a Triage Drug of Abuse panel is considered to be highly reliable for its high specificity and sensitivity of abused drugs. Although it is known that a false positive amphetamine (AMP) result may be obtained from the urine samples containing putrefactive amines or ephedrine-related compounds, no clinical false negative methamphetamine results have been reported to date. However, a false negative Triage result was obtained from the urine of a fatal methamphetamine poisoning victim taking Vegetamine tablets. Further experimental analyses revealed that the cross-reactivity of methamphetamine and chlorpromazine metabolites, including nor-2-chlorpromazine sulfoxide, was the cause for a false negative Triage reaction for AMP. Forensic scientists and clinicians must be aware of the limitations of on-site drug testing devices and the need for the confirmatory laboratory tests for the precise identification and quantification of drugs in suspicious intoxication cases, as also recommended by the manufacturers.

  11. Study on impression smears of hepatic coccidiosis in rabbits.

    PubMed

    Sivajothi, S; Reddy, B Sudhakara; Rayulu, V C

    2016-09-01

    Hepatic coccidiosis is a contagious and lethal disease condition in rabbits. The disease was recorded in six rabbits suffering with watery diarrhoea. Clinically, affected rabbits showed decreased growth rate, anorexia, debilitation, diarrhea and rough hair coat. Examination of the faecal samples revealed the presence of unsporulated oocysts of Eimeria spp. After sporulation Eimeria stiedae oocysts were identified. Postmortem examination revealed hepatomegaly with presence of discrete yellowish-white nodules on the surface of the liver. Impression smears from the liver revealed the presence of numerous developmental stages of E. stiedae corresponding with the stage of the liver lesion and also represent the histological changes of the liver. Rabbits were treated with a combination of sulphaquinoxaline and diaveridine for five days.

  12. The planning of cervical cancer screening programmes in eastern Europe: is viral testing a suitable alternative to smear testing?

    PubMed

    Sherlaw-Johnson, C; Gallivan, S

    2000-09-01

    Cervical cancer screening with human papillomavirus (HPV) DNA testing has potential advantages over conventional, smear testing in that it can predict cases in which invasive cancers are more likely to develop, may be cheaper to implement and improve compliance. In areas of the world where little formalized cervical cancer screening takes place, or where health resources are limited, HPV testing has been suggested as a possible alternative for primary screening. In this paper we demonstrate the use of mathematical modelling to evaluate the effects of setting up screening programmes in Eastern Europe with HPV DNA testing as the primary screening tool and compare it with conventional smear testing. The impact of screening is measured in terms of the life years gained and the resulting resource usage and cost. We investigate several screening options with different screening intervals and age ranges for the target population.

  13. Evaluation of Apical Leakage in Root Canals Obturated with Three Different Sealers in Presence or Absence of Smear Layer

    PubMed Central

    Mokhtari, Hadi; Shahi, Shahriar; Janani, Maryam; Reyhani, Mohammad Frough; Mokhtari Zonouzi, Hamid Reza; Rahimi, Saeed; Sadr Kheradmand, Hamid Reza

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: Microleakage can result in failure of endodontic treatment. An important characteristic of endodontic sealer is sealing ability. The aim of this experimental study was to compare the apical leakage of teeth obturated with gutta-percha and three different sealers (resin- and zinc oxide eugenol-based) with/without smear layer (SL). Materials and Methods: In this study, 100 single-rooted teeth were used after cutting off their crowns. Cleaning and shaping was carried out with step-back technique and the samples were randomly divided into three groups (n=30) which were then divided into two subgroups (n=15) according to the presence/absence of SL. Two negative and positive control groups (n=5) were also prepared. In the various groups, the canals were obturated with gutta-percha and either of the test sealers (AH-26, Adseal or Endofill). The samples were submerged in India ink for 72 h. Then they were longitudinally sectioned and observed under a stereomicroscope at 20× magnification. Data were analyzed with descriptive statistical methods and one-way ANOVA. The significance level was set at 0.05. Results: The mean penetration length of dye in AH-26, Adseal and Endofill samples were 2.53, 2.76 and 3.03 mm, respectively. The differences between three groups were not significant (P>0.05); also, the mean dye penetration in AH-26, Adseal and Endofill samples in presence or absence of the SL was not significantly different. Conclusion: AH-26, Adseal and Endofill were similarly effective in prevention of apical microleakage. Differences in the mean dye penetration between the groups with/without the SL were not statistically significant. PMID:25834599

  14. Pap smear screening for small cell carcinoma of the uterine cervix: a case series and review of the literature

    PubMed Central

    Park, Hyun Jong; Choi, Young Mi; Chung, Chan Kyung; Lee, San Hui; Yim, Ga Won; Kim, Sang Wun; Nam, Eun Ji

    2011-01-01

    Objective Small cell carcinoma of the uterine cervix (SMCC) is extremely rare, and an aggressive disease that proliferates rapidly. It was often reported that the diagnostic accuracy of cytologic smears in diagnosing SMCC was low. This is a report of the Severance Hospital experience with the patients suffering from SMCC. Methods Twenty-seven patients with small cell carcinoma of the uterine cervix were diagnosed and treated at the Severance Hospital from November 1991 to January 2010. The data were analyzed retrospectively, based on the available charts and pathology reports. Various fields, such as chief complaints and symptoms present at first clinic visit, age, International Federation of Obstetrics and Gynecology (FIGO) clinical stage, treatment modality, the 5-year overall survival rate, and recurrence rate were investigated. Results Among the 27 patients diagnosed with small cell carcinoma of the uterine cervix, 18 of them (66.7%) presented with symptoms, including vaginal bleeding, at the first clinic visit, and the remaining 9 patients (33.3%) showed abnormal Pap smear screening in the process of their routine health check-up. The median age of the patients was 54 years (range, 24 to 77 years). FIGO stage IIB was the most common stage (11 of 27 patients). The 5-year overall survival rate of 21 patients, who could be followed up, was 57.2%. Six patients showed recurrence after remission, and the mean disease free interval of them was 9.2 months (range, 6 to 11 months). Abnormal Pap smear screening results of 9 patients was investigated, and the diagnostic accuracy of the cytologic findings was 22.2%. Conclusion Our study was consistent with the concept that Pap smear screening might not be helpful in early diagnosis of SMCC considering its low diagnostic accuracy. Further large-scale multicenter prospective studies are definitely needed in order to produce abundant information about optimal therapy and diagnosis. PMID:21607094

  15. Pap Smear Test Prevalence within Three Years (Age 18+) - Small Area Estimates

    Cancer.gov

    For Pap smear test, a woman 18 years of age or older must have reported having at least one Pap smear test in her life. Furthermore, she should have had one within the last three years by the time of interview.

  16. Papanicolaou Smear Screening of Women with Intellectual Disabilities: A Cross-Sectional Survey in Taiwan

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lin, Lan-Ping; Lin, Jin-Ding; Sung, Chang-Lin; Liu, Ta-Wen; Liu, Yi-Lian; Chen, Li-Mei; Chu, Cordia M.

    2010-01-01

    Although little is known about the incidence of cervical cancer in women with intellectual disabilities (ID), Pap smear screening is an effective public health program to prevent cervical cancer to this group of people. The purposes of this study were to identify and evaluate the factors regarding the utilization of the Pap smears in women with ID…

  17. The quality of sputum smear microscopy in public-private mix directly observed treatment laboratories in West Amhara region, Ethiopia.

    PubMed

    Manalebh, Almaw; Demissie, Meaza; Mekonnen, Daniel; Abera, Bayeh

    2015-01-01

    Ethiopia adopted Public-Private Mix Directly Observed Treatment Short Course Chemotherapy (PPM-DOTS) strategy for tuberculosis (TB) control program. Quality of sputum smear microscopy has paramount importance for tuberculosis control program in resource-poor countries like Ethiopia. A cross-sectional study was conducted to assess the quality of sputum smear microscopy in 37 Public-Private Mix laboratories in West Amhara, Ethiopia. The three external quality assessment methods (onsite evaluation, panel testing and blind rechecking) were employed. Onsite assessment revealed that 67.6% of PPM-DOTS laboratories were below the standard physical space (5 X 6) m2. The average monthly workload per laboratory technician was 19.5 (SD±2.9) slides with 12.8% positivity rate. The quality of Acid Fast Bacilli (AFB) staining reagents was sub-standard. The overall agreement for blind rechecking of 1,123 AFB slides was 99.4% (Kappa = 0.97). Reading of 370 AFB panel slides showed 3.5% false reading (Kappa = 0.92). Moreover, the consistency of reading scanty bacilli slides was lower (93%) compared to 1+, 2+ and 3+ bacilli. Based on blind rechecking and panel testing results, PPM-DOTS site laboratories showed good agreement with the reference laboratory. Physical space and qualities of AFB reagents would be areas of intervention to sustain the quality of sputum smear microscopy. Therefore, regular external quality assessment and provision of basic laboratory supplies for TB diagnosis would be the way forward to improve the quality of sputum smear microscopy services in PPM-DOTS laboratories.

  18. [Adhesion of sealer cements to dentin with and without smear layer].

    PubMed

    Gettleman, B H; Messer, H H; ElDeeb, M E

    1991-01-01

    The influence of a smear layer on the adhesion of sealer cements to dentin was assessed in recently extracted human anterior teeth. A total of 120 samples was tested, 40 per sealer; 20 each with and without the smear layer. The teeth were split longitudinally, and the internal surfaces were ground flat. One-half of each tooth was left with the smear layer intact, while the other half had the smear removed by washing for 3 min with 17% EDTA followed by 5.25% NaOCI. Evidence of the ability to remove the smear layer was verified by scanning electron microscopy. Using a specially designed jig, the sealer was placed into a 4-mm wide x 4 mm deep well which was then set onto the tooth.

  19. Rapid immunocytochemistry based on alternating current electric field using squash smear preparation of central nervous system tumors.

    PubMed

    Moriya, Jun; Tanino, Mishie Ann; Takenami, Tomoko; Endoh, Tomoko; Urushido, Masana; Kato, Yasutaka; Wang, Lei; Kimura, Taichi; Tsuda, Masumi; Nishihara, Hiroshi; Tanaka, Shinya

    2016-01-01

    The role of intraoperative pathological diagnosis for central nervous system (CNS) tumors is crucial for neurosurgery when determining the surgical procedure. Especially, treatment of carmustine (BCNU) wafers requires a conclusive diagnosis of high-grade glioma proven by intraoperative diagnosis. Recently, we demonstrated the usefulness of rapid immunohistochemistry (R-IHC) that facilitates antigen-antibody reaction under alternative current (AC) electric field in the intraoperative diagnosis of CNS tumors; however, a higher proportion of water and lipid in the brain parenchyma sometimes leads to freezing artifacts, resulting in poor quality of frozen sections. On the other hand, squash smear preparation of CNS tumors for cytology does not affect the frozen artifacts, and the importance of smear preparation is now being re-recognized as being better than that of the tissue sections. In this study, we established the rapid immunocytochemistry (R-ICC) protocol for squash smears of CNS tumors using AC electric field that takes only 22 min, and demonstrated its usefulness for semi-quantitative Ki-67/MIB-1 labeling index and CD 20 by R-ICC for intraoperative diagnosis. R-ICC by AC electric field may become a substantial tool for compensating R-IHC and will be applied for broad antibodies in the future.

  20. Measuring the effects of spectral smearing and enhancement on speech recognition in noise for adults and children.

    PubMed

    Nittrouer, Susan; Tarr, Eric; Wucinich, Taylor; Moberly, Aaron C; Lowenstein, Joanna H

    2015-04-01

    Broadened auditory filters associated with sensorineural hearing loss have clearly been shown to diminish speech recognition in noise for adults, but far less is known about potential effects for children. This study examined speech recognition in noise for adults and children using simulated auditory filters of different widths. Specifically, 5 groups (20 listeners each) of adults or children (5 and 7 yrs), were asked to recognize sentences in speech-shaped noise. Seven-year-olds listened at 0 dB signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) only; 5-yr-olds listened at +3 or 0 dB SNR; and adults listened at 0 or -3 dB SNR. Sentence materials were processed both to smear the speech spectrum (i.e., simulate broadened filters), and to enhance the spectrum (i.e., simulate narrowed filters). Results showed: (1) Spectral smearing diminished recognition for listeners of all ages; (2) spectral enhancement did not improve recognition, and in fact diminished it somewhat; and (3) interactions were observed between smearing and SNR, but only for adults. That interaction made age effects difficult to gauge. Nonetheless, it was concluded that efforts to diagnose the extent of broadening of auditory filters and to develop techniques to correct this condition could benefit patients with hearing loss, especially children.

  1. Comparison of liquid-based preparation and conventional smear of fine-needle aspiration cytology of lymph node

    PubMed Central

    Singh, Priya; Rohilla, Manish; Dey, Pranab

    2016-01-01

    Background: In this paper, we have compared the cytomorphologic characteristics of liquid-based preparation (LBP) [SurePath (SP)] cytology and conventional smear (CP) preparations on fine-needle aspiration (FNAC) material by a semi-quantitative scoring system for cases of lymphadenopathy. Materials and Methods: In this prospective study, a total of 52 consecutive cases of FNAC of lymphadenopathy were included. The first pass was used for CP followed by LBP with the help of SP technique. The smears were independently compared and assessed by two observers (PS and PD). Results: The semiquantitative grading was compared in two groups by Wilcoxon signed-rank test. The background information, cell architecture, pleomorphism, nuclear and cytoplasmic details, and three-dimensional structures were significantly different in LBP and CP smears. Conclusions: Liquid-based cytology (LBC) is a relatively simple technique, which exhibits good nuclear and cytoplasmic details with the absence of obscuring background material. Even the number of slides and area per slide to be screened were less than the conventional preparation but caution must be applied to interpret the slides and secure a diagnosis, especially if LBC is the first and only method applied for diagnosis. PMID:28028332

  2. Measuring the effects of spectral smearing and enhancement on speech recognition in noise for adults and children

    PubMed Central

    Nittrouer, Susan; Tarr, Eric; Wucinich, Taylor; Moberly, Aaron C.; Lowenstein, Joanna H.

    2015-01-01

    Broadened auditory filters associated with sensorineural hearing loss have clearly been shown to diminish speech recognition in noise for adults, but far less is known about potential effects for children. This study examined speech recognition in noise for adults and children using simulated auditory filters of different widths. Specifically, 5 groups (20 listeners each) of adults or children (5 and 7 yrs), were asked to recognize sentences in speech-shaped noise. Seven-year-olds listened at 0 dB signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) only; 5-yr-olds listened at +3 or 0 dB SNR; and adults listened at 0 or −3 dB SNR. Sentence materials were processed both to smear the speech spectrum (i.e., simulate broadened filters), and to enhance the spectrum (i.e., simulate narrowed filters). Results showed: (1) Spectral smearing diminished recognition for listeners of all ages; (2) spectral enhancement did not improve recognition, and in fact diminished it somewhat; and (3) interactions were observed between smearing and SNR, but only for adults. That interaction made age effects difficult to gauge. Nonetheless, it was concluded that efforts to diagnose the extent of broadening of auditory filters and to develop techniques to correct this condition could benefit patients with hearing loss, especially children. PMID:25920851

  3. Fluorescence Spectrum and Decay Measurement for Hsil VS Normal Cytology Differentiation in Liquid Pap Smear Supernatant

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vaitkuviene, A.; Gegzna, V.; Juodkazis, S.; Jursenas, S.; Miasojedovas, S.; Kurtinaitiene, R.; Rimiene, J.; Vaitkus, J.

    2009-06-01

    Cervical smear material contains endo and exocervical cells, mucus and inflammative, immune cells in cases of pathology. Just not destroyed keratinocytes lay on the glass for microscopy. Liquid cytology supernatant apart other diagnostics could be used for photodiagnostic. The spectroscopic parameters suitable for Normal and HSIL cytology groups supernatant differentiation are demonstrated. The dried liquid PAP supernatant fractions—sediment and liquid were investigated. Excitation and emission matrices (EEM), supernatant fluorescence decay measured under 280 nm diode short pulse excitation and fluorescence spectroscopy by excitation with 355 nm laser light were analyzed. The differences between Normal and HSIL groups were statistically proven in the certain spectral regions. Fluorescence decay peculiarities show spectral regions consisting of few fluorophores. Obtained results on fluorescence differences in Normal and HSIL groups' supernatant shows the potency of photodiagnosis application in cervical screening.

  4. Segmentation of touching mycobacterium tuberculosis from Ziehl-Neelsen stained sputum smear images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Chao; Zhou, Dongxiang; Liu, Yunhui

    2015-12-01

    Touching Mycobacterium tuberculosis objects in the Ziehl-Neelsen stained sputum smear images present different shapes and invisible boundaries in the adhesion areas, which increases the difficulty in objects recognition and counting. In this paper, we present a segmentation method of combining the hierarchy tree analysis with gradient vector flow snake to address this problem. The skeletons of the objects are used for structure analysis based on the hierarchy tree. The gradient vector flow snake is used to estimate the object edge. Experimental results show that the single objects composing the touching objects are successfully segmented by the proposed method. This work will improve the accuracy and practicability of the computer-aided diagnosis of tuberculosis.

  5. Automated detection of malaria in Giemsa-stained thin blood smears.

    PubMed

    Mushabe, Mark C; Dendere, Ronald; Douglas, Tania S

    2013-01-01

    The current gold standard of malaria diagnosis is the manual, microscopy-based analysis of Giemsa-stained blood smears, which is a time-consuming process requiring skilled technicians. This paper presents an algorithm that identifies and counts red blood cells (RBCs) as well as stained parasites in order to perform a parasitaemia calculation. Morphological operations and histogram-based thresholding are used to extract the red blood cells. Boundary curvature calculations and Delaunay triangulation are used to split clumped red blood cells. The stained parasites are classified using a Bayesian classifier with their RGB pixel values as features. The results show 98.5% sensitivity and 97.2% specificity for detecting infected red blood cells.

  6. RBM10-TFE3 Renal Cell Carcinoma: A Potential Diagnostic Pitfall Due to Cryptic Intrachromosomal Xp11.2 Inversion Resulting in False-negative TFE3 FISH.

    PubMed

    Argani, Pedram; Zhang, Lei; Reuter, Victor E; Tickoo, Satish K; Antonescu, Cristina R

    2017-03-14

    Xp11 translocation renal cell carcinoma (RCC) are defined by chromosome translocations involving the Xp11 breakpoint which results in one of a variety of TFE3 gene fusions. TFE3 break-apart florescence in situ hybridization (FISH) assays are generally preferred to TFE3 immunohistochemistry (IHC) as a means of confirming the diagnosis in archival material, as FISH is less sensitive to the variable fixation which can result in false positive or false negative IHC. Prompted by a case report in the cytogenetics literature, we identify 3 cases of Xp11 translocation RCC characterized by a subtle chromosomal inversion involving the short arm of the X chromosome, resulting in an RBM10-TFE3 gene fusion. TFE3 rearrangement was not detected by conventional TFE3 break-apart FISH, but was suggested by strong diffuse TFE3 immunoreactivity in a clean background. We then developed novel fosmid probes to detect the RBM10-TFE3 gene fusion in archival material. These cases validate RBM10-TFE3 as a recurrent gene fusion in Xp11 translocation RCC, illustrate a source of false-negative TFE3 break-apart FISH, and highlight the complementary role of TFE3 IHC and TFE3 FISH.

  7. The acceptability of vaginal smear self-collection for screening for cervical cancer: a systematic review

    PubMed Central

    Braz, Natalia Serrano Doratioto Faria; Lorenzi, Noely Paula Cristina; Sorpreso, Isabel Cristina Esposito; de Aguiar, Lana Maria; Baracat, Edmund Chada; Soares, José Maria

    2017-01-01

    Cervical cancer is a major cause of death in adult women. However, many women do not undergo cervical cancer screening for the following reasons: fear, shame, physical limitations, cultural or religious considerations and lack of access to health care services. Self-collected vaginal smears maybe an alternative means of including more women in cervical cancer screening programs. The objective of this systematic review was to evaluate the acceptability of vaginal smear self-collection for cervical cancer screening. We selected articles from PubMed, the Cochrane Library and Embase that were published between January 1995 and April 2016. Studies written in English, French, Italian, Portuguese or Spanish that involved women between 18 and 69 years of age who had engaged in sexual intercourse were included in this review. The review was performed in accordance with the PRISMA (Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses) statement. Nineteen studies were ultimately evaluated in this review. Most of the included studies (n=17) demonstrated that the self-collection method exhibited outstanding acceptability among women with respect to cervical cancer screening, and only two studies indicated that self-collection exhibited low acceptability among women in this context. The acceptability of self-collection was determined subjectively (without standardized questionnaires) in 10 studies (53%) and via structured and validated questionnaires in the remaining studies. The results of our review suggest that the self-collection method is well-accepted and may therefore encourage greater participation in cervical cancer screening programs. However, additional studies are required to verify these results. PMID:28355365

  8. Analysis of negative result in serum anti-H. pylori IgG antibody test in cases with gastric mucosal atrophy

    PubMed Central

    Adachi, Kyoichi; Mishiro, Tomoko; Tanaka, Shino; Kinoshita, Yoshikazu

    2016-01-01

    The purpose is to elucidate factors related to negative results of anti-H. pylori antibody test in cases with gastric mucosal atrophy. A total of 859 individuals without past history of eradication therapy for H. pylori (545 males, 314 females; mean age 52.4 years) who underwent an upper GI endoscopy examination and serological test were enrolled as subjects. Serological testing was performed using SphereLight H. pylori antibody J®, and endoscopic findings of gastric mucosal atrophy by the classification of Kimura and Takemoto and post-eradication findings were analyzed. The positive rates for the anti-H. pylori antibody test in subjects with and without gastric mucosal atrophy were 85.6% and 0.9%, respectively. In analysis of subjects with gastric mucosal atrophy, a low positive rate and serum titer was observed in subjects with C1, C2 and O3 atrophy. When the analysis was performed separately in male and female subjects, low positive rate was observed in males with O3 atrophy and females with C2 atrophy. Suspected post-eradication endoscopic findings were more frequently observed in cases with C2 atrophy. In conclusion, negative result of anti-H. pylori antibody test was frequently observed in middle-aged subjects with C1, C2 and O3 gastric mucosal atrophy. PMID:27698543

  9. Prevalence of negative life events and chronic adversities in European pre- and primary-school children: results from the IDEFICS study

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Children are not always recognized as being susceptible to stress, although childhood stressors may originate from multiple events in their everyday surroundings with negative effects on children’s health. Methods As there is a lack of large-scale, European prevalence data on childhood adversities, this study presents the prevalence of (1) negative life events and (2) familial and social adversities in 4637 European pre- and primary-school children (4–11 years old), using a parentally-reported questionnaire embedded in the IDEFICS project (‘Identification and prevention of Dietary- and lifestyle-induced health EFfects In Children and infantS’). Results The following findings were observed: (1) Certain adversities occur only rarely, while others are very regular (i.e. parental divorce); (2) A large percentage of children is shielded from stressors, while a small group of children is exposed to multiple, accumulating adversities; (3) The prevalence of childhood adversity is influenced by geographical location (e.g. north versus south), age group and sex; (4) Childhood adversities are associated and co-occur, resulting in potential cumulative childhood stress. Conclusions This study demonstrated the importance of not only studying traumatic events but also of focusing on the early familial and social environment in childhood stress research and indicated the importance of recording or monitoring childhood adversities. PMID:23173879

  10. Conversation about Serostatus decreases risk of acquiring HIV: results from a case control study comparing MSM with recent HIV infection and HIV negative controls

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Data on knowledge, attitudes, behaviour and practices (KABP) of persons with recent HIV infection compared to controls with negative HIV test result provide information on current risk patterns and can help to re-focus HIV prevention strategies. Methods From March 2008 through May 2010, persons newly diagnosed with HIV (cases) and HIV-negative controls were recruited by physicians in Germany. To distinguish recent (< 5 months) from longstanding (> 5 months) infection, dried blood spots from people newly diagnosed with HIV were tested with the BED IgG-capture ELISA. Cases and controls completed a KABP-questionnaire. We compared cases with recent infection and controls among men having sex with men (MSM) regarding reported risk behaviour in the previous 6 months. To detect differences, unadjusted Odds Ratios (OR) were calculated and multivariate analysis was performed. Results Cases and controls did not differ in terms of knowledge on transmission risks, HIV testing frequency, partnership status, or regarding the frequency of any unprotected sex with partners known to be HIV-positive or assumed to be HIV-negative. Cases more often reported a shorter duration of partnership (< 6 months) with a primary partner than controls (OR = 3.9; p = 0.003) and indicated lower rates of condom use outside of primary relationships, with acquaintances (OR = 2.5; p = 0.01), and with persons met online (OR = 4.5; p = 0.04). Unprotected sex with persons of unknown HIV-serostatus was more often indicated by cases than controls (OR = 3.0; p = 0.003). Having a conversation about HIV serostatus before having sex was associated with a lower risk of infection (OR = 0.2; p = 0.01). In multivariate analysis “being always safe” (always using a condom when having sex in different situations outside of a relationship) and talking about serostatus before sex (OR = 0.23; p = 0.004; OR = 0.14; p = 0.014) were negatively

  11. Chlamydia trachomatis: important relationships to race, contraception, lower genital tract infection, and Papanicolaou smear.

    PubMed

    Shafer, M A; Beck, A; Blain, B; Dole, P; Irwin, C E; Sweet, R; Schachter, J

    1984-01-01

    Chlamydia trachomatis is a common cause of sexually transmitted disease in adolescent girls. Of 366 adolescent patients screened, 15.3% were found to have chlamydial endocervical infections, with an infection rate of 23.3% in blacks, 14.3% in Hispanics, and 10.3% in whites (P = 0.01, excess for blacks). Of Chlamydia-positive patients, 63.6% had a diagnosis of lower genital tract infection, compared with 35.4% of Chlamydia-negative patients (P = 0.004). Oral contraceptive users had a higher prevalence of infection (23.8%) compared with those using a barrier method (16.2%) or with nonusers (9.3%) (P = 0.004). Inflammatory changes on Papanicolaou smears were associated with chlamydial infection (P = 0.0001). Other variables identified as risk factors for chlamydial infection included both a younger age at first intercourse (P = 0.02) and more years of sexual activity (P = 0.02). Chronologic, menarchal, and gynecologic age, biologic age of the cervix, the number of sexual partners in the last month and during a lifetime, and parity were not found to be associated with recovery of Chlamydia.

  12. Ras gene product expression in blood and marrow smears of patients with acute leukemia: importance of fixation.

    PubMed

    Needleman, S W; Gutheil, J C; Kapil, V; Cimino, E F; Chana, G; Mane, S M

    1990-04-01

    Activation of ras protooncogenes by any of several possible mutations in codons 12, 13 or 61 has been demonstrated in a variety of human malignancies, including acute non-lymphoblastic leukemia (ANLL). In situ staining for the ras gene product, p21, has been demonstrated in carcinomas of several sites. High levels of p21 expression have been associated with histologic anaplasia in prostate cancer and regional lymph node metastasis in breast cancer. We examined 16 marrow aspirates and blood smears from patients with acute leukemia, predominantly ANLL, and eight controls. Marrow aspirates or blood were smeared on glass slides and fixed immediately in 10% buffered formalin. p21 was examined with avidin-biotin linked immunoperoxidase visualization. Particular attention must be paid to antibody selection and fixation protocol to demonstrate p21, owing to its rapid degradation ex vivo. Three of 16 patients exhibited occasional high p21 expression primarily in leukemic blasts, but in no case were more than 10% of blast cells positive. Normal reticuloendothelial and myeloid cells occasionally exhibited mild to moderately heavy staining, but megakaryocytes, erythroid precursors, lymphocytes and plasma cells were consistently negative. Most patients, 5 normal volunteers and 3 patients with non-malignant disease, exhibited no reactivity, or only a faint blush. These data suggest that while point mutation and concomitant activation of c-N-ras occurs regularly in ANLL, high levels of ras p21 expression are rarely found with this technique.

  13. PAP SMEAR RECEIPT AMONG VIETNAMESE IMMIGRANTS: THE IMPORTANCE OF HEALTH CARE FACTORS

    PubMed Central

    Taylor, Victoria M.; Yasui, Yutaka; Nguyen, Tung T.; Woodall, Erica; Hoai, H.; Acorda, Elizabeth; Li, Lin; Choe, John; Jackson, J. Carey

    2009-01-01

    Objective Recent US data indicate that women of Vietnamese descent have higher cervical cancer incidence rates than women of any other race/ethnicity, and lower levels of Pap testing than white, black, and Latina women. Our objective was to provide information about Pap testing barriers and facilitators that could be used to develop cervical cancer control intervention programs for Vietnamese American women. Design We conducted a cross-sectional, community-based survey of Vietnamese immigrants. Our study was conducted in metropolitan Seattle, Washington. A total of 1,532 Vietnamese American women participated in the study. Demographic, health care, and knowledge/belief items associated with previous cervical cancer screening participation (ever screened and screened according to interval screening guidelines) were examined. Results Eighty-one percent of the respondents had been screened for cervical cancer in the previous three years. Recent Pap testing was strongly associated (p<0.001) with having a regular doctor, having a physical in the last year, previous physician recommendation for testing, and having asked a physician for testing. Women whose regular doctor was a Vietnamese man were no more likely to have received a recent Pap smear than those with no regular doctor. Conclusion Our findings indicate that cervical cancer screening disparities between Vietnamese and other racial/ethnic groups are decreasing. Efforts to further increase Pap smear receipt in Vietnamese American communities should enable women without a source of health care to find a regular provider. Additionally, intervention programs should improve patient-provider communication by encouraging health care providers (especially male Vietnamese physicians serving women living in ethnic enclaves) to recommend Pap testing, as well as by empowering Vietnamese women to specifically ask their physicians for Pap testing. PMID:19626504

  14. True status of smear-positive pulmonary tuberculosis defaulters in Malawi.

    PubMed Central

    Kruyt, M. L.; Kruyt, N. D.; Boeree, M. J.; Harries, A. D.; Salaniponi, F. M.; van Noord, P. A.

    1999-01-01

    The article reports the results of a study to determine the true outcome of 8 months of treatment received by smear-positive pulmonary tuberculosis (PTB) patients who had been registered as defaulters in the Queen Elizabeth Central Hospital (QECH) and Mlambe Mission Hospital (MMH), Blantyre, Malawi. The treatment outcomes were documented from the tuberculosis registers of all patients registered between 1 October 1994 and 30 September 1995. The true treatment outcome for patients who had been registered as defaulters was determined by making personal inquiries at the treatment units and the residences of patients or relatives and, in a few cases, by writing to the appropriate postal address. Interviews were carried out with patients who had defaulted and were still alive and with matched, fully compliant PTB patients who had successfully completed the treatment to determine the factors associated with defaulter status. Of the 1099 patients, 126 (11.5%) had been registered as defaulters, and the true treatment outcome was determined for 101 (80%) of the latter; only 22 were true defaulters, 31 had completed the treatment, 31 had died during the treatment period, and 17 had left the area. A total of 8 of the 22 true defaulters were still alive and were compared with the compliant patients. Two significant characteristics were associated with the defaulters; they were unmarried; and they did not know the correct duration of antituberculosis treatment. Many of the smear-positive tuberculosis patients who had been registered as defaulters in the Blantyre district were found to have different treatment outcomes, without defaulting. The quality of reporting in the health facilities must therefore be improved in order to exclude individuals who are not true defaulters. PMID:10361755

  15. Isoniazid preventive treatment among child contacts of adults with smear-positive tuberculosis in The Gambia

    PubMed Central

    Sillah, A.; Togun, T.; Kandeh, S.; Cole, F.; Jallow, A.; Able-Thomas, A.; Hoelscher, M.; Heinrich, N.; Hill, P. C.; Kampmann, B.

    2016-01-01

    Setting: Greater Banjul area of The Gambia. Objectives: To evaluate uptake, adherence and completion of treatment among tuberculosis (TB) exposed children in The Gambia when isoniazid preventive treatment (IPT) is delivered at home Design: Child (age <5 years) contacts of adults with smear-positive TB were prospectively enrolled. Following symptom screening, tuberculin skin testing and clinical evaluation where indicated, those without disease were placed on daily isoniazid, provided monthly at home. Adherence was assessed by pill counts and IsoScreen™ urine test. Results: Of 404 contacts aged <5 years, 368 (91.1%) were offered IPT. Of the 328 (89.4%) for whom consent was received and who commenced IPT, 18 (5.5%) dropped out and 310 (94.5%) remained on IPT to the end of the 6-month regimen. Altogether, 255/328 children (77.7%, 95%CI 73.2–82.2) completed all 6 months, with good adherence. The IsoScreen test was positive in 85.3% (435/510) of all tests among those defined as having good adherence by pill count and in 16% (8/50) of those defined as having poor adherence (P < 0.001). A cascade of care analysis showed an overall completion rate with good adherence of 61% for all child contacts. Conclusion: Home-delivered IPT among child contacts of adults with smear-positive TB in The Gambia achieved verifiable high uptake and adherence rates. System rather than patient factors are likely to determine the success of IPT at national level. PMID:28123958

  16. Isoniazid preventive treatment among child contacts of adults with smear-positive tuberculosis in The Gambia.

    PubMed

    Egere, U; Sillah, A; Togun, T; Kandeh, S; Cole, F; Jallow, A; Able-Thomas, A; Hoelscher, M; Heinrich, N; Hill, P C; Kampmann, B

    2016-12-21

    Setting: Greater Banjul area of The Gambia. Objectives: To evaluate uptake, adherence and completion of treatment among tuberculosis (TB) exposed children in The Gambia when isoniazid preventive treatment (IPT) is delivered at home Design: Child (age <5 years) contacts of adults with smear-positive TB were prospectively enrolled. Following symptom screening, tuberculin skin testing and clinical evaluation where indicated, those without disease were placed on daily isoniazid, provided monthly at home. Adherence was assessed by pill counts and IsoScreen(™) urine test. Results: Of 404 contacts aged <5 years, 368 (91.1%) were offered IPT. Of the 328 (89.4%) for whom consent was received and who commenced IPT, 18 (5.5%) dropped out and 310 (94.5%) remained on IPT to the end of the 6-month regimen. Altogether, 255/328 children (77.7%, 95%CI 73.2-82.2) completed all 6 months, with good adherence. The IsoScreen test was positive in 85.3% (435/510) of all tests among those defined as having good adherence by pill count and in 16% (8/50) of those defined as having poor adherence (P < 0.001). A cascade of care analysis showed an overall completion rate with good adherence of 61% for all child contacts. Conclusion: Home-delivered IPT among child contacts of adults with smear-positive TB in The Gambia achieved verifiable high uptake and adherence rates. System rather than patient factors are likely to determine the success of IPT at national level.

  17. Results.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zemsky, Robert; Shaman, Susan; Shapiro, Daniel B.

    2001-01-01

    Describes the Collegiate Results Instrument (CRI), which measures a range of collegiate outcomes for alumni 6 years after graduation. The CRI was designed to target alumni from institutions across market segments and assess their values, abilities, work skills, occupations, and pursuit of lifelong learning. (EV)

  18. Virus-induced gene silencing of Withania somnifera squalene synthase negatively regulates sterol and defence-related genes resulting in reduced withanolides and biotic stress tolerance.

    PubMed

    Singh, Anup Kumar; Dwivedi, Varun; Rai, Avanish; Pal, Shaifali; Reddy, Sajjalavarahalli Gangireddy Eswara; Rao, Dodaghatta Krishnarao Venkata; Shasany, Ajit Kumar; Nagegowda, Dinesh A

    2015-12-01

    Withania somnifera (L.) Dunal is an important Indian medicinal plant that produces withanolides, which are triterpenoid steroidal lactones having diverse biological activities. To enable fast and efficient functional characterization of genes in this slow-growing and difficult-to-transform plant, a virus-induced gene silencing (VIGS) was established by silencing phytoene desaturase (PDS) and squalene synthase (SQS). VIGS of the gene encoding SQS, which provides precursors for triterpenoids, resulted in significant reduction of squalene and withanolides, demonstrating its application in studying withanolides biosynthesis in W. somnifera leaves. A comprehensive analysis of gene expression and sterol pathway intermediates in WsSQS-vigs plants revealed transcriptional modulation with positive feedback regulation of mevalonate pathway genes, and negative feed-forward regulation of downstream sterol pathway genes including DWF1 (delta-24-sterol reductase) and CYP710A1 (C-22-sterol desaturase), resulting in significant reduction of sitosterol, campesterol and stigmasterol. However, there was little effect of SQS silencing on cholesterol, indicating the contribution of sitosterol, campesterol and stigmasterol, but not of cholesterol, towards withanolides formation. Branch-point oxidosqualene synthases in WsSQS-vigs plants exhibited differential regulation with reduced CAS (cycloartenol synthase) and cycloartenol, and induced BAS (β-amyrin synthase) and β-amyrin. Moreover, SQS silencing also led to the down-regulation of brassinosteroid-6-oxidase-2 (BR6OX2), pathogenesis-related (PR) and nonexpressor of PR (NPR) genes, resulting in reduced tolerance to bacterial and fungal infection as well as to insect feeding. Taken together, SQS silencing negatively regulated sterol and defence-related genes leading to reduced phytosterols, withanolides and biotic stress tolerance, thus implicating the application of VIGS for functional analysis of genes related to withanolides

  19. Frequency of Propionibacterium acnes Infection in Prostate Glands with Negative Biopsy Results Is an Independent Risk Factor for Prostate Cancer in Patients with Increased Serum PSA Titers

    PubMed Central

    Ito, Takashi; Uchida, Keisuke; Sekine, Masaki; Nakajima, Yutaka; Furukawa, Asuka; Suzuki, Yoshimi; Kumagai, Jiro; Akashi, Takumi

    2017-01-01

    Background Propionibacterium acnes has recently been implicated as a cause of chronic prostatitis and this commensal bacterium may be linked to prostate carcinogenesis. The occurrence of intracellular P. acnes infection in prostate glands and the higher frequency of P. acnes-positive glands in radical prostatectomy specimens from patients with prostate cancer (PCa) than in those from patients without PCa led us to examine whether the P. acnes-positive gland frequency can be used to assess the risk for PCa in patients whose first prostate biopsy, performed due to an increased prostate-specific antigen (PSA) titer, was negative. Methods We retrospectively collected the first and last prostate biopsy samples from 44 patients that were diagnosed PCa within 4 years after the first negative biopsy and from 36 control patients with no PCa found in repeated biopsy for at least 3 years after the first biopsy. We evaluated P. acnes-positive gland frequency and P. acnes-positive macrophage number using enzyme-immunohistochemistry with a P. acnes-specific monoclonal antibody (PAL antibody). Results The frequency of P. acnes-positive glands was higher in PCa samples than in control samples in both first biopsy samples and in combined first and last biopsy samples (P < 0.001). A frequency greater than the threshold (18.5 and 17.7, respectively) obtained by each receiver operating characteristic curve was an independent risk factor for PCa (P = 0.003 and 0.001, respectively) with odds ratios (14.8 and 13.9, respectively) higher than those of serum PSA titers of patients just before each biopsy (4.6 and 2.3, respectively). The number of P. acnes-positive macrophages did not differ significantly between PCa and control samples. Conclusions These results suggested that the frequency of P. acnes-positive glands in the first negative prostate biopsy performed due to increased PSA titers can be supportive information for urologists in planning repeated biopsy or follow-up strategies

  20. Hot topic: Bovine milk samples yielding negative or nonspecific results in bacterial culturing--the possible role of PCR-single strand conformation polymorphism in mastitis diagnosis.

    PubMed

    Schwaiger, K; Wimmer, M; Huber-Schlenstedt, R; Fehlings, K; Hölzel, C S; Bauer, J

    2012-01-01

    A large proportion of mastitis milk samples yield negative or nonspecific results (i.e., no mastitis pathogen can be identified) in bacterial culturing. Therefore, the culture-independent PCR-single strand conformation polymorphism method was applied to the investigation of bovine mastitis milk samples. In addition to the known mastitis pathogens, the method was suitable for the detection of fastidious bacteria such as Mycoplasma spp., which are often missed by conventional culturing methods. The detection of Helcococcus ovis in 4 samples might indicate an involvement of this species in pathogenesis of bovine mastitis. In conclusion, PCR-single-strand conformation polymorphism is a promising tool for gaining new insights into the bacteriological etiology of mastitis.

  1. Pap Smear: Do I Need One If I'm a Virgin?

    MedlinePlus

    ... Pap smears? Answers from Shannon K. Laughlin-Tommaso, M.D. Most health care organizations recommend women begin ... your particular situation. With Shannon K. Laughlin-Tommaso, M.D. References Screening for cervical cancer. Rockville, Md.: ...

  2. Dysbacteriosis in silver-stained cervical smears of Dutch-Moroccan immigrants: HPV infection and preneoplasia.

    PubMed

    Verbruggen, Banut-Sabine M; Boon, Mathilde E; van Schie, Marieke A; Wijsman-Grootendorst, Rian; Kok, Lambrecht P

    2006-01-01

    The vaginal/cervical smears of a group of Moroccan immigrants were used to compare vaginal dysbacteriosis (i.e., a bacterial population change with a decrease in lactobacilli and an increase of coccoid bacteria in vaginal/cervical smears) with Dutch women. From our archives, 779 smears from Moroccan immigrants were compared with 1,060 smears of age-matched Dutch women. For bacterial flora, Jones-Marres silver stains were used to define four groups. Koilocytosis and cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN) were also recorded. The bacterial vaginal flora of Moroccan immigrants and Dutch women was different. The Moroccan women had a lower dysbacteriosis than Dutch women (3% vs. 24%). Koilocytosis and CIN were less frequent in the immigrant population. The possible synergy of a disturbed vaginal flora with human papillomavirus (HPV), HIV, or cervical preneoplasia indicates that vaginal hygiene and a normal flora may have positive effects on the uterine cervix.

  3. Comparative evaluation of 15% ethylenediamine tetra-acetic acid plus cetavlon and 5% chlorine dioxide in removal of smear layer: A scanning electron microscope study

    PubMed Central

    Singh, Sandeep; Arora, Vimal; Majithia, Inderpal; Dhiman, Rakesh Kumar; Kumar, Dinesh; Ather, Amber

    2013-01-01

    Aims: The purpose of this study was to compare the efficacy of smear layer removal by 5% chlorine dioxide and 15% Ethylenediamine Tetra-Acetic Acid plus Cetavlon (EDTAC) from the human root canal dentin. Materials and Methods Fifty single rooted human mandibular anterior teeth were divided into two groups of 20 teeth each and control group of 10 teeth. The root canals were prepared till F3 protaper and initially irrigated with 2% Sodium hypochlorite followed by 1 min irrigation with 15% EDTAC or 5% Chlorine dioxide respectively. The control group was irrigated with saline. The teeth were longitudinally split and observed under Scanning electron microscope SEM (×2000). Statistical Analysis Used: The statistical analysis was done using General Linear Mixed Model. Results: At the coronal thirds, no statistically significant difference was found between 15% EDTAC and 5% Chlorine dioxide in removing smear layer. In the middle and apical third region 15% EDTAC showed better smear layer removal ability than 5% Chlorine dioxide. Conclusion: Final irrigation with 15% EDTAC is superior to 5% chlorine dioxide in removing smear layer in the middle and apical third of radicular dentin. PMID:23853455

  4. Inequity of healthcare utilization on mammography examination and Pap smear screening in Thailand: Analysis of a population-based household survey

    PubMed Central

    2017-01-01

    Healthcare in Thailand is not equally distributed, and not all people can equally access healthcare resources even if they are covered by health insurance. To examine factors associated with the utilization of mammography examination for breast cancer and Pap smear screening for cervical cancer, data from the national reproductive health survey conducted by the National Statistical Office of Thailand in 2009 was examined. The survey was carried out on 15,074,126 women aged 30–59 years. The results showed that the wealthier respondents had more mammograms than did the lower-income groups. The concentration index was 0.144. The data on Pap smears for cervical cancer also showed that the wealthier respondents were more likely to have had a Pap smear than their lower-income counterparts. The concentration index was 0.054. Determinants of mammography examination were education, followed by health welfare and wealth index, whereas the determinants of Pap smear screening were wealth index, followed by health welfare and education. The government should support greater education for women because education was associated with socioeconomic status and wealth. There should be an increase in the number of screening campaigns, mobile clinics, and low-cost mammograms and continued support for accessibility to mammograms, especially in rural areas and low-income communities. PMID:28282430

  5. Specific identification of human papillomavirus type in cervical smears and paraffin sections by in situ hybridization with radioactive probes: a preliminary communication

    SciTech Connect

    Gupta, J.; Gendelman, H.E.; Naghashfar, Z.; Gupta, P.; Rosenshein, N.; Sawada, E.; Woodruff, J.D.; Shah, K.

    1985-01-01

    Cervical Papanicolaou smears and paraffin sections of biopsy specimens obtained from women attending dysplasia clinics were examined for viral DNA sequences by in situ hybridization technique using TVS-labeled cloned recombinant DNA probes of human papillomavirus (HPV) types 6, 11, and 16. These and one unrelated DNA probe complementary to measles virus RNA were labeled by nick translation using either one or two TVS-labeled nucleotides. Paraffin sections and cervical smears were collected on pretreated slides, hybridized with the probes under stringent or nonstringent conditions for 50 h, and autoradiographed. Additional cervical specimens from the same women were examined for the presence of genus-specific papillomavirus capsid antigen by the immunoperoxidase technique. Preliminary results may be summarized as follows. The infecting virus could be identified in smears as well as in sections. Viral DNA sequences were detected only when there were condylomatous cells in the specimen and in only a proportion of the condylomatous cells. Even under stringent conditions, some specimens reacted with both HPV-6 and HPV-11. In some instances, the cells did not hybridize with any of the three probes even when duplicate specimens contained frankly condylomatous, capsid antigen-positive cells. In situ hybridization of Papanicolaou smears or of tissue sections is a practical method for diagnosis and follow-up of specific papillomavirus infection using routinely collected material.

  6. Evaluation of smear layer removal and marginal adaptation of root canal sealer after final irrigation using ethylenediaminetetraacetic, peracetic, and etidronic acids with different concentrations.

    PubMed

    Ulusoy, Özgür İlke; Zeyrek, Salev; Çelik, Bülent

    2017-02-12

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of different irrigation solutions on the smear layer removal and marginal adaptation of a resin-based sealer to root canal dentine. A total of 152 instrumented roots were irrigated with the following irrigants: 9,18% etidronic acid (HEBP), 0.5, 1,2% peracetic acid (PAA), 17% ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA), saline. The amount of smear layer was evaluated using scanning electron microscope (SEM) in seventy root samples. Eighty-two roots were filled with AH Plus and gutta-percha. Slices obtained from apical third of each specimen were viewed with SEM to assess marginal adaptation. Use of 9% and 18% HEBP resulted in more efficient smear layer removal in the apical third than the other chelators (p < 0.05). Higher smear layer scores in the coronal and middle thirds were obtained from 0.5%, 1% PAA groups. Regarding marginal adaptation, 18% HEBP group showed the lowest gap size values (p < 0.05), and better marginal adaptation. Etidronic acid is a promising candidate for final irrigation of root canals.

  7. Expression of beta 1B integrin isoform in CHO cells results in a dominant negative effect on cell adhesion and motility

    PubMed Central

    1994-01-01

    The integrin subunit beta 1B, a beta 1 isoform with a unique sequence at the cytoplasmic domain, forms heterodimers with integrin alpha chains and binds fibronectin, but it does not localize to focal adhesion sites (Balzac, F., A. Belkin, V. Koteliansky, Y. Balabanow, F. Altruda, L. Silengo, and G. Tarone. 1993. J. Cell Biol. 121:171-178). Here we analyze the functional properties of human beta 1B by expressing it in hamster CHO cells. When stimulated by specific antibodies, beta 1B does not trigger tyrosine phosphorylation of a 125- kD cytosolic protein, an intracellular signalling pathway that is activated both by the endogenous hamster or the transfected human beta 1A. Moreover, expression of beta 1B results in reduced spreading on fibronectin and laminin, but not on vitronectin. Expression of beta 1B also results in severe reduction of cell motility in the Boyden chamber assay. Reduced cell spreading and motility could not be accounted for by preferential association of beta 1B with a given integrin alpha subunit. These data, together with our previous results, indicate that beta 1B interferes with beta 1A function when expressed in CHO cells resulting in a dominant negative effect on cell adhesion and migration. PMID:7523423

  8. Expression of beta 1B integrin isoform in CHO cells results in a dominant negative effect on cell adhesion and motility.

    PubMed

    Balzac, F; Retta, S F; Albini, A; Melchiorri, A; Koteliansky, V E; Geuna, M; Silengo, L; Tarone, G

    1994-10-01

    The integrin subunit beta 1B, a beta 1 isoform with a unique sequence at the cytoplasmic domain, forms heterodimers with integrin alpha chains and binds fibronectin, but it does not localize to focal adhesion sites (Balzac, F., A. Belkin, V. Koteliansky, Y. Balabanow, F. Altruda, L. Silengo, and G. Tarone. 1993. J. Cell Biol. 121:171-178). Here we analyze the functional properties of human beta 1B by expressing it in hamster CHO cells. When stimulated by specific antibodies, beta 1B does not trigger tyrosine phosphorylation of a 125-kD cytosolic protein, an intracellular signalling pathway that is activated both by the endogenous hamster or the transfected human beta 1A. Moreover, expression of beta 1B results in reduced spreading on fibronectin and laminin, but not on vitronectin. Expression of beta 1B also results in severe reduction of cell motility in the Boyden chamber assay. Reduced cell spreading and motility could not be accounted for by preferential association of beta 1B with a given integrin alpha subunit. These data, together with our previous results, indicate that beta 1B interferes with beta 1A function when expressed in CHO cells resulting in a dominant negative effect on cell adhesion and migration.

  9. Suspected myelodysplastic/myeloproliferative neoplasm in a feline leukemia virus-negative cat.

    PubMed

    Weeden, Amy L; Taylor, Kyle R; Terrell, Scott P; Gallagher, Alexander E; Wamsley, Heather L

    2016-12-01

    A 10-year-old castrated Domestic Short-Haired cat was presented to a primary care veterinarian for a wellness examination and laboratory examination for monitoring of diabetes mellitus. The CBC revealed marked thrombocytosis, leukopenia and macrocytic, normochromic anemia. The cat tested negative for FeLV and feline immunodeficiency virus, but was positive for Mycoplasma haemominutum by PCR. Hematologic abnormalities were not responsive to therapy, so a repeat CBC and a bone marrow aspiration for cytology were performed. Additional blood smear findings included anisocytosis with megaloblastic erythroid precursors, large platelets, eosinophilic myelocytes and metamyelocytes, and rare unidentified blasts. The bone marrow smear was highly cellular, and the cytologic pattern was consistent with myelodysplastic syndrome with an erythroid predominance. At that time, 15% blasts were present. The cat was treated with a vitamin K2 analog, doxycycline, and prednisolone, but without a clinical response. Within 3 months, euthanasia was elected due to declining quality of life, and a necropsy was performed. Postmortem bone marrow smears were highly cellular and dominated by monomorphic blasts of unknown line of origin (52%), persistent marked erythroid and megakaryocytic dysplasia, and ineffective erythropoiesis and granulopoiesis. Immunohistochemical, immunocytochemical, and cytochemical stains resulted in a diagnosis of acute myeloid leukemia of unclassified type. Additional histologic findings included mixed hepatitis with trematode infestation and lymphoplasmacytic interstitial nephritis with fibrosis. The marked thrombocytosis with myelodysplastic syndrome and the FeLV-negative status of this cat were unusual. The difficulty in classifying the myelodysplasia and subsequent leukemia highlights a need for further reporting and characterization of these types of disease.

  10. Control of smearing during wiping stage of gravure printing of electronics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ceyhan, Umut; Morris, S. J. S.

    2016-11-01

    During gravure printing, a blade wipes the excess liquid from the engraved gravure roll, the objective is leaving liquid filled cells defining the image to be printed. Capillarity, however, draws some liquid from cell into a meniscus connecting to the blade; and the continuing motion of gravure roll smears that meniscus over its surface. Smearing delivers features lacking in sharpness at the micron scale. Ceyhan and Morris (BAPS.2015.DFD.M8.10) analyze smear formation for the blade-liquid contact angles covering the range 0 <= θ < π / 2 and show that the problem can be treated in plane. Using numerical solutions of the corresponding free boundary problem for the Stokes equations of motion, we show that hydrostatic theory provides an upper bound for the smear volume for finite Ca . The approach of trailing edge of the cell to the meniscus isolates a certain volume of liquid from the cell, the isolated liquid is deformed with the continuing motion of gravure roll. The problem of controlling smear formation now reduces to the simpler problem of reducing the quantity of liquid drawn into the meniscus. The theory explains why polishing to reduce the tip radius of the blade is an effective way to control smearing.

  11. A Comparative SEM Investigation of Smear Layer Remaining on Dentinal Walls by Three Rotary NiTi Files with Different Cross Sectional Designs in Moderately Curved Canals

    PubMed Central

    Kakkar, Pooja; Vats, Asit

    2015-01-01

    Objective: The objective of this study was to compare the smear layer formed on root canal walls during canal preparation of extracted human teeth by Twisted, Mtwo, and ProTaper rotary nickel titanium instruments. Materials and Methods: Sixty single rooted human premolar teeth with root curvature <250 were selected and randomly divided into three Groups (n= 20 teeth per Group). Three types of rotary nickel titanium instruments were used, Twisted (SybronEndo, Orange, CA, USA), Mtwo (VDW, Munich, Germany) and ProTaper (Dentsply Maillefer, Ballaigues, Switzerland) according to manufacturer’s instructions to instrument the root canals. Irrigation for all groups was performed after each instrument change with 3ml of 3% sodium hypochlorite followed by Glyde (File Prep, Dentsply, Maillefer, Ballaigues, Switzerland) as chelator paste and lubricant. Three different areas (coronal, middle and apical thirds) of the root canal were evaluated using scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The canal wall of each sample was assessed and compared using a predefined scale for the presence or absence of smear layer. Data were analysed statistically using ANOVA and Tukey HSD test Results: All three groups showed statistically significant more smear layer in the apical thirds of the canal as compared to the coronal and middle thirds (p<0.001). Mtwo rotary file system produced significantly less smear layer (p<0.001) compared to Twisted and ProTaper rotary instruments in the apical portion. Twisted Files resulted in less smear layer formation in the apical thirds of the canal compared to ProTaper rotary instruments but were statistically insignificant. Conclusion: Completely clean root canals were not found after instrumentation with any of the three instruments. Under the confines of this study Mtwo instruments produced significantly cleaner dentin wall surfaces throughout the canal length in comparison to Twisted and ProTaper rotary files. Twisted Files proved to be comparable to Pro

  12. A Dominant Negative Heterozygous G87R Mutation in the Zinc Transporter, ZnT-2 (SLC30A2), Results in Transient Neonatal Zinc Deficiency

    PubMed Central

    Lasry, Inbal; Seo, Young Ah; Ityel, Hadas; Shalva, Nechama; Pode-Shakked, Ben; Glaser, Fabian; Berman, Bluma; Berezovsky, Igor; Goncearenco, Alexander; Klar, Aharon; Levy, Jacob; Anikster, Yair; Kelleher, Shannon L.; Assaraf, Yehuda G.

    2012-01-01

    Zinc is an essential mineral, and infants are particularly vulnerable to zinc deficiency as they require large amounts of zinc for their normal growth and development. We have recently described the first loss-of-function mutation (H54R) in the zinc transporter ZnT-2 (SLC30A2) in mothers with infants harboring transient neonatal zinc deficiency (TNZD). Here we identified and characterized a novel heterozygous G87R ZnT-2 mutation in two unrelated Ashkenazi Jewish mothers with infants displaying TNZD. Transient transfection of G87R ZnT-2 resulted in endoplasmic reticulum-Golgi retention, whereas the WT transporter properly localized to intracellular secretory vesicles in HC11 and MCF-7 cells. Consequently, G87R ZnT-2 showed decreased stability compared with WT ZnT-2 as revealed by Western blot analysis. Three-dimensional homology modeling based on the crystal structure of YiiP, a close zinc transporter homologue from Escherichia coli, revealed that the basic arginine residue of the mutant G87R points toward the membrane lipid core, suggesting misfolding and possible loss-of-function. Indeed, functional assays including vesicular zinc accumulation, zinc secretion, and cytoplasmic zinc pool assessment revealed markedly impaired zinc transport in G87R ZnT-2 transfectants. Moreover, co-transfection experiments with both mutant and WT transporters revealed a dominant negative effect of G87R ZnT-2 over the WT ZnT-2; this was associated with mislocalization, decreased stability, and loss of zinc transport activity of the WT ZnT-2 due to homodimerization observed upon immunoprecipitation experiments. These findings establish that inactivating ZnT-2 mutations are an underlying basis of TNZD and provide the first evidence for the dominant inheritance of heterozygous ZnT-2 mutations via negative dominance due to homodimer formation. PMID:22733820

  13. Cognitive Effects of High-Frequency rTMS in Schizophrenia Patients With Predominant Negative Symptoms: Results From a Multicenter Randomized Sham-Controlled Trial.

    PubMed

    Hasan, Alkomiet; Guse, Birgit; Cordes, Joachim; Wölwer, Wolfgang; Winterer, Georg; Gaebel, Wolfgang; Langguth, Berthold; Landgrebe, Michael; Eichhammer, Peter; Frank, Elmar; Hajak, Göran; Ohmann, Christian; Verde, Pablo E; Rietschel, Marcella; Ahmed, Raees; Honer, William G; Malchow, Berend; Karch, Susanne; Schneider-Axmann, Thomas; Falkai, Peter; Wobrock, Thomas

    2016-05-01

    Cognitive impairments are one of the main contributors to disability and poor long-term outcome in schizophrenia. Proof-of-concept trials indicate that repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) applied to the left dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC) has the potential to improve cognitive functioning. We analyzed the effects of 10-Hz rTMS to the left DLPFC on cognitive deficits in schizophrenia in a large-scale and multicenter, sham-controlled study. A total of 156 schizophrenia patients with predominant negative symptoms were randomly assigned to a 3-week intervention (10-Hz rTMS, 15 sessions, 1000 stimuli per session) with either active or sham rTMS. The Rey Auditory Verbal Learning Test, Trail Making Test A and B, Wisconsin Card Sorting Test, Digit Span Test, and the Regensburg Word Fluency Test were administered before intervention and at day 21, 45, and 105 follow-up. From the test results, a neuropsychological composite score was computed. Both groups showed no differences in any of the outcome variables before and after intervention. Both groups improved markedly over time, but effect sizes indicate a numeric, but nonsignificant superiority of active rTMS in certain cognitive tests. Active 10-Hz rTMS applied to the left DLPFC for 3 weeks was not superior to sham rTMS in the improvement of various cognitive domains in schizophrenia patients with predominant negative symptoms. This is in contrast to previous preliminary proof-of-concept trials, but highlights the need for more multicenter randomized controlled trials in the field of noninvasive brain stimulation.

  14. Global assessment of antimicrobial susceptibility among Gram-negative organisms collected from pediatric patients between 2004 and 2012: results from the Tigecycline Evaluation and Surveillance Trial.

    PubMed

    Kehl, Sue C; Dowzicky, Michael J

    2015-04-01

    The Tigecycline Evaluation and Surveillance Trial (TEST) was designed to monitor susceptibility to commonly used antimicrobial agents among important pathogens. We report here on susceptibility among Gram-negative pathogens collected globally from pediatric patients between 2004 and 2012. Antimicrobial susceptibility was determined using guidelines published by the Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute (CLSI). Most Enterobacteriaceae showed high rates of susceptibility (>95%) to amikacin, tigecycline, and the carbapenems (imipenem and meropenem); 90.8% of Acinetobacter baumannii isolates were susceptible to minocycline, and susceptibility rates were highest in North America, Europe, and Asia/Pacific Rim. Amikacin was the most active agent against Pseudomonas aeruginosa (90.4% susceptibility), with susceptibility rates being highest in North America. Extended-spectrum β-lactamases (ESBLs) were reported for 11.0% of Escherichia coli isolates and 24.2% of Klebsiella pneumoniae isolates globally, with rates reaching as high as 25.7% in the Middle East and >43% in Africa and Latin America, respectively. Statistically significant (P<0.01) differences in susceptibility rates were noted between pediatric age groups (1 to 5 years, 6 to 12 years, or 13 to 17 years of age), globally and in some regions, for all pathogens except Haemophilus influenzae. Significant (P<0.01) differences were reported for all pathogens globally and in most regions, considerably more frequently, when pediatric and adult susceptibility results were compared. Amikacin, tigecycline, and the carbapenems were active in vitro against most Gram-negative pathogens collected from pediatric patients; A. baumannii and P. aeruginosa were susceptible to fewer antimicrobial agents. Susceptibility rates among isolates from pediatric patients were frequently different from those among isolates collected from adults.

  15. The Effect of Three Different Root Canal Irrigant Protocols for Removing Smear Layer on the Apical Microleakage of AH26 Sealer

    PubMed Central

    Farhad, Ali Reza; Barekatain, Behnaz; Koushki, Ali Reza

    2008-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: The purpose of this in vitro study was to assess the apical microleakage of AH26 sealer when three different root canal irrigant regimens were used. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Eighty single-rooted human teeth were randomly divided into three experimental (n=20) and two control groups (n=10). NaOCl was used as irrigant during instrumentation, and apical patency was ensured in all teeth. Final irrigation was implemented as follow: group A- 17% EDTA + 5.25% NaOCl, Group B- 7% citric acid + 5.25% NaOCl, and group C- 20% citric acid + 5.25% NaOCl. The experimental and negative control groups were obturated by laterally condensed gutta-percha with AH26 sealer. The positive control group was obturated without sealer. The teeth were stored in 100% humidity and 37ºC for 48 hours. In the experimental groups and positive control group, the root surfaces except for the apical 2 mm were covered with nail polish and sticky wax. In the negative control group, the roots were completely covered. The samples were then immersed in 2% methylene blue dye for 72 hours at 37ºC. After that the roots were sectioned longitudinally and the dye penetration was measured. The results were statistically analyzed by One-way Variance and Post Hoc Tukey tests. RESULTS: Statistically significant difference was found between groups (P<0.05). Group C showed the least (1.072 mm) and group A showed the most (2.072 mm) amount of dye penetration. CONCLUSION: When a resin-based sealer is used for the obturation of the root canal system, it is better to use a citric acid irrigant instead of EDTA to remove the smear layer and to improve the apical seal. PMID:24146672

  16. Thai Negation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alam, Samsul

    A study analyzed the structure of negative sentences in the Thai language, based on data gathered from two native speakers. It is shown that the Thai negative marker generally occurs between the noun phrase (subject) and the verb phrase in simple active sentences and in passive sentences. Negation of noun phrases is also allowed in Thai, with a…

  17. The effect of green tea extract supplementation on sputum smear conversion and weight changes in pulmonary TB patients: A randomized controlled trial

    PubMed Central

    Honarvar, Mohammad Reza; Eghtesadi, Shahryar; Gill, Pooria; Jazayeri, Shima; Vakili, Mohammad Ali; Shamsardekani, Mohammad Reza; Abbasi, Abdollah

    2016-01-01

    Background: Acceleration in sputum smear conversion helps faster improvement and decreased probability of the transfer of TB. In this study, we aimed to investigate the effect of green tea extract supplementation on sputum smear conversion and weight changes in smear positive pulmonary TB patients in Iran. Methods: In this double blind clinical study, TB patients were divided into intervention, (n=43) receiving 500 mg green tea extract (GTE), and control groups (n=40) receiving placebo for two months, using balanced randomization. Random allocation and allocation concealment were observed. Height and weight were measured at the beginning, and two and six months post-treatment. Evaluations were performed on three slides, using the ZiehlNeelsen method. Independent and paired t test, McNemar’s, Wilcoxon, Kaplan-Meier, Cox regression model and Log-Rank test were utilized. Statistical significance was set at p<0.05. This trial was registered under IRCT201212232602N11. Results: The interventional changes and the interactive effect of intervention on weight were not significant (p>0.05). In terms of shortening the duration of conversion, the case to control proportion showed a significant difference (p=0.032). Based on the Cox regression model, the hazard ratio of the relative risk of delay in sputum smear conversion was 3.7 (p=0.002) in the higher microbial load group compared to the placebo group and 0.54 (95% CI: 0.31-0.94) in the intervention compared to the placebo group. Conclusion: GTE decreases the risk of delay in sputum smear conversion, but has no effect on weight gain. Moreover, it may be used as an adjuvant therapy for faster rehabilitation for pulmonary TB patients. PMID:27493925

  18. Factors related to the practice of breast self examination (BSE) and Pap smear screening among Malaysian women workers in selected electronics factories

    PubMed Central

    Chee, HL; Rashidah, S; Shamsuddin, K; Intan, O

    2003-01-01

    Background The Malaysian Ministry of Health promotes breast self-examination (BSE) for all women, and Pap smear screening every three years for all sexually active women ages 20 years and above. The objectives of this paper were to examine the practice of these two screening tests among women production workers in electronics factories, and to identify factors related to practice. Methods This was a cross-sectional survey of women production workers from ten electronics factories. Data was collected by a self-administered questionnaire from a total of 1,720 women. The chi-square test, odds ratio and binomial logistic regression were used in bivariate and multivariate analysis. Results Prevalence rates were 24.4% for BSE once a month, and 18.4% for Pap smear examination within the last three years. Women who were significantly more likely to perform BSE every month were 30 years and older, Malays, with upper secondary education and above, answered the BSE question correctly, and had a Pap smear within the last three years. The proportion of women who had a Pap smear within the last three years were significantly higher among those who were older, married, with young children, on the contraceptive pill or intra-uterine device, had a medical examination within the last five years, answered the Pap smear question correctly, and performed BSE monthly. Conclusion Screening practice rates in this study were low when compared to national rates. Socio-demographic and health care factors significantly associated with screening practice are indicative of barriers which should be further understood so that more effective educational and promotional strategies could be developed. PMID:12769827

  19. Screening for latent tuberculosis in Norwegian health care workers: high frequency of discordant tuberculin skin test positive and interferon-gamma release assay negative results

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Tuberculosis (TB) presents globally a significant health problem and health care workers (HCW) are at increased risk of contracting TB infection. There is no diagnostic gold standard for latent TB infection (LTBI), but both blood based interferon-gamma release assays (IGRA) and the tuberculin skin test (TST) are used. According to the national guidelines, HCW who have been exposed for TB should be screened and offered preventive anti-TB chemotherapy, but the role of IGRA in HCW screening is still unclear. Methods A total of 387 HCW working in clinical and laboratory departments in three major hospitals in the Western region of Norway with possible exposure to TB were included in a cross-sectional study. The HCW were asked for risk factors for TB and tested with TST and the QuantiFERON®TB Gold In-Tube test (QFT). A logistic regression model analyzed the associations between risk factors for TB and positive QFT or TST. Results A total of 13 (3.4%) demonstrated a persistent positive QFT, whereas 214 (55.3%) had a positive TST (≥ 6 mm) and 53 (13.7%) a TST ≥ 15 mm. Only ten (4.7%) of the HCW with a positive TST were QFT positive. Origin from a TB-endemic country was the only risk factor associated with a positive QFT (OR 14.13, 95% CI 1.37 - 145.38, p = 0.026), whereas there was no significant association between risk factors for TB and TST ≥ 15 mm. The five HCW with an initial positive QFT that retested negative all had low interferon-gamma (IFN-γ) responses below 0.70 IU/ml when first tested. Conclusions We demonstrate a low prevalence of LTBI in HCW working in hospitals with TB patients in our region. The “IGRA-only” seems like a desirable screening strategy despite its limitations in serial testing, due to the high numbers of discordant TST positive/IGRA negative results in HCW, probably caused by BCG vaccination or boosting due to repetitive TST testing. Thus, guidelines for TB screening in HCW should be updated in order to

  20. A Malaria Diagnostic Tool Based on Computer Vision Screening and Visualization of Plasmodium falciparum Candidate Areas in Digitized Blood Smears

    PubMed Central

    Walliander, Margarita; Mårtensson, Andreas; Diwan, Vinod; Rahtu, Esa; Pietikäinen, Matti; Lundin, Mikael; Lundin, Johan

    2014-01-01

    Introduction Microscopy is the gold standard for diagnosis of malaria, however, manual evaluation of blood films is highly dependent on skilled personnel in a time-consuming, error-prone and repetitive process. In this study we propose a method using computer vision detection and visualization of only the diagnostically most relevant sample regions in digitized blood smears. Methods Giemsa-stained thin blood films with P. falciparum ring-stage trophozoites (n = 27) and uninfected controls (n = 20) were digitally scanned with an oil immersion objective (0.1 µm/pixel) to capture approximately 50,000 erythrocytes per sample. Parasite candidate regions were identified based on color and object size, followed by extraction of image features (local binary patterns, local contrast and Scale-invariant feature transform descriptors) used as input to a support vector machine classifier. The classifier was trained on digital slides from ten patients and validated on six samples. Results The diagnostic accuracy was tested on 31 samples (19 infected and 12 controls). From each digitized area of a blood smear, a panel with the 128 most probable parasite candidate regions was generated. Two expert microscopists were asked to visually inspect the panel on a tablet computer and to judge whether the patient was infected with P. falciparum. The method achieved a diagnostic sensitivity and specificity of 95% and 100% as well as 90% and 100% for the two readers respectively using the diagnostic tool. Parasitemia was separately calculated by the automated system and the correlation coefficient between manual and automated parasitemia counts was 0.97. Conclusion We developed a decision support system for detecting malaria parasites using a computer vision algorithm combined with visualization of sample areas with the highest probability of malaria infection. The system provides a novel method for blood smear screening with a significantly reduced need for visual examination and

  1. Effect of Smear Layer on the Push-Out Bond Strength of Two Endodontic Biomaterials to Radicular Dentin

    PubMed Central

    Lotfi, Mehrdad; Ghasemi, Negin; Rahimi, Saeed; Bahari, Mahmood; Vosoughhosseini, Sepideh; Saghiri, Mohammad Ali; Zand, Vahid

    2014-01-01

    Introduction: This in vitro study was designed to evaluate the effect of smear layer removal on push-out bond strength of white mineral trioxide aggregate (WMTA) and calcium-enriched mixture cement (CEM). Materials and Methods: Dentin discs with 3 mm thicknesses were divided into 4 groups (n=15): group 1: irrigation of the canal with normal saline and filling with WMTA; group 2: irrigation with sodium hypochlorite (NaOCl) and ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA), and then filling with WMTA; group 3: same as group 1 but the lumens were filled with CEM; group 4: same as group 2 but the lumens filled with CEM. The samples were incubated at 37°C for 3 days after wrapping in gauze pieces moistened with distilled water. The push-out bond strengths were then measured by the universal testing machine and the failure modes were examined under a stereomicroscope at 40× magnification. Data were analyzed using two-way ANOVA and post-hoc Tukey’s test for bond strength. Statistical significance was set at P<0.05. Results: The greatest and lowest mean standard deviation for push-out bond strength were observed for groups 4 (3.13±1.46 MPa) and group3 (1.44±0.96 MPa), respectively. The effect of smear layer removal on push-out bond strength of CEM was significant (P=0.01), however, it was not significant for WMTA (P=0.52). The failure mode for all the groups was of mixed type. Conclusion: Under the limitations of this study, smear layer removal is recommended for CEM in order to gain higher push-out strength. PMID:24396374

  2. The enhanced healing of a high-risk, clean, sutured surgical incision by prophylactic negative pressure wound therapy as delivered by Prevena™ Customizable™: cosmetic and therapeutic results.

    PubMed

    Scalise, Alessandro; Tartaglione, Caterina; Bolletta, Elisa; Calamita, Roberto; Nicoletti, Giovanni; Pierangeli, Marina; Grassetti, Luca; Di Benedetto, Giovanni

    2015-04-01

    According to the literature, incisional closure complications may range from postoperative surgical site infections, representing 17-22% of health care-associated infections, surgical wound dehiscence and formation of haematomas or seromas, and can lead to delayed or impaired incision healing. These kinds of situations are more common when wounds are closed under tension or in specific patient morbidities. Obesity, in particular, is associated with an impaired blood flow to tissues, predisposing the patient to increased risk of wound complications by various mechanisms. Incisional complications can become relevant economic burdens for health care systems because of an increase in the average length of hospital stay and readmissions, and additional medical and surgical procedures. Thus, a preventive therapy may have a critical role in the management of healing. Negative pressure wound therapy (NPWT) technology as delivered by Prevena™ Customizable™ (Kinetic Concepts Inc., San Antonio, TX) has recently been the focus of a new investigation, as a prophylactic measure to prevent complications via immediate postoperative application in high-risk, clean, closed surgical incisions. The authors present a 62-year-old class II obese female, who underwent bilateral inguinal dermolipectomy. Prophylactic NPWT as delivered by Prevena™ was performed successfully over surgical incisions. Cosmetic and therapeutic results are shown.

  3. Time Interval From Breast-Conserving Surgery to Breast Irradiation in Early Stage Node-Negative Breast Cancer: 17-Year Follow-Up Results and Patterns of Recurrence

    SciTech Connect

    Vujovic, Olga; Yu, Edward; Cherian, Anil; Dar, A. Rashid; Stitt, Larry; Perera, Francisco

    2015-02-01

    Purpose: A retrospectivechart review was conducted to determine whether the time interval from breast-conserving surgery to breast irradiation (surgery-radiation therapy interval) in early stage node-negative breast cancer had any detrimental effects on recurrence rates. Methods and Materials: There were 566 patients with T1 to T3, N0 breast cancer treated with breast-conserving surgery and breast irradiation and without adjuvant systemic treatment between 1985 and 1992. The surgery-to-radiation therapy intervals used for analysis were 0 to 8 weeks (201 patients), >8 to 12 weeks (233 patients), >12 to 16 weeks (91 patients), and >16 weeks (41 patients). Kaplan-Meier estimates of time to local recurrence, disease-free survival, distant disease-free survival, cause-specific survival, and overall survival rates were calculated. Results: Median follow-up was 17.4 years. Patients in all 4 time intervals were similar in terms of characteristics and pathologic features. There were no statistically significant differences among the 4 time groups in local recurrence (P=.67) or disease-free survival (P=.82). The local recurrence rates at 5, 10, and 15 years were 4.9%, 11.5%, and 15.0%, respectively. The distant disease relapse rates at 5, 10, and 15 years were 10.6%, 15.4%, and 18.5%, respectively. The disease-free failure rates at 5, 10, and 15 years were 20%, 32.3%, and 39.8%, respectively. Cause-specific survival rates at 5, 10, and 15 years were 92%, 84.6%, and 79.8%, respectively. The overall survival rates at 5, 10, and 15 years were 89.3%, 79.2%, and 66.9%, respectively. Conclusions: Surgery-radiation therapy intervals up to 16 weeks from breast-conserving surgery are not associated with any increased risk of recurrence in early stage node-negative breast cancer. There is a steady local recurrence rate of 1% per year with adjuvant radiation alone.

  4. Smearing of mass accretion rate variation by viscous processes in accretion disks in compact binary systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ghosh, A.; Chakrabarti, Sandip K.

    2016-09-01

    Variation of mass supply rate from the companion can be smeared out by viscous processes inside an accretion disk. Hence, by the time the flow reaches the inner edge, the variation in X-rays need not reflect the true variation of the mass supply rate at the outer edge. However, if the viscosity fluctuates around a mean value, one would expect the viscous time scale t_{{visc}} also to spread around a mean value. In high mass X-ray binaries, which are thought to be primarily wind-fed, the size of the viscous Keplerian disk is smaller and thus such a spread could be lower as compared to the low mass X-ray binaries which are primarily fed by Roche lobe overflow. If there is an increasing or decreasing trend in viscosity, the interval between enhanced emission would be modified systematically. In the absence of a detailed knowledge about the variation of mass supply rates at the outer edge, we study ideal circumstances where modulation must take place exactly in orbital time scales, such as when there is an ellipticity in the orbit. We study a few compact binaries using long term All Sky monitor (ASM) data (1.5-12 keV) of Rossi X-ray Timing Explorer (RXTE) and all sky survey data (15-50 keV) of Swift satellites by different methods to look for such smearing effects and to infer what these results can tell us about the viscous processes inside the respective disks. We employ three different methods to seek imprints of periodicity on the X-ray variation and found that in all the cases, the location of the peak in the power density spectra is consistent with the orbital frequencies. Interestingly, in high mass X-ray binaries the peaks are sharp with high rms values, consistent with a small Keplerian disk in a wind fed system. However, in low mass X-ray binaries with larger Keplerian disk component, the peaks are spreaded out with much lower rms values. X-ray reflections, or superhump phenomena which may also cause such X-ray modulations would not be affected by the size of

  5. NEGATIVE SYMPTOMS AND NEGATIVE SCHIZOPHRENIA

    PubMed Central

    Chaturvedi, S.K.; Gopinath, P.S.; Mathai, P. John; Michael, Albert

    1984-01-01

    SUMMARY This study determines the frequency distribution of prominent negative symptoms in a group of chronic, hospitalised schizophrenics. Thirty chronic Schizophrenic (D.S.M. III) patients were rated on the scale for Assessment of Negative Symptoms (SANS) and the prominent negative symptoms were correlated with age, sex and certain illness variables. Majority (80%) of patients had some or the other negative symptom, except thought blocking which was found in none. The subjective awareness of the symptoms was poor. Most negative symptoms were present to a severe degree in about 40% of cases. However, no significant correlation was found between severe negative symptoms and age or sex. Similarly, duration of illness, duration of hospitalisation or current medications did not influence negative symptoms to any appreciable degree. The implications are discussed. PMID:21965985

  6. Comparing Siliceous Productivity Proxies Along the California Margin During Pliocene Warmth: Smear Slides vs. Biogenic Silica

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schwartz, V.; Dekens, P. S.; Addison, J. A.

    2015-12-01

    The early Pliocene (5.3-2.6 Ma) is the most recent time in Earth history when CO2 levels were similar to today, yet model outputs show average global atmospheric temperatures were 3-4˚C warmer. Given the similar climate boundary conditions in the Pliocene and today (CO2, continental positions, ocean circulation), the Pliocene is the best analogue for future climate in the paleo-record. Proxy studies reveal Pliocene sea surface temperatures (SST) along the California margin were 3-9˚C warmer than today. The modern California margin is highly productive, driven by strong seasonal upwelling of cold, nutrient-rich water. If the thermocline and nutricline were coupled during the Pliocene as they are today, warmer SSTs would imply lower nutrient concentrations and reduced productivity. Yet previously published oceanic records do not show a clear relationship between SST and productivity. Alkenone mass accumulation rates (MAR), organic carbon, and biogenic silica show sustained levels of productivity in the Pliocene even as SST was cooling at ODP Site 1022 (40.0˚N, 125.5˚W, depth 1925 m). However, smear slide analysis suggests that diatom MAR decreased during the Pliocene. Because diatoms are the dominant silica-based primary producer, diatom MAR and biogenic silica analyses should display similar variations. The apparent difference between the two proxy records may be due to preservational effects, such as silica dissolution in the sedimentary pore waters and fragmentation of diatom frustules, resulting in reduced diatom MARs, whereas the fragments and non-diatom siliceous producers all contribute to the biogenic silica values. We present smear slide and biogenic silica analyses as records of diatom productivity at the more southerly ODP Site 1016 (34.0˚N, 122.0˚W, depth 3835 m), and compare it to existing data from ODP Site 1022. In the modern ocean, diatoms dominate California margin phytoplankton under high nutrient upwelling conditions; thus changes in the

  7. Rapid sex determination on buccal smears using DNA probes and fluorescence in situ hybridization

    SciTech Connect

    Giraldez, R.A.; Harris, C.

    1994-09-01

    Hybridization of dual-labeled DNA probes for the repetitive sequences on the X and Y chromosomes allows a fast, non-invasive, more reliable method for sex determination that current cytogenetic Barr body and Y chromatin assays. Scrapes of squamous epithelial cells were collected from the oral cavity of 14 subjects (5{male}, 9{female}) and smeared onto silanized slides. The smears were allowed to air dry. Samples were blinded and then fixed in 50% methanol/50% glacial acetic acid for 10 minutes, and allowed to dry. The slides were incubated in a pretreatment solution containing 30% sodium bisulfite at 45{degrees}C for 10 minutes. They were rinsed in 2XSSC pH 7.0 and then dehydrated through a series of 70%, 85%, and 100% ethanols at room temperature and allowed to air dry. A probe mixture (30 {mu}L containing 10 ng/{mu}L biotin-labeled DXZ1 and digoxigenin-labeled DYZ1/DYZ3 in 70% Formamide/2XSSC) was aliquoted onto each slide, coverslipped, and sealed with rubber cement. Probe and target DNA were simultaneously denatured at 72{degrees}C on a slide warmer for 6 minutes. Probe was allowed to hybridize overnight in a humidified chamber at 37{degrees}C. Slides were postwashed at 72{degrees}C in 0.5xSSC pH 7.0 for 5 minutes, then soaked at room temperature 1XPBD for 2 minutes, and detected with rhodamine/anti-digoxigenin-FITC/avidin for 15 minutes at 37{degrees}C. Slides were soaked 3X in 1XPBD and then counterstained with 15 {mu}L 0.05 {mu}g/mL DAP1/Antifade. 200 nuclei were scored for the presence of one green (X), two green (XX), one green and one red (XY), or a single red (Y) signal, using a fluorescent microscope equipped with a triple band pass filter. Greater than 90% of the hybridized nuclei from each of the 14 cases studied conformed to the sex chromosome pattern. The modal number in 9 cases showed two green signals (XX), and a green and a red signal (XY) in the other 5 cases; this was in complete agreement with the cytogenetic results.

  8. Calcareous concretions and psammoma bodies in sputum smears: do these similar structures have different clinical significance?

    PubMed

    Martínez-Girón, Rafael; Martínez-Torre, Santiago; Tamargo-Peláez, María Luisa; López-Cabanilles, María Dolores; Torre-Bayón, Concepción

    2014-09-01

    Different noncellular elements, such as round concentric calcified laminated structures, may be found in sputum smears. If these structures appear isolated on the background of the smear, the term usually used to describe them is "calcareous concretions" (CC). On the contrary, when the structures are part of epithelial cell groups or small tissue fragments, the term used to describe them is "Psammoma bodies" (PB). The aim of this work is to establish the relationship between these structures and pulmonary disease, especially lung carcinoma, by searching for the presence of CC and/or PB in sputum smears. Our study has taken as a basis 16.716 sputum smears from 696 patients obtained during a 7-year period (2003-2009). After reviewing them, it was found that from the total, 66 cases (0.39%) contained round calcified structures, 57 of them (0.34%) corresponding to CC, and the remaining 9 ones (0.05%) corresponding to PB. From these 57 CC cases, 56 corresponded to benign entities, and only one was found with lung carcinoma. On the other hand, from the 9 PB cases all of them (100%) were related to lung adenocarcinoma. We conclude that, even having a similar morphological structure, these aforementioned calcified structures we have observed in sputum smears have different and relevant clinical significance.

  9. Optoelectronic parallel processing with smart pixel arrays for automated screening of cervical smear imagery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Metz, John Langdon

    2000-10-01

    This thesis investigates the use of optoelectronic parallel processing systems with smart photosensor arrays (SPAs) to examine cervical smear images. The automation of cervical smear screening seeks to reduce human workload and improve the accuracy of detecting pre- cancerous and cancerous conditions. Increasing the parallelism of image processing improves the speed and accuracy of locating regions-of-interest (ROI) from images of the cervical smear for the first stage of a two-stage screening system. The two-stage approach first detects ROI optoelectronically before classifying them using more time consuming electronic algorithms. The optoelectronic hit/miss transform (HMT) is computed using gray scale modulation spatial light modulators in an optical correlator. To further the parallelism of this system, a novel CMOS SPA computes the post processing steps required by the HMT algorithm. The SPA reduces the subsequent bandwidth passed into the second, electronic image processing stage classifying the detected ROI. Limitations in the miss operation of the HMT suggest using only the hit operation for detecting ROI. This makes possible a single SPA chip approach using only the hit operation for ROI detection which may replace the optoelectronic correlator in the screening system. Both the HMT SPA postprocessor and the SPA ROI detector design provide compact, efficient, and low-cost optoelectronic solutions to performing ROI detection on cervical smears. Analysis of optoelectronic ROI detection with electronic ROI classification shows these systems have the potential to perform at, or above, the current error rates for manual classification of cervical smears.

  10. Effect of spectral smearing on the perceptual segregation of vowel sequences⋆

    PubMed Central

    Gaudrain, Etienne; Grimault, Nicolas; Healy, Eric W.; Béra, Jean-Christophe

    2007-01-01

    Although segregation of both simultaneous and sequential speech items may be involved in the reception of speech in noisy environments, research on the latter is relatively sparse. Further, previous studies examining the ability of hearing-impaired listeners to form distinct auditory streams have produced mixed results. Finally, there is little work investigating streaming in cochlear implant recipients, who also have poor frequency resolution. The present study focused on the mechanisms involved in the segregation of vowel sequences and potential limitations to segregation associated with poor frequency resolution. An objective temporal-order paradigm was employed in which listeners reported the order of constituent vowels within a sequence. In Experiment 1, it was found that fundamental frequency based mechanisms contribute to segregation. In Experiment 2, reduced frequency tuning often associated with hearing impairment was simulated in normal-hearing listeners. In that experiment, it was found that spectral smearing of the vowels increased accurate identification of their order, presumably by reducing the tendency to form separate auditory streams. These experiments suggest that a reduction in spectral resolution may result in a reduced ability to form separate auditory streams, which may contribute to the difficulties of hearing-impaired listeners, and probably cochlear implant recipients as well, in multi-talker cocktail-party situations. PMID:17597319

  11. Healthy and unhealthy red blood cell detection in human blood smears using neural networks.

    PubMed

    Elsalamony, Hany A

    2016-04-01

    One of the most common diseases that affect human red blood cells (RBCs) is anaemia. To diagnose anaemia, the following methods are typically employed: an identification process that is based on measuring the level of haemoglobin and the classification of RBCs based on a microscopic examination in blood smears. This paper presents a proposed algorithm for detecting and counting three types of anaemia-infected red blood cells in a microscopic coloured image using circular Hough transform and morphological tools. Anaemia cells include sickle, elliptocytosis, microsite cells and cells with unknown shapes. Additionally, the resulting data from the detection process have been analysed by a prevalent data analysis technique: the neural network. The experimental results for this model have demonstrated high accuracy for analysing healthy/unhealthy cells. This algorithm has achieved a maximum detection of approximately 97.8% of all cells in 21 microscopic images. Effectiveness rates of 100%, 98%, 100%, and 99.3% have been achieved using neural networks for sickle cells, elliptocytosis cells, microsite cells and cells with unknown shapes, respectively.

  12. Anisotropic tubular filtering for automatic detection of acid-fast bacilli in Ziehl-Neelsen stained sputum smear samples

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Raza, Shan-e.-Ahmed; Marjan, M. Q.; Arif, Muhammad; Butt, Farhana; Sultan, Faisal; Rajpoot, Nasir M.

    2015-03-01

    One of the main factors for high workload in pulmonary pathology in developing countries is the relatively large proportion of tuberculosis (TB) cases which can be detected with high throughput using automated approaches. TB is caused by Mycobacterium tuberculosis, which appears as thin, rod-shaped acid-fast bacillus (AFB) in Ziehl-Neelsen (ZN) stained sputum smear samples. In this paper, we present an algorithm for automatic detection of AFB in digitized images of ZN stained sputum smear samples under a light microscope. A key component of the proposed algorithm is the enhancement of raw input image using a novel anisotropic tubular filter (ATF) which suppresses the background noise while simultaneously enhancing strong anisotropic features of AFBs present in the image. The resulting image is then segmented using color features and candidate AFBs are identified. Finally, a support vector machine classifier using morphological features from candidate AFBs decides whether a given image is AFB positive or not. We demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed ATF method with two different feature sets by showing that the proposed image analysis pipeline results in higher accuracy and F1-score than the same pipeline with standard median filtering for image enhancement.

  13. Overexpression of sICAM-1 in the Alveolar Epithelial Space Results in an Exaggerated Inflammatory Response and Early Death in Gram Negative Pneumonia

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background A sizeable body of data demonstrates that membrane ICAM-1 (mICAM-1) plays a significant role in host defense in a site-specific fashion. On the pulmonary vascular endothelium, mICAM-1 is necessary for normal leukocyte recruitment during acute inflammation. On alveolar epithelial cells (AECs), we have shown previously that the presence of normal mICAM-1 is essential for optimal alveolar macrophage (AM) function. We have also shown that ICAM-1 is present in the alveolar space as a soluble protein that is likely produced through cleavage of mICAM-1. Soluble intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (sICAM-1) is abundantly present in the alveolar lining fluid of the normal lung and could be generated by proteolytic cleavage of mICAM-1, which is highly expressed on type I AECs. Although a growing body of data suggesting that intravascular sICAM-1 has functional effects, little is known about sICAM-1 in the alveolus. We hypothesized that sICAM-1 in the alveolar space modulates the innate immune response and alters the response to pulmonary infection. Methods Using the surfactant protein C (SPC) promoter, we developed a transgenic mouse (SPC-sICAM-1) that constitutively overexpresses sICAM-1 in the distal lung, and compared the responses of wild-type and SPC-sICAM-1 mice following intranasal inoculation with K. pneumoniae. Results SPC-sICAM-1 mice demonstrated increased mortality and increased systemic dissemination of organisms compared with wild-type mice. We also found that inflammatory responses were significantly increased in SPC-sICAM-1 mice compared with wild-type mice but there were no difference in lung CFU between groups. Conclusions We conclude that alveolar sICAM-1 modulates pulmonary inflammation. Manipulating ICAM-1 interactions therapeutically may modulate the host response to Gram negative pulmonary infections. PMID:21247482

  14. Lack of a Negative Effect of BCG-Vaccination on Child Psychomotor Development: Results from the Danish Calmette Study - A Randomised Clinical Trial

    PubMed Central

    Kjærgaard, Jesper; Stensballe, Lone Graff; Birk, Nina Marie; Nissen, Thomas Nørrelykke; Foss, Kim Thestrup; Thøstesen, Lisbeth Marianne; Pihl, Gitte Thybo; Andersen, Andreas; Kofoed, Poul-Erik; Pryds, Ole; Greisen, Gorm

    2016-01-01

    Objectives To assess the non-specific effect of Bacillus Calmette-Guérin (BCG) vaccination at birth on psychomotor development. Design This is a pre-specified secondary outcome from a randomised, clinical trial. Setting Maternity units and paediatric wards at three university hospitals in Denmark. Participants Children born at gestational age (GA) 32 weeks and above. All women planning to give birth at the three sites were invited during the recruitment period. Out of 4262 randomised children, 144 were premature (GA < 37 weeks). There were 2129 children (71 premature) randomised to BCG and 2133 randomised (73 premature) to the control group. Interventions BCG vaccination 0.05 ml was given intradermally in the upper left arm at the hospital within seven days of birth. Children in the control group did not receive any intervention. Parents were not blinded to allocation. Main outcome measures Psychomotor development measured using Ages and Stages Questionnaire (ASQ) completed by the parents at 12 months. Additionally, parents of premature children (gestational age < 37 weeks) completed an ASQ at 6 and 22 months. Developmental assessment was available for 3453/4262 (81%). Results The mean difference in ASQ score at 12 months adjusted for age and prematurity was -0.7 points (BCG vs. control, 95% confidence interval; -3.7 to 2.4), p = 0.67, corresponding to an effect size of Cohen’s d = -0.015 (-0.082 to 0.052). The mean difference in ASQ score for premature children at 22 months was -7.8 points (-20.6 to 5.0, p = 0.23), d = -0.23 (-0.62 to 0.15). Conclusions A negative non-specific effect of BCG vaccination at birth on psychomotor development was excluded in term children. Trial Registration ClinicalTrials.gov NCT01694108 PMID:27123570

  15. Personal view. Is it reality or an illusion that liquid-based cytology is better than conventional cervical smears?

    PubMed

    Herbert, A; Johnson, J

    2001-12-01

    Liquid-based cytology (LBC) has been heralded as the way forward for cervical screening, and as the answer to many of its problems. It is already used as a sole method of cell preparation in many private clinics in the UK. It is being used for colposcopy smears in many NHS clinics and is now being piloted for primary screening in three screening centres in England, as well as one in Scotland and one in Wales. LBC has been welcomed as a new technology because it deals with the problem of specimen adequacy at source, removing responsibility for slide preparation and fixation from the clinician or nurse. It provides uniformly well-fixed preparations that are free of inflammatory exudate and blood, and seem easier to screen than conventional smears. There are many articles in the world literature suggesting that LBC is more accurate than conventional screening, and it is thought likely to reduce the number of false negative tests. The main reasons for piloting LBC in the NHS Cervical Screening Programme (NHSCSP) lie in its potential for reducing screening times and for reducing the numbers of repeats for inadequate tests. LBC is expensive in terms of equipment, capital costs, maintenance, consumables, training, technical preparation time, transportation and disposal of liquid media. Its costs could be justified if they were offset by the money saved from reduced screening time and repeat tests, but only if its accuracy in terms of sensitivity and specificity were proven to be equal to or better than conventional cytology. Although that is generally held to be true by the public and medical profession alike, there is very little hard evidence to support it.

  16. Ectoine as a natural component of food: detection in red smear cheeses.

    PubMed

    Klein, Julia; Schwarz, Thomas; Lentzen, Georg

    2007-11-01

    Ectoine is a compatible solute accumulated in halophilic bacteria in response to high salt concentrations and offers protection from osmotic stress. The occurrence of compatible solutes is widespread among bacteria, yet ectoine has never been detected in foods. The use of an ectoine producing microorganism (Brevibacterium linens) in the surface ripening of red smear cheeses led to the question whether ectoine can be found in cheese. Therefore we examined samples from a variety of cheese manufacturers and different types of red smear cheeses for the presence of ectoine using HPLC and HPLC/MS analysis. Ectoine solely appears in the rind and was detected up to 178 mg/200 g red smear cheese, depending on several factors like ripening status and conditions throughout the cheese production process (e.g. salt concentrations of used brine baths).

  17. Development of an automatic smear sampler and evaluation of surface contamination.

    PubMed

    Seo, Bum-Kyoung; Lee, Bong-Jae; Lee, Kune-Woo; Park, Jin-Ho

    2004-01-01

    The surface contamination level of a radiation-controlled area is measured periodically according to atomic energy law and connection regulations. The measurement of surface contamination by an indirect method is subject to various kinds of error depending on the sampling person and consumes much time and effort in the sampling of large nuclear facilities. In this research, an automatic smear sampler is developed to solve these problems. The developed equipment is composed of a rotating sampling part, a sample transferring part, a power supply part a control part, and vacuum part. It improved the efficiency of estimation of the surface contamination level achieved periodically in a radiation-controlled area. Using an automatic smear sampler developed in this research, it is confirmed that radioactive contaminated materials are uniformly transferred to smear paper more than any sampling method by an operator.

  18. Comparison of coronal leakage after smear layer removal with EDTA or Er:YAG laser

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pécora, Jesus D.; Mamere de Almeida, Yasmine M. E.; Marchesan, Melissa A.; Brugnera J"nior, Aldo, Jr.

    2002-10-01

    This study determined, in vitro, the coronal leakage of root canals evaluating the effect of smear layer removal by either EDTA or laser. Two sealers were also compared. Sixty-four canines were instrumented with the step-back technique and irrigated with 10 ml of 1% sodium hypochlorite. In Group 1, 10 teeth were sealed with Sealer 26 and 10 teeth were sealed with Grossman cement with no attempt of smear layer removal. Group 2 received a final irrigation of 15 ml of 17% EDTA, and was sealed as in Group 1. Group 3 received Er:YAG laser application (140 mJ, 15 Hz and 42 J), and sealed as in Group 1. Root canals sealed with Sealer 26 had significantly less coronal leakage than Grossman cement (P<0.05). Coronal leakage afte smear layer removal with 17% EDTA or Er:YAG laser was not statistically different (p>0.01).

  19. Comparison of predicted far-field temperatures for discrete and smeared heat sources

    SciTech Connect

    Ryder, E.E.

    1992-12-16

    A fundamental concern in the design of the potential repository at Yucca Mountain. Nevada is the response of the host rock to the emplacement of heat-generating waste. The thermal perturbation of the rock mass has implications regarding the structural, hydrologic. and geochemical performance of the potential repository. The phenomenological coupling of many of these performance aspects makes repository thermal modeling a difficult task. For many of the more complex, coupled models, it is often necessary to reduce the geometry of the potential repository to a smeared heat-source approximation. Such simplifications have impacts on induced thermal profiles that in turn may influence other predicted responses through one- or two-way thermal couplings. The effect of waste employment layout on host-rock thermal was chosen as the primary emphasis of this study. Using a consistent set of modeling and input assumptions, far-field thermal response predictions made for discrete-source as well as plate source approximations of the repository geometry. Input values used in the simulations are consistent with a design-basis a real power density (APD) of 80 kW/acre as would be achieved assuming a 2010 emplacement start date, a levelized receipt schedule, and a limitation on available area as published in previous design studies. It was found that edge effects resulting from general repository layout have a significant influence on the shapes and extents of isothermal profiles, and should be accounted for in far-field modeling efforts.

  20. Keeping the edge: A numerical method that avoids knickpoint smearing when solving the stream power law

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Campforts, Benjamin; Govers, Gerard

    2015-07-01

    The stream power equation is commonly used to model river incision into bedrock. Although specific conditions allow an analytical approach, finite difference methods (FDMs) are most frequently used to solve this equation. FDMs inevitably suffer from numerical smearing which may affect their suitability for transient river incision modeling. We propose the use of a finite volume method (FVM) which is total variation diminishing (TVD) to simulate river incision in a more accurate way. The TVD_FVM is designed to simulate sharp discontinuities, making it very suitable to simulate river incision pulses. We show that the TVD_FVM is much better capable of preserving propagating knickpoints than FDMs, using Niagara Falls as an example. Comparison of numerical results obtained using the TVD_FVM with analytical solutions shows a very good agreement. Furthermore, the uncertainty associated with parameter calibration is dramatically reduced when the TVD_FVM is applied. The high accuracy of the TVD_FDM allows correct simulation of transient incision waves as a consequence of older uplift pulses. This implies that the TVD_FVM is much more suitable than FDMs to reconstruct regional uplift histories from current river profile morphology and to simulate river incision processes in general.

  1. Smearing of the quantum anomalous Hall effect due to statistical fluctuations of magnetic dopants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yue, Z.; Raikh, M. E.

    2016-10-01

    The quantum anomalous Hall effect is induced by substitution of a certain portion x of Bi atoms in a BiTe-based insulating parent compound by magnetic ions (Cr or V). We find the density of in-gap states N (E ) emerging as a result of statistical fluctuations of the composition x in the vicinity of the transition point where the average gap E¯g passes through zero. A local gap follows the fluctuations of x . Using the instanton approach, we show that, near the gap edges, the tails are exponential lnN (E ) ∝-(E¯g-|E |) and the tail states are due to small local gap reduction. Our main finding is that, even when the smearing magnitude exceeds the gap width, there exists a semihard gap around zero energy, where lnN (E ) ∝-E/¯g|E | ln(E/¯g|E | ) . The states responsible for N (E ) originate from local gap reversals within narrow rings. The consequence of the semihard gap is the Arrhenius, rather than variable-range hopping, temperature dependence of the diagonal conductivity at low temperatures.

  2. What a difference a day makes: same-day vs. 2-day sputum smear microscopy for diagnosing tuberculosis

    PubMed Central

    Choudhury, B.; Talukdar, P.; Lo, T. Q.; Das, B.; Nair, S. A.; Moonan, P. K.; Kumar, A. M. V.

    2016-01-01

    Setting: Nine district-level microscopy centres in Assam and Tripura, India. Objective: Same-day sputum microscopy is now recommended for tuberculosis (TB) diagnosis. We compared this method against the conventional 2-day approach in routine programmatic settings. Methods: During October–December 2012, all adult presumptive TB patients were requested to provide three sputum samples (one at the initial visit, the second 1 h after the first sample, and the third the next morning) for examination by Ziehl-Neelsen smear microscopy. Detection of acid-fast bacilli with any sample was diagnostic. The first and second spot sample comprised the same-day approach, and the first spot sample and next-day sample comprised the 2-day approach. Results: Of 2168 presumptive TB patients, 403 (18.6%) were smear-positive according to the same-day method compared to 427 (19.7%) by the 2-day method (McNemar's test, P < 0.001). Of the total 429 TB patients, 26 (6.1%) were missed by the same-day method and 2 (0.5%) by the 2-day method. Conclusion: Same-day specimen collection for microscopy missed more TB than 2-day collection. In India, missing cases by using same-day microscopy would translate into a considerable absolute number, hindering TB control efforts. We question the indiscriminate switch to same-day diagnosis in settings where patients reliably return for testing the next day. PMID:28123959

  3. Did FIDELIS projects contribute to the detection of new smear-positive pulmonary tuberculosis cases in China?

    PubMed Central

    Rusen, I. D.; Hinderaker, S. G.; Roldan, A.; Heldal, E.; Enarson, D. A.; Zhang, L-X.

    2016-01-01

    Setting: The first phase of the Fund for Innovative DOTS Expansion through Local Initiatives to Stop TB (FIDELIS) projects in China started in 2003. Objective: To determine whether the FIDELIS projects contributed to the increased case detection rate for new smear-positive pulmonary tuberculosis (PTB) in China. Methods: We compared the case notification rates (CNRs) in the intervention year with those of the previous year in the FIDELIS areas, then compared the difference between the CNRs of the intervention year and the previous year in the FIDELIS areas with those in the non-FI-DELIS areas within the province. Results: There was an increase in the CNR in the intervention year compared with the previous year for all the project sites. The differences between the CNR in the intervention year and the previous year ranged from 6.4 to 31.1 per 100 000 population in the FIDELIS areas and from 2.9 to 20.4/100 000 in the non-FIDELIS areas. Differences-in-differences analysis shows that the differences in the CNRs in the FIDELIS areas were not statistically significantly different from those in the non-FIDELIS areas (P = 0.393). Conclusion: The FIDELIS projects may have contributed to the increase in case detection of new smear-positive PTB in China, but the level of evidence is low. PMID:27695680

  4. Did FIDELIS projects contribute to the detection of new smear-positive pulmonary tuberculosis cases in China?

    PubMed

    Lin, Y; Chiang, C-Y; Rusen, I D; Hinderaker, S G; Roldan, A; Heldal, E; Enarson, D A; Zhang, L-X

    2016-09-01

    Setting: The first phase of the Fund for Innovative DOTS Expansion through Local Initiatives to Stop TB (FIDELIS) projects in China started in 2003. Objective: To determine whether the FIDELIS projects contributed to the increased case detection rate for new smear-positive pulmonary tuberculosis (PTB) in China. Methods: We compared the case notification rates (CNRs) in the intervention year with those of the previous year in the FIDELIS areas, then compared the difference between the CNRs of the intervention year and the previous year in the FIDELIS areas with those in the non-FI-DELIS areas within the province. Results: There was an increase in the CNR in the intervention year compared with the previous year for all the project sites. The differences between the CNR in the intervention year and the previous year ranged from 6.4 to 31.1 per 100 000 population in the FIDELIS areas and from 2.9 to 20.4/100 000 in the non-FIDELIS areas. Differences-in-differences analysis shows that the differences in the CNRs in the FIDELIS areas were not statistically significantly different from those in the non-FIDELIS areas (P = 0.393). Conclusion: The FIDELIS projects may have contributed to the increase in case detection of new smear-positive PTB in China, but the level of evidence is low.

  5. What a difference a day makes: same-day vs. 2-day sputum smear microscopy for diagnosing tuberculosis.

    PubMed

    Deka, D J; Choudhury, B; Talukdar, P; Lo, T Q; Das, B; Nair, S A; Moonan, P K; Kumar, A M V

    2016-12-21

    Setting: Nine district-level microscopy centres in Assam and Tripura, India. Objective: Same-day sputum microscopy is now recommended for tuberculosis (TB) diagnosis. We compared this method against the conventional 2-day approach in routine programmatic settings. Methods: During October-December 2012, all adult presumptive TB patients were requested to provide three sputum samples (one at the initial visit, the second 1 h after the first sample, and the third the next morning) for examination by Ziehl-Neelsen smear microscopy. Detection of acid-fast bacilli with any sample was diagnostic. The first and second spot sample comprised the same-day approach, and the first spot sample and next-day sample comprised the 2-day approach. Results: Of 2168 presumptive TB patients, 403 (18.6%) were smear-positive according to the same-day method compared to 427 (19.7%) by the 2-day method (McNemar's test, P < 0.001). Of the total 429 TB patients, 26 (6.1%) were missed by the same-day method and 2 (0.5%) by the 2-day method. Conclusion: Same-day specimen collection for microscopy missed more TB than 2-day collection. In India, missing cases by using same-day microscopy would translate into a considerable absolute number, hindering TB control efforts. We question the indiscriminate switch to same-day diagnosis in settings where patients reliably return for testing the next day.

  6. The impact of positive and negative ecstasy-related information on ecstasy use among college students: Results of a longitudinal study

    PubMed Central

    Vincent, Kathryn B.; Caldeira, Kimberly M.; O’Grady, Kevin E.; Wish, Eric D.; Arria, Amelia M.

    2008-01-01

    Aims To: 1) estimate the proportion of students exposed to specific types of information regarding the positive and negative effects of ecstasy, 2) test models that quantified the relationship between exposure to these messages and subsequent ecstasy use, controlling for peer drug use and sensation-seeking. Methods As part of the College Life Study, 447 students, ages 17–20, from a university in the mid-Atlantic region of the US completed an in person interview plus three follow-up assessments. Findings Individuals who had heard a greater number of negative messages were significantly more likely to use ecstasy, even controlling for positive messages, prior ecstasy use, peer ecstasy use, perceived harm, sensation-seeking, sex, and race. Some messages were significant at the bivariate level. Conclusions Ecstasy use may have been influenced more by the content of the messages than by the quantity or diversity of messages. Interventions should be designed to address both positive and negative perceptions about a particular drug, rather than focusing exclusively on the negative information. Future evaluations should focus on the effectiveness of multi-pronged sustainable prevention programs in reducing adolescent drug use risk. PMID:21057670

  7. The Impact of Positive and Negative Ecstasy-Related Information on Ecstasy Use among College Students: Results of a Longitudinal Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vincent, Kathryn B.; Caldeira, Kimberly M.; O'Grady, Kevin E.; Wish, Eric D.; Arria, Amelia M.

    2010-01-01

    Aims: To: (1) estimate the proportion of students exposed to specific types of information regarding the positive and negative effects of ecstasy, (2) test models that quantified the relationship between exposure to these messages and subsequent ecstasy use, controlling for peer drug use and sensation-seeking. Methods: As part of the College Life…

  8. ["Where there's a woman, there's a Pap smear": the meanings assigned to cervical cancer prevention among women in Salvador, Bahia State, Brazil].

    PubMed

    Rico, Ana María; Iriart, Jorge Alberto Bernstein

    2013-09-01

    This study focuses on the meanings assigned to practices for cervical cancer prevention among women from low-income neighborhoods in Salvador, Bahia State, Brazil. This was a qualitative study based on content analysis of semi-structured interviews with 15 women 24 to 68 years of age. The results showed high appreciation of the Pap smear test, performed as part of routine gynecological examination (but without the patient necessarily having biomedical knowledge of its role). Besides accessibility and quality of health services, other factors influence the way the women assign meaning to cervical cancer prevention. Moral values associated with sexuality and gender influence risk perception, adoption of preventive practices, and interpretation of cervical cytology results. The ongoing practice of the Pap smear test is part of the construction of femininity, which is associated with maturity and personal responsibility for self care in a context of medicalization of the female body.

  9. Fully automated detection of the counting area in blood smears for computer aided hematology.

    PubMed

    Rupp, Stephan; Schlarb, Timo; Hasslmeyer, Erik; Zerfass, Thorsten

    2011-01-01

    For medical diagnosis, blood is an indispensable indicator for a wide variety of diseases, i.e. hemic, parasitic and sexually transmitted diseases. A robust detection and exact segmentation of white blood cells (leukocytes) in stained blood smears of the peripheral blood provides the base for a fully automated, image based preparation of the so called differential blood cell count in the context of medical laboratory diagnostics. Especially for the localization of the blood cells and in particular for the segmentation of the cells it is necessary to detect the working area of the blood smear. In this contribution we present an approach for locating the so called counting area on stained blood smears that is the region where cells are predominantly separated and do not interfere with each other. For this multiple images of a blood smear are taken and analyzed in order to select the image corresponding to this area. The analysis involves the computation of an unimodal function from image content that serves as indicator for the corresponding image. This requires a prior segmentation of the cells that is carried out by a binarization in the HSV color space. Finally, the indicator function is derived from the number of cells and the cells' surface area. Its unimodality guarantees to find a maximum value that corresponds to the counting areas image index. By this, a fast lookup of the counting area is performed enabling a fully automated analysis of blood smears for medical diagnosis. For an evaluation the algorithm's performance on a number of blood smears was compared with the ground truth information that has been defined by an adept hematologist.

  10. SEM analysis of smear layer removal after manual and automated handpiece root canal preparation.

    PubMed

    Sydney, G B; Batista, A; Estrela, C; Pesce, H F; de Melo, L L

    1996-01-01

    Scanning electron microscopy was used to analyze the smear layer removal after root canal preparation by a manual technique and by an automated handpiece, the Canal Finder System (CFS). When 1% sodium hypochlorite was used as the irrigating solution, both manual and CFS techniques showed root canal walls with a dense smear layer obscuring the dentinal tubules entrance plus a large amount of debris. Root canal walls of the group of teeth treated with a chelating agent (EDTA) for 5 min and a final flush, after the preparation, with 1% sodium hypochlorite as an irrigating solution showed the cervical, middle and apical thirds extremely smooth and clear.

  11. Hyaline globules in fine-needle aspiration smears of salivary gland neoplasms

    PubMed Central

    Gupta, Mayank; Bindra, Mandeep Singh

    2015-01-01

    Most salivary gland neoplasms can be accurately diagnosed on fine-needle aspiration cytology. Few cases present with overlapping cytomorphological features, so accurate distinction in these cases may be difficult. We describe a case of pleomorphic adenoma that had a close resemblance to adenoid cystic carcinoma on smears due to presence of numerous hyaline globules and bare nuclei. Careful analysis of cellular details along with corroborative clinical evidence clinched the correct diagnosis. This article discusses cytological features of salivary gland tumours in which hyaline globules can be seen on smears. PMID:25750224

  12. BK using HYP-smeared staggered fermions in Nf = 2 + 1 unquenched QCD

    SciTech Connect

    Jung, C.; Bae, T.; Jang, Y-C.; Kim, H-J.; Kim, J.; Kim, K; Lee, W.; Sharpe, S.; Yoon, B.

    2010-12-20

    We present results for the kaon mixing parameter B{sub K} calculated using HYP (hypercubic fat link)-smeared improved staggered fermions on the asqtad lattices generated by the MILC collaboration. We use three lattice spacings (a{approx} 0.12, 0.09 and 0.06 fm), ten different valence-quark masses (m {approx} m{sub s}/10-m{sub s}), and several light sea-quark masses in order to control the continuum and chiral extrapolations. We derive the next-to-leading order staggered chiral perturbation theory (SChPT) results necessary to fit our data, and use these results to do extrapolations based both on SU(2) and SU(3) SChPT. The SU(2) fitting is particularly straightforward because parameters related to taste breaking and matching errors appear only at next-to-next-to-leading order. We match to the continuum renormalization scheme [naive dimensional regularization (NDR)] using one-loop perturbation theory. Our final result is from the SU(2) analysis, with the SU(3) result providing a (less accurate) cross check. We find B{sub K}(NDR, {mu} = 2 GeV) = 0.529 {+-} 0.009 {+-} 0.032 and B{sub K} = B{sub K}(RGI) = 0.724 {+-} 0.012 {+-} 0.043, where the first error is statistical and the second systematic. The error is dominated by the truncation error in the matching factor. Our results are consistent with those obtained using valence domain-wall fermions on lattices generated with asqtad or domain-wall sea quarks.

  13. A misleading false-negative result using Neisseria gonorrhoeae opa MGB multiplex PCR assay in patient's rectal sample due to partial mutations of the opa gene.

    PubMed

    Vahidnia, Ali; van Empel, Pieter Jan; Costa, Sandra; Oud, Rob T N; van der Straaten, Tahar; Bliekendaal, Harry; Spaargaren, Joke

    2015-07-01

    A 53-year-old homosexual man presented at his general practitioner (GP) practice with a suspicion of sexually transmitted infection. Initial NAAT screening was performed for Chlamydia trachomatis and Neisseria gonorrhoeae. The patient was positive for Neisseria gonorrhoeae both for his urine and rectal sample. The subsequent confirmation test for Neisseria gonorrhoeae by a second laboratory was only confirmed for the urine sample and the rectal sample was negative. We report a case of a potential false-negative diagnosis of Neisseria gonorrhoeae due to mutations of DNA sequence in the probe region of opa-MGB assay of the rectal sample. The patient did not suffer any discomfort as diagnosis of Neisseria gonorrhoeae in his urine sample had already led to treatment by prescribing the patient with Ceftriaxone 500 mg IV dissolved in 1 ml lidocaine 2% and 4 mL saline. The patient also received a prescription for Azithromycin (2x500 mg).

  14. Smear layer removal efficacy of combination of herbal extracts in two different ratios either alone or supplemented with sonic agitation: An in vitro scanning electron microscope study

    PubMed Central

    Chhabra, Naveen; Gyanani, Hitesh; Kamatagi, Laxmikant

    2015-01-01

    Objectives: The study aimed to evaluate the effectiveness of the combination of two natural extracts in varying ratios for removal of smear layer either alone or supplemented with sonic agitation. Materials and Methods: Fifty extracted single-rooted teeth were collected, disinfected and decoronated below the cementoenamel junction to obtain standardized root length of 10 mm. Root canals were instrumented using rotary files at working length 1 mm short of the apex. Specimens were divided into six groups according to the irrigation protocol as follows: Group A – Distilled water, Group B – 17% ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid, Group C – Herbal extracts in 1:1 ratio, Group D – Herbal extracts in 1:1 ratio supplemented with sonic agitation, Group E – Herbal extracts in 2:1 ratio, Group F – Herbal extracts in 2:1 ratio supplemented with sonic agitation. Specimens were longitudinally sectioned and evaluated under scanning electron microscope for smear layer removal efficacy. Obtained scores were statistically analyzed using one-way analysis of variance and post-hoc test. Results: Among all, Group B showed the best results followed by Group F. Remaining other groups showed inferior outcome (P < 0.05). Conclusion: The combination of two extracts in 2:1 ratio was slightly better than 1:1 ratio and the smear layer removal efficacy was further improved when accompanied with sonic agitation. PMID:26430300

  15. Final results of a phase II study of nab-paclitaxel, bevacizumab, and gemcitabine as first-line therapy for patients with HER2-negative metastatic breast cancer.

    PubMed

    Lobo, Christopher; Lopes, Gilberto; Baez, Odalys; Castrellon, Aurelio; Ferrell, Annapoorna; Higgins, Connie; Hurley, Erin; Hurley, Judith; Reis, Isildinha; Richman, Stephen; Seo, Pearl; Silva, Orlando; Slingerland, Joyce; Tukia, Keleni; Welsh, Catherine; Glück, Stefan

    2010-09-01

    In order to examine the efficacy and safety of nanoparticle albumin-bound paclitaxel (nab-P) in combination with bevacizumab (B) and gemcitabine (G) for the first-line treatment of patients with HER2-negative metastatic breast cancer (MBC). In this single-center, open-label phase II trial, patients with HER2-negative MBC received gemcitabine 1500 mg/m(2), nab-paclitaxel 150 mg/m(2), and bevacizumab 10 mg/kg (each administered intravenously) on days 1 and 15 of a 28-day cycle. The primary end point was progression free survival (PFS); secondary end points were overall response rate (ORR), complete (CR) and partial (PR) response rates, clinical benefit (ORR + stable disease), overall survival (OS), and safety. Thirty patients were enrolled. One patient was ineligible and was not included in analysis. Median PFS was 10.4 months (95% CI: 5.6-15.2 months). ORR was 75.9%, comprising eight (27.6%) CRs and 14 (48.3%) PRs; five patients had stable disease (SD) and two patients (6.9%) had progressive disease (PD) as their best response. The clinical benefit rate was 93.1% (27/29) in the overall group and 84.6% in the triple-negative cohort (11/13). The 18-month survival rate was 77.2% (95% CI: 51.1-90.5%). Eight (27.6%) patients experienced grade 3 or 4 toxicity: grade 4 neutropenic fever (n = 1) and grade 3 infection (n = 6), leukopenia, thrombocytopenia, peripheral neuropathy, seizure, shortness of breath, hematuria, and cardiac tamponade (one each). First-line therapy with nab-P, B, and G demonstrated a median PFS of 10.4 months and a 75.9% ORR with acceptable toxicity; this novel combination warrants investigation in a randomized study.

  16. Negative anisotropic magnetoresistance resulting from minority spin transport in NixFe4-xN (x = 1 and 3) epitaxial films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Takata, Fumiya; Kabara, Kazuki; Ito, Keita; Tsunoda, Masakiyo; Suemasu, Takashi

    2017-01-01

    We grew 50 nm-thick NixFe4-xN (x = 1 and 3) epitaxial films on a SrTiO3(001) single-crystal substrate by molecular beam epitaxy and measured their anisotropic magnetoresistance (AMR) ratios rAMR in the temperature range of 5-300 K with current directions set along either NixFe4-xN [100] or [110]. A negative rAMR was obtained up to 200 K or higher. Their magnitude | rAMR | increased with decreasing temperature. From the negative AMR effect and the negative spin-polarization of density of states for NixFe4-xN at the Fermi level, it can be stated that the minority spin transport is dominant in NixFe4-xN, similar to Fe4N and Co3FeN. The rAMR depends on the current direction that arises from the current direction dependence of s-d scattering. In the case of Ni3FeN, the rAMR decreased to nearly zero at 260 K. This temperature agreed well with the Curie temperature determined from the temperature dependence of magnetization. The AMR curves were reproduced well by using both cos2ϕ and cos4ϕ components below 100 K, whereas a cos2ϕ component was enough to fit those obtained above 100 K. It is assumed that the tetragonal crystal field was enhanced at low temperatures (<100 K) similar to Fe4N (<50 K).

  17. Comparative in vitro activity of carbapenems against major Gram-negative pathogens: results of Asia-Pacific surveillance from the COMPACT II study.

    PubMed

    Kiratisin, Pattarachai; Chongthaleong, Anan; Tan, Thean Yen; Lagamayo, Evelina; Roberts, Sally; Garcia, Jemelyn; Davies, Todd

    2012-04-01

    Resistance rates amongst Gram-negative pathogens are increasing in the Asia-Pacific region. The Comparative Activity of Carbapenem Testing (COMPACT) II study surveyed the carbapenem susceptibility and minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs) of doripenem, imipenem and meropenem against 1260 major Gram-negative pathogens isolated from hospitalised patients at 20 centres in five Asia-Pacific countries (New Zealand, the Philippines, Singapore, Thailand and Vietnam) during 2010. Pseudomonas aeruginosa (n=625), Enterobacteriaceae (n=500), and other Gram-negative pathogens including Acinetobacter baumannii (n=135) were collected from patients with bloodstream infection (32.2%), nosocomial pneumonia including ventilator-associated pneumonia (58.1%), and complicated intra-abdominal infection (9.7%), with 36.7% being isolated from patients in an Intensive Care Unit. As high as 29.8% of P. aeruginosa and 73.0% of A. baumannii isolates were not susceptible to at least a carbapenem, whereas the majority of Enterobacteriaceae (97.2%) were susceptible to all carbapenems. Respective MIC(50)/MIC(90) values (MICs for 50% and 90% of the organisms, respectively) of doripenem, imipenem and meropenem were: 0.38/8, 1.5/32 and 0.38/16 mg/L for P. aeruginosa; 0.023/0.094, 0.25/0.5 and 0.032/0.094 mg/L for Enterobacteriaceae; and 32/64, 32/128 and 32/64 mg/L for A. baumannii. Doripenem and meropenem had comparable activity against P. aeruginosa, both being more active than imipenem. All carbapenems were highly potent against Enterobacteriaceae, although imipenem demonstrated higher MIC values than doripenem and meropenem. The three carbapenems showed less activity against A. baumannii. The high prevalence of carbapenem resistance amongst important nosocomial pathogens (P. aeruginosa and A. baumannii) warrants rigorous infection control measures and appropriate antimicrobial use in the Asia-Pacific region.

  18. Surface micro-distributions of pigment and the relation between smearing and local mass distribution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bülow, K.; Kristiansson, P.; Larsson, T.; Malmberg, S.; Elfman, M.; Malmqvist, K.; Pallon, J.; Shariff, A.

    2001-07-01

    In this work, the process of smearing and its time evolution have been investigated. When smearing occurs, the print is removed from the printed paper and colours other parts of the paper or the printing press and destroys the final product. To study the re-distribution of ink, cyan ink with Cu as a tracer in the coloured pigment has been used. Non-printed paper has been pressed against the paper, 1 and 5 s after the printing. The micro-distributions of ink on both printed and non-printed papers have then been studied using particle-induced X-ray emission (PIXE). Basis weight was measured with the off-axis scanning transmission ion microscopy (STIM) technique and this data was correlated with the data from the print. One conclusion is that the process of smearing is not dependent on the shape of the pigment distribution, i.e. copper, or the content of copper in a specific pixel. On the contrary, the smearing was found to be related to the structure of the paper and that it mainly occurs where the paper is thicker.

  19. Pap smear brochures, misogyny and language: a discourse analysis and feminist critique.

    PubMed

    Lane, V; Lawler, J

    1997-12-01

    Text from a public health brochure on pap smears was analysed with particular reference to ways in which the language used conveys particular messages about women and their bodies. In the text, 'humans' were found to be excluded as such. Both the pap smear service provider and the women who are the recipients of this service--and at whom such brochures are targeted--are objectified and their characteristics of human existence (i.e. ontological capacities) were restricted. The language of the pamphlet invokes an image for women associated with vaginal (penile penetrative) sex. The discourse also is found to be didactic, biomedical and written in the voice of the service provider. Further, the encounter of pap smear events is contextualized as procedural such that not only is the woman 'done to' in the process of having a cervical smear test but the woman's and provider's experiences of the encounter are silenced. It is concluded that the texts may be viewed as misogynist and that such texts do not take account of the complexity of women's decisions to 'submit to' or comply with cervical cancer screening.

  20. Counting of RBCs and WBCs in noisy normal blood smear microscopic images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Habibzadeh, M.; Krzyzak, A.; Fevens, T.; Sadr, A.

    2011-03-01

    This work focuses on the segmentation and counting of peripheral blood smear particles which plays a vital role in medical diagnosis. Our approach profits from some powerful processing techniques. Firstly, the method used for denoising a blood smear image is based on the Bivariate wavelet. Secondly, image edge preservation uses the Kuwahara filter. Thirdly, a new binarization technique is introduced by merging the Otsu and Niblack methods. We have also proposed an efficient step-by-step procedure to determine solid binary objects by merging modified binary, edged images and modified Chan-Vese active contours. The separation of White Blood Cells (WBCs) from Red Blood Cells (RBCs) into two sub-images based on the RBC (blood's dominant particle) size estimation is a critical step. Using Granulometry, we get an approximation of the RBC size. The proposed separation algorithm is an iterative mechanism which is based on morphological theory, saturation amount and RBC size. A primary aim of this work is to introduce an accurate mechanism for counting blood smear particles. This is accomplished by using the Immersion Watershed algorithm which counts red and white blood cells separately. To evaluate the capability of the proposed framework, experiments were conducted on normal blood smear images. This framework was compared to other published approaches and found to have lower complexity and better performance in its constituent steps; hence, it has a better overall performance.

  1. Self-Reports of Pap Smear Screening in Women with Physical Disabilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lin, Jin-Ding; Chen, Shih-Fan; Lin, Lan-Ping; Sung, Chang-Lin

    2011-01-01

    We collected self reported rate of cervical smear testing to examine the affecting factors in women with physical disabilities in the study, to define the reproductive health care for this group of people. The study population recruited 521 women with physical disabilities aged more than 15 years who were officially registered as having physical…

  2. Random Periareolar Fine-Needle Aspiration: The New Pap Smear of the Breast?

    PubMed Central

    Lester, Joanne; Yee, Lisa Diane

    2012-01-01

    Random periareolar fine-needle aspiration continues to gain scientific credence in the short-term identification of women at increased risk for breast cancer. As this technique becomes more widely used, APs may seek to be trained in an effort to expand clinical trials, and someday provide a "Pap smear of the breast" for the women who need it most. PMID:25031974

  3. Five-minute Giemsa stain for rapid detection of malaria parasites in blood smears.

    PubMed

    Jager, M M; Murk, J L; Piqué, R D; Hekker, T A M; Vandenbroucke-Grauls, C M J E

    2011-01-01

    The Giemsa stain is used as the gold standard for the diagnosis of malaria on blood smears. The classical staining procedure requires between 30 and 45 min. We modified the Giemsa stain and reduced the staining time to 5 min without any loss of quality.

  4. Perception, attitude and practices of women towards pelvic examination and Pap smear in Jamaica

    PubMed Central

    Bourne, Paul A.; Charles, Christopher A.D.; Francis, Cynthia G.; South-Bourne, Neva; Peters, Racquel

    2010-01-01

    Background: Studies have shown that women's ability to access contraceptive methods depend on their socio-economic, educational, professional status, and the health and well-being of their families and themselves. Therefore, the embarking of the Governments of the Caribbean on important initiatives relating to gynecological matters is very important and timely. Aims: This study aims to examine the perception, attitude and practice of Jamaican women towards the matter of pelvic examination. Patients and Methods: The current study used an extracted sample of 7,168 women in their reproductive years (15-49 yrs) from a study which was undertaken by the National Family Planning Board in 2002 on Reproductive Health. Data was analyzed using SPSS for Windows, Version 16.0 (SPSS Inc.; Chicago, Ill. USA). Logistic regression was used to analyze factors/variables pertaining to Pelvic examination. Results: The findings revealed that older women are more likely to have done a Pelvic examination compared to younger women (χ2 = 675.29, P < 0.001). Age, number of pregnancies that resulted in miscarriages, number of pregnancies that resulted in induced abortion, age of first sexual intercourse, number of years of schooling, area of residence and socio-economic class are statistically significant factors of Pelvic examinations in Jamaica. Therefore, the model had significant predictive power where (χ2 = 1022.79, P < 0.001). Conclusion: The multidimensional nature of the variables, which emerged in the current study, indicate that a multisectoral approach should be used to address low pelvic and Pap smear examination among Jamaican women. PMID:22558551

  5. Liqui-Prep® versus conventional Papanicolaou smear to detect cervical cells abnormality by split-sample technique: a randomized double-blind controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Jesdapatarakul, Somnuek; Tangjitgamol, Siriwan; Nguansangiam, Sudarat; Manusirivithaya, Sumonmal

    2011-01-01

    To assess the diagnostic performances of LiquiPrep® (LP) to detect cervical cellular abnormality in comparison to Papanicolaou (Pap) smear in 194 women with abnormal cervical cytology who were scheduled for colposcopy at the institution between January 2008 and November 2008. The women were randomized to undergo a repeated cervical cytologic evaluation by Pap smear followed by LP, or the two methods in alternating order. The pathologist was blinded to previous cytologic diagnosis and the pair of slides assigned for each woman. Cytologic results from each method were compared to subsequent histopathology. Mean screening time for each LP and Pap slides were 4.3 ± 1.2 minutes and 5.4 ± 1.1 minutes, respectively (P < 0.001). From 194 cases, ASC or AGC were diagnosed in 72 cases (37.1%) from LP and 68 cases (35.1%) from Pap smear. After excluding the ASC/AGC group, the overall cytologic diagnostic agreement between the two tests were 69 of 87 cases (73.6%) while the agreements with histologic diagnoses were 39/87 cases from LP (44.8%) and 41 (47.1%) from Pap smear (P = 0.824). The accuracy of LP was not significantly different from Pap test, 43.4% (95% confidence interval [CI]: 34.8-52.1%) compared to 44.4% (95% CI: 35.7-53.1%). LP did not have superior performance over Pap test to detect high-grade lesions (≥ cervical intraepithelial neoplasia II) using ASC/AGC as the threshold with the sensitivity of 70.5% (95% CI: 64.0-76.9%) versus 77.3% (95% CI: 71.4-83.2%), respectively.

  6. Effect of diode laser and ultrasonics with and without ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid on smear layer removal from the root canals: A scanning electron microscope study

    PubMed Central

    Amin, Khalid; Masoodi, Ajaz; Nabi, Shahnaz; Ahmad, Parvaiz; Farooq, Riyaz; Purra, Aamir Rashid; Ahangar, Fayaz Ahmad

    2016-01-01

    Aim: To evaluate the effect of diode laser and ultrasonics with and without ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA) on the smear layer removal from root canals. Materials and Methods: A total of 120 mandibular premolars were decoronated to working the length of 12 mm and prepared with protaper rotary files up to size F3. Group A canals irrigated with 1 ml of 3% sodium hypochlorite (NaOCl) followed by 3 ml of 3% NaOCl. Group B canals irrigated with 1 ml of 17% EDTA followed by 3 ml of 3% NaOCl. Group C canals lased with a diode laser. Group D canals were initially irrigated with 0.8 ml of 17% EDTA the remaining 0.2 ml was used to fill the root canals, and diode laser application was done. Group E canals were irrigated with 1 ml distilled water with passive ultrasonic activation, followed by 3 ml of 3% NaOCl. Group F canals were irrigated with 1 ml EDTA with passive ultrasonic activation, followed by 3 ml of 3% NaOCl. Scanning electron microscope examination of canals was done for remaining smear layer at coronal middle and apical third levels. Results: Ultrasonics with EDTA had the least smear layer scores. Conclusion: Diode laser alone performed significantly better than ultrasonics. PMID:27656060

  7. High time to use rapid tests to detect multidrug resistance in sputum smear-negative tuberculosis in Belarus.

    PubMed

    Rusovich, V; Kumar, A M V; Skrahina, A; Hurevich, H; Astrauko, A; de Colombani, P; Tayler-Smith, K; Dara, M; Zachariah, R

    2014-12-21

    Contexte : Le Belarus (Europe de l'Est) est confronté à une épidémie de tuberculose multirésistante (TB-MDR). En 2012, les patients atteints de tuberculose pulmonaire (TBP) à frottis positif ont bénéficié en priorité de diagnostics moléculaires pour confirmer une TB-MDR, tandis que les patients atteints de TBP à frottis négatif (SN-PTB) ont bénéficié de méthodes conventionnelles qui retardaient souvent le diagnostic de TB-MDR de 2 à 4 mois.Objectif : Déterminer la proportion de TB-MDR parmi les patients SN-PTB enregistrés en 2012, ainsi que les facteurs cliniques et démographiques associés.Schéma : Etude de cohorte rétrospective basée sur des données émanant de tout le pays grâce au registre électronique national de la TB.Résultats : Sur 5377 cas de TB enregistrés, 2960 (55%) étaient des SN-PTB. Parmi ces derniers, 1639 (55%) avaient une culture positive, dont 768 (47%) avaient une TB-MDR : 33% (363/1084) nouveaux cas et 73% (405/555) patients déjà traités préalablement. La notion de traitement antérieur, l'âge, la région, la résidence en milieu urbain, le statut à l'égard du virus de l'immunodéficience humaine et le fait d'être retraité étaient indépendamment associés à la TB-MDR.Conclusion : Près de la moitié des patients SN-PTB à culture positive ont une TB-MDR, et dans les cas de retraitement, on arrive à plus de sept patients sur dix. La décision politique nationale d'extension des diagnostics moléculaires rapides à tous les patients TBP, y compris les patients SN-PTB, semble donc justifiée. Il est nécessaire de prendre des mesures afin d'assurer la mise en œuvre de cette priorité urgente, en raison des implications d'un diagnostic retardé à la fois pour les patients et en termes de santé publique.

  8. Negative Certainty

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ariso, José María

    2017-01-01

    The definitions of "negative knowledge" and the studies in this regard published to date have not considered the categorial distinction Wittgenstein established between knowledge and certainty. Hence, the important role that certainty, despite its omission, should have in these definitions and studies has not yet been shown. In this…

  9. Negative Numbers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Galbraith, Mary J.

    1974-01-01

    Examination of models for representing integers demonstrates that formal operational thought is required for establishing the operations on integers. Advocated is the use of many models for introducing negative numbers but, apart from addition, it is recommended that operations on integers be delayed until the formal operations stage. (JP)

  10. Mechanisms of clay smear formation in unconsolidated sediments - insights from 3-D observations of excavated normal faults

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kettermann, Michael; Thronberens, Sebastian; Juarez, Oscar; Lajos Urai, Janos; Ziegler, Martin; Asmus, Sven; Kruger, Ulrich

    2016-05-01

    Clay smears in normal faults can form seals for hydrocarbons and groundwater, and their prediction in the subsurface is an important problem in applied and basic geoscience. However, neither their complex 3-D structure, nor their processes of formation or destruction are well understood, and outcrop studies to date are mainly 2-D. We present a 3-D study of an excavated normal fault with clay smear, together with both source layers, in unlithified sand and clay of the Hambach open-cast lignite mine in Germany. The faults formed at a depth of 150 m, and have shale gouge ratios between 0.1 and 0.3. The fault zones are layered, with sheared sand, sheared clay and tectonically mixed sand-clay gouge. The thickness of clay smears in two excavated fault zones of 1.8 and 3.8 m2 is approximately log-normal, with values between 5 mm and 5 cm, without holes. The 3-D thickness distribution is heterogeneous. We show that clay smears are strongly affected by R and R' shears, mostly at the footwall side. These shears can locally cross and offset clay smears, forming holes in the clay smear, while thinning of the clay smear by shearing in the fault core is less important. The thinnest parts of the clay smears are often located close to source layer cut-offs. Locally, the clay smear consists of overlapping patches of sheared clay, separated by sheared sand. More commonly, it is one amalgamated zone of sheared sand and clay. A microscopic study of fault-zone samples shows that grain-scale mixing can lead to thickening of the low permeability smears, which may lead to resealing of holes.

  11. Crowdsourcing Malaria Parasite Quantification: An Online Game for Analyzing Images of Infected Thick Blood Smears

    PubMed Central

    Arranz, Asier; Frean, John

    2012-01-01

    Background There are 600,000 new malaria cases daily worldwide. The gold standard for estimating the parasite burden and the corresponding severity of the disease consists in manually counting the number of parasites in blood smears through a microscope, a process that can take more than 20 minutes of an expert microscopist’s time. Objective This research tests the feasibility of a crowdsourced approach to malaria image analysis. In particular, we investigated whether anonymous volunteers with no prior experience would be able to count malaria parasites in digitized images of thick blood smears by playing a Web-based game. Methods The experimental system consisted of a Web-based game where online volunteers were tasked with detecting parasites in digitized blood sample images coupled with a decision algorithm that combined the analyses from several players to produce an improved collective detection outcome. Data were collected through the MalariaSpot website. Random images of thick blood films containing Plasmodium falciparum at medium to low parasitemias, acquired by conventional optical microscopy, were presented to players. In the game, players had to find and tag as many parasites as possible in 1 minute. In the event that players found all the parasites present in the image, they were presented with a new image. In order to combine the choices of different players into a single crowd decision, we implemented an image processing pipeline and a quorum algorithm that judged a parasite tagged when a group of players agreed on its position. Results Over 1 month, anonymous players from 95 countries played more than 12,000 games and generated a database of more than 270,000 clicks on the test images. Results revealed that combining 22 games from nonexpert players achieved a parasite counting accuracy higher than 99%. This performance could be obtained also by combining 13 games from players trained for 1 minute. Exhaustive computations measured the parasite

  12. Stability of the biodiversity of the surface consortia of Gubbeen, a red-smear cheese.

    PubMed

    Rea, M C; Görges, S; Gelsomino, R; Brennan, N M; Mounier, J; Vancanneyt, M; Scherer, S; Swings, J; Cogan, T M

    2007-05-01

    A total of 1,052 bacteria and 828 yeasts were isolated from the surface flora of 6 batches of Gubbeen cheese made in 1996-1997 and 2002-2003. Stability of the microflora was evaluated over time and also during ripening at 4, 10, and 16 d (batches 4, 5, and 6) or at 4, 16, 23, and 37 d (batches 1, 2, and 3). Bacteria were identified using pulsed-field gel electrophoresis, repetitive extragenic palindromic-PCR, and 16S rRNA gene sequencing, and yeasts were identified by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy. The bacteria included at least 17 species, of which the most common were Staphylococcus saprophyticus (316 isolates), Corynebacterium casei (248 isolates), Brevibacterium aurantiacum (187 isolates), Corynebacterium variabile (146 isolates), Microbacterium gubbeenense (55 isolates), Staphylococcus equorum/cohnii (31 isolates), and Psychrobacter spp. (26 isolates). The most common yeasts were Debaryomyces hansenii (624 isolates), Candida catenulata (135 isolates), and Candida lusitaniae (62 isolates). In all batches of cheese except batch 2, a progression of bacteria was observed, with staphylococci dominating the early stages of ripening and coryneforms the later stages. No progression of yeast was found. Pulsed-field gel electrophoresis showed that several different strains of the 5 important species of bacteria were present, but generally only one predominated. The commercial strains used for smearing the cheese were recovered, but only in very small numbers early in ripening. Four species, B. aurantiacum, C. casei, C. variabile, and Staph. saprophyticus, were found on all batches of cheese, but their relative importance varied considerably. The results imply that significant variation occurs in the surface microflora of cheese.

  13. Influence of Motion Smear on Visual Acuity in Simulated Infantile Nystagmus

    PubMed Central

    Chung, Susana T. L.; LaFrance, Martin W.; Bedell, Harold E.

    2011-01-01

    Purpose In persons with infantile nystagmus (IN), visual acuity correlates with the duration of the foveation period of the nystagmus waveform, i.e., when the retinal image is on or near the fovea and moves with low velocity. In this study, we asked how acuity is affected by the non-foveating phases of the nystagmus waveform, when the velocity of retinal image motion is substantially higher. Methods Visual acuity was measured in three normal observers for high-contrast, 4-orientation Ts, presented during image motion that simulated either the whole jerk-IN waveform (whole-waveform) or only the foveation periods of the IN waveform (foveation-only). Simulated foveation durations ranged from 20 to 120 ms. For both motion waveforms, we displayed the acuity target for different number of cycles to examine if acuity benefits from multiple presentations of the stimulus. Results As expected, visual acuity improves with longer simulated foveation durations in both the whole-waveform and foveation-only conditions. Acuity is consistently better (by approximately 0.1 logMAR) in the foveation-only than the whole-waveform condition, indicating that the high-velocity image motion during the simulated IN waveform has a detrimental effect. This difference in acuity between the two waveform conditions increases with the number of cycles, apparently because summation occurs across cycles in the foveation-only condition but not in the whole-waveform condition. Conclusions In normal observers, visual acuity in the presence of a simulated nystagmus waveform is limited not only by the duration of the foveation periods, but also by the non-foveating phases of the waveform. However, because persons with IN report little or no motion smear in association with their nystagmus, it remains unclear whether the rapid retinal image motion during the non-foveating phases of the nystagmus waveform generates a similar degradation of visual acuity in IN. PMID:21200353

  14. Large-scale outflows in luminous QSOs revisited. The impact of beam smearing on AGN feedback efficiencies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Husemann, B.; Scharwächter, J.; Bennert, V. N.; Mainieri, V.; Woo, J.-H.; Kakkad, D.

    2016-10-01

    Context. Feedback from active galactic nuclei (AGN) is thought to play an important role in quenching star formation in galaxies. However, the efficiency with which AGN dissipate their radiative energy into the ambient medium remains strongly debated. Aims: Enormous observational efforts have been made to constrain the energetics of AGN feedback by mapping the kinematics of the ionized gas on kpc scale. We study how the observed kinematics and inferred energetics are affected by beam smearing of a bright unresolved narrow-line region (NLR) due to seeing. Methods: We re-analyse optical integral-field spectroscopy of a sample of twelve luminous unobscured quasi-stellar objects (QSOs) (0.4 Results: We find that the spatially resolved [O iii] line width on kpc scales is significantly narrower than the one before PSF deblending. The extended NLRs (ENLRs) appear intrinsically offset from the QSO position or more elongated which can be interpreted in favour of a conical outflow on large scales while a spherical geometry cannot be ruled out for the unresolved NLR. We find that the kinetic power at 5 kpc distance based on a spherical model is reduced by two orders of magnitude for a conical outflow and one order of magnitude for the unresolved NLR after PSF deblending. This reduced kinetic power corresponds to only 0.01-0.1 per cent of the bolometric AGN luminosity. This is smaller than the 5-10% feedback efficiency required by some cosmological simulations to reproduce the massive galaxy population. The injected momentum fluxes are close or below the simple radiation-pressure limit Lbol/c for the conical outflow model for the NLR and ENLR

  15. LOW KNOWLEDGE OF CERVICAL CANCER AND CERVICAL PAP SMEARS AMONG WOMEN IN PERU, AND THEIR IDEAS OF HOW THIS COULD BE IMPROVED

    PubMed Central

    PAZ-SOLDÁN, VALERIE A.; NUSSBAUM, LAUREN; BAYER, ANGELA M.; CABRERA, LILIA

    2013-01-01

    Estimates of the percentage of women who have had Pap smears in Peru vary between 7% and 43%. This study explores what women know about cervical cancer and Pap smears, as well as their barriers to obtaining Pap smears. Focus group discussions (FGD) were conducted with a total of 177 women in four Peruvian cities. Discussions reveal that most women did not know what causes cervical cancer. Most women did not know the purpose of Pap smears, although knowledge about Pap smears was higher than knowledge about cervical cancer. Fear, embarrassment, and lack of knowledge were the main barriers identified for not getting Pap smears. Programs and policies aiming to increase Pap smear coverage must start by educating women on cervical cancer and its prevention in order to improve women's perceptions about the screening test and increase Pap smear seeking behaviors in the long term. PMID:21988870

  16. Negative Ion Density Fronts

    SciTech Connect

    Igor Kaganovich

    2000-12-18

    Negative ions tend to stratify in electronegative plasmas with hot electrons (electron temperature Te much larger than ion temperature Ti, Te > Ti ). The boundary separating a plasma containing negative ions, and a plasma, without negative ions, is usually thin, so that the negative ion density falls rapidly to zero-forming a negative ion density front. We review theoretical, experimental and numerical results giving the spatio-temporal evolution of negative ion density fronts during plasma ignition, the steady state, and extinction (afterglow). During plasma ignition, negative ion fronts are the result of the break of smooth plasma density profiles during nonlinear convection. In a steady-state plasma, the fronts are boundary layers with steepening of ion density profiles due to nonlinear convection also. But during plasma extinction, the ion fronts are of a completely different nature. Negative ions diffuse freely in the plasma core (no convection), whereas the negative ion front propagates towards the chamber walls with a nearly constant velocity. The concept of fronts turns out to be very effective in analysis of plasma density profile evolution in strongly non-isothermal plasmas.

  17. Negative Human Interaction

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brannan, John M.

    1972-01-01

    This study is an effort to examine man's most negative experiences as he perceives them. The results indicated that teachers were involved more often than any other person in the most negative experience reported. Improved human relations skills are clearly indicated for those in higher education as well as in public schools. (Author)

  18. Comparison of removal of endodontic smear layer using ethylene glycol bis (beta-amino ethyl ether)-N, N, N', N'-tetraacetic acid and citric acid in primary teeth: A scanning electron microscopic study

    PubMed Central

    Hegde, Rahul J.; Bapna, Kavita

    2016-01-01

    Background: Root canal irrigants are considered momentous in their tissue dissolving property, eliminating microorganisms, and removing smear layer. The present study was aimed to compare the removal of endodontic smear layer using ethylene glycol bis (beta-amino ethyl ether)-N, N, N', N'-tetraacetic acid (EGTA) and citric acid solutions with saline as a control in primary anterior teeth. Materials and Methods: Thirty primary anterior teeth were chosen for the study. The teeth were distributed into three groups having ten teeth each. Following instrumentation, root canals of the first group were treated with 17% EGTA and the second group with 6% citric acid. Only saline was used as an irrigant for the control group. Then, the teeth were subjected to scanning electron microscopy (SEM) study. The scale given by Rome et al. for the smear layer removal was used in the present study. Results: The pictures from the SEM showed that among the tested irrigants, 17% EGTA + 5% sodium hypochlorite (NaOCl) group showed the best results when compared to other groups. Conclusion: The results advocate that the sequential irrigation of the pulp canal walls with 17% EGTA followed by 5% NaOCl produced efficacious and smear-free root canal walls. PMID:27307670

  19. Significance of atypia in conventional Papanicolaou smears and liquid-based cytology: a follow-up study.

    PubMed

    Schledermann, D; Ejersbo, D; Hoelund, B

    2004-06-01

    The diagnosis of atypical squamous epithelial cells, borderline nuclear changes, is associated with some controversy, as it encompasses benign, reactive, as well as possible neoplastic conditions. The aim of this study was to evaluate the follow-up diagnoses of cytological atypia in conventional Papanicolaou smears (CP) and liquid-based samples by the ThinPrep Pap Test (TP). A total of 1607 CP smears from 1 January 2000 to 31 December 2000 and 798 TP samples from 1 January 2002 to 31 December 2002 diagnosed as atypia were included. The results show that the detection rate of atypia in cervical cytological samples was reduced by 41.3% (P < 0.001) in TP compared with CP. Cytological and histological follow-up data showed the presence of neoplastic lesions in 34.7% of patients screened by TP versus 22.3% of patients screened by CP, corresponding to a 55.6% increase in TP (P < 0.001). Follow-up diagnosis of mild dysplasia was seen more than twice as often in TP than in CP (12.8% versus 5.0%, P < 0.001). The prevalence of moderate and severe dysplasia was significantly increased with 26.7% in TP compared with CP (21.9% versus 17.2%, P < 0.01). In conclusion, the ThinPrep Pap Test yielded a significant decrease in atypia rates compared with the conventional Papanicolaou test. In subsequent follow-up the percentage of neoplastic lesions was significantly increased in the ThinPrep Pap Test samples.

  20. Antibiotic spectrum of isolated germs in the vaginal smear of Nigerian women.

    PubMed

    Ecker-Eckhofen, C; Sixl, W

    1988-01-01

    The bacteriological research of 534 vaginal smears of pregnant women and patients of the gynaecological ward in Abeokuta showed in 21.6% beta-hem. Streptococcus group D, in 10.9% Staphylococcus epidermidis, in 5.3% Escherichia coli, in 3.6% Staphylococcus aureus, in 1.3% beta-hem. Streptococcus group B and in 7.8% yeasts. 48% of all smears remained sterile. The antibiotics with the least effect were Tetracyclines and Penicillines. Trimethoprim and Sulfonamid, Ticarcillin and Netilmycin were able to prevent the bacterial growth by at least 89%. Isolated germs of private patients showed higher resistance against Tetracycline and Chloramphenicol than those of non-private patients.

  1. A rapid method for counting nucleated erythrocytes on stained blood smears by digital image analysis

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Gering, E.; Atkinson, C.T.

    2004-01-01

    Measures of parasitemia by intraerythrocytic hematozoan parasites are normally expressed as the number of infected erythrocytes per n erythrocytes and are notoriously tedious and time consuming to measure. We describe a protocol for generating rapid counts of nucleated erythrocytes from digital micrographs of thin blood smears that can be used to estimate intensity of hematozoan infections in nonmammalian vertebrate hosts. This method takes advantage of the bold contrast and relatively uniform size and morphology of erythrocyte nuclei on Giemsa-stained blood smears and uses ImageJ, a java-based image analysis program developed at the U.S. National Institutes of Health and available on the internet, to recognize and count these nuclei. This technique makes feasible rapid and accurate counts of total erythrocytes in large numbers of microscope fields, which can be used in the calculation of peripheral parasitemias in low-intensity infections.

  2. Effect of interferogram smearing on atmospheric limb sounding by Fourier transform spectroscopy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Park, J. H.

    1982-01-01

    An analytical method for the analysis of absorption spectra obtained from the interferograms of an interferometer operated in the solar occultation mode, in which an interferogram is smeared with individual interferogram components generated by the passage of rays at different tangent altitudes, is described. The creation of strong sidelobes on absorption lines by the interferogram smearing leads to the recommendation of a strong apodization on the interferogram for the solar occultation experiment. The application of these concepts to the simultaneous retrieval of temperature and pressure from CO2 4.3-micron band stratospheric absorption spectra includes the analysis of the continuum absorptions by the pressure-induced N2 fundamental bands and by far wings of the CO2 v3 band. Agreement is reported between observed and simulated spectra.

  3. Segmentation of leukocytes and erythrocytes in blood smear images.

    PubMed

    Bergen, Tobias; Steckhan, Dirk; Wittenberg, Thomas; Zerfass, Thorsten

    2008-01-01

    Differential blood count is a standard method in hematological laboratory diagnosis. In the course of developing a computer-assisted microscopy system for the generation of differential blood counts, the detection and segmentation of white and red blood cells forms an essential step and its exactness is a fundamental prerequisite for the effectiveness of the subsequent classification step. We propose a method for the exact segmentation of leukocytes and erythrocytes in a simultaneous and cooperative way. We combine pixel-wise classification with template matching to locate erythrocytes and use a level-set approach in order to get the exact cell contours of leukocyte nucleus and plasma regions as well as erythrocyte regions. An evaluation comparing the performance of the algorithm to the manual segmentation performed by several persons yielded good results.

  4. SEM evaluation of smear layer removal by Er:YAG laser in root canals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brugnera, Aldo, Jr.; Roe, Iain M.; Guerisoli, Danilo M.; Barbizam, Joao Vicente B.; Pecora, Jesus D.

    2002-06-01

    The effects of two endodontic irrigants associated or not with Er:YAG laser on a smear layer created by hand instrumentation were evaluated in vitro in the middle and apical thirds of root canals. Twenty five human maxillary canines with a single root were distributed randomly into five groups of five teeth each. Group 1 was irrigated with sodium hypochlorite 1.0%, Group 2 received EDTAC 15% as irrigating solution and Group 3 received both NaClO 1.0% and EDTAC 15%. Group 4 was irrigated with distilled water and irradiated with Er:YAG laser. Group 5 received NaClO 1.0% as irrigating solution and was irradiated with Er:YAG laser. Teeth were split longitudinally and prepared for examination under scanning electron microscopy. The teeth irrigated with NaClO (Group 1) showed the higher amount of smear layer, with statistically significant differences (p<0.05) from the teeth irrigated with distilled water and irradiated with Er:YAG laser (Group 4), which showed intermediate amounts of smear layer. The teeth irrigated with EDTAC 15%, NaClO 1.0% associated with EDTAC 15% and NaClO 1.0% with Er:YAG laser (Groups 2,3 and 5) showed the lowest amounts of smear layer, being statistically similar between them and different (p<0.05) from Groups 1 and 4. There were no differences between the radicular thirds. It can be concluded that irradiation with Er:YAG laser can be as effective as EDTAC 15% when used associated with 1.0% sodium hypochlorite, but not as effective when used together with distilled water.

  5. Comparative evaluation of efficacy of ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid, maleic acid, and dimercaptosuccinic acid against the combination of these with sodium hypochlorite for removal of smear layer: An in vitro scanning electron microscope study

    PubMed Central

    Meshram, Rishikesh; Sathawane, Nikhil; Samuel, Roshan; Jibhkate, Narayan Gunaji; Gyanani, Hitesh; Patil, Sanjay

    2016-01-01

    Context: The effect of dimercaptosuccinic acid (DMSA) and maleic acid (MA) when used alone on smear layer has been evaluated with mixed results, but their effect when combined with sodium hypochlorite (NaOCl) has not been studied. Aim: To compare the effectiveness of ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid, MA, and DMSA against the combination of these with NaOCl in the removal of smear layer. Settings and Design: n = 4pq/L2 q = 1 − p p = Incident rate L = Allowable error Methods: One hundred and forty extracted, anterior teeth were radiovisiographically assessed. Access preparation was done; apical patency was established. Cleaning and shaping was accomplished using step-back technique. The specimens were randomly allocated as per the final irrigation protocol. After final irrigation, teeth were prepared for scanning electron microscope analysis, and the middle and apical thirds of radicular dentin were evaluated at ×1000 for evaluation of severity of occlusion of dentinal tubules with smear layer. Statistical Analysis: The data were statistically analyzed using the Student's t-test and kappa test. Results: For combined irrigation, 10% DMSA + NaOCl was significantly better than all other groups both in the middle third and the apical third. It was more effective in the middle third than at apical third. Conclusion: Ten percent DMSA in combination with NaOCl removes the smear layer more effectively at both the middle and apical third. PMID:27994408

  6. Air and smear sample calculational tool for Fluor Hanford Radiological control

    SciTech Connect

    BAUMANN, B.L.

    2003-07-11

    A spreadsheet calculation tool was developed to automate the calculations performed for determining the concentration of airborne radioactivity and smear counting as outlined in HNF-13536, Section 5.2.7, ''Analyzing Air and Smear Samples''. This document reports on the design and testing of the calculation tool. Radiological Control Technicians (RCTs) will save time and reduce hand written and calculation errors by using an electronic form for documenting and calculating work place air samples. Current expectations are RCTs will perform an air sample and collect the filter or perform a smear for surface contamination. RCTs will then survey the filter for gross alpha and beta/gamma radioactivity and with the gross counts utilize either hand calculation method or a calculator to determine activity on the filter. The electronic form will allow the RCT with a few key strokes to document the individual's name, payroll, gross counts, instrument identifiers; produce an error free record. This productivity gain is realized by the enhanced ability to perform mathematical calculations electronically (reducing errors) and at the same time, documenting the air sample.

  7. Direct-to-digital holography reduction of reference hologram noise and fourier space smearing

    DOEpatents

    Voelkl, Edgar

    2006-06-27

    Systems and methods are described for reduction of reference hologram noise and reduction of Fourier space smearing, especially in the context of direct-to-digital holography (off-axis interferometry). A method of reducing reference hologram noise includes: recording a plurality of reference holograms; processing the plurality of reference holograms into a corresponding plurality of reference image waves; and transforming the corresponding plurality of reference image waves into a reduced noise reference image wave. A method of reducing smearing in Fourier space includes: recording a plurality of reference holograms; processing the plurality of reference holograms into a corresponding plurality of reference complex image waves; transforming the corresponding plurality of reference image waves into a reduced noise reference complex image wave; recording a hologram of an object; processing the hologram of the object into an object complex image wave; and dividing the complex image wave of the object by the reduced noise reference complex image wave to obtain a reduced smearing object complex image wave.

  8. Erythrocyte dysplasia in peripheral blood smears from 5 thrombocytopenic dogs treated with vincristine sulfate.

    PubMed

    Collicutt, Nancy B; Garner, Bridget

    2013-12-01

    Secondary dyserythropoiesis has been associated with vincristine administration in dogs. Evaluation of bone marrow aspirates for the presence of morphologic abnormalities in the erythroid lineage aids in the diagnosis. However, morphologic features of circulating erythroid precursors in these cases have not been described previously. The purpose of this report was to describe the cytologic features of dyserythropoiesis in peripheral blood and also bone marrow smears in a case series of dogs with immune-mediated thrombocytopenia (IMT) treated with vincristine sulfate. Nineteen dogs receiving vincristine for treatment of IMT were identified by retrospectively searching a computerized medical record system. There were 5 dogs that had dysplastic erythroid precursors in peripheral blood smears within 7 days of vincristine treatment. Two of those 5 dogs also had evidence for erythrodysplasia in modified Wright's-stained bone marrow smears obtained postvincristine administration. Morphologic changes included bizarre or inappropriate mitotic figures, abnormal nuclear configurations (fragmentation, elongation, indentation, and binucleation), atypical nuclear remnants (Howell-Jolly bodies), or nuclear and cytoplasmic asynchrony within the erythroid precursors. A brief review of the literature with discussion of the etiologies for dyserythropoiesis is provided. The dyserythropoiesis was clinically insignificant in all 5 cases and resolved. However, pathologists and clinicians should be aware of these potential findings to prevent misdiagnosis of other conditions.

  9. Comparison of coronal leakage after smear layer removal with EDTA or Er:YAG laser

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pecora, Jesus D.; Mamere de Almeida, Yasmine; Marchesan, Melissa A.; Zanin, Fatima A. A.; Brugnera, Aldo, Jr.

    2002-06-01

    This study determine, in vitro, the coronal leakage of root canals evaluating the effect of smear layer removal by either EDTA or laser. Two sealers were also compared. Sixty- four canines were instrumented with the step-back technique and irrigated with 10 ml of 1% sodium hypochlorite. In Group 1, 10 teeth were sealed with Sealer 26 and 10 teeth were sealed with Grossman cement with no attempt of smear layer removal. Group 2 received a final irrigation of 15 ml of 15% ETA, and was sealed as in group 1. Group 3 received Er:YAG laser application (2940 nm, 140 mJ, 15 Hz and 42 J, 300 pulses, 500milli-sec pulse duration), and sealed as in group 1. Root canals sealed with Sealer 26 has significantly less coronal leakage than Grossman cement (p<0.05). Coronal leakage after smear layer removal with 15% EDTA or Er:YAG laser was not statistically different (p>0.01).

  10. No to negative data

    SciTech Connect

    Wiley, H. S.

    2008-04-01

    A frequent criticism in biology is that we don’t publish our negative data. As a result, the literature has become biased towards papers that favor specific hypotheses1. Some scientists have become so concerned about this trend that they have created journals dedicated to publishing negative results (e.g. the Journal of Negative Results in Biomedicine). Personally, I don’t think they should bother. I say this because I believe negative results are not worth publishing. Rest assured that I do not include drug studies that show a lack of effectiveness towards a specific disease or condition. This type of finding is significant in a societal context, not a scientific one, and thus we all have a vested interest in seeing this type of result published. I am talking about a set of experimental results that fail to support a particular hypothesis. The problem with these types of negative results is that they don’t actually advance science. Science is a set of ideas that can be supported by observations. A negative result does not support any specific idea, but only tells you what isn’t right. Well, there are only a small number of potential hypotheses that are correct, but essentially an infinite number of ideas are not correct. I don’t want to waste my time reading a paper about what doesn’t happen, just about those things that do. I can remember a positive result because I can associate it with a specific concept. What do I do with a negative one? It is hard enough to following the current literature. A flood of negative results would make that task all but impossible

  11. Blood Smear

    MedlinePlus

    ... a depression in the middle instead of a hole (biconcave). Due to the hemoglobin inside the RBCs, ... parasitic infections. Basophils (10-15 µm) have large, black granules and are the least often seen type ...

  12. Fecal smear

    MedlinePlus

    ... Management by Laboratory Methods . 23rd ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier; 2017:chap 64. DuPont HL. Approach to the ... AI, eds. Goldman's Cecil Medicine . 25thed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier Saunders; 2016:chap 283. Haines CF, Sears CL. ...

  13. Buccal smear

    MedlinePlus

    ... done to get cells for chromosome or DNA analysis, most often for genetic testing. This test may also help establish sexual identity. When the test is used in this way, it's called the sex chromatin test.

  14. Pap Smear

    MedlinePlus

    PLEASE NOTE: Your web browser does not have JavaScript enabled. Unless you enable Javascript , your ability to navigate and access the features of this website will be limited. ... Proceeds from website advertising help sustain Lab Tests Online. AACC is a not-for-profit organization and does not endorse non-AACC products and services. Advertising & Sponsorship: ...

  15. Blood smear

    MedlinePlus

    ... of basophilic stippling (a spotted appearance) may indicate: Lead poisoning Disorder of the bone marrow in which the ... disease of the newborn Hemolytic-uremic syndrome Hypochromia Lead poisoning Liver disease Malignancy Myelofibrosis Non-Hodgkin lymphoma Osmotic ...

  16. Pap Smears

    MedlinePlus

    ... the vagina is surrounded by muscles that can contract or relax, the exam can be more comfortable if you relax the muscles in that area. Try doing some breathing exercises or focusing on relaxing the vaginal muscles. Sometimes humming your favorite ...

  17. The performance of tele-cervicography for detection of preinvasive and invasive disease of the uterine cervix as an adjunctive test to Pap smears

    PubMed Central

    Nam, Kyehyun; Sim, Seung-hyuk; Han, Seijun

    2016-01-01

    Aim of the study To evaluate the diagnostic capacity of tele-cervicography for the detection of cervical neoplasia as an adjunctive test with Papanicolaou (Pap) smears. Material and methods Pap smear and tele-cervicography were performed on each subject. Histologic results were obtained for all patients. Results Of the 863 females who had a tele-cervigram, 252 (29.2%) had a positive result. Of the 60 histologically confirmed cases of high-grade squamous intraepithelial lesions (HSILs), 56 (93.3%) were detected by tele-cervicography, including 16 (26.7%) with a positive grade of 1 and 40 (66.7%) with a positive grade of 2. With the positive threshold of tele-cervicography set as any positive grade (P0 to P3), the overall sensitivity was 94.0% (95% CI: 88.0–97.3%), the specificity was 80.9% (95% CI: 80.0–81.5%), and the positive likelihood ratio was 4.94 (95% CI: 4.23–5.77) for the detection of HSILs or cancer. The combination of tele-cervicography with Pap smear testing for the detection of HSILs or cancer resulted in an increase in sensitivity from 84.6% (Pap only: cutoff = atypical squamous cells of undetermined significance or more severe) to 98.3% (Pap plus tele-cervicography: cutoff = P0 or more severe). Conclusions The sensitivity of tele-cervicography was higher than that of cytology for the detection of cervical neoplasia, and combining the two tests increased the sensitivity. Tele-cervicography can be considered a useful complementary tool to cytology. PMID:28373823

  18. VTD-melphalan is well tolerated and results in very high rates of stringent CR and MRD-negative status in multiple myeloma.

    PubMed

    Nadiminti, Kalyan; Singh Abbi, Kamal Kant; Mott, Sarah L; Dozeman, Lindsay; Tricot, Annick; Schultz, Allyson; Behrends, Sonya; Zhan, Fenghuang; Tricot, Guido

    2017-01-01

    The addition of cytotoxic drugs to high-dose melphalan as a preparative regimen for autologous stem cell transplantation in multiple myeloma has not resulted in superior activity. Although novel agents have significantly improved outcome in multiple myeloma, their role in preparative regimens remains largely unknown. We have evaluated the toxicity and efficacy of combining bortezomib, thalidomide, and dexamethasone with high-dose melphalan. An institutional review board-approved retrospective analysis was performed on 100 consecutive patients receiving 153 transplants; 53 had tandem transplants; 64 patients received early transplants; and 36 had salvage transplantation. Endpoints were treatment-related toxicity and mortality, and quality of response post-transplantation with assessment of stringent complete remission (sCR) and minimal residual disease (MRD) status. Median age was 61 years, and median follow-up was 16.2 months. At 6 months, sCR was attained in 56% of patients and CR in 20%. An MRD status, assessed by sensitive (10(-4)) multiparameter flow cytometry, was achieved in 85%. The 100-day mortality rate was 2.6% (4/153); 1.8% for early transplants and 4.5% for salvage transplants. Grade 3-5 non-hematologic toxicities were mainly related to metabolism/nutrition; gastrointestinal and infectious problems. Median time to absolute neutrophil count of >500/µL was 12 days for both early and salvage transplantations. No significant differences in quality of response were observed between early and salvage transplantation or between single and tandem autologous stem cell transplantation. Since both sCR and MRD are excellent early surrogate markers for progression-free and overall survival, this regimen will likely be superior to melphalan alone, but it needs to be formally assessed in a randomized study.

  19. VTD-melphalan is well tolerated and results in very high rates of stringent CR and MRD-negative status in multiple myeloma

    PubMed Central

    Nadiminti, Kalyan; Singh Abbi, Kamal Kant; Mott, Sarah L; Dozeman, Lindsay; Tricot, Annick; Schultz, Allyson; Behrends, Sonya; Zhan, Fenghuang; Tricot, Guido

    2017-01-01

    The addition of cytotoxic drugs to high-dose melphalan as a preparative regimen for autologous stem cell transplantation in multiple myeloma has not resulted in superior activity. Although novel agents have significantly improved outcome in multiple myeloma, their role in preparative regimens remains largely unknown. We have evaluated the toxicity and efficacy of combining bortezomib, thalidomide, and dexamethasone with high-dose melphalan. An institutional review board-approved retrospective analysis was performed on 100 consecutive patients receiving 153 transplants; 53 had tandem transplants; 64 patients received early transplants; and 36 had salvage transplantation. Endpoints were treatment-related toxicity and mortality, and quality of response post-transplantation with assessment of stringent complete remission (sCR) and minimal residual disease (MRD) status. Median age was 61 years, and median follow-up was 16.2 months. At 6 months, sCR was attained in 56% of patients and CR in 20%. An MRD status, assessed by sensitive (10−4) multiparameter flow cytometry, was achieved in 85%. The 100-day mortality rate was 2.6% (4/153); 1.8% for early transplants and 4.5% for salvage transplants. Grade 3–5 non-hematologic toxicities were mainly related to metabolism/nutrition; gastrointestinal and infectious problems. Median time to absolute neutrophil count of >500/µL was 12 days for both early and salvage transplantations. No significant differences in quality of response were observed between early and salvage transplantation or between single and tandem autologous stem cell transplantation. Since both sCR and MRD are excellent early surrogate markers for progression-free and overall survival, this regimen will likely be superior to melphalan alone, but it needs to be formally assessed in a randomized study. PMID:28123303

  20. Glycogen synthase kinase-3beta heterozygote knockout mice as a model of findings in postmortem schizophrenia brain or as a model of behaviors mimicking lithium action: negative results.

    PubMed

    Bersudsky, Yuly; Shaldubina, Alona; Kozlovsky, Nitzan; Woodgett, James R; Agam, Galila; Belmaker, R H

    2008-05-01

    In mice glycogen synthase kinase (GSK)-3beta heterozygote knockout status was reported to cause reduced immobility in the Porsolt forced swim test and reduced amphetamine-induced hyperactivity, behaviors that mimic the effects of lithium. GSK-3beta protein and mRNA level and activity have been reported to be reduced in the postmortem brain of schizophrenia patients and this could suggest the involvement of GSK-3beta in the etiology of schizophrenia. However, apomorphine-induced stereotyping was reported to be unchanged in GSK-3beta heterozygote (HZ) knockout (KO) mice. As such behaviors are not always robust, study in another laboratory seemed indicated. Motor activity and coordination were assessed in the rotarod test. Behavior was studied in the following tests: pilocarpine-induced seizures model for lithium action, Porsolt forced swim test, tail suspension test, elevated plus-maze, large open field, startle response and prepulse inhibition of acoustic startle response, amphetamine-induced hyperactivity, and apomorphine-induced stereotypic climbing. We could not confirm the report that GSK-3beta HZ KO mice exhibit reduced immobility in the Porsolt forced swim or reduced amphetamine-induced hyperactivity in a manner mimicking the behavioral effects of lithium. We did not find increased apomorphine-induced stereotypic climbing or disruption of prepulse inhibition, suggesting that human postmortem findings regarding GSK-3beta in schizophrenia are not mediated by changes in dopamine receptors and are not the cause of prepulse inhibition deficits in schizophrenia. These data do not support the role of GSK-3beta in schizophrenia or in the mechanism of therapeutic action of lithium. Although differences in the genetic background of the GSK-3beta HZ KOs used in the present study compared with that of the previous study could be responsible, such results could suggest that the previously reported effects of GSK-3beta knockout on behavior are not robust.

  1. Negative impact of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease on the health-related quality of life of patients. Results of the EPIDEPOC study

    PubMed Central

    Garrido, Pilar Carrasco; Díez, Javier de Miguel; Gutiérrez, Javier Rejas; Centeno, Antonio Martín; Vázquez, Elena Gobartt; de Miguel, Ángel Gil; Carballo, Marta García; García, Rodrigo Jiménez

    2006-01-01

    Background COPD is currently the fourth cause of morbidity and mortality in the developed world. Patients with COPD experience a progressive deterioration and disability, which lead to a worsening in their health-related quality of life (HRQoL). The aim of this work is to assess the Health-Related Quality of Life (HRQoL) of patients with stable COPD followed in primary care and to identify possible predictors of disease. Methods It is a multicenter, epidemiological, observational, descriptive study. Subjects of both sexes, older than 40 years and diagnosed of COPD at least 12 months before starting the study were included. Sociodemographic data, severity of disease, comorbidity, and use of health resources in the previous 12 months were collected. All patients were administered a generic quality-of-life questionnaire, the SF-12, that enables to calculate two scores, the physical (PCS-12) and the mental (MCS-12) component summary scores. Results 10,711 patients were evaluated (75.6% men, 24.4% women), with a mean age of 67.1 years (SD 9.66). The mean value of FEV1 was 35.9 ± 10.0%. Mean PCS-12 and MCS-12 scores were 36.0 ± 9.9 and 48.3 ± 10.9, respectively. Compared to the reference population, patients with COPD had a reduction of PCS-12, even in mild stages of the disease. The correlation with FEV1 was higher for PCS-12 (r = 0.38) than for MCS-12 (r = 0.12). Predictors for both HRQoL components were sex, FEV1, use of oxygen therapy, and number of visits to emergency rooms and hospital admissions. Other independent predictors of PCS-12 were age, body mass index and educational level. Conclusion Patients with stable COPD show a reduction of their HRQoL, even in mild stages of the disease. The factors determining the HRQoL include sex, FEV1, use of oxygen therapy, and number of visits to emergency rooms and hospital admissions. PMID:16719899

  2. Effectiveness of Alpha Biofeedback Therapy: Negative Results.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Watson, Charles G.; Herder, Joseph

    1980-01-01

    Assessed the utility of alpha biofeedback training in the treatment of patients (N=66). Biofeedback and placebo biofeedback groups were given alpha or mock-alpha training sessions. Improvement on 54 variables was compared to that of no-treatment controls. Only a chance number of significant changes appeared among the groups. (Author)

  3. Demonstration of Mycobacterium Tuberculosis in Sputum and Saliva Smears of Tuberculosis Patients Using Ziehl Neelsen and Flurochrome Staining- A Comparative Study

    PubMed Central

    Ganvir, Sindhu M; Shah, Nishat N; Bansode, Shriram C; Shende, Ishali; Jawade, Rashmi; Bijjargi, Shobha C

    2014-01-01

    Background: Early detection of tuberculosis is important for reducing its morbidity and mortality especially in the patients with non-productive cough. To overcome the cumbersome process involved in collection and processing of the sputum specimen, the time consumed for reporting of sputum by Ziehl Neelsen (ZN) method and to introduce a routine screening test in suspected, symptomless tuberculosis patients, the present study was designed using saliva as diagnostic medium and Auramine Rhodamine (AR) as staining method. On review of literature, there was no study which has tried diagnosing tuberculosis using saliva with flurochrome stain; hence the present study was designed. Aim: To introduce a routine screening test for tuberculosis patient using saliva and to determine the diagnostic efficacy of routine ZN staining method and AR fluorescent staining method in sputum and saliva smears of pulmonary tuberculosis patients. Settings and Design: Laboratory settings and Experimental design. Materials and Method: Fifty smears samples of sputum and saliva of known cases of pulmonary tuberculosis were stained with routine ZN stain and other with AR fluorescent stain. All the specimens were inoculated into Lowenstein-Jensen culture media. The smears were subjected for scanning of Mycobacterium tuberculous bacilli under X 1000 magnification for ZN stain and X 400 magnification for AR stain by grid pattern proposed by National tuberculosis institute and graded by RNTCP grading system. Results: All 50 sputum samples showed 100% positivity by ZN and AR stain while only 76% positivity was seen by culture. Of the 50 saliva samples 10% cases were positive by ZN, 76% were positive by AR & 70% by culture method. Statistical analysis using chi square test was done, and the value was found to be statistically highly significant for AR staining technique. (p<0.001) Conclusion: Saliva can prove to be an important tool for the diagnosis as well as screening of the patients with pulmonary

  4. Complete genome sequence of Corynebacterium variabile DSM 44702 isolated from the surface of smear-ripened cheeses and insights into cheese ripening and flavor generation

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Corynebacterium variabile is part of the complex microflora on the surface of smear-ripened cheeses and contributes to the development of flavor and textural properties during cheese ripening. Still little is known about the metabolic processes and microbial interactions during the production of smear-ripened cheeses. Therefore, the gene repertoire contributing to the lifestyle of the cheese isolate C. variabile DSM 44702 was deduced from the complete genome sequence to get a better understanding of this industrial process. Results The chromosome of C. variabile DSM 44702 is composed of 3, 433, 007 bp and contains 3, 071 protein-coding regions. A comparative analysis of this gene repertoire with that of other corynebacteria detected 1, 534 predicted genes to be specific for the cheese isolate. These genes might contribute to distinct metabolic capabilities of C. variabile, as several of them are associated with metabolic functions in cheese habitats by playing roles in the utilization of alternative carbon and sulphur sources, in amino acid metabolism, and fatty acid degradation. Relevant C. variabile genes confer the capability to catabolize gluconate, lactate, propionate, taurine, and gamma-aminobutyric acid and to utilize external caseins. In addition, C. variabile is equipped with several siderophore biosynthesis gene clusters for iron acquisition and an exceptional repertoire of AraC-regulated iron uptake systems. Moreover, C. variabile can produce acetoin, butanediol, and methanethiol, which are important flavor compounds in smear-ripened cheeses. Conclusions The genome sequence of C. variabile provides detailed insights into the distinct metabolic features of this bacterium, implying a strong adaption to the iron-depleted cheese surface habitat. By combining in silico data obtained from the genome annotation with previous experimental knowledge, occasional observations on genes that are involved in the complex metabolic capacity of C. variabile

  5. [Investigation of HPV-DNA in cervical smear samples by two different methods: MY09/11 consensus PCR and type-specific real-time PCR].

    PubMed

    Sahiner, Fatih; Gümral, Ramazan; Sener, Kenan; Yiğit, Nuri; Dede, Murat; Yapar, Mehmet; Kubar, Ayhan

    2012-10-01

    Cervical cancer that has been proven to be associated with human papillomavirus (HPV) is the second most common cancer in women worldwide and is a leading cause of cancer deaths in women in developing countries. Cervical cancers can be detected in the early stages by screening programs since a long latency period exists between the beginning of HPV infection and the development of cervical cancer. HPV-DNA testing is widely used throughout the world and today is an important part of cervical cancer screening programs. In this study, we analyzed the presence of HPV-DNA in 356 cervical smear samples by two different methods which are MY09/11 consensus real-time polymerase chain reaction (Rt-PCR) and type-specific Rt-PCR. All samples were also tested by type-specific PCR, regardless of consensus PCR results. PCR analysis were performed using the type- specific primers and TaqMan probes that were designed for a total of 13 different HPV types; two low risk HPV and 11 high risk HPV types. A total of 142 different isolates, 95 being high risk HPV isolates, 39 low risk HPV isolates and eight unidentified isolates, were determined in 109 (30.6%) smear samples that were defined as HPV-DNA positive by at least one of the two methods. Frequencies of detection of high risk HPV types in HPV-positive samples were as follows respectively: HPV-16; 32 (33.7%), HPV-52; 12 (12.6%), HPV-58; 11 (11.6%), HPV-18; 7 (7.4%), HPV-31; 7 (7.4%), HPV-35; 7 (7.4%), HPV-68; 6 (6.3%), HPV-33; 4 (4.2%), HPV-82; 4 (4.2%), HPV-39; 3 (3.2%) and HPV-45; 2 (2.1%). Various cytologic atypia were reported in 84 (23.6%) smear samples according to the simultaneously performed cytopathologic examination. Single HPV type was detected in 72 (71.3%) and multiple HPV types were detected in 29 (28.7%) of 101 smear samples with the exception of the unidentified isolates by type-specific RtPCR. HPV-18, HPV-33 and HPV-35 had higher detection rates of 7.4, 3.7 and 3.0 fold in mixed infections than single ones

  6. The effects of oxalate treatment on the smear layer of ground surfaces of human dentine.

    PubMed

    Pashley, D H; Galloway, S E

    1985-01-01

    The layer was evaluated by scanning electron microscopy and by measurement of hydraulic conductance before and after 2-min topical treatment with potassium chloride, neutral potassium oxalate, half-neutralized oxalic acid or both neutral and acidic oxalates. The treated smear layers were then re-evaluated microscopically and functionally both before and after acid challenge. The layers treated with KCl were not altered either microscopically or functionally and were susceptible to acid etching. Dentine surfaces treated with either oxalate solutions became less permeable and were acid-resistant.

  7. Use of Polyphosphate to Decrease Uranium Leaching in Hanford 300 Area Smear Zone Sediments

    SciTech Connect

    Szecsody, James E.; Zhong, Lirong; Oostrom, Martinus; Vermeul, Vincent R.; Fruchter, Jonathan S.; Williams, Mark D.

    2012-09-30

    The primary objective of this study is to summarize the laboratory investigations performed to evaluate short- and long-term effects of phosphate treatment on uranium leaching from 300 area smear zone sediments. Column studies were used to compare uranium leaching in phosphate-treated to untreated sediments over a year with multiple stop flow events to evaluate longevity of the uranium leaching rate and mass. A secondary objective was to compare polyphosphate injection, polyphosphate/xanthan injection, and polyphosphate infiltration technologies that deliver phosphate to sediment.

  8. Variable electronic shutter in CMOS imager with improved anti smearing techniques

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pain, Bedabrata (Inventor)

    2005-01-01

    A leakage compensated snapshot imager provides a number of different aspects to prevent smear and other problems in a snapshot imager. The area where the imager is formed may be biased in a way that prevents photo carriers including electrons and holes from reaching a storage area. In addition, a number of different aspects may improve the efficiency. The capacitance per unit area of the storage area may be one, two or more orders of magnitude greater than the capacitance per-unit area of the photodiode. In addition, a ratio between photodiode capacitance and storage area capacitance is maintained larger than 0.7.

  9. Molecular detection of multidrug-resistant tuberculosis among smear-positive pulmonary tuberculosis patients in Jigjiga town, Ethiopia

    PubMed Central

    Brhane, Mussie; Kebede, Ameha; Petros, Yohannes

    2017-01-01

    Background Molecular methods that target drug resistance mutations are suitable approaches for rapid drug susceptibility testing to detect multidrug-resistant tuberculosis (MDR-TB). The aim of the study was to determine MDR-TB cases and to analyze the frequency of gene mutations associated with rifampicin (RIF) and/or isoniazid (INH) resistance of Mycobacterium tuberculosis among smear-positive pulmonary tuberculosis patients. Methods Institution-based cross-sectional study design was employed. Sputum specimens were collected, and using a pretested questionnaire, data for associated risk factors for drug resistance were collected from 105 consecutive smear-positive pulmonary tuberculosis patients in Karamara General Hospital. Specimens were transported to Harar Health Research and Regional Laboratory, Harar, where molecular drug susceptibility testing was performed using GenoType® MTBDRplus assay. Results Of the total 105 sputum specimens, 98 (93.3%) gave interpretable results, in which 67 (68.4%) were new cases and 31 (31.6%) were previously treated cases. Of these, 80 (81.6%) were sensitive to both drugs and 18 (18.4%) were resistant to RIF and/or INH. The prevalences of MDR-TB in total cases, new, and previously treated cases were 10 (10.2%), 3 (4.5%), and 7 (22.6%), respectively. Among the ten total RIF-resistant specimens, eight (80%) had resulted because of absence of rpoB WT8 and presence of MUT3 and in all specimens, the amino acids changed were Ser531Lue. Of the 18 total INH-resistant specimens, 15 (83.3%) had mutations in the katG gene (katG MUT1, Ser315Thr1), indicating high-level resistance, while 3 (14.7%) had mutations in the inhA promoter gene (Cys15Thr), indicating low-level resistance. Conclusion Among the mutations associated with resistance to RIF and INH, the majority were in codon 531 of the rpoB gene and codon 315 of the katG gene. Relatively high prevalence of MDR-TB was observed in the study. PMID:28331348

  10. Clinical and laboratory factors in the differential diagnosis of tuberculous and cryptococcal meningitis in adult HIV-negative patients.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Bingjun; Lv, Kefeng; Bao, Jian; Lu, Ciyong; Lu, Zhengqi

    2013-01-01

    Objective It is difficult to make the differential diagnosis between tuberculous meningitis (TBM) and cryptococcal meningitis (CM) when the smear is negative. The objective of this study was to create a diagnostic rule for differentiating TBM from CM in adult HIV-negative patients based on clinical and laboratory features. Methods The clinical and laboratory data of 219 adult HIV-negative patients satisfying the diagnostic criteria for tuberculous (n=100) and cryptococcal (n=119) meningitis hospitalized at the Third Affiliated Hospital of Sun Yat-Sen University during the period 2000-2009 were retrospectively analyzed. Features found to be independently predictive of tuberculous meningitis were modeled using a multivariate logistic regression to create a diagnostic rule. The performance of the diagnostic rule was assessed using a prospective test data method. Results Six factors were found to be predictive of a diagnosis of tuberculous meningitis: gender, mental disorders, vision and/or hearing damage, proteins in the cerebrospinal fluid, the total cerebrospinal fluid white cell count and the coexistence of tuberculosis in peripheral organs. The diagnostic rule developed using these features exhibited 78.0% sensitivity, 95.2% specificity, 92.9% positive predictive value and 84.4% negative predictive value. The corresponding values for the diagnostic rule were 70.0% and 88.0% using prospective test data. Conclusion Clinical and laboratory features can be helpful in the differential diagnosis of tuberculous meningitis and cryptococcal meningitis in adult HIV-negative patients.

  11. Effect of the smear layer on apical seals produced by two calcium silicate-based endodontic sealers.

    PubMed

    Bidar, Maryam; Sadeghalhoseini, Niloufar; Forghani, Maryam; Attaran, Negin

    2014-09-01

    We compared the apical seals of two new calcium silicate-based sealers (iRoot SP and MTA Fillapex) in the presence and absence of a smear layer. Eighty-two human premolars were prepared and randomly divided into four groups. In groups 1 and 3, the smear layer was retained. In groups 2 and 4, the root canals were irrigated with EDTA to remove the smear layer. Canals were filled using gutta-percha/iRoot SP (in groups 1 and 2) or obturated with gutta-percha/MTA Fillapex (in groups 3 and 4). Fluid filtration was used to evaluate apical microleakage. The presence of the smear layer had no significant effect on the sealing properties of the filling materials, except for iRoot SP at 2 weeks (P = 0.007). There was significantly less microleakage with iRoot SP than with MTA Fillapex (P = 0.025 at 2 weeks; P < 0.001 at 3 months). Leakage decreased significantly over time in all specimens, except in group 2 (P = 0.473). In conclusion, removal of the smear layer had no adverse effect on the sealing properties of calcium silicate-based sealers. In addition, the sealing ability of iRoot SP was superior to that of MTA Fillapex.

  12. Long-term results of International Breast Cancer Study Group Trial VIII: adjuvant chemotherapy plus goserelin compared with either therapy alone for premenopausal patients with node-negative breast cancer

    PubMed Central

    Karlsson, P.; Sun, Z.; Braun, D.; Price, K. N.; Castiglione-Gertsch, M.; Rabaglio, M.; Gelber, R. D.; Crivellari, D.; Collins, J.; Murray, E.; Zaman, K.; Colleoni, M.; Gusterson, B. A.; Viale, G.; Regan, M. M.; Coates, A. S.; Goldhirsch, A.

    2011-01-01

    Background: The International Breast Cancer Study Group Trial VIII compared long-term efficacy of endocrine therapy (goserelin), chemotherapy [cyclophosphamide, methotrexate and fluorouracil (CMF)], and chemoendocrine therapy (CMF followed by goserelin) for pre/perimenopausal women with lymph-node-negative breast cancer. Patients and methods: From 1990 to 1999, 1063 patients were randomized to receive (i) goserelin for 24 months (n = 346), (ii) six courses of ‘classical’ CMF (cyclophosphamide, methotrexate, 5-fluorouracil) chemotherapy (n = 360), or (iii) six courses of CMF plus 18 months goserelin (CMF→ goserelin; n = 357). Tumors were classified as estrogen receptor (ER) negative (19%), ER positive (80%), or ER unknown (1%); 19% of patients were younger than 40. Median follow-up was 12.1 years. Results: For the ER-positive cohort, sequential therapy provided a statistically significant benefit in disease-free survival (DFS) (12-year DFS = 77%) compared with CMF alone (69%) and goserelin alone (68%) (P = 0.04 for each comparison), due largely to the effect in younger patients. Patients with ER-negative tumors whose treatment included CMF had similar DFS (12-year DFS CMF = 67%; 12-year DFS CMF→ goserelin = 69%) compared with goserelin alone (12-year DFS = 61%, P= NS). Conclusions: For pre/perimenopausal women with lymph-node-negative ER-positive breast cancer, CMF followed by goserelin improved DFS in comparison with either modality alone. The improvement was the most pronounced in those aged below 40, suggesting an endocrine effect of prolonged CMF-induced amenorrhea. PMID:21325445

  13. Automated detection and analysis of fluorescent in situ hybridization spots depicted in digital microscopic images of Pap-smear specimens

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Xingwei; Zheng, Bin; Li, Shibo; Zhang, Roy; Mulvihill, John J.; Chen, Wei R.; Liu, Hong

    2009-03-01

    Fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) technology has been widely recognized as a promising molecular and biomedical optical imaging tool to screen and diagnose cervical cancer. However, manual FISH analysis is time-consuming and may introduce large inter-reader variability. In this study, a computerized scheme is developed and tested. It automatically detects and analyzes FISH spots depicted on microscopic fluorescence images. The scheme includes two stages: (1) a feature-based classification rule to detect useful interphase cells, and (2) a knowledge-based expert classifier to identify splitting FISH spots and improve the accuracy of counting independent FISH spots. The scheme then classifies detected analyzable cells as normal or abnormal. In this study, 150 FISH images were acquired from Pap-smear specimens and examined by both an experienced cytogeneticist and the scheme. The results showed that (1) the agreement between the cytogeneticist and the scheme was 96.9% in classifying between analyzable and unanalyzable cells (Kappa=0.917), and (2) agreements in detecting normal and abnormal cells based on FISH spots were 90.5% and 95.8% with Kappa=0.867. This study demonstrated the feasibility of automated FISH analysis, which may potentially improve detection efficiency and produce more accurate and consistent results than manual FISH analysis.

  14. Trend of Smear-positive Pulmonary Tuberculosis in Iran during 1995–2012: A Segmented Regression Model

    PubMed Central

    Khazaei, Salman; Soheilyzad, Mokhtar; Molaeipoor, Leila; Khazaei, Zaher; Rezaeian, Shahab; Khazaei, Somayeh

    2016-01-01

    Background: Describing trend in tuberculosis (TB) over time can play an important role to assess the disease control strategies and predict the future morbidity and mortality. This study aimed to determine the incidence trend of smear-positive pulmonary tuberculosis (SPPT) in sub-age and sex groups during the years of 1995–2012. Methods: This retrospective cohort study was performed in 2015 by using the dataset regarding National Statistics of SPPT reported by World Health Organization during 1995–2012. Annual percent changes (APCs) and average annual percent changes (AAPCs) were estimated to determine the summery statistics of trend using segmented regression model. Results: During 1995–2012, there were 96,579 SPPT case notifications in Iran (male to female ratio: 0.99). There was only one change point in 1997 for SPPT incidence in subgroups of age and sex during 1995–2012. The AAPCs for both genders and also all three age groups had a significant descending trend during the time period (P < 0.05). Conclusions: Our results showed a downward trend in the SPPT incidence. It seems that to achieve the set goals and high successful in TB control program especially reduction in SPPT, pay more attention to old age and males should be considered. In addition, improvement of clinical and medical care services and notification processes would be imperative. PMID:27413517

  15. Smearing model and restoration of star image under conditions of variable angular velocity and long exposure time.

    PubMed

    Sun, Ting; Xing, Fei; You, Zheng; Wang, Xiaochu; Li, Bin

    2014-03-10

    The star tracker is one of the most promising attitude measurement devices widely used in spacecraft for its high accuracy. High dynamic performance is becoming its major restriction, and requires immediate focus and promotion. A star image restoration approach based on the motion degradation model of variable angular velocity is proposed in this paper. This method can overcome the problem of energy dispersion and signal to noise ratio (SNR) decrease resulting from the smearing of the star spot, thus preventing failed extraction and decreased star centroid accuracy. Simulations and laboratory experiments are conducted to verify the proposed methods. The restoration results demonstrate that the described method can recover the star spot from a long motion trail to the shape of Gaussian distribution under the conditions of variable angular velocity and long exposure time. The energy of the star spot can be concentrated to ensure high SNR and high position accuracy. These features are crucial to the subsequent star extraction and the whole performance of the star tracker.

  16. Factors influencing early health facility contact and low default rate among new sputum smear positive tuberculosis patients, India.

    PubMed

    Bhardwaj, Ashok Kumar; Kashyap, Surender; Bansal, Pradeep; Kumar, Dinesh; Raina, Sunil Kumar; Chander, Vishav; Sharma, Sushant

    2014-01-01

    Early case identification and prompt treatment of new sputum smear positive case are important to reduce the spread of tuberculosis (TB). Present study was planned to study the associated factors for duration to contact the health facility since appearance of symptoms and treatment default. Methodology. It was prospective cohort study of TB patients already registered for treatment in randomly selected TB units (TUs) in Himachal Pradesh, India. Relative risk (RR) was calculated as risk estimate to find out the explanatory variables for early contact and default. Results. Total 1607 patients were recruited and 25 (1.5%) defaulted treatment. Patients from nuclear family (aRR: 1.37; 1.09-1.73), ashamed of TB (aRR: 1.32; 1.03-1.70), wishing to disclose disease status (aRR: 1.79; 1.43-2.24), but aware of curable nature (aRR: 1.67; 1.17-2.39) and preventable (aRR: 1.35; 1.07-1.70) nature of disease, contacted health facility early since appearance of symptoms. Conclusion. Better awareness and less misconceptions about disease influences the early contact of health facility and low default rate in North India.

  17. Direct identification of various copper phthalocyanine pigments in automotive paints and paint smears by laser desorption ionization mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Mukai, Tadashi; Nakazumi, Hiroyuki; Kawabata, Shin-ichirou; Kusatani, Masaru; Nakai, Seita; Honda, Sadao

    2008-01-01

    Direct identification of copper phthalocyanine (CuPc) and chlorinated CuPcs in paints for discrimination between blue automobile paints by means of laser desorption mass spectrometry (LDMS) in the absence of a matrix is reported. The models consisted of eight commercially available CuPc pigments applied to a piece of plain white coating paper. The relationship between the peak intensity at m/z 575 of the CuPc, the number of pulsed laser shots, and laser power was compared to optimize laser abrasion. LDMS analysis of the model paints demonstrated that all characteristic components of the CuPc pigments in the paint films were in good agreement with those in the powder pigments. Further, the chlorinated CuPcs in the paint films could be distinguished. A quantity of 42 blue paint films, representing the paints used for painting Japanese domestic trucks, was examined by LDMS analysis. Results indicate that the paints can be classified into four categories based on the chlorinated CuPc components of the paints. Therefore, LDMS spectra of CuPc pigments would be useful for the identification of paints in forensic investigations. Herein, we report the successful identification of the CuPcs in a paint smear on the frame of a bicycle damaged in a hit-and-run accident, using the LDMS spectra.

  18. Utility of manual liquid-based cytology and conventional smears in the evaluation of various fine-needle aspiration samples

    PubMed Central

    Arul, P

    2016-01-01

    Background: Liquid-based cytology (LBC) preparation is a way to improve and refine the fine-needle aspiration (FNA) samples. There are a few studies comparing LBC with conventional smear (CS). Aim: The present study was undertaken to evaluate the utility of manual LBC (MLBC) and CS preparations in various FNA samples. Materials and Methods: In this cross-sectional study, a total of 100 FNA samples from various anatomical sites were evaluated using MLBC and CS preparations. Cellularity, blood, informative background, monolayers, cell architecture, cytoplasmic, and nuclear preservation were compared with MLBC and CS preparations by Wilcoxon signed rank test. P < 0.05 is considered statistically significant. Results: MLBC preparations were superior to CS preparations in view of absence of blood and debris (P = 0.001), presence of monolayers (P < 0.001), and preservation of cytoplasmic (P = 0.001) and nuclear details (P = 0.001). However, no statistically significant differences were found between MLBC and CS preparations with regard to cellularity (P = 0.157), informative background (P = 0.083), and architecture (P = 0.739). Conclusion: MLBC preparations in FNAC are a safe, easy, and less time-consuming procedure, and it may have promising diagnostic value in the evaluation of FNA samples from various anatomical sites. However, the use of both MLBC and CS preparations is recommended to achieve optimal diagnostic yield. PMID:28028330

  19. New Method for the Quantitative Analysis of Smear Slides in Pelagic and Hemi-Pelagic Sediments of the Bering Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Drake, M. K.; Aiello, I. W.; Ravelo, A. C.

    2014-12-01

    Petrographic microscopy of smear slides is the standard method to initially investigate marine sediments in core sediment studies (e.g. IODP expeditions). The technique is not commonly used in more complex analysis due to concerns over the subjectivity of the method and variability in operator training and experience. Two initiatives sponsored by Ocean Leadership, a sedimentology training workshop and a digital reference of smear slide components (Marsaglia et al., 2013) have been implemented to address the need for advanced training. While the influence of subjectivity on the quality of data has yet to be rigorously tested, the lack of standardization in the current method of smear slide analysis (SSA) remains a concern. The relative abundance of the three main components, (total diatoms, silt-to-sand sized siliciclastics, and clay minerals) of high and low density Bering Sea hemi-pelagic sediments from the ocean margin (Site U144; Site U1339) and pelagic sediments from the open-ocean (Site U1340) were analyzed. Our analyses show visual estimation is a reproducible method to quantify the relative abundance of the main sediment components. Furthermore, we present a modified method for SSA, with procedural changes objectively guided by statistical analyses, including constraints to increase randomness and precision in both the preparation and analysis of the smear slide. For example, repeated measure ANOVAs found a smear slide could be accurately quantified by counting three fields of view. Similarly, the use of replicate smear slides to quantify a sample was analyzed. Finally, the data produced from this modified SSA shows a strong correlation to continuously logged physical parameters of sediment such as gamma ray attenuation (Site U1339 r2= 0.41; Site U1340 r2= 0.36). Therefore, the modified SSA combined with other independent methods (e.g. laser particle size analysis, scanning electron microscopy, and physical properties) can be a very effective tool for the

  20. [Identification of yeasts in pap smears: clinical characteristics associated with candidiasis].

    PubMed

    Llovera Suárez, Vilma; Perurena Lancha, Mayda Rosa

    2004-01-01

    A study of 404 women that attended the Microbiology Laboratory of Ramón Gonzalez Coro Gynecoobstetric Hospital, in Havana City, was conducted aimed at identifying species of yeasts isolated from Pap smears, registering the signs and clinical symptoms and determining the risk factors associated with infection. The isolated yeasts were identified by the filamentation tests in serum, production of chlamydoconidia and carbohydrate assimilation. It was found that 138 (34.16%) of women had yeasts in the vagina. 3 genera were identified: Candida (88.49%). Trichosporon (10.79%) and Rhodotorula (0.72%). Pruritus and heat showed statistical significance (p < 0.01). Pregnancy, the use of IUD and the antibacterial therapy proved to be the most common risk factors in relation to the presence of Candida in the vagina.

  1. Using a New Smearing Technique to Find Moments of the Quark Distribution Amplitude of the Pion

    SciTech Connect

    H. L. L. Roberts, David Richards, Christopher Thomas

    2011-09-01

    We study the distribution of momentum between valence quarks of the ground state and the first excited state of the pion using Lattice QCD on the anisotropic lattice. Our final goal is to extract the second moment of distribution amplitudes of the ground state and first excited state of the pion for exclusive processes at high momentum transfer. At this stage of the project, we can compute the ground state pion decay constant in a lattice renormalization scheme up to an overall normalization constant.We employ a variational technique that will allow us to determine the decay constant and second moment of the distribution amplitude of the first excited state of the pion also. We use a new smearing technique in order to minimize pollution of the data from higher-lying excited states. The anisotropy of the lattice is a novel feature of our approach, and strongly increases sensitivity to excited states through a better temporal resolution.

  2. Did successfully treated pulmonary tuberculosis patients undergo all follow-up sputum smear examinations?

    PubMed

    Satyanarayana, S; Nagaraja, S B; Kelamane, S; Jaju, J; Chadha, S S; Chander, K; Vishnu, H; Wilson, N C; Harries, A D

    2011-12-21

    To assess response to anti-tuberculosis treatment as per national guidelines, a retrospective record review was undertaken in four districts of Andhra Pradesh, India, in December 2009 to determine whether pulmonary tuberculosis (PTB) patients reported as successfully treated (cured or treatment completed) underwent all scheduled follow-up sputum smear examinations. In a quarterly cohort of 3000 PTB patients reported as successfully treated, 1847 (61.5%) underwent all follow-up sputum examinations, with a higher proportion of new cases (65%) than retreatment cases (45%). The mid-continuation phase follow-up sputum examinations were commonly missed, and 11% patients had not undergone end-of-treatment follow-up sputum examinations.

  3. An Assessment of the Utility of Tissue Smears in Rapid Cancer Profiling with Desorption Electrospray Ionization Mass Spectrometry (DESI-MS)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Woolman, Michael; Tata, Alessandra; Bluemke, Emma; Dara, Delaram; Ginsberg, Howard J.; Zarrine-Afsar, Arash

    2017-01-01

    Mass spectrometry imaging with desorption electrospray ionization mass spectrometry (DESI-MS) is used to characterize cancer from ex vivo slices of tissues. The process is time-consuming. The use of tissue smears for DESI-MS analysis has been proposed as it eliminates the time required to snap-freeze and section the tissue. To assess the utility of tissue smears for rapid cancer characterization, principal component analysis (PCA) was performed to evaluate the concordance between DESI-MS profiles of breast cancer from tissue slices and smears prepared on various surfaces. PCA suggested no statistical discrimination between DESI-MS profiles of tissue sections and tissue smears prepared on glass, polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE), and porous PTFE. However, the abundances of cancer biomarker ions varied between sections and smears, with DESI-MS analysis of tissue sections yielding higher ion abundances of cancer biomarkers compared with smears. Coefficient of variance (CV) analysis suggests DESI-MS profiles from tissue smears are as reproducible as the ones from tissue sections. The limit of detection with smear samples from single pixel analysis is comparable to tissue sections that average the signal from a tissue area of 0.01 mm2. The smears prepared on the PTFE surface possessed a higher degree of homogeneity compared with the smears prepared on the glass surface. This allowed single MS scans ( 1 s) from random positions across the surface of the smear to be used in rapid cancer typing with good reproducibility, providing pathologic information for cancer typing at speeds suitable for clinical utility.

  4. Bacteriophage biocontrol of Listeria monocytogenes on soft ripened white mold and red-smear cheeses

    PubMed Central

    Guenther, Susanne

    2011-01-01

    Soft-ripened cheeses belong to the type of food most often contaminated with Listeria monocytogenes, and they have been implicated in several outbreaks of listeriosis. Bacteriophages represent an attractive way to combat foodborne pathogens without affecting other properties of the food. We used the broad host range, virulent Listeria phage A511 for control of L. monocytogenes during the production and ripening phases of both types of soft-ripened cheeses, white mold (Camembert-type) cheese, as well as washed-rind cheese with a red-smear surface (Limburger-type). The surfaces of young, unripened cheese were inoculated with 101–103 cfu/cm2 L. monocytogenes strains Scott A (serovar 4b) or CNL 103/2005 (serovar 1/2a). Phage was applied at defined time points thereafter, in single or repeated treatments, at 3 × 108 or 1 × 109 pfu/cm2. With Scott A (103 cfu/cm2) and a single dose of A511 (3 × 108 pfu/cm2) on camembert-type cheese, viable counts dropped 2.5 logs at the end of the 21 day ripening period. Repeated phage application did not further inhibit the bacteria, whereas a single higher dose (1 × 109 pfu/cm2) was found to be more effective. On red-smear cheese ripened for 22 days, Listeria counts were down by more than 3 logs. Repeated application of A511 further delayed re-growth of Listeria, but did not affect bacterial counts after 22 days. With lower initial Listeria contamination (101–102 cfu/cm2), viable counts dropped below the limit of detection, corresponding to more than 6 logs reduction compared to the control. Our data clearly demonstrate the potential of bacteriophage for biocontrol of L. monocytogenes in soft cheese. PMID:22334865

  5. Study on koilocytosis, X-chromatin and HSV-2 in cervical smears in Nepal.

    PubMed

    Bashyal, Reeta; Dali, Susheila

    2004-06-01

    A total of 1,106 cervical smears were studied during a one year period from Feb 1999 to Feb 2000. Majority of the lesions were Inflammatory smears constituting 91.0%, Cervical intraepithelial neoplasia [CIN] and Squamous cell carcinoma [SCC] cervix constituted 8.0% and 1.0% respectively. The percentage of different grades of CIN being CIN I 85.0%, CIN II 9.0% and CIN III 6.0%. Thirty cases were taken as a study group. The commonest age group for CIN was 31-40 years 80.0% and for carcinoma cervix above 50 years 63.0%. The most common risk factors were marriage before 20 years of age 80.0% and a low socio-economic status 70.0%. The common presenting feature in CIN was pain lower abdomen 88.0%, followed by whitish discharge per vagina 60.0%. Similarly in carcinoma cervix pain lower abdomen 80.0% followed by weight loss 60.0% were the common presenting symptoms. Koilocytic change was seen in 42.1% of the cases of CIN I. The incidence of X-chromatin positivity gradually decreased as the lesion advanced, the p-value between CIN I and CIN II [p=<0.02], CIN I and CIN III [0=0.00] and between CIN III and Carcinoma cervix [p=<0.004] being significant. An association with Herpes simplex virus-2 [HSV-2] was seen in 11.0% cases of CIN I, 33.0% cases of CIN IIl and 40.0% cases of carcinoma cervix with a gradual rising antibody titre of 1:2 in CIN I, 1:7 in CIN III and 1:7 to 1:9 in carcinoma cervix respectively.

  6. Sealability of the Trifecta technique in the presence or absence of a smear layer.

    PubMed

    Lloyd, A; Thompson, J; Gutmann, J L; Dummer, P M

    1995-01-01

    The aim of this in vitro study was to assess the sealability of a recently introduced thermoplasticized gutta-percha technique (Trifecta, Hygenic Corp., OH, USA) in the presence or absence of a smear layer. A total of 100 teeth with single straight root canals were included in the study. The teeth were decoronated and the canals prepared with a modified double-flared technique under constant irrigation with 2.5% sodium hypochlorite solution. The apical matrix was prepared to size 40 and apical patency subsequently confirmed with a size 10 file. Four teeth were discarded for technical reasons and the remaining 96 allocated randomly into two groups of 44 teeth and a group of eight teeth which acted as controls. Canals in group 1 were obturated randomly with either cold lateral condensation of gutta-percha or with the Trifecta technique. Canals in Group 2 were rinsed with 17% REDTA to remove the smear layer and then obturated with lateral condensation or the Trifecta technique. All teeth were suspended in India ink for 9 days, demineralized, and rendered transparent prior to the assessment of apical linear dye penetration. Apical extrusion of sealer and gutta-percha occurred commonly but there was no significant difference between the four obturation groups. However, overall, there was significantly more extrusion of sealer with the Trifecta technique compared with lateral condensation (P < 0.05). The majority of canals (79 out of 88) had no evidence of apical leakage and there was no significant difference between the groups.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  7. Awareness and uptake of the Pap smear among market women in Lagos, Nigeria

    PubMed Central

    Wright, Kikelomo O.; Faseru, Babalola; Kuyinu, Yetunde A.; Faduyile, Francis A.

    2011-01-01

    Our study evaluates the effect of an educational programme on awareness and uptake of the cervical cancer screening test (Pap smear) by women in a model market in Lagos, Nigeria. This was a quasi-experimental study using a multistage sampling technique. A total of 350 women were divided into two groups. A baseline survey on awareness of the Pap test and screening practices was carried out using pre-tested, interviewer administered, structured questionnaires. Participants in the intervention group received sessions of community based health information on cervical cancer screening tests while participants in the control group received health information on hypertension. Subsequently, participants in both groups were reassessed to evaluate the effect of the educational programme on the Pap test and cervical screening uptake. Data were analysed with the Epi-info version 6.04. Awareness about the Pap test was low at baseline; only 6.9% and 12.0% of participants in the intervention and control groups, respectively, had heard of Pap smears. Furthermore, less than 10% had correct information on the use of the Pap test. Post-intervention, there was a significant and proportional increase in the knowledge of the Pap test in the intervention group (P<0.05). However, uptake of the test was quite low in the intervention and control groups both pre- and post-intervention and there was no significant change in uptake. We concluded that essential schemes are required to enhance access to screening, as knowledge alone is insufficient to promote acceptance and use of cervical cytological screening tests.

  8. Sources of long-lived atmospheric VOCs at the rural boreal forest site, SMEAR II

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Patokoski, J.; Ruuskanen, T. M.; Kajos, M. K.; Taipale, R.; Rantala, P.; Aalto, J.; Ryyppö, T.; Nieminen, T.; Hakola, H.; Rinne, J.

    2015-12-01

    In this study a long-term volatile organic compound (VOCs) concentration data set, measured at the SMEAR II (Station for Measuring Ecosystem-Atmosphere Relations) boreal forest site in Hyytiälä, Finland during the years 2006-2011, was analyzed in order to identify source areas and profiles of the observed VOCs. VOC mixing ratios were measured using proton transfer reaction mass spectrometry. Four-day HYSPLIT 4 (Hybrid Single Particle Lagrangian Integrated Trajectory) backward trajectories and the Unmix 6.0 receptor model were used for source area and source composition analysis. Two major forest fire events in Russia took place during the measurement period. The effect of these fires was clearly visible in the trajectory analysis, lending confidence to the method employed with this data set. Elevated volume mixing ratios (VMRs) of non-biogenic VOCs related to forest fires, e.g. acetonitrile and aromatic VOCs, were observed. Ten major source areas for long-lived VOCs (methanol, acetonitrile, acetaldehyde, acetone, benzene, and toluene) observed at the SMEAR II site were identified. The main source areas for all the targeted VOCs were western Russia, northern Poland, Kaliningrad, and the Baltic countries. Industrial areas in northern continental Europe were also found to be source areas for certain VOCs. Both trajectory and receptor analysis showed that air masses from northern Fennoscandia were less polluted with respect to both the VOCs studied and other trace gases (CO, SO2 and NOx), compared to areas of eastern and western continental Europe, western Russia, and southern Fennoscandia.

  9. Evaluation of Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR) with Slit Skin Smear Examination (SSS) to Confirm Clinical Diagnosis of Leprosy in Eastern Nepal

    PubMed Central

    Rai, Keshav; Bhattarai, Narayan Raj; Agarwal, Sudha; Khanal, Basudha

    2016-01-01

    Background Detection of Mycobacterium leprae in slit skin smear (SSS) is a gold standard technique for the leprosy diagnosis. Over recent years, molecular diagnosis by using PCR has been increasingly used as an alternative for its diagnosis due to its higher sensitivity. This study was carried out for comparative evaluation of PCR and SSS microscopy in a cohort of new leprosy cases diagnosed in B. P. Koirala Institute of health Sciences, Dharan, Nepal. Methodology/Principal Findings In this prospective crossectional study, 50 new clinically diagnosed cases of leprosy were included. DNA was extracted from SSS and PCR was carried out to amplify 129 bp sequence of M. leprae repetitive element. Sensitivity of SSS and PCR was 18% and 72% respectively. Improvement of 54% case detection by PCR clearly showed its advantage over SSS. Furthermore, PCR could confirm the leprosy diagnosis in 66% of AFB negative cases indicating its superiority over SSS. In the paucibacillary (PB) patients, whose BI was zero; sensitivity of PCR was 44%, whereas it was 78% in the multibacillary patients. Conclusions/Significance Our study showed PCR to be more sensitive than SSS microscopy in diagnosing leprosy. Moreover, it explored the characteristic feature of PCR which detected higher level of early stage(PB) cases tested negative by SSS. Being an expensive technique, PCR may not be feasible in all the cases, however, it would be useful in diagnosis of early cases of leprosy as opposed to SSS. PMID:28027305

  10. Comparative evaluation of efficacy of EndoVac irrigation system to Max-I probe in removing smear layer in apical 1 mm and 3 mm of root canal: An in vitro scanning electron microscope study

    PubMed Central

    Dua, Ankur; Dua, Deepti

    2015-01-01

    Background: The purpose of this study was to compare the efficacy of EndoVac irrigation system and side-vented closed ended needle (Max-I probe) in removing smear layer from root canals at 1 mm and 3 mm from working length using ProTaper rotary instrumentation. Materials and Methods: A total of 50 freshly extracted maxillary central incisors were randomly divided into two groups after complete cleaning and shaping with ProTaper rotary files. In one group, final irrigation was performed with EndoVac system while in other group, final irrigation was done with a 30 gauge Max-I probe. 3% sodium hypochlorite (NaOCl) and 17% ethylenediaminetetracetic acid were used as final irrigants in all teeth. During instrumentation, 1 ml of 3% NaOCl was used for irrigation after each rotary instrument in the similar manner as in final irrigation. After instrumentation and irrigation, teeth were sectioned longitudinally into buccal and palatal halves and viewed under scanning electron microscope for evaluation of smear layer. Statistical analysis was performed using Kruskal-Wallis and Mann-Whitney U-test. (P < 0.05) Results: At 3 mm level, there was no significant difference between two groups. At 1 mm level, EndoVac group showed significantly better smear layer removal compared with Max-I probe (P = 0.0001). Conclusion: EndoVac system results in better smear layer removal at 1 mm from working length when compared to Max-I probe irrigation. PMID:25709673

  11. The effectiveness of the Erbium:Yttrium aluminum garnet PIPS technique in comparison to different chemical solutions in removing the endodontic smear layer-an in vitro profilometric study.

    PubMed

    Nasher, Riman; Franzen, Rene; Gutknecht, Norbert

    2016-12-01

    This study evaluated the degree of endodontic smear layer removal using the Er:YAG PIPS technique (2.94 μm) in comparison with different irrigants. Sixty-four single-rooted teeth were endodontically prepared up to size #40 and were divided into 8 groups (a-h) (n = 8). Groups a, b, c, and d were irrigated with (3 % NaOCl + 20 % EDTA), (0.9 % NaCl), (3 % NaOCl), and (20 % EDTA), respectively. Groups e, f, g, and h were treated with (3 % NaOCl + 20 % EDTA + PIPS), (0.9 % NaCl + PIPS), (3 % NaOCl + PIPS), and (20 % EDTA + PIPS), respectively. The settings of the Er:YAG PIPS technique were (0.3 W, 20 mJ, 15 Hz, 50 μs, no water and air). The root canals were examined under a profilometer to evaluate the degree of smear layer removal using Hülsmann scores. The smear layer was present in the coronal, middle, and apical thirds of groups b, c, f, and g. Groups a, d, e, and h exhibited open dentinal tubules in the coronal and middle thirds. However, none of the apical thirds showed open dentinal tubules. No significant difference was observed between the groups treated only with irrigants and those treated with Er:YAG PIPS and the same irrigants (p ≥ 0.0018). The Er:YAG PIPS technique did not show any improved results in removing the smear layer when compared to the irrigants alone. Moreover, the open dentinal tubules in some groups were a result of the chelating action of 20 % EDTA.

  12. Safety assessment of dairy microorganisms: aerobic coryneform bacteria isolated from the surface of smear-ripened cheeses.

    PubMed

    Denis, Catherine; Irlinger, Françoise

    2008-09-01

    The group of "coryneform bacteria" belongs to the class of Actinobacteria including a diverse and heterogeneous collection of bacteria of various genera. Most of them are known as environmental residents and/or commensal flora of humans and they are isolated frequently in clinical studies. Actinobacteria include also several aerobic species, present at the surface of smear-ripened cheeses for decades and used as ripening culture in the dairy industry. Their clinical significance is controversial because an easy combination of phenotypic and molecular methods to characterize Actinobacteria at the species level is still lacking. A bibliographical survey was conducted to assess the safety status of Actinobacteria species used as starter culture in fermented dairy foods, according to their technological interest. Aerobic coryneform bacteria isolated from smear-ripened cheeses are most commonly recovered from soil, the environment or food. To date, no clinical infection or food toxi-infection related to smear cheese coryneform bacteria ingestion has been reported. From a taxonomic viewpoint, dairy species are distant from the reference species associated with known pathologies. From a physiological viewpoint, cheese smear coryneform bacteria appear to be related to particular ecological niches: they are all oxidative species, and most are psychrotrophic and unable to grow at 37 degrees C whereas medically relevant coryneform bacteria are facultative anaerobes and grow at 35-37 degrees C. Consequently, technological strains must be selected according to taxonomic criteria (nonpathogenic species) and ecological criteria.

  13. COBAS® TaqMan® MTB, smear positivity grade and MGIT culture; correlation analyses of three methods for bacillary quantification.

    PubMed

    Chikamatsu, Kinuyo; Aono, Akio; Kato, Tomoko; Takaki, Akiko; Yamada, Hiroyuki; Sasaki, Yuka; Izumi, Kiyohiko; Yi, Lina; Mitarai, Satoshi

    2016-01-01

    We investigated the correlation between the cycle threshold (Ct) value of the COBAS(®) TaqMan(®) MTB (TaqMan MTB), the mycobacterial smear positivity grade, and the time to detection (TTD) in the Mycobacteria Growth Indicator Tube (MGIT) for quantification of Mycobacterium tuberculosis (MTB). For 57 sputum samples, significant correlations were observed between the Ct value, the smear positivity grade, and the MGIT TTD (Spearman's rank correlation coefficient: r(s) = -0.940, P < 0.001 and Pearson's correlation coefficient: r(p) = 0.737, P < 0.001). In addition, a correlation was observed between the number of bacteria estimated based on the smear positivity grade and the number of MTB bacilli calculated by the Ct value (r(s) = 0.930, P < 0.001). This study has demonstrated the possible estimation of the smear positivity grade and MGIT TTD using the Ct value of TaqMan MTB, which is based on a real-time PCR system, for diagnostic samples.

  14. Perception and Experience of Primary Care Physicians on Pap Smear Screening for Women with Intellectual Disabilities: A Preliminary Finding

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lin, Jin-Ding; Sung, Chang-Lin; Lin, Lan-Ping; Liu, Ta-Wen; Lin, Pei-Ying; Chen, Li-Mei; Chu, Cordia M.; Wu, Jia-Ling

    2010-01-01

    This study aims to establish evidence-based data to explore the perceptions and experience of primary care physicians in the Pap smear screening provision for women with intellectual disabilities (ID), and to analyze the associated factors in the delivery of screening services to women with ID in Taiwan. Data obtained by a cross-sectional survey…

  15. Potential use of buccal smears for rapid diagnosis of autosomal trisomy or chromosomal sex in newborn infants using DNA probes

    SciTech Connect

    Harris, C.; Clark, K.; Lazarski, K.; Wilkerson, C.; Meisner, L. |

    1994-12-01

    Buccal smears from 3 women and 1 man were probed with alpha satellite DNA probes for chromosomes 8, 18, X, and Y. Buccal smears were also collected from an adolescent phenotypic female with uterine agenesis, as well as from newborn infants with suspected trisomy 18 and trisomy 21. The clinical cases were confirmed with conventional cytogenetic studies of peripheral lymphocytes. Overall probe efficiency at detecting expected chromosome number in interphase cells was found to be 71% {+-} 6.8%. Higher than expected n-1 signal numbers may be due to karyopyknotic intermediate epithelial cells present in all collected samples. Overall probe efficiency was found to be consistent using alpha satellite and cosmid probes, both of which accurately reflected the modal copy number of the target chromosomes. False trisomy was less than 1%. This study suggests DNA probes can be used in buccal smears for rapid diagnosis of trisomies and chromosomal sex in newborns, but because of high rates of false hydropoploid signals, probed buccal smear specimens may not be accurate at diagnosing mosaicism. 9 refs., 2 figs., 1 tab.

  16. Smearing the Opposition: Implicit and Explicit Stigmatization of the 2008 U. S. Presidential Candidates and the Current U. S. President

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kosloff, Spee; Greenberg, Jeff; Schmader, Toni; Dechesne, Mark; Weise, David

    2010-01-01

    Four studies investigated whether political allegiance and salience of outgroup membership contribute to the phenomenon of acceptance of false, stigmatizing information (smears) about political candidates. Studies 1-3 were conducted in the month prior to the 2008 U.S. Presidential election and together demonstrated that pre-standing opposition to…

  17. [The frequency of sex chromatine occurring in cell nuclei of internal organs determined by the smear method (author's transl)].

    PubMed

    Michailow, R

    1975-09-05

    The frequency of sex chromatine occurring in cell nuclei of twelve organs from 25 male and female corpses was determined using the smear method. It was found to be about 60% in the case of female, and about 6% in the case of male corpses.

  18. Effectiveness of various irrigation activation protocols and the self-adjusting file system on smear layer and debris removal.

    PubMed

    Çapar, İsmail Davut; Aydinbelge, Hale Ari

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of the present study is to evaluate smear layer generation and residual debris after using self-adjusting file (SAF) or rotary instrumentation and to compare the debris and smear layer removal efficacy of the SAF cleaning/shaping irrigation system against final agitation techniques. One hundred and eight maxillary lateral incisor teeth were randomly divided into nine experimental groups (n = 12), and root canals were prepared using ProTaper Universal rotary files, with the exception of the SAF instrumentation group. During instrumentation, root canals were irrigated with a total of 16 mL of 5% NaOCl. For final irrigation, rotary-instrumented groups were irrigated with 10 mL of 17% EDTA and 10 mL of 5% NaOCl using different irrigation agitation regimens (syringe irrigation with needles, NaviTip FX, manual dynamic irrigation, CanalBrush, EndoActivator, EndoVac, passive ultrasonic irrigation (PUI), and SAF irrigation). In the SAF instrumentation group, root canals were instrumented for 4 min at a rate of 4 mL/min with 5% NaOCl and received a final flush with same as syringe irrigation with needles. The surface of the root dentin was observed using a scanning electron microscope. The SAF instrumentation group generated less smear layer and yielded cleaner canals compared to rotary instrumentation. The EndoActivator, EndoVac, PUI, and SAF irrigation groups increased the efficacy of irrigating solutions on the smear layer and debris removal. The SAF instrumentation yielded cleaner canal walls when compared to rotary instrumentation. None of the techniques completely removed the smear layer from the root canal walls.

  19. The Effect of Different Irrigation Protocols for Smear Layer Removal on Bond Strength of a New Bioceramic Sealer

    PubMed Central

    Shokouhinejad, Noushin; Hoseini, Atefeh; Gorjestani, Hedayat; Shamshiri, Ahmad Reza

    2013-01-01

    Introduction The purpose of this study was to assess the effect of different irrigation protocols for smear layer removal on the bond strength of EndoSequence BC Sealer, a new bioceramic sealer, to root canal dentin. Materials and Methods The middle third of forty-four extracted human teeth were sectioned horizontally to obtain 128 dentin disks. After standardization of canal spaces, dentin disks were immersed in 5.25% NaOCl for 20 min. The specimens were then randomly assigned to four groups (n=32) according to dentin treatment procedure: group 1, 17% EDTA (1 min); group 2, 17% EDTA (1 min) + 5.25% NaOCl (5 min); group 3, 17% EDTA (1 min) + 2% chlorhexidine (CHX) (5 min); and group 4, 17% EDTA (1 min) + saline (5 min). After dentin treatment, two specimens of each group were prepared for investigation with scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Surface of root canal wall was assessed in each specimen. Then the canal spaces were filled with EndoSequence BC Sealer in the remaining specimens. Push-out bond-strength and failure modes were assessed. The data on push-out test were analyzed using one-way ANOVA test. The significance level was set at P=0.05. Results There was no significant difference between the bond strengths of test groups (P=0.203). The bond failure was mainly cohesive for all groups. Conclusion Under the conditions of this ex vivo study, it could be concluded that the application of 17% EDTA alone or followed by 5.25% NaOCl, 2% CHX, or saline resulted in similar bond strength of EndoSequence BC Sealer to dentinal walls. PMID:23411764

  20. Conductive silver paste smeared glass substrates for label-free Raman spectroscopic detection of HIV-1 and HIV-1 p24 antigen in blood plasma.

    PubMed

    Otange, Ben O; Birech, Zephania; Okonda, Justus; Rop, Ronald

    2017-03-02

    We report on application of conductive silver paste smeared glass slides as Raman spectroscopy sample substrates for label-free detection of HIV-1 p24 antigen in blood plasma. We also show that the same substrates can be applied in Raman spectroscopic screening of blood plasma for presence of HIV. The characteristic Raman spectrum of HIV-1 p24 antigen displayed prominent bands that were assigned to ribonucleic acids (RNA) and proteins that constitute the antigen. This spectrum can be used as reference during Raman spectroscopic screening for HIV in plasma within the first few days after exposure (<7 days). The Raman spectra obtained from HIV+ plasma displayed unique peaks centered at wavenumbers 928, 990, 1270, 1397, and 1446 cm(-1) attributed to the Raman active vibrations in the virion carbohydrates, lipids, and proteins. Other bands similar to those reported in literature were also seen and assignments made. The attachment of the HIV virions to silver nanoparticles via gp120 glycoprotein knobs was thought to be responsible for the enhanced Raman signals of proteins associated with the virus. The principal component analysis (PCA) applied on the combined spectral data showed that HIV- and HIV+ spectra had differing spectral patterns. This indicated the great power of Raman spectroscopy in HIV detection when plasma samples are deposited onto silver paste smeared glass substrates. The Raman peaks responsible for the segregation of the spectral data in PCA were mainly those assigned to the viral proteins (645, 725, 813, 1270, and 1658 cm(-1)). Excellent results were obtained from Artificial Neural Network (ANN) applied on the HIV+ Raman spectral data around the prominent peak centered at 1270 cm(-1) with R (coefficient of correlation) and R (2) (coefficient of determination) values of 0.9958 and 0.9895, respectively. The method has the potential of being used as quick blood screening for HIV before blood transfusion with the Raman peaks assigned to the virion

  1. Applying Sparse Machine Learning Methods to Twitter: Analysis of the 2012 Change in Pap Smear Guidelines. A Sequential Mixed-Methods Study

    PubMed Central

    Godbehere, Andrew; Le, Gem; El Ghaoui, Laurent; Sarkar, Urmimala

    2016-01-01

    Background It is difficult to synthesize the vast amount of textual data available from social media websites. Capturing real-world discussions via social media could provide insights into individuals’ opinions and the decision-making process. Objective We conducted a sequential mixed methods study to determine the utility of sparse machine learning techniques in summarizing Twitter dialogues. We chose a narrowly defined topic for this approach: cervical cancer discussions over a 6-month time period surrounding a change in Pap smear screening guidelines. Methods We applied statistical methodologies, known as sparse machine learning algorithms, to summarize Twitter messages about cervical cancer before and after the 2012 change in Pap smear screening guidelines by the US Preventive Services Task Force (USPSTF). All messages containing the search terms “cervical cancer,” “Pap smear,” and “Pap test” were analyzed during: (1) January 1–March 13, 2012, and (2) March 14–June 30, 2012. Topic modeling was used to discern the most common topics from each time period, and determine the singular value criterion for each topic. The results were then qualitatively coded from top 10 relevant topics to determine the efficiency of clustering method in grouping distinct ideas, and how the discussion differed before vs. after the change in guidelines . Results This machine learning method was effective in grouping the relevant discussion topics about cervical cancer during the respective time periods (~20% overall irrelevant content in both time periods). Qualitative analysis determined that a significant portion of the top discussion topics in the second time period directly reflected the USPSTF guideline change (eg, “New Screening Guidelines for Cervical Cancer”), and many topics in both time periods were addressing basic screening promotion and education (eg, “It is Cervical Cancer Awareness Month! Click the link to see where you can receive a free or low

  2. Molecular heterogeneity in adjacent cells in triple-negative breast cancer

    PubMed Central

    Huebschman, Michael L; Lane, Nancy L; Liu, Huaying; Sarode, Venetia R; Devlin, Judith L; Frenkel, Eugene P

    2015-01-01

    Purpose This study interrogates the molecular status of individual cells in patients with triple-negative breast cancers and explores the molecular identification and characterization of these tumors to consider the exploitation of a potential-targeted therapeutic approach. Patients and methods Hyperspectral immunologic cell by cell analysis was applied to touch imprint smears obtained from fresh tumors of breast cancer patients. Results Cell by cell analysis confirms significant intratumoral molecular heterogeneity in cancer markers with differences from polymerase chain reaction marker reporting. The individual cell heterogeneity was recognized in adjacent cells examined with panels of ten molecular markers in each single cell and included some markers that are considered to express “stem-cell” character. In addition, heterogeneity did not relate either to the size or stage of the primary tumor or to the site from within the cancer. Conclusion There is a very significant molecular heterogeneity when “adjacent cells” are examined in triple-negative breast cancer, thereby making a successful targeted approach unlikely. In addition, it is not reasonable to consider that these changes will provide an answer to tumor dormancy. PMID:26316815

  3. Poor Cervical Cancer Screening Attendance and False Negatives. A Call for Organized Screening

    PubMed Central

    Castillo, Marta; Astudillo, Aurora; Clavero, Omar; Velasco, Julio; Ibáñez, Raquel; de Sanjosé, Silvia

    2016-01-01

    Objective The objective of this study was to describe prior negative screening history and symptoms around the time of diagnosis of incident cervical cancer (CC) cases diagnosed between 2000 and 2010 within the Asturias public health system. Methods Records from 374 women diagnosed with CC between 2000 and 2010 from all public hospitals in Asturias were retrieved. Clinical information, FIGO stage and all previous cytological data were extracted from clinical and histopathological records. Proportional differences were assessed using chi-square tests. Logistic regression analysis was used to estimate odds ratios (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI). Inter-observer agreement in cytology was checked by comparing concordance values using k-statistics. Results No prior screening history was recorded in 60.7% of CC cases and its absence increased with age and advanced stage. Advanced stage (e.g., ≥ II) at diagnosis was associated with age (>50 years) and adenocarcinoma (ADC) compared to younger women and those with a squamous cell carcinoma (SCC). False negative smears were identified in 27.1% of women with CC (ADC 52.6% vs. SCC 16.2%, p<0.05). Conclusions Absence of prior screening history was common among CC cases. Organized actions to reduce “under screening” and the use of highly sensitive HPV-based tests could be useful strategies in reducing the burden of CC in Asturias. PMID:27547971

  4. Differential sensitivity of aerobic gram-positive and gram-negative microorganisms to 2,4,6-trinitrotoluene (TNT) leads to dissimilar growth and TNT transformation: Results of soil and pure culture studies

    SciTech Connect

    Fuller, M.E.; Manning, J.F. Jr.

    1996-07-30

    The effects of 2,4,6-trinitrotoluene (TNT) on indigenous soil populations and pure bacterial cultures were examined. The number of colony-forming units (CFU) appearing when TNT-contaminated soil was spread on 0.3% molasses plates decreased by 50% when the agar was amended with 67 {mu}g TNT mL{sup -1}, whereas a 99% reduction was observed when uncontaminated soil was plated. Furthermore, TNT-contaminated soil harbored a greater number of organisms able to grow on plates amended with greater than 10 {mu}g TNT mL{sup -1}. The percentage of gram-positive isolates was markedly less in TNT-contaminated soil (7%; 2 of 30) than in uncontaminated soil (61%; 20 of 33). Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Pseudomonas corrugate, Pseudomonasfluorescens and Alcaligenes xylosoxidans made up the majority of the gram-negative isolates from TNT-contaminated soil. Gram-positive isolates from both soils demonstrated marked growth inhibition when greater than 8-16 {mu}g TNT mL{sup -1} was present in the culture media. Most pure cultures of known aerobic gram-negative organisms readily degraded TNT and evidenced net consumption of reduced metabolites. However, pure cultures of aerobic gram-positive bacteria were sensitive to relatively low concentrations of TNT as indicated by the 50% reduction in growth and TNT transformation which was observed at approximately 10 {mu}g TNT mL{sup -1}. Most non-sporeforming gram-positive organisms incubated in molasses media amended with 80 {mu}g TNT mL{sup -1} or greater became unculturable, whereas all strains tested remained culturable when incubated in mineral media amended with 98 {mu}g TNT mL{sup -1}, indicating that TNT sensitivity is likely linked to cell growth. These results indicate that gram-negative organisms are most likely responsible for any TNT transformation in contaminated soil, due to their relative insensitivity to high TNT concentrations and their ability to transform TNT.

  5. The negation bias: when negations signal stereotypic expectancies.

    PubMed

    Beukeboom, Camiel J; Finkenauer, Catrin; Wigboldus, Daniël H J

    2010-12-01

    Research on linguistic biases shows that stereotypic expectancies are implicitly reflected in language and are thereby subtly communicated to message recipients. We examined whether these findings extend to the use of negations (e.g., not smart instead of stupid). We hypothesized that people use more negations in descriptions of stereotype-inconsistent behavior than in descriptions of stereotype-consistent behavior. In 3 studies, participants either judged the applicability of experimentally controlled person descriptions or spontaneously produced person descriptions themselves. Results provided support for this hypothesis. Moreover, a 4th study demonstrated that negations have communicative consequences. When a target person's behavior was described with negations, message recipients inferred that this behavior was an exception to the rule and that it was more likely caused by situational circumstances than by dispositional factors. These findings indicate that by using negations people implicitly communicate stereotypic expectancies and that negations play a subtle but powerful role in stereotype maintenance.

  6. On Multiplying Negative Numbers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Crowley, Mary L.; Dunn, Kenneth A.

    1985-01-01

    Comments on the history of negative numbers, some methods that can be used to introduce the multiplication of negative numbers to students, and an explanation of why the product of two negative numbers is a positive number are included. (MNS)

  7. Comparative analysis of root surface smear layer removal by different etching modalities or erbium:yttrium-aluminum-garnet laser irradiation. A scanning electron microscopy study.

    PubMed

    Theodoro, Letícia Helena; Zezell, Denise Maria; Garcia, Valdir Gouveia; Haypek, Patrícia; Nagata, Maria José Hitomi; de Almeida, Juliano Milanezi; de Paula Eduardo, Carlos

    2010-07-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effect of erbium:yttrium-aluminum-garnet (Er:YAG) laser (2.94 mum) irradiation on the removal of root surface smear layer of extracted human teeth and to compare its efficacy with that of citric acid, ethylenediamine tetra-acetic acid (EDTA), or a gel containing a mixture of tetracycline hydrochloride (HCl) and citric acid, using scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Thirty human dentin specimens were randomly divided into six groups: G1 (control group), irrigated with 10 ml of physiologic saline solution; G2, conditioned with 24% citric acid gel; G3, conditioned with 24% EDTA gel; G4, conditioned with a 50% citric acid and tetracycline gel; G5, irradiated with Er:YAG laser (47 mJ/10 Hz/5.8 J/cm(2)/pulse); G6, irradiated with Er:YAG laser (83 mJ/10 Hz/10.3 J/cm(2)/pulse). Electron micrographs were obtained and analyzed according to a rating system. Statistical analysis was conducted with Kruskal-Wallis and Mann-Whitney tests (P < 0.05). G1 was statistically different from all the other groups; no statistically significant differences were observed between the Er:YAG laser groups and those undergoing the other treatment modalities. When the two Er:YAG laser groups were compared, the fluency of G6 was statistically more effective in smear layer removal than the one used in G5 (Mann-Whitney test, P < 0.01). Root surfaces irradiated by Er:YAG laser had more irregular contours than those treated by chemical agents. It can be concluded that all treatment modalities were effective in smear layer removal. The results of our study suggest that the Er:YAG laser can be safely used to condition diseased root surfaces effectively. Furthermore, the effect of Er:YAG laser irradiation on root surfaces should be evaluated in vivo so that its potential to enhance the healing of periodontal tissues can be assessed.

  8. Brain representations of negative numbers.

    PubMed

    Parnes, Michael; Berger, Andrea; Tzelgov, Joseph

    2012-12-01

    Participants performed a physical comparison task of pairs of positive and pairs of negative one-digit numbers while their electrophysiological brain activity was measured. The numerical value of the presented digits was either congruent or incongruent with the physical size of the digits. Analysis has shown that the earliest event-related potential (ERP) difference between positive and negative numbers was found in the P300 ERP component peak, where there was an inverse effect of congruity in the negative pairs, compared with the positive ones. This pattern of results supports the idea that natural numbers serve as primitives of the human cognitive system, whereas negative numbers are apparently generated if needed.

  9. Negative hydrogen ion production mechanisms

    SciTech Connect

    Bacal, M.; Wada, M.

    2015-06-15

    Negative hydrogen/deuterium ions can be formed by processes occurring in the plasma volume and on surfaces facing the plasma. The principal mechanisms leading to the formation of these negative ions are dissociative electron attachment to ro-vibrationally excited hydrogen/deuterium molecules when the reaction takes place in the plasma volume, and the direct electron transfer from the low work function metal surface to the hydrogen/deuterium atoms when formation occurs on the surface. The existing theoretical models and reported experimental results on these two mechanisms are summarized. Performance of the negative hydrogen/deuterium ion sources that emerged from studies of these mechanisms is reviewed. Contemporary negative ion sources do not have negative ion production electrodes of original surface type sources but are operated with caesium with their structures nearly identical to volume production type sources. Reasons for enhanced negative ion current due to caesium addition to these sources are discussed.

  10. Negative hydrogen ion production mechanisms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bacal, M.; Wada, M.

    2015-06-01

    Negative hydrogen/deuterium ions can be formed by processes occurring in the plasma volume and on surfaces facing the plasma. The principal mechanisms leading to the formation of these negative ions are dissociative electron attachment to ro-vibrationally excited hydrogen/deuterium molecules when the reaction takes place in the plasma volume, and the direct electron transfer from the low work function metal surface to the hydrogen/deuterium atoms when formation occurs on the surface. The existing theoretical models and reported experimental results on these two mechanisms are summarized. Performance of the negative hydrogen/deuterium ion sources that emerged from studies of these mechanisms is reviewed. Contemporary negative ion sources do not have negative ion production electrodes of original surface type sources but are operated with caesium with their structures nearly identical to volume production type sources. Reasons for enhanced negative ion current due to caesium addition to these sources are discussed.

  11. Efficacy and safety of adding an agent to bevacizumab/taxane regimens for the first-line treatment of Her2-negative patients with locally recurrent or metastatic breast cancer: results from seven randomized controlled trials

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Xiaoqun; Liu, Xiangdong; Qiao, Tiankui; Chen, Wei; Yuan, Sujuan

    2016-01-01

    Background The combined therapy of bevacizumab (BEV) with taxane (paclitaxel or docetaxel) has shown an improvement on progression-free survival (PFS) and objective remission in Her2-negative patients with locally recurrent or metastatic breast cancer (LR/MBC). However, there was no benefit in overall survival (OS). The aim of this study was to evaluate the efficacy and safety of adding an agent to the BEV/taxane regimens for the treatment of Her2-negative patients with LR/MBC in a first-line setting. Materials and methods We searched PubMed, Web of Science, EMBASE, EBSCO, and the Cochrane Library databases for eligible trials. A meta-analysis was performed using Review Manager 5.0 freeware package. We calculated the hazard ratio (HR) for PFS and OS. The odds ratio (OR) was used to calculate objective response rate (ORR) and grade 3/4 drug-related adverse events. The heterogeneity of study outcomes was calculated by the χ2 test or I2 statistics. Results A total of 1,124 patients from seven randomized controlled trials were analyzed. Our meta-analysis showed that the ORR was significantly improved in the BEV/taxane-based triplet group when compared with the BEV/taxane-based doublet group (OR =1.31, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.03–1.67, P=0.03). A subset analysis showed that a similar result was achieved in the triplet group in which a cytotoxic agent was added (OR =1.46, 95% CI: 1.09–1.95, P=0.01). However, the PFS and OS had no statistically significant differences between the two groups (HR =0.87, 95% CI: 0.68–1.13, P=0.31; HR =0.98, 95% CI: 0.82–1.16, P=0.78, respectively). Regarding safety, thromboembolic events, fatigue, and diarrhea (all $grade 3) were more frequently observed in the BEV/taxane-based triplet group (OR =3.8, 95% CI: 1.86–7.79, P=0.0003; OR =1.55, 95% CI: 1.05–2.27, P=0.03; OR =2.1, 95% CI: 1.29–3.41, P=0.003, respectively). Other toxic effects had no statistically significant differences between the two groups. Conclusion Our

  12. Negative Emissions Technology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Day, Danny

    2006-04-01

    Although `negative emissions' of carbon dioxide need not, in principle, involve use of biological processes to draw carbon out of the atmosphere, such `agricultural' sequestration' is the only known way to remove carbon from the atmosphere on time scales comparable to the time scale for anthropogenic increases in carbon emissions. In order to maintain the `negative emissions' the biomass must be used in such a way that the resulting carbon dioxide is separated and permanently sequestered. Two options for sequestration are in the topsoil and via geologic carbon sequestration. The former has multiple benefits, but the latter also is needed. Thus, although geologic carbon sequestration is viewed skeptically by some environmentalists as simply a way to keep using fossil fuels---it may be a key part of reversing accelerating climate forcing if rapid climate change is beginning to occur. I will first review the general approach of agricultural sequestration combined with use of resulting biofuels in a way that permits carbon separation and then geologic sequestration as a negative emissions technology. Then I discuss the process that is the focus of my company---the EPRIDA cycle. If deployed at a sufficiently large scale, it could reverse the increase in CO2 concentrations. I also estimate of benefits --carbon and other---of large scale deployment of negative emissions technologies. For example, using the EPRIDA cycle by planting and soil sequestering carbon in an area abut In 3X the size of Texas would remove the amount of carbon that is being accumulated worldwide each year. In addition to the atmospheric carbon removal, the EPRIDA approach also counters the depletion of carbon in the soil---increasing topsoil and its fertility; reduces the excess nitrogen in the water by eliminating the need for ammonium nitrate fertilizer and reduces fossil fuel reliance by providing biofuel and avoiding natural gas based fertilizer production.

  13. Compound negative binomial distribution with negative multinomial summands

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jordanova, Pavlina K.; Petkova, Monika P.; Stehlík, Milan

    2016-12-01

    The class of Negative Binomial distributions seems to be introduced by Greenwood and Yule in 1920. Due to its wide spread application, investigations of distributions, closely related with it will be always contemporary. Bates, Neyman and Wishart introduce Negative Multinomial distribution. They reach it considering the mixture of independent Poisson distributed random variables with one and the same Gamma mixing variable. This paper investigates a particular case of multivariate compound distribution with one and the same compounding variable. In our case it is Negative Binomial or Sifted Negative Binomial. The summands with equal indexes in different coordinates are Negative Multinomially distributed. In case without shifting, considered as a mixture, the resulting distribution coincides with Mixed Negative Multinomial distribution with scale changed Negative Binomially distributed first parameter. We prove prove that it is Multivariate Power Series Distributed and find explicit form of its parameters. When the summands are geometrically distributed this distribution is stochastically equivalent to a product of independent Bernoulli random variable and appropriate multivariate Geometrically distributed random vector. We show that Compound Shifted Negative Binomial Distribution with Geometric Summands is a particular case of Negative Multinomial distribution with new parameters.

  14. Artificial neural network in breast lesions from fine-needle aspiration cytology smear.

    PubMed

    Subbaiah, R M; Dey, Pranab; Nijhawan, Raje

    2014-03-01

    Artificial neural networks (ANNs) are applied in engineering and certain medical fields. ANN has immense potential and is rarely been used in breast lesions. In this present study, we attempted to build up a complete robust back propagation ANN model based on cytomorphological data, morphometric data, nuclear densitometric data, and gray level co-occurrence matrix (GLCM) of ductal carcinoma and fibroadenomas of breast cases diagnosed on fine-needle aspiration cytology (FNAC). We selected 52 cases of fibroadenomas and 60 cases of infiltrating ductal carcinoma of breast diagnosed on FNAC by two cytologists. Essential cytological data was quantitated by two independent cytologists (SRM, PD). With the help of Image J software, nuclear morphomeric, densitometric, and GLCM features were measured in all the cases on hematoxylin and eosin-stained smears. With the available data, an ANN model was built up with the help of Neurointelligence software. The network was designed as 41-20-1 (41 input nodes, 20 hidden nodes, 1 output node). The network was trained by the online back propagation algorithm and 500 iterations were done. Learning was adjusted after every iteration. ANN model correctly identified all cases of fibroadenomas and infiltrating carcinomas in the test set. This is one of the first successful composite ANN models of breast carcinomas. This basic model can be used to diagnose the gray zone area of the breast lesions on FNAC. We assume that this model may have far-reaching implications in future.

  15. Use of conventional PCR and smear microscopy to diagnose pulmonary tuberculosis in the Amazonian rainforest area.

    PubMed

    Carniel, F; Dalla Costa, E R; Lima-Bello, G; Martins, C; Scherer, L C; Rossetti, M L

    2014-12-01

    The diagnostic usefulness of Ziehl-Neelsen (ZN)-stained sputum smears combined with conventional polymerase chain reaction (ZN/PCR) to amplify IS6110 region DNA extracted from ZN slides was evaluated. The objective was to verify if this association could improve tuberculosis (TB) diagnosis in patients at remote sites. The study was carried out in 89 patients with culture-confirmed pulmonary TB as defined by the Brazilian Manual for TB Treatment. The participants were recruited in a reference unit for TB treatment in Rondônia, a state in the Amazonian area in northern Brazil. ZN, PCR, and culture performed in the sputum samples from these patients were analyzed in different combinations (i.e., ZN plus PCR and ZN plus culture). The prevalence rates of pulmonary TB in these patients were 32.6 and 28.1% considering culture and ZN/PCR, respectively. The sensitivity and specificity of ZN/PCR were 86 and 93%, respectively. ZN/PCR was able to detect more TB cases than ZN alone. This method could offer a new approach for accurate tuberculosis diagnosis, especially in remote regions of the world where culture is not available.

  16. Suppressing the image smear of the vibration modulation transfer function for remote-sensing optical cameras.

    PubMed

    Li, Jin; Liu, Zilong; Liu, Si

    2017-02-20

    In on-board photographing processes of satellite cameras, the platform vibration can generate image motion, distortion, and smear, which seriously affect the image quality and image positioning. In this paper, we create a mathematical model of a vibrating modulate transfer function (VMTF) for a remote-sensing camera. The total MTF of a camera is reduced by the VMTF, which means the image quality is degraded. In order to avoid the degeneration of the total MTF caused by vibrations, we use an Mn-20Cu-5Ni-2Fe (M2052) manganese copper alloy material to fabricate a vibration-isolation mechanism (VIM). The VIM can transform platform vibration energy into irreversible thermal energy with its internal twin crystals structure. Our experiment shows the M2052 manganese copper alloy material is good enough to suppress image motion below 125 Hz, which is the vibration frequency of satellite platforms. The camera optical system has a higher MTF after suppressing the vibration of the M2052 material than before.

  17. Morphological interface between hybrid ionomers and dentin with and without smear-layer removal.

    PubMed

    Abdalla, A I

    2000-09-01

    To evaluate the micromorphological interface between dentin and several hybrid ionomer restoratives, a flat dentin surface was obtained on the occlusal surfaces of extracted human molar teeth after sectioning the enamel with an Isomet saw. Three poly-acid-modified composite resins, Compoglass, Dyract and F2000, and two resin-modified glass-ionomer cements, Fuji II LC and Photac-Fil were applied to the dentin surface. A second section, 2 mm apical from the first one, was made to produce a dentin segment containing the tested materials. Each disc was then split fractured along the dentin/material interface. For the poly-acid-modified composites, one half of the disc was stored in 6 mol/L HCl for 48 h to remove the dentin. The other was gently decalcified and deprotenized at the interface between the hybrid ionomer and the dentin. Both halves were then sputtered with gold and examined using SEM. For resin-modified glass-ionomer, samples were only evaluated at the interface. The three poly-acid-modified composite resins showed the formation of hybrid layers and resin tags at the interface to the dentin. Removal of the smear layer significantly improves hybridization of these materials. Also, Fuji II LC produced a hybrid layer while the Photac-Fil showed no evidence of hybridization.

  18. Implementation of a Smeared Crack Band Model in a Micromechanics Framework

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pineda, Evan J.; Bednarcyk, Brett A.; Waas, Anthony M.; Arnold, Steven M.

    2012-01-01

    The smeared crack band theory is implemented within the generalized method of cells and high-fidelity generalized method of cells micromechanics models to capture progressive failure within the constituents of a composite material while retaining objectivity with respect to the size of the discretization elements used in the model. An repeating unit cell containing 13 randomly arranged fibers is modeled and subjected to a combination of transverse tension/compression and transverse shear loading. The implementation is verified against experimental data (where available), and an equivalent finite element model utilizing the same implementation of the crack band theory. To evaluate the performance of the crack band theory within a repeating unit cell that is more amenable to a multiscale implementation, a single fiber is modeled with generalized method of cells and high-fidelity generalized method of cells using a relatively coarse subcell mesh which is subjected to the same loading scenarios as the multiple fiber repeating unit cell. The generalized method of cells and high-fidelity generalized method of cells models are validated against a very refined finite element model.

  19. Adverse Events in Treating Smear-Positive Tuberculosis Patients in China

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Tao; Du, Jian; Yin, Xiaoyan; Xue, Fuzhong; Liu, Yanxun; Li, Runzi; Luo, Cheng; Li, Liang; Li, Xiujun

    2015-01-01

    This study aimed to estimate the adverse events (AE) rate during anti-tuberculosis treatment and to explore AE-related risk factors. New and previously treated smear-positive tuberculosis (TB) cases were enrolled from eight regions in China between April 2009 and October 2010. The AE rate was estimated, and AE risk factors during anti-TB treatment were assessed using Cox proportional models. Among 2091 Chinese subjects with anti-TB treatment, 462 (22.1%, 95% confidence interval (CI), 20.3–23.9) patients developed AE, with liver injury and gastrointestinal reactions constituting the most common AE. Specifically, 9.8% (95% CI, 8.5–11.1) and 6.3% (95% CI, 5.3–7.4) developed liver injuries and gastrointestinal reactions, respectively. We found that AE rate differed by regions, TB knowledge score, symptoms score and smoking status. Liver injuries were associated with age, sex and smoking status; gastrointestinal reactions were associated with education level and symptom score. Improving patients’ knowledge on TB could reduce AE rate. PMID:26729141

  20. Adverse Events in Treating Smear-Positive Tuberculosis Patients in China.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Tao; Du, Jian; Yin, Xiaoyan; Xue, Fuzhong; Liu, Yanxun; Li, Runzi; Luo, Cheng; Li, Liang; Li, Xiujun

    2015-12-29

    This study aimed to estimate the adverse events (AE) rate during anti-tuberculosis treatment and to explore AE-related risk factors. New and previously treated smear-positive tuberculosis (TB) cases were enrolled from eight regions in China between April 2009 and October 2010. The AE rate was estimated, and AE risk factors during anti-TB treatment were assessed using Cox proportional models. Among 2091 Chinese subjects with anti-TB treatment, 462 (22.1%, 95% confidence interval (CI), 20.3-23.9) patients developed AE, with liver injury and gastrointestinal reactions constituting the most common AE. Specifically, 9.8% (95% CI, 8.5-11.1) and 6.3% (95% CI, 5.3-7.4) developed liver injuries and gastrointestinal reactions, respectively. We found that AE rate differed by regions, TB knowledge score, symptoms score and smoking status. Liver injuries were associated with age, sex and smoking status; gastrointestinal reactions were associated with education level and symptom score. Improving patients' knowledge on TB could reduce AE rate.

  1. Effect of Nd:YAG Laser Irradiation on the Number of Open Dentinal Tubules and Their Diameter with and without Smear of Graphite: An in Vitro Study

    PubMed Central

    Maleki-pour, Mohammad Reza; Birang, Reza; Khoshayand, Maryam; Naghsh, Narges

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: Dentin hypersensitivity (DH) is characterized by tooth pain arising from exposure of dental roots. In this study the efficiency of neodymium yttrium-aluminum-garnet (Nd:YAG) laser in association with graphite on dentinal surface changes as the alternative to the treatment of DH was evaluated. Methods: Sixteen noncarious human third molars were collected and sectioned into 5 parts from cementoenamel junction (CEJ) to the furcation area. The prepared samples were randomly assigned into five groups (Gs) of each 16: Control (G1), treated by Nd:YAG laser at 0.5 W (G2), irradiation of Nd:YAG with a 0.25 W output power(G3), smeared with graphite and then using Nd:YAG laser at output powers of 0.5 W (G4) and 0.25 W (G5). For all groups the parameters were 15 Hz, 60 s, at two stages and with a right angle irradiation. The number and diameter of dentinal tubules (DT) were compared and analyzed by SPSS software, One way ANOVA and Post hoc LSD tests. Results:The number of open dentinal tubules varied significantly between all groups except among G1 with G3 and G2 with G5. Multiple comparison tests also exhibited significant differences regarding the diameter of tubules between the groups two by two except among G2 with G5. Conclusion: Nd:YAG laser used at 0.25 W and 0.5 W with application of graphite smear was able to reduce the number and diameter of dentinal tubules. PMID:25699166

  2. Scanning Electron Microscopic Evaluation of Residual Smear Layer Following Preparation of Curved Root Canals Using Hand Instrumentation or Two Engine-Driven Systems

    PubMed Central

    Khademi, Abbasali; Saatchi, Masoud; Shokouhi, Mohammad Mehdi; Baghaei, Badri

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: In this experimental study, the amount of smear layer (SL) remnants in curved root canals after chemomechanical instrumentation with two engine-driven systems or hand instrumentation was evaluated. Methods and Materials: Forty-eight mesiobuccal roots of mandibular first molars with curvatures ranging between 25 and 35 degrees (according to Schneider’s method) were divided into three groups (n=16) which were prepared by either the ProTaper Universal file series, Reciproc single file system or hand instrumentation. The canals were intermittently irrigated with 5.25% NaOCl and 17% (ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid) EDTA, followed by distilled water as the final rinse. The roots were split longitudinally and the apical third of the specimens were evaluated under 2500× magnification with a scanning electron microscope (SEM). The mean scores of the SL were calculated and analyzed using the non-parametric Kruskal-Wallis and Mann-Whitney U tests. Results: The mean scores of the SL were 2.00±0.73, 1.94±0.68 and 1.44±0.63 µm for the ProTaper Universal, Reciproc and hand instrumentation, respectively. Mean score of SL was significantly less in the hand instrumentation group than the ProTaper (P=0.027) and Reciproc (P=0.035) groups. The difference between the two engine-driven systems, however, was not significant (P=0.803). Conclusion: The amount of smear layer in the apical third of curved root canals prepared with both engine-driven systems was similar and greater than the hand instrumentation technique. Complete cleanliness was not attained. PMID:26523137

  3. Color canals modification with canny edge detection and morphological reconstruction for cell nucleus segmentation and area measurement in normal Pap smear images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Riana, Dwiza; Dewi, Dyah Ekashanti Octorina; Widyantoro, Dwi H.; Mengko, Tati Latifah R.

    2014-03-01

    This paper presents a cell nucleus segmentation and area measurement of Pap smear images by means of modification of color canals with Canny edge detection and morphological reconstruction methods. Cell nucleus characterization plays an important role for classifying the degree of abnormality in cervical cancer. The aim of this work is to find the matched measurement method with the manual nucleus area measurement. In this work, we utilized pap smear single cell images from Herlev data bank in RGB mode. The cell images were selected from 90 normal class subjects that include: Normal Superficial, Normal Intermediate, and Normal Columnar classes. The nucleus of each cell image was cropped manually to localize from the cytoplasm. The color canals modification was performed on each cropped nucleus image by, first, separating each R, G, B, and grayscale canals, then implementing addition operation based on color canals (R+G+B, R+G, R+B, G+B, and grayscale). The Canny edge detection was applied on those modifications resulting in binary edge images. The nucleus segmentation was implemented on the edge images by performing region filling based on morphological reconstruction. The area property was calculated based on the segmented nucleus area. The nucleus area from the proposed method was verified to the existing manual measurement (ground truth) of the Herlev data bank. Based on thorough observation upon the selected color canals and Canny edge detection. It can be concluded that Canny edge detection with R+G+B canal is the most significant for all Normal classes (r 0,305, p-value 0.05). While for Normal Superficial and Normal Intermediate, Canny edge detection is significant for all RGB modifications with (r 0.414 - 0.817 range, , p-value 0.05), and for Normal Columnar, Canny edge detection is significant for R+B canal (r 0.505, p-value 0.05).

  4. High anti–desmoglein 3 antibody ELISA index and negative indirect immunofluorescence result in a patient with pemphigus vulgaris in remission: evaluation of the antibody profile by newly developed methods.

    PubMed

    Nakahara, Tomoko; Takagi, Atsushi; Yamagami, Jun; Kamiya, Koji; Aoyama, Yumi; Iwatsuki, Keiji; Ikeda, Shigaku

    2014-12-01

    IMPORTANCE Pemphigus vulgaris (PV) is a disease that features blistering of the skin and mucous membranes caused by autoantibodies directed against desmoglein 3 (Dsg3) and/or desmoglein 1(Dsg1). Indirect immunofluorescence (IIF) and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) are 2 methods that are widely used to measure Dsg3 orDsg1 antibody titers in PV. Although the titers of these autoantibodies are generally correlated with disease activity, some patients with a high ELISA index do not have severe symptoms.We encountered a patient with PV in remission,who had a high anti-Dsg3 antibody ELISA index while the IIF result was negative.OBSERVATIONS The anti-Dsg3 antibodies of our patient mainly recognized Ca2+-dependent conformational epitopes and targeted mature Dsg3 protein.We report this case focusing on the discrepancy between ELISA and IIF findings, as well as on the specific characteristics of the patient's autoantibodies evaluated by newly developed methods.CONCLUSIONS AND RELEVANCE This case emphasizes that a discrepancy between disease activity, the ELISA index for Dsg3, and/or IIF findings can occur in PV. Further research on similar patients will be required to elucidate the pathogenic mechanisms in patients with PV who have nonpathogenic antibodies and show a discrepancy between ELISA and IIF.

  5. On the Application of Pattern Recognition and AI Technique to the Cytoscreening of Vaginal Smears by Computer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bow, Sing T.; Wang, Xia-Fang

    1989-05-01

    In this paper the concepts of pattern recognition, image processing and artificial intelligence are applied to the development of an intelligent cytoscreening system to differentiate the abnormal cytological objects from the normal ones in vaginal smears. To achieve this goal,work listed below are involved: 1. Enhancement of the microscopic images of the smears; 2. Elevation of the qualitative differentiation under the microscope by cytologists to a quantitative differentiation plateau on the epithelial cells, ciliated cells, vacuolated cells, foreign-body-giant cells, plasma cells, lymph cells, white blood cells, red blood cells, etc. These knowledges are to be inputted into our intelligent cyto-screening system to ameliorate machine differentiation; 3. Selection of a set of effective features to characterize the cytological objects onto various regions of the multiclustered by computer algorithms; and 4. Systematical summarization of the knowledge that a gynecologist has and the way he/she follows when dealing with a case.

  6. LED fluorescence microscopy increases the detection of smear-positive pulmonary tuberculosis in medical colleges of India.

    PubMed

    Reza, L W; Satyanarayana, S; Pandey, A; Kumar, S; Devendrappa, N M; Anand, L; Singh, G; Kumar, A M V; Chadha, S S; Wilson, N; Sachdeva, K S; Nair, S A

    2013-09-21

    In July 2012, light-emitting diode fluorescence microscopy (LED-FM) replaced conventional light microscopy using Ziehl-Neelsen stain in the detection of sputum-positive pulmonary tuberculosis in 190 microscopy centres of medical colleges operating under India's Revised National Tuberculosis Control Programme. We compared the performance of LED-FM (July-December 2012) to that of conventional microscopy (July-December 2011) across 190 sites. Of 222 658 patients examined using conventional microscopy, 28 042 (12.6%) were smear-positive, while of 224 714 examined using LED-FM, 33 552 (14.9%) were smear-positive, an additional yield of 5251 cases after adjusting for the increase in patients examined. We recommend replacing conventional microscopy with LED-FM in high workload microscopy centres in India.

  7. Er:YAG laser evaluation of smear layer removal from flattened root canals submitted to rotary instrumentation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heredia Seixas, Fabio; Brugnera, Aldo, Jr.; Gariba Silva, Ricardo; Capelli, Alexandre; Zanello Guerisoli, Danilo M.; Djalma Pecora, Jesus

    2003-06-01

    This study evaluated smear layer removal of 40 mesio-distal flattened root canals after rotary instrumentation. Teeth were divided into 4 goups: Group 1: 2.5% sodium hypochlorite was used as an irrigating solution; Group 2: instrumented as Group 1 followed by Er:YAG laser irradiation (140mJ input/10Hz, withdrawn at 2mm/s from the apical to the cervical region touching the buccal wall; the procedure was then repeated for the lingual wall); Group 3: instrumented as Group 1 and followed by Er:YAG laser irradiation (250mJ input/10Hz, in the same way as described for Group 2) and Group 4: instrumented as Group 1 and alternated with 17% EDTA. Teeth were then split longitudinally and prepared for examination under the scanning electron microscope. Scores from 1 to 4 were given to the fotomicrographs by three independent evaluators, and these data were submitted to statistical analysis. Teeth where alternated 17% EDTA was used (Group 4) showed less amount of smear layer, followed by the group irradiated with 250mJ input/10Hz (Group 3), the group irradiated with 140mJ input/10Hz(Group 2) and the group where only sodium hypochlorite was used (Group 1). The apical third presented more smear layer than the middle third (p<00.1)

  8. Optimization of Routine Identification of Clinically Relevant Gram-Negative Bacteria by Use of Matrix-Assisted Laser Desorption Ionization–Time of Flight Mass Spectrometry and the Bruker Biotyper

    PubMed Central

    Ford, Bradley A.

    2013-01-01

    Matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization–time of flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS) might complement and one day replace phenotypic identification of bacteria in the clinical microbiology laboratory, but there is no consensus standard regarding the requirements for its validation prior to clinical use in the United States. The objective of this study was to assess the preanalytical variables influencing Gram-negative identification by use of the Bruker Biotyper MALDI-TOF MS system, including density of organism spotting on a stainless steel target plate and the direct overlay of organisms with formic acid. A heavy smear with formic acid overlay was either superior or equivalent to alternative smear conditions. Microbiological preanalytical variables were also assayed, such as culture medium, growth temperature, and use of serial subculture. Postanalytical analysis included the application of modified species-level identification acceptance criteria. Biotyper identifications were compared with those using traditional phenotypic methods, and discrepancies were resolved with 16S rRNA gene sequencing. Compared to the recommended score cutoffs of the manufacturer, the application of optimized Biotyper score cutoffs for species-level identification increased the rate of identification by 6.75% for the enteric Gram-negative bacteria and 4.25% for the nonfermenting Gram-negative bacteria. Various incubation temperatures, growth medium types, and repeat subcultures did not result in misidentification. We conclude that the Bruker MALDI Biotyper is a robust system for the identification of Gram-negative organisms in the clinical laboratory and that meaningful performance improvements can be made by implementing simple pre- and postanalytical techniques. PMID:23426923

  9. Physics of negative absolute temperatures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abraham, Eitan; Penrose, Oliver

    2017-01-01

    Negative absolute temperatures were introduced into experimental physics by Purcell and Pound, who successfully applied this concept to nuclear spins; nevertheless, the concept has proved controversial: a recent article aroused considerable interest by its claim, based on a classical entropy formula (the "volume entropy") due to Gibbs, that negative temperatures violated basic principles of statistical thermodynamics. Here we give a thermodynamic analysis that confirms the negative-temperature interpretation of the Purcell-Pound experiments. We also examine the principal arguments that have been advanced against the negative temperature concept; we find that these arguments are not logically compelling, and moreover that the underlying "volume" entropy formula leads to predictions inconsistent with existing experimental results on nuclear spins. We conclude that, despite the counterarguments, negative absolute temperatures make good theoretical sense and did occur in the experiments designed to produce them.

  10. Hormonal therapy followed by chemotherapy or the reverse sequence as first-line treatment of hormone-responsive, human epidermal growth factor receptor-2 negative metastatic breast cancer patients: results of an observational study.

    PubMed

    Bighin, Claudia; Dozin, Beatrice; Poggio, Francesca; Ceppi, Marcello; Bruzzi, Paolo; D'Alonzo, Alessia; Levaggi, Alessia; Giraudi, Sara; Lambertini, Matteo; Miglietta, Loredana; Vaglica, Marina; Fontana, Vincenzo; Iacono, Giuseppina; Pronzato, Paolo; Mastro, Lucia Del

    2017-01-18

    Introduction Although hormonal-therapy is the preferred first-line treatment for hormone-responsive, HER2 negative metastatic breast cancer, no data from clinical trials support the choice between hormonal-therapy and chemotherapy.Methods Patients were divided into two groups according to the treatment: chemotherapy or hormonal-therapy. Outcomes in terms of clinical benefit and median overall survival (OS) were retrospectively evaluated in the two groups. To calculate the time spent in chemotherapy with respect to OS in the two groups, the proportion of patients in chemotherapy relative to those present in either group was computed at every day from the start of therapy.Results From 1999 to 2013, 119 patients received first-line hormonal-therapy (HT-first group) and 100 first-line chemotherapy (CT-first group). Patients in the CT-first group were younger and with poorer prognostic factors as compared to those in HT-first group. Clinical benefit (77 vs 81%) and median OS (50.7 vs 51.1 months) were similar in the two groups. Time spent in chemotherapy was significantly longer during the first 3 years in CT-first group (54-34%) as compared to the HT-first group (11-18%). This difference decreased after the third year and overall was 28% in the CT-first group and 18% in the HT-first group.Conclusions The sequence first-line chemotherapy followed by hormonal-therapy, as compared with the opposite sequence, is associated with a longer time of OS spent in chemotherapy. However, despite the poorer prognostic factors, patients in the CT-first group had a superimposable OS than those in the HT-first group.

  11. C1Q Assay Results in Complement-Dependent Cytotoxicity Crossmatch Negative Renal Transplant Candidates with Donor-Specific Antibodies: High Specificity but Low Sensitivity When Predicting Flow Crossmatch

    PubMed Central

    Castelán, Natalia; de Santiago, Adrián; Arvizu, Adriana; Gonzalez-Tableros, Norma; López, Mayra; Salcedo, Isaac; Vilatobá, Mario; Granados, Julio

    2016-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to describe the association of positive flow cross match (FXM) and C1q-SAB. Methods. In this observational, cross-sectional, and comparative study, patients included had negative AHG-CDC-XM and donor specific antibodies (DSA) and were tested with FXM. All pretransplant sera were tested with C1q-SAB assay. Results. A total of 50 donor/recipient evaluations were conducted; half of them had at least one C1q+ Ab (n = 26, 52%). Ten patients (20.0%) had DSA C1q+ Ab. Twenty-five (50%) FXMs were positive. Factors associated with a positive FXM were the presence of C1q+ Ab (DSA C1q+ Ab: OR 27, 2.80–259.56, P = 0.004, and no DSA C1q+ Ab: OR 5, 1.27–19.68, P = 0.021) and the DSA LABScreen-SAB MFI (OR 1.26, 95% CI 1.06–1.49, P = 0.007). The cutoff point of immunodominant LABScreen SAB DSA-MFI with the greatest sensitivity and specificity to predict FXM was 2,300 (sensitivity: 72% and specificity: 75%). For FXM prediction, DSA C1q+ Ab was the most specific (95.8%, 85–100) and the combination of DSA-MFI > 2,300 and C1q+ Ab was the most sensitive (92.0%, 79.3–100). Conclusions. C1q+ Ab and LABScreen SAB DSA-MFI were significantly associated with FXM. DSA C1q+ Ab was highly specific but with low sensitivity. PMID:27688904

  12. Culture-negative endocarditis

    MedlinePlus

    ... inflammation of the lining of one or more heart valves, but no endocarditis-causing germs can be found ... the heart, where they can settle on damaged heart valves. Alternative Names Endocarditis (culture-negative) Images Culture-negative ...

  13. Negative ion generator

    DOEpatents

    Stinnett, Regan W.

    1984-01-01

    A negative ion generator is formed from a magnetically insulated transmission line having a coating of graphite on the cathode for producing negative ions and a plurality of apertures on the opposed anode for the release of negative ions. Magnetic insulation keeps electrons from flowing from the cathode to the anode. A transverse magnetic field removes electrons which do escape through the apertures from the trajectory of the negative ions.

  14. Negative ion generator

    DOEpatents

    Stinnett, R.W.

    1984-05-08

    A negative ion generator is formed from a magnetically insulated transmission line having a coating of graphite on the cathode for producing negative ions and a plurality of apertures on the opposed anode for the release of negative ions. Magnetic insulation keeps electrons from flowing from the cathode to the anode. A transverse magnetic field removes electrons which do escape through the apertures from the trajectory of the negative ions. 8 figs.

  15. Sentential Negation in English

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mowarin, Macaulay

    2009-01-01

    This paper undertakes a detailed analysis of sentential negation in the English language with Chomsky's Government-Binding theory of Transformational Grammar as theoretical model. It distinguishes between constituent and sentential negation in English. The essay identifies the exact position of Negation phrase in an English clause structure. It…

  16. Smearing the opposition: implicit and explicit stigmatization of the 2008 U.S. Presidential candidates and the current U.S. President.

    PubMed

    Kosloff, Spee; Greenberg, Jeff; Schmader, Toni; Dechesne, Mark; Weise, David

    2010-08-01

    Four studies investigated whether political allegiance and salience of outgroup membership contribute to the phenomenon of acceptance of false, stigmatizing information (smears) about political candidates. Studies 1-3 were conducted in the month prior to the 2008 U.S. Presidential election and together demonstrated that pre-standing opposition to John McCain or Barack Obama, as well as the situational salience of differentiating social categories (i.e., for Obama, race; for McCain, age), contributed to the implicit activation and explicit endorsement of smearing labels (i.e., Obama is Muslim; McCain is senile). The influence of salient differentiating categories on smear acceptance was particularly pronounced among politically undecided individuals. Study 4 clarified that social category differences heighten smear acceptance, even if the salient category is semantically unrelated to the smearing label, showing that, approximately 1 year after the election, the salience of race amplified belief that Obama is a socialist among undecided people and McCain supporters. Taken together, these findings suggest that, at both implicit and explicit cognitive levels, social category differences and political allegiance contribute to acceptance of smears against political candidates.

  17. Defined PEG smears as an alternative approach to enhance the search for crystallization conditions and crystal-quality improvement in reduced screens

    PubMed Central

    Chaikuad, Apirat; Knapp, Stefan; von Delft, Frank

    2015-01-01

    The quest for an optimal limited set of effective crystallization conditions remains a challenge in macromolecular crystallography, an issue that is complicated by the large number of chemicals which have been deemed to be suitable for promoting crystal growth. The lack of rational approaches towards the selection of successful chemical space and representative combinations has led to significant overlapping conditions, which are currently present in a multitude of commercially available crystallization screens. Here, an alternative approach to the sampling of widely used PEG precipitants is suggested through the use of PEG smears, which are mixtures of different PEGs with a requirement of either neutral or cooperatively positive effects of each component on crystal growth. Four newly defined smears were classified by molecular-weight groups and enabled the preservation of specific properties related to different polymer sizes. These smears not only allowed a wide coverage of properties of these polymers, but also reduced PEG variables, enabling greater sampling of other parameters such as buffers and additives. The efficiency of the smear-based screens was evaluated on more than 220 diverse recombinant human proteins, which overall revealed a good initial crystallization success rate of nearly 50%. In addition, in several cases successful crystallizations were only obtained using PEG smears, while various commercial screens failed to yield crystals. The defined smears therefore offer an alternative approach towards PEG sampling, which will benefit the design of crystallization screens sampling a wide chemical space of this key precipitant. PMID:26249344

  18. Negative magnetoresistivity in holography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, Ya-Wen; Yang, Qing

    2016-09-01

    Negative magnetoresistivity is a special magnetotransport property associated with chiral anomaly in four dimensional chiral anomalous systems, which refers to the transport behavior that the DC longitudinal magnetoresistivity decreases with increasing magnetic field. We calculate the longitudinal magnetoconductivity in the presence of back-reactions of the magnetic field to gravity in holographic zero charge and axial charge density systems with and without axial charge dissipation. In the absence of axial charge dissipation, we find that the quantum critical conductivity grows with increasing magnetic field when the backreaction strength is larger than a critical value, in contrast to the monotonically decreasing behavior of quantum critical conductivity in the probe limit. With axial charge dissipation, we find the negative magnetoresistivity behavior. The DC longitudinal magnetoconductivity scales as B in the large magnetic field limit, which deviates from the exact B 2 scaling of the probe limit result. In both cases, the small frequency longitudinal magnetoconductivity still agrees with the formula obtained from the hydrodynamic linear response theory, even in the large magnetic field limit.

  19. Negative symptoms: psychopathological models.

    PubMed Central

    Ananth, J; Djenderdjian, A; Shamasunder, P; Costa, J; Herrera, J; Sramek, J

    1991-01-01

    The psychopathological manifestations of schizophrenia have been broadly divided into positive and negative symptom groups. Even though there is no definitive consensus, psychomotor agitation, motor excitement, hallucinations, delusions and thought disorder constitute positive and psychomotor retardation, amotivation, apathy and decreased emotional expression are grouped into negative symptoms. The negative symptoms have been reported to appear late in the course of the illness and resistant to treatment with neuroleptics. While these claims have not been substantiated, the current interest on negative symptoms is related to the fact that many nonfunctioning institutionalized as well as ambulatory schizophrenics manifest negative symptoms. As chronic psychiatric beds have become scarce, many patients with negative symptoms who were harbored in the chronic mental hospitals have been released to the community care and some of these patients live on the streets. Thus their visibility has challenged psychiatry to focus its efforts on the etiology and treatment of negative symptoms. PMID:2049366

  20. Epidemiology and antimicrobial susceptibility profiles of Gram-negative bacteria causing urinary tract infections in the Asia-Pacific region: 2009-2010 results from the Study for Monitoring Antimicrobial Resistance Trends (SMART).

    PubMed

    Lu, Po-Liang; Liu, Yung-Ching; Toh, Han-Siong; Lee, Yu-Lin; Liu, Yuag-Meng; Ho, Cheng-Mao; Huang, Chi-Chang; Liu, Chun-Eng; Ko, Wen-Chien; Wang, Jen-Hsien; Tang, Hung-Jen; Yu, Kwok-Woon; Chen, Yao-Shen; Chuang, Yin-Ching; Xu, Yingchun; Ni, Yuxing; Chen, Yen-Hsu; Hsueh, Po-Ren

    2012-06-01

    In 2009, the Study for Monitoring Antimicrobial Resistance Trends (SMART) was expanded to include surveillance of Gram-negative pathogens causing urinary tract infections (UTIs) in the Asia-Pacific region. A total of 1762 isolates were collected from 38 centers in 11 countries from patients with UTIs in 2009 and 2010. In vitro susceptibilities were determined by the broth microdilution method and susceptibility profiles were determined using minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) interpretive criteria, as recommended by the Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute (CLSI) in 2010 (M100-S20), in 2011 (M100-S21), and in 2012 (M100-S22). Enterobacteriaceae comprised 86.0% of the isolates, of which Escherichia coli (56.5%) and Klebsiella pneumoniae (13.8%) were the two most common species. Amikacin was the most effective antibiotic (91.7%), followed by ertapenem (86.9%), imipenem (86.6%), and piperacillin-tazobactam (84.9%). Rates of susceptibility were 50.3% for cefoxitin and ranged from 50.3% to 74.2% for the third- and fourth-generation cephalosporins. For ciprofloxacin and levofloxacin, the susceptibility rates were 51.4% and 54.4%, respectively. Extended-spectrum β-lactamase (ESBL)-producing Enterobacteriaceae comprised 28.2% of all isolates. We also found a high rate of resistance to carbapenems among Acinetobacter baumannii and Pseudomonas aeruginosa causing UTI. Interestingly, according to 2012 CLSI breakpoints, approximately 33.4% of ESBL producers were still susceptible to ceftazidime. However, this in vitro efficacy of ceftazidime needs to be validated in vivo by clinical data. The lowered CLSI interpretive breakpoints for piperacillin-tazobactam, carbapenems, and some cephalosporins in 2011-2012 for Enterobacteriaceae resulted in an approximate 5% drop in susceptibility rates for each drug, with the exception of imipenem for which the susceptibility rate dropped from 99.4% according to 2010 criteria to 91.2% according to 2011 criteria. With the updated

  1. Developing evidence-based algorithms for negative pressure wound therapy in adults with acute and chronic wounds: literature and expert-based face validation results.

    PubMed

    Beitz, Janice M; van Rijswijk, Lia

    2012-04-01

    Negative pressure wound therapy (NPWT) is used extensively in the management of acute and chronic wounds, but concerns persist about its efficacy, effectiveness, and safety. Available guidelines and algorithms are wound type-specific, not evidence-based, and many lack clearly described relative and absolute contraindications and stop criteria. The purpose of this research was to: (1) develop evidence-based algorithms for the safe use of NPWT in adults with acute and chronic wounds by nonwound expert clinicians, and (2) obtain face validity for the algorithms. Using NPWT meta-analyses and systematic reviews (n = 10), NPWT guidelines of care (n = 12), general evidence-based guidelines of wound care (n = 11), and a framework for transitioning between moisture-retentive and NPWT care (n = 1), a set of three algorithms was developed. Literature-based validity for each of the 39 discreet algorithm steps/decision points was obtained by reviewing best available evidence from systematic literature reviews (n = 331 publications) and abstraction of all NPWT-relevant publications (n = 182) using the patient-oriented Strength of Recommendation (SORT) taxonomy. Of the 182 NPWT studies abstracted, 25 met criteria for level 1 and 2 evidence but only one general assessment step had both level 1 evidence and an "A" strength of recommendation. Next, an Institutional Review Board-approved, cross-sectional mixed methods survey design face validation pilot study was conducted to solicit comments on, and rate the validity of, the 51 discreet algorithm-related statements, including the 39 decisions/steps. Twelve (12) of the 15 invited interdisciplinary wound experts agreed to participate. The overall algorithm content validity index (CVI) was high (0.96 out of 1). Helpful design suggestions to ensure safe use were made, and participants suggested an examination of commonly used wound definitions in follow-up studies. Results of the literature-based face validation confirm that the

  2. Isotropic Negative Thermal Expansion Metamaterials.

    PubMed

    Wu, Lingling; Li, Bo; Zhou, Ji

    2016-07-13

    Negative thermal expansion materials are important and desirable in science and engineering applications. However, natural materials with isotropic negative thermal expansion are rare and usually unsatisfied in performance. Here, we propose a novel method to achieve two- and three-dimensional negative thermal expansion metamaterials via antichiral structures. The two-dimensional metamaterial is constructed with unit cells that combine bimaterial strips and antichiral structures, while the three-dimensional metamaterial is fabricated by a multimaterial 3D printing process. Both experimental and simulation results display isotropic negative thermal expansion property of the samples. The effective coefficient of negative thermal expansion of the proposed models is demonstrated to be dependent on the difference between the thermal expansion coefficient of the component materials, as well as on the circular node radius and the ligament length in the antichiral structures. The measured value of the linear negative thermal expansion coefficient of the three-dimensional sample is among the largest achieved in experiments to date. Our findings provide an easy and practical approach to obtaining materials with tunable negative thermal expansion on any scale.

  3. Feasibility and Operational Performance of Tuberculosis Detection by Loop-Mediated Isothermal Amplification Platform in Decentralized Settings: Results from a Multicenter Study

    PubMed Central

    Gray, Christen M.; Katamba, Achilles; Narang, Pratibha; Giraldo, Jorge; Zamudio, Carlos; Joloba, Moses; Narang, Rahul; Paramasivan, C. N.; Hillemann, Doris; Nabeta, Pamela; Amisano, Danielle; Alland, David; Cobelens, Frank

    2016-01-01

    Currently available nucleic acid amplification platforms for tuberculosis (TB) detection are not designed to be simple or inexpensive enough to implement in decentralized settings in countries with a high burden of disease. The loop-mediated isothermal amplification platform (LAMP) may change this. We conducted a study in adults with symptoms suggestive of TB in India, Uganda, and Peru to establish the feasibility of using TB-LAMP (Eiken Chemical Co.) in microscopy laboratories compared with using smear microscopy against a reference standard of solid and liquid cultures. Operational characteristics were evaluated as well. A total of 1,777 participants met the eligibility criteria and were included for analysis. Overall, TB-LAMP sensitivities among culture-positive samples were 97.2% (243/250; 95% confidence interval [CI], 94.3% to 98.2%) and 62.0% (88/142; 95% CI, 53.5% to 70.0%) for smear-positive and smear-negative TB, respectively, but varied widely by country and operator. Specificities ranged from 94.5% (446/472; 95% CI, 92.0% to 96.4%) to 98.0% (350/357; 95% CI, 96.0% to 99.2%) by country. A root cause analysis identified high temperatures, high humidity, and/or low reaction volumes as possible causes for false-positive results, as they may result in nonspecific amplification. The study was repeated in India with training focused on vulnerable steps and an updated protocol; 580 participants were included for analysis. Specificity in the repeat trial was 96.6% (515/533; 95% CI, 94.7% to 97.9%). To achieve acceptable performance of LAMP at the microscopy center level, significant training and infrastructure requirements are necessary. PMID:27194691

  4. Influence of casein phosphopeptide-amorphous calcium phosphate application, smear layer removal, and storage time on resin-dentin bonding*

    PubMed Central

    Lin, Jun; Zheng, Wei-ying; Liu, Peng-ruo-feng; Zhang, Ning; Lin, Hui-ping; Fan, Yi-jing; Gu, Xin-hua; Vollrath, Oliver; Mehl, Christian

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study is to evaluate the influence of Tooth Mousse (TM) application, smear layer removal, and storage time on resin-dentin microtensile bond strength (μTBS). Dentin specimens were divided into two groups: (1) smear layer covered; (2) smear layer removed using 15% EDTA for 90 s. In each group, half the specimens were treated once with TM for 60 min. After bonding procedures using a two-step self-etching adhesive (Clearfil SE Bond (CSE); Kuraray Medical, Tokyo, Japan), an all-in-one adhesive (G-Bond (GB); GC Corp, Tokyo, Japan), and a total-etch adhesive (Adper Single Bond 2 (SB); 3M ESPE, St. Paul, MN, USA), the specimens were stored for 3 d or 6 months in deionized water at 37 °C, and μTBS was tested and analyzed. With the exception of SB (no TM application) and GB, the μTBS was significantly increased for CSE and SB using EDTA pre-conditioning and 3 d of storage (P≤0.001). Bond strength of GB decreased significantly when using EDTA (3 d storage, P<0.05). TM application only increased the μTBS of GB (no EDTA) and SB (with EDTA) after 3 d (P≤0.02). Comparing the adhesives after 3 d of storage, CSE exhibited the greatest μTBS values followed by GB and SB (P≤0.02). The factors of adhesive, EDTA, and TM did not show any significant impact on μTBS when specimens were stored for 6 months (P>0.05). The additional application of TM and EDTA for cavity preparation seems only to have a short-term effect, and no influence on μTBS of dentin bonds after a period of 6 months. PMID:25001224

  5. Piezoelectric enhancement under negative pressure

    PubMed Central

    Kvasov, Alexander; McGilly, Leo J.; Wang, Jin; Shi, Zhiyong; Sandu, Cosmin S.; Sluka, Tomas; Tagantsev, Alexander K.; Setter, Nava

    2016-01-01

    Enhancement of ferroelectric properties, both spontaneous polarization and Curie temperature under negative pressure had been predicted in the past from first principles and recently confirmed experimentally. In contrast, piezoelectric properties are expected to increase by positive pressure, through polarization rotation. Here we investigate the piezoelectric response of the classical PbTiO3, Pb(Zr,Ti)O3 and BaTiO3 perovskite ferroelectrics under negative pressure from first principles and find significant enhancement. Piezoelectric response is then tested experimentally on free-standing PbTiO3 and Pb(Zr,Ti)O3 nanowires under self-sustained negative pressure, confirming the theoretical prediction. Numerical simulations verify that negative pressure in nanowires is the origin of the enhanced electromechanical properties. The results may be useful in the development of highly performing piezoelectrics, including lead-free ones. PMID:27396411

  6. Piezoelectric enhancement under negative pressure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kvasov, Alexander; McGilly, Leo J.; Wang, Jin; Shi, Zhiyong; Sandu, Cosmin S.; Sluka, Tomas; Tagantsev, Alexander K.; Setter, Nava

    2016-07-01

    Enhancement of ferroelectric properties, both spontaneous polarization and Curie temperature under negative pressure had been predicted in the past from first principles and recently confirmed experimentally. In contrast, piezoelectric properties are expected to increase by positive pressure, through polarization rotation. Here we investigate the piezoelectric response of the classical PbTiO3, Pb(Zr,Ti)O3 and BaTiO3 perovskite ferroelectrics under negative pressure from first principles and find significant enhancement. Piezoelectric response is then tested experimentally on free-standing PbTiO3 and Pb(Zr,Ti)O3 nanowires under self-sustained negative pressure, confirming the theoretical prediction. Numerical simulations verify that negative pressure in nanowires is the origin of the enhanced electromechanical properties. The results may be useful in the development of highly performing piezoelectrics, including lead-free ones.

  7. Negative numbers in simple arithmetic.

    PubMed

    Das, Runa; LeFevre, Jo-Anne; Penner-Wilger, Marcie

    2010-10-01

    Are negative numbers processed differently from positive numbers in arithmetic problems? In two experiments, adults (N = 66) solved standard addition and subtraction problems such as 3 + 4 and 7 - 4 and recasted versions that included explicit negative signs-that is, 3 - (-4), 7 + (-4), and (-4) + 7. Solution times on the recasted problems were slower than those on standard problems, but the effect was much larger for addition than subtraction. The negative sign may prime subtraction in both kinds of recasted problem. Problem size effects were the same or smaller in recasted than in standard problems, suggesting that the recasted formats did not interfere with mental calculation. These results suggest that the underlying conceptual structure of the problem (i.e., addition vs. subtraction) is more important for solution processes than the presence of negative numbers.

  8. Sporobolomyces koalae sp. nov., a basidiomycetous yeast isolated from nasal smears of Queensland koalas kept in a Japanese zoological park.

    PubMed

    Satoh, Kazuo; Makimura, Koichi

    2008-12-01

    Three strains (JCM 15063(T), JCM 15098 and JCM 15099) of a novel basidiomycetous yeast species belonging to the genus Sporobolomyces were isolated from nasal smears of Queensland koalas kept in a Japanese zoological park. Analyses of sequences of the nuclear rDNA internal transcribed spacer region and the 26S rDNA D1/D2 domain and morphological studies indicated that these strains represent a novel species with a close phylogenetic relationship to Sporobolomyces carnicolor and Sporobolomyces japonicus in the Sporidiobolus lineage, for which the name Sporobolomyces koalae sp. nov. is proposed (type strain JCM 15063(T) =CBS 10914(T) =DSM 19992(T)).

  9. High initial default in patients with smear-positive pulmonary tuberculosis at a regional hospital in Accra, Ghana.

    PubMed

    Afutu, F K; Zachariah, R; Hinderaker, S G; Ntoah-Boadi, H; Obeng, E Apori; Bonsu, F Adae; Harries, A D

    2012-08-01

    Sputum smear-positive TB patients, diagnosed in the laboratory, who never start anti-TB treatment are classified as 'initial defaulters'. In Ridge Hospital, Accra, Ghana, there were 84 laboratory confirmed TB cases in 2009, of whom 32 (38%) were initial defaulters. Cure and default rates based on this cohort were 54% and 43% respectively, compared with rates of 87% and 8% when using the cohort based on 52 patients registered for treatment. This study highlights the problem of initial defaulters, and shows that programme performance may be poor when patients in laboratory registers are used as the cohort to evaluate treatment outcomes.

  10. Antinuclear Antibody Negative Systemic Sclerosis

    PubMed Central

    Salazar, GA; Assassi, S; Wigley, F; Hummers, L; Varga, J; Hinchcliff, M; Khanna, D; Schiopu, E; Phillips, K; Furst, DE; Steen, V; Baron, M; Hudson, M; Taillefer, SS; Pope, J; Jones, N; Docherty, P; Khalidi, NA; Robinson, D; Simms, R; Silver, R; Frech, TM; Fessler, B; Molitor, J; Fritzler, M; Segal, B; Al-Kassab, F; Perry, M; Yang, J; Zamanian, S; Reveille, JD; Arnett, FC; Pedroza, C; Mayes, MD

    2014-01-01

    Objective To examine the demographic and clinical characteristics of systemic sclerosis (SSc) patients without antinuclear antibodies (ANA) compared to ANA positive patients. Methods SSc patients enrolled in the Scleroderma Family Registry and DNA Repository were included. Relevant demographic and clinical data were entered by participating sites or obtained by chart review. ANA and SSc related antibodies were determined in all investigated patients using commercially available kits at our laboratories. Results This study included 3249 patients, of whom 208 (6.4%) were ANA negative. The proportion of male patients was higher in the ANA negative group (OR 1.65; p=0.008). ANA negative patients experienced less vasculopathic manifestations of SSc. The percent predicted diffusing capacity of carbon monoxide (DLco) was higher in ANA negative patients (p=0.03). Pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH) per right heart catheterization was less common in the ANA negative group (OR= 0.28; p=0.03). Furthermore, patients with negative ANA had a lower prevalence of telangiectasias and digital ulcers/pits (OR= 0.59; p=0.03 and OR=0.38; p=0.01, respectively). Although diffuse cutaneous involvement was more common, the modified Rodnan Skin Score (mRSS) was lower in the ANA negative group (2.4 points lower, p=0.05). Furthermore, they experienced more malabsorption (p=0.05). There was no difference in the frequency of pulmonary fibrosis or scleroderma renal crisis. All-cause mortality was not different between the two groups (p=0.28). Conclusions In conclusion, the results of this study suggest that SSc patients who are ANA negative constitute a distinct subset of SSc with less vasculopathy (less PAH, digital ulcers and fewer telangiectasias), a greater proportion of males and possibly, more frequent lower gastrointestinal involvement. PMID:25578738

  11. Defined PEG smears as an alternative approach to enhance the search for crystallization conditions and crystal-quality improvement in reduced screens

    SciTech Connect

    Chaikuad, Apirat; Knapp, Stefan; Delft, Frank von

    2015-07-28

    An alternative strategy for PEG sampling is suggested through the use of four newly defined PEG smears to enhance chemical space in reduced screens with a benefit towards protein crystallization. The quest for an optimal limited set of effective crystallization conditions remains a challenge in macromolecular crystallography, an issue that is complicated by the large number of chemicals which have been deemed to be suitable for promoting crystal growth. The lack of rational approaches towards the selection of successful chemical space and representative combinations has led to significant overlapping conditions, which are currently present in a multitude of commercially available crystallization screens. Here, an alternative approach to the sampling of widely used PEG precipitants is suggested through the use of PEG smears, which are mixtures of different PEGs with a requirement of either neutral or cooperatively positive effects of each component on crystal growth. Four newly defined smears were classified by molecular-weight groups and enabled the preservation of specific properties related to different polymer sizes. These smears not only allowed a wide coverage of properties of these polymers, but also reduced PEG variables, enabling greater sampling of other parameters such as buffers and additives. The efficiency of the smear-based screens was evaluated on more than 220 diverse recombinant human proteins, which overall revealed a good initial crystallization success rate of nearly 50%. In addition, in several cases successful crystallizations were only obtained using PEG smears, while various commercial screens failed to yield crystals. The defined smears therefore offer an alternative approach towards PEG sampling, which will benefit the design of crystallization screens sampling a wide chemical space of this key precipitant.

  12. Interactions of Cationic Peptides and Ions with Negatively Charged Lipid Bilayers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Taheri-Araghi, Sattar

    In this thesis we study the interactions of ions and cationic peptides with a negatively charged lipid bilayer in an ionic solution where the electrostatic interactions are screened. We first examine the problem of charge renormalization and inversion of a highly charged bilayer with low dielectric constant. To be specific, we consider an asymmetrically charged lipid bilayer, in which only one layer is negatively charged. In particular, we study how dielectric discontinuities and charge correlations among lipid charges and condensed counterions influence the effective charge of the surface. When counterions are monovalent, e. g. , Na+, our mean-field approach implies that dielectric discontinuities can enhance counterion condensation. A simple scaling picture shows how the effects of dielectric discontinuities and surface-charge distributions are intertwined: Dielectric discontinuities diminish condensation if the backbone charge is uniformly smeared out while counterions are localized in space; they can, however, enhance condensation when the backbone charge is discrete. In the presence of asymmetric salts such as CaCl2, we find that the correlation effect, treated at the Gaussian level, is more pronounced when the surface has a lower dielectric constant, inverting the sign of the charge at a smaller value of Ca2+ concentration. In the last chapter we study binding of cationic peptides onto a lipid-bilayer membrane. The peptide not only interacts electrostatically with anionic lipids, rearranging their spatial distributions, but it can also insert hydrophobically into the membrane, expanding the area of its binding layer (i. e. , the outer layer). We examine how peptide charges and peptide insertion (thus area expansion) are intertwined. Our results show that, depending on the bilayer's surface charge density and peptide hydrophobicity, there is an optimal peptide charge yielding the maximum peptide penetration. Our results shed light on the physics behind the

  13. Behavior of Brevibacterium linens and Debaryomyces hansenii as ripening flora in controlled production of smear soft cheese from reconstituted milk: growth and substrate consumption dairy foods.

    PubMed

    Leclercq-Perlat, M N; Oumer, A; Bergere, J L; Spinnler, H E; Corrieu, G

    2000-08-01

    Experimental cheeses inoculated with Debaryomyces hansenii and Brevibacterium linens were ripened for 76 d under aseptic conditions. Triplicate cheese-making trials were similar as a result of efficient control of the atmosphere. In all trials, D. hansenii grew rapidly during the first 2 d and then slowed, but growth remained exponential until d 10 (generation time around 70 h). Total cell counts were higher than the number of viable cells, and after 10 d they remained around 3 x 10(9) yeast/g of DM. This difference resulted from the nonviability of a fraction of D. hansenii. After d 15, the pH of the rind was close to 7, and B. linens grew exponentially until d 25 (generation time around 70 h). The growth rate subsequently decreased but remained exponential (generation time around 21 d). Cell counts of D. hansenii and B. linens were correlated with the environmental technical conditions. Total D. hansenii counts were also correlated with total B. linens counts. Viable B. linens counts were related to rind lactate, and total counts depended on rind pH, internal lactate, and D. hansenii viable counts. The internal pH of the cheese depended on lactate concentrations, whereas surface pH was related to internal lactose, temperature, and relative humidity. These results suggest a determining role of the diffusion of the carbon sources in the ripening of smear soft cheese.

  14. Analysis of silver binding nucleolar organizer regions in exfoliative cytology smears of potentially malignant and malignant oral lesions.

    PubMed

    Sowmya, G V; Nahar, P; Astekar, M; Agarwal, H; Singh, M P

    2017-01-01

    Nucleolar organizer regions are nucleolar components that contain proteins that are stained selectively by silver methods; they can be identified as black dots throughout the nucleolus and are known as silver binding nucleolar organizer regions (AgNOR). The number of AgNOR is related to the cell cycle and the proliferative activity of the cells. We investigated AgNOR using exfoliative cytology smears of potentially malignant oral lesions. Eighty individuals were divided into four equal groups: healthy controls, oral leukoplakia, oral submucous fibrosis and oral squamous cell carcinoma. The mean number of AgNOR in each study group gradually increased from control to oral leukoplakia to oral submucous fibrosis to oral squamous cell carcinoma. The proliferative index was increased in the oral premalignant and malignant patients compared to normal subjects. The mean AgNOR size gradually increased from control to oral leukoplakia to oral submucous fibrosis to oral squamous cell carcinoma. Spherical shaped AgNOR were most common in controls, whereas large, clustered and kidney shapes were most common in oral squamous cell carcinoma. Multiparameter analysis of AgNOR in oral exfoliative smears is a simple, sensitive and cost-effective method for differentiating premalignant from malignant lesions and can be used in conjunction with routine cytomorphological evaluation.

  15. Push-out bond strength of gutta-percha with a new bioceramic sealer in the presence or absence of smear layer.

    PubMed

    Shokouhinejad, Noushin; Gorjestani, Hedayat; Nasseh, Allen Ali; Hoseini, Atefeh; Mohammadi, Maryam; Shamshiri, Ahmad Reza

    2013-12-01

    The purpose of this study was to compare the bond strength of a new bioceramic sealer (EndoSequence BC Sealer) and AH Plus in the presence or absence of smear layer. Extracted single-rooted human teeth were prepared and randomly divided into four groups. In groups 1 and 3, the root canals were finally irrigated with 5.25% NaOCl and smear layer was not removed, but in groups 2 and 4, the root canals were finally irrigated with 17% EDTA followed by 5.25% NaOCl in order to remove the smear layer. In groups 1 and 2, the root canals were obturated with gutta-percha/AH Plus, but in groups 3 and 4, obturation was performed with gutta-percha/EndoSequence BC Sealer. Push-out bond strength and failure modes were evaluated. The bond strength of gutta-percha/AH Plus and gutta-percha/EndoSequence BC Sealer was not significantly different (P = 0.89). The presence or absence of smear layer did not significantly affect the bond strength of filling materials (P = 0.69). The mode of bond failure was mainly cohesive for all groups. In conclusion, the bond strength of the new bioceramic sealer was equal to that of AH Plus with or without the smear layer.

  16. [A study on the appropriate fixation for the procedures for the better preservation of cellular antigenicity and morphology of the blood smear in immunocytochemistry: an improvement of the immunostain technique using alkaline-phosphatase (ALP) as a labeling enzyme].

    PubMed

    Aoki, J; Sasaki, N; Hino, N; Nanba, K

    1991-01-01

    The authors previously reported a new coloration method which utilized hexazotized newfuchsin as a coupler for the immuno-enzyme-cytochemistry. This procedure used alkaline-phosphatase (ALP) as the labeling enzyme. The insolubility of the reaction product to organic solvents made it possible to prepare permanent slides. However, this suffered from several drawbacks, due to the fixation procedures, in the preservation of better morphology and antigenicity of the cell. The present study was undertaken to overcome such problems by modifying the fixation procedure. The study utilized twenty monoclonal and polyclonal antibodies commonly used in immunohematological staining. Various fixative solutions and timing of fixation were evaluated. The results indicated that; 1) the best fixative solution was a mixture of buffered paraformaldehyde (PFA) and acetone (10 ml 40% PFA solution, 10 ml pH 6.6 0.02 M phosphate buffer, 20 ml distilled water, 60 ml acetone, with pH adjusted to 6.6-7.4 with HCl) and 2) the fixation should be performed just before the immunostain. The results further showed that unstained smear slides, when freshly air dried and stored in a desicator, could maintain various differentiation antigens (CD2, 3, 4, 5, 8, 10, 14, 15, 16, 19, 25, L26, HLA-DR) for at least 4 weeks without any change in the immuno-reactivity. Thus, we conclude that this improved fixation procedure is an optimum fixative and should be used in routine application of the immunostain method for blood smears.

  17. Materials with negative stiffness

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jaglinski, Tim

    Negative stiffness, or a reversal in the usual assumed direction between causal forces and ensuing deformations, has been proposed as a pathway to materials which exceed theoretical performance bounds. Negative stiffness, as a concept, represents a relaxation of tacitly assumed material behavior, but it violates no natural laws. Negative stiffness, normally unstable without constraint, is permissible for stability under special conditions, for example a rigid boundary constraint so long as the material satisfies strong ellipticity in the parlance of elasticity. Hence, negative stiffness is not observed in materials or structures which are not constrained. If negative stiffness is allowed for inclusions of material, which are surrounded by a stabilizing positive stiffness matrix, composite theory predicts large increases in the mechanical damping and composite stiffness. The work herein explores several material systems which possess negative stiffness, and seeks to characterize the composite mechanical properties of these systems. Two metal matrix composite systems, namely Sn-VO2 and Sn-BaTIO3, were investigated. Here, negative stiffness arises from the ferroelastic phase transformations in the ceramic inclusions; stability is imparted by the tin matrix. Polycrystalline In-Tl and BaTIO 3 were also studied. Here, the entire material volume is phase transforming. Constraint is imparted on a small volume fraction of crystallites by the surrounding material. Various manifestations of negative stiffness were observed. Thermally broad damping peaks which depended upon thermal cycling were observed in the Sn-VO2 composites. Furthermore, mechanical instabilities were seen in composites intentionally designed to be unstable. Negative stiffness was indicated in the In-Tl alloy by magnification of damping peaks over those observed in single crystals, increases in damping peaks with increased cooling rates, occurrence of damping peaks before the appearance of martensite and

  18. Negative tandem mirror

    SciTech Connect

    Poulsen, P.; Allen, S.L.; Casper, T.A.; Grubb, D.P.; Jong, R.A.; Nexsen, W.E.; Porter, G.D.; Simonen, T.C.

    1981-11-30

    A tandem mirror configuration can be created by combining hot electron end cell plasmas with neutral beam pumping. A region of large negative potential formed in each end cell confines electrons in the central cell. The requirement of charge neutrality causes the central cell potential to become negative with respect to ground in order to confine ions as well as electrons. We discuss the method of producing and calculating the desired axial potential profile, and show the calculated axial potential profile and plasma parameters for a negative configuration of TMX-Upgrade.

  19. Negative birefringent polyimide films

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Harris, Frank W. (Inventor); Cheng, Stephen Z. D. (Inventor)

    1994-01-01

    A negative birefringent film, useful in liquid crystal displays, and a method for controlling the negative birefringence of a polyimide film is disclosed which allows the matching of an application to a targeted amount of birefringence by controlling the degree of in-plane orientation of the polyimide by the selection of functional groups within both the diamine and dianhydride segments of the polyimide which affect the polyimide backbone chain rigidity, linearity, and symmetry. The higher the rigidity, linearity and symmetry of the polyimide backbone, the larger the value of the negative birefringence of the polyimide film.

  20. Visual content of words delays negation.

    PubMed

    Orenes, Isabel; Santamaría, Carlos

    2014-11-01

    Many studies have shown the advantage of processing visualizable words over non-visualizables due to the associated image code. The present paper reports the case of negation in which imagery could slow down processing. Negation reverses the truth value of a proposition from false to true or vice versa. Consequently, negation works only on propositions (reversing their truth value) and cannot apply directly to other forms of knowledge representation such as images (although they can be veridical or not). This leads to a paradoxical hypothesis: despite the advantage of visualizable words for general processing, the negation of clauses containing words related to the representation of an image would be more difficult than negation containing non-visualizable words. Two experiments support this hypothesis by showing that sentences with a previously negated visualizable word took longer to be read than sentences with previously negated non-visualizable words. The results suggest that a verbal code is used to process negation.

  1. Improved negative ion source

    DOEpatents

    Delmore, J.E.

    1984-05-01

    A method and apparatus for providing a negative ion source accelerates electrons away from a hot filament electron emitter into a region of crossed electric and magnetic fields arranged in a magnetron configuration. During a portion of the resulting cycloidal path, the electron velocity is reduced below its initial value. The electron accelerates as it leaves the surface at a rate of only slightly less than if there were no magnetic field, thereby preventing a charge buildup at the surface of the emitter. As the electron traverses the cycloid, it is decelerated during the second, third, and fourth quadrants, then reaccelerated as it approaches the end of the fourth quadrant to regain its original velocity. The minimum velocity occurs during the fourth quadrant, and corresponds to an electron temperature of 200 to 500/sup 0/C for the electric and magnetic fields commonly encountered in the ion sources of magnetic sector mass spectrometers. An ion source using the above-described thermalized electrons is also disclosed.

  2. Negative ion source

    DOEpatents

    Delmore, James E.

    1987-01-01

    A method and apparatus for providing a negative ion source accelerates electrons away from a hot filament electron emitter into a region of crossed electric and magnetic fields arranged in a magnetron configuration. During a portion of the resulting cycloidal path, the electron velocity is reduced below its initial value. The electron accelerates as it leaves the surface at a rate of only slightly less than if there were no magnetic field, thereby preventing a charge buildup at the surface of the emitter. As the electron traverses the cycloid, it is decelerated during the second, third, and fourth quadrants, then reeccelerated as it approaches the end of the fourth quadrant to regain its original velocity. The minimum velocity occurs during the fourth quadrant, and corresponds to an electron temperature of 200.degree. to 500.degree. for the electric and magnetic fields commonly encountered in the ion sources of magnetic sector mass spectrometers. An ion source using the above-described thermalized electrons is also disclosed.

  3. Negative electrode composition

    DOEpatents

    Kaun, Thomas D.; Chilenskas, Albert A.

    1982-01-01

    A secondary electrochemical cell and a negative electrode composition for use therewith comprising a positive electrode containing an active material of a chalcogen or a transiton metal chalcogenide, a negative electrode containing a lithium-aluminum alloy and an amount of a ternary alloy sufficient to provide at least about 5 percent overcharge capacity relative to a negative electrode solely of the lithium-aluminum alloy, the ternary alloy comprising lithium, aluminum, and iron or cobalt, and an electrolyte containing lithium ions in contact with both of the positive and the negative electrodes. The ternary alloy is present in the electrode in the range of from about 5 percent to about 50 percent by weight of the electrode composition and may include lithium-aluminum-nickel alloy in combination with either the ternary iron or cobalt alloys. A plurality of series connected cells having overcharge capacity can be equalized on the discharge side without expensive electrical equipment.

  4. Logo and Negative Numbers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Strawn, Candace A.

    1998-01-01

    Describes LOGO's turtle graphics capabilities based on a sixth-grade classroom's activities with negative numbers and Logo programming. A sidebar explains LOGO and offers suggestions to teachers for using LOGO effectively. (LRW)

  5. Exploring the microbiota of the red-brown defect in smear-ripened cheese by 454-pyrosequencing and its prevention using different cleaning systems.

    PubMed

    Guzzon, Raffaele; Carafa, Ilaria; Tuohy, Kieran; Cervantes, Gonzalo; Vernetti, Luca; Barmaz, Andrea; Larcher, Roberto; Franciosi, Elena

    2017-04-01

    Red-brown pigmentation can occasionally form in smeared-ripened cheese such as Fontina during the ripening process. This reaction is due to over-development of the typical microbiota present on the rind. Previous studies have demonstrated the relationship between red-brown pigmentation and the traditional utilization of wooden shelves during cheese ripening. The first part of the paper focuses on the characterisation of yeast and bacterial microbiota: plate counts and 454-pyrosequencing were performed in spoiled (n = 6) and non-spoiled cheeses (n = 6) and on the wooden shelves used during ripening. The second part shows different systems tested for cleaning the wooden shelves and avoiding the development of the red-brown defect in cheese: washing with hot water and ozone treatment. Actinobacteria, dominated on the wooden shelves, suggesting to be responsible for the red-brown pigmentation; they were also found in traces in the defected cheese samples. Galactomyces and Debaryomyces were the main species characterizing the yeast population, with Debaryomyces being the most dominant species on the shelves used during ripening of the red-brown defective cheese. Hot water treatment reduced the microbial contamination of shelves, whereas only the ozone treatment ensured complete elimination of both yeast and bacteria, resulting in the cheese rind not having the red-brown defect.

  6. The phase smearing effect in the light curves of contact binaries observed by the Kepler mission and the determination of the parameters of 17 contact systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zola, S.; Baran, A.; Debski, B.; Jableka, D.

    2017-04-01

    The Kepler mission observations, taken in the long cadence mode, have a time resolution of about 30 min. In this paper, we investigate how the long cadence binning influences the shapes of the light curves of eclipsing binaries. A simulated light curve of a contact binary exhibiting a flat-bottom secondary minimum was applied for this purpose. We found that the binning caused a change in the variation amplitude and the shape of the minima. We modelled the simulated light curves corresponding to periods between 0.2 and 2 d using a code that does not account for binning and we derived the parameters. It turned out that only when the binary period is close to or longer than about 1.5 d are the solutions derived with such a code accurate. Rigorous modelling of systems with shorter periods requires the use of codes that do account for phase smearing due to long exposure times. We selected a sample of contact binaries observed by the Kepler mission, exhibiting a flat-bottom secondary minimum and showing no intrinsic activity. We solved the light curves of the sample with the most recent (2015) version of the Wilson-Devinney code and we derived the system parameters. The best models that we derived indicate that most of the systems in our sample have a deep contact configuration and that 13 out of 17 required the addition of a third light for good fits. Our results suggest that 13 systems could have tertiary companions.

  7. Spironucleosis (Hexamitiasis, Hexamitosis) in the ring-necked pheasant (Phasianus colchicus): detection of cysts and description of Spironucleus meleagridis in stained smears.

    PubMed

    Wood, A M; Smith, H V

    2005-03-01

    Trophozoites and cysts of Spironucleus (Hexamita) meleagridis were detected in the intestinal fluid and mucus of pheasant poults with spironudeosis (hexamitiasis, hexamitosis) following staining with Heidenhain iron hematoxylin (HIH) and the Romanowsky-type stain Hemacolor. Their morphology was consistent with that of flagellates of the genus Spironucleus, and bright-field morphologic observations were confirmed by transmission electron microscopy. Cysts occurred mostly within intestinal mucus, which was firmly compressed between microscope slides prior to staining. The internal structures of cysts were similar to those of trophozoites, allowing them to be confidently recognized. Hemacolor provided differential color staining of trophozoites and cysts, allowing accurate identification of S. meleagridis life cycle stages, even in smears in which there was heavy background staining. While HIH often produced dearer and more detailed staining of protozoan structures, in the context of a diagnostic laboratory its use was outweighed by the ease of use, rapidity of results, and differential color staining provided by Hemacolor. The possible significance of a resistant cystic stage in the life cyde of S. meleagridis is discussed.

  8. Behavior of Brevibacterium linens and Debaryomyces hansenii as ripening flora in controlled production of soft smear cheese from reconstituted milk: protein degradation.

    PubMed

    Leclercq-Perlat, M N; Oumer, A; Buono, F; Bergere, J L; Spinnler, H E; Corrieu, G

    2000-08-01

    Model smear soft cheeses, prepared with Debaryomyces hansenii and Brevibacterium linens as ripening starters, were ripened under aseptic conditions. Results of the cheese-making trials, in triplicate, were similar and showed similar patterns of protein degradation. In all of the trials, the acid-soluble nitrogen and nonprotein nitrogen (NPN) indexes and NH3 concentrations of the rind were low until d 10. The acid-soluble nitrogen and NPN of the rind then increased to 100 and 18% of total nitrogen, respectively, at d 76. The NH3 concentrations remained low until d 24 and increased until d 70, reaching about 1.8 g of NH3/kg of DM, and then remained constant. The acid-soluble nitrogen and NPN indexes and NH3 concentrations in the inner cheese mass were lower than in the rind. They showed the same evolution, reaching about 18% for acid-soluble nitrogen, 10% for NPN, and 1.5 g of NH3/kg of DM. It was shown that the inner cheese pH and populations of D. hansenii and B. linens have an effect on proteolysis. Viable cell counts of D. hansenii and B. linens were correlated with the environmental conditions and with proteolytic products. The determining role of carbon source and NH3 diffusions on the cheese ripening process were confirmed.

  9. Detection of genomic amplification of the human telomerase gene TERC, a potential marker for triage of women with HPV-positive, abnormal Pap smears.

    PubMed

    Andersson, Sonia; Sowjanya, Pavani; Wangsa, Darawalee; Hjerpe, Anders; Johansson, Bo; Auer, Gert; Gravitt, Patti E; Larsson, Catharina; Wallin, Keng-Ling; Ried, Thomas; Heselmeyer-Haddad, Kerstin

    2009-11-01

    The vast majority of invasive cervical carcinomas harbor additional copies of the chromosome arm 3q, resulting in genomic amplification of the human telomerase gene TERC. Here, we evaluated TERC amplification in routinely collected liquid based cytology (LBC) samples with histologically confirmed diagnoses. A set of 78 LBC samples from a Swedish patient cohort were analyzed with a four-color fluorescence in situ hybridization probe panel that included TERC. Clinical follow-up included additional histological evaluation and Pap smears. Human papillomavirus status was available for all cases. The correlation of cytology, TERC amplification, human papillomavirus typing, and histological diagnosis showed that infection with high-risk human papillomavirus was detected in 64% of the LBC samples with normal histopathology, in 65% of the cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN)1, 95% of the CIN2, 96% of the CIN3 lesions, and all carcinomas. Seven percent of the lesions with normal histopathology were positive for TERC amplification, 24% of the CIN1, 64% of the CIN2, 91% of the CIN3 lesions, and 100% of invasive carcinomas. This demonstrates that detection of genomic amplification of TERC in LBC samples can identify patients with histopathologically confirmed CIN3 or cancer. Indeed, the proportion of TERC-positive cases increases with the severity of dysplasia. Among the markers tested, detection of TERC amplification in cytological samples has the highest combined sensitivity and specificity for discernment of low-grade from high-grade dysplasia and cancer.

  10. Detection of Genomic Amplification of the Human Telomerase Gene TERC, a Potential Marker for Triage of Women with HPV-Positive, Abnormal Pap Smears

    PubMed Central

    Andersson, Sonia; Sowjanya, Pavani; Wangsa, Darawalee; Hjerpe, Anders; Johansson, Bo; Auer, Gert; Gravitt, Patti E.; Larsson, Catharina; Wallin, Keng-Ling; Ried, Thomas; Heselmeyer-Haddad, Kerstin

    2009-01-01

    The vast majority of invasive cervical carcinomas harbor additional copies of the chromosome arm 3q, resulting in genomic amplification of the human telomerase gene TERC. Here, we evaluated TERC amplification in routinely collected liquid based cytology (LBC) samples with histologically confirmed diagnoses. A set of 78 LBC samples from a Swedish patient cohort were analyzed with a four-color fluorescence in situ hybridization probe panel that included TERC. Clinical follow-up included additional histological evaluation and Pap smears. Human papillomavirus status was available for all cases. The correlation of cytology, TERC amplification, human papillomavirus typing, and histological diagnosis showed that infection with high-risk human papillomavirus was detected in 64% of the LBC samples with normal histopathology, in 65% of the cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN)1, 95% of the CIN2, 96% of the CIN3 lesions, and all carcinomas. Seven percent of the lesions with normal histopathology were positive for TERC amplification, 24% of the CIN1, 64% of the CIN2, 91% of the CIN3 lesions, and 100% of invasive carcinomas. This demonstrates that detection of genomic amplification of TERC in LBC samples can identify patients with histopathologically confirmed CIN3 or cancer. Indeed, the proportion of TERC-positive cases increases with the severity of dysplasia. Among the markers tested, detection of TERC amplification in cytological samples has the highest combined sensitivity and specificity for discernment of low-grade from high-grade dysplasia and cancer. PMID:19880826

  11. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) evaluation of sealing ability of MTA and EndoSequence as root-end filling materials with chitosan and carboxymethyl chitosan (CMC) as retrograde smear layer removing agents

    PubMed Central

    Nagesh, Bolla; Jeevani, Eppala; Sujana, Varri; Damaraju, Bharagavi; Sreeha, Kaluvakolanu; Ramesh, Penumaka

    2016-01-01

    Aim: The purpose of this study was to evaluate the sealing ability of mineral trioxide aggregate (MTA) and EndoSequence with chitosan and carboxymethyl chitosan (CMC) as retrograde smear layer removing agents using scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Materials and Methods: Forty human single rooted teeth were taken. Crowns were decoronated and canals were obturated. Apically roots were resected and retrograde cavities were done. Based on the type of retrograde material placed and the type of smear layer removal agent used for retrograde cavities, they were divided into four groups (N = 10): Group I chitosan with EndoSequence, group II chitosan with MTA, group III CMC with EndoSequence, and Group IV CMC with MTA. All the samples were longitudinally sectioned, and the SEM analysis was done for marginal adaptation. Statistical Analysis: Kruskal-Wallis and Mann-Witney analysis tests. Results: SEM images showed the presence of less gaps in group III, i.e., CMC with EndoSequence when compared to other groups with statistically significant difference. Conclusion: Within the limited scope of this study, it was concluded that EndoSequence as retrograde material showed better marginal sealing ability. PMID:27099420

  12. Some Concepts of Negative Dependence.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1980-03-01

    The theory of positive dependence notions cannot yield useful results for some widely used distributions such as the multinomial, Dirichlet and the...multivariate hypergeometric. Some conditions of negative dependence that are satisfied by these distributions and which have practical meaning are

  13. Negative-viscosity lattice gases

    SciTech Connect

    Rothman, D.H. )

    1989-08-01

    A new irreversible collision rule is introduced for lattice-gas automata. The rule maximizes the flux of momentum in the direction of the local momentum gradient, yielding a negative shear viscosity. Numerically results in 2D show that the negative viscosity leads to the spontaneous ordering of the velocity field, with vorticity resolvable down to one lattice-link length. The new rule may be used in conjunction with previously proposed collision rules to yield a positive shear viscosity lower than the previous rules provide. In particular, Poiseuille flow tests demonstrate a decrease in viscosity by more than a factor of 2.

  14. Dose from slow negative muons.

    PubMed

    Siiskonen, T

    2008-01-01

    Conversion coefficients from fluence to ambient dose equivalent, from fluence to maximum dose equivalent and quality factors for slow negative muons are examined in detail. Negative muons, when stopped, produce energetic photons, electrons and a variety of high-LET particles. Contribution from each particle type to the dose equivalent is calculated. The results show that for the high-LET particles the details of energy spectra and decay yields are important for accurate dose estimates. For slow negative muons the ambient dose equivalent does not always yield a conservative estimate for the protection quantities. Especially, the skin equivalent dose is strongly underestimated if the radiation-weighting factor of unity for slow muons is used. Comparisons to earlier studies are presented.

  15. Excretion of viable tubercle bacilli by Blatta orientalis (the oriental cockroach) following ingestion of heat-fixed sputum smears: a laboratory investigation.

    PubMed

    Allen, B W

    1987-01-01

    Adult Blatta orientalis were allowed to feed on heat-fixed tuberculous sputum smears and the faeces collected for examination by microscopy and culture. Mycobacterium tuberculosis was repeatedly isolated from homogenized faecal pellets using liquid and solid selective culture media. Faeces remained positive both microscopically and on culture even after storing for 8 weeks at room temperature. It is recommended that smears, prepared from clinical material which may contain M. tuberculosis or M. leprae, are stored in a closed container and not left exposed to nocturnal omnivorous insects which frequently infest hospitals and laboratories.

  16. Personality, Negative Interactions, and Mental Health

    PubMed Central

    Lincoln, Karen D.

    2010-01-01

    Research suggests that an individual’s personality traits may mediate the relationship between social support and mental health. This study uses two national data sets to test a conceptual model that integrates personality, social support, negative interactions, and psychological distress. Results suggest that, beyond the influence of personality, social support is negatively associated with psychological distress, and negative interactions are positively associated with such distress. The findings also suggest that personality has direct and indirect effects, through social support and negative interactions, on psychological distress. Findings specify how positive and negative facets of relationships and personality influence mental health outcomes. PMID:21151733

  17. Carbapenem susceptibilities and non-susceptibility concordance to different carbapenems amongst clinically important Gram-negative bacteria isolated from intensive care units in Taiwan: results from the Surveillance of Multicentre Antimicrobial Resistance in Taiwan (SMART) in 2009.

    PubMed

    Jean, Shio-Shin; Hsueh, Po-Ren; Lee, Wen-Sen; Yu, Kwok-Woon; Liao, Chun-Hsing; Chang, Feng-Yi; Ko, Wen-Chien; Wu, Jiunn-Jong; Chen, Yen-Hsu; Chen, Yao-Shen; Liu, Jien-Wei; Lu, Min-Chi; Liu, Cheng-Yi; Lam, Carlos; Chen, Ray-Jade

    2013-05-01

    To investigate the in vitro susceptibilities to various carbapenems amongst clinical Gram-negative bacteria isolated from patients in intensive care units of ten major teaching hospitals in Taiwan in 2009, a survey was conducted to determine the minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs) of ertapenem, imipenem, meropenem and doripenem against isolates of Enterobacteriaceae (n = 594), Pseudomonas aeruginosa (n = 185), Acinetobacter baumannii (n = 192) and Burkholderia cepacia (n = 23) using the agar dilution method. Susceptibilities were determined according to 2009, 2011 and 2012 MIC breakpoints recommended by the CLSI as well as 2012 MIC breakpoints recommended by EUCAST. Based on CLSI 2012 criteria, the ertapenem susceptible rate was 93%, 81%, 68% and 92% for Escherichia coli, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Enterobacter cloacae and Serratia marcescens, respectively. All Proteus mirabilis and Morganella morganii isolates were susceptible to ertapenem; however, 64% of P. mirabilis and all M. morganii isolates were non-susceptible to imipenem. Meropenem and doripenem had better activities than imipenem against ertapenem-non-susceptible Enterobacteriaceae isolates. E. coli, K. pneumoniae and E. cloa