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Sample records for negative weighted undirected

  1. Comparison of Different Generalizations of Clustering Coefficient and Local Efficiency for Weighted Undirected Graphs.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yu; Ghumare, Eshwar; Vandenberghe, Rik; Dupont, Patrick

    2017-02-01

    Binary undirected graphs are well established, but when these graphs are constructed, often a threshold is applied to a parameter describing the connection between two nodes. Therefore, the use of weighted graphs is more appropriate. In this work, we focus on weighted undirected graphs. This implies that we have to incorporate edge weights in the graph measures, which require generalizations of common graph metrics. After reviewing existing generalizations of the clustering coefficient and the local efficiency, we proposed new generalizations for these graph measures. To be able to compare different generalizations, a number of essential and useful properties were defined that ideally should be satisfied. We applied the generalizations to two real-world networks of different sizes. As a result, we found that not all existing generalizations satisfy all essential properties. Furthermore, we determined the best generalization for the clustering coefficient and local efficiency based on their properties and the performance when applied to two networks. We found that the best generalization of the clustering coefficient is [Formula: see text], defined in Miyajima and Sakuragawa ( 2014 ), while the best generalization of the local efficiency is [Formula: see text], proposed in this letter. Depending on the application and the relative importance of sensitivity and robustness to noise, other generalizations may be selected on the basis of the properties investigated in this letter.

  2. Passivity of Directed and Undirected Complex Dynamical Networks With Adaptive Coupling Weights.

    PubMed

    Wang, Jin-Liang; Wu, Huai-Ning; Huang, Tingwen; Ren, Shun-Yan; Wu, Jigang

    2016-05-05

    A complex dynamical network consisting of $N$ identical neural networks with reaction-diffusion terms is considered in this paper. First, several passivity definitions for the systems with different dimensions of input and output are given. By utilizing some inequality techniques, several criteria are presented, ensuring the passivity of the complex dynamical network under the designed adaptive law. Then, we discuss the relationship between the synchronization and output strict passivity of the proposed network model. Furthermore, these results are extended to the case when the topological structure of the network is undirected. Finally, two examples with numerical simulations are provided to illustrate the correctness and effectiveness of the proposed results.

  3. Undirected thought: neural determinants and correlates.

    PubMed

    Christoff, Kalina

    2012-01-05

    While goal-directed thinking has received the lion's share of neuroscientific attention, its counterpart--the undirected thought flow that comes to mind unbidden and without effort--has remained largely on the sidelines of scientific research. Such undirected thought, however, forms a large part of our mental experience. The last decade of neuroscientific investigations marked a resurgence of interest and work into the neural basis of undirected thought. This article reviews the current status of the field and examines the research on the three most frequently discussed categories of undirected thought: spontaneous thought, stimulus-independent thought, and mind wandering. The terminology and paradigms for investigating undirected thought are still being developed, while research is gradually moving beyond strictly task- and rest-based paradigms and towards incorporating introspective first-person reports in order to better understand this phenomenon. It is impossible to say at this point that undirected thinking is preferentially linked to any one particular brain system. Although its connection to the default network has been disproportionately emphasized in the literature, other brain networks such as the executive system and the temporal lobe memory network appear to be equally involved. In addition to reviewing the literature, this article also presents novel findings regarding the functional connectivity between large-scale brain networks during mind wandering. These findings reveal the presence of positive functional connectivity between regions of the default and executive networks and negative functional connectivity between the default network and primary sensory cortices. Thus, the default and executive networks can closely cooperate in supporting undirected thought processes, and seem to do so at times when the primary sensory cortices are not busy with the processing of perceptual information from the external environment. This article is part of a

  4. A Technique of Treating Negative Weights in WENO Schemes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shi, Jing; Hu, Changqing; Shu, Chi-Wang

    2000-01-01

    High order accurate weighted essentially non-oscillatory (WENO) schemes have recently been developed for finite difference and finite volume methods both in structural and in unstructured meshes. A key idea in WENO scheme is a linear combination of lower order fluxes or reconstructions to obtain a high order approximation. The combination coefficients, also called linear weights, are determined by local geometry of the mesh and order of accuracy and may become negative. WENO procedures cannot be applied directly to obtain a stable scheme if negative linear weights are present. Previous strategy for handling this difficulty is by either regrouping of stencils or reducing the order of accuracy to get rid of the negative linear weights. In this paper we present a simple and effective technique for handling negative linear weights without a need to get rid of them.

  5. Experimental effects of receiving negative weight-related feedback: a weight guessing study.

    PubMed

    Mills, Jennifer S; Miller, Jessie L

    2007-09-01

    The effects of receiving negative verbal weight-related feedback on the mood, self-esteem, and body image of restrained and unrestrained eaters were investigated. Female undergraduate students either reported their current weight (no feedback) or had their weight guessed as 15 lb higher than their actual weight (negative feedback) by an experimenter who presented herself as either an undergraduate (peer) or graduate student (non-peer). Participants overall had higher anxiety and felt "fatter" in the negative feedback condition. When this feedback came from a peer they felt fatter, more dissatisfied with their bodies, and, for restrained eaters, more depressed, as compared to when it came from a non-peer. These results provide empirical evidence that negative weight-related feedback produces adverse psychological consequences for young women, especially restrained eaters, and suggest the importance of peers' perceptions of weight.

  6. Undirected, Homogeneous C–H Bond Functionalization: Challenges and Opportunities

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    The functionalization of C–H bonds has created new approaches to preparing organic molecules by enabling new strategic “disconnections” during the planning of a synthetic route. Such functionalizations also have created the ability to derivatize complex molecules by modifying one or more of the many C–H bonds. For these reasons, researchers are developing new types of functionalization reactions of C–H bonds and new applications of these processes. These C–H bond functionalization reactions can be divided into two general classes: those directed by coordination to an existing functional group prior to the cleavage of the C–H bond (directed) and those occurring without coordination prior to cleavage of the C–H bond (undirected). The undirected functionalizations of C–H bonds are much less common and more challenging to develop than the directed reactions. This outlook will focus on undirected C–H bond functionalization, as well as related reactions that occur by a noncovalent association of the catalyst prior to C–H bond cleavage. The inherent challenges of conducting undirected functionalizations of C–H bonds and the methods for undirected functionalization that are being developed will be presented, along with the factors that govern selectivity in these reactions. Finally, this outlook discusses future directions for research on undirected C–H functionalization, with an emphasis on the limitations that must be overcome if this type of methodology is to become widely used in academia and in industry. PMID:27294201

  7. Undirected learning styles and academic risk: Analysis of the impact of stress, strain and coping.

    PubMed

    Kimatian, Stephen; Lloyd, Sara; Berger, Jeffrey; Steiner, Lorraine; McKay, Robert; Schwengal, Deborah

    2017-01-01

    Learning style inventories used in conjunction with a measure of academic achievement consistently show an association of meaning directed learning patterns with academic success, but have failed to show a clear association of undirected learning styles with academic failure. Using survey methods with anesthesia residents, this study questioned whether additional assessment of factors related to stress, strain, and coping help to better define the association between undirected learning styles and academic risk. Pearson chi squared tests. 296 subjects were enrolled from eight institutions with 142 (48%) completing the study. American Board of Anesthesiologists In Training Examinations (ITE) percentiles (ITE%) were used as a measure of academic achievement. The Vermunt Inventory of Learning Styles (ILS) was used to identify four learning patterns and 20 strategies, and the Osipow Stress Inventory-Revised (OSI-R) was used as a measure of six scales of occupational stress, four of personal strain, and four coping resources. Two learning patterns had significant relationship with ITE scores. As seen in previous studies, Meaning Directed Learning was beneficial for academic achievement while Undirected Learning was the least beneficial. Higher scores on Meaning Directed Learning correlated positively with higher ITE scores while higher Undirected and lower Meaning Directed patterns related negatively to ITE%. OSI-R measures of stress, strain and coping indicated that residents with Undirected learning patterns had higher scores on three scales related to stress, and 4 related to strain, while displaying lower scores on two scales related to coping. Residents with higher Meaning Directed patterns scored lower on two scales of stress and two scales of strain, with higher scores on two scales for coping resources. Low Meaning Directed and high Undirected learning patterns correlated with lower ITE percentiles, higher scores for stress and strain, and lower coping resources

  8. Amplification on Undirected Population Structures: Comets Beat Stars.

    PubMed

    Pavlogiannis, Andreas; Tkadlec, Josef; Chatterjee, Krishnendu; Nowak, Martin A

    2017-03-06

    The fixation probability is the probability that a new mutant introduced in a homogeneous population eventually takes over the entire population. The fixation probability is a fundamental quantity of natural selection, and known to depend on the population structure. Amplifiers of natural selection are population structures which increase the fixation probability of advantageous mutants, as compared to the baseline case of well-mixed populations. In this work we focus on symmetric population structures represented as undirected graphs. In the regime of undirected graphs, the strongest amplifier known has been the Star graph, and the existence of undirected graphs with stronger amplification properties has remained open for over a decade. In this work we present the Comet and Comet-swarm families of undirected graphs. We show that for a range of fitness values of the mutants, the Comet and Comet-swarm graphs have fixation probability strictly larger than the fixation probability of the Star graph, for fixed population size and at the limit of large populations, respectively.

  9. Efficient Deterministic Algorithms for Finding a Minimum Cycle Basis in Undirected Graphs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Amaldi, Edoardo; Iuliano, Claudio; Rizzi, Romeo

    We consider the problem of, given an undirected graph G with a nonnegative weight on each edge, finding a basis of the cycle space of G of minimum total weight, where the total weight of a basis is the sum of the weights of its cycles. Minimum cycle bases are of interest in a variety of fields. In [13] Horton proposed a first polynomial-time algorithm where a minimum cycle basis is extracted from a polynomial-size subset of candidate cycles in O(m 3 n) by using Gaussian elimination. In a different approach, due to de Pina [7] and refined in [15], the cycles of a minimum cycle basis are determined sequentially in O(m 2 n + m n 2 logn). A more sophisticated hybrid algorithm proposed in [18] has the best worst-case complexity of O(m 2 n / logn + m n 2).

  10. Detecting Statistically Significant Communities of Triangle Motifs in Undirected Networks

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-03-16

    Perry et al. [6] by developing a statistical framework that supports the detection of triangle motif-based clusters in complex networks. The specific...triangle motif-based clustering . 2. Developed an algorithm for clustering undirected networks, where the triangle configuration was used as the basis...for forming clusters . 3. Developed a C++ implementation of the proposed clustering framework. 15. SUBJECT TERMS EOARD, Operations Research, Networks

  11. Negative-weight Percolation: Review of Existing Literature and Scaling Behavior of the Path Weight in 2d

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Melchert, O.; Norrenbrock, C.; Hartmann, A. K.

    We consider the negative weight percolation (NWP) problem on hypercubic lattice graphs with fully periodic boundary condi- tions in all relevant dimensions from d = 2 to the upper critical dimension d = 6. The problem exhibits edge weights drawn from disorder distributions that allow for weights of either sign. We are interested in the statistical properties of the full ensemble of loops with negative weight, i.e. non-trivial (system spanning) loops as well as topologically trivial ("small") loops that comprise the "loops only" variant of the NWP problem. The NWP phenomenon refers to the disorder driven proliferation of system span- ning loops of total negative weight. For the numerical simulations we employ a mapping of the NWP model to a combinatorial optimization problem that can be solved exactly by using sophisticated matching algorithms. This allows for the numerically exact study of large systems with good statistics, important to ensure a reliable disorder average. Early simulations for the 2d setup led to suggest that the resulting negative-weight percolation (NWP) problem is fundamentally different from conventional percolation. Here, we review several studies that reported on results of numerical simulations aimed at clarifying the geometric properties of NWP on hypercubic lattice graphs and random graphs. Finally we present additional new results for the scaling behavior of the geometric properties and the configurational weight of minimum-weight paths (MWPs) in the "loops + MWP" variant of the model, characterizing an additional threshold ?, above which the disorder averaged MWP weight (ωp) is negative, thereby highlighting a characteristic limiting case of the NWP model at small densities of negative edges.

  12. Similarity Measurement Using Term Negative Weight and Its Application to Word Similarity.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Atlam, El-Sayed; Fuketa, Masao; Morita, Kazuhiro; Aoe, Jun-ichi

    2000-01-01

    Discussion of natural language processing focuses on term weighting in information retrieval. Presents a new weighting method that depends on low frequency terms, called negative weighted inverse verb frequency, and discusses case frames, word similarity, similarity measurement, and recall and precision improvement. (LRW)

  13. Bootstrapping on undirected binary networks via statistical mechanics.

    PubMed

    Fushing, Hsieh; Chen, Chen; Liu, Shan-Yu; Koehl, Patrice

    2014-09-01

    We propose a new method inspired from statistical mechanics for extracting geometric information from undirected binary networks and generating random networks that conform to this geometry. In this method an undirected binary network is perceived as a thermodynamic system with a collection of permuted adjacency matrices as its states. The task of extracting information from the network is then reformulated as a discrete combinatorial optimization problem of searching for its ground state. To solve this problem, we apply multiple ensembles of temperature regulated Markov chains to establish an ultrametric geometry on the network. This geometry is equipped with a tree hierarchy that captures the multiscale community structure of the network. We translate this geometry into a Parisi adjacency matrix, which has a relative low energy level and is in the vicinity of the ground state. The Parisi adjacency matrix is then further optimized by making block permutations subject to the ultrametric geometry. The optimal matrix corresponds to the macrostate of the original network. An ensemble of random networks is then generated such that each of these networks conforms to this macrostate; the corresponding algorithm also provides an estimate of the size of this ensemble. By repeating this procedure at different scales of the ultrametric geometry of the network, it is possible to compute its evolution entropy, i.e. to estimate the evolution of its complexity as we move from a coarse to a ne description of its geometric structure. We demonstrate the performance of this method on simulated as well as real data networks.

  14. Simultaneous grouping pursuit and feature selection over an undirected graph*

    PubMed Central

    Zhu, Yunzhang; Shen, Xiaotong; Pan, Wei

    2013-01-01

    Summary In high-dimensional regression, grouping pursuit and feature selection have their own merits while complementing each other in battling the curse of dimensionality. To seek a parsimonious model, we perform simultaneous grouping pursuit and feature selection over an arbitrary undirected graph with each node corresponding to one predictor. When the corresponding nodes are reachable from each other over the graph, regression coefficients can be grouped, whose absolute values are the same or close. This is motivated from gene network analysis, where genes tend to work in groups according to their biological functionalities. Through a nonconvex penalty, we develop a computational strategy and analyze the proposed method. Theoretical analysis indicates that the proposed method reconstructs the oracle estimator, that is, the unbiased least squares estimator given the true grouping, leading to consistent reconstruction of grouping structures and informative features, as well as to optimal parameter estimation. Simulation studies suggest that the method combines the benefit of grouping pursuit with that of feature selection, and compares favorably against its competitors in selection accuracy and predictive performance. An application to eQTL data is used to illustrate the methodology, where a network is incorporated into analysis through an undirected graph. PMID:24098061

  15. Efficient solution for finding Hamilton cycles in undirected graphs.

    PubMed

    Alhalabi, Wadee; Kitanneh, Omar; Alharbi, Amira; Balfakih, Zain; Sarirete, Akila

    2016-01-01

    The Hamilton cycle problem is closely related to a series of famous problems and puzzles (traveling salesman problem, Icosian game) and, due to the fact that it is NP-complete, it was extensively studied with different algorithms to solve it. The most efficient algorithm is not known. In this paper, a necessary condition for an arbitrary un-directed graph to have Hamilton cycle is proposed. Based on this condition, a mathematical solution for this problem is developed and several proofs and an algorithmic approach are introduced. The algorithm is successfully implemented on many Hamiltonian and non-Hamiltonian graphs. This provides a new effective approach to solve a problem that is fundamental in graph theory and can influence the manner in which the existing applications are used and improved.

  16. Bootstrapping on undirected binary networks via statistical mechanics

    PubMed Central

    Fushing, Hsieh; Chen, Chen; Liu, Shan-Yu; Koehl, Patrice

    2014-01-01

    We propose a new method inspired from statistical mechanics for extracting geometric information from undirected binary networks and generating random networks that conform to this geometry. In this method an undirected binary network is perceived as a thermodynamic system with a collection of permuted adjacency matrices as its states. The task of extracting information from the network is then reformulated as a discrete combinatorial optimization problem of searching for its ground state. To solve this problem, we apply multiple ensembles of temperature regulated Markov chains to establish an ultrametric geometry on the network. This geometry is equipped with a tree hierarchy that captures the multiscale community structure of the network. We translate this geometry into a Parisi adjacency matrix, which has a relative low energy level and is in the vicinity of the ground state. The Parisi adjacency matrix is then further optimized by making block permutations subject to the ultrametric geometry. The optimal matrix corresponds to the macrostate of the original network. An ensemble of random networks is then generated such that each of these networks conforms to this macrostate; the corresponding algorithm also provides an estimate of the size of this ensemble. By repeating this procedure at different scales of the ultrametric geometry of the network, it is possible to compute its evolution entropy, i.e. to estimate the evolution of its complexity as we move from a coarse to a ne description of its geometric structure. We demonstrate the performance of this method on simulated as well as real data networks. PMID:25071295

  17. Weight status, negative body talk, and body dissatisfaction: A dyadic analysis of male friends.

    PubMed

    Chow, Chong Man; Tan, Cin Cin

    2016-08-01

    This study examined the associations among weight status, body dissatisfaction, and negative body talk with a sample of young adult male friends (N = 55 pairs). Actor-Partner Interdependence Model revealed that individuals' body dissatisfaction was positively associated with their own body mass index, but was negatively associated with their friend's body mass index. In addition, having a friend with low body mass index escalated the association between individuals' own body mass index and body dissatisfaction. Further, when individuals with higher body mass index engaged in higher negative body talk, they had lower body dissatisfaction compared to those who engaged in lower negative body talk. © The Author(s) 2014.

  18. The stigma of obesity surgery: negative evaluations based on weight loss history.

    PubMed

    Vartanian, Lenny R; Fardouly, Jasmine

    2013-10-01

    The present study investigated the stigma of obesity surgery by examining whether attitudes towards a lean person can change after learning that the person used to be obese but recently lost weight either through surgery or through diet and exercise. Participants (total N = 135) initially viewed an image of a lean woman or man and rated their impression of that individual on a variety of characteristics. Participants were then shown an image of the individual before she/he lost weight and were informed that the weight loss was achieved through surgery or through diet and exercise. Participants once again rated their impressions of that individual. After learning about the previous weight loss, participants rated the individual who lost weight through surgery as significantly more lazy and sloppy, less competent and sociable, less attractive, and having less healthy eating habits. The individual who lost weight through diet and exercise, in contrast, was not evaluated as harshly. Mediation analysis further showed that the difference between the two weight loss conditions in ratings of laziness, competence, and sociability was due to participants viewing surgery patients as less responsible for their weight loss. These findings suggest that learning about someone's weight history can negatively impact the way that person is seen by others. Furthermore, these findings suggest that the stigma may be strongest for people who lose weight through obesity surgery because those individuals are not seen as being responsible for their weight loss.

  19. Observer weighting of interaural cues in positive and negative envelope slopes of amplitude-modulated waveforms

    PubMed Central

    Hsieh, I-Hui; Petrosyan, Agavni; Gonçalves, Óscar F.; Hickok, Gregory; Saberi, Kourosh

    2011-01-01

    The auditory system can encode interaural delays in highpass-filtered complex sounds by phase locking to their slowly modulating envelopes. Spectrotemporal analysis of interaurally time delayed highpass waveforms reveals the presence of a concomitant interaural level cue. The current study systematically investigated the contribution of time and concomitant level cues carried by positive and negative envelope slopes of a modified sinusoidally amplitude-modulated (SAM) high-frequency carrier. The waveforms were generated from concatenation of individual modulation cycles whose envelope peaks were extended by the desired interaural delay, allowing independent control of delays in the positive and negative modulation slopes. In experiment 1, thresholds were measured using a 2-interval forced-choice adaptive task for interaural delays in either the positive or negative modulation slopes. In a control condition, thresholds were measured for a standard SAM tone. In experiment 2, decision weights were estimated using a multiple-observation correlational method in a single-interval forced-choice task for interaural delays carried simultaneously by the positive, and independently, negative slopes of the modulation envelope. In experiment 3, decision weights were measured for groups of 3 modulation cycles at the start, middle, and end of the waveform to determine the influence of onset dominance or recency effects. Results were consistent across experiments: Thresholds were equal for the positive and negative modulation slopes. Decision weights were positive and equal for the time cue in the positive and negative envelope slopes. Weights were also larger for modulations cycles near the waveform onset. Weights estimated for the concomitant interaural level cue were positive for the positive envelope slope and negative for the negative slope, consistent with exclusive use of time cues. PMID:21272630

  20. Bounds for percolation thresholds on directed and undirected graphs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hamilton, Kathleen; Pryadko, Leonid

    2015-03-01

    Percolation theory is an efficient approach to problems with strong disorder, e.g., in quantum or classical transport, composite materials, and diluted magnets. Recently, the growing role of big data in scientific and industrial applications has led to a renewed interest in graph theory as a tool for describing complex connections in various kinds of networks: social, biological, technological, etc. In particular, percolation on graphs has been used to describe internet stability, spread of contagious diseases and computer viruses; related models describe market crashes and viral spread in social networks. We consider site-dependent percolation on directed and undirected graphs, and present several exact bounds for location of the percolation transition in terms of the eigenvalues of matrices associated with graphs, including the adjacency matrix and the Hashimoto matrix used to enumerate non-backtracking walks. These bounds correspond t0 a mean field approximation and become asymptotically exact for graphs with no short cycles. We illustrate this convergence numerically by simulating percolation on several families of graphs with different cycle lengths. This research was supported in part by the NSF Grant PHY-1416578 and by the ARO Grant W911NF-11-1-0027.

  1. Cosmetic surgery attitudes among midlife women: Appearance esteem, weight esteem, and fear of negative appearance evaluation.

    PubMed

    Dunaev, Jamie L; Schulz, Jessica L; Markey, Charlotte N

    2016-04-25

    Previous research has examined factors thought to influence individuals' interest in cosmetic surgery, yet few studies have examined these issues among midlife women. This study examines predictors of cosmetic surgery attitudes among midlife women (N = 114; age = 45-65 years; Mage = 53.7) and considers a previously unexplored variable: fear of negative appearance evaluation. Results indicated that lower weight and appearance esteem were associated with more positive cosmetic surgery attitudes and greater fear of negative appearance evaluation. Furthermore, fear of negative appearance evaluation mediated the relationship between appearance and weight esteem and cosmetic surgery attitudes. We conclude that fear of negative appearance evaluation is an important factor to consider in examining cosmetic surgery attitudes.

  2. Diet induced weight loss accelerates onset of negative alliesthesia in obese women

    PubMed Central

    Frankham, Patrick; Gosselin, Caroline; Cabanac, Michel

    2005-01-01

    Background The physiological and behavioral responses to hypocaloric diet are to increase energy intake to defend a steady body weight. We utilized the method of "negative alliesthesia" for measuring the hedonic reponse to sweet stimulus before (Initial session) and 3 months after entering a weight loss program. The negative alliesthesia test is known by physiologists but few clinical data exist. It is based on the observation that repeated pleasant gustatory stimuli turn into unpleasantness in the process of alliesthesia. At first visit participants repeatedly ingested sweet stimuli until they found them unpleasant and rated quantitatively on a linear analogue scale their hedonic experience. This procedure was repeated every 3 min until participants felt displeasure to end the session. The same protocol was followed after three months of following a weight loss diet. Dieting energy intake was from 1400 – 2000 kcal/d for 8 wk. Energy composition was 50% carb:25% prot: 25% lipid. After 8 wk caloric intake increased by 50 kcal/wk, to reach daily intake of 1800 – 2400 kcal/d. Energy composition was 50% carb:22% prot: 27% lipid. We report results on the effect of slow weight loss on negative alliesthesia in ten obese female participants enrolled in a commercial diet program based on Canada's Food Guide (Mincavi®). Results Results showed that diet lowered the mean BMI (Initial session 36.8 +/- 1.8 vs. 3 mo 34.9 +/- 1.8 kg/m2). At 3 mo the onset of negative alliesthesia, time to abandon experimental session, was shortened (Initial session 33 vs. 3 mo 24 min). The same trend was observed in the time to reach indifference (Initial session 21.9 +/- 3.8 vs. 3 mo 16.2 +/-2.4 min). There was no observed difference in maximum (Initial session +79.5 +/- 11.7; 3 mo +94.5 +/- 9.9 mm) and minimum (Initial session -90.0 +/- 14.4; 3 mo -106 +/- 11.1 mm) hedonic rating. Conclusion Earlier onset of negative alliesthesia, as seen in our participants, is not consistent with previous

  3. Peak weight velocity in infancy is negatively associated with lung function in adolescence.

    PubMed

    Claudia, Flexeder; Thiering, Elisabeth; von Berg, Andrea; Berdel, Dietrich; Hoffmann, Barbara; Koletzko, Sibylle; Bauer, Carl-Peter; Koletzko, Berthold; Heinrich, Joachim; Schulz, Holger

    2016-02-01

    Rapid weight gain during infancy increases childhood asthma risk, which might be related to impaired lung function. This study investigated associations between peak weight velocity (PWV) during the first two years of life and spirometric lung function indices at 15 years of age. Data from 1842 children participating in the GINIplus German birth cohort who underwent spirometry at age 15 were analysed. PWV was calculated from weight measurements obtained between birth and two years of age. Generalised additive models were fitted after adjustment for potential confounding factors (birth weight, height, and age at lung function testing). Results are presented per interquartile range increase (3.5 kg/year) in PWV. PWV was negatively associated with pre-bronchodilation flow rates after extensive adjustment for potential confounders including asthma: forced expiratory flow at 50% of forced vital capacity (FEF50 ) decreased by 141 ml/s (95%CI = [-225;-57]), FEF75 by 84 ml/s [-144;-24] and FEF25-75 by 118 ml/s [-192;-44]. FEV1 /FVC was also negatively associated with PWV (-0.750% [-1.273;-0.226]) whereas forced expiratory volume in 1s (FEV1 ) and forced vital capacity (FVC) were not. Similar results were found for measurements post-bronchodilation. Early life weight gain was negatively associated with flow indices in adolescence, suggesting structural changes in peripheral lungs. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  4. Qualification of spontaneous undirected locomotor behavior of fish for sublethal toxicity testing. Part 1. Variability of measurement parameters under general test conditions

    SciTech Connect

    Vogl, C.; Grillitsch, B.; Wytek, R.; Spieser, O.H.; Scholz, W.

    1999-12-01

    An automated, personal computer-based video-processing, object-recognition, and object-tracing system was used to record and analyze undirected spontaneous locomotor behavior of small groups of undisturbed zebra fish (Brachydanio rerio) in laboratory tanks. The primary data provided by the monitoring system were the individually assigned, time-stamped coordinates of the fish in two-dimensional projection. Secondary parameters (position, velocity of movement in the horizontal and the vertical direction, and temporal intraindividual and interindividual association) were calculated. The computed parameters offered a multidimensional description of spontaneous undirected swimming behavior of the fish and proved to be largely independent of water temperature, length, weight, and sex ratio of the zebra fish within the standardized range, but varied significantly with the feeding regime, time of day, number of fish per tank, and batch. Statistical characteristics of the behavioral parameters confirmed them as being appropriate for parametric statistical analyses.

  5. Smart conjugated polymer nanocarrier for healthy weight loss by negative feedback regulation of lipase activity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Yu-Lei; Zhu, Sha; Zhang, Lei; Feng, Pei-Jian; Yao, Xi-Kuang; Qian, Cheng-Gen; Zhang, Can; Jiang, Xi-Qun; Shen, Qun-Dong

    2016-02-01

    Healthy weight loss represents a real challenge when obesity is increasing in prevalence. Herein, we report a conjugated polymer nanocarrier for smart deactivation of lipase and thus balancing calorie intake. After oral administration, the nanocarrier is sensitive to lipase in the digestive tract and releases orlistat, which deactivates the enzyme and inhibits fat digestion. It also creates negative feedback to control the release of itself. The nanocarrier smartly regulates activity of the lipase cyclically varied between high and low levels. In spite of high fat diet intervention, obese mice receiving a single dose of the nanocarrier lose weight over eight days, whereas a control group continues the tendency to gain weight. Daily intragastric administration of the nanocarrier leads to lower weight of livers or fat pads, smaller adipocyte size, and lower total cholesterol level than that of the control group. Near-infrared fluorescence of the nanocarrier reveals its biodistribution.Healthy weight loss represents a real challenge when obesity is increasing in prevalence. Herein, we report a conjugated polymer nanocarrier for smart deactivation of lipase and thus balancing calorie intake. After oral administration, the nanocarrier is sensitive to lipase in the digestive tract and releases orlistat, which deactivates the enzyme and inhibits fat digestion. It also creates negative feedback to control the release of itself. The nanocarrier smartly regulates activity of the lipase cyclically varied between high and low levels. In spite of high fat diet intervention, obese mice receiving a single dose of the nanocarrier lose weight over eight days, whereas a control group continues the tendency to gain weight. Daily intragastric administration of the nanocarrier leads to lower weight of livers or fat pads, smaller adipocyte size, and lower total cholesterol level than that of the control group. Near-infrared fluorescence of the nanocarrier reveals its biodistribution

  6. A new cellular automata model of traffic flow with negative exponential weighted look-ahead potential

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ma, Xiao; Zheng, Wei-Fan; Jiang, Bao-Shan; Zhang, Ji-Ye

    2016-10-01

    With the development of traffic systems, some issues such as traffic jams become more and more serious. Efficient traffic flow theory is needed to guide the overall controlling, organizing and management of traffic systems. On the basis of the cellular automata model and the traffic flow model with look-ahead potential, a new cellular automata traffic flow model with negative exponential weighted look-ahead potential is presented in this paper. By introducing the negative exponential weighting coefficient into the look-ahead potential and endowing the potential of vehicles closer to the driver with a greater coefficient, the modeling process is more suitable for the driver’s random decision-making process which is based on the traffic environment that the driver is facing. The fundamental diagrams for different weighting parameters are obtained by using numerical simulations which show that the negative exponential weighting coefficient has an obvious effect on high density traffic flux. The complex high density non-linear traffic behavior is also reproduced by numerical simulations. Project supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant Nos. 11572264, 11172247, 11402214, and 61373009).

  7. Brain Magnetic Resonance with Negative Diffusion-Weighted Imaging: Does It Preclude Acute Stroke Diagnosis?

    PubMed

    Aragão Homem, Catarina; Fonseca, Ana Catarina; Geraldes, Ruth; Pinho e Melo, Teresa

    2015-09-01

    Brain magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) with diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI) sequences and correlative apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) maps is a very sensitive way to detect acute ischemic stroke. Cases of negative MRI-DWI on acute phase of ischemic stroke are uncommon, and most of them are reported in single small-sized lesions, which in most cases are below the technical spatial resolution and in patients imaged shortly after the symptoms start. The few published cases of territorial ischemic stroke with negative DWI affect exclusively one vascular territory. We report the case of an ischemic stroke involving 2 different arteries of the posterior circulation, with a negative DWI/ADC brain MRI 18 hours after time-last-seen-well. We also suggest a possible explanation regarding the mechanism of false-negative diffusion MRI on ischemic stroke. Copyright © 2015 National Stroke Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Weight Loss Intervention in Survivors of ER/PR-negative Breast Cancer.

    PubMed

    Vitolins, Mara Z; Milliron, Brandy-Joe; Hopkins, Judith O; Fulmer, Artie; Lawrence, Julia; Melin, Susan; Case, Douglas

    2014-01-01

    Numerous studies have found that increased body size (weight or body mass index) is a risk factor for breast cancer development, recurrence, and death. The detrimental relationship between body size and breast cancer recurrence may be more pronounced among women with estrogen receptor (ER)/progesterone receptor (PR)-negative breast cancer. Considering the limited availability of treatments, and the association between body size and recurrence, alternative treatments are needed for ER/PR-negative breast cancer survivors, particularly overweight survivors. The objective of this pilot study was to examine the feasibility of a 12-week, multi-component meal-replacement weight loss intervention among overweight or obese ER/PR-negative breast cancer survivors; and to obtain preliminary data on changes in anthropometrics, biomarkers, and health-related quality of life (QOL). The 12-week intervention included a portion-controlled diet (including meal replacements) and a multi-component intervention (including behavioral techniques, diet modification, physical activity, and social support). The goal of the intervention was to help participants lose 5% or more of their initial weight by reducing their caloric intake and increasing their physical activity (to at least 15 minutes each day). Paired t-tests assessed changes in continuous measures. Body weight was measured weekly and mixed-model regression analysis assessed change in weight over time. Nineteen ER/PR-negative breast cancer survivors with a mean age of 59 years participated in the study. All but two of the participants completed the 12-week intervention. Women lost an average of 6.3 ± 4.9 kg (P < 0.001), equivalent to 7.5% of their baseline weight. There were significant reductions in waist circumference (P = 0.001), percent fat mass (P < 0.001), total cholesterol (P = 0.026), and triglycerides (P = 0.002); and improvements in health-related QOL (P = 0.017). Findings suggested that a meal-replacement weight loss

  9. Effect of multivitamin supplements on weight gain during pregnancy among HIV-negative women in Tanzania.

    PubMed

    Changamire, Freeman T; Mwiru, Ramadhani S; Peterson, Karen E; Msamanga, Gernard I; Spiegelman, Donna; Petraro, Paul; Urassa, Willy; Fawzi, Wafaie W

    2015-07-01

    Multivitamin supplementation has been shown to reduce the risk of low birthweight. This effect could be mediated through gestational weight gain. However, the effect of multivitamin supplementation on weight gain during pregnancy has not been fully studied. The objective of this study was to examine the effects of multivitamins on pregnancy weight gain. We enrolled 8468 HIV-negative women from Dar es Salaam, Tanzania, in a randomised, placebo-controlled trial of multivitamins on birth outcomes. Women were randomly assigned to receive either a daily oral dose of multivitamin tablets or a placebo and were weighed every 4 weeks from enrolment until the last visit before delivery. Intent-to-treat analyses were carried out to examine the effects of multivitamins on pregnancy weight gain. Multivariate linear and binomial regression models with the log-link function were used to examine the association of weight gain during pregnancy to birthweight. The overall total weight gain was 253 g (SE: 69, P: 0.0003) more, while the overall 4 weekly weight gain was 59 g greater (SE: 18, P: 0.005) among women who received multivitamins compared to placebo. Women in the lowest quartile of gestational weight gain had babies with an average birthweight of 3030 g (SD: 524), while women in the highest quartile had babies weighing 3246 g (SD: 486), on average. Prenatal multivitamin supplements increased gestational weight gain, which was a significant predictor of birthweight. © 2012 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  10. Decline in the negative association between low birth weight and cognitive ability

    PubMed Central

    Özcan, Berkay; Myrskylä, Mikko

    2017-01-01

    Low birth weight predicts compromised cognitive ability. We used data from the 1958 National Child Development Study (NCDS), the 1970 British Cohort Study (BCS), and the 2000–2002 Millennium Cohort Study (MCS) to analyze how this association has changed over time. Birth weight was divided into two categories, <2,500 g (low) and 2,500–4,500 g (normal) and verbal cognitive ability was measured at the age of 10 or 11 y. A range of maternal and family characteristics collected at or soon after the time of birth were considered. Linear regression was used to analyze the association between birth weight and cognitive ability in a baseline model and in a model that adjusted for family characteristics. The standardized difference (SD) in cognitive scores between low-birth-weight and normal-birth-weight children was large in the NCDS [−0.37 SD, 95% confidence interval (CI): −0.46, −0.27] and in the BCS (−0.34, 95% CI: −0.43, −0.25) cohorts, and it was more than halved for children born in the MCS cohort (−0.14, 95% CI: −0.22, −0.06). The adjustment for family characteristics did not explain the cross-cohort differences. The results show that the association between low birth weight and decreased cognitive ability has declined between the 1950s and 1970s birth cohorts and the 2000--2002 birth cohort, despite a higher proportion of the low-birth-weight babies having a very low birth weight (<1,500 g) in the more recent birth cohort. Advancements in obstetric and neonatal care may have attenuated the negative consequences associated with being born small. PMID:27994141

  11. Positive fantasies or negative contrasts: the effect of media body ideals on restrained eaters' mood, weight satisfaction, and food intake.

    PubMed

    Boyce, Jessica A; Kuijer, Roeline G; Gleaves, David H

    2013-09-01

    Although viewing media body ideals promotes body dissatisfaction and problematic eating among women (e.g., extreme restraint/overeating), some argue that women only report such negative effects because they think that they are meant to (i.e., demand characteristics). Because restrained eaters are trying to lose weight, they might be vulnerable to such media exposure. However, because of demand characteristics, evidence is mixed. Therefore, we minimized demand characteristics and explored whether media body ideals would trigger restrained eaters to report negative (negative mood, weight dissatisfaction) or positive (positive mood, weight satisfaction) effects. We also hypothesized that this change (negative or positive) would encourage food intake. Restrained and unrestrained eaters (n=107) memorized media or control images. Restrained eaters exposed to media images reported decreased weight satisfaction and increased negative mood, but their food intake was not significantly affected. Perhaps paying advertent attention to the images caused goal-related negative affect, which triggered restraint.

  12. Perceived judgment about weight can negatively influence weight loss: a cross-sectional study of overweight and obese patients.

    PubMed

    Gudzune, Kimberly A; Bennett, Wendy L; Cooper, Lisa A; Bleich, Sara N

    2014-05-01

    To examine the association between patient-perceived judgments about weight by primary care providers (PCPs) and self-reported weight loss. We conducted a national internet-based survey of 600 adults engaged in primary care with a body mass index (BMI)≥25 kg/m(2) in 2012. Our weight loss outcomes included attempted weight loss and achieved ≥10% weight loss in the last 12 months. Our independent variable was "feeling judged about my weight by my PCP." We created an interaction between perceiving judgment and PCP discussing weight loss as an independent variable. We conducted a multivariate logistic regression model adjusted for patient and PCP factors using survey weights. Overall, 21% perceived that their PCP judged them about their weight. Respondents who perceived judgment were significantly more likely to attempt weight loss [odds ratios (OR) 4.67, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.96-11.14]. They were not more likely to achieve ≥10% weight loss [OR 0.87, 95%CI 0.42-1.76]. Among patients whose PCPs discussed weight loss, 20.1% achieved ≥10% weight loss if they did not perceive judgment by their PCP as compared to 13.5% who perceived judgment. Weight loss discussions between patients and PCPs may lead to greater weight loss in relationships where patients do not perceive judgment about their weight. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Evolution of egoism on semi-directed and undirected Barabási-Albert networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lima, F. W. S.

    2015-05-01

    Through Monte Carlo simulations, we study the evolution of the four strategies: Ethnocentric, altruistic, egoistic and cosmopolitan in one community of individuals. Interactions and reproduction among computational agents are simulated on undirected and semi-directed Barabási-Albert (BA) networks. We study the Hammond-Axelrod (HA) model on undirected and semi-directed BA networks for the asexual reproduction case. With a small modification in the traditional HA model, our simulations showed that egoism wins, differently from other results found in the literature where ethnocentric strategy is common. Here, mechanisms such as reciprocity are absent.

  14. A retrospective analysis of negative diffusion-weighted image results in patients with acute cerebral infarction

    PubMed Central

    Zuo, Lian; Zhang, Yue; Xu, Xiahong; Li, Ying; Bao, Huan; Hao, Junjie; Wang, Xin; Li, Gang

    2015-01-01

    We aimed to investigate the clinicoradiologic determinants of negative diffusion-weighted image (DWI) results in patients with acute cerebral infarction (ACI). The medical records were reviewed of ACI patients. Patients were divided to the DWI positive and negative group. Positive DWI was used as independent variable and patients' clinicoradiologic factors were used as co-variables for multivariate logistic regression analysis. 349 patients received initial cerebral MRI within 72 hours of admission. Lacunar infarction was most common (42.1%) followed by posterior circulation infarction (30.1%) and partial anterior circulation infarction (18.1%). The majority of the patients (72.2%) had an NIHSS score of less than 5 at admission. 316 patients (90.54%) were positive on initial DWI. Patients with smoking, initial SBP ≥ 140 or DBP ≥ 90 mmHg, initial fasting plasma glucose (FPG) ≥7.0 mmol/L, initial MRI from onset of disease >1 d and anterior circulation infarction were liable to show positive DWI. Furthermore, DWI negative patients had significantly lower NIHSS scores (IQR 0,1,2) than DWI positive patients (IQR 1,2,4) (P = 0.000) at two weeks post onset of acute cerebral infarction. In conclusion, multiple clinicoradiologic factors are associated with negative and positive DWI and further delineation of these factors is required in future prospective studies. PMID:25777182

  15. Clinically Confirmed Stroke With Negative Diffusion-Weighted Imaging Magnetic Resonance Imaging

    PubMed Central

    Makin, Stephen D.J.; Doubal, Fergus N.; Dennis, Martin S.

    2015-01-01

    Background and Purpose— We sought to establish whether the presence (versus absence) of a lesion on magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) with diffusion weighting (DWI-MRI) at presentation with acute stroke is associated with worse clinical outcomes at 1 year. Methods— We recruited consecutive patients with a nondisabling ischemic stroke and performed DWI-MRI. Patients were followed up at 1 year to establish stroke recurrence (clinical or on MRI), cognitive impairment (Addenbrooke Cognitive Assessment Revised,<88) and modified Rankin Scale. Results— A median of 4 days post stroke, one third (76/264; 29%) of patients did not have a DWI lesion (95% confidence interval, 23%–35%). There was no statistically significant difference between those with and without a DWI lesion with respect to age or vascular risk factors. Patients without a lesion were more likely to be women or have previous stroke. At 1 year, 11 of 76 (14%) patients with a DWI-negative index stroke had a clinical diagnosis of recurrent stroke or transient ischemic attack, 33% had cognitive impairment (Addenbrooke Cognitive Assessment Revised <88), and 40% still had modified Rankin Scale >1, no different from DWI-positive patients; DWI-positive patients were more likely to have a new lesion on MRI (14%), symptomatic or asymptomatic, than DWI-negative patients (2%; P=0.02). Our data were consistent with 6 other studies (total n=976), pooled proportion of DWI-negative patients was 21% (95% confidence interval, 12%–32%). Conclusions— Nearly one third of patients with nondisabling stroke do not have a relevant lesion on acute DWI-MRI. Patients with negative DWI-MRI had no better prognosis than patients with a lesion. DWI-negative stroke patients should receive secondary prevention. PMID:26419965

  16. The Driven--Yet Undirected--Generation....and the Difference We Can Make.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kopp, Wendy

    1992-01-01

    The founder of "Teach for America," a nonprofit organization to recruit capable but undirected college seniors for a two-year commitment to teaching, has successfully brought in a corps of graduates with a high level of commitment, academic excellence, varied skills, and a better minority representation to teach in difficult-to-staff…

  17. Curvilinear relationships between mu-opioid receptor labeling and undirected song in male European starlings (Sturnus vulgaris).

    PubMed

    Kelm-Nelson, Cynthia A; Riters, Lauren V

    2013-08-21

    Female-directed communication in male songbirds has been reasonably well studied; yet, relatively little is known about communication in other social contexts. Songbirds also produce song that is not clearly directed towards another individual (undirected song) when alone or in flocks. Although the precise functions of undirected song may differ across species, this type of song is considered important for flock maintenance, song learning or practice. Past studies show that undirected song is tightly coupled to analgesia and positive affective state, which are both mediated by opioid activity. Furthermore, labeling for the opioid met-enkephalin in the medial preoptic nucleus (POM) correlates positively with undirected song production. We propose that undirected song is facilitated and maintained by opioid receptor activity in the POM and other brain regions involved in affective state, analgesia, and social behavior. To provide insight into this hypothesis, we used immunohistochemistry to examine relationships between undirected song and mu-opioid receptors in male starlings. Polynomial regression analyses revealed significant inverted-U shaped relationships between measures of undirected song and mu-opioid receptor labeling in the POM, medial bed nucleus of the stria terminalis (BSTm), and periaqueductal gray (PAG). These results suggest that low rates of undirected song may stimulate and/or be maintained by mu-opioid receptor activity; however, it may be that sustained levels of mu-opioid receptor activity associated with high rates of undirected song cause mu-opioid receptor down-regulation. The results indicate that mu-opioid receptor activity in POM, BSTm, and PAG may underlie previous links identified between undirected song, analgesia, and affective state. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. For biliary dilatation, a negative endosonography needs additional image studies in weight loss suggesting malignancy.

    PubMed

    Chen, Chien-Hua; Yang, Chi-Chieh; Yeh, Yung-Hsiang

    2013-08-01

    Biliary dilatation frequently raises concerns about the possibility of pancreatobiliary diseases. This study assessed the etiologic yield of endosonography (EUS) in this situation. A retrospective review was completed with 163 consecutive patients who had undergone EUS for a dilated common bile duct (CBD) without definite pathology on ultrasonography. Binary logistic regression analysis disclosed that malignancy was positively related to weight loss and was inversely related to abdominal pain; nevertheless, choledocholithiasis was positively related to fever and elevated carbohydrate antigen 19-9 (p < 0.05). The accuracy of EUS was 95.1 % (155/163) for overall cause of biliary dilatation, 100 % (73/73) for no pathological finding, 96.3 % (26/27) for ampullary cancer, 84.6 % (11/13) for pancreatic cancer, 40.0 % (2/5) for CBD cancer, and 92.6 % (25/27) for choledocholithiasis, respectively. The accuracy of EUS decreased in the presence of malignancy (86.7 %, 39/45 vs. 98.3 %, 116/118, p = 0.006). EUS missed three CBD cancers, two pancreatic cancers, and one ampullary cancer; however, the diagnosis was rescued by computed tomography in two pancreatic cancers and one CBD cancer. EUS is accurate in patients with fever suggestive of choledocholithiasis. However, a negative EUS finding should call for additional image studies in patients with weight loss suggestive of malignancy.

  19. Acoustic Cue Weighting by Adults with Cochlear Implants: A Mismatch Negativity Study.

    PubMed

    Moberly, Aaron C; Bhat, Jyoti; Shahin, Antoine J

    2016-01-01

    Formant rise time (FRT) and amplitude rise time (ART) are acoustic cues that inform phonetic identity. FRT represents the rate of transition of the formant(s) to a steady state, while ART represents the rate at which the sound reaches its peak amplitude. Normal-hearing (NH) native English speakers weight FRT more than ART during the perceptual labeling of the /ba/-/wa/ contrast. This weighting strategy is reflected neurophysiologically in the magnitude of the mismatch negativity (MMN)-MMN is larger during the FRT than the ART distinction. The present study examined the neurophysiological basis of acoustic cue weighting in adult cochlear implant (CI) listeners using the MMN design. It was hypothesized that individuals with CIs who weight ART more in behavioral labeling (ART users) would show larger MMNs during the ART than the FRT contrast, and the opposite would be seen for FRT users. Electroencephalography was recorded while 20 adults with CIs listened passively to combinations of 3 synthetic speech stimuli: a /ba/ with /ba/-like FRT and ART; a /wa/ with /wa/-like FRT and ART; and a /ba/ stimulus with /ba/-like FRT and /wa/-like ART. The MMN response was elicited during the FRT contrast by having participants passively listen to a train of /wa/ stimuli interrupted occasionally by /ba/ stimuli, and vice versa. For the ART contrast, the same procedure was implemented using the /ba/ and /ba/ stimuli. Both ART and FRT users with CIs elicited MMNs that were equal in magnitudes during FRT and ART contrasts, with the exception that FRT users exhibited MMNs for ART and FRT contrasts that were temporally segregated. That is, their MMNs occurred significantly earlier during the ART contrast (~100 msec following sound onset) than during the FRT contrast (~200 msec). In contrast, the MMNs for ART users of both contrasts occurred later and were not significantly separable in time (~230 msec). Interestingly, this temporal segregation observed in FRT users is consistent with the

  20. Persistent coagulase-negative staphylococci bacteremia in very-low-birth-weight infants.

    PubMed

    Linder, Nehama; Hernandez, Adriana; Amit, Limor; Klinger, Gil; Ashkenazi, Shai; Levy, Itzhak

    2011-08-01

    This study sought to expand current knowledge on the clinical and epidemiological characteristics of persistent coagulase-negative Staphylococcus (CoNS) bacteremia in very-low-birth-weight (VLBW) infants. Background and disease-related data were collected prospectively on 143 VLBW infants diagnosed with CoNS bacteremia at a pediatric tertiary medical center in 1995-2003. Findings were compared between those with persistent (positive blood cultures for >72 h under appropriate treatment ) and nonpersistent disease. Fifty-eight infants (40.6%) were found to have persistent bacteremia. There were no between-group differences in maternal characteristics, mode of delivery, newborn characteristics, dwell time of central venous and umbilical catheters, complications of prematurity, or mean hospital stay. The persistent bacteremia group had significantly higher rates of hypothermia at presentation (37.9% vs. 17.6%, p < 0.04), creatinine >1.2 mg% on treatment day 7 (13.7% vs. 2.4%, p < 0.02; transient phenomenon), and endocarditis (p < 0.03); one infant had an aortic thrombus. Predominantly breast-fed infants had a higher rate of negative cultures within 72 h of appropriate treatment than predominantly formula-fed infants (60% vs. 19%, p < 0.02). In conclusion, persistence of CoNS bacteremia is common in VLBW infants. Endocarditis should be excluded in all infants with persistent disease. Breast-feeding is associated with a shorter disease duration.

  1. Evolution of ethnocentrism on undirected and directed Barabási-Albert networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lima, F. W. S.; Hadzibeganovic, Tarik; Stauffer, Dietrich

    2009-12-01

    Using Monte Carlo simulations, we study the evolution of contingent cooperation and ethnocentrism in the one-shot game. Interactions and reproduction among computational agents are simulated on undirected and directed Barabási-Albert (BA) networks. We first replicate the Hammond-Axelrod model of in-group favoritism on a square lattice and then generalize this model on undirected and directed BA networks for both asexual and sexual reproduction cases. Our simulations demonstrate that irrespective of the mode of reproduction, the ethnocentric strategy becomes common even though cooperation is individually costly and mechanisms such as reciprocity or conformity are absent. Moreover, our results indicate that the spread of favoritism towards similar others highly depends on the network topology and the associated heterogeneity of the studied population.

  2. On the Existence of t-Identifying Codes in Undirected De Bruijn Networks

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-08-04

    Identifying Code; De Bruijn Network; Graph Theory 16. SECURITY CLASSIFICATION OF: 17. LIMITATION OF ABSTRACT UU 18. NUMBER OF PAGES 19a. NAME OF...of Codes for Identifying Vertices Graphs , IEEE Transactions on Information Theory , 355 (1998) no. 2, 599-611. 17 ...proves the existence of t-identifying codes on the class of undirected de Bruijn graphs with string length n and alphabet size d, referred to as B(d

  3. Improved Lower Bounds on the Price of Stability of Undirected Network Design Games

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bilò, Vittorio; Caragiannis, Ioannis; Fanelli, Angelo; Monaco, Gianpiero

    Bounding the price of stability of undirected network design games with fair cost allocation is a challenging open problem in the Algorithmic Game Theory research agenda. Even though the generalization of such games in directed networks is well understood in terms of the price of stability (it is exactly H n , the n-th harmonic number, for games with n players), far less is known for network design games in undirected networks. The upper bound carries over to this case as well while the best known lower bound is 42/23 ≈ 1.826. For more restricted but interesting variants of such games such as broadcast and multicast games, sublogarithmic upper bounds are known while the best known lower bound is 12/7 ≈ 1.714. In the current paper, we improve the lower bounds as follows. We break the psychological barrier of 2 by showing that the price of stability of undirected network design games is at least 348/155 ≈ 2.245. Our proof uses a recursive construction of a network design game with a simple gadget as the main building block. For broadcast and multicast games, we present new lower bounds of 20/11 ≈ 1.818 and 1.862, respectively.

  4. Lower body weight is associated with less negative emotions in sad autobiographical memories of patients with anorexia nervosa.

    PubMed

    Brockmeyer, Timo; Grosse Holtforth, Martin; Bents, Hinrich; Herzog, Wolfgang; Friederich, Hans-Christoph

    2013-12-15

    Food restriction and weight-loss have been proposed to represent pathogenic mechanisms of emotion regulation in anorexia nervosa (AN). However, there is a lack of studies empirically examining this hypothesis. Therefore, the present study compared 25 women with AN and 25 healthy control women (HC) regarding spontaneous emotional processing of autobiographic memories. Participants' idiographic memories of sad autobiographic events were analyzed using computerized, quantitative text analysis as an unobtrusive approach of nonreactive assessment. Compared to HC, AN patients retrieved more negative but a comparable number of positive emotions. Moreover, the lesser the body weight in AN patients, the lesser negative emotions they retrieved, irrespective of current levels of depressive symptoms and duration of illness. No such association was found in HC. These preliminary findings are in line with models of AN proposing that food restriction and weight-loss may be negatively reinforced by the alleviation of aversive emotional responses.

  5. Exact solutions for social and biological contagion models on mixed directed and undirected, degree-correlated random networks.

    PubMed

    Payne, Joshua L; Harris, Kameron Decker; Dodds, Peter Sheridan

    2011-07-01

    We derive analytic expressions for the possibility, probability, and expected size of global spreading events starting from a single infected seed for a broad collection of contagion processes acting on random networks with both directed and undirected edges and arbitrary degree-degree correlations. Our work extends previous theoretical developments for the undirected case, and we provide numerical support for our findings by investigating an example class of networks for which we are able to obtain closed-form expressions.

  6. Dietary saturated fat intake is negatively associated with weight maintenance among the PREMIER participants.

    PubMed

    Lin, Pao-Hwa; Wang, Yanfang; Grambow, Steven C; Goggins, William; Almirall, Daniel

    2012-03-01

    Research finding on the composition of macronutrient intakes on body weight has not been consistent. Furthermore, little research has examined the impact of subcomponents of macronutrients such as saturated fat or plant protein on body weight. The purpose of this report was to examine the impact of saturated fat, animal and plant protein, and other macronutrient intakes at the end of an intensive intervention on subsequent follow-up body weight. This is a secondary, observational data analysis using data from PREMIER, an 18-month randomized clinical trial that enrolled a total of 810 participants. Participants completed group and individual sessions designed to help them improve blood pressure (BP) control by making lifestyle changes. Dietary intakes were assessed by two 24-h diet recalls at baseline, 6, and 18 months. Body weight and physical fitness were monitored regularly. Regression models were used to examine the impact of animal or plant protein and other macronutrient intakes on subsequent body weight. After controlling for potential confounders, none of the calorie-contributing nutrient intakes at baseline was associated with subsequent weight at 6 or 18 months. However, a greater intake of saturated fat at 6 months was associated with higher weight at 18 months (P = 0.002). A greater intake of plant protein at 6 month was marginally associated with lower absolute weight at 18 month (P = 0.069). We conclude that macronutrient intakes before the intervention were not associated with subsequent body weight at 6 or 18 months. However, a lower saturated fat intake achieved after 6-month intervention predicts a lower body weight at 18 months and thus greater weight-loss maintenance.

  7. Directed and undirected multiurn models in a one-dimensional ring

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nagler, Jan

    2005-11-01

    The flea model by Ehrenfest describes the jumps of a fixed number of fleas between two dogs. In each time step a randomly selected flea jumps on the other dog. We study directed and undirected multiurn models in a one-dimensional ring. The introduced models represent generalizations of three recently proposed multiurn models which themselves are generalizations of Ehrenfest’s model. The models are solved analytically. For the directed case we find oscillations of the average number of balls or fleas in a certain urn before the system reaches its equilibrium state. The discussed models may serve as basic models of dynamics of granular media in connected periodic compartment systems.

  8. In It Together: Mother Talk of Weight Concerns Moderates Negative Outcomes of Encouragement to Lose Weight on Daughter Body Dissatisfaction and Disordered Eating

    PubMed Central

    Hillard, Erin E.; Gondoli, Dawn M.; Corning, Alexandra F.; Morrissey, Rebecca A.

    2015-01-01

    Mothers’ influence on their daughters is important for understanding girls’ disordered eating and body dissatisfaction. Direct maternal encouragement of daughters to lose weight is linked to daughters’ development of bulimic symptoms, and additional findings indicate that daughters whose mothers merely talk about dieting and body dissatisfaction are more likely to be diagnosed with an eating disorder. The current study extends such research by examining the interactive contributions of maternal encouragement to lose weight and maternal dieting discussions to the prediction of early adolescent daughters’ body dissatisfaction and disordered eating over the middle school period. Participants were 89 adolescent girls who were in the 6th grade at Time 1. Regression analyses were conducted to examine interactive effects of mother encouragement to diet and talk of weight concerns on daughter body dissatisfaction, drive for thinness, and dieting behavior. Results suggest an interactive effect in which mothers’ dieting talk may act as a buffer against the negative effects of direct encouragement to lose weight. PMID:26551484

  9. A two-year follow-up of a primary prevention program for negative body image and unhealthy weight regulation.

    PubMed

    Smolak, L; Levine, M P

    2001-01-01

    As a test of a prevention effect, data were collected two years after boys and girls ages 9-11 completed ten one-hour lessons designed to improve nutrition and exercise patterns, enhance body esteem, and discourage unhealthy weight management. Body esteem, use of weight loss techniques, SATAQ scores, weight concerns, and program-related knowledge were compared among three groups of young adolescent girls and boys (N = 509; ages = 11-13): participants in the elementary school program (Smolak, Levine, & Schermer, 1998a, 1998b), control participants from the same elementary schools, and new control participants from schools not included in the original study. Compared to new controls, those adolescents who received the prevention program two years earlier were more knowledgeable, used fewer unhealthy weight management techniques, and had higher body esteem. The latter difference was particularly significant for girls. Original control participants had intermediate scores, suggesting a "spillover" effect. Scores on program-related knowledge were positively correlated with better body esteem and less frequent use of weight loss techniques, and lower SATAQ scores, particularly among the girls. Findings suggest that a curricular program using cognitive social learning and developmental principles may help prevent the development of negative body image and unhealthy weight management techniques in girls and boys as they move from late childhood to early adolescence. Important methodological implications of this study for the meaning of prevention also are discussed.

  10. Negative Priming Effect after Inhibition of Weight/Number Interference in a Piaget-Like Task

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schirlin, Olivier; Houde, Olivier

    2007-01-01

    Piagetian tasks have more to do with the child's ability to inhibit interference than they do with the ability to grasp their underlying logic. Here we used a chronometric paradigm with 11-year-olds, who succeed in Piaget's conservation-of-weight task, to test the role of cognitive inhibition in a priming version of this classical task. The…

  11. Negative Priming Effect after Inhibition of Weight/Number Interference in a Piaget-Like Task

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schirlin, Olivier; Houde, Olivier

    2007-01-01

    Piagetian tasks have more to do with the child's ability to inhibit interference than they do with the ability to grasp their underlying logic. Here we used a chronometric paradigm with 11-year-olds, who succeed in Piaget's conservation-of-weight task, to test the role of cognitive inhibition in a priming version of this classical task. The…

  12. Negative Weight-Based Attitudes in Treatment-Seeking Obese Monolingual Hispanic Patients with and without Binge Eating Disorder

    PubMed Central

    Puhl, Rebecca M.; White, Marney A.; Paris, Manuel; Anez, Luis M.; Silva, Michelle A.; Grilo, Carlos M.

    2010-01-01

    Objective To compare weight-based attitudes in obese Latino adults with and without binge eating disorder (BED), and examine whether these attitudes are related to indices of eating disorder psychopathology and psychological functioning. Method Participants were a consecutive series of 79 monolingual Spanish-speaking-only obese Latinos (65 females, 14 males) participating in a randomized placebo-controlled trial performed at a Hispanic community mental health center. Participants were categorized as meeting criteria for BED (N=40) or obese non-binge-eating controls (NBO) (N=39) based on diagnostic and semi-structured interviews administered by fully-bilingual research-clinicians trained specifically for this study. Results Analyses revealed that negative attitudes towards obesity did not differ significantly between the BED and NBO groups nor were they correlated with the intensity of eating disorder psychopathology (e.g., levels of weight and shape concerns). Overall, the levels of negative attitudes towards obesity in this latino/a group are similar to those reported previously for samples of English-speaking primarily white obese persons. Discussion These findings suggest that it may be obesity per se - rather than ED psychopathology or body image - that heightens vulnerability to negative weight-based attitudes. PMID:21193178

  13. Physical activity attenuates the negative effect of low birth weight on leptin levels in European adolescents; the HELENA study.

    PubMed

    Labayen, I; Ortega, F B; Moreno, L A; Gonzalez-Gross, M; Jimenez-Pavon, D; Martínez-Gómez, D; Breidenassel, C; Marcos, A; Molnar, D; Manios, Y; Plada, M; Kafatos, A; De Henauw, S; Mauro, B; Zaccaria, M; Widhalm, K; Gottrand, F; Castillo, M J; Sjöström, M; Ruiz, J R

    2013-04-01

    We examined whether physical activity (PA) influences the association between birth weight and serum leptin in adolescents. The study comprised a total of 538 adolescents (315 girls), aged 12.5-17.49 years, born at term (≥ 37 weeks of gestation). We measured serum leptin levels and time engaged in moderate-vigorous PA (MVPA) by accelerometry. There was an interaction effect between birth weight and meeting the PA recommendations (60 min/day MVPA) on leptin levels in girls (P = 0.023) but not in boys (P = 0.809). Birth weight was negatively associated with leptin levels in girls not meeting the PA recommendations (i.e. more than 60 min/day of MVPA) (β = -0.096, P = 0.009), whereas no significant association was observed in those meeting the PA recommendations (β = -0.061, P = 0.433). In conclusion, meeting the PA recommendations may attenuate the negative effect of low birth weight on serum leptin levels in European female adolescents. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Do parents or siblings engage in more negative weight-based talk with children and what does it sound like? A mixed-methods study.

    PubMed

    Berge, Jerica M; Hanson-Bradley, Carrie; Tate, Allan; Neumark-Sztainer, Dianne

    2016-09-01

    The current mixed-methods study examined the prevalence of negative weight-based talk across multiple family members (i.e., mother, father, older/younger brother, older/younger sister) and analyzed qualitative data to identify what negative weight-based talk sounds like in the home environment. Children (n=60; ages 9-12) and their families from low income and minority households participated in the study. Children reported the highest prevalence of negative weight-based talk from siblings. Among specific family members, children reported a higher prevalence of negative weight-based talk from mothers and older brothers. In households with younger brothers, children reported less negative weight-based talk compared to other household compositions. Both quantitative and qualitative results indicated that mothers' negative weight-based talk focused on concerns about child health, whereas fathers' and siblings' negative weight-based talk focused on child appearance and included teasing. Results suggest that interventions targeting familial negative weight-based talk may need to be tailored to specific family members. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Do Parents or Siblings Engage in More Negative Weight-Based Talk with Children and What Does it Sound Like?: A Mixed-Methods Study

    PubMed Central

    Berge, Jerica M.; Hanson, Carrie; Tate, Allan; Neumark-Sztainer, Dianne

    2016-01-01

    The current mixed-methods study examined the prevalence of negative weight-based talk across multiple family members (i.e., mother, father, older/younger brother, older/younger sister) and analyzed qualitative data to identify what negative weight-based talk sounds like in the home environment. Children (n = 60; ages 9–12) and their families from low income and minority households participated in the study. Children reported the highest prevalence of negative weight-based talk from siblings. Among specific family members, children reported a higher prevalence of negative weight-based talk from mothers and older brothers. In households with younger brothers, children reported less negative weight-based talk compared to other household compositions. Both quantitative and qualitative results indicated that mothers’ negative weight-based talk focused on concerns about child health, whereas fathers’ and siblings’ negative weight-based talk focused on child appearance and included teasing. Results suggest that interventions targeting familial negative weight-based talk may need to be tailored to specific family members. PMID:27236475

  16. Assessing instantaneous energy in the EEG: a non-negative, frequency-weighted energy operator.

    PubMed

    O'Toole, John M; Temko, Andriy; Stevenson, Nathan

    2014-01-01

    Signal processing measures of instantaneous energy typically include only amplitude information. But measures that include both amplitude and frequency do better at assessing the energy required by the system to generate the signal, making them more sensitive measures to include in electroencephalogram (EEG) analysis. The Teager-Kaiser operator is a frequency-weighted measure that is frequently used in EEG analysis, although the operator is poorly defined in terms of common signal processing concepts. We propose an alternative frequency-weighted energy measure that uses the envelope of the derivative of the signal. This simple envelope- derivative operator has the advantage of being nonnegative, which when applied to a detection application in newborn EEG improves performance over the Teager-Kaiser operator: without post-processing filters, area-under the receiver-operating characteristic curve (AUC) is 0.57 for the Teager-Kaiser operator and 0.80 for the envelope-derivative operator. The envelope-derivative operator also satisfies important properties, similar to the Teager-Kaiser operator, such as tracking instantaneous amplitude and frequency.

  17. [Evaluation of usefulness of summarised and weighted scale of negative life events to examine the determinants of adolescent health].

    PubMed

    Supranowicz, Piotr

    2011-01-01

    Numerous studies have shown that the occurrence of negative life events, especially in childhood and adolescence, increases the risk of developing mental and somatic disorders in future. The purpose of presented paper was to assess to what extent the severity of events determines health disorders and risk behaviours among adolescents. The study was conducted on a randomly selected sample of ten secondary school students in Warsaw in the three-year period. A questionnaire for data gathering was elaborated in Health Promotion and Postgraduate Education of the National Institute of Public Health - National Institute of Hygiene. The scale of negative life events consisted of 32 items covering: 1) changes in live and health of closed persons, 2) contact with the acts of a crime or incorrect, 3) problems concerning biological maturation, 4) interpersonal relations in the nearest surrounding, 5) financial and living conditions and 6) problems of learning. The average severity of events evaluated by the students was used to determine the weights of individual item. Weighted scale as well as summarised scale were applied to analysis. In addition, the questionnaire included questions on health, well-being, and risk behaviours and attitudes, as criterial indicators. Our study did not provide evidence that only the severity of negative life events determines the health disorders and taking risk behaviours. The both scales showed similar moderate correlation with most criterial indicators and explained 10% - 20% of variance of subjectively experienced health indicators (self-assessment of health status, physical, psychical and social well-being), 10% - 25% of risk behaviours and attitudes and only 1% - 7% of health disorders measured by objective indicators (sickness absence, staying at home or in hospital due to health disorders, contact with physician, taking medication). It seems that not the severity of negative life events but their cumulating determines health and

  18. Early intervention for low birth weight, preterm infants: the role of negative emotionality in the specification of effects.

    PubMed

    Blair, Clancy

    2002-01-01

    This study examined the relation of negative emotionality in infancy to child social and cognitive developmental outcomes among low birth weight (LBW) preterm infants participating in the Infant Health and Development Program (IHDP), a comprehensive compensatory education intervention beginning in infancy and lasting through age 3 years. In this analysis, intervention effects at age 36 months on maternal report of child behavior as assessed by the Child Behavior Checklist externalizing and internalizing scales and on intelligence as measured by the Stanford-Binet scale were largest among children characterized by higher levels of negative emotionality in infancy. Findings indicate that for LBW preterm infants characterized by negative emotionality at age 12 months the intervention was associated with a twofold decrease in the occurrence of clinically meaningful levels of behavior problems at age 3 years and a fourfold decrease in the occurrence of a high-risk profile in which both internalizing and externalizing scores are in the clinically meaningful range. The intervention was also associated with a fivefold decrease in the occurrence of IQ < or = 75 at age 3 years among children with higher levels of negative emotionality and heavier LBW (2001-2500 g). However, specific aspects of temperamental difficulty such as fearfulness and anger were related to internalizing and externalizing, respectively, in both the intervention and control groups. Findings are consistent with research linking negative emotionality in infancy with social and cognitive developmental outcomes in early childhood among normal birth weight infants. Results suggest the need for further attention to child temperament in early intervention research.

  19. FunMod: A Cytoscape Plugin for Identifying Functional Modules in Undirected Protein–Protein Networks

    PubMed Central

    Natale, Massimo; Benso, Alfredo; Di Carlo, Stefano; Ficarra, Elisa

    2014-01-01

    The characterization of the interacting behaviors of complex biological systems is a primary objective in protein–protein network analysis and computational biology. In this paper we present FunMod, an innovative Cytoscape version 2.8 plugin that is able to mine undirected protein–protein networks and to infer sub-networks of interacting proteins intimately correlated with relevant biological pathways. This plugin may enable the discovery of new pathways involved in diseases. In order to describe the role of each protein within the relevant biological pathways, FunMod computes and scores three topological features of the identified sub-networks. By integrating the results from biological pathway clustering and topological network analysis, FunMod proved to be useful for the data interpretation and the generation of new hypotheses in two case studies. PMID:25153667

  20. The huge Package for High-dimensional Undirected Graph Estimation in R

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Tuo; Liu, Han; Roeder, Kathryn; Lafferty, John; Wasserman, Larry

    2015-01-01

    We describe an R package named huge which provides easy-to-use functions for estimating high dimensional undirected graphs from data. This package implements recent results in the literature, including Friedman et al. (2007), Liu et al. (2009, 2012) and Liu et al. (2010). Compared with the existing graph estimation package glasso, the huge package provides extra features: (1) instead of using Fortan, it is written in C, which makes the code more portable and easier to modify; (2) besides fitting Gaussian graphical models, it also provides functions for fitting high dimensional semiparametric Gaussian copula models; (3) more functions like data-dependent model selection, data generation and graph visualization; (4) a minor convergence problem of the graphical lasso algorithm is corrected; (5) the package allows the user to apply both lossless and lossy screening rules to scale up large-scale problems, making a tradeoff between computational and statistical efficiency. PMID:26834510

  1. FunMod: a Cytoscape plugin for identifying functional modules in undirected protein-protein networks.

    PubMed

    Natale, Massimo; Benso, Alfredo; Di Carlo, Stefano; Ficarra, Elisa

    2014-08-01

    The characterization of the interacting behaviors of complex biological systems is a primary objective in protein-protein network analysis and computational biology. In this paper we present FunMod, an innovative Cytoscape version 2.8 plugin that is able to mine undirected protein-protein networks and to infer sub-networks of interacting proteins intimately correlated with relevant biological pathways. This plugin may enable the discovery of new pathways involved in diseases. In order to describe the role of each protein within the relevant biological pathways, FunMod computes and scores three topological features of the identified sub-networks. By integrating the results from biological pathway clustering and topological network analysis, FunMod proved to be useful for the data interpretation and the generation of new hypotheses in two case studies.

  2. Undirected compensatory plasticity contributes to neuronal dysfunction after severe spinal cord injury.

    PubMed

    Beauparlant, Janine; van den Brand, Rubia; Barraud, Quentin; Friedli, Lucia; Musienko, Pavel; Dietz, Volker; Courtine, Grégoire

    2013-11-01

    Severe spinal cord injury in humans leads to a progressive neuronal dysfunction in the chronic stage of the injury. This dysfunction is characterized by premature exhaustion of muscle activity during assisted locomotion, which is associated with the emergence of abnormal reflex responses. Here, we hypothesize that undirected compensatory plasticity within neural systems caudal to a severe spinal cord injury contributes to the development of neuronal dysfunction in the chronic stage of the injury. We evaluated alterations in functional, electrophysiological and neuromorphological properties of lumbosacral circuitries in adult rats with a staggered thoracic hemisection injury. In the chronic stage of the injury, rats exhibited significant neuronal dysfunction, which was characterized by co-activation of antagonistic muscles, exhaustion of locomotor muscle activity, and deterioration of electrochemically-enabled gait patterns. As observed in humans, neuronal dysfunction was associated with the emergence of abnormal, long-latency reflex responses in leg muscles. Analyses of circuit, fibre and synapse density in segments caudal to the spinal cord injury revealed an extensive, lamina-specific remodelling of neuronal networks in response to the interruption of supraspinal input. These plastic changes restored a near-normal level of synaptic input within denervated spinal segments in the chronic stage of injury. Syndromic analysis uncovered significant correlations between the development of neuronal dysfunction, emergence of abnormal reflexes, and anatomical remodelling of lumbosacral circuitries. Together, these results suggest that spinal neurons deprived of supraspinal input strive to re-establish their synaptic environment. However, this undirected compensatory plasticity forms aberrant neuronal circuits, which may engage inappropriate combinations of sensorimotor networks during gait execution.

  3. Positive effect of dietary lutein and cholesterol on the undirected song activity of an opportunistic breeder.

    PubMed

    Casagrande, Stefania; Pinxten, Rianne; Zaid, Erika; Eens, Marcel

    2016-01-01

    Song is a sexually selected trait that is thought to be an honest signal of the health condition of an individual in many bird species. For species that breed opportunistically, the quantity of food may be a determinant of singing activity. However, it is not yet known whether the quality of food plays an important role in this respect. The aim of the present study was to experimentally investigate the role of two calorie-free nutrients (lutein and cholesterol) in determining the expression of a sexually selected behavior (song rate) and other behaviors (locomotor activity, self-maintenance activity, eating and resting) in male zebra finches (Taeniopygia guttata). We predicted that males supplemented with lutein and cholesterol would sing at higher rates than controls because both lutein and cholesterol have important health-related physiological functions in birds and birdsong mirrors individual condition. To control for testosterone secretion that may upregulate birdsong, birds were exposed to a decreasing photoperiod. Our results showed that control males down-regulated testosterone in response to a decreasing photoperiod, while birds treated with lutein or cholesterol maintained a constant singing activity. Both lutein- and cholesterol-supplemented groups sang more than control groups by the end of the experiment, indicating that the quality of food can affect undirected song irrespective of circulating testosterone concentrations. None of the other measured behaviors were affected by the treatment, suggesting that, when individuals have full availability of food, sexually selected song traits are more sensitive to the effect of food quality than other behavioral traits. Overall the results support our prediction that undirected song produced by male zebra finches signals access to high-quality food.

  4. Positive effect of dietary lutein and cholesterol on the undirected song activity of an opportunistic breeder

    PubMed Central

    Pinxten, Rianne; Zaid, Erika; Eens, Marcel

    2016-01-01

    Song is a sexually selected trait that is thought to be an honest signal of the health condition of an individual in many bird species. For species that breed opportunistically, the quantity of food may be a determinant of singing activity. However, it is not yet known whether the quality of food plays an important role in this respect. The aim of the present study was to experimentally investigate the role of two calorie-free nutrients (lutein and cholesterol) in determining the expression of a sexually selected behavior (song rate) and other behaviors (locomotor activity, self-maintenance activity, eating and resting) in male zebra finches (Taeniopygia guttata). We predicted that males supplemented with lutein and cholesterol would sing at higher rates than controls because both lutein and cholesterol have important health-related physiological functions in birds and birdsong mirrors individual condition. To control for testosterone secretion that may upregulate birdsong, birds were exposed to a decreasing photoperiod. Our results showed that control males down-regulated testosterone in response to a decreasing photoperiod, while birds treated with lutein or cholesterol maintained a constant singing activity. Both lutein- and cholesterol-supplemented groups sang more than control groups by the end of the experiment, indicating that the quality of food can affect undirected song irrespective of circulating testosterone concentrations. None of the other measured behaviors were affected by the treatment, suggesting that, when individuals have full availability of food, sexually selected song traits are more sensitive to the effect of food quality than other behavioral traits. Overall the results support our prediction that undirected song produced by male zebra finches signals access to high-quality food. PMID:27761321

  5. Compensatory growth feeding strategy does not overcome negative effects on growth and carcass composition of low birth weight pigs.

    PubMed

    Madsen, J G; Bee, G

    2015-03-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate whether the compensatory growth feeding strategy could be a suitable solution for overcoming the negative effects on growth, carcass composition and meat quality of low birth weight pigs. Forty-two Swiss Large White barrows from 21 litters were selected at weaning and categorized into either being light (L; >0.8 and <1.3 kg) or heavy (H; >1.7 kg) birth weight pigs. From 27.8 kg BW, pigs were assigned within birth weight group to one of three feeding groups: AA: ad libitum access to the grower and finisher diet, RR: restricted access to the grower and finisher diet or RA: restricted access to the grower diet and ad libitum access to the finisher diet. At slaughter, the longissimus (LM) and semitendinosus (STM) muscles were removed from the right side of the carcass. Weight, girth and length of the STM and the LM area were determined after muscle excision. Carcass characteristics and meat quality traits were assessed. Using mATPase histochemistry, myofibre size and myofibre type distribution were determined in the LM and STM. Because of longer days on feed, total feed intake was greater (P<0.01) and feed efficiency was lower (P<0.01) in L than H barrows. Regardless of the birth weight group, AA and RA barrows grew faster (P<0.05) than RR barrows. During the compensatory growth period, RA barrows grew faster (P<0.05) than AA or RR barrows. Growth efficiency did not differ between RA and RR barrows but was greater (P<0.05) compared with AA barrows. Carcasses of L barrows were fatter as indicated by the lower (P⩽≤0.05) lean meat and greater (P⩽0.02) omental and subcutaneous fat percentage. Lean meat percentage was lower (P⩽0.05) in AA and RA than RR barrows. These differences caused by ad libitum feed access tended to be greater (feeding regime × birth weight group interaction; P<0.08) in L than H barrows. In L barrows, slow oxidative, fast oxidative glycolytic and overall average myofibre size of the LM and the fast

  6. Protein design by sampling an undirected graphical model of residue constraints.

    PubMed

    Thomas, John; Ramakrishnan, Naren; Bailey-Kellogg, Chris

    2009-01-01

    This paper develops an approach for designing protein variants by sampling sequences that satisfy residue constraints encoded in an undirected probabilistic graphical model. Due to evolutionary pressures on proteins to maintain structure and function, the sequence record of a protein family contains valuable information regarding position-specific residue conservation and coupling (or covariation) constraints. Representing these constraints with a graphical model provides two key benefits for protein design: a probabilistic semantics enabling evaluation of possible sequences for consistency with the constraints, and an explicit factorization of residue dependence and independence supporting efficient exploration of the constrained sequence space. We leverage these benefits in developing two complementary MCMC algorithms for protein design: constrained shuffling mixes wild-type sequences positionwise and evaluates graphical model likelihood, while component sampling directly generates sequences by sampling clique values and propagating to other cliques. We apply our methods to design WW domains. We demonstrate that likelihood under a model of wild-type WWs is highly predictive of foldedness of new WWs. We then show both theoretical and rapid empirical convergence of our algorithms in generating high-likelihood, diverse new sequences. We further show that these sequences capture the original sequence constraints, yielding a model as predictive of foldedness as the original one.

  7. Case Report of False-Negative Diffusion-Weighted Image of Brain Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) in Acute Ischemic Stroke

    PubMed Central

    Chang, Wei-Lun; Lai, Ji-Ching; Chen, Rong-Fu; Hu, Han-Hwa; Pan, Chau-Shiung

    2017-01-01

    Patient: Male, 75 Final Diagnosis: Acute ischemic stroke Symptoms: Dizziness • unsteady gait Medication: — Clinical Procedure: None Specialty: Radiology Objective: Challenging differential diagnosis Background: Acute ischemic stroke is a major cause of mortality and morbidity in Taiwan. Diffusion-weighted image (DWI) is a sensitive and common strategy used for imaging acute ischemic stroke. Case report: We present a case of a negative DWI MRI for detecting acute ischemic stroke in a clinical setting. A 75-year-old male had a DWI performed after onset of symptoms suggesting acute ischemic stroke. The initial DWI result was negative at 72 hours of presentation. The neurological symptoms of the patient persisted and DWI was repeated. After 14 days, the DWI data confirmed and demonstrated an acute ischemic stroke. The delay in DWI confirmation, from symptom onset until DWI diagnosis, was 336 hours. Conclusions: DWI may not have 100% sensitivity and accuracy in early stages of acute ischemic stroke. The time course to the development of abnormalities detected by DWI may be longer than anticipated. PMID:28111452

  8. Low-Molecular-Weight Heparin for the Treatment of Unexplained Recurrent Miscarriage With Negative Antiphospholipid Antibodies: A Randomized Controlled Trial.

    PubMed

    Shaaban, Omar M; Abbas, Ahmed M; Zahran, Kamal M; Fathalla, Mohamed M; Anan, Mohamed A; Salman, Safwat A

    2017-09-01

    Recurrent miscarriage (RM) is one of the most common clinical problems in reproduction with no definite cause in about 50% of the cases. The study aims to evaluate the effect of low-molecular-weight heparin (LMWH) in the treatment of women with RM negatively tested for antiphospholipid antibodies (APAs). An open-labeled registered randomized controlled study (NCT 01608347) included women who attended the outpatient clinic in Assiut Women Health Hospital and Nag-Hamady Central Hospital, Egypt, with 3 or more unexplained RM. Eligible participants were randomly assigned into 2 groups. The study group included 150 patients receiving LMWH (Tinzaparin sodium 4500 IU) subcutaneous daily injection with 500 µg folic acid once daily orally started once positive pregnancy test till the 20th week of gestation. The control group included 150 patients receiving the same dose of folic acid alone. The primary outcome of the study was the rate of continuation of a viable pregnancy after 20 weeks of gestation. There was no significant difference between both groups as regards age, parity, or number of previous miscarriages. There was a significant increase in women who continued their pregnancy beyond 20 weeks in the study group compared to the control group (73.3% vs 48%, respectively; P = .002). The take-home baby rate was also significantly higher in the LMWH group compared to the control group ( P = .001). Early start of LMWH decreases the incidence of miscarriage in the first 20 weeks of pregnancy in women with unexplained RM negative for APAs.

  9. Influence of food and water availability on undirected singing and energetic status in adult male zebra finches (Taeniopygia guttata).

    PubMed

    Rashotte, M E; Sedunova, E V; Johnson, F; Pastukhov, I F

    2001-01-01

    The songs of adult male zebra finches are termed "directed" and "undirected," depending on the social context in which they occur. Females elicit directed song, whereas undirected song is not addressed to a particular conspecific and even occurs at high levels in social isolation. We tested the hypothesis that the production of undirected song is more sensitive to a brief period of food deprivation than a comparable period of water deprivation. The hypothesis was based on prior findings suggesting that song production is energetically expensive and that food deprivation constitutes a more serious energetic challenge to zebra finches than does water deprivation. Two days of food or water deprivation were imposed on several groups of birds that provided song production data and a variety of energetic measures; normative data obtained in a baseline period when food and water were available ad libitum provided a standard for comparison. Singing, which occurred exclusively in the light phase of the day, was reduced at the onset of food deprivation, ceased completely within 4 h, and did not occur at all on the second day. When water was removed, the birds showed a slower and less substantial reduction in daily song production across the 2 days of deprivation. Energetic measures indicated that food deprivation was a greater energetic challenge than water deprivation. Our results demonstrate that undirected song in zebra finches is sensitive to nonsocial environmental factors that pose an energetic challenge and raise new questions about how birds calibrate their level of song production to the availability of nutrients in the environment.

  10. A perfect storm: examining the synergistic effects of negative and positive emotional instability on promoting weight loss activities in anorexia nervosa

    PubMed Central

    Selby, Edward A.; Cornelius, Talea; Fehling, Kara B.; Kranzler, Amy; Panza, Emily A.; Lavender, Jason M.; Wonderlich, Stephen A.; Crosby, Ross D.; Engel, Scott G.; Mitchell, James E.; Crow, Scott J.; Peterson, Carol B.; Grange, Daniel Le

    2015-01-01

    Growing evidence indicates that both positive and negative emotion potentially influence the development and maintenance of anorexia nervosa, through both positive and negative reinforcement of weight loss activities. Such reactive emotional experience may be characterized by frequent and intense fluctuations in emotion, a construct known as “emotional instability.” The purpose of this study was to investigate the association between positive emotional instability and weight loss activities in anorexia nervosa, and to investigate the synergistic effects of positive and negative emotional instability on promoting weight loss activities. Using ecological momentary assessment methods, 118 participants with anorexia nervosa reported their emotional experiences and behaviors at least six times daily over 2 weeks using a portable digital device. Using generalized linear modeling, results indicated that high levels of both positive and negative emotional instability, and the interaction between the two, were associated with more frequent weight-loss activities, beyond anorexia subtype and mean levels of emotional intensity. These findings indicate that when women with anorexia exhibit both high levels of both positive and negative emotional instability they are more prone to a variety of weight loss activities. The importance of addressing the role of both positive and negative emotion in anorexia treatment is discussed. PMID:26379588

  11. Nanowires formed by the co-assembly of a negatively charged low-molecular weight gelator and a zwitterionic polythiophene.

    PubMed

    Li, Feng; Palaniswamy, Ganesan; de Jong, Menno R; Aslund, Andreas; Konradsson, Peter; Marcelis, Antonius T M; Sudhölter, Ernst J R; Stuart, Martien A Cohen; Leermakers, Frans A M

    2010-06-21

    Conjugated organic nanowires have been prepared by co-assembling a carboxylate containing low-molecular weight gelator (LMWG) and an amino acid substituted polythiophene derivative (PTT). Upon introducing the zwitterionic polyelectrolyte PTT to a basic molecular solution of the organogelator, the negative charges on the LMWG are compensated by the positive charges of the PTT. As a result, nanowires form through co-assembly. These nanowires are visualized by both transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and atomic force microscopy (AFM). Depending on the concentration and ratio of the components these nanowires can be micrometers long. These measurements further suggest that the aggregates adopt a helical conformation. The morphology of these nanowires are studied with fluorescent confocal laser scanning microscopy (CLSM). The interactions between LMWG and PTT are characterized by steady-state and time-resolved fluorescence spectroscopy studies. The steady-state spectra indicate that the backbone of the PTT adopts a more planar and more aggregated conformation when interacting with LMWG. The time- resolved fluorescence decay studies confirm this interpretation.

  12. Negative, Null and Beneficial Effects of Drinking Water on Energy Intake, Energy Expenditure, Fat Oxidation and Weight Change in Randomized Trials: A Qualitative Review

    PubMed Central

    Stookey, Jodi J. D.

    2016-01-01

    Drinking water has heterogeneous effects on energy intake (EI), energy expenditure (EE), fat oxidation (FO) and weight change in randomized controlled trials (RCTs) involving adults and/or children. The aim of this qualitative review of RCTs was to identify conditions associated with negative, null and beneficial effects of drinking water on EI, EE, FO and weight, to generate hypotheses about ways to optimize drinking water interventions for weight management. RCT conditions that are associated with negative or null effects of drinking water on EI, EE and/or FO in the short term are associated with negative or null effects on weight over the longer term. RCT conditions that are associated with lower EI, increased EE and/or increased FO in the short term are associated with less weight gain or greater weight loss over time. Drinking water instead of caloric beverages decreases EI when food intake is ad libitum. Drinking water increases EE in metabolically-inflexible, obese individuals. Drinking water increases FO when blood carbohydrate and/or insulin concentrations are not elevated and when it is consumed instead of caloric beverages or in volumes that alter hydration status. Further research is needed to confirm the observed associations and to determine if/what specific conditions optimize drinking water interventions for weight management. PMID:26729162

  13. Negative, Null and Beneficial Effects of Drinking Water on Energy Intake, Energy Expenditure, Fat Oxidation and Weight Change in Randomized Trials: A Qualitative Review.

    PubMed

    Stookey, Jodi J D

    2016-01-02

    Drinking water has heterogeneous effects on energy intake (EI), energy expenditure (EE), fat oxidation (FO) and weight change in randomized controlled trials (RCTs) involving adults and/or children. The aim of this qualitative review of RCTs was to identify conditions associated with negative, null and beneficial effects of drinking water on EI, EE, FO and weight, to generate hypotheses about ways to optimize drinking water interventions for weight management. RCT conditions that are associated with negative or null effects of drinking water on EI, EE and/or FO in the short term are associated with negative or null effects on weight over the longer term. RCT conditions that are associated with lower EI, increased EE and/or increased FO in the short term are associated with less weight gain or greater weight loss over time. Drinking water instead of caloric beverages decreases EI when food intake is ad libitum. Drinking water increases EE in metabolically-inflexible, obese individuals. Drinking water increases FO when blood carbohydrate and/or insulin concentrations are not elevated and when it is consumed instead of caloric beverages or in volumes that alter hydration status. Further research is needed to confirm the observed associations and to determine if/what specific conditions optimize drinking water interventions for weight management.

  14. Minimum S-T Cut of a Planar Undirected Network in O(n log2(n)) Time,

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1980-01-01

    a minimum s-t cut of a planar undirected network [Gomory and Hu, 1961] and [ Itai and Shiloach, 1979] 2 has time 0(n log(n)) and the best previous...the same face) which efficiently implemented by [Gomory and Hu, 1961] and [ Itai and Shiloach, 1979] has time 0(n log(n)). Moreover, 0(n) executions...in time 0(Q (n)), where L = range(c). Note that this implies the 0(n log(n)) time minimum s-t cut algorithm of [Gomory and Hu, 1961] and [ Itai and

  15. The effects of information, social and financial incentives on voluntary undirected blood donations: evidence from a field experiment in Argentina.

    PubMed

    Iajya, Victor; Lacetera, Nicola; Macis, Mario; Slonim, Robert

    2013-12-01

    In many low- and middle-income countries blood donations per capita are substantially lower than in advanced economies. In these countries blood supply is mostly collected through directed donations from relatives and friends to individuals needing transfusions or to replace blood used in emergencies. The World Health Organization considers this method of blood supply inefficient compared to undirected voluntary donations. To examine methods to motivate undirected voluntary donations, we ran a large-scale, natural field experiment in Argentina, testing the effectiveness of information, social and financial incentives. We find that only higher-valued financial incentives generated more donations, increasing with the value of the reward. These incentives did not create adverse selection in the safety or usability of the donated blood. We discuss the implications of our findings for researchers interested in understanding motivations for pro-social behavior and for health agencies and policymakers concerned with the current and growing shortages in blood supply in low- and middle-income countries.

  16. Intuitive weights of harm for therapeutic decision making in smear-negative pulmonary Tuberculosis: an interview study of physicians in India, Pakistan and Bangladesh

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background To estimate the amount of regret and weights of harm by omission and commission during therapeutic decisions for smear-negative pulmonary Tuberculosis. Methods An interviewer-administered survey was done among young physicians in India, Pakistan and Bangladesh with a previously used questionnaire. The physicians were asked to estimate probabilities of morbidity and mortality related with disease and treatment and intuitive weights of omission and commission for treatment of suspected pulmonary Tuberculosis. A comparison with weights based on literature data was made. Results A total of 242 physicians completed the interview. Their mean age was 28 years, 158 (65.3%) were males. Median probability (%) of mortality and morbidity of disease was estimated at 65% (inter quartile range [IQR] 50-75) and 20% (IQR 8-30) respectively. Median probability of morbidity and mortality in case of occurrence of side effects was 15% (IQR 10-30) and 8% (IQR 5-20) respectively. Probability of absolute treatment mortality was 0.7% which was nearly eight times higher than 0.09% reported in the literature data. The omission vs. commission harm ratios based on intuitive weights, weights calculated with literature data, weights calculated with intuitive estimates of determinants adjusted without and with regret were 3.0 (1.4-5.0), 16 (11-26), 33 (11-98) and 48 (11-132) respectively. Thresholds based on pure regret and hybrid model (clinicians’ intuitive estimates and regret) were 25 (16.7-41.7), and 2(0.75-7.5) respectively but utility-based thresholds for clinicians’ estimates and literature data were 2.9 (1-8.3) and 5.9 (3.7-7.7) respectively. Conclusion Intuitive weight of harm related to false-negatives was estimated higher than that to false-positives. The mortality related to treatment was eightfold overestimated. Adjusting expected utility thresholds for subjective regret had little effect. PMID:25104297

  17. The H0 function, a new index for detecting structural/topological complexity information in undirected graphs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Buscema, Massimo; Asadi-Zeydabadi, Masoud; Lodwick, Weldon; Breda, Marco

    2016-04-01

    Significant applications such as the analysis of Alzheimer's disease differentiated from dementia, or in data mining of social media, or in extracting information of drug cartel structural composition, are often modeled as graphs. The structural or topological complexity or lack of it in a graph is quite often useful in understanding and more importantly, resolving the problem. We are proposing a new index we call the H0function to measure the structural/topological complexity of a graph. To do this, we introduce the concept of graph pruning and its associated algorithm that is used in the development of our measure. We illustrate the behavior of our measure, the H0 function, through different examples found in the appendix. These examples indicate that the H0 function contains information that is useful and important characteristics of a graph. Here, we restrict ourselves to undirected.

  18. Analysis of low molecular weight acids by negative mode matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Shroff, Rohit; Muck, Alexander; Svatos, Ales

    2007-01-01

    Free 9-aminoacridine base is demonstrated to be a suitable matrix for negative mode matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometric (MALDI-TOFMS) analysis of a wide range of low molecular weight organic acids including aliphatic (from acetic to palmitic acid), aromatic acids, phytohormones (e.g. jasmonic and salicylic acids), and amino acids. Low limits of quantitation in the femtomolar range (jasmonic - 250 fmol; caffeic - 160 fmol and salicylic - 12.5 fmol) and linear detector response over two concentration orders in the pico- and femtomolar range are extremely encouraging for the direct study of such acids in complex biological matrices.

  19. Critical Care Needs in Patients with Diffusion-Weighted Imaging Negative MRI after tPA - Does One Size Fit All?

    PubMed Central

    Faigle, Roland; Marsh, Elisabeth B.; Llinas, Rafael H.; Urrutia, Victor C.

    2015-01-01

    Background and Purpose Patients who receive intravenous (IV) tissue plasminogen activator (tPA) for ischemic stroke are currently monitored in an intensive care unit (ICU) or a comparable stroke unit for at least 24 hours due to the high frequency of neurological exams and vital sign checks. The present study evaluates ICU needs in patients with diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI) negative MRI after IV tPA. Methods A retrospective chart review was performed for 209 patients who received IV tPA for acute stroke. Data on stroke risk factors, physiologic parameters, stroke severity, MRI characteristics, and final diagnosis were collected. The timing and nature of ICU interventions, if needed, was recorded. Multivariable logistic regression was used to determine factors associated with subsequent ICU needs. Results Patients with cerebral infarct on MRI after tPA had over 9 times higher odds of requiring ICU care compared to patients with DWI negative MRI (OR 9.2, 95% CI 2.49–34.15). All DWI negative patients requiring ICU care did so by the end of tPA infusion (p = 0.006). Among patients with DWI negative MRI, need for ICU interventions was associated with higher NIH Stroke Scale (NIHSS) scores (p<0.001), uncontrolled hypertension (p<0.001), seizure at onset (p = 0.002), and reduced estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) (p = 0.010). Conclusions Only a small number of DWI negative patients required ICU care. In patients without critical care needs by the end of thrombolysis, post-tPA MRI may be considered for triaging DWI negative patients to a less resource intense monitoring environment. PMID:26517543

  20. Flocking for multi-agent systems with unknown nonlinear time-varying uncertainties under a fixed undirected graph

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Luo, Jie; Cao, Chengyu

    2015-05-01

    This paper presents a flocking algorithm for networked multi-agent systems with unknown, nonlinear, time-varying uncertainties by integrating cooperative control and ? adaptive control methods. An ideal multi-agent system without uncertainties is introduced first. The cooperative control law, based on an artificial potential function, is designed to make the ideal multi-agent system achieve flocking under a fixed and connected undirected graph. Information of ideal states, instead of real states, is exchanged among agents through a communication network. The presence of uncertainties will lead to the degeneration of the performance or even destabilize the entire multi-agent system. The ? adaptive control law is therefore introduced to handle unknown, nonlinear, time-varying uncertainties. By integrating the cooperative control law with the adaptive control law, the real multi-agent system stays close to the ideal multi-agent system which achieves flocking asymptotically under a connected graph. Simulation results of two-dimensional flocking with uncertainties are provided to demonstrate the presented flocking algorithm.

  1. Clinically Confirmed Stroke With Negative Diffusion-Weighted Imaging Magnetic Resonance Imaging: Longitudinal Study of Clinical Outcomes, Stroke Recurrence, and Systematic Review.

    PubMed

    Makin, Stephen D J; Doubal, Fergus N; Dennis, Martin S; Wardlaw, Joanna M

    2015-11-01

    We sought to establish whether the presence (versus absence) of a lesion on magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) with diffusion weighting (DWI-MRI) at presentation with acute stroke is associated with worse clinical outcomes at 1 year. We recruited consecutive patients with a nondisabling ischemic stroke and performed DWI-MRI. Patients were followed up at 1 year to establish stroke recurrence (clinical or on MRI), cognitive impairment (Addenbrooke Cognitive Assessment Revised,<88) and modified Rankin Scale. A median of 4 days post stroke, one third (76/264; 29%) of patients did not have a DWI lesion (95% confidence interval, 23%-35%). There was no statistically significant difference between those with and without a DWI lesion with respect to age or vascular risk factors. Patients without a lesion were more likely to be women or have previous stroke. At 1 year, 11 of 76 (14%) patients with a DWI-negative index stroke had a clinical diagnosis of recurrent stroke or transient ischemic attack, 33% had cognitive impairment (Addenbrooke Cognitive Assessment Revised<88), and 40% still had modified Rankin Scale>1, no different from DWI-positive patients; DWI-positive patients were more likely to have a new lesion on MRI (14%), symptomatic or asymptomatic, than DWI-negative patients (2%; P=0.02). Our data were consistent with 6 other studies (total n=976), pooled proportion of DWI-negative patients was 21% (95% confidence interval, 12%-32%). Nearly one third of patients with nondisabling stroke do not have a relevant lesion on acute DWI-MRI. Patients with negative DWI-MRI had no better prognosis than patients with a lesion. DWI-negative stroke patients should receive secondary prevention. © 2015 The Authors.

  2. Fluconazole prophylaxis is associated with a decreased rate of coagulase-negative Staphylococcal infections in a subset of extremely low birth weight neonates.

    PubMed

    Abou Jaoude, Roland; Zauk, Adel; Morel, Charlotte; McClure, Diane; Lamacchia, Michael; DeBari, Vincent A

    2014-08-01

    Fluconazole prophylaxis is being used efficaciously in the neonatal intensive care unit (NICU) for fungal prophylaxis in very low birth weight and extremely low birth weight (ELBW) neonates. Little is known about the effect of fluconazole prophylaxis on bacterial infections. The purpose of this study was to examine that issue in a subset of ELBW, those weighing ≤900 g at birth. This is a retrospective study conducted in a level III NICU at state-designated children hospital in New Jersey (USA). We examined the data from our records of neonates ≤ 900 g birth weight during the period March 1, 2007-February 28, 2011. Inclusion in the study was all infants ≤ 900 g before (n = 67) and after (n = 81) the institution of fluconazole prophylaxis. Fluconazole prophylaxis was accompanied by a significant decrease in both the rate and number of days of bacterial infections as well as co-infections. We found that the incidence of coagulase-negative Staphylococcus (CONS) decreased from 46.2 to 24.7 % (OR 2.63; 95 % CI 1.31-5.27). Similarly, days of infection also decreased significantly (p < 0.0001). These data suggest that fluconazole prophylaxis may be associated with a reduction in CONS infections in that subset of ELBW neonates.

  3. An Algorithm for Enumerating the Near-Minimum Weight S-T Cuts of a Graph

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2000-12-01

    We provide an algorithm for enumerating near-minimum weight s-t cuts in directed and undirected graphs, with applications to network interdiction and...inclusion and exclusion of edges in locally minimum-weight cuts identified with a maximum flow algorithm. We prove a polynomial-time complexity result when...with 128 megabytes of memory, and tested on a number of graphs. For example, all 274,550 near-minimum cuts within 10% of the minimum weight can be

  4. On the use of a spatial cue as prior information for stereo sound source separation based on spatially weighted non-negative tensor factorization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mitsufuji, Yuki; Roebel, Axel

    2014-12-01

    This paper proposes a new method to enhance the performance of non-negative tensor factorization (NTF), one of the most prevalent source separation techniques nowadays. The enhancement is mainly achieved by introducing weights on bin-wise NTF cost functions, which differentiates NTF target components from other components so that the target should be approximated more precisely than others. Assuming sources are distributed sparsely in a 2-D sound field, the target components approximating a target source are exclusively selected by a user, or from accompanying images by means of providing a spatial cue to an NTF framework. The spatial cue is given in a similar format to the well-known binaural feature, inter-channel level difference (IID). This helps incorporate the spatial cue into the system, since the similar features of this format can be easily calculated from every spectrogram bin. The weighting functions are designed taking into account the distance between the spatial cue and the calculated features. Namely, the largest values are assigned to the spectrogram bins where the features present the highest similarity to the spatial cue, and the value decreases in proportion to the distance between them. The method is evaluated in terms of separation quality, comparing the proposed algorithm to the conventional NTF technique, PARAFAC-NTF, as well as other source separation techniques. The evaluation results measured by the metric signal-to-distortion ratio (SDR), signal-to-interference ratio (SIR), and signal-to-artifact ratio (SAR) demonstrate the effectiveness of the new method, improved primarily by the weighting function and the initialization based on IID, while demonstrating a decrease in computational costs, a significant problem with NTF.

  5. Antibiotic susceptibility of coagulase-negative staphylococci isolated from very low birth weight babies: comprehensive comparisons of bacteria at different stages of biofilm formation

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Coagulase-negative staphylococci are major causes of bloodstream infections in very low birth weight babies cared for in Neonatal Intensive Care Units. The virulence of these bacteria is mainly due to their ability to form biofilms on indwelling medical devices. Biofilm-related infections often fail to respond to antibiotic chemotherapy guided by conventional antibiotic susceptibility tests. Methods Coagulase-negative staphylococcal blood culture isolates were grown in different phases relevant to biofilm formation: planktonic cells at mid-log phase, planktonic cells at stationary phase, adherent monolayers and mature biofilms and their susceptibilities to conventional antibiotics were assessed. The effects of oxacillin, gentamicin, and vancomycin on preformed biofilms, at the highest achievable serum concentrations were examined. Epifluorescence microscopy and confocal laser scanning microscopy in combination with bacterial viability staining and polysaccharide staining were used to confirm the stimulatory effects of antibiotics on biofilms. Results Most coagulase-negative staphylococcal clinical isolates were resistant to penicillin G (100%), gentamicin (83.3%) and oxacillin (91.7%) and susceptible to vancomycin (100%), ciprofloxacin (100%), and rifampicin (79.2%). Bacteria grown as adherent monolayers showed similar susceptibilities to their planktonic counterparts at mid-log phase. Isolates in a biofilm growth mode were more resistant to antibiotics than both planktonic cultures at mid-log phase and adherent monolayers; however they were equally resistant or less resistant than planktonic cells at stationary phase. Moreover, for some cell-wall active antibiotics, concentrations higher than conventional MICs were required to prevent the establishment of planktonic cultures from biofilms. Finally, the biofilm-growth of two S. capitis isolates could be enhanced by oxacillin at the highest achievable serum concentration. Conclusion We conclude that the

  6. Structures Showing Negative Correlations of Signal Intensity with Postnatal Age on T1-weighted Imaging of the Brain of Newborns and Infants.

    PubMed

    Hori, Saeka; Taoka, Toshiaki; Ochi, Tomoko; Miyasaka, Toshiteru; Sakamoto, Masahiko; Takayama, Katsutoshi; Wada, Takeshi; Myochin, Kaoru; Takahashi, Yukihiro; Kichikawa, Kimihiko

    2017-02-16

    Although the neonatal and infantile brain typically shows sequential T1 shortening according to gestational age as a result of myelination, several structures do not follow this rule. We evaluated the relationship between the signal intensity of various structures in the neonatal and infantile brain on T1-weighted imaging (T1WI) and either postnatal or gestational age. We examined magnetic resonance images from 120 newborns and infants without any abnormalities in the central nervous system. Written informed consent was obtained from all parents and the institutional review board approved the study. Gestational age at examination ranged from 35 weeks, 3 days to 46 weeks, 6 days, and postnatal age ranged from 7 days to 127 days. Signal intensity on T1WI was evaluated on a scale from Grade 1 (indistinguishable from surrounding structures) to Grade 4 (higher than cortex and close to fat). We evaluated relationships between the T1 signal grades of various structures in the neonatal brain and postnatal or gestational age using Spearman's correlation analysis. Significant positive correlations were identified between T1 signal grade and gestational age in the pyramidal tract (P < 0.001). Conversely, significant negative correlations were evident between T1 signal grade and postnatal age (P < 0.001), in structures including the stria medullaris thalami, fornix cerebellar vermis, dentate nucleus and anterior pituitary gland. Significant negative correlations exist between signal intensity on T1WI and postnatal age in some structures of the neonatal and infantile brain. Some mechanisms other than myelination might play roles in the course of signal appearance.

  7. Transitive closure and metric inequality of weighted graphs:detecting protein interaction modules using cliques

    SciTech Connect

    Ding, Chris; He, Xiaofeng; Xiong, Hui; Peng, Hanchuan; Holbrook,Stephen R.

    2006-06-02

    We study transitivity properties of edge weights in complex networks. We show that enforcing transitivity leads to a transitivity inequality which is equivalent to ultra-metric inequality. This can be used to define transitive closure on weighted undirected graphs, which can be computed using a modified Floyd-Warshall algorithm. We outline several applications and present results of detecting protein functional modules in a protein interaction network.

  8. Link Prediction in Weighted Networks: A Weighted Mutual Information Model

    PubMed Central

    Zhu, Boyao; Xia, Yongxiang

    2016-01-01

    The link-prediction problem is an open issue in data mining and knowledge discovery, which attracts researchers from disparate scientific communities. A wealth of methods have been proposed to deal with this problem. Among these approaches, most are applied in unweighted networks, with only a few taking the weights of links into consideration. In this paper, we present a weighted model for undirected and weighted networks based on the mutual information of local network structures, where link weights are applied to further enhance the distinguishable extent of candidate links. Empirical experiments are conducted on four weighted networks, and results show that the proposed method can provide more accurate predictions than not only traditional unweighted indices but also typical weighted indices. Furthermore, some in-depth discussions on the effects of weak ties in link prediction as well as the potential to predict link weights are also given. This work may shed light on the design of algorithms for link prediction in weighted networks. PMID:26849659

  9. Pedicle digital pad transfer and negative pressure wound therapy for reconstruction of the weight-bearing surface after complete digital loss in a dog.

    PubMed

    Or, M; Van Goethem, B; Polis, I; Spillebeen, A; Vandekerckhove, P; Saunders, J; de Rooster, H

    2015-01-01

    A young Labrador Retriever was presented for treatment of severe distal hindlimb necrosis caused by bandage ischemia. During digit amputation at the metatarsophalangeal joints, the third and fourth digital pads were salvaged and transferred to the metatarsal stump to create a weight-bearing surface. Negative pressure wound therapy (NPWT) was utilized for flap immobilization and to promote granulation tissue in the remaining wound defect. Sturdy adherence of the digital pads was achieved after only four days. The skin defect healed completely by second intention and the stump was epithelialized with a thin pad after three months. At the nine month follow-up examination, the stump had a thick hyperkeratinized pad. The dog walked and ran without any apparent signs of discomfort and compensated for the loss of limb length by extending the stifle and tarsocrural joints. Despite a challenging wound in a difficult anatomical location, digital pad flap transfer and NPWT proved successful in restoring long-term ambulation in an active large breed dog.

  10. Can Parental Expectations Compensate for the Negative Effects of Low-Birth Weight on Academic Achievement? A Cross-Sectional Analysis of the National PEELS Data

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cormier-Zenon, Dolores E.

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to examine the potential impact parental expectations have on the academic achievement of children born with low-birth weight to inform educational leaders. Literature on levels of children born with birth weights as low as 1 LB to as high as 9 LBS were evaluated based on: birth weight, academic achievement, and…

  11. Can Parental Expectations Compensate for the Negative Effects of Low-Birth Weight on Academic Achievement? A Cross-Sectional Analysis of the National PEELS Data

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cormier-Zenon, Dolores E.

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to examine the potential impact parental expectations have on the academic achievement of children born with low-birth weight to inform educational leaders. Literature on levels of children born with birth weights as low as 1 LB to as high as 9 LBS were evaluated based on: birth weight, academic achievement, and…

  12. Prevalence of antibiotic resistance in multi-drug resistant coagulase-negative staphylococci isolated from invasive infection in very low birth weight neonates in two Polish NICUs

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Multi-drug resistant coagulaso-negative staphylococci (CNS) have become an increasing problem in nosocomial infections connected with the presence of medical devices. The paper aimed to analyze the prevalence of antibiotic resistance in CNS isolated from invasive infection in very low birth weight (VLBW) neonates. Methods Continuous prospective target surveillance of infections was conducted in 2009 at two Polish NICUs that participated in the Polish Neonatology Surveillance Network (PNSN). The study covered 386 neonates with VLBW (≤1500 g), among which 262 cases of invasive infection were detected with predominance of CNS (123; 47%). Altogether, 100 CNS strains were analyzed. The resistance phenotypes were determined according to EUCAST. Resistance genes: mecA, ermA, ermB, ermC, msrA, aac(6')/aph(2''), ant(4')-Ia and aph(3')-IIIa were detected using multiplex PCR. Results The most common species was S. epidermidis (63%), then S. haemolyticus (28%) and other CNS (9%). Among S. epidermidis, 98% of isolates were resistant to methicillin, 90% to erythromycin, 39% to clindamycin, 95% to gentamicin, 60% to amikacin, 36% to ofloxacin, 2% to tigecycline, 3% to linezolid and 13% to teicoplanin. Among S. haemolyticus isolates, 100% were resistant to methicillin, erythromycin and gentamicin, 18% to clindamycin, 50% to amikacin, 86% to ofloxacin, 14% to tigecycline and 4% to teicoplanin. No resistance to linezolid was detected for S. haemolyticus isolates. Moreover, all isolates of S. epidermidis and S. haemolyticus were susceptible to vancomycin. The mecA gene was detected in 98% of S. epidermidis isolates and all of S. haemolyticus ones. Among macrolide resistance isolates, the ermC was most common in S. epidermidis (60%) while msrA was prevalent in S. haemolyticus (93%). The ermC gene was indicated in all isolates with cMLSB, whereas mrsA was found in isolates with MSB phenotype. Of the aminoglycoside resistance genes, aac(6')/aph(2'') were present alone in

  13. Prevalence of antibiotic resistance in multi-drug resistant coagulase-negative staphylococci isolated from invasive infection in very low birth weight neonates in two Polish NICUs.

    PubMed

    Brzychczy-Wloch, Monika; Borszewska-Kornacka, Maria; Gulczynska, Ewa; Wojkowska-Mach, Jadwiga; Sulik, Malgorzata; Grzebyk, Monika; Luchter, Malgorzata; Heczko, Piotr B; Bulanda, Malgorzata

    2013-12-20

    Multi-drug resistant coagulaso-negative staphylococci (CNS) have become an increasing problem in nosocomial infections connected with the presence of medical devices. The paper aimed to analyze the prevalence of antibiotic resistance in CNS isolated from invasive infection in very low birth weight (VLBW) neonates. Continuous prospective target surveillance of infections was conducted in 2009 at two Polish NICUs that participated in the Polish Neonatology Surveillance Network (PNSN). The study covered 386 neonates with VLBW (≤1500 g), among which 262 cases of invasive infection were detected with predominance of CNS (123; 47%). Altogether, 100 CNS strains were analyzed. The resistance phenotypes were determined according to EUCAST. Resistance genes: mecA, ermA, ermB, ermC, msrA, aac(6')/aph(2''), ant(4')-Ia and aph(3')-IIIa were detected using multiplex PCR. The most common species was S. epidermidis (63%), then S. haemolyticus (28%) and other CNS (9%). Among S. epidermidis, 98% of isolates were resistant to methicillin, 90% to erythromycin, 39% to clindamycin, 95% to gentamicin, 60% to amikacin, 36% to ofloxacin, 2% to tigecycline, 3% to linezolid and 13% to teicoplanin. Among S. haemolyticus isolates, 100% were resistant to methicillin, erythromycin and gentamicin, 18% to clindamycin, 50% to amikacin, 86% to ofloxacin, 14% to tigecycline and 4% to teicoplanin. No resistance to linezolid was detected for S. haemolyticus isolates. Moreover, all isolates of S. epidermidis and S. haemolyticus were susceptible to vancomycin. The mecA gene was detected in 98% of S. epidermidis isolates and all of S. haemolyticus ones. Among macrolide resistance isolates, the ermC was most common in S. epidermidis (60%) while msrA was prevalent in S. haemolyticus (93%). The ermC gene was indicated in all isolates with cMLSB, whereas mrsA was found in isolates with MSB phenotype. Of the aminoglycoside resistance genes, aac(6')/aph(2'') were present alone in 83% of S. epidermidis

  14. Changes in glucose disposal after a caloric restriction-induced weight loss program in obese postmenopausal women: characteristics of positive and negative responders in a Montreal-Ottawa New Emerging Team study.

    PubMed

    Myette-Côté, Étienne; Doucet, Éric; Prud'homme, Denis; Rabasa-Lhoret, Rémi; Lavoie, Jean-Marc; Brochu, Martin

    2015-01-01

    This study aims to investigate individual characteristics that explain interindividual variations in glucose disposal in response to a 6-month weight loss program in obese postmenopausal women. The cohort was divided into tertiles based on changes in glucose disposal after weight loss. Only women in the upper tertile (positive responders: Δ glucose disposal ≥ 0.92 mg/kg/min; n = 19) and lower tertile (negative responders: Δ glucose disposal ≤ -0.23 mg/kg/min; n = 19) were considered for analyses. Outcome measures included body weight, lean body mass (LBM), LBM index (= LBM / height [m]), fat mass (FM), FM index (= FM / height [m]), visceral fat, subcutaneous abdominal fat, high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hsCRP) levels, interleukin-6, lipid profile, physical activity levels, fasting blood glucose and insulin levels, glucose disposal by hyperinsulinemic-euglycemic clamp technique, and resting blood pressure. At baseline, positive responders had higher triglycerides and hsCRP levels and lower glucose disposal (0.01 < P < 0.05) than negative responders. Except for visceral fat, the entire cohort showed significant decreases in all measures of body composition (P < 0.005) after weight loss, with greater decreases in body weight, body mass index, and FM index in positive responders (P < 0.005). Finally, data revealed that only positive responders showed decreases in LBM, LBM index, and hsCRP levels after weight loss (P between 0.01 and 0.001). An important interindividual variability in changes in glucose disposal after weight loss is observed. Interestingly, participants who display improvements in glucose disposal also show significant decreases in LBM, LBM index, and hsCRP after weight loss.

  15. Asymmetric network connectivity using weighted harmonic averages

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morrison, Greg; Mahadevan, L.

    2011-02-01

    We propose a non-metric measure of the "closeness" felt between two nodes in an undirected, weighted graph using a simple weighted harmonic average of connectivity, that is a real-valued Generalized Erdös Number (GEN). While our measure is developed with a collaborative network in mind, the approach can be of use in a variety of artificial and real-world networks. We are able to distinguish between network topologies that standard distance metrics view as identical, and use our measure to study some simple analytically tractable networks. We show how this might be used to look at asymmetry in authorship networks such as those that inspired the integer Erdös numbers in mathematical coauthorships. We also show the utility of our approach to devise a ratings scheme that we apply to the data from the NetFlix prize, and find a significant improvement using our method over a baseline.

  16. The use of low molecular weight heparin reduced the fetal fraction and rendered the cell-free DNA testing for trisomy 21 false negative.

    PubMed

    Ma, Gwo-Chin; Wu, Wan-Ju; Lee, Mei-Hui; Lin, Yi-Shing; Chen, Ming

    2017-03-24

    Cell-free DNA (cfDNA) screening for fetal trisomy 21, 18, and 13 is now widely used in clinical practice. However, false-positives and false-negatives did occur(1,2) . Actually, the majority of fetal cfDNA in maternal blood is from placental trophoblasts. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  17. Self-Esteem and Negative Affect as Moderators of Sociocultural Influences on Body Dissatisfaction, Strategies To Decrease Weight, and Strategies To Increase Muscles among Adolescent Boys and Girls.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ricciardelli, Lina A.; McCabe, Marita P.

    2001-01-01

    Examined the impact of sociocultural influences and the moderating role of self-esteem and negative affect on body dissatisfaction and body change strategies for adolescent boys and girls. Surveys indicated that sociocultural pressures significantly predicted body dissatisfaction and body change strategies among both sexes. Both boys and girls…

  18. Self-Esteem and Negative Affect as Moderators of Sociocultural Influences on Body Dissatisfaction, Strategies To Decrease Weight, and Strategies To Increase Muscles among Adolescent Boys and Girls.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ricciardelli, Lina A.; McCabe, Marita P.

    2001-01-01

    Examined the impact of sociocultural influences and the moderating role of self-esteem and negative affect on body dissatisfaction and body change strategies for adolescent boys and girls. Surveys indicated that sociocultural pressures significantly predicted body dissatisfaction and body change strategies among both sexes. Both boys and girls…

  19. On the string equation with a singular weight belonging to the space of multipliers in Sobolev spaces with negative index of smoothness

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tikhonov, Yu V.; Sheipak, I. A.

    2016-12-01

    We study spectral properties of the boundary-value problem -y''-λρ y=0, y(0)=y(1)=0, in the case when the weight ρ belongs to the space M of multipliers from the space \\overset{\\circ}{W}{}_21 \\lbrack 0,1 \\rbrack to the dual space \\bigl(\\overset{\\circ}{W}{}_21 \\lbrack 0,1 \\rbrack \\bigr)'. We obtain a criterion for the generalized derivative (in the sense of distributions) of a piecewise-constant affinely self-similar function to lie in M. For general weights in this class we show that the spectrum of the problem is discrete and the eigenvalues grow exponentially. The nature of this growth is determined by the parameters of self-similarity. When the parameters of self-similarity reach the boundary of the set where ρ\\in M, the problem exhibits continuous spectrum.

  20. Randomizing world trade. II. A weighted network analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Squartini, Tiziano; Fagiolo, Giorgio; Garlaschelli, Diego

    2011-10-01

    Based on the misleading expectation that weighted network properties always offer a more complete description than purely topological ones, current economic models of the International Trade Network (ITN) generally aim at explaining local weighted properties, not local binary ones. Here we complement our analysis of the binary projections of the ITN by considering its weighted representations. We show that, unlike the binary case, all possible weighted representations of the ITN (directed and undirected, aggregated and disaggregated) cannot be traced back to local country-specific properties, which are therefore of limited informativeness. Our two papers show that traditional macroeconomic approaches systematically fail to capture the key properties of the ITN. In the binary case, they do not focus on the degree sequence and hence cannot characterize or replicate higher-order properties. In the weighted case, they generally focus on the strength sequence, but the knowledge of the latter is not enough in order to understand or reproduce indirect effects.

  1. Weighted Average Consensus-Based Unscented Kalman Filtering.

    PubMed

    Li, Wangyan; Wei, Guoliang; Han, Fei; Liu, Yurong

    2016-02-01

    In this paper, we are devoted to investigate the consensus-based distributed state estimation problems for a class of sensor networks within the unscented Kalman filter (UKF) framework. The communication status among sensors is represented by a connected undirected graph. Moreover, a weighted average consensus-based UKF algorithm is developed for the purpose of estimating the true state of interest, and its estimation error is bounded in mean square which has been proven in the following section. Finally, the effectiveness of the proposed consensus-based UKF algorithm is validated through a simulation example.

  2. Reaching Non-Negative Edge Consensus of Networked Dynamical Systems.

    PubMed

    Wang, Xiao Ling; Su, Housheng; Chen, Michael Z Q; Wang, Xiao Fan; Chen, Guanrong

    2017-09-18

    In this paper, the problem of non-negative edge consensus of undirected networked linear time-invariant systems is addressed by associating each edge of the network with a state variable, for which a distributed algorithm is constructed. Sufficient conditions referring only to the number of edges are derived for non-negative edge consensus of the networked systems. Subsequently, the linear programming method and a low-gain feedback technique are introduced to simplify the design of the feedback gain matrix for achieving the non-negative edge consensus. It is found that the low-gain feedback technique has a good effect on the non-negative edge consensus of the networked systems subject to input saturation. Numerical simulations are presented to verify the effectiveness of the theoretical results.

  3. Most Undirected Random Graphs Are Amplifiers of Selection for Birth-Death Dynamics, but Suppressors of Selection for Death-Birth Dynamics.

    PubMed

    Hindersin, Laura; Traulsen, Arne

    2015-11-01

    We analyze evolutionary dynamics on graphs, where the nodes represent individuals of a population. The links of a node describe which other individuals can be displaced by the offspring of the individual on that node. Amplifiers of selection are graphs for which the fixation probability is increased for advantageous mutants and decreased for disadvantageous mutants. A few examples of such amplifiers have been developed, but so far it is unclear how many such structures exist and how to construct them. Here, we show that almost any undirected random graph is an amplifier of selection for Birth-death updating, where an individual is selected to reproduce with probability proportional to its fitness and one of its neighbors is replaced by that offspring at random. If we instead focus on death-Birth updating, in which a random individual is removed and its neighbors compete for the empty spot, then the same ensemble of graphs consists of almost only suppressors of selection for which the fixation probability is decreased for advantageous mutants and increased for disadvantageous mutants. Thus, the impact of population structure on evolutionary dynamics is a subtle issue that will depend on seemingly minor details of the underlying evolutionary process.

  4. Some aspects of the tensile strength of undirectional glass fibre-polymethyl methacrylate composite used in dentures.

    PubMed

    Vallittu, P K

    1998-02-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the tensile strength and E-modulus of unidirectional denture glass fibre-polymethyl methacrylate (GF-PMMA) composite with various fibre contents. The experimental values of tensile strength and E-modulus were compared with values obtained by a theoretical calculation. Autopolymerized PMMA test specimens (n = 6, per group) were reinforced with unidirectional E-glass fibres which had been wetted in a mixture of PMMA powder and monomer liquid. After storing the test specimens for 40 days in water at 37 degrees C, the tensile strength and E-modulus of the test specimens were measured. The increased amount of fibres in the PMMA matrix (up to 14.8% by weight) increased the mean tensile strength of the test specimens from 40.5 MPa to 91.2 MPa (P < 0.001) and the E-modulus from 2057 MPa to 3751 MPa (P < 0.001). The experimental tensile strength and Emodulus values were considerably lower than those based on the theoretical calculations. This was assumed to be due to the percentage of glass fibres unimpregnated with the PMMA resin. The presence of unimpregnated glass fibres was determined using light microscopy. The results of this study suggest that a new method of incorporating the glass fibres into the PMMA resin matrix should be developed in order to obtain a well-impregnated fibre composite reinforcement with high durability.

  5. Low molecular weight plant extract induces metabolic changes and the secretion of extracellular enzymes, but has a negative effect on the expression of the type-III secretion system in Xanthomonas campestris pv. campestris.

    PubMed

    Watt, Tony Francis; Vucur, Mihael; Baumgarth, Birgit; Watt, Steven Alexander; Niehaus, Karsten

    2009-03-10

    Xanthomonas campestris pathovar campestris (Xcc) is a plant pathogenic bacterium and as such has to adapt to a variety of environments. During the course of disease, Xcc colonizes the surface of its host, infects the xylem in the early stages, and develops a fully saprophytic life-style, aided by secreted degradative enzymes, in the late stages. To get some insight into this complex regulation, Xcc was cultivated in the presence of low molecular weight host plant extract (<10 kDa). From this experiments it could be observed, that malate and sucrose are taken up preferably in such an environment. Furthermore, it was demonstrated, that the plant extract has a negative effect on the gene expression of the hrp-gene cluster, although the activator hrpG was induced. Also, the secretion of degradative enzymes was shown to be upregulated. These observations indicate, that a low molecular weight plant extract (<10 kDa) is a sufficient signal to regulate metabolic pathways and the secretion of enzymes relevant for the development of virulence in Xanthomonas, but has a negative effect on the expression of genes involved in type-III secretion.

  6. CONDENSED MATTER: STRUCTURE, MECHANICAL AND THERMAL PROPERTIES: Self-Organization of Weighted Networks in Connection with the Misanthrope Process

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meng, Qing-Kuan; Zhu, Jian-Yang

    2009-08-01

    From an undirected random graph, by the weight redistribution of the edges, we obtain a weighted network. The weight redistribution of the edges can be connected to the well-known Misanthrope process, in which distinguishable particles hop among different urns. Under specific conditions, the condensation phenomena can be observed, i.e., nearly all the edges connect to one vertex in the network. When there is no condensation, by adjusting the parameters, the strength distribution can be scale-free or exponentially decreasing. The numerical results fit well with the analytical ones.

  7. Weight loss, weight regain and bone health.

    PubMed

    Pines, Amos

    2012-08-01

    The ideal body image for women these days is being slim but, in the real world, obesity becomes a major health problem even in the developing countries. Overweight, but also underweight, may have associated adverse outcomes in many bodily systems, including the bone. Only a few studies have investigated the consequences of intentional weight loss, then weight regain, on bone metabolism and bone density. It seems that the negative impact of bone loss is not reversed when weight partially rebounds following the end of active intervention programs. Thus the benefits and risks of any weight loss program should be addressed individually, and monitoring of bone parameters is recommended.

  8. Superbasic alkyl-substituted bisphosphazene proton sponges: a new class of deprotonating matrices for negative ion matrix-assisted ionization/laser desorption mass spectrometry of low molecular weight hardly ionizable analytes.

    PubMed

    Calvano, C D; Cataldi, T R I; Kögel, J F; Monopoli, A; Palmisano, F; Sundermeyer, J

    2016-07-30

    Here hardly ionizable and low molecular weight compounds are detected in negative ion mode by using novel superbasic proton sponges based on 1,8-bisphosphazenylnaphthalene (PN) as MALDI matrices. Among the selected proton sponges, 1,8-bis(trispyrrolidinophosphazenyl)naphthalene (TPPN) has shown the best behaviour as matrix since it allows the direct detection of intact cholesterol without derivatization also in real challenging samples. Very weakly acidic compounds such as sterols, steroids, fatty alcohols and saccharides were detected in reflectron negative ion mode by a MALDI TOF/TOF system equipped with a neodymium-doped yttrium lithium fluoride (Nd:YLF) laser (345 nm) with typical mass accuracy of 10 ppm. MS/MS experiments were performed by using ambient air as the collision gas. Contrary to traditional MALDI matrices, superbasic proton sponges allowed the easy deprotonation of an alcohol functional group without a previous chemical derivatization step. Experimental evidence indicates that analyte deprotonation is achieved in the condensed phase, i.e. PN superbasic proton sponges operate according to a recently proposed model named matrix assisted ionization/laser desorption (MAILD). A detection limit of 3 pmol/spot of cholesterol (model compound) with a signal-to-noise ratio ≥ 10 was typically obtained. For the first time, the usefulness of novel superbasic proton sponges is demonstrated for MALDI detection of hardly ionizable compounds such as sterols, steroids, fatty alcohols and saccharides. The leading candidate TPPN has been successfully applied for negative ion MAILD-MS analysis of cholesterol, fatty acids and phospholipids in egg yolk and brain tissue extracts. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  9. Thyroid and Weight

    MedlinePlus

    ... Differences in BMRs are associated with changes in energy balance. Energy balance reflects the difference between the amount of ... such as amphetamines, animals often have a negative energy balance which leads to weight loss. Based on ...

  10. Detecting communities by asymmetric intimacy in directed-weighted network

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Xingyuan; Qin, Xiaomeng

    Community detection and analysis have attracted wide public concerns over the recent years. Meanwhile, many related algorithms in complex networks have been proposed. However, most of them concentrate on undirected and unweighted networks. Concerning the significant theoretical value and potential application foreground for directed-weighted networks, in this paper, a novel hierarchical communities detection algorithm (termed as DCBAI) has been proposed on the basis of asymmetric intimacy between nodes. Community structures are effectively detected by node clustering algorithm in directed-weighted network, and a set of optimal communities are generated. In addition, a new and asymmetric parameter is adopted to measure the intimate relationship between nodes. We make some simulation using the proposed algorithm in real-world networks and artificial networks, and the result obtained proves that the parameter can describe the direct and indirect relationships between two nodes. Eventually, comparison with similar algorithms shows that our proposed algorithm has better performance.

  11. Pregnancy and Healthy Weight

    MedlinePlus

    ... Profiles Multimedia Pregnancy & Healthy Weight Skip sharing on social media links Share this: Page Content New research shows that maintaining a healthy weight before and during pregnancy can reduce the likelihood of negative effects for mothers and babies We’ve heard the ...

  12. Thai Negation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alam, Samsul

    A study analyzed the structure of negative sentences in the Thai language, based on data gathered from two native speakers. It is shown that the Thai negative marker generally occurs between the noun phrase (subject) and the verb phrase in simple active sentences and in passive sentences. Negation of noun phrases is also allowed in Thai, with a…

  13. Evidence of a local negative role for cocaine and amphetamine regulated transcript (CART), inhibins and low molecular weight insulin like growth factor binding proteins in regulation of granulosa cell estradiol production during follicular waves in cattle

    PubMed Central

    Kobayashi, Yasuhiro; Jimenez-Krassel, Fermin; Ireland, James J; Smith, George W

    2006-01-01

    The ability of ovarian follicles to produce large amounts of estradiol is a hallmark of follicle health status. Estradiol producing capacity is lost in ovarian follicles before morphological signs of atresia. A prominent wave like pattern of growth of antral follicles is characteristic of monotocous species such as cattle, horses and humans. While our knowledge of the role of pituitary gonadotropins in support of antral follicle growth and development is well established, the intrinsic factors that suppress estradiol production and may help promote atresia during follicular waves are not well understood. Numerous growth factors and cytokines have been reported to suppress granulosa cell estradiol production in vitro, but the association of expression of many such factors in vivo with follicle health status and their physiological significance are not clear. The purpose of this review is to discuss the in vivo and in vitro evidence supporting a local physiological role for cocaine and amphetamine regulated transcript, inhibins and low molecular weight insulin like growth factor binding proteins in negative regulation of granulosa cell estradiol production, with emphasis on evidence from the bovine model system. PMID:16611367

  14. Weight Management

    MedlinePlus

    ... Health Information Weight Management English English Español Weight Management Obesity is a chronic condition that affects more ... Liver (NASH) Heart Disease & Stroke Sleep Apnea Weight Management Topics About Food Portions Bariatric Surgery for Severe ...

  15. Weight Management

    MedlinePlus

    ... Weight share What It Takes to Lose Weight: Calorie Basics When you’re trying to lose weight... ... wcdapps.hhs.gov/Badges/Handlers/Badge.ashx?js=0&widgetname=betobaccofreew200short</NOFRAMES& ...

  16. Negative electrode composition

    DOEpatents

    Kaun, Thomas D.; Chilenskas, Albert A.

    1982-01-01

    A secondary electrochemical cell and a negative electrode composition for use therewith comprising a positive electrode containing an active material of a chalcogen or a transiton metal chalcogenide, a negative electrode containing a lithium-aluminum alloy and an amount of a ternary alloy sufficient to provide at least about 5 percent overcharge capacity relative to a negative electrode solely of the lithium-aluminum alloy, the ternary alloy comprising lithium, aluminum, and iron or cobalt, and an electrolyte containing lithium ions in contact with both of the positive and the negative electrodes. The ternary alloy is present in the electrode in the range of from about 5 percent to about 50 percent by weight of the electrode composition and may include lithium-aluminum-nickel alloy in combination with either the ternary iron or cobalt alloys. A plurality of series connected cells having overcharge capacity can be equalized on the discharge side without expensive electrical equipment.

  17. Weight gain attitudes among pregnant adolescents.

    PubMed

    Stevens-Simon, C; Nakashima, I; Andrews, D

    1993-07-01

    Maternal weight gain is the most important, manageable determinant of infant birth weight among adolescents. Negative attitudes toward weight gain may adversely affect maternal weight gain. We hypothesized that (a) negative attitudes toward pregnancy weight gain are more common among younger pregnant adolescents, and (b) negative attitudes toward pregnancy weight gain adversely affect adolescent maternal weight gain. The study subjects, 99, radially diverse, pregnant 13 through 18 year olds, completed the 18-item, Likert-format, Pregnancy and Weight Gain Attitude Scale. Responses to the questionnaire indicated that most (83.8%) of the adolescents we interviewed had a positive attitude toward pregnancy weight gain when they entered prenatal care. Univariate analyses revealed that attitudes toward weight gain were unrelated to the respondents' ages but inversely related to their prepregnant weights (-0.16; p = 0.06) and the severity of their symptoms of depression (r = -0.26; p = 0.004). Attitudes toward weight gain were also directly related to their family support (r = 0.17; p = 0.06). Weight gain was significantly related to 4 of the 18 scale items but not to the total attitude scale score. We conclude that (a) the developmental task of formulating a positive body image does not foster more negative attitudes toward pregnancy weight gain among younger adolescents; (b) negative weight gain attitudes are most common among heavier adolescents, depressed adolescents, and adolescents who do not perceive their families as supportive; and (c) negative weight gain attitudes could adversely affect pregnancy weight gain.

  18. Healthy Weight

    MedlinePlus

    ... this? Submit Button Our Division About Us Nutrition Physical Activity Overweight & Obesity Healthy Weight Breastfeeding Micronutrient Malnutrition State and Local Programs Healthy Weight Language: English (US) Español (Spanish) ...

  19. Body Weight

    MedlinePlus

    ... Sudden weight gain can be due to medicines, thyroid problems, heart failure, and kidney disease. Good nutrition and exercise can help in losing weight. Eating extra calories within a well-balanced diet and treating any underlying medical problems can help to add weight.

  20. Weight discrimination and bullying.

    PubMed

    Puhl, Rebecca M; King, Kelly M

    2013-04-01

    Despite significant attention to the medical impacts of obesity, often ignored are the negative outcomes that obese children and adults experience as a result of stigma, bias, and discrimination. Obese individuals are frequently stigmatized because of their weight in many domains of daily life. Research spanning several decades has documented consistent weight bias and stigmatization in employment, health care, schools, the media, and interpersonal relationships. For overweight and obese youth, weight stigmatization translates into pervasive victimization, teasing, and bullying. Multiple adverse outcomes are associated with exposure to weight stigmatization, including depression, anxiety, low self-esteem, body dissatisfaction, suicidal ideation, poor academic performance, lower physical activity, maladaptive eating behaviors, and avoidance of health care. This review summarizes the nature and extent of weight stigmatization against overweight and obese individuals, as well as the resulting consequences that these experiences create for social, psychological, and physical health for children and adults who are targeted. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Negative Certainty

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ariso, José María

    2017-01-01

    The definitions of "negative knowledge" and the studies in this regard published to date have not considered the categorial distinction Wittgenstein established between knowledge and certainty. Hence, the important role that certainty, despite its omission, should have in these definitions and studies has not yet been shown. In this…

  2. Negative Certainty

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ariso, José María

    2017-01-01

    The definitions of "negative knowledge" and the studies in this regard published to date have not considered the categorial distinction Wittgenstein established between knowledge and certainty. Hence, the important role that certainty, despite its omission, should have in these definitions and studies has not yet been shown. In this…

  3. Negative Numbers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Galbraith, Mary J.

    1974-01-01

    Examination of models for representing integers demonstrates that formal operational thought is required for establishing the operations on integers. Advocated is the use of many models for introducing negative numbers but, apart from addition, it is recommended that operations on integers be delayed until the formal operations stage. (JP)

  4. Weighted Automata and Weighted Logics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Droste, Manfred; Gastin, Paul

    In automata theory, a fundamental result of Büchi and Elgot states that the recognizable languages are precisely the ones definable by sentences of monadic second order logic. We will present a generalization of this result to the context of weighted automata. We develop syntax and semantics of a quantitative logic; like the behaviors of weighted automata, the semantics of sentences of our logic are formal power series describing ‘how often’ the sentence is true for a given word. Our main result shows that if the weights are taken in an arbitrary semiring, then the behaviors of weighted automata are precisely the series definable by sentences of our quantitative logic. We achieve a similar characterization for weighted Büchi automata acting on infinite words, if the underlying semiring satisfies suitable completeness assumptions. Moreover, if the semiring is additively locally finite or locally finite, then natural extensions of our weighted logic still have the same expressive power as weighted automata.

  5. Social Dominance Orientation, Dispositional Empathy, and Need for Cognitive Closure Moderate the Impact of Empathy-Skills Training, but Not Patient Contact, on Medical Students' Negative Attitudes toward Higher-Weight Patients.

    PubMed

    Meadows, Angela; Higgs, Suzanne; Burke, Sara E; Dovidio, John F; van Ryn, Michelle; Phelan, Sean M

    2017-01-01

    Anti-fat bias in healthcare providers and medical students has serious implications for quality of care of higher-weight patients. Studies of interventions aimed at reducing anti-fat attitudes in medical students have generally been disappointing, with little enduring effect. It is possible that some students may be more receptive to prejudice-reducing influences than others, due to underlying differences in their personal characteristics. It is also possible that attitudes toward patients, specifically, may differ from anti-fat attitudes in general, and prejudice-reduction effectiveness on patient-specific attitudes has not yet been evaluated. The present study explored the effect on general and patient-specific anti-fat attitudes of (1) contact with higher-weight individuals prior to and during medical school; and (2) training designed to increase medical students' empathy toward patients by encouraging them to take the patient's perspective during clinical encounters. The moderating role of individual difference factors on effectiveness of contact and student-reported hours of empathy training on patient-specific attitudes was assessed. A total of 3,576 students enrolled across 49 US medical schools completed an online survey at the start of their first year of medical school and at the end of their fourth year. Favorable contact experience with higher-weight patients predicted improved attitudes toward heavier patients after 4 years of medical school, and appeared sufficient to partially offset the effects of dislike of higher-weight individuals at baseline. The impact of favorable contact on general anti-fat attitudes was less strong, highlighting the importance of using target-specific outcome measures. The positive effects of favorable contact on attitudes toward higher-weight patients did not differ based on students' baseline levels of social dominance orientation, dispositional empathy, or need for cognitive closure. In contrast, the effectiveness of

  6. Social Dominance Orientation, Dispositional Empathy, and Need for Cognitive Closure Moderate the Impact of Empathy-Skills Training, but Not Patient Contact, on Medical Students' Negative Attitudes toward Higher-Weight Patients

    PubMed Central

    Meadows, Angela; Higgs, Suzanne; Burke, Sara E.; Dovidio, John F.; van Ryn, Michelle; Phelan, Sean M.

    2017-01-01

    Anti-fat bias in healthcare providers and medical students has serious implications for quality of care of higher-weight patients. Studies of interventions aimed at reducing anti-fat attitudes in medical students have generally been disappointing, with little enduring effect. It is possible that some students may be more receptive to prejudice-reducing influences than others, due to underlying differences in their personal characteristics. It is also possible that attitudes toward patients, specifically, may differ from anti-fat attitudes in general, and prejudice-reduction effectiveness on patient-specific attitudes has not yet been evaluated. The present study explored the effect on general and patient-specific anti-fat attitudes of (1) contact with higher-weight individuals prior to and during medical school; and (2) training designed to increase medical students' empathy toward patients by encouraging them to take the patient's perspective during clinical encounters. The moderating role of individual difference factors on effectiveness of contact and student-reported hours of empathy training on patient-specific attitudes was assessed. A total of 3,576 students enrolled across 49 US medical schools completed an online survey at the start of their first year of medical school and at the end of their fourth year. Favorable contact experience with higher-weight patients predicted improved attitudes toward heavier patients after 4 years of medical school, and appeared sufficient to partially offset the effects of dislike of higher-weight individuals at baseline. The impact of favorable contact on general anti-fat attitudes was less strong, highlighting the importance of using target-specific outcome measures. The positive effects of favorable contact on attitudes toward higher-weight patients did not differ based on students' baseline levels of social dominance orientation, dispositional empathy, or need for cognitive closure. In contrast, the effectiveness of

  7. Weight simulator

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Howard, W. H.; Young, D. R.

    1972-01-01

    Device applies compressive force to bone to minimize loss of bone calcium during weightlessness or bedrest. Force is applied through weights, or hydraulic, pneumatic or electrically actuated devices. Device is lightweight and easy to maintain and operate.

  8. Stories of weight management: factors associated with successful and unsuccessful weight maintenance.

    PubMed

    Chambers, Julie A; Swanson, Vivien

    2012-05-01

    Although behavioural interventions are successful in achieving short-term weight loss, most individuals regain most or all of their weight within a few years. Our aim was to investigate factors that can help in long-term weight maintenance. Qualitative interviews were conducted in order to elicit experiences, successes, and difficulties associated with weight control over the lifespan. Participants were 20 adult volunteers (aged 30-67) including lifelong weight maintainers, active weight maintainers who have maintained weight loss, and weight gainers. Thematic analysis was used to highlight differences between weight groups. Successful weight maintainers adopt a staged approach to weight management, including monitoring weight fluctuations and having a clear alarm signal for weight gain that triggers immediate action. They have several behavioural strategies for weight control, comprising relatively small adjustments to diet and/or exercise behaviour and also have clear strategies for coping with lifestyle interruptions. In contrast, unsuccessful weight maintainers display negative cognitive factors, including erratic or inconsistent weight vigilance, failure to respond to warning signs of weight gain, and failure to restrict weight unless in a positive mindset. Further, their coping strategies for weight gain or failed actions are poor. The results suggest that successful weight maintainers, irrespective of current weight band, adopt a staged behavioural approach to weight management that allows them to maintain a fairly stable weight. Encouraging the use of such strategies in those who typically regain weight after dieting may aid them in maintaining weight loss. ©2011 The British Psychological Society.

  9. Prevention of bone mineral changes induced by bed rest: Modification by static compression simulating weight bearing, combined supplementation of oral calcium and phosphate, calcitonin injections, oscillating compression, the oral diophosphonatedisodium etidronate, and lower body negative pressure

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schneider, V. S.; Hulley, S. B.; Donaldson, C. L.; Vogel, J. M.; Rosen, S. N.; Hantman, D. A.; Lockwood, D. R.; Seid, D.; Hyatt, K. H.; Jacobson, L. B.

    1974-01-01

    The phenomenon of calcium loss during bed rest was found to be analogous to the loss of bone material which occurs in the hypogravic environment of space flight. Ways of preventing this occurrence are investigated. A group of healthy adult males underwent 24-30 weeks of continuous bed rest. Some of them were given an exercise program designed to resemble normal ambulatory activity; another subgroup was fed supplemental potassium phosphate. The results from a 12-week period of treatment were compared with those untreated bed rest periods. The potassium phosphate supplements prevented the hypercalciuria of bed rest, but fecal calcium tended to increase. The exercise program did not diminish the negative calcium balance. Neither treatment affected the heavy loss of mineral from the calcaneus. Several additional studies are developed to examine the problem further.

  10. Weight, Weight-Related Aspects of Body Image, and Depression in Early Adolescent Girls.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rierdan, Jill; Koff, Elissa

    1997-01-01

    Examines the hypothesis that early adolescent girls (N=175) with more negative weight-related body images would report higher levels of depressive symptoms. Results indicate that the more subjective and personal measures of weight-related body image discontent (weight dissatisfaction and weight concerns) were associated with increased depressive…

  11. Weight Loss Nutritional Supplements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eckerson, Joan M.

    Obesity has reached what may be considered epidemic proportions in the United States, not only for adults but for children. Because of the medical implications and health care costs associated with obesity, as well as the negative social and psychological impacts, many individuals turn to nonprescription nutritional weight loss supplements hoping for a quick fix, and the weight loss industry has responded by offering a variety of products that generates billions of dollars each year in sales. Most nutritional weight loss supplements are purported to work by increasing energy expenditure, modulating carbohydrate or fat metabolism, increasing satiety, inducing diuresis, or blocking fat absorption. To review the literally hundreds of nutritional weight loss supplements available on the market today is well beyond the scope of this chapter. Therefore, several of the most commonly used supplements were selected for critical review, and practical recommendations are provided based on the findings of well controlled, randomized clinical trials that examined their efficacy. In most cases, the nutritional supplements reviewed either elicited no meaningful effect or resulted in changes in body weight and composition that are similar to what occurs through a restricted diet and exercise program. Although there is some evidence to suggest that herbal forms of ephedrine, such as ma huang, combined with caffeine or caffeine and aspirin (i.e., ECA stack) is effective for inducing moderate weight loss in overweight adults, because of the recent ban on ephedra manufacturers must now use ephedra-free ingredients, such as bitter orange, which do not appear to be as effective. The dietary fiber, glucomannan, also appears to hold some promise as a possible treatment for weight loss, but other related forms of dietary fiber, including guar gum and psyllium, are ineffective.

  12. The undirected incomplete perfect phylogeny problem.

    PubMed

    Satya, Ravi Vijaya; Mukherjee, Amar

    2008-01-01

    The incomplete perfect phylogeny (IPP) problem and the incomplete perfect phylogeny haplotyping (IPPH) problem deal with constructing a phylogeny for a given set of haplotypes or genotypes with missing entries. The earlier approaches for both of these problems dealt with restricted versions of the problems, where the root is either available or can be trivially re-constructed from the data, or certain assumptions were made about the data. In this paper, we deal with the unrestricted versions of the problems, where the root of the phylogeny is neither available nor trivially recoverable from the data. Both IPP and IPPH problems have previously been proven to be NP-complete. Here, we present efficient enumerative algorithms that can handle practical instances of the problem. Empirical analysis on simulated data shows that the algorithms perform very well both in terms of speed and in terms accuracy of the recovered data.

  13. Structural pursuit over multiple undirected graphs*

    PubMed Central

    Zhu, Yunzhang; Shen, Xiaotong; Pan, Wei

    2014-01-01

    Summary Gaussian graphical models are useful to analyze and visualize conditional dependence relationships between interacting units. Motivated from network analysis under di erent experimental conditions, such as gene networks for disparate cancer subtypes, we model structural changes over multiple networks with possible heterogeneities. In particular, we estimate multiple precision matrices describing dependencies among interacting units through maximum penalized likelihood. Of particular interest are homogeneous groups of similar entries across and zero-entries of these matrices, referred to as clustering and sparseness structures, respectively. A non-convex method is proposed to seek a sparse representation for each matrix and identify clusters of the entries across the matrices. Computationally, we develop an e cient method on the basis of di erence convex programming, the augmented Lagrangian method and the block-wise coordinate descent method, which is scalable to hundreds of graphs of thousands nodes through a simple necessary and sufficient partition rule, which divides nodes into smaller disjoint subproblems excluding zero-coe cients nodes for arbitrary graphs with convex relaxation. Theoretically, a finite-sample error bound is derived for the proposed method to reconstruct the clustering and sparseness structures. This leads to consistent reconstruction of these two structures simultaneously, permitting the number of unknown parameters to be exponential in the sample size, and yielding the optimal performance of the oracle estimator as if the true structures were given a priori. Simulation studies suggest that the method enjoys the benefit of pursuing these two disparate kinds of structures, and compares favorably against its convex counterpart in the accuracy of structure pursuit and parameter estimation. PMID:25642006

  14. Structural pursuit over multiple undirected graphs.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Yunzhang; Shen, Xiaotong; Pan, Wei

    2014-10-01

    Gaussian graphical models are useful to analyze and visualize conditional dependence relationships between interacting units. Motivated from network analysis under di erent experimental conditions, such as gene networks for disparate cancer subtypes, we model structural changes over multiple networks with possible heterogeneities. In particular, we estimate multiple precision matrices describing dependencies among interacting units through maximum penalized likelihood. Of particular interest are homogeneous groups of similar entries across and zero-entries of these matrices, referred to as clustering and sparseness structures, respectively. A non-convex method is proposed to seek a sparse representation for each matrix and identify clusters of the entries across the matrices. Computationally, we develop an e cient method on the basis of di erence convex programming, the augmented Lagrangian method and the block-wise coordinate descent method, which is scalable to hundreds of graphs of thousands nodes through a simple necessary and sufficient partition rule, which divides nodes into smaller disjoint subproblems excluding zero-coe cients nodes for arbitrary graphs with convex relaxation. Theoretically, a finite-sample error bound is derived for the proposed method to reconstruct the clustering and sparseness structures. This leads to consistent reconstruction of these two structures simultaneously, permitting the number of unknown parameters to be exponential in the sample size, and yielding the optimal performance of the oracle estimator as if the true structures were given a priori. Simulation studies suggest that the method enjoys the benefit of pursuing these two disparate kinds of structures, and compares favorably against its convex counterpart in the accuracy of structure pursuit and parameter estimation.

  15. Pairwise and edge-based models of epidemic dynamics on correlated weighted networks.

    PubMed

    Rattana, P; Miller, J C; Kiss, I Z

    2014-04-24

    In this paper we explore the potential of the pairwise-type modelling approach to be extended to weighted networks where nodal degree and weights are not independent. As a baseline or null model for weighted networks, we consider undirected, heterogenous networks where edge weights are randomly distributed. We show that the pairwise model successfully captures the extra complexity of the network, but does this at the cost of limited analytical tractability due the high number of equations. To circumvent this problem, we employ the edge-based modelling approach to derive models corresponding to two different cases, namely for degree-dependent and randomly distributed weights. These models are more amenable to compute important epidemic descriptors, such as early growth rate and final epidemic size, and produce similarly excellent agreement with simulation. Using a branching process approach we compute the basic reproductive ratio for both models and discuss the implication of random and correlated weight distributions on this as well as on the time evolution and final outcome of epidemics. Finally, we illustrate that the two seemingly different modelling approaches, pairwsie and edge-based, operate on similar assumptions and it is possible to formally link the two.

  16. The QAP weighted network analysis method and its application in international services trade

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Helian; Cheng, Long

    2016-04-01

    Based on QAP (Quadratic Assignment Procedure) correlation and complex network theory, this paper puts forward a new method named QAP Weighted Network Analysis Method. The core idea of the method is to analyze influences among relations in a social or economic group by building a QAP weighted network of networks of relations. In the QAP weighted network, a node depicts a relation and an undirect edge exists between any pair of nodes if there is significant correlation between relations. As an application of the QAP weighted network, we study international services trade by using the QAP weighted network, in which nodes depict 10 kinds of services trade relations. After the analysis of international services trade by QAP weighted network, and by using distance indicators, hierarchy tree and minimum spanning tree, the conclusion shows that: Firstly, significant correlation exists in all services trade, and the development of any one service trade will stimulate the other nine. Secondly, as the economic globalization goes deeper, correlations in all services trade have been strengthened continually, and clustering effects exist in those services trade. Thirdly, transportation services trade, computer and information services trade and communication services trade have the most influence and are at the core in all services trade.

  17. Pairwise and edge-based models of epidemic dynamics on correlated weighted networks

    PubMed Central

    Rattana, P.; Miller, J.C.; Kiss, I.Z.

    2014-01-01

    In this paper we explore the potential of the pairwise-type modelling approach to be extended to weighted networks where nodal degree and weights are not independent. As a baseline or null model for weighted networks, we consider undirected, heterogenous networks where edge weights are randomly distributed. We show that the pairwise model successfully captures the extra complexity of the network, but does this at the cost of limited analytical tractability due the high number of equations. To circumvent this problem, we employ the edge-based modelling approach to derive models corresponding to two different cases, namely for degree-dependent and randomly distributed weights. These models are more amenable to compute important epidemic descriptors, such as early growth rate and final epidemic size, and produce similarly excellent agreement with simulation. Using a branching process approach we compute the basic reproductive ratio for both models and discuss the implication of random and correlated weight distributions on this as well as on the time evolution and final outcome of epidemics. Finally, we illustrate that the two seemingly different modelling approaches, pairwsie and edge-based, operate on similar assumptions and it is possible to formally link the two. PMID:25580064

  18. Scuba Weights

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1995-01-01

    The Attitude Adjuster is a system for weight repositioning corresponding to a SCUBA diver's changing positions. Compact tubes on the diver's air tank permit controlled movement of lead balls within the Adjuster, automatically repositioning when the diver changes position. Manufactured by Think Tank Technologies, the system is light and small, reducing drag and energy requirements and contributing to lower air consumption. The Mid-Continent Technology Transfer Center helped the company with both technical and business information and arranged for the testing at Marshall Space Flight Center's Weightlessness Environmental Training Facility for astronauts.

  19. Carbon nanodots as a matrix for the analysis of low-molecular-weight molecules in both positive- and negative-ion matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry and quantification of glucose and uric acid in real samples.

    PubMed

    Chen, Suming; Zheng, Huzhi; Wang, Jianing; Hou, Jian; He, Qing; Liu, Huihui; Xiong, Caiqiao; Kong, Xianglei; Nie, Zongxiu

    2013-07-16

    Carbon nanodots were applied for the first time as a new matrix for the analysis of low-molecular-weight compounds by matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS) in both positive- and negative-ion modes. A wide range of small molecules including amino acids, peptides, fatty acids, as well as β-agonists and neutral oligosaccharides were analyzed by MALDI MS with carbon nanodots as the matrix, and the lowest 0.2 fmol limits-of-detection were obtained for octadecanoic acid. Clear sodium and potassium adducts and deprotonated signals were produced in positive- and negative-ion modes. Furthermore, the glucose and uric acid in real samples were quantitatively determined by the internal standard method with the linear range of 0.5-9 mM and 0.1-1.8 mM (R(2) > 0.999), respectively. This work gives new insight into the application of carbon nanodots and provides a general approach for rapid analysis of low-molecular-weight compounds.

  20. Variations in Weight Stigma Concerns

    PubMed Central

    Teter, Cambridge; K.Thaw, Andrew

    2016-01-01

    Over the past 40 years, obesity rates in the United States have grown significantly; these rates have not grown uniformly across the United States (18 of the 20 counties with the highest obesity rates are located in the South). Obesity increases cardiovascular disease risk factors and new research has highlighted the negative psychological effects of obesity, known as weight stigma, including decreased selfcontrol resources, over eating, and exercise avoidance. The primary objective of this study was to determine if weight stigma concerns varied regionally and if social behaviors influenced this variation. In two studies, we collected cross-sectional data from participants in the United States including height and weight, weight stigma concerns, and perception of friends’ preoccupation with weight and dieting. We also collected each participant’s home zip code which was used to locate local obesity rate. We established differences in the relationship between body mass index and weight stigma concerns by local county obesity rate and showed that perceived friend preoccupation with weight and dieting mediated this relationship for individuals in low and medium obesity rate counties. For individuals living in United States counties with lower levels of obesity, increases in personal body mass index leads to increased weight stigma concerns due to an increase in perceived friend preoccupation with weight and dieting. These results indicate that relationships between body mass index, weight stigma concerns, and social networks vary significantly for subpopulations throughout the United States. PMID:28058288

  1. Dose from slow negative muons.

    PubMed

    Siiskonen, T

    2008-01-01

    Conversion coefficients from fluence to ambient dose equivalent, from fluence to maximum dose equivalent and quality factors for slow negative muons are examined in detail. Negative muons, when stopped, produce energetic photons, electrons and a variety of high-LET particles. Contribution from each particle type to the dose equivalent is calculated. The results show that for the high-LET particles the details of energy spectra and decay yields are important for accurate dose estimates. For slow negative muons the ambient dose equivalent does not always yield a conservative estimate for the protection quantities. Especially, the skin equivalent dose is strongly underestimated if the radiation-weighting factor of unity for slow muons is used. Comparisons to earlier studies are presented.

  2. Who succeeds in maintaining weight loss? A conceptual review of factors associated with weight loss maintenance and weight regain.

    PubMed

    Elfhag, K; Rössner, S

    2005-02-01

    Weight loss is difficult to achieve and maintaining the weight loss is an even greater challenge. The identification of factors associated with weight loss maintenance can enhance our understanding for the behaviours and prerequisites that are crucial in sustaining a lowered body weight. In this paper we have reviewed the literature on factors associated with weight loss maintenance and weight regain. We have used a definition of weight maintenance implying intentional weight loss that has subsequently been maintained for at least 6 months. According to our review, successful weight maintenance is associated with more initial weight loss, reaching a self-determined goal weight, having a physically active lifestyle, a regular meal rhythm including breakfast and healthier eating, control of over-eating and self-monitoring of behaviours. Weight maintenance is further associated with an internal motivation to lose weight, social support, better coping strategies and ability to handle life stress, self-efficacy, autonomy, assuming responsibility in life, and overall more psychological strength and stability. Factors that may pose a risk for weight regain include a history of weight cycling, disinhibited eating, binge eating, more hunger, eating in response to negative emotions and stress, and more passive reactions to problems.

  3. Rapid Weight Loss in Sports with Weight Classes.

    PubMed

    Khodaee, Morteza; Olewinski, Lucianne; Shadgan, Babak; Kiningham, Robert R

    2015-01-01

    Weight-sensitive sports are popular among elite and nonelite athletes. Rapid weight loss (RWL) practice has been an essential part of many of these sports for many decades. Due to the limited epidemiological studies on the prevalence of RWL, its true prevalence is unknown. It is estimated that more than half of athletes in weight-class sports have practiced RWL during the competitive periods. As RWL can have significant physical, physiological, and psychological negative effects on athletes, its practice has been discouraged for many years. It seems that appropriate rule changes have had the biggest impact on the practice of RWL in sports like wrestling. An individualized and well-planned gradual and safe weight loss program under the supervision of a team of coaching staff, athletic trainers, sports nutritionists, and sports physicians is recommended.

  4. On Multiplying Negative Numbers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Crowley, Mary L.; Dunn, Kenneth A.

    1985-01-01

    Comments on the history of negative numbers, some methods that can be used to introduce the multiplication of negative numbers to students, and an explanation of why the product of two negative numbers is a positive number are included. (MNS)

  5. Apparatus for molecular weight separation

    DOEpatents

    Smith, Richard D.; Liu, Chuanliang

    2001-01-01

    The present invention relates generally to an apparatus and method for separating high molecular weight molecules from low molecular weight molecules. More specifically, the invention relates to the use of microdialysis for removal of the salt (low molecular weight molecules) from a nucleotide sample (high molecular weight molecules) for ESI-MS analysis. The dialysis or separation performance of the present invention is improved by (1) increasing dialysis temperature thereby increasing desalting efficiency and improving spectrum quality; (2) adding piperidine and imidazole to the dialysis buffer solution and reducing charge states and further increasing detection sensitivity for DNA; (3) using low concentrations (0-2.5 mM NH4OAc) of dialysis buffer and shifting the DNA negative ions to higher charge states, producing a nearly 10-fold increase in detection sensitivity and a slightly decreased desalting efficiency, (4) conducting a two-stage separation or (5) any combination of (1), (2), (3) and (4).

  6. Weight Loss Surgery

    MedlinePlus

    Weight loss surgery helps people with extreme obesity to lose weight. It may be an option if you cannot lose weight ... obesity. There are different types of weight loss surgery. They often limit the amount of food you ...

  7. The Role of Resistance Exercise in Weight Loss.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alexander, Jeffrey L.

    2002-01-01

    Explains the role of weight training in weight loss, noting how weight training contributes to the creation of a negative energy balance and explaining how resistance exercise can cause an increase in fat oxidation, both acutely and chronically. Resistance exercise has an indirect impact on weight and fat loss through increasing resting metabolic…

  8. The Role of Resistance Exercise in Weight Loss.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alexander, Jeffrey L.

    2002-01-01

    Explains the role of weight training in weight loss, noting how weight training contributes to the creation of a negative energy balance and explaining how resistance exercise can cause an increase in fat oxidation, both acutely and chronically. Resistance exercise has an indirect impact on weight and fat loss through increasing resting metabolic…

  9. Internalized weight stigma and its ideological correlates among weight loss treatment seeking adults.

    PubMed

    Carels, R A; Young, K M; Wott, C B; Harper, J; Gumble, A; Hobbs, M Wagner; Clayton, A M

    2009-01-01

    There are significant economic and psychological costs associated with the negative weight-based social stigma that exists in American society. This pervasive anti-fat bias has been strongly internalized among the overweight/obese. While the etiology of weight stigma is complex, research suggests that it is often greater among individuals who embrace certain etiological views of obesity or ideological views of the world. This investigation examined 1) the level of internalized weight stigma among overweight/obese treatment seeking adults, and 2) the association between internalized weight stigma and perceived weight controllability and ideological beliefs about the world ('just world beliefs', Protestant work ethic). Forty-six overweight or obese adults (BMI >or=27 kg/m2) participating in an 18- week behavioral weight loss program completed implicit (Implicit Associations Test) and explicit (Obese Person's Trait Survey) measures of weight stigma. Participants also completed two measures of ideological beliefs about the world ("Just World Beliefs", Protestant Ethic Scale) and one measure of beliefs about weight controllability (Beliefs about Obese Persons). Significant implicit and explicit weight bias was observed. Greater weight stigma was consistently associated with greater endorsement of just world beliefs, Protestant ethic beliefs and beliefs about weight controllability. Results suggest that the overweight/obese treatment seeking adults have internalized the negative weight-based social stigma that exists in American society. Internalized weight stigma may be greater among those holding specific etiological and ideological beliefs about weight and the world.

  10. Weighted modularity optimization for crisp and fuzzy community detection in large-scale networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cao, Jie; Bu, Zhan; Gao, Guangliang; Tao, Haicheng

    2016-11-01

    Community detection is a classic and very difficult task in the field of complex network analysis, principally for its applications in domains such as social or biological networks analysis. One of the most widely used technologies for community detection in networks is the maximization of the quality function known as modularity. However, existing work has proved that modularity maximization algorithms for community detection may fail to resolve communities in small size. Here we present a new community detection method, which is able to find crisp and fuzzy communities in undirected and unweighted networks by maximizing weighted modularity. The algorithm derives new edge weights using the cosine similarity in order to go around the resolution limit problem. Then a new local moving heuristic based on weighted modularity optimization is proposed to cluster the updated network. Finally, the set of potentially attractive clusters for each node is computed, to further uncover the crisply fuzzy partition of the network. We give demonstrative applications of the algorithm to a set of synthetic benchmark networks and six real-world networks and find that it outperforms the current state of the art proposals (even those aimed at finding overlapping communities) in terms of quality and scalability.

  11. Effect of clothing weight on body weight

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Background: In clinical settings, it is common to measure weight of clothed patients and estimate a correction for the weight of clothing, but we can find no papers in the medical literature regarding the variability in clothing weight with weather, season, and gender. Methods: Fifty adults (35 wom...

  12. Unpacking the psychological weight of weight stigma: A rejection-expectation pathway

    PubMed Central

    Blodorn, Alison; Major, Brenda; Hunger, Jeffrey; Miller, Carol

    2015-01-01

    The present research tested the hypothesis that the negative effects of weight stigma among higher body-weight individuals are mediated by expectations of social rejection. Women and men who varied in objective body-weight (body mass index; BMI) gave a speech describing why they would make a good date. Half believed that a potential dating partner would see a videotape of their speech (weight seen) and half believed that a potential dating partner would listen to an audiotape of their speech (weight unseen). Among women, but not men, higher body-weight predicted increased expectations of social rejection, decreased executive control resources, decreased self-esteem, increased self-conscious emotions and behavioral displays of self-consciousness when weight was seen but not when weight was unseen. As predicted, higher body-weight women reported increased expectations of social rejection when weight was seen (versus unseen), which in turn predicted decreased self-esteem, increased self-conscious emotions, and increased stress. In contrast, lower body-weight women reported decreased expectations of social rejection when weight was seen (versus unseen), which in turn predicted increased self-esteem, decreased self-conscious emotions, and decreased stress. Men’s responses were largely unaffected by body-weight or visibility, suggesting that a dating context may not be identity threatening for higher body-weight men. Overall, the present research illuminates a rejection-expectation pathway by which weight stigma undermines higher body-weight women’s health. PMID:26752792

  13. Somatotypes of weight lifters.

    PubMed

    Orvanová, E

    1990-01-01

    The present paper reviews published studies on the body shape of weight lifters. The differences between the somatotype ratings of weight lifters studied using the Sheldon and the Heath-Carter methods, and the differences between performance levels and age groups of weight lifters are discussed. The differences in mean somatoplots among the weight lifters studied as a whole group, weight lifters divided into two, three or four groups according to body weight, and weight lifters considered according to the official weight classes, are assessed. Weight lifters in the lighter weight classes are found to be ectomorphic or balanced mesomorphs, while those in the heavier weight classes tend to be endomorphic mesomorphs. Ectomorphy decreases, whereas mesomorphy and endomorphy increase with weight class. When three age groups of weight lifters were compared within each weight class, the same pattern of differences between ages occurs. The younger lifters in each weight class have higher endomorphy and lower mesomorphy than the senior lifters. Ectomorphy is higher in the younger lifters below the weight class of 82.5 kg. Since significant differences in all three somatotype components between 10 weight classes of weight lifters and also within three age groups were noted, it will be necessary in future studies to consider the somatotypes of weight lifters according to the official weight classes.

  14. Weight cycling in adolescent Taekwondo athletes.

    PubMed

    Kazemi, Mohsen; Rahman, Alima; De Ciantis, Marco

    2011-12-01

    Weight reduction cycles are used by weight classed athletes in Taekwondo to make a weight category. Tension, dizziness, headaches, and confusion have been associated with rapid weight loss (RWL). There is a lack of research in weight cycling and its benefits among Taekwondo athletes. To investigate the rate of weight cycling in Junior Taekwondo athletes and its effect on performance. Athletes were weighed prior to competition, then again before their first match. Body mass difference in relation to winning was compared. A significant increase from weigh-in to pre-match measurements was consistently found in both genders with no significant difference between them. Winners had a mean body mass gain (1.02 kg) which was non-significantly less than the non-winners (1.09 kg). RWL practices do not define which athlete will perform better. Negative effects of weight cycling coupled with RWL has unclear performance benefits which indicates a need for further research.

  15. Culture-negative endocarditis

    MedlinePlus

    ... inflammation of the lining of one or more heart valves, but no endocarditis-causing germs can be found ... the heart, where they can settle on damaged heart valves. Alternative Names Endocarditis (culture-negative) Images Culture-negative ...

  16. [Negative symptoms: which antipsychotics?].

    PubMed

    Maurel, M; Belzeaux, R; Adida, M; Azorin, J-M

    2015-12-01

    Treating negative symptoms of schizophrenia is a major issue and a challenge for the functional and social prognosis of the disease, to which they are closely linked. First- and second-generation antipsychotics allow a reduction of all negative symptoms. The hope of acting directly on primary negative symptoms with any antipsychotic is not supported by the literature. However, the effectiveness of first- and second-generation antipsychotics is demonstrated on secondary negative symptoms. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  17. Negative ion generator

    DOEpatents

    Stinnett, Regan W.

    1984-01-01

    A negative ion generator is formed from a magnetically insulated transmission line having a coating of graphite on the cathode for producing negative ions and a plurality of apertures on the opposed anode for the release of negative ions. Magnetic insulation keeps electrons from flowing from the cathode to the anode. A transverse magnetic field removes electrons which do escape through the apertures from the trajectory of the negative ions.

  18. Negative ion generator

    DOEpatents

    Stinnett, R.W.

    1984-05-08

    A negative ion generator is formed from a magnetically insulated transmission line having a coating of graphite on the cathode for producing negative ions and a plurality of apertures on the opposed anode for the release of negative ions. Magnetic insulation keeps electrons from flowing from the cathode to the anode. A transverse magnetic field removes electrons which do escape through the apertures from the trajectory of the negative ions. 8 figs.

  19. Weight Loss Surgery

    MedlinePlus

    ... A Week of Healthy Breakfasts Shyness Weight Loss Surgery KidsHealth > For Teens > Weight Loss Surgery A A ... Risks and Side Effects? What Is Weight Loss Surgery? For some people, being overweight is about more ...

  20. Weight Loss Surgery

    MedlinePlus

    ... serious medical problems. Weight loss surgery (also called bariatric surgery) can help very obese people lose weight. But ... Gastric banding is the simplest of the three weight loss surgeries. People who get it might not lose as ...

  1. Sentential Negation in English

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mowarin, Macaulay

    2009-01-01

    This paper undertakes a detailed analysis of sentential negation in the English language with Chomsky's Government-Binding theory of Transformational Grammar as theoretical model. It distinguishes between constituent and sentential negation in English. The essay identifies the exact position of Negation phrase in an English clause structure. It…

  2. Sentential Negation in English

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mowarin, Macaulay

    2009-01-01

    This paper undertakes a detailed analysis of sentential negation in the English language with Chomsky's Government-Binding theory of Transformational Grammar as theoretical model. It distinguishes between constituent and sentential negation in English. The essay identifies the exact position of Negation phrase in an English clause structure. It…

  3. Approximating the maximum weight clique using replicator dynamics.

    PubMed

    Bomze, I R; Pelillo, M; Stix, V

    2000-01-01

    Given an undirected graph with weights on the vertices, the maximum weight clique problem (MWCP) is to find a subset of mutually adjacent vertices (i.e., a clique) having the largest total weight. This is a generalization of the classical problem of finding the maximum cardinality clique of an unweighted graph, which arises as a special case of the MWCP when all the weights associated to the vertices are equal. The problem is known to be NP-hard for arbitrary graphs and, according to recent theoretical results, so is the problem of approximating it within a constant factor. Although there has recently been much interest around neural-network algorithms for the unweighted maximum clique problem, no effort has been directed so far toward its weighted counterpart. In this paper, we present a parallel, distributed heuristic for approximating the MWCP based on dynamics principles developed and studied in various branches of mathematical biology. The proposed framework centers around a recently introduced continuous characterization of the MWCP which generalizes an earlier remarkable result by Motzkin and Straus. This allows us to formulate the MWCP (a purely combinatorial problem) in terms of a continuous quadratic programming problem. One drawback associated with this formulation, however, is the presence of "spurious" solutions, and we present characterizations of these solutions. To avoid them we introduce a new regularized continuous formulation of the MWCP inspired by previous works on the unweighted problem, and show how this approach completely solves the problem. The continuous formulation of the MWCP naturally maps onto a parallel, distributed computational network whose dynamical behavior is governed by the so-called replicator equations. These are dynamical systems introduced in evolutionary game theory and population genetics to model evolutionary processes on a macroscopic scale.We present theoretical results which guarantee that the solutions provided by

  4. Negative symptoms: psychopathological models.

    PubMed Central

    Ananth, J; Djenderdjian, A; Shamasunder, P; Costa, J; Herrera, J; Sramek, J

    1991-01-01

    The psychopathological manifestations of schizophrenia have been broadly divided into positive and negative symptom groups. Even though there is no definitive consensus, psychomotor agitation, motor excitement, hallucinations, delusions and thought disorder constitute positive and psychomotor retardation, amotivation, apathy and decreased emotional expression are grouped into negative symptoms. The negative symptoms have been reported to appear late in the course of the illness and resistant to treatment with neuroleptics. While these claims have not been substantiated, the current interest on negative symptoms is related to the fact that many nonfunctioning institutionalized as well as ambulatory schizophrenics manifest negative symptoms. As chronic psychiatric beds have become scarce, many patients with negative symptoms who were harbored in the chronic mental hospitals have been released to the community care and some of these patients live on the streets. Thus their visibility has challenged psychiatry to focus its efforts on the etiology and treatment of negative symptoms. PMID:2049366

  5. Body Weight Relationships in Early Marriage: Weight Relevance, Weight Comparisons, and Weight Talk

    PubMed Central

    Bove, Caron F.; Sobal, Jeffery

    2011-01-01

    This investigation uncovered processes underlying the dynamics of body weight and body image among individuals involved in nascent heterosexual marital relationships in Upstate New York. In-depth, semi-structured qualitative interviews conducted with 34 informants, 20 women and 14 men, just prior to marriage and again one year later were used to explore continuity and change in cognitive, affective, and behavioral factors relating to body weight and body image at the time of marriage, an important transition in the life course. Three major conceptual themes operated in the process of developing and enacting informants’ body weight relationships with their partner: weight relevance, weight comparisons, and weight talk. Weight relevance encompassed the changing significance of weight during early marriage and included attracting and capturing a mate, relaxing about weight, living healthily, and concentrating on weight. Weight comparisons between partners involved weight relativism, weight competition, weight envy, and weight role models. Weight talk employed pragmatic talk, active and passive reassurance, and complaining and critiquing criticism. Concepts emerging from this investigation may be useful in designing future studies of and approaches to managing body weight in adulthood. PMID:21864601

  6. Body weight relationships in early marriage. Weight relevance, weight comparisons, and weight talk.

    PubMed

    Bove, Caron F; Sobal, Jeffery

    2011-12-01

    This investigation uncovered processes underlying the dynamics of body weight and body image among individuals involved in nascent heterosexual marital relationships in Upstate New York. In-depth, semi-structured qualitative interviews conducted with 34 informants, 20 women and 14 men, just prior to marriage and again one year later were used to explore continuity and change in cognitive, affective, and behavioral factors relating to body weight and body image at the time of marriage, an important transition in the life course. Three major conceptual themes operated in the process of developing and enacting informants' body weight relationships with their partner: weight relevance, weight comparisons, and weight talk. Weight relevance encompassed the changing significance of weight during early marriage and included attracting and capturing a mate, relaxing about weight, living healthily, and concentrating on weight. Weight comparisons between partners involved weight relativism, weight competition, weight envy, and weight role models. Weight talk employed pragmatic talk, active and passive reassurance, and complaining and critiquing criticism. Concepts emerging from this investigation may be useful in designing future studies of and approaches to managing body weight in adulthood.

  7. Gestational weight gain among Hispanic women.

    PubMed

    Sangi-Haghpeykar, Haleh; Lam, Kim; Raine, Susan P

    2014-01-01

    To describe gestational weight gain among Hispanic women and to examine psychological, social, and cultural contexts affecting weight gain. A total of 282 Hispanic women were surveyed post-partum before leaving the hospital. Women were queried about their prepregnancy weight and weight gained during pregnancy. Adequacy of gestational weight gain was based on guidelines set by the Institute of Medicine in 2009. Independent risk factors for excessive or insufficient weight gain were examined by logistic regression. Most women were unmarried (59 %), with a mean age of 28.4 ± 6.6 years and an average weight gain of 27.9 ± 13.3 lbs. Approximately 45 % of women had gained too much, 32 % too little, and only 24 % had an adequate amount of weight gain. The mean birth weight was 7.3, 7.9, and 6.8 lbs among the adequate, excessive, and insufficient weight gain groups. Among women who exercised before pregnancy, two-thirds continued to do so during pregnancy; the mean gestational weight gain of those who continued was lower than those who stopped (26.8 vs. 31.4 lbs, p = 0.04). Independent risk factors for excessive weight gain were being unmarried, U.S. born, higher prepregnancy body mass index, and having indifferent or negative views about weight gain. Independent risk factors for insufficient weight gain were low levels of support and late initiation of prenatal care. Depression, stress, and a woman's or her partner's happiness regarding pregnancy were unrelated to weight gain. The results of this study can be used by prenatal programs to identify Hispanic women at risk for excessive or insufficient gestational weight gain.

  8. Negative Ion Density Fronts

    SciTech Connect

    Igor Kaganovich

    2000-12-18

    Negative ions tend to stratify in electronegative plasmas with hot electrons (electron temperature Te much larger than ion temperature Ti, Te > Ti ). The boundary separating a plasma containing negative ions, and a plasma, without negative ions, is usually thin, so that the negative ion density falls rapidly to zero-forming a negative ion density front. We review theoretical, experimental and numerical results giving the spatio-temporal evolution of negative ion density fronts during plasma ignition, the steady state, and extinction (afterglow). During plasma ignition, negative ion fronts are the result of the break of smooth plasma density profiles during nonlinear convection. In a steady-state plasma, the fronts are boundary layers with steepening of ion density profiles due to nonlinear convection also. But during plasma extinction, the ion fronts are of a completely different nature. Negative ions diffuse freely in the plasma core (no convection), whereas the negative ion front propagates towards the chamber walls with a nearly constant velocity. The concept of fronts turns out to be very effective in analysis of plasma density profile evolution in strongly non-isothermal plasmas.

  9. Associations of body weight perception and weight control behaviors with problematic internet use among Korean adolescents.

    PubMed

    Park, Subin; Lee, Yeeun

    2017-05-01

    We examined the association of body mass index (BMI), body weight perception, and weight control behaviors with problematic Internet use in a nationwide sample of Korean adolescents. Cross-sectional data from the 2010 Korean Youth Risk Behavior Web-based Survey collected from 37,041 boys and 33,655 girls in middle- and high- schools (grades 7-12) were analyzed. Participants were classified into groups based on BMI (underweight, normal weight, overweight, and obese), body weight perception (underweight, normal weight, and overweight), and weight control behavior (no weight control behavior, appropriate weight control behavior, inappropriate weight control behavior). The risk of problematic Internet use was assessed with the Korean Internet Addiction Proneness Scale for Youth-Short Form. Both boys and girls with inappropriate weight control behavior were more likely to have problematic Internet use. Underweight, overweight, and obese boys and girls were more likely to have problematic Internet use. For both boys and girls, subjective perception of underweight and overweight were positively associated with problematic Internet use. Given the negative effect of inappropriate weight control behavior, special attention needs to be given to adolescents' inappropriate weight control behavior, and an educational intervention for adolescents to control their weight in healthy ways is needed.

  10. Negative Human Interaction

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brannan, John M.

    1972-01-01

    This study is an effort to examine man's most negative experiences as he perceives them. The results indicated that teachers were involved more often than any other person in the most negative experience reported. Improved human relations skills are clearly indicated for those in higher education as well as in public schools. (Author)

  11. Adaptive Mallow's optimization for weighted median filters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rachuri, Raghu; Rao, Sathyanarayana S.

    2002-05-01

    This work extends the idea of spectral optimization for the design of Weighted Median filters and employ adaptive filtering that updates the coefficients of the FIR filter from which the weights of the median filters are derived. Mallows' theory of non-linear smoothers [1] has proven to be of great theoretical significance providing simple design guidelines for non-linear smoothers. It allows us to find a set of positive weights for a WM filter whose sample selection probabilities (SSP's) are as close as possible to a SSP set predetermined by Mallow's. Sample selection probabilities have been used as a basis for designing stack smoothers as they give a measure of the filter's detail preserving ability and give non-negative filter weights. We will extend this idea to design weighted median filters admitting negative weights. The new method first finds the linear FIR filter coefficients adaptively, which are then used to determine the weights of the median filter. WM filters can be designed to have band-pass, high-pass as well as low-pass frequency characteristics. Unlike the linear filters, however, the weighted median filters are robust in the presence of impulsive noise, as shown by the simulation results.

  12. Weight loss, weight maintenance, and adaptive thermogenesis.

    PubMed

    Camps, Stefan G J A; Verhoef, Sanne P M; Westerterp, Klaas R

    2013-05-01

    Diet-induced weight loss is accompanied by adaptive thermogenesis, ie, a disproportional or greater than expected reduction of resting metabolic rate (RMR). The aim of this study was to investigate whether adaptive thermogenesis is sustained during weight maintenance after weight loss. Subjects were 22 men and 69 women [mean ± SD age: 40 ± 9 y; body mass index (BMI; in kg/m(2)): 31.9 ± 3.0]. They followed a very-low-energy diet for 8 wk, followed by a 44-wk period of weight maintenance. Body composition was assessed with a 3-compartment model based on body weight, total body water (deuterium dilution), and body volume. RMR was measured (RMRm) with a ventilated hood. In addition, RMR was predicted (RMRp) on the basis of the measured body composition: RMRp (MJ/d) = 0.024 × fat mass (kg) + 0.102 × fat-free mass (kg) + 0.85. Measurements took place before the diet and 8, 20, and 52 wk after the start of the diet. The ratio of RMRm to RMRp decreased from 1.004 ± 0.077 before the diet to 0.963 ± 0.073 after the diet (P < 0.001), and the decrease was sustained after 20 wk (0.983 ± 0.063; P < 0.01) and 52 wk (0.984 ± 0.068; P < 0.01). RMRm/RMRp was correlated with the weight loss after 8 wk (P < 0.01), 20 wk (P < 0.05), and 52 wk (P < 0.05). Weight loss results in adaptive thermogenesis, and there is no indication for a change in adaptive thermogenesis up to 1 y, when weight loss is maintained. This trial was registered at clinicaltrials.gov as NCT01015508.

  13. Materials with negative stiffness

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jaglinski, Tim

    Negative stiffness, or a reversal in the usual assumed direction between causal forces and ensuing deformations, has been proposed as a pathway to materials which exceed theoretical performance bounds. Negative stiffness, as a concept, represents a relaxation of tacitly assumed material behavior, but it violates no natural laws. Negative stiffness, normally unstable without constraint, is permissible for stability under special conditions, for example a rigid boundary constraint so long as the material satisfies strong ellipticity in the parlance of elasticity. Hence, negative stiffness is not observed in materials or structures which are not constrained. If negative stiffness is allowed for inclusions of material, which are surrounded by a stabilizing positive stiffness matrix, composite theory predicts large increases in the mechanical damping and composite stiffness. The work herein explores several material systems which possess negative stiffness, and seeks to characterize the composite mechanical properties of these systems. Two metal matrix composite systems, namely Sn-VO2 and Sn-BaTIO3, were investigated. Here, negative stiffness arises from the ferroelastic phase transformations in the ceramic inclusions; stability is imparted by the tin matrix. Polycrystalline In-Tl and BaTIO 3 were also studied. Here, the entire material volume is phase transforming. Constraint is imparted on a small volume fraction of crystallites by the surrounding material. Various manifestations of negative stiffness were observed. Thermally broad damping peaks which depended upon thermal cycling were observed in the Sn-VO2 composites. Furthermore, mechanical instabilities were seen in composites intentionally designed to be unstable. Negative stiffness was indicated in the In-Tl alloy by magnification of damping peaks over those observed in single crystals, increases in damping peaks with increased cooling rates, occurrence of damping peaks before the appearance of martensite and

  14. Minimum weight structural sandwich

    Treesearch

    Edward W. Kuenzi

    1965-01-01

    This note presents theoretical analyses for determination of dimensions of structural sandwich of minimum weight that will have certain stiffness and load-carrying capabilities. Included is a brief discussion of the resultant minimum weight configurations.

  15. Minimum weight structural sandwich

    Treesearch

    Edward W. Kuenzi

    1970-01-01

    This note presents theoretical analyses for determination of dimensions of structural sandwich of minimum weight that will have certain stiffness and load-carrying capabilities. Included is a brief discussion of the resultant minimum weight configurations.

  16. Losing weight after pregnancy

    MedlinePlus

    ... below the minimum number of calories you need. Breastfeeding If you are breastfeeding, you will want to lose weight slowly. Weight ... not affect your milk supply or your health. Breastfeeding makes your body burn calories. It helps you ...

  17. Preventing Weight Gain

    MedlinePlus

    ... this? Submit Button Our Division About Us Nutrition Physical Activity Overweight & Obesity Healthy Weight Breastfeeding Micronutrient Malnutrition State and Local Programs Preventing Weight Gain Language: English (US) Español ( ...

  18. Negative birefringent polyimide films

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Harris, Frank W. (Inventor); Cheng, Stephen Z. D. (Inventor)

    1994-01-01

    A negative birefringent film, useful in liquid crystal displays, and a method for controlling the negative birefringence of a polyimide film is disclosed which allows the matching of an application to a targeted amount of birefringence by controlling the degree of in-plane orientation of the polyimide by the selection of functional groups within both the diamine and dianhydride segments of the polyimide which affect the polyimide backbone chain rigidity, linearity, and symmetry. The higher the rigidity, linearity and symmetry of the polyimide backbone, the larger the value of the negative birefringence of the polyimide film.

  19. Negative tandem mirror

    SciTech Connect

    Poulsen, P.; Allen, S.L.; Casper, T.A.; Grubb, D.P.; Jong, R.A.; Nexsen, W.E.; Porter, G.D.; Simonen, T.C.

    1981-11-30

    A tandem mirror configuration can be created by combining hot electron end cell plasmas with neutral beam pumping. A region of large negative potential formed in each end cell confines electrons in the central cell. The requirement of charge neutrality causes the central cell potential to become negative with respect to ground in order to confine ions as well as electrons. We discuss the method of producing and calculating the desired axial potential profile, and show the calculated axial potential profile and plasma parameters for a negative configuration of TMX-Upgrade.

  20. Weighted growing simplicial complexes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Courtney, Owen T.; Bianconi, Ginestra

    2017-06-01

    Simplicial complexes describe collaboration networks, protein interaction networks, and brain networks and in general network structures in which the interactions can include more than two nodes. In real applications, often simplicial complexes are weighted. Here we propose a nonequilibrium model for weighted growing simplicial complexes. The proposed dynamics is able to generate weighted simplicial complexes with a rich interplay between weights and topology emerging not just at the level of nodes and links, but also at the level of faces of higher dimension.

  1. Gradient Weight in Phonology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ryan, Kevin Michael

    2011-01-01

    Research on syllable weight in generative phonology has focused almost exclusively on systems in which weight is treated as an ordinal hierarchy of clearly delineated categories (e.g. light and heavy). As I discuss, canonical weight-sensitive phenomena in phonology, including quantitative meter and quantity-sensitive stress, can also treat weight…

  2. Assessing Your Weight

    MedlinePlus

    ... to learn more? Preventing Weight Gain Choosing a lifestyle that includes good eating habits and daily physical activity can help you maintain a healthy weight and prevent weight gain. The Possible Health Effects from Having Obesity Having obesity can increase your chances of developing ...

  3. Gradient Weight in Phonology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ryan, Kevin Michael

    2011-01-01

    Research on syllable weight in generative phonology has focused almost exclusively on systems in which weight is treated as an ordinal hierarchy of clearly delineated categories (e.g. light and heavy). As I discuss, canonical weight-sensitive phenomena in phonology, including quantitative meter and quantity-sensitive stress, can also treat weight…

  4. Atomic negative ions

    SciTech Connect

    Brage, T.

    1991-01-01

    We review some of the recent progress in the studies of alkaline-earth, negative ions. Computations of autodetachment rates, electron affinities and transition wavelengths are discussed and some new and improved results are given.

  5. Atomic negative ions

    SciTech Connect

    Brage, T.

    1991-12-31

    We review some of the recent progress in the studies of alkaline-earth, negative ions. Computations of autodetachment rates, electron affinities and transition wavelengths are discussed and some new and improved results are given.

  6. Negative linear compressibility.

    PubMed

    Cairns, Andrew B; Goodwin, Andrew L

    2015-08-28

    While all materials reduce their intrinsic volume under hydrostatic (uniform) compression, a select few actually expand along one or more directions during this process of densification. As rare as it is counterintuitive, such "negative compressibility" behaviour has application in the design of pressure sensors, artificial muscles and actuators. The recent discovery of surprisingly strong and persistent negative compressibility effects in a variety of new families of materials has ignited the field. Here we review the phenomenology of negative compressibility in this context of materials diversity, placing particular emphasis on the common structural motifs that recur amongst known examples. Our goal is to present a mechanistic understanding of negative compressibility that will help inform a clear strategy for future materials design.

  7. Logo and Negative Numbers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Strawn, Candace A.

    1998-01-01

    Describes LOGO's turtle graphics capabilities based on a sixth-grade classroom's activities with negative numbers and Logo programming. A sidebar explains LOGO and offers suggestions to teachers for using LOGO effectively. (LRW)

  8. Topology dependent epidemic spreading velocity in weighted networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Duan, Wei; Quax, Rick; Lees, Michael; Qiu, Xiaogang; Sloot, Peter M. A.

    2014-12-01

    Many diffusive processes occur on structured networks with weighted links, such as disease spread by airplane transport or information diffusion in social networks or blogs. Understanding the impact of weight-connectivity correlations on epidemic spreading in weighted networks is crucial to support decision-making on disease control and other diffusive processes. However, a real understanding of epidemic spreading velocity in weighted networks is still lacking. Here we conduct a numerical study of the velocity of a Reed-Frost epidemic spreading process in various weighted network topologies as a function of the correlations between edge weights and node degrees. We find that a positive weight-connectivity correlation leads to a faster epidemic spreading compared to an unweighted network. In contrast, we find that both uncorrelated and negatively correlated weight distributions lead to slower spreading processes. In the case of positive weight-connectivity correlations, the acceleration of spreading velocity is weak when the heterogeneity of weight distribution increases.

  9. No to negative data

    SciTech Connect

    Wiley, H. S.

    2008-04-01

    A frequent criticism in biology is that we don’t publish our negative data. As a result, the literature has become biased towards papers that favor specific hypotheses1. Some scientists have become so concerned about this trend that they have created journals dedicated to publishing negative results (e.g. the Journal of Negative Results in Biomedicine). Personally, I don’t think they should bother. I say this because I believe negative results are not worth publishing. Rest assured that I do not include drug studies that show a lack of effectiveness towards a specific disease or condition. This type of finding is significant in a societal context, not a scientific one, and thus we all have a vested interest in seeing this type of result published. I am talking about a set of experimental results that fail to support a particular hypothesis. The problem with these types of negative results is that they don’t actually advance science. Science is a set of ideas that can be supported by observations. A negative result does not support any specific idea, but only tells you what isn’t right. Well, there are only a small number of potential hypotheses that are correct, but essentially an infinite number of ideas are not correct. I don’t want to waste my time reading a paper about what doesn’t happen, just about those things that do. I can remember a positive result because I can associate it with a specific concept. What do I do with a negative one? It is hard enough to following the current literature. A flood of negative results would make that task all but impossible

  10. Negative symptoms in schizophrenia.

    PubMed

    Boutros, Nash N; Mucci, Armida; Diwadkar, Vaibhav; Tandon, Rajiv

    2014-04-01

    Clinical heterogeneity is a confound common to all of schizophrenia research. Deficit schizophrenia has been proposed as a homogeneous disease entity within the schizophrenia syndrome. Utilizing the Schedule for the Deficit Syndrome (SDS) has allowed the definition of a subgroup dominated by persistent clusters of negative symptoms. While a number of studies have appeared over the years examining the electrophysiological correlates of the cluster of negative symptoms in schizophrenia, only a few studies have actually focused on the deficit syndrome (DS). PubMed as well as MEDLINE were searched for all reports indexed for "negative symptoms" or "deficit syndrome" and one of the following electrophysiology assessment tools: electroencephalography (EEG), evoked potentials (EPs), or polysomnography (PSG). While this line of research is evidently in its infancy, two significant trends emerge. First, spectral EEG studies link increased slow wave activity during wakefulness to the prevalence of negative symptoms. Secondly, sleep studies point to an association between decrease in slow wave sleep and prevalence of negative symptoms. Several studies also indicate a relationship of negative symptoms with reduced alpha activity. A host of other abnormalities--including sensory gating and P300 attenuation--are less consistently reported. Two studies specifically addressed electrophysiology of the DS. Both studies provided evidence suggesting that the DS may be a separate disease entity and not simply a severe form of schizophrenia.

  11. Weighting macromolecular diffraction data.

    PubMed

    Smith, G D

    1997-01-01

    The results from refinements with six different weighting schemes in PROFFT, SHELXL93 and X-PLOR show that experimental weights, and especially unit weights, tend to overweight the low-angle data at the expense of the higher resolution data. This suggests that the use of unit weights are inappropriate except during initial cycles of refinements. Two alternative weighting schemes, one-line and two-line empirical weights, are shown to produce a relatively even distribution of the weighted r.m.s. error [r.m.s. Err = ( summation operator wDeltaF(2)/n)(1/2)] as a function of sin theta/lambda and result in linear delta(R) normal probability plots. Free R values and free weighted r.m.s. errors from the refinement of a scorpion toxin structure show that the alternative weighting schemes are superior to unit weights, and the r.m.s. deviations of bond distances and angles from the target values and G factors, as calculated by PROCHECK, confirm the superiority of the empirical weighting scheme. It was also observed that changing the value of WA, the contribution of the X-ray gradient to the total function minimized, produced little variation in R free but was directly proportional to the r.m.s. deviation of the bond distances from the target values.

  12. Women's challenges with postpartum weight loss.

    PubMed

    Montgomery, Kristen S; Bushee, Tracy D; Phillips, Jennifer D; Kirkpatrick, Terrie; Catledge, Courtney; Braveboy, Kristin; O'Rourke, Carol; Patel, Neema; Prophet, Malshundria; Cooper, Anita; Mosley, Lori; Parker, Christie; Douglas, Gaye M

    2011-11-01

    This study was designed to examine women's experiences of weight loss during the postpartum period. Understanding women's positive and negative experiences can assist health care providers to successfully intervene in helping women lose weight following pregnancy and avoid long-term weight gain and obesity development. Phenomenology, according to Husserl's perspective. Private location of the women's choosing. Twenty-six women, who ranged in age from 25 to 35 years, and had given birth within the last 5 years, were interviewed regarding their experiences with postpartum weight loss. The majority of the sample was Caucasian. Interviews were transcribed and themes were identified from each of the interviews. Comparisons were made between interviews to identify common experiences between women. Data were analyzed according to the Giorgi method. The women in the study had a wide range of experiences. Themes that emerged from the interviews related to women's challenges with return to prepregnancy weight. These included: time and motivation issues, the need for support, and weight and other struggles. This study provides a look inside the lives of women faced with the reality of losing weight after childbirth. Losing weight after delivery is multi-faceted and influenced by many factors. Interventions to assist women with weight loss should target the challenges described in this paper. When effective strategies are developed, education can be done during pregnancy to prepare for the postpartum period. Ultimately, future research efforts can help us to eliminate pregnancy as a risk factor for obesity in women.

  13. Concomitant changes in sleep duration and body weight and body composition during weight loss and 3-mo weight maintenance.

    PubMed

    Verhoef, Sanne P M; Camps, Stefan G J A; Gonnissen, Hanne K J; Westerterp, Klaas R; Westerterp-Plantenga, Margriet S

    2013-07-01

    An inverse relation between sleep duration and body mass index (BMI) has been shown. We assessed the relation between changes in sleep duration and changes in body weight and body composition during weight loss. A total of 98 healthy subjects (25 men), aged 20-50 y and with BMI (in kg/m(2)) from 28 to 35, followed a 2-mo very-low-energy diet that was followed by a 10-mo period of weight maintenance. Body weight, body composition (measured by using deuterium dilution and air-displacement plethysmography), eating behavior (measured by using a 3-factor eating questionnaire), physical activity (measured by using the validated Baecke's questionnaire), and sleep (estimated by using a questionnaire with the Epworth Sleepiness Scale) were assessed before and immediately after weight loss and 3- and 10-mo follow-ups. The average weight loss was 10% after 2 mo of dieting and 9% and 6% after 3- and 10-mo follow-ups, respectively. Daytime sleepiness and time to fall asleep decreased during weight loss. Short (≤7 h) and average (>7 to <9 h) sleepers increased their sleep duration, whereas sleep duration in long sleepers (≥9 h) did not change significantly during weight loss. This change in sleep duration was concomitantly negatively correlated with the change in BMI during weight loss and after the 3-mo follow-up and with the change in fat mass after the 3-mo follow-up. Sleep duration benefits from weight loss or vice versa. Successful weight loss, loss of body fat, and 3-mo weight maintenance in short and average sleepers are underscored by an increase in sleep duration or vice versa. This trial was registered at clinicaltrials.gov as NCT01015508.

  14. Yogurt and weight management.

    PubMed

    Jacques, Paul F; Wang, Huifen

    2014-05-01

    A large body of observational studies and randomized controlled trials (RCTs) has examined the role of dairy products in weight loss and maintenance of healthy weight. Yogurt is a dairy product that is generally very similar to milk, but it also has some unique properties that may enhance its possible role in weight maintenance. This review summarizes the human RCT and prospective observational evidence on the relation of yogurt consumption to the management and maintenance of body weight and composition. The RCT evidence is limited to 2 small, short-term, energy-restricted trials. They both showed greater weight losses with yogurt interventions, but the difference between the yogurt intervention and the control diet was only significant in one of these trials. There are 5 prospective observational studies that have examined the association between yogurt and weight gain. The results of these studies are equivocal. Two of these studies reported that individuals with higher yogurt consumption gained less weight over time. One of these same studies also considered changes in waist circumference (WC) and showed that higher yogurt consumption was associated with smaller increases in WC. A third study was inconclusive because of low statistical power. A fourth study observed no association between changes in yogurt intake and weight gain, but the results suggested that those with the largest increases in yogurt intake during the study also had the highest increase in WC. The final study examined weight and WC change separately by sex and baseline weight status and showed benefits for both weight and WC changes for higher yogurt consumption in overweight men, but it also found that higher yogurt consumption in normal-weight women was associated with a greater increase in weight over follow-up. Potential underlying mechanisms for the action of yogurt on weight are briefly discussed.

  15. Differential effects of weight bias experiences and internalization on exercise among women with overweight and obesity.

    PubMed

    Pearl, Rebecca L; Puhl, Rebecca M; Dovidio, John F

    2015-12-01

    This study investigated the effects of experiences with weight stigma and weight bias internalization on exercise. An online sample of 177 women with overweight and obesity (M(age) = 35.48 years, M(BMI) = 32.81) completed questionnaires assessing exercise behavior, self-efficacy, and motivation; experiences of weight stigmatization; weight bias internalization; and weight-stigmatizing attitudes toward others. Weight stigma experiences positively correlated with exercise behavior, but weight bias internalization was negatively associated with all exercise variables. Weight bias internalization was a partial mediator between weight stigma experiences and exercise behavior. The distinct effects of experiencing versus internalizing weight bias carry implications for clinical practice and public health.

  16. Internal disinhibition predicts 5‐year weight regain in the National Weight Control Registry (NWCR)

    PubMed Central

    Thomas, J. G.; Niemeier, H.; Wing, R. R.

    2016-01-01

    Summary Background Maintenance of weight loss remains elusive for most individuals. One potential innovative target is internal disinhibition (ID) or the tendency to eat in response to negative thoughts, feelings or physical sensations. Individuals high on ID do worse on average in standard behavioural treatment programmes, and recent studies suggest that disinhibition could play a significant role in weight regain. Purpose The purpose of the current study was to examine whether ID was associated with weight change over 5 years of follow‐up in the National Weight Control Registry, a registry of individuals who have successfully lost weight and maintained it. Methods From the National Weight Control Registry, 5,320 participants were examined across 5 years. Weight data were gathered annually. The disinhibition subscale of the Eating Inventory was used to calculate internal disinhibition and External Disinhibition (ED) and was collected at baseline, year 1, year 3 and year 5. Linear mixed models were used to estimate the weight loss maintained across follow‐up years 1 to 5 using ID and ED as baseline and prospective predictors. Results Internal disinhibition predicted weight regain in all analyses. ED interacted with ID, such that individuals who were high on ID showed greater weight regain if they were also higher on ED. Conclusions The ID scale could be a useful screening measure for risk of weight regain, given its brevity. Improved psychological coping could be a useful target for maintenance or booster interventions. PMID:27812382

  17. Negative pressure wound therapy.

    PubMed

    Thompson, James T; Marks, Malcolm W

    2007-10-01

    Negative pressure wound therapy has become an increasingly important part of wound management. Over the last decade, numerous uses for this method of wound management have been reported, ranging from acute and chronic wounds, to closure of open sternal and abdominal wounds, to assistance with skin grafts. The biophysics behind the success of this treatment largely have focused on increased wound blood flow, increased granulation tissue formation, decreased bacterial counts, and stimulation of wound healing pathways through shear stress mechanisms. The overall success of negative pressure wound therapy has led to a multitude of clinical applications, which are discussed in this article.

  18. The Influence of Sleep Disordered Breathing on Weight Loss in a National Weight Management Program

    PubMed Central

    Janney, Carol A.; Kilbourne, Amy M.; Germain, Anne; Lai, Zongshan; Hoerster, Katherine D.; Goodrich, David E.; Klingaman, Elizabeth A.; Verchinina, Lilia; Richardson, Caroline R.

    2016-01-01

    Study Objective: To investigate the influence of sleep disordered breathing (SDB) on weight loss in overweight/obese veterans enrolled in MOVE!, a nationally implemented behavioral weight management program delivered by the National Veterans Health Administration health system. Methods: This observational study evaluated weight loss by SDB status in overweight/obese veterans enrolled in MOVE! from May 2008–February 2012 who had at least two MOVE! visits, baseline weight, and at least one follow-up weight (n = 84,770). SDB was defined by International Classification of Diseases, Ninth Revision, Clinical Modification codes. Primary outcome was weight change (lb) from MOVE! enrollment to 6- and 12-mo assessments. Weight change over time was modeled with repeated-measures analyses. Results: SDB was diagnosed in one-third of the cohort (n = 28,269). At baseline, veterans with SDB weighed 29 [48] lb more than those without SDB (P < 0.001). On average, veterans attended eight MOVE! visits. Weight loss patterns over time were statistically different between veterans with and without SDB (P < 0.001); veterans with SDB lost less weight (−2.5 [0.1] lb) compared to those without SDB (−3.3 [0.1] lb; P = 0.001) at 6 months. At 12 mo, veterans with SDB continued to lose weight whereas veterans without SDB started to re-gain weight. Conclusions: Veterans with sleep disordered breathing (SDB) had significantly less weight loss over time than veterans without SDB. SDB should be considered in the development and implementation of weight loss programs due to its high prevalence and negative effect on health. Citation: Janney CA, Kilbourne AM, Germain A, Lai Z, Hoerster KD, Goodrich DE, Klingaman EA, Verchinina L, Richardson CR. The influence of sleep disordered breathing on weight loss in a national weight management program. SLEEP 2016;39(1):59–65. PMID:26350475

  19. Consequences of obesity and weight loss: a devil's advocate position

    PubMed Central

    Brown, R E; Kuk, J L

    2015-01-01

    Obesity is associated with multiple negative health consequences and current weight management guidelines recommend all obese persons to lose weight. However, recent evidence suggests that not all obese persons are negatively affected by their weight and that weight loss does not necessarily always improve health. The purpose of this review is not to trivialize the significant health risks associated with obesity, but to discuss subpopulations of obese people who are not adversely affected, or may even benefit from higher adiposity, and in who weight loss per se may not always be the most appropriate recommendation. More specifically, this review will take a devil's advocate position when discussing the consequences of obesity and weight loss for adults with established cardiovascular disease and type 2 diabetes, weight cyclers, metabolically healthy obese adults, youth, older adults and obese individuals who are highly fit. PMID:25410935

  20. Infant Temperament and Maternal Parenting Self-efficacy Predict Child Weight Outcomes

    PubMed Central

    Anzman-Frasca, Stephanie; Stifter, Cynthia A.; Paul, Ian M.; Birch, Leann L.

    2013-01-01

    Relationships between infant negative reactivity and self-regulation, parenting self-efficacy, and child weight outcomes were examined. Greater observed negative reactivity predicted more child weight gain when mothers had lower parenting self-efficacy. Lower mother-reported self-regulation predicted a greater child weight status. Results highlight potential early risk/protective factors. PMID:23728195

  1. Positioning of Weight Bias: Moving towards Social Justice

    PubMed Central

    Alberga, Angela S.; Kassan, Anusha; Sesma-Vazquez, Monica

    2016-01-01

    Weight bias is a form of stigma with detrimental effects on the health and wellness of individuals with large bodies. Researchers from various disciplines have recognized weight bias as an important topic for public health and for professional practice. To date, researchers from various areas have approached weight bias from independent perspectives and from differing theoretical orientations. In this paper, we examined the similarities and differences between three perspectives (i.e., weight-centric, non-weight-centric (health-centric), and health at every size) used to understand weight bias and approach weight bias research with regard to (a) language about people with large bodies, (b) theoretical position, (c) identified consequences of weight bias, and (d) identified influences on weight-based social inequity. We suggest that, despite differences, each perspective acknowledges the negative influences that position weight as being within individual control and the negative consequences of weight bias. We call for recognition and discussion of weight bias as a social justice issue in order to change the discourse and professional practices extended towards individuals with large bodies. We advocate for an emphasis on social justice as a uniting framework for interdisciplinary research on weight bias. PMID:27747099

  2. Biological determinants of pregnancy weight gain in a Filipino population.

    PubMed

    Siega-Riz, A M; Adair, L S

    1993-03-01

    Patterns of pregnancy weight gain and predictors of first trimester and total weight gain were investigated in a sample of 1367 women from Cebu, Philippines, with pregnancy intervals of < 2 y. The mean total weight gain based on actual measurements of prepregnant weight was 8.4 kg. Controlling for gestational week when weight was measured, multivariate-regression models predicted higher first trimester weight gain with higher parity, lower prepregnant body mass index (BMI), and longer nonpregnant intervals. Higher total weight gain was associated with longer nonpregnant intervals, lower prepregnant BMI, taller maternal stature, and relatively high dietary energy intakes. Lactation into the third trimester of pregnancy and maternal age over 35 y had significant negative effects on total weight gain. Given the importance of maternal weight gain in predicting birth outcome, this study provides information on modifiable risk factors that should be considered when developing maternal-infant health policy and programs.

  3. Assessing Women's Negative Commentary on Their Own Bodies: A Psychometric Investigation of the Negative Body Talk Scale

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Engeln-Maddox, Renee; Salk, Rachel H.; Miller, Steven A.

    2012-01-01

    Our article details the development of the self-report Negative Body Talk (NBT) scale and five studies (all conducted with samples of U.S. undergraduate women) supporting the psychometric soundness of scores on this measure. The NBT scale measures women's tendency to engage in negatively valenced commentary about the weight and shape of their own…

  4. Assessing Women's Negative Commentary on Their Own Bodies: A Psychometric Investigation of the Negative Body Talk Scale

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Engeln-Maddox, Renee; Salk, Rachel H.; Miller, Steven A.

    2012-01-01

    Our article details the development of the self-report Negative Body Talk (NBT) scale and five studies (all conducted with samples of U.S. undergraduate women) supporting the psychometric soundness of scores on this measure. The NBT scale measures women's tendency to engage in negatively valenced commentary about the weight and shape of their own…

  5. The Negative Repetition Effect

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mulligan, Neil W.; Peterson, Daniel J.

    2013-01-01

    A fundamental property of human memory is that repetition enhances memory. Peterson and Mulligan (2012) recently documented a surprising "negative repetition effect," in which participants who studied a list of cue-target pairs twice recalled fewer targets than a group who studied the pairs only once. Words within a pair rhymed, and…

  6. The Negative Repetition Effect

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mulligan, Neil W.; Peterson, Daniel J.

    2013-01-01

    A fundamental property of human memory is that repetition enhances memory. Peterson and Mulligan (2012) recently documented a surprising "negative repetition effect," in which participants who studied a list of cue-target pairs twice recalled fewer targets than a group who studied the pairs only once. Words within a pair rhymed, and…

  7. [Fatigue and weight loss in Parkinson's disease].

    PubMed

    Okuma, Yasuyuki

    2012-04-01

    Fatigue is a common, under recognized, and poorly understood nonmotor symptom in Parkinson's disease (PD). Fatigue frequently presents early in PD, and its prevalence increases with disease progression, affecting up to 60% of patients. Fatigue has a negative impact on quality of life. Fatigue is often associated with other nonmotor symptoms, including sleep disturbance, excessive daytime sleepiness, and depression. Only a few reports have been published on the treatment of fatigue in PD (methylphenidate, levodopa, and pramipexole). Further well-designed studies, including physiotherapy, are necessary to develop more effective treatments for PD-associated fatigue. A number of patients with PD lose weight because of loss of fat. However, the evolution and determinants of weight loss are not well established. Possible determinants of weight loss in PD include loss of appetite, impaired hand-mouth coordination, difficulty in chewing and dysphagia, nausea, intestinal hypomotility, and increased energy requirements because of muscular rigidity and involuntary movements. Noticeable weight gain has repeatedly been reported after subthalamic or pallidal deep brain stimulation. Because low body weight is associated with negative health effects and a poor prognosis, monitoring weight and nutritional status should be part of PD management.

  8. Maternal weight change between 1 and 2 years postpartum: the importance of 1 year weight retention.

    PubMed

    Lipsky, Leah M; Strawderman, Myla S; Olson, Christine M

    2012-07-01

    Pregnancy weight gain may lead to long-term increases in maternal BMI for some women. The objective of this study was to examine maternal body weight change 1y-2y postpartum, and to compare classifications of 2y weight retention with and without accounting for 1y-2y weight gain. Early pregnancy body weight (EPW, first trimester) was measured or imputed, and follow-up measures obtained before delivery, 1 year postpartum (1y) and 2 years postpartum (2y) in an observational cohort study of women seeking prenatal care in several counties in upstate New York (n = 413). Baseline height was measured; demographic and behavioral data were obtained from questionnaires and medical records. Associations of 1y-2y weight change (kg) and 1y-2y weight gain (≥2.25 kg) with anthropometric, socioeconomic, and behavioral variables were evaluated using linear and logistic regressions. While mean ± SE 1y-2y weight change was 0.009 ± 4.6 kg, 1y-2y weight gain (≥2.25 kg) was common (n = 108, 26%). Odds of weight gain 1y-2y were higher for overweight (OR(adj) = 2.63, CI(95%) = 1.43-4.82) and obese (OR(adj) = 2.93, CI(95%) = 1.62-5.27) women than for women with BMI <25. Two year weight retention (2y-EPW ≥2.25 kg) was misclassified in 38% (n = 37) of women when 1y-2y weight gain was ignored. One year weight retention (1YWR) (1y-EPW) was negatively related to 1y-2y weight change (β(adj) ± SE = -0.28 ± 0.04, P < 0.001) and weight gain (≥2.25 kg) (OR(adj) = 0.91, CI(95%) = 0.87-0.95). Relations between 1y weight retention and 1y-2y weight change were attenuated for women with higher early pregnancy BMI. Weight change 1y-2y was predicted primarily by an inverse relation with 1y weight retention. The high frequency of weight gain has important implications for classification of postpartum weight retention.

  9. The relationship between weight stigma and eating behavior is explained by weight bias internalization and psychological distress.

    PubMed

    O'Brien, Kerry S; Latner, Janet D; Puhl, Rebecca M; Vartanian, Lenny R; Giles, Claudia; Griva, Konstadina; Carter, Adrian

    2016-07-01

    Weight stigma is associated with a range of negative outcomes, including disordered eating, but the psychological mechanisms underlying these associations are not well understood. The present study tested whether the association between weight stigma experiences and disordered eating behaviors (emotional eating, uncontrolled eating, and loss-of-control eating) are mediated by weight bias internalization and psychological distress. Six-hundred and thirty-four undergraduate university students completed an online survey assessing weight stigma, weight bias internalization, psychological distress, disordered eating, along with demographic characteristics (i.e., age, gender, weight status). Statistical analyses found that weight stigma was significantly associated with all measures of disordered eating, and with weight bias internalization and psychological distress. In regression and mediation analyses accounting for age, gender and weight status, weight bias internalization and psychological distress mediated the relationship between weight stigma and disordered eating behavior. Thus, weight bias internalization and psychological distress appear to be important factors underpinning the relationship between weight stigma and disordered eating behaviors, and could be targets for interventions, such as, psychological acceptance and mindfulness therapy, which have been shown to reduce the impact of weight stigma. The evidence for the health consequences resulting from weight stigma is becoming clear. It is important that health and social policy makers are informed of this literature and encouraged develop anti-weight stigma policies for school, work, and medical settings.

  10. Changes in Energy Expenditure with Weight Gain and Weight Loss in Humans.

    PubMed

    Müller, Manfred J; Enderle, Janna; Bosy-Westphal, Anja

    2016-12-01

    Metabolic adaptation to weight changes relates to body weight control, obesity and malnutrition. Adaptive thermogenesis (AT) refers to changes in resting and non-resting energy expenditure (REE and nREE) which are independent from changes in fat-free mass (FFM) and FFM composition. AT differs in response to changes in energy balance. With negative energy balance, AT is directed towards energy sparing. It relates to a reset of biological defence of body weight and mainly refers to REE. After weight loss, AT of nREE adds to weight maintenance. During overfeeding, energy dissipation is explained by AT of the nREE component only. As to body weight regulation during weight loss, AT relates to two different set points with a settling between them. During early weight loss, the first set is related to depleted glycogen stores associated with the fall in insulin secretion where AT adds to meet brain's energy needs. During maintenance of reduced weight, the second set is related to low leptin levels keeping energy expenditure low to prevent triglyceride stores getting too low which is a risk for some basic biological functions (e.g., reproduction). Innovative topics of AT in humans are on its definition and assessment, its dynamics related to weight loss and its constitutional and neuro-endocrine determinants.

  11. Fatty Acid Composition of Adipose Tissue Triglycerides After Weight Loss and Weight Maintenance: the DIOGENES Study

    PubMed Central

    KUNEŠOVÁ, M.; HLAVATÝ, P.; TVRZICKÁ, E.; STAŇKOVÁ, B.; KALOUSKOVÁ, P.; VIGUERIE, N.; LARSEN, T. M.; VAN BAAK, M. A.; JEBB, S. A.; MARTINEZ, J. A.; PFEIFFER, A. F. H.; KAFATOS, A.; HANDJIEVA-DARLENSKA, T.; HILL, M.; LANGIN, D.; ŽÁK, A.; ASTRUP, A.; SARIS, W. H. M.

    2013-01-01

    Summary Fatty acid composition of adipose tissue changes with weight loss. Palmitoleic acid as a possible marker of endogenous lipogenesis or its functions as a lipokine are under debate. Objective was to assess the predictive role of adipose triglycerides fatty acids in weight maintenance in participants of the DIOGENES dietary intervention study. After an 8-week low calorie diet (LCD) subjects with > 8 % weight loss were randomized to 5 ad libitum weight maintenance diets for 6 months: low protein (P)/low glycemic index (GI) (LP/LGI), low P/high GI (LP/HGI), high P/low GI (HP/LGI), high P/high GI (HP/HGI), and a control diet. Fatty acid composition in adipose tissue triglycerides was determined by gas chromatography in 195 subjects before the LCD (baseline), after LCD and weight maintenance. Weight change after the maintenance phase was positively correlated with baseline adipose palmitoleic (16:1n-7), myristoleic (14:1n-5) and trans-palmitoleic acid (16:1n-7t). Negative correlation was found with baseline oleic acid (18:1n-9). Lower baseline monounsaturated fatty acids (14:1n-5, 16:1n-7 and trans 16:1n-7) in adipose tissue triglycerides predict better weight maintenance. Lower oleic acid predicts lower weight decrease. These findings suggest a specific role of monounsaturated fatty acids in weight management and as weight change predictors. PMID:23098653

  12. Daptomycin Dosing Based on Ideal Body Weight versus Actual Body Weight: Comparison of Clinical Outcomes

    PubMed Central

    Rose, Warren E.; Fox, Barry C.; Andes, David R.; Buhr, Kevin A.; Fish, Jeffrey T.

    2014-01-01

    Daptomycin use at our institution changed to ideal body weight dosing based on a published analysis of pharmacokinetic-pharmacodynamic efficacy target attainment, bacterial ecology, and a desire to reduce drug toxicity. The current study compared outcomes between actual body weight and ideal body weight dosing of daptomycin before and after this intervention. In the evaluable group, 69 patients received doses based on actual body weight and 48 patients received doses based on ideal body weight. Patients were treated for documented Enterococcus species, Staphylococcus aureus, or coagulase-negative Staphylococcus infections, including bloodstream, intraabdominal, skin and soft tissue, urinary, and bone. There was no statistically significant difference in clinical success between the groups (88.9% for actual body weight compared to 89.1% for ideal body weight, P = 0.97). After we adjusted for gender, age, body mass index, concomitant 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl–coenzyme A reductase inhibitors, infection type, and organism type, clinical success rates remained similar between groups (adjusted odds ratio of 0.68 in favor of actual body weight, 95% confidence interval [CI] of 0.13 to 3.55). Microbiological outcomes, length of stay, mortality, and adverse effects were also similar between groups. Further studies are warranted to confirm that ideal body weight dosing provides similar outcomes to actual body weight dosing for all patients and types of infections and organisms. PMID:24145531

  13. Exercise and Weight Control.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Katch, Victor L.

    This paper describes a number of factors which go into determining weight. The paper describes what calories are, how caloric expenditure is measured, and why caloric expenditure is different for different people. The paper then outlines the way the body tends to adjust food intake and exercise to maintain a constant body weight. It is speculated…

  14. Keep Weight Off

    MedlinePlus

    ... proved to be the most useful by the end of the 2 ½-year study. Researchers say overall the effects of the counseling and support were modest, and most people in the study did regain some weight. But they note that even modest weight loss can have health ...

  15. Labor Supply and Weight

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lakdawalla, Darius; Philipson, Tomas

    2007-01-01

    We use panel data from the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth to investigate on-the-job exercise and weight. For male workers, job-related exercise has causal effects on weight, but for female workers, the effects seem primarily selective. A man who spends 18 years in the most physical fitness-demanding occupation is about 25 pounds (14…

  16. Marijuana and body weight.

    PubMed

    Sansone, Randy A; Sansone, Lori A

    2014-07-01

    Acute marijuana use is classically associated with snacking behavior (colloquially referred to as "the munchies"). In support of these acute appetite-enhancing effects, several authorities report that marijuana may increase body mass index in patients suffering from human immunodeficiency virus and cancer. However, for these medical conditions, while appetite may be stimulated, some studies indicate that weight gain is not always clinically meaningful. In addition, in a study of cancer patients in which weight gain did occur, it was less than the comparator drug (megestrol). However, data generally suggest that acute marijuana use stimulates appetite, and that marijuana use may stimulate appetite in low-weight individuals. As for large epidemiological studies in the general population, findings consistently indicate that users of marijuana tend to have lower body mass indices than nonusers. While paradoxical and somewhat perplexing, these findings may be explained by various study confounds, such as potential differences between acute versus chronic marijuana use; the tendency for marijuana use to be associated with other types of drug use; and/or the possible competition between food and drugs for the same reward sites in the brain. Likewise, perhaps the effects of marijuana are a function of initial weight status-i.e., maybe marijuana is a metabolic regulatory substance that increases body weight in low-weight individuals but not in normal-weight or overweight individuals. Only further research will clarify the complex relationships between marijuana and body weight.

  17. Remarks on Grammatical Weight.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wasow, Thomas

    1997-01-01

    Discusses "end-weight," long, complex phrases that tend to come at the end of clauses. Corpus data on heavy noun phrase shift, the dative alternation, and particle movement indicate that there are several structural measures of weight highly correlated with constituent ordering. (38 references) (Author/CK)

  18. Labor Supply and Weight

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lakdawalla, Darius; Philipson, Tomas

    2007-01-01

    We use panel data from the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth to investigate on-the-job exercise and weight. For male workers, job-related exercise has causal effects on weight, but for female workers, the effects seem primarily selective. A man who spends 18 years in the most physical fitness-demanding occupation is about 25 pounds (14…

  19. The Meaning of Weight

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Iona, Mario

    1975-01-01

    Presents a summary and comparison of various views on the concepts of mass and weight. Includes a consideration of gravitational force in an inertial system and apparent gravitational force on a rotating earth. Discusses the units and methods for measuring mass and weight. (GS)

  20. Proven Weight Loss Methods

    MedlinePlus

    ... Choices include • Eating fewer calories than usual. This strategy helped people in the DPP study lose weight. • Eating a low-carbohydrate diet. • Eating ... of exercise you enjoy. People in the DPP study exercised a total of 150 minutes each ... other strategies can help you lose weight? These actions also ...

  1. The Weighted Oblimin Rotation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lorenzo-Seva, Urbano

    2000-01-01

    Demonstrates that the weighting procedure proposed by E. Cureton and S. Mulaik (1975) can be applied to the Direct Oblimin approach of D. Clarkson and R. Jennrich (1988) to provide good results. The rotation method obtained is called Weighted Oblimin. Compared this method to other rotation methods with favorable results. (SLD)

  2. Weight gain - unintentional

    MedlinePlus

    ... trying to do so can have many causes. Metabolism slows down as you age . This can cause weight gain if you eat too much, eat the wrong foods, or do not get enough exercise. Drugs that can cause weight gain include: Birth ...

  3. Reciprocity of weighted networks.

    PubMed

    Squartini, Tiziano; Picciolo, Francesco; Ruzzenenti, Franco; Garlaschelli, Diego

    2013-01-01

    In directed networks, reciprocal links have dramatic effects on dynamical processes, network growth, and higher-order structures such as motifs and communities. While the reciprocity of binary networks has been extensively studied, that of weighted networks is still poorly understood, implying an ever-increasing gap between the availability of weighted network data and our understanding of their dyadic properties. Here we introduce a general approach to the reciprocity of weighted networks, and define quantities and null models that consistently capture empirical reciprocity patterns at different structural levels. We show that, counter-intuitively, previous reciprocity measures based on the similarity of mutual weights are uninformative. By contrast, our measures allow to consistently classify different weighted networks according to their reciprocity, track the evolution of a network's reciprocity over time, identify patterns at the level of dyads and vertices, and distinguish the effects of flux (im)balances or other (a)symmetries from a true tendency towards (anti-)reciprocation.

  4. Religion and body weight.

    PubMed

    Kim, K H; Sobal, J; Wethington, E

    2003-04-01

    Relationships between religion and body weight were examined in a US national sample. Data from the National Survey of Midlife Development in the United States (MIDUS), collected through telephone and postal questionnaires, were analyzed for 3032 adults aged 25-74. Religious denomination was significantly related to higher body weight in men after accounting for sociodemographic controls. Conservative Protestant men had a 1.1 +/- 0.45 higher body mass index (BMI) than those reporting no religious affiliation. Other religion variables that initially had significant relationships with greater body weight before adjusting for control variables became nonsignificant after smoking was controlled. No significant relationships between religion and body weight were present in women. Religious denomination was related to body weight in men. Other dimensions of religiosity showing a relationship with higher BMI appeared to be because of the lower rates of smoking among more religious individuals.

  5. Microdialysis unit for molecular weight separation

    DOEpatents

    Smith, Richard D.; Liu, Chuanliang

    1999-01-01

    The present invention relates generally to an apparatus and method for separating high molecular weight molecules from low molecular weight molecules. More specifically, the invention relates to the use of microdialysis for removal of the salt (low molecular weight molecules) from a nucleotide sample (high molecular weight molecules) for ESI-MS analysis. The dialysis or separation performance of the present invention is improved by (1) increasing dialysis temperature thereby increasing desalting efficiency and improving spectrum quality; (2) adding piperidine and imidazole to the dialysis buffer solution and reducing charge states and further increasing detection sensitivity for DNA; (3) using low concentrations (0-2.5 mM NH4OAc) of dialysis buffer and shifting the DNA negative ions to higher charge states, producing a nearly 10-fold increase in detection sensitivity and a slightly decreased desalting efficiency, or (4) any combination of (1), (2), and (3).

  6. Microdialysis unit for molecular weight separation

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, R.D.; Liu, C.

    1999-09-21

    The present invention relates generally to an apparatus and method for separating high molecular weight molecules from low molecular weight molecules. More specifically, the invention relates to the use of microdialysis for removal of the salt (low molecular weight molecules) from a nucleotide sample (high molecular weight molecules) for ESI-MS analysis. The dialysis or separation performance of the present invention is improved by (1) increasing dialysis temperature thereby increasing desalting efficiency and improving spectrum quality; (2) adding piperidine and imidazole to the dialysis buffer solution and reducing charge states and further increasing detection sensitivity for DNA; (3) using low concentrations of dialysis buffer and shifting the DNA negative ions to higher charge states, producing a nearly 10-fold increase in detection sensitivity and a slightly decreased desalting efficiency, or (4) any combination of (1), (2), and (3).

  7. Negative refraction and superconductivity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Amariti, Antonio; Forcella, Davide; Mariotti, Alberto; Siani, Massimo

    2011-10-01

    We discuss exotic properties of charged hydrodynamical systems, in the broken superconducting phase, probed by electromagnetic waves. Motivated by general arguments from hydrodynamics, we observe that negative refraction, namely the propagation in opposite directions of the phase velocities and of the energy flux, is expected for low enough frequencies. We corroborate this general idea by analyzing a holographic superconductor in the AdS/CFT correspondence, where the response functions can be explicitly computed. We study the dual gravitational theory both in the probe and in the backreacted case. We find that, while in the first case the refractive index is positive at every frequency, in the second case there is negative refraction at low enough frequencies. This is in agreement with hydrodynamic considerations.

  8. Negative Emissions Technology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Day, Danny

    2006-04-01

    Although `negative emissions' of carbon dioxide need not, in principle, involve use of biological processes to draw carbon out of the atmosphere, such `agricultural' sequestration' is the only known way to remove carbon from the atmosphere on time scales comparable to the time scale for anthropogenic increases in carbon emissions. In order to maintain the `negative emissions' the biomass must be used in such a way that the resulting carbon dioxide is separated and permanently sequestered. Two options for sequestration are in the topsoil and via geologic carbon sequestration. The former has multiple benefits, but the latter also is needed. Thus, although geologic carbon sequestration is viewed skeptically by some environmentalists as simply a way to keep using fossil fuels---it may be a key part of reversing accelerating climate forcing if rapid climate change is beginning to occur. I will first review the general approach of agricultural sequestration combined with use of resulting biofuels in a way that permits carbon separation and then geologic sequestration as a negative emissions technology. Then I discuss the process that is the focus of my company---the EPRIDA cycle. If deployed at a sufficiently large scale, it could reverse the increase in CO2 concentrations. I also estimate of benefits --carbon and other---of large scale deployment of negative emissions technologies. For example, using the EPRIDA cycle by planting and soil sequestering carbon in an area abut In 3X the size of Texas would remove the amount of carbon that is being accumulated worldwide each year. In addition to the atmospheric carbon removal, the EPRIDA approach also counters the depletion of carbon in the soil---increasing topsoil and its fertility; reduces the excess nitrogen in the water by eliminating the need for ammonium nitrate fertilizer and reduces fossil fuel reliance by providing biofuel and avoiding natural gas based fertilizer production.

  9. High Birth Weight and Cognitive Outcomes. NBER Working Paper No. 14524

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cesur, Resul; Rashad, Inas

    2008-01-01

    While the effects of low birth weight have long been explored, those of high birth weight have been essentially ignored. Economists have analyzed the negative effects that low birth weight might have on subsequent school outcomes, while taking into account unobserved characteristics that may be common to families with low birth weight babies and…

  10. High Birth Weight and Cognitive Outcomes. NBER Working Paper No. 14524

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cesur, Resul; Rashad, Inas

    2008-01-01

    While the effects of low birth weight have long been explored, those of high birth weight have been essentially ignored. Economists have analyzed the negative effects that low birth weight might have on subsequent school outcomes, while taking into account unobserved characteristics that may be common to families with low birth weight babies and…

  11. Light-weight plastination.

    PubMed

    Steinke, Hanno; Rabi, Suganthy; Saito, Toshiyuki; Sawutti, Alimjan; Miyaki, Takayoshi; Itoh, Masahiro; Spanel-Borowski, Katharina

    2008-11-20

    Plastination is an excellent technique which helps to keep the anatomical specimens in a dry, odourless state. Since the invention of plastination technique by von Hagens, research has been done to improve the quality of plastinated specimens. In this paper, we have described a method of producing light-weight plastinated specimens using xylene along with silicone and in the final step, substitute xylene with air. The finished plastinated specimens were light-weight, dry, odourless and robust. This method requires less use of resin thus making the plastination technique more cost-effective. The light-weight specimens are easy to carry and can easily be used for teaching.

  12. Negative printing by soft lithography.

    PubMed

    Ong, Jason Kee Yang; Moore, David; Kane, Jennifer; Saraf, Ravi F

    2014-08-27

    In inkless microcontact printing (IμCP) by soft lithography, the poly(dimethylsiloxane) (PDMS) stamp transfers uncured polymer to a substrate corresponding to its pattern. The spontaneous diffusion of PDMS oligomers to the surface of the stamp that gives rise to this deleterious side effect has been leveraged to fabricate a variety of devices, such as organic thin film transistors, single-electron devices, and biomolecular chips. Here we report an anomalous observation on a partially cured PDMS stamp where the transfer of oligomers onto Au occurred on regions that were not in contact with the stamp, while the surface in contact with the stamp was pristine with no polymer. On the SiO2 surface of the same chip, as expected, the transfer of PDMS occurred exclusively on regions in contact with the stamp. The printing on Au was quantified by a novel method where the submonolayer of PDMS transfer was measured by probing the local electrochemical passivation of the Au. The local transfer of polymer on SiO2 (and also Au) was measured by selective deposition of Au nanoparticle necklaces that exclusively deposited on PDMS at submonolayer sensitivity. It was discovered that the selectivity and sharpness of PDMS deposition on Au for inkless printing (i.e., negative) is significantly better than the traditional (positive) microcontact printing where the stamp is "inked" with low molecular weight PDMS.

  13. Protein diets, body weight loss and weight maintenance.

    PubMed

    Martens, Eveline A P; Westerterp-Plantenga, Margriet S

    2014-01-01

    The review addresses briefly the relevance of protein diets for body weight loss and weight maintenance. The addition of recent findings on age-dependent protein requirements, specific effects of protein intake and protein source, the relevance of the other dietary macronutrients, especially of 'low-carb', 'protein leverage', the mechanisms of protein-induced satiety, and food-reward makes the review up-to-date. Different effects of protein diets in different age groups result from age-dependent protein requirements that are primarily related to effects on body composition. A protein intake of 0.8 g/kg/day is sufficient to sustain a negative energy balance in adults, irrespective of the protein source. 'Low-carb' diets trace back to the protein-induced effects. Evidence that protein intake drives energy intake as suggested by the 'Protein leverage hypothesis' is scarce and equivocal. Finally, limited protein-induced food reward may affect compliance to a protein diet. An implication of the findings for clinical practice is that a protein intake of 0.8-1.2 g/kg/day is sufficient to sustain satiety, energy expenditure, and fat-free mass, independent of a dietary 'low-carb' content. Limited protein-induced food reward may affect compliance to a protein diet.

  14. Temperament and Body Weight from ages 4 to 15

    PubMed Central

    Sutin, Angelina R.; Kerr, Jessica A.; Terracciano, Antonio

    2017-01-01

    Background/Objectives In adulthood, conscientiousness and neuroticism are correlates of body weight and weight gain. The present research examines whether the childhood antecedents of these traits, persistence and negative reactivity, respectively, are associated with weight gain across childhood. We likewise examine sociability as a predictor of childhood weight gain and whether these three traits are associated with weight concerns and weight management strategies in adolescence. Subjects/Methods Participants (N=4,153) were drawn from the Longitudinal Study of Australian Children, an ongoing, population-based study of child and family health and well-being. At the baseline assessment, caregivers reported on their child's temperament. At every assessment from ages 4-5 to 14-15, study children were weighed and measured by trained staff; there were up to six biennial assessments of body mass index (BMI) and waist circumference. At age 14-15, study children (n=2,975) also self-reported on their weight concerns and weight management strategies. Results Study children rated lower in persistence or higher in negative reactivity in early childhood gained more weight between the ages of 4 and 15. Sociability was associated with weight gain among girls but not among boys. Lower persistence and higher negative reactivity at age 4-5 were also associated with greater weight concerns, restrained eating, and use of unhealthy weight management strategies at ages 14-15. Conclusions Childhood traits related to conscientiousness and neuroticism are associated with objective weight gain across childhood and with concerns and strategies to manage weight in adolescence. These results are consistent with a lifespan perspective that indicates that trait psychological functioning contributes to health-related markers from childhood through old age. PMID:28280272

  15. Weight loss goals among African-American women with type 2 diabetes in a behavioral weight control program.

    PubMed

    White, Della B; Bursac, Zoran; Dilillo, Vicki; West, Delia S

    2011-11-01

    African-American women with type 2 diabetes experience limited weight loss in behavioral weight control programs. Some research suggests that overly ambitious weight loss expectations may negatively affect weight losses achieved but it is unknown whether they affect weight loss among African-American women. The current study examined personal weight loss goals and expected satisfaction with a reasonable weight loss among African-American women with type 2 diabetes starting a behavioral obesity treatment. We also explored associations among these factors and weight loss treatment outcomes. Self-identified African-American women (N = 84) in a 24-session group program were assessed at baseline and 6-month follow-up. At baseline, women indicated weight loss goals of 14.1 ± 6.6 kg (14% of initial weight). They also reported relatively high expected satisfaction with a reasonable weight loss (7-10%). On average, participants lost 3.0 ± 3.9 kg (3% of initial weight) and attended 73 ± 21% of group sessions. Neither weight loss goals nor expected satisfaction with a reasonable weight loss was correlated with either actual weight loss outcome or attendance. Having higher personal weight loss goals was associated with lower expectations of satisfaction with a reasonable weight loss. This suggests that African-American women with type 2 diabetes enter treatment hoping to lose far more weight than they are likely to achieve. It is important to understand the psychosocial sequelae of failing to reach these goals on subsequent weight maintenance and future weight loss attempts within this population.

  16. Reactions of Negative Ions

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1984-07-17

    AUTHOR(S)* Viggiano , Albert A., Paulson, John F. C 6 UPE E T R O A IOE 18ate SUBo EC TERMS enti t e "Swrme f Ionsar and Efyb l to n in Gases, FIELD...Reactions of Negative Ions Albert A. Viggiano * and John F. Paulson Air Force Geophysics Laboratory Hanscom AFB, Massachusetts 017310 *Air Force Geophysics...an important process in controlling the electron density in a variety of natural plasmas , such as the earth’s ionosphere and interstellar space, and

  17. The Tracking Study: Description of a randomized controlled trial of variations on weight tracking frequency in a behavioral weight loss program

    PubMed Central

    Linde, Jennifer A.; Jeffery, Robert W.; Crow, Scott J.; Brelje, Kerrin L.; Pacanowski, Carly R.; Gavin, Kara L.; Smolenski, Derek J.

    2014-01-01

    Observational evidence from behavioral weight control trials and community studies suggests that greater frequency of weighing oneself, or tracking weight, is associated with better weight outcomes. Conversely, it has also been suggested that frequent weight tracking may have a negative impact on mental health and outcomes during weight loss, but there are minimal experimental data that address this concern in the context of an active weight loss program. To achieve the long-term goal of strengthening behavioral weight loss programs, the purpose of this randomized controlled trial (the Tracking Study) is to test variations on frequency of self-weighing during a behavioral weight loss program, and to examine psychosocial and mental health correlates of weight tracking and weight loss outcomes. Three hundred thirty-nine overweight and obese adults were recruited and randomized to one of three variations on weight tracking frequency during a 12-month weight loss program with a 12-month follow-up: daily weight tracking, weekly weight tracking, or no weight tracking. The primary outcome is weight in kilograms at 24 months. The weight loss program integrates each weight tracking instruction with standard behavioral weight loss techniques (goal setting, self-monitoring, stimulus control, dietary and physical activity enhancements, lifestyle modifications); participants in weight tracking conditions were provided with wireless Internet technology (Wi-Fi-enabled digital scales and touchscreen personal devices) to facilitate weight tracking during the study. This paper describes the study design, intervention features, recruitment, and baseline characteristics of participants enrolled in the Tracking Study. PMID:25533727

  18. Your Child's Weight

    MedlinePlus

    ... Some kids and teens are underweight because of eating disorders , like anorexia or bulimia, which need medical attention. ... Image Body Mass Index (BMI) Charts Healthy Eating Eating Disorders Your Child's Growth Losing Weight: Brandon's Story (Video) ...

  19. Your Child's Weight

    MedlinePlus

    ... spurts in height and weight gain in both boys and girls. Once these changes start, they continue for several ... or obese . Different BMI charts are used for boys and girls under the age of 20 because the amount ...

  20. Unexplained Weight Loss

    MedlinePlus

    ... activity level, overall health, age, nutrient absorption, and economic and social factors. If you're losing weight ... unintentional. In: Ferri's Clinical Advisor 2018. Philadelphia, Pa.: Elsevier; 2018. https://www.clinicalkey.com. Accessed July 2, ...

  1. Weight Gain during Pregnancy

    MedlinePlus

    ... Global Map Premature birth report card Careers Archives Pregnancy Before or between pregnancies Nutrition, weight & fitness Prenatal ... virus and pregnancy Folic acid Medicine safety and pregnancy Birth defects prevention Learn how to help reduce ...

  2. Weight in Diabetes

    PubMed Central

    Kenshole, Anne B.

    1972-01-01

    Diabetes is being increasingly detected among the overweight. The author discusses the links between diabetes and obesity, and outlines methods by which satisfactory weight reduction may be achieved. PMID:20468726

  3. Prizes for weight loss.

    PubMed Central

    Englberger, L.

    1999-01-01

    A programme of weight loss competitions and associated activities in Tonga, intended to combat obesity and the noncommunicable diseases linked to it, has popular support and the potential to effect significant improvements in health. PMID:10063662

  4. Weight loss (image)

    MedlinePlus

    Losing excess weight by eating a healthy diet is one of the best ways of helping to prevent disease. Obesity increases the risk of illness and death due to diabetes, stroke, coronary artery disease, and kidney and gallbladder disorders. The ...

  5. Antidepressants and Weight Gain

    MedlinePlus

    Diseases and Conditions Depression (major depressive disorder) Can antidepressants cause weight gain? Answers from Daniel K. Hall- ... is a possible side effect of nearly all antidepressants. However, each person responds to antidepressants differently. Some ...

  6. Gestational weight gain and medical outcomes of pregnancy

    PubMed Central

    Ferraro, Zachary M; Contador, Fernanda; Tawfiq, Afaf; Adamo, Kristi B

    2015-01-01

    This narrative review discusses gestational weight gain (GWG) and medical outcomes of pregnancy, including metabolic, cardiovascular, respiratory, musculoskeletal and psychiatric systems. Taken as a whole, the available evidence shows that excessive GWG increases the risk of all medical complications of pregnancy, and negatively impacts the long-term health and weight of both mothers and their offspring. Briefly, interventions to encourage appropriate GWG are discussed and readers are directed to resources to facilitate discussion of pregnancy weight. PMID:27512468

  7. Polarized negative ions

    SciTech Connect

    Haeberli, W.

    1981-04-01

    This paper presents a survey of methods, commonly in use or under development, to produce beams of polarized negative ions for injection into accelerators. A short summary recalls how the hyperfine interaction is used to obtain nuclear polarization in beams of atoms. Atomic-beam sources for light ions are discussed. If the best presently known techniques are incorporated in all stages of the source, polarized H/sup -/ and D/sup -/ beams in excess of 10 ..mu..A can probably be achieved. Production of polarized ions from fast (keV) beams of polarized atoms is treated separately for atoms in the H(25) excited state (Lamb-Shift source) and atoms in the H(1S) ground state. The negative ion beam from Lamb-Shift sources has reached a plateau just above 1 ..mu..A, but this beam current is adequate for many applications and the somewhat lower beam current is compensated by other desirable characteristics. Sources using fast polarized ground state atoms are in a stage of intense development. The next sections summarize production of polarized heavy ions by the atomic beam method, which is well established, and by optical pumping, which has recently been demonstrated to yield very large nuclear polarization. A short discussion of proposed ion sources for polarized /sup 3/He/sup -/ ions is followed by some concluding remarks.

  8. Negative magnetoresistivity in holography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, Ya-Wen; Yang, Qing

    2016-09-01

    Negative magnetoresistivity is a special magnetotransport property associated with chiral anomaly in four dimensional chiral anomalous systems, which refers to the transport behavior that the DC longitudinal magnetoresistivity decreases with increasing magnetic field. We calculate the longitudinal magnetoconductivity in the presence of back-reactions of the magnetic field to gravity in holographic zero charge and axial charge density systems with and without axial charge dissipation. In the absence of axial charge dissipation, we find that the quantum critical conductivity grows with increasing magnetic field when the backreaction strength is larger than a critical value, in contrast to the monotonically decreasing behavior of quantum critical conductivity in the probe limit. With axial charge dissipation, we find the negative magnetoresistivity behavior. The DC longitudinal magnetoconductivity scales as B in the large magnetic field limit, which deviates from the exact B 2 scaling of the probe limit result. In both cases, the small frequency longitudinal magnetoconductivity still agrees with the formula obtained from the hydrodynamic linear response theory, even in the large magnetic field limit.

  9. Classroom Management and Negative Reinforcement.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tauber, Robert T.

    Of the four simple consequences for behavior, none is more misunderstood than negative reinforcement. A Negative Reinforcement Quiz administered to 233 student teachers from two universities revealed that the vast majority of respondents mistakenly viewed negative reinforcement as a synonym for punishment, and believe that negative reinforcement…

  10. Heterosis and direct effects for Charolais-sired calf weight and growth, cow weight and weight change, and ratios of cow and calf weights and weight changes across warm season lactation in Romosinuano, Angus, and F cows in Arkansas.

    PubMed

    Riley, D G; Burke, J M; Chase, C C; Coleman, S W

    2016-01-01

    The use of Brahman in cow-calf production offers some adaptation to the harsh characteristics of endophyte-infected tall fescue. Criollo breeds, such as the Romosinuano, may have similar adaptation. The objectives were to estimate genetic effects in Romosinuano, Angus, and crossbred cows for their weights, weights of their calves, and ratios (calf weight:cow weight and cow weight change:calf weight gain) across lactation and to assess the influence of forage on traits and estimates. Cows ( = 91) were bred to Charolais bulls after their second parity. Calves ( = 214) were born from 2006 to 2009. Cows and calves were weighed in early (April and June), mid- (July), and late lactation (August and October). Animal was a random effect in analyses of calf data; sire was random in analyses of cow records and ratios. Fixed effects investigated included calf age, calf sex, cow age-year combinations, sire breed of cow, dam breed of cow, and interactions. Subsequent analyses evaluated the effect of forage grazed: endophyte-free or endophyte-infected tall fescue. Estimates of maternal heterosis for calf weight ranged from 9.3 ± 4.3 to 15.4 ± 5.7 kg from mid-lactation through weaning ( < 0.05). Romosinuano direct effects (of the cow) were -6.8 ± 3.0 and -8.9 ± 4.2 kg for weights recorded in April and June. Calf weights and weight gains from birth were greater ( < 0.05) for calves of cows grazing endophyte-free tall fescue except in mid-summer. Cow weight change from April to each time was negative for Angus cows and lower ( < 0.05) than other groups. Cows grazing endophyte-free tall fescue were heavier ( < 0.05) at all times but had more weight loss in late lactation. Angus cows had the lowest ( < 0.05) ratios (negative) of cow weight change:calf weight gain, indicating an energy-deficit condition. Cows grazing endophyte-free tall fescue had more negative ( < 0.05) values for this trait but not in early lactation ( < 0.05). Estimates of heterosis ranged from 12.8 ± 9.5 to

  11. Viral metagenomics in drug-naïve, first-onset schizophrenia patients with prominent negative symptoms.

    PubMed

    Canuti, Marta; van Beveren, Nico J M; Jazaeri Farsani, Seyed Mohammad; de Vries, Michel; Deijs, Martin; Jebbink, Maarten F; Zaaijer, Hans L; van Schaik, Barbera D C; van Kampen, Antoine H C; van der Kuyl, Antoinette C; de Haan, Lieuwe; Storosum, Jitschak G; van der Hoek, Lia

    2015-10-30

    Although several studies suggest a virus or (endogenous) retrovirus involvement at the time of onset of schizophrenia, the unequivocal identification of one or more infectious agents, by means of an undirected catch-all technique, has never been conducted. In this study VIDISCA, a virus discovery method, was used in combination with Roche-454 high-throughput sequencing as a tool to determine the possible presence of viruses (known or unknown) in blood of first-onset drugs-naïve schizophrenic patients with prominent negative symptoms. Two viruses (the Anellovirus Torque Teno virus and GB virus C) were detected. Both viruses are commonly found in healthy individuals and no clear link with disease was ever established. Viruses from the family Anelloviridae were also identified in the control population (4.8%). Besides, one patient sample was positive for human endogenous retroviruses type K (HML-2) RNA but no specific predominant strain was detected, instead 119 different variants were found. In conclusion, these findings indicate no evidence for viral or endogenous retroviral involvement in sera at the time of onset of schizophrenia. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Double-negative acoustic metamaterial.

    PubMed

    Li, Jensen; Chan, C T

    2004-11-01

    We show here the existence of acoustic metamaterial, in which both the effective density and bulk modulus are simultaneously negative, in the true and strict sense of an effective medium. Our double-negative acoustic system is an acoustic analogue of Veselago's medium in electromagnetism, and shares many unique consequences, such as negative refractive index. The double negativity in acoustics is derived from low-frequency resonances, as in the case of electromagnetism, but the negative density and modulus are derived from a single resonance structure as distinct from electromagnetism in which the negative permeability and negative permittivity originates from different resonance mechanisms.

  13. Avoiding Negative Dysphagia Outcomes.

    PubMed

    Tanner, Dennis C; Culbertson, William R

    2014-04-23

    Dysphagia in adults affects their quality of life and can lead to life-threatening conditions. The authors draw on both 30 years of experience as clinicians and also on expert testimony in adult, dysphagia-malpractice cases to make five recommendations with the aim of preventing dysphagia-related deaths. They discuss the importance of informed consent documents and suggest the following nursing actions to reduce these often unnecessary tragedies: consider the importance of diet status; understand and follow speech-language-pathologists' recommendations; be familiar with the dysphagia assessment; be responsive to the need for an instrumental assessment; and ensure dysphagia communication is accurate and disseminated among healthcare professionals. They conclude that most negative dysphagia-management outcomes can be prevented and that nurses play a pivotal role in this prevention.

  14. Negative optical torque.

    PubMed

    Chen, Jun; Ng, Jack; Ding, Kun; Fung, Kin Hung; Lin, Zhifang; Chan, C T

    2014-09-17

    Light carries angular momentum, and as such it can exert torques on material objects. Applications of these opto-mechanical effects were limited initially due to their smallness in magnitude, but later becomes powerful and versatile after the invention of laser. Novel and practical approaches for harvesting light for particle rotation have since been demonstrated, where the structure is always subjected to a positive optical torque along a certain axis if the incident angular momentum has a positive projection on the same axis. We report here an interesting phenomenon of "negative optical torque", meaning that incoming photons carrying angular momentum rotate an object in the opposite sense. Surprisingly this can be realized quite straightforwardly in simple planar structures. Field retardation is a necessary condition and discrete rotational symmetry of material object plays an important role. The optimal conditions are explored and explained.

  15. Negative Entropy of Life

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goradia, Shantilal

    2015-10-01

    We modify Newtonian gravity to probabilistic quantum mechanical gravity to derive strong coupling. If this approach is valid, we should be able to extend it to the physical body (life) as follows. Using Boltzmann equation, we get the entropy of the universe (137) as if its reciprocal, the fine structure constant (ALPHA), is the hidden candidate representing the negative entropy of the universe which is indicative of the binary information as its basis (http://www.arXiv.org/pdf/physics0210040v5). Since ALPHA relates to cosmology, it must relate to molecular biology too, with the binary system as the fundamental source of information for the nucleotides of the DNA as implicit in the book by the author: ``Quantum Consciousness - The Road to Reality.'' We debate claims of anthropic principle based on the negligible variation of ALPHA and throw light on thermodynamics. We question constancy of G in multiple ways.

  16. Negative Optical Torque

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Jun; Ng, Jack; Ding, Kun; Fung, Kin Hung; Lin, Zhifang; Chan, C. T.

    2014-09-01

    Light carries angular momentum, and as such it can exert torques on material objects. Applications of these opto-mechanical effects were limited initially due to their smallness in magnitude, but later becomes powerful and versatile after the invention of laser. Novel and practical approaches for harvesting light for particle rotation have since been demonstrated, where the structure is always subjected to a positive optical torque along a certain axis if the incident angular momentum has a positive projection on the same axis. We report here an interesting phenomenon of ``negative optical torque'', meaning that incoming photons carrying angular momentum rotate an object in the opposite sense. Surprisingly this can be realized quite straightforwardly in simple planar structures. Field retardation is a necessary condition and discrete rotational symmetry of material object plays an important role. The optimal conditions are explored and explained.

  17. Negative ion source

    DOEpatents

    Leung, K.N.; Ehlers, K.W.

    1982-08-06

    An ionization vessel is divided into an ionizing zone and an extraction zone by a magnetic filter. The magnetic filter prevents high-energy electrons from crossing from the ionizing zone to the extraction zone. A small positive voltage impressed on a plasma grid, located adjacent an extraction grid, positively biases the plasma in the extraction zone to thereby prevent positive ions from migrating from the ionizing zone to the extraction zone. Low-energy electrons, which would ordinarily be dragged by the positive ions into the extraction zone, are thereby prevented from being present in the extraction zone and being extracted along with negative ions by the extraction grid. Additional electrons are suppressed from the output flux using ExB drift provided by permanent magnets and the extractor grid electrical field.

  18. Negative ion source

    DOEpatents

    Leung, K.N.; Ehlers, K.W.

    1984-12-04

    An ionization vessel is divided into an ionizing zone and an extraction zone by a magnetic filter. The magnetic filter prevents high-energy electrons from crossing from the ionizing zone to the extraction zone. A small positive voltage impressed on a plasma grid, located adjacent an extraction grid, positively biases the plasma in the extraction zone to thereby prevent positive ions from migrating from the ionizing zone to the extraction zone. Low-energy electrons, which would ordinarily be dragged by the positive ions into the extraction zone, are thereby prevented from being present in the extraction zone and being extracted along with negative ions by the extraction grid. Additional electrons are suppressed from the output flux using ExB drift provided by permanent magnets and the extractor grid electrical field. 14 figs.

  19. Negative Optical Torque

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Jun; Ng, Jack; Ding, Kun; Fung, Kin Hung; Lin, Zhifang; Chan, C. T.

    2014-01-01

    Light carries angular momentum, and as such it can exert torques on material objects. Applications of these opto-mechanical effects were limited initially due to their smallness in magnitude, but later becomes powerful and versatile after the invention of laser. Novel and practical approaches for harvesting light for particle rotation have since been demonstrated, where the structure is always subjected to a positive optical torque along a certain axis if the incident angular momentum has a positive projection on the same axis. We report here an interesting phenomenon of “negative optical torque”, meaning that incoming photons carrying angular momentum rotate an object in the opposite sense. Surprisingly this can be realized quite straightforwardly in simple planar structures. Field retardation is a necessary condition and discrete rotational symmetry of material object plays an important role. The optimal conditions are explored and explained. PMID:25226863

  20. Negative ion source

    DOEpatents

    Leung, Ka-Ngo; Ehlers, Kenneth W.

    1984-01-01

    An ionization vessel is divided into an ionizing zone and an extraction zone by a magnetic filter. The magnetic filter prevents high-energy electrons from crossing from the ionizing zone to the extraction zone. A small positive voltage impressed on a plasma grid, located adjacent an extraction grid, positively biases the plasma in the extraction zone to thereby prevent positive ions from migrating from the ionizing zone to the extraction zone. Low-energy electrons, which would ordinarily be dragged by the positive ions into the extraction zone, are thereby prevented from being present in the extraction zone and being extracted along with negative ions by the extraction grid. Additional electrons are suppressed from the output flux using ExB drift provided by permanent magnets and the extractor grid electrical field.

  1. Do `negative' temperatures exist?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lavenda, B. H.

    1999-06-01

    A modification of the second law is required for a system with a bounded density of states and not the introduction of a `negative' temperature scale. The ascending and descending branches of the entropy versus energy curve describe particle and hole states, having thermal equations of state that are given by the Fermi and logistic distributions, respectively. Conservation of energy requires isentropic states to be isothermal. The effect of adiabatically reversing the field is entirely mechanical because the only difference between the two states is their energies. The laws of large and small numbers, leading to the normal and Poisson approximations, characterize statistically the states of infinite and zero temperatures, respectively. Since the heat capacity also vanishes in the state of maximum disorder, the third law can be generalized in systems with a bounded density of states: the entropy tends to a constant as the temperature tends to either zero or infinity.

  2. Qualitative analysis of the role of self-weighing as a strategy of weight control for weight-loss maintainers in comparison with a normal, stable weight group.

    PubMed

    Carrard, Isabelle; Kruseman, Maaike

    2016-10-01

    Self-weighing seems to have a primary role in weight-loss maintenance. The use of this strategy may help correct even slight weight regain and contribute to long-term weight stability. However, self-weighing has also been associated with negative psychological health consequences in specific subgroups. This study aimed to explore the use and the behavioral and psychological consequences of self-weighing in a group of weight-loss maintainers (WLoMs). We chose a qualitative design to conduct this investigation. Eighteen WLoMs were interviewed and compared to a matched comparison group of 18 participants with a lifelong normal stable weight (NSW). Analyses showed that most WLoMs needed regular self-weighing to be aware of their weight. The weight displayed on the scale helped WLoMs sustain the continuous efforts needed to maintain weight loss and also at times triggered corrective actions that were sometimes drastic. Weight changes generated both negative and positive affect among WLoMs, who could experience anxiety because of self-weighing or have their self-esteem impaired in the case of weight gain. In comparison, the NSW group rarely used self-weighing. They relied on a conscious way of living to control their weight and needed fewer strategies. NSW participants simply went back to their routine when they felt a slight increase in their weight, without experiencing consequences on their mood or self-esteem. Regular self-weighing as a component of weight-loss maintenance should be encouraged to help WLoMs regulate their food and physical activity, provided that potential consequences on psychological well-being, including self-esteem, are screened and addressed when needed.

  3. Reciprocity of weighted networks

    PubMed Central

    Squartini, Tiziano; Picciolo, Francesco; Ruzzenenti, Franco; Garlaschelli, Diego

    2013-01-01

    In directed networks, reciprocal links have dramatic effects on dynamical processes, network growth, and higher-order structures such as motifs and communities. While the reciprocity of binary networks has been extensively studied, that of weighted networks is still poorly understood, implying an ever-increasing gap between the availability of weighted network data and our understanding of their dyadic properties. Here we introduce a general approach to the reciprocity of weighted networks, and define quantities and null models that consistently capture empirical reciprocity patterns at different structural levels. We show that, counter-intuitively, previous reciprocity measures based on the similarity of mutual weights are uninformative. By contrast, our measures allow to consistently classify different weighted networks according to their reciprocity, track the evolution of a network's reciprocity over time, identify patterns at the level of dyads and vertices, and distinguish the effects of flux (im)balances or other (a)symmetries from a true tendency towards (anti-)reciprocation. PMID:24056721

  4. Popular weight reduction diets.

    PubMed

    Volpe, Stella Lucia

    2006-01-01

    The percentage of people who are overweight and obese has increased tremendously over the last 30 years. It has become a worldwide epidemic. This is evident by the number of children are being diagnosed with a body mass index >85th percentile, and the number of children begin diagnosed with type 2 diabetes mellitus, a disease previously reserved for adults. The weight loss industry has also gained from this epidemic; it is a billion dollar industry. People pay large sums of money on diet pills, remedies, and books, with the hope of losing weight permanently. Despite these efforts, the number of individuals who are overweight or obese continues to increase. Obesity is a complex, multifactorial disorder. It would be impossible to address all aspects of diet, exercise, and weight loss in this review. Therefore, this article will review popular weight loss diets, with particular attention given to comparing low fat diets with low carbohydrate diets. In addition, the role that the environment plays on both diet and exercise and how they impact obesity will be addressed. Finally, the National Weight Control Registry will be discussed.

  5. Weight isn't selling: The insidious effects of weight stigmatization in retail settings.

    PubMed

    Ruggs, Enrica N; Hebl, Michelle R; Williams, Amber

    2015-09-01

    In recent years, the literature on the stigma of obesity has grown but there still remains a paucity of research examining specific issues associated with its impact in the workplace. In the current study, we examine 3 such issues related to the influence of weight-based stigmatization in retail settings. First, we highlight research on the impact of obesity in men often is minimized or altogether excluded, and we examine whether weight-based stigmatization influences men in authentic retail settings (Study 1). Across retail contexts, Study 1 reveals that heavy (vs. nonheavy) men do experience significantly more interpersonal (subtle) discrimination. Second, we examine the "why" of weight-based stigmatization and find that weight-related negative stereotypes compound to produce indirect but strong effects of stigmatization in retail settings (Study 2). Third and finally, we examine whether weight-based stigmatization against men and women in retail also influences ratings of associated products and the organizations for which heavy individuals work (also Study 2). Results from Study 2 show that stereotypes work similarly for men and women and that a stigma-by-association effect occurs in which evaluators rate products and organizations associated with heavy (vs. nonheavy) retail personnel more negatively. Finally, we discuss the importance of these findings in gaining a more holistic look at the influence of weight stigmatization in the workplace. (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved).

  6. Light weight phosphate cements

    DOEpatents

    Wagh, Arun S.; Natarajan, Ramkumar,; Kahn, David

    2010-03-09

    A sealant having a specific gravity in the range of from about 0.7 to about 1.6 for heavy oil and/or coal bed methane fields is disclosed. The sealant has a binder including an oxide or hydroxide of Al or of Fe and a phosphoric acid solution. The binder may have MgO or an oxide of Fe and/or an acid phosphate. The binder is present from about 20 to about 50% by weight of the sealant with a lightweight additive present in the range of from about 1 to about 10% by weight of said sealant, a filler, and water sufficient to provide chemically bound water present in the range of from about 9 to about 36% by weight of the sealant when set. A porous ceramic is also disclosed.

  7. Generalized constructive tree weights

    SciTech Connect

    Rivasseau, Vincent E-mail: adrian.tanasa@ens-lyon.org; Tanasa, Adrian E-mail: adrian.tanasa@ens-lyon.org

    2014-04-15

    The Loop Vertex Expansion (LVE) is a quantum field theory (QFT) method which explicitly computes the Borel sum of Feynman perturbation series. This LVE relies in a crucial way on symmetric tree weights which define a measure on the set of spanning trees of any connected graph. In this paper we generalize this method by defining new tree weights. They depend on the choice of a partition of a set of vertices of the graph, and when the partition is non-trivial, they are no longer symmetric under permutation of vertices. Nevertheless we prove they have the required positivity property to lead to a convergent LVE; in fact we formulate this positivity property precisely for the first time. Our generalized tree weights are inspired by the Brydges-Battle-Federbush work on cluster expansions and could be particularly suited to the computation of connected functions in QFT. Several concrete examples are explicitly given.

  8. Emotion Regulation and Excess Weight: Impaired Affective Processing Characterized by Dysfunctional Insula Activation and Connectivity.

    PubMed

    Steward, Trevor; Picó-Pérez, Maria; Mata, Fernanda; Martínez-Zalacaín, Ignacio; Cano, Marta; Contreras-Rodríguez, Oren; Fernández-Aranda, Fernando; Yucel, Murat; Soriano-Mas, Carles; Verdejo-García, Antonio

    2016-01-01

    Emotion-regulation strategies are understood to influence food intake. This study examined the neurophysiological underpinnings of negative emotion processing and emotion regulation in individuals with excess weight compared to normal-weight controls. Fifteen participants with excess-weight (body mass index >25) and sixteen normal-weight controls (body mass index 18-25) performed an emotion-regulation task during functional magnetic resonance imaging. Participants were exposed to 24 negative affective or neutral pictures that they were instructed to Observe (neutral pictures), Maintain (sustain the emotion elicited by negative pictures) or Regulate (down-regulate the emotion provoked by negative pictures through previously trained reappraisal techniques). When instructed to regulate negative emotions by means of cognitive reappraisal, participants with excess weight displayed persistently heightened activation in the right anterior insula. Decreased responsivity was also found in right anterior insula, the orbitofrontal cortex and cerebellum during negative emotion experience in participants with excess weight. Psycho-physiological interaction analyses showed that excess-weight participants had decreased negative functional coupling between the right anterior insula and the right dlPFC, and the bilateral dmPFC during cognitive reappraisal. Our findings support contentions that excess weight is linked to an abnormal pattern of neural activation and connectivity during the experience and regulation of negative emotions, with the insula playing a key role in these alterations. We posit that ineffective regulation of emotional states contributes to the acquisition and preservation of excess weight.

  9. Emotion Regulation and Excess Weight: Impaired Affective Processing Characterized by Dysfunctional Insula Activation and Connectivity

    PubMed Central

    Mata, Fernanda; Martínez-Zalacaín, Ignacio; Cano, Marta; Contreras-Rodríguez, Oren; Fernández-Aranda, Fernando; Yucel, Murat; Soriano-Mas, Carles; Verdejo-García, Antonio

    2016-01-01

    Emotion-regulation strategies are understood to influence food intake. This study examined the neurophysiological underpinnings of negative emotion processing and emotion regulation in individuals with excess weight compared to normal-weight controls. Fifteen participants with excess-weight (body mass index >25) and sixteen normal-weight controls (body mass index 18–25) performed an emotion-regulation task during functional magnetic resonance imaging. Participants were exposed to 24 negative affective or neutral pictures that they were instructed to Observe (neutral pictures), Maintain (sustain the emotion elicited by negative pictures) or Regulate (down-regulate the emotion provoked by negative pictures through previously trained reappraisal techniques). When instructed to regulate negative emotions by means of cognitive reappraisal, participants with excess weight displayed persistently heightened activation in the right anterior insula. Decreased responsivity was also found in right anterior insula, the orbitofrontal cortex and cerebellum during negative emotion experience in participants with excess weight. Psycho-physiological interaction analyses showed that excess-weight participants had decreased negative functional coupling between the right anterior insula and the right dlPFC, and the bilateral dmPFC during cognitive reappraisal. Our findings support contentions that excess weight is linked to an abnormal pattern of neural activation and connectivity during the experience and regulation of negative emotions, with the insula playing a key role in these alterations. We posit that ineffective regulation of emotional states contributes to the acquisition and preservation of excess weight. PMID:27003840

  10. Average Weighted Receiving Time of Weighted Tetrahedron Koch Networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dai, Meifeng; Zhang, Danping; Ye, Dandan; Zhang, Cheng; Li, Lei

    2015-07-01

    We introduce weighted tetrahedron Koch networks with infinite weight factors, which are generalization of finite ones. The term of weighted time is firstly defined in this literature. The mean weighted first-passing time (MWFPT) and the average weighted receiving time (AWRT) are defined by weighted time accordingly. We study the AWRT with weight-dependent walk. Results show that the AWRT for a nontrivial weight factor sequence grows sublinearly with the network order. To investigate the reason of sublinearity, the average receiving time (ART) for four cases are discussed.

  11. Self-perception of weight status and its association with weight-related knowledge, attitudes, and behaviors among Chinese children in Guangzhou.

    PubMed

    Cai, Li; Zhang, Ting; Ma, Jun; Ma, Lu; Jing, Jin; Chen, Yajun

    2017-07-01

    How weight perception influences weight-related knowledge, attitudes, and behaviors in Chinese children is unknown. We investigated self-perception of body weight and its correlates, and analyzed the relationship between weight perception and weight-related knowledge, attitudes, and behaviors in children in Guangzhou, China. We assessed self-reported weight perception, weight-related knowledge, attitudes, and behaviors in 3752 children aged 7-12 years. Underweight or overweight was defined using the Chinese criteria based on body mass index (BMI). Binary logistic regression analyses were performed to assess correlates of weight underestimation. In total, 27.3% of children underestimated and 6.7% overestimated their weight status. Weight underestimation was common among normal-weight (34.1%) and overweight children (25.3%). Older age, female sex, and child BMI z-score were negatively associated with normal-weight children's underestimation, whereas older age, paternal obesity, maternal obesity, and child BMI z-score were negatively associated with overweight children's underestimation. Correct answers on weight-related knowledge questions ranged from 81.5% to 98.6% and did not differ by weight perception within BMI categories. Although negative perceivers (i.e., those who perceived themselves as underweight or overweight) had a higher intention to change weight, they behaved more unhealthily on fruit intake, breakfast, screen time, and daily moderate-to-vigorous physical activities time than counterparts. Weight underestimation was prevalent in normal-weight and overweight children in Guangzhou. Negative perceivers had stronger willingness to change weight but tended to behave more unhealthily on certain behaviors than positive perceivers. Childhood obesity interventions should incorporate health education and practical support to promote healthy eating and physical activity. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Production and hosting by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Dairy cow disability weights.

    PubMed

    McConnel, Craig S; McNeil, Ashleigh A; Hadrich, Joleen C; Lombard, Jason E; Garry, Franklyn B; Heller, Jane

    2017-08-01

    Over the past 175 years, data related to human disease and death have progressed to a summary measure of population health, the Disability-Adjusted Life Year (DALY). As dairies have intensified there has been no equivalent measure of the impact of disease on the productive life and well-being of animals. The development of a disease-adjusted metric requires a consistent set of disability weights that reflect the relative severity of important diseases. The objective of this study was to use an international survey of dairy authorities to derive disability weights for primary disease categories recorded on dairies. National and international dairy health and management authorities were contacted through professional organizations, dairy industry publications and conferences, and industry contacts. Estimates of minimum, most likely, and maximum disability weights were derived for 12 common dairy cow diseases. Survey participants were asked to estimate the impact of each disease on overall health and milk production. Diseases were classified from 1 (minimal adverse effects) to 10 (death). The data was modelled using BetaPERT distributions to demonstrate the variation in these dynamic disease processes, and to identify the most likely aggregated disability weights for each disease classification. A single disability weight was assigned to each disease using the average of the combined medians for the minimum, most likely, and maximum severity scores. A total of 96 respondents provided estimates of disability weights. The final disability weight values resulted in the following order from least to most severe: retained placenta, diarrhea, ketosis, metritis, mastitis, milk fever, lame (hoof only), calving trauma, left displaced abomasum, pneumonia, musculoskeletal injury (leg, hip, back), and right displaced abomasum. The peaks of the probability density functions indicated that for certain disease states such as retained placenta there was a relatively narrow range of

  13. Exercise in weight management.

    PubMed

    Pinto, B M; Szymanski, L

    1997-11-01

    Exercise is integral to successful weight loss and maintenance. When talking to patients about exercise, consider their readiness, and address the barriers that prevent exercise. Physicians can help those patients who already exercise by encouraging them to continue and helping them anticipate, and recover from, lapses. Providing resource material to patients on behavioral strategies for exercise adoption and weight management can supplement the physician's efforts. Overall, patients need to hear that any regular exercise, be it step-aerobics, walking, or taking the stairs, will benefit them.

  14. Weighted Uncertainty Relations

    PubMed Central

    Xiao, Yunlong; Jing, Naihuan; Li-Jost, Xianqing; Fei, Shao-Ming

    2016-01-01

    Recently, Maccone and Pati have given two stronger uncertainty relations based on the sum of variances and one of them is nontrivial when the quantum state is not an eigenstate of the sum of the observables. We derive a family of weighted uncertainty relations to provide an optimal lower bound for all situations and remove the restriction on the quantum state. Generalization to multi-observable cases is also given and an optimal lower bound for the weighted sum of the variances is obtained in general quantum situation. PMID:26984295

  15. Heavy-heartedness biases your weight perception.

    PubMed

    Min, Bora; Choi, Incheol

    2016-01-01

    Heavy-heartedness (light-heartedness), among more than two hundred metaphors related to the heart, indicates negative (positive) affects. Although these metaphors are generally understood rhetorically, this study explores whether there is any literal connection between either of these two states and one's perception of weight. Participants who recalled a heavy-heartening (vs. light-heartening) past event estimated more weight of an object (Study 1). While watching weightlifting and pole-vaulting competition clips, people in heavy-hearted (vs. light-hearted) states predicted that players' success is less likely (Study 2). However, this result was not observed while people in both states watched non-weight-related games, such as golf-putting and pool. The findings are congruous with embodied cognition theory and the role of metaphors in our life.

  16. Detecting Statistically Significant Communities of Triangle Motifs in Undirected Networks

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2016-04-26

    18 5.2 Author’s Personal Facebook Network . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 20 6 Conclusions 22 7 Appendices 27 2...23 17 Unclustered Facebook network. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 23 18 Stem plot of...degree-ordered vertices versus the degree for Facebook network. . . . . . . . . . 24 19 Output of proposed algorithm implemented in C++ and applied to

  17. Analysis of a hybrid-undirectional buffer strip laminate

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dharani, L. R.; Goree, J. G.

    1983-01-01

    A method of analysis capable of predicting accurately the fracture behavior of a unidirectional composite laminate containing symmetrically placed buffer strips is presented. As an example, for a damaged graphite/epoxy laminate, the results demonstrate the manner in which to select the most efficient combination of buffer strip properties necessary to inhibit crack growth. Ultimate failure of the laminate after the arrest can occur under increasing load either by continued crack extension through the buffer strips or the crack can jump the buffer strips. For some typical hybrid materials it is found that a buffer strip spacing to width ratio of about four to one is the most efficient.

  18. Negative Expertise: Comparing Differently Tenured Elder Care Nurses' Negative Knowledge

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gartmeier, Martin; Lehtinen, Erno; Gruber, Hans; Heid, Helmut

    2011-01-01

    Negative expertise is conceptualised as the professional's ability to avoid errors during practice due to certain cognitive agencies. In this study, negative knowledge (i.e. knowledge about what is wrong in a certain context and situation) is conceptualised as one such agency. This study compares and investigates the negative knowledge of elder…

  19. Weight and Diabetes (For Parents)

    MedlinePlus

    ... your child lose weight to control diabetes, a weight management plan may be created. Even if your child's ... overweight, talk to your doctor about beginning a weight management program so you can set a good example. ...

  20. Diet for rapid weight loss

    MedlinePlus

    ... diet; VLCD; Low-calorie diet; LCD; Very low energy diet; Weight loss - rapid weight loss; Overweight - rapid ... AM, Aveyard P. Clinical effectiveness of very-low-energy diets in the management of weight loss: a ...

  1. Aim For a Healthy Weight

    MedlinePlus

    ... oxygen into energy), and behavior or habits. Energy Balance Energy balance is important for maintaining a healthy weight. The ... OUT over time = weight stays the same (energy balance) More energy IN than OUT over time = weight ...

  2. Coagulase-Negative Staphylococci

    PubMed Central

    Heilmann, Christine; Peters, Georg

    2014-01-01

    SUMMARY The definition of the heterogeneous group of coagulase-negative staphylococci (CoNS) is still based on diagnostic procedures that fulfill the clinical need to differentiate between Staphylococcus aureus and those staphylococci classified historically as being less or nonpathogenic. Due to patient- and procedure-related changes, CoNS now represent one of the major nosocomial pathogens, with S. epidermidis and S. haemolyticus being the most significant species. They account substantially for foreign body-related infections and infections in preterm newborns. While S. saprophyticus has been associated with acute urethritis, S. lugdunensis has a unique status, in some aspects resembling S. aureus in causing infectious endocarditis. In addition to CoNS found as food-associated saprophytes, many other CoNS species colonize the skin and mucous membranes of humans and animals and are less frequently involved in clinically manifested infections. This blurred gradation in terms of pathogenicity is reflected by species- and strain-specific virulence factors and the development of different host-defending strategies. Clearly, CoNS possess fewer virulence properties than S. aureus, with a respectively different disease spectrum. In this regard, host susceptibility is much more important. Therapeutically, CoNS are challenging due to the large proportion of methicillin-resistant strains and increasing numbers of isolates with less susceptibility to glycopeptides. PMID:25278577

  3. Negative ion source

    DOEpatents

    Delmore, James E.

    1987-01-01

    A method and apparatus for providing a negative ion source accelerates electrons away from a hot filament electron emitter into a region of crossed electric and magnetic fields arranged in a magnetron configuration. During a portion of the resulting cycloidal path, the electron velocity is reduced below its initial value. The electron accelerates as it leaves the surface at a rate of only slightly less than if there were no magnetic field, thereby preventing a charge buildup at the surface of the emitter. As the electron traverses the cycloid, it is decelerated during the second, third, and fourth quadrants, then reeccelerated as it approaches the end of the fourth quadrant to regain its original velocity. The minimum velocity occurs during the fourth quadrant, and corresponds to an electron temperature of 200.degree. to 500.degree. for the electric and magnetic fields commonly encountered in the ion sources of magnetic sector mass spectrometers. An ion source using the above-described thermalized electrons is also disclosed.

  4. Coagulase-negative staphylococci.

    PubMed

    Becker, Karsten; Heilmann, Christine; Peters, Georg

    2014-10-01

    The definition of the heterogeneous group of coagulase-negative staphylococci (CoNS) is still based on diagnostic procedures that fulfill the clinical need to differentiate between Staphylococcus aureus and those staphylococci classified historically as being less or nonpathogenic. Due to patient- and procedure-related changes, CoNS now represent one of the major nosocomial pathogens, with S. epidermidis and S. haemolyticus being the most significant species. They account substantially for foreign body-related infections and infections in preterm newborns. While S. saprophyticus has been associated with acute urethritis, S. lugdunensis has a unique status, in some aspects resembling S. aureus in causing infectious endocarditis. In addition to CoNS found as food-associated saprophytes, many other CoNS species colonize the skin and mucous membranes of humans and animals and are less frequently involved in clinically manifested infections. This blurred gradation in terms of pathogenicity is reflected by species- and strain-specific virulence factors and the development of different host-defending strategies. Clearly, CoNS possess fewer virulence properties than S. aureus, with a respectively different disease spectrum. In this regard, host susceptibility is much more important. Therapeutically, CoNS are challenging due to the large proportion of methicillin-resistant strains and increasing numbers of isolates with less susceptibility to glycopeptides.

  5. Improved negative ion source

    DOEpatents

    Delmore, J.E.

    1984-05-01

    A method and apparatus for providing a negative ion source accelerates electrons away from a hot filament electron emitter into a region of crossed electric and magnetic fields arranged in a magnetron configuration. During a portion of the resulting cycloidal path, the electron velocity is reduced below its initial value. The electron accelerates as it leaves the surface at a rate of only slightly less than if there were no magnetic field, thereby preventing a charge buildup at the surface of the emitter. As the electron traverses the cycloid, it is decelerated during the second, third, and fourth quadrants, then reaccelerated as it approaches the end of the fourth quadrant to regain its original velocity. The minimum velocity occurs during the fourth quadrant, and corresponds to an electron temperature of 200 to 500/sup 0/C for the electric and magnetic fields commonly encountered in the ion sources of magnetic sector mass spectrometers. An ion source using the above-described thermalized electrons is also disclosed.

  6. Weight status and body image perceptions in adolescents: current perspectives

    PubMed Central

    Voelker, Dana K; Reel, Justine J; Greenleaf, Christy

    2015-01-01

    Adolescence represents a pivotal stage in the development of positive or negative body image. Many influences exist during the teen years including transitions (eg, puberty) that affect one’s body shape, weight status, and appearance. Weight status exists along a spectrum between being obese (ie, where one’s body weight is in the 95th percentile for age and gender) to being underweight. Salient influences on body image include the media, which can target adolescents, and peers who help shape beliefs about the perceived body ideal. Internalization of and pressures to conform to these socially prescribed body ideals help to explain associations between weight status and body image. The concepts of fat talk and weight-related bullying during adolescence greatly contribute to an overemphasis on body weight and appearance as well as the development of negative body perceptions and dissatisfaction surrounding specific body parts. This article provides an overview of the significance of adolescent development in shaping body image, the relationship between body image and adolescent weight status, and the consequences of having a negative body image during adolescence (ie, disordered eating, eating disorders, and dysfunctional exercise). Practical implications for promoting a healthy weight status and positive body image among adolescents will be discussed. PMID:26347007

  7. Weight status and body image perceptions in adolescents: current perspectives.

    PubMed

    Voelker, Dana K; Reel, Justine J; Greenleaf, Christy

    2015-01-01

    Adolescence represents a pivotal stage in the development of positive or negative body image. Many influences exist during the teen years including transitions (eg, puberty) that affect one's body shape, weight status, and appearance. Weight status exists along a spectrum between being obese (ie, where one's body weight is in the 95th percentile for age and gender) to being underweight. Salient influences on body image include the media, which can target adolescents, and peers who help shape beliefs about the perceived body ideal. Internalization of and pressures to conform to these socially prescribed body ideals help to explain associations between weight status and body image. The concepts of fat talk and weight-related bullying during adolescence greatly contribute to an overemphasis on body weight and appearance as well as the development of negative body perceptions and dissatisfaction surrounding specific body parts. This article provides an overview of the significance of adolescent development in shaping body image, the relationship between body image and adolescent weight status, and the consequences of having a negative body image during adolescence (ie, disordered eating, eating disorders, and dysfunctional exercise). Practical implications for promoting a healthy weight status and positive body image among adolescents will be discussed.

  8. The distinct effects of internalizing weight bias: An experimental study.

    PubMed

    Pearl, Rebecca L; Puhl, Rebecca M

    2016-06-01

    Both experiencing and internalizing weight bias are associated with negative mental and physical health outcomes, but internalization may be a more potent predictor of these outcomes. The current study aimed to differentiate between causal effects of experiencing versus internalizing weight bias on emotional responses and psychological well-being. Adults with overweight/obesity (N=260) completed an online experiment in which they were randomly assigned to focus on either the experience or internalization of weight bias, and completed measures of affect, self-esteem, and body dissatisfaction. Results indicated that the Internalization condition led to more negative affect, less positive affect, and lower self-esteem than the Experience condition. The Internalization condition also led to heightened body dissatisfaction among men, but not women. These findings suggest that weight bias internalization may be a stronger predictor of poor mental and physical health than experiences alone, and carry implications for developing weight bias interventions.

  9. Brief report: Weight dissatisfaction, weight status, and weight loss in Mexican-American children

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The study objectives were to assess the association between weight dissatisfaction, weight status, and weight loss in Mexican-American children participating in a weight management program. Participants included 265 Mexican American children recruited for a school-based weight management program. Al...

  10. Weight knowledge and weight magnitude: impact on lumbosacral loading.

    PubMed

    Farrag, Ahmed T; Elsayed, Walaa H; El-Sayyad, Mohsen M; Marras, William S

    2015-01-01

    Several factors can impact lumbosacral loads during lifting, including weight knowledge and weight magnitude. However, interaction between them has never been tested. This study investigated the interaction effect of these variables on lumbosacral forces and moments. Participants performed symmetrical lifts using three different weights. Weight knowledge involved known and unknown weight conditions. A biologically assisted dynamic model was used to calculate spinal loading parameters. Weight impacted all variables, while knowledge impacted only compression, by a moderate amount (5%), and spinal moments. Lifting a lightweight resulted in a difference of 16% and 7.2% between knowledge conditions for compression and anterior-posterior shear forces, respectively, compared with a negligible difference of < 1% when lifting a heavy weight. Increased spinal loading with light unknown weight can be attributed to increased muscular co-contraction. Weight knowledge is important to consider at low weight levels as it can increase tissue loading to values equivalent to lifting a heavier weight.

  11. Negative Pressure Wound Therapy

    PubMed Central

    2006-01-01

    Executive Summary Objective This review was conducted to assess the effectiveness of negative pressure wound therapy. Clinical Need: Target Population and Condition Many wounds are difficult to heal, despite medical and nursing care. They may result from complications of an underlying disease, like diabetes; or from surgery, constant pressure, trauma, or burns. Chronic wounds are more often found in elderly people and in those with immunologic or chronic diseases. Chronic wounds may lead to impaired quality of life and functioning, to amputation, or even to death. The prevalence of chronic ulcers is difficult to ascertain. It varies by condition and complications due to the condition that caused the ulcer. There are, however, some data on condition-specific prevalence rates; for example, of patients with diabetes, 15% are thought to have foot ulcers at some time during their lives. The approximate community care cost of treating leg ulcers in Canada, without reference to cause, has been estimated at upward of $100 million per year. Surgically created wounds can also become chronic, especially if they become infected. For example, the reported incidence of sternal wound infections after median sternotomy is 1% to 5%. Abdominal surgery also creates large open wounds. Because it is sometimes necessary to leave these wounds open and allow them to heal on their own (secondary intention), some may become infected and be difficult to heal. Yet, little is known about the wound healing process, and this makes treating wounds challenging. Many types of interventions are used to treat wounds. Current best practice for the treatment of ulcers and other chronic wounds includes debridement (the removal of dead or contaminated tissue), which can be surgical, mechanical, or chemical; bacterial balance; and moisture balance. Treating the cause, ensuring good nutrition, and preventing primary infection also help wounds to heal. Saline or wet-to-moist dressings are reported as

  12. Rubber molecular weight regulation, in vitro, in plant species that produce high and low molecular weights in vivo.

    PubMed

    Cornish, K; Castillón, J; Scott, D J

    2000-01-01

    In three rubber-producing species, in vitro, the rates of initiation and polymerization and the biopolymer molecular weight produced were affected by the concentration of farnesyl diphosphate (FPP) initiator and isopentenyl diphosphate (IPP) elongation substrate (monomer). Ficus elastica, a low molecular weight-producer in vivo, synthesized rubber polymers approximately twice the molecular weight of those made by Hevea brasiliensis or Parthenium argentatum (which produce high molecular weights in vivo), possibly due to its lower IPP Km. In all species, increasing FPP concentrations increased rubber biosynthetic rate and new molecules initiated but decreased molecular weight by competition with the allylic diphosphate (APP) end of elongating rubber molecules for the APP binding site. Increasing IPP concentrations increased rubber biosynthetic rate and rubber molecular weight, but only when FPP concentrations were below the FPP Km's or where negative cooperativity operated. In conclusion, rubber transferase is not the prime regulator of rubber molecular weight in vivo.

  13. Weight control (image)

    MedlinePlus

    Weight lifting builds muscle, which increases overall body strength, tone, and balance. Muscles also burn calories more efficiently than fat and other body tissues. So even at rest the more muscle tissue a person has the more calories a person is ...

  14. Weight-loss medications

    MedlinePlus

    ... term use. All other drugs are approved for short-term use of no more than a few weeks. Be sure you understand the side effects of weight-loss medicines. Side effects can include: Increase in blood pressure Problems sleeping, headache, nervousness, and palpitations Nausea, constipation, and dry ...

  15. Bessel Weighted Asymmetries

    SciTech Connect

    Avakian, Harut; Gamberg, Leonard; Rossi, Patrizia; Prokudin, Alexei

    2016-05-01

    We review the concept of Bessel weighted asymmetries for semi-inclusive deep inelastic scattering and focus on the cross section in Fourier space, conjugate to the outgoing hadron’s transverse momentum, where convolutions of transverse momentum dependent parton distribution functions and fragmentation functions become simple products. Individual asymmetric terms in the cross section can be projected out by means of a generalized set of weights involving Bessel functions. The procedure is applied to studies of the double longitudinal spin asymmetry in semi-inclusive deep inelastic scattering using a new dedicated Monte Carlo generator which includes quark intrinsic transverse momentum within the generalized parton model. We observe a few percent systematic offset of the Bessel-weighted asymmetry obtained from Monte Carlo extraction compared to input model calculations, which is due to the limitations imposed by the energy and momentum conservation at the given energy and hard scale Q2. We find that the Bessel weighting technique provides a powerful and reliable tool to study the Fourier transform of TMDs with controlled systematics due to experimental acceptances and resolutions with different TMD model inputs.

  16. Strengthening Weight Rooms.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sherman, Rachel M.

    1997-01-01

    Examines ways of giving an existing weight-training room new life without spending a lot of time and money. Tips include adding rubber floor coverings; using indirect lighting; adding windows, art work, or mirrors to open up the room; using more aesthetically pleasing ceiling tiles; upgrading ventilation; repadding or painting the equipment; and…

  17. Weight Training Adds Up.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nutter, June

    1995-01-01

    Secondary level physical education teachers can have their students use math concepts while working out on the weight-room equipment. The article explains how students can reinforce math skills while weightlifting by estimating their strength, estimating their power, or calculating other formulas. (SM)

  18. Weight Loss & Acute Porphyria

    MedlinePlus

    ... Porphyria Research You are here Home Diet and Nutrition Weight loss & acute Porphyria Being overweight is a particular problem in patients with one ... a "crash diet" program requires little knowledge of nutrition in order to ... seem that overweight patients with Porphyria are at a distinct disadvantage, ...

  19. Strengthening Weight Rooms.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sherman, Rachel M.

    1997-01-01

    Examines ways of giving an existing weight-training room new life without spending a lot of time and money. Tips include adding rubber floor coverings; using indirect lighting; adding windows, art work, or mirrors to open up the room; using more aesthetically pleasing ceiling tiles; upgrading ventilation; repadding or painting the equipment; and…

  20. Weighted multiplex networks.

    PubMed

    Menichetti, Giulia; Remondini, Daniel; Panzarasa, Pietro; Mondragón, Raúl J; Bianconi, Ginestra

    2014-01-01

    One of the most important challenges in network science is to quantify the information encoded in complex network structures. Disentangling randomness from organizational principles is even more demanding when networks have a multiplex nature. Multiplex networks are multilayer systems of [Formula: see text] nodes that can be linked in multiple interacting and co-evolving layers. In these networks, relevant information might not be captured if the single layers were analyzed separately. Here we demonstrate that such partial analysis of layers fails to capture significant correlations between weights and topology of complex multiplex networks. To this end, we study two weighted multiplex co-authorship and citation networks involving the authors included in the American Physical Society. We show that in these networks weights are strongly correlated with multiplex structure, and provide empirical evidence in favor of the advantage of studying weighted measures of multiplex networks, such as multistrength and the inverse multiparticipation ratio. Finally, we introduce a theoretical framework based on the entropy of multiplex ensembles to quantify the information stored in multiplex networks that would remain undetected if the single layers were analyzed in isolation.

  1. Involuntary weight loss.

    PubMed

    Wong, Christopher J

    2014-05-01

    Involuntary weight loss remains an important and challenging clinical problem, with a high degree of morbidity and mortality. Because of the frequency of finding a serious underlying diagnosis, clinicians must be thorough in assessment, keeping in mind a broad range of possible causes. Although prediction scores exist, they have not been broadly validated; therefore, clinical judgment remains ever essential.

  2. Weighted Multiplex Networks

    PubMed Central

    Menichetti, Giulia; Remondini, Daniel; Panzarasa, Pietro; Mondragón, Raúl J.; Bianconi, Ginestra

    2014-01-01

    One of the most important challenges in network science is to quantify the information encoded in complex network structures. Disentangling randomness from organizational principles is even more demanding when networks have a multiplex nature. Multiplex networks are multilayer systems of nodes that can be linked in multiple interacting and co-evolving layers. In these networks, relevant information might not be captured if the single layers were analyzed separately. Here we demonstrate that such partial analysis of layers fails to capture significant correlations between weights and topology of complex multiplex networks. To this end, we study two weighted multiplex co-authorship and citation networks involving the authors included in the American Physical Society. We show that in these networks weights are strongly correlated with multiplex structure, and provide empirical evidence in favor of the advantage of studying weighted measures of multiplex networks, such as multistrength and the inverse multiparticipation ratio. Finally, we introduce a theoretical framework based on the entropy of multiplex ensembles to quantify the information stored in multiplex networks that would remain undetected if the single layers were analyzed in isolation. PMID:24906003

  3. Dynamic Weighted Data Structures.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1982-06-01

    van "j Beethoven, Igor Stravinsky, Glan-Carlo Menotti, and Johann Sebastian Bach . Dynamic Weighted Data Structures Samuel W. Bent This thesis discusses...and Bonnie Hampton, who taught me much more than how to play the cello. Finally, for hours of artistic satisfaction, I thank Johannes Brahms, Ludwig

  4. The weight of a guilty conscience: subjective body weight as an embodiment of guilt.

    PubMed

    Day, Martin V; Bobocel, D Ramona

    2013-01-01

    Guilt is an important social and moral emotion. In addition to feeling unpleasant, guilt is metaphorically described as a "weight on one's conscience." Evidence from the field of embodied cognition suggests that abstract metaphors may be grounded in bodily experiences, but no prior research has examined the embodiment of guilt. Across four studies we examine whether i) unethical acts increase subjective experiences of weight, ii) feelings of guilt explain this effect, and iii) whether there are consequences of the weight of guilt. Studies 1-3 demonstrated that unethical acts led to more subjective body weight compared to control conditions. Studies 2 and 3 indicated that heightened feelings of guilt mediated the effect, whereas other negative emotions did not. Study 4 demonstrated a perceptual consequence. Specifically, an induction of guilt affected the perceived effort necessary to complete tasks that were physical in nature, compared to minimally physical tasks.

  5. The Weight of a Guilty Conscience: Subjective Body Weight as an Embodiment of Guilt

    PubMed Central

    Day, Martin V.; Bobocel, D. Ramona

    2013-01-01

    Guilt is an important social and moral emotion. In addition to feeling unpleasant, guilt is metaphorically described as a “weight on one's conscience.” Evidence from the field of embodied cognition suggests that abstract metaphors may be grounded in bodily experiences, but no prior research has examined the embodiment of guilt. Across four studies we examine whether i) unethical acts increase subjective experiences of weight, ii) feelings of guilt explain this effect, and iii) whether there are consequences of the weight of guilt. Studies 1–3 demonstrated that unethical acts led to more subjective body weight compared to control conditions. Studies 2 and 3 indicated that heightened feelings of guilt mediated the effect, whereas other negative emotions did not. Study 4 demonstrated a perceptual consequence. Specifically, an induction of guilt affected the perceived effort necessary to complete tasks that were physical in nature, compared to minimally physical tasks. PMID:23936041

  6. Detecting modules in biological networks by edge weight clustering and entropy significance

    PubMed Central

    Lecca, Paola; Re, Angela

    2015-01-01

    Detection of the modular structure of biological networks is of interest to researchers adopting a systems perspective for the analysis of omics data. Computational systems biology has provided a rich array of methods for network clustering. To date, the majority of approaches address this task through a network node classification based on topological or external quantifiable properties of network nodes. Conversely, numerical properties of network edges are underused, even though the information content which can be associated with network edges has augmented due to steady advances in molecular biology technology over the last decade. Properly accounting for network edges in the development of clustering approaches can become crucial to improve quantitative interpretation of omics data, finally resulting in more biologically plausible models. In this study, we present a novel technique for network module detection, named WG-Cluster (Weighted Graph CLUSTERing). WG-Cluster's notable features, compared to current approaches, lie in: (1) the simultaneous exploitation of network node and edge weights to improve the biological interpretability of the connected components detected, (2) the assessment of their statistical significance, and (3) the identification of emerging topological properties in the detected connected components. WG-Cluster utilizes three major steps: (i) an unsupervised version of k-means edge-based algorithm detects sub-graphs with similar edge weights, (ii) a fast-greedy algorithm detects connected components which are then scored and selected according to the statistical significance of their scores, and (iii) an analysis of the convolution between sub-graph mean edge weight and connected component score provides a summarizing view of the connected components. WG-Cluster can be applied to directed and undirected networks of different types of interacting entities and scales up to large omics data sets. Here, we show that WG-Cluster can be

  7. Regeneration-dependent conditional gene knockdown (Readyknock) in planarian: demonstration of requirement for Djsnap-25 expression in the brain for negative phototactic behavior.

    PubMed

    Takano, Tomomi; Pulvers, Jeremy N; Inoue, Takeshi; Tarui, Hiroshi; Sakamoto, Hiroshi; Agata, Kiyokazu; Umesono, Yoshihiko

    2007-06-01

    Freshwater planarians have a simple and evolutionarily primitive brain structure. Here, we identified the Djsnap-25 gene encoding a homolog of the evolutionarily conserved synaptic protein SNAP-25 from the planarian Dugesia japonica and assessed its role in brain function. Djsnap-25 was expressed widely in the nervous system. To investigate the specific role of Djsnap-25 in the brain, we developed a unique technique of RNA interference (RNAi), regeneration-dependent conditional gene knockdown (Readyknock), exploiting the high regenerative capacity of planarians, and succeeded in selectively eliminating the DjSNAP-25 activity in the head region while leaving the DjSNAP-25 activity in the trunk region intact. These knockdown animals showed no effect on brain morphology or on undirected movement of the trunk itself. Light-avoidance behavior or negative phototaxis was used to quantitatively analyze brain function in the knockdown animals. The results suggested that the DjSNAP-25 activity within the head region is required for two independent sensory-processing pathways that regulate locomotive activity and directional movement downstream of distinct primary sensory outputs coming from the head margin and the eyes, respectively, during negative phototaxis. Our approach demonstrates that planarians are a powerful model organism to study the molecular basis of the brain as an information-processing center.

  8. Negative Ions in Space.

    PubMed

    Millar, Thomas J; Walsh, Catherine; Field, Thomas A

    2017-02-08

    Until a decade ago, the only anion observed to play a prominent role in astrophysics was H(-). The bound-free transitions in H(-) dominate the visible opacity in stars with photospheric temperatures less than 7000 K, including the Sun. The H(-) anion is also believed to have been critical to the formation of molecular hydrogen in the very early evolution of the Universe. Once H2 formed, about 500 000 years after the Big Bang, the expanding gas was able to lose internal gravitational energy and collapse to form stellar objects and "protogalaxies", allowing the creation of heavier elements such as C, N, and O through nucleosynthesis. Although astronomers had considered some processes through which anions might form in interstellar clouds and circumstellar envelopes, including the important role that polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons might play in this, it was the detection in 2006 of rotational line emission from C6H(-) that galvanized a systematic study of the abundance, distribution, and chemistry of anions in the interstellar medium. In 2007, the Cassini mission reported the unexpected detection of anions with mass-to-charge ratios of up to ∼10 000 in the upper atmosphere of Titan; this observation likewise instigated the study of fundamental chemical processes involving negative ions among planetary scientists. In this article, we review the observations of anions in interstellar clouds, circumstellar envelopes, Titan, and cometary comae. We then discuss a number of processes by which anions can be created and destroyed in these environments. The derivation of accurate rate coefficients for these processes is an essential input for the chemical kinetic modeling that is necessary to fully extract physics from the observational data. We discuss such models, along with their successes and failings, and finish with an outlook on the future.

  9. Negative results: negative perceptions limit their potential for increasing reproducibility.

    PubMed

    Teixeira da Silva, Jaime A

    2015-07-07

    Negative results are an important building block in the development of scientific thought, primarily because most likely the vast majority of data is negative, i.e., there is not a favorable outcome. Only very limited data is positive, and that is what tends to get published, albeit alongside a sub-set of negative results to emphasize the positive nature of the positive results. Yet, not all negative results get published. Part of the problem lies with a traditional mind-set and rigid publishing frame-work that tends to view negative results in a negative light, or that only tends to reward scientists primarily for presenting positive findings. This opinion piece indicates that in addition to a deficient mind-set, there are also severe limitations in the availability of publishing channels where negative results could get published.

  10. Caloric Restriction in Older Adults-Differential Effects of Weight Loss and Reduced Weight on Brain Structure and Function.

    PubMed

    Prehn, Kristin; Jumpertz von Schwartzenberg, Reiner; Mai, Knut; Zeitz, Ulrike; Witte, A Veronica; Hampel, Dierk; Szela, Anna-Maria; Fabian, Sonja; Grittner, Ulrike; Spranger, Joachim; Flöel, Agnes

    2017-03-01

    Dietary modifications such as caloric restriction (CR) have been suggested as a means to improve memory and prevent age-related decline. However, it is unclear whether those effects remain stable over time or are related specifically to negative energy balance during the weight loss phase of CR. Using a randomized interventional design, we investigated changes in recognition memory and neural correlates in postmenopausal obese women (n = 19): 1) after intense weight loss in the course of a 12-week low-caloric diet (reduced body weight and negative energy balance) and 2) after having sustained the reduced weight over 4 more weeks (reduced body weight, but energy balance equilibrium). Participants were contrasted to a control group (n = 18) instructed not to change dietary habits. In the CR group, we found improved recognition memory, paralleled by increased gray matter volume in inferior frontal gyrus and hippocampus, and augmented hippocampal resting-state functional connectivity to parietal areas. Moreover, effects were specific for transient negative energy balance and could not be detected after subsequent weight maintenance. Our data demonstrate for the first time in humans that beneficial effects of CR on brain structure and function are due to weight loss rather than an overall reduced weight. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  11. Negative Association in Quebec French.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Larrivee, Pierre

    In Quebec French, unlike standard French, sentence negation "pas" ("not") can occur in the same clause as a negative quantifier like "personne" ("nobody"), for instance. This paper proposes that "pas" in these contexts marks negative association in the same way that "ne" does in standard…

  12. Weighty dynamics: exploring couples' perceptions of post-weight-loss interaction.

    PubMed

    Romo, Lynsey Kluever; Dailey, René M

    2014-01-01

    Although romantic couples can use communication to help one another lose weight and maintain weight loss, the effect of weight loss on partner interaction is less understood. However, an examination of the interpersonal context in which partners manage their weight is important to help partners negotiate their weight, their relationship, and the U.S. obesity epidemic. Guided by systems theory, this study explored partners' perceptions of post-weight-loss interaction in relationships in which one partner lost weight and the other did not. Through qualitative questionnaires of 42 adults (21 romantic couples), the dyadic investigation revealed that while losing weight resulted in positive interaction for many partners (e.g., engaging in a shared healthy lifestyle), shedding weight also yielded some negative consequences (e.g., non-weight-loss partner criticism). The extent to which partners embraced new weight management rules and patterns largely influenced post-weight-loss communication and behavior.

  13. Are early first trimester weights valid proxies for preconception weight?

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    An accurate estimate of preconception weight is necessary for providing a gestational weight gain range based on the Institute of Medicine’s guidelines; however, an accurate and proximal preconception weight is not available for most women. We examined the validity of first trimester weights for est...

  14. Bounds for weighted Lebesgue functions for exponential weights

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kubayi, D. G.

    2001-08-01

    The weighted Lebesgue functions for even weights W=e-Q on the real line have been intensively studied in recent years. In this paper, we discuss the corresponding results for a class of weights that includes non-even weights.

  15. Effect of Parent Weight on Weight Loss in Obese Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Epstein, Leonard H.; And Others

    1986-01-01

    Assessed effect of parent weight and parent control versus child self-control on weight loss in obese preadolescent children over three-year period. Children of nonobese parents had significantly greater decrease in relative weight after one year than children of obese parents. At three years, there was no effect of parent weight. Locus of control…

  16. Heterogeneous edge weights promote epidemic diffusion in weighted evolving networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Duan, Wei; Song, Zhichao; Qiu, Xiaogang

    2016-08-01

    The impact that the heterogeneities of links’ weights have on epidemic diffusion in weighted networks has received much attention. Investigating how heterogeneous edge weights affect epidemic spread is helpful for disease control. In this paper, we study a Reed-Frost epidemic model in weighted evolving networks. Our results indicate that a higher heterogeneity of edge weights leads to higher epidemic prevalence and epidemic incidence at earlier stage of epidemic diffusion in weighted evolving networks. In addition, weighted evolving scale-free networks come with a higher epidemic prevalence and epidemic incidence than unweighted scale-free networks.

  17. Weight management and weight loss strategies of professional jockeys.

    PubMed

    Moore, Jan M; Timperio, Anna F; Crawford, David A; Burns, Cate M; Cameron-Smith, David

    2002-03-01

    Jockeys are required to maintain very low body weight and precise weight control during competition. This study examined the weight loss and weight management strategies of professional horseracing jockeys in the state of Victoria, Australia. An anonymous, self-completed questionnaire was administered (55% response rate, n = 116). Almost half (43%) reported that maintaining riding weight was difficult or very difficult, with 75% routinely skipping meals. In preparation for racing, 60% reported that they typically required additional weight loss, with 81% restricting food intake in the 24 hours prior to racing. Additionally, sauna-induced sweating (29%) and diuretics (22%) were frequently employed to further aid in weight loss prior to racing. These rapid weight loss methods did not differ between the 51% of jockeys who followed a weight management plan compared to those who did not. The impact of these extreme weight loss practices on riding performance and health remains unknown.

  18. Negative ions in liquid helium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khrapak, A. G.; Schmidt, W. F.

    2011-05-01

    The structure of negative ions in liquid 4He is analyzed. The possibility of cluster or bubble formation around impurity ions of both signs is discussed. It is shown that in superfluid helium, bubbles form around negative alkaline earth metal ions and clusters form around halogen ions. The nature of "fast" and "exotic" negative ions is also discussed. It is assumed that "fast" ions are negative ions of helium excimer molecules localized inside bubbles. "Exotic" ions are stable negative impurity ions, which are always present in small amounts in gas discharge plasmas. Bubbles or clusters with radii smaller the radius of electron bubbles develop around these ions.

  19. Gain weighted eigenspace assignment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Davidson, John B.; Andrisani, Dominick, II

    1994-01-01

    This report presents the development of the gain weighted eigenspace assignment methodology. This provides a designer with a systematic methodology for trading off eigenvector placement versus gain magnitudes, while still maintaining desired closed-loop eigenvalue locations. This is accomplished by forming a cost function composed of a scalar measure of error between desired and achievable eigenvectors and a scalar measure of gain magnitude, determining analytical expressions for the gradients, and solving for the optimal solution by numerical iteration. For this development the scalar measure of gain magnitude is chosen to be a weighted sum of the squares of all the individual elements of the feedback gain matrix. An example is presented to demonstrate the method. In this example, solutions yielding achievable eigenvectors close to the desired eigenvectors are obtained with significant reductions in gain magnitude compared to a solution obtained using a previously developed eigenspace (eigenstructure) assignment method.

  20. Reducing rotor weight

    SciTech Connect

    Cheney, M.C.

    1997-12-31

    The cost of energy for renewables has gained greater significance in recent years due to the drop in price in some competing energy sources, particularly natural gas. In pursuit of lower manufacturing costs for wind turbine systems, work was conducted to explore an innovative rotor designed to reduce weight and cost over conventional rotor systems. Trade-off studies were conducted to measure the influence of number of blades, stiffness, and manufacturing method on COE. The study showed that increasing number of blades at constant solidity significantly reduced rotor weight and that manufacturing the blades using pultrusion technology produced the lowest cost per pound. Under contracts with the National Renewable Energy Laboratory and the California Energy Commission, a 400 kW (33m diameter) turbine was designed employing this technology. The project included tests of an 80 kW (15.5m diameter) dynamically scaled rotor which demonstrated the viability of the design.

  1. Birth weight is forever.

    PubMed

    Basso, Olga

    2008-03-01

    Birth weight is associated not just with infant morbidity and mortality, but with outcomes occurring much later in life, including adult mortality, as reported by a paper by Baker and colleagues in this issue of Epidemiology. While these associations are tantalizing per se, the truly interesting question concerns the mechanisms that underlie these links. The prevailing hypothesis suggests a "fetal origin" of diseases resulting from alterations in fetal nutrition that permanently program organ function. The most commonly proposed alternative is that factors, mainly genetic, that affect both fetal growth and disease risk are responsible for the observed associations. Although both mechanisms are intellectually attractive-and may well coexist-we should be cautious to not focus excessively on fetal growth. Doing this may lead us in the wrong direction, as has likely happened in the case of birth weight in relation to infant survival.

  2. Color weight photometry.

    PubMed

    Koenderink, Jan; van Doorn, Andrea; Gegenfurtner, Karl

    2017-07-19

    We study the "color weight" for a number of rather different paradigms. In well researched heterochromatic photometry methods we find that the "weights" determined by settings of naive observers are closely determined by the CIE luminance functional. This is very different for tasks that involve mid- and high-level aspects of perception. In several cases we find equipollence for the display red, green and blue channels. Moreover, in such cases the very nonlinear maximum-rule fits the data rather better than a linear functional. These findings are of interest when photometry needs to be applied for stimuli that are different from the high temporal and low spatial frequency gratings typical for flicker photometry. These results are relevant for science, ergonomics and art. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Nutritional intake and weight z-scores in very low birth weight infants in Peru.

    PubMed

    Proaño, Alvaro; Aragón, Romina Elena; Rivera, Fabiola; Zegarra, Jaime

    2016-03-29

    To determine the actual nutritional intake of very low birth weight infants and their growth outcome during the first month of life. Additionally, we identified factors that account for a negative neonatal outcome in this population. A case-series study was conducted in a tertiary hospital in Lima, Peru between 2011 and 2012 and the data was obtained from medical records. No feeding protocol was used during this study. Daily fluids, energy and protein intakes were documented and weekly weight z-scores were calculated. A logistic regression analysis was used to identify factors for an adverse outcome, defined as neonatal mortality or extra-uterine growth restriction, during the first 28 days of life. After applying selection criteria, 76 participants were included. The nutritional intakes were similar to standard values seen in the literature, but protein intakes were suboptimal in all of the four weeks. Birth weight z-score was associated with an adverse outcome (p=0.035). It was determined that having a birth weight z-score under -1.09 predicted a negative outcome with an area under the curve of 96.8% [93.5%, 100%] with a 95% confidence interval. Protein intakes are widely deficient in the population of this study. Nevertheless, an adverse outcome during the neonatal period is more associated with a poor birth weight z-score than nutrition-related factors.

  4. Online weight training.

    PubMed

    McNamara, John M; Swalm, Ricky L; Stearne, David J; Covassin, Tracey M

    2008-07-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine how a traditional weight training class compared to nontraditional classes that were heavily laden with technology. Could students learn resistance exercises by watching video demonstrations over the Internet? Three university weight training classes, each lasting 16 weeks, were compared. Each class had the same curriculum and workout requirements but different attendance requirements. The online group made extensive use of the Internet and was allowed to complete the workouts on their own at any gym that was convenient for them. Seventy-nine college-aged students were randomized into 3 groups: traditional (n = 27), hybrid (n = 25), and online (n = 27). They completed pretest and posttest measures on upper-body strength (i.e., bench press), lower-body strength (i.e., back squat), and knowledge (i.e., written exam). The results indicated that all 3 groups showed significant improvement in knowledge (p < 0.05). The online group did not require the students to attend class and may have resulted in significantly lower scores on the bench press (p < 0.05) and squats (p < 0.05). This study indicates that an online weight training course may improve knowledge but not strength. Possible reasons for a lack of improvement in the online group included lack of motivation, low accountability, and the possibility that the self-reported workouts were not accurate. These results suggest that there is a limit to how much technology can be used in a weight training class. If this limit is exceeded, some type of monitoring system appears necessary to ensure that students are actually completing their workouts.

  5. Double-Negative Mechanical Metamaterials Displaying Simultaneous Negative Stiffness and Negative Poisson's Ratio Properties.

    PubMed

    Hewage, Trishan A M; Alderson, Kim L; Alderson, Andrew; Scarpa, Fabrizio

    2016-12-01

    A scalable mechanical metamaterial simultaneously displaying negative stiffness and negative Poisson's ratio responses is presented. Interlocking hexagonal subunit assemblies containing 3 alternative embedded negative stiffness (NS) element types display Poisson's ratio values of -1 and NS values over two orders of magnitude (-1.4 N mm(-1) to -160 N mm(-1) ), in good agreement with model predictions.

  6. The negation bias: when negations signal stereotypic expectancies.

    PubMed

    Beukeboom, Camiel J; Finkenauer, Catrin; Wigboldus, Daniël H J

    2010-12-01

    Research on linguistic biases shows that stereotypic expectancies are implicitly reflected in language and are thereby subtly communicated to message recipients. We examined whether these findings extend to the use of negations (e.g., not smart instead of stupid). We hypothesized that people use more negations in descriptions of stereotype-inconsistent behavior than in descriptions of stereotype-consistent behavior. In 3 studies, participants either judged the applicability of experimentally controlled person descriptions or spontaneously produced person descriptions themselves. Results provided support for this hypothesis. Moreover, a 4th study demonstrated that negations have communicative consequences. When a target person's behavior was described with negations, message recipients inferred that this behavior was an exception to the rule and that it was more likely caused by situational circumstances than by dispositional factors. These findings indicate that by using negations people implicitly communicate stereotypic expectancies and that negations play a subtle but powerful role in stereotype maintenance.

  7. Effectiveness of a new dietetic weight management food to achieve weight loss in client-owned obese cats.

    PubMed

    Christmann, Undine; Bečvářová, Iveta; Werre, Stephen R; Meyer, Hein P

    2016-12-01

    The aim of the study was to evaluate weight loss and maintenance parameters in cats fed a novel weight management food and to assess the owner's perception of the cat's quality of life. This study was designed as a prospective, uncontrolled/unmasked clinical trial. One hundred and thirty-two overweight/obese, otherwise healthy, client-owned cats were enrolled. Initial evaluation included physical examination, nutritional assessment, ideal body weight determination and weight-loss feeding guidelines development. Follow-up evaluations (monthly for 6 months) encompassed determination of body weight, body condition score, body fat index, muscle condition score and feeding practices. Quality of life assessment by owners included the cat's level of energy, happiness, appetite, begging behavior, flatulence, stool volume and fecal score. Eighty-three percent of the cats lost weight, with an average ± SEM weight loss of 11.0 ± 1.8% over 6 months and an average ± SE weekly weight loss rate of 0.45 ± 0.02%. The mean ± SEM duration of weight loss was 134.0 ± 4.8 days. Fourteen percent of cats achieved an ideal body weight. Seventy-nine percent of cats ate more calories from novel weight management food than the recommended daily energy requirement for weight loss, and the majority of these cats still lost weight. Body condition score and body fat index decreased over time compared with baseline from weeks 12-24 and from weeks 8-24, respectively. Owners perceived an increase in energy and happiness (>week 12) in the cats that lost weight, without changes in appetite or begging behavior. This study confirmed the effectiveness of the novel weight management food in achieving weight loss in overweight/obese client-owned cats. Owners reported significant improvements in their cat's quality of life without negative side effects. © The Author(s) 2015.

  8. Health Consequences of Weight Stigma: Implications for Obesity Prevention and Treatment.

    PubMed

    Puhl, Rebecca; Suh, Young

    2015-06-01

    Despite decades of research documenting consistent stigma and discrimination against individuals with obesity, weight stigma is rarely considered in obesity prevention and treatment efforts. In recent years, evidence has examined weight stigmatization as a unique contributor to negative health outcomes and behaviors that can promote and exacerbate obesity. This review summarizes findings from published studies within the past 4 years examining the relationship between weight stigma and maladaptive eating behaviors (binge eating and increased food consumption), physical activity, weight status (weight gain and loss and development of obesity), and physiological stress responses. Research evaluating the effects of weight stigma present in obesity-related public health campaigns is also highlighted. Evidence collectively demonstrates negative implications of stigmatization for weight-related health correlates and behaviors and suggests that addressing weight stigma in obesity prevention and treatment is warranted. Key questions for future research to further delineate the health effects of weight stigmatization are summarized.

  9. Effects of Predictor Weighting Methods on Incremental Validity.

    PubMed

    Sackett, Paul R; Dahlke, Jeffrey A; Shewach, Oren R; Kuncel, Nathan R

    2017-05-22

    It is common to add an additional predictor to a selection system with the goal of increasing criterion-related validity. Research on the incremental validity of a second predictor is generally based on forming a regression-weighted composite of the predictors. However, in practice predictors are commonly used in ways other than regression-weighted composites, and we examine the robustness of incremental validity findings to other ways of using predictors, namely, unit weighting and multiple hurdles. We show that there are settings in which the incremental value of a second predictor disappears, and can even produce lower validity than the first predictor alone, when these alternatives to regression weighting are used. First, we examine conditions under which unit weighting will negate gain in predictive power attainable via regression weights. Second, we revisit Schmidt and Hunter's (1998) summary of incremental validity of predictors over cognitive ability, evaluating whether the reported incremental value of a second predictor is different when predictors are unit weighted rather than regression weighted. Third, we analyze data reported in the published literature to discern the frequency with which unit weighting might affect conclusions about whether there is value in adding a second predictor to a first. Finally, we shift from unit weighting to multiple hurdle selection, examining conditions under which conclusions about incremental validity differ when regression weighting is replaced by multiple-hurdle selection. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).

  10. Compound negative binomial distribution with negative multinomial summands

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jordanova, Pavlina K.; Petkova, Monika P.; Stehlík, Milan

    2016-12-01

    The class of Negative Binomial distributions seems to be introduced by Greenwood and Yule in 1920. Due to its wide spread application, investigations of distributions, closely related with it will be always contemporary. Bates, Neyman and Wishart introduce Negative Multinomial distribution. They reach it considering the mixture of independent Poisson distributed random variables with one and the same Gamma mixing variable. This paper investigates a particular case of multivariate compound distribution with one and the same compounding variable. In our case it is Negative Binomial or Sifted Negative Binomial. The summands with equal indexes in different coordinates are Negative Multinomially distributed. In case without shifting, considered as a mixture, the resulting distribution coincides with Mixed Negative Multinomial distribution with scale changed Negative Binomially distributed first parameter. We prove prove that it is Multivariate Power Series Distributed and find explicit form of its parameters. When the summands are geometrically distributed this distribution is stochastically equivalent to a product of independent Bernoulli random variable and appropriate multivariate Geometrically distributed random vector. We show that Compound Shifted Negative Binomial Distribution with Geometric Summands is a particular case of Negative Multinomial distribution with new parameters.

  11. Weight Management | Smokefree.gov

    Cancer.gov

    Fear of gaining weight is a common reason people give for not quitting smoking. Learn healthy ways to avoid weight gain and shed unwanted pounds. These weight management strategies can help you feel better while quitting smoking and let you take control of your health for the rest of your life. Remember that losing weight can be challenging and takes time, but being a healthy weight reduces the risk of many diseases and helps you look and feel better.

  12. Vehicle Maximum Weight Limitation Based on Intelligent Weight Sensor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Raihan, W.; Tessar, R. M.; Ernest, C. O. S.; E Byan, W. R.; Winda, A.

    2017-03-01

    Vehicle weight is an important factor to be maintained for transportation safety. A weight limitation system is proposed to make sure the vehicle weight is always below its designation prior the vehicle is being used by the driver. The proposed system is divided into two systems, namely vehicle weight confirmation system and weight warning system. In vehicle weight confirmation system, the weight sensor work for the first time after the ignition switch is turned on. When the weight is under the weight limit, the starter engine can be switched on to start the engine system, otherwise it will be locked. The seconds system, will operated after checking all the door at close position, once the door of the car is closed, the weight warning system will check once again the weight during runing engine condition. The results of these two systems, vehicle weight confirmation system and weight warning system have 100 % accuracy, respectively. These show that the proposed vehicle weight limitation system operate well.

  13. Thermodynamics, inequalities, and negative heat capacities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Landsberg, P. T.; Pearić, J. E.

    1987-05-01

    The relation between thermodynamics and inequalities between means, studied earlier, is extended. If heat capacities Ci are allowed to be negative, as they are in the case of a black hole, it is shown that the weighted arithmetic and geometric means have the following relationships: pT1+qT2>=Tp1Tq2 if p and q have like signs; pT1+qT2<=Tp1Tq2 if p and q have unlike signs. Here p≡C1/(C1+C2) and q≡C2/(C1+C2) so that the weights still add up to unity. This result is shown to be readily accessible from thermodynamics. Similarly, if constant-energy and constant-entropy equilibrations of two bodies lead to final temperatures TE and TS, respectively, then it is shown that TSweighted means as special cases.

  14. Genetic parameters for carcass cut weight in Irish beef cattle.

    PubMed

    Pabiou, T; Fikse, W F; Näsholm, A; Cromie, A R; Drennan, M J; Keane, M G; Berry, D P

    2009-12-01

    The objective of this study was to estimate genetic parameters for the weights of different wholesale cuts, using an experimental and a commercial data set. The experimental and commercial data sets included 413 and 635 crossbred Belgian Blue, Charolais, Limousin, Angus, Holstein, and Simmental animals, respectively. Univariate analyses using a mixed linear animal model with relationships were undertaken to estimate the heritability of cold carcass weight, carcass conformation and fat, and the cut weights, whereas a series of bivariate analyses was used to estimate the phenotypic and genetic correlations between carcass weight, carcass conformation, carcass fat, and the major primal cuts. Heritability estimates for cold carcass weight in both data sets were moderate (>0.48), whereas heritability estimates for carcass conformation and fat grading were greater in the commercial data set (>0.63) than in the experimental study (>0.33). Across both data sets, heritability estimates for wholesale cut weight in the forequarter varied from 0.03 to 0.79, whereas heritability estimates of carcass cut weight in the hindquarter varied from 0.14 to 0.86. Heritability estimates for cut weights expressed as a proportion of the entire carcass weight varied from 0.04 to 0.91. Genetic correlations were strong among the different carcass cut weights within the experimental and the commercial studies. Genetic correlations between the weights of selected carcass cuts and carcass weight were moderate to high (minimum 0.45; maximum 0.88) in both data sets. Positive genetic correlations were observed in the commercial data set between the different wholesale cut weights and carcass conformation, whereas these were positive and negative in the experimental data set. Selection for increased carcass weight will, on average, increase the weight of each cut. However, the genetic correlations were less than unity, suggesting a benefit of more direct selection on high value cuts.

  15. Physiological response of adipocytes to weight loss and maintenance.

    PubMed

    Verhoef, Sanne P M; Camps, Stefan G J A; Bouwman, Freek G; Mariman, Edwin C M; Westerterp, Klaas R

    2013-01-01

    Metabolic processes in adipose tissue are dysregulated in obese subjects and, in response to weight loss, either normalize or change in favor of weight regain. To determine changes in adipocyte glucose and fatty acid metabolism in relation to changes in adipocyte size during weight loss and maintenance. Twenty-eight healthy subjects (12 males), age 20-50 y, and BMI 28-35 kg/m(2), followed a very low energy diet for 2 months, followed by a 10-month period of weight maintenance. Body weight, body composition (deuterium dilution and BodPod), protein levels (Western blot) and adipocyte size were assessed prior to and after weight loss and after the 10-month follow-up. A 10% weight loss resulted in a 16% decrease in adipocyte size. A marker for glycolysis decreased (AldoC) during weight loss in association with adipocyte shrinking, and remained decreased during follow-up in association with weight maintenance. A marker for fatty acid transport increased (FABP4) during weight loss and remained increased during follow-up. Markers for mitochondrial beta-oxidation (HADHsc) and lipolysis (ATGL) were only increased after the 10-month follow-up. During weight loss HADHsc and ATGL were coordinately regulated, which became weaker during follow-up due to adipocyte size-related changes in HADHsc expression. AldoC was the major denominator of adipocyte size and body weight, whereas changes in ATGL during weight loss contributed to body weight during follow-up. Upregulation of ATGL and HADHsc occured in the absence of a negative energy balance and was triggered by adipocyte shrinkage or indicated preadipocyte differentiation. Markers for adipocyte glucose and fatty acid metabolism are changed in response to weight loss in line with normalization from a dysregulated obese status to an improved metabolic status. ClinicalTrials.gov NCT01015508.

  16. Physiological Response of Adipocytes to Weight Loss and Maintenance

    PubMed Central

    Verhoef, Sanne P. M.; Camps, Stefan G. J. A.; Bouwman, Freek G.; Mariman, Edwin C. M.; Westerterp, Klaas R.

    2013-01-01

    Background Metabolic processes in adipose tissue are dysregulated in obese subjects and, in response to weight loss, either normalize or change in favor of weight regain. Objective To determine changes in adipocyte glucose and fatty acid metabolism in relation to changes in adipocyte size during weight loss and maintenance. Methods Twenty-eight healthy subjects (12 males), age 20–50 y, and BMI 28–35 kg/m2, followed a very low energy diet for 2 months, followed by a 10-month period of weight maintenance. Body weight, body composition (deuterium dilution and BodPod), protein levels (Western blot) and adipocyte size were assessed prior to and after weight loss and after the 10-month follow-up. Results A 10% weight loss resulted in a 16% decrease in adipocyte size. A marker for glycolysis decreased (AldoC) during weight loss in association with adipocyte shrinking, and remained decreased during follow-up in association with weight maintenance. A marker for fatty acid transport increased (FABP4) during weight loss and remained increased during follow-up. Markers for mitochondrial beta-oxidation (HADHsc) and lipolysis (ATGL) were only increased after the 10-month follow-up. During weight loss HADHsc and ATGL were coordinately regulated, which became weaker during follow-up due to adipocyte size-related changes in HADHsc expression. AldoC was the major denominator of adipocyte size and body weight, whereas changes in ATGL during weight loss contributed to body weight during follow-up. Upregulation of ATGL and HADHsc occured in the absence of a negative energy balance and was triggered by adipocyte shrinkage or indicated preadipocyte differentiation. Conclusion Markers for adipocyte glucose and fatty acid metabolism are changed in response to weight loss in line with normalization from a dysregulated obese status to an improved metabolic status. Trial Registration ClinicalTrials.gov NCT01015508 PMID:23505452

  17. A genetic link between prepregnancy body mass index, postpartum weight retention, and offspring weight in early childhood.

    PubMed

    Li, Aihua; Teo, Koon K; Morrison, Katherine M; McDonald, Sarah D; Atkinson, Stephanie A; Anand, Sonia S; Meyre, David

    2017-01-01

    The effects of maternal prepregnancy body mass index (BMI) and gestational weight gain (GWG) on maternal and offspring obesity traits, as well as the maternal and offspring genetic contribution to GWG and postpartum weight retention, were examined. Blood samples from mothers (n = 608) and offspring (n = 541) were genotyped for 83 BMI-associated SNPs and 47 waist-to-hip ratio (WHR)-associated SNPs. Linear regression and mixed-effects regression models were performed to examine clinical epidemiological and genetic associations with unweighted and weighted BMI and WHR genetic risk scores (GRS). Prepregnancy BMI was positively associated with offspring weight and BMI Z-score from birth to 5 years. GWG was positively associated with maternal postpartum weight retention at 1 and 5 years and with offspring weight Z-score from birth to 5 years old. The maternal unweighted BMI GRS was associated with prepregnancy BMI, postpartum weight retention at 5 years, and offspring weight Z-score from birth to 5 years old, but not associated with GWG. Both maternal and offspring unweighted WHR GRSs were negatively associated with GWG. Maternal BMI-associated SNPs may contribute to the genetic link between prepregnancy BMI variation, long-term postpartum weight retention, and offspring birth weight and longitudinal weight. Maternal and offspring WHR-associated SNPs may contribute to GWG variation. © 2016 The Obesity Society.

  18. Infant temperament and maternal parenting self-efficacy predict child weight outcomes.

    PubMed

    Anzman-Frasca, Stephanie; Stifter, Cynthia A; Paul, Ian M; Birch, Leann L

    2013-12-01

    Relationships between infant negative reactivity and self-regulation, parenting self-efficacy, and child weight outcomes were examined. Greater observed negative reactivity predicted more child weight gain when mothers had lower parenting self-efficacy. Lower mother-reported self-regulation predicted a greater child weight status. Results highlight potential early risk/protective factors. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. A Longitudinal Investigation of the Development of Weight and Muscle Concerns among Preadolescent Boys

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ricciardelli, Lina A.; McCabe, Marita P.; Lillis, Jessica; Thomas, Kristina

    2006-01-01

    The study examined the impact of body mass index (BMI), negative affect, self-esteem, and sociocultural influences in the development of weight and muscle concerns among preadolescent boys. Body dissatisfaction, importance placed on weight and muscles, weight loss strategies, and strategies to increase muscles were evaluated. Participants were 237…

  20. A Longitudinal Investigation of the Development of Weight and Muscle Concerns among Preadolescent Boys

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ricciardelli, Lina A.; McCabe, Marita P.; Lillis, Jessica; Thomas, Kristina

    2006-01-01

    The study examined the impact of body mass index (BMI), negative affect, self-esteem, and sociocultural influences in the development of weight and muscle concerns among preadolescent boys. Body dissatisfaction, importance placed on weight and muscles, weight loss strategies, and strategies to increase muscles were evaluated. Participants were 237…

  1. Negative hydrogen ion production mechanisms

    SciTech Connect

    Bacal, M.; Wada, M.

    2015-06-15

    Negative hydrogen/deuterium ions can be formed by processes occurring in the plasma volume and on surfaces facing the plasma. The principal mechanisms leading to the formation of these negative ions are dissociative electron attachment to ro-vibrationally excited hydrogen/deuterium molecules when the reaction takes place in the plasma volume, and the direct electron transfer from the low work function metal surface to the hydrogen/deuterium atoms when formation occurs on the surface. The existing theoretical models and reported experimental results on these two mechanisms are summarized. Performance of the negative hydrogen/deuterium ion sources that emerged from studies of these mechanisms is reviewed. Contemporary negative ion sources do not have negative ion production electrodes of original surface type sources but are operated with caesium with their structures nearly identical to volume production type sources. Reasons for enhanced negative ion current due to caesium addition to these sources are discussed.

  2. Negative hydrogen ion production mechanisms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bacal, M.; Wada, M.

    2015-06-01

    Negative hydrogen/deuterium ions can be formed by processes occurring in the plasma volume and on surfaces facing the plasma. The principal mechanisms leading to the formation of these negative ions are dissociative electron attachment to ro-vibrationally excited hydrogen/deuterium molecules when the reaction takes place in the plasma volume, and the direct electron transfer from the low work function metal surface to the hydrogen/deuterium atoms when formation occurs on the surface. The existing theoretical models and reported experimental results on these two mechanisms are summarized. Performance of the negative hydrogen/deuterium ion sources that emerged from studies of these mechanisms is reviewed. Contemporary negative ion sources do not have negative ion production electrodes of original surface type sources but are operated with caesium with their structures nearly identical to volume production type sources. Reasons for enhanced negative ion current due to caesium addition to these sources are discussed.

  3. Reporting weight change: Standardized reporting accounting for baseline weight

    PubMed Central

    Belle, Steven H.; Berk, Paul D.; Courcoulas, Anita P.; Engel, Scott; Flum, David R.; Gourash, William; Horlick, Mary; Hsu, Jesse Y.; Khandelwal, Saurabh; Mitchell, James E.; O’Rourke, Robert W.; Pories, Walter; Schrope, Beth; Wolfe, Bruce

    2013-01-01

    Background Although it is recognized that a standardized approach to reporting weight change is essential to permit meaningful comparisons among cohorts and across studies, consensus is lacking. Objective Propose a method of reporting weight change allowing meaningful comparisons among studies of patients who underwent bariatric surgery and to demonstrate its utility using an example from the Longitudinal Assessment of Bariatric Surgery (LABS). Methods Relationships among several measures of weight change are described. Results from an observational, longitudinal cohort study of adults undergoing bariatric surgery and from simulation studies are used to illustrate the proposed method. Setting University Hospitals Results Baseline weight is a critical parameter when assessing weight change. Men undergoing a bariatric procedure other than gastric bypass or adjustable band tended to have greater weight loss twelve months after surgery than men undergoing gastric bypass when not accounting for baseline weight, but the opposite was found when results were adjusted for baseline weight. Simulation results show that with relatively modest sample sizes, the adjusted weight loss was significantly different between the two groups of men. Conclusion A consistent metric for reporting weight loss following bariatric surgery is essential to interpret outcomes across studies and among subgroups. The baseline weight adjusted % weight loss (A%WL) uses a standard population, e.g., the LABS cohort, to account for differences between cohorts with respect to baseline weight and its use can change the interpretation of results compared to an unadjusted measure. PMID:23337770

  4. Anabolic steroid boosts weight.

    PubMed

    1996-09-01

    A randomized study of nandrolone decanoate (Deca-Durabolin) showed that the anabolic steroid can increase weight in people with HIV infections. The group receiving nandrolone experienced a greater increase both in fat-free mass and body cell mass (although the latter measure did not reach statistical significance) than those on placebo. Deca-Durabolin had little to do with two occurrences of Kaposi's sarcoma (KS) in the study group, but until further studies are completed, caution is advised when using this steroid in patients with KS. A new study comparing nandrolone to growth hormone in patients with wasting is slated to begin in the next 3 or 4 months.

  5. 24. Duplicate negative of an historic negative. 'AERIAL VIEW OF ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    24. Duplicate negative of an historic negative. 'AERIAL VIEW OF AREA 'B' HOLSTON ORDNANCE WORKS.' 1944. #OCMH 4-12.2ASAV3 in Super Explosives Program RDX and Its Composition A, B, & C, Record Group No. 319, National Archives, Washington, D.C. - Holston Army Ammunition Plant, RDX-and-Composition-B Manufacturing Line 9, Kingsport, Sullivan County, TN

  6. A Negative Result About Some Concepts of Negative Dependence.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1985-07-01

    It seems that either a very strong negative dependence holds with the monotonicity condition while without it, even a somewhat weak condition does...not hold. This brings out the crucial role played by the PF2 (log concave density) property in conditional negative dependence .

  7. On Negation as Mitigation: The Case of Negative Irony

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Giora, Rachel; Fein, Ofer; Ganzi, Jonathan; Levi, Natalie Alkeslassy; Sabah, Hadas

    2005-01-01

    Four experiments support the view of negation as mitigation (Giora, Balaban, Fein, & Alkabets, 2004). They show that when irony involves some sizable gap between what is said and what is criticized (He is exceptionally bright said of an idiot), it is rated as highly ironic (Giora, 1995). A negated version of that overstatement (He is not…

  8. Three chamber negative ion source

    DOEpatents

    Leung, K.N.; Ehlers, K.W.; Hiskes, J.R.

    1983-11-10

    It is an object of this invention provide a negative ion source which efficiently provides a large flux of negatively ionized particles. This invention provides a volume source of negative ions which has a current density sufficient for magnetic fusion applications and has electrons suppressed from the output. It is still another object of this invention to provide a volume source of negative ions which can be electrostatically accelerated to high energies and subsequently neutralized to form a high energy neutral beam for use with a magnetically confined plasma.

  9. Neurobiological background of negative symptoms.

    PubMed

    Galderisi, Silvana; Merlotti, Eleonora; Mucci, Armida

    2015-10-01

    Studies investigating neurobiological bases of negative symptoms of schizophrenia failed to provide consistent findings, possibly due to the heterogeneity of this psychopathological construct. We tried to review the findings published to date investigating neurobiological abnormalities after reducing the heterogeneity of the negative symptoms construct. The literature in electronic databases as well as citations and major articles are reviewed with respect to the phenomenology, pathology, genetics and neurobiology of schizophrenia. We searched PubMed with the keywords "negative symptoms," "deficit schizophrenia," "persistent negative symptoms," "neurotransmissions," "neuroimaging" and "genetic." Additional articles were identified by manually checking the reference lists of the relevant publications. Publications in English were considered, and unpublished studies, conference abstracts and poster presentations were not included. Structural and functional imaging studies addressed the issue of neurobiological background of negative symptoms from several perspectives (considering them as a unitary construct, focusing on primary and/or persistent negative symptoms and, more recently, clustering them into factors), but produced discrepant findings. The examined studies provided evidence suggesting that even primary and persistent negative symptoms include different psychopathological constructs, probably reflecting the dysfunction of different neurobiological substrates. Furthermore, they suggest that complex alterations in multiple neurotransmitter systems and genetic variants might influence the expression of negative symptoms in schizophrenia. On the whole, the reviewed findings, representing the distillation of a large body of disparate data, suggest that further deconstruction of negative symptomatology into more elementary components is needed to gain insight into underlying neurobiological mechanisms.

  10. Negative ions of polyatomic molecules.

    PubMed

    Christophorou, L G

    1980-06-01

    In this paper general concepts relating to, and recent advances in, the study of negative ions of polyatomic molecules area discussed with emphasis on halocarbons. The topics dealt with in the paper are as follows: basic electron attachment processes, modes of electron capture by molecules, short-lived transient negative ions, dissociative electron attachment to ground-state molecules and to "hot" molecules (effects of temperature on electron attachment), parent negative ions, effect of density, nature, and state of the medium on electron attachment, electron attachment to electronically excited molecules, the binding of attached electrons to molecules ("electron affinity"), and the basic and the applied significance of negative-ion studies.

  11. Causality, Nonlocality, and Negative Refraction.

    PubMed

    Forcella, Davide; Prada, Claire; Carminati, Rémi

    2017-03-31

    The importance of spatial nonlocality in the description of negative refraction in electromagnetic materials has been put forward recently. We develop a theory of negative refraction in homogeneous and isotropic media, based on first principles, and that includes nonlocality in its full generality. The theory shows that both dissipation and spatial nonlocality are necessary conditions for the existence of negative refraction. It also provides a sufficient condition in materials with weak spatial nonlocality. These fundamental results should have broad implications in the theoretical and practical analyses of negative refraction of electromagnetic and other kinds of waves.

  12. Brain representations of negative numbers.

    PubMed

    Parnes, Michael; Berger, Andrea; Tzelgov, Joseph

    2012-12-01

    Participants performed a physical comparison task of pairs of positive and pairs of negative one-digit numbers while their electrophysiological brain activity was measured. The numerical value of the presented digits was either congruent or incongruent with the physical size of the digits. Analysis has shown that the earliest event-related potential (ERP) difference between positive and negative numbers was found in the P300 ERP component peak, where there was an inverse effect of congruity in the negative pairs, compared with the positive ones. This pattern of results supports the idea that natural numbers serve as primitives of the human cognitive system, whereas negative numbers are apparently generated if needed.

  13. Neuroimaging correlates of negative priming.

    PubMed

    Steel, C; Haworth, E J; Peters, E; Hemsley, D R; Sharma, T; Gray, J A; Pickering, A; Gregory, L; Simmons, A; Bullmore, E T; Williams, S C

    2001-11-16

    Many theoretical accounts of selective attention and memory retrieval include reference to active inhibitory processes, such as those argued to underlie the negative priming effect. fMRI was used in order to investigate the areas of cortical activation associated with Stroop interference, Stroop facilitation and Stroop negative priming tasks. The most significant activation within the negative priming task was within the inferior parietal lobule, left temporal lobe and frontal lobes. Areas of cortical activation are discussed with reference to theoretical accounts of the negative priming effect.

  14. Weight and weddings. Engaged men's body weight ideals and wedding weight management behaviors.

    PubMed

    Klos, Lori A; Sobal, Jeffery

    2013-01-01

    Most adults marry at some point in life, and many invest substantial resources in a wedding ceremony. Previous research reports that brides often strive towards culturally-bound appearance norms and engage in weight management behaviors in preparation for their wedding. However, little is known about wedding weight ideals and behaviors among engaged men. A cross-sectional survey of 163 engaged men asked them to complete a questionnaire about their current height and weight, ideal wedding body weight, wedding weight importance, weight management behaviors, formality of their upcoming wedding ceremony, and demographics. Results indicated that the discrepancy between men's current weight and reported ideal wedding weight averaged 9.61 lb. Most men considered being at a certain weight at their wedding to be somewhat important. About 39% were attempting to lose weight for their wedding, and 37% were not trying to change their weight. Attempting weight loss was more frequent among men with higher BMI's, those planning more formal weddings, and those who considered being the right weight at their wedding as important. Overall, these findings suggest that weight-related appearance norms and weight loss behaviors are evident among engaged men.

  15. Marital status and body weight, weight perception, and weight management among U.S. adults.

    PubMed

    Klos, Lori A; Sobal, Jeffery

    2013-12-01

    Married individuals often have higher body weights than unmarried individuals, but it is unclear how marital roles affect body weight-related perceptions, desires, and behaviors. This study analyzed cross-sectional data for 4,089 adult men and 3,989 adult women using multinomial logistic regression to examine associations between marital status, perceived body weight, desired body weight, and weight management approach. Controlling for demographics and current weight, married or cohabiting women and divorced or separated women more often perceived themselves as overweight and desired to weigh less than women who had never married. Marital status was unrelated to men's weight perception and desired weight change. Marital status was also generally unrelated to weight management approach, except that divorced or separated women were more likely to have intentionally lost weight within the past year compared to never married women. Additionally, never married men were more likely to be attempting to prevent weight gain than married or cohabiting men and widowed men. Overall, married and formerly married women more often perceived themselves as overweight and desired a lower weight. Men's marital status was generally unassociated with weight-related perceptions, desires, and behaviors. Women's but not men's marital roles appear to influence their perceived and desired weight, suggesting that weight management interventions should be sensitive to both marital status and gender differences.

  16. Weighted triangulation adjustment

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Anderson, Walter L.

    1969-01-01

    The variation of coordinates method is employed to perform a weighted least squares adjustment of horizontal survey networks. Geodetic coordinates are required for each fixed and adjustable station. A preliminary inverse geodetic position computation is made for each observed line. Weights associated with each observed equation for direction, azimuth, and distance are applied in the formation of the normal equations in-the least squares adjustment. The number of normal equations that may be solved is twice the number of new stations and less than 150. When the normal equations are solved, shifts are produced at adjustable stations. Previously computed correction factors are applied to the shifts and a most probable geodetic position is found for each adjustable station. Pinal azimuths and distances are computed. These may be written onto magnetic tape for subsequent computation of state plane or grid coordinates. Input consists of punch cards containing project identification, program options, and position and observation information. Results listed include preliminary and final positions, residuals, observation equations, solution of the normal equations showing magnitudes of shifts, and a plot of each adjusted and fixed station. During processing, data sets containing irrecoverable errors are rejected and the type of error is listed. The computer resumes processing of additional data sets.. Other conditions cause warning-errors to be issued, and processing continues with the current data set.

  17. Body weight perception and body weight control behaviors in adolescents.

    PubMed

    Frank, Robson; Claumann, Gaia S; Felden, Érico P G; Silva, Diego A S; Pelegrini, Andreia

    2017-08-10

    To investigate the association between the perception of body weight (as above or below the desired) and behaviors for body weight control in adolescents. This was a cross-sectional study that included 1051 adolescents (aged 15-19 years) who were high school students attending public schools. The authors collected information on the perception of body weight (dependent variable), weight control behaviors (initiative to change the weight, physical exercise, eating less or cutting calories, fasting for 24h, taking medications, vomiting, or taking laxatives), and measured body weight and height to calculate the body mass index and then classify the weight status. Associations were tested by multinomial logistic regression analysis. Adolescents of both sexes who perceived their body weight as below the expected weight took more initiatives to gain weight, and those who perceived themselves as overweight made more efforts to lose weight. In adolescents who perceived themselves as overweight, the behavior of not taking medication was associated with the outcome only in boys (OR=8.12), whereas in girls, an association was observed with the variables eating less, cutting calories, or avoiding fatty foods aiming to lose or avoid increasing body weight (OR=3.39). Adolescents of both sexes who practiced exercises were more likely to perceive themselves as overweight (male OR=2.00; OR=1.93 female). The perception of the body weight as above and below one's expected weight was associated with weight control behaviors, which were more likely to result in initiatives to lose and gain weight, respectively. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Editora Ltda.

  18. [Maternal factors associated with fetal weight estimated by ultrasonography].

    PubMed

    Melo, Adriana Suely de Oliveira; Amorim, Melania Maria Ramos de; Assunção, Paula Lisiane; Melo, Fabiana de Oliveira; Gondim, Sheila Sherezaide Rocha; Carvalho, Danielle Franklin de; Cardoso, Maria Aparecida Alves

    2008-09-01

    to evaluate the effect of maternal, socioeconomic and obstetric variables, as well the presence of artery incisions in the 20th and 24th weeks on the fetal weight estimated at the end of pregnancy (36th week) in pregnant women attended by Programa Saúde da Família, in an inland town of the northeast of Brazil. a longitudinal study including 137 pregnant women, who have been followed up every four weeks in order to assess clinical, socioeconomic and obstetric conditions, including their weight. The uterine arteries were evaluated by Doppler in the 20th and 24th weeks, the fetal weight and the amniotic fluid index (AFI), determined in the 36th week. The initial maternal nutritional state has been determined by the body mass index (BMI), the pregnant women being classified as low weight, eutrophic, over weight and obese. Weight gain during gestation has been evaluated, according to the initial nutritional state, being classified at the end of the second and third trimester as insufficient, adequate and excessive weight gain. Analysis of variance was performed to evaluate the association of the fetal weight in the 36th week with the predictor variables, adjusted by multiple linear regression. an association between the fetal weight estimated in the 36th week and the mother's age (p=0.02), mother's job (p=0.02), initial nutritional state (p=0.04), weight gain in the second trimester (p=0.01), presence of incisions in the uterine arteries (p=0.02), and AFI (p=0.007) has been observed. The main factors associated to the fetal weight estimated in the 36th week, after the multiple regression analysis were: BMI at the pregnancy onset, weight gain in the second trimester, AFI and tabagism. in the present study, the fetal weight is positively associated with the initial maternal nutritional state, the weight gain in the second trimester and the volume of amniotic fluid, and negatively, to tabagism.

  19. Modeling operating weight and axle weight distributions for highway vehicles

    SciTech Connect

    Greene, D.L.; Liang, J.C.

    1988-07-01

    The estimation of highway cost responsibility requires detailed information on vehicle operating weights and axle weights by type of vehicle. Typically, 10--20 vehicle types must be cross-classified by 10--20 registered weight classes and again by 20 or more operating weight categories, resulting in 100--400 relative frequencies to be determined for each vehicle type. For each of these, gross operating weight must be distributed to each axle or axle unit. Given the rarity of many of the heaviest vehicle types, direct estimation of these frequencies and axle weights from traffic classification count statistics and truck weight data may exceed the reliability of even the largest (e.g., 250,000 record) data sources. An alternative is to estimate statistical models of operating weight distributions as functions of registered weight, and models of axle weight shares as functions of operating weight. This paper describes the estimation of such functions using the multinomial logit model (a log-linear model) and the implementation of the modeling framework as a PC-based FORTRAN program. Areas for further research include the addition of highway class and region as explanatory variables in operating weight distribution models, and the development of theory for including registration costs and costs of operating overweight in the modeling framework. 14 refs., 45 figs., 5 tabs.

  20. Grappling with Weight Cutting. The Wisconsin Wrestling Minimum Weight Project.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oppliger, Robert A.; And Others

    1995-01-01

    In response to a new state rule, the Wisconsin Minimum Weight Project curtails weight cutting among high school wrestlers. The project uses skinfold testing to determine a minimum competitive weight and nutrition education to help the wrestler diet safety. It serves as a model for other states and other sports. (Author/SM)

  1. The downside of weight loss

    PubMed Central

    Bosomworth, N. John

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Objective To explore the reasons why long-term weight loss is seldom achieved and to evaluate the consequences of various weight trajectories, including stability, loss, and gain. Quality of evidence Studies evaluating population weight metrics were mainly observational. Level I evidence was available to evaluate the influence of weight interventions on mortality and quality of life. Main message Sustained weight loss is achieved by a small percentage of those intending to lose weight. Mortality is lowest in the high-normal and overweight range. The safest body-size trajectory is stable weight with optimization of physical and metabolic fitness. With weight loss there is evidence for lower mortality in those with obesity-related comorbidities. There is also evidence for improved health-related quality of life in obese individuals who lose weight. Weight loss in the healthy obese, however, is associated with increased mortality. Conclusion Weight loss is advisable only for those with obesity-related comorbidities. Healthy obese people wishing to lose weight should be informed that there might be associated risks. A strategy that leads to a stable body mass index with optimized physical and metabolic fitness at any size is the safest weight intervention option. PMID:22586192

  2. Negation in the Chaamling Language.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rai, Vishnu S.

    This paper examines the different ways of forming negative sentences in the Chaamling language, an indigenous language spoken in the eastern, hilly districts of Nepal. It explains that negation, or negativization, in the Chaamling language is done with the help of affixation. In imperative sentences, the prefix mi- is added to the verb, which is…

  3. Be Aware of Negative Reinforcement.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cipani, Ennio C.

    1995-01-01

    This article examines the concept of negative reinforcement in relation to the maintenance of off-task and disruptive behaviors in classrooms. Suggestions are given for determining whether negative reinforcement (in the form of escape from the instructional task) or teacher attention is maintaining the behavior. Suggestions for making tasks less…

  4. Negative-Frequency Resonant Radiation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rubino, E.; McLenaghan, J.; Kehr, S. C.; Belgiorno, F.; Townsend, D.; Rohr, S.; Kuklewicz, C. E.; Leonhardt, U.; König, F.; Faccio, D.

    2012-06-01

    Optical solitons or solitonlike states shed light to blueshifted frequencies through a resonant emission process. We predict a mechanism by which a second propagating mode is generated. This mode, called negative resonant radiation, originates from the coupling of the soliton mode to the negative-frequency branch of the dispersion relation. Measurements in both bulk media and photonic-crystal fibers confirm our predictions.

  5. Weight control, endocrine hormones and cancer prevention.

    PubMed

    King, Brenee; Jiang, Yu; Su, Xiaoyu; Xu, Jianteng; Xie, Linglin; Standard, Joseph; Wang, Weiqun

    2013-05-01

    The prevalence of obesity is increasing which becomes worrisome due to its association with several diseases and certain types of cancers. While weight control through dietary caloric restriction and/or physical activity protects against cancer in animal models, the underlying mechanisms are not fully defined. Weight loss due to negative energy balance is associated with alterations of multiple growth factors and endocrine hormones. The altered hormones and hormone-related functions appear to be responsible for anti-cancer mechanisms. In this review, we summarize the recent studies related to weight loss and the altered endocrine hormones, focusing on the reduced levels of the mitogenic insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF-1) and adipokine leptin as well as the raised levels of adiponectin and glucocorticoids. The potential molecular targets of these hormone-dependent signalling pathways are also discussed. Considering the increasing trends of obesity throughout the world, a better understanding of the underlying mechanisms between body weight, endocrine hormones and cancer risk may lead to novel approaches to cancer prevention and treatment.

  6. Physics of negative absolute temperatures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abraham, Eitan; Penrose, Oliver

    2017-01-01

    Negative absolute temperatures were introduced into experimental physics by Purcell and Pound, who successfully applied this concept to nuclear spins; nevertheless, the concept has proved controversial: a recent article aroused considerable interest by its claim, based on a classical entropy formula (the "volume entropy") due to Gibbs, that negative temperatures violated basic principles of statistical thermodynamics. Here we give a thermodynamic analysis that confirms the negative-temperature interpretation of the Purcell-Pound experiments. We also examine the principal arguments that have been advanced against the negative temperature concept; we find that these arguments are not logically compelling, and moreover that the underlying "volume" entropy formula leads to predictions inconsistent with existing experimental results on nuclear spins. We conclude that, despite the counterarguments, negative absolute temperatures make good theoretical sense and did occur in the experiments designed to produce them.

  7. Preoperative predictors of weight loss following bariatric surgery: systematic review.

    PubMed

    Livhits, Masha; Mercado, Cheryl; Yermilov, Irina; Parikh, Janak A; Dutson, Erik; Mehran, Amir; Ko, Clifford Y; Gibbons, Melinda Maggard

    2012-01-01

    Obesity affects 32% of adults in the USA. Surgery generates substantial weight loss, but 20-30% fails to achieve successful weight loss. Our objective was to identify preoperative psychosocial factors associated with weight loss following bariatric surgery. We performed a literature search of PubMed® and the Cochrane Database of Reviews of Effectiveness between 1988 and April 2010. Articles were screened for bariatric surgery and weight loss if they included a preoperative predictor of weight loss: body mass index (BMI), preoperative weight loss, eating disorders, or psychiatric disorder/substance abuse. One thousand seven titles were reviewed, 534 articles screened, and 115 included in the review. Factors that may be positively associated with weight loss after surgery include mandatory preoperative weight loss (7 of 14 studies with positive association). Factors that may be negatively associated with weight loss include preoperative BMI (37 out of 62 studies with negative association), super-obesity (24 out of 33 studies), and personality disorders (7 out of 14 studies). Meta-analysis revealed a decrease of 10.1% excess weight loss (EWL) for super-obese patients (95% confidence interval (CI) [3.7-16.5%]), though there was significant heterogeneity in the meta-analysis, and an increase of 5.9% EWL for patients with binge eating at 12 months after surgery (95% CI [1.9-9.8%]). Further studies are necessary to investigate whether preoperative factors can predict a clinically meaningful difference in weight loss after bariatric surgery. The identification of predictive factors may improve patient selection and help develop interventions targeting specific needs of patients.

  8. Atomic Weights and Isotopic Compositions

    National Institute of Standards and Technology Data Gateway

    SRD 144 Atomic Weights and Isotopic Compositions (Web, free access)   The atomic weights are available for elements 1 through 111, and isotopic compositions or abundances are given when appropriate.

  9. CHIMERA: Top-down model for hierarchical, overlapping and directed cluster structures in directed and weighted complex networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Franke, R.

    2016-11-01

    In many networks discovered in biology, medicine, neuroscience and other disciplines special properties like a certain degree distribution and hierarchical cluster structure (also called communities) can be observed as general organizing principles. Detecting the cluster structure of an unknown network promises to identify functional subdivisions, hierarchy and interactions on a mesoscale. It is not trivial choosing an appropriate detection algorithm because there are multiple network, cluster and algorithmic properties to be considered. Edges can be weighted and/or directed, clusters overlap or build a hierarchy in several ways. Algorithms differ not only in runtime, memory requirements but also in allowed network and cluster properties. They are based on a specific definition of what a cluster is, too. On the one hand, a comprehensive network creation model is needed to build a large variety of benchmark networks with different reasonable structures to compare algorithms. On the other hand, if a cluster structure is already known, it is desirable to separate effects of this structure from other network properties. This can be done with null model networks that mimic an observed cluster structure to improve statistics on other network features. A third important application is the general study of properties in networks with different cluster structures, possibly evolving over time. Currently there are good benchmark and creation models available. But what is left is a precise sandbox model to build hierarchical, overlapping and directed clusters for undirected or directed, binary or weighted complex random networks on basis of a sophisticated blueprint. This gap shall be closed by the model CHIMERA (Cluster Hierarchy Interconnection Model for Evaluation, Research and Analysis) which will be introduced and described here for the first time.

  10. Weight, Weight Perceptions and Health-Related Quality of Life among a National Sample of US Girls

    PubMed Central

    Farhat, Tilda; Iannotti, Ronald J.; Summersett-Ringgold, Faith

    2015-01-01

    Objective To examine associations between three weight indices (weight status, perceived weight, weight status perception accuracy) and HRQOL. Methods Data are for girls in the 2009 Health Behaviors in School-Age Children survey, a nationally representative sample of students in grades 5-10 during the 2009/10 school-year (n=5,018). Controlling for sociodemographics, multivariate linear regressions examined associations between self-reported weight status (Underweight/Normal/Overweight/Obese), perceived weight (how children categorize their weight), weight status perception accuracy (Underestimate/Accurate perception/Overestimate) and dimensions of HRQOL including physical, emotional, social, and school functioning. Results While obesity was only associated with poor physical and emotional HRQOL, perceptions of being overweight were associated with worse physical, emotional, school and social HRQOL. Further, girls who overestimated their weight reported poorer HRQOL than those with accurate weight perceptions. Associations of perceptions of being overweight and weight status overestimation with poor HRQOL despite, in most instances, the absence of associations between weight status and HRQOL, suggest that weight status perceptions may not merely be a mediator of a weight status-HRQOL association, but a significant independent correlate of poor HRQOL. Conclusion These findings raise the issue of whether there is a need to prioritize intervention efforts to promote better HRQOL by re-defining the population of girls most at risk. Parents, teachers and clinicians should be aware that, rather that overweight status, perceptions of being overweight (accurately or not) are associated with a poor HRQOL among girls. Future research should examine the potential negative effect of using specific body image terminologies on adolescents' psychological health. PMID:25961900

  11. Weight, Weight Perceptions, and Health-Related Quality of Life Among a National Sample of US Girls.

    PubMed

    Farhat, Tilda; Iannotti, Ronald J; Summersett-Ringgold, Faith

    2015-06-01

    To examine associations between 3 weight indices (weight status, perceived weight, and weight status perception accuracy) and heath-related quality of life (HRQOL). Data are for girls in the 2009 Health Behaviors in School-Age Children survey, a nationally representative sample of students in Grades 5 to 10 during the 2009/2010 school year (n = 5018). Controlling for sociodemographics, multivariate linear regressions examined associations between self-reported weight status (underweight/normal/overweight/obese), perceived weight (how children categorize their weight), weight status perception accuracy (underestimate/accurate perception/overestimate), and dimensions of HRQOL, including physical, emotional, social, and school functioning. Although obesity was only associated with poor physical and emotional HRQOL, perceptions of being overweight were associated with worse physical, emotional, school, and social HRQOL. Furthermore, girls who overestimated their weight reported poorer HRQOL than those with accurate weight perceptions. Associations of perceptions of being overweight and weight status overestimation with poor HRQOL despite, in most instances, the absence of associations between weight status and HRQOL suggest that weight status perceptions may not merely be a mediator of a weight status-HRQOL association but a significant independent correlate of poor HRQOL. These findings raise the issue of whether there is a need to prioritize intervention efforts to promote better HRQOL by redefining the population of girls most at risk. Parents, teachers, and clinicians should be aware that, rather than overweight status, perceptions of being overweight (accurately or not) are associated with a poor HRQOL among girls. Future research should examine the potential negative effect of using specific body image terminologies on adolescents' psychological health.

  12. Geophysical weight loss diet

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schatten, Kenneth

    1984-04-01

    Having for numerous reasons acquired a three digit kilogram mass, the author is experienced at the painful struggles that the gourmand must suffer to reduce weight, particularly if he/she enjoys reasonably large amounts of good food. To the avant-garde geophysicist, utilizing the following approach could be pleasurable, rewarding, and may even enable the accomplishment of what Ghengis Khan, Alexander the Great, Napolean, and Hitler could not!The basic approach is the full utilization of Newton's formula for the attraction of two massive bodies: F=GM1M2/r2, where G, is the gravitational constant; r, the distance between the two bodies; and M1 and M2, the masses of the two bodies. Although one usually chooses M1 to be the earth's mass ME and M2 to be the mass of a small object, this unnecessarily restricts the realm of phenomena. The less restrictive assumption is M1 + M2 = ME.

  13. Association between Greenness, Urbanicity, and Birth Weight

    PubMed Central

    Ebisu, Keita; Holford, Theodore R.; Bell, Michelle L.

    2015-01-01

    Background More than half of the world's population lives in urban environments. Due to urban related factors (e.g. higher air pollution), urban residents may face higher risk of adverse health outcomes, while access to green space could benefit health. Purpose We explored associations between urban and green land-use and birth weight. Methods Connecticut, U.S., birth certificate data (2000-2006) were acquired (n=239,811), and land-use data were obtained from the National Land Cover Database. We focused on three land-uses; urban space, urban open space, and green space (i.e. forest, shrub, herbaceous, and cultivated land). We estimated fractions of greenness and urbanicity within 250 m from residence. A linear mixed effects model was conducted for birth weight and a logistic mixed effects model for low birth weight (LBW) and small for gestational age (SGA). Results An interquartile range (IQR) increment in the fraction of green space within 250 m of residence was associated with 3.2g (95% Confidence Interval [0.4, 6.0]) higher birth weight. Similarly, an IQR increase in green space was associated with 7.6% [2.6, 12.4] decreased risk of LBW. Exposure to urban space was negatively correlated with green space (Pearson correlation = −0.88), and it showed negative association with birth outcomes. Results were generally robust with different buffer sizes and controlling for fine particles (PM2.5) and traffic. Conclusions We found protective associations by green space on birth outcomes. Increasing green space and/or reducing urban space (e.g. the greening of city environments) may reduce the risk of adverse birth outcomes such as LBW and SGA. Populations living in urban environments will grow in the next half century, and allocation of green space among urban areas may play a critical role for public health in urban planning. PMID:26546769

  14. Advanced program weight control system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Derwa, G. T.

    1978-01-01

    The design and implementation of the Advanced Program Weight Control System (APWCS) are reported. The APWCS system allows the coordination of vehicle weight reduction programs well in advance so as to meet mandated requirements of fuel economy imposed by government and to achieve corporate targets of vehicle weights. The system is being used by multiple engineering offices to track weight reduction from inception to eventual production. The projected annualized savings due to the APWCS system is over $2.5 million.

  15. The weight of mass or the mass of weight

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gat, U.

    1987-06-01

    This paper explores the cause of confusion associated with the words mass and weight, and offers suggestions to correct the problem. It is recommended that in technical and scientific use, weight shall be restricted to mean force of gravity. Technical standards, ASTM and others, and terminology shall clearly reflect and define weight to be force of gravity. Weight should be avoided in technical context because of its imprecision. Legal, formal, and official language shall use weight to mean force only. Under no circumstances should the SI units of mass, the kilogram, or its derivatives, be associated with weight. The term weight should be avoided in any language and wording that intends to convey a precise or important meaning. ASTM should revise all standards and terminology accordingly.

  16. Hypnotherapy in Weight Loss Treatment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cochrane, Gordon; Friesen, John

    1986-01-01

    Investigated effects of hypnosis as a treatment for weight loss among women. The primary hypothesis that hypnosis is an effective treatment for weight loss was confirmed, but seven concomitant variables and the use of audiotapes were not significant contributors to weight loss. (Author/ABB)

  17. Weight Training for Wheelchair Sports.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Practical Pointers, 1978

    1978-01-01

    The article examines weight lifting training procedures for persons involved in wheelchair sports. Popular myths about weight training are countered, and guidelines for a safe and sound weight or resistance training program are given. Diagrams and descriptions follow for specific weightlifting activities: regular or standing press, military press,…

  18. Hypnotherapy in Weight Loss Treatment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cochrane, Gordon; Friesen, John

    1986-01-01

    Investigated effects of hypnosis as a treatment for weight loss among women. The primary hypothesis that hypnosis is an effective treatment for weight loss was confirmed, but seven concomitant variables and the use of audiotapes were not significant contributors to weight loss. (Author/ABB)

  19. Weighting Regressions by Propensity Scores

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Freedman, David A.; Berk, Richard A.

    2008-01-01

    Regressions can be weighted by propensity scores in order to reduce bias. However, weighting is likely to increase random error in the estimates, and to bias the estimated standard errors downward, even when selection mechanisms are well understood. Moreover, in some cases, weighting will increase the bias in estimated causal parameters. If…

  20. Successful habits of weight losers

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Despite the availability of the US Dietary Guidelines for Americans, the prevalence of obesity in adults has increased by 200% since 1980. Although few people have lost weight and maintained weight loss long term, some have and are tracked by the National Weight Control Registry. Results from these ...

  1. Correlation Weights in Multiple Regression

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Waller, Niels G.; Jones, Jeff A.

    2010-01-01

    A general theory on the use of correlation weights in linear prediction has yet to be proposed. In this paper we take initial steps in developing such a theory by describing the conditions under which correlation weights perform well in population regression models. Using OLS weights as a comparison, we define cases in which the two weighting…

  2. Weight gain after smoking cessation.

    PubMed

    Pistelli, F; Aquilini, F; Carrozzi, L

    2009-06-01

    Both overweight or obesity and cigarette smoking are relevant risk factors for public health. Cigarette smoking is associated with lower body weight while smoking cessation is associated with weight gain. Most smokers who quit experience a weight gain, particularly within one year, and it may persist up to 8 years after smoking cessation. However, only a minority of quitters gain excessive weight. Some individual characteristics have been found to be associated with excessive weight gain after smoking cessation while methodological problems may affect estimates of weight gain observed in different studies. Main mechanisms to explain weight gain after smoking cessation include increased energy intake, decreased resting metabolic rate, and decreased physical activity. The health benefits of smoking cessation far exceed any health risks that may result from smoking cessation-induced body weight gain. As weight gain may be a barrier against quitting smoking or a reason to restart smoking, behavioural and pharmacological methods have been evaluated to control weight gain after smoking cessation. Physicians should apply efficient strategies to promote smoking cessation on their weight-concerned smoking patient. This review briefly addresses some issues on the relationship between smoking cessation and weight gain, with regard to the size of the problem, mechanisms, health risks and control strategies.

  3. A longitudinal study to explain strategies to change weight and muscles among normal weight and overweight children.

    PubMed

    McCabe, M P; Ricciardelli, L A; Holt, K

    2005-12-01

    Previous research has indicated that both boys and girls strive for a slim body, with boys having an additional focus on a muscular body build. The current study was designed to evaluate the utility of a biopsychosocial model to explain body image and body change strategies among children. The study evaluated changes over time in body image and strategies to lose weight and increase muscles among 132 normal weight and 67 overweight boys (mean age = 9.23 years) and 158 normal weight and 55 overweight girls (mean age = 9.33 years). The predictive role of BMI, positive and negative affect, self-esteem and perceived sociocultural pressures to lose weight or increase muscle on body image and body change strategies over a 16 month period was evaluated. All participants completed the questionnaire on both occasions. The results demonstrated that both overweight boys and girls were more likely to be dissatisfied with their weight, place more importance on their weight, engage in more strategies to lose weight as well as perceive more pressure to lose weight. Overweight boys and girls were also more likely to report lower levels of self-esteem and positive affect, and higher levels of negative affect, and reported a reduction in their self-esteem over time. Regression analyses demonstrated that among overweight boys, low self-esteem and high levels of perceived pressure to lose weight predicted weight dissatisfaction; for overweight girls, weight dissatisfaction was also predicted by low levels of self-esteem. The implication of these findings in terms of factors contributing to the adoption of health risk behaviors among children is discussed.

  4. Physiological adaptations to weight loss and factors favouring weight regain

    PubMed Central

    Greenway, F L

    2015-01-01

    Obesity is a major global health problem and predisposes individuals to several comorbidities that can affect life expectancy. Interventions based on lifestyle modification (for example, improved diet and exercise) are integral components in the management of obesity. However, although weight loss can be achieved through dietary restriction and/or increased physical activity, over the long term many individuals regain weight. The aim of this article is to review the research into the processes and mechanisms that underpin weight regain after weight loss and comment on future strategies to address them. Maintenance of body weight is regulated by the interaction of a number of processes, encompassing homoeostatic, environmental and behavioural factors. In homoeostatic regulation, the hypothalamus has a central role in integrating signals regarding food intake, energy balance and body weight, while an ‘obesogenic' environment and behavioural patterns exert effects on the amount and type of food intake and physical activity. The roles of other environmental factors are also now being considered, including sleep debt and iatrogenic effects of medications, many of which warrant further investigation. Unfortunately, physiological adaptations to weight loss favour weight regain. These changes include perturbations in the levels of circulating appetite-related hormones and energy homoeostasis, in addition to alterations in nutrient metabolism and subjective appetite. To maintain weight loss, individuals must adhere to behaviours that counteract physiological adaptations and other factors favouring weight regain. It is difficult to overcome physiology with behaviour. Weight loss medications and surgery change the physiology of body weight regulation and are the best chance for long-term success. An increased understanding of the physiology of weight loss and regain will underpin the development of future strategies to support overweight and obese individuals in their

  5. Physiological adaptations to weight loss and factors favouring weight regain.

    PubMed

    Greenway, F L

    2015-08-01

    Obesity is a major global health problem and predisposes individuals to several comorbidities that can affect life expectancy. Interventions based on lifestyle modification (for example, improved diet and exercise) are integral components in the management of obesity. However, although weight loss can be achieved through dietary restriction and/or increased physical activity, over the long term many individuals regain weight. The aim of this article is to review the research into the processes and mechanisms that underpin weight regain after weight loss and comment on future strategies to address them. Maintenance of body weight is regulated by the interaction of a number of processes, encompassing homoeostatic, environmental and behavioural factors. In homoeostatic regulation, the hypothalamus has a central role in integrating signals regarding food intake, energy balance and body weight, while an 'obesogenic' environment and behavioural patterns exert effects on the amount and type of food intake and physical activity. The roles of other environmental factors are also now being considered, including sleep debt and iatrogenic effects of medications, many of which warrant further investigation. Unfortunately, physiological adaptations to weight loss favour weight regain. These changes include perturbations in the levels of circulating appetite-related hormones and energy homoeostasis, in addition to alterations in nutrient metabolism and subjective appetite. To maintain weight loss, individuals must adhere to behaviours that counteract physiological adaptations and other factors favouring weight regain. It is difficult to overcome physiology with behaviour. Weight loss medications and surgery change the physiology of body weight regulation and are the best chance for long-term success. An increased understanding of the physiology of weight loss and regain will underpin the development of future strategies to support overweight and obese individuals in their efforts

  6. Weight and cost estimating relationships for heavy lift airships

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gray, D. W.

    1979-01-01

    Weight and cost estimating relationships, including additional parameters that influence the cost and performance of heavy-lift airships (HLA), are discussed. Inputs to a closed loop computer program, consisting of useful load, forward speed, lift module positive or negative thrust, and rotors and propellers, are examined. Detail is given to the HLA cost and weight program (HLACW), which computes component weights, vehicle size, buoyancy lift, rotor and propellar thrust, and engine horse power. This program solves the problem of interrelating the different aerostat, rotors, engines and propeller sizes. Six sets of 'default parameters' are left for the operator to change during each computer run enabling slight data manipulation without altering the program.

  7. Weight and cost estimating relationships for heavy lift airships

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gray, D. W.

    1979-01-01

    Weight and cost estimating relationships, including additional parameters that influence the cost and performance of heavy-lift airships (HLA), are discussed. Inputs to a closed loop computer program, consisting of useful load, forward speed, lift module positive or negative thrust, and rotors and propellers, are examined. Detail is given to the HLA cost and weight program (HLACW), which computes component weights, vehicle size, buoyancy lift, rotor and propellar thrust, and engine horse power. This program solves the problem of interrelating the different aerostat, rotors, engines and propeller sizes. Six sets of 'default parameters' are left for the operator to change during each computer run enabling slight data manipulation without altering the program.

  8. Three chamber negative ion source

    DOEpatents

    Leung, Ka-Ngo; Ehlers, Kenneth W.; Hiskes, John R.

    1985-01-01

    A negative ion vessel is divided into an excitation chamber, a negative ionization chamber and an extraction chamber by two magnetic filters. Input means introduces neutral molecules into a first chamber where a first electron discharge means vibrationally excites the molecules which migrate to a second chamber. In the second chamber a second electron discharge means ionizes the molecules, producing negative ions which are extracted into or by a third chamber. A first magnetic filter prevents high energy electrons from entering the negative ionization chamber from the excitation chamber. A second magnetic filter prevents high energy electrons from entering the extraction chamber from the negative ionizing chamber. An extraction grid at the end of the negative ion vessel attracts negative ions into the third chamber and accelerates them. Another grid, located adjacent to the extraction grid, carries a small positive voltage in order to inhibit positive ions from migrating into the extraction chamber and contour the plasma potential. Additional electrons can be suppressed from the output flux using ExB forces provided by magnetic field means and the extractor grid electric potential.

  9. Isotropic Negative Thermal Expansion Metamaterials.

    PubMed

    Wu, Lingling; Li, Bo; Zhou, Ji

    2016-07-13

    Negative thermal expansion materials are important and desirable in science and engineering applications. However, natural materials with isotropic negative thermal expansion are rare and usually unsatisfied in performance. Here, we propose a novel method to achieve two- and three-dimensional negative thermal expansion metamaterials via antichiral structures. The two-dimensional metamaterial is constructed with unit cells that combine bimaterial strips and antichiral structures, while the three-dimensional metamaterial is fabricated by a multimaterial 3D printing process. Both experimental and simulation results display isotropic negative thermal expansion property of the samples. The effective coefficient of negative thermal expansion of the proposed models is demonstrated to be dependent on the difference between the thermal expansion coefficient of the component materials, as well as on the circular node radius and the ligament length in the antichiral structures. The measured value of the linear negative thermal expansion coefficient of the three-dimensional sample is among the largest achieved in experiments to date. Our findings provide an easy and practical approach to obtaining materials with tunable negative thermal expansion on any scale.

  10. Medical weight loss versus bariatric surgery: does method affect body composition and weight maintenance after 15% reduction in body weight?

    PubMed

    Kulovitz, Michelle G; Kolkmeyer, Deborah; Conn, Carole A; Cohen, Deborah A; Ferraro, Robert T

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate body composition changes in fat mass (FM) to lean body mass (LBM) ratios following 15% body weight loss (WL) in both integrated medical treatment and bariatric surgery groups. Obese patients (body mass index [BMI] 46.6 ± 6.5 kg/m(2)) who underwent laparoscopic gastric bypass surgery (BS), were matched with 24 patients undergoing integrated medical and behavioral treatment (MT). The BS and MT groups were evaluated for body weight, BMI, body composition, and waist circumference (WC) at baseline and after 15% WL. Following 15% body WL, there were significant decreases in %FM and increased %LBM (P < 0.0001). Additionally, both groups saw 76% of WL from FM, and 24% from LBM indicating a 3:1 ratio of FM to LBM loss during the first 15% reduction in body weight. Finally, no significant differences (P = 0.103) between groups for maintenance of WL at 1 y were found. For both groups, baseline FM was found to be negatively correlated with percentage of weight regained (%WR) at 1 y post-WL (r = -0.457; P = 0.007). Baseline WC and rate of WL to 15% were significant predictors of %WR only in the BS group (r = 0.713; P = 0.020). If followed closely by professionals during the first 15% body WL, patients losing 15% weight by either medical or surgical treatments can attain similar FM:LBM loss ratios and can maintain WL for 1 y. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Weight Gain Prevention among Women

    PubMed Central

    Levine, Michele D.; Klem, Mary Lou; Kalarchian, Melissa A.; Wing, Rena R.; Weissfeld, Lisa; Qin, Li; Marcus, Marsha D.

    2008-01-01

    Objective: Women 25 to 45 years old are at risk for weight gain and future obesity. This trial was designed to evaluate the efficacy of two interventions relative to a control group in preventing weight gain among normal or overweight women and to identify demographic, behavioral, and psychosocial factors related to weight gain prevention. Research Methods and Procedures: Healthy women (N = 284), ages 25 to 44, with BMI < 30 were randomized to one of three intervention conditions: a clinic-based group, a correspondence course, or an information-only control. Intervention was provided over 2 years, with a follow-up at Year 3. BMI and factors related to eating and weight were assessed yearly. Results: Over the 3-year study period, 40% (n = 114) of the women remained at or below baseline body weight (±2 lbs), and 60% gained weight (>2 lbs). Intervention had no effect on weight over time. Independently of intervention, women who were older, not actively dieting to lose weight, and who reported less perceived hunger at baseline were more likely to be successful at weight maintenance. Weight maintenance also was associated with increasing dietary restraint (conscious thoughts and purposeful behaviors to control calorie intake) and decreasing dietary disinhibition (the tendency to lose control over eating) over time. Discussion: This study raises concern about the feasibility and efficacy of weight gain prevention interventions because most women were interested in weight loss, rather than weight gain prevention, and the interventions had no effect on weight stability. Novel approaches to the prevention of weight gain are needed. PMID:17495203

  12. The relationship between bone and ash weight to body weight and body length of Thai corpses in Bangkok and central part of Thailand after cremation.

    PubMed

    Chirachariyavej, Thamrong; Limburanasombat, Sulawan; Tiensuwan, Montip

    2007-09-01

    Although information about bone and ash weight compare to body weight and body length of Thai people exists, it was based on a few samples. Collect data of the bone and ash weight after cremation and find out the relationship between bone and ash weight, body weight, body length, and age. Two hundred and twenty three corpses, 97 females and 126 males were collected from four temples, three temples from Bangkok and one temple from Angtong province. The crematoria used in the present study created a temperature between 850 degrees C and 1,200 degrees C. Each cremation took about 1-1.5 hours. The average with SD of bone and ash weight of males was 2.44 kg +/- 0.9 Kg, while the weight of females was 2.07 +/- 0.89 Kg, and the average of bone and ash weight of total subjects was 2.28 +/- 0.95. There was negative correlation between age and bone & ash weight, while there was positive correlation between body length and body weight, body length and bone & ash weight, and body weight and bone & ash weight. The results of the present study indicated that age and body weight affected the bone and ash weight. The fitted linear equation was Log (bone & ash weight +1) = 0.413 - 0.001 (age) + 0.003 (body weight). Age and body weight affect bone and ash weight. Moreover, the age, body weight, and body length could be estimated by using the bone and ash weight.

  13. Tunable acoustic double negativity metamaterial.

    PubMed

    Liang, Z; Willatzen, M; Li, J; Christensen, J

    2012-01-01

    Man-made composite materials called "metamaterials" allow for the creation of unusual wave propagation behavior. Acoustic and elastic metamaterials in particular, can pave the way for the full control of sound in realizing cloaks of invisibility, perfect lenses and much more. In this work we design acousto-elastic surface modes that are similar to surface plasmons in metals and on highly conducting surfaces perforated by holes. We combine a structure hosting these modes together with a gap material supporting negative modulus and collectively producing negative dispersion. By analytical techniques and full-wave simulations we attribute the observed behavior to the mass density and bulk modulus being simultaneously negative.

  14. Cognitive representation of negative numbers.

    PubMed

    Fischer, Martin H

    2003-05-01

    To understand negative numbers, must we refer to positive number representations (the phylogenetic hypothesis), or do we acquire a negative mental number line (the ontogenetic hypothesis)? In the experiment reported here, participants made lateralized button responses to indicate the larger of two digits from the range -9 to 9. Digit pairs were displayed spatially congruent or incongruent with either a phylogenetic or an ontogenetic mental number line. The pattern of decision latencies suggests that negative numbers become associated with left space, thus supporting the ontogenetic view.

  15. The defence of body weight: a physiological basis for weight regain after weight loss.

    PubMed

    Sumithran, Priya; Proietto, Joseph

    2013-02-01

    Although weight loss can usually be achieved by restricting food intake, the majority of dieters regain weight over the long-term. In the hypothalamus, hormonal signals from the gastrointestinal tract, adipose tissue and other peripheral sites are integrated to influence appetite and energy expenditure. Diet-induced weight loss is accompanied by several physiological changes which encourage weight regain, including alterations in energy expenditure, substrate metabolism and hormone pathways involved in appetite regulation, many of which persist beyond the initial weight loss period. Safe effective long-term strategies to overcome these physiological changes are needed to help facilitate maintenance of weight loss. The present review, which focuses on data from human studies, begins with an outline of body weight regulation to provide the context for the subsequent discussion of short- and long-term physiological changes which accompany diet-induced weight loss.

  16. Molt patterns and weight changes of the American woodcock

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Owen, R.B.; Krohn, W.B.

    1973-01-01

    A study of molt and changes in body weight of American Woodcock was conducted to better understand the summer and fall behavior of these birds and to indicate periods of physiological stress. The postnuptial molt of adults was a complete molt beginning in late June and ending by the middle of October. In contrast, the postjuvenal molt was a less intensive partial molt beginning in mid-July but also extending to the middle of October. Both male and female adult birds experienced weight loss in August during peak molt. Young birds gradually gained weight throughout the summer. Fat deposition was negatively correlated with molt while fall body weights were positively correlated with fat deposition. The data indicated that the majority of Maine woodcock are not physiologically prepared for migration until mid-October. Weights of adult males during the spring suggested that this is an important period of stress for these birds.

  17. Weight loss in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. Mechanisms and implications.

    PubMed

    Agust, Alvar G N; Gari, Patricia G; Sauleda, Jaume; Busquets, Xavier

    2002-01-01

    Weight loss occurs frequently in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). Although the precise cellular mechanisms underlying weight loss in COPD are unclear, this is a clinically relevant phenomenon because it contributes to limit the exercise capacity of these patients and, therefore, it jeopardizes their quality of life. More importantly, it is a negative prognostic factor that is independent of the degree of lung function impairment present. Thus, weight loss in COPD constitutes a new therapeutic target. This article reviews the mechanisms and potential consequences of weight loss in COPD and highlights areas that needed future research. It is hoped that a better understanding of its pathogenesis may eventually contribute to the development of new therapeutic strategies that contribute to improve the well-being and/or long-term prognosis of patients suffering from this devastating disease and, potentially, from others characterized also by unexplained weight loss.

  18. Social contagions on weighted networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhu, Yu-Xiao; Wang, Wei; Tang, Ming; Ahn, Yong-Yeol

    2017-07-01

    We investigate critical behaviors of a social contagion model on weighted networks. An edge-weight compartmental approach is applied to analyze the weighted social contagion on strongly heterogenous networks with skewed degree and weight distributions. We find that degree heterogeneity cannot only alter the nature of contagion transition from discontinuous to continuous but also can enhance or hamper the size of adoption, depending on the unit transmission probability. We also show that the heterogeneity of weight distribution always hinders social contagions, and does not alter the transition type.

  19. Holiday Weight Management by Successful Weight Losers and Normal Weight Individuals

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Phelan, Suzanne; Wing, Rena R.; Raynor, Hollie A.; Dibello, Julia; Nedeau, Kim; Peng, Wanfeng

    2008-01-01

    This study compared weight control strategies during the winter holidays among successful weight losers (SWL) in the National Weight Control Registry and normal weight individuals (NW) with no history of obesity. SWL (n = 178) had lost a mean of 34.9 kg and had kept greater than or equal to 13.6 kg off for a mean of 5.9 years. NW (n = 101) had a…

  20. Holiday Weight Management by Successful Weight Losers and Normal Weight Individuals

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Phelan, Suzanne; Wing, Rena R.; Raynor, Hollie A.; Dibello, Julia; Nedeau, Kim; Peng, Wanfeng

    2008-01-01

    This study compared weight control strategies during the winter holidays among successful weight losers (SWL) in the National Weight Control Registry and normal weight individuals (NW) with no history of obesity. SWL (n = 178) had lost a mean of 34.9 kg and had kept greater than or equal to 13.6 kg off for a mean of 5.9 years. NW (n = 101) had a…

  1. Weight bias among professionals treating eating disorders: attitudes about treatment and perceived patient outcomes.

    PubMed

    Puhl, Rebecca M; Latner, Janet D; King, Kelly M; Luedicke, Joerg

    2014-01-01

    This study aimed to assess weight bias among professionals who specialize in treating eating disorders and identify to what extent their weight biases are associated with attitudes about treating obese patients. Participants were 329 professionals treating eating disorders, recruited through professional organizations that specialize in eating disorders. Participants completed anonymous, online self-report questionnaires, assessing their explicit weight bias, perceived causes of obesity, attitudes toward treating obese patients, perceptions of treatment compliance and success of obese patients, and perceptions of weight bias among other practitioners. Negative weight stereotypes were present among some professionals treating eating disorders. Although professionals felt confident (289; 88%) and prepared (276; 84%) to provide treatment to obese patients, the majority (184; 56%) had observed other professionals in their field making negative comments about obese patients, 42% (138) believed that practitioners who treat eating disorders often have negative stereotypes about obese patients, 35% (115) indicated that practitioners feel uncomfortable caring for obese patients, and 29% (95) reported that their colleagues have negative attitudes toward obese patients. Compared to professionals with less weight bias, professionals with stronger weight bias were more likely to attribute obesity to behavioral causes, expressed more negative attitudes and frustrations about treating obese patients, and perceived poorer treatment outcomes for these patients. Similar to other health disciplines, professionals treating eating disorders are not immune to weight bias. This has important implications for provision of clinical treatment with obese individuals and efforts to reduce weight bias in the eating disorders field. Copyright © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  2. Effectiveness of Weight Loss Interventions for Obese Older Adults

    PubMed Central

    Felix, Holly C.; West, Delia S.

    2012-01-01

    Objective The consequences of obesity among older adults are significant, yet few obesity interventions target this group. Unfamiliarity with weight loss intervention effectiveness and concerns that weight loss negatively affects older adults may be inhibiting targeting this group. This paper reviews the evidence on intentional weight loss and effective weight loss interventions for obese older adults to help dispel concerns and guide health promotion practice. Data Source PubMed articles. Study Inclusion and Exclusion Criteria Randomized controlled trials examining behavioral and pharmaceutical weight loss strategies with 1-year follow-up targeting obese (body mass index ≥30) older adults (mean age ≥60 years), and studies with quasi-experimental designs examining surgical weight loss strategies targeting older adults were examined. Data Extraction Abstracts were reviewed for study objective relevancy, with relevant articles extracted and reviewed. Data Synthesis Data were inserted into an analysis matrix. Results Evidence indicates behavioral strategies are effective in producing significant (all p < .05) weight loss without significant risk to obese older adults, but effectiveness evidence for surgical and pharmaceutical strategies for obese older adults is lacking, primarily because this group has not been targeted in trials or analyses did not isolate this group. Conclusion These findings support the promotion of intentional weight loss among obese older adults and provide guidance to health promotion practitioners on effective weight loss interventions to use with this group. PMID:23286596

  3. Effectiveness of weight loss interventions for obese older adults.

    PubMed

    Felix, Holly C; West, Delia S

    2013-01-01

    The consequences of obesity among older adults are significant, yet few obesity interventions target this group. Unfamiliarity with weight loss intervention effectiveness and concerns that weight loss negatively affects older adults may be inhibiting targeting this group. This paper reviews the evidence on intentional weight loss and effective weight loss interventions for obese older adults to help dispel concerns and guide health promotion practice. PubMed articles. Randomized controlled trials examining behavioral and pharmaceutical weight loss strategies with 1-year follow-up targeting obese (body mass index ≥ 30) older adults (mean age ≥ 60 years), and studies with quasi-experimental designs examining surgical weight loss strategies targeting older adults were examined. Abstracts were reviewed for study objective relevancy, with relevant articles extracted and reviewed. Data were inserted into an analysis matrix. Evidence indicates behavioral strategies are effective in producing significant (all p < .05) weight loss without significant risk to obese older adults, but effectiveness evidence for surgical and pharmaceutical strategies for obese older adults is lacking, primarily because this group has not been targeted in trials or analyses did not isolate this group. These findings support the promotion of intentional weight loss among obese older adults and provide guidance to health promotion practitioners on effective weight loss interventions to use with this group.

  4. Autonomy Support, Self-Regulation, and Weight Loss

    PubMed Central

    Gorin, Amy A.; Powers, Theodore A.; Koestner, Richard; Wing, Rena R.; Raynor, Hollie A.

    2015-01-01

    Objective Social support is believed to contribute to weight loss success, yet the type of support received is rarely assessed. To develop more effective weight loss interventions, examinations of the types of support that are associated with positive outcomes are needed. Self-Determination Theory suggests that support for an individual’s autonomy is beneficial and facilitates internalization of autonomous self-regulation. We examined whether autonomy support and directive forms of support were associated with weight loss outcomes in a larger randomized controlled trial. Method Adults (N = 201; 48.9 ± 10.5 years; 78.1% women) participating in a weight loss trial were assessed at 0, 6, and 18 months. Autonomy support (AS), directive support, and autonomous self-regulation (ASR) were measured at 0 and 6 months and examined in relation to 18-month weight loss outcomes. Results Baseline AS and ASR did not predict outcomes; however, AS and ASR at 6 months positively predicted 18-month weight losses (ps < .05), encouragement of healthy eating at 6 months was negatively related to 18-month weight losses (p < .01), and other forms of directive support were not associated with outcomes. Conclusions Autonomy support predicted better weight loss outcomes while some forms of directive support hindered progress. Weight loss trials are needed to determine whether family members and friends can be trained to provide autonomy support and whether this is more effective than programs targeting more general or directive forms of support. PMID:23730718

  5. The decision to lose weight.

    PubMed

    Brink, P J; Ferguson, K

    1998-02-01

    The purpose of this article is to describe the reasons people give for deciding to lose weight compared by weight history and gender. The sample consisted of 162 Caucasian community volunteers. Data were obtained from an extensive open-ended interview that was analyzed using content analysis. Respondents were categorized into five groups, according to their success at weight loss: Successful, Always Normal Weight, Underweight, Clinically Successful, and Always Obese. The Clinically Successful and Always Obese were included in the category Unsuccessful Dieter. Reasons given for entering a weight-loss regime included attractiveness or appearance, health, fear, self-esteem issues, age, and competition. For the Successful Dieter, attractiveness and health were the two major motivations. Men and women were similar in their reasons for entering a weight-loss program. The issue of what makes a decision of sufficient importance to maintain weight loss remains unexplained. "Centrality" is offered as a possible explanation.

  6. Piezoelectric enhancement under negative pressure

    PubMed Central

    Kvasov, Alexander; McGilly, Leo J.; Wang, Jin; Shi, Zhiyong; Sandu, Cosmin S.; Sluka, Tomas; Tagantsev, Alexander K.; Setter, Nava

    2016-01-01

    Enhancement of ferroelectric properties, both spontaneous polarization and Curie temperature under negative pressure had been predicted in the past from first principles and recently confirmed experimentally. In contrast, piezoelectric properties are expected to increase by positive pressure, through polarization rotation. Here we investigate the piezoelectric response of the classical PbTiO3, Pb(Zr,Ti)O3 and BaTiO3 perovskite ferroelectrics under negative pressure from first principles and find significant enhancement. Piezoelectric response is then tested experimentally on free-standing PbTiO3 and Pb(Zr,Ti)O3 nanowires under self-sustained negative pressure, confirming the theoretical prediction. Numerical simulations verify that negative pressure in nanowires is the origin of the enhanced electromechanical properties. The results may be useful in the development of highly performing piezoelectrics, including lead-free ones. PMID:27396411

  7. Negative Refraction in Weyl Semimetals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shoufie Ukhtary, Muhammad; Nugraha, Ahmad R. T.; Saito, Riichiro

    2017-10-01

    We theoretically propose that Weyl semimetals may exhibit negative refraction at some frequencies close to the plasmon frequency, allowing transverse magnetic (TM) electromagnetic waves with frequencies smaller than the plasmon frequency to propagate in the Weyl semimetals. The idea is justified by the calculation of reflection spectra, in which negative refractive index at such frequencies gives physically correct spectra. In this case, a TM electromagnetic wave incident to the surface of the Weyl semimetal will be bent with a negative angle of refraction. We argue that the negative refractive index at the specified frequencies of the electromagnetic wave is required to conserve the energy of the wave, in which the incident energy should propagate away from the point of incidence.

  8. Adjective Metaphors Evoke Negative Meanings

    PubMed Central

    Sakamoto, Maki; Utsumi, Akira

    2014-01-01

    Previous metaphor studies have paid much attention to nominal metaphors and predicative metaphors, but little attention has been given to adjective metaphors. Although some studies have focused on adjective metaphors, they only examined differences in the acceptability of various types of adjective metaphors. This paper explores the cognitive effects evoked by adjective metaphors. Three psychological experiments revealed that (1) adjective metaphors, especially those modified by color adjectives, tend to evoke negative effect; (2) although the meanings of metaphors are basically affected by the meanings of their vehicles, when a vehicle has a neutral meaning, negative meanings are evoked most frequently for adjective metaphors compared to nominal and predicative metaphors; (3) negative meanings evoked by adjective metaphors are related to poeticness, and poetic metaphors evoke negative meanings more easily than less poetic metaphors. Our research sheds new light on studies of the use of metaphor, which is one of the most basic human cognitive abilities. PMID:24586480

  9. Negative numbers in simple arithmetic.

    PubMed

    Das, Runa; LeFevre, Jo-Anne; Penner-Wilger, Marcie

    2010-10-01

    Are negative numbers processed differently from positive numbers in arithmetic problems? In two experiments, adults (N = 66) solved standard addition and subtraction problems such as 3 + 4 and 7 - 4 and recasted versions that included explicit negative signs-that is, 3 - (-4), 7 + (-4), and (-4) + 7. Solution times on the recasted problems were slower than those on standard problems, but the effect was much larger for addition than subtraction. The negative sign may prime subtraction in both kinds of recasted problem. Problem size effects were the same or smaller in recasted than in standard problems, suggesting that the recasted formats did not interfere with mental calculation. These results suggest that the underlying conceptual structure of the problem (i.e., addition vs. subtraction) is more important for solution processes than the presence of negative numbers.

  10. Piezoelectric enhancement under negative pressure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kvasov, Alexander; McGilly, Leo J.; Wang, Jin; Shi, Zhiyong; Sandu, Cosmin S.; Sluka, Tomas; Tagantsev, Alexander K.; Setter, Nava

    2016-07-01

    Enhancement of ferroelectric properties, both spontaneous polarization and Curie temperature under negative pressure had been predicted in the past from first principles and recently confirmed experimentally. In contrast, piezoelectric properties are expected to increase by positive pressure, through polarization rotation. Here we investigate the piezoelectric response of the classical PbTiO3, Pb(Zr,Ti)O3 and BaTiO3 perovskite ferroelectrics under negative pressure from first principles and find significant enhancement. Piezoelectric response is then tested experimentally on free-standing PbTiO3 and Pb(Zr,Ti)O3 nanowires under self-sustained negative pressure, confirming the theoretical prediction. Numerical simulations verify that negative pressure in nanowires is the origin of the enhanced electromechanical properties. The results may be useful in the development of highly performing piezoelectrics, including lead-free ones.

  11. Piezoelectric enhancement under negative pressure.

    PubMed

    Kvasov, Alexander; McGilly, Leo J; Wang, Jin; Shi, Zhiyong; Sandu, Cosmin S; Sluka, Tomas; Tagantsev, Alexander K; Setter, Nava

    2016-07-11

    Enhancement of ferroelectric properties, both spontaneous polarization and Curie temperature under negative pressure had been predicted in the past from first principles and recently confirmed experimentally. In contrast, piezoelectric properties are expected to increase by positive pressure, through polarization rotation. Here we investigate the piezoelectric response of the classical PbTiO3, Pb(Zr,Ti)O3 and BaTiO3 perovskite ferroelectrics under negative pressure from first principles and find significant enhancement. Piezoelectric response is then tested experimentally on free-standing PbTiO3 and Pb(Zr,Ti)O3 nanowires under self-sustained negative pressure, confirming the theoretical prediction. Numerical simulations verify that negative pressure in nanowires is the origin of the enhanced electromechanical properties. The results may be useful in the development of highly performing piezoelectrics, including lead-free ones.

  12. Relation between carbohydrate intake and weight loss after bariatric surgery.

    PubMed

    Faria, Silvia Leite; Faria, Orlando Pereira; Lopes, Tatiane Carvalho; Galvão, Marcelle Vieira; de Oliveira Kelly, Emily; Ito, Marina Kiyomi

    2009-06-01

    Weight loss and long-term weight maintenance in bariatric surgery patients are related to maintaining satiety. It can be related to glycemic load (GL) and carbohydrate (g CHO) intake. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of g CHO and GL and in weight loss on patients who had undergone bariatric surgery. The following measurements/calculations were conducted as follows: current body weight (kg), current BMI, percentage of excess weight loss (PEWL), average monthly weight loss (AMWL), energy intake (kcal per day), and GL calculation. Correlations were found among the studied variables. A multiple linear regression analysis of diet variables executed with GL and weight loss. The population presented 66% of EWL. The average of total energy intake (TEI) was 1220+/-480, and the calculated GL resulted in an average of 73.2. Negative correlations were found between AMWL and TEI (p=0.04), and between AMWL and GL (p=0.009); furthermore, a negative correlation was found between carbohydrate intake in grams and AMWL (p=0.003). A positive correlation (p=0.017) was found between GL and TEI. Weight loss and GL were also correlated. Among the intake variables, GL and g CHO consumed are held accountable for 62 percent of AMWL. The multiple linear regression analysis showed that GL and carbohydrate grams (g CHO) account for 62% of AMWL. The glycemic load and grams of carbohydrate are intake factors that can be useful tools in weight loss and long-term weight maintenance on patients who have undergone Roux-en-Y Gastric Bypass (RYGB).

  13. Brain MRI of children with retinopathy-negative cerebral malaria.

    PubMed

    Postels, Douglas G; Li, Chenxi; Birbeck, Gretchen L; Taylor, Terrie E; Seydel, Karl B; Kampondeni, Sam D; Glover, Simon J; Potchen, Michael J

    2014-11-01

    Our goals were to understand the brain magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) findings in children with retinopathy-negative cerebral malaria (CM) and investigate whether any findings on acute MRI were associated with adverse outcomes. We performed MRI scans on children admitted to the hospital in Blantyre, Malawi with clinically defined CM. Two hundred and seventeen children were imaged during the study period; 44 patients were malarial retinopathy-negative; and 173 patients were retinopathy-positive. We compared MRI findings in children with retinopathy-negative and retinopathy-positive CM. In children who were retinopathy-negative, we identified MRI variables that were associated with death and adverse neurologic outcomes. On multivariate analysis, cortical diffusion weighted imaging (DWI) abnormality and increased brain volume were strongly associated with neurologic morbidity in survivors. Investigations to explore the underlying pathophysiologic processes responsible for these MRI changes are warranted. © The American Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene.

  14. Brain MRI of Children with Retinopathy-Negative Cerebral Malaria

    PubMed Central

    Postels, Douglas G.; Li, Chenxi; Birbeck, Gretchen L.; Taylor, Terrie E.; Seydel, Karl B.; Kampondeni, Sam D.; Glover, Simon J.; Potchen, Michael J.

    2014-01-01

    Our goals were to understand the brain magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) findings in children with retinopathy-negative cerebral malaria (CM) and investigate whether any findings on acute MRI were associated with adverse outcomes. We performed MRI scans on children admitted to the hospital in Blantyre, Malawi with clinically defined CM. Two hundred and seventeen children were imaged during the study period; 44 patients were malarial retinopathy-negative; and 173 patients were retinopathy-positive. We compared MRI findings in children with retinopathy-negative and retinopathy-positive CM. In children who were retinopathy-negative, we identified MRI variables that were associated with death and adverse neurologic outcomes. On multivariate analysis, cortical diffusion weighted imaging (DWI) abnormality and increased brain volume were strongly associated with neurologic morbidity in survivors. Investigations to explore the underlying pathophysiologic processes responsible for these MRI changes are warranted. PMID:25200262

  15. Antinuclear Antibody Negative Systemic Sclerosis

    PubMed Central

    Salazar, GA; Assassi, S; Wigley, F; Hummers, L; Varga, J; Hinchcliff, M; Khanna, D; Schiopu, E; Phillips, K; Furst, DE; Steen, V; Baron, M; Hudson, M; Taillefer, SS; Pope, J; Jones, N; Docherty, P; Khalidi, NA; Robinson, D; Simms, R; Silver, R; Frech, TM; Fessler, B; Molitor, J; Fritzler, M; Segal, B; Al-Kassab, F; Perry, M; Yang, J; Zamanian, S; Reveille, JD; Arnett, FC; Pedroza, C; Mayes, MD

    2014-01-01

    Objective To examine the demographic and clinical characteristics of systemic sclerosis (SSc) patients without antinuclear antibodies (ANA) compared to ANA positive patients. Methods SSc patients enrolled in the Scleroderma Family Registry and DNA Repository were included. Relevant demographic and clinical data were entered by participating sites or obtained by chart review. ANA and SSc related antibodies were determined in all investigated patients using commercially available kits at our laboratories. Results This study included 3249 patients, of whom 208 (6.4%) were ANA negative. The proportion of male patients was higher in the ANA negative group (OR 1.65; p=0.008). ANA negative patients experienced less vasculopathic manifestations of SSc. The percent predicted diffusing capacity of carbon monoxide (DLco) was higher in ANA negative patients (p=0.03). Pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH) per right heart catheterization was less common in the ANA negative group (OR= 0.28; p=0.03). Furthermore, patients with negative ANA had a lower prevalence of telangiectasias and digital ulcers/pits (OR= 0.59; p=0.03 and OR=0.38; p=0.01, respectively). Although diffuse cutaneous involvement was more common, the modified Rodnan Skin Score (mRSS) was lower in the ANA negative group (2.4 points lower, p=0.05). Furthermore, they experienced more malabsorption (p=0.05). There was no difference in the frequency of pulmonary fibrosis or scleroderma renal crisis. All-cause mortality was not different between the two groups (p=0.28). Conclusions In conclusion, the results of this study suggest that SSc patients who are ANA negative constitute a distinct subset of SSc with less vasculopathy (less PAH, digital ulcers and fewer telangiectasias), a greater proportion of males and possibly, more frequent lower gastrointestinal involvement. PMID:25578738

  16. Hunger and negative alliesthesia to aspartame and sucrose in patients treated with antipsychotic drugs and controls.

    PubMed

    Khazaal, Y; Chatton, A; Claeys, F; Ribordy, F; Khan, R; Zullino, D

    2009-12-01

    The present study explores sweet stimuli effects on hunger and negative alliesthesia in patients treated with antipsychotic drugs and controls. Those phenomena were examined in relation to previous weight gain, eating and weight-related cognitions and type of sweet stimuli: aspartame or sucrose. Alliesthesia is delayed in participants who gained weight regardless of cross group differences. A similar reduction of hunger was observed after the intake of two kinds of sweet stimuli (aspartame or sucrose) whereas alliesthesia measures were not affected. Whereas atypical antipsychotic drug-induced weight gain is linked to delayed satiety, the phenomenon is similar in magnitude in non-psychiatric controls who gained weight.

  17. [Negative symptoms and cerebral imaging].

    PubMed

    Kaladjian, A; Belzeaux, R; Adida, M; Azorin, J-M

    2015-12-01

    A number of neuroanatomical and neurofonctional abnormalities have been evidenced by cerebral imaging studies in patients suffering from schizophrenia. Nevertheless, those specifically associated with the negative symptoms of this disease are still insufficiently known. This work is a review of selected studies that have assessed the brain correlates of negative symptoms in schizophrenia. Approaches using structural imaging have highlighted reduction of gray matter density or cortical thickness associated with negative symptoms, which is rather sparsely distributed within the frontal and temporal regions, localized nevertheless more particularly in the frontal medial and orbitofrontal areas, as well as the amygdalo-hippocampic complex. These deficits are concurrent with a loss of integrity of the principal paths of white matter tracts between frontal and limbic regions. On the other hand, neurofonctional abnormalities associated with negative symptoms involve especially the frontal areas and limbic striatum. A disturbed functioning within the fronto-striatal loops, related to a striatal dopaminergic deficit, may represent a potential explanatory hypothesis of the negative symptoms of schizophrenia, as suggested by studies using Positron Emission Tomography on this topic or neuroimaging studies on the effects of antipsychotics. A better identification of the cerebral abnormalities associated with the negative dimension of schizophrenia, with regard to the lateralization of these abnormalities or to their changes during the course of the disease, could offer new therapeutic modalities for the treatment of this dimension which, until now, remains few responsive to conventional pharmacological treatments. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  18. Effects of rapid or slow body weight reduction on intramuscular protein degradation pathways during equivalent weight loss on rats.

    PubMed

    Nonaka, Y; Urashima, S; Inai, M; Nishimura, S; Higashida, K; Terada, S

    2017-07-18

    The purpose of this study was to compare the effects of short-term fasting-induced rapid weight loss with those of slower but equivalent body weight loss induced by daily calorie restriction on muscle protein degradation pathways and muscle protein content. Male Fischer rats were subjected to either 30 % calorie restriction for 2 weeks to slowly decrease body weight (Slow) or 3-day fasting to rapidly decrease body weight by a comparable level of that of the Slow group (Rapid). The final body weights were about 15 % lower in both the Slow and Rapid groups than in the Con group (p<0.001). The total protein content and wet weight of fast-twitch plantaris muscle, but not slow-twitch soleus muscle, were significantly lower in the Rapid group compared with the control rats fed ad libitum. Substantial increases in the expression ratio of autophagosomal membrane proteins (LC3-II/-I ratio) and polyubiquitinated protein concentration, used as biomarkers of autophagy-lysosome and ubiquitin-proteasome activities, respectively, were observed in the plantaris muscle of the Rapid group. Moreover, the LC3-II/-I ratio and polyubiquitinated protein concentration were negatively correlated with the total protein content and wet weight of plantaris muscle. These results suggest that short-term fasting-induced rapid body weight loss activates autophagy-lysosome and ubiquitin-proteasome systems more strongly than calorie restriction-induced slower weight reduction, resulting in muscular atrophy in fast-twitch muscle.

  19. Diabetes medications and body weight.

    PubMed

    Mitri, Joanna; Hamdy, Osama

    2009-09-01

    Tight diabetes control sometimes comes with a price: weight gain and hypoglycemia. Two of the three major recent trials that looked at the relationship between intensive diabetes control and cardiovascular events reported significant weight gain among the intensively treated groups. There is a growing concern that the weight gain induced by most diabetes medications diminishes their clinical benefits. On the other hand, there is a claim that treating diabetes with medications that are weight neutral or induces weight loss or less weight gain while minimizing those that increase body weight may emerge as the future direction for treating overweight and obese patients with diabetes. This review clarifies the weight effect of each of the currently available diabetes medications, and explains the mechanism of action behind this effect. Despite the great variability among reviewed clinical trials, the currently available evidence is quite sufficient to demonstrate the change in body weight in association with most of the currently available medications. This review also provides some guidelines on using diabetes medications during weight management programs.

  20. Low molecular weight melanoidins in coffee brew.

    PubMed

    Bekedam, E Koen; Roos, Ellen; Schols, Henk A; Van Boekel, Martinus A J S; Smit, Gerrit

    2008-06-11

    Analysis of low molecular weight (LMw) coffee brew melanoidins is challenging due to the presence of many non-melanoidin components that complicate analysis. This study focused on the isolation of LMw coffee brew melanoidins by separation of melanoidins from non-melanoidin components that are present in LMw coffee brew material. LMw coffee fractions differing in polarity were obtained by reversed-phase solid phase extraction and their melanoidin, sugar, nitrogen, caffeine, trigonelline, 5-caffeoylquinic acid, quinic acid, caffeic acid, and phenolic groups contents were determined. The sugar composition, the charge properties, and the absorbance at various wavelengths were investigated as well. The majority of the LMw melanoidins were found to have an apolar character, whereas most non-melanoidins have a polar character. The three isolated melanoidin-rich fractions represented 56% of the LMw coffee melanoidins and were free from non-melanoidin components. Spectroscopic analysis revealed that the melanoidins isolated showed similar features as high molecular weight coffee melanoidins. All three melanoidin fractions contained approximately 3% nitrogen, indicating the presence of incorporated amino acids or proteins. Surprisingly, glucose was the main sugar present in these melanoidins, and it was reasoned that sucrose is the most likely source for this glucose within the melanoidin structure. It was also found that LMw melanoidins exposed a negative charge, and this negative charge was inversely proportional to the apolar character of the melanoidins. Phenolic group levels as high as 47% were found, which could be explained by the incorporation of chlorogenic acids in these melanoidins.

  1. Handling Dynamic Weights in Weighted Frequent Pattern Mining

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ahmed, Chowdhury Farhan; Tanbeer, Syed Khairuzzaman; Jeong, Byeong-Soo; Lee, Young-Koo

    Even though weighted frequent pattern (WFP) mining is more effective than traditional frequent pattern mining because it can consider different semantic significances (weights) of items, existing WFP algorithms assume that each item has a fixed weight. But in real world scenarios, the weight (price or significance) of an item can vary with time. Reflecting these changes in item weight is necessary in several mining applications, such as retail market data analysis and web click stream analysis. In this paper, we introduce the concept of a dynamic weight for each item, and propose an algorithm, DWFPM (dynamic weighted frequent pattern mining), that makes use of this concept. Our algorithm can address situations where the weight (price or significance) of an item varies dynamically. It exploits a pattern growth mining technique to avoid the level-wise candidate set generation-and-test methodology. Furthermore, it requires only one database scan, so it is eligible for use in stream data mining. An extensive performance analysis shows that our algorithm is efficient and scalable for WFP mining using dynamic weights.

  2. A behavioral intervention to reduce excessive gestational weight gain

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Excessive gestational weight gain (GWG) is a key modifiable risk factor for negative maternal and child health. We examined the efficacy of a behavioral intervention in preventing excessive GWG. 230 participants (87.8% Caucasian, mean age= 29.1 years; second parity) completed the 36 week gestational...

  3. Body Weight and the Quality of Interpersonal Relationships

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carr, Deborah; Friedman, Michael A.

    2006-01-01

    We investigate whether underweight, normal-weight, overweight, and obese Americans differ in their evaluations of positive and negative aspects of their interpersonal relationships. Analyses are based on data from the Midlife Development in the United States (MIDUS) study, a survey of more than 3,000 adults ages 25 to 74 in 1995. We find no…

  4. Influence of Weekend Lifestyle Patterns on Body Weight

    PubMed Central

    Racette, Susan B.; Weiss, Edward P.; Schechtman, Kenneth B.; Steger-May, Karen; Villareal, Dennis T.; Obert, Kathleen A.; Holloszy, John O.

    2013-01-01

    Objective To determine whether alterations in diet and/or activity patterns during weekends contribute to weight gain or hinder weight loss. Methods and Procedures Randomized, controlled trial comparing 1 year of caloric restriction (CR) with 1 year of daily exercise (EX). Subjects included 48 healthy adults (30F, 18M) aged 50–60 years with BMI 23.5–29.9 kg/m2. Body weight was measured on 7 consecutive mornings for a total of 165 weeks at baseline and 437 weeks during the 1-year interventions. Daily weight changes were calculated for weekends (Friday to Monday) and weekdays (Monday to Friday). Daily energy intake was estimated using food diaries; daily physical activity was measured using accelerometers. Both measures were validated against doubly labeled water (DLW). Results At baseline, participants consistently gained weight on weekend days (+0.06 ± 0.03 kg/day, (mean ± s.e.), P = 0.02), but not on weekdays (−0.02 ± 0.02 kg/day, P = 0.18). This was attributable to higher dietary intake on Saturdays and lower physical activity on Sundays relative to weekdays (both P < 0.05). During the interventions, both CR and EX participants were in negative energy balance on weekdays (P < 0.005). On weekends, however, CR participants stopped losing weight, and EX participants gained weight (+0.08 ± 0.03 kg/day, P < 0.0001) due to higher dietary intakes on weekends. This helps to explain the slower-than-expected rate of weight loss during the interventions. Discussion Alterations in lifestyle behaviors on weekends contribute to weight gain or cessation of weight loss on weekends. These results provide one explanation for the relatively slow rates of weight loss observed in many studies, and the difficulty with maintaining significant weight loss. PMID:18551108

  5. Plasma neutralizers for H negative or D negative beams

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Berkner, K. H.; Pyle, R. V.; Savas, S. E.; Stalder, K. R.

    1980-10-01

    Plasma neutralizers can produce higher conversion efficiencies than are obtainable with gas neutralizers for the production of high-energy neutral beams from negative hydrogen ions. Little attention has been paid to experimental neutralizer studies because of the more critical problems connected with the development of negative-ion sources. With the prospect of accelerating ampere dc beams from extrapolatable ion sources some time next year, plasma neutralizers are being re-examined. Some basic considerations, two introductory experiments, and a next-step experiment are described.

  6. Dietary adherence during weight loss predicts weight regain.

    PubMed

    Del Corral, Pedro; Bryan, David R; Garvey, W Timothy; Gower, Barbara A; Hunter, Gary R

    2011-06-01

    This study examined the relationship between previous dietary adherence during a low-calorie diet weight loss intervention and subsequent weight change during a 2-year follow-up for weight maintenance. One hundred and sixteen healthy, recently weight reduced (lost ~12 kg, BMI 22-25 kg/m2) premenopausal women were studied. Dietary adherence was assessed by doubly labeled water (DLW) and body composition change. Comparisons were made between the upper and lower tertiles for previous dietary adherence and subsequent weight change at 1- and 2-year follow-up. Percent weight regained was significantly lower (30.9 ± 6.7% vs. 66.7 ± 9.4%; P < 0.05) in the upper compared to the lower adherence tertile for previous weight loss dietary adherence (49.9 ± 8.8% vs. 96.8 ± 12.8% P < 0.05) at 1- and 2-year follow-up, respectively. This difference was partly explained by increases in daily activity-related energy expenditure (AEE) (+95 ± 45 kcal/day vs. -44 ± 42 kcal/day, P < 0.05) and lower daily energy intake (2,066 ± 71 kcal/day vs. 2,289 ± 62 kcal/day, P < 0.05) in the higher tertile for previous dietary adherence, compared to the lower. These findings suggest that higher adherence (i.e., higher tertile) to the previous low-calorie diet predicts lower weight regain over 2-year follow-up for weight maintenance, which is explained by lower energy intake and higher physical activity. Finally, how well an individual adheres to a low-calorie diet intervention during weight loss may be a useful tool for identifying individuals who are particularly vulnerable to subsequent weight regain.

  7. Happy house: spousal weight and individual well-being.

    PubMed

    Clark, Andrew E; Etilé, Fabrice

    2011-09-01

    We use life satisfaction and Body Mass Index (BMI) information from three waves of the GSOEP to test for social interactions in BMI between spouses. Social interactions require that the cross-partial effect of partner's weight and own weight in the utility function be positive. Using life satisfaction as a utility proxy, semi-parametric regressions show that the correlation between satisfaction and own BMI is initially positive, but turns negative after some threshold. Critically, this latter threshold increases with partner's BMI when the individual is overweight. The negative well-being impact of own BMI is thus lower when the individual's partner is heavier, which is consistent with social contagion effects in weight. However, this relationship may also reflect selection on the marriage market or omitted variables, and it is difficult to think of convincing instruments that would allow causality to be clearly established. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Betweenness centrality in a weighted network

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Huijuan; Hernandez, Javier Martin; van Mieghem, Piet

    2008-04-01

    When transport in networks follows the shortest paths, the union of all shortest path trees G∪SPT can be regarded as the “transport overlay network.” Overlay networks such as peer-to-peer networks or virtual private networks can be considered as a subgraph of G∪SPT . The traffic through the network is examined by the betweenness Bl of links in the overlay G∪SPT . The strength of disorder can be controlled by, e.g., tuning the extreme value index α of the independent and identically distributed polynomial link weights. In the strong disorder limit (α→0) , all transport flows over a critical backbone, the minimum spanning tree (MST). We investigate the betweenness distributions of wide classes of trees, such as the MST of those well-known network models and of various real-world complex networks. All these trees with different degree distributions (e.g., uniform, exponential, or power law) are found to possess a power law betweenness distribution Pr[Bl=j]˜j-c . The exponent c seems to be positively correlated with the degree variance of the tree and to be insensitive of the size N of a network. In the weak disorder regime, transport in the network traverses many links. We show that a link with smaller link weight tends to carry more traffic. This negative correlation between link weight and betweenness depends on α and the structure of the underlying topology.

  9. Smoking cessation and weight gain.

    PubMed

    Filozof, C; Fernández Pinilla, M C; Fernández-Cruz, A

    2004-05-01

    Cigarette smoking is the single most important preventable cause of death and illness. Smoking cessation is associated with substantial health benefits. Weight gain is cited as a primary reason for not trying to quit smoking. There is a great variability in the amount of weight gain but younger ages, lower socio-economic status and heavier smoking are predictors of higher weight gain. Weight change after smoking cessation appears to be influenced by underlying genetic factors. Besides, weight gain after smoking cessation is largely because of increased body fat and some studies suggest that it mostly occurs in the subcutaneous region of the body. The mechanism of weight gain includes increased energy intake, decreased resting metabolic rate, decreased physical activity and increased lipoprotein lipase activity. Although there is convincing evidence for the association between smoking cessation and weight gain, the molecular mechanisms underlying this relationship are not well understood. This review summarizes current information of the effects of nicotine on peptides involved in feeding behaviour. Smoking was shown to impair glucose tolerance and insulin sensitivity and cross-sectional studies have demonstrated that smokers are insulin-resistant and hyperinsulinaemic, as compared with non-smokers. Smoking cessation seems to improve insulin sensitivity in spite of the weight gain. Nicotine replacement - in particular nicotine gum - appears to be effective in delaying post-cessation weight gain. In a group of women who failed to quit smoking because of weight gain, a dietary intervention (intermittent very-low-calorie diet) plus nicotine gum showed to both increase success rate in terms of smoking cessation and prevent weight gain. On the other hand, body weight gain at the end of treatment was significantly lower in the patients receiving bupropion or bupropion plus nicotine patch, compared with placebo. Studies with new drugs available for the treatment of obesity

  10. Microbiota manipulation for weight change.

    PubMed

    Dror, Tal; Dickstein, Yaakov; Dubourg, Grégory; Paul, Mical

    2016-01-12

    Manipulation of the intestinal microbiota has been linked to weight changes and obesity. To explore the influence of specific agents that alter the intestinal flora on weight in different patient groups we conducted a meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials (RCTs) reporting on the effects of probiotics, prebiotics, synbiotics, and antibiotics on weight. We searched the Pubmed and Cochrane Library databases for trials on adults, children, and infants evaluating the effects of these substances on weight. Our primary outcome was weight change from baseline. Standardized mean differences (SMDs) with 95% confidence intervals were calculated. We identified and included 13 adult, 17 children, and 23 infant RCTs. Effects were opposite among adults and children, showing weight loss among adults (SMD -0.54 [-0.83, -0.25)) and minor weight gains among children (SMD 0.20 [0.04, 0.36]) and infants (SMD 0.30 [-0.01, 0.62]) taking mainly Lactobacillus probiotic supplements. Heterogeneity was substantial in the adult and infant analyses and could not be explained by intervention or patient characteristics. Azithromycin administration in children with pulmonary disease was associated with weight gain (SMD 0.39 [0.24, 0.54]), without heterogeneity. A high risk of selective reporting and attrition bias was detected across the studies, making it difficult to draw firm conclusions. Overall, our meta-analysis suggests that there may be a role for probiotics in promoting weight loss in adults and weight gain in children, however additional studies are needed. Though we cannot recommend antibiotic administration for weight manipulation, its use provides advantageous weight gain in children with cystic fibrosis and bronchiectasis.

  11. Psychological effects of rapid weight loss and attitudes towards eating among professional jockeys.

    PubMed

    Caulfield, Michael J; Karageorghis, Costas I

    2008-07-01

    We examined the psychological effects of rapid weight loss among a sample of 41 professional jockeys (mean age 30.9 years, s = 7.0). Participants completed the Brunel Mood Scale (BRUMS) and the Eating Attitudes Test-26 (EAT-26) to establish the relationships between rapid weight loss, mood, and attitudes towards eating. These instruments were administered on three occasions: at the jockeys' minimal weight (achieved through rapid weight loss), their optimal riding weight (when they were not excessively restricting their weight and felt healthy), and their relaxed weight (when there were no forthcoming light rides or no rides at all). It was hypothesized that when riding at minimal weight, jockeys would record a more negative mood profile compared with scores recorded at optimal or relaxed weights. The same trend was expected for eating attitudes. These hypotheses were supported as jockeys reported significantly more negative mood profiles and eating attitudes at minimal weight. The EAT-26 scores indicated the presence of disordered attitudes towards eating at this weight. These results suggest that jockeys' endeavours to reach the minimum weight limit stipulated by governing bodies are likely to jeopardize their psychological well-being. Dialogue surrounding the appropriateness of current weight regulations is therefore encouraged.

  12. Construction and Analysis of Weighted Brain Networks from SICE for the Study of Alzheimer's Disease

    PubMed Central

    Munilla, Jorge; Ortiz, Andrés; Górriz, Juan M.; Ramírez, Javier; Weiner, Michael W.

    2017-01-01

    Alzheimer's Disease (AD) is the most common neurodegenerative disease in elderly people, and current drugs, unfortunately, do not represent yet a cure but only slow down its progression. This is explained, at least in part, because the understanding of the neurodegenerative process is still incomplete, being sometimes mistaken, particularly at the first steps of the illness, with the natural aging process. A better identification of how the functional activity deteriorates is thus crucial to develop new and more effective treatments. Sparse inverse covariance estimates (SICE) have been recently employed for deriving functional connectivity patterns from Positron Emission Tomography (PET) of brains affected by Alzheimer's Disease. SICE, unlike the traditional covariance methods, allows to analyze the interdependencies between brain regions factoring out the influence of others. To analyze the effects of the illness, connectivity patterns of brains affected by AD are compared with those obtained for control groups. These comparisons are, however, carried out for binary (undirected and unweighted) adjacency matrices with the same number of arcs. Additionally, the effect of the number of subjects employed or the validity of the regularization parameter used to compute the SICE have been not hitherto analyzed. In this paper, we delve into the construction of connectivity patterns from PET using SICE. In particular, we describe the effect that the number of subjects employed has on the results and identify, based on the reconstruction error of linear regression systems, a range of valid values for the regularization parameter. The amount of arcs is also proved as a discriminant value, and we show that it is possible to pass from unweighted (binary) to weighted adjacency matrices, where the weight of a connection corresponding to the existence of a relationship between two brain areas can be correlated to the persistence of this relationship when computed for different

  13. Construction and Analysis of Weighted Brain Networks from SICE for the Study of Alzheimer's Disease.

    PubMed

    Munilla, Jorge; Ortiz, Andrés; Górriz, Juan M; Ramírez, Javier

    2017-01-01

    Alzheimer's Disease (AD) is the most common neurodegenerative disease in elderly people, and current drugs, unfortunately, do not represent yet a cure but only slow down its progression. This is explained, at least in part, because the understanding of the neurodegenerative process is still incomplete, being sometimes mistaken, particularly at the first steps of the illness, with the natural aging process. A better identification of how the functional activity deteriorates is thus crucial to develop new and more effective treatments. Sparse inverse covariance estimates (SICE) have been recently employed for deriving functional connectivity patterns from Positron Emission Tomography (PET) of brains affected by Alzheimer's Disease. SICE, unlike the traditional covariance methods, allows to analyze the interdependencies between brain regions factoring out the influence of others. To analyze the effects of the illness, connectivity patterns of brains affected by AD are compared with those obtained for control groups. These comparisons are, however, carried out for binary (undirected and unweighted) adjacency matrices with the same number of arcs. Additionally, the effect of the number of subjects employed or the validity of the regularization parameter used to compute the SICE have been not hitherto analyzed. In this paper, we delve into the construction of connectivity patterns from PET using SICE. In particular, we describe the effect that the number of subjects employed has on the results and identify, based on the reconstruction error of linear regression systems, a range of valid values for the regularization parameter. The amount of arcs is also proved as a discriminant value, and we show that it is possible to pass from unweighted (binary) to weighted adjacency matrices, where the weight of a connection corresponding to the existence of a relationship between two brain areas can be correlated to the persistence of this relationship when computed for different

  14. Rapid weight loss in the context of Ramadan observance: recommendations for judokas.

    PubMed

    Aloui, A; Chtourou, H; Briki, W; Tabben, M; Chaouachi, A; Souissi, N; Shephard, R J; Chamari, K

    2016-12-01

    Judo is a weight-classified combat sport, and many athletes seek to compete at the lightest possible weight category to gain an advantage from competing against shorter/smaller, and supposedly weaker opponents. To achieve a desired weight, most judokas opt for rapid weight loss techniques. Short-duration maximal efforts are not greatly affected by "making weight", but prolonged and/or repeated exercise is significantly impaired. Negative effects on mood, ratings of perceived exertion, and cognitive function are also reported. Moreover, rapid weight loss reduces maximal cardiac output and glycogen stores, and impairs thermo-regulation. Limited empirical data suggest that Ramadan reduces judokas' performance, and this is likely to be exacerbated by attempts at rapid weight loss. Weight reduction during Ramadan tends to be counterproductive, and judokas who aim for a lower weight category are advised to attempt any desired reduction of body mass during the weeks leading up to Ramadan, rather than during the holy month.

  15. Negative Items and Negation Strategies in Nonnative Italian.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bernini, Giuliano

    2000-01-01

    Acquisition of negation in Italian as a second language (L2) is investigated on the basis of the longitudinal data of five learners with different first languages in the framework of a functional approach focusing on the semantic and pragmatic principles governing the organization of learner varieties and the process of their complexification.…

  16. Cremation weights in east Tennessee.

    PubMed

    Bass, William M; Jantz, Richard L

    2004-09-01

    In spite of increasing number of cremations in the U.S., little is known about weights of cremated remains. This research was undertaken in order to add to the limited literature on cremains weights and to explore variation. Weights of cremated remains were obtained from the East Tennessee Crematorium. The sample consists of 151 males and 155 females. Age, sex, and race were obtained for each individual. Males are about 1000 g heavier than females. Both sexes lose weight with age, but females lose weight at about twice the rate of males. East Tennessee cremation weights were compared with those from Florida reported by Warren and Maples, and those from Southern California reported by Sonek. East Tennessee results were also compared with an earlier study on ash weight of anatomical human skeletons carried out by Trotter and Hixon. East Tennessee cremations weigh about 500 g more than the samples from Florida and California, and about the same as the earlier anatomical samples. We hypothesize that variation reflects variation in body weight and activity. This variation must be taken into account when cremation weights are at issue.

  17. Body weight, health, and longevity.

    PubMed

    Simopoulos, A P; Van Itallie, T B

    1984-02-01

    In the United States, the weight associated with the greatest longevity tends to below the average weight of the population under consideration, if such weights are not associated with a history of significant medical impairment. Overweight persons tend to die sooner than average-weight persons, especially those who are overweight at younger ages. The effect of being overweight on mortality is delayed and may not be seen in short-term studies. Cigarette smoking is a potential confounder of the relationship between obesity and mortality. Studies on body weight, morbidity, and mortality must be interpreted with careful attention to the definitions of obesity or relative weight used, preexisting morbid conditions, the length of follow-up, and confounders in the analysis. The terminology of body weight standards should be defined more precisely and cited appropriately. An appropriate database relating body weight by sex, age, and possibly frame size to morbidity and mortality should be developed to permit the preparation of reference tables for defining the desirable range of body weight based on morbidity and mortality statistics.

  18. Socioeconomic Disparities in Emerging Adult Weight and Weight Behaviors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    VanKim, Nicole A.; Laska, Melissa N.

    2012-01-01

    Objectives: To explore weight, weight behaviors, and tobacco and alcohol use among emerging adults by parental education and financial strain. Methods: Cross-sectional analyses of 2010 survey data from an urban Minnesota public 4-year university and 2-year community college (n=1201). Results: Low parental education was associated with lower…

  19. Socioeconomic Disparities in Emerging Adult Weight and Weight Behaviors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    VanKim, Nicole A.; Laska, Melissa N.

    2012-01-01

    Objectives: To explore weight, weight behaviors, and tobacco and alcohol use among emerging adults by parental education and financial strain. Methods: Cross-sectional analyses of 2010 survey data from an urban Minnesota public 4-year university and 2-year community college (n=1201). Results: Low parental education was associated with lower…

  20. Molecular Weight and Molecular Weight Distributions in Synthetic Polymers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ward, Thomas Carl

    1981-01-01

    Focuses on molecular weight and molecular weight distributions (MWD) and models for predicting MWD in a pedagogical way. In addition, instrumental methods used to characterize MWD are reviewed with emphasis on physical chemistry of each, including end-group determination, osmometry, light scattering, solution viscosity, fractionation, and…

  1. Molecular Weight and Molecular Weight Distributions in Synthetic Polymers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ward, Thomas Carl

    1981-01-01

    Focuses on molecular weight and molecular weight distributions (MWD) and models for predicting MWD in a pedagogical way. In addition, instrumental methods used to characterize MWD are reviewed with emphasis on physical chemistry of each, including end-group determination, osmometry, light scattering, solution viscosity, fractionation, and…

  2. Tunable acoustic double negativity metamaterial

    PubMed Central

    Liang, Z.; Willatzen, M.; Li, J.; Christensen, J.

    2012-01-01

    Man-made composite materials called “metamaterials” allow for the creation of unusual wave propagation behavior. Acoustic and elastic metamaterials in particular, can pave the way for the full control of sound in realizing cloaks of invisibility, perfect lenses and much more. In this work we design acousto-elastic surface modes that are similar to surface plasmons in metals and on highly conducting surfaces perforated by holes. We combine a structure hosting these modes together with a gap material supporting negative modulus and collectively producing negative dispersion. By analytical techniques and full-wave simulations we attribute the observed behavior to the mass density and bulk modulus being simultaneously negative. PMID:23152948

  3. Negative-Pressure Pulmonary Edema.

    PubMed

    Bhattacharya, Mallar; Kallet, Richard H; Ware, Lorraine B; Matthay, Michael A

    2016-10-01

    Negative-pressure pulmonary edema (NPPE) or postobstructive pulmonary edema is a well-described cause of acute respiratory failure that occurs after intense inspiratory effort against an obstructed airway, usually from upper airway infection, tumor, or laryngospasm. Patients with NPPE generate very negative airway pressures, which augment transvascular fluid filtration and precipitate interstitial and alveolar edema. Pulmonary edema fluid collected from most patients with NPPE has a low protein concentration, suggesting hydrostatic forces as the primary mechanism for the pathogenesis of NPPE. Supportive care should be directed at relieving the upper airway obstruction by endotracheal intubation or cricothyroidotomy, institution of lung-protective positive-pressure ventilation, and diuresis unless the patient is in shock. Resolution of the pulmonary edema is usually rapid, in part because alveolar fluid clearance mechanisms are intact. In this review, we discuss the clinical presentation, pathophysiology, and management of negative-pressure or postobstructive pulmonary edema.

  4. A Heavy Heart: The Association between Weight and Emotional Words

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Xueru; He, Xianyou; Zhang, Wei

    2016-01-01

    People often express emotion in language using weight (e.g., a heavy heart, light-hearted, light humor, or heavy-handed), but the question remains whether these expressions of emotion are rooted in the body. Six experiments used a priming paradigm to explore the metaphoric relation between weight perception and emotional words. Experiments 1 and 2 investigated the influence of weight perception on judgments of emotional words and the influence of emotional words on judgments of weight, respectively. A significant difference between the consistent condition (e.g., lightness corresponds to positive words and heaviness corresponds to negative words) and the inconsistent condition (e.g., lightness corresponds to negative words and heaviness corresponds to positive words) was found in Experiment 1 but not in Experiment 2. Experiments 3, 4, and 5 were conducted to exclude potential confounds. Experiment 6 was a repeated-measures study that was conducted to verify the weight-emotion effect. The study confirmed that weight perception affected judgments of emotional words. The results contribute to the growing literature on conceptual metaphor theory and embodied cognition theory. PMID:27445893

  5. Children's judgements and emotions about social exclusion based on weight.

    PubMed

    Nguyen, Christine; Malti, Tina

    2014-09-01

    This study examined children's judgements and emotions associated with weight-based social exclusion using an ethnically diverse sample of one hundred and seventeen 9- and 13-year-old children. Children were interviewed about three scenarios depicting weight-based exclusion in athletic, academic, and social contexts. Children's judgements of exclusion, emotions attributed to the excluder and excluded targets, and justifications for judgements and emotions were examined. Overall, children judged weight-based exclusion to be wrong for moral reasons. However, they viewed weight-based exclusion in athletic contexts as less wrong compared with academic contexts, and they used more social-conventional reasoning to justify judgements and emotions attributed to excluders in athletic contexts compared with academic and social contexts. Children also expected excluded targets to feel negative emotions, whereas a range of positive and negative emotions was attributed to excluders. In addition, older children were more accepting of weight-based exclusion in athletic contexts than in academic and social contexts. We discuss the results in relation to the development of children's understanding of, and emotions associated with, exclusion based on weight.

  6. Negativity Bias in Dangerous Drivers

    PubMed Central

    Chai, Jing; Qu, Weina; Sun, Xianghong; Zhang, Kan; Ge, Yan

    2016-01-01

    The behavioral and cognitive characteristics of dangerous drivers differ significantly from those of safe drivers. However, differences in emotional information processing have seldom been investigated. Previous studies have revealed that drivers with higher anger/anxiety trait scores are more likely to be involved in crashes and that individuals with higher anger traits exhibit stronger negativity biases when processing emotions compared with control groups. However, researchers have not explored the relationship between emotional information processing and driving behavior. In this study, we examined the emotional information processing differences between dangerous drivers and safe drivers. Thirty-eight non-professional drivers were divided into two groups according to the penalty points that they had accrued for traffic violations: 15 drivers with 6 or more points were included in the dangerous driver group, and 23 drivers with 3 or fewer points were included in the safe driver group. The emotional Stroop task was used to measure negativity biases, and both behavioral and electroencephalograph data were recorded. The behavioral results revealed stronger negativity biases in the dangerous drivers than in the safe drivers. The bias score was correlated with self-reported dangerous driving behavior. Drivers with strong negativity biases reported having been involved in mores crashes compared with the less-biased drivers. The event-related potentials (ERPs) revealed that the dangerous drivers exhibited reduced P3 components when responding to negative stimuli, suggesting decreased inhibitory control of information that is task-irrelevant but emotionally salient. The influence of negativity bias provides one possible explanation of the effects of individual differences on dangerous driving behavior and traffic crashes. PMID:26765225

  7. Sigma models with negative curvature

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alonso, Rodrigo; Jenkins, Elizabeth E.; Manohar, Aneesh V.

    2016-05-01

    We construct Higgs Effective Field Theory (HEFT) based on the scalar manifold Hn, which is a hyperbolic space of constant negative curvature. The Lagrangian has a non-compact O (n , 1) global symmetry group, but it gives a unitary theory as long as only a compact subgroup of the global symmetry is gauged. Whether the HEFT manifold has positive or negative curvature can be tested by measuring the S-parameter, and the cross sections for longitudinal gauge boson and Higgs boson scattering, since the curvature (including its sign) determines deviations from Standard Model values.

  8. Negative-viscosity lattice gases

    SciTech Connect

    Rothman, D.H. )

    1989-08-01

    A new irreversible collision rule is introduced for lattice-gas automata. The rule maximizes the flux of momentum in the direction of the local momentum gradient, yielding a negative shear viscosity. Numerically results in 2D show that the negative viscosity leads to the spontaneous ordering of the velocity field, with vorticity resolvable down to one lattice-link length. The new rule may be used in conjunction with previously proposed collision rules to yield a positive shear viscosity lower than the previous rules provide. In particular, Poiseuille flow tests demonstrate a decrease in viscosity by more than a factor of 2.

  9. Sigma models with negative curvature

    DOE PAGES

    Alonso, Rodrigo; Jenkins, Elizabeth E.; Manohar, Aneesh V.

    2016-03-16

    Here, we construct Higgs Effective Field Theory (HEFT) based on the scalar manifold Hn, which is a hyperbolic space of constant negative curvature. The Lagrangian has a non-compact O(n, 1) global symmetry group, but it gives a unitary theory as long as only a compact subgroup of the global symmetry is gauged. Whether the HEFT manifold has positive or negative curvature can be tested by measuring the S-parameter, and the cross sections for longitudinal gauge boson and Higgs boson scattering, since the curvature (including its sign) determines deviations from Standard Model values.

  10. Patch Test Negative Generalized Dermatitis.

    PubMed

    Spiker, Alison; Mowad, Christen

    2016-01-01

    Allergic contact dermatitis is a common condition in dermatology. Patch testing is the criterion standard for diagnosis. However, dermatitis is not always caused by an allergen, and patch testing does not identify a culprit in every patient. Generalized dermatitis, defined as eczematous dermatitis affecting greater than 3 body sites, is often encountered in dermatology practice, especially patch test referral centers. Management for patients with generalized dermatitis who are patch test negative is challenging. The purpose of this article is to outline an approach to this challenging scenario and summarize the paucity of existing literature on patch test negative generalized dermatitis.

  11. [Weight maintenance after weight loss - how the body defends its weight].

    PubMed

    Holzapfel, C; Hauner, H

    2011-01-01

    Mean weight loss of most conservative therapeutic weight loss programmes is about five to six kilograms after one year. In our "obesogenic" environment it is difficult for persons to maintain the new weight. Also continuation of the programme cannot prevent a moderate weight increase in the follow-up year. The reasons for this are not clear: individual lifestyle, environmental and genetic factors may play a role, but also the complex regulatory system of the body "to defend its weight". Nevertheless, for weight maintenance a lifelong change of lifestyle is of critical importance. Concerning nutrition a fat-reduced diet with a decrease of energy density together with regular eating habits and adequate portion size promises the greatest benefit and is likely to allow sufficient satiety. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  12. Sensorimotor Memory Biases Weight Perception During Object Lifting

    PubMed Central

    van Polanen, Vonne; Davare, Marco

    2015-01-01

    When lifting an object, the brain uses visual cues and an internal object representation to predict its weight and scale fingertip forces accordingly. Once available, tactile information is rapidly integrated to update the weight prediction and refine the internal object representation. If visual cues cannot be used to predict weight, force planning relies on implicit knowledge acquired from recent lifting experience, termed sensorimotor memory. Here, we investigated whether perception of weight is similarly biased according to previous lifting experience and how this is related to force scaling. Participants grasped and lifted series of light or heavy objects in a semi-randomized order and estimated their weights. As expected, we found that forces were scaled based on previous lifts (sensorimotor memory) and these effects increased depending on the length of recent lifting experience. Importantly, perceptual weight estimates were also influenced by the preceding lift, resulting in lower estimations after a heavy lift compared to a light one. In addition, weight estimations were negatively correlated with the magnitude of planned force parameters. This perceptual bias was only found if the current lift was light, but not heavy since the magnitude of sensorimotor memory effects had, according to Weber’s law, relatively less impact on heavy compared to light objects. A control experiment tested the importance of active lifting in mediating these perceptual changes and showed that when weights are passively applied on the hand, no effect of previous sensory experience is found on perception. These results highlight how fast learning of novel object lifting dynamics can shape weight perception and demonstrate a tight link between action planning and perception control. If predictive force scaling and actual object weight do not match, the online motor corrections, rapidly implemented to downscale forces, will also downscale weight estimation in a proportional manner

  13. Effect of weight loss on high-molecular weight adiponectin in obese children.

    PubMed

    Martos-Moreno, Gabriel Á; Barrios, Vicente; Martínez, Guillermo; Hawkins, Federico; Argente, Jesús

    2010-12-01

    Our aim was to determine the influence of weight reduction on total (T-) and high-molecular weight (HMW-) adiponectin in obese (OB) prepubertal children. Seventy OB prepubertal white patients were followed for 18 months and studied after reducing their BMI by 1 (n = 51) and 2 standard deviation scores (SDS) (n = 21) under conservative treatment, and 6 months after achieving weight loss (n = 44). Body composition dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) and serum levels of T- and HMW-adiponectin, resistin, leptin, leptin soluble receptor (sOB-R), tumoral necrosis factor-α and interleukin-6 were determined. The control group consisted of 61 healthy prepubertal children. At diagnosis T-adiponectin was higher (P < 0.01; confidence interval (+0.04) - (+0.15)) and HMW-adiponectin lower (P < 0.001; confidence interval (-0.45) - (-0.21)) in OB children than in controls. A reduction in body fat increased T- and HMW-adiponectin and sOB-R (all P < 0.001) and decreased leptin (P < 0.001) and interleukin-6 levels (P < 0.05). After 6 months of sustained weight reduction a decrease in tumoral necrosis factor-α (P < 0.01) occurred, whereas weight recovery increased leptin (P < 0.001) and decreased T-adiponectin (P < 0.05). HMW-adiponectin levels negatively correlated with homeostasis model assessment (HOMA) index and BMI in the whole cohort (both P < 0.001), as did T-adiponectin levels and HOMA index in OB patients (P < 0.01), but neither T- nor HMW-adiponectin correlated with body fat content (BFC) in OB children. We conclude that the impairment of T- and HMW-adiponectin levels in childhood obesity is different to that in elder OB patients, showing closer relationship with carbohydrate metabolism parameters than with BFC, but increasing their levels after weight loss and in association with metabolic improvement.

  14. Increased vegetable and fruit consumption during weight loss effort correlates with increased weight and fat loss

    PubMed Central

    Whigham, L D; Valentine, A R; Johnson, L K; Zhang, Z; Atkinson, R L; Tanumihardjo, S A

    2012-01-01

    Background: Individuals who focused on calorie counting lost more weight than those who focused on increasing vegetable and fruit (V&F) intake in a weight loss program. We now present serum carotenoid data (biomarkers of V&F intake) from both groups and test whether these biomarkers correlate with changes in weight and body fat. Design: Sixty obese volunteers were randomized to one of the following weight loss programs: 500 kcal per day reduction (Reduction) or a focus on consuming eight vegetables per day and 2–3 fruits per day (HiVeg). Volunteers in the Reduction group were 36.8±10.3 years with a body mass index of 33.5; 83% were white, 17% chose not to report race; 70% were not Hispanic or Latino, 13% were Hispanic or Latino and 17% chose not to report ethnicity. Volunteers in the HiVeg group were 30.4±6.6 years with a body mass index of 33.2: 74% white, 11% Asian, 5% black or African American, 5% multiracial and 5% chose not to report race; 89% were not Hispanic or Latino, 5% were Hispanic or Latino and 5% chose not to report ethnicity. Subjects were taught basic nutrition principles, received breakfast and lunch 5 days per week for 3 months, meals 2 days per week during month 4, then regular phone calls to month 12. Results: Total serum carotenoid concentrations increased from baseline to 3 months and remained elevated at 12 months, but there was no difference between groups. Changes in weight, fat and % fat correlated negatively with serum carotenoid concentrations. Conclusion: Increased serum carotenoids (a biomarker for V&F intake) correlated with improved weight and fat loss indicating that increased V&F consumption is an appropriate strategy for weight loss. However, in light of the fact that the Reduction group lost more weight, the consumption of increased V&F for the purpose of weight loss should happen within the context of reducing total caloric intake. PMID:23449500

  15. Predictors of false negative diffusion-weighted MRI in clinically suspected central cause of vertigo.

    PubMed

    Akoglu, Ebru Unal; Akoglu, Haldun; Cimilli Ozturk, Tuba; Onur, Bahaeddin; Eroglu, Serkan Emre; Onur, Ozge; Denizbasi, Arzu

    2017-09-23

    Vertigo is classified as peripheral and central. Differentiation of stroke mimics is the most important diagnostic challenge. There is no clinical guidance for the indications of neuroimaging in isolated vertigo patients. The primary aim of this study is to test the diagnostic value of a DWI-MRI protocol to rule-out a central cause in patients with acute isolated vertigo in the ED. We prospectively enrolled 144 patients who were presented with isolated vertigo to the ED. A detailed neurological examination and maneuvers were performed for differential diagnosis. All patients underwent CT and/or DW-MRI either during ED visit or at the follow-up, if necessary. Out-patient follow-up exams and evaluations were repeated until all patients had a definitive diagnosis. In the study, 137 of the 144 patients completed the follow-up period, and 34 of 137 patients were diagnosed with central vertigo. Six of 34 central vertigo patients had normal DW-MRI findings. One was diagnosed with migraine headache and five with vertebra-basilar insufficiency during the out-patient follow-up. One of the 28 patients with a pathological MRI was diagnosed with mass and the rest was stroke. The utility of DW-MRI in vertigo patients was moderately high (sensitivity: 82%, specificity: 100%). We found that age, history of HT, history of CAD and vertigo unresponsive to ED treatment were significantly associated with a central cause of vertigo. We suggest that unresponsiveness to ED treatment, especially in patients with a history of HT and CAD, should alert physicians for central causes and warrant DW-MRI imaging. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Experience (Mostly Negative) with the Use of Sympathomimetic Agents for Weight Loss

    PubMed Central

    Inchiosa, Mario A.

    2011-01-01

    Sympathomimetic agents have a poor history of long-term success in the treatment of obesity. From earlier experiences with amphetamine and its analogs, to more recent drugs with direct effects on adrenergic receptors or indirect effects from release of catecholamines or inhibition of reuptake, cardiovascular toxicity (strokes and cardiac arrhythmias) has been the major concern. These concerns also extended to food supplements containing ephedra alkaloids and may require consideration for current supplements containing the sympathomimetic drug, synephrine. PMID:20847890

  17. Some Concepts of Negative Dependence.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1980-03-01

    The theory of positive dependence notions cannot yield useful results for some widely used distributions such as the multinomial, Dirichlet and the...multivariate hypergeometric. Some conditions of negative dependence that are satisfied by these distributions and which have practical meaning are

  18. Negative Geography: Locating Things Elsewhere.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stoddard, Robert H.

    The phenomenon of negative geography--the assertion that any location is better than the one selected--is discussed and ways in which this approach differs from traditional geography methodology are analyzed. Case studies of two citizens' groups which protested the relocation of a city mission and halfway house in their neighborhoods illustrate…

  19. Photonic crystal negative refractive optics.

    PubMed

    Baba, Toshihiko; Abe, Hiroshi; Asatsuma, Tomohiko; Matsumoto, Takashi

    2010-03-01

    Photonic crystals (PCs) are multi-dimensional periodic gratings, in which the light propagation is dominated by Bragg diffraction that appears to be refraction at the flat surfaces of the PC. The refraction angle from positive to negative, perfectly or only partially obeying Snell's law, can be tailored using photonic band theory. The negative refraction enables novel prism, collimation, and lens effects. Because PCs usually consist of two transparent media, these effects occur at absorption-free frequencies, affording significant design flexibility for free-space optics. The PC slab, a high-index membrane with a two-dimensional airhole array, must be carefully designed to avoid reflection and diffraction losses. Light focusing based on negative refraction forms a parallel image of a light source, facilitating optical couplers and condenser lenses for wavelength demultiplexing. A compact wavelength demultiplexer can be designed by combining the prism and lens effects. The collimation effect is obtainable not only inside but also outside of the PC by optimizing negative refractive condition.

  20. Questioning Zero and Negative Numbers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilcox, Virginia B.

    2008-01-01

    After experiencing a Developing Mathematical Ideas (DMI) class on the construction of algebraic concepts surrounding zero and negative numbers, the author conducted an interview with a first grader to determine the youngster's existing level of understanding about these topics. Uncovering young students' existing understanding can provide focus…

  1. Nutrition, Weight Control, and Exercise.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Katch, Frank I.; McArdle, William D.

    This book contains information on nutrition, weight control, and exercise. Some basic information from the biological sciences is included but a specialized background is not necessary to understand the text. The content is appropriate for nutrition, weight control, exercise, and physical fitness courses at the university level, for the various…

  2. Weight Gain After Kidney Transplant.

    PubMed

    Aksoy, Nilgün

    2016-11-01

    Weight gain and obesity are frequent problems for renal transplant patients. The purpose of this review is to show why weight gain is experienced by patients after kidney transplant and the significance of prevention. To investigate this topic, PubMed and Ulakbim databases were searched with the following key words: renal transplant and transplantation, weight gain, and obesity. Weight gain frequently appears in the first year after transplant, and it is reported to be a common problem for patients within the first 6 months. Weight gain varies between 6 and 10 kg, and the change in mean body mass index varies between 2 and 3.8 kg/m2 after transplant. Potential factors causing weight gain after kidney transplant are the use of immunosuppressive medications to protect the newly implanted organ and the changes in life style, such as dietary intake and insufficient physical activity. In addition, weight gain is affected by factors such as age, sex, race, lack of acute rejection, genetics, and psychological factors related to stress. A better understanding of food intake, physical activities, and environmental factors causing weight gain after kidney transplant and the development of dietary intake and physical activity protocols specific to individuals would be helpful for health care professionals.

  3. Body weight, self-perception and mental health outcomes among adolescents.

    PubMed

    Ali, Mir M; Fang, Hai; Rizzo, John A

    2010-06-01

    The prevalence of childhood obesity in the United States has increased three-fold over the last thirty years. During the same period, the prevalence of depressive symptoms in children also rose significantly. Previous literature suggests an association between actual body weight and mental health, but there is little evidence on self-perception of weight and mental health status. To examine the relationship between actual body weight, self-perception of body weight and mental health outcomes among adolescents. Using data for a nationally-representative sample of adolescents in the United States, we ascertain the effect of body weight status on depressive symptoms by estimating endogeneity-corrected models including school-level fixed effects to account for bi-directionality and unobserved confounders. Actual body weight status was calculated using interviewer-measured height and weight. We also used a measure of self-perceived weight status to compare how actual versus self-perceived weight status affects mental health. The Rosenberg Self-Esteem (RSE) Scale, Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression (CES-D) Scale, and a dichotomous version of self-reported indicator for depression were utilized as mental health indicators. Potential mediators between mental health and weight status such as levels of physical activity, participation in risky health behaviors and parental characteristics were also controlled for in the analysis. The analytical sample consisted of 13,454 adolescents aged 11 to 18. After accounting for a wide array of relevant characteristics, we did not find a direct and significant association between actual weight status and mental health outcomes. Instead, our analysis revealed a strongly negative and significant relationship between self-perceived weight status and mental health. The negative relationship between self-perceived weight and depressive symptoms was more pronounced among females. The RSE scale was particularly correlated with body

  4. Reconstructing Weighted Networks from Dynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ching, Emily S. C.; Lai, P. Y.; Leung, C. Y.

    2015-03-01

    The knowledge of how the different nodes of a network interact or link with one another is crucial for the understanding of the collective behavior and the functionality of the network. We have recently developed a method that can reconstruct both the links and their relative coupling strength of bidirectional weighted networks. Our method requires only measurements of node dynamics as input and is based on a relation between the pseudo-inverse of the matrix of the correlation of the node dynamics and the Laplacian matrix of the weighted network. Using several examples of different dynamics, we demonstrate that our method can accurately reconstruct the connectivity as well as the weights of the links for weighted random and weighted scale-free networks with both linear and nonlinear dynamics. The work of ESCC and CYL has been supported by the Hong Kong Research Grants Council under Grant No. CUHK 14300914.

  5. Fungible weights in logistic regression.

    PubMed

    Jones, Jeff A; Waller, Niels G

    2016-06-01

    In this article we develop methods for assessing parameter sensitivity in logistic regression models. To set the stage for this work, we first review Waller's (2008) equations for computing fungible weights in linear regression. Next, we describe 2 methods for computing fungible weights in logistic regression. To demonstrate the utility of these methods, we compute fungible logistic regression weights using data from the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention's (2010) Youth Risk Behavior Surveillance Survey, and we illustrate how these alternate weights can be used to evaluate parameter sensitivity. To make our work accessible to the research community, we provide R code (R Core Team, 2015) that will generate both kinds of fungible logistic regression weights. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved).

  6. Does weight loss immediately before bariatric surgery improve outcomes: a systematic review.

    PubMed

    Livhits, Masha; Mercado, Cheryl; Yermilov, Irina; Parikh, Janak A; Dutson, Erik; Mehran, Amir; Ko, Clifford Y; Gibbons, Melinda Maggard

    2009-01-01

    Preoperative weight loss before bariatric surgery has been proposed as a predictive factor for improved patient compliance and the degree of excess weight loss achieved after surgery. In the present study, we sought to determine the effect of preoperative weight loss on postoperative outcomes. A search of MEDLINE was completed to identify the patient factors associated with weight loss after bariatric surgery. Of the 909 screened reports, 15 had reported on preoperative weight loss and the degree of postoperative weight loss achieved. A meta-analysis was performed that compared the postoperative weight loss and perioperative outcomes in patients who had lost weight preoperatively compared to those who had not. Of the 15 articles (n = 3404 patients) identified, 5 found a positive effect of preoperative weight loss on postoperative weight loss, 2 found a positive short-term effect that was not sustained long term, 5 did not find an effect difference, and 1 found a negative effect. A meta-analysis revealed a significant increase in the 1-year postoperative weight loss (mean difference of 5% EWL, 95% confidence interval 2.68-7.32) for patients who had lost weight preoperatively. A meta-analysis of other outcomes revealed a decreased operative time for patients who had lost weight preoperatively (mean difference 23.3 minutes, 95% confidence interval 13.8-32.8). Preoperative weight loss before bariatric surgery appears to be associated with greater weight loss postoperatively and might help to identify patients who would have better compliance after surgery.

  7. Unimode metamaterials exhibiting negative linear compressibility and negative thermal expansion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dudek, Krzysztof K.; Attard, Daphne; Caruana-Gauci, Roberto; Wojciechowski, Krzysztof W.; Grima, Joseph N.

    2016-02-01

    Unimode metamaterials made from rotating rigid triangles are analysed mathematically for their mechanical and thermal expansion properties. It is shown that these unimode systems exhibit positive Poisson’s ratios irrespective of size, shape and angle of aperture, with the Poisson’s ratio exhibiting giant values for certain conformations. When the Poisson’s ratio in one loading direction is larger than +1, the systems were found to exhibit the anomalous property of negative linear compressibility along this direction, that is, the systems expand in this direction when hydrostatically compressed. Also discussed are the thermal expansion properties of these systems under the assumption that the units exhibit increased rotational agitation once subjected to an increase in temperature. The effect of the geometric parameters on the aforementioned thermo-mechanical properties of the system, are discussed, with the aim of identifying negative behaviour.

  8. Overweight people have low levels of implicit weight bias, but overweight nations have high levels of implicit weight bias.

    PubMed

    Marini, Maddalena; Sriram, Natarajan; Schnabel, Konrad; Maliszewski, Norbert; Devos, Thierry; Ekehammar, Bo; Wiers, Reinout; HuaJian, Cai; Somogyi, Mónika; Shiomura, Kimihiro; Schnall, Simone; Neto, Félix; Bar-Anan, Yoav; Vianello, Michelangelo; Ayala, Alfonso; Dorantes, Gabriel; Park, Jaihyun; Kesebir, Selin; Pereira, Antonio; Tulbure, Bogdan; Ortner, Tuulia; Stepanikova, Irena; Greenwald, Anthony G; Nosek, Brian A

    2013-01-01

    Although a greater degree of personal obesity is associated with weaker negativity toward overweight people on both explicit (i.e., self-report) and implicit (i.e., indirect behavioral) measures, overweight people still prefer thin people on average. We investigated whether the national and cultural context - particularly the national prevalence of obesity - predicts attitudes toward overweight people independent of personal identity and weight status. Data were collected from a total sample of 338,121 citizens from 71 nations in 22 different languages on the Project Implicit website (https://implicit.harvard.edu/) between May 2006 and October 2010. We investigated the relationship of the explicit and implicit weight bias with the obesity both at the individual (i.e., across individuals) and national (i.e., across nations) level. Explicit weight bias was assessed with self-reported preference between overweight and thin people; implicit weight bias was measured with the Implicit Association Test (IAT). The national estimates of explicit and implicit weight bias were obtained by averaging the individual scores for each nation. Obesity at the individual level was defined as Body Mass Index (BMI) scores, whereas obesity at the national level was defined as three national weight indicators (national BMI, national percentage of overweight and underweight people) obtained from publicly available databases. Across individuals, greater degree of obesity was associated with weaker implicit negativity toward overweight people compared to thin people. Across nations, in contrast, a greater degree of national obesity was associated with stronger implicit negativity toward overweight people compared to thin people. This result indicates a different relationship between obesity and implicit weight bias at the individual and national levels.

  9. Overweight People Have Low Levels of Implicit Weight Bias, but Overweight Nations Have High Levels of Implicit Weight Bias

    PubMed Central

    Marini, Maddalena; Sriram, Natarajan; Schnabel, Konrad; Maliszewski, Norbert; Devos, Thierry; Ekehammar, Bo; Wiers, Reinout; HuaJian, Cai; Somogyi, Mónika; Shiomura, Kimihiro; Schnall, Simone; Neto, Félix; Bar-Anan, Yoav; Vianello, Michelangelo; Ayala, Alfonso; Dorantes, Gabriel; Park, Jaihyun; Kesebir, Selin; Pereira, Antonio; Tulbure, Bogdan; Ortner, Tuulia; Stepanikova, Irena; Greenwald, Anthony G.; Nosek, Brian A.

    2013-01-01

    Although a greater degree of personal obesity is associated with weaker negativity toward overweight people on both explicit (i.e., self-report) and implicit (i.e., indirect behavioral) measures, overweight people still prefer thin people on average. We investigated whether the national and cultural context – particularly the national prevalence of obesity – predicts attitudes toward overweight people independent of personal identity and weight status. Data were collected from a total sample of 338,121 citizens from 71 nations in 22 different languages on the Project Implicit website (https://implicit.harvard.edu/) between May 2006 and October 2010. We investigated the relationship of the explicit and implicit weight bias with the obesity both at the individual (i.e., across individuals) and national (i.e., across nations) level. Explicit weight bias was assessed with self-reported preference between overweight and thin people; implicit weight bias was measured with the Implicit Association Test (IAT). The national estimates of explicit and implicit weight bias were obtained by averaging the individual scores for each nation. Obesity at the individual level was defined as Body Mass Index (BMI) scores, whereas obesity at the national level was defined as three national weight indicators (national BMI, national percentage of overweight and underweight people) obtained from publicly available databases. Across individuals, greater degree of obesity was associated with weaker implicit negativity toward overweight people compared to thin people. Across nations, in contrast, a greater degree of national obesity was associated with stronger implicit negativity toward overweight people compared to thin people. This result indicates a different relationship between obesity and implicit weight bias at the individual and national levels. PMID:24358291

  10. Effect of a 4-week weight maintenance diet on circulating hormone levels: implications for clinical weight loss trials.

    PubMed

    Sainsbury, A; Evans, I R; Wood, R E; Seimon, R V; King, N A; Hills, A P; Byrne, N M

    2015-04-01

    The majority of weight loss studies fail to standardize conditions such as diet and exercise via a weight maintenance period prior to commencement of the trial. This study aimed to determine whether a weight stabilization period is necessary to establish stable baseline hormone concentrations. Fifty-one obese male participants with a body mass index of 30-40 kg m(-2) and aged 25-54 years underwent 4 weeks on an energy balance diet that was designed to achieve weight stability. Blood samples were collected in the fasting state at commencement and completion of the 4-week period, and circulating concentrations of 18 commonly measured hormones were determined. During the 4-week weight maintenance period, participants achieved weight stability within -1.5 ± 0.2 kg (-1.4 ± 0.2%) of their initial body weight. Significant reductions in serum insulin (by 18 ± 6.5%) and leptin (by 21 ± 6.0%) levels occurred, but no significant changes were observed for gut-derived appetite-regulating hormones (ghrelin and peptide YY), nor thyroid, adrenal, gonadal or somatotropic hormones. There were no significant correlations between the change in body weight and the change in circulating concentrations of insulin or leptin over the 4-week period, indicating that the observed changes were not due to weight loss, albeit significant negative correlations were observed between the changes in body weight and plasma ghrelin and peptide YY levels. This study demonstrates the need for baseline weight maintenance periods to stabilize serum levels of insulin and leptin in studies specifically investigating effects on these parameters in the obese. However, this does not apply to circulating levels of gut-derived appetite-regulating hormones (ghrelin and peptide YY), nor thyroid, adrenal, gonadal or somatotropic hormones.

  11. The Development of Body Image and Weight Bias in Childhood.

    PubMed

    Paxton, S J; Damiano, S R

    2017-01-01

    Negative body image attitudes are related to the onset of disordered eating, poor self-esteem, general mental health problems, and obesity. In this chapter, we will review the nature of body image attitudes in girls and boys in early (approximately 3-7 years old) and later childhood (approximately 8-11 years old). The body image attitudes explored in this chapter include body image attitudes related to the self, with a focus on body dissatisfaction, and body image attitudes related to others, with a focus on weight bias. Issues of measurement of body image and weight bias will first be explored. In light of measurement considerations, the prevalence and predictors of body dissatisfaction and related concerns, and weight bias will be examined. The chapter will conclude with a review of promising directions in the prevention of body dissatisfaction and weight bias in children. © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Weighted scores method for regression models with dependent data.

    PubMed

    Nikoloulopoulos, Aristidis K; Joe, Harry; Chaganty, N Rao

    2011-10-01

    There are copula-based statistical models in the literature for regression with dependent data such as clustered and longitudinal overdispersed counts, for which parameter estimation and inference are straightforward. For situations where the main interest is in the regression and other univariate parameters and not the dependence, we propose a "weighted scores method", which is based on weighting score functions of the univariate margins. The weight matrices are obtained initially fitting a discretized multivariate normal distribution, which admits a wide range of dependence. The general methodology is applied to negative binomial regression models. Asymptotic and small-sample efficiency calculations show that our method is robust and nearly as efficient as maximum likelihood for fully specified copula models. An illustrative example is given to show the use of our weighted scores method to analyze utilization of health care based on family characteristics.

  13. Perceived weight discrimination and obesity.

    PubMed

    Sutin, Angelina R; Terracciano, Antonio

    2013-01-01

    Weight discrimination is prevalent in American society. Although associated consistently with psychological and economic outcomes, less is known about whether weight discrimination is associated with longitudinal changes in obesity. The objectives of this research are (1) to test whether weight discrimination is associated with risk of becoming obese (Body Mass Index≥30; BMI) by follow-up among those not obese at baseline, and (2) to test whether weight discrimination is associated with risk of remaining obese at follow-up among those already obese at baseline. Participants were drawn from the Health and Retirement Study, a nationally representative longitudinal survey of community-dwelling US residents. A total of 6,157 participants (58.6% female) completed the discrimination measure and had weight and height available from the 2006 and 2010 assessments. Participants who experienced weight discrimination were approximately 2.5 times more likely to become obese by follow-up (OR = 2.54, 95% CI = 1.58-4.08) and participants who were obese at baseline were three times more likely to remain obese at follow up (OR = 3.20, 95% CI = 2.06-4.97) than those who had not experienced such discrimination. These effects held when controlling for demographic factors (age, sex, ethnicity, education) and when baseline BMI was included as a covariate. These effects were also specific to weight discrimination; other forms of discrimination (e.g., sex, race) were unrelated to risk of obesity at follow-up. The present research demonstrates that, in addition to poorer mental health outcomes, weight discrimination has implications for obesity. Rather than motivating individuals to lose weight, weight discrimination increases risk for obesity.

  14. 14 CFR 31.14 - Weight limits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... STANDARDS: MANNED FREE BALLOONS Flight Requirements § 31.14 Weight limits. (a) The range of weights over which the balloon may be safely operated must be established. (b) Maximum weight. The maximum weight...

  15. 14 CFR 31.14 - Weight limits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... STANDARDS: MANNED FREE BALLOONS Flight Requirements § 31.14 Weight limits. (a) The range of weights over which the balloon may be safely operated must be established. (b) Maximum weight. The maximum weight...

  16. 14 CFR 31.14 - Weight limits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... STANDARDS: MANNED FREE BALLOONS Flight Requirements § 31.14 Weight limits. (a) The range of weights over which the balloon may be safely operated must be established. (b) Maximum weight. The maximum weight...

  17. Exercise and activity for weight loss

    MedlinePlus

    Weight loss - activity; Weight loss - exercise; Obesity - activity ... Calories used in exercise > calories eaten = weight loss. This means that to lose weight, the number of calories you burn by exercising needs ...

  18. Objective and Perceived Weight: Associations with Risky Adolescent Sexual Behavior.

    PubMed

    Akers, Aletha Y; Cohen, Elan D; Marshal, Michael P; Roebuck, Geoff; Yu, Lan; Hipwell, Alison E

    2016-09-01

    Studies have shown that obesity is associated with increased sexual risk-taking, particularly among adolescent females, but the relationships between obesity, perceived weight and sexual risk behaviors are poorly understood. Integrative data analysis was performed that combined baseline data from the 1994-1995 National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health (from 17,606 respondents in grades 7-12) and the 1997 National Longitudinal Survey of Youth (from 7,752 respondents aged 12-16). Using six sexual behaviors measured in both data sets (age at first intercourse, various measures of contraceptive use and number of partners), cluster analysis was conducted that identified five distinct behavior clusters. Multivariate ordinal logistic regression analysis examined associations between adolescents' weight status (categorized as underweight, normal-weight, overweight or obese) and weight perception and their cluster membership. Among males, being underweight, rather than normal-weight, was negatively associated with membership in increasingly risky clusters (odds ratio, 0.5), as was the perception of being overweight, as opposed to about the right weight (0.8). However, being overweight was positively associated with males' membership in increasingly risky clusters (1.3). Among females, being obese, rather than normal-weight, was negatively correlated with membership in increasingly risky clusters (0.8), while the perception of being overweight was positively correlated with such membership (1.1). Both objective and subjective assessments of weight are associated with the clustering of risky sexual behaviors among adolescents, and these behavioral patterns differ by gender. Copyright © 2016 by the Guttmacher Institute.

  19. Objective and Perceived Weight: Associations with Risky Adolescent Sexual Behavior

    PubMed Central

    Akers, Aletha Y.; Cohen, Elan D.; Marshal, Michael P.; Roebuck, Geoff; Yu, Lan; Hipwell, Alison E.

    2016-01-01

    CONTEXT Studies have shown that obesity is associated with increased sexual risk-taking, particularly among adolescent females, but the relationships between obesity, perceived weight and sexual risk behaviors are poorly understood. METHODS Integrative data analysis was performed that combined baseline data from the 1994–1995 National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health (from 17,606 respondents in grades 7–12) and the 1997 National Longitudinal Survey of Youth (from 7,752 respondents aged 12–16). Using six sexual behaviors measured in both data sets (age at first intercourse, various measures of contraceptive use and number of partners), cluster analysis was conducted that identified five distinct behavior clusters. Multivariate ordinal logistic regression analysis examined associations between adolescents’ weight status (categorized as underweight, normal-weight, overweight or obese) and weight perception and their cluster membership. RESULTS Among males, being underweight, rather than normal-weight, was negatively associated with membership in increasingly risky clusters (odds ratio, 0.5), as was the perception of being overweight, as opposed to about the right weight (0.8). However, being overweight was positively associated with males’ membership in increasingly risky clusters (1.3). Among females, being obese, rather than normal-weight, was negatively correlated with membership in increasingly risky clusters (0.8), while the perception of being overweight was positively correlated with such membership (1.1). CONCLUSIONS Both objective and subjective assessments of weight are associated with the clustering of risky sexual behaviors among adolescents, and these behavioral patterns differ by gender. PMID:27608419

  20. Metalinguistic Negation in English and Arabic

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nedwick, Kelly M.

    2014-01-01

    Negation is a unique and fascinating property of human language which has been given extensive theoretical and typological treatment. One categorization divides negation use into metalinguistic negation and descriptive negation (Horn, 1985). Descriptive negation (DN) is the truth-functional semantic operator which has received the most attention…

  1. Metalinguistic Negation in English and Arabic

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nedwick, Kelly M.

    2014-01-01

    Negation is a unique and fascinating property of human language which has been given extensive theoretical and typological treatment. One categorization divides negation use into metalinguistic negation and descriptive negation (Horn, 1985). Descriptive negation (DN) is the truth-functional semantic operator which has received the most attention…

  2. Comparison of weight loss by weight classification in a commercial, community-based weight loss program

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The objective of our study was to determine the impact of grade of obesity on weight-loss outcomes of a community-based, intensive behavioral counseling program (Weight Watchers Points-Plus). Previous studies have shown that individuals with a higher body mass index (BMI) at the beginning of treatme...

  3. How to simulate a universal quantum computer using negative probabilities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hofmann, Holger F.

    2009-07-01

    The concept of negative probabilities can be used to decompose the interaction of two qubits mediated by a quantum controlled-NOT into three operations that require only classical interactions (that is, local operations and classical communication) between the qubits. For a single gate, the probabilities of the three operations are 1, 1 and -1. This decomposition can be applied in a probabilistic simulation of quantum computation by randomly choosing one of the three operations for each gate and assigning a negative statistical weight to the outcomes of sequences with an odd number of negative probability operations. The maximal exponential speed-up of a quantum computer can then be evaluated in terms of the increase in the number of sequences needed to simulate a single operation of the quantum circuit.

  4. Correlates of Low Birth Weight

    PubMed Central

    Hazarika, Jayant; Dutta, Sudip

    2014-01-01

    Background. Low birth weight is the single most important factor that determines the chances of child survival. A recent annual estimation indicated that nearly 8 million infants are born with low birth weight in India. The infant mortality rate is about 20 times greater for all low birth weight babies. Methods. A matched case–control study was conducted on 130 low birth weight babies and 130 controls for 12 months (from August 1, 2007, to July 31, 2008) at the Central Referral Hospital, Tadong, East District of Sikkim, India. Data were analyzed using the Statistical Package for Social Sciences, version 10.0 for Windows. Chi-square test and multiple logistic regression were applied. A P value less than .05 was considered as significant. Results. In the first phase of this study, 711 newborn babies, borne by 680 mothers, were screened at the Central Referral Hospital of Sikkim during the 1-year study period, and the proportion of low birth weight babies was determined to be 130 (18.3%). Conclusion. Multiple logistic regression analysis, conducted in the second phase, revealed that low or middle socioeconomic status, maternal underweight, twin pregnancy, previous history of delivery of low birth weight babies, smoking and consumption of alcohol during pregnancy, and congenital anomalies had independent significant association with low birth weight in this study population. PMID:27335924

  5. Weight control in university students.

    PubMed Central

    Salmons, P H

    1987-01-01

    A total of 1858 students of United Kingdom origin aged between 18 and 20 years of age completed questionnaires which investigated present weight, bingeing, vomiting and weight control. Men were significantly more likely than women to be overweight, while women were significantly more likely to be underweight. One-third of the women were actively controlling weight, with dieting as the preferred method, while over half had attempted weight control in the past three years. Daily or more frequent bingeing was reported by 1.9% of men and 1.2% of women. There was a statistically significant relationship between weight control and bingeing. Eleven percent of men and 24% of women thought they had a problem with weight control, although amongst both men and women the proportion who felt they were overweight was in excess of the proportion who actually were overweight. It is suggested that health education programmes should take account of the pressures upon young women to conform to predetermined ideals in terms of body weight. PMID:3560132

  6. Weight Reduction Techniques Adopted When Weight Standards are Enforced

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1993-01-01

    ORGANIZATION NAME(S) AND ADDRESS(ES) 8, PERFORMING ORGANIZATION Military Nutrition Division REPORT NUMBER U. S. Army Research Institute of Environmental...affecting more soldiers than those Identified by the AWCP and possibly developing during a career In the Army. Nutrition /education programs should...that appeas to be Inevitable with aging and a career in the’Army. 14. SUBJECT TERMS 15. NUMBIEN OF PAGES Nutrition , weight reduction, Army weight

  7. Negative effects of positive reinforcement.

    PubMed

    Perone, Michael

    2003-01-01

    Procedures classified as positive reinforcement are generally regarded as more desirable than those classified as aversive-those that involve negative reinforcement or punishment. This is a crude test of the desirability of a procedure to change or maintain behavior. The problems can be identified on the basis of theory, experimental analysis, and consideration of practical cases. Theoretically, the distinction between positive and negative reinforcement has proven difficult (some would say the distinction is untenable). When the distinction is made purely in operational terms, experiments reveal that positive reinforcement has aversive functions. On a practical level, positive reinforcement can lead to deleterious effects, and it is implicated in a range of personal and societal problems. These issues challenge us to identify other criteria for judging behavioral procedures.

  8. Gram-negative flagella glycosylation.

    PubMed

    Merino, Susana; Tomás, Juan M

    2014-02-19

    Protein glycosylation had been considered as an eccentricity of a few bacteria. However, through advances in analytical methods and genome sequencing, it is now established that bacteria possess both N-linked and O-linked glycosylation pathways. Both glycosylation pathways can modify multiple proteins, flagellins from Archaea and Eubacteria being one of these. Flagella O-glycosylation has been demonstrated in many polar flagellins from Gram-negative bacteria and in only the Gram-positive genera Clostridium and Listeria. Furthermore, O-glycosylation has also been demonstrated in a limited number of lateral flagellins. In this work, we revised the current advances in flagellar glycosylation from Gram-negative bacteria, focusing on the structural diversity of glycans, the O-linked pathway and the biological function of flagella glycosylation.

  9. Negative-ion plasma sources

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sheehan, D. P.; Rynn, N.

    1988-08-01

    Three designs for negative-ion plasma sources are described. Two sources utilize metal hexafluorides such as SF6 and WF6 to scavenge electrons from electron-ion plasmas and the third relies upon surface ionization of alkali halide salts on heated alumina and zirconia. SF6 introduced into electron-ion plasmas yielded negative-ion plasma densities of 10 to the 10th/cu cm with low residual electron densities. On alumina, plasma densities of 10 to the 9th/cu cm were obtained for CsCl, CsI, and KI and 10 to the 9th/cu cm for KCl. On zirconia 10 to the 10th/cu cm densities were obtained for CsCl. For alkali halide sources, electron densities of less than about 10 to the -4th have been achieved.

  10. Gram-Negative Flagella Glycosylation

    PubMed Central

    Merino, Susana; Tomás, Juan M.

    2014-01-01

    Protein glycosylation had been considered as an eccentricity of a few bacteria. However, through advances in analytical methods and genome sequencing, it is now established that bacteria possess both N-linked and O-linked glycosylation pathways. Both glycosylation pathways can modify multiple proteins, flagellins from Archaea and Eubacteria being one of these. Flagella O-glycosylation has been demonstrated in many polar flagellins from Gram-negative bacteria and in only the Gram-positive genera Clostridium and Listeria. Furthermore, O-glycosylation has also been demonstrated in a limited number of lateral flagellins. In this work, we revised the current advances in flagellar glycosylation from Gram-negative bacteria, focusing on the structural diversity of glycans, the O-linked pathway and the biological function of flagella glycosylation. PMID:24557579

  11. Cosmology with negative absolute temperatures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vieira, J. P. P.; Byrnes, Christian T.; Lewis, Antony

    2016-08-01

    Negative absolute temperatures (NAT) are an exotic thermodynamical consequence of quantum physics which has been known since the 1950's (having been achieved in the lab on a number of occasions). Recently, the work of Braun et al. [1] has rekindled interest in negative temperatures and hinted at a possibility of using NAT systems in the lab as dark energy analogues. This paper goes one step further, looking into the cosmological consequences of the existence of a NAT component in the Universe. NAT-dominated expanding Universes experience a borderline phantom expansion (w < -1) with no Big Rip, and their contracting counterparts are forced to bounce after the energy density becomes sufficiently large. Both scenarios might be used to solve horizon and flatness problems analogously to standard inflation and bouncing cosmologies. We discuss the difficulties in obtaining and ending a NAT-dominated epoch, and possible ways of obtaining density perturbations with an acceptable spectrum.

  12. Negative effects of positive reinforcement

    PubMed Central

    Perone, Michael

    2003-01-01

    Procedures classified as positive reinforcement are generally regarded as more desirable than those classified as aversive—those that involve negative reinforcement or punishment. This is a crude test of the desirability of a procedure to change or maintain behavior. The problems can be identified on the basis of theory, experimental analysis, and consideration of practical cases. Theoretically, the distinction between positive and negative reinforcement has proven difficult (some would say the distinction is untenable). When the distinction is made purely in operational terms, experiments reveal that positive reinforcement has aversive functions. On a practical level, positive reinforcement can lead to deleterious effects, and it is implicated in a range of personal and societal problems. These issues challenge us to identify other criteria for judging behavioral procedures. ImagesFigure 1Figure 2 PMID:22478391

  13. Oral Cancer Malnutrition Impacts Weight and Quality of Life

    PubMed Central

    Gellrich, Nils-Claudius; Handschel, Jörg; Holtmann, Henrik; Krüskemper, Gertrud

    2015-01-01

    Diet is important for both quality of life (QoL) and survival of patients with oral cancer. Their intake of food is impeded by functional restrictions in chewing and swallowing. In the DÖSAK REHAB STUDY 1652 patients from 38 hospitals within the German-language area of Germany; Austria and Switzerland were examined with regard to functional and psychological variables having an impact on diet. Chewing and swallowing are correlated with mobility of the tongue and the mandible as well as opening of the mouth. Thirty five percent of the patients lost weight; 41% maintained their weight and 24% gained weight. The QoL of patients who were able to maintain their weight and of those who gained weight was significantly better than that of patients who lost weight. A normal diet was important for maintaining weight. Mashed food; liquid food and loss of appetite were closely associated with loss of weight; although it was possible for nutritional counseling and dietary support to be implemented particularly favorably in this respect. Due to problems with eating patients’ strength deteriorated; thus restricting activity. Radiotherapy had a negative impact on diet and weight. It influenced sense of taste; dryness of the mouth; swelling and discomfort when ingesting food. Pain and scars in the region of the operation also cause patients to dislike hard; spicy and sour food. Support from a nutritional counselor in implementing a calorie-rich diet remedied this and such support needs to be integrated into patient management. The fact that a poor nutritional status is of such great importance is well-known; but what is often lacking is the systematic implementation of continued professional nutritional counseling over a long period of time; weight control and psycho-social support of the operated patients; particularly those who also have had radiotherapy. PMID:25825828

  14. Triple-Negative Breast Carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Livasy, Chad A

    2009-06-01

    Triple-negative breast carcinomas (TNBCs) comprise approximately 15% to 20% of breast cancers. Accurate assessment of tumor estrogen receptor, progesterone receptor, and human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2) status is an essential part of classifying tumors into this group. As a group, these tumors are associated with poor clinical outcomes and have been shown to exhibit an increased propensity for hematogenous metastasis to the brain and lungs. Many TNBCs, particularly ductal, not otherwise specified (NOS), and metaplastic carcinomas, show an overlapping characteristic gene expression pattern when evaluated by cDNA microarrays. This group has been termed basal-like because of the similarity with normal breast basal/myoepithelial cells including basal cytokeratin expression and lack of hormone receptor and HER2 expression. The array data have been used to develop multiple immunohistochemical surrogates to identify basal-like tumors in formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded tissues, most employing basal cytokeratins and epidermal growth factor receptor. Currently, there is no international consensus on biomarkers used to identify tumors as basal-like, and the routine use of the term basal-like in surgical pathology reports is premature. Tumor morphologic features associated with triple-negative status include Nottingham grade 3 with high mitotic rate, pushing border of invasion, geographic tumor necrosis, solid/sheet-like growth pattern, lymphocytic infiltrate, and large central acellular zone. Most breast cancers arising in patients who have a germ-line BRCA1 mutation show similar histologic features and a triple-negative phenotype. Not all TNBCs are associated with an unfavorable prognosis, drawing attention to the heterogeneity of this tumor group and the continued need to link tumor morphology and grade with triple-negative status. This article focuses on histopathology, molecular characterization, carcinogenesis, clinical behavior, and treatment of these

  15. Quantum complexity and negative curvature

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brown, Adam R.; Susskind, Leonard; Zhao, Ying

    2017-02-01

    As time passes, once simple quantum states tend to become more complex. For strongly coupled k -local Hamiltonians, this growth of computational complexity has been conjectured to follow a distinctive and universal pattern. In this paper we show that the same pattern is exhibited by a much simpler system—classical geodesics on a compact two-dimensional geometry of uniform negative curvature. This striking parallel persists whether the system is allowed to evolve naturally or is perturbed from the outside.

  16. In defense of negative temperature

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Poulter, J.

    2016-03-01

    This pedagogical comment highlights three misconceptions concerning the usefulness of the concept of negative temperature, being derived from the usual, often termed Boltzmann, definition of entropy. First, both the Boltzmann and Gibbs entropies must obey the same thermodynamic consistency relation. Second, the Boltzmann entropy does obey the second law of thermodynamics. Third, there exists an integrating factor of the heat differential with both definitions of entropy.

  17. Weighted cubic and biharmonic splines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kvasov, Boris; Kim, Tae-Wan

    2017-01-01

    In this paper we discuss the design of algorithms for interpolating discrete data by using weighted cubic and biharmonic splines in such a way that the monotonicity and convexity of the data are preserved. We formulate the problem as a differential multipoint boundary value problem and consider its finite-difference approximation. Two algorithms for automatic selection of shape control parameters (weights) are presented. For weighted biharmonic splines the resulting system of linear equations can be efficiently solved by combining Gaussian elimination with successive over-relaxation method or finite-difference schemes in fractional steps. We consider basic computational aspects and illustrate main features of this original approach.

  18. Cosmological measures without volume weighting

    SciTech Connect

    Page, Don N

    2008-10-15

    Many cosmologists (myself included) have advocated volume weighting for the cosmological measure problem, weighting spatial hypersurfaces by their volume. However, this often leads to the Boltzmann brain problem, that almost all observations would be by momentary Boltzmann brains that arise very briefly as quantum fluctuations in the late universe when it has expanded to a huge size, so that our observations (too ordered for Boltzmann brains) would be highly atypical and unlikely. Here it is suggested that volume weighting may be a mistake. Volume averaging is advocated as an alternative. One consequence may be a loss of the argument that eternal inflation gives a nonzero probability that our universe now has infinite volume.

  19. Negative refraction in semiconductor metamaterials.

    PubMed

    Hoffman, Anthony J; Alekseyev, Leonid; Howard, Scott S; Franz, Kale J; Wasserman, Dan; Podolskiy, Viktor A; Narimanov, Evgenii E; Sivco, Deborah L; Gmachl, Claire

    2007-12-01

    An optical metamaterial is a composite in which subwavelength features, rather than the constituent materials, control the macroscopic electromagnetic properties of the material. Recently, properly designed metamaterials have garnered much interest because of their unusual interaction with electromagnetic waves. Whereas nature seems to have limits on the type of materials that exist, newly invented metamaterials are not bound by such constraints. These newly accessible electromagnetic properties make these materials an excellent platform for demonstrating unusual optical phenomena and unique applications such as subwavelength imaging and planar lens design. 'Negative-index materials', as first proposed, required the permittivity, epsilon, and permeability, mu, to be simultaneously less than zero, but such materials face limitations. Here, we demonstrate a comparatively low-loss, three-dimensional, all-semiconductor metamaterial that exhibits negative refraction for all incidence angles in the long-wave infrared region and requires only an anisotropic dielectric function with a single resonance. Using reflection and transmission measurements and a comprehensive model of the material, we demonstrate that our material exhibits negative refraction. This is furthermore confirmed through a straightforward beam optics experiment. This work will influence future metamaterial designs and their incorporation into optical semiconductor devices.

  20. Exotic negative molecules in AMS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Golser, Robin; Gnaser, Hubert; Kutschera, Walter; Priller, Alfred; Steier, Peter; Wallner, Anton

    2007-06-01

    "The techniques and equipment developed for AMS studies are well suited for identifying exotic negative ions". With this sentence begins a pioneering paper by Roy Middleton and Jeff Klein (M&K) on small doubly-charged negative carbon clusters [Nucl. Instr. and Meth. B 123 (1997) 532]. M&K were the first to utilize Accelerator Mass Spectrometry to prove the existence of these clusters and a number of other exotic molecules. We review M&K's efforts and show how their work is being continued at other laboratories. The latest developments are: (1) the discovery of long-lived molecular hydrogen anions H2-,D2-and (2) the unambiguous identification of the smallest doubly-charged negative molecule (LiF3)2-. In particular we show new experimental data for D3-, and for (LiF3)2-, and we try to answer the question why M&K's search for this di-anion was unsuccessful.