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  1. [Valutazione del carico gestionale in un centro diurno psichiatrico: gravosità e recovery style].

    PubMed

    Callegari, Camilla; Caselli, Ivano; Bertù, Lorenza; Berto, Emanuela; Vender, Simone

    2016-01-01

    RIASSUNTO. Scopo. Nella riabilitazione psichiatrica il piano di trattamento individuale può essere formulato a partire da strumenti che offrano una valutazione multidimensionale del paziente. Il lavoro si propone di analizzare il rapporto tra gravosità (distress degli operatori) e stile di recupero (integration e sealing over) dalla patologia psicotica. Ipotizzando che esso influenzi il carico gestionale, lo studio si pone l'ulteriore obiettivo di acquisire maggiori elementi che indirizzino la formulazione di piani terapeutico-riabilitativi più efficaci. Metodi. Lo studio è stato condotto presso un centro diurno psichiatrico, struttura semi-residenziale dei servizi psichiatrici del Sistema Sanitario Nazionale in Italia. 45 pazienti reclutati sono stati valutati mediante la Neuropsychiatric Inventory (NPI - versione italiana) e la Integration/Sealing Over Scale (ISOS - versione italiana), nell'arco di tre mesi (marzo-giugno 2014). Risultati. Nel campione esaminato è emerso che la disinibizione, l'irritabilità e l'apatia sono i sintomi che provocano maggiore distress negli operatori, in senso assoluto. Inoltre, i risultati indicano che depressione e ansia recano un grado maggiore di distress nei pazienti sealer. Discussione e conclusione. Gli aspetti della disinibizione, dell'irritabilità e dell'apatia sono risultati più gravosi per gli operatori in quanto richiedono maggiore coinvolgimento nella relazione terapeutica. Sintomi ansiosi e depressivi risultano più gravosi nel gruppo dei sealer, segnalando minore tenuta della negazione della psicosi. I dati osservati sembrano provare che conoscere, differenziare e approfondire i diversi aspetti dello stile di recupero di ciascun paziente consente di stimare l'impegno gestionale fin dalla presa in carico e di ridurre il distress e il rischio di burnout degli operatori.

  2. [Chloroplast Deg proteases].

    PubMed

    Grabsztunowicz, Magda; Luciński, Robert; Baranek, Małgorzata; Sikora, Bogna; Jackowski, Grzegorz

    2011-01-01

    For some chloroplast proteases ATP binding and hydrolysis is not necessary for their catalytic activity, most probably because even strongly unfolded substrates may penetrate their catalytic chamber. Deg1, 2, 5 and 8 are the best known of Arabidopsis thaliana ATP- independent chloroplast proteases, encoded by orthologues of genes coding for DegP, DegQ and DegS proteases of Escherichia coli. Current awareness in the area of structure and functions of chloroplast Degs is much more limited vs the one about their bacterial counterparts. Deg5 and Deg8 form a catalytic heterododecamer which is loosely attached to luminal side of thylakoid membrane. The complex catalyses--supported by Deg1 and one of FtsH proteases--the degradation of PsbA damaged due to plant exposition to elevated irradiance and thus these protease are of key importance for the plants' sensitivity to photoinhibition. Deg2 role in the disposal of damaged PsbA has not been elucidated. Recombinant Deg1 may degrade PsbO and plastocyanin in vitro but it is not clear whether this reaction is performed in vivo as well.

  3. Altered phosphorylation of Bacillus subtilis DegU caused by single amino acid changes in DegS.

    PubMed Central

    Tanaka, T; Kawata, M; Mukai, K

    1991-01-01

    The Bacillus subtilis sacU locus consists of the degS and degU genes, which play a major role in controlling the production of degradative enzymes including extracellular proteases. DegS has been shown to be autophosphorylated and to transfer the phosphoryl group to DegU. In this study, we partially purified the DegS proteins which carry amino acid changes resulting from various mutations and examined the phosphorylation reaction. The mutations used were degS42, causing a reduction in exoprotease production, and degS100(Hy) and degS200(Hy), causing overproduction of the enzymes. The following results were obtained. The DegS protein derived from degS42 was deficient in both autophosphorylation and subsequent phosphate transfer to DegU. Compared with wild-type DegS, the DegS proteins derived from the overproduction mutations, degS100(Hy) and degS200(Hy), were less active in the autophosphorylation and phosphorylation of DegU. However, the DegU phosphates produced by the mutant DegS proteins were more stable than that produced by the wild-type DegS. These results suggest that phosphorylation is tightly linked to exoprotease production and that the prolonged retention of the phosphoryl moiety on DegU activates the genes for the extracellular proteases. It was also shown that the rate of dephosphorylation of DegU-phosphate was increased as the amount of DegS was increased. All of these results suggest that DegS is involved in the dephosphorylation of DegU-phosphate. Images PMID:1909319

  4. Teaching Texts Materially: The Ends of Nella Larsen's Passing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Young, John K.

    2004-01-01

    A professor of English explains how literary piece of work goes under versions, revisions and publications loosing its material text. Nella Larsen's Passing has become one of the most widely read New Negro Renaissance material text in recent years, but it's end is really unknown to everyone.

  5. Upper ocean thermal and flow fields at 0 deg, 28 deg W (Atlantic) and 0 deg, 140 deg W (Pacific) during 1983-1985

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Halpern, David; Weisberg, Robert H.

    1989-01-01

    Moored current and temperature measurements were recorded simultaneously for 2 years (August 1983 to July 1985) at six or seven depths between 10 and 250 m on the equator at 28 deg W in the Atlantic and at 140 deg W in the Pacific. The mean depth of the 20-C isotherm, which was representative of thermocline displacements, was identical at both sites. Substantially different annual cycles of the thermal and flow fields represent an enigma. The annual variation of the 20-C isotherm was much less at 140 deg W than at 28 deg W.

  6. Upper ocean thermal and flow fields at 0 deg, 28 deg W (Atlantic) and 0 deg, 140 deg W (Pacific) during 1983-1985

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Halpern, David; Weisberg, Robert H.

    1989-01-01

    Moored current and temperature measurements were recorded simultaneously for 2 years (August 1983 to July 1985) at six or seven depths between 10 and 250 m on the equator at 28 deg W in the Atlantic and at 140 deg W in the Pacific. The mean depth of the 20-C isotherm, which was representative of thermocline displacements, was identical at both sites. Substantially different annual cycles of the thermal and flow fields represent an enigma. The annual variation of the 20-C isotherm was much less at 140 deg W than at 28 deg W.

  7. New small 90 deg hybrid coupler

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Murgulescu, M.-H.; Legaud, P.; Penard, E.; Zaquine, I.

    1994-08-01

    The two classical 90 deg couplers (Lange coupler and branch-line hybrid) are not appropriate for frequencies around 1-5 GHz. The small 90 deg coupler proposed by the authors is the implementation of the Wheatstone bridge in uniplanar transmission lines. It is dedicated to narrowband applications. The coupler is demonstrated at a center frequency of 4 GHz.

  8. The 2 deg/90 deg laboratory scattering photometer. [particulate refractivity in hydrosols

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mccluney, W. R. (Inventor)

    1977-01-01

    A scattering photometer for measuring the light scattered by particles in a hydrosol at substantially 2 deg and 90 deg simultaneously is described. Light from a source is directed by a first optical system into a scattering cell containing the hydrosol under study. Light scattered at substantially 90 deg to the incident beam is focused onto a first photoelectric detector to generate an electrical signal indicative of the amount of scattered light at substantially 90 deg. Light scattered at substantially 2 deg to the incident beam is directed through an annular aperture symmetrically located about the axis of the illuminating beam which is linearly transmitted undeviated through the hydrosol and focused onto a second photoelectric detector to generate an electrical signal indicative of the amount of light scattered at substantially 2 deg.

  9. The computation of 15 deg and 10 deg equal area block terrestrial free air gravity anomalies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hajela, D. P.

    1973-01-01

    Starting with the set of 23,355 1 deg x 1 deg mean free air gravity anomalies used in Rapp (1972) to form a 5 deg equal area block terrestrial gravity field, the computation of 15 deg equal area block mean free air gravity anomalies is described along with estimates of their standard deviations. A new scheme of an integral division of a 15 deg block into 9 component 300 n. m. blocks, and each 300 n. m. block being subdivided into 25 60 n.mi. blocks, is used. This insures that there is no loss in accuracy, which would have resulted if proportional values according to area were taken of the 5 deg equal area anomalies to form the 15 deg block anomalies. A similar scheme is used for the computation of 10 deg equal area block mean free air gravity anomalies with estimates of their standard deviations. The scheme is general enough to be used for a 30 deg equal area block terrestrial gravity field.

  10. Estimates of equatorial upwelling between 140 deg and 110 deg W during 1984

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Halpern, David; Knox, Robert A.; Luther, Douglas S.; Philander, S. George H.

    1989-01-01

    The equation of continuity is used to estimate profiles of vertical velocity between 25 and 120 m from moored current measurements in arrays nested within the triangle with vertices located at 1 deg 30 arcmins S, 140 deg W and along the equator at 140 deg and 110 deg W during December 1983 through March 1984 and May-September 1984. All directions of the 4- to 5-month mean values were upward. The ensemble averaged mean vertical velocity was 0.000022 m/s. Upwelling speeds decreased eastward.

  11. Deg Xinag. Ingalik Noun Dictionary (Preliminary).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kari, James, Comp.

    This dictionary contains lists of nouns in the Deg Xinag or Ingalik language as spoken in the Yukon River villages of Anvik, Shageluk, and Holy Cross, and the Kuskokwim River village of Stony River. After a presentation of the Ingalik alphabet, the nouns, with English equivalents, are listed according to the following categories: mammals; fish;…

  12. Deg Xinag. Ingalik Noun Dictionary (Preliminary).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kari, James, Comp.

    This dictionary contains lists of nouns in the Deg Xinag or Ingalik language as spoken in the Yukon River villages of Anvik, Shageluk, and Holy Cross, and the Kuskokwim River village of Stony River. After a presentation of the Ingalik alphabet, the nouns, with English equivalents, are listed according to the following categories: mammals; fish;…

  13. Penetrating the "zone of avoidance". III. A survey for obscured galaxies in the region 120deg<=l<=130deg, -10deg<=b<=+10deg.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lercher, G.; Kerber, F.; Weinberger, R.

    1996-06-01

    As the third part in a series of papers on galaxies in the "zone of avoidance" (ZOA) of the Milky Way we present a compilation of 1161 galaxies discovered during a systematic search on Palomar Observatory Sky Survey (POSS) red-sensitive prints. The region searched comprises 200 square degrees, at 120deg<=l<=130deg, -10deg<=b<=+10deg. In addition to galactic, equatorial and rectangular coordinates, we list maximum and minimum optical diameters derived from both the red- and blue-sensitive prints, could assign a morphological type to some of the objects and made cross-checks with the IRAS PSC and several radio catalogues. A test for completeness suggests, that our catalogue should be complete down to a limiting galaxy-diameter of 0.35'. An asymmetric distribution of the galaxies with respect to the galactic equator was found and is discussed by comparing it with the locations of optically visible dust clouds and/or the distribution of IR-emitting dust material. A comparison between the distribution of the galaxies and the 100μ IRAS intensity maps led to the identification of four possible clusterings. As a byproduct of our galaxy search, two new planetary nebulae, nebulous stars at the position of a strong cold IRAS point source, and a nearby dwarf irregular galaxy could be detected.

  14. Bacillus subtilis Two-Component System Sensory Kinase DegS Is Regulated by Serine Phosphorylation in Its Input Domain

    PubMed Central

    Jers, Carsten; Kobir, Ahasanul; Søndergaard, Elsebeth Oline; Jensen, Peter Ruhdal; Mijakovic, Ivan

    2011-01-01

    Bacillus subtilis two-component system DegS/U is well known for the complexity of its regulation. The cytosolic sensory kinase DegS does not receive a single predominant input signal like most two-component kinases, instead it integrates a wide array of metabolic inputs that modulate its activity. The phosphorylation state of the response regulator DegU also does not confer a straightforward “on/off” response; it is fine-tuned and at different levels triggers different sub-regulons. Here we describe serine phosphorylation of the DegS sensing domain, which stimulates its kinase activity. We demonstrate that DegS phosphorylation can be carried out by at least two B. subtilis Hanks-type kinases in vitro, and this stimulates the phosphate transfer towards DegU. The consequences of this process were studied in vivo, using phosphomimetic (Ser76Asp) and non-phosphorylatable (Ser76Ala) mutants of DegS. In a number of physiological assays focused on different processes regulated by DegU, DegS S76D phosphomimetic mutant behaved like a strain with intermediate levels of DegU phosphorylation, whereas DegS S76A behaved like a strain with lower levels of DegU phophorylation. These findings suggest a link between DegS phosphorylation at serine 76 and the level of DegU phosphorylation, establishing this post-translational modification as an additional trigger for this two-component system. PMID:21304896

  15. Observations of annual and El Nino thermal and flow variations at 0 deg, 110 deg W and 0 deg, 95 deg W during 1980-1985

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Halpern, David

    1987-01-01

    The paper describes the low-frequency (i.e., time scales longer than a month) upper ocean (above 250 m) current and temperature moored measurements conducted from March 1980 to September 1985 at 0, 110 deg W and from July 1981 to November 1983 (i.e., including the period of the 1982-1983 El Nino) at 0, 95 deg W. Estimates of the annual cycle were removed from the observations to determine the current and temperature fluctuations due to the 1982-1983 El Nino. The circulation of the upper ocean was found to be dramatically altered during the El Nino: the normally westward flowing surface current in autumn months reversed direction, and the equatorial undercurrent, normally considered to be a permanent feature, disappeared. Associated with the El Nino was a massive redistribution of heat throughout the mixed layer and the thermocline.

  16. Giant Electroresistive Ferroelectric Diode on 2DEG

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Shin-Ik; Jin Gwon, Hyo; Kim, Dai-Hong; Keun Kim, Seong; Choi, Ji-Won; Yoon, Seok-Jin; Jung Chang, Hye; Kang, Chong-Yun; Kwon, Beomjin; Bark, Chung-Wung; Hong, Seong-Hyeon; Kim, Jin-Sang; Baek, Seung-Hyub

    2015-01-01

    Manipulation of electrons in a solid through transmitting, storing, and switching is the fundamental basis for the microelectronic devices. Recently, the electroresistance effect in the ferroelectric capacitors has provided a novel way to modulate the electron transport by polarization reversal. Here, we demonstrate a giant electroresistive ferroelectric diode integrating a ferroelectric capacitor into two-dimensional electron gas (2DEG) at oxide interface. As a model system, we fabricate an epitaxial Au/Pb(Zr0.2Ti0.8)O3/LaAlO3/SrTiO3 heterostructure, where 2DEG is formed at LaAlO3/SrTiO3 interface. This device functions as a two-terminal, non-volatile memory of 1 diode-1 resistor with a large I+/I− ratio (>108 at ±6 V) and Ion/Ioff ratio (>107). This is attributed to not only Schottky barrier modulation at metal/ferroelectric interface by polarization reversal but also the field-effect metal-insulator transition of 2DEG. Moreover, using this heterostructure, we can demonstrate a memristive behavior for an artificial synapse memory, where the resistance can be continuously tuned by partial polarization switching, and the electrons are only unidirectionally transmitted. Beyond non-volatile memory and logic devices, our results will provide new opportunities to emerging electronic devices such as multifunctional nanoelectronics and neuromorphic electronics. PMID:26014446

  17. Catalogue of the discrete sources in the declination range from -13 deg to -2 deg

    SciTech Connect

    Braude, S.Y.; Miroshnitchenko, A.P.; Sokolov, K.P.; Sharykin, N.K.

    1984-08-01

    The results of the discrete source measurements with declinations -13 deg or delta or -2 deg and right ascensions 0 sub h + 24 sub h are given and were obtained as part of the systematic decametric survey of the celestial sphere with the rotatiotelecope UTR-2. Three hundred sixteen sources were found in the given declination range, four of which were observed for the first time. The source coordinates measured in the survey were compared with those from the 4th Cambridge survey at 178 MHz and the Parkes survey at 408 MHz.

  18. The catalogue of the discrete sources in the declination range from -13 deg to -2 deg

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Braude, S. Y.; Miroshnitchenko, A. P.; Sokolov, K. P.; Sharykin, N. K.

    1984-01-01

    The results of the discrete source measurements with declinations -13 deg or = delta or = -2 deg and right ascensions 0 sub h + 24 sub h are given and were obtained as part of the systematic decametric survey of the celestial sphere with the rotatiotelecope UTR-2. Three hundred sixteen sources were found in the given declination range, four of which were observed for the first time. The source coordinates measured in the survey were compared with those from the 4th Cambridge survey at 178 MHz and the Parkes survey at 408 MHz.

  19. SYN1deg-1Hour Ed1A

    Atmospheric Science Data Center

    2017-10-04

    ... Tool: CERES Order Tool Order Data:  Earthdata Search:  Order Data Guide Documents:  SYN1deg Description/Abstract ... Detailed CERES SYN1deg Product Information Data Products Catalog: DPC_SYN1deg-Hour_Ed4_R6V1 (PDF) Readme ...

  20. Allostery Is an Intrinsic Property of the Protease Domain of DegS Implications for Enzyme Function and Evolution

    SciTech Connect

    Sohn, Jungsan; Grant, Robert A.; Sauer, Robert T.

    2010-12-02

    DegS is a periplasmic Escherichia coli protease, which functions as a trimer to catalyze the initial rate-limiting step in a proteolytic cascade that ultimately activates transcription of stress response genes in the cytoplasm. Each DegS subunit consists of a protease domain and a PDZ domain. During protein folding stress, DegS is allosterically activated by peptides exposed in misfolded outer membrane porins, which bind to the PDZ domain and stabilize the active protease. It is not known whether allostery is conferred by the PDZ domains or is an intrinsic feature of the trimeric protease domain. Here, we demonstrate that free DegS{sup {Delta}PDZ} equilibrates between active and inactive trimers with the latter species predominating. Substrate binding stabilizes active DegS{sup {Delta}PDZ} in a positively cooperative fashion. Mutations can also stabilize active DegS{sup {Delta}PDZ} and produce an enzyme that displays hyperbolic kinetics and degrades substrate with a maximal velocity within error of that for fully activated, intact DegS. Crystal structures of multiple DegS{sup {Delta}PDZ} variants, in functional and non-functional conformations, support a two-state model in which allosteric switching is mediated by changes in specific elements of tertiary structure in the context of an invariant trimeric base. Overall, our results indicate that protein substrates must bind sufficiently tightly and specifically to the functional conformation of DegS{sup {Delta}PDZ} to assist their own degradation. Thus, substrate binding alone may have regulated the activities of ancestral DegS trimers with subsequent fusion of the protease domain to a PDZ domain, resulting in ligand-mediated regulation.

  1. Global map of lithosphere thermal thickness on a 1 deg x 1 deg grid - digitally available

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Artemieva, Irina

    2014-05-01

    This presentation reports a 1 deg ×1 deg global thermal model for the continental lithosphere (TC1). The model is digitally available from the author's web-site: www.lithosphere.info. Geotherms for continental terranes of different ages (early Archean to present) are constrained by reliable data on borehole heat flow measurements (Artemieva and Mooney, 2001), checked with the original publications for data quality, and corrected for paleo-temperature effects where needed. These data are supplemented by cratonic geotherms based on xenolith data. Since heat flow measurements cover not more than half of the continents, the remaining areas (ca. 60% of the continents) are filled by the statistical numbers derived from the thermal model constrained by borehole data. Continental geotherms are statistically analyzed as a function of age and are used to estimate lithospheric temperatures in continental regions with no or low quality heat flow data. This analysis requires knowledge of lithosphere age globally. A compilation of tectono-thermal ages of lithospheric terranes on a 1 deg × 1 deg grid forms the basis for the statistical analysis. It shows that, statistically, lithospheric thermal thickness z (in km) depends on tectono-thermal age t (in Ma) as: z=0.04t+93.6. This relationship formed the basis for a global thermal model of the continental lithosphere (TC1). Statistical analysis of continental geotherms also reveals that this relationship holds for the Archean cratons in general, but not in detail. Particularly, thick (more than 250 km) lithosphere is restricted solely to young Archean terranes (3.0-2.6 Ga), while in old Archean cratons (3.6-3.0 Ga) lithospheric roots do not extend deeper than 200-220 km. The TC1 model is presented by a set of maps, which show significant thermal heterogeneity within continental upper mantle. The strongest lateral temperature variations (as large as 800 deg C) are typical of the shallow mantle (depth less than 100 km). A map of the

  2. Tidal estimation in the Atlantic and Indian Oceans, 3 deg x 3 deg solution

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sanchez, Braulio V.; Rao, Desiraju B.; Steenrod, Stephen D.

    1987-01-01

    An estimation technique was developed to extrapolate tidal amplitudes and phases over entire ocean basins using existing gauge data and the altimetric measurements provided by satellite oceanography. The technique was previously tested. Some results obtained by using a 3 deg by 3 deg grid are presented. The functions used in the interpolation are the eigenfunctions of the velocity (Proudman functions) which are computed numerically from a knowledge of the basin's bottom topography, the horizontal plan form and the necessary boundary conditions. These functions are characteristic of the particular basin. The gravitational normal modes of the basin are computed as part of the investigation; they are used to obtain the theoretical forced solutions for the tidal constituents. The latter can provide the simulated data for the testing of the method and serve as a guide in choosing the most energetic functions for the interpolation.

  3. OMP peptides activate the DegS stress-sensor protease by a relief of inhibition mechanism.

    PubMed

    Sohn, Jungsan; Grant, Robert A; Sauer, Robert T

    2009-10-14

    In the E. coli periplasm, C-terminal peptides of misfolded outer-membrane porins (OMPs) bind to the PDZ domains of the trimeric DegS protease, triggering cleavage of a transmembrane regulator and transcriptional activation of stress genes. We show that an active-site DegS mutation partially bypasses the requirement for peptide activation and acts synergistically with mutations that disrupt contacts between the protease and PDZ domains. Biochemical results support an allosteric model, in which these mutations, active-site modification, and peptide/substrate binding act in concert to stabilize proteolytically active DegS. Cocrystal structures of DegS in complex with different OMP peptides reveal activation of the protease domain with varied conformations of the PDZ domain and without specific contacts from the bound OMP peptide. Taken together, these results indicate that the binding of OMP peptides activates proteolysis principally by relieving inhibitory contacts between the PDZ domain and the protease domain of DegS.

  4. OMP Peptides Activate the DegS Stress-Sensor Protease by a Relief of Inhibition Mechanism

    SciTech Connect

    Sohn, Jungsan; Grant, Robert A.; Sauer, Robert T.; MIT

    2010-03-19

    In the E. coli periplasm, C-terminal peptides of misfolded outer-membrane porins (OMPs) bind to the PDZ domains of the trimeric DegS protease, triggering cleavage of a transmembrane regulator and transcriptional activation of stress genes. We show that an active-site DegS mutation partially bypasses the requirement for peptide activation and acts synergistically with mutations that disrupt contacts between the protease and PDZ domains. Biochemical results support an allosteric model, in which these mutations, active-site modification, and peptide/substrate binding act in concert to stabilize proteolytically active DegS. Cocrystal structures of DegS in complex with different OMP peptides reveal activation of the protease domain with varied conformations of the PDZ domain and without specific contacts from the bound OMP peptide. Taken together, these results indicate that the binding of OMP peptides activates proteolysis principally by relieving inhibitory contacts between the PDZ domain and the protease domain of DegS.

  5. An acoustic study of Deg Xinag fricatives

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wright, Richard; Hargus, Sharon; Miller, Julia

    2005-04-01

    Few studies have looked at the acoustic properties of fricatives in Native American languages. Notable exceptions are McDonough (2003) on Navajo, and Gordon, Barthmaier, and Sands (2002), which examined a variety of languages, including several Native American ones. In Deg Xinag, an endangered Athabaskan language spoken in Alaska, there are eight places of articulation for voiceless fricatives [a relatively large phonetic inventory, according to Maddieson (1984)], including some rarely studied place contrasts (e.g. alveolar versus retroflex). In this study, pre- and post-vocalic fricatives were digitally recorded in the field from eight speakers (two males, six females) using a head-mounted mic to control for distance from the source. The segmental context was also controlled for, the neighboring vowel being [a] in all cases. Each speaker produced four repetitions of each word. The first four spectral moments, lowest spectral peak, and the three loudest spectral peaks were measured at the midpoint of each fricative, and each speaker's average for each of the measures was calculated. In this poster, qualitative results in the form of spectrographic analysis will be presented. Repeated measures ANOVA for each of the quantitative measures will also be presented. [Work supported by NSF.

  6. Spin Interference in Rashba 2DEG Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nitta, Junsaku

    The gate controllable SOI provides useful information about spin interference.1 Spin interference effects are studied in two different interference loop structures. It is known that sample specific conductance fluctuations affect the conductance in the interference loop. By using array of many interference loops, we carefully pick up TRS Altshuler-Aronov-Spivak (AAS)-type oscillation which is not sample specific and depends on the spin phase. The experimentally obtained gate voltage dependence of AAS oscillations indicates that the spin precession angle can be controlled by the gate voltage.2 We demonstrate the time reversal Aharonov-Casher (AC) effect in small arrays of mesoscopic rings.3 By using an electrostatic gate we can control the spin precession angle rate and follow the AC phase over several interference periods. We also see the second harmonic of the AC interference, oscillating with half the period. The spin interference is still visible after more than 20π precession angle. We have proposed a Stern-Gerlach type spin filter based on the Rashba SOI.4 A spatial gradient of effective magnetic field due to the nonuniform SOI separates spin up and down electrons. This spin filter works even without any external magnetic fields and ferromagnetic contacts. We show the semiconductor/ferromagnet hybrid structure is an effective way to detect magnetization process of submicron magnets. The problem of the spin injection from ferromagnetic contact into 2DEG is also disicussed. Note from Publisher: This article contains the abstract only.

  7. The structures of Arabidopsis Deg5 and Deg8 reveal new insights into HtrA proteases

    SciTech Connect

    Sun, Wei; Gao, Feng; Fan, Haitian; Shan, Xiaoyue; Sun, Renhua; Liu, Lin; Gong, Weimin

    2013-05-01

    The crystal structures of Arabidopsis Deg5 and Deg8 have been determined to resolutions of 2.6 and 2.0 Å, respectively, revealing novel structural features of HtrA proteases. Plant Deg5 and Deg8 are two members of the HtrA proteases, a family of oligomeric serine endopeptidases that are involved in a variety of protein quality-control processes. These two HtrA proteases are located in the thylakoid lumen and participate in high-light stress responses by collaborating with other chloroplast proteins. Deg5 and Deg8 degrade photodamaged D1 protein of the photosystem II reaction centre, allowing its in situ replacement. Here, the crystal structures of Arabidopsis thaliana Deg5 (S266A) and Deg8 (S292A) are reported at 2.6 and 2.0 Å resolution, respectively. The Deg5 trimer contains two calcium ions in a central channel, suggesting a link between photodamage control and calcium ions in chloroplasts. Previous structures of HtrA proteases have indicated that their regulation usually requires C-terminal PDZ domain(s). Deg5 is unique in that it contains no PDZ domain and the trimeric structure of Deg5 (S266A) reveals a novel catalytic triad conformation. A similar triad conformation is observed in the hexameric structure of the single PDZ-domain-containing Deg8 (S292A). These findings suggest a novel activation mechanism for plant HtrA proteases and provide structural clues to their function in light-stress response.

  8. SSF1deg-Month Terra Ed4

    Atmospheric Science Data Center

    2017-03-08

    ... Search and Order:  ASDC Order Tool Order Data:  Earthdata Search:  Earthdata Search Guide ... Detailed CERES SSF1deg-lite Product Information Data Products Catalog: DPC_SSF1deg-Month_Ed4_R6V1 Readme Files:  ...

  9. SSF1deg-Day Terra Ed4

    Atmospheric Science Data Center

    2017-03-08

    ... Search and Order:  ASDC Order Tool Order Data:  Earthdata Search:  Earthdata Search Guide ... Detailed CERES SSF1deg-lite Product Information Data Products Catalog: DPC_SSF1deg-Day_Ed4_R5V1 Readme Files:  ...

  10. SSF1deg-Day Aqua Ed4

    Atmospheric Science Data Center

    2017-03-08

    ... Search and Order:  ASDC Order Tool Order Data:  Earthdata Search:  Earthdata Search Guide ... Detailed CERES SSF1deg-lite Product Information Data Products Catalog: DPC_SSF1deg-Day_Ed4_R6V1 Readme Files:  ...

  11. Syntactic Survey of Determiners in Mo/Deg Language

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anto, Sylvester Kwabena

    2014-01-01

    This study is descriptive, and it is set out to primarily investigate the use and order of determiners in the Mo/Deg language. The study finds answers to the questions, "What determiner types are there in the Mo/Deg language, and in what order do they collocate with the head of the noun phrase?" Using purposive sampling, the study…

  12. SSF1deg-Month Aqua Ed4

    Atmospheric Science Data Center

    2017-08-21

    ... Guide Documents:  Detailed CERES SSF1deg-lite Product Information Data Products Catalog: DPC_SSF1deg-Month_Ed4_R6V1 Readme Files:  Readme ... Spatial Coverage: Relevant to each product Full Product Page ...

  13. The Prevalence of the 22 deg Halo in Cirrus Clouds

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Diedenhoven, vanBastiaan

    2014-01-01

    Halos at 22 deg from the sun attributed to randomly-orientated, pristine hexagonal crystals are frequently observed through ice clouds. These frequent sightings of halos formed by pristine crystals pose an apparent inconsistency with the dominance of distorted, nonpristine ice crystals indicated by in situ and remote sensing data. Furthermore, the 46 deg halo, which is associated with pristine hexagonal crystals as well, is observed far less frequently than the 22 deg halo. Considering that plausible mechanisms that could cause crystal distortion such as aggregation, sublimation, riming and collisions are stochastic processes that likely lead to distributions of crystals with varying distortion levels, here the presence of the 22 deg and 46 deg halo features in phase functions of mixtures of pristine and distorted hexagonal ice crystals is examined. We conclude that the 22 deg halo feature is generally present if the contribution by pristine crystals to the total scattering cross section is greater than only about 10% in the case of compact particles or columns, and greater than about 40% for plates. The 46 deg halo feature is present only if the mean distortion level is low and the contribution of pristine crystals to the total scattering cross section is above about 20%, 50% and 70%, in the case of compact crystals, plates and columns, respectively. These results indicate that frequent sightings of 22 deg halos are not inconsistent with the observed dominance of distorted, non-pristine ice crystals. Furthermore, the low mean distortion levels and large contributions by pristine crystals needed to produce the 461 halo features provide a potential explanation of the common sighting of the 22 deg halo without any detectable 46 deg halo.

  14. Hydrographic section across the Kuroshio near 35 deg N, 143 deg E

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Teague, W. J.; Shiller, A. M.; Hallock, Z. R.

    1994-01-01

    A closely spaced conductivity-temperature-depth/hydrographic section was conducted off the east coast of Japan in July 1992. The southeastward section crossed the Japan Trench and the Kuroshio in the vicinity of the Kashima 1 seamount. Vertical sections of temperature, salinity, density, oxygen, and nutrients are discussed in conjunction with the movement and interleaving of water masses. Complicated vertical and horizontal mixings of water masses are inferred from the temperature and salinity relationships. Mixing processes are patchy and not continuous beneath the front. Warm, salty water found beneath the Kurishio may result from upward mixing of water from intermediate depths. The main axis of the Kurishio, indicated by the 14 C isotherm at 200 m, is at 35.7 deg N, 142.6 deg E, about 20 km from the north wall surface thermal front. Geostrophic speeds exceed 170 cm/s at the surface; volume transport through the section is 81 x 10(exp 6) cu m/s.

  15. Measurement of anomalous cosmic ray oxygen at heliolatitudes approximately 25 deg to approximately 64 deg

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lanzerotti, L. J.; Maclennan, C. G.; Gold, R. E.; Armstrong, T. P.; Roelof, E. C.; Krimigis, S. M.; Simnett, G. M.; Sarris, E. T.; Anderson, K. A.; Pick, M.

    1995-02-01

    We report measurements of the oxygen component (0.5 - 22 MeV/nucl) of the interplanetary cosmic ray flux as a function of heliolatitude. The measurements reported here were made with the Wart telescope of the Heliosphere Instrument for Spectra, Composition, and Anisotropy at Low Energies (HI-SCALE) low energy particle instrument on the Ulysses spacecraft as the spacecraft climbed from approximately 24 deg to approximately 64 deg south solar heliolatitude during 1993 and early 1994. As a function of heliolatitude, the O abundance at 2-2.8 MeV/nucl drops sharply at latitudes above the heliospheric current sheet. The oxygen spectrum obtained above the current sheet has a broad peak centered at an energy of approximately 2.5 MeV/nucl that is the anomalous O component at these latitudes. There is little evidence for a latitude dependence in the anomalous O fluxes as measured above the current sheet. Within the heliospheric current sheet, the O measurements are composed of both solar and anomalous origin particles.

  16. The distribution of luminous stars at (l,b) = (245 deg, 0 deg) in Puppis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reed, B. C.; Fitzgerald, M. P.

    1984-11-01

    Munch (1951, 1954) drew attention to the presence of a concentration of faint OB stars along the galactic equator at l = 245 deg in Puppis. The distribution of OB stars in this field has subsequently been studied by a number of workers. It has now been found that the distribution of OB stars in Puppis is not well established. The present investigation has, therefore, the objective to reexamine all available spectroscopic and photometric data on these OB stars in a systematic fashion, utilizing the method of spectroscopic parallaxes rather than H-beta photometry or ZAMS fitting. Attention is given to interstellar extinction, stellar distribution perpendicular to the Galactic plane, and the stellar density distribution.

  17. Functional status in patients with spinal cord injury: a new standardized measurement scale. Gruppo Interdisciplinare Valutazione Interventi Riabilitativi.

    PubMed

    Taricco, M; Apolone, G; Colombo, C; Filardo, G; Telaro, E; Liberati, A

    2000-09-01

    To report on the validation process of a new functional assessment scale (Valutazione Funzionale Mielolesi [VFM]) for patients with spinal cord injury (SCI). Prospective study testing for the VFM in a sample of patients with SCI to evaluate the scale characteristics in terms of psychometric and clinical validity. Eight SCI units located in northern Italy. One hundred patients were recruited and followed up for 18 months. Seventy-seven subjects were men, subjects' mean age was 37 years, 67 were paraplegic, and for 81 their SCI was of traumatic etiology. VFM's characteristics are described using estimates of construct and criterion validity (estimates of the strength and direction of associations between different VFM tasks and between VFM and other medical and nonmedical variables). The Barthel index was used as concurrent and independent measure. VFM met all psychometric criteria usually recommended and, at least in the current sample, was found to be strongly correlated with independent clinical variables (diagnosis and lesion level) and with the Barthel index. Moreover, most of the domains were able to document large and significant changes over time. VFM is a reliable and valid tool that can be used confidently in the rehabilitation setting for patients with SCI to screen for functional problems and monitor changes in patients' functional status and impact of rehabilitation.

  18. A validation study of an Italian version of the Brief Pain Inventory (Breve Questionario per la Valutazione del Dolore).

    PubMed

    Caraceni, A; Mendoza, T R; Mencaglia, E; Baratella, C; Edwards, K; Forjaz, M J; Martini, C; Serlin, R C; de Conno, F; Cleeland, C S

    1996-04-01

    Aim of this study was to validate the Italian version of the Brief Pain Inventory (BPI), Breve Questionario per la Valutazione del Dolore (BQVD), which is a multidimensional instrument to assess pain intensity and pain interference with daily functions. A group of 110 patients with cancer pain were enrolled in the study and were administered the BQVD and the Therapy Impact Questionnaire (TIQ) which is a valid instrument for quality of life assessment in cancer patients. Cronbach's alphas were computed for the interference and severity scales in assessing reliability. Confirmatory factor analysis was utilized to ascertain construct validity of the BQVD. Measures of interference and of intensity were calculated a priori from the TIQ result and were used in correlated correlations. Alpha coefficients for the pain severity and the pain interference scale were above 0.75. Confirmatory factor analysis showed that a 2-factor solution for the BQVD structure was interpretable and provided adequate fit for the data. The correlation with the TIQ items showed a stronger association between factor 1 (interference) and the interference with affect and activity measure from the TIQ, while factor 2 (severity) was more strongly associated with the TIQ pain severity measure. In comparison with other non-italian samples our results show a lower reliability estimate. Overall the analysis of these data shows that the BQVD is a useful and valid tool in assessing pain and its impact on patients' quality of life which could also help in developing international and cross-cultural studies in cancer pain.

  19. Periodic variations in stratospheric meridional wind from 20-65 km, at 80 deg N to 8 deg S

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nastrom, G. D.; Belmont, A. D.; Dartt, D. G.

    1974-01-01

    The variability of stratospheric meridional winds is examined in both space and time. Height-latitude sections for January along 70 deg E and 90 deg W show a divergence zone above 50 km near 60 deg N and an intense convergence zone 40 km near 50 deg N over North America. This latter structure, with southward winds in the Arctic and northward winds at mid-latitudes over North America, persists from October through April. Tidal winds dominate all other circulation features in summer at all latitudes, and throughout the year at low latitudes. To help understand the observed patterns of variability, long-term periodic features are analyzed. The quasi-biennial oscillation, annual wave, and four-month wave have amplitudes of about 10, 20, and 10 m/sec respectively in the Arctic near 45 km. The phase of the annual wave changes by nearly 180 deg in a narrow zone near 45 deg N. The semiannual wave has an amplitude of 10 m/sec. 50 deg N above 50 km equinoctial phase dates in the region of maximum amplitude. This polar semiannual wave corresponds closely to that previously found in the zonal wind.

  20. [Valutazione delle guardie di sicurezza privata attraverso la Suicide Probability Scale e la Brief Symptom Inventory].

    PubMed

    Dogan, Bulent; Canturk, Gurol; Canturk, Nergis; Guney, Sevgi; Özcan, Ebru

    2016-01-01

    RIASSUNTO. Scopo. Lo scopo di questo studio è stato quello di investigare l'influenza della probabilità di suicidio, con le sue caratteristiche sociodemografiche, e di procurare i dati per la prevenzione del suicidio tra le guardie di sicurezza privata che lavorano in condizioni di stress, essendo a contatto ininterrottamente con eventi negativi e traumatici di vita durante il loro lavoro. Metodi. Hanno partecipato allo studio 200 guardie di sicurezza privata e 200 persone dell'Università di Ankara. Per raccogliere i dati sono stati utilizzati un questionario riguardante le condizioni sociodemografiche dei partecipanti, la Suicide Probability Scale (SPS) e la Brief Symptom Inventory (BSI). Risultati. Genere, stato civile, stipendio, credenze religiose, vivere una situazione di pericolo di vita, passato di tentativi di suicidio, fumare e non avere una malattia cronica hanno causato statisticamente una differenza significativa sui punteggi di SPS tra il gruppo di guardie di sicurezza privata e quello di controllo. In aggiunta, c'è stata una correlazione positiva statisticamente significativa tra i punteggi totali delle sottoscale di SPS e quelli di BSI. Conclusioni. Allo stesso modo degli agenti di polizia e dei gendarmi, le guardie di sicurezza privata sono ad alto rischio di commettere e tentare il suicidio trovandosi in condizioni stressanti di lavoro e anche soffrendo del trauma secondario. È necessario che essi siano consapevoli della propria tendenza al suicidio e avere controlli psichiatrici regolari.

  1. A very deep IRAS survey at l(II) = 97 deg, b(II) = +30 deg

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hacking, Perry; Houck, James R.

    1987-05-01

    A deep far-infrared survey is presented using over 1000 scans made of a 4 to 6 sq. deg. field at the north ecliptic pole by the IRAS. Point sources from this survey are up to 100 times fainter than the IRAS point source catalog at 12 and 25 micrometers, and up to 10 times fainter at 60 and 100 micrometers. The 12 and 25 micrometer maps are instrumental noise-limited, and the 60 and 100 micrometer maps are confusion noise-limited. The majority of the 12 micrometer point sources are stars within the Milky Way. The 25 micrometer sources are composed almost equally of stars and galaxies. About 80% of the 60 micrometer sources correspond to galaxies on Palomar Observatory Sky Survey (POSS) enlargements. The remaining 20% are probably galaxies below the POSS detection limit. The differential source counts are presented and compared with what is predicted by the Bahcall and Soneira Standard Galaxy Model using the B-V-12 micrometer colors of stars without circumstellar dust shells given by Waters, Cote and Aumann. The 60 micrometer source counts are inconsistent with those predicted for a uniformly distributed, nonevolving universe. The implications are briefly discussed.

  2. Galactic OB associations in the northern Milky Way Galaxy. I - Longitudes 55 deg to 150 deg

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Garmany, C. D.; Stencel, R. E.

    1992-01-01

    The literature on all OB associations was reviewed, and their IRAS point source content was studied, between galactic longitude 55 and 150 deg. Only one third of the 24 associations listed by Ruprecht et al. (1981) have been the subject of individual studies designed to identify the brightest stars. Distances to all of these were recomputed using the method of cluster fitting of the B main sequence stars, which makes it poossible to reexamine the absolute magnitude calibration of the O stars, as well as for the red supergiant candidate stars. Also examined was the composite HR diagram for these associations. Associations with the best defined main sequences, which also tend to contain very young clusters, referred to here as OB clusters, have extremely few evolved B and A or red supergiants. Associations with poorly defined main sequences and few OB clusters have many more evolved stars. They also show an effect in the upper HR diagram referred to as a ledge by Fitzpatrick and Garmany (1990) in similar data for the Large Magellanic Cloud. It is suggested that the differences in the associations are not just observational selection effects but represent real differences in age and formation history.

  3. Distribution of ozone between 60 deg North and 60 deg South

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mravlag, E.; Scourfield, M. W. J.

    1994-01-01

    The distribution of total column ozone is investigated, using data from the TOMS (Total Ozone Mapping Spectrometer) experiment aboard the US Nimbus 7 satellite. The region of interest extends from 60 North to 60 South, encircling the earth. Data for several years have been used in order to assess the long-term variations in the distribution of total column ozone. First results are presented on the seasonal variability of total column ozone in each hemisphere. The effects of the seasons are strongest at the highest latitudes but can still be discerned at the equator. While the variations are similar in the two hemispheres, ozone levels in the north are larger than in the south. Strong similarities are also found in the drift patterns of total column ozone in the two hemispheres. These drift patterns are compared to meteorological phenomena. We find an almost stationary ozone distribution drifts eastward in both hemispheres and this drift shows a seasonal variation. At very high latitudes (70 deg and higher) during spring in the southern hemisphere the ozone distribution is once again almost stationary, indicating that these regions are inside the polar vortex.

  4. A very deep IRAS survey at l(II) = 97 deg, b(II) = +30 deg

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hacking, Perry; Houck, James R.

    1987-01-01

    A deep far-infrared survey is presented using over 1000 scans made of a 4 to 6 sq. deg. field at the north ecliptic pole by the IRAS. Point sources from this survey are up to 100 times fainter than the IRAS point source catalog at 12 and 25 micrometers, and up to 10 times fainter at 60 and 100 micrometers. The 12 and 25 micrometer maps are instrumental noise-limited, and the 60 and 100 micrometer maps are confusion noise-limited. The majority of the 12 micrometer point sources are stars within the Milky Way. The 25 micrometer sources are composed almost equally of stars and galaxies. About 80% of the 60 micrometer sources correspond to galaxies on Palomar Observatory Sky Survey (POSS) enlargements. The remaining 20% are probably galaxies below the POSS detection limit. The differential source counts are presented and compared with what is predicted by the Bahcall and Soneira Standard Galaxy Model using the B-V-12 micrometer colors of stars without circumstellar dust shells given by Waters, Cote and Aumann. The 60 micrometer source counts are inconsistent with those predicted for a uniformly distributed, nonevolving universe. The implications are briefly discussed.

  5. Fatigue resistance of unnotched and post impact(+/- 30 deg/0 deg) 3-D braided composites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Portanova, Marc A.

    1994-01-01

    The fatigue resistance of a multiaxial braided (3-D) graphite/expoxy composite in both unnotched and post impacted conditions has been evaluated. The material tested is a (+/- 30/0 deg) multiaxial braid constructed from AS4/12K tow graphite fibers and British Petroleum E905L epoxy resin. These materials were braided as dry preforms and the epoxy was added using a resin transfer molding process (RTM). The unnotched and post-impact specimens were tested in compression-compression fatigue at 10 Hz with a stress ratio of R=10. The unnotched tension-tension fatigue specimens were tested at S Hz with a stress ration of R=0.1. Damage initiation and growth was documented through the application of radiography and ultrasonic through transmission (C-scans). Visible inspection of surface and edge damage was also noted to describe the initiation and progression of damage in these materials. The mechanisms leading to damage initiation were established and failure modes were determined. Stiffness and strength degradation were measured as a function of applied cycles. These 3-D braided composite results were compared to strain levels currently used to design primary structure in commercial aircraft composite components made from prepreg tape and autoclave cured.

  6. Periodic variations stratospheric temperature from 20-65 km at 80 deg N to 30 deg S

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nastrom, G. D.; Belmont, A. D.

    1975-01-01

    Results for a seasonally varying diurnal tide in temperature at Churchill are presented, and possible significant aliasing of longer period waves by this tide is discussed. A diurnal tide whose amplitude and phase are coherent throughout the year is found to have little effect on periodic amplitudes other than the long-term mean, because most rocketsonde observations are taken near the same local time each day. Errors in periodic components arising from lack of solar radiation corrections are found to be largest for the long-term mean with a small influence noted in the annual wave's amplitude. Spatial variations of the amplitudes and phases of long-period waves are examined through the use of height-latitude sections, 20-65 km, at 80 deg N to 30 deg S. The quasi-biennial oscillation and semiannual waves have tropical maxima of 2 and 3C near 30 and 40 km respectively. The annual wave's maximum is over 22C near 45 km at 70 deg N and the terannual wave's maximum is over 6C near 55 km at 80 deg N. The semiannual wave has to polar maxima: 7C near 75 deg N at 32 km and 3C above 60 km north of 35 deg N.

  7. [Multicenter study on the treatment and outcome of patients admitted to intensive care units in Italy. Presentation of the research project and the study protocol. GiViTI (Gruppo Italiano per la Valutazione degli interventi in Terapia Intensiva)].

    PubMed

    Apolone, G; Brazzi, L; Pesce, C

    1992-12-01

    Although Intensive Care Units (ICU) are present in most of the Italian Hospitals for acute patients, the heterogeneity of the patients case-mix and the large variation in structural, organizational and staffing arrangements have limited the feasibility and precision of evaluation studies aimed at assessing the quality of health care delivered and its impact on patients outcomes. To our knowledge there has been no nationwide study aimed at assessing the quality and effectiveness of the delivered care in samples of ICUs and patients that are representative of the source populations. To study the effects of variations in health care practices on the outcome of the patients admitted in ICU, we designed a multicentric observational study involving 120 ICUs within the country. The present study is the first part of a project involving a network of Intensive Care Units gathered under the name of GiViTI-Italian Group for the Evaluation of the Interventions in Intensive Care-that is representative of the national Italian reality in the field. The idea of a large collaborative group acting in the field of Intensive Care stands in line with several quality, effectiveness and resource utilization studies that are ongoing in other European countries and is also the result of a series of smaller-scale experiences carried out by other Italian groups eventually emboied in the GiViTI project. In the framework of the ongoing long term, multisite, and multidisciplinary project, the present study calls for the recruitment of all consecutive patients seen at the participant centers during a two months period.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  8. The performance of SAPS II in a cohort of patients admitted to 99 Italian ICUs: results from GiViTI. Gruppo Italiano per la Valutazione degli interventi in Terapia Intensiva.

    PubMed

    Apolone, G; Bertolini, G; D'Amico, R; Iapichino, G; Cattaneo, A; De Salvo, G; Melotti, R M

    1996-12-01

    To assess the validity of SAPS II (new Simplified Acute Physiology Score) in a cohort of patients admitted to a large sample of Italian intensive care units (ICU). The ability of the SAPS II scoring system to predict the probability of hospital mortality was assessed with calibration and discrimination measures obtained using published coefficients. A new logistic regression equation was then developed and further formal calibration and discrimination measures were estimated for the customized model. From the 2202 consecutive patients recruited during a 1-month period in 99 ICUs, a total of 1393 patients were included in this validation study. When the parameters based on the standard model were applied, the expected probability of mortality did not fit those actually observed in the cohort (p < 0.001), although it showed satisfactory discrimination (area under the receiver operating characteristic curve = 0.80). Such lack of fit yields an overall under prediction of mortality (observed/expected ratio = 1.14) that reflects a uniform pattern across a preselected set of subgroups. Customization allowed new mortality estimates to be calculated, with satisfactory calibration (p = 0.82) and a more uniform pattern across subgroups. SAPS II maintained its validity in an independent sample of patients recruited in a large network of Italian ICUs only after appropriate adaptation (first-level customization). Whether the determinants of this relatively poor performance are related to differences in unmeasured case-mix, methods of application, or quality of care delivered is a matter for discussion that cannot be solved with the data presently available. However, these findings suggest that caution is warranted before implementing the standard SAPS II scoring system parameters outside formal research projects.

  9. 2 deg spacing - Its impact on domestic satellite systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Braun, W. H.

    1981-11-01

    The provision of greater domestic satellite systems capacity through a reduction of satellite angular separation from 4.0 to 2.0 deg, making more orbital positions available, is considered from the standpoint of uplink and downlink interference mechanisms. It is determined that, while a 2.0-deg spacing requires improvements in antenna technology which may render existing facilities obsolete, and whose costs remain to be balanced against the economic gains represented by the greater number of orbital slots, an intermediate, 3.0-deg spacing for C-band domestic satellites presents few technical impediments. Most traffic modes will experience only modest reduction in system margins at this spacing, and no significant performance degradations. The standardization of spacecraft frequency and polarization plans, along with off-axis polarization discrimination in existing earth station antennas, offer means of recovering lost system margins.

  10. Damage Initiation and Ultimate Tensile Strength of Scaled [0 deg n/90 deg n/0 deg n]sub T Graphite-Epoxy Coupons

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jackson, Karen E.; Prosser, William H.

    1997-01-01

    Previous research on scaling effects in composite materials has demonstrated that the stress levels at first ply failure and ultimate failure of composite laminates are dependent on the size of the laminate. In particular, the thickness dimension has been shown to be the most influential parameter in strength scaling of composite coupons loaded in tension. Geometrically and constitutively scaled laminates exhibit decreasing strength with increasing specimen size, and the magnitude of the strength-size effect is a function of both material properties and laminate stacking sequence. Some of the commonly used failure criteria for composite materials such as maximum stress, maximum strain, and tensor polynomial (e.g., Tsai-Wu) cannot account for the strength-size effect. In this paper, three concepts are developed and evaluated for incorporating size dependency into failure criteria for composite materials. An experimental program of limited scope was performed to determine the first ply failure stress in scaled cross-ply laminates loaded in tension. Test specimens were fabricated of AS-4/3502 graphite-epoxy composite material with laminate stacking sequences of [0 deg n/90 deg n/o deg n]subT where n=1-6. Two experimental techniques were used to determine first ply failure, defined as a transverse matrix crack in the 90 deg ply: (1) step loading with dye penetrant x-ray of the specimen at each load interval, and (2) acoustic emission. The best correlation between first ply failure analysis and experimental data was obtained using a modified Weibull approach which incorporated the residual thermal stress and the outer ply constraint, as well as the ply thickness effect. Finally, a second set of experiments was performed to determine the tensile response and ultimate failure of the scaled cross-ply laminates. The results of these experiments indicated no influence of specimen size on tensile response or ultimate strength.

  11. East Pacific Rise 18 deg-19 deg S: Asymmetric spreading and ridge reorientation by ultrafast migration of axial discontinuities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cormier, Marie-Helene; MacDonald, Ken C.

    1994-01-01

    A detailed bathymetric, side scan, and magnetic survey of the East Pacific Rise out to a seafloor age of 1 Ma has been carried out between 18 deg and 19 deg S. It reveals that some left-stepping axial discontinuities have been migrating southward at rates an order of magnitude faster than the spreading rates (1000 mm/a or higher). These rapid migration events have left on the Nazca plate discordant features striking nearly parallel to the ridge axis. A discontinuity with an offset of several kilometers has migrated in two stages at around 0.45 and 0.3 Ma, and has left two large discordant zones consisting of a series of unfaulted, hummocky basins bounded to the east by short ridges oriented about N-S, oblique to the ambient 013 deg fabric. The morphology and reflectivity characteristics of these discordant zones are akin to the overlap basins and abandoned ridge tips which make up the migration trails of large, slowly-migrating overlapping spreading centers. Between 18 deg 35 min and 19 deg 03 min S, the ridge axis is flanked a few kilometers to the east by a prominent, sedimented ridge previously recognized as a recent abandoned ridge axis. The present ridge segment steadily deepens and narrows southward, which suggests the abandoned ridge has been rafted onto the Nazca plate during the ultrafast southward propagation of the ridge segment rather than by one discrete ridge jump. By transferring Pacific lithosphere to the Nazca plate, these migration events account for most of the asymmetric accretion observed (faster to the east). This process is consistent with the features common to asymmetric spreading, namely the sudden onset or demise of asymmetric spreading, and the ridge segment to ridge segment variablity. Because the discordant zones left by these rapid migration events are near-parallel to the ambient seafloor fabric, they are unlikely to be detected by conventional bathymetry or magnetic surveys, and so-called 'ridge-jumps' may actually often represent

  12. The Greenland ice sheet in a 6 deg World

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dahl-Jensen, Dorthe

    2014-05-01

    There is much doubt and uncertainly on the big ice sheets contribution to sea level rise in a warming world. As it continues to warm the ice sheets will become the biggest contributors to sea level rise as other sources have limited capacity: the total volume of the glaciers and ice caps equivalent to 0.5 m sea level rise, thermal expansion and land water will not change sea level more than 1 m. In the past there have been warm climatic periods where the ice sheets have been reduced. During the last interglacial (LIG or the Eemian) 130-115 thousand years ago the mean global sea level has been estimate to be 6-9 m above the present. Ice cores from the Greenland ice sheet inform that the Greenland ice sheet contributed no more than 2 m to the Eemain sea level so 75% of the ice sheet remained even though the Greenland temperatures up to 8±3 deg C warmer than at present, with an Eemian average of 5±3 deg C. Studies of the ancient dna in the last ice cores before bedrock, 3000m below the present surface of the Greenland ice sheet inform that the temperatures here were 10-15 deg C warmer than the present when the vegetation was present and the Greenland ice sheet melted away. The threshold for the existence of the Greenland ice sheet, determined from the palaeodata is an Arctic warming between 5 and 12 deg C. An Arctic warming of 12 deg C corresponds to a global warming of 6 deg C so in this case the Greenland ice sheet was gone with a 7.5 m contribution to the even larger sea level rise at this time. Our findings suggest this happened 1-3 million years ago at a time where the temperatures where much warmer than the present.

  13. Limiting Global Warming to 2 deg C and Beyond

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lea, D. W.

    2011-12-01

    This presentation addresses the question of how feasible is it to limit global warming to a specific temperature rise, whether 1.5, 2 or 3 deg C. Inherent in the idea of limiting global warming to a specific temperature level is the notion that future GHG emissions will be subject to a top-down international agreement. In the post-Copenhagen era, however, such an agreement is unlikely, and a bottoms-up approach of national pledges will likely have to serve as a surrogate for achieving emissions reduction. In this case, an additional question is what temperature targets are realistic under scenarios that are bounded by achievable national pledges as opposed to binding mandates. The question of feasibility depends largely on future emission pathways of CO2, other GHGs, black carbon and aerosols. Those pathways depend on many societal, technological and economic factors, but it is likely that the ultimate limiting factor is the maximum possible rate of absolute emission reduction. That rate is limited by how rapidly energy infrastructure can be turned over. Most studies suggest that an absolute emission reduction rate of 3.5% is the highest rate achievable. Climate sensitivity and the current cooling effect of aerosols and earth system responses such as the rate of ocean heat uptake and carbon cycle feedbacks determine how a specific emissions pathway translates into probable climate change. A useful framework for CO2 alone is provided by the newly emerging paradigm of cumulative emissions, which holds that peak temperature can be largely predicted by the total amount of carbon emitted, regardless of pathway. Most studies suggest that 1 Tt of cumulative carbon is equivalent to ~2 deg of peak warming. A consideration of these factors suggests that limiting warming to 1.5 deg C is no longer possible under any feasible economic scenario. For one, currently emitted GHGs are equivalent to a ~1.3 deg C warming commitment. This leaves very little room for future emissions

  14. Formation of DEG5 and DEG8 complexes and their involvement in the degradation of photodamaged photosystem II reaction center D1 protein in Arabidopsis.

    PubMed

    Sun, Xuwu; Peng, Lianwei; Guo, Jinkui; Chi, Wei; Ma, Jinfang; Lu, Congming; Zhang, Lixin

    2007-04-01

    The widely distributed DEGP proteases play important roles in the degradation of damaged and misfolded proteins. Arabidopsis thaliana contains 16 DEGP-like proteases, four of which are located in the chloroplast. Here, we show that DEG5 and DEG8 form a hexamer in the thylakoid lumen and that recombinant DEG8 is proteolytically active toward both a model substrate (beta-casein) and photodamaged D1 protein of photosystem II (PSII), producing 16-kD N-terminal and 18-kD C-terminal fragments. Inactivation of DEG5 and DEG8 resulted in increased sensitivity to photoinhibition. Turnover of newly synthesized D1 protein in the deg5 deg8 double mutant was impaired, and the degradation of D1 in the presence of the chloroplast protein synthesis inhibitor lincomycin under high-light treatment was slowed in the mutants. Thus, DEG5 and DEG8 are important for efficient turnover of the D1 protein and for protection against photoinhibition in vivo. The deg5 deg8 double mutant showed increased photosensitivity and reduced rates of D1 degradation compared with single mutants of deg5 and deg8. A 16-kD N-terminal degradation fragment of the D1 protein was detected in wild-type plants but not in the deg5 deg8 mutant following in vivo photoinhibition. Therefore, our results suggest that DEG5 and DEG8 have a synergistic function in the primary cleavage of the CD loop of the PSII reaction center protein D1.

  15. Tropospheric Ozone Over a Tropical Atlantic Station in the Northern Hemisphere: Paramaribo, Surinam (6 deg N, 55 deg W)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Peters, W.; Krol, M. C.; Fortuin, J. P. F.; Kelder, H. M.; Thompson, A. M.; Becker, C. R.; Lelieveld, J.; Crutzen, P. J.

    2003-01-01

    We present an analysis of 2.5 years of weekly ozone soundings conducted at a new monitoring station in Paramaribo, Surinam (6 deg N,55 deg W). This is currently one of only three ozone sounding stations in the northern hemisphere (NH) tropics, and the only one in the equatorial Atlantic region. Paramaribo is part of the Southern Hemisphere ADditional Ozone Sounding program (SHADOZ). Due to its position close to the equator, the Inter Tropical Convergence Zone (ITCZ) passes over Paramaribo twice per year, which results in a semi-annual seasonality of many parameters including relative humidity and ozone. The dataset from Paramaribo is used to: (1) evaluate ozone variability relative to precipitation, atmospheric circulation patterns and biomass burning; (2) contrast ozone at the NH equatorial Atlantic with that at nearby southern hemisphere (SH) stations Natal (6 deg S,35 deg W) and Ascension (8 deg S,14 deg W); (3) compare the seasonality of tropospheric ozone with a satellite-derived ozone product: Tropical Tropospheric Ozone Columns from the Modified Residual method (MR-TTOC). We find that Paramaribo is a distinctly Atlantic station. Despite its position north of the equator, it resembles nearby SH stations during most of the year. Transport patterns in the lower and middle troposphere during February and March differ from SH stations, which leads to a seasonality of ozone with two maxima. MR-TTOC over Paramaribo does not match the observed seasonality of ozone due to the use of a SH ozone sonde climatology in the MR method. The Paramaribo ozone record is used to suggest an improvement for northern hemisphere MR-TTOC retrievals. We conclude that station Paramaribo shows unique features in the region, and clearly adds new information to the existing SHADOZ record.

  16. Concerning the amount of clouds in the 45 deg north to 45 deg south latitude belt over the globe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Avaste, O. A.; Kiarner, O. Iu.; Keevallik, S. Kh.

    1981-07-01

    Average monthly estimations of cloud amount were based on albedo measurements made in two series of satellite experiments (Nimbus-3 and NOAA). The value of cloud albedo in the 45 deg north to 45 deg south latitude belt is assumed to be constant; values of surface albedo were taken from published data (Hummel and Reck, 1979). An elementary probability analysis was used to determine the climatic average value of cloud albedo. It was concluded that the proposed method gives satisfactory results for determining the cloud quantity over a uniform underlying surface and over regions with relatively little albedo.

  17. The negative gravity field over the 85 deg E ridge

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Liu, C.-S.; Curray, J. R.; Sandwell, D. T.

    1982-01-01

    Two north-south ridges in the basement topography of the Bay of Bengal may be observed on an isopach map at 85 and at 90 deg E. Free-air gravity anomaly profiles across the region show a strong gravity low (about -60 mGal) over the 85 deg E ridge, and a gravity high over the other. Using a simple two-stage loading model, the negative gravity anomaly over the 85 deg E ridge is explained as a direct consequence of sediment loading, and the flexural rigidity of the lithosphere when the ridge was formed is estimated to have been about 180 times less than the flexural rigidity during the sediment loading. An approximate relationship between flexural rigidity and crustal age shows that the 85 deg E ridge was formed on relatively young lithosphere, 5-15 million years old, and that it was buried when the lithosphere was 40-80 million years old. The alteration of the gravity field by a thick layer of sediments may occur in other large sedimentary basins or along continental margins.

  18. SYN1deg-3Hour Ed4A

    Atmospheric Science Data Center

    2017-09-29

    ... Edition 4A Level:  L3 Platform:  Terra, Aqua Spatial Coverage:  (-90, ... Tool: CERES Order Tool Order Data:  Earthdata Search:  Order Data Guide Documents:  SYN1deg Description/Abstract ...

  19. SYN1deg-3Hour Ed1A

    Atmospheric Science Data Center

    2017-09-29

    ... Edition 1A Level:  L3 Platform:  Terra, Suomi NPP Spatial Coverage:  (-90, ... Tool: CERES Order Tool Order Data:  Earthdata Search:  Order Data Guide Documents:  SYN1deg Description/Abstract ...

  20. SYN1deg-1Hour Ed4A

    Atmospheric Science Data Center

    2017-09-26

    ... Edition 4A Level:  L3 Platform:  Terra, Aqua Spatial Coverage:  (-90, ... Tool: CERES Order Tool Order Data:  Earthdata Search:  Order Data Guide Documents:  SYN1deg Description/Abstract ...

  1. SYN1deg-MHour Ed4A

    Atmospheric Science Data Center

    2017-09-29

    ... Edition 4A Level:  L3 Platform:  Terra, Aqua Spatial Coverage:  (-90, ... Tool: CERES Order Tool Order Data:  Earthdata Search:  Order Data Guide Documents:  SYN1deg Description/Abstract ...

  2. SYN1deg-MHour Ed1A

    Atmospheric Science Data Center

    2017-09-29

    ... Edition 1A Level:  L3 Platform:  Terra, Suomi NPP Spatial Coverage:  (-90, ... Tool: CERES Order Tool Order Data:  Earthdata Search:  Order Data Guide Documents:  SYN1deg Description/Abstract ...

  3. Effects of degU32(Hy), degQa and degR pleiotropic regulatory genes on the growth and protease fermentation of Bacillus subtilis Ki-2-132.

    PubMed

    Pan, Xue-Feng

    2006-04-01

    Effects of degU32 (Hy), degR genes from Bacillus subtilis 168 and degQa gene from Bacillus amyloliquefaciens on Bacillus subtilis Ki-2-132 cell growth, sporulation and protease fermentation were investigated by introducing these genes into B. subtilis Ki-2-132 chromosome and/or cytoplasm. Although the genes come from different species and strains, they showed pleiotropic effects in B. subtilis Ki-2-132. B. subtilis Ki-2-132degU32 (Hy) showed increased protease production, and when cooperating with degQa either in plasmid or in chromosome, further altered cell growth, increased protease production and affected the spore formation in a glucose and dosage dependent manner. By contrast, degR did not significantly affect the protease productivity in degU32 (Hy) mutant, consisting with that DegR was used to stabilise DegU-phosphate, which in degU32 (Hy) strain no longer further amplify the DegU-phosphate effect.

  4. Pressure distributions and shock shapes for 12.84 deg/7 deg on-axis and bent-nose biconics in air at Mach 6

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Miller, C. G., III; Gnoff, P. A.

    1981-01-01

    Pressure distributions and shock shapes on a spherically blunted, 12.84 deg /7 deg on axis biconic and a spherically blunted, 12.84 deg/7 deg bent nose biconic at Mach 6 in air were measured. The angle of attack, referenced to the axis of aft cone, was varied from 0 deg to 25 deg in nominal 5 deg increments. Two values of free stream Reynolds number based on model length were tested. Predictions from simple, theories and from a supersonic, three dimensional, external invsicid code (STEIN) are compared with measured values. Predicted STEIN shock shapes and windward pressures are in agreement with measured values for both biconics over the present range of angle of attack.

  5. Spedali Degli Innocenti, the Foundling Hospital in Florence, Italy.

    PubMed

    Summers, Bruce

    2016-06-01

    The author reflects on a visit to the Ospedale Degli Innocenti, the former Renaissance foundling hospital in Florence, having escaped from an international clinical conference. He considers the symbolism of the architecture and artwork in relation to its function as a sanctuary for abandoned children. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/

  6. The elusive variability of BD + 10.2179 deg

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Drilling, J. S.; Schonberner, D.; Grauer, A. D.

    1984-01-01

    High-speed photometry of the hydrogen-deficient star BD + 10.2179 deg has been obtained in order to ascertain if it is presently pulsationally unstable with the previously published period of 0.162 to 0.164 d. During an observing run of 0.21 d no pulsations were observed above the noise limit of 0.002 mag. Either the previously published period is not real or the star is no longer pulsating.

  7. Insights into the Cyanobacterial Deg/HtrA Proteases

    PubMed Central

    Cheregi, Otilia; Wagner, Raik; Funk, Christiane

    2016-01-01

    Proteins are the main machinery for all living processes in a cell; they provide structural elements, regulate biochemical reactions as enzymes, and are the interface to the outside as receptors and transporters. Like any other machinery proteins have to be assembled correctly and need maintenance after damage, e.g., caused by changes in environmental conditions, genetic mutations, and limitations in the availability of cofactors. Proteases and chaperones help in repair, assembly, and folding of damaged and misfolded protein complexes cost-effective, with low energy investment compared with neo-synthesis. Despite their importance for viability, the specific biological role of most proteases in vivo is largely unknown. Deg/HtrA proteases, a family of serine-type ATP-independent proteases, have been shown in higher plants to be involved in the degradation of the Photosystem II reaction center protein D1. The objective of this review is to highlight the structure and function of their cyanobacterial orthologs. Homology modeling was used to find specific features of the SynDeg/HtrA proteases of Synechocystis sp. PCC 6803. Based on the available data concerning their location and their physiological substrates we conclude that these Deg proteases not only have important housekeeping and chaperone functions within the cell, but also are needed for remodeling the cell exterior. PMID:27252714

  8. Geology of the Delta, Escalante, Price, Richfield and Salina 1 deg x 2 deg NTMS quadrangles, Utah

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thayer, P. A.

    1981-11-01

    The National Uranium Resource Evaluation (NURE) program was established to evaluate domestic uranium resources in the continental United States and to identify areas favorable for uranium exploration. The Grand Junction Office of the Department of Energy is responsible for administering the program. The Savannah River Laboratory (SRL) is responsible for hydrogeochemical and stream-sediment reconnaissance (HSSR) of 3.9 million sq km (1,500,000 mi(2)) in 37 eastern and western states. This document provides geologic and mineral resources reports for the Delta, Escalante, Price, Richfield, and Salina 1 deg x 2 deg National Topographic Map Series quadrangles, Utah. The purpose of these reports is to provide background geologic and mineral resources information to aid in the interpretation of NURE geochemical reconnaissance data. Except for the Escalante Quadrangle, each report is accompanied by a geologic map and a mineral locality map (Plates 1-8, in pocket).

  9. Using the SUBcellular database for Arabidopsis proteins to localize the Deg protease family

    PubMed Central

    Tanz, Sandra K.; Castleden, Ian; Hooper, Cornelia M.; Small, Ian; Millar, A. Harvey

    2014-01-01

    Sub-functionalization during the expansion of gene families in eukaryotes has occurred in part through specific subcellular localization of different family members. To better understand this process in plants, compiled records of large-scale proteomic and fluorescent protein localization datasets can be explored and bioinformatic predictions for protein localization can be used to predict the gaps in experimental data. This process can be followed by targeted experiments to test predictions. The SUBA3 database is a free web-service at http://suba.plantenergy.uwa.edu.au that helps users to explore reported experimental data and predictions concerning proteins encoded by gene families and to define the experiments required to locate these homologous sets of proteins. Here we show how SUBA3 can be used to explore the subcellular location of the Deg protease family of ATP-independent serine endopeptidases (Deg1–Deg16). Combined data integration and new experiments refined location information for Deg1 and Deg9, confirmed Deg2, Deg5, and Deg8 in plastids and Deg 15 in peroxisomes and provide substantial experimental evidence for mitochondrial localized Deg proteases. Two of these, Deg3 and Deg10, additionally localized to the plastid, revealing novel dual-targeted Deg proteases in the plastid and the mitochondrion. SUBA3 is continually updated to ensure that researchers can use the latest published data when planning the experimental steps remaining to localize gene family functions. PMID:25161662

  10. A Conjugate Study of Mean Winds and Planetary Waves Employing Enhanced Meteor Radars at Rio Grande, Argentina (53.8degS) and Juliusruh, Germany (54.6degN)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fritts, D. C.; Imura, H.; Lieberman, R.; Janches, D.; Singer, W.

    2011-01-01

    Two meteor radars with enhanced power and sensitivity and located at closely conjugate latitudes (54.6degN and 53.8degS) are employed for inter-hemispheric comparisons of mean winds and planetary wave structures. Our study uses data from June 2008 through May 2010 during which both radars provided nearly continuous wind measurements from approx.80 to 100 km. Monthly mean winds at 53.8degS exhibit a somewhat stronger westward mean zonal jet in spring and early summer at lower altitudes and no westward monthly mean winds at higher altitudes. In contrast, westward mean winds of approx.5-10 m/s at 54.6degN extend to above 96 km during late winter and early spring each year. Equatorward monthly mean winds extend approximately from spring to fall equinox at both latitudes, with amplitudes of approx.5-10 m/s and more rapid decreases in amplitude at 54.6degN at higher altitudes. Meridional mean winds are more variable at both latitudes during fall and winter, with both poleward and equatorward monthly means indicating longer-period variability. Planetary waves seen in the 2-day mean data are episodic and variable at both sites, exhibit dominant periodicities of approx.8-10 and 16-20 days and are more confined to late fall and winter at 54.6degN. At both latitudes, planetary waves in the two period bands coincide closely in time and exhibit similar horizontal velocity covariances that are positive (negative) at 54.6degN (53.8degS) during peak planetary wave responses.

  11. Technical Note: Using DEG CPCs at upper tropospheric temperatures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wimmer, D.; Lehtipalo, K.; Nieminen, T.; Duplissy, J.; Ehrhart, S.; Almeida, J.; Rondo, L.; Franchin, A.; Kreissl, F.; Manninen, H. E.; Kulmala, M.; Curtius, J.; Petäjä, T.

    2014-05-01

    Over the last few years, several Condensation Particle Counters (CPC) capable of measuring in the sub-3 nm size range have been developed. Here we study the performance of Diethylene glycol (DEG) based CPCs at different temperatures during Cosmics Leaving Outdoor Droplets (CLOUD) measurements at CERN. The data shown here is the first set of verification measurements for sub-3 nm CPCs under upper tropospheric temperatures using atmospherically relevant aerosol particles. To put the results in perspective we calibrated the DEG-CPC at room temperature, resulting in a cut-off diameter of 1.4 nm. All diameters refer to mobility equivalent diameters in this manuscript. At upper tropospheric temperatures between -25 °C and -65 °C, we found cut-off sizes in the range of 2.5 and 2.8 nm. Due to low number concentration after size classification, the cut-off diameters have a high uncertainty (±0.3 nm) associated with them. Operating two laminar flow DEG CPCs with different cut-off sizes together with other aerosol instruments, we looked at the growth rates of aerosol population in the CLOUD chamber for particles smaller than 10 nm at different temperatures. A more consistent picture emerged when we normalized the growth rates to a fixed gas-phase sulfuric acid concentration. All of the instruments detected larger growth rates at lower temperatures, and the observed growth rates decreased as a function of temperature, converging with each other at temperatures over 0 °C. The theoretical calculations had a much smaller temperature dependency.

  12. Technical Note: Using DEG-CPCs at upper tropospheric temperatures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wimmer, D.; Lehtipalo, K.; Nieminen, T.; Duplissy, J.; Ehrhart, S.; Almeida, J.; Rondo, L.; Franchin, A.; Kreissl, F.; Bianchi, F.; Manninen, H. E.; Kulmala, M.; Curtius, J.; Petäjä, T.

    2015-07-01

    Over the last few years, several condensation particle counters (CPCs) capable of measuring in the sub-3 nm size range have been developed. Here we study the performance of CPCs based on diethylene glycol (DEG) at different temperatures during Cosmics Leaving OUtdoor Droplets (CLOUD) measurements at CERN. The data shown here are the first set of verification measurements for sub-3 nm CPCs under upper tropospheric temperatures using atmospherically relevant aerosol particles. To put the results in perspective we calibrated the DEG-CPC at room temperature, resulting in a cut-off diameter of 1.4 nm. All diameters refer to mobility equivalent diameters in this paper. At upper tropospheric temperatures ranging from 246.15 K to 207.15 K, we found cut-off sizes relative to a particle size magnifier in the range of 2.5 to 2.8 nm. Due to low number concentration after size classification, the cut-off diameters have a high uncertainty (±0.3 nm) associated with them. Operating two laminar flow DEG-CPCs with different cut-off sizes together with other aerosol instruments, we looked at the growth rates of aerosol population in the CLOUD chamber for particles smaller than 10 nm at different temperatures. A more consistent picture emerged when we normalized the growth rates to a fixed gas-phase sulfuric acid concentration. All of the instruments detected larger growth rates at lower temperatures, and the observed growth rates decreased as a function of temperature, showing a similar trend for all instruments. The theoretical calculations had a similar but much smaller temperature dependency.

  13. Mutations suppressing the loss of DegQ function in Bacillus subtilis (natto) poly-γ-glutamate synthesis.

    PubMed

    Do, Thi-Huyen; Suzuki, Yuki; Abe, Naoki; Kaneko, Jun; Itoh, Yoshifumi; Kimura, Keitarou

    2011-12-01

    The degQ gene of Bacillus subtilis (natto), encoding a small peptide of 46 amino acids, is essential for the synthesis of extracellular poly-gamma-glutamate (γPGA). To elucidate the role of DegQ in γPGA synthesis, we knocked out the degQ gene in Bacillus subtilis (natto) and screened for suppressor mutations that restored γPGA synthesis in the absence of DegQ. Suppressor mutations were found in degS, the receptor kinase gene of the DegS-DegU two-component system. Recombinant DegS-His(6) mutant proteins were expressed in Escherichia coli cells and subjected to an in vitro phosphorylation assay. Compared with the wild type, mutant DegS-His(6) proteins showed higher levels of autophosphorylation (R208Q, M195I, L248F, and D250N), reduced autodephosphorylation (D250N), reduced phosphatase activity toward DegU, or a reduced ability to stimulate the autodephosphorylation activity of DegU (R208Q, D249G, M195I, L248F, and D250N) and stabilized DegU in the phosphorylated form. These mutant DegS proteins mimic the effect of DegQ on wild-type DegSU in vitro. Interestingly, DegQ stabilizes phosphorylated DegS only in the presence of DegU, indicating a complex interaction of these three proteins.

  14. Mutations Suppressing the Loss of DegQ Function in Bacillus subtilis (natto) Poly-γ-Glutamate Synthesis ▿ †

    PubMed Central

    Do, Thi-Huyen; Suzuki, Yuki; Abe, Naoki; Kaneko, Jun; Itoh, Yoshifumi; Kimura, Keitarou

    2011-01-01

    The degQ gene of Bacillus subtilis (natto), encoding a small peptide of 46 amino acids, is essential for the synthesis of extracellular poly-gamma-glutamate (γPGA). To elucidate the role of DegQ in γPGA synthesis, we knocked out the degQ gene in Bacillus subtilis (natto) and screened for suppressor mutations that restored γPGA synthesis in the absence of DegQ. Suppressor mutations were found in degS, the receptor kinase gene of the DegS-DegU two-component system. Recombinant DegS-His6 mutant proteins were expressed in Escherichia coli cells and subjected to an in vitro phosphorylation assay. Compared with the wild type, mutant DegS-His6 proteins showed higher levels of autophosphorylation (R208Q, M195I, L248F, and D250N), reduced autodephosphorylation (D250N), reduced phosphatase activity toward DegU, or a reduced ability to stimulate the autodephosphorylation activity of DegU (R208Q, D249G, M195I, L248F, and D250N) and stabilized DegU in the phosphorylated form. These mutant DegS proteins mimic the effect of DegQ on wild-type DegSU in vitro. Interestingly, DegQ stabilizes phosphorylated DegS only in the presence of DegU, indicating a complex interaction of these three proteins. PMID:21965392

  15. The occultation of AG+29 deg 398 by 98 Minerva

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Millis, R. L.; Wasserman, L. H.; Bowell, E.; Franz, O. G.; Nye, R.; Osborn, W.; Klemola, A.

    1984-01-01

    On 22 Nov. 1982, the asteroid 93 Minerva occulted AG-29 deg 398 (= SAO 76O17A), a seventh magnitude star of AO spectral type. The data were best fitted by a circular limb profile having a diameter of 170.8 + or - 1.4 km, a value that agrees well with the published radiometric diameter for this asteroid. However, evidence of significant departure from a spherical shape is found in the occultation observations and in photometric measurements of Minerva. Additional observations are required to specify difinitively the three dimensional figure of Minerva.

  16. The occultation of AG + 29 deg 398 by 93 Minerva

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Millis, R. L.; Wasserman, L. H.; Bowell, E.; Franz, O. G.; Nye, R.; Osborn, W.; Klemola, A.

    1985-01-01

    The occultation of AG + 29 deg 398 by 93 Minerva on 22 November 1982 was successfully observed at 10 sites. The data are best fitted by a circular limb profile having a diameter of 170.8 + or - 1.4 km, a value that agrees well with the published radiometric diameter for this asteroid. However, evidence of significant departure from a spherical shape is found in the occultation observations and in photometric measurements of Minerva made at Lowell Observatory over several months. Additional observations are needed to specify definitively the three-dimensional figure of Minerva.

  17. Interpretation of the Minkowski bands in Grw + 70 deg 8247.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Angel, J. R. P.

    1972-01-01

    Demonstration on the basis of the spectral structure of circular polarization in Grw + 70 deg 8247, that the absorption bands are at least in part molecular in origin. The spectrum of molecular helium has strong bands coincident with several of the Minkowski bands and, in particular, at high temperature shows a strong band head at about 4125 A. Helium molecules could be formed in sufficient density to give the absorption features in the star if it has a pure helium atmosphere. The Zeeman effect in molecular helium can explain in general the observed spectral features in the polarization and also may be responsible for the continuum polarization.

  18. Interpretation of the Minkowski bands in Grw + 70 deg 8247.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Angel, J. R. P.

    1972-01-01

    Demonstration on the basis of the spectral structure of circular polarization in Grw + 70 deg 8247, that the absorption bands are at least in part molecular in origin. The spectrum of molecular helium has strong bands coincident with several of the Minkowski bands and, in particular, at high temperature shows a strong band head at about 4125 A. Helium molecules could be formed in sufficient density to give the absorption features in the star if it has a pure helium atmosphere. The Zeeman effect in molecular helium can explain in general the observed spectral features in the polarization and also may be responsible for the continuum polarization.

  19. The occultation of AG + 29 deg 398 by 93 Minerva

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Millis, R. L.; Wasserman, L. H.; Bowell, E.; Franz, O. G.; Nye, R.; Osborn, W.; Klemola, A.

    1985-01-01

    The occultation of AG + 29 deg 398 by 93 Minerva on 22 November 1982 was successfully observed at 10 sites. The data are best fitted by a circular limb profile having a diameter of 170.8 + or - 1.4 km, a value that agrees well with the published radiometric diameter for this asteroid. However, evidence of significant departure from a spherical shape is found in the occultation observations and in photometric measurements of Minerva made at Lowell Observatory over several months. Additional observations are needed to specify definitively the three-dimensional figure of Minerva.

  20. Impingement of Droplets in 90 deg Elbows with Potential Flow

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hacker, Paul T.; Brun, Rinaldo J.; Boyd, Bemrose

    1953-01-01

    Trajectories were determined for droplets in air flowing through 90 deg elbows especially designed for two-dimensional potential motion with low pressure losses. The elbows were established by selecting as walls of each elbow two streamlines of the flow field produced by a complex potential function that establishes a two-dimensional flow around a 90 deg bend. An unlimited number of elbows with slightly different shapes can be established by selecting different pairs of streamlines as walls. The elbows produced by the complex potential function selected are suitable for use in aircraft air-intake ducts. The droplet impingement data derived from the trajectories are presented along with equations in such a manner that the collection efficiency, the area, the rate, and the distribution of droplet impingement can be determined for any elbow defined by any pair of streamlines within a portion of the flow field established by the complex potential function. Coordinates for some typical streamlines of the flow field and velocity components for several points along these streamlines are presented in tabular form.

  1. A DegU-P and DegQ-Dependent Regulatory Pathway for the K-state in Bacillus subtilis

    PubMed Central

    Miras, Mathieu; Dubnau, David

    2016-01-01

    The K-state in the model bacterium Bacillus subtilis is associated with transformability (competence) as well as with growth arrest and tolerance for antibiotics. Entry into the K-state is determined by the stochastic activation of the transcription factor ComK and occurs in about ∼15% of the population in domesticated strains. Although the upstream mechanisms that regulate the K-state have been intensively studied and are well understood, it has remained unexplained why undomesticated isolates of B. subtilis are poorly transformable compared to their domesticated counterparts. We show here that this is because fewer cells enter the K-state, suggesting that a regulatory pathway limiting entry to the K-state is missing in domesticated strains. We find that loss of this limitation is largely due to an inactivating point mutation in the promoter of degQ. The resulting low level of DegQ decreases the concentration of phosphorylated DegU, which leads to the de-repression of the srfA operon and ultimately to the stabilization of ComK. As a result, more cells reach the threshold concentration of ComK needed to activate the auto-regulatory loop at the comK promoter. In addition, we demonstrate that the activation of srfA transcription in undomesticated strains is transient, turning off abruptly as cells enter the stationary phase. Thus, the K-state and transformability are more transient and less frequently expressed in the undomesticated strains. This limitation is more extreme than appreciated from studies of domesticated strains. Selection has apparently limited both the frequency and the duration of the bistably expressed K-state in wild strains, likely because of the high cost of growth arrest associated with the K-state. Future modeling of K-state regulation and of the fitness advantages and costs of the K-state must take these features into account. PMID:27920766

  2. A DegU-P and DegQ-Dependent Regulatory Pathway for the K-state in Bacillus subtilis.

    PubMed

    Miras, Mathieu; Dubnau, David

    2016-01-01

    The K-state in the model bacterium Bacillus subtilis is associated with transformability (competence) as well as with growth arrest and tolerance for antibiotics. Entry into the K-state is determined by the stochastic activation of the transcription factor ComK and occurs in about ∼15% of the population in domesticated strains. Although the upstream mechanisms that regulate the K-state have been intensively studied and are well understood, it has remained unexplained why undomesticated isolates of B. subtilis are poorly transformable compared to their domesticated counterparts. We show here that this is because fewer cells enter the K-state, suggesting that a regulatory pathway limiting entry to the K-state is missing in domesticated strains. We find that loss of this limitation is largely due to an inactivating point mutation in the promoter of degQ. The resulting low level of DegQ decreases the concentration of phosphorylated DegU, which leads to the de-repression of the srfA operon and ultimately to the stabilization of ComK. As a result, more cells reach the threshold concentration of ComK needed to activate the auto-regulatory loop at the comK promoter. In addition, we demonstrate that the activation of srfA transcription in undomesticated strains is transient, turning off abruptly as cells enter the stationary phase. Thus, the K-state and transformability are more transient and less frequently expressed in the undomesticated strains. This limitation is more extreme than appreciated from studies of domesticated strains. Selection has apparently limited both the frequency and the duration of the bistably expressed K-state in wild strains, likely because of the high cost of growth arrest associated with the K-state. Future modeling of K-state regulation and of the fitness advantages and costs of the K-state must take these features into account.

  3. On the rms anisotropy at 7 deg and 10 deg observed in the COBE-DMR two year sky maps

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Banday, A. J.; Gorski, K. M.; Tenorio, L.; Wright, E. L.; Smoot, G. F.; Lineweaver, C. H.; Kogut, A.; Hinshaw, G.; Bennett, C. L.

    1994-01-01

    The frequency-independent rms temperature fluctuations determined from the Cosmic Background Explorer-Differential Microwave Radiometer (COBE-DMR) two-year sky maps are used to infer the parameter Q(sub rms-PS), which characterizes the normalization of power-law models of primordial cosmological temperature anisotropy, for a forced fit to a scale-invariant Harrison-Zel'dovich (n = 1) spectral model. Using a joint analysis of the 7 deg and 10 deg 'cross'-rms derived from both the 53 and 90 GHz sky maps, we find Q(sub rms-PS) = 17.0(sub -2.1 sup +2.5) micro Kelvin when the low quadrupole is included, and Q(sub rms-PS) = 19.4(sub -2.1 sup +2.3) micro Kelvin excluding the quadrupole. These results are consistent with the n = 1 fits from more sensitive methods. The effect of the low quadrupole derived from the COBE-DMR data on the inferred Q(sub rms-PS) normalization is investigated. A bias to lower Q(sub rms-PS) is found when the quadrupole is included. The higher normalization for a forced n = 1 fit is then favored by the cross-rms technique.

  4. Installed F/A-18 inlet flow calculations at 60 deg angle-of-attack and 10 deg side slip

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Podleski, S. D.

    1993-01-01

    This paper presents the results of PARC3D numerical calculations on a 19.78 percent scale forebody/inlet model of the F/A-18 at a Mach number of 0.20, an angle-of-attack of 60 deg, and a side-slip angle of 10 deg. The main purpose of these calculations is to support an upcoming wind-tunnel test program in the prediction of engine inlet compressor face total pressure recovery and flow distortion. The GRIDGEN system was used to generate a grid which includes the inlet and lip, and other aircraft components which are considered to be important to inlet performance, such as the ramp/splitter plate, the diverter and slot, and the deflected leading edge flap. PARC3D shows complex flow patterns on the fuselage surfaces below the leading edge extensions, on the ramp/splitter plate, inlet lip, and inside the inlet. PARC3D tends to underpredict total pressure recovery and overpredict the flow distortion at the inlet compressor face.

  5. Circulation on the continental shelf between 87 deg W and 90 deg W with data appendix. Final report, volume 1

    SciTech Connect

    Eleuterius, C.K.; Criss, G.A.

    1994-08-01

    Knowledge of the circulation of waters over the continental shelf and slope between 87 deg W and 90 deg W longitude is essential for judicious management of the region`s living and mineral resources and related industrial activities. This region, an integral part of the Fertile Fisheries Crescent, has been in a state of on-going development by the oil and gas industry for over four decades. The increase in activities of all types on the shelf, e.g., offshore oil and gas, maritime commerce, and fisheries, with the inherent risks each imposes on the environment, underscores the need for better knowledge of the region`s hydrodynamics, biology, chemistry, and geology. Prior to planning and initiating any further physical oceanography studies which require taking additional measurements in this region, the authors believe it prudent to first extract whatever relevant information remains in existing data. This effort entailed the laborious recovery of oceanographic data at the Gulf Coast Research Laboratory, which was in a number of disparate forms and formats.

  6. A Mars Pathfinder landing on a recently drained ephemeral sea: Cerberus Plains, 6 deg N, 188 deg W

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brakenridge, G. Robert

    1994-01-01

    Along a 500 km-wide belt extending between 202 deg and 180 deg W and lying astride the martian equator, moderately low-albedo, uncratered smooth plains exhibit low thermal inertia and potentially favorable conditions for the preservation of near-surface ice. The Cerberus Plains occupy a topographic trough as much as 2 km below the planetary datum, and the denser atmosphere at these altitudes would also favor long residence times for near-surface ice once emplaced. The plains have previously been interpreted as the result of young (late Amazonian) low viscosity lava flows or similarly youthful fluvial deposition. However, the plains are also included in maps of possibly extensive martian paleoseas or paleolakes. Ice emplaced as such seas dissipated could still be preserved under thin (a few tens of centimeters) sedimentary cover. In any case, and if a sea once existed, aqueous-born interstitial cementation, probably including hydrated iron oxides and sulfate minerals, would have been favored and is now susceptible to investigation by the Pathfinder alpha proton x-ray spectrometer and multispectral imager.

  7. Infrared astronomical satellite (IRAS) catalogs and atlases. Volume 3: The point source catalog declination range 30 deg greater than delta greater than 0 deg

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1988-01-01

    The Infrared Astronomical Satellite (IRAS) was launched January 26, 1983. During its 300-day mission, IRAS surveyed over 96 pct of the celestial sphere at four infrared wavelengths, centered approximately at 12, 25, 60, and 100 microns. This is Volume 3, The Point Source Catalog Declination Range 30 deg greater than delta greater than 0 deg.

  8. Infrared astronomical satellite (IRAS) catalogs and atlases. Volume 4: The point source catalog declination range 0 deg greater than delta greater than -30 deg

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1988-01-01

    The Infrared Astronomical Satellite (IRAS) was launched 26 January 1983. During its 300-day mission, it surveyed over 96 pct of the celestial sphere at four infrared wavelengths, centered approximately at 12, 25, 60, and 100 microns. This is Volume 4, The Point Source Catalog Declination Range 0 deg greater than delta greater than -30 deg.

  9. Infrared astronomical satellite (IRAS) catalogs and atlases. Volume 2: The point source catalog declination range 90 deg greater than delta greater than 30 deg

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1988-01-01

    The Infrared Astronomical Satellite (IRAS) was launched January 26, 1983. During its 300-day mission, IRAS surveyed 96 pct of the celestial sphere at four infrared wavelengths, centered approximately at 12, 25, 60, and 100 microns. This is Volume 2, The Point Source Catalog Declination Range 90 deg greater than delta greater than 30 deg.

  10. Infrared astronomical satellite (IRAS) catalogs and atlases. Volume 5: The point source catalog declination range -30 deg greater than delta greater than -50 deg

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1988-01-01

    The Infrared Astronomical Satellite (IRAS) was launched January 26, 1983. During its 300-day mission, IRAS surveyed over 96 pct of the celestial sphere at four infrared wavelengths, centered approximately at 12, 25, 60, and 100 microns. This is Volume 5, The Point Source Catalog Declination Range -30 deg greater than delta greater than -50 deg.

  11. Infrared astronomical satellite (IRAS) catalogs and atlases. Volume 6: The point source catalog declination range -50 deg greater than delta greater than -90 deg

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1988-01-01

    The Infrared Astronomical Satellite (IRAS) was launched January 26, 1983. During its 300-day mission, it surveyed over 96 pct of the celestial sphere at four infrared wavelengths, centered approximately at 12, 25, 60, and 100 microns. This is Volume 6, The Point Source Catalog Declination Range -50 deg greater than delta greater than -90 deg.

  12. Dislocation Majorana zero modes in perovskite oxide 2DEG

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chung, Suk Bum; Chan, Cheung; Yao, Hong

    2016-05-01

    Much of the current experimental efforts for detecting Majorana zero modes have been centered on probing the boundary of quantum wires with strong spin-orbit coupling. The same type of Majorana zero mode can also be realized at crystalline dislocations in 2D superconductors with the nontrivial weak topological indices. Unlike at an Abrikosov vortex, at such a dislocation, there is no other low-lying midgap state than the Majorana zero mode so that it avoids usual complications encountered in experimental detections such as scanning tunneling microscope (STM) measurements. We will show that, using the anisotropic dispersion of the t2g orbitals of Ti or Ta atoms, such a weak topological superconductivity can be realized when the surface two-dimensional electronic gas (2DEG) of SrTiO3 or KTaO3 becomes superconducting, which can occur through either intrinsic pairing or proximity to existing s-wave superconductors.

  13. Dislocation Majorana zero modes in perovskite oxide 2DEG.

    PubMed

    Chung, Suk Bum; Chan, Cheung; Yao, Hong

    2016-05-03

    Much of the current experimental efforts for detecting Majorana zero modes have been centered on probing the boundary of quantum wires with strong spin-orbit coupling. The same type of Majorana zero mode can also be realized at crystalline dislocations in 2D superconductors with the nontrivial weak topological indices. Unlike at an Abrikosov vortex, at such a dislocation, there is no other low-lying midgap state than the Majorana zero mode so that it avoids usual complications encountered in experimental detections such as scanning tunneling microscope (STM) measurements. We will show that, using the anisotropic dispersion of the t2g orbitals of Ti or Ta atoms, such a weak topological superconductivity can be realized when the surface two-dimensional electronic gas (2DEG) of SrTiO3 or KTaO3 becomes superconducting, which can occur through either intrinsic pairing or proximity to existing s-wave superconductors.

  14. Dislocation Majorana zero modes in perovskite oxide 2DEG

    PubMed Central

    Chung, Suk Bum; Chan, Cheung; Yao, Hong

    2016-01-01

    Much of the current experimental efforts for detecting Majorana zero modes have been centered on probing the boundary of quantum wires with strong spin-orbit coupling. The same type of Majorana zero mode can also be realized at crystalline dislocations in 2D superconductors with the nontrivial weak topological indices. Unlike at an Abrikosov vortex, at such a dislocation, there is no other low-lying midgap state than the Majorana zero mode so that it avoids usual complications encountered in experimental detections such as scanning tunneling microscope (STM) measurements. We will show that, using the anisotropic dispersion of the t2g orbitals of Ti or Ta atoms, such a weak topological superconductivity can be realized when the surface two-dimensional electronic gas (2DEG) of SrTiO3 or KTaO3 becomes superconducting, which can occur through either intrinsic pairing or proximity to existing s-wave superconductors. PMID:27139319

  15. Seasonal cycle in atmospheric HCl at 45 deg S

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Matthews, W. Andrew; Jones, Nicholas B.; Johnston, Paul V.; Rinsland, Curtis P.; Goldman, Aaron

    1994-01-01

    High resolution Fourier transform infrared interferometric atmospheric solar absorption measurements have been performed at the National Institute for Water and Atmospheric Research Laboratory at Lauder, New Zealand on a routine basis since October 1989. This laboratory has been selected as the Mid-latitude Charter Site of the Network for the Detection of Stratospheric Change and is at a latitude of 45 deg S. Particular attention has been paid to the absorption by atmospheric hydrogen chloride at 2925.9 cm(exp -1) and in this paper the results of the seasonal cycle in CHl above Lauder will be presented. Because of the very clean troposphere at this site, the CHl column measured from the ground is essentially a stratospheric column measurement.

  16. Heat-Transfer Measurements at a Mach Number of 4.95 on Two 60 deg Swept Delta Wings with Blunt Leading Edges and Dihedral Angles of 0 deg and 45 deg

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stainback, P. Calvin

    1961-01-01

    An experimental investigation was conducted to evaluate the heat-transfer characteristics of two 60 deg swept delta wings with cylindrical leading edges of 0.25-inch radii and dihedral angles of 0 deg and 45 deg. The tests were conducted at a Mach number of 4.95 and a stagnation temperature of 400 F. The The test-section unit Reynolds number was varied from 1.95 x 10(exp 6) to 12.24 x 10(exp 6) per foot. The results of the investigation indicated that, in a plane normal to the leading edge, the laminar-flow heat-transfer distribution was in good agreement with two-dimensional blunt-body theory. The stagnation-line heat-transfer level could be predicted from two-dimensional blunt-body theory provided the stagnation-line heat-transfer coefficient was assumed to vary as the cosine of the effective sweep. A comparison of the heating rates to the 0 deg dihedral wing (planform sweep of 60 deg) and the 45 deg dihedral wing (planform sweep of 69.3 deg) with equal panel sweep and panel area indicated that the stagnation-line heat-transfer coefficient for the 45 deg dihedral wing could be as much as 40 percent less than the stagnation-line heat-transfer coefficient for the 0 deg dihedral wing at both equal angles of attack and equal lifts. The laminar-flow heat-transfer rate to both wings outside the vicinity of the stagnation line was essentially equal.

  17. A 360-deg Digital Image Correlation system for materials testing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Genovese, K.; Cortese, L.; Rossi, M.; Amodio, D.

    2016-07-01

    The increasing research interest toward natural and advanced engineered materials demands new experimental protocols capable of retrieving highly dense sets of experimental data on the full-surface of samples under multiple loading conditions. Such information, in fact, would allow to capture the possible heterogeneity and anisotropy of the material by using up-to-date inverse characterization methods. Although the development of object-specific test protocols could represent the optimal choice to address this need, it is unquestionable that universal testing machines (UTM) remain the most widespread and versatile option to test materials and components in both academic and industrial contexts. A major limitation of performing standard material tests with UTM, however, consists in the scarce information obtainable with the commonly associated sensors since they provide only global (LVDTs, extensometers, 2D-video analyzers) or local (strain gages) measures of displacement and strain. This paper presents a 3D Digital Image Correlation (DIC) system developed to perform highly accurate full-surface 360-deg measurements on either standard or custom-shaped samples under complex loading within universal testing machines. To this aim, a low cost and easy to setup video rig was specifically designed to overcome the practical limitations entailed with the integration of a multi-camera system within an already existing loading frame. In particular, the proposed system features a single SLR digital camera moved through multiple positions around the specimen by means of a large rotation stage. A proper calibration and data-processing procedure allows to automatically merge the experimental data obtained from the multiple views with an accuracy of 10-2 m m . The results of a full benchmarking of the metrological performances of the system are here reported and discussed together with illustrative examples of full-360-deg shape and deformation measurements on a Grade X65 steel

  18. Characterization of the interaction layer in diffusion couples U-7 wt.%Mo/Al 6061 alloy at 550 deg. C and 340 deg. C

    SciTech Connect

    Mirandou, M.I.; Arico, S.F.; Balart, S.N.; Gribaudo, L.M.

    2009-08-15

    Solid state reaction between U-7 wt.%Mo and Al 6061 alloys at 550 deg. C and 340 deg. C was characterized in chemical diffusion couples made by Friction Stir Welding. Results were obtained from optical and scanning electron microscopy, electron probe microanalysis and X-ray diffraction. At 550 deg. C the interaction layer in {gamma}U(Mo)/Al 6061 is formed by U(Al,Si){sub 3} phase but when {gamma}U(Mo) cellular decomposition occurs, UAl{sub 3} and Al{sub 43}Mo{sub 4}U{sub 6} also appear in the interaction layer. At 340 deg. C the use of X-ray diffraction with synchrotron radiation made it possible to analyze the interaction layer. It was found that it is only formed by U{sub 3}Si{sub 5} phase with its cell volume enlarged respect to the original one.

  19. The development of the July 1989 1 deg x 1 deg and 30' x 30' terrestrial mean free-air anomaly data bases

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kim, Jeong-Hee; Rapp, Richard H.

    1990-01-01

    In June 1986 a 1 x 1 deg/mean free-air anomaly data file containing 48955 anomalies was completed. In August 1986 a 30 x 30 min mean free-air anomaly file was defined containing 31787 values. For the past three years data has been collected to upgrade these mean anomaly files. The primary emphasis was the collection of data to be used for the estimation of 30 min means anomalies in land areas. The emphasis on land areas was due to the anticipated use of 30 min anomalies derived from satellite altimeter data in the ocean areas. There were 10 data sources in the August 1986 file. Twenty-eight sources were added based on the collection of both point and mean anomalies from a number of individuals and organizations. A preliminary 30 min file was constructed from the 38 data sources. This file was used to calculate 1 x 1 deg mean anomalies. This 1 x 1 deg file was merged with a 1 x 1 deg file which was a merger of the June 1986 file plus a 1 x 1 deg file made available by DMA Aerospace Center. Certain bad 30 min anomalies were identified and deleted from the preliminary 30 min file leading to the final 30 min file (the July 1989 30 min file) with 66990 anomalies and their accuracy. These anomalies were used to again compute 1 x 1 deg anomalies which were merged with the previous June 86 DMAAC data file. The final 1 x 1 deg mean anomaly file (the July 89 1 x 1 deg data base) contained 50793 anomalies and their accuracy. The anomaly data files were significantly improved over the prior data sets in the following geographic regions: Africa, Scandinavia, Canada, United States, Mexico, Central and South America. Substantial land areas remain where there is little or no available data.

  20. Fatigue resistance of unnotched and post impact(+/- 30 deg/0 deg) 3-D braided composites. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Portanova, M.A.

    1994-01-01

    The fatigue resistance of a multiaxial braided (3-D) graphite/expoxy composite in both unnotched and post impacted conditions has been evaluated. The material tested is a (+/- 30/0 deg) multiaxial braid constructed from AS4/12K tow graphite fibers and British Petroleum E905L epoxy resin. These materials were braided as dry preforms and the epoxy was added using a resin transfer molding process (RTM). The unnotched and post-impact specimens were tested in compression-compression fatigue at 10 Hz with a stress ratio of R=10. The unnotched tension-tension fatigue specimens were tested at S Hz with a stress ration of R=0.1. Damage initiation and growth was documented through the application of radiography and ultrasonic through transmission (C-scans). Visible inspection of surface and edge damage was also noted to describe the initiation and progression of damage in these materials. The mechanisms leading to damage initiation were established and failure modes were determined. Stiffness and strength degradation were measured as a function of applied cycles. These 3-D braided composite results were compared to strain levels currently used to design primary structure in commercial aircraft composite components made from prepreg tape and autoclave cured.

  1. Global behavior of the height/seasonal structure of tides between 40 deg and 60 deg latitude

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Manson, A. H.; Meek, C. E.; Teitelbaum, H.; Fraser, G. J.; Smith, M. J.; Clark, R. R.; Schminder, R.; Kuerschner, D.

    1989-01-01

    The radars utilized are meteor (2), medium frequency (2) and the new low frequency (1) systems: analysis techniques were exhaustively studied internally and comparatively and are not thought to affect the results. Emphasis is placed upon the new height-time contours of 24-, 12-h tidal amplitudes and phases, which best display height and seasonal structures; where possible high resolution (10 d) is used (Saskatoon), but all stations provide monthly mean resolution. At these latitudes the diurnal tide is generally smaller than the semidiurnal, and displays more variability. However, there is a tendency for vertical wavelengths and amplitudes to be larger during summer months. On occasions in winter and fall, wavelengths may be less than 50 km. The dominant semidiurnal tide shows significant regular season structure; wavelengths are generally small (about 50 km) in winter, large in summer (equal to or greater than 100 km), and these states are separated by rapid equinoctial transitions. There is some evidence for less regularity toward 40 deg. Coupling with mean winds is apparent. Data from earlier ATMAP campaigns are mentioned, and reasons for their inadequacies presented.

  2. ASCA Observations of the Unusual Binary LSI+61 Deg 303

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Harrison, Fiona A.; Leahy, Denis A.; Waltman, Elizabeth

    1996-01-01

    We present simultaneous 0.5-10 keV X-ray and two-frequency radio observations at 2.25 and 8.3 GHz of the unusual binary system LSI+61 deg 303. This system was observed twice in a single binary orbit by the ASCA satellite, and monitored daily at two radio frequencies during the same orbital cycle with the Greenbank Interferometer. During the first ASCA observation the source was detected with a 1-10 keV luminosity 3.6 x 10(exp 33) (d/2.0 kpc )(exp 2) erg/s and during the second at a similar level with evidence for a decrease in average flux of 30%. During the first pointing the radio source was at a quiescent 8 GHz flux level of 30 mJy while during the second the radio flux was rising dramatically with an average value of 100 mJy. No variability is seen in the X-ray flux during the first pointing, but during the second the flux is variable by approx. 50% on timescales of approx. 30 minutes. No pulsations are seen in either X-ray observation with an upper limit on pulsed flux of 20% . The low X-ray luminosity and lack of observed pulsations indicate that accretion onto a neutron star surface is not the origin for the high-energy emission. Rather, the X-rays must result either from accreted matter which is stopped at the magnetosphere because the magnetospheric boundary is rotating at super-Keplerian rates or due to a shock formed in the interaction of the dense wind of the Be star companion and a moderately young pulsar.

  3. Photoluminescence of a High Mobility 2DEG in the Fractional Quantum Hall Effect Regime

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smirnov, D.; Rudenkov, V. V.; Ashkinadze, B. M.; Cohen, E.; Christianen, P. C. M.; Maan, J. C.; Pfeiffer, L. N.

    The magneto-PL spectra of modulation-doped, ultra-high mobility GaAs/AlGaAs single heterojunctions (HJs) were studied under a perpendicularly applied magnetic field up to 33 T and at temperatures of 0.3 and 1.2 K. The spectra show remarkable intensity redistribution between free (bulk) exciton and 2DEG-hole PL channels occurring at electron filling factors, ν = 2 and 1. At 0.3 K, significant 2DEG-hole PL spectral changes are observed near ν = 2/3 and 1/3. Several heterojunctions with 2DEG density in the range of n2D - (1 - 2.7) · 1011 cm-2 display similar features. These spectral peculiarities are attributed to the modification of the 2DEG energy spectrum caused by the e-e interaction, in particular, the recombination of valence hole with the composite (fractionally-charged) particles of the magnetized 2DEG. In HJs with lower n2D < 1011 cm-2, the observed PL evolution at ν < 1 is mainly determined by an intensity redistribution between the σ+ and σ- circularly-polarized free exciton PL components. In this case, the exciton energy is lower than the energy of the 2DEG-hole system, so that the free excitons do not dissociate near the magnetized 2DEG and thus, the 2DEG-hole PL is barely observed.

  4. Validation of the "early detection Primary Care Checklist" in an Italian community help-seeking sample: The "checklist per la Valutazione dell'Esordio Psicotico".

    PubMed

    Pelizza, Lorenzo; Raballo, Andrea; Semrov, Enrico; Chiri, Luigi Rocco; Azzali, Silvia; Scazza, Ilaria; Garlassi, Sara; Paterlini, Federica; Fontana, Francesca; Favazzo, Rosanna; Pensieri, Luana; Fabiani, Michela; Cioncolini, Leonardo; Pupo, Simona

    2017-07-26

    To establish the concordant validity of the "Checklist per la Valutazione dell'Esordio Psicotico" (CVEP) in an Italian help-seeking population. The CVEP is the Italian adaptation of the "early detection Primary Care Checklist," a 20-item tool specifically designed to assist primary care practitioners in identifying young people in the early stages of psychosis. The checklist was completed by the referring practitioners of 168 young people referred to the "Reggio Emilia At Risk Mental States" Project, an early detection infrastructure developed under the aegis of the Regional Project on Early Detection of Psychosis in the Reggio Emilia Department of Mental Health. The concordant validity of the CVEP was established by comparing screen results with the outcome of the "Comprehensive Assessment of At Risk Mental States" (CAARMS), a gold standard assessment for identifying young people who may be at risk of developing psychosis. The simple checklist as originally conceived had excellent sensitivity (98%), but lower specificity (58%). Using only a CVEP total score of 20 or above as cut-off, the tool showed a slightly lower sensitivity (93%) with a substantial improvement in specificity (87%). Simple cross-tabulations of the individual CVEP item scores against CAARMS outcome to identify the more discriminant item in terms of sensitivity and specificity were carried out. In comparison to other, much longer, screening tools, the CVEP performed well to identify young people in the early stages of psychosis. Therefore, the CVEP is well suited to optimize appropriate referrals to specialist services, building on the skills and knowledge already available in primary care settings. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Australia, Ltd.

  5. Prescription and choice of diagnostic imaging by physician specialty in Alzheimer's Centers (Unità di Valutazione Alzheimer - UVA) in Northern Italy.

    PubMed

    Frisoni, Giovanni B; Galluzzi, Samantha; Riello, Roberta

    2005-02-01

    Physician's specialty has been shown to have an effect on health outcomes and financial expenditure in a number of conditions. This is particularly true in the differential diagnosis of cognitive deterioration, in which technological procedures are needed. The aim of this study is to assess the effect of physician specialty on the prescription of diagnostic imaging (CT and MR) in patients with cognitive impairment, referred to Alzheimer Evaluation Units (Unità di Valutazione Alzheimer) in Northern Italy. An ad-hoc questionnaire was sent to UVA referents in northern Italy (Lombardy, Piedmont, Trentino, Emilia-Romagna and Veneto), requesting information on the frequency of prescriptions for CT and MR and reasons for the choice, on a 0 to 7 scale. The physician-in-charge was a neurologist in 22 and a geriatrician in 22 Alzheimer's centers. Intensive use of CT was similar in neurologists and geriatricians (64 vs 68%), whereas intensive use of MR was more frequent in neurologists (41 vs 10%; p = 0.03). Overall, organizational factors (availability of the scanner on-site and waiting list for imaging, mean weight = 1.6 +/- 1.4) were as important as patient-related factors (age, severity of cognitive impairment, and clinical suspicion of cerebrovascular disease, mean weight 1.7 +/- 1.4; p = 0.84). Sixty-five percent of neurologists based their choices between CT and MR on patient-related and 35% on organizational factors, whereas the opposite proportion was found for geriatricians (29 vs 71%, p = 0.04). The high weight of organizational factors on the prescription of diagnostic imaging is not consistent with an evidence-based diagnostic system.

  6. Cosmos Photometric Redshifts with 30-Bands for 2-deg2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ilbert, O.; Capak, P.; Salvato, M.; Aussel, H.; McCracken, H. J.; Sanders, D. B.; Scoville, N.; Kartaltepe, J.; Arnouts, S.; Le Floc'h, E.; Mobasher, B.; Taniguchi, Y.; Lamareille, F.; Leauthaud, A.; Sasaki, S.; Thompson, D.; Zamojski, M.; Zamorani, G.; Bardelli, S.; Bolzonella, M.; Bongiorno, A.; Brusa, M.; Caputi, K. I.; Carollo, C. M.; Contini, T.; Cook, R.; Coppa, G.; Cucciati, O.; de la Torre, S.; de Ravel, L.; Franzetti, P.; Garilli, B.; Hasinger, G.; Iovino, A.; Kampczyk, P.; Kneib, J.-P.; Knobel, C.; Kovac, K.; Le Borgne, J. F.; Le Brun, V.; Le Fèvre, O.; Lilly, S.; Looper, D.; Maier, C.; Mainieri, V.; Mellier, Y.; Mignoli, M.; Murayama, T.; Pellò, R.; Peng, Y.; Pérez-Montero, E.; Renzini, A.; Ricciardelli, E.; Schiminovich, D.; Scodeggio, M.; Shioya, Y.; Silverman, J.; Surace, J.; Tanaka, M.; Tasca, L.; Tresse, L.; Vergani, D.; Zucca, E.

    2009-01-01

    We present accurate photometric redshifts (photo-z) in the 2-deg2 COSMOS field. The redshifts are computed with 30 broad, intermediate, and narrowbands covering the UV (Galaxy Evolution Explorer), visible near-IR (NIR; Subaru, Canada-France-Hawaii Telescope (CFHT), United Kingdom Infrared Telescope, and National Optical Astronomy Observatory), and mid-IR (Spitzer/IRAC). A χ2 template-fitting method (Le Phare) was used and calibrated with large spectroscopic samples from the Very Large Telescope Visible Multi-Object Spectrograph and the Keck Deep Extragalactic Imaging Multi-Object Spectrograph. We develop and implement a new method which accounts for the contributions from emission lines ([O II], Hβ, Hα, and Lyα) to the spectral energy distributions (SEDs). The treatment of emission lines improves the photo-z accuracy by a factor of 2.5. Comparison of the derived photo-z with 4148 spectroscopic redshifts (i.e., Δz = z s - z p) indicates a dispersion of σ_{Δ z/(1+z_s)}=0.007 at i + AB < 22.5, a factor of 2-6 times more accurate than earlier photo-z in the COSMOS, CFHT Legacy Survey, and the Classifying Object by Medium-Band Observations-17 survey fields. At fainter magnitudes i + AB < 24 and z < 1.25, the accuracy is σ_{Δ z/(1+z_s)}=0.012. The deep NIR and Infrared Array Camera coverage enables the photo-z to be extended to z ~ 2, albeit with a lower accuracy (σ_{Δ z/(1+z_s)}=0.06 at i + AB ~ 24). The redshift distribution of large magnitude-selected samples is derived and the median redshift is found to range from z m = 0.66 at 22 < i + AB < 22.5 to z m = 1.06 at 24.5 < i + AB < 25. At i + AB < 26.0, the multiwavelength COSMOS catalog includes approximately 607,617 objects. The COSMOS-30 photo-z enables the full exploitation of this survey for studies of galaxy and large-scale structure evolution at high redshift.

  7. Crystallographic Study of Mixture CeBa1.8Pb0.2Cu3Oy in the Range of 860 deg. C to 940 deg. C

    SciTech Connect

    Stergiou, A.; Yilmaz, S.; Stergiou, C.

    2007-04-23

    A powder mixture with chemical formula CeBa1.8Pb0.2Cu3Oy was prepared. The mixture was heated in free atmosphere, at temperatures 860 deg. C to 940 deg. C, for 24 to 72h. The samples were measured by X-Ray powder diffraction with CuKa radiation. Each sample was characterized with the help of the PDF and refined, using the Rietveld's ''Powder Profile Analysis''. The first sample (860 deg. C) was identified with the phases: Ba2CeBiO6, CuO and BaCuO2, while all the remaining samples (870 deg. C-940 deg. C) with the phases Ba2CePbO6, CuO and CeO2. The phases Ba2CeBiO6 and Ba2CePbO6 are the main phases with analogous chemical types, but different symmetry. The phase CuO is common in all the samples, while from the remaining phases the BaCuO2 appears only in the first sample and the CeO2 in all, except the first one. The quantity 0.2 of Pb is distributed in the Ba positions, substituting a part of these. The percentages of phases are about 82%, 10% and 8% for the first sample and for all the remaining about 85%, 8% and 7%, respectively with above serious.

  8. La meridiana di Egnazio Danti nella Torre dei Venti in Vaticano: un'icona della riforma Gregoriana del calendario

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sigismondi, Costantino

    2014-05-01

    La Torre dei Venti domina l’angolo Sud Ovest del cortile della Pigna (nell'area dei Musei Vaticani), ed è inclusa negli ambienti dell'Archivio Segreto Vaticano. Non è aperta al pubblico, ma è universalmente nota per la fama che da oltre quattrocento anni la circonda, legata alle vicende della riforma Gregoriana del calendario. La meridiana tracciata da padre Egnazio Danti (1536-1586) nella torre dei Venti, fu visitata anche da Gregorio XIII, probabilmente il 21 marzo 1581 come suppone il padre Stein, per convincersi dell'anticipo ormai arrivato a dieci giorni dell'equinozio di primavera sulla data che il concilio di Nicea aveva fissato al 21 marzo per il computo pasquale. La ricognizione astrometrica del febbraio-marzo 2009 fatta dall'autore viene qui presentata.

  9. Vortex flap flow reattachment line and subsonic longitudinal aerodynamic data on 50 deg to 74 deg Delta wings on common fuselage

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Frink, N. T.; Huffman, J. K.; Johnson, T. D., Jr.

    1983-01-01

    Positions of the primary vortex flow reattachment line and longitudinal aerodynamic data were obtained at Mach number 0.3 for a systematic series of vortex flaps on delta wing body configurations with leading edge sweeps of 50, 58, 66, and 74 deg. The investigation was performed to study the parametric effects of wing sweep, vortex flap geometry and deflection, canards, and trailing edge flaps on the location of the primary vortex reattachment line relative to the flap hinge line. The vortex reattachment line was located via surface oil flow photographs taken at selected angles of attack. Force and moment measurements were taken over an angle of attack range of -1 deg to 22 deg at zero sideslip angle for many configurations to further establish the data base and to assess the aforementioned parametric effects on longitudinal aerodynamics. Both the flow reattachment and aerodynamic data are presented.

  10. Functional analysis of the response regulator DegU in Bacillus megaterium DSM319 and comparative secretome analysis of degSU mutants.

    PubMed

    Borgmeier, Claudia; Voigt, Birgit; Hecker, Michael; Meinhardt, Friedhelm

    2011-08-01

    We functionally analysed the two-component regulatory system DegSU (historically SacU) in Bacillus megaterium DSM319 by generating a genetic knock out as well as a sacU32 mutation. The latter--known to cause a hypersecretion phenotype in Bacillus subtilis--had no influence on extracellular protease and amylase activity in B. megaterium. Since the B. megaterium DegU complemented a Bacillus licheniformis ∆degSU mutant, functionality of the protein was proven. Expression of the sacB encoded levansucrase was found to be dependent on DegSU in B. megaterium. Consistently, the fusion of the sacB promoter to gfp revealed a strong increase in GFP-expression in the sacU32 strain. On 2 D-gels of the secretome, a large number of intracellular proteins was seen. The culture medium contained only 42 secreted proteins which can be assigned to polypeptides involved in the metabolism of the cell wall, polypeptides with proteolytic activities and those with unknown functions. Though overall protease activity matches with the wild type, two proteolytic enzymes (Vpr and YwaD) are missing in the secretome of the ∆degSU strain, while other degradative enzymes are not affected. In line with such findings, no increase of proteolytic or other degradative enzymes was seen in the sacU32 mutant. Thus, compared to B. subtilis and B. licheniformis, the number of extracellular proteins influenced by DegSU is surprisingly low in B. megaterium, a feature, probably advantageous as to the use of the sacU32 mutant for production of secreted proteins.

  11. Dual specificities of the glyoxysomal/peroxisomal processing protease Deg15 in higher plants.

    PubMed

    Helm, Michael; Lück, Carsten; Prestele, Jakob; Hierl, Georg; Huesgen, Pitter F; Fröhlich, Thomas; Arnold, Georg J; Adamska, Iwona; Görg, Angelika; Lottspeich, Friedrich; Gietl, Christine

    2007-07-03

    Glyoxysomes are a subclass of peroxisomes involved in lipid mobilization. Two distinct peroxisomal targeting signals (PTSs), the C-terminal PTS1 and the N-terminal PTS2, are defined. Processing of the PTS2 on protein import is conserved in higher eukaryotes. The cleavage site typically contains a Cys at P1 or P2. We purified the glyoxysomal processing protease (GPP) from the fat-storing cotyledons of watermelon (Citrullus vulgaris) by column chromatography, preparative native isoelectric focusing, and 2D PAGE. The GPP appears in two forms, a 72-kDa monomer and a 144-kDa dimer, which are in equilibrium with one another. The equilibrium is shifted on Ca(2+) removal toward the monomer and on Ca(2+) addition toward the dimer. The monomer is a general degrading protease and is activated by denatured proteins. The dimer constitutes the processing protease because the substrate specificity proven for the monomer (Phi-Arg/Lys downward arrow) is different from the processing substrate specificity (Cys-Xxx downward arrow/Xxx-Cys downward arrow) found with the mixture of monomer and dimer. The Arabidopsis genome analysis disclosed three proteases predicted to be in peroxisomes, a Deg-protease, a pitrilysin-like metallopeptidase, and a Lon-protease. Specific antibodies against the peroxisomal Deg-protease from Arabidopsis (Deg15) identify the watermelon GPP as a Deg15. A knockout mutation in the DEG15 gene of Arabidopsis (At1g28320) prevents processing of the glyoxysomal malate dehydrogenase precursor to the mature form. Thus, the GPP/Deg15 belongs to a group of trypsin-like serine proteases with Escherichia coli DegP as a prototype. Nevertheless, the GPP/Deg15 possesses specific characteristics and is therefore a new subgroup within the Deg proteases.

  12. Sea Ice Sensitivities in the 0.72 deg and 0.08 deg Arctic Cap Coupled HYCOM/CICE Models

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-09-30

    1 DISTRIBUTION STATEMENT A. Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited. Sea Ice Sensitivities in the 0.72°and 0.08° Arctic Cap ...REPORT TYPE 3. DATES COVERED 00-00-2014 to 00-00-2014 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Sea Ice Sensitivities in the 0.72 deg and 0.08 deg Arctic Cap Coupled...assessment of the Arctic sea ice cap by comparing it with observations. We are now exploring sensitivities to atmospheric forcing, the choice of the

  13. Rotary balance data for a single-engine agricultural airplane configuration for an angle-of-attack range of 8 deg to 90 deg

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mulcay, W. J.; Chu, J.

    1980-01-01

    Aerodynamic characteristics obtained in a helical flow environment utilizing a rotary balance located in the Langley spin tunnel are presented in plotted form for a 1/10 scale single engine agricultural airplane model. The configurations tested include the basic airplane, various wing leading edge and wing tip devices, elevator, aileron, and rudder control settings, and other modifications. Data are presented without analysis for an angle of attack range of 8 deg to 90 deg, and clockwise and counter-clockwise rotations covering a spin coefficient range from 0 to .9.

  14. Using Paraffin with -10 deg C to 10 deg C Melting Point for Payload Thermal Energy Storage in SpaceX Dragon Trunk

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Choi, Michael K.

    2013-01-01

    A concept of using paraffin wax phase change material (PCM) with a melting point between -10 deg C and 10 deg C for payload thermal energy storage in a Space Exploration Technologies (SpaceX) Dragon trunk is presented. It overcomes the problem of limited heater power available to a payload with significant radiators when the Dragon is berthed to the International Space Station (ISS). It stores adequate thermal energy to keep a payload warm without power for 6 hours during the transfer from the Dragon to an ExPRESS logistics carrier (ELC) on the ISS.

  15. Far-infrared and submillimeter survey of the galactic plane from l = 11.5 deg to l = 17.5 deg

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Campbell, M. F.; Niles, D. W.; Silverberg, R. F.; Hauser, M. G.; Stier, M. T.; Kelsall, T.; Hoffmann, W. F.; Thronson, H. A., Jr.

    1984-01-01

    Medium resolution (11 min) maps of the galactic plane are presented from l = 11.5 deg to l = 17.5 deg at wavelengths of 93 microns, 154 microns, and 190 microns. The maps are interpreted in terms of the temperature and spatial structure of diffuse far-infrared/submillimeter sources associated with evolved H II regions and a continuous ridge of galactic emission. The emission regions are found to be more extended at the longer wavelengths which implies that there must be a range of dust temperatures in the sources. The properties of the galactic ridge are similar to those of the sources.

  16. Chemical equilibria between C-S-H and ettringite, at 20 and 85 deg. C

    SciTech Connect

    Barbarulo, R. Peycelon, H.

    2007-08-15

    Mixes of C-S-H and ettringite were synthesized in suspension systems and their equilibria were studied at 20 and 85 deg. C. Concentrations in solution (calcium, sulfate, aluminium) were measured and the mineralogical state of the systems was studied by means of X-ray diffraction. The equilibria between C-S-H and ettringite are described. The relative importance of sulfate bound to the C-S-H is evaluated. The kinetics of ettringite reprecipitation from a 'C-S-H-ettringite' system at 85 deg. C placed at 20 deg. C are also evaluated.

  17. Heat-transfer test results for a .0275-scale space shuttle external tank with a 10 deg/40 deg double cone-ogive nose in the NASA/AMES 3.5-foot hypersonic wind tunnel (FH14), volume 2

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Carroll, H. R.

    1977-01-01

    A .0275 scale forebody model of the new baseline configuration of the space shuttle external tank vent cap configuration was tested to determine the flow field due to the double cone configuration. The tests were conducted in a 3.5 foot hypersonic wind tunnel at alpha = -5 deg, -4.59 deg, 0 deg, 5 deg, and 10 deg; beta = 0 deg, -3 deg, -5.51 deg, -6 deg, -9 deg, and +6 deg; nominal freestream Reynolds numbers per foot of 1.5 x 1 million, 3.0 x 1 million, and 5.0 x 1 million; and a nominal Mach number of 5. Separation and reattached flow from thermocouple data, shadowgraphs, and oil flows indicate that separation begins about 80% from the tip of the 10 deg cone, then reattaches on the vent cap and produces fully turbulent flow over most of the model forebody. The hardware disturbs the flow over a much larger area than present TPS application has assumed. A correction to the flow disturbance was experimentally suggested from the results of an additional test run.

  18. 90-deg splicing error control in polarization maintaining fiber resonator based on white-light interferometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lin, Huizu; Yao, Qiong; Hu, Yongming; Ma, Lina

    2012-05-01

    Polarization fluctuation in polarization maintaining fiber (PMF) resonator is one of the major noise sources in resonant fiber optic gyroscope (R-FOG). 90-deg polarization-axis rotated splicing in R-FOG is an effective way to suppress the polarization-fluctuation induced noise. 90-deg polarization-axis rotated splicing error influences the noise suppression effect. Here, a polarization-coupling testing system based on white-light interferometry is designed to control 90-deg splicing error in double-coupler PMF resonator first time and a result of 0.37-deg splicing error is obtained for the first time. Then the resonant characteristics of the double-coupler PMF resonator are tested using the saw-tooth waveform scanning method. The finesse of this double-coupler PMF resonator is 24.0 and the phase interval of the two eigenstates of polarization (ESOPs) is π.

  19. In situ observations of BrO over Antarctica - ER-2 aircraft results from 54 deg S to 72 deg S latitude

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brune, W. H.; Anderson, J. G.; Chan, K. R.

    1989-01-01

    Bromine monoxide was observed in situ during nine flights of the NASA ER-2 aircraft from Punta Arenas, Chile (54 deg S latitude), to 72 deg S latitude over the Palmer Peninsula, Antarctica. The first flight for the BrO detection system was on August 28. The distribution of BrO inside the chemically perturbed region defined by greatly elevated ClO abundances was different from that found just outside. Inside, the BrO mixing ratio was 6.1 + or - 1.1 pptv above the 440 K potential temperature surface, 4.7 + or - 2.0 pptv between the 400 and 440 K surfaces, and less than 4 pptv below the 400 K surface. At high latitudes outside the chemically perturbed region, the BrO mixing ratio was 5.4 + or - 1.4 pptv near the 450 K surface, but decreased to 2.9 + or - 1.2 pptv at the 420 K surface. The abundance of BrO showed no discernible temporal trend during the course of the nine flights. Away from the south polar region, at latitudes between 47 deg S and 37 deg N and potential temperatures between 435 and 500 K (18.5- to 20.7-km altitude), the BrO mixing ratio was 0.5-3.0 pptv.

  20. An overlapping propagating spreading center at 87 deg 30 min W on the Galapagos Spreading Center

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Perram, Laura Jean; MacDonald, Ken C.

    1994-01-01

    In September of 1987 nwe completed a SeaMARC II (SMII) survey of the propagating spreading center located at 87 deg 30 min W on the Galapagos Spreading Center (GSC). The spreading rate in the area is intermediate with a full rate of approximately 70 mm/yr and the spreading axis is marked by an axial high. Analysis of bathymetry, sidescan sonar and surface magnetic data indicates 90 - 100 mm/yr eastward propagation of the 26 km offset. The morphology of the feature is that of an overlapping spreading center pair (OSC). It fits a kinematic model of overlapping ridges with cyclic failure of the dying rift. There are marked differences in the morphology and kinematics of the propagator compared to the propagator at 95 deg 30 min W where the spreading rate and offset are comparable. The 87 deg 30 min W propagator is marked by an axial high and greater than 40 km of overlap in contrast to the axial rift valley and small amount of overlap associated with the 95 deg 30 min W propagator. Near-field stresses associated with variable axial topography contribute to decrease crack propagation forces at the 95 deg 30 min W propagator and increase those at the 87 deg 30 min W propagator. Differences in crack propagation forces and morphology may be due to a fundamental difference in the amount of available magma. This difference is evident in dominance of volcanism near 87 deg 30 min W as opposed to the dominance of tectonism near 95 deg 30 min W.

  1. Insight into DEG/ENaC channel gating from genetics and structure.

    PubMed

    Eastwood, Amy L; Goodman, Miriam B

    2012-10-01

    The founding members of the superfamily of DEG/ENaC ion channel proteins are C. elegans proteins that form mechanosensitive channels in touch and pain receptors. For more than a decade, the research community has used mutagenesis to identify motifs that regulate gating. This review integrates insight derived from unbiased in vivo mutagenesis screens with recent crystal structures to develop new models for activation of mechanically gated DEGs.

  2. Simplified 2DEG carrier concentration model for composite barrier AlGaN/GaN HEMT

    SciTech Connect

    Das, Palash Biswas, Dhrubes

    2014-04-24

    The self consistent solution of Schrodinger and Poisson equations is used along with the total charge depletion model and applied with a novel approach of composite AlGaN barrier based HEMT heterostructure. The solution leaded to a completely new analytical model for Fermi energy level vs. 2DEG carrier concentration. This was eventually used to demonstrate a new analytical model for the temperature dependent 2DEG carrier concentration in AlGaN/GaN HEMT.

  3. 45 deg staggered rib heat transfer coefficient measurements in a square channel

    SciTech Connect

    Taslim, M.E.; Lengkong, A.

    1998-07-01

    For high-blockage ribs with large heat transfer areas, commonly used in small gas turbine blades, the rib heat transfer is a significant portion of the overall heat transfer in the cooling passages. Three staggered 45 deg rib geometries corresponding to blockage ratios of 0.133, 0.167, and 0.25 were tested in a square channel for pitch-to-height ratios of 5, 8.5, and 10, and for two distinct thermal boundary conditions of heated and unheated channel walls. Comparisons were made between the surface-averaged heat transfer coefficients and friction factors for 45 deg ribs, and 90 deg ribs reported previously. Heat transfer coefficients of the furthest upstream rib and that of a typical rib located in the middle of the rib-roughened region were also compared. It was concluded that: (a) For the geometries tested, the rib average heat transfer coefficient was much higher than that for the area between the ribs. (b) Except for two cases corresponding to the highest blockage ribs mounted at pitch-to-height ratios of 8.5 and 10 for which the heat transfer results of 45 deg ribs were very close to those of 90 deg ribs, 45 deg ribs produced higher heat transfer coefficients than 90 deg ribs. (c) At pitch-to-height ratios of 8.5 and 10, all 45 deg ribs produced lower friction factors than 90 deg ribs. However, when they were brought closer to each other (S/e = 5), they produced higher friction factors than 90 deg ribs. (d) Heat transfer coefficients for the two smaller rib geometries (e/D{sub h} = 0.133 and 0.167) did to vary significantly with the pitch-to-height ratio in the range tested. However, the heat transfer coefficient for the high blockage rib geometry increased significantly as the ribs were brought closer to each other. (e) Under otherwise identical conditions, ribs in the furthest upstream position produced lower heat transfer coefficients than those in the midstream position. (f) Rib thermal performance decreased with the rib blockage ratio.

  4. The Drosophila Postsynaptic DEG/ENaC Channel ppk29 Contributes to Excitatory Neurotransmission.

    PubMed

    Hill, Alexis; Zheng, Xingguo; Li, Xiling; McKinney, Ross; Dickman, Dion; Ben-Shahar, Yehuda

    2017-03-22

    The protein family of degenerin/epithelial sodium channels (DEG/ENaCs) is composed of diverse animal-specific, non-voltage-gated ion channels that play important roles in regulating cationic gradients across epithelial barriers. Some family members are also enriched in neural tissues in both vertebrates and invertebrates. However, the specific neurophysiological functions of most DEG/ENaC-encoding genes remain poorly understood. The fruit fly Drosophila melanogaster is an excellent model for deciphering the functions of DEG/ENaC genes because its genome encodes an exceptionally large number of DEG/ENaC subunits termed pickpocket (ppk) 1-31 Here we demonstrate that ppk29 contributes specifically to the postsynaptic modulation of excitatory synaptic transmission at the larval neuromuscular junction. Electrophysiological data indicate that the function of ppk29 in muscle is necessary for normal postsynaptic responsivity to neurotransmitter release and for normal coordinated larval movement. The ppk29 mutation does not affect gross synaptic morphology and ultrastructure, which indicates that the observed phenotypes are likely due to defects in glutamate receptor function. Together, our data indicate that DEG/ENaC ion channels play a fundamental role in the postsynaptic regulation of excitatory neurotransmission.SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENT Members of the degenerin/epithelial sodium channel (DEG/ENaC) family are broadly expressed in epithelial and neuronal tissues. To date, the neurophysiological functions of most family members remain unknown. Here, by using the power of Drosophila genetics in combination with electrophysiological and behavioral approaches, we demonstrate that the DEG/ENaC-encoding gene pickpocket 29 contributes to baseline neurotransmission, possibly via the modulation of postsynaptic glutamate receptor functionality. Copyright © 2017 the authors 0270-6474/17/373171-10$15.00/0.

  5. Deletion of degQ gene enhances outer membrane vesicle production of Shewanella oneidensis cells.

    PubMed

    Ojima, Yoshihiro; Mohanadas, Thivagaran; Kitamura, Kosei; Nunogami, Shota; Yajima, Reiki; Taya, Masahito

    2017-04-01

    Shewanella oneidensis is a Gram-negative facultative anaerobe that can use a wide variety of terminal electron acceptors for anaerobic respiration. In this study, S. oneidensis degQ gene, encoding a putative periplasmic serine protease, was cloned and expressed. The activity of purified DegQ was inhibited by diisopropyl fluorophosphate, a typical serine protease-specific inhibitor, indicating that DegQ is a serine protease. In-frame deletion and subsequent complementation of the degQ were carried out to examine the effect of envelope stress on the production of outer membrane vesicles (OMVs). Analysis of periplasmic proteins from the resulting S. oneidensis strain showed that deletion of degQ induced protein accumulation and resulted in a significant decrease in protease activity within the periplasmic space. OMVs from the wild-type and mutant strains were purified and observed by transmission electron microscopy. Sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis analysis of the OMVs showed a prominent band at ~37 kDa. Nanoliquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry analysis identified three outer membrane porins (SO3896, SO1821, and SO3545) as dominant components of the band, suggesting that these proteins could be used as indices for comparing OMV production by S. oneidensis strains. Quantitative evaluation showed that degQ-deficient cells had a fivefold increase in OMV production compared with wild-type cells. Thus, the increased OMV production following the deletion of DegQ in S. oneidensis may be responsible for the increase in envelope stress.

  6. DEGS2 polymorphism associated with cognition in schizophrenia is associated with gene expression in brain

    PubMed Central

    Ohi, K; Ursini, G; Li, M; Shin, J H; Ye, T; Chen, Q; Tao, R; Kleinman, J E; Hyde, T M; Hashimoto, R; Weinberger, D R

    2015-01-01

    A genome-wide association study of cognitive deficits in patients with schizophrenia in Japan found association with a missense genetic variant (rs7157599, Asn8Ser) in the delta(4)-desaturase, sphingolipid 2 (DEGS2) gene. A replication analysis using Caucasian samples showed a directionally consistent trend for cognitive association of a proxy single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP), rs3783332. Although the DEGS2 gene is expressed in human brain, it is unknown how DEGS2 expression varies during human life and whether it is affected by psychiatric disorders and genetic variants. To address these questions, we examined DEGS2 messenger RNA using next-generation sequencing in postmortem dorsolateral prefrontal cortical tissue from a total of 418 Caucasian samples including patients with schizophrenia, bipolar disorder and major depressive disorder. DEGS2 is expressed at very low levels prenatally and increases gradually from birth to adolescence and consistently expressed across adulthood. Rs3783332 genotype was significantly associated with the expression across all subjects (F3,348=10.79, P=1.12 × 10−3), particularly in control subjects (F1,87=13.14, P=4.86 × 10−4). Similar results were found with rs715799 genotype. The carriers of the risk-associated minor allele at both loci showed significantly lower expression compared with subjects homozygous for the non-risk major allele and this was a consistent finding across all diagnostic groups. DEGS2 expression showed no association with diagnostic status after correcting for multiple testing (P>0.05). Our findings demonstrate that a SNP showing genome-wide association study significant association with cognition in schizophrenia is also associated with regulation of DEGS2 expression, implicating a molecular mechanism for the clinical association. PMID:25871975

  7. Bowl-shaped oligomeric structures on membranes as DegP's new functional forms in protein quality control

    PubMed Central

    Shen, Qing-Tao; Bai, Xiao-Chen; Chang, Lei-Fu; Wu, Yi; Wang, Hong-Wei; Sui, Sen-Fang

    2009-01-01

    In the periplasm of Escherichia coli, DegP (also known as HtrA), which has both chaperone-like and proteolytic activities, prevents the accumulation of toxic misfolded and unfolded polypeptides. In solution, upon binding to denatured proteins, DegP forms large cage-like structures. Here, we show that DegP forms a range of bowl-shaped structures, independent of substrate proteins, each with a 4-, 5-, or 6-fold symmetry and all with a DegP trimer as the structural unit, on lipid membranes. These membrane-bound DegP assemblies have the capacity to recruit and process substrates in the bowl chamber, and they exhibit higher proteolytic and lower chaperone-like activities than DegP in solution. Our findings imply that DegP might regulate its dual roles during protein quality control, depending on its assembly state in the narrow bacterial envelope. PMID:19255437

  8. Comparison of susceptibility to motion sickness during rotation at 30 rpm in the earth-horizontal, 10 deg head-up, and 10 deg head-down positions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Graybiel, A.; Lackner, J. R.

    1977-01-01

    Normal persons rotated about an earth-horizontal axis vary in their susceptibility to motion sickness. An experimental study was conducted to measure intraindividual differences in susceptibility in 12 subjects when rotated 10 deg head up and 10 deg head down as well as in the horizontal position. Subjects assumed the test-position 60 min prior to rotation, thus providing an opportunity for translocation of body fluids. Physiological and psychological measurements were conducted throughout the experiment. There were no intraindividual differences in susceptibility to motion sickness in the three positions tested, although there were significant differences in vital capacity, demonstrating the expected fluid shifts. It was concluded that, in the sample of subjects tested, short-term effects of fluid shifts greater than those that would be manifested in zero gravity had no definite effect on motion sickness susceptibility.

  9. The stratospheric aerosol particle measurement by balloon at Syowa Station (69.00 deg S, 39.35 deg E): Outline of special sonde (rubber) campaign JARE 24

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Iwasaka, Y.; Morita, T.; Itoh, T.; Shibazaki, K.; Makino, Y.; Tanaka, T.; Tsukamura, K.; Yano, T.; Kondoh, K.; Iwashita, G.

    1985-01-01

    During the period of AMA (Antarctic Middle Atmosphere), various style balloons were used to measure atmospheric parameters at Syowa Station (69.00 deg S, 39.35 deg E), Antarctica. The measurements which were made using balloons specially designed to monitor stratospheric aerosol particles are discussed. This type balloon was first used by JARE (Japan Antarctic Research Expedition) 24th Team in 1983. Until that time, the Japan Antarctic Research Expedition Team had been using only a large plastic balloon to monitor various minor constituents in the stratosphere. The plastic balloon was very useful, but it took a long time to arrange a balloon launching. Additionally, launching time strongly depended on weather conditions. A timely launching of the balloon was carried out with this specially designed sonde.

  10. Comparison of susceptibility to motion sickness during rotation at 30 rpm in the earth-horizontal, 10 deg head-up, and 10 deg head-down positions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Graybiel, A.; Lackner, J. R.

    1977-01-01

    Normal persons rotated about an earth-horizontal axis vary in their susceptibility to motion sickness. An experimental study was conducted to measure intraindividual differences in susceptibility in 12 subjects when rotated 10 deg head up and 10 deg head down as well as in the horizontal position. Subjects assumed the test-position 60 min prior to rotation, thus providing an opportunity for translocation of body fluids. Physiological and psychological measurements were conducted throughout the experiment. There were no intraindividual differences in susceptibility to motion sickness in the three positions tested, although there were significant differences in vital capacity, demonstrating the expected fluid shifts. It was concluded that, in the sample of subjects tested, short-term effects of fluid shifts greater than those that would be manifested in zero gravity had no definite effect on motion sickness susceptibility.

  11. Heating rate measurements over 30 deg and 40 deg (half angle) blunt cones in air and helium in the Langley expansion tube facility

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Reddy, N. M.

    1980-01-01

    Convective heat transfer measurements, made on the conical portion of spherically blunted cones (30 deg and 40 deg half angle) in an expansion tube are discussed. The test gases used were helium and air; flow velocities were about 6.8 km/sec for helium and about 5.1 km/sec for air. The measured heating rates are compared with calculated results using a viscous shock layer computer code. For air, various techniques to determine flow velocity yielded identical results, but for helium, the flow velocity varied by as much as eight percent depending on which technique was used. The measured heating rates are in satisfactory agreement with calculation for helium, assuming the lower flow velocity, the measurements are significantly greater than theory and the discrepancy increased with increasing distance along the cone.

  12. Sodium Lidar-observed Strong Inertia-gravity Wave Activities in the Mesopause Region over Fort Collins, Colorado (41 deg N, 105 deg W)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Li, Tao; She, C. -Y.; Liu, Han-Li; Leblanc, Thierry; McDermid, I. Stuart

    2007-01-01

    In December 2004, the Colorado State University sodium lidar system at Fort Collins, Colorado (41 deg N, 105 deg W), conducted an approximately 80-hour continuous campaign for the simultaneous observations of mesopause region sodium density, temperature, and zonal and meridional winds. This data set reveals the significant inertia-gravity wave activities with a period of approximately 18 hours, which are strong in both wind components since UT day 338 (second day of the campaign), and weak in temperature and sodium density. The considerable variability of wave activities was observed with both wind amplitudes growing up to approximately 40 m/s at 95-100 km in day 339 and then decreasing dramatically in day 340. We also found that the sodium density wave perturbation is correlated in phase with temperature perturbation below 90 km, and approximately 180 deg out of phase above. Applying the linear wave theory, we estimated the wave horizontal propagation direction, horizontal wavelength, and apparent horizontal phase speed to be approximately 25 deg south of west, approximately 1800 +/- 150 km, and approximately 28 +/- 2 m/s, respectively of wave intrinsic period, intrinsic phase speed, and vertical wavelength were also estimated. While the onset of enhanced inertia-gravity wave amplitude in the night of 338 was observed to be in coincidence with short-period gravity wave breaking via convective instability, the decrease of inertia-gravity wave amplitude after noon of day 339 was also observed to coincide with the development of atmospheric dynamical instability layers with downward phase progression clearly correlated with the 18-hour inertia-gravity wave, suggesting likely breaking of this inertia-gravity wave via dynamical (shear) instability.

  13. Sodium Lidar-observed Strong Inertia-gravity Wave Activities in the Mesopause Region over Fort Collins, Colorado (41 deg N, 105 deg W)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Li, Tao; She, C. -Y.; Liu, Han-Li; Leblanc, Thierry; McDermid, I. Stuart

    2007-01-01

    In December 2004, the Colorado State University sodium lidar system at Fort Collins, Colorado (41 deg N, 105 deg W), conducted an approximately 80-hour continuous campaign for the simultaneous observations of mesopause region sodium density, temperature, and zonal and meridional winds. This data set reveals the significant inertia-gravity wave activities with a period of approximately 18 hours, which are strong in both wind components since UT day 338 (second day of the campaign), and weak in temperature and sodium density. The considerable variability of wave activities was observed with both wind amplitudes growing up to approximately 40 m/s at 95-100 km in day 339 and then decreasing dramatically in day 340. We also found that the sodium density wave perturbation is correlated in phase with temperature perturbation below 90 km, and approximately 180 deg out of phase above. Applying the linear wave theory, we estimated the wave horizontal propagation direction, horizontal wavelength, and apparent horizontal phase speed to be approximately 25 deg south of west, approximately 1800 +/- 150 km, and approximately 28 +/- 2 m/s, respectively of wave intrinsic period, intrinsic phase speed, and vertical wavelength were also estimated. While the onset of enhanced inertia-gravity wave amplitude in the night of 338 was observed to be in coincidence with short-period gravity wave breaking via convective instability, the decrease of inertia-gravity wave amplitude after noon of day 339 was also observed to coincide with the development of atmospheric dynamical instability layers with downward phase progression clearly correlated with the 18-hour inertia-gravity wave, suggesting likely breaking of this inertia-gravity wave via dynamical (shear) instability.

  14. "Adotta scienza e arte nella tua classe": The results of a successfully teaching project which combines science with art⋆

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Giansanti, S.

    2015-03-01

    The project called Adotta scienza e arte nella tua classe ("Adopt Science and Art in your class"), on the interconnection between science and art, has been addressed to the Italian secondary middle and high school involving more than 200 teachers and about 2200 students. The main purpose of this project is to make the young students aware of the strong link between science and art is a unique cultural and interdisciplinary occasion. To reach this goal, the Adotta project asked students to produce an artwork inspired by the interpretation of a quotation among a hundred commented quotes by physicists, mathematicians, scientist, writers, artists, accompanied by an original short sentence written by students themselves. More than 1000 artworks have been produced and collected in two galleries on Facebook. From their analysis emerges the students' feeling about science, which is usually associated to human brain, based on mathematical laws and related to technological progress, but it is also a powerful tool that should be responsibly used. This project also valorizes teachers' role in scientific education through activities that encourage students to recognize science in every aspect of their lives.

  15. Phosphorylated DegU Manipulates Cell Fate Differentiation in the Bacillus subtilis Biofilm

    PubMed Central

    Marlow, Victoria L.; Porter, Michael; Hobley, Laura; Kiley, Taryn B.; Swedlow, Jason R.; Davidson, Fordyce A.

    2014-01-01

    Cell differentiation is ubiquitous and facilitates division of labor and development. Bacteria are capable of multicellular behaviors that benefit the bacterial community as a whole. A striking example of bacterial differentiation occurs throughout the formation of a biofilm. During Bacillus subtilis biofilm formation, a subpopulation of cells differentiates into a specialized population that synthesizes the exopolysaccharide and the TasA amyloid components of the extracellular matrix. The differentiation process is indirectly controlled by the transcription factor Spo0A that facilitates transcription of the eps and tapA (tasA) operons. DegU is a transcription factor involved in regulating biofilm formation. Here, using a combination of genetics and live single-cell cytological techniques, we define the mechanism of biofilm inhibition at high levels of phosphorylated DegU (DegU∼P) by showing that transcription from the eps and tapA promoter regions is inhibited. Data demonstrating that this is not a direct regulatory event are presented. We demonstrate that DegU∼P controls the frequency with which cells activate transcription from the operons needed for matrix biosynthesis in favor of an off state. Subsequent experimental analysis led us to conclude that DegU∼P functions to increase the level of Spo0A∼P, driving cell fate differentiation toward the terminal developmental process of sporulation. PMID:24123822

  16. Involvement of Deg5 protease in wounding-related disposal of PsbF apoprotein.

    PubMed

    Luciński, Robert; Misztal, Lucyna; Samardakiewicz, Sławomir; Jackowski, Grzegorz

    2011-03-01

    Deg5 is a serine-type protease peripherally attached to luminal side of thylakoid membrane. Given the lack of knowledge concerning its function homozygous T-DNA insertion line depleted in Deg5 was prepared to study the functional importance of this protease in Arabidopsis thaliana. deg5 mutants displayed a pleiotropic phenotype with regard to fourth whorl leaves of four-weeks old plants. The alterations involved an increased leaf area, reduced leaf thickness, reduced cross-sectional area of palisade mesophyll cells as well as changed chloroplast ultrastructure including lack of signs of entering the senescence phase (e.g. presence of much smaller plastoglobules) and the accumulation of large starch grains at the end of the dark period. It was shown that whereas PsbA, C and F apoproteins of photosystem II reaction center undergo an extensive disappearance in response to a set of brief stresses deg5 mutant was fully resistant to the disappearance of PsbF apoprotein which follows an exposition of leaves to wounding. Our results demonstrate that Deg5 is of seminal importance for normal plant development and degradation of PsbF which occurs following brief wounding. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  17. SAS-2 observations of the diffuse gamma radiation in the galactic latitude interval 10 deg absolute b or equal to 90 deg

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fichtel, C. E.; Hartman, R. C.; Kniffen, D. A.; Thompson, D. J.; Oegelman, H. B.; Oezel, M. E.; Tuemer, T.

    1977-01-01

    An analysis of all of the second small astronomy satellite gamma-ray data for galactic latitudes with the absolute value of b 10 deg has shown that the intensity varies with galactic latitude, being larger near 10 deg than 90 deg. For energies above 100 MeV the gamma-ray data are consistent with a latitude distribution of the form I(b) = C sub 1 + C sub 2/sin b, with the second term being dominant. This result suggests that the radiation above 100 MeV is coming largely from local regions of the galactic disk. Between 35 and 100 MeV, a similar equation is also a good representation of the data, but here the two terms are comparable. These results indicate that the diffuse radiation above 35 MeV consists of two parts, one with a relatively hard galactic component and the other an isotropic, steep spectral component which extrapolates back well to the low energy diffuse radiation. The steepness of the diffuse isotropic component places significant constraints on possible theoretical models of this radiation.

  18. Estimation of Static Longitudinal Stability of Aircraft Configurations at High Mach Numbers and at Angles of Attack Between 0 deg and +/-180 deg

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dugan, Duane W.

    1959-01-01

    The possibility of obtaining useful estimates of the static longitudinal stability of aircraft flying at high supersonic Mach numbers at angles of attack between 0 and +/-180 deg is explored. Existing theories, empirical formulas, and graphical procedures are employed to estimate the normal-force and pitching-moment characteristics of an example airplane configuration consisting of an ogive-cylinder body, trapezoidal wing, and cruciform trapezoidal tail. Existing wind-tunnel data for this configuration at a Mach number of 6.86 provide an evaluation of the estimates up to an angle of attack of 35 deg. Evaluation at higher angles of attack is afforded by data obtained from wind-tunnel tests made with the same configuration at angles of attack between 30 and 150 deg at five Mach numbers between 2.5 and 3.55. Over the ranges of Mach numbers and angles of attack investigated, predictions of normal force and center-of-pressure locations for the configuration considered agree well with those obtained experimentally, particularly at the higher Mach numbers.

  19. Force and moment measurements on a 74 deg delta wing with an apex flap

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Buter, T. A.; Rao, D. M.

    1984-01-01

    Results are presented of a subsonic experimental investigation of an apex flap concept on a 74 deg swept delta wing with trailing-edge flaps. The apex flap comprised approximately 6 percent of the wing area forward of a transverse hinge, allowing for upward and downward deflection angles from +40 deg to -20 deg. Upward deflection forces leading-edge vortex formation on the apex flap, resulting in an increased lift component on the apex area. The associated nose-up moment balances the nose-down moment due to trailing-edge flaps, resulting in sizeable increase in the trimmed lift coefficient particularly at low angles of attack. Nose-down apex deflection may be used to augment the pitch control for rapid recovery from high-alpha maneuvers. This report presents the balance data without analysis.

  20. Ten deg off-axis tensile test for intralaminar shear characterization of fiber composites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chamis, C. C.; Sinclair, J. H.

    1976-01-01

    A combined theoretical and experimental investigation was conducted to assess the suitability of the 10 deg off-axis tensile test specimen for the intralaminar shear characterization of unidirectional composites. Composite mechanics, a combined-stress failure criterion, and a finite element analysis were used to determine theoretically the stress-strain variation across the specimen width and the relative stress and strain magnitudes at the 10 deg plane. Strain gages were used to measure the strain variation across the specimen width at specimen midlength and near the end tabs. Specimens from Mod-I/epoxy, T-300/epoxy, and S-glass/epoxy were used in the experimental program. It was found that the 10 deg off-axis tensile test specimen is suitable for intralaminar shear characterization and it is recommended that it should be considered as a possible standard test specimen for such a characterization.

  1. Preliminary Investigation of Cyclic Behavior at SHADOZ Sites Between the Equator and 5 deg S Latitude

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schmidlin, F. J.

    2009-01-01

    Investigation of cyclic behavior of temperature and ozone data from five SHADOZ sites between the Equator and 5degS Latitude (Nairobi, Ascension Island, Natal, San Crystobal, and Watukoset) reveal an amazing array of oscillations. In particular, eight years of measurements (1998-2007) reveal changes such as decreasing amounts of ozone at some pressure levels and/or sites, while other levels and/or sites experience increasing ozone. Temperature changes of 1-2 C occur that also experience irregular oscillations. This study is preliminary and only concentrates on the 250-, 200-, 100-, 70-, and 50-hPa pressure surfaces. Surfaces existing below and above the tropopause behave differently.

  2. A Schottky/2-DEG varactor diode for millimeter and submillimeter wave multiplier applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Peatman, W. C. B.; Crowe, Thomas W.; Shur, M.; Gelmont, B.

    1992-01-01

    A new Schottky diode is investigated for use as a multiplier element in the millimeter and submillimeter wavelength regions. The new diode is based on the Schottky contact at the edge of a 2-dimensional electron gas (2-DEG). As a negative voltage is applied to the Schottky contact, the depletion layer between the Schottky contact and the 2-DEG expands and the junction capacitance decreases, resulting in a nonlinear capacitance-voltage characteristic. In this paper, we outline the theory, design, fabrication, and evaluation of the new device. Recent results include devices having cutoff frequencies of 1 THz and above. Preliminary multiplier results are also presented.

  3. Impingement of Water Droplets on NACA 65A004 Airfoil at 8 deg Angle of Attack

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brun, R. J.; Gallagher, H. M.; Vogt, D. E.

    1954-01-01

    The trajectories of droplets in the air flowing past an NACA 65AO04 airfoil at an angle of attack of 8 deg were determined.. The amount of water in droplet form impinging on the airfoil, the area of droplet impingement, and the rate of droplet impingement per unit area on the airfoil surface were calculated from the trajectories and presented to cover a large range of flight and atmospheric conditions. These impingement characteristics are compared briefly with those previously reported for the same airfoil at an angle of attack of 4 deg.

  4. Optical 90-deg hybrid of birefringent crystals for freely propagating laser beams

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wan, Lingyu; Zhi, Yanan; Zhou, Yu; Liu, Liren

    2010-12-01

    An optical 90-deg hybrid of birefringent crystals for freely propagating laser beams is presented. It consists principally of a quarter-wave plate, two pairs of birefringent crystal plates, and a polarization analyzer. The splitting and recombination of the signal and local-oscillator beams are achieved through the birefringence of the crystals, and a 90-deg phase shift is introduced between orthogonally polarized beam components by use of a quarter-wave plate. The optical hybrid has a self-compensating light path, and its correct function is demonstrated in a self-heterodyne measurement setup.

  5. AC-magnetotransport of a 2DEG in the quantum Hall regime

    SciTech Connect

    Hernández, C.; Chaubet, C.

    2014-05-15

    In this paper we present an ac-magneto-transport study of a two-dimensional electron gas (2DEG) in the quantum Hall effect (QHE) regime, for frequencies in the range [100Hz, 1MHz]. We present a new approach to understand admittance measurements based in the Landauer-Buttiker formalism for QHE edge channels and taking into account the capacitance and the topology of the cables connected to the contacts used in the measurements. Our model predicts an universal behavior with the a-dimensional parameter RCω where R is the 2 wires resistance of the 2DEG, C the capacitance cables and the angular frequency, in agreement with experiments.

  6. On the nature of BD-10 deg 4662. [variable binary star

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zappala, R. R.

    1974-01-01

    Attention was first called to BD-10 deg 4662 (now assigned variable-star designation FK Ser) by Stienon (1971), who reported a temporary brightening in the blue on a Case objective-prism plate, accompanied by Balmer emission and a strong ultraviolet continuum. In its normal state the star appeared to be an ordinary late K-type object without emission features. Infrared observations show that BD-10 deg 4662 has excesses in the H - K and K - L colors similar to ordinary T Tauri stars. Emission at Ca II H and K confirms the close relationship to that group of objects.

  7. Exploratory Investigation of Transpiration Cooling of a 40 deg Double Wedge using Nitrogen and Helium as Coolants at Stagnation Temperatures from 1,295 deg F to 2,910 deg F

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rashis, Bernard

    1961-01-01

    An investigation of transpiration cooling has been conducted in the preflight jet of the Langley Pilotless Aircraft Research Station at Wallops Island, Va. The model consisted of a double wedge of 40 deg included angle having a porous stainless-steel specimen inserted flush with the top surface of the wedge. The tests were conducted at a free-stream Mach number of 2.0 for stagnation temperatures ranging from 1,295 F to 2,910 F. Nitrogen and helium were used as coolants and tests were conducted for values ranging from approximately 0.03 to 0.30 percent of the local weight flow rate. The data for both the nitrogen and helium coolants indicated greater cooling effectiveness than that predicted by theory and were in good agreement with the results for an 8 deg cone tested at a stagnation temperature of 600 F. The results indicate that the helium coolant, for the same amount of heat-transfer reduction, requires only about one-fourth to one-fifth the coolant flow weight as the nitrogen coolant.

  8. Basic Pressure Measurements at Transonic Speeds on a Thin 45 deg Sweptback Highly Tapered Wing with Systematic Spanwise Twist Variations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mugler, John P., Jr.

    1958-01-01

    Pressure distributions are presented for a thin highly tapered untwisted 45 deg sweptback wing in combination with a body. These tests were made in the Langley 8-foot transonic pressure tunnel at both 1.0 and 0.5 atmosphere stagnation pressures at Mach numbers from 0.800 to 1.200 through an angle-of-attack range of -4 deg to 12 deg.

  9. Characterization of Queso Fresco during storage at 4 and 10 deg C

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The chemical, rheological, textural, functional, and sensory aspects of Queso Fresco, a popular Hispanic cheese variety made without starter culture and with a pH over 6, were evaluated during storage at 4 and 10 deg C. Decreases in lactose and pH levels were observed and attributed to activity by...

  10. Wideband 3 dB/90 deg coupler in multilayer thick-film technology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Person, C.; Coupez, J. P.; Toutain, S.; Morvan, M.

    1995-05-01

    A wideband 3dB/90 deg coupler based on multilayer thick-film technology is proposed. With reference to the well known Lange structure, the presented coupler is quite interesting in terms of realisability, and sensitivity with respect to technological limitations. In addition, no external operation, such as wire bonding, is needed, thereby resulting in good reproductibility.

  11. Exploring a possible origin of a 14 deg y-normal spin tilt at RHIC polarimeter

    SciTech Connect

    Meot, F.; Huang, H.

    2015-06-15

    A possible origin of a 14 deg y-normal spin n0 tilt at the polarimeter is in snake angle defects. This possible cause is investigated by scanning the snake axis angle µ, and the spin rotation angle at the snake, φ, in the vicinity of their nominal values.

  12. 'Candidatus Phytoplasma sudamericanum' a novel taxon from diseased passion fruit (Passiflora edulis f. flavicarpa Deg.)

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Symptoms of abnormal proliferation of shoots resulting in formation of witches’ broom growths were observed in diseased plants of passion fruit (Passiflora edulis f. flavicarpa Deg.) in Brazil. RFLP analysis of 16S rRNA gene sequences amplified in polymerase chain reactions containing template DNAs...

  13. Rotary balance data and analysis for the X-29A airplane for an angle-of-attack range of 0 deg to 90 deg

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ralston, J. N.

    1984-01-01

    The rotational aerodynamic characteristics are discussed for a 1/8 scale model of the X-29A airplane. The effects of rotation on the aerodynamics of the basic model were determined, as well as the influence of airplane components, various control deflections, and several forebody modifications. These data were measured using a rotary balance, over an angle of attack range of 0 to 90 deg, for clockwise and counter clockwise rotations covering an omega b/2V range of 0 to 0.4.

  14. Low speed rotary aerodynamics of F-18 configuration for 0 deg to 90 deg angle of attack: Test results and analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hultberg, R.

    1984-01-01

    Aerodynamic characteristics obtained in a rotational flow environment, utilizing a rotary balance located in the Langley Spin Tunnel, are discussed and presented in tabular form for a 1/10 scale F-18 airplane model. The rotational aerodynamic characteristics were established for the basic airplane, as well as the influence of control deflections and the contribution of airplane components, i.e., body, wing, leading edge extension, horizontal and vertical tails, on these characteristics up to 90 deg angle of attack. Spin equilibrium conditions predicted using the measured data are also presented and compared with spin model and full scale flight results.

  15. Gravity Data Analysis and Forward Modelling Along the Chilean Margin at 36-42\\deg S

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tasarova, Z.; Goetze, H.; Schmidt, S.

    2004-12-01

    The Chilean margin between 36 and 42\\deg S is the subject of new geological and geophysical research. The information about this area come from comprehensive gravity database, field geological observations, seismic reflection profiles (amphibious wide-angle seismic experiment across the subduction zone) at 36-38\\deg S, and the integrated active and passive seismological experiment ISSA 2000 at 36-39\\deg S, including also the receiver function study and the local earthquake tomography model. Based on these constraining data, the 3D density model has been developed within the framework of the German Collaborative Research Center 267 "Deformation Processes in the Andes" (SFB 267, task group F4). The convergent Andean margin, which is subject to some of the earth largest earthquakes, shows pronounced along-strike changes in the tectonic setting, deformation history and its morphological expression. The study area is characterized by much lower (on average less than 2000 meters) and narrower Main Cordillera than in the Central Andes (15-33\\deg S), as well as by a thinner crust. The central part of the study region is the site of the large 1960 Valdivia earthquake, which occurred onshore the transition between the oceanic lithosphere generated at two different spreading centers. This region shows no gravity high, whereas a positive Bouguer gravity anomaly is an omnipresent feature along most of the coastline south of 10\\deg S. The gravity data, combined under agreements from the oil industry data and other sources, as well as the own measurements, were reprocessed and show clearly a local scale segmentation of the region under study. The results of the forward density modelling show that the position of the Nazca plate and changes in its geometry controls the gravity field. Shallower oceanic plate below the forearc region at 36-39\\deg S vs. deeper slab south of 39\\deg S might also have its impact on the plate coupling between the subducting and overriding plates

  16. Noise measurements for a twin-engine commercial jet aircraft during 3 deg approaches and level flyovers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hastings, E. C., Jr.; Shanks, R. E.; Mueller, A. W.

    1976-01-01

    Noise measurements have been made with a twin-engine commercial jet aircraft making 3 deg approaches and level flyovers. The flight-test data showed that, in the standard 3 deg approach configuration with 40 deg flaps, effective perceived noise level (EPNL) had a value of 109.5 effective perceived noise decibels (EPNdB). This result was in agreement with unpublished data obtained with the same type of aircraft during noise certification tests; the 3 deg approaches made with 30 deg flaps and slightly reduced thrust reduced the EPNL value by 1 EPNdB. Extended center-line noise determined during the 3 deg approaches with 40 deg flaps showed that the maximum reference A-weighted sound pressure level (LA,max)ref varied from 100.0 A-weighted decibels 2.01 km (108 n. mi.) from the threshold to 87.4 db(A) at 6.12 km (3.30 n. mi.) from the threshold. These test values were about 3 db(A) higher than estimates used for comparison. The test data along the extended center line during approaches with 30 deg flaps were 1 db(A) lower than those for approaches with 40 deg flaps. Flight-test data correlating (LA,max)ref with thrust at altitudes of 122 m (400 ft) and 610 m (2000 ft) were in agreement with reference data used for comparison.

  17. AromaDeg, a novel database for phylogenomics of aerobic bacterial degradation of aromatics.

    PubMed

    Duarte, Márcia; Jauregui, Ruy; Vilchez-Vargas, Ramiro; Junca, Howard; Pieper, Dietmar H

    2014-01-01

    Understanding prokaryotic transformation of recalcitrant pollutants and the in-situ metabolic nets require the integration of massive amounts of biological data. Decades of biochemical studies together with novel next-generation sequencing data have exponentially increased information on aerobic aromatic degradation pathways. However, the majority of protein sequences in public databases have not been experimentally characterized and homology-based methods are still the most routinely used approach to assign protein function, allowing the propagation of misannotations. AromaDeg is a web-based resource targeting aerobic degradation of aromatics that comprises recently updated (September 2013) and manually curated databases constructed based on a phylogenomic approach. Grounded in phylogenetic analyses of protein sequences of key catabolic protein families and of proteins of documented function, AromaDeg allows query and data mining of novel genomic, metagenomic or metatranscriptomic data sets. Essentially, each query sequence that match a given protein family of AromaDeg is associated to a specific cluster of a given phylogenetic tree and further function annotation and/or substrate specificity may be inferred from the neighboring cluster members with experimentally validated function. This allows a detailed characterization of individual protein superfamilies as well as high-throughput functional classifications. Thus, AromaDeg addresses the deficiencies of homology-based protein function prediction, combining phylogenetic tree construction and integration of experimental data to obtain more accurate annotations of new biological data related to aerobic aromatic biodegradation pathways. We pursue in future the expansion of AromaDeg to other enzyme families involved in aromatic degradation and its regular update. Database URL: http://aromadeg.siona.helmholtz-hzi.de

  18. AlGaN/AlN-GaN-SL HEMTs with Multiple 2DEG Channels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wille, Ada; Yacoub, Hady; Debald, Arne; Kalisch, Holger; Vescan, Andrei

    2015-05-01

    We report on a multichannel approach for AlGaN/GaN high-electron-mobility transistors (HEMTs) to increase the carrier mobility in the low and high sheet carrier concentration regimes. Between the AlGaN barrier and GaN buffer, alternating thin layers of AlN and GaN were inserted to create multiple two-dimensional electron gas (2DEG) channels. All samples were grown by metalorganic vapor-phase epitaxy (MOVPE) on sapphire substrates and compared with conventional single-channel HEMT with the same sheet carrier concentration. For low total 2DEG carrier concentrations (<8 × 1012 cm-2), the mobility for the multichannel HEMT was enhanced due to a reduction of ionized impurity and dislocation scattering, which originates from a backbarrier effect of the underlying AlN layers. In the high total carrier concentration regime (>8 × 1012 cm-2), a mobility improvement is attributed to distribution of the sheet charge into multiple 2DEG channels. This has been found to reduce the carrier concentration per individual channel, which leads to larger distance between 2DEG and heterointerfaces and therefore less impact of interface roughness and alloy scattering. With increasing number of channels, phonon scattering is also reduced due to lowering of the three-dimensional (3D) electron density, which results from the added volume of the multiple 2DEGs. With this approach, the HEMT mobility was increased from 1620 cm2 V-1 s-1 to 1960 cm2 V-1 s-1 for a triple-channel device at sheet carrier concentration of 7.5 × 1012 cm-2.

  19. AromaDeg, a novel database for phylogenomics of aerobic bacterial degradation of aromatics

    PubMed Central

    Duarte, Márcia; Jauregui, Ruy; Vilchez-Vargas, Ramiro; Junca, Howard; Pieper, Dietmar H.

    2014-01-01

    Understanding prokaryotic transformation of recalcitrant pollutants and the in-situ metabolic nets require the integration of massive amounts of biological data. Decades of biochemical studies together with novel next-generation sequencing data have exponentially increased information on aerobic aromatic degradation pathways. However, the majority of protein sequences in public databases have not been experimentally characterized and homology-based methods are still the most routinely used approach to assign protein function, allowing the propagation of misannotations. AromaDeg is a web-based resource targeting aerobic degradation of aromatics that comprises recently updated (September 2013) and manually curated databases constructed based on a phylogenomic approach. Grounded in phylogenetic analyses of protein sequences of key catabolic protein families and of proteins of documented function, AromaDeg allows query and data mining of novel genomic, metagenomic or metatranscriptomic data sets. Essentially, each query sequence that match a given protein family of AromaDeg is associated to a specific cluster of a given phylogenetic tree and further function annotation and/or substrate specificity may be inferred from the neighboring cluster members with experimentally validated function. This allows a detailed characterization of individual protein superfamilies as well as high-throughput functional classifications. Thus, AromaDeg addresses the deficiencies of homology-based protein function prediction, combining phylogenetic tree construction and integration of experimental data to obtain more accurate annotations of new biological data related to aerobic aromatic biodegradation pathways. We pursue in future the expansion of AromaDeg to other enzyme families involved in aromatic degradation and its regular update. Database URL: http://aromadeg.siona.helmholtz-hzi.de PMID:25468931

  20. Prediction of static aerodynamic characteristics for space-shuttle-like and other bodies at angles of attack from 0 deg to 180 deg

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jorgensen, L. H.

    1973-01-01

    An engineering-type procedure is presented for computing normal-force, axial-force, and pitching-moment coefficients for bodies at angles of attack from 0 deg to 180 deg. The procedure is ideally suited for estimating the aerodynamic characteristics of space shuttle booster-like bodies because of the wide range of angles of attack, Mach numbers, and Reynolds numbers to be encountered. The analytical formulas, plots, and references given are also applicable for shuttle orbiter, missile, and aircraft-like bodies of both circular and noncircular cross section. The method for computing normal-force and pitching-moment coefficients is based upon the original proposal of Allen that the crossflow or lift distribution over a body can be expressed as the sum of slender-body potential term and an empirical viscous crossflow term. Although experimental data from which to verify the procedure at very high angles of attack are extremely limited, the comparisons made thus far of computed with experimental results are good. In this report the procedure has been shown to be capable of predicting reasonably well the experimental variation of C sub N, C sub A, C sub m, and x sub ac/l with angle of attack for nine bodies of revolution at a free-stream Mach number of 2.86.

  1. Evidence of a major fault zone along the California-Nevada state line 35 deg 30 min to 36 deg 30 min north latitude

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Liggett, M. A.; Childs, J. F.

    1973-01-01

    The author has identified the following significant results. Geologic reconnaissance guided by analysis of ERTS-1 and Apollo-9 satellite imagery and intermediate scale photography from X-15 and U-2 aircraft has confirmed the presence of a major fault zone along the California-Nevada state line, between 35 deg 30 min and 36 deg 30 min north latitude. The name Pahrump Fault Zone has been suggested for this feature after the valley in which it is best exposed. Field reconnaissance has indicated the existence of previously unreported faults cutting bedrock along range fronts, and displacing Tertiary and Quaternary basin sediments. Gravity data support the interpretation of regional structural discontinuity along this zone. Individual fault traces within the Pahrump Fault Zone form generally left-stepping en echelon patterns. These fault patterns, the apparent offset of a Laramide age thrust fault, and possible drag folding along a major fault break suggest a component of right lateral displacement. The trend and postulated movement of the Pahrump Fault Zone are similar to the adjacent Las Vegas Shear Zone and Death Valley-Furnace Creek Faults, which are parts of a regional strike slip system in the southern Basin-Range Province.

  2. DegS and RseP Homologous Proteases Are Involved in Singlet Oxygen Dependent Activation of RpoE in Rhodobacter sphaeroides

    PubMed Central

    Nuss, Aaron M.; Adnan, Fazal; Weber, Lennart; Berghoff, Bork A.; Glaeser, Jens; Klug, Gabriele

    2013-01-01

    Singlet oxygen (1O2) is the main agent of photooxidative stress and is generated by photosensitizers as (bacterio)chlorophylls. It leads to the damage of cellular macromolecules and therefore photosynthetic organisms have to mount an adaptive response to 1O2 formation. A major player of the photooxidative stress response in Rhodobacter sphaeroides is the alternative sigma factor RpoE, which is inactivated under non-stress conditions by its cognate anti-sigma factor ChrR. By using random mutagenesis we identified RSP_1090 to be required for full activation of the RpoE response under 1O2 stress, but not under organic peroxide stress. In this study we show that both RSP_1090 and RSP_1091 are required for full resistance towards 1O2. Moreover, we revealed that the DegS and RseP homologs RSP_3242 and RSP_2710 contribute to 1O2 resistance and promote ChrR proteolysis. The RpoE signaling pathway in R. sphaeroides is therefore highly similar to that of Escherichia coli, although very different anti-sigma factors control RpoE activity. Based on the acquired results, the current model for RpoE activation in response to 1O2 exposure in R. sphaeroides was extended. PMID:24223961

  3. Ultraviolet interstellar absorption toward HD 156359, a halo star at 11 kiloparsecs in the direction l = 329 deg and b = -15 deg

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sembach, Kenneth R.; Savage, Blair D.; Massa, Derck

    1991-01-01

    Results based on high-quality multiple IUE high-dispersion spectra are presented for the HD 156359 sight line in the direction l = 328.7 deg and b = -14.5 deg. The UV stellar spectrum of HD 156359 is consistent with an MK classification of O9.7 Ib-II. The high-ionization UV interstellar absorption line in the star's UV spectrum are very broad with negative velocity extensions. Comparison of apparent column density profiles Na(v) for lines within each doublet indicates that there is no significant unresolved saturated structure in the Si IV or N V profiles. Direct integration of the Na(v) profiles for Si IV, C IV, and N V over velocities from -150 km/s to +40 km/s yields total column densities of log N = 14.10, 14.77, and 14.09, respectively. The definite detection of N V absorption lines with profile shapes similar to the Si IV and C IV profiles favors a common origin for all three species.

  4. Multi-frequency polarimetry of the Galactic radio background around 350 MHz. I. A region in Auriga around l = 161 deg, b = 16 deg

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Haverkorn, M.; Katgert, P.; de Bruyn, A. G.

    2003-06-01

    With the Westerbork Synthesis Radio Telescope (WSRT), multi-frequency polarimetric images were taken of the diffuse radio synchrotron background in a ~ 5 deg times 7 deg region centered on (l,b) = (161 deg ,16 deg ) in the constellation of Auriga. The observations were done simultaneously in 5 frequency bands, from 341 MHz to 375 MHz, and have a resolution of ~ 5.0arcminx5 .0arcmin cosec delta . The polarized intensity P and polarization angle phi show ubiquitous structure on arcminute and degree scales, with polarized brightness temperatures up to about 13 K. On the other hand, no structure at all is observed in total intensity I to an rms limit of 1.3 K, indicating that the structure in the polarized radiation must be due to Faraday rotation and depolarization mostly in the warm component of the nearby Galactic interstellar medium (ISM). Different depolarization processes create structure in polarized intensity P. Beam depolarization creates ``depolarization canals'' of one beam wide, while depth depolarization is thought to be responsible for creating most of the structure on scales larger than a beam width. Rotation measures (RM) can be reliably determined, and are in the range -17 <~ RM <~ 10 rad m-2 with a non-zero average RM0 ~ -3.4 rad m-2. The distribution of RMs on the sky shows both abrupt changes on the scales of the beam and a gradient in the direction of positive Galactic longitude of ~ 1 rad m-2 per degree. The gradient and average RM are consistent with a regular magnetic field of ~ 1 mu G which has a pitch angle of p = -14 deg. There are 13 extragalactic sources in the field for which RMs could be derived, and those have |RM| <~ 13 rad m-2, with an estimated intrinsic source contribution of ~ 3.6 rad m-2. The RMs of the extragalactic sources show a gradient that is about 3 times larger than the gradient in the RMs of the diffuse emission and that is approximately in Galactic latitude. This difference is ascribed to a vastly different effective

  5. Wind-tunnel force and flow visualization data at Mach numbers from 1.6 to 4.63 for a series of bodies of revolution at angles of attack from minus 4 deg to 60 deg

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Landrum, E. J.; Babb, C. D.

    1979-01-01

    Flow visualization and force data for a series of six bodies of revolution are presented without analysis. The data were obtained in the Langley Unitary Plan wind tunnel for angles of attack from -4 deg to 60 deg. The Reynolds number used for these tests was 6,600,000 per meter.

  6. Bacterial diversity and bioprospecting for cold-active hydrolytic enzymes from culturable bacteria associated with sediment from Nella Fjord, Eastern Antarctica.

    PubMed

    Yu, Yong; Li, Hui-Rong; Zeng, Yin-Xin; Chen, Bo

    2011-01-31

    The diversity and cold-active hydrolytic enzymes of culturable bacteria associated with sandy sediment from Nella Fjord, Eastern Antarctica (69°22'6″ S, 76°21'45″ E) was investigated. A total of 33 aerobic heterotrophic bacterial strains were isolated at 4 °C. These bacterial isolates could be sorted into 18 phylotypes based on the 16S rRNA gene sequence belonging to four phyla, namely Alphaproteobacteria, Gammaproteobacteria, Bacteroidetes and Actinobacteria. Only seven isolates were psychrophilic, 15 isolates were moderately psychrophilic, and 11 isolates were psychrotolerant. More than 72% of the isolates required sodium chloride to grow. Esterase, β-glucosidase and proteases activities at 4 °C were detected in more than 45% of the strains while approximately 21%, 15% and 12% of the strains possessed lipase, amylase and chitinase, respectively. These results indicate that a relatively high culturable bacterial diversity is present within marine sediment of Nella Fjord and it could serve as an ideal candidate region for bioprospecting.

  7. The Role of SwrA, DegU and PD3 in fla/che Expression in B. subtilis

    PubMed Central

    Mordini, Serena; Osera, Cecilia; Marini, Simone; Scavone, Francesco; Bellazzi, Riccardo; Galizzi, Alessandro; Calvio, Cinzia

    2013-01-01

    In B. subtilis swarming and robust swimming motility require the positive trigger of SwrA on fla/che operon expression. Despite having an essential and specific activity, how SwrA executes this task has remained elusive thus far. We demonstrate here that SwrA acts at the main σA-dependent fla/che promoter PA(fla/che) through DegU. Electrophoretic mobility shift assays (EMSA) reveal that SwrA forms a complex with the phosphorylated form of DegU (DegU~P) at PA(fla/che) while it is unable to do so with either unphosphorylated DegU or the DegU32(Hy) mutant protein. Motility assays show that a highly phosphorylated DegU is not detrimental for flagellar motility provided that SwrA is present; however, DegU~P represses PA(fla/che) in the absence of SwrA. Overall, our data support a model in which DegU~P is a dual regulator, acting either as a repressor when alone or as a positive regulator of PA(fla/che) when combined with SwrA. Finally, we demonstrate that the σD-dependent PD3(fla/che) promoter plays an important role in motility, representing a contingent feedback loop necessary to maintain basal motility when swrA is switched to the non-functional swrA- status. PMID:24386445

  8. Predicting outcome in the intensive care unit using scoring systems: is new better? A comparison of SAPS and SAPS II in a cohort of 1,393 patients. GiViTi Investigators (Gruppo Italiano per la Valutazione degli interventi in Terapia Intensiva). Simplified Acute Physiology Score.

    PubMed

    Bertolini, G; D'Amico, R; Apolone, G; Cattaneo, A; Ravizza, A; Iapichino, G; Brazzi, L; Melotti, R M

    1998-09-01

    This study sought to compare the performance of the old and new versions of the Simplified Acute Physiology Score, SAPS and SAPS II, in classifying patients according to the risk of hospital mortality. To compare the performance of the two systems, measures of association between the scores and observed mortality were adopted, together with discrimination (area under the Receiver Operating Characteristics curve) and calibration (goodness-of-fit statistics) estimates. Subjects were 1,393 eligible patients recruited during 1 month in 1994. The outcome measure was vital status at hospital discharge. SAPS II was associated more strongly with hospital mortality than the earlier version. SAPS II also had better discrimination ability than SAPS (area under Receiver Operating Characteristics curve 0.80 versus 0.74) and predicted an overall number of deaths (416.5) closer to the observed figure (475) than SAPS (267.7). Conversely, neither SAPS nor SAPS II fitted our data. Both P values derived from goodness-of-fit statistics were lower than 0.05. SAPS II offers a real improvement compared with SAPS in its ability to explain hospital mortality, but its standard parameters do not fit our data from Italy. The role and impact of potential determinants of this lack of fit, such as random errors and confounders related to casemix and/or quality of care should be clarified before this scoring system be used outside formal research projects. Special caution is suggested when SAPS II is adopted to predict mortality to compare intensive care unit performance across different countries and systems of care.

  9. Comparison of heat transfer measurements with computations for turbulent flow around a 180 deg bend

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Besserman, D. L.; Tanrikut, S.

    1992-10-01

    Detailed heat transfer measurements for all four walls of a 180-deg 1:1 aspect ratio duct are reported. Experiments using a transient heat transfer technique with liquid crystal thermography were conducted for turbulent flow over a Reynolds number range of 12,500-50,000. Computational results using a Navier-Stokes code are also presented to complement the experiments. Two near-wall shear-stress treatments are evaluated in conjunction with k-epsilon formulation of turbulence to assess their ability to predict high local gradients in heat transfer. Results show that heat transfer on the convex and concave walls is a manifestation of the complex flow field created by the 180-deg bend. For the flat walls, the streamwise average Nusselt number increases approximately two times the fully developed turbulent flow value. The numerical predictions with the two-layer wall integration k-epsilon turbulence model show very good agreement with the experimental data.

  10. Orbital Paramagnetism of a Softly Confined 2DEG Strip in the Extreme Quantum Limit

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harrison, Michael J.

    2002-03-01

    The role of surfaces in the orbital magnetism of a noninteracting electron gas of finite size has long been of continuing theoretical interest[1]. More recent experiments on 2DEG heterostructures embodied in gallium-arsenide squares of micron size indicate orbital electronic paramagnetism much larger than Landau diamagnetism[2]. The orbital magnetism in the extreme quantum limit of softly confined 2DEG strips several microns wide with areal electron densities greater than 10^9 per square centimeter is shown to have a large paramagnetic maximum as a function of magnetic field before reverting to negative Landau diamagnetism at sufficiently large fields. A novel fabricated heterostructure, layered with such strips, is described which may exhibit strong bulk paramagnetism. 1. Frank S. Ham,Phys.Rev.92,1113(1953), and references therein. 2. L.P.Levy,D.H.Reich,L.Pfeiffer, and K.West,Physica B 189, 204(1993).

  11. Hypersonic convective heat transfer over 140-deg blunt cones in different gases

    SciTech Connect

    Stewart, D.A.; Chen, Y.K.

    1994-09-01

    Large-angle blunt cones, with various corner radii, were tested in dissociated air, CO2, and CO2-Ar gas mixtures. These experiments were conducted at angles of attack from 0 to 20 deg. The heating distribution data and how shock-waved geometry were obtained during the cone`s exposure to the three gases. The data can be used to partially validate two-dimensional (2-D) axisymmetric and three-dimensional Navier-Stokes solutions of the heating distribution over a 140-deg blunt cone in a simulated Martian atmosphere. The predicted heating distribution over the cones and estimated bow shock standoff distances using a 2-D axisymmetric Navier-Stokes code were compared with test data taken at zero angle of attack. 18 refs.

  12. The function of the DegP (HtrA) protein: Protease versus chaperone.

    PubMed

    Chang, Zengyi

    2016-11-01

    The DegP (or HtrA) is a highly conserved family of proteins functioning in all living organisms. It was initially identified as a protease functioning in the periplasmic space of the Gram-negative bacterial cells. It was later reported to also exhibit chaperone activity and thus has been designated as a bifunctional protein. However, recent studies demonstrated that in living cells it more likely functions only as a protease with hardly detectable chaperone activities. In this review, I will summarize the evidences clarifying that DegP more likely only functions as a protease rather than as a chaperone in cells. © 2016 IUBMB Life, 68(11):904-907, 2016. © 2016 International Union of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology.

  13. AN EXPERIMENTAL INVESTIGATION OF SECONDARY FLOW IN AN ACCELERATING, RECTANGULAR ELBOW WITH 90 deg OF TURNING

    DTIC Science & Technology

    Secondary flow tests were conducted on an accelerating elbow with 90 deg. of turning designed for prescribed velocities that eliminate boundary-layer...plane walls of the elbow by spoilers upstream of the elbow inlet. The passage vortex associated with secondary flows appears to be near the suction...surface and away from the plane wall of the elbow at the exit and does not have appreciable span-wise motion as it moves downstream from the elbow exit. As

  14. Observation of Polar Mesosphere Summer Echoes using the Northernmost MST Radar at Eureka (80 deg N)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Swarnalingam, N.; Hocking, W.; Janches, D.; Drummond, J.

    2017-01-01

    We investigate long-term Polar Mesosphere Summer Echoes (PMSEs) observations conducted by the northern most geographically located MST radar at Eureka (80 deg N, 86 deg W). While PMSEs are a well recognized summer phenomenon in the polar regions, previous calibrated studies at Resolute Bay and Eureka using 51.5 MHz and33 MHz radars respectively, showed that PMSE backscatter signal strengths are relatively weak in the polar cap sites, compared to the auroral zone sites (Swarnalingam et al., 2009b; Singer et al., 2010). Complications arise with PMSEs in which the echo strength is controlled by the electrons, which are, in turn, influenced by heavily charged ice particles as well as the variability in the D-region plasma. In recent years, PMSE experiments were conducted inside the polar cap utilizing a 51 MHz radar located at Eureka. In this paper, we investigate calibrated observations, conducted during 2009-2015. Seasonal and diurnal variations of the backscatter signal strengths are discussed and compared to previously published results from the ALOMAR radar, which is a radar of similar design located in the auroral zone at Andenes, Norway (69 deg N, 16 deg E). At Eureka, while PMSEs are present with a daily occurrence rate which is comparable to the rate observed at the auroral zone site for at least two seasons, they show a great level of inter-annual variability. The occurrence rate for the strong echoes tends to be low. Furthermore, comparison of the absolute backscatter signal strengths at these two sites clearly indicates that the PMSE backscatter signal strength at Eureka is weak. Although this difference could be caused by several factors, we investigate the intensity of the neutral air turbulence at Eureka from the measurements of the Doppler spectrum of the PMSE backscatter signals. We found that the level of the turbulence intensity at Eureka is weak relative to previously reported results from three high latitude sites.

  15. The size, shape, density, and albedo of Ceres from its occultation of BD+8 deg 471

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Millis, R. L.; Wasserman, L. H.; Franz, O. G.; Nye, R. A.; Oliver, R. C.

    1987-01-01

    Photoelectric observations of BD+8 deg 471's November 13, 1984 occultation by Ceres show Ceres to be an oblate spheroid with a 479.6 + or - 2.4 km equatorial radius and 453.4 + or - 4.5 km polar radius. Despite the global appearance of a surface in hydrostatic equilibrium, real limb irregularities are distincly noticeable in the data. Visual geometric albedo is 0.073, and mean density 2.7 (+ or - 5 percent) g/cu cm.

  16. Fragmentation of N-14 nuclei at 29 GeV - Inclusive isotope spectra at 0 deg.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Heckman, H. H.; Greiner, D. E.; Lindstrom, P. J.; Bieser, F. S.

    1972-01-01

    We report the first results of a Bevatron heavy-ion experiment on the inclusive spectra of isotopically identified nuclei 3(Z-range between 3 and 7), produced by the fragmentation of 29-GeV N-14 ions in carbon and hydrogen. The preliminary values of the partial differential cross sections at 0 deg give evidence that the modes of fragmentation of N-14 projectiles are independent of the target nucleus.

  17. Mantle viscosity beneath the Galapagos 95.5 deg W propagating rift

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schubert, G.; Hey, R. N.

    1986-01-01

    Detailed geophysical surveys in the vicinity of the Galapagos 95.5 deg W propagating rift tip establish the opening history of the rift and its velocity of propagation. These data together with a theory for mantle upwelling into slowly widening lithospheric cracks constrain the viscosity of the asthenosphere beneath the propagating rift to be less than about 10 to the 17th to 10 to the 18th Pa s.

  18. Plasmons in the modulated and confined 2DEG: A Raman scattering study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dahl, C.; Jusserand, B.; Izrael, A.; Gérard, J. M.; Ferlazzo, L.; Etienne, B.

    1994-06-01

    Lateral wire arrays have been fabricated from a single modulation-doped GaAs quantum well employing reactive ion etching. Depending on the etch depth, the two-dimensional electron gas (2DEG) in the well acquires different degrees of modulation up to complete confinement. The different regimes are identified by their unique photoluminescence and Raman spectra. Deep-etched wires show plasmon resonances down to a width of 100nm.

  19. Mercury transit at the rotonda of Santa Maria degli Angeli on May 9th 2016

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cuevas Cardona, Salvador; Sigismondi, Costantino

    2016-05-01

    Image quality simulations were made for a Mercury image on the solar disc for the sun position on the sky respect the Summer lens of the "Divinità in Luce" glasswork at Santa Maria degli Angeli in Rome. It is shown the image quality of the lens will be enough to show the Mercury shadow on the solar disc but only for the first 30 minutes from the transit's first contact.

  20. Submillimeter wavelength survey of the galactic plane from l = -5 deg to l = +62 deg: Structure and energetics of the inner disk

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hauser, M. G.; Silverberg, R. F.; Stier, M. T.; Kelsall, T.; Gezari, D. Y.; Dwek, E.; Walser, D.; Mather, J. C.; Cheung, L. H.

    1984-01-01

    Results from a large scale survey of the first quadrant of the Milky Way galactic plane at wavelengths of 150, 250, and 300 microns with a 10x10 arcmin beam are presented. The emission detected in the survey arises from compact sources, most of which are identified with known peaks of 5 GHz and/or CO emission, and from an underlying diffuse background with a typical angular width of approximately 0.9 deg (FWHM) which accounts for most of the emission. A total of 80 prominent discrete sources were identified and characterized, of which about half were not previously reported at far infrared wavelengths. The total infrared luminosity within the solar circle is approximately 1 to 2x10 to the 10th power L sub 0, and is probably emitted by dust that resides in molecular clouds.

  1. Submillimeter wavelength survey of the galactic plane from l = -5 deg to l = +62 deg - Structure and energetics of the inner disk

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hauser, M. G.; Silverberg, R. F.; Stier, M. T.; Kelsall, T.; Gezari, D. Y.; Dwek, E.; Walser, D.; Mather, J. C.; Cheung, L. H.

    1984-01-01

    Observational results are presented from a new large-scale survey of the first quadrant of the galactic plane at wavelengths of 150, 250, and 300 microns, with a 10 x 10 arcmin beam. The emission detected in the survey arises from compact sources, most of which are identified with known peaks of 5 GHz or CO emission, or both, and from an underlying diffuse background with a typical angular width of about 0.9 deg (FWHM) which accounts for most of the emission. A total of 80 prominent discrete sources are identified and characterized, of which about half have not previously been reported at far-infrared wavelengths. The total infrared luminosity within the solar circle is about 1 to 2 x 10 to the 10th solar luminosity, and is probably emitted by dust that resides in molecular clouds.

  2. STEREO SECCHI COR1-A/B Intercalibration at 180 deg Separation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thompson, W. T.; Davila, J. M.; St.Cyr, O. C.; Reginald, N. L.

    2011-01-01

    The twin Solar Terrestrial Relations Observatory (STEREO) spacecraft reached a separation angle of 180 deg on 6 February 2011. This provided a unique opportunity to test the intercalibration between the Sun-Earth Connection Coronal and Heliospheric Investigation (SECCHI) telescopes on both spacecraft for areas above the limb. So long as the corona is optically thin, at 180 deg separation each spacecraft sees the same corona from opposite directions. Thus, the data should appear as mirror images of each other. We report here on the results of the comparison of the images taken by the inner coronagraph (COR1) on the STEREO-Ahead and -Behind spacecraft in the hours when the separation was close to 180 deg. We find that the intensity values seen by the two telescopes agree with each other to a high degree of accuracy. This validates both the radiometric intercalibration between the COR1 telescopes, and the method used to remove instrumental background from the images. The relative error between COR1-A and COR1-B is found to be less than 10-9 B/B over most of the field-of-view, growing to a few 10-9 B/B for the brighter pixels near the edge of the occulter. The primary source of error is the background determination. We also report on the analysis of star observations which show that the absolute radiometric calibration of either COR1 telescope has not changed significantly since launch.

  3. Transonic Loads Characteristics of a 3-Percent-Thick 60 deg Delta-Wing-Body

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Swihart, John M.; Foss, Willard E., Jr.

    1961-01-01

    An investigation has been made in the Langley 16-foot transonic tunnel to determine the aerodynamic loading characteristics of a 3-percent-thick, aspect-ratio - 2.06, 60 deg delta-wing-body combination. The Mach number range was from 0.80 t o 1.05 and the average Reynolds number based on wing mean aerodynamic chord was 10 x 10(exp 6). The angle-of-attack range was from 0 deg to 26 deg but was limited at the highest Mach numbers by tunnel drive power. Pressure distributions, spanwise loadings, integrated wing coefficients, and tabulated pressure coefficients are presented for the range of Mach numbers and angles of attack. The results indicate that a free leading-edge separation vortex is the dominant flow-field phenomenon at all Mach numbers and that, consequently, there are only slight changes in the spanwise loadings with Mach number. There is a slight outboard shift in center of pressure with an increase in Mach number. The chord-wise position of the center of pressure varies from 46 t o 55 percent of the mean aerodynamic chord when the Mach number i s increased from 0.80 to l.05.

  4. A study of the vortex flow over 76/40-deg double-delta wing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Verhaagen, N. G.; Jenkins, L. N.; Kern, S. B.; Washburn, A. E.

    1995-02-01

    A low-speed wind-tunnel study of the flow about a 76/40-deg double-delta wing is described for angles of attack ranging from -10 to 25 deg and Reynolds numbers ranging from 0.5 to 1.5 Million. The study was conducted to provide data for the purpose of understanding the vortical flow behavior and for validating Computational Fluid Dynamics methods. Flow visualization tests have provided insight into the effect of the angle of attack and Reynolds number of the vortex-dominated flow both on and off of the surface of the double-delta wing. Upper surface pressure recordings from pressure orifices and Pressure Sensitive Paint have provided data on the pressures induced by the vortices. Flowfield surveys were carried out at an angle of attack of 10 deg by using a thin 5-hole probe. Numerical solutions of the compressible thin-layer Navier-Stokes equations were conducted and compared to the experimental data.

  5. STEREO SECCHI COR1-A/B Intercalibration at 180 deg Separation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thompson, W. T.; Davila, J. M.; St.Cyr, O. C.; Reginald, N. L.

    2011-01-01

    The twin Solar Terrestrial Relations Observatory (STEREO) spacecraft reached a separation angle of 180 deg on 6 February 2011. This provided a unique opportunity to test the intercalibration between the Sun-Earth Connection Coronal and Heliospheric Investigation (SECCHI) telescopes on both spacecraft for areas above the limb. So long as the corona is optically thin, at 180 deg separation each spacecraft sees the same corona from opposite directions. Thus, the data should appear as mirror images of each other. We report here on the results of the comparison of the images taken by the inner coronagraph (COR1) on the STEREO-Ahead and -Behind spacecraft in the hours when the separation was close to 180 deg. We find that the intensity values seen by the two telescopes agree with each other to a high degree of accuracy. This validates both the radiometric intercalibration between the COR1 telescopes, and the method used to remove instrumental background from the images. The relative error between COR1-A and COR1-B is found to be less than 10-9 B/B over most of the field-of-view, growing to a few 10-9 B/B for the brighter pixels near the edge of the occulter. The primary source of error is the background determination. We also report on the analysis of star observations which show that the absolute radiometric calibration of either COR1 telescope has not changed significantly since launch.

  6. A study of the vortex flow over 76/40-deg double-delta wing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Verhaagen, N. G.; Jenkins, L. N.; Kern, S. B.; Washburn, A. E.

    1995-01-01

    A low-speed wind-tunnel study of the flow about a 76/40-deg double-delta wing is described for angles of attack ranging from -10 to 25 deg and Reynolds numbers ranging from 0.5 to 1.5 Million. The study was conducted to provide data for the purpose of understanding the vortical flow behavior and for validating Computational Fluid Dynamics methods. Flow visualization tests have provided insight into the effect of the angle of attack and Reynolds number of the vortex-dominated flow both on and off of the surface of the double-delta wing. Upper surface pressure recordings from pressure orifices and Pressure Sensitive Paint have provided data on the pressures induced by the vortices. Flowfield surveys were carried out at an angle of attack of 10 deg by using a thin 5-hole probe. Numerical solutions of the compressible thin-layer Navier-Stokes equations were conducted and compared to the experimental data.

  7. Off-nadir antenna bias correction using Amazon rain forest sigma deg data. [Brazil

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Birrer, I. J.; Bracalente, E. M.; Dome, G. J.; Sweet, J.; Berthold, G.; Moore, R. K. (Principal Investigator)

    1981-01-01

    The radar response from the Amazon rain forest was studied to determine the suitability of this region for use as a standard target to calibrate a scatterometer like that proposed for the National Ocean Satellite System (NOSS). Backscattering observations made by the SEASAT-1 scatterometer system show the Amazon rain forest to be a homogeneous, azimuthally-isotropic, radar target which is insensitive to polarization. The variation with angle of incidence may be adequately modeled as sigma deg (dB) = alpha theta + beta with typical values for the incidence-angle coefficient from 0.07 dB deg to 0.15 dB/deg. A small diurnal effect occurs, with measurements at sunrise being 0.5 dB to 1 dB higher than the rest of the day. Maximum likelihood estimation algorithms are presented which permit determination of relative bias and true pointing angle for each beam. Specific implementation of these algorithms for the proposed NOSS scatterometer system is also discussed.

  8. Fully automated digital holographic interferometer for 360 deg contour and displacement measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    López, Ubaldo Uribe; Hernández-Montes, María del Socorro; Mendoza-Santoyo, Fernando

    2016-12-01

    A fully automated optomechatronic system based on an out-of-plane sensitivity digital holographic interferometer is proposed to measure both the 360-deg object's contour and its surface displacements due to sound stimulation. The digital holograms to measure the surface contour are acquired using the two points of illumination method whose optimal height sensitivity for this particular case is Δz=2.98 mm. This method renders a phase map that has a tilt produced by the angle change of the object beam relative to the optical axis, a tilt that is removed by subtracting the phase difference from a physical reference plane tangentially located at the back of the object, which contrasts with former methods that locate this plane usually in the middle portion of the object. By using rotation and averaging matrices, the 360-deg object's contour digital reconstruction was obtained, and with it, the displacements around the object can be accurately placed on its surface. The main contribution of the proposed fully automated system is to get a 360-deg object's contour and its surface displacements in a hands-free rapid and accurate evaluation.

  9. Nearby molecular clouds. I - Ophiuchus-Sagittarius, b greater than 10 deg

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Huang, Y.-L.; Lebrun, F.

    1984-01-01

    Observations of a 370-sq-deg area at b = 10-24 deg in the Oph-Sag region at the 115-GHz 1-0 transition of CO, obtained with a 256-channel spectrometer on the 1.2-m mm-wave telescope at Columbia University during winter 1980-1981 are reported. Observing parameters include full beamwidth at half power 8 arcmin, resolution 1 or 0.5 deg, velocity resolution 0.65 km/s, and frequency-shifting-mode shift 5 MHz; the data-processing scheme is described in detail. The results are presented in a map and a diagram and discussed with regard to other observations. An extended complex of molecular clouds near the sun and probably connected with the Aquila Rift, the Rho Oph Cloud, and the Gould Belt is detected. A correlation is found between the CO line intensity and the H I deficiency observed in the region, suggesting H2 formation with H2 column densities up to 1 x 10 to the 21st/sq cm.

  10. Sexy DEG/ENaC channels involved in gustatory detection of fruit fly pheromones.

    PubMed

    Pikielny, Claudio W

    2012-11-06

    Hydrocarbon pheromones on the cuticle of Drosophila melanogaster modulate the complex courtship behavior of males. Recently, three members of the degenerin/epithelial Na+ channel (DEG/ENaC) family of sodium channel subunits, Ppk25, Ppk23, and Ppk29 (also known as Nope), have been shown to function in gustatory perception of courtship-modulating contact pheromones. All three proteins are required for the activation of male courtship by female pheromones. Specific interactions between two of them have been demonstrated in cultured cells, suggesting that, in a subset of cells where they are coexpressed, these three subunits function within a common heterotrimeric DEG/ENaC channel. Such a DEG/ENaC channel may be gated by pheromones, either directly or indirectly, or alternatively may control the excitability of pheromone-sensing cells. In addition, these studies identify taste neurons that respond specifically to courtship-modulating pheromones and mediate their effects on male behavior. Two types of pheromone-sensing taste neurons, F and M cells, have been defined on the basis of their specific response to either female or male pheromones. These reports set the stage for the dissection of the molecular and cellular mechanisms that mediate gustatory detection of contact pheromones.

  11. Vortex lift augmentation by suction on a 60 deg swept Gothic wing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Taylor, A. H.; Jackson, L. R.; Huffman, J. K.

    1982-01-01

    An experimental investigation was conducted in the Langley high-speed 7- by 10-foot wind tunnel to determine the aerodynamic performance of suction applied near the wing tips above the trailing edge of a 60 deg swept Gothic wing. Moveable suction inlets were symmetrically mounted in the proximity of the trailing edge, and the amount of suction was varied to maximize wing lift. Tests were conducted at Mach 0.15, 0.30, and 0.45, and the angle of attack was varied from -4 to 50 deg. The suction augmentation increases the lift coefficient over the entire range of angle of attack. The lift improvement exceeds the unaugmented wing lift by over 20%. Moreover, the augmented lift exceeds the lift predicted by vortex lattice theory to 30 deg angle of attack. Suction augmentation is postulated to strengthen the vortex system by increasing its velocity and making it more concentrated. This causes the vortex breakdown to be delayed to a higher angle of attack

  12. Real-time elastography in the diagnosis of prostate tumor.

    PubMed

    Ferrari, F S; Scorzelli, A; Megliola, A; Drudi, F M; Trovarelli, S; Ponchietti, R

    2009-03-01

    Sommario SCOPO: Verificare il guadagno diagnostico dell'elastosonografia transrettale real-time (RTE) rispetto alla ecografia transrettale B-mode nel rilievo del tumore prostatico in una popolazione di pazienti con sospetto di neoplasia. MATERIALI E METODI: Ottantaquattro pazienti con sospetto clinico-laboratoristico di tumore prostatico sono stati valutati mediante ecografia transrettale, elastosonografia e biopsia transperineale. RISULTATI: L'esame bioptico è stato considerato lo standard di riferimento. Nella valutazione per paziente, la sensibilità dell'ecografia B-mode è stata del 56%; la specificità dell'80%; il valore predittivo positivo (VPP) del 70%, il valore predittivo negativo (VPN) del 67%. Nella valutazione sul totale dei prelievi bioptici la sensibilità è stata del 33%, la specificità del 92%, il VPP del 69%, il VPN del 73%. La RTE ha ottenuto i seguenti risultati nella valutazione per paziente: sensibilità 51%, specificità 75%, VPP 64% e VPN 64%. Nella valutazione sul totale dei prelievi bioptici: sensibilità 36%, specificità 93%, VPP 72%, VPN 74%. Confrontando i valori di accuratezza dell'ecografia B-mode e della RTE per i tumori della zona periferica, è stata trovata una differenza significativa. Nella valutazione sul totale dei prelievi bioptici della zona periferica la sensibilità dell'ecografia B-mode è stata del 48%, la specificità dell'81%, il VPP del 75%, il VPN del 58%. La RTE ha ottenuto i seguenti valori: sensibilità 66%, specificità 78%, VPP 77%, VPN 67%. CONCLUSIONI: La RTE rappresenta un valore aggiunto all'ecografia B-mode. Ha presentato un'accuratezza superiore rispetto all'esame B-mode nella valutazione della prostata periferica e nella possibilità di indirizzare i prelievi bioptici.

  13. Haemonchus contortus Acetylcholine Receptors of the DEG-3 Subfamily and Their Role in Sensitivity to Monepantel

    PubMed Central

    Rufener, Lucien; Mäser, Pascal; Roditi, Isabel; Kaminsky, Ronald

    2009-01-01

    Gastro-intestinal nematodes in ruminants, especially Haemonchus contortus, are a global threat to sheep and cattle farming. The emergence of drug resistance, and even multi-drug resistance to the currently available classes of broad spectrum anthelmintics, further stresses the need for new drugs active against gastro-intestinal nematodes. A novel chemical class of synthetic anthelmintics, the Amino-Acetonitrile Derivatives (AADs), was recently discovered and the drug candidate AAD-1566 (monepantel) was chosen for further development. Studies with Caenorhabditis elegans suggested that the AADs act via nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChR) of the nematode-specific DEG-3 subfamily. Here we identify nAChR genes of the DEG-3 subfamily from H. contortus and investigate their role in AAD sensitivity. Using a novel in vitro selection procedure, mutant H. contortus populations of reduced sensitivity to AAD-1566 were obtained. Sequencing of full-length nAChR coding sequences from AAD-susceptible H. contortus and their AAD-1566-mutant progeny revealed 2 genes to be affected. In the gene monepantel-1 (Hco-mptl-1, formerly named Hc-acr-23H), a panel of mutations was observed exclusively in the AAD-mutant nematodes, including deletions at intron-exon boundaries that result in mis-spliced transcripts and premature stop codons. In the gene Hco-des-2H, the same 135 bp insertion in the 5′ UTR created additional, out of frame start codons in 2 independent H. contortus AAD-mutants. Furthermore, the AAD mutants exhibited altered expression levels of the DEG-3 subfamily nAChR genes Hco-mptl-1, Hco-des-2H and Hco-deg-3H as quantified by real-time PCR. These results indicate that Hco-MPTL-1 and other nAChR subunits of the DEG-3 subfamily constitute a target for AAD action against H. contortus and that loss-of-function mutations in the corresponding genes may reduce the sensitivity to AADs. PMID:19360096

  14. [Empathy in the nurse practitioners of medical area].

    PubMed

    Facco, Simona; Cirio, Luigi; Galante, Jenni; Dimonte, Valerio

    2014-01-01

    Introduzione. Attualmente sono pochi gli studi che indagano la capacità empatica nella popolazione infermieristica. Obiettivo di questo studio è analizzare la capacità empatica degli infermieri che prestano servizio in area medica in relazione a genere, età, formazione e anzianità di servizio. Materiali e metodi. Lo studio è di tipo descrittivo-osservazionale, su un campione di 60 infermieri. Lo strumento utilizzato per la valutazione dell’empatia è la scala di valutazione JSPE (versione HP) costituita da 20 item, in cui gli intervistati indicano il loro accordo o disaccordo con una scala Likert a 7 punti. Il range di valori possibili è da 20 a 140: il punteggio più alto corrisponde a una maggiore capacità empatica. Il questionario ha dimostrato la validità e l'affidabilità della versione italiana del JSPE con un coefficiente alfa di Cronbach di 0,85. Il punteggio Il livello di significatività statistica accettato è pari a P ≤ 0,05. Risultati. La media della capacità empatica dei professionisti intervistati è risultata di 104/140. Dai dati analizzati, emerge che con l’aumentare degli anni di servizio alla professione si verifica una diminuzione dell’empatia così come il permanere nello stesso reparto provoca una diminuzione empatica. Inoltre è emersa una maggiore empatia degli infermieri della neurologia rispetto alla medicina generale. Conclusioni. Lo studio evidenzia come i professionisti abbiano necessità di incrementare la capacità empatica soprattutto col trascorrere degli anni di esercizio alla professione. Probabilmente come meccanismo di difesa, il professionista tende a proteggersi dal coinvolgimento emotivo, favorendo le attività di natura più tecnico-gestuale, piuttosto che relazionale.

  15. Low-speed aerodynamic characteristics of a hypersonic research airplane concept having a 70 deg swept delta wing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Creel, T. R., Jr.; Penland, J. A.

    1974-01-01

    An experimental investigation of the low-speed static longitudinal, lateral and directional stability characteristics of a hypersonic research airplane concept having a 70 deg swept delta wing was conducted in a low-speed tunnel with a 12-foot (3.66 meter) octagonal test section. Aircraft component variations included: (1) fuselage shape modifications, (2) tip fins, (3) center vertical fin, (4) wing camber, and (5) wing planform. This investigation was conducted at a dynamic pressure of 262.4 Pa (5.48 psf), a Mach number of 0.06, and a Reynolds number of 2.24 million, based on body length. Tests were conducted through an angle-of-attack range of 0 deg to 30 deg with elevon deflections from +5.0 deg to minus 30.0 deg. The complete configuration exhibited positive static longitudinal, lateral and directional stability up to angles of attack of at least 20 deg and was trimmable to lift coefficients of at least 0.70 with elevon deflections of minus 30 deg.

  16. Light intensity and quality stimulated Deg1-dependent cleavage of PSII components in the chloroplasts of maize.

    PubMed

    Zienkiewicz, Maksymilian; Kokoszka, Nela; Bacławska, Ilona; Drożak, Anna; Romanowska, Elżbieta

    2013-06-01

    Recent studies have revealed that photo damages inducing high white light illumination of C3-type plant Arabidopsis thaliana promotes Deg1-mediated degradation of not only photosystem II core proteins D1/D2 but also minor LHCII proteins CP26, CP29 and PSII-associated PsbS protein. Using biochemical and immunological approaches we show that that the substrate pool of the heterologously expressed Deg1 ortholog protease from C4-type plant Zea mays is very similar to that of the A. thaliana in both mesophyll and bundle sheath chloroplasts. The Deg1-mediated degradation of photosystem II components has been observed after high light and red light treatment of maize leaves, while far red light did not induce Deg1-mediated degradation. Moreover, two isoforms of the Deg1 protease have been identified. Their genes are localized in chromosomes 6 and 8. The Pull-Down assay indicated that both proteins were able to bind the same set of chloroplast proteins, nevertheless in vitro digestion of Z. mays thylakoids in the form of inside-out vesicles has raveled that only Deg1 found in chromosome 8 exhibited proteolytic activity. Interestingly, the relative amount of Deg1 proteases in Z. mays bundle sheath chloroplasts (BS) is significantly higher than in mesophyll chloroplasts (M) in spite of lower content of PSII (∼20%) in BS. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  17. Inactivation of the Deg protease family in the cyanobacterium Synechocystis sp. PCC 6803 has impact on the outer cell layers.

    PubMed

    Cheregi, Otilia; Miranda, Hélder; Gröbner, Gerhard; Funk, Christiane

    2015-11-01

    The serine type Deg/HtrA proteases are distributed in a wide range of organisms from Escherichia coli to humans. The cyanobacterium Synechocystis sp. PCC 6803 possesses three Deg protease orthologues: HtrA, HhoA and HhoB. Previously we compared Synechocystis 6803 wild type cells exposed to mild or severe stress conditions with a mutant lacking all three Deg proteases and demonstrated that stress had strong impact on the proteomes and metabolomes. To identify the biochemical processes, which this protease family is involved in, here we compared Synechocystis sp. PCC 6803 wild type cells with a mutant lacking all three Deg proteases grown under normal growth conditions (30°C and 40 μmol photons m(-2) s(-1)). Deletion of the Deg proteases lead to the down-regulation of proteins related to the biosynthesis of outer cell layers (e.g. the GDP mannose 4,6-dehydratase) and affected protein secretion. During the late growth phase of the culture Deg proteases were found to be secreted to the extracellular medium of the Synechocystis sp. PCC 6803 wild type strain. While cyanobacterial Deg proteases seem to act mainly in the periplasmic space, deletion of the three proteases influences the proteome and metabolome of the whole cell. Impairments in the outer cell layers of the triple mutant might explain the higher sensitivity toward light and oxidative stress, which was observed earlier by Barker and coworkers. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Stellar oxygen abundances. 3: The oxygen abundance of the very metal poor halo star BD -13 deg 3442

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    King, Jeremy R.

    1994-01-01

    A spectrum of the very metal poor ((Fe/H) approximately -3) halo star BD -13 deg 3442 is presented and used to determine this star's oxygen abundance. Our determination makes BD -13 deg 3442 the most metal poor dwarf (though a somewhat evolved one) with an O abundance determination. The O abundance (determined from the 7774 A O I triped) and (O/Fe) ratio is compared to that of two other metal-poor stars. The (O/Fe) ratio of BD -13 deg 3442 is found to be approximately 0.35 dex larger than that of the other two halo stars. Possible implications of this result are discussed.

  19. Stellar oxygen abundances. 3: The oxygen abundance of the very metal poor halo star BD -13 deg 3442

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    King, Jeremy R.

    1994-01-01

    A spectrum of the very metal poor ((Fe/H) approximately -3) halo star BD -13 deg 3442 is presented and used to determine this star's oxygen abundance. Our determination makes BD -13 deg 3442 the most metal poor dwarf (though a somewhat evolved one) with an O abundance determination. The O abundance (determined from the 7774 A O I triped) and (O/Fe) ratio is compared to that of two other metal-poor stars. The (O/Fe) ratio of BD -13 deg 3442 is found to be approximately 0.35 dex larger than that of the other two halo stars. Possible implications of this result are discussed.

  20. Miyun 232 MHz survey 1: Fields centered at: alpha:00(h)41(m), delta:41 deg 12 min and alpha: 07(h)00(m),delta:35 deg 00 min

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zhang, Xiz-Hen; Zheng, Yi-Jia; Chen, Hong-Sheng; Wang, Shou-Guan

    1992-01-01

    A new meter-wave survey of sky region north of declination +30 deg is carried out with the Miyun 232 MHz Synthesis Radio Telescope (MSRT). The instrument, observation, and method of data reduction are briefly described. A preliminary catalog, first of a series, for two 8 deg. x 8 deg. regions centered respectively at 35 deg. is presented. On the average 4 - 5 sources per square degree are recorded with position accuracy of 5 sec. / S(Jy). BGPW scale is adopted for the flux density calibration. The accuracy of flux determination is limited by background fluctuation which is about 30 mJy. The catalog is complete for sources with flux larger than 0.25 Jy. The total number of sources listed in the paper amounts to 687. Several extended sources, sources with convex spectra, and one GPS source were found. Spectra of sources with flux larger than 0.5 Jy were also given.

  1. Wind-tunnel investigation of the flow correction for a model-mounted angle of attack sensor at angles of attack from -10 deg to 110 deg. [Langley 12-foot low speed wind tunnel test

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Moul, T. M.

    1979-01-01

    A preliminary wind tunnel investigation was undertaken to determine the flow correction for a vane angle of attack sensor over an angle of attack range from -10 deg to 110 deg. The sensor was mounted ahead of the wing on a 1/5 scale model of a general aviation airplane. It was shown that the flow correction was substantial, reaching about 15 deg at an angle of attack of 90 deg. The flow correction was found to increase as the sensor was moved closer to the wing or closer to the fuselage. The experimentally determined slope of the flow correction versus the measured angle of attack below the stall angle of attack agreed closely with the slope of flight data from a similar full scale airplane.

  2. Wind-tunnel pressure data at Mach numbers from 1.6 to 4.63 for a series of bodies of revolution at angles of attack from -4 deg to 60 deg

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Landrum, E. J.

    1977-01-01

    The tabulated results of wind tunnel pressure tests are presented without analysis. The data were obtained for a series of six bodies of revolution at Mach numbers of 1.6, 2.3, 2.96, and 4.63 for angles of attack from -4 deg. to 60 deg. The Reynolds number used for these tests was 6.6 x 6/million per meter.

  3. A 1500 deg2 near infrared proper motion catalogue from the UKIDSS Large Area Survey

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smith, Leigh; Lucas, P. W.; Burningham, B.; Jones, H. R. A.; Smart, R. L.; Andrei, A. H.; Catalán, S.; Pinfield, D. J.

    2014-02-01

    The United Kingdom Infrared Deep Sky Survey (UKIDSS) Large Area Survey (LAS) began in 2005, with the start of the UKIDSS programme as a 7 year effort to survey roughly 4000 deg2 at high Galactic latitudes in Y, J, H and K bands. The survey also included a significant quantity of two epoch J band observations, with an epoch baseline greater than 2 years to calculate proper motions. We present a near-infrared proper motion catalogue for the 1500 deg2 of the two epoch LAS data, which includes 135 625 stellar sources and a further 88 324 with ambiguous morphological classifications, all with motions detected above the 5σ level. We developed a custom proper motion pipeline which we describe here. Our catalogue agrees well with the proper motion data supplied for a 300 deg2 subset in the current Wide Field Camera Science Archive (WSA) 10th data release (DR10) catalogue, and in various optical catalogues, but it benefits from a larger matching radius and hence a larger upper proper motion detection limit. We provide absolute proper motions, using LAS galaxies for the relative to absolute correction. By using local second-order polynomial transformations, as opposed to linear transformations in the WSA, we correct better for any local distortions in the focal plane, not including the radial distortion that is removed by the UKIDSS pipeline. We present the results of proper motion searches for new brown dwarfs and white dwarfs. We discuss 41 sources in the WSA DR10 overlap with our catalogue with proper motions >300 mas yr-1, several of which are new detections. We present 15 new candidate ultracool dwarf binary systems.

  4. A Drosophila DEG/ENaC channel subunit is required for male response to female pheromones

    PubMed Central

    Lin, Heping; Mann, Kevin J.; Starostina, Elena; Kinser, Ronald D.; Pikielny, Claudio W.

    2005-01-01

    Odorants and pheromones as well as sweet- and bitter-tasting small molecules are perceived through activation of G protein-coupled chemosensory receptors. In contrast, gustatory detection of salty and sour tastes may involve direct gating of sodium channels of the DEG/ENaC family by sodium and hydrogen ions, respectively. We have found that ppk25, a Drosophila melanogaster gene encoding a DEG/ENaC channel subunit, is expressed at highest levels in the male appendages responsible for gustatory and olfactory detection of female pheromones: the legs, wings, and antennae. Mutations in the ppk25 gene reduce or even abolish male courtship response to females in the dark, conditions under which detection of female pheromones is an essential courtship-activating sensory input. In contrast, the same mutations have no effect on other behaviors tested. Importantly, ppk25 mutant males that show no response to females in the dark execute all of the normal steps of courtship behavior in the presence of visible light, suggesting that ppk25 is required for activation of courtship behavior by chemosensory perception of female pheromones. Finally, a ppk25 mutant allele predicted to encode a truncated protein has dominant-negative properties, suggesting that the normal Ppk25 protein acts as part of a multiprotein complex. Together, these results indicate that ppk25 is necessary for response to female pheromones by D. melanogaster males, and suggest that members of the DEG/ENaC family of genes play a wider role in chemical senses than previously suspected. PMID:16129837

  5. On the nature of the nova-like variable CD-42 deg 14462

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Guinan, E. F.; Sion, E. M.

    1981-01-01

    Low dispersion long and short wavelength IUE spectra of the nova like system CD-42 deg 14462 were obtained on August 24 U.T. The short wave spectrum exhibits absorption features due to C III (lambda 1175), Lalpha 1216), NV (lambda1240), HeII (lambda 1640), SiIV (lambda1394), NIV (lambda1875) with CIV (lambda1550) as a P Cygni feature with blue shifted absorption suggesting the presence of material leaving the system. Possible interpretations of this object are discussed.

  6. U BV RI PHOTOMETRIC STANDARD STARS AROUND THE SKY AT +50 deg DECLINATION

    SciTech Connect

    Landolt, Arlo U.

    2013-11-01

    U BV RI photoelectric observations have been made of 335 stars around the sky, and centered approximately at +50 deg declination. The majority of the stars fall in the magnitude range 9 < V < 16, and in the color range –0.3 < (B – V) < +1.8. Those 243 stars best suited as new broadband photometric standard stars average 12.5 measures each from data taken on 98 different nights over a period of 17 years at the Kitt Peak National and Lowell Observatories.

  7. Nucleation at the phase transition near 40 deg. C in MnAs nanodisks

    SciTech Connect

    Jenichen, B.; Takagaki, Y.; Ploog, K. H.; Darowski, N.; Feyerherm, R.; Zizak, I.

    2006-07-31

    The phase transition near 40 deg. C of both as-grown thin epitaxial MnAs films prepared by molecular beam epitaxy on GaAs(001) and nanometer-scale disks fabricated from the same films is studied. The disks are found to exhibit a pronounced hysteresis in the temperature curve of the phase composition. In contrast, supercooling and overheating take place far less in the samples of continuous layers. These phenomena are explained in terms of the necessary formation of nuclei of the other phase in each of the disks independent from each other. The influence of the elastic strains in the disks is reduced considerably.

  8. Reynolds Number and Leading-Edge Bluntness Effects on a 65 Deg Delta Wing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Luckring, J. M.

    2002-01-01

    A 65 deg delta wing has been tested in the National Transonic Facility (NTF) at mean aerodynamic chord Reynolds numbers from 6 million to 120 million at subsonic and transonic speeds. The configuration incorporated systematic variation of the leading edge bluntness. The analysis for this paper is focused on the Reynolds number and bluntness effects at subsonic speeds (M = 0.4) from this data set. The results show significant effects of both these parameters on the onset and progression of leading-edge vortex separation.

  9. Compressibility and Leading-Edge Bluntness Effects for a 65 Deg Delta Wing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Luckring, J. M.

    2004-01-01

    A 65 deg. delta wing has been tested in the National Transonic Facility (NTF) at mean aerodynamic chord Reynolds numbers from 6 million to 120 million at subsonic and transonic speeds. The configuration incorporated a systematic variation of the leading edge bluntness. The analysis for this paper is focused on the compressibility and bluntness effects primarily at a Reynolds number of 6 million from this data set. Emphasis is placed upon on the onset and progression of leading-edge vortex separation, and compressibility is shown to promote this separation. Comparisons with recent publications show that compressibility and Reynolds number have opposite effects on blunt leading edge vortex separation

  10. Transonic Reynolds Number and Leading-Edge Bluntness Effects on a 65 deg Delta Wing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Luckring, J. M.

    2003-01-01

    A 65 deg delta wing has been tested in the National Transonic Facility (NTF) at mean aerodynamic chord Reynolds numbers from 6 million to 120 million at subsonic and transonic speeds. The configuration incorporated a systematic variation of the leading edge bluntness. The analysis for this paper is focused on the Reynolds number and bluntness effects at transonic speeds (M = 0.85) from this data set. The results show significant effects of both these parameters on the onset and progression of leading- edge vortex separation.

  11. Transonic Reynolds Number and Leading-Edge Bluntness Effects on a 65 deg Delta Wing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Luckring, J. M.

    2003-01-01

    A 65 deg delta wing has been tested in the National Transonic Facility (NTF) at mean aerodynamic chord Reynolds numbers from 6 million to 120 million at subsonic and transonic speeds. The configuration incorporated a systematic variation of the leading edge bluntness. The analysis for this paper is focused on the Reynolds number and bluntness effects at transonic speeds (M=0.85) from this data set. The results show significant effects of both these parameters on the onset and progression of leading-edge vortex separation.

  12. The 90 deg Acoustic Spectrum of a High Speed Air Jet

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Goldstein, Marvin E.

    2004-01-01

    Tam and Auriault successfully predicted the acoustic spectrum at 90deg to the axis of a high speed air jet by using an acoustic equation derived from ad hoc kinetic theory-type arguments. The present paper shows that similar predictions can be obtained by using a rigorous acoustic analogy approach together with actual measurements of the relevant acoustic source correlations. This puts the result on a firmer basis and enables its extension to new situations and to the prediction of sound at other observation angles.

  13. ISO spectroscopy of young intermediate-mass stars in the BD+40deg4124 group

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van den Ancker, M. E.; Wesselius, P. R.; Tielens, A. G. G. M.

    2000-03-01

    We present the results of ISO SWS and LWS grating scans towards the three brightest members of the BD+40deg4124 group in the infrared: BD+40deg4124 (B2Ve), LkHα 224 (A7e) and the embedded source LkHα 225. Emission from the pure rotational lines of H_2, from ro-vibrational transitions of CO, from PAHs, from H i recombination lines and from the infrared fine structure lines of [Fe ii], [Si ii], [S i], [O i], [O iii] and [C ii] was detected. These emission lines arise in the combination of a low-density (~ 102 cm-3) H ii region with a clumpy PDR in the case of BD+40deg4124. The lower transitions of the infrared H i lines observed in BD+40deg4124 are optically thick; most likely they arise in either a dense wind or a circumstellar disk. This same region is also responsible for the optical H i lines and the radio continuum emission. In the lines of sight towards LkHα 224 and LkHα 225, the observed emission lines arise in a non-dissociative shock produced by a slow (~ 20 km s-1) outflow arising from LkHα 225. Toward LkHα 225 we also observe a dissociative shock, presumably located closer to the outflow source than the non-dissociative shock. In the line of sight towards LkHα 225 we observed absorption features due to solid water ice and amorphous silicates, and due to gas-phase H_2O, CO and CO_2. No solid CO_2 was detected towards LkHα 225, making this the first line of sight where the bulk of the CO_2 is in the gas-phase. Based on observations with ISO, an ESA project with instruments funded by ESA Member States (especially the PI countries: France, Germany, the Netherlands and the United Kingdom) and with the participation of ISAS and NASA.

  14. The cyclic stress-strain behavior of PWA 1480 at 650 deg C

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gabb, T. P.; Welsch, G. E.

    1986-01-01

    The monotonic plastic flow behavior of several single crystal nickel-base, superalloys has been shown to vary significantly with crystallographic orientation. In the present study, the cyclic plastic flow response of one such alloy, PWA 1480, was examined at 650 deg C in air. Single crystal specimens aligned near several crystallographic directions were tested in fully reversed, total-strain-controlled low cycle fatigue tests at a frequency of 0.1 Hz. The cyclic stress-strain response and general cyclic hardening behavior was analyzed as a function of crystallographic orientation and inelastic strain range.

  15. Compressibility and Leading-Edge Bluntness Effects for a 65 Deg Delta Wing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Luckring, J. M.

    2004-01-01

    A 65 deg. delta wing has been tested in the National Transonic Facility (NTF) at mean aerodynamic chord Reynolds numbers from 6 million to 120 million at subsonic and transonic speeds. The configuration incorporated a systematic variation of the leading edge bluntness. The analysis for this paper is focused on the compressibility and bluntness effects primarily at a Reynolds number of 6 million from this data set. Emphasis is placed upon on the onset and progression of leading-edge vortex separation, and compressibility is shown to promote this separation. Comparisons with recent publications show that compressibility and Reynolds number have opposite effects on blunt leading edge vortex separation

  16. Transonic Reynolds Number and Leading-Edge Bluntness Effects on a 65 deg Delta Wing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Luckring, J. M.

    2003-01-01

    A 65 deg delta wing has been tested in the National Transonic Facility (NTF) at mean aerodynamic chord Reynolds numbers from 6 million to 120 million at subsonic and transonic speeds. The configuration incorporated a systematic variation of the leading edge bluntness. The analysis for this paper is focused on the Reynolds number and bluntness effects at transonic speeds (M = 0.85) from this data set. The results show significant effects of both these parameters on the onset and progression of leading- edge vortex separation.

  17. Transonic Reynolds Number and Leading-Edge Bluntness Effects on a 65 deg Delta Wing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Luckring, J. M.

    2003-01-01

    A 65 deg delta wing has been tested in the National Transonic Facility (NTF) at mean aerodynamic chord Reynolds numbers from 6 million to 120 million at subsonic and transonic speeds. The configuration incorporated a systematic variation of the leading edge bluntness. The analysis for this paper is focused on the Reynolds number and bluntness effects at transonic speeds (M=0.85) from this data set. The results show significant effects of both these parameters on the onset and progression of leading-edge vortex separation.

  18. Supersonic aerodynamic characteristics of some reentry concepts for angles of attack to 90 deg

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Spearman, M. L.

    1985-11-01

    Past studies of reentry vehicles tested to high angles of attack (up to 90 deg) in the Mach number range from 2 to 4.8 are reviewed. Two basic planforms are considered: highly-swept deltas and circular. The delta concepts include variations in cross section (and thus volume) and in camber distribution. The effectiveness of various types of aerodynamic control devices is also included. The purpose of the paper is to examine the characteristics of the vehicles with a view toward the potential usefulness of such concepts in a flight regime that would include reentry from space into the atmosphere followed by a transition to sustained atmospheric flight.

  19. Gates for electron confinement in Si/SiGe 2DEGs at cryogenic temperatures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Slinker, K. A.; Klein, L. J.; Goswami, S.; Truitt, J. L.; Savage, D. E.; Lagally, M. G.; van der Weide, D. W.; Coppersmith, S. N.; Eriksson, M. A.; Chu, J. O.; Ott, J. A.; Mooney, P. M.

    2004-03-01

    A major challenge is the fabrication of ultra-low leakage gates for 2DEG confinement in Si/SiGe at cryogenic temperatures. Here we report results on the fabrication of gates by four different methods: metallic Schottky gates, metal-oxide-silicon, metal-dielectric-silicon using spin-on glass, and lateral etch-defined gates. Lateral etch-defined gates are shown to produce quantum dots displaying Coulomb blockade. We discuss the prospects for producing similar structures using truly metallic gates in combination with etch-defined trenches.

  20. Experimental transonic flutter characteristics of two 72 deg-sweep delta-wing models

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Doggett, Robert V., Jr.; Soistmann, David L.; Spain, Charles V.; Parker, Ellen C.; Silva, Walter A.

    1989-01-01

    Transonic flutter boundaries are presented for two simple, 72 deg. sweep, low-aspect-ratio wing models. One model was an aspect-ratio 0.65 delta wing; the other model was an aspect-ratio 0.54 clipped-delta wing. Flutter boundaries for the delta wing are presented for the Mach number range of 0.56 to 1.22. Flutter boundaries for the clipped-delta wing are presented for the Mach number range of 0.72 to 0.95. Selected vibration characteristics of the models are also presented.

  1. Thermal-triggerd Proteinquake Leads to Disassembly of DegP Hexamer as an Imperative Activation Step

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Shanshan; Wang, Rui; Li, Deyong; Ma, Jing; Li, Heng; He, Xiaochuan; Chang, Zengyi; Weng, Yuxiang

    2014-04-01

    The Escherichia coli DegP has been reported to function both as molecular chaperone and protease for the quality control of outer membrane protein biogenesis. Activation of the inactive DegP hexamers was believed to occur via their disassembly into trimeric units and subsequent reassembly into larger oligomers (12-mers and 24-mers). Here, we analyzed the thermal stability and the unfolding dynamics of the different secondary structure components of the DegP hexamers using Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy and temperature-jump nanosecond time-resolved IR difference absorbance spectroscopy. We found that the interfacial secondary structure components possess a degreed thermal stability, with the disassembly of the DegP hexamers follows a ``proteinquake'' manner, such that the fully exposed parts of the interfacial β-sheets serving as the temperature sensor and epicenter to drive the sequential unfolding/disassembly process that finishes within about 134 ns at room temperature.

  2. Temperature dependence, 0 to 40 deg. C, of the mineralogy of Portland cement paste in the presence of calcium carbonate

    SciTech Connect

    Matschei, Thomas; Glasser, Fredrik P.

    2010-05-15

    Thermodynamic calculations disclose that significant changes of the AFm and AFt phases and amount of Ca(OH){sub 2} occur between 0 and 40 deg. C; the changes are affected by added calcite. Hydrogarnet, C{sub 3}AH{sub 6}, is destabilised at low carbonate contents and/or low temperatures < 8 deg. C and is unlikely to form in calcite-saturated Portland cement compositions cured at < 40 deg. C. The AFm phase actually consists of several structurally-related compositions which form incomplete solid solutions. The AFt phase is close to its ideal stoichiometry at 25 deg. C but at low temperatures, < 20 deg. C, extensive solid solutions occur with CO{sub 3}-ettringite. A nomenclature scheme is proposed and AFm-AFt phase relations are presented in isothermal sections at 5, 25 and 40 deg. C. The AFt and AFm phase relations are depicted in terms of competition between OH, CO{sub 3} and SO{sub 4} for anion sites. Diagrams are presented showing how changing temperatures affect the volume of the solid phases with implications for space filling by the paste. Specimen calculations are related to regimes likely to occur in commercial cements and suggestions are made for testing thermal impacts on cement properties by defining four regimes. It is concluded that calculation provides a rapid and effective tool for exploring the response of cement systems to changing composition and temperature and to optimise cement performance.

  3. Transcriptomic Analysis Identifies Differentially Expressed Genes (DEGs) Associated with Bolting and Flowering in Radish (Raphanus sativus L.)

    PubMed Central

    Nie, Shanshan; Li, Chao; Wang, Yan; Xu, Liang; Muleke, Everlyne M.; Tang, Mingjia; Sun, Xiaochuan; Liu, Liwang

    2016-01-01

    The transition of vegetative growth to bolting and flowering is an important process in the life cycle of plants, which is determined by numerous genes forming an intricate network of bolting and flowering. However, no comprehensive identification and profiling of bolting and flowering-related genes have been carried out in radish. In this study, RNA-Seq technology was applied to analyze the differential gene expressions during the transition from vegetative stage to reproductive stage in radish. A total of 5922 differentially expressed genes (DEGs) including 779 up-regulated and 5143 down-regulated genes were isolated. Functional enrichment analysis suggested that some DEGs were involved in hormone signaling pathways and the transcriptional regulation of bolting and flowering. KEGG-based analysis identified 37 DEGs being involved in phytohormone signaling pathways. Moreover, 95 DEGs related to bolting and flowering were identified and integrated into various flowering pathways. Several critical genes including FT, CO, SOC1, FLC, and LFY were characterized and profiled by RT-qPCR analysis. Correlation analysis indicated that 24 miRNA-DEG pairs were involved in radish bolting and flowering. Finally, a miRNA-DEG-based schematic model of bolting and flowering regulatory network was proposed in radish. These outcomes provided significant insights into genetic control of radish bolting and flowering, and would facilitate unraveling molecular regulatory mechanism underlying bolting and flowering in root vegetable crops. PMID:27252709

  4. Transcriptomic Analysis Identifies Differentially Expressed Genes (DEGs) Associated with Bolting and Flowering in Radish (Raphanus sativus L.).

    PubMed

    Nie, Shanshan; Li, Chao; Wang, Yan; Xu, Liang; Muleke, Everlyne M; Tang, Mingjia; Sun, Xiaochuan; Liu, Liwang

    2016-01-01

    The transition of vegetative growth to bolting and flowering is an important process in the life cycle of plants, which is determined by numerous genes forming an intricate network of bolting and flowering. However, no comprehensive identification and profiling of bolting and flowering-related genes have been carried out in radish. In this study, RNA-Seq technology was applied to analyze the differential gene expressions during the transition from vegetative stage to reproductive stage in radish. A total of 5922 differentially expressed genes (DEGs) including 779 up-regulated and 5143 down-regulated genes were isolated. Functional enrichment analysis suggested that some DEGs were involved in hormone signaling pathways and the transcriptional regulation of bolting and flowering. KEGG-based analysis identified 37 DEGs being involved in phytohormone signaling pathways. Moreover, 95 DEGs related to bolting and flowering were identified and integrated into various flowering pathways. Several critical genes including FT, CO, SOC1, FLC, and LFY were characterized and profiled by RT-qPCR analysis. Correlation analysis indicated that 24 miRNA-DEG pairs were involved in radish bolting and flowering. Finally, a miRNA-DEG-based schematic model of bolting and flowering regulatory network was proposed in radish. These outcomes provided significant insights into genetic control of radish bolting and flowering, and would facilitate unraveling molecular regulatory mechanism underlying bolting and flowering in root vegetable crops.

  5. The Structure of Sapphire Implanted with Carbon at Room Temperature and 1000 deg. C

    SciTech Connect

    Alves, E.; Marques, C.; Safran, G.; McHargue, Carl J.

    2009-03-10

    Carbon was implanted into sapphire at various temperatures as part of a study of the different defect structures produced by a series of light ions. Implantations were made with 150 keV ions to fluences of 1x10{sup 16} and 1x10{sup 17} ions/cm{sup 2} at room temperature (RT) and 1000 deg. C. The defect structures were characterized using Rutherford backscattering-channeling (RBS-C) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). The RBS-C spectra indicated low residual disorder for RT implantation at 1x10{sup 16} C{sup +}/cm{sup 2}. The de-channeling approached the random value at 1x10{sup 17} C{sup +}/cm{sup 2} and the TEM examination revealed a buried amorphous layer containing embedded sapphire nanocrystals. Damaged layers containing planar defects generally aligned parallel to the surface surrounded this layer. The RBS-C spectra for the sample implanted at 1000 deg. C with 1x10{sup 17} C{sup +}/cm{sup 2} suggested a highly damaged but crystalline surface that was confirmed by TEM micrographs.

  6. Detailed flow-field measurements over a 75 deg swept delta wing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kjelgaard, Scott O.; Sellers, William L., III

    1990-01-01

    Results from an experimental investigation documenting the flowfield over a 75 deg swept delta wing at an angle-of-attack of 20.5 deg are presented. Results obtained include surface flow visualization, off-body flow visualization, and detailed flowfield surveys for various Reynolds numbers. Flowfield surveys at Reynolds numbers of 0.5, 1.0, and 1.5 million based on the root chord were conducted with both a Pitot pressure probe and a 5-hole pressure probe; and 3-component laser velocimeter surveys were conducted at a Reynolds number of 1.0 million. The Pitot pressure surveys were obtained at 5 chordwise stations, the 5-hole probe surveys were obtained at 3 chordwise stations and the laser velocimeter surveys were obtained at one station. The results confirm the classical roll up of the flow into a pair of primary vortices over the delta wing. The velocity measurements indicate that Reynolds number has little effect on the global structure of the flowfield for the Reynolds number range investigated. Measurements of the non-dimensional axial velocity in the core of the vortex indicate a jet like flow with values greater than twice freestream. Comparisons between velocity measurements from the 5-hole pressure probe and the laser velocimeter indicate that the pressure probe does a reasonable job of measuring the flowfield quantities where the velocity gradients in the flowfield are low.

  7. Year-round measurements of ozone at 66 deg S with a visible spectrometer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Roscoe, Howard K.; Oldham, Derek J.; Squires, James A. C.; Pommereau, Jean-Pierre; Goutail, Florence; Sarkissian, Alain

    1994-01-01

    In March 1990, a zenith-sky UV-visible spectrometer of the design 'Systeme Automatique d'Obervation Zenithal' (SAOZ) was installed at Faraday in Antarctica (66.3 deg S, 64.3 deg W). SAOZ records spectra between 290 and 600 nm during daylight. Its analysis program fits laboratory spectra of constituents, at various wavelengths, to the differential of the ratio of the observed spectrum and a reference spectrum. The least-squares fitting procedure minimizes the sum-of-squares of residuals. Ozone is deduced from absorption in its visible bands between 500 and 560 nm. The fortunate colocation of this SAOZ with the well-calibrated Dobson at Faraday has allowed us to examine the calibration of the zero of the SAOZ, difficult at visible wavelengths because of the small depth of absorption. Here we describe recent improvements and limitations to this calibration, and discuss SAOZ measurements of ozone during winter in this important location at the edge of the Antarctic vortex.

  8. Pickpocket is a DEG/ENaC protein required for mechanical nociception in Drosophila larvae

    PubMed Central

    Zhong, Lixian; Hwang, Richard Y.; Tracey, W. Daniel

    2010-01-01

    Summary Highly branched Class IV multidendritic sensory neurons of the Drosophila larva function as polymodal nociceptors that are necessary for behavioral responses to noxious heat (>39°C) or noxious mechanical (>30 mN) stimuli. However, the molecular mechanisms that allow these cells to detect both heat and force are unknown. Here, we report that the pickpocket(ppk) gene, which encodes a Degenerin/ Epithelial Sodium Channel (DEG/ENaC) subunit, is required for mechanical nociception but not thermal nociception in these sensory cells. Larvae mutant for pickpocket show greatly reduced nociception behaviors in response to harsh mechanical stimuli. However, pickpocket mutants display normal behavioral responses to gentle touch. Tissue specific knockdown of pickpocket in nociceptors phenocopies the mechanical nociception impairment without causing defects in thermal nociception behavior. Finally, optogenetically-triggered nociception behavior is unaffected by pickpocket RNAi which indicates that ppk is not generally required for the excitability of the nociceptors. Interestingly, DEG/ENaCs are known to play a critical role in detecting gentle touch stimuli in C. elegans and have also been implicated in some aspects of harsh touch sensation in mammals. Our results suggest that neurons which detect harsh touch in Drosophila utilize similar mechanosensory molecules. PMID:20171104

  9. Lidar observations of the nighttime sodium layer at 33 deg N

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Uchiumi, M.; Hirono, M.; Fujiwara, M.

    1985-01-01

    Measurements of the nighttime atmospheric sodium layer have been performed since 1977, using a dye lidar at Fukuoka (33.4 deg N, 130.2 deg E.). The Kyushu lidar uses a flashlamp pumped dye laser tuned to the sodium D sub 2 line (589.0 nm) as a transmitter. The dye laser used in the Kyushu lidar system has been described elsewhere. Sporadic enhancements of the total column abundance of the layer during the Perseids meteor shower were observed on the nights of August 12 and 13, 1978, 1979, 1981, and 1983. Degrading weather conditions prevented observation on the nights during 1980 and 1983. A contour plot of the sodium layer for the period of 8 hours from 21:00 to 5:00 JST on the night of August 12 to 13 1983, is shown. The predominant feature visible is the increase in the height of peak density from 21:00 to 2:00 JST, and the slight decrease in the height of peak density from 2:00 to 5:00 JST. The average abundance had a maximum of about 7 x 10 to the 13th power/sq m on August 13. A plot is presented of the nightly average abundance for available data. The sodium layer abundance increased on the night of August 12 to 13, 1983, during the peak of the Perseids meteor shower, and the following night, August 13 to 14, almost went back to the monthly mean.

  10. LOOKING THROUGH THE GALACTIC PLANE: IMAGING COLD DUST TOWARD l = 44 DEG

    SciTech Connect

    Matthews, Henry; Kirk, Helen; Johnstone, Doug; Weferling, Bernd; Cohen, Martin; Jenness, Tim; Davis, Gary; Evans, Aneurin; Dent, William R. F.; Fuller, Gary; Jackson, James M.; Rathborne, Jill; Richer, John; Simon, Robert

    2009-11-15

    We present imaging observations of continuum emission from interstellar dust at 850 and 1200 {mu}m of a section of the Galactic Plane covering 2 deg{sup 2} centered at l = 44 DEG. Complementary jiggle-mapping and fast-scanning techniques were used, respectively, at these two wavelengths. The mapped area includes the well-known star formation regions W49 and G45.1/45.5. Using an automated clump-finding routine, we identify 132 compact 850 {mu}m emission features within the region above a completeness level of about 200 mJy beam{sup -1}. The positions of the latter objects were used to determine fluxes from the 1200 {mu}m image. Spectral line data were subsequently obtained with the same observing beamwidth as at 850 {mu}m for almost half of the objects; these were either imaged in the {sup 13}CO (3-2) line, or basic characteristics determined using the {sup 12}CO (3-2) transition. We use these data, supplemented by existing {sup 13}CO (1-0) and H I survey data, to determine distances and hence derive masses for the dust clump ensemble, assuming a uniform dust temperature of 15 K. From these data we find that the number-mass relationship for clumps in the field is similar to that found for individual star-forming regions.

  11. InAs 2DEGs:What's the g-factor?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McCombe, B. D.; Pakmehr, Mehdi; Khaetskii, A.; Chiatti, Olivio; Fischer, S. F.; Buchholz, S.; Heyn, C.; Hansen, W.; Cahay, M.; Newrock, R. S.; Bandari, Nikhil

    2014-03-01

    Interest in spin-orbit effects in semiconductors has led us to study the electron g-factor in quasi-2DEG InAs samples. We have made magneto-transport and -photoresponse (PR) measurements on InAs QW structures in magnetic fields up to 10 T. THz cyclotron resonance (CR) is manifested in PR as a resonant envelope of the amplitude of quantum oscillations, which show clear spin-splitting (for lower mobility samples) down 4T, while direct R_xx measurements show no spin-splitting up to 9T. R_xx oscillations in a higher mobility sample show well-resolved spin-splittings over a range of fields as does the PR. We have simulated the data with a theoretical expression for 2DEG SdH oscillations (coupled with CR resonant carrier heating for the PR) and extracted g-factors from fits. We also used a different (commonly used) method, SdH oscillations vs. tilt angle of the field to extract g-factors from the angle at which the SdH frequency doubles. We find very large g-factors from fits to R_xx and PR (14 - 20), but g-factors 2-3 times smaller for these same samples from tilted field experiments (close to estimated band g-factors). These results are discussed in terms of exchange effects. Support: NSF DMR 1008138 (Buffalo); NSF ECCE 1028483(Cincinnati); DFG Fi932/4-1(Berlin).

  12. The p-wave superconductivity in the presence of Rashba interaction in 2DEG

    PubMed Central

    Weng, Ke-Chuan; Hu, C. D.

    2016-01-01

    We investigate the effect of the Rashba interaction on two dimensional superconductivity. The presence of the Rashba interaction lifts the spin degeneracy and gives rise to the spectrum of two bands. There are intraband and interband pairs scattering which result in the coupled gap equations. We find that there are isotropic and anisotropic components in the gap function. The latter has the form of cos φk where . The former is suppressed because the intraband and the interband scatterings nearly cancel each other. Hence, −the system should exhibit the p-wave superconductivity. We perform a detailed study of electron-phonon interaction for 2DEG and find that, if only normal processes are considered, the effective coupling strength constant of this new superconductivity is about one-half of the s-wave case in the ordinary 2DEG because of the angular average of the additional in the anisotropic gap function. By taking into account of Umklapp processes, we find they are the major contribution in the electron-phonon coupling in superconductivity and enhance the transition temperature Tc. PMID:27459677

  13. 45 deg round-corner rib heat transfer coefficient measurements in a square channel

    SciTech Connect

    Taslim, M.E.; Lengkong, A.

    1999-04-01

    Cooling channels, roughened with repeated ribs, are commonly employed as a means of cooling turbine blades. The increased level of mixing induced by these ribs enhances the convective heat transfer in the blade cooling cavities. Many previous investigations have focused on the heat transfer coefficient on the surfaces between these ribs and only a few studies report the heat transfer coefficient on the rib surfaces themselves. The present study investigated the heat transfer coefficient on the surfaces of 45 deg. round-corner ribs. Three staggered rib geometries corresponding to blockage ratios of 0.133, 0.167, and 0.25 were tested in a square channel for pitch-to-height ratios of 5, 8.5, and 10, and for two distinct thermal boundary conditions of heated and unheated channel wall. Comparisons were made between the surface-averaged heat transfer coefficients and channel friction factors for sharp- and round-corner ribs and 45 versus 90 deg ribs, reported previously. Heat transfer coefficients of the furthest upstream rib and that of a typical rib located in the middle of the rib-roughened region were also compared. The smallest rib geometry (e/D{sub h} = 0.133) at a pitch-to-height ratio of 10 and the largest rib geometry (e/D{sub h} = 0.25) at a pitch-to-height ratio of 5, both in midstream position, produced the highest and the lowest thermal performances, respectively.

  14. The p-wave superconductivity in the presence of Rashba interaction in 2DEG.

    PubMed

    Weng, Ke-Chuan; Hu, C D

    2016-07-26

    We investigate the effect of the Rashba interaction on two dimensional superconductivity. The presence of the Rashba interaction lifts the spin degeneracy and gives rise to the spectrum of two bands. There are intraband and interband pairs scattering which result in the coupled gap equations. We find that there are isotropic and anisotropic components in the gap function. The latter has the form of cos φk where . The former is suppressed because the intraband and the interband scatterings nearly cancel each other. Hence, -the system should exhibit the p-wave superconductivity. We perform a detailed study of electron-phonon interaction for 2DEG and find that, if only normal processes are considered, the effective coupling strength constant of this new superconductivity is about one-half of the s-wave case in the ordinary 2DEG because of the angular average of the additional in the anisotropic gap function. By taking into account of Umklapp processes, we find they are the major contribution in the electron-phonon coupling in superconductivity and enhance the transition temperature Tc.

  15. Interplay of Rashba and sp-d exchange couplings in magnetic 2DEGs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mireles, Francisco; Freire, Henrique H. P.; Egues, J. Carlos

    2006-03-01

    In diluted magnetic semiconductor (DMS) quantum wells the sp-d exchange interaction between the itinerant conduction electrons in the well and the localized electrons in the d orbitals of the Mn impurities gives rise to interesting spin-dependent physics [1]. Recently, the interplay of the Rashba spin-orbit and the sp-d exchange interactions in Mn-based wells has been recognized via Shubnikov-de-Haas measurements [2]. While the Rashba spin-orbit has been extensively studied in non-magnetic 2DEGs, its role in DMS systems with a competing sp-d exchange interaction has not yet been addressed theoretically. In this work we present a k.p derivation of an effective Hamiltonian for a Mn-based quantum well with competing Rashba and sp-d interactions, and show numerical results for the magnetoresistance ρxx of typical magnetic 2DEGs using our effective Hamiltonian model. Our results shows interesting beating patterns of the ρxx as a function of the temperature and carrier density which suggests a significant interplay between the spin-orbit and sp-d exchange interactions, as a recent experiment observes [2]. [1] J. C. Egues, PRL 78, 4578 (1998); H. J. P. Freire and J. C. Egues, cond-mat/0412491. [2] Y. S. Gui et al. EPL. 65, 393 (2004).

  16. Galactic distribution of Cepheids between l of approximately 294 and 331 deg

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Grayzeck, E. J.

    1979-01-01

    Previous observations of long-period Cepheids in the Crux-Centaurus-Circinus-Norma (CCCN) region (bounded by galactic longitudes of approximately 294 and 331 deg) are used to delineate spiral features that are consistent with available data for other spiral tracers, especially H I gas. The galactic distribution of the long-period Cepheids in the CCCN region is examined, and a possible interpretation of the spiral structure as viewed in the CCCN region is suggested. Specifically, it is concluded that: (1) the region that is often called the Centaurus link contains no Cepheids with periods longer than 11.25 days and may be part of a spiral feature characterized by older Population I material; (2) long-period Cepheids at large distances (4 kpc) are concentrated near 307 deg galactic longitude and are probably associated with the 'inner arm' identified by Kraft (1965); and (3) the velocities of the observed Cepheids differ significantly from the predictions of the Schmidt (1965) model.

  17. Galactic distribution of Cepheids between l of approximately 294 and 331 deg

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Grayzeck, E. J.

    1979-01-01

    Previous observations of long-period Cepheids in the Crux-Centaurus-Circinus-Norma (CCCN) region (bounded by galactic longitudes of approximately 294 and 331 deg) are used to delineate spiral features that are consistent with available data for other spiral tracers, especially H I gas. The galactic distribution of the long-period Cepheids in the CCCN region is examined, and a possible interpretation of the spiral structure as viewed in the CCCN region is suggested. Specifically, it is concluded that: (1) the region that is often called the Centaurus link contains no Cepheids with periods longer than 11.25 days and may be part of a spiral feature characterized by older Population I material; (2) long-period Cepheids at large distances (4 kpc) are concentrated near 307 deg galactic longitude and are probably associated with the 'inner arm' identified by Kraft (1965); and (3) the velocities of the observed Cepheids differ significantly from the predictions of the Schmidt (1965) model.

  18. Prediction of compressible flow pressure losses in 30--150 deg sharp-cornered bends

    SciTech Connect

    Haidar, N.

    1995-12-01

    This paper considers the measurement and prediction of the additional total pressure losses of subsonic steady air flow in sharp-cornered bends, similar to those present in the secondary air cooling systems of gas turbine engines. The bends examined ranged between 30 to 150 in 30 deg increments and were circular in cross section. Experimental results covering a wide speed range up to choking are presented for five different bend geometries. An analytical flow model provided results in fairly good agreement with the measurements obtained and equally compared favorably with the experimental findings of other researchers at low Mach numbers. The highest attainable upstream Mach number (M{sub U}) of the average upstream flow was 0.57 for the 30 deg bend. The maximum possible values of M{sub U} represent a limiting condition dictated by downstream choking of the flow. The compressible flow coefficients, caused by the presence of the bends, can be expected to be between 10 to 20 percent higher than those for incompressible flow.

  19. BD-22deg3467, a DAO-type Star Exciting the Nebula Abell 35

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ziegler, M.; Rauch, T.; Werner, K.; Koppen, J.; Kruk, J. W.

    2013-01-01

    Spectral analyses of hot, compact stars with non-local thermodynamical equilibrium (NLTE) model-atmosphere techniques allow the precise determination of photospheric parameters such as the effective temperature (T(sub eff)), the surface gravity (log g), and the chemical composition. The derived photospheric metal abundances are crucial constraints for stellar evolutionary theory. Aims. Previous spectral analyses of the exciting star of the nebula A35, BD-22deg3467, were based on He+C+N+O+Si+Fe models only. For our analysis, we use state-of-the-art fully metal-line blanketed NLTE model atmospheres that consider opacities of 23 elements from hydrogen to nickel. We aim to identify all observed lines in the ultraviolet (UV) spectrum of BD-22deg3467 and to determine the abundances of the respective species precisely. Methods. For the analysis of high-resolution and high signal-to-noise ratio (S/N) far-ultraviolet (FUSE) and UV (HST/STIS) observations, we combined stellar-atmosphere models and interstellar line-absorption models to fully reproduce the entire observed UV spectrum. Results. The best agreement with the UV observation of BD-22deg3467 is achieved at T(sub eff) = 80 +/- 10 kK and log g = 7.2 +/- 0.3. While T(sub eff) of previous analyses is verified, log g is significantly lower. We re-analyzed lines of silicon and iron (1/100 and about solar abundances, respectively) and for the first time in this star identified argon, chromium, manganese, cobalt, and nickel and determined abundances of 12, 70, 35, 150, and 5 times solar, respectively. Our results partially agree with predictions of diffusion models for DA-type white dwarfs. A combination of photospheric and interstellar line-absorption models reproduces more than 90% of the observed absorption features. The stellar mass is M approx. 0.48 Solar Mass. Conclusions. BD.22.3467 may not have been massive enough to ascend the asymptotic giant branch and may have evolved directly from the extended horizontal branch

  20. Chemical reactivity of nitrates and nitrites towards TBP and potassium nickel ferrocyanide between 30 and 300 deg

    SciTech Connect

    Lambertin, D.; Chartier, D.; Joussot-Dubien, C.

    2007-07-01

    Since the late sixties, bitumen has been widely used by the nuclear industry as a matrix for the immobilization of low- and intermediate level radioactive waste originating mainly from the nuclear activities: precipitation or evaporator concentrates, ion exchange resins, incinerator ashes, and filter materials. Depending on bitumen and operating conditions, bituminization of radioactive waste can be operated between 130 and 180 deg. C, so chemical reaction can be induced with nitrate or nitrite towards elements contained in waste (TPB, potassium nickel ferrocyanide and cobalt compound) and bitumen. These reactions are mainly exothermic this is the reason why the enthalpy reaction and their temperature of initiation have to be determined independently of their concentration in waste. In this work, we have studied by Calvet Calorimetry at 0.1 deg. C/min heating rates, the behaviour of chemical elements especially oxido-reduction couples that can react at a temperature range 100- 300 deg. C (Nitrate/PPFeNi, Nitrite/PPFeNi, Nitrate/TBP, Nitrite/TBP, Nitrate/bitumen and Nitrite/bitumen). The initial temperature reaction of nitrates or nitrites towards potassium nickel ferrocyanide (PPFeNi) has been studied and is equal respectively to 225 deg. C and 175 deg. C. Because of the large scale temperature reaction of nitrate and PPFeNi, enthalpy reaction can not be calculated, although enthalpy reaction of nitrite and PPFeNi is equal to 270 kJ/mol of nitrite. Sodium Nitrate and TBP behaviour has been investigated, and an exothermic reaction at 135 deg. C until 250 deg. C is evidenced. The exothermic energy reaction is a function of TBP concentration and the enthalpy reaction has been determined. (authors)

  1. Transcriptome profiling of degU expression reveals unexpected regulatory patterns in Bacillus megaterium and discloses new targets for optimizing expression.

    PubMed

    Borgmeier, Claudia; Biedendieck, Rebekka; Hoffmann, Kristina; Jahn, Dieter; Meinhardt, Friedhelm

    2011-11-01

    The first whole transcriptome assessment of a Bacillus megaterium strain provides unanticipated insights into the degSU regulon considered to be of central importance for exo-enzyme production. Regulatory patterns as well as the transcription of degSU itself deviate from the model organism Bacillus subtilis; the number of DegU-regulated secretory enzymes is rather small. Targets for productivity optimization, besides degSU itself, arise from the unexpected DegU-dependent induction of the transition-state regulator AbrB during exponential growth. Induction of secretion-assisting factors, such as the translocase subunit SecY or the signal peptidase SipM, promote hypersecretion. B. megaterium DegSU transcriptional control is advantageous for production purposes, since the degU32 constitutively active mutant conferred hypersecretion of a heterologous Bacillus amyloliquefaciens amylase without the detrimental rise, as for B. subtilis and Bacillus licheniformis, in extracellular proteolytic activities.

  2. Observations of the 8 December 1987 occultation of AG +40 deg 0783 by 324 Bamberga

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Millis, R. L.; Wasserman, L. H.; Franz, O. G.; Bowell, E.; Nye, R. A.; Thompson, D. T.; White, N. M.; Hubbard, W. B.; Eplee, R. E., Jr.; Yeomans, D. K.

    1989-01-01

    The occultation of AG+40 deg 0783 by 324 Bamberga on 8 December 1987 was observed at 13 sites in the United States, Japan, and China. At four sites the event was observed photoelectrically; the other observations were visual. A least-squares fit of a circular limb profile to the data gives a diameter of 227.6 + or - 1.9 km. However, this solution is inconsistent with a negative visual observation near the northern edge of the ground track. The inconsistency cannot be removed by assuming an elliptical profile. The data suggest that Bamberga, despite its low-amplitude lightcurve, may depart significantly from a spherical or ellipsoidal shape. The asteroid also appears to be at least 10 percent smaller than indicated by infrared radiometry.

  3. Observations of the 8 December 1987 occultation of AG+40 deg 0783 by 324 Bamberga

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Millis, R. L.; Wasserman, L. H.; Franz, O. G.; Bowell, E.; Nye, R. A.; Thompson, D. T.; White, N. M.; Hubbard, W. B.; Eplee, R. E., Jr.; Lebofsky, L. A.

    1988-01-01

    The occultation of AG+40 deg 0783 by 324 Bamberga on 8 December 1987 was observed at 13 sites in the United States, Japan, and China. At four sites the event was observed photoelectrically; the other observations were visual. A least-squares fit of a circular limb profile to the data gives a diameter of 227.6 + or - 1.9 km. However, this solution is inconsistent with a negative visual observation near the northern edge of the ground track. The inconsistency cannot be removed by assuming an elliptical profile. The data suggest that Bamberga, despite its low-amplitude lightcurve, may depart significantly from a spherical or ellipsoidal shape. The asteroid also appears to be at least 10 percent smaller than indicated by infrared radiometry.

  4. Modeling and computation of flow in a passage with 360 deg turning and multiple airfoils

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shyy, W.; Vu, T. C.

    1991-06-01

    Numerical modeling of the three-dimensional flows in a spiral casing of a hydraulic turbine, containing a passage of 360-deg turning and multiple elements of airfoils (the so-called distributor), is made. The physical model is based on a novel two-level approach, comprising of (1) a global model that adequately accounts for the geometry of the spiral casing but smears out the details of the distributor and represents the multiple airfoils by a porous medium treatment; and (2) a local model that performs detailed analysis of flow in the distributor region. The global analysis supplies the inlet flow condition for the individual cascade of distributor airfoils, while the distributor analysis yields the information needed for modeling the characteristics of the porous medium. Comparisons of pressure and velocity profiles between measurement and prediction have been made to assess the validity of the present approach. Flow characteristics in the spiral casing are also discussed.

  5. An experimental study of pressures on 60 deg Delta wings with leading edge vortex flaps

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Marchman, J. F., III; Terry, J. E.; Donatelli, D. A.

    1983-01-01

    An experimental study was conducted in the Virginia Tech Stability Wind Tunnel to determine surface pressures over a 60 deg sweep delta wing with three vortex flap designs. Extensive pressure data was collected to provide a base data set for comparison with computational design codes and to allow a better understanding of the flow over vortex flaps. The results indicated that vortex flaps can be designed which will contain the leading edge vortex with no spillage onto the wing upper surface. However, the tests also showed that flaps designed without accounting for flap thickness will not be optimum and the result can be oversized flaps, early flap vortex reattachment and a second separation and vortex at the wing/flap hinge line.

  6. The diameter of Juno from its occultation of AG + 0 deg 1022

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Millis, R. L.; Wasserman, L. H.; Bowell, E.; Franz, O. G.; White, N. M.; Lockwood, G. W.; Nye, R.; Bertram, R.; Klemola, A.; Dunham, E.; Morrison, D.

    1981-01-01

    The occultation on Dec. 11, 1979, of AG + 0 deg 1022 by Juno was observed photoelectrically from 15 sites distributed across the occultation track. The observations are well represented by a mean elliptical limb profile having semimajor and semiminor axes of 145.2 + or 0.8 and 122.8 + or - 1.9 km, respectively. The corresponding effective diameter of Juno is 267 + or - 5 km, where the uncertainty has been conservatively increased to reflect the presence of limb irregularities clearly seen in the observations. Published radiometric and polarimetric diameters for Juno are 6% to 7% smaller than the occultation result. No secondary occultations attributable to possible satellites of Juno were recorded at any of 23 photoelectrically equipped observing sites.

  7. Heat transfer with full-coverage film cooling using 30-deg slant-angle injection

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Crawford, M. E.; Kays, W. M.; Moffat, R. J.

    1975-01-01

    Results are presented from a study of heat transfer to a full-coverage, film-cooled turbulent boundary layer over a flat surface. Heat transfer coefficients are obtained in the full coverage region and downstream recovery region using two values of injectant temperature for each blowing rate. Injection is from 30 deg angled holes forming a staggered array, with hole spacings of 5 and 10 diameters. Stanton number data are presented for a range of mass-flux ratios from 0 to 1.3. Upstream initial conditions are varied from 500 to 5000 for momentum thickness Reynolds number and from 100 to 1800 for enthalpy thickness Reynolds number. The initial boundary layer thickness ranges from 0.5 to 2.3 hole diameters.

  8. Numerical Analysis of Incipient Separation on 53 Deg Swept Diamond Wing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Frink, Neal T.

    2015-01-01

    A systematic analysis of incipient separation and subsequent vortex formation from moderately swept blunt leading edges is presented for a 53 deg swept diamond wing. This work contributes to a collective body of knowledge generated within the NATO/STO AVT-183 Task Group titled 'Reliable Prediction of Separated Flow Onset and Progression for Air and Sea Vehicles'. The objective is to extract insights from the experimentally measured and numerically computed flow fields that might enable turbulence experts to further improve their models for predicting swept blunt leading-edge flow separation. Details of vortex formation are inferred from numerical solutions after establishing a good correlation of the global flow field and surface pressure distributions between wind tunnel measurements and computed flow solutions. From this, significant and sometimes surprising insights into the nature of incipient separation and part-span vortex formation are derived from the wealth of information available in the computational solutions.

  9. Observations of the 8 December 1987 occultation of AG +40 deg 0783 by 324 Bamberga

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Millis, R. L.; Wasserman, L. H.; Franz, O. G.; Bowell, E.; Nye, R. A.; Thompson, D. T.; White, N. M.; Hubbard, W. B.; Eplee, R. E., Jr.; Yeomans, D. K.

    1989-01-01

    The occultation of AG+40 deg 0783 by 324 Bamberga on 8 December 1987 was observed at 13 sites in the United States, Japan, and China. At four sites the event was observed photoelectrically; the other observations were visual. A least-squares fit of a circular limb profile to the data gives a diameter of 227.6 + or - 1.9 km. However, this solution is inconsistent with a negative visual observation near the northern edge of the ground track. The inconsistency cannot be removed by assuming an elliptical profile. The data suggest that Bamberga, despite its low-amplitude lightcurve, may depart significantly from a spherical or ellipsoidal shape. The asteroid also appears to be at least 10 percent smaller than indicated by infrared radiometry.

  10. The 13 November 1984 occultation of BD +08 deg 0471 by (1) Ceres

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wasserman, L. H.; Millis, R. L.; Franz, O. G.; Ahearn, M. F.; Osborn, W.; Klemola, A.

    1985-01-01

    The 13 November 1984 occultation of BD +08 deg 0471 was discovered during a photographic search carried out with the 0.5 meter Carnegie Double Astrograph at Lick Observatory and the Lowell Observatory PDS microdensitometer. Such a search was stimulated by the curious fact that few favorably located occultations of AGK3 or SAO catalog starts by Ceres will occur during the 1980s. The occultation on 13 November, however, is a particularly good event. The star is 1000 cubic M in V, yielding a predicted drop at occultation of about 10%. Such a drop can be detected by small telescopes equipped with photoelectric photometers, but is too small to be seen visually. The track was predicted to cross the Caribbean, Florida, southern Texas, and Mexico. Based on this prediction, preparations were made to observe the event in Mexico using four portable occultation data systems.

  11. Pressure investigation of NASA leading edge vortex flaps on a 60 deg Delta wing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Marchman, J. F., III; Donatelli, D. A.; Terry, J. E.

    1983-01-01

    Pressure distributions on a 60 deg Delta Wing with NASA designed leading edge vortex flaps (LEVF) were found in order to provide more pressure data for LEVF and to help verify NASA computer codes used in designing these flaps. These flaps were intended to be optimized designs based on these computer codes. However, the pressure distributions show that the flaps wre not optimum for the size and deflection specified. A second drag-producing vortex forming over the wing indicated that the flap was too large for the specified deflection. Also, it became apparent that flap thickness has a possible effect on the reattachment location of the vortex. Research is continuing to determine proper flap size and deflection relationships that provide well-behaved flowfields and acceptable hinge-moment characteristics.

  12. Aerodynamic characteristics of two-dimensional wing configurations at angles of attack near -90 deg

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Maisel, Martin; Laub, Georgene; Mccroskey, W. J.

    1986-01-01

    Wind tunnel tests were conducted to determine the drag of two-dimensional wing sections operating in a near-vertical flow condition. Various leading- and trialing-edge configurations, including plain flaps of 25, 30, and 35% chord were tested at angles of attack from -75 to -105 deg. Reynolds numbers examined ranged from approximately 0.6 x 10 to the 6th power to 1.4 x 10 to the 6th power. The data were obtained using a wind tunnel force and moment balance system and arrays of chordwise pressure orifices. The results showed that significant reductions in drag, beyond what would be expected by virtue of the decreased frontal area, were obtainable with geometries that delayed flow separation. Rapid changes in drag with angle of attack were noted for many configurations. The results, however, were fairly insensitive to Reynolds number variations. Drag values computed from the pressure data generally agreed with the force data within 2%.

  13. 0.1-deg/h DSP-controlled fiber optic gyroscope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ribes, Mauricio A.; Spahlinger, Guenter; Kemmler, Manfred W.

    1996-11-01

    This paper describes a 0.1 deg/hr fiber optic gyroscope (FOG) controlled exclusively by a high-speed digital signal processor (DSP). The sampling time of all control loops equals the transition time of the light through the sensor coil. The device uses a 500 m fiber sensor coil and operates in closed-loop mode. The control and compensation algorithms where implemented in software and are carried out by a single high-speed DSP. The processor also takes care of the communication protocol via a high-speed synchronous serial bus. This single-axis FOG was designed in a modular structure and is the basic building block for the LFK95 system; a low-cost maritime gyrocompass for commercial applications. The system also fulfills serial bus, maritime gyroscompass, modular structure.

  14. Streakline flow visualization of discrete hole film cooling with holes inclined 30 deg to surface

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Colladay, R. S.; Russell, L. M.; Lane, J. M.

    1976-01-01

    Film injection from three rows of discrete holes angled 30 deg to the surface in line with mainstream flow and spaced 5 diameters apart in a staggered array was visualized by using helium bubbles as tracer particles. Both the main stream and the film injectant were ambient air. Detailed streaklines showing the turbulent motion of the film mixing with the main stream were obtained by photographing small, neutrally buoyant helium-filled soap bubbles which followed the flow field. The ratio of boundary layer thickness to hole diameter and the Reynolds number were typical of gas turbine film cooling applications. The results showed the behavior of the film and its interaction with the main stream for a range of blowing rates and two initial boundary layer thicknesses.

  15. Subunit composition of a DEG/ENaC mechanosensory channel of Caenorhabditis elegans

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Yushu; Bharill, Shashank; Isacoff, Ehud Y.; Chalfie, Martin

    2015-01-01

    Caenorhabditis elegans senses gentle touch in the six touch receptor neurons (TRNs) using a mechanotransduction complex that contains the pore-forming degenerin/epithelial sodium channel (DEG/ENaC) proteins MEC-4 and MEC-10. Past work has suggested these proteins interact with the paraoxonase-like MEC-6 and the cholesterol-binding stomatin-like MEC-2 proteins. Using single molecule optical imaging in Xenopus oocytes, we found that MEC-4 forms homotrimers and MEC-4 and MEC-10 form 4:4:10 heterotrimers. MEC-6 and MEC-2 do not associate tightly with these trimers and do not influence trimer stoichiometry, indicating that they are not part of the core channel transduction complex. Consistent with the in vitro data, MEC-10, but not MEC-6, formed puncta in TRN neurites that colocalize with MEC-4 when MEC-4 is overexpressed in the TRNs. PMID:26324944

  16. Experimental aerodynamic characteristics for slender bodies with thin wings at angles of attack from 0 deg to 58 deg and Mach numbers from 0.6 to 2.0

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jorgensen, L. H.; Howell, M. H.

    1976-01-01

    An experimental investigation was conducted in the Ames 6-by-6-Foot Wind Tunnel to measure the static aerodynamic characteristics for bodies of circular and elliptic cross section with various thin flat-plate wings. Eighteen configuration combinations were tested at Mach numbers of 0.6, 0.9, 1.2, 1.5, and 2.0 at angles of attack from 0 deg to 58 deg. The data demonstrate that taper ratio and aspect ratio had only small effect on the aerodynamic characteristics, especially at the higher angles of attack. Undesirable side forces and yawing moments, which developed at angles of attack greater than about 25 deg, were generally no greater than those for the bodies tested alone. As for the bodies alone, the side forces and yawing moments increased as the nose fineness ratio increased and/or as the subsonic Mach number decreased.

  17. Rotary balance data for a typical single-engine general aviation design for an angle-of-attack range of 8 deg to 90 deg. 1: Influence of airplane components for model D. [Langley spin tunnel tests

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ralston, J.

    1983-01-01

    The influence of airplane components, as well as wing location and tail length, on the rotational flow aerodynamics is discussed for a 1/6 scale general aviation airplane model. The airplane was tested in a built-up fashion (i.e., body, body-wing, body-wing-vertical, etc.) in the presence of two wing locations and two body lengths. Data were measured, using a rotary balance, over an angle-of-attack range of 8 deg to 90 deg, and for clockwise and counter-clockwise rotations covering an omega b/2V range of 0 to 0.9.

  18. Rotary balance data for a typical single-engine general aviation design for an angle-of-attack range of 8 deg to 90 deg. 2: Low-wing model B

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bihrle, W., Jr.; Hultberg, R. S.

    1979-01-01

    Aerodynamic characteristics obtained in a rotational flow environment utilizing a rotary balance located in the spin tunnel are presented in plotted form for a 1/6.5 scale, single engine, low wing, general aviation airplane model. The configurations tested included the basic airplane, various wing leading-edge devices, tail designs, and rudder control settings as well as airplane components. Data are presented without analysis for an angle-of-attack range of 8 deg to 90 deg and clockwise and counter-clockwise rotations covering an (omega)(b)/2V range from 0 to 0.85.

  19. Detailed 1 x 1 deg gravimetric Indian Ocean geoid and comparison with GEOS-3 radar altimeter geoid profiles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kahle, H.-G.; Chapman, M.; Talwani, M.

    1978-01-01

    A new set of 1 x 1 deg mean free-air anomalies in the Indian Ocean is determined on the basis of previously published free-air anomaly maps (Talwani and Kahle, 1975) and the most recent Lamont surface ship gravity measurements. The data are then used to compute a (total) 1 x 1 deg gravimetric Indian Ocean geoid. The computation is carried out by combining the Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC) GEM-6 geoid and a difference geoid that corresponds to the differences between the set of 1 x 1 deg surface gravity values and the GEM-6 gravity anomalies. The difference geoid is highest over the Madagascar Ridge (+20 m) and lowest over the Timor Trough (-30 m). The total geoid is compared with GEOS-3 radar altimeter-derived geoid profiles, and geophysical implications are discussed.

  20. Narrow multibeam satellite ground station antenna employing a linear array with a geosynchronous arc coverage of 60 deg. I - Theory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Amitay, N.; Gans, M. J.

    1982-11-01

    The feasibility of using an appropriately squinted linear scan in narrow multibeam satellite ground station antennas employing phased arrays is demonstrated. This linear scan has the potential of reducing the complexity of a narrow-beam planar array to that of a linear array. Calculations for such antennas placed at cities throughout the U.S. show that the peak beam pointing error in covering the 70 deg W to 130 deg W geosynchronous equatorial arc (GEA) is under 5/1000th of a degree. Communication at a 300 MBd rate in the 12/14 GHz band can be made feasible, for a grating lobe-free scan and 0.5 deg beamwidth antenna, by using a relatively simple time equalization.

  1. Convective heat-transfer rate distributions over a 140 deg blunt cone at hypersonic speeds in different gas environments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stewart, David A.; Chen, Y. K.

    1993-01-01

    Experiments were conducted in air, CO2, and CO2-argon gas mixtures to obtain heating distribution data over a 140 deg blunt cone with various corner radii. The effect of corner radius on the heating distribution over the forebody of the cone was included in the investigation. These experiments provide data for validation of two-dimensional axisymmetric and three-dimensional Navier-Stokes solutions. Heating distribution data and measured bow shock wave stand-off distances for 0 deg angle of attack were compared with predicted values using a two-dimensional axisymmetric Navier-Stokes code.

  2. Static internal performance of single-expansion-ramp nozzles with thrust-vectoring capability up to 60 deg

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Berrier, B. L.; Leavitt, L. D.

    1984-01-01

    An investigation has been conducted at static conditions (wind off) in the static-test facility of the Langley 16-Foot Transonic Tunnel. The effects of geometric thrust-vector angle, sidewall containment, ramp curvature, lower-flap lip angle, and ramp length on the internal performance of nonaxisymmetric single-expansion-ramp nozzles were investigated. Geometric thrust-vector angle was varied from -20 deg. to 60 deg., and nozzle pressure ratio was varied from 1.0 (jet off) to approximately 10.0.

  3. Low-Speed Investigation of the Effects of Frequency and Amplitude of Oscillation in Sideslip on the Lateral Stability Derivatives of a 60 deg Delta Wing, a 45 deg Sweptback Wing and an Unswept Wing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lichtenstein, Jacob H.; Williams, James L.

    1961-01-01

    A low-speed investigation has been conducted in the Langley stability tunnel to study the effects of frequency and amplitude of sideslipping motion on the lateral stability derivatives of a 60 deg. delta wing, a 45 deg. sweptback wing, and an unswept wing. The investigation was made for values of the reduced-frequency parameter of 0.066 and 0.218 and for a range of amplitudes from +/- 2 to +/- 6 deg. The results of the investigation indicated that increasing the frequency of the oscillation generally produced an appreciable change in magnitude of the lateral oscillatory stability derivatives in the higher angle-of-attack range. This effect was greatest for the 60 deg. delta wing and smallest for the unswept wing and generally resulted in a more linear variation of these derivatives with angle of attack. For the relatively high frequency at which the amplitude was varied, there appeared to be little effect on the measured derivatives as a result of the change in amplitude of the oscillation.

  4. Water-Film Cooling of an 80 deg Total-Angle Cone at a Mach Number of 2 for Airstream Total Temperatures up to 3,000 deg R

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Carter, Howard S.

    1959-01-01

    Film-cooling tests, with water as the coolant, were made on an 80 deg total-angle cone in a Mach number 2 free jet at sea-level pressure. The tests were made at free-stream total temperatures from 1,500 deg R to 3,000 deg R and at free-stream Reynolds numbers per foot from 8 x 10(exp 6) to 3 x 10(exp 6). The tests showed that the downstream end of the model became very hot if the coolant rate was too small to cover the complete model with a water film. This water film was fairly symmetrical when the model was at zero angle of attack but was very asymmetrical when the model was at an angle of attack of 5 deg. A comparison with results of a previous transpiration-cooling test showed that, with water as the coolant, transpiration cooling was at least 2.5 times as efficient as the film cooling of the present tests.

  5. Non-Local Signal in Quasi-2DEG of LAO/STO

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jin, Mi-Jin; Moon, Seon Young; Modepalli, Vijayakumar; Jo, Junhyeon; Park, Jungmin; Baek, Seung-Hyub; Yoo, Jung-Woo

    2015-03-01

    Electron gas arizen at the insulating oxide interfaces exhibits high electron mobility, tunable carrier densities and related unique behaviors such as coexistence of superconductivity and ferromagnetism, Kondo resistance, etc. Itinerant electrons at the oxide hetero-interface are predicted to have long spin diffusion length, while they are under the relatively strong Rashba-type spin orbit coupling due to inversion symmetry breaking. We studied non-local spin signal induced by spin orbit coupling with additional gate-controlled Rashba field in quasi-2DEG of LaAlO3/SrTiO (LAO/STO) interface. We fabricated simple hall-bar like geometry to measure non-local signal with the variation of channel length (2 ~ 10 μm). Cleaned sample was patterned using e-beam lithography and reactive ion etching followed by oxygen treatment to anneal out oxygen vacancies. When an electric current flows one line of the hall bar structure, spin orbit coupling will induce the current flow away from the source current channel via spin hall and inverse spin hall effects. The non-local signals were studied under different angles of magnetic field and the variation of applied gate voltage. This work was supported by a grant from (No. 1.140092.01) funded by the Ulsan National Institute of Science and Technology.

  6. Detection of cosmic microwave background anisotropy at 1.8 deg: Theoretical implications on inflationary models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Bernardis, Paolo; de Gasperis, Giancarlo; Masi, Silvia; Vittorio, Nicola

    1994-09-01

    Theoretical scenarios for the formation of large-scale structure in the universe are strongly constrained by ARGO (a balloon borne experiment reporting detection of cosmic microwave background (CMB) anisotropy at 1.8 deg) and Cosmic Background Explorer/Differential Microwave Radiometer (COBE/DMR). Here we consider flat hybrid models with either scale invariant or tilted (n not equal to 1) initial conditions. For n less than 1, we take into account the effect of a primordial background of gravitational waves, predicted by power-law inflation scenarios. The main result of our analysis is that the ARGO and COBE/DMR data select a range of values for the primordial spectral index: n = 0.95+0.25-0.15 (values of n outside this range can be rejected at more than 95% confidence level). These bounds are basically independent of the cosmological abundance of baryons (at least in the range allowed from primordial nucleosynthesis) and of the ratio of cold to hot dark matter. So, flat, cold, or mixed dark matter models, with scale-invariant initial conditions and a standard recombination history, successfully take into account the CMB anisotropy detected at intermediate and large angular scales.

  7. Subsonic balance and pressure investigation of a 60 deg delta wing with leading edge devices

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tingas, S. A.; Rao, D. M.

    1982-01-01

    Low supersonic wave drag makes the thin highly swept delta wing the logical choice for use on aircraft designed for supersonic cruise. However, the high-lift maneuver capability of the aircraft is limited by severe induced-drag penalties attributed to loss of potential flow leading-edge suction. This drag increase may be alleviated through leading-edge flow control to recover lost aerodynamic thrust through either retention of attached leading-edge flow to higher angles of attack or exploitation of the increased suction potential of separation-induced vortex flow. A low-speed wind-tunnel investigation was undertaken to examine the high-lift devices such as fences, chordwise slots, pylon vortex generators, leading-edge vortex flaps, and sharp leading-edge extensions. The devices were tested individually and in combinations in an attempt to improve high-alpha drag performance with a minimum of low-alpha drag penalty. This report presents an analysis of the force, moment, and static pressure data obtained in angles of attack up to 23 deg, at Mach and Reynolds numbers of 0.16 and 3.85 x 10 to the 6th power per meter, respectively. The results indicate that all the devices produced drag and longitudinal/lateral stability improvements at high lift with, in most cases, minor drag penalties at low angles of attack.

  8. A Three-Dimensional CFD Investigation of Secondary Flow in an Accelerating, 90 deg Elbow

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cavicchi, Richard H.

    2001-01-01

    NASA Glenn Research Center has recently applied the WIND National Code flow solver to an accelerating elbow with a 90 deg. bend to reveal aspects of secondary flow. This elbow was designed by NACA in the early 1950's such that flow separation would be avoided. Experimental testing was also done at that time. The current three dimensional CFD investigation shows that separation has indeed been avoided. Using its three-dimensional capability, this investigation provides various viewpoints in several planes that display the inception, development, and final location of a passage vortex. Its shape first becomes discernible as a vortex near the exit of the bend. This rendition of the exit passage vortex compares well with that found in the experiments. The viewpoints show that the passage vortex settles on the suction surface at the exit about one-third of the distance between the plane wall and midspan. Furthermore, it projects into the mainstream to about one-third of the channel width. Of several turbulence models used in this investigation, the Spalart Alimaras, Baldwin Lomax, and SST (Shear Stress Transport) models were by far the most successful in matching the experiments.

  9. Clustering of Extremely Red Objects in the Subaru GTO 2deg Field

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shin, Jihey; Shim, Hyunjin; Hwang, Ho Seong; Ko, Jongwan; Lee, Jong Chul; Utsumi, Yousuke; Hwang, Narae; Park, Byeong-Gon

    2017-06-01

    We study the angular correlation function of bright (K_s ≤ 19.5) Extremely Red Objects (EROs) selected in the Subaru GTO 2 deg^2 field. By applying the color selection criteria of R-K_s > 5.0, 5.5, and 6.0, we identify 9055, 4270, and 1777 EROs, respectively. The number density is consistent with similar studies on the optical - NIR color selected red galaxies. The angular correlation functions are derived for EROs with different limiting magnitude and different R-K_s color cut. When we assume that the angular correlation function w(θ) follows a form of a power-law (i.e., w(θ) = A θ^{-δ}), the value of the amplitude A was larger for brighter EROs compared to the fainter EROs. The result suggests that the brighter, thus more massive high-redshift galaxies, are clustered more strongly compared to the less massive galaxies. Assuming that EROs have redshift distribution centered at < z \\rangle ˜1.1 with σ_z=0.15, the spatial correlation length r_0 of the EROs estimated from the observed angular correlation function ranges ˜6-10 h^{-1} Mpc. A comparison with the clustering of dark matter halos in numerical simulation suggests that the EROs are located in most massive dark matter halos and could be progenitors of L_* elliptical galaxies.

  10. Back Pain During 6 deg Head-Down Tilt Approximates That During Actual Microgravity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hutchinson, Karen J.; Watenpaugh, Donald E.; Murthy, Gita; Convertino, Victor A.; Hargens, Alan R.

    1995-01-01

    Astronauts often experience back pain during spaceflight. It was found that during spaceflight, 14 of 19 Shuttle crewmembers experienced back pain, which they described as dull (62%), localized to the lower back (500/6), and with an intensity of 2 on a 5-point scale. Further, the spine lengthens 4-7 cm in microgravity. Our objective was to compare back pain and spinal lengthening (body height increase) during simulated microgravity (6 deg head-down tilt, HDT) with the some parameters during actual microgravity. Eight male subjects completed a modified McGill pain questionnaire with intensity graded from zero (no pain) to five (intense and incapacitating gain) each day at 7.-OO pm during 2 d pre-HDT control, 16 d HDT, and I d post-HDT recovery periods. Only 2 subjects reported any pain after day 9 of HDT and during recov- ery. Heights increased 2.1 t 0.5 cm by day 3 of HDT and re- mained at that level until the end of the HDT period. Although spinal lengthening in space is greater than that during HDT, the HDT model approximates the level, type, distribution, and time course of back pain associated with actual microgrovity. In the HDT model, pain subsides in intensity when spinal lengthening stops. Therefore, back pain in actual and simulated microgravity may result from stretching of spinal andlor paraspinal tissues until a new spinal length is reached.

  11. Phase Development of NaOH Activated Blast Furnace Slag Geopolymers Cured at 90 deg. C

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang Bo; Bigley, C.; Ryan, M. J.; MacKenzie, K. J. D.; Brown, I. W. M.

    2009-07-23

    Geopolymers were synthesized from blast furnace slag activated with different levels of NaOH and cured at 90 deg. C. The crystalline and amorphous phases of the resulting geopolymers were characterized by XRD quantitative analysis, and {sup 29}Si and {sup 27}Al MAS NMR. Amorphous species are predominant in materials at all NaOH levels. In the amorphous phase, aluminium substituted silicate species (Q{sup 2}(1Al)) dominated among the species of Q{sup 0}, Q{sup 1}, Q{sup 2}(1Al) and Q{sup 2}(where Q{sup n}(mAl) denotes a silicate tetrahedron [SiO{sub 4}] with n bridging oxygen atoms and m adjacent tetrahedra substituted with an aluminate tetrahedron [AlO{sub 4}]). In addition, it was also found that 4-fold coordination aluminium [AlO{sub 4}] species ({sup 27}Al chemical shift 66.1 ppm) in low NaOH containing materials differs from the species ({sup 27}Al chemical shift 74.3 ppm) in high NaOH containing materials.

  12. Comparing the acoustics of voiced and voiceless fricatives in Deg Xinag

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wright, Richard; Hargus, Sharon; Miller, Julia

    2005-09-01

    Few studies have looked at the acoustic properties of fricative voicing and place in Native American languages despite their relatively rich fricative inventories of rarely studied fricative places. Deg Xinag, an endangered Athabaskan language spoken in Alaska, provides us with a rare opportunity to investigate fricative place and voicing within a single language: it has eight places of articulation for voiceless fricatives, six of which have voiced counterparts, including some rarely studied place contrasts (e.g., palato-alveolar versus retroflex, uvular versus glottal, lateral versus alveolar). In this study, pre- and post-vocalic fricatives were digitally recorded in the field from eight speakers (two males, six females) using a head-mounted mic to control for distance from the source. The segmental context was also controlled for, the neighboring vowel being [a] in all cases. Each speaker produced four repetitions of each word. Each fricative was analyzed qualitatively using impressionistic transcription and spectrographic investigation, and quantitatively using a set of widely employed measures: (a) widely employed spectral measures (center of gravity, skew, kurtosis, standard deviation, lowest spectral peak), peak and rms intensity of frication, overall duration and duration of voicing. [Work supported by NSF.

  13. [Physical activity: results of the German Health Interview and Examination Survey for Adults (DEGS1)].

    PubMed

    Krug, S; Jordan, S; Mensink, G B M; Müters, S; Finger, J; Lampert, T

    2013-05-01

    Regular physical activity can have a positive effect on health at any age. Today's lifestyles, however, can often be characterised as sedentary. Therefore, the promotion of physical activity and sports has become an integral part of public health measures. The representative data of adults aged 18 to 79 years in Germany obtained from the "German Health Interview and Examination Survey for Adults" (DEGS1) provide an overview of self-estimated current physical activity behaviour. The results show that one third of the adult population claims to pay close attention to reaching a sufficient level of physical activity and one fourth participates in sports for at least 2 h/week on a regular basis. Thus, the percentage of adults regularly engaged in sports has increased compared to the previous "German National Health Interview and Examination Survey 1998". Still, four out of five adults do not achieve at least 2.5 h/week of moderate-intensity physical activity as recommended by the World Health Organisation. Consequently, future individual-level and population-level interventions should focus on target group-specific measures while continuing to promote regular physical activity in all segments of the population. An English full-text version of this article is available at SpringerLink as supplemental.

  14. A Candidate Substellar Companion to CoD -33(deg) 7795 (TWA 5)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lowrance, P. J.; McCarthy, C. M.; Becklin, E. E.; Zuckerman, B.; Schneider, G.; Webb, R. A.; Hines, D. C.; Low, F. J.; Rieke, M. J.; Thompson, R. I.; Smith, B. A.; Meier, R.; Terrile, R. J.; Kirkpatrick, J. D.; Koerner, D. W.

    1998-12-01

    We present the discovery of a candidate substellar object as part of the NICMOS Instrument Design Team's survey of young stars in the solar vicinity using the sensitivity and spatial resolution afforded by the NICMOS coronagraph on the Hubble Space Telescope. The H=12.1 mag object was discovered approximately 2'' from the TW Hydrae Association member CoD -33(deg) 7795 (TWA 5), and the infrared photometry implies a spectral type M8-M8.5, with a temperature of ~ 2650K. We estimate that the probability of a chance alignment with a background object of this nature is < 2 x 10(-5) , and therefore postulate the object (TWA 5B) is physically associated at a projected separation of 100 AU. Given the youth of the primary ( ~ 10 Myr), current brown dwarf cooling models predict a mass of approximately 20 Jupiter masses for the companion. This work is supported in part by NASA grant NAG 5-3042 to the University of Arizona NICMOS Instrument Design Team. This poster is based on observations obtained with the NASA/ESA Hubble Space Telescope, obtained at the Space Telescope Science Institute, which is operated by the Association of Universities for Research in Astronomy, Inc. under NASA contract NAS 5-26555.

  15. Evolution of oxide scale on a Ni-Mo-Cr alloy at 900 deg. C

    SciTech Connect

    Ul-Hamid, A. . E-mail: anwar@kfupm.edu.sa; Mohammed, A.I.; Al-Jaroudi, S.S.; Tawancy, H.M.; Abbas, N.M.

    2007-01-15

    The cyclic oxidation behavior of a Ni-Mo-Cr alloy was studied in air at 900 deg. C for exposure periods of up to 1000 h. The morphology, microstructure and composition of the oxide scale was characterized by scanning electron microscopy, energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy and X-ray diffraction. Oxidation kinetics was determined by weight gain measurements. The results show that steady state oxidation was achieved within 1 h of exposure. During transient oxidation, the alloy grain boundaries intersecting the alloy surface became depleted in Ni and enriched in Mo and Cr. The scale initially formed at the surface was NiO which grew outwardly. However, a protective Cr{sub 2}O{sub 3} layer developed, rapidly retarding the rate of oxidation. Formation of NiMoO{sub 4} was also observed. The presence of Mo in the alloy facilitated the formation of a Cr{sub 2}O{sub 3} layer at an early stage of oxidation. The alloy exhibited considerable oxide spalling during prolonged exposure.

  16. Estimating new production in the equatorial Pacific Ocean at 150 deg W

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dugdale, Richard C.; Wilkerson, Frances P.; Barber, Richard T.; Chavez, Francisco P.

    1992-01-01

    A major goal of the WEC88 cruise of the R/V Wecoma to the equatorial Pacific (made in February-March 1988) was to establish rates of new production along a meridional section at 150 deg W and to compare these measured rates with the relatively high values for the equatorial Pacific that had been reported previously using indirect methods and models. Production values were obtained from the traditional approach using N-15 labeled nitrate uptake, and by using C-14 fixation values multiplied by f (proportion of new production) from various sources: from N-15 data, from a C-14 fixation-versus-f relationship, or from a nitrate-versus-f relationship. The ratios of directly measured nitrate and carbon uptake and the ratios of nitrate to nitrate plus ammonium uptake, i.e., values of f, agree well; values of f calculated from carbon uptake or from nitrate concentration are overestimates for the equatorial upwelling region. Carbon-to-nitrogen uptake ratios measured with C-14 and N-15, respectively, approximate the Redfield molar ratio, 6.6 C:N. The overall mean value of f (0.17) helps confirm the view that the low primary production in the enriched eastern equatorial Pacific is due to failure of the nitrate-uptake system.

  17. Examination of 80 deg. C desorption isotherms of tritium aged Pd/k and LANA.75

    SciTech Connect

    Staack, G. C.; Shanahan, K. L.; Walters, R. T.; Pilgrim, R. D.

    2008-07-15

    Metal hydrides, specifically Pd deposited on kieselguhr (Pd/k) and LaNi{sub 4.25}Al{sub 0.75} (LANA.75), have been used at the Savannah River Site for almost twenty years for hydrogen isotope separation and storage. Radiolytic decay of tritium to helium-3 in the metal matrix causes three classic changes in the performance of the hydride: the plateau pressure decreases, the plateau slope increases, and a heel forms, reducing the reversible capacity of the hydride. Deuterium and tritium isotherms were collected on the virgin materials, only tritium isotherms were collected at approximately 2 years, and both deuterium and tritium isotherms were collected at approximately 3.5 years of quiescent aging at 26 deg. C. Each sample was loaded to 0.5-0.6 T/M prior to each aging period. Points of interest include comparisons of each sample at different aging periods and isotope effects on aged hydride isotherms. Partial restoration of thermodynamic properties by sample cycling has been observed in LANA. 75, though not previously reported in Pd. The methods and results are presented. (authors)

  18. [Measurement of cardiorespiratory fitness in the German Health Interview and Examination Survey for Adults (DEGS1)].

    PubMed

    Finger, J D; Gößwald, A; Härtel, S; Müters, S; Krug, S; Hölling, H; Kuhnert, R; Bös, K

    2013-05-01

    A state of good fitness is related to a better health state and a lower mortality risk. In the German Health Interview and Examination Survey for Adults (DEGS1), aerobic fitness was measured among adults between 18 and 64 years old using a submaximal cycle ergometry test. The total sample comprised 5,263 persons, amongst those 3,111 were categorized as being test-qualified according to the Physical Activity Readiness-Questionnaire. There were 3,030 persons who absolved a submaximal exercise test according to the exercise protocol of the WHO (25/25/2). The test-participation rate was 57.2 % in relation to the total sample and 97.4 % among test-qualified persons. Apart from the continuous heart-rate monitoring, capillary blood was taken prior to starting the test and at the end of each workload stage for performing blood lactate analyses. The test ended when 85 % of the age-predicted maximal heart rate was exceeded. In all 11.9 % of the tests were terminated earlier, the mean exercise duration was 10.8 min, and the anticipated submaximal exertion in the highest workload stage was on average achieved with a mean of 15 on the 20-point RPE scale. The nationwide data can now be used for the national health monitoring system, epidemiological research and for the calculation of reference values. An English full-text version of this article is available at SpringerLink as supplemental.

  19. Engithidong Xugixudhoy: Their Stories of Long Ago. Told in Deg Hit'an Athabaskan by Belle Deacon of Anvik.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Deacon, Belle; Kari, James, Ed.

    Nine stories, told by a woman of the Lower Yukon Valley (Alaska), are presented here in Deg Hit'an Athabaskan on the left page and in English translation on the right page. The storyteller's English version of five of the stories is also included. Introductory sections contain a biography of Belle Deacon and notes on the gathering, transcription,…

  20. Spin relaxation times and spin-dependent transport of silicon 2DEG and donors in high magnetic fields

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lo, Cheuk Chi; Weis, C. D.; Bokor, J.; Schenkel, T.; Lang, V.; George, R. E.; Morton, J. J. L.; Tyryshkin, A. M.; Lyon, S. A.; van Tol, J.

    2012-02-01

    We measured the spin-lattice relaxation (T1) and spin coherence (T2) times of the two-dimensional electron gas (2DEG) and neutral donors in a silicon field-effect transistor by pulsed electrically detected magnetic resonance at 3.4:T. The 2DEG T1 varies between 200-800:ns depending on the carrier density with an in-plane magnetic field configuration, but remains constant at 400:ns with an out-of-plane field configuration. On the other hand, T2 50-150:ns for all carrier densities and both field orientations. The neutral donor T1 and T2 are found to be similar to that of the 2DEG. At even higher out-of-plane magnetic fields of 8-12:T, Landau levels are clearly resolved in transport measurements and both the 2DEG and donor EDMR signals show corresponding oscillatory behavior as the carrier density is varied. We attribute this behavior to the alignment of the Fermi level with spin-split and different indexed Landau levels.

  1. DEG9, a serine protease, modulates cytokinin and light signaling by regulating the level of ARABIDOPSIS RESPONSE REGULATOR 4

    PubMed Central

    Chi, Wei; Li, Jing; He, Baoye; Chai, Xin; Xu, Xiumei; Sun, Xuwu; Jiang, Jingjing; Feng, Peiqiang; Zuo, Jianru; Lin, Rongcheng; Rochaix, Jean-David; Zhang, Lixin

    2016-01-01

    Cytokinin is an essential phytohormone that controls various biological processes in plants. A number of response regulators are known to be important for cytokinin signal transduction. ARABIDOPSIS RESPONSE REGULATOR 4 (ARR4) mediates the cross-talk between light and cytokinin signaling through modulation of the activity of phytochrome B. However, the mechanism that regulates the activity and stability of ARR4 is unknown. Here we identify an ATP-independent serine protease, degradation of periplasmic proteins 9 (DEG9), which localizes to the nucleus and regulates the stability of ARR4. Biochemical evidence shows that DEG9 interacts with ARR4, thereby targeting ARR4 for degradation, which suggests that DEG9 regulates the stability of ARR4. Moreover, genetic evidence shows that DEG9 acts upstream of ARR4 and regulates the activity of ARR4 in cytokinin and light-signaling pathways. This study thus identifies a role for a ubiquitin-independent selective protein proteolysis in the regulation of the stability of plant signaling components. PMID:27274065

  2. Engithidong Xugixudhoy: Their Stories of Long Ago. Told in Deg Hit'an Athabaskan by Belle Deacon of Anvik.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Deacon, Belle; Kari, James, Ed.

    Nine stories, told by a woman of the Lower Yukon Valley (Alaska), are presented here in Deg Hit'an Athabaskan on the left page and in English translation on the right page. The storyteller's English version of five of the stories is also included. Introductory sections contain a biography of Belle Deacon and notes on the gathering, transcription,…

  3. Moored surface wind observations at four sites along the Pacific equator between 140 and 95 deg W

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Halpern, David

    1988-01-01

    Moored surface wind measurements were recorded along the Pacific equator at 140, 124, 110, and 95 deg W during portions of 1980-1985. Minimum record length is one year. The annual mean and monthly mean westward speeds at 110 deg W were about 1.5 m/s higher during the year preceding the 1982-1983 El Nino than in the year following this event. The annual cycle, which moved westward at about 0.8 m/s, consisted of weak westward and northward speeds in February-April and vice versa in September-October. The spectral slope between 5-day and 0.05-day periods was -1.5. The rms amplitude of the 95-percent statistically significant diurnal period oscillation was 0.3 m/s, and the meridional component was nearly twice as large as the zonal component. The diurnal period wave was coherent (at the 95-percent confidence level) between 95 and 124 deg W, with westward phase propagation of about 138 m/s. No statistically significant spectral peak was found in the 40- to 50-day intraseasonal period band. The surface zonal ocean current component, which reached approximately 0.5 and -0.5 m/s in April and October, respectively at 110 deg W, influenced the surface wind stress computed from the quadratic bulk aerodynamic formulation by 10-20 percent.

  4. Complete dipole response in {sup 208}Pb from high-resolution polarized proton scattering at 0 deg

    SciTech Connect

    Neumann-Cosel, P. von; Kalmykov, Y.; Poltoratska, I.; Ponomarev, V. Yu.; Richter, A.; Wambach, J.; Adachi, T.; Fujita, Y.; Matsubara, H.; Sakemi, Y.; Shimizu, Y.; Tameshige, Y.; Yosoi, M.; Bertulani, C. A.; Carter, J.; Fujita, H.; Dozono, M.; Fujita, K.; Hashimoto, H.; Hatanaka, K.

    2009-01-28

    The structure of electric and magnetic dipole modes in {sup 208}Pb is investigated in a high-resolution measurement of the (p-vector,p-vector') reaction under 0 deg. First results on the E1 strength in the region of the pygmy dipole resonance are reported.

  5. Dock leaf beetle, Gastrophysa viridula Deg., herbivory on Mossy Sorrel, Rumex confertus Willd: Induced plant volatiles and beetle orientation responses

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The invasive weed Rumex confertus Willd. (mossy sorrel) is fed upon and severely defoliated by Gastrophysa viridula Deg. (dock leaf beetle), a highly promising biological control agent for this weed. We report volatile organic compound (VOC) induction when one leaf on R. confertus was damaged by G. ...

  6. A secretory multifunctional serine protease, DegP of Plasmodium falciparum, plays an important role in thermo-oxidative stress, parasite growth and development.

    PubMed

    Sharma, Shweta; Jadli, Mohit; Singh, Anu; Arora, Kavita; Malhotra, Pawan

    2014-03-01

    Plasmodium falciparum heat shock proteins and proteases are known for their indispensable roles in parasite virulence and survival in the host cell. They neutralize various host-derived stress responses that are deleterious for parasite growth and invasion. We report identification and functional characterization of the first DegP from an apicomplexan (P. falciparum). To determine the molecular identity and functions of the parasite-encoded DegP, we complemented the Escherichia coli degP null mutant with a putative PfdegP gene, and the results showed that PfDegP complements the growth defect of the temperature sensitive DegP-deficient mutant and imparts resistance to non-permissive temperatures and oxidative stress. Molecular interaction studies showed that PfDegP exists as a complex with parasite-encoded heat shock protein 70, iron superoxide dismutase and enolase. DegP expression is significantly induced in parasite culture upon heat shock/oxidative stress. Our data suggest that the PfDegP protein may play a role in the growth and development of P. falciparum through its ability to confer protection against thermal/oxidative stress. Antibody against DegP showed anti-plasmodial activity against blood-stage parasites in vitro, suggesting that PfDegP and its associated complex may be a potential focus for new anti-malarial therapies. ●PfDegP physically interacts with PfHsp70 and PfEno by anti-bait co-immunoprecipitation (View interaction) ●PfDegP physically interacts with PfEno, PfSod, PfOat, PfHsp70, PfLDH and PfGpi by anti-bait co-immunoprecipitation (View interaction) ●PfHsp-70 and PfDegP co-localize by fluorescence microscopy (View interaction) ●PfDegP physically interacts with PfOat, PfHsp70, PfEno, PfSod, PfGpi and PfLDH by surface plasmon resonance (View interaction) ●PfEno and PfDegP co-localize by fluorescence microscopy (View interaction) ●PfDegP and PfHsp70 co-localize by co-sedimentation through density gradient (View interaction). © 2014

  7. Proteomic approaches to identify substrates of the three Deg/HtrA proteases of the cyanobacterium Synechocystis sp. PCC 6803.

    PubMed

    Tam, Lam X; Aigner, Harald; Timmerman, Evy; Gevaert, Kris; Funk, Christiane

    2015-06-15

    The family of Deg/HtrA proteases plays an important role in quality control of cellular proteins in a wide range of organisms. In the genome of the cyanobacterium Synechocystis sp. PCC 6803, a model organism for photosynthetic research and renewable energy products, three Deg proteases are encoded, termed HhoA, HhoB and HtrA. In the present study, we compared wild-type (WT) Synechocystis cells with the single insertion mutants ΔhhoA, ΔhhoB and ΔhtrA. Protein expression of the remaining Deg/HtrA proteases was strongly affected in the single insertion mutants. Detailed proteomic studies using DIGE (difference gel electrophoresis) and N-terminal COFRADIC (N-terminal combined fractional diagonal chromatography) revealed that inactivation of a single Deg protease has similar impact on the proteomes of the three mutants; differences to WT were observed in enzymes involved in the major metabolic pathways. Changes in the amount of phosphate permease system Pst-1 were observed only in the insertion mutant ΔhhoB. N-terminal COFRADIC analyses on cell lysates of ΔhhoB confirmed changed amounts of many cell envelope proteins, including the phosphate permease systems, compared with WT. In vitro COFRADIC studies were performed to identify the specificity profiles of the recombinant proteases rHhoA, rHhoB or rHtrA added to the Synechocystis WT proteome. The combined in vivo and in vitro N-terminal COFRADIC datasets propose RbcS as a natural substrate for HhoA, PsbO for HhoB and HtrA and Pbp8 for HtrA. We therefore suggest that each Synechocystis Deg protease protects the cell through different, but connected mechanisms. © The Authors Journal compilation © 2015 Biochemical Society.

  8. Experimental wake survey behind Viking 75 entry vehicle at angles of attack of 0 deg, 5 deg, and 10 deg, Mach numbers from 0.20 to 1.20, and longitudinal stations from 1.50 to 11.00 body diameters

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brown, C. A., Jr.; Campbell, J. F.

    1973-01-01

    An investigation was conducted to obtain flow properties in the wake of a preliminary configuration of the Viking '75 Entry Vehicle at Mach numbers from 0.20 to 1.20 and at angles of attack of 0 deg, 5 deg, and 10 deg. The wake flow properties were calculated from total and static pressures measured with a pressure rake at longitudinal stations varying from 1.50 to 11.00 body diameters, and are presented in tabulated and plotted form. The wake properties were essentially symmetrical about the X-axis at alpha = 0 deg and the profiles were shifted away from the X-axis at angles of attack. An unexpected reduction in wake property ratios occurred as the Mach number increased from 0.60 to 1.00; these ratios then increased as the Mach number increased to 1.20. The reduction was present for all the longitudinal stations of the tests and decreased with increased longitudinal distance.

  9. Survey Methods for Earthquake Damages in the "CAMERA degli SPOSI" of Mantegna (mantova)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fratus de Balestrini, E.; Ballarin, M.; Balletti, C.; Buttolo, V.; Gottardi, C.; Guerra, F.; Mander, S.; Pilot, L.; Vernier, P.

    2013-07-01

    Cultural Heritage constitutes a fundamental resource for all Countries, even in economic terms, as it can be considered an extraordinary tourist attraction. This is particularly true for Italy, which is one of the Countries with the richest artistic heritage in the world. For this reason, restoration becomes an essential step towards the conservation and therefore valorisation of architecture. In this context, this paper focuses on one of the first stages that allow us to reach a complete knowledge of a building. Because of the earthquake of May 2012, the Castle of San Giorgio in Mantova (Italy) presented a series of structural damages. On the occasion of its upcoming re-opening to the public, the Soprintendenza per i Beni Architettonici e Paesaggistici per le province di Brescia, Cremona e Mantova has requested an analysis and evaluation of the damages for the development of an intervention project. In particular, a special attention was given to the "Camera degli Sposi" ("Bridal Chamber"), also known as the Camera picta ("painted chamber"). It is a frescoed room, with illusionistic paintings by Andrea Mantegna, located in the northeast tower of the Castle. It was painted between 1465 and 1474 and commissioned by Ludovico Gonzaga, and it is well-known for the use of trompe l'oeil details and for the decoration of its ceiling. The seismic shakes damaged the wall decorated with the "Scena della Corte" ("Court Scene"), above the chimney, re-opening an old crack that had to be analysed, in order to understand whether the damage was structural or just superficial. The diagnostic analyses constitute a fundamental prerequisite for the elaboration of any kind of intervention or restoration in any architectural, artistic or archaeological framework. To obtain a description of the conservation state of the Camera, non-invasive integrated survey techniques were applied. The purpose of the study presented here is the definition of a methodology able to support the necessity

  10. Arterial Pressure Gradients during Upright Posture and 30 deg Head Down Tilt

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sanchez, E. R; William, J. M.; Ueno, T.; Ballard, R. E.; Hargens, A. R.; Holton, Emily M. (Technical Monitor)

    1997-01-01

    Gravity alters local blood pressure within the body so that arterial pressures in the head and foot are lower and higher, respectively, than that at heart level. Furthermore, vascular responses to local alterations of arterial pressure are probably important to maintain orthostatic tolerance upon return to the Earth after space flight. However, it has been difficult to evaluate the body's arterial pressure gradient due to the lack of noninvasive technology. This study was therefore designed to investigate whether finger arterial pressure (FAP), measured noninvasively, follows a normal hydrostatic pressure gradient above and below heart level during upright posture and 30 deg head down tilt (HDT). Seven healthy subjects gave informed consent and were 19 to 52 years old with a height range of 158 to 181 cm. A Finapres device measured arterial pressure at different levels of the body by moving the hand from 36 cm below heart level (BH) to 72 cm above heart level (AH) in upright posture and from 36 cm BH to 48 cm AH during HDT in increments of 12 cm. Mean FAP creased by 85 mmHg transitioning from BH to AH in upright posture, and the pressure gradient calculated from hydrostatic pressure difference (rho(gh)) was 84 mmHg. In HDT, mean FAP decreased by 65 mmHg from BH to AH, and the calculated pressure gradient was also 65 mmHg. There was no significant difference between the measured FAP gradient and the calculated pressure gradient, although a significant (p = 0.023) offset was seen for absolute arterial pressure in upright posture. These results indicate that arterial pressure at various levels can be obtained from the blood pressure at heart level by calculating rho(gh) + an offset. The offset equals the difference between heart level and the site of measurement. In summary, we conclude that local blood pressure gradients can be measured by noninvasive studies of FAP.

  11. Simultaneous X-Ray and Radio Observations of the Unusual Binary LSI + 61 deg 303

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Harrison, Fiona A.; Leahy, Denis A.; Waltman, Elizabeth

    1996-01-01

    We present simultaneous 0.5 - 10 keV X-ray and two-frequency radio observations at 2.25 and 8.3 GHz of the unusual binary system LSI + 61 deg. 303. This system was observed twice in a single binary orbit by the ASCA satellite, and monitored daily at two radio frequencies during the same orbital cycle with the Greenbank Interferometer. During the first ASCA observation the source was detected with a 1 - 10 keV luminosity 3.6 x 10(exp 33) (d/2.0 kpc)(exp 2) erg 1/s and during the second at a similar level with evidence for a decrease in average flux of 30%. During the first pointing the radio source was at a quiescent 8 GHz flux level of 30 mJy while during the second the radio flux was rising dramatically with an average value of 100 mJy. No variability is seen in the X-ray flux during the first pointing, but during the second the flux is variable by approx. 50% on timescales of approx. 30 minutes. No pulsations are seen in either X-ray observation with an upper limit on pulsed flux of 20%. The low X-ray luminosity and lack of observed pulsations indicate that accretion onto a neutron star surface is not the origin for the high-energy emission. Rather, the X-rays must result either from accreted matter which is stopped at the magnetosphere because the magnetospheric boundry is rotating at super-Keplerian rates or due to a shock formed in the interaction of the dense wind of the Be star companion and a moderately young pulsar. We derive a required pulsar spin down luminosity of approx. 10(exp 37) erg 1/s, and argue that the shock model more easily explains the observed X-ray radio observations.

  12. The ALHAMBRA Survey: Bayesian photometric redshifts with 23 bands for 3 deg

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Molino, A.; Benítez, N.; Moles, M.; Fernández-Soto, A.; Cristóbal-Hornillos, D.; Ascaso, B.; Jiménez-Teja, Y.; Schoenell, W.; Arnalte-Mur, P.; Pović, M.; Coe, D.; López-Sanjuan, C.; Díaz-García, L. A.; Varela, J.; Stefanon, M.; Cenarro, J.; Matute, I.; Masegosa, J.; Márquez, I.; Perea, J.; Del Olmo, A.; Husillos, C.; Alfaro, E.; Aparicio-Villegas, T.; Cerviño, M.; Huertas-Company, M.; Aguerri, J. A. L.; Broadhurst, T.; Cabrera-Caño, J.; Cepa, J.; González, R. M.; Infante, L.; Martínez, V. J.; Prada, F.; Quintana, J. M.

    2014-07-01

    The Advance Large Homogeneous Area Medium-Band Redshift Astronomical (ALHAMBRA) survey has observed eight different regions of the sky, including sections of the Cosmic Evolution Survey (COSMOS), DEEP2, European Large-Area Infrared Space Observatory Survey (ELAIS), Great Observatories Origins Deep Survey North (GOODS-N), Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS) and Groth fields using a new photometric system with 20 optical, contiguous ˜300-Å filters plus the JHKs bands. The filter system is designed to optimize the effective photometric redshift depth of the survey, while having enough wavelength resolution for the identification of faint emission lines. The observations, carried out with the Calar Alto 3.5-m telescope using the wide-field optical camera Large Area Imager for Calar Alto (LAICA) and the near-infrared (NIR) instrument Omega-2000, represent a total of ˜700 h of on-target science images. Here we present multicolour point-spread function (PSF) corrected photometry and photometric redshifts for ˜438 000 galaxies, detected in synthetic F814W images. The catalogues are complete down to a magnitude I ˜ 24.5 AB and cover an effective area of 2.79 deg2. Photometric zero-points were calibrated using stellar transformation equations and refined internally, using a new technique based on the highly robust photometric redshifts measured for emission-line galaxies. We calculate Bayesian photometric redshifts with the Bayesian Photometric Redshift (BPZ)2.0 code, obtaining a precision of δz/(1 + zs) = 1 per cent for I < 22.5 and δz/(1 + zs) = 1.4 per cent for 22.5 < I < 24.5. The global n(z) distribution shows a mean redshift = 0.56 for I < 22.5 AB and = 0.86 for I < 24.5 AB. Given its depth and small cosmic variance, ALHAMBRA is a unique data set for galaxy evolution studies.

  13. Arterial Pressure Gradients during Upright Posture and 30 deg Head Down Tilt

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sanchez, E. R; William, J. M.; Ueno, T.; Ballard, R. E.; Hargens, A. R.; Holton, Emily M. (Technical Monitor)

    1997-01-01

    Gravity alters local blood pressure within the body so that arterial pressures in the head and foot are lower and higher, respectively, than that at heart level. Furthermore, vascular responses to local alterations of arterial pressure are probably important to maintain orthostatic tolerance upon return to the Earth after space flight. However, it has been difficult to evaluate the body's arterial pressure gradient due to the lack of noninvasive technology. This study was therefore designed to investigate whether finger arterial pressure (FAP), measured noninvasively, follows a normal hydrostatic pressure gradient above and below heart level during upright posture and 30 deg head down tilt (HDT). Seven healthy subjects gave informed consent and were 19 to 52 years old with a height range of 158 to 181 cm. A Finapres device measured arterial pressure at different levels of the body by moving the hand from 36 cm below heart level (BH) to 72 cm above heart level (AH) in upright posture and from 36 cm BH to 48 cm AH during HDT in increments of 12 cm. Mean FAP creased by 85 mmHg transitioning from BH to AH in upright posture, and the pressure gradient calculated from hydrostatic pressure difference (rho(gh)) was 84 mmHg. In HDT, mean FAP decreased by 65 mmHg from BH to AH, and the calculated pressure gradient was also 65 mmHg. There was no significant difference between the measured FAP gradient and the calculated pressure gradient, although a significant (p = 0.023) offset was seen for absolute arterial pressure in upright posture. These results indicate that arterial pressure at various levels can be obtained from the blood pressure at heart level by calculating rho(gh) + an offset. The offset equals the difference between heart level and the site of measurement. In summary, we conclude that local blood pressure gradients can be measured by noninvasive studies of FAP.

  14. First Ground-Based Infrared Solar Absorption Measurements of Free Tropospheric Methanol (CH3OH): Multidecade Infrared Time Series from Kitt Peak (31.9 deg N 111.6 deg W): Trend, Seasonal Cycle, and Comparison with Previous Measurements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rinsland, Curtis P.; Mahieu, Emmanuel; Chiou, Linda; Herbin, Herve

    2009-01-01

    Atmospheric CH3OH (methanol) free tropospheric (2.09-14-km altitude) time series spanning 22 years has been analyzed on the basis of high-spectral resolution infrared solar absorption spectra of the strong vs band recorded from the U.S. National Solar Observatory on Kitt Peak (latitude 31.9degN, 111.6degW, 2.09-km altitude) with a 1-m Fourier transform spectrometer (FTS). The measurements span October 1981 to December 2003 and are the first long time series of CH3OH measurements obtained from the ground. The results were analyzed with SFIT2 version 3.93 and show a factor of three variations with season, a maximum at the beginning of July, a winter minimum, and no statistically significant long-term trend over the measurement time span.

  15. First Ground-Based Infrared Solar Absorption Measurements of Free Tropospheric Methanol (CH3OH): Multidecade Infrared Time Series from Kitt Peak (31.9 deg N 111.6 deg W): Trend, Seasonal Cycle, and Comparison with Previous Measurements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rinsland, Curtis P.; Mahieu, Emmanuel; Chiou, Linda; Herbin, Herve

    2009-01-01

    Atmospheric CH3OH (methanol) free tropospheric (2.09-14-km altitude) time series spanning 22 years has been analyzed on the basis of high-spectral resolution infrared solar absorption spectra of the strong n8 band recorded from the U.S. National Solar Observatory on Kitt Peak (latitude 31.9degN, 111.6degW, 2.09-km altitude) with a 1-m Fourier transform spectrometer (FTS). The measurements span October 1981 to December 2003 and are the first long time series of CH3OH measurements obtained from the ground. The results were analyzed with SFIT2 version 3.93 and show a factor of three variations with season, a maximum at the beginning of July, a winter minimum, and no statistically significant long-term trend over the measurement time span.

  16. First Ground-Based Infrared Solar Absorption Measurements of Free Tropospheric Methanol (CH3OH): Multidecade Infrared Time Series from Kitt Peak (31.9 deg N 111.6 deg W): Trend, Seasonal Cycle, and Comparison with Previous Measurements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rinsland, Curtis P.; Mahieu, Emmanuel; Chiou, Linda; Herbin, Herve

    2009-01-01

    Atmospheric CH3OH (methanol) free tropospheric (2.09-14-km altitude) time series spanning 22 years has been analyzed on the basis of high-spectral resolution infrared solar absorption spectra of the strong n8 band recorded from the U.S. National Solar Observatory on Kitt Peak (latitude 31.9degN, 111.6degW, 2.09-km altitude) with a 1-m Fourier transform spectrometer (FTS). The measurements span October 1981 to December 2003 and are the first long time series of CH3OH measurements obtained from the ground. The results were analyzed with SFIT2 version 3.93 and show a factor of three variations with season, a maximum at the beginning of July, a winter minimum, and no statistically significant long-term trend over the measurement time span.

  17. First Ground-Based Infrared Solar Absorption Measurements of Free Tropospheric Methanol (CH3OH): Multidecade Infrared Time Series from Kitt Peak (31.9 deg N 111.6 deg W): Trend, Seasonal Cycle, and Comparison with Previous Measurements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rinsland, Curtis P.; Mahieu, Emmanuel; Chiou, Linda; Herbin, Herve

    2009-01-01

    Atmospheric CH3OH (methanol) free tropospheric (2.09-14-km altitude) time series spanning 22 years has been analyzed on the basis of high-spectral resolution infrared solar absorption spectra of the strong vs band recorded from the U.S. National Solar Observatory on Kitt Peak (latitude 31.9degN, 111.6degW, 2.09-km altitude) with a 1-m Fourier transform spectrometer (FTS). The measurements span October 1981 to December 2003 and are the first long time series of CH3OH measurements obtained from the ground. The results were analyzed with SFIT2 version 3.93 and show a factor of three variations with season, a maximum at the beginning of July, a winter minimum, and no statistically significant long-term trend over the measurement time span.

  18. German health interview and examination survey for adults (DEGS) - design, objectives and implementation of the first data collection wave

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background The German Health Interview and Examination Survey for Adults (DEGS) is part of the recently established national health monitoring conducted by the Robert Koch Institute. DEGS combines a nationally representative periodic health survey and a longitudinal study based on follow-up of survey participants. Funding is provided by the German Ministry of Health and supplemented for specific research topics from other sources. Methods/design The first DEGS wave of data collection (DEGS1) extended from November 2008 to December 2011. Overall, 8152 men and women participated. Of these, 3959 persons already participated in the German National Health Interview and Examination Survey 1998 (GNHIES98) at which time they were 18–79 years of age. Another 4193 persons 18–79 years of age were recruited for DEGS1 in 2008–2011 based on two-stage stratified random sampling from local population registries. Health data and context variables were collected using standardized computer assisted personal interviews, self-administered questionnaires, and standardized measurements and tests. In order to keep survey results representative for the population aged 18–79 years, results will be weighted by survey-specific weighting factors considering sampling and drop-out probabilities as well as deviations between the design-weighted net sample and German population statistics 2010. Discussion DEGS aims to establish a nationally representative data base on health of adults in Germany. This health data platform will be used for continuous health reporting and health care research. The results will help to support health policy planning and evaluation. Repeated cross-sectional surveys will permit analyses of time trends in morbidity, functional capacity levels, disability, and health risks and resources. Follow-up of study participants will provide the opportunity to study trajectories of health and disability. A special focus lies on chronic diseases including asthma

  19. ({radical}(13)x{radical}(13))R13.9 deg. and ({radical}(7)x{radical}(7))R19.1 deg. reconstructions of the polar SrTiO{sub 3} (111) surface

    SciTech Connect

    Russell, Bruce C.; Castell, Martin R.

    2007-04-15

    Nb-doped SrTiO{sub 3} (111) samples are annealed in UHV at 850 deg. C for 30 min and investigated using scanning tunneling microscopy (STM), low-energy electron diffraction (LEED), and Auger electron spectroscopy (AES). STM images show that both ({radical}(7)x{radical}(7))R19.1 deg. and ({radical}(13)x{radical}(13))R13.9 deg. reconstructions coexist on the surface. Step heights of 0.21{+-}0.02 nm on the surface are equivalent to the d{sub 111} lattice parameter, which is the distance between two adjacent, similar (111) planes in the bulk crystal. The calculated LEED pattern for this co-reconstruction corresponds to the observed LEED pattern, which resembles a six-petal flower. AES analysis indicates no detectable impurities, and shows the surface to be Ti and Sr enriched and O deficient compared to the bulk stoichiometry. This change in surface composition is proposed to provide the stability for the polar surface.

  20. Enhanced control of cucumber wilt disease by Bacillus amyloliquefaciens SQR9 by altering the regulation of Its DegU phosphorylation.

    PubMed

    Xu, Zhihui; Zhang, Ruifu; Wang, Dandan; Qiu, Meihua; Feng, Haichao; Zhang, Nan; Shen, Qirong

    2014-05-01

    Bacillus amyloliquefaciens strain SQR9, isolated from the cucumber rhizosphere, suppresses the growth of Fusarium oxysporum in the cucumber rhizosphere and protects the host plant from pathogen invasion through efficient root colonization. In the Gram-positive bacterium Bacillus, the response regulator DegU regulates genetic competence, swarming motility, biofilm formation, complex colony architecture, and protease production. In this study, we report that stepwise phosphorylation of DegU in B. amyloliquefaciens SQR9 can influence biocontrol activity by coordinating multicellular behavior and regulating the synthesis of antibiotics. Results from in vitro and in situ experiments and quantitative PCR (qPCR) studies demonstrate the following: (i) that the lowest level of phosphorylated DegU (DegU∼P) (the degQ mutation) impairs complex colony architecture, biofilm formation, colonization activities, and biocontrol efficiency of Fusarium wilt disease but increases the production of macrolactin and bacillaene, and (ii) that increasing the level of DegU∼P by degQ and degSU overexpression significantly improves complex colony architecture, biofilm formation, colonization activities, production of the antibiotics bacillomycin D and difficidin, and efficiency of biocontrol of Fusarium wilt disease. The results offer a new strategy to enhance the biocontrol efficacy of Bacillus amyloliquefaciens SQR9.

  1. Subsonic longitudinal and lateral-directional characteristics of a forward-swept-wing fighter configuration at angles of attack up to 47 deg

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mann, Michael J.; Huffman, Jarrett K.; Fox, Charles H., Jr.

    1987-01-01

    Subsonic lateral-direction and longitudinal characteristics of a forward-swept-wing fighter configuration were examined in wind-tunnel tests at Mach numbers of 0.2 and 0.5 for angles of attack from -7 to 47 deg. and over a sidelslip range of +/- 15 deg. The effects of a canard, strakes, vertical tail, and leading- and trailing-edge flaps are examined. The canard and strakes both reduce asymmetric moments and side forces at zero sideslip for angles of attack up to about 30 deg. The canard has a small influence on lateral-directional stability; however, strakes produce a substantial reduction in lateral stability for angles of attack greater than about 20 deg. The vertical tail improves directional stability for angles of attack up to 30 deg. Deflection of the leading-edge flap to 20 deg. at high angles of attack on the strake and canard configurations degrades lateral and directional stability. Deflection of the trailing-edge flap to 20 deg. on the canard configuration generally increases lateral and directional stability at high angles of attack. Leading- and trailing-edge flaps on the wing-body and canard configurations are effective for increased lift only for angles of attack up to about 40 deg. The leading-edge flap remains effective on the strake configuration over the entire angle-of-attack range tested.

  2. Stability and control characteristics of a three-surface advanced fighter configuration at angles of attack up to 45 deg. [conducted in the Langley 16-foot transonic tunnel

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Henderson, W. P.; Leavitt, L. D.

    1981-01-01

    The tests were conducted at Mach numbers from 0.40 to 0.90, at angles of attack up to 45 deg for the lower Mach numbers, and at angles of sideslip up to 15 deg. The model variations under study included adding a canard surface and deflecting horizontal tails, ailerons, and rudders.

  3. Tabulated Pressure Data for a Series of Controls on a 40 Deg Sweptback Wing at Mach Numbers of 1.61 and 2.01

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lord, D. R.

    1957-01-01

    An investigation has been made at Mach numbers of 1.61 and 2.01 and Reynolds numbers of 1.7 x l0(exp 6) and 3.6 x l0(exp 6) to determine the pressure distributions over a swept wing with a series of 14 control configurations. The wing had 40 deg of sweep of the quarter-chord line, an aspect ratio of 3.1, and a taper ratio of 0.4. Measurements were made at angles of attack from 0 deg to +/- 15 deg for control deflections from -60 deg to 60 deg. This report contains tabulated pressure data for the complete range of test conditions.

  4. Configuration heating for a hypersonic research airplane concept having a 70 deg swept double-delta wing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lawing, P. L.

    1978-01-01

    The heating on a candidate hypersonic research airplane configuration has been examined experimentally at Mach 6 by the phase-change-paint technique. The configuration has a double-delta wing with tip fins. Phase-change-paint diagrams give heating data for the model top, side, and bottom, with and without deflected elevons for an angle-of-attack range of 0 deg to 24 deg. Nominal Reynolds numbers are on the order of 15,000,000 with supplementary data at length Reynolds number of 4,000,000, which moves the model from the predominantly turbulent into the predominantly laminar regime. Also, intermediate Reynolds numbers were investigated on the lee side for one angle of attack.

  5. On the nature of the UX Ursa Majoris-type nova-like variables - CPD-48 deg 1577

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sion, E. M.

    1985-01-01

    A series of low-dispersion spectra and one high-dispersion spectrum have been obtained of the catacylsmic variable CPD-48 deg 1577. Like other UX UMa stars, this variable exhibits the flat continuum of a luminous, thick, steady state accretion disk dominating its light from the far UV to the infrared. A wind mass loss rate of less than about 10 to the -9th solar mass/yr and an accretion rate of roughly 5 x 10 to the -9th solar mass/yr is roughly consistent with the range which characterizes other UX UMa stars. An SWP echelle spectrum reveals detailed line profile information on the N V, Si IV, and C IV resonance lines. He II 1640 A is remarkably weak and even absent in two of the spectra. The known properties and evolutionary status of CPD-48 deg 1577 and the other UX UMa stars are summarized.

  6. Experimental and theoretical study of three interacting, closely-spaced, sharp-edged 60 deg delta wings at low speeds

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Faery, H. F., Jr.; Strozier, J. K.; Ham, J. A.

    1981-01-01

    Wind tunnel tests were conducted to determine the subsonic longitudinal aerodynamic characteristics of lifting configuration consisting of a 60 deg delta main wing with two smaller 60 deg delta wings (called sub-wings) attached underneath. The test was designed to determine the effects on lift, drag, and pitching moment due to various placement of the subwings in relation to the main wing. Test results indicate the increasing vertical separation between the main wing and the sub-wings produced the most significant results; a 23.1% increase in maximum lift coefficient, a reduction in drag coefficient at high lift coefficients, and an increase in longitudinal stability. Lateral separation of the sub-wings produced no significant changes. Placement of the sub-wings rearward increases the initial lift curve slope and maximum lift coefficient and also increase the longitudinal stability. Results of a computer study using a vortex lattice code supported the experimental conclusions.

  7. Tricalcium silicate (C{sub 3}S) hydration under high pressure at ambient and high temperature (200 deg. C)

    SciTech Connect

    Meducin, F.; Zanni, H.; Noik, C.; Hamel, G.; Bresson, B.

    2008-03-15

    The hydration of a tricalcium silicate paste at ambient temperature and at 200 deg. C under high pressure (up to 1000 bar) has been studied. Two high pressure cells have been used, one allows in-situ electrical conductivity measurements during hydration under high pressure. The hydration products were characterized by thermal analysis, X-ray diffraction and {sup 29}Si NMR measurements. The pressure has a large kinetic effect on the hydration of a C{sub 3}S paste at room temperature. The pressure was seen to affect drastically the hydration of a C{sub 3}S paste at 200 deg. C and this study evidences the competition between the different high temperature phases during the hydration.

  8. Spatially resolved infrared observations of Saturn. III - 10- and 20-micron disk scans at B prime = -11.8 deg

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tokunaga, A. T.; Caldwell, J.; Gillett, F. C.; Nolt, I. G.

    1979-01-01

    Disk scans of Saturn at 10 and 20 microns were obtained when the Saturnicentric solar declination B prime was -11.8 deg. The scans show little change from scans obtained when B prime was -16.3 deg. This could result from the long radiative time constant of the Saturnian atmosphere. The observations at 20 microns, in the H2 continuum, show positively that the temperature inversion at the south pole has a higher temperature than at any other point on the disk. In addition, the 12.1- and 20-micron scans indicate that the temperature of the inversion region is higher at the equator compared to the temperate zone. The data also suggest that enhanced 20-micron emission is correlated with the strength of the ultraviolet absorption.

  9. Bright near-infrared sources within 1 deg of the Galactic center. I - Survey and 1-20 micron photometry

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nagata, Tetsuya; Hyland, A. R.; Straw, S. M.; Sato, Shuji; Kawara, Kimiaki

    1993-01-01

    Results of a near-IR survey of 0.55 sq deg toward the Galactic center are reported. Additional IR photometry of 50 objects found in this survey was made in order to investigate the nature of luminous stars in the central region of the Milky Way including all sources with K less than 7.6 and H-K not less than 1.4. In addition to candidates for normal M-type stars and long-period variables, four objects whose energy spectra peak at about 5 microns have been detected in a small region around (l, b) = (0.15, 0.0 deg), near the crossing of the 6-cm radio arc with the Galactic plane. These four might be young stellar objects near the Galactic center. It is suggested that the relative depth change in the silicate absorption is localized to a fairly small region around the Galactic center.

  10. 3. QUANTUM DOTS AND WELLS, MESOSCOPIC NETWORKS : Spectroscopy of electron-electron scattering in a 2DEG

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Buhmann, H.; Predel, H.; Molenkamp, L. W.; Gurzhi, R. N.; Kalinenko, A. N.; Kopeliovich, A. I.; Yanovsky, A. V.

    2001-10-01

    Experimentally electron-beam injection and detection via quantum point-contacts is used to investigate the scattering of a non-equilibrium electron distribution in a two-dimensional electron gas (2DEG) of a GaAs/(Ga,Al)As heterostructure. The energy dependence of electron-electron scattering processes has been studied in a weak magnetic field by investigating the detector signal. Assuming electron beams with a narrow opening angle a magnetic field B perpendicular to the 2DEG plane causes only electrons which are scattered in a point O at an angle α to reach the detector. Thus, it is possible to measure directly the energy dependence of the angular electron distribution after scattering. The experimental data give a clear evidence for the importance of small angle scattering processes in two-dimensional systems, as predicted theoretically.

  11. Effemeridi del transito meridiano 2017-2020 per la basilica di Santa Maria degli Angeli in Roma

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sigismondi, Costantino

    2016-12-01

    The meridian transit time is computed using the ephemerides of IMCCE and the position of the image's center on the 1702 meridian line is corrected for the average atmospheric refraction at the site of Santa Maria degli Angeli, SMA, in Rome. The ephemerides for 2017-2020 are public on http://www.icra.it/gerbertus/2016/effem-SMA.pdf The measurement at SMA of DUT1=-0.34s on Dec 2016 is in agreement with IERS bullettin D132.

  12. Two Drosophila DEG/ENaC channel subunits have distinct functions in gustatory neurons that activate male courtship

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Tong; Starostina, Elena; Vijayan, Vinoy; Pikielny, Claudio W.

    2012-01-01

    Trimeric sodium channels of the DEG/ENaC family have important roles in neurons, but the specific functions of different subunits present in heteromeric channels are poorly understood. We previously reported that the Drosophila DEG/ENaC subunit Ppk25 is essential in a small subset of gustatory neurons for activation of male courtship behavior, likely through detection of female pheromones. Here we show that, like mutations in ppk25, mutations in another Drosophila DEG/ENaC subunit, nope, specifically impair male courtship of females. nope regulatory sequences drive reporter gene expression in gustatory neurons of the labellum, wings and legs, including all gustatory neurons in which ppk25 function is required for male courtship of females. In addition, gustatory-specific knockdown of nope impairs male courtship. Further, the impaired courtship response of nope mutant males to females is rescued by targeted expression of nope in the subset of gustatory neurons in which ppk25 functions. However, nope and ppk25 have non-redundant functions, as targeted expression of ppk25 does not compensate for the lack of nope and vice versa. Moreover, Nope and Ppk25 form specific complexes when co-expressed in cultured cells. Together, these data indicate that the Nope and Ppk25 subunits have specific, non-redundant functions in a subset of gustatory neurons required for activation of male courtship in response to females, and suggest the hypothesis that Nope and Ppk25 function as subunits of a heteromeric DEG/ENaC channel required for gustatory detection of female pheromones. PMID:22915128

  13. Primary production estimates from recordings of solar-stimulated fluorescence in the equatorial Pacific at 150 deg W

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stegmann, P. M.; Lewis, M. R.; Davis, C. O.; Cullen, J. J.

    1992-01-01

    Biological, optical, and hydrographical data were collected on the WEC88 cruise along 150 deg W and during a 6-day time-series station on the equator during February/March 1988. This area was characterized by a subsurface chlorophyll maximum (SCM), located at 50-70 m depth at the equator and descending down to 120-125 m at the north and south end of the transect. Highest primary production rates were near-surface and confined to the equatorial region and stations between 7 deg and 11 deg N. To determine the relationship between solar-stimulated fluorescence (centered at 683 nm wavelength) and primary production, a production-fluorescence model based on phytoplankton physiology and marine optics is described. Results of model calculations predict that there is a linear relation between production and fluorescence. A comparison between morning and midday measurements of the production-fluorescence relation showed that there was some difference between the two, whereas evening measurements, on the other hand, were distinctly different from the morning/midday ones. This seems to suggest that diurnal variations contribute significantly to variability in the quantum yield of photochemical processes. The ratio of the quantum yield of photosynthesis to the quantum yield of fluorescence ranged between 0.24 and 0.44 molC/Ein for all stations. The highest value for this ratio occurred at the equatorial stations, indicating that latitudinal variability could have an effect on the production-fluorescence relation.

  14. Recombinant Deg/HtrA proteases from Synechocystis sp. PCC 6803 differ in substrate specificity, biochemical characteristics and mechanism

    PubMed Central

    Huesgen, Pitter F.; Miranda, Helder; Lam, XuanTam; Perthold, Manuela; Schuhmann, Holger; Adamska, Iwona; Funk, Christiane

    2011-01-01

    Cyanobacteria require efficient protein-quality-control mechanisms to survive under dynamic, often stressful, environmental conditions. It was reported that three serine proteases, HtrA (high temperature requirement A), HhoA (HtrA homologue A) and HhoB (HtrA homologue B), are important for survival of Synechocystis sp. PCC 6803 under high light and temperature stresses and might have redundant physiological functions. In the present paper, we show that all three proteases can degrade unfolded model substrates, but differ with respect to cleavage sites, temperature and pH optima. For recombinant HhoA, and to a lesser extent for HtrA, we observed an interesting shift in the pH optimum from slightly acidic to alkaline in the presence of Mg2+ and Ca2+ ions. All three proteases formed different homo-oligomeric complexes with and without substrate, implying mechanistic differences in comparison with each other and with the well-studied Escherichia coli orthologues DegP (degradation of periplasmic proteins P) and DegS. Deletion of the PDZ domain decreased, but did not abolish, the proteolytic activity of all three proteases, and prevented substrate-induced formation of complexes higher than trimers by HtrA and HhoA. In summary, biochemical characterization of HtrA, HhoA and HhoB lays the foundation for a better understanding of their overlapping, but not completely redundant, stress-resistance functions in Synechocystis sp. PCC 6803. PMID:21332448

  15. Primary production estimates from recordings of solar-stimulated fluorescence in the equatorial Pacific at 150 deg W

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stegmann, P. M.; Lewis, M. R.; Davis, C. O.; Cullen, J. J.

    1992-01-01

    Biological, optical, and hydrographical data were collected on the WEC88 cruise along 150 deg W and during a 6-day time-series station on the equator during February/March 1988. This area was characterized by a subsurface chlorophyll maximum (SCM), located at 50-70 m depth at the equator and descending down to 120-125 m at the north and south end of the transect. Highest primary production rates were near-surface and confined to the equatorial region and stations between 7 deg and 11 deg N. To determine the relationship between solar-stimulated fluorescence (centered at 683 nm wavelength) and primary production, a production-fluorescence model based on phytoplankton physiology and marine optics is described. Results of model calculations predict that there is a linear relation between production and fluorescence. A comparison between morning and midday measurements of the production-fluorescence relation showed that there was some difference between the two, whereas evening measurements, on the other hand, were distinctly different from the morning/midday ones. This seems to suggest that diurnal variations contribute significantly to variability in the quantum yield of photochemical processes. The ratio of the quantum yield of photosynthesis to the quantum yield of fluorescence ranged between 0.24 and 0.44 molC/Ein for all stations. The highest value for this ratio occurred at the equatorial stations, indicating that latitudinal variability could have an effect on the production-fluorescence relation.

  16. The design and methods of the mental health module in the German Health Interview and Examination Survey for Adults (DEGS1-MH).

    PubMed

    Jacobi, Frank; Mack, Simon; Gerschler, Anja; Scholl, Lucie; Höfler, Michael; Siegert, Jens; Bürkner, Ariane; Preiss, Stephanie; Spitzer, Kathrin; Busch, Markus; Hapke, Ulfert; Gaebel, Wolfgang; Maier, Wolfgang; Wagner, Michael; Zielasek, Jürgen; Wittchen, Hans-Ulrich

    2013-06-01

    DEGS1-MH is part of the first wave of the German Health Interview and Examination Survey (DEGS1) covering all relevant health issues. Aims of DEGS1-MH are to supplement DEGS1 by describing (1) the distribution and frequency, the severity and the impairments of a wide range of mental disorders, (2) risk factors as well as patterns of help-seeking and health care utilization, and (3) associations between mental and somatic disorders, (4) and by comparisons with a similar survey in the late 1990s (GHS-MHS), longitudinal trends and changes in morbidity over time. Out of all eligible DEGS1 respondents (nationally representative sample aged 18-79), N = 5318 subjects (conditional response rate 88%) were examined at their place of residence by clinically trained interviewers with a modified version of the standardized, computer-assisted Composite International Diagnostic Interview (DEGS-CIDI). Innovative additions were: a comprehensive neuropsychological examination, a broader assessment of psychosis-like experiences, disorder-specific disabilities, help-seeking and health care utilization. The mental health module and its combination with the assessment of somatic and other health issues in DEGS1 allow for internationally unique, detailed and comprehensive analyses about mental disorders and the association of mental and somatic health issues in the community, constituting an improved basis for regular future surveys of this sort. Copyright © 2013 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  17. The first winter solstice observed at the meridian line of Santa Maria degli Angeli in Rome. (Italian Title: Il primo solstizio d'inverno alla meridiana di S. Maria degli Angeli in Roma)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sigismondi, C.

    2014-09-01

    The great meridian line in the Basilica of Santa Maria degli Angeli in Rome was built in 1701/1702 with the scope to measure the Obliquity of the Earth's orbit in the following eight centuries, upon the will of pope Clement XI. During the winter solstice of 1701 the first measurements of the obliquity have been realized by Francesco Bianchini, the astronomer who designed the meridian line, upgrading the similar instrument realized by Giandomenico Cassini in San Petronio, Bononia. In this paper the accuracy of the data observed by Francesco Bianchini is discussed and compared with up-to-date ephemerides. The modern situation of this historical instrument is also presented.

  18. Rotary balance data for a typical single-engine general aviation design for an angle-of-attack range of 8 deg to 90 deg. 2: Influence of horizontal tail location for Model D

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Barnhart, B.

    1982-01-01

    The influence of horizontal tail location on the rotational flow aerodynamics is discussed for a 1/6-scale general aviation airplane model. The model was tested using various horizontal tail positions, with both a high and a low-wing location and for each of two body lengths. Data were measured, using a rotary balance, over an angle-of-attack range of 8 to 90 deg, and for clockwise and counter-clockwise rotations covering an Omega b/2V range of 0 to 0.9.

  19. A method for estimating static aerodynamic characteristics for slender bodies of circular and noncircular cross section alone and with lifting surfaces at angles of attack from 0 deg to 90 deg

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jorgensen, L. H.

    1973-01-01

    An engineering-type method is presented for estimating normal-force, axial-force, and pitching-moment coefficients for slender bodies of circular and noncircular cross section alone and with lifting surfaces. Static aerodynamic characteristics computed by the method are shown to agree closely with experimental results for slender bodies of circular and elliptic cross section and for winged-circular and winged-elliptic cones. However, the present experimental results used for comparison with the method are limited to angles of attack only up to about 20 deg and Mach numbers from 2 to 4.

  20. Low-speed aerodynamic characteristics of a 42 deg swept high-wing model having a double-slotted flap system and a supercritical airfoil

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fournier, P. G.; Goodson, K. W.

    1974-01-01

    A low-speed investigation was conducted over an angle-of-attack range from about -4 deg to 20 deg in the Langley V/STOL tunnel to determine the effects of a double-slotted flap, high-lift system on the aerodynamic characteristics of a 42 deg swept high-wing model having a supercritical airfoil. The wing had an aspect ratio of 6.78 and a taper ratio of 0.36; the double-slotted flap consisted of a 35-percent-chord flap with a 15-percent-chord vane. The model was tested with a 15-percent-chord leading-edge slat.

  1. Structure and Deformation Conditions at the 15deg 45N Oceanic Core Complex, Mid-Atlantic Ridge

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    MacLeod, C. J.; Escartin, J.; McCaig, A. M.

    2005-12-01

    We have surveyed and sampled in detail the corrugated massif exposed at 15deg 45N on the Mid-Atlantic Ridge (ODP Site 1275) in order to understand better the structure and deformation conditions that operate at oceanic core complexes. Supplemented by 23 dredge hauls, we obtained 63 drill cores from the surface and flanks of the 15deg 45N massif. The cores were taken using the BRIDGE seabed rock drill, which takes metre-length samples with full geographical orientation. This offers a significant advantage for structural geological studies over dredge, submersible or ODP samples, which are non- or at best partially-orientated. Reorientating the BRIDGE drill cores has allowed us to constrain the kinematics of deformation of fault rocks that we recovered everywhere from the corrugated surface of the massif. Fault rocks are dominated by talc-, chlorite- and/or tremolite-schists, predominantly derived from an ultramafic protolith, indicating that deformation of mantle peridotite occurred in the greenschist facies. Fluid pressures and silica activity must have been high. High temperature deformation is all but absent, and is not associated directly with the detachment fault that evidently forms the surface of the 15deg 45N massif. Synkinematic emplacement of diabase dykes into the fault zone from an immediately subjacent gabbro pluton in the footwall implies that the detachment must have been active as a low-angle fault surface at very shallow levels directly beneath the ridge axis. Our observations do not support 'rolling hinge' models for core complex formation. Instead, strain localisation occurred in response to the weakening of a range of hydrous secondary minerals at a very early stage, possibly along some kind of alteration front, and was highly efficient. Deformation at deeper levels within the lithosphere, below the inferred alteration front, must have been accommodated by a different mechanism, one spatially unrelated to the observed detachment fault zone.

  2. The GALEX Ultraviolet Virgo Cluster Survey (GUViCS). I. The UV luminosity function of the central 12 sq. deg

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boselli, A.; Boissier, S.; Heinis, S.; Cortese, L.; Ilbert, O.; Hughes, T.; Cucciati, O.; Davies, J.; Ferrarese, L.; Giovanelli, R.; Haynes, M. P.; Baes, M.; Balkowski, C.; Brosch, N.; Chapman, S. C.; Charmandaris, V.; Clemens, M. S.; Dariush, A.; De Looze, I.; di Serego Alighieri, S.; Duc, P.-A.; Durrell, P. R.; Emsellem, E.; Erben, T.; Fritz, J.; Garcia-Appadoo, D. A.; Gavazzi, G.; Grossi, M.; Jordán, A.; Hess, K. M.; Huertas-Company, M.; Hunt, L. K.; Kent, B. R.; Lambas, D. G.; Lançon, A.; MacArthur, L. A.; Madden, S. C.; Magrini, L.; Mei, S.; Momjian, E.; Olowin, R. P.; Papastergis, E.; Smith, M. W. L.; Solanes, J. M.; Spector, O.; Spekkens, K.; Taylor, J. E.; Valotto, C.; van Driel, W.; Verstappen, J.; Vlahakis, C.; Vollmer, B.; Xilouris, E. M.

    2011-04-01

    The GALEX Ultraviolet Virgo Cluster Survey (GUViCS) is a complete blind survey of the Virgo cluster covering ~40 sq. deg in the far UV (FUV, λeff = 1539 Å, Δλ = 442 Å) and ~120 sq. deg in the near UV (NUV, λeff = 2316 Å, Δλ = 1060 Å). The goal of the survey is to study the ultraviolet (UV) properties of galaxies in a rich cluster environment, spanning a wide luminosity range from giants to dwarfs, and regardless of prior knowledge of their star formation activity. The UV data will be combined with those in other bands (optical: NGVS; far-infrared - submm: HeViCS; HI: ALFALFA) and with our multizone chemo-spectrophotometric models of galaxy evolution to make a complete and exhaustive study of the effects of the environment on the evolution of galaxies in high density regions. We present here the scientific objectives of the survey, describing the observing strategy and briefly discussing different data reduction techniques. Using UV data already in-hand for the central 12 sq. deg we determine the FUV and NUV luminosity functions of the Virgo cluster core for all cluster members and separately for early- and late-type galaxies and compare it to the one obtained in the field and other nearby clusters (Coma, A1367). This analysis shows that the FUV and NUV luminosity functions of the core of the Virgo clusters are flatter (α ~ -1.1) than those determined in Coma and A1367. We discuss the possible origin of this difference. Table 1 is only available in electronic form at http://www.aanda.org

  3. Modeling on oxide dependent 2DEG sheet charge density and threshold voltage in AlGaN/GaN MOSHEMT

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Panda, J.; Jena, K.; Swain, R.; Lenka, T. R.

    2016-04-01

    We have developed a physics based analytical model for the calculation of threshold voltage, two dimensional electron gas (2DEG) density and surface potential for AlGaN/GaN metal oxide semiconductor high electron mobility transistors (MOSHEMT). The developed model includes important parameters like polarization charge density at oxide/AlGaN and AlGaN/GaN interfaces, interfacial defect oxide charges and donor charges at the surface of the AlGaN barrier. The effects of two different gate oxides (Al2O3 and HfO2) are compared for the performance evaluation of the proposed MOSHEMT. The MOSHEMTs with Al2O3 dielectric have an advantage of significant increase in 2DEG up to 1.2 × 1013 cm-2 with an increase in oxide thickness up to 10 nm as compared to HfO2 dielectric MOSHEMT. The surface potential for HfO2 based device decreases from 2 to -1.6 eV within 10 nm of oxide thickness whereas for the Al2O3 based device a sharp transition of surface potential occurs from 2.8 to -8.3 eV. The variation in oxide thickness and gate metal work function of the proposed MOSHEMT shifts the threshold voltage from negative to positive realizing the enhanced mode operation. Further to validate the model, the device is simulated in Silvaco Technology Computer Aided Design (TCAD) showing good agreement with the proposed model results. The accuracy of the developed calculations of the proposed model can be used to develop a complete physics based 2DEG sheet charge density and threshold voltage model for GaN MOSHEMT devices for performance analysis.

  4. NASA Ames Laminar Flow Supersonic Wind Tunnel (LFSWT) Tests of a 10 deg Cone at Mach 1.6

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wolf, Stephen W. D.; Laub, James A.

    1997-01-01

    This work is part of the ongoing qualification of the NASA Ames Laminar Flow Supersonic Wind Tunnel (LFSWT) as a low-disturbance (quiet) facility suitable for transition research. A 10 deg cone was tested over a range of unit Reynolds numbers (Re = 2.8 to 3.8 million per foot (9.2 to 12.5 million per meter)) and angles of incidence (O deg to 10 deg) at Mach 1.6. The location of boundary layer transition along the cone was measured primarily from surface temperature distributions, with oil flow interferometry and Schlieren flow visualization providing confirmation measurements. With the LFSWT in its normal quiet operating mode, no transition was detected on the cone in the test core, over the Reynolds number range tested at zero incidence and yaw. Increasing the pressure disturbance levels in the LFSWT test section by a factor of five caused transition onset on the cone within the test core, at zero incidence and yaw. When operating the LFSWT in its normal quiet mode, transition could only be detected in the test core when high angles of incidence (greater than 5 deg) for cones were set. Transition due to elevated pressure disturbances (Tollmien-Schlichting) and surface trips produced a skin temperature rise of order 4 F (2.2 C). Transition due to cross flows on the leeward side of the cone at incidence produced a smaller initial temperature rise of only order 2.5 F (1.4 C), which indicates a slower transition process. We can conclude that these cone tests add further proof that the LFSWT test core is normally low-disturbance (pressure fluctuations greater than 0.1%), as found by associated direct flow quality measurements discussed in this report. Furthermore, in a quiet test environment, the skin temperature rise is sensitive to the type of dominant instability causing transition. The testing of a cone in the LFSWT provides an excellent experiment for the development of advanced transition detection techniques.

  5. Water vapor and temperature inversions near the 0 deg C level over the tropical western Pacific. Master's thesis

    SciTech Connect

    Hart, K.A.

    1994-01-01

    During the Intensive Observation Period (IOP), several periods of water vapor and temperature inversions near the 0 deg C level were observed. Satellite and radiosonde data from TOGA COARE are used to document the large-scale conditions and thermodynamic and kinematic structures present during three extended periods in which moisture and temperature inversions near the freezing level were very pronounced. Observations from each case are synthesized into schematics which represent typical structures of the inversion phenomena. Frequency distributions of the inversion phenomena along with climatological humidity and temperature profiles are calculated for the four-month IOP.

  6. ["Del governo tecnico sanitario degli Ospedali" (Italian) ("Hospital governance") by E. Ronzani (1877-1943)- Padua (Italy), 1910].

    PubMed

    Renzulli, Lorenzo

    2014-01-01

    This article describes the contents of the first edition of the Italian textbook "Del governo tecnico sanitario degli ospedali" ("Hospital Governance") written by Prof. Enrico Ronzani (1877- 1943) and published in Padua (Italy) in 1910. The textbook contains a a preface by Prof. A. Serafini. Prof. Ronzani, a lecturer in Hygiene and health in 1910, introduced the first university course in "Hygiene and hospital technique" in Italy, in Padua in the academic year 1910-1911. The book focuses principally on the duties and responsibilities inherent in the role of the medical director.

  7. A study of turbulent near wake flow characteristics behind the 50-deg-cone using LDA and visualization techniques

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Geropp, D.; Leder, A.

    The paper presents experimental results of wake-flow characteristics for the 50-deg cone. The model is subjected to a nearly undisturbed flow with low blockage ratio. Visualizations with the smoke wire technique and measurements with a two-channel LDA complete one another. The experimental data for the fields of streamlines and distributions were plotted in form of isolines. The characteristic maxima and minima of the Reynolds stresses are related with marked occurrences in the measured mean velocity field and visualized flow field. The FFT analysis points to a low frequency 'pumping' of the separation bubble.

  8. A Recent Volcanic Eruption on a "Magma Starved" Segment of the East Pacific Rise ISS, "10\\deg44'N

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McClain, J. S.; Zierenberg, R. A.; Voight, J. R.; von Damm, K. L.; Rubin, K. H.

    2004-12-01

    In November 2003, three Alvin dives were made on the East Pacific Rise at 10\\deg44'N, (funded by NSF DEB-0072695). We discovered evidence for extremely young lava flows, indicating a recent volcanic eruption. Most of the flow is relatively thin, perhaps only 1 to 2 meters thick, but locally thicker with voids beneath of over 10 meters. The basalts were very glassy, with little devitrification. The pillows were lined with abundant bacterial deposits. We found a number of collapse pits and fissures. Several of these were emitting warm water with bacterial floc, features often referred to as snow blowers. The most prominent collapse feature is a central sinuous feature that extends for several hundred meters, and has a depth of about 10 meters. Initial dating of the basalts is described in an accompanying abstract, and is consistent with a very recent eruption. Global seismicity data do not reveal any events on the EPR at this latitude, and as of this writing, the NOAA (PMEL) hydrophone data for the equatorial Pacific have not yet been recovered. Even the most magma deficient segments of the world's mid-ocean ridge system must undergo magmatism and volcanic activity to produce the basalts that are nearly ubiquitous on the seafloor. Most of the fast spreading East Pacific Rise displays evidence of an abundant magma supply, including the presence of an axial magma chamber (AMC) reflector and an elevated axial high. An exception is the segment of the EPR north of the Clipperton Transform between 10\\deg18'N and 10\\deg55'N. Along that 70 kilometer length of ridge no AMC reflector was detected in the original survey by Detrick and others in 1985. In contrast, later seismic refraction work indicated anomalously low velocities and high attenuation in the lower crust beneath the axis in this area. Near the Transform, the ridge is narrow and relatively deep ~2800 m). It shoals and widens to the north, suggesting a more abundant magma supply. The 10\\deg44'N site lies at the

  9. Suzaku Reveals He-burning Products in the X-ray Emitting Planetary Nebula BD +30deg 3639

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Murashima, M.; Kokubun, M.; Makishima, K.; Kotoku, J.; Murakami, H.; Matsushita, K.; Hayashida, K.; Hamaguchi, K.; Matsumoto, H.

    2004-01-01

    BD +30deg 3639, the brightest planetary nebula at X-ray energies, was observed with Suzaku, an X-ray observatory launched on 2005 July 10. Using the X-ray Imaging Spectrometer, the K-lines from C VI, O VII, and O VIII were resolved for the first time, and C/O, N/O, and Ne/O abundance ratios determined. The C/O abundance ratio exceeds the solar value by nearly two orders of magnitude, and that of Ne/O by at least a factor of 5. These results indicate that the X-rays are emitted mainly by helium shell-burning products.

  10. Aerodynamics of Tactical Weapons to Mach Number 3 and Angle of Attack 15 deg. Part I. Theory and Application.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1977-02-01

    or = M or = 3 and O or = alpha or = 15 deg, respectively. Body and wing geometries can be quite general in that pointed or blunt nose bodies and sharp or blunt leading edge wings can be assumed. Computed results for several configurations compare well with experimental and other analytical results. The computer program is cost effective as it costs less than ten dollars per Mach number to compute the lift, drag, pitching moment, magnus moment, roll damping moment, and pitch damping moment of a typical wing-body shape on the CDC 6700 computer. Thus, a reasonably accurate

  11. Heat-transfer and pressure measurements on a simulated elevon deflected 30 deg near flight conditions at Mach 7

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johnson, C. B.; Taylor, A. H.; Weinstein, I.

    1977-01-01

    Heat transfer rates and pressures were obtained on an elevon plate (deflected 30 deg) and a flat plate upstream of the elevon in an 8 foot high-temperature structures tunnel. The flight Reynolds number and flight total enthalpy for altitudes of 26.8 km and 28.7 km at Mach seven were duplicated. The heat transfer and pressure data were used to establish heating and pressure loads. The measured heating was compared with several theoretical predictions, and the closest agreement obtained with a Schultz-Grunow reference enthalpy method of calculation.

  12. Aerodynamic heating on the corrugated surface of a 10.2 deg half-angle blunted cone at Mach 6.7

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Weinstein, I.; Avery, D. E.; Hunt, L. R.

    1981-01-01

    A 10.2 deg half-angle blunted cone with corrugated surfaces was tested in the Langley 8-foot high-temperature structures tunnel to measure the aerodynamic heating of its surfaces. The tests were made in a turbulent boundary layer at angles of attack of 0 deg, 5 deg, and 10 deg. Heating of the windward side was in reasonable agreement with theoretical turbulent predictions for a smooth cone, while heating on the leeward side was between laminar and turbulent predictions as a result of local transitional flow or flow separation produced by high lee-side pressures. Localized heating measurements indicated a significant increase in heating at large cross-flow angles, with the maximum heating rates occurring where the flow reattaches on the upstream side of the corrugation crest and the minimum occurring on the downstream side where the flow is separated.

  13. Biological effects of diethylene glycol (DEG) and produced waters (PWs) released from offshore activities: a multi-biomarker approach with the sea bass Dicentrarchus labrax.

    PubMed

    Stefania, Gorbi; Maura, Benedetti; Claudia, Virno Lamberti; Barbara, Pisanelli; Ginevra, Moltedo; Francesco, Regoli

    2009-11-01

    Diethylene glycol (DEG) is largely used during oil and gas exploitation by offshore platforms. The aim of this work was to investigate if this compound induces direct molecular/cellular effects in marine organisms, or indirectly modulate those of produced waters (PWs). Sea bass (Dicentrarchus labrax) were exposed to DEG dosed alone or in combination with PWs from an Adriatic platform. A wide array of analysed biomarkers included cytochrome P450-dependent enzymatic activity, bile metabolites, glutathione S-transferases, acetylcholinesterase, peroxisomal proliferation, antioxidant defences (catalase, glutathione reductase, glutathione peroxidases, glutathione), total oxyradical scavenging capacity, malondialdehyde and DNA integrity (single strand breaks and frequency of micronuclei). Results did not reveal marked effects of DEG, while PWs influenced the biotransformation system, the oxidative status and the onset of genotoxic damages. Co-exposures caused only limited differences of biomarker responses at some experimental conditions, overall suggesting a limited biological impact of DEG at levels normally deriving from offshore activities.

  14. Investigation of Low-Subsonic Flight Characteristics of a Model of a Flat-Bottom Hypersonic Boost-Glide Configuration Having a 78 deg Delta Wing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Paulson, John W.; Shanks, Robert E.

    1959-01-01

    An investigation of the low-subsonic stability and control characteristics of a model of a flat-bottom hypersonic boost-glide configuration having 78 deg sweep of the leading edge has been made in the Langley full-scale tunnel. The model was flown over an angle-of-attack range from 10 to 35 deg. Static and dynamic force tests were made in the Langley free-flight tunnel. The investigation showed that the longitudinal stability and control characteristics were generally satisfactory with neutral or positive static longitudinal stability. The addition of artificial pitch damping resulted in satisfactory longitudinal characteristics being obtained with large amounts of static instability. The most rearward center-of-gravity position for which sustained flights could be made either with or without pitch damper corresponded to the calculated maneuver point. The lateral stability and control characteristics were satisfactory up to about 15 deg angle of attack. The damping of the Dutch roll oscillation decreased with increasing angle of attack; the oscillation was about neutrally stable at 20 deg angle of attack and unstable at angles of attack of about 25 deg and above. Artificial damping in roll greatly improved the lateral characteristics and resulted in flights being made up to 35 deg angle of attack.

  15. Investigation of Low-Subsonic Flight Characteristics of a Model of a Hypersonic Boost-Glide Configuration Having a 78 deg. Delta Wing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Paulson, John W.; Shanks, Robert E.

    1961-01-01

    An investigation of the low-subsonic stability and control characteristics of a model of a hypersonic boost-glide configuration having 78 deg. sweep of the leading edge has been made in the Langley full-scale tunnel. The model was flown over an angle-of-attack range from 10 to 35 deg. Static and dynamic force tests were made in the Langley free-flight tunnel. The investigation showed that the longitudinal stability and control characteristics were generally satisfactory with neutral or positive static longitudinal stability. The addition of artificial pitch damping resulted in satisfactory longitudinal characteristics being obtained with large amounts of static instability. The most rearward center-of-gravity position for which sustained flights could be made either with or without pitch damper corresponded to the calculated maneuver point. The lateral stability and control characteristics were satisfactory up to about 15 deg. angle of attack. The damping of the Dutch roll oscillation decreased with increasing angle of attack; the oscillation was about neutrally stable at 20 deg. angle of attack and unstable at angles of attack of about 25 deg. and above. Artificial damping in roll greatly improved the lateral characteristics and resulted in flights being made up to 35 deg. angle of attack.

  16. Near- and mid-infrared imaging of the planetary nebulae BD +30 deg 3639 and IC 418

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hora, Joseph L.; Deutsch, Lynne K.; Hoffmann, William F.; Fazio, Giovanni G.; Shivanandan, Kandiah

    1993-01-01

    We present near- and mid-IR images of the planetary nebulae BD +30 deg 3639 and IC 418, with a unique combination of high spatial and spectral resolution. The mid-IR images were obtained with MIRAC, a new IR array camera. For BD +30 deg 3639, the mid-IR images at 10.0, 11.2, 12.4, 12.8, and 13.2 microns have allowed us to separate the various spectral emission components such as the broad UIR features, the 12.8-micron forbidden Ne II emission feature, and continuum emission, to determine the distribution of these components in the nebula. For IC 418, we have obtained high-resolution images in both the near- and mid-IR. The images in the near-IR at J, H, and K are important for determining the source of the IR excess; one component of the excess is located near the central star. We have also imaged the halo emission at H and K, which has been detected in earlier studies, and have determined its spatial extent. The mid-IR images at 9.8 and 11.7 microns show continuum emission coincident with the ionized zone and suggest that SiC emission originates from the region near the central star.

  17. Analytical models for the 2DEG concentration and gate leakage current in AlGaN/GaN HEMTs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ahmed, Nadim; Dutta, Aloke K.

    2017-06-01

    In this paper, we present a completely analytical model for the 2DEG concentration in AlGaN/GaN HEMTs as a function of gate bias, considering the donor-like trap states present at the metal/AlGaN interface to be the primary source of 2DEG carriers. To the best of our knowledge, this is a completely new contribution of this work. The electric field in the AlGaN layer is calculated using this model, which is further used to model the gate leakage current under reverse bias. We have modified the existing TTT (Thermionic Trap-Assisted Tunneling) current model, taking into account the effect of both metal/AlGaN interface traps as well as AlGaN bulk traps. The gate current under forward bias is also modeled using the existing thermionic emission model, approximating it by its Taylor series expansion. To take into account the effect of non-zero drain-source bias (VDS), an empirical fitting parameter is introduced in order to model the channel voltage in terms of VDS. The results of our models have been compared with the experimental data reported in the literature for three different devices, and the match is found to be excellent for both forward and reverse bias as well as for zero and non-zero VDS.

  18. Turbulent Vortex-Flow Simulation Over a 65 deg Sharp and Blunt Leading-Edge Delta Wing at Subsonic Speeds

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ghaffari, Farhad

    2005-01-01

    Turbulent thin-layer, Reynolds-Averaged Navier-Stokes solutions, based on a multi-block structured grid, are presented for a 65 deg delta wing having either a sharp leading edge (SLE) or blunt leading edge (BLE) geometry. The primary objective of the study is to assess the prediction capability of the method for simulating the leading-edge flow separation and the ensuing vortex flow characteristics. Computational results are obtained for two angles of attack of approximately 13 and 20 deg, at free-stream Mach number of 0.40 and Reynolds number of 6 million based on the wing mean aerodynamic chord. The effects of two turbulence models of Baldwin-Lomax with Degani-Schiff (BL/DS) and the Spalart-Allmaras (SA) on the numerical results are also discussed. The computations also explore the effects of two numerical flux-splitting schemes, i.e., flux difference splitting (fds) and flux vector splitting (fvs), on the solution development and convergence characteristics. The resulting trends in solution sensitivity to grid resolution for the selected leading-edge geometries, angles of attack, turbulence models and flux splitting schemes are also presented. The validity of the numerical results is evaluated against a unique set of experimental wind-tunnel data that was obtained in the National Transonic Facility at the NASA Langley Research Center.

  19. Measurements of the anisotropy of the cosmic background radiation at 0.5 deg scale near the star Mu Pegasi

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Meinhold, P.; Clapp, A.; Devlin, M.; Fischer, M.; Gundersen, J.; Holmes, W.; Lange, A.; Lubin, P.; Richards, P.; Smoot, G.

    1993-01-01

    Results are presented from the third flight of the MAX experiment, an attitude-controlled balloon-borne millimeter-wave telescope with a 0.5 deg beam, a 1 deg chop, and a three-channel bolometric photometer. Several hours of high-quality data were obtained during a flight on 1991 June 5, including long integrations to search for CBR anisotropy, two separate measurements of dust in the Galactic plane, a brief scan of the Coma Cluster to search for the Sunyaev-Zel'dovich (SZ) effect, and a number of important systematic tests. Data from one of the long CBR integrations, carried out in a region of sky near the star Mu Pegasi, are presented. The primary structure in the data is shown to be emission from Galactic dust via its spectrum and correlation with the IRAS 100/micron map. Several approaches are used to fit this dust component and remove it from the data. An upper limit to CBR anisotropy of deltaT/T less than 2.5 x 10 exp -5 is obtained for a Gaussian autocorrelation function with coherence angle omega(c) = 25'. This limit is significantly higher than the measurement sensitivity of deltaT/T about 1 x 10 exp -5 due to the presence of residual structure in the data after removal of the dust component.

  20. Large-Amplitude, High-Rate Roll Oscillations of a 65 deg Delta Wing at High Incidence

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chaderjian, Neal M.; Schiff, Lewis B.

    2000-01-01

    The IAR/WL 65 deg delta wing experimental results provide both detail pressure measurements and a wide range of flow conditions covering from simple attached flow, through fully developed vortex and vortex burst flow, up to fully-stalled flow at very high incidence. Thus, the Computational Unsteady Aerodynamics researchers can use it at different level of validating the corresponding code. In this section a range of CFD results are provided for the 65 deg delta wing at selected flow conditions. The time-dependent, three-dimensional, Reynolds-averaged, Navier-Stokes (RANS) equations are used to numerically simulate the unsteady vertical flow. Two sting angles and two large- amplitude, high-rate, forced-roll motions and a damped free-to-roll motion are presented. The free-to-roll motion is computed by coupling the time-dependent RANS equations to the flight dynamic equation of motion. The computed results are compared with experimental pressures, forces, moments and roll angle time history. In addition, surface and off-surface flow particle streaks are also presented.

  1. Measurements of the anisotropy of the cosmic background radiation at 0.5 deg scale near the star Mu Pegasi

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Meinhold, P.; Clapp, A.; Devlin, M.; Fischer, M.; Gundersen, J.; Holmes, W.; Lange, A.; Lubin, P.; Richards, P.; Smoot, G.

    1993-01-01

    Results are presented from the third flight of the MAX experiment, an attitude-controlled balloon-borne millimeter-wave telescope with a 0.5 deg beam, a 1 deg chop, and a three-channel bolometric photometer. Several hours of high-quality data were obtained during a flight on 1991 June 5, including long integrations to search for CBR anisotropy, two separate measurements of dust in the Galactic plane, a brief scan of the Coma Cluster to search for the Sunyaev-Zel'dovich (SZ) effect, and a number of important systematic tests. Data from one of the long CBR integrations, carried out in a region of sky near the star Mu Pegasi, are presented. The primary structure in the data is shown to be emission from Galactic dust via its spectrum and correlation with the IRAS 100/micron map. Several approaches are used to fit this dust component and remove it from the data. An upper limit to CBR anisotropy of deltaT/T less than 2.5 x 10 exp -5 is obtained for a Gaussian autocorrelation function with coherence angle omega(c) = 25'. This limit is significantly higher than the measurement sensitivity of deltaT/T about 1 x 10 exp -5 due to the presence of residual structure in the data after removal of the dust component.

  2. Southwestern limits of Indian Ocean Ridge mantle and the origin of low Pb-206/Pb-204 mid-ocean ridge basalt - Isotope systematics of the central Southwest Indian Ridge (17 deg - 50 deg E)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mahoney, J.; Le Roex, A. P.; Peng, Z.; Fisher, R. L.; Natland, J. H.

    1992-12-01

    The isotopic characteristics of the Indian Ocean Ridge midocean ridge basalts (MORBs) and of the Atlantic and the Pacific MORBs (north of 25 deg S) were determined in order to estimate the southwestern limits of the Indian Ocean Ridge mantle and the origin of low Pb-206/Pb-204 MORB. In view of the possible importance of a Marion-type mantle along portions of the ridge, lavas from several Marion Island, Prince Edward Island, and Funk Seamount were also analyzed isotopically. The isotopic results include analyses of fields for the Indian Ocean triple junction area, the entire Central Indian and southern Carlsberg ridges, for several oceanic islands, and Pacific and/or North Atlantic MORBs.

  3. The Solar Neighborhood. XXV. Discovery of New Proper Motion Stars with 0.40 sec/yr > mu > or = 0.18 sec/yr Between Declinations -47 deg and 00 deg

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Boyd, Mark R.; Winters, Jennifer G.; Henry, Todd J.; Jao, Wei-Chun; Finch, Charlie T.; Subasavage, John P.; Hambly, Nigel C.

    2011-01-01

    We present 2817 new southern proper motion systems with 0.40 sec/yr > mu > or = 0.18 sec/yr and declination between 47 deg and 00 deg. This is a continuation of the SuperCOSMOS-RECONS (SCR) proper motion searches of the southern sky. We use the same photometric relations as previous searches to provide distance estimates based on the assumption that the objects are single main-sequence stars. We find 79 new red dwarf systems predicted to be within 25 pc, including a few new components of previously known systems. Two systems--SCR 1731-2452 at 9.5 pc and SCR 1746-3214 at 9.9 pc--are anticipated to be within 10 pc. We also find 23 new white dwarf (WD) candidates with distance estimates of 15-66 pc, as well as 360 new red subdwarf candidates. With this search, we complete the SCR sweep of the southern sky for stars with mu > or = 0.18 sec/yr and R(sub 59F) < or = 16.5, resulting in a total of 5042 objects in 4724 previously unreported proper motion systems. Here we provide selected comprehensive lists from our SCR proper motion search to date, including 152 red dwarf systems estimated to be within 25 pc (9 within 10 pc), 46 WDs (10 within 25 pc), and 598 subdwarf candidates. The results of this search suggest that there are more nearby systems to be found at fainter magnitudes and lower proper motion limits than those probed so far.

  4. The Solar Neighborhood. XXV. Discovery of New Proper Motion Stars with 0.40 sec/yr > mu > or = 0.18 sec/yr Between Declinations -47 deg and 00 deg

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Boyd, Mark R.; Winters, Jennifer G.; Henry, Todd J.; Jao, Wei-Chun; Finch, Charlie T.; Subasavage, John P.; Hambly, Nigel C.

    2011-01-01

    We present 2817 new southern proper motion systems with 0.40 sec/yr > mu > or = 0.18 sec/yr and declination between 47 deg and 00 deg. This is a continuation of the SuperCOSMOS-RECONS (SCR) proper motion searches of the southern sky. We use the same photometric relations as previous searches to provide distance estimates based on the assumption that the objects are single main-sequence stars. We find 79 new red dwarf systems predicted to be within 25 pc, including a few new components of previously known systems. Two systems--SCR 1731-2452 at 9.5 pc and SCR 1746-3214 at 9.9 pc--are anticipated to be within 10 pc. We also find 23 new white dwarf (WD) candidates with distance estimates of 15-66 pc, as well as 360 new red subdwarf candidates. With this search, we complete the SCR sweep of the southern sky for stars with mu > or = 0.18 sec/yr and R(sub 59F) < or = 16.5, resulting in a total of 5042 objects in 4724 previously unreported proper motion systems. Here we provide selected comprehensive lists from our SCR proper motion search to date, including 152 red dwarf systems estimated to be within 25 pc (9 within 10 pc), 46 WDs (10 within 25 pc), and 598 subdwarf candidates. The results of this search suggest that there are more nearby systems to be found at fainter magnitudes and lower proper motion limits than those probed so far.

  5. Subsonic Aerodynamic Characteristics of an Airplane Configuration with a 63 deg Sweptback Wing and Twin-Boom Tails

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Savage, Howard F.; Edwards, George G.

    1959-01-01

    A wind-tunnel investigation has been conducted to determine the effects of an unconventional tail arrangement on the subsonic static longitudinal and lateral stability characteristics of a model having a 63 deg sweptback wing of aspect ratio 3.5 and a fuselage. Tail booms, extending rearward from approximately the midsemispan of each wing panel, supported independent tail assemblies well outboard of the usual position at the rear of the fuselage. The horizontal-tail surfaces had the leading edge swept back 45 deg and an aspect ratio of 2.4. The vertical tail surfaces were geometrically similar to one panel of the horizontal tail. For comparative purposes, the wing-body combination was also tested with conventional fuselage-mounted tail surfaces. The wind-tunnel tests were conducted at Mach numbers from 0.25 to 0.95 with a Reynolds number of 2,000,000, at a Mach number of 0.46 with a Reynolds number of 3,500,000, and at a Mach number of 0.20 with a Reynolds number of 7,000,000. The results of the investigation indicate that longitudinal stability existed to considerably higher lift coefficients for the outboard tail configuration than for the configuration with conventional tail. Wing fences were necessary with both configurations for the elimination of sudden changes in longitudinal stability at lift coefficients between 0.3 and 0.5. Sideslip angles up to 15 deg had only small effects upon the pitching-moment characteristics of the outboard tail configuration. There was an increase in the directional stability for the outboard tail configuration at the higher angles of attack as opposed to a decrease for the conventional tail configuration at most of the Mach numbers and Reynolds numbers of this investigation. The dihedral effect increased rapidly with increasing angle of attack for both the outboard and the conventional tail configurations but the increase was greater for the outboard tail configuration. The data indicate that the outboard tail is an effective

  6. RXTE All-Sky Slew Survey. Catalog of X-Ray Sources at B Greater Than 10 deg

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Revnivtsev, M.; Sazonov, S.; Jahoda, K.; Gilfanov, M.

    2004-01-01

    We report results of a serendipitous hard X-ray (3-20 keV), nearly all-sky (absolute value of b greater than l0 deg.) survey based on RXTE/PCA observations performed during satellite reorientations in 1996-2002. The survey is 80% (90%) complete to a 4(sigma) limiting flux of approx. = 1.8 (2.5) x 10(exp -l1) erg/s sq cm in the 3-20 keV band. The achieved sensitivity in the 3-8 keV and 8-20 keV subbands is similar to and an order of magnitude higher than that of the previously record HEAO-1 A1 and HEAO-1 A4 all-sky surveys, respectively. A combined 7 x 10(exp 3) sq. deg area of the sky is sampled to flux levels below l0(exp -11) erg/ s sq cm (3-20 keV). In total 294 sources are detected and localized to better than 1 deg. 236 (80%) of these can be confidently associated with a known astrophysical object; another 22 likely result from the superposition of 2 or 3 closely located known sources. 35 detected sources remain unidentified, although for 12 of these we report a likely soft X-ray counterpart from the ROSAT all-sky survey bright source catalog. Of the reliably identified sources, 63 have local origin (Milky Way, LMC or SMC), 64 are clusters of galaxies and 100 are active galactic nuclei (AGN). The fact that the unidentified X-ray sources have hard spectra suggests that the majority of them are AGN, including highly obscured ones (N(sub H) greater than l0(exp 23)/sq cm). For the first time we present a log N-log S diagram for extragalactic sources above 4 x l0(exp -12) erg/ s sq cm at 8-20 keV. Key words. cosmo1ogy:observations - diffuse radiation - X-rays general

  7. The Caltech-NRAO Stripe 82 Survey (CNSS). I. The Pilot Radio Transient Survey In 50 deg2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mooley, K. P.; Hallinan, G.; Bourke, S.; Horesh, A.; Myers, S. T.; Frail, D. A.; Kulkarni, S. R.; Levitan, D. B.; Kasliwal, M. M.; Cenko, S. B.; Cao, Y.; Bellm, E.; Laher, R. R.

    2016-02-01

    We have commenced a multiyear program, the Caltech-NRAO Stripe 82 Survey (CNSS), to search for radio transients with the Jansky VLA in the Sloan Digital Sky Survey Stripe 82 region. The CNSS will deliver five epochs over the entire ˜270 deg2 of Stripe 82, an eventual deep combined map with an rms noise of ˜40 μJy and catalogs at a frequency of 3 GHz, and having a spatial resolution of 3″. This first paper presents the results from an initial pilot survey of a 50 deg2 region of Stripe 82, involving four epochs spanning logarithmic timescales between 1 week and 1.5 yr, with the combined map having a median rms noise of 35 μJy. This pilot survey enabled the development of the hardware and software for rapid data processing, as well as transient detection and follow-up, necessary for the full 270 deg2 survey. Data editing, calibration, imaging, source extraction, cataloging, and transient identification were completed in a semi-automated fashion within 6 hr of completion of each epoch of observations, using dedicated computational hardware at the NRAO in Socorro and custom-developed data reduction and transient detection pipelines. Classification of variable and transient sources relied heavily on the wealth of multiwavelength legacy survey data in the Stripe 82 region, supplemented by repeated mapping of the region by the Palomar Transient Factory. A total of {3.9}-0.9+0.5% of the few thousand detected point sources were found to vary by greater than 30%, consistent with similar studies at 1.4 and 5 GHz. Multiwavelength photometric data and light curves suggest that the variability is mostly due to shock-induced flaring in the jets of active galactic nuclei (AGNs). Although this was only a pilot survey, we detected two bona fide transients, associated with an RS CVn binary and a dKe star. Comparison with existing legacy survey data (FIRST, VLA-Stripe 82) revealed additional highly variable and transient sources on timescales between 5 and 20 yr, largely

  8. Measurements of anisotropy in the cosmic microwave background radiation at 0.5 deg angular scales near the star gamma ursae minoris

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Devlin, M. J.; Clapp, A. C.; Gundersen, J. O.; Hagmann, C. A.; Hristov, V. V.; Lange, A. E.; Lim, M. A.; Lubin, P. M.; Mauskopf, P. D.; Meinhold, P. R.

    1994-01-01

    We present results from a four-frequency observation of a 6 deg x 0.6 deg strip of the sky centered near the star Gamma Ursae Minoris (GUM) during the fourth flight of the Millimeter-wave Anistropy experiment(MAX). The observation was made with a 1.4 deg peak-to-peak sinusoidal chop in all bands. The FWHM beam sizes were 0.55 deg +/- 0.05 deg at 3.5 per cm and 0.75 deg +/- 0.05 deg at 6, 9, and 14 per cm. During this observation significant correlated structure was observed at 3.5, 6 and 9 per cm with amplitudes similar to those observed in the GUM region during the second and third fligts of MAX. The frequency spectrum is consistent with cosmic microwave background (CMB) and inconsistent with thermal emission from interstellar dust. The extrapolated amplitudes of synchrotron and free-free emission are too small to account for the amplitude of the observed structure, If all of the structure is attributed to CMB anisotropy with a Gaussian autocorrelation function and a coherence angle of 25 min, then the most probable values of delta T/T(sub CMB) in the 3.5, 6 and 9 per cm bads are (4.3 +2.7/-1.6) x 10(exp -5), 2.8 (+4.3/-1/1) x 10(exp -5), and 3.5 (+3.0/-1.6) x 10(exp -5) (95% confidence upper and lower limits), respectively.

  9. An investigation of the aerodynamic characteristics of a 0.00548 scale model (model no. 486) of the space shuttle 146-inch diameter solid rocket booster at angels of attack from 113 deg to 180 deg in the AEDC PWT 4-foot transonic wind tunnel (SA16F)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ramsey, P. E.

    1976-01-01

    An experimental investigation (SA16F) was conducted in the AEDC PWT 4T to determine the entry static stability of a 0.00548 scale space shuttle solid rocket booster (SRB). The primary objective was to improve the definition of the aerodynamic characteristics in the angle of attack range beyond 90 deg in the vicinity of the entry trim point. The SRB scale model consisted of the reentry configuration with all major protuberances. A simulated heat shield around the engine nozzle was also included. Data were obtained for a 60 deg side mounted sting and a straight nose mounted sting. The angle of attack range for the side mounted sting was 113 deg to 147 deg and for the nose mounted sting 152 deg to 187 deg. The Mach number range consisted of 0.4 to 1.2 at roll angles of 0 and 90 deg. The resulting 6-component aerodynamic force data was presented as the variation of coefficients with angle of attack for each Mach number and roll angle.

  10. Millstone Hill incoherent scatter observations of auroral convection over the 60-75 deg Lambda range. II - Initial results

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Evans, J. V.; Holt, J. M.; Oliver, W. L.; Wand, R. H.

    1980-01-01

    The Millstone Hill radar, Westford, Massachusetts, has been upgraded for observations in support of the international magnetosphere study (IMS) by means of the addition of a 150-ft diameter fully steerable antenna. This antenna allows measurements of F region ion drifts, from which F region electric fields can be derived, using the existing UHF (68-cm wavelength) radar. The paper describes measurements of the electric field in the auroral zone over the 60-75 deg Lambda interval. The electric field is obtained by means of a least mean squares fit between the drifts obtained in four beam directions and a smoothly varying model with 204 degrees of freedom. Results are presented for 11 moderately quiet days in 1978 and these are compared with the models published by Heppner (1977).

  11. Ground based NO2 and O3 measurements by visible spectrometer at Syowa Base (69 deg S), Antarctica

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kondo, Y.; Matthews, W. A.; Johnston, Paul V.; Hayashi, M.; Koike, M.; Iwasaka, Y.; Shimizu, A.; Budiyono, A.; Yamanouchi, T.; Aoki, S.

    1994-01-01

    The column amounts of NO2 and ozone have been measured using visible spectroscopy at Syowa Base (69 deg S) since March 1990. Ozone was also measured at the same location with a Dobson spectrometer as well as ozonesondes being flown regularly. The characteristic features of the seasonal and diurnal variations of NO2 are presented. The column ozone values from the visible spectrometers are compared with the Dobson data. The very low values of NO2 in midwinter and early spring are consistent with the conditions predicted to be needed for heterogeneous ozone destruction in early spring. In late spring and summer of 1991, NO2 amounts were considerably smaller than in 1990, presumably due to the effect of Mt. Pinatubo eruption.

  12. Effect of leg exercise training on vascular volumes during 30 days of 6 deg head-down bed rest

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Greenleaf, J. E.; Vernikos, J.; Wade, C. E.; Barnes, P. R.

    1992-01-01

    In order to investigate the effects of leg exercise training on vascular volumes during 30 d of 6-deg head-down bed rest, plasma and red cell volumes, body density, and water balance were measured in 19 men confined to bed rest (BR). One group had no exercise training (NOE), another near-maximal variable-intensity isotonic exercise (ITE) for 60 min/d, and the third near-maximal intermittent isokinetic exercise (IKE) for 60 min/d. Mean energy costs for the NOE, IKE, and ITE regimens were determined. Body densities within groups and mean urine volumes between groups were unchanged during BR. Changes in red cell volume followed changes in plasma volume. There was close coupling between resting plasma volume and plasma protein and osmotic content. It is argued that the ITE training protocol is better than the IKE protocol for maintaining plasma volume during prolonged exposure to BR.

  13. The 1985 chlorine and fluorine inventories in the stratosphere based on ATMOS observations at 30 deg North latitude

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zander, R.; Gunson, M. R.; Farmer, C. B.; Rinsland, C. P.; Irion, F. W.; Mahieu, E.

    1992-01-01

    Results are presented of an investigation of the Cl and F inventories derived from the concentrations of eleven Cl- and F-bearing organic and inorganic species throughout the atmosphere, based on observations with the Atmospheric Trace Molecule Spectroscopy instrument aboard the Space Shuttle during the Spacelab 3 mission of April 29 to May 6, 1985. It was found that, in April-May 1985, near 30 deg N, the mean total stratospheric concentrations of Cl and F were 2.58 +/-0.10 ppbv and 1.15 +/-0.12 ppbv, respectively. Partitioning among the source, sink, and reservoir species was consistent with the conservation of the F and Cl budgets throughout the stratosphere. It is shown that the budgets of Cl and F above about 45 km altitude can be determined accurately by measuring only HCl, HF, and CF4 and provide a straightforward timely reference point for future inventories and trends evaluations.

  14. [External quality assurance of the first wave of the German Health Interview and Examination Survey for Adults (DEGS1)].

    PubMed

    Pelz, I; Pohlabeln, H; Reineke, A; Ahrens, W

    2013-05-01

    The quality management concept for the first wave of the German Health Interview and Examination Survey for Adults (DEGS1) included in addition to conducting internal quality assurance (QS) also the supervision by an external independent institute. After a restricted tendering procedure, the Leibniz Institute for Prevention Research and Epidemiology-BIPS was commissioned to conduct the external quality assurance. The external quality control included the review of the operation manuals, the training of the field staff, the execution of field work (including measurements), and the monitoring of sampling, response and data management. For the realization of the controls in these areas, test criteria were developed to reveal shortcomings early and to give recommendations for the internal quality assurance. This paper briefly describes the concept and the execution of the accompanying external quality assurance with regard to the above mentioned areas. An English full-text version of this article is available at SpringerLink as supplemental.

  15. Experimental Investigation of the Flow about a 65 deg Delta Wing in the NASA Langley National Transonic Facility. Chapter 4

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Luckring, James M.

    2009-01-01

    An experimental investigation for the flow about a 65 deg. delta wing has been conducted in the NASA Langley National Transonic Facility (NTF). The tests were conducted at Reynolds numbers, based on the mean aerodynamic chord, ranging from 6 million to 120 million and at Mach numbers ranging from 0.4 to 0.9. The model incorporated four different leading-edge bluntness values. The data include detailed static surfacepressure distributions as well as normal-force and pitching-moment coefficients. The test program was designed to quantify the effects of Mach number, Reynolds number, and leading-edge bluntness on the onset and progression of leading-edge vortex separation.

  16. The 1985 chlorine and fluorine inventories in the stratosphere based on ATMOS observations at 30 deg North latitude

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zander, R.; Gunson, M. R.; Farmer, C. B.; Rinsland, C. P.; Irion, F. W.; Mahieu, E.

    1992-01-01

    Results are presented of an investigation of the Cl and F inventories derived from the concentrations of eleven Cl- and F-bearing organic and inorganic species throughout the atmosphere, based on observations with the Atmospheric Trace Molecule Spectroscopy instrument aboard the Space Shuttle during the Spacelab 3 mission of April 29 to May 6, 1985. It was found that, in April-May 1985, near 30 deg N, the mean total stratospheric concentrations of Cl and F were 2.58 +/-0.10 ppbv and 1.15 +/-0.12 ppbv, respectively. Partitioning among the source, sink, and reservoir species was consistent with the conservation of the F and Cl budgets throughout the stratosphere. It is shown that the budgets of Cl and F above about 45 km altitude can be determined accurately by measuring only HCl, HF, and CF4 and provide a straightforward timely reference point for future inventories and trends evaluations.

  17. Unique hue judgments as a function of test size in the fovea and at 20-deg temporal eccentricity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nerger, Janice L.; Volbrecht, Vicki J.; Ayde, Corey J.

    1995-06-01

    Unique hue loci were measured for four observers in the fovea and at 20-deg temporal eccentricity as a function of test size. Eccentric measurements were made on the cone plateau following a rod bleach. The results indicate that unique yellow remains approximately invariant with respect to test size and retinal eccentricity, whereas unique blue and unique green shift to longer wavelengths with increasing test size. The locus of unique blue in the periphery reaches an asymptote at approximately the same wavelength as that from the foveal measurements, whereas unique green measured in the periphery is consistently at shorter wavelengths than in the fovea. In general, the data are best described by a model in which the short-wavelength-sensitive cone input to the two opponent-color channels decreases with decreasing test size and increasing retinal eccentricity.

  18. Class H cement hydration at 180 deg. C and high pressure in the presence of added silica

    SciTech Connect

    Jupe, Andrew C.; Wilkinson, Angus P. Luke, Karen; Funkhouser, Gary P.

    2008-05-15

    Under deep oil-well conditions of elevated temperature and pressure, crystalline calcium silicate hydrates are formed during Portland cement hydration. The use of silica rich mineral additives leads to the formation of crystalline hydrates with better mechanical properties than those formed without the additive. The effects of silica flour, silica fume (amorphous silica), and a natural zeolite mixture on the hydration of Class H cement slurries at 180 deg. C under externally applied pressures of 7 and 52 MPa are examined in real time using in-situ synchrotron X-ray diffraction. For some compositions examined, but not all, pressure was found to have a large effect on the kinetics of crystalline hydrate formation. The use of silica fume delayed both C{sub 3}S hydration and the formation of crystalline silicate hydrates compared to what was seen with other silica sources.

  19. Interplanetary magnetic field polarity and the size of low-pressure troughs near 180 deg W longitude

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wilcox, J. M.; Duffy, P. B.; Schatten, K. H.; Svalgaard, L.; Scherrer, P. H.; Roberts, W. O.; Olson, R. H.

    1979-01-01

    The relationship between interplanetary magnetic field polarity and the area of low pressure (300 mbar) troughs near 180 deg W longitude is examined. For most of the winters from 1951 to 1973, the trough size, as indicated by the vorticity area index, is found to be significantly greater when the interplanetary magnetic field is directed away from the sun than when the field is directed towards the sun. This relationship is shown to hold for various combinations of winters and for most months within a winter, and be most pronounced at the time when polarity was determined. It is suggested that the phenomenon is caused by merging of interplanetary magnetic field lines, when polarity is directed away from the sun, with geomagnetic field lines in the Northern Hemisphere (where these measurements were made), allowing energetic particle fluxes to have access to the north polar region

  20. Static testing of a bridge using an interferometric radar: the case study of "Ponte degli Alpini," Belluno, Italy.

    PubMed

    Dei, Devis; Mecatti, Daniele; Pieraccini, Massimiliano

    2013-01-01

    Ground-based radar interferometry is an increasingly popular technique for monitoring civil infrastructures. In this paper, the static testing of a bridge is reported. It was an 8-span bridge, 297 m long, named "Ponte degli Alpini," crossing the valley of the Ardo River. The radar has been used for testing a lateral span and a central span. The obtained results present elements of novelty not previously reported in the literature. In fact, some displacement measurements of the lateral span have been affected by a horizontal shift that has to be taken into account for a correct interpretation of the measured data. Furthermore, the measurements of the central span have been carried out with the radar positioned transversally with respect to the bridge deck; this unusual arrangement has allowed for obtaining displacement maps less geometrically distorted with respect to other cases reported in the literature.

  1. Deformation of the central Andes (15-27 deg S) derived from a flow model of subduction zones

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wdowinski, Shimon; O'Connell, Richard J.

    1991-01-01

    A simple viscous flow model of a subduction zone is used to calculate the deformation within continental lithosphere above a subducting slab. This formulation accounts for two forces that dominate the deformation in the overriding lithosphere: tectonic forces and buoyancy forces. Numerical solutions, obtained by using a finite element technique, are compared with observations from the central Andes (15-27 deg S). The model predicts the observed deformation pattern of extension in the forearc, compression in the Western Monocline (corresponding to magmatic activity), extension in the Altiplano, compression in the Eastern Monocline and Subandes, and no deformation in the Brazilian Shield. By comparing the calculated solutions with the large-scale tectonic observations, the forces that govern the deformation in the central Andes are evaluated. The approximately constant subduction velocity in the past 26 million years suggests that the rate of crustal shortening in the Andes has decreased with time due to the thickening of the crust.

  2. The spinodal decomposition in 17-4PH stainless steel subjected to long-term aging at 350 deg. C

    SciTech Connect

    Wang Jun Zou Hong; Li Cong; Qiu Shaoyu; Shen Baoluo

    2008-05-15

    The influence of aging time on the microstructure evolution of 17-4 PH martensitic stainless steel was studied by transmission electron microscopy (TEM). Results showed that the martensite decomposed by a spinodal decomposition mechanism after the alloy was subjected to long-term aging at 350 deg. C. The fine scale spinodal decomposition of {alpha}-ferrite brought about a Cr-enriched bright stripe and a Fe-enriched dark stripe, i.e., {alpha}' and {alpha} phases, separately, which were perpendicular to the grain boundary. The spinodal decomposition started at the grain boundary. Then with prolonged aging time, the decomposition microstructure expanded from the grain boundary to interior. The wavelength of the spinodally decomposed microstructure changed little with extended aging time.

  3. Property fluxes at 30 deg S and their implications for the Pacific-Indian throughflow and the global heat budget

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Macdonald, Alison M.

    1993-01-01

    The extent of exchange between the Pacific and Indian Oceans through the Indonesian Archipelago and the net global oceanic heat flux are determined using six hydrographic basinwide sections, two in each of the three major ocean basins. Globally, at 30 deg S, the estimated net oceanic heat flux is -0.7 +/- 0.1 PW, dominated by a large southward flux in the Indian Ocean. Large equatorward heat flux values in the South Atlantic Basin are not consistent with the data. Although the data are consistent with some water following the 'warm water' return path for North Atlantic Deep Water (NADW), the 'cold water' path must play the dominant role in the maintenance of the global thermohaline cell associated with the formation process of NADW.

  4. Effect of leg exercise training on vascular volumes during 30 days of 6 deg head-down bed rest

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Greenleaf, J. E.; Vernikos, J.; Wade, C. E.; Barnes, P. R.

    1992-01-01

    In order to investigate the effects of leg exercise training on vascular volumes during 30 d of 6-deg head-down bed rest, plasma and red cell volumes, body density, and water balance were measured in 19 men confined to bed rest (BR). One group had no exercise training (NOE), another near-maximal variable-intensity isotonic exercise (ITE) for 60 min/d, and the third near-maximal intermittent isokinetic exercise (IKE) for 60 min/d. Mean energy costs for the NOE, IKE, and ITE regimens were determined. Body densities within groups and mean urine volumes between groups were unchanged during BR. Changes in red cell volume followed changes in plasma volume. There was close coupling between resting plasma volume and plasma protein and osmotic content. It is argued that the ITE training protocol is better than the IKE protocol for maintaining plasma volume during prolonged exposure to BR.

  5. Performance characteristics of a variable-area vane nozzle for vectoring an ASTOVL exhaust jet up to 45 deg

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mcardle, Jack G.; Esker, Barbara S.

    1993-01-01

    Many conceptual designs for advanced short-takeoff, vertical landing (ASTOVL) aircraft need exhaust nozzles that can vector the jet to provide forces and moments for controlling the aircraft's movement or attitude in flight near the ground. A type of nozzle that can both vector the jet and vary the jet flow area is called a vane nozzle. Basically, the nozzle consists of parallel, spaced-apart flow passages formed by pairs of vanes (vanesets) that can be rotated on axes perpendicular to the flow. Two important features of this type of nozzle are the abilities to vector the jet rearward up to 45 degrees and to produce less harsh pressure and velocity footprints during vertical landing than does an equivalent single jet. A one-third-scale model of a generic vane nozzle was tested with unheated air at the NASA Lewis Research Center's Powered Lift Facility. The model had three parallel flow passages. Each passage was formed by a vaneset consisting of a long and a short vane. The longer vanes controlled the jet vector angle, and the shorter controlled the flow area. Nozzle performance for three nominal flow areas (basic and plus or minus 21 percent of basic area), each at nominal jet vector angles from -20 deg (forward of vertical) to +45 deg (rearward of vertical) are presented. The tests were made with the nozzle mounted on a model tailpipe with a blind flange on the end to simulate a closed cruise nozzle, at tailpipe-to-ambient pressure ratios from 1.8 to 4.0. Also included are jet wake data, single-vaneset vector performance for long/short and equal-length vane designs, and pumping capability. The pumping capability arises from the subambient pressure developed in the cavities between the vanesets, which could be used to aspirate flow from a source such as the engine compartment. Some of the performance characteristics are compared with characteristics of a single-jet nozzle previously reported.

  6. Interstellar Deuterium, Nitrogen and Oxygen Abundances Toward BD+28(deg) 4211: Results from the Far Ultraviolet Spectroscopic Explorer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sonneborn, George; Andre, Martial; Oliveira, Cristina; Hebrard, Guillaume; Howk, J. Christopher; Tripp, Todd M.; Chayer, Pierre; Friedman, Scott D.; Kruk, Jeffery W.; Jenkins, Edward B.; hide

    2002-01-01

    High resolution far-ultraviolet spectra of the O-type subdwarf BD+28(deg)4211 were obtained with the Far Ultraviolet Spectroscopic Explorer to measure the interstellar deuterium, nitrogen, and oxygen abundances in this direction. The interstellar D(I) transitions are analyzed down to Ly(ioat) at 920.7 A. The star was observed several times at different target offsets in the direction of spectral dispersion. The aligned and coedited spectra have high signal-to-noise ratios (S/N=50-100). D(I), N(I), and O(I) transitions were analyzed with curve-of-growth and profile fitting techniques. A model of interstellar molecular hydrogen on the line of sight was derived from H(II) lines in the FUSE spectra and used to help analyze some features where blending with H(II) was significant. The H(I) column density was determined from high resolution HST/STIS spectra of Ly(alpha) to be log N(H(I))= 19.846+/-0.035(2sigma), which is higher than is typical for sight lines in the local ISM studied for D/H. We found that D/H=(1.39+/-0.21)x 10(exp -5)(2sigma) and O/H=(2.37+/-0.55)x10(exp -4)(2sigma). O/H toward BD+28(deg)4211 appears to be significantly below the mean O/H ratio for the ISM and the Local Bubble.

  7. THE ARECIBO LEGACY FAST ALFA SURVEY. VIII. H I SOURCE CATALOG OF THE ANTI-VIRGO REGION AT {delta} = +25 DEG

    SciTech Connect

    Martin, Ann M.; Giovanelli, Riccardo; Haynes, Martha P.; Stierwalt, Sabrina; Saintonge, Amelie; Hoffman, G. Lyle; Kent, Brian R. E-mail: riccardo@astro.cornell.edu E-mail: sabrina@astro.cornell.edu E-mail: hoffmang@lafayette.edu

    2009-08-01

    We present a fourth catalog of H I sources from the Arecibo Legacy Fast ALFA (ALFALFA) Survey. We report 541 detections over 136 deg{sup 2}, within the region of the sky having 22{sup h} < {alpha} < 03{sup h} and 24 deg. < {delta} < 26 deg. This complements a previous catalog in the region 26 deg. < {delta} < 28 deg. We present here the detections falling into three classes: (1) extragalactic sources with signal-to-noise ratio (S/N)>6.5, where the reliability of the catalog is better than 95%; (2) extragalactic sources 5.0 < S/N < 6.5 and a previously measured optical redshift that corroborates our detection; or (3) High Velocity Clouds (HVCs), or subcomponents of such clouds, in the periphery of the Milky Way. Of the 541 objects presented here, 90 are associated with HVCs, while the remaining 451 are identified as extragalactic objects. Optical counterparts have been matched with all but one of the extragalactic objects.

  8. Investigation of the Low-Subsonic Stability and Control Characteristics of a Free-Flying Model of a Thick 70 deg Delta Reentry Configuration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Paulson, John W.; Shanks, Robert E.

    1961-01-01

    An investigation of the low-subsonic flight characteristics of a thick 70 deg delta reentry configuration having a diamond cross section has been made in the Langley full-scale tunnel over an angle-of-attack range from 20 to 45 deg. Flight tests were also made at angles of attack near maximum lift (alpha = 40 deg) with a radio-controlled model dropped from a helicopter. Static and dynamic force tests were made over an angle-of-attack range from 0 to 90 deg. The longitudinal stability and control characteristics were considered satisfactory when the model had positive static longitudinal stability. It was possible to fly the model with a small amount of static instability, but the longitudinal characteristics were considered unsatisfactory in this condition. At angles of attack above the stall the model developed a large, constant-amplitude pitching oscillation. The lateral stability characteristics were considered to be only fair at angles of attack from about 20 to 35 deg because of a lightly damped Dutch roll oscillation. At higher angles of attack the oscillation was well damped and the lateral stability was generally satisfactory. The Dutch roll damping at the lower angles of attack was increased to satisfactory values by means of a simple rate-type roll damper. The lateral control characteristics were generally satisfactory throughout the angle- of-attack range, but there was some deterioration in aileron effectiveness in the high angle-of-attack range due mainly to a large increase in damping in roll.

  9. Study of preferred orientation of zinc oxide films on the 64 deg. LiNbO{sub 3} substrates and their applications as liquid sensors

    SciTech Connect

    Jian, S.-J.; Chu, S.-Y.; Huang, T.-Y.; Water, Walter

    2004-11-01

    The preferred (002) orientation of zinc oxide (ZnO) films has been grown and demonstrated on 64 deg. LiNbO{sub 3} substrates using a rf magnetron sputtering system. The film orientations and crystallinity are strongly dependent on the rf power, total chamber pressure, ratio of argon to oxygen, and substrate temperature. We investigated the crystalline structure of the films by x-ray diffraction and scanning electron microscopy. Highly oriented (002) films were obtained under a total chamber pressure of 1.33 Pa, containing 40% oxygen and 60% argon, and a substrate temperature around 120 deg. C. Love-wave devices based on this structure (ZnO/IDTs/64 deg. LiNbO{sub 3}) are presented.

  10. Fundamental reliability of 1.5-nm-thick silicon oxide gate films grown at 150 deg. C by modified reactive ion beam deposition

    SciTech Connect

    Yamada, Hiroshi

    2008-01-15

    The reliability of 1.5-nm-thick silicon oxide gate films grown at 150 deg. C by modified reactive ion beam deposition (RIBD) with in situ pyrolytic-gas passivation (PGP) using N{sub 2}O and NF{sub 3} was investigated. RIBD uses low-energy-controlled reactive, ionized species and potentializes low-temperature film growth. Although the oxide films were grown at a low temperature of 150 deg. C, their fundamental indices of reliability, such as the time-dependent dielectric breakdown lifetime and interface state density, were almost equivalent to those of oxide films grown at 850 deg. C using a furnace. This is probably due to localized interfacial N and F atoms. The number density of interfacial N atoms was about seven times larger than that for the furnace-grown oxide films, and this is a key factor for improving the reliability through the compensation of residual inconsistent-state bonding sites.

  11. Characteristics study of 2DEG transport properties of AlGaN/GaN and AlGaAs/GaAs-based HEMT

    SciTech Connect

    Lenka, T. R. Panda, A. K.

    2011-05-15

    Growth of wide bandgap material over narrow bandgap material, results into a two dimensional electron gas (2DEG) at the heterointerface due to the conduction band discontinuity. In this paper the 2DEG transport properties of AlGaN/GaN-based high electron mobility transistor (HEMT) is discussed and its effect on various characteristics such as 2DEG density, C-V characteristics and Sheet resistances for different mole fractions are presented. The obtained results are also compared with AlGaAs/GaAs-based HEMT for the same structural parameter as like AlGaN/GaN-based HEMT. The calculated results of electron sheet concentration as a function of the Al mole fraction are in excellent agreement with some experimental data available in the literature.

  12. An evaluation of the +/-45 deg tensile test for the determination of the in-plane shear strength of composite materials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kellas, S.; Morton, J.; Jackson, K. E.

    1991-01-01

    The applicability of the +/-45 deg tensile test for the determination of the in-plane shear strength of advanced composite laminates is studied. The assumptions used for the development of the shear strength formulas were examined, and factors such as the specimen geometry and stacking sequence were assessed experimentally. It was found that the strength of symmetric and balanced +/-45 deg laminates depends primarily upon the specimen thickness rather than the specimen width. These findings have important implications for the +/-45 deg tensile test which is recommended by several organizations for the determination of the in-plane shear stress/strain response and the shear strength of continuous fiber reinforced composites. Modifications to the recommended practices for specimen selection and shear strength determination are suggested.

  13. Observation of inverse Edelstein effect in Rashba-split 2DEG between SrTiO3 and LaAlO3 at room temperature

    PubMed Central

    Song, Qi; Zhang, Hongrui; Su, Tang; Yuan, Wei; Chen, Yangyang; Xing, Wenyu; Shi, Jing; Sun, Jirong; Han, Wei

    2017-01-01

    The Rashba physics has been intensively studied in the field of spin orbitronics for the purpose of searching novel physical properties and the ferromagnetic (FM) magnetization switching for technological applications. We report our observation of the inverse Edelstein effect up to room temperature in the Rashba-split two-dimensional electron gas (2DEG) between two insulating oxides, SrTiO3 and LaAlO3, with the LaAlO3 layer thickness from 3 to 40 unit cells (UC). We further demonstrate that the spin voltage could be markedly manipulated by electric field effect for the 2DEG between SrTiO3 and 3-UC LaAlO3. These results demonstrate that the Rashba-split 2DEG at the complex oxide interface can be used for efficient charge-and-spin conversion at room temperature for the generation and detection of spin current. PMID:28345050

  14. An evaluation of the +/-45 deg tensile test for the determination of the in-plane shear strength of composite materials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kellas, S.; Morton, J.; Jackson, K. E.

    1991-01-01

    The applicability of the +/-45 deg tensile test for the determination of the in-plane shear strength of advanced composite laminates is studied. The assumptions used for the development of the shear strength formulas were examined, and factors such as the specimen geometry and stacking sequence were assessed experimentally. It was found that the strength of symmetric and balanced +/-45 deg laminates depends primarily upon the specimen thickness rather than the specimen width. These findings have important implications for the +/-45 deg tensile test which is recommended by several organizations for the determination of the in-plane shear stress/strain response and the shear strength of continuous fiber reinforced composites. Modifications to the recommended practices for specimen selection and shear strength determination are suggested.

  15. Observation of inverse Edelstein effect in Rashba-split 2DEG between SrTiO3 and LaAlO3 at room temperature.

    PubMed

    Song, Qi; Zhang, Hongrui; Su, Tang; Yuan, Wei; Chen, Yangyang; Xing, Wenyu; Shi, Jing; Sun, Jirong; Han, Wei

    2017-03-01

    The Rashba physics has been intensively studied in the field of spin orbitronics for the purpose of searching novel physical properties and the ferromagnetic (FM) magnetization switching for technological applications. We report our observation of the inverse Edelstein effect up to room temperature in the Rashba-split two-dimensional electron gas (2DEG) between two insulating oxides, SrTiO3 and LaAlO3, with the LaAlO3 layer thickness from 3 to 40 unit cells (UC). We further demonstrate that the spin voltage could be markedly manipulated by electric field effect for the 2DEG between SrTiO3 and 3-UC LaAlO3. These results demonstrate that the Rashba-split 2DEG at the complex oxide interface can be used for efficient charge-and-spin conversion at room temperature for the generation and detection of spin current.

  16. Low-speed aerodynamic characteristics of a transport configuration having a 42 deg swept supercritical airfoil wing and three tail height positions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fournier, P. G.; Sleeman, W. C., Jr.

    1974-01-01

    A low speed investigation was conducted in the Langley V/STOL tunnel to define the static stability characteristics of an advanced high subsonic speed transport aircraft model in the cruise configuration (no high lift system). The wing of the model had 42 deg sweep of the quarter chord line, an aspect ratio of 6.78, and supercritical airfoil sections. Three different horizontal tail configurations (high, mid, and low) were investigated on the complete model and for the model with the wing removed in order to assess effects of the wing flow field on the tail contributions to both longitudinal and lateral stability characteristics. All the model configurations investigated were tested over an angle of attack range from approximately -5 to 23 deg. Some model configurations were also tested over an angle of attack range from about 11 to 38 deg in order to explore the aerodynamic characteristics in the deep stall region.

  17. Effects of wing leading-edge flap deflections on subsonic longitudinal aerodynamic characteristics of a wing-fuselage configuration with a 44 deg swept wing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Henderson, W. P.

    1978-01-01

    An investigation was conducted to determine the effects of wing leading-edge flap deflections on the subsonic longitudinal aerodynamic characteristics of a wing-fuselage configuration with a 44 deg swept wing. The tests were conducted at Mach numbers from 0.40 to 0.85, corresponding to Reynolds numbers (based on wing mean geometric chord) of 2.37 x 1,000,000 to 4.59 x 1,000,000 and at angles of attack from -3 deg to 22 deg. The configurations under study included a wing-fuselage configuration and a wing-fuselage-strake configuration. Each configuration had multisegmented, constant-chord leading-edge flaps which could be deflected independently or in various combinations.

  18. Suppression by enhanced RpoE activity of the temperature-sensitive phenotype of a degP ssrA double mutant in Escherichia coli.

    PubMed

    Ono, Katsuhiko; Kutsukake, Kazuhiro; Abo, Tatsuhiko

    2009-02-01

    SsrA is a small RNA playing a crucial role in trans-translation, which leads to rescue of stalled ribosomes on or at the end of mRNA and addition of the degradation tag to a growing polypeptide. The lack of SsrA has been shown to enhance the temperature-sensitive (ts) phenotype of an E. coli strain defective in the degP gene, which encodes one of the periplasmic proteases. This severe ts phenotype was relieved only partially by an SsrADD variant, which can lead to ribosome rescue but adds a protease-resistant tag instead of the degradation tag, suggesting that accumulation of polypeptides programmed by truncated mRNAs is responsible for growth defect of the ssrA degP mutant. Expression of an S210A-mutant DegP protein, which lacks the protease activity but retains the chaperone activity, could relieve the ts phenotype of the double mutant, suggesting that the chaperone activity but not the protease activity of DegP is required for growth of the ssrA-deficient cells at high temperature. Overexpression of the rpoE gene, which encodes sigmaE responsible for the expression of factors involved in extracellular stress response, also suppressed the ts phenotype of the ssrA degP mutant. This suggests that the stress-responsing pathway(s) may be involved in the enhancement of ts phenotype of degP mutant in the absence of SsrA.

  19. Nonlinear Analysis of the Rolling Motion of a Wrap-Around Fin Missile at Angles of Attack from 0 to 90 deg in Incompressible Flow

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1977-09-01

    finned bo-)dis,, it both small and large angles of attack. This work was supported by the Naval Air Systems Command (Mr. W. C. Volz , AIR-320C) under...From To Multiply By in. cm 2.54 ft m 0.30479 deg rad 0.1686 ft/s r m/s 0.3479 lb/ft (force) Pa 4.788026 ii LIST OF ILLUSTRATIONS Figure Page 1 WAF...s) 6 Fin cant deflection angle (rad or deg) D-2 DISTRIBUTION Commander Naval Air Systems Command Washington, DC 20360 ATTN: AIR-320, Mr. Bill Volz

  20. The XMM-LSS survey: the Class 1 cluster sample over the initial 5 deg2 and its cosmological modelling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pacaud, F.; Pierre, M.; Adami, C.; Altieri, B.; Andreon, S.; Chiappetti, L.; Detal, A.; Duc, P.-A.; Galaz, G.; Gueguen, A.; Le Fèvre, J.-P.; Hertling, G.; Libbrecht, C.; Melin, J.-B.; Ponman, T. J.; Quintana, H.; Refregier, A.; Sprimont, P.-G.; Surdej, J.; Valtchanov, I.; Willis, J. P.; Alloin, D.; Birkinshaw, M.; Bremer, M. N.; Garcet, O.; Jean, C.; Jones, L. R.; Le Fèvre, O.; Maccagni, D.; Mazure, A.; Proust, D.; Röttgering, H. J. A.; Trinchieri, G.

    2007-12-01

    We present a sample of 29 galaxy clusters from the XMM-LSS survey over an area of some 5 deg2 out to a redshift of z = 1.05. The sample clusters, which represent about half of the X-ray clusters identified in the region, follow well-defined X-ray selection criteria and are all spectroscopically confirmed. For all clusters, we provide X-ray luminosities and temperatures as well as masses, obtained from dedicated spatial and spectral fitting. The cluster distribution peaks around z = 0.3 and T = 1.5 keV, half of the objects being groups with a temperature below 2 keV. Our LX-T(z) relation points towards self-similar evolution, but does not exclude other physically plausible models. Assuming that cluster scaling laws follow self-similar evolution, our number density estimates up to z = 1 are compatible with the predictions of the concordance cosmology and with the findings of previous ROSAT surveys. Our well-monitored selection function allowed us to demonstrate that the inclusion of selection effects is essential for the correct determination of the evolution of the LX-T relation, which may explain the contradictory results from previous studies. Extensive simulations show that extending the survey area to 10 deg2 has the potential to exclude the non-evolution hypothesis, but those constraints on more refined intracluster medium models will probably be limited by the large intrinsic dispersion of the LX-T relation, whatever be the sample size. We further demonstrate that increasing the dispersion in the scaling laws increases the number of detectable clusters, hence generating further degeneracy [in addition to σ8,Ωm, LX-T(z)] in the cosmological interpretation of the cluster number counts. We provide useful empirical formulae for the cluster mass-flux and mass-count rate relations as well as a comparison between the XMM-LSS mass sensitivity and that of forthcoming Sunyaev-Zel'dovich surveys. Based on data collected with XMM, Very Large Telescope, Magellan, NTT and

  1. [Validazione del Gambling Disorder Screening Questionnaire, un questionario diagnostico autosomministrato per il gioco d'azzardo patologico basato sui criteri del DSM-5].

    PubMed

    Villella, Corrado; Pascucci, Marco; de Waure, Chiara; Bellomo, Antonello; Conte, Gianluigi

    2016-01-01

    RIASSUNTO. Scopo. Il DSM-5 presenta delle modifiche nei criteri diagnostici per il gioco d'azzardo patologico, rispetto alla precedente edizione del manuale; è pertanto necessario sviluppare nuovi strumenti diagnostici. Questo studio ha valutato le caratteristiche psicometriche del Gambling Disorder Screening Questionnaire (GDSQ), un questionario sviluppato per l'autosomministrazione, basato sui criteri diagnostici del DSM-IV e del DSM-5 per il gioco d'azzardo patologico, misurandone la validità e la consistenza interna e sottoponendo il questionario all'analisi delle componenti principali. Metodi. 71 pazienti reclutati da un ambulatorio dedicato al gioco d'azzardo patologico e 70 controlli sono stati valutati con il GDSQ, con il South Oaks Gambling Screen (SOGS) e con valutazione psichiatrica. Risultati. Il test ha mostrato una buona sensibilità, specificità, consistenza interna, correlazione con il SOGS. L'esclusione del criterio degli atti illeciti e l'abbassamento del punteggio di cut-off a quattro criteri positivi, come suggerito dal DSM-5, migliora la sensibilità e consistenza interna del test. Discussione e conclusioni. Il GDSQ può essere considerato un utile test di screening per il gioco d'azzardo patologico. Inoltre, questo studio conferma il miglioramento nell'accuratezza diagnostica dei criteri elencati nella quinta edizione del Manuale Diagnostico e Statistico dei Disturbi Mentali rispetto alla precedente edizione.

  2. Vibration characteristics of Z-ring-stiffened 60 deg conical shell models of a planetary entry spacecraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Naumann, E. C.; Mixon, J. S.

    1971-01-01

    An experimental investigation of the vibration characteristics of a 60 deg conical shell model of a planetary entry vehicle is described and the results presented. Model configurations include the shell with or without one or two Z-ring stiffeners and with or without a simulated payload. Tests were conducted with the model clamped at the small diameter and with the model suspended at the simulated payload. Additionally, calculated results obtained from application of several analytical procedures reported in the literature are presented together with comparisons between experimental and calculated frequencies and meridional mode shapes. Generally, very good frequency agreement between experimental and calculated results was obtained for all model configurations. For small values of circumferential mode number, however, the frequency agreement decreased as the number of ring stiffeners increased. Overall agreement between experimental and calculated mode shapes was generally good. The calculated modes usually showed much larger curvatures in the vicinity of the rings than were observed in the experimentally measured mode shapes. Dual resonances associated with modal preference were noted for the shell without Z-ring stiffeners, whereas the addition of stiffeners produced resonances for which the model responded in two or more modes over different sections of the shell length.

  3. A computational study of incipient leading-edge separation on a 65-deg delta wing at M = 1.60

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mcmillin, S. Naomi; Pittman, James L.; Thomas, James L.

    1990-01-01

    A computational study on a 65-deg delta wing at a freestream Mach number of 1.60 has been conducted by obtaining conical Reynolds-averaged Navier-Stokes solutions on a parametric series of geometries which varied in leading-edge radius and/or circular-arc camber. The computational results showed that increasing leading-edge radius or camber can delay the onset of leading-edge separation on the leeside of a delta wing at a specific angle of attack. Reynolds number was varied from 1 x 10 to the 6th to 5 x 10 to the 6th for a turbulent boundary-layer and was shown to have a minor effect on the effectiveness of leading-edge radius and/or camber in delaying the onset of leading-edge separation. Both laminar and turbulent boundary-layer models were investigated at a Reynolds number of 1 x 10 to the 6th, and the predicted flow pattern was found to change from attached flow for the turbulent boundary-layer model to separated flow for the laminar boundary-layer model. Based upon these results, three wind-tunnel models have been designed to be tested in the Langley Unitary Plan Wind Tunnel.

  4. [Participation in health behaviour change programmes: results of the German Health Interview and Examination Survey for Adults (DEGS1)].

    PubMed

    Jordan, S; von der Lippe, E

    2013-05-01

    Health behaviour change programmes to promote healthy behaviours are aimed at, among other things, counteracting the emergence of widespread non-communicable diseases. Which population groups use these programmes? This analysis is based on data from DEGS1, which was conducted from 2008-2011. People aged 18-79 years were asked about their participation in programmes in the last 12 months in the fields of nutrition, physical activity and relaxation (n = 7,807). The analysis was stratified by sex, age, socioeconomic status (SES), and type of statutory health insurance fund. A total of 16.6 % of respondents participate in at least one programme for behaviour change, with women using these programmes significantly more frequently, indeed twice as often, as men (22.1 % versus 11 %). The older population participates more often than younger age groups. Women and men with low SES use the programmes significantly less frequently than those with middle or high SES. Women who are insured by the AOK health insurance group have a significantly lower rate of participation than women insured by any other statutory health insurance fund. Overall participation has almost doubled since the "German National Health Interview and Examination Survey 1998" (9.1 %). Further efforts are necessary to reach population groups with low participation rates. An English full-text version of this article is available at SpringerLink as supplemental.

  5. Intraocular pressure, retinal vascular, and visual acuity changes during 48 hours of 10-deg head-down tilt

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mader, Thomas H.; Taylor, Gerald R.; Hunter, Norwood; Caputo, Michael; Meehan, Richard T.

    1990-01-01

    Intraocular pressures, retinal vascular diameters, and visual acuities of nine men, were repeatedly measured while the subjects were tilted 10 deg head-down for 48 h and while they were seated before (baseline), and after the tilt. An immediate increase in intraocular pressure, measured by pneumatonometer was recorded when subjects assumed the head-down position, and diurnal variations in intraocular pressures were observed for the 48 h. The initial and final head-down intraocular pressures were not significantly different. However, when subjects resumed the sitting position, intraocular pressures fell below the initial sitting values. Computer image analysis of the retinal vasculature detected a 6 percent and 2 percent reduction in the caliber of arteries and veins, respectively, as compared with sitting baseline values. No changes in visual acuity were documented during the 48 h of head-down tilt. The data suggest that the choroidal blood reservoir increases in volume over 48 h at continuous head-down position with a compensatory decrease in aqueous volume. These findings may explain intraocular pressure changes noted in astronauts during previous space missions and in studies associated with change in body position.

  6. X-ray properties of the Be/X-ray system 28 0114+650 = LSI +65deg 010

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Koenigsberger, G.; Swank, J. H.; Szymkowiak, A. E.; White, N. E.

    1983-01-01

    Results are presented from experiments on the Einstein Observatory, HEAO 1, and OSO 8 on the temporal and spectral properties of 2S 0114+650. In a 12 hr Einstein monitor proportional counter and solid state spectrometer observation, two episodes of flaring occurred by an order of magnitude over about 1 hr. Variability on shorter time scales showed a preferred period of 14.9 minutes, but periodic pulsations were not seen in the HEAO 1 and OSO 8 data. The spectra above 1 keV were typical of accreting X-ray pulsars; the power law was E exp -alpha with alpha of about 1.2 for the number spectrum up to a cutoff at 14 keV. There is some evidence that the spectrum is steeper when the source is quiescent at low luminosity, but no large spectral changes attended the flares. Absorption column densities were consistent with interstellar reddening of the proposed companion, the Be star LSI +65 deg010. In the minute and hour variability and in the spectral character, 2S0114+650 is similar to other Be star-neutron star binary X-ray sources. Variations over several days in the OSO 8 data suggest orbital effects.

  7. The DEG/ENaC cation channel protein UNC-8 drives activity-dependent synapse removal in remodeling GABAergic neurons

    PubMed Central

    Miller-Fleming, Tyne W; Petersen, Sarah C; Manning, Laura; Matthewman, Cristina; Gornet, Megan; Beers, Allison; Hori, Sayaka; Mitani, Shohei; Bianchi, Laura; Richmond, Janet; Miller, David M

    2016-01-01

    Genetic programming and neural activity drive synaptic remodeling in developing neural circuits, but the molecular components that link these pathways are poorly understood. Here we show that the C. elegans Degenerin/Epithelial Sodium Channel (DEG/ENaC) protein, UNC-8, is transcriptionally controlled to function as a trigger in an activity-dependent mechanism that removes synapses in remodeling GABAergic neurons. UNC-8 cation channel activity promotes disassembly of presynaptic domains in DD type GABA neurons, but not in VD class GABA neurons where unc-8 expression is blocked by the COUP/TF transcription factor, UNC-55. We propose that the depolarizing effect of UNC-8-dependent sodium import elevates intracellular calcium in a positive feedback loop involving the voltage-gated calcium channel UNC-2 and the calcium-activated phosphatase TAX-6/calcineurin to initiate a caspase-dependent mechanism that disassembles the presynaptic apparatus. Thus, UNC-8 serves as a link between genetic and activity-dependent pathways that function together to promote the elimination of GABA synapses in remodeling neurons. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.14599.001 PMID:27403890

  8. Wide-bandwidth electron bolometric mixers - A 2DEG prototype and potential for low-noise THz receivers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yang, Jian-Xun; Agahi, Farid; Dai, Dong; Musante, Charles F.; Grammer, Wes; Lau, Kei M.; Yngvesson, K. S.

    1993-01-01

    This paper presents a new type of electron bolometric ('hot electron') mixer. We have demonstrated a 3 order-of-magnitude improvement in the bandwidth compared with previously known types of electron bolometric mixers, by using the two-dimensional electron gas (2DEG) medium at the heterointerface between AlGaAs and GaAs. We have tested both in-house MOCVD-grown material and MBE material, with similar results. The conversion loss (Lc) at 94 GHz is presently 18 dB for a mixer operating at 20 K, and calculations indicate that Lc can be decreased to about 10 dB in future devices. Calculated and measured curves of Lc versus P(LO), and I(DC), respectively, agree well. We argue that there are several different configurations of electron bolometric mixers, which will all show wide bandwidth, and that these devices are likely to become important as low-noise THz receivers in the future.

  9. An Improved Micropropagation Protocol by Ex Vitro Rooting of Passiflora edulis Sims. f. flavicarpa Deg. through Nodal Segment Culture

    PubMed Central

    Shekhawat, Mahipal S.; Manokari, M.; Ravindran, C. P.

    2015-01-01

    A procedure for rapid clonal propagation of Passiflora edulis Sims. f. flavicarpa Deg. (Passifloraceae) has been developed in this study. Nodal explants were sterilized with 0.1% HgCl2 and inoculated on Murashige and Skoog (MS) basal medium. The addition of 2.0 mgL−1 6-benzylaminopurine (BAP) to MS medium caused an extensive proliferation of multiple shoots (8.21 ± 1.13) primordial from the nodal meristems. Subculturing of these multiple shoots on the MS medium augmented with 1.0 mgL−1 of each BAP and Kinetin (Kin) was successful for the multiplication of the shoots in vitro with maximum numbers of shoots (25.73 ± 0.06) within four weeks of incubation. Shoots were rooted best (7.13 ± 0.56 roots/shoots) on half strength MS medium supplemented with 2.0 mgL−1 indole-3 butyric acid (IBA). All in vitro regenerated shoots were rooted by ex vitro method, and this has achieved 6-7 roots per shoot by pulsing of cut ends of the shoots using 200 as well as 300 mgL−1 IBA. The plantlets were hardened in the greenhouse for 4-5 weeks. The hardened plantlets were shifted to manure containing nursery polybags after five weeks and then transferred to a sand bed for another four weeks for acclimatization before field planting with 88% survival rate. PMID:26273489

  10. Caenorhabditis elegans paraoxonase-like proteins control the functional expression of DEG/ENaC mechanosensory proteins

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Yushu; Bharill, Shashank; Altun, Zeynep; O’Hagan, Robert; Coblitz, Brian; Isacoff, Ehud Y.; Chalfie, Martin

    2016-01-01

    Caenorhabditis elegans senses gentle touch via a mechanotransduction channel formed from the DEG/ENaC proteins MEC-4 and MEC-10. An additional protein, the paraoxonase-like protein MEC-6, is essential for transduction, and previous work suggested that MEC-6 was part of the transduction complex. We found that MEC-6 and a similar protein, POML-1, reside primarily in the endoplasmic reticulum and do not colocalize with MEC-4 on the plasma membrane in vivo. As with MEC-6, POML-1 is needed for touch sensitivity, the neurodegeneration caused by the mec-4(d) mutation, and the expression and distribution of MEC-4 in vivo. Both proteins are likely needed for the proper folding or assembly of MEC-4 channels in vivo as measured by FRET. MEC-6 detectably increases the rate of MEC-4 accumulation on the Xenopus oocyte plasma membrane. These results suggest that MEC-6 and POML-1 interact with MEC-4 to facilitate expression and localization of MEC-4 on the cell surface. Thus MEC-6 and POML-1 act more like chaperones for MEC-4 than channel components. PMID:26941331

  11. Intraocular pressure, retinal vascular, and visual acuity changes during 48 hours of 10-deg head-down tilt

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mader, Thomas H.; Taylor, Gerald R.; Hunter, Norwood; Caputo, Michael; Meehan, Richard T.

    1990-01-01

    Intraocular pressures, retinal vascular diameters, and visual acuities of nine men, were repeatedly measured while the subjects were tilted 10 deg head-down for 48 h and while they were seated before (baseline), and after the tilt. An immediate increase in intraocular pressure, measured by pneumatonometer was recorded when subjects assumed the head-down position, and diurnal variations in intraocular pressures were observed for the 48 h. The initial and final head-down intraocular pressures were not significantly different. However, when subjects resumed the sitting position, intraocular pressures fell below the initial sitting values. Computer image analysis of the retinal vasculature detected a 6 percent and 2 percent reduction in the caliber of arteries and veins, respectively, as compared with sitting baseline values. No changes in visual acuity were documented during the 48 h of head-down tilt. The data suggest that the choroidal blood reservoir increases in volume over 48 h at continuous head-down position with a compensatory decrease in aqueous volume. These findings may explain intraocular pressure changes noted in astronauts during previous space missions and in studies associated with change in body position.

  12. A DROSOPHILA DEG/ENaC SUBUNIT FUNCTIONS SPECIFICALLY IN GUSTATORY NEURONS REQUIRED FOR MALE COURTSHIP BEHAVIOR

    PubMed Central

    Starostina, Elena; Liu, Tong; Vijayan, Vinoy; Zheng, Zheng; Siwicki, Kathleen K.; Pikielny, Claudio W.

    2012-01-01

    Detection of specific female pheromones stimulates courtship behavior in Drosophila melanogaster males, but the chemosensory molecules, cells and mechanisms involved remain poorly understood. Here we show that ppk25, a DEG/ENaC ion channel subunit required for normal male response to females, is expressed at highest levels in a single sexually dimorphic gustatory neuron of most taste hairs on legs and wings, but not in neurons that detect courtship-inhibiting pheromones or food. Synaptic inactivation of ppk25-expressing neurons, or knockdown of ppk25 expression in all gustatory neurons significantly impairs male response to females, whereas gustatory expression of ppk25 rescues the courtship behavior of ppk25 mutant males. Remarkably, the only other detectable albeit significantly weaker expression of ppk25 occurs in olfactory neurons implicated in modulation of courtship behavior. However, expression of ppk25 in olfactory neurons is not required for male courtship under our experimental conditions. These data show that ppk25 functions specifically in peripheral taste neurons involved in activation of courtship behavior, an unexpected function for this type of channel. Furthermore, our work identifies a small subset of gustatory neurons with an essential role in activation of male courtship behavior, most likely in response to female pheromones. PMID:22457513

  13. Transport characteristics of Co-doped BaFe2As2 epitaxial thin film 24deg grain-boundaries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Panyajirawut, P.; Smith, N.; Tarantini, C.; Lee, S.; Jiang, J.; Bark, C. W.; Weiss, J. D.; Folkman, C. M.; Baek, S. H.; Hellstrom, E. E.; Eom, C. B.; Larbalestier, D. C.; Rzchowski, M. S.

    2010-03-01

    We investigate [001] 24deg tilt GBs of epitaxial thin film of the pnictide superconductor Co-doped Ba(Fe0.92Co0.08)2As2 on (001) SrTiO3 bicrystal substrates. The films were grown by pulsed laser deposition (PLD) with KrF (248 nm) UW excimer laser in vacuum at a base pressure of 2x10-7 Torr. The chemical composition of the films determined by wavelength dispersive x-ray spectroscopy (WDS) is Ba : Fe : Co : As : O = 1 : 1.7 : 0.13 : 1.7 : 0.3. Four-circle x-ray diffraction exhibits excellent expitaxy with cube-on cube in-plane epitaxial relationship. The films have an onset Tc of 20.5 K, and a Tco of 19.8K. The intragrain Jc is over 1 MA/cm^2 (4.2K, self field) which is significantly higher than in previously reported thin films. The grain boundary couples at a slightly lower temperature of 19.7 K. We discuss magnetic field and temperature dependence of the IV characteristics, and microwave response.

  14. The Herschel-ATLAS: a sample of 500 μm-selected lensed galaxies over 600 deg2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Negrello, M.; Amber, S.; Amvrosiadis, A.; Cai, Z.-Y.; Lapi, A.; Gonzalez-Nuevo, J.; De Zotti, G.; Furlanetto, C.; Maddox, S. J.; Allen, M.; Bakx, T.; Bussmann, R. S.; Cooray, A.; Covone, G.; Danese, L.; Dannerbauer, H.; Fu, H.; Greenslade, J.; Gurwell, M.; Hopwood, R.; Koopmans, L. V. E.; Napolitano, N.; Nayyeri, H.; Omont, A.; Petrillo, C. E.; Riechers, D. A.; Serjeant, S.; Tortora, C.; Valiante, E.; Verdoes Kleijn, G.; Vernardos, G.; Wardlow, J. L.; Baes, M.; Baker, A. J.; Bourne, N.; Clements, D.; Crawford, S. M.; Dye, S.; Dunne, L.; Eales, S.; Ivison, R. J.; Marchetti, L.; Michałowski, M. J.; Smith, M. W. L.; Vaccari, M.; van der Werf, P.

    2017-03-01

    We present a sample of 80 candidate strongly lensed galaxies with flux density above 100 mJy at 500 μm extracted from the Herschel Astrophysical Terahertz Large Area Survey, over an area of 600 deg2. Available imaging and spectroscopic data allow us to confirm the strong lensing in 20 cases and to reject it in one case. For other eight objects, the lensing scenario is strongly supported by the presence of two sources along the same line of sight with distinct photometric redshifts. The remaining objects await more follow-up observations to confirm their nature. The lenses and the background sources have median redshifts zL = 0.6 and zS = 2.5, respectively, and are observed out to zL = 1.2 and zS = 4.2. We measure the number counts of candidate lensed galaxies at 500 μm and compare them with theoretical predictions, finding a good agreement for a maximum magnification of the background sources in the range 10-20. These values are consistent with the magnification factors derived from the lens modelling of individual systems. The catalogue presented here provides sub-mm bright targets for follow-up observations aimed at exploiting gravitational lensing, to study with unprecedented details the morphological and dynamical properties of dusty star-forming regions in z ≳ 1.5 galaxies.

  15. Associating Long-term Gamma-ray Variability with the Superorbital Period of LS I + 61 Deg. 303

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ackermann, M.; Ajello, M.; Ballet, J.; Barbiellini, G.; Bastieri, D.; Bellazzini, R.; Bonamente, E.; Brandt, T. J.; Bregeon, J.; Brigida, M.; hide

    2013-01-01

    Gamma-ray binaries are stellar systems for which the spectral energy distribution (discounting the thermal stellar emission) peaks at high energies. Detected from radio to TeV gamma rays, the gamma-ray binary LS I + 61?303 is highly variable across all frequencies. One aspect of this system's variability is the modulation of its emission with the timescale set by the approx. 26.4960 day orbital period. Here we show that, during the time of our observations, the gamma-ray emission of LS I + 61 deg. 303 also presents a sinusoidal variability consistent with the previously known superorbital period of 1667 days. This modulation is more prominently seen at orbital phases around apastron, whereas it does not introduce a visible change close to periastron. It is also found in the appearance and disappearance of variability at the orbital period in the power spectrum of the data. This behavior could be explained by a quasi-cyclical evolution of the equatorial outflow of the Be companion star, whose features influence the conditions for generating gamma rays. These findings open the possibility to use gamma-ray observations to study the outflows of massive stars in eccentric binary systems.

  16. Identification of the main quinolone resistance determinant in Campylobacter jejuni and Campylobacter coli by MAMA-DEG PCR.

    PubMed

    Hormeño, Lorena; Palomo, Gonzalo; Ugarte-Ruiz, María; Porrero, M Concepción; Borge, Carmen; Vadillo, Santiago; Píriz, Segundo; Domínguez, Lucas; Campos, Maria J; Quesada, Alberto

    2016-03-01

    Among zoonotic diseases, campylobacteriosis stands out as the major bacterial infection producing human gastroenteritis. Antimicrobial therapy, only recommended in critical cases, is challenged by resistance mechanisms that should be unambiguously detected for achievement of effective treatments. Quinolone (ciprofloxacin) resistance of Campylobacter jejuni and Campylobacter coli, the 2 main Campylobacter detected in humans, is conferred by the mutation gyrA C-257-T, which can be genotyped by several methods that require a previous identification of the pathogen species to circumvent the sequence polymorphism of the gene. A multiplex PCR, based on degenerated oligonucleotides, has been designed for unambiguous identification of the quinolone resistance determinant in Campylobacter spp. isolates. The method was verified with 249 Campylobacter strains isolated from humans (141 isolates) and from the 3 most important animal sources for this zoonosis: poultry (34 isolates), swine (38 isolates), and cattle (36 isolates). High resistance to ciprofloxacin, MIC above 4μg/mL, linked to the mutated genotype predicted by MAMA-DEG PCR (mismatch amplification mutation assay PCR with degenerated primers) was found frequently among isolates from the different hosts. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Inlet Distortion for an F/A-18A Aircraft During Steady Aerodynamic Conditions up to 60 deg Angle of Attack

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Walsh, Kevin R.; Yuhas, Andrew J.; Williams, John G.; Steenken, William G.

    1997-01-01

    The effects of high-angle-of-attack flight on aircraft inlet aerodynamic characteristics were investigated at NASA Dryden Flight Research Center, Edwards, California, as part of NASA's High Alpha Technology Program. The highly instrumented F/A-18A High Alpha Research Vehicle was used for this research. A newly designed inlet total-pressure rake was installed in front of the starboard F404-GE-400 engine to measure inlet recovery and distortion characteristics. One objective was to determine inlet total-pressure characteristics at steady high-angle-of-attack conditions. Other objectives include assessing whether significant differences exist in inlet distortion between rapid angle-of-attack maneuvers and corresponding steady aerodynamic conditions, assessing inlet characteristics during aircraft departures, providing data for developing and verifying computational fluid dynamic codes, and calculating engine airflow using five methods. This paper addresses the first objective by summarizing results of 79 flight maneuvers at steady aerodynamic conditions, ranging from -10 deg to 60 deg angle of attack and from -8 deg to 11 deg angle of sideslip at Mach 0.3 and 0.4. These data and the associated database have been rigorously validated to establish a foundation for understanding inlet characteristics at high angle of attack.

  18. Wafer-level MOCVD growth of AlGaN/GaN-on-Si HEMT structures with ultra-high room temperature 2DEG mobility

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Xiaoqing; Zhong, Jiebin; So, Hongyun; Norvilas, Aras; Sommerhalter, Christof; Senesky, Debbie G.; Tang, Mary

    2016-11-01

    In this work, we investigate the influence of growth temperature, impurity concentration, and metal contact structure on the uniformity and two-dimensional electron gas (2DEG) properties of AlGaN/GaN high electron mobility transistor (HEMT) structure grown by metal-organic chemical vapor deposition (MOCVD) on 4-inch Si substrate. High uniformity of 2DEG mobility (standard deviation down to 0.72%) across the radius of the 4-inch wafer has been achieved, and 2DEG mobility up to 1740.3 cm2/Vṡs at room temperature has been realized at low C and O impurity concentrations due to reduced ionized impurity scattering. The 2DEG mobility is further enhanced to 2161.4 cm2/Vṡs which is comparable to the highest value reported to date when the contact structure is switched from a square to a cross pattern due to reduced piezoelectric scattering at lower residual strain. This work provides constructive insights and promising results to the field of wafer-scale fabrication of AlGaN/GaN HEMT on Si.

  19. Discovery and Redshift of an Optical Afterglow in 71 deg2: iPTF13bxl and GRB 130702A

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Singer, Leo P.; Cenko, S. Bradley; Kasliwal, Mansi M.; Perley, Daniel A.; Ofek, Eran O.; Brown, Duncan A.; Nugent, Peter E.; Kulkarni, S. R.; Corsi, Alessandra; Frail, Dale A.; Bellm, Eric; Mulchaey, John; Arcavi, Iair; Barlow, Tom; Bloom, Joshua S.; Cao, Yi; Gehrels, Neil; Horesh, Assaf; Masci, Frank J.; McEnery, Julie; Rau, Arne; Surace, Jason A.; Yaron, Ofer

    2013-10-01

    We report the discovery of the optical afterglow of the γ-ray burst (GRB) 130702A, identified upon searching 71 deg2 surrounding the Fermi Gamma-ray Burst Monitor (GBM) localization. Discovered and characterized by the intermediate Palomar Transient Factory, iPTF13bxl is the first afterglow discovered solely based on a GBM localization. Real-time image subtraction, machine learning, human vetting, and rapid response multi-wavelength follow-up enabled us to quickly narrow a list of 27,004 optical transient candidates to a single afterglow-like source. Detection of a new, fading X-ray source by Swift and a radio counterpart by CARMA and the Very Large Array confirmed the association between iPTF13bxl and GRB 130702A. Spectroscopy with the Magellan and Palomar 200 inch telescopes showed the afterglow to be at a redshift of z = 0.145, placing GRB 130702A among the lowest redshift GRBs detected to date. The prompt γ-ray energy release and afterglow luminosity are intermediate between typical cosmological GRBs and nearby sub-luminous events such as GRB 980425 and GRB 060218. The bright afterglow and emerging supernova offer an opportunity for extensive panchromatic follow-up. Our discovery of iPTF13bxl demonstrates the first observational proof-of-principle for ~10 Fermi-iPTF localizations annually. Furthermore, it represents an important step toward overcoming the challenges inherent in uncovering faint optical counterparts to comparably localized gravitational wave events in the Advanced LIGO and Virgo era.

  20. Gender differences in endocrine responses to posture and 7 days of 6 deg head down bed rest

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vernikos, J.; Dallman, M. F.; Keil, L. C.; Ohara, D.; Convertino, V. A.

    1993-01-01

    Endocrine regulation of fluids and electrolytes during seven days of 6 deg head down bed rest (HDBR) was compared in male (n = 8) and, for the first time, female (n = 8) volunteers. The subjects' responses to quiet standing for 2 hr before and after HDBR were also tested. In both sexes, diuresis and natriuresis were evident during the first 2-3 days of HDBR, resulting in a marked increase in the urinary Na/K ratio and significant Na retention on reambulation. After the first day of HDBR, plasma renin activity (PRA) was increased relative to aldosterone, plasma volume was decreased, and the renal response to aldosterone appeared to be appropriate. Circulating levels of arginine vasopressin (AVP), cortisol, and ACTH were unchanged during HDBR. Plasma testosterone decreased slightly on day 2 of HDBR in males. The ratio of AM ACTH to cortisol was lower in females than in males because ACTH was lower in females. Urinary cortisol increased and remained elevated throughout the HDBR in males only. There were no gender differences in the responses to 7 day HDBR, except those in the pituitary-adrenal system; those differences appeared unrelated to the postural change. The provocative cardiovascular test of quiet standing before and after bed rest revealed both sex differences and effects of HDBR. There were significant sex differences in cardiovascular responses to standing, before and after HDBR. Females had greater PRA and aldosterone responses to standing before bedrest and larger aldosterone responses to standing after HDBR than males. Cardiovascular responses to standing before and after bedrest differed markedly: arterial pressure and heart rates increased with standing before HDBR, by contrast, arterial pressure decreased, with greater increases in heart rates after HDBR. In both sexes, all hormonal responses to standing were greater after HDBR. The results show clearly that similar responses to standing as well as to HDBR occur in both sexes, but that females exhibit

  1. Flight Determination of the Static Longitudinal Stability Boundaries of the Bell X-5 Research Airplane with 59 Deg Sweepback

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Finch, Thomas W; Walker, Joseph A

    1953-01-01

    During the flight program on the Bell X-5 airplane with 59 deg sweepback to determine the practical Mach number and normal-force coefficient limits of this configuration, a reduction in static longitudinal stability was encountered in maneuvering flight. A determination of the boundary for reduction of longitudinal stability extending to a Mach number of 0.98 is presented in this paper. A reduction of static longitudinal stability existed for all elevator and all stabilizer-executed maneuvers. The reduction of stability existed for maneuvers executed with elevator near a normal-force coefficient of 0.6 for a Mach number range of about 0.31 to 0.76. Above a Mach number of 0.76 the normal-force coefficient for reduction of stability gradually decreased to a value of 0.2 at a Mach number of 0.98. For stabilizer-executed maneuvers the stability boundary was the same as for elevator maneuvers up to a Mach number of 0.88. Above this Mach number the reduction of stability occurred at slightly higher normal-force coefficients decreasing from about 0.51 at a Mach number of 0.92 to a value of 0.311 at a Mach number of 0.97. The airplane has been flown to a Mach number of 1.04 at a normal-force coefficient of about 0.15 without encountering any reduction of stability. The pilot did not consider the reduction of stability to be dangerous at altitudes above 30,000 feet; however, precise flight was impossible. At angles of attack above that at which the reduction of longitudinal stability occurred, directional instability and aileron control overbalance were encountered.

  2. A 189 MHz, 2400 deg{sup 2} POLARIZATION SURVEY WITH THE MURCHISON WIDEFIELD ARRAY 32-ELEMENT PROTOTYPE

    SciTech Connect

    Bernardi, G.; Greenhill, L. J.; De Oliveira-Costa, A.; Mitchell, D. A.; Ord, S. M.; Arcus, W.; Arora, B. S.; Hazelton, B. J.; Morales, M. F.; Gaensler, B. M.; Subrahmanyan, R.; Wayth, R. B.; Lenc, E.; Briggs, F. H.; Shankar, N. Udaya; Williams, C. L.; Barnes, D. G.; Bowman, J. D.; Bunton, J. D.; Cappallo, R. J.; and others

    2013-07-10

    We present a Stokes I, Q and U survey at 189 MHz with the Murchison Widefield Array 32 element prototype covering 2400 deg{sup 2}. The survey has a 15.6 arcmin angular resolution and achieves a noise level of 15 mJy beam{sup -1}. We demonstrate a novel interferometric data analysis that involves calibration of drift scan data, integration through the co-addition of warped snapshot images, and deconvolution of the point-spread function through forward modeling. We present a point source catalog down to a flux limit of 4 Jy. We detect polarization from only one of the sources, PMN J0351-2744, at a level of 1.8% {+-} 0.4%, whereas the remaining sources have a polarization fraction below 2%. Compared to a reported average value of 7% at 1.4 GHz, the polarization fraction of compact sources significantly decreases at low frequencies. We find a wealth of diffuse polarized emission across a large area of the survey with a maximum peak of {approx}13 K, primarily with positive rotation measure values smaller than +10 rad m{sup -2}. The small values observed indicate that the emission is likely to have a local origin (closer than a few hundred parsecs). There is a large sky area at {alpha} {>=} 2{sup h}30{sup m} where the diffuse polarized emission rms is fainter than 1 K. Within this area of low Galactic polarization we characterize the foreground properties in a cold sky patch at ({alpha}, {delta}) = (4{sup h}, -27. Degree-Sign 6) in terms of three-dimensional power spectra.

  3. Infrared magneto-transmission studies of the 2DEGs in (CdMn)Te and CdTe Quantum wells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tanveer, Imtiaz; Wiater, Maciej; Karczewski, Grzegorz; Wojtowicz, Tomasz; McCombe, B. D.

    We are probing quantum hall ferromagnetism (QHF) in the 2DEG of Modulation-doped quantum wells (QWs) in the (CdMn)Te/(CdMg)Te (with 1.5% Mn) heterostructure system by THz cyclotron resonance. Samples with CdTe QWs are also studied. Both structures have the same QW width (30 nm), very similar electron densities in the wells ~3.0 x 1011 cm-2 and mobilities of 450,000 (CdTe) and 66,000 cm2/Vs ((CdMn)Te) at 1.6 K. The electron effective masses (m*/m0) from cyclotron resonance measurements at 5K are 0.110 +/- 0.001 for CdTe and 0.114 +/- 0.003 for (CdMn)Te . Linear fits to the resonance positions in frequency vs. field give small non-zero intercepts which may result from small non-parabolicity or bound magneto-plasmon effects. The FWHM linewidths from Lorentzian fits of the transmission minima are ~2 cm-1(CdTe) and ~8 cm-1((CdMn)Te). Our present focus is on detailed studies of the CR positions and linewidths in the magnetic field region around the cusp-like behavior in the Rxx oscillations, which indicates the presence of the QHF state. The field position of this state is tuned via electron density in the QWs varied incrementally by a photon-dose method with an in-situ green LED. Work at UB was supported in part by the Office of the Provost, and work in Poland was supported in part by the National Science Centre through Grant DEC-2012/06/A/ST3/00247.

  4. Self-reported utilization of mental health services in the adult German population--evidence for unmet needs? Results of the DEGS1-Mental Health Module (DEGS1-MH).

    PubMed

    Mack, Simon; Jacobi, Frank; Gerschler, Anja; Strehle, Jens; Höfler, Michael; Busch, Markus A; Maske, Ulrike E; Hapke, Ulfert; Seiffert, Ingeburg; Gaebel, Wolfgang; Zielasek, Jürgen; Maier, Wolfgang; Wittchen, Hans-Ulrich

    2014-09-01

    This paper provides up-to-date data on service use for mental health problems and disorders among adults aged 18-79 years in Germany derived from the Mental Health Module of the German Health Interview and Examination Survey for Adults (DEGS1-MH; N=4483). Data are based exclusively on self-report. Respondents were examined by clinically trained interviewers with a modified version of the Composite International Diagnostic Interview DIA-X/M-CIDI to assess diagnoses according to the criteria of DSM-IV-TR. Service use, i.e. contact to mental health care services, due to mental health problems was assessed for the past 12 months and lifetime, by type of sector and type of institution. Among respondents with a 12-month diagnosis of a mental disorder, 23.5% of the women and 11.6% of the men reported any service use in the past 12 months. Service use depends on type of diagnosis, comorbidity and socio-demographic characteristics. Lowest 12-month utilization rates were found for substance use disorders (15.6%; lifetime use 37.3%), highest for psychotic disorders (40.5%; lifetime 72.1%). Further, a considerable time lap was found between disorder onset and subsequent service use among the majority of cases with anxiety and mood disorders. This paper provides self-reported epidemiological data on mental health service use in Germany, complementing administrative statistics and the predecessor mental health module of the German Health Interview and Examination Survey (GHS-MHS) from 1998. Despite considerable changes in the mental health field in Germany and the existence of a comprehensive mental health care system without major financial barriers, we find no indications of substantially higher utilization rates for mental disorders as compared to other comparable European countries. Further, no indications of major overall changes in utilization rates are apparent. To pinpoint areas with unmet needs, more detailed analyses of the data are needed taking into account type

  5. Tomographic imaging of the shallow crustal structure of the East Pacific Rise at 9 deg 30 min N

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Toomey, Douglas R.; Solomon, Sean C.; Purdy, G. M.

    1994-12-01

    Compressional wave travel times from a seismic tomography experiment at 9 deg 30 min N on the East Pacific Rise are analyzed by a new tomographic method to determine the three-dimensional seismic velocity structure of the upper 2.5 km of oceanic crust within a 20 x 18 km area centered on the rise axis. The data comprise the travel times and associated uncertainties of 1459 compressional waves that have propagated above the axial magma chamber. A careful analysis of source and receiver parameters, in conjunction with an automated method of picking P wave onsets and assigning uncertainties, constrains the prior uncertainty in the data to 5 to 20 ms. The new tomographic method employs graph theory to estimate ray paths and travel times through strongly heterogeneous and densely parameterized seismic velocity models. The nonlinear inverse method uses a jumping strategy to minimize a functional that includes the penalty function, horizontal and vertical smoothing constraints, and prior model assumptions; all constraints applied to model perturbations are normalized to remove bias. We use the tomographic method to reject the null hypothesis that the axial seismic structure is two-dimensional. Three-dimensional models reveal a seismic structure that correlates well with cross- and along-axis variations in seafloor morphology, the location of the axial summit caldera, and the distribution of seafloor hydrothermal activity. The along-axis segmentation of the seismic structure above the axial magma chamber is consistent with the hypothesis that mantle-derived melt is preferentially injected midway along a locally linear segment of the rise and that the architecture of the crustal section is characterized by an en echelon series of elongate axial volcanoes approximately 10 km in length. The seismic data are compatible with a 300- to 500-m-thick thermal anomaly above a midcrustal melt lens; such an interpretation suggests that hydrothermal fluids may not have penetrated this

  6. VizieR Online Data Catalog: MK Classification for HD stars for 25-30{deg} zone (Jensen 1982)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jensen, K. S.

    1993-08-01

    The catalog contains MK spectral classifications for 1003 HD stars in the zone +25-30{deg}, briefly presented at IAU Colloq. 47, held in Vatican City in July 1978 (1979RA......9..479C). Most stars classified in this region are earlier than G2. The notation is the same as in the earlier paper (1981A&AS...45..455J), with conventions similar to the Houk and Cowley survey (Cats. III/31 and III/51); a noticeable exception is that the luminosity class the most probable stands before the slash. On the average, the classifications present in the catalogue are means of 3 classifications. The internal rms error estimated by the author on a single classification is typically: {sigma}(SpT) = 0.65 (unit 1 subtype) {sigma}(Lum) = 0.40 (unit lum. class) No dependence on spectrum quality is found; however the quality 4 spectra are seldom classified without slashes (which introduces a sort of "internal scatter" into the type) External errors were estimated by a comparison with published work: - Walborn (1971ApJS...23..257W) and Guetter (1968PASP...80..197G) concern early-B stars; - Cowley et al. (1969AJ.....74..375C) and Osawa (1959ApJ...130..159O) concern late-B and A stars; - Harlan et al. (1969AJ.....74..916H, 1970AJ.....75..165H), Hill et al. (1976MmRAS..82...69H) and Heard (1956PDDO....2..105H) concern F stars; - Fehrenbach lists concern all type stars. The comparisons give the following external errors: ----------------------------------------------------- Source N D(SpT) +/- D(Lum) +/- ----------------------------------------------------- Walborn (1971) 5 -.40 +/- .45 -.10 +/- .32 Guetter (1968) 4 -.12 +/- .25 -.12 +/- .25 Cowley et al. 17 -.52 +/- .72 -.09 +/- .53 Osawa (1959) 18 -.22 +/- .77 -.22 +/- .77 Harlan et al. 20 +.20 +/- .69 +.03 +/- .56 Hill et al. 18 -.36 +/- .78 -.19 +/- .55 Heard (1956) 46 -.24 +/- .88 +.10 +/- .47 Fehrenbach et al. 46 +.48 +/-1.39 +.34 +/-1.06 ----------------------------------------------------- These figures should be compared with e

  7. Magnetic Gradient Horizontal Operator (MHGO) useful for detecting objects buried at shallow depth: cultural heritage (Villa degli Antonini, Rota Rio)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Di Filippo, Michele; Di Nezza, Maria

    2016-04-01

    Several factors were taken into consideration in order to appropriately tailor the geophysical explorations at the cultural heritage. Given the fact that each site has been neglected for a long time and in recent times used as an illegal dumping area, we thoroughly evaluated for this investigation the advantages and limitations of each specific technique, and the general conditions and history of the site. We took into account the extension of the areas to be investigated and the need for rapid data acquisition and processing. Furthermore, the survey required instrumentation with sensitivity to small background contrasts and as little as possible affected by background noise sources. In order to ascertain the existence and location of underground buried walls, a magnetic gradiometer survey (MAG) was planned. The map of the magnetic anomalies is not computed to reduction at the pole (RTP), but with a magnetic horizontal gradient operator (MHGO). The magnetic horizontal gradient operator (MHGO) generates from a grid of vertical gradient a grid of steepest slopes (i.e. the magnitude of the gradient) at any point on the surface. The MHGO is reported as a number (rise over run) rather than degrees, and the direction is opposite to that of the slope. The MHGO is zero for a horizontal surface, and approaches infinity as the slope approaches the vertical. The gradient data are especially useful for detecting objects buried at shallow depth. The map reveals some details of the anomalies of the geomagnetic field. Magnetic anomalies due to walls are more evident than in the total intensity map, whereas anomalies due to concentrations of debris are very weak. In this work we describe the results of an investigation obtained with magnetometry investigation for two archaeological sites: "Villa degli Antonini" (Genzano, Rome) and Rota Ria (Mugnano in Teverina, Viterbo). Since the main goal of the investigation was to understand the nature of magnetic anomalies with cost

  8. THE 31 DEG{sup 2} RELEASE OF THE STRIPE 82 X-RAY SURVEY: THE POINT SOURCE CATALOG

    SciTech Connect

    LaMassa, Stephanie M.; Urry, C. Megan; Ananna, Tonima; Civano, Francesca; Marchesi, Stefano; Pecoraro, Robert; Cappelluti, Nico; Comastri, Andrea; Brusa, Marcella; Böhringer, Hans; Chon, Gayoung; Glikman, Eilat; Richards, Gordon; Cardamone, Carie; Farrah, Duncan; Gilfanov, Marat; Green, Paul; Komossa, S.; Lira, Paulina; Makler, Martin; and others

    2016-02-01

    We release the next installment of the Stripe 82 X-ray survey point-source catalog, which currently covers 31.3 deg{sup 2} of the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS) Stripe 82 Legacy field. In total, 6181 unique X-ray sources are significantly detected with XMM-Newton (>5σ) and Chandra (>4.5σ). This catalog release includes data from XMM-Newton cycle AO 13, which approximately doubled the Stripe 82X survey area. The flux limits of the Stripe 82X survey are 8.7 × 10{sup −16} erg s{sup −1} cm{sup −2}, 4.7 × 10{sup −15} erg s{sup −1} cm{sup −2}, and 2.1 × 10{sup −15} erg s{sup −1} cm{sup −2} in the soft (0.5–2 keV), hard (2–10 keV), and full bands (0.5–10 keV), respectively, with approximate half-area survey flux limits of 5.4 × 10{sup −15} erg s{sup −1} cm{sup −2}, 2.9 × 10{sup −14} erg s{sup −1} cm{sup −2}, and 1.7 × 10{sup −14} erg s{sup −1} cm{sup −2}. We matched the X-ray source lists to available multi-wavelength catalogs, including updated matches to the previous release of the Stripe 82X survey; 88% of the sample is matched to a multi-wavelength counterpart. Due to the wide area of Stripe 82X and rich ancillary multi-wavelength data, including coadded SDSS photometry, mid-infrared WISE coverage, near-infrared coverage from UKIDSS and VISTA Hemisphere Survey, ultraviolet coverage from GALEX, radio coverage from FIRST, and far-infrared coverage from Herschel, as well as existing ∼30% optical spectroscopic completeness, we are beginning to uncover rare objects, such as obscured high-luminosity active galactic nuclei at high-redshift. The Stripe 82X point source catalog is a valuable data set for constraining how this population grows and evolves, as well as for studying how they interact with the galaxies in which they live.

  9. Experimental wake survey behind Viking 1975 entry vehicle at angles of attack of 0 deg and 5 deg, Mach numbers from 1.60 to 3.95, and longitudinal stations from 1.0 to 8.39 body diameters

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brown, C. A., Jr.; Campbell, J. F.; Tudor, D. H.

    1971-01-01

    An investigation was conducted to obtain flow properties in the wake of the Viking '75 entry vehicle at Mach numbers from 1.60 to 3.95 and at angles of attack of 0 deg and 5 deg. The wake flow properties were calculated from total and static pressures measured with a pressure rake at longitudinal stations varying from 1.0 to 8.39 body diameters and lateral stations varying from -0.42 to 3.0 body diameters. These measurements showed a a consistent trend throughout the range of Mach numbers and longitudinal distances and an increase in dynamic pressure with increasing downstream position.

  10. Crustal structure of the Churchill-Superior boundary zone between 80 and 98 deg W longitude from Magsat anomaly maps and stacked passes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hall, D. H.; Millar, T. W.; Noble, I. A.

    1985-01-01

    A modeling technique using spherical shell elements and equivalent dipole sources has been applied to Magsat signatures at the Churchill-Superior boundary in Manitoba, Ontario, and Ungava. A large satellite magnetic anomaly (12 nT amplitude) on POGO and Magsat maps near the Churchill-Superior boundary was found to be related to the Richmond Gulf aulacogen. The averaged crustal magnetization in the source region is 5.2 A/m. Stacking of the magnetic traces from Magsat passes reveals a magnetic signature (10 nT amplitude) at the Churchill-Superior boundary in an area studied between 80 deg W and 98 deg W. Modeling suggests a steplike thickening of the crust on the Churchill side of the boundary in a layer with a magnetization of 5 A/m. Signatures on aeromagnetic maps are also found in the source areas for both of these satellite anomalies.

  11. Rotation at 30 RPM about the Z axis after 6 hours in the 10-deg head-down position - Effect on susceptibility to motion sickness

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Graybiel, A.; Lackner, J. R.

    1979-01-01

    Intraindividual differences in susceptibility to motion sickness were measured in 14 subjects for two conditions of rotation at 30 rpm in the 10-deg head-down position. In one condition, subjects were in the 10-deg head-down position for 6 h prior to the onset of rotation; in the other condition, the delay was only 15 min. In both conditions, there were changes in vital capacity, indicating a redistribution of movable body fluids. Subjects tended to be less susceptible to motion sickness when they were recumbent for 6 h prior to rotation. These results are counterevidence for the hypothesis that shifts of body fluid are responsible in large part for the motion sickness elicited in orbital space flight.

  12. A resistive-gate Al(0.3)Ga(0.7)As/GaAs 2DEG CCD with high charge-transfer efficiency at 1 GHz

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Song, J.-I.; Rossi, D. V.; Xin, S.; Wang, W. I.; Fossum, E. R.

    1991-01-01

    The fabrication and performance of an Al(0.3)Ga(0.7)As/GaAs modulation-doped resistive-gate CCD are reported. The two-dimensional electron gas (2DEG) CCD, implemented as a 32-stage four-phase delay line, was tested at both low (1-13 MHz) and high (0.6-1.0 GHz) frequency. It exhibits a room-temperature charge-transfer efficiency (CTE) of better than 0.999 at clock frequencies from 10 MHz up to 1 GHz without a fat-zero signal and is limited by dark current below 10 MHz. The high-frequency test showed no CTE degradation up to 1-GHz operation. The CTE degraded at frequencies lower than approximately 5 MHz due to dark current. The charge-handling capability and minimum clock swing of the resistive-gate 2DEG CCD are calculated.

  13. A resistive-gate Al(0.3)Ga(0.7)As/GaAs 2DEG CCD with high charge-transfer efficiency at 1 GHz

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Song, J.-I.; Rossi, D. V.; Xin, S.; Wang, W. I.; Fossum, E. R.

    1991-01-01

    The fabrication and performance of an Al(0.3)Ga(0.7)As/GaAs modulation-doped resistive-gate CCD are reported. The two-dimensional electron gas (2DEG) CCD, implemented as a 32-stage four-phase delay line, was tested at both low (1-13 MHz) and high (0.6-1.0 GHz) frequency. It exhibits a room-temperature charge-transfer efficiency (CTE) of better than 0.999 at clock frequencies from 10 MHz up to 1 GHz without a fat-zero signal and is limited by dark current below 10 MHz. The high-frequency test showed no CTE degradation up to 1-GHz operation. The CTE degraded at frequencies lower than approximately 5 MHz due to dark current. The charge-handling capability and minimum clock swing of the resistive-gate 2DEG CCD are calculated.

  14. A model for analysis of the temperature field downstream of a heated jet injected into an isothermal crossflow at an angle of 90 deg

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Eriksen, V. L.; Eckert, E. R. G.; Goldstein, R. J.

    1971-01-01

    The temperature distribution downstream of a heated jet entering an isothermal crossflow at an angle of 90 deg is predicted using two conduction models with energy sources above the point of injection, in one case a point source and in the second a line source. The models use effective turbulent diffusivities that are determined empirically from previous measurements. Temperatures predicted by the models are compared to experimental results.

  15. Low-speed wind-tunnel investigation of the stability and control characteristics of a series of flying wings with sweep angles of 50 deg

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fears, Scott P.; Ross, Holly M.; Moul, Thomas M.

    1995-01-01

    A wind-tunnel investigation was conducted in the Langley 12-Foot Low-Speed Tunnel to study the low-speed stability and control characteristics of a series of four flying wings over an extended range of angle of attack (-8 deg to 48 deg). Because of the current emphasis on reducing the radar cross section (RCS) of new military aircraft, the planform of each wing was composed of lines swept at a relatively high angle of 50 deg, and all the trailing-edge lines were aligned with one of the two leading edges. Three arrow planforms with different aspect ratios and one diamond planform were tested. The models incorporated leading-edge flaps for improved longitudinal characteristics and lateral stability and had trailing-edge flaps in three segments that were deflected differentially for roll control, symmetrically for pitch control, and in a split fashion for yaw control. Three top body widths and two sizes of twin vertical tails were also tested on each model. A large aerodynamic database was compiled that could be used to evaluate some of the trade-offs involved in the design of a configuration with a reduced RCS and good flight dynamic characteristics.

  16. SAS-2 observations of the diffuse gamma radiation in the galactic latitude interval from 10 to 90 deg in both hemispheres

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fichtel, C. E.; Hartman, R. C.; Kniffen, D. A.; Thompson, D. J.; Ogelman, H. B.; Ozel, M. E.; Tumer, T.

    1977-01-01

    An analysis of all the second Small Astronomy Satellite (SAS-2) gamma-ray data for galactic latitudes higher than 10 deg in both hemispheres has shown that the intensity varies with galactic latitude, being larger near 10 deg than 90 deg. For energies above 100 MeV the gamma-ray data are consistent with a latitude distribution of the form I(b) = C1 + C2/sin b, with the second term being dominant. This result suggests that the radiation above 100 MeV is coming largely from local regions of the galactic disk. Between 35 and 100 MeV, a similar equation is also a good representation of the data, but here the two terms are comparable. These results indicate that the diffuse radiation above 35 MeV consists of two parts, one with a relatively hard galactic component and the other an isotropic steep spectral component which extrapolates back well to the low-energy (less than 10 MeV) diffuse radiation. The steepness of the diffuse isotropic component places significant constraints on possible theoretical models of this radiation.

  17. THE FIRST PUBLIC RELEASE OF SOUTH POLE TELESCOPE DATA: MAPS OF A 95 deg{sup 2} FIELD FROM 2008 OBSERVATIONS

    SciTech Connect

    Schaffer, K. K.; Crawford, T. M.; Benson, B. A.; Bleem, L. E.; Carlstrom, J. E.; Chang, C. L.; Crites, A. T.; Hoover, S.; Keisler, R.; Aird, K. A.; Hrubes, J. D.; Cho, H. M.; De Haan, T.; Dobbs, M. A.; Holder, G. P.; George, E. M.; Holzapfel, W. L.; Halverson, N. W.; Joy, M.; Knox, L.; and others

    2011-12-10

    The South Pole Telescope (SPT) has nearly completed a 2500 deg{sup 2} survey of the southern sky in three frequency bands. Here, we present the first public release of SPT maps and associated data products. We present arcminute-resolution maps at 150 GHz and 220 GHz of an approximately 95 deg{sup 2} field centered at R.A. 82.{sup 0}7, decl. -55 Degree-Sign . The field was observed to a depth of approximately 17 {mu}K arcmin at 150 GHz and 41 {mu}K arcmin at 220 GHz during the 2008 austral winter season. Two variations on map filtering and map projection are presented, one tailored for producing catalogs of galaxy clusters detected through their Sunyaev-Zel'dovich effect signature and one tailored for producing catalogs of emissive sources. We describe the data processing pipeline, and we present instrument response functions, filter transfer functions, and map noise properties. All data products described in this paper are available for download at http://pole.uchicago.edu/public/data/maps/ra5h30dec-55 and from the NASA Legacy Archive for Microwave Background Data Analysis server. This is the first step in the eventual release of data from the full 2500 deg{sup 2} SPT survey.

  18. NRA-2, a nicalin homolog, regulates neuronal death by controlling surface localization of toxic Caenorhabditis elegans DEG/ENaC channels.

    PubMed

    Kamat, Shaunak; Yeola, Shrutika; Zhang, Wenying; Bianchi, Laura; Driscoll, Monica

    2014-04-25

    Hyperactivated DEG/ENaCs induce neuronal death through excessive cation influx and disruption of intracellular calcium homeostasis. Caenorhabditis elegans DEG/ENaC MEC-4 is hyperactivated by the (d) mutation and induces death of touch neurons. The analogous substitution in MEC-10 (MEC-10(d)) co-expressed in the same neurons is only mildly neurotoxic. We exploited the lower toxicity of MEC-10(d) to identify RNAi knockdowns that enhance neuronal death. We report here that knock-out of the C. elegans nicalin homolog NRA-2 enhances MEC-10(d)-induced neuronal death. Cell biological assays in C. elegans neurons show that NRA-2 controls the distribution of MEC-10(d) between the endoplasmic reticulum and the cell surface. Electrophysiological experiments in Xenopus oocytes support this notion and suggest that control of channel distribution by NRA-2 is dependent on the subunit composition. We propose that nicalin/NRA-2 functions in a quality control mechanism to retain mutant channels in the endoplasmic reticulum, influencing the extent of neuronal death. Mammalian nicalin may have a similar role in DEG/ENaC biology, therefore influencing pathological conditions like ischemia.

  19. NRA-2, a Nicalin Homolog, Regulates Neuronal Death by Controlling Surface Localization of Toxic Caenorhabditis elegans DEG/ENaC Channels*

    PubMed Central

    Kamat, Shaunak; Yeola, Shrutika; Zhang, Wenying; Bianchi, Laura; Driscoll, Monica

    2014-01-01

    Hyperactivated DEG/ENaCs induce neuronal death through excessive cation influx and disruption of intracellular calcium homeostasis. Caenorhabditis elegans DEG/ENaC MEC-4 is hyperactivated by the (d) mutation and induces death of touch neurons. The analogous substitution in MEC-10 (MEC-10(d)) co-expressed in the same neurons is only mildly neurotoxic. We exploited the lower toxicity of MEC-10(d) to identify RNAi knockdowns that enhance neuronal death. We report here that knock-out of the C. elegans nicalin homolog NRA-2 enhances MEC-10(d)-induced neuronal death. Cell biological assays in C. elegans neurons show that NRA-2 controls the distribution of MEC-10(d) between the endoplasmic reticulum and the cell surface. Electrophysiological experiments in Xenopus oocytes support this notion and suggest that control of channel distribution by NRA-2 is dependent on the subunit composition. We propose that nicalin/NRA-2 functions in a quality control mechanism to retain mutant channels in the endoplasmic reticulum, influencing the extent of neuronal death. Mammalian nicalin may have a similar role in DEG/ENaC biology, therefore influencing pathological conditions like ischemia. PMID:24567339

  20. Low-speed wind tunnel investigation of the stability and control characteristics of a series of flying wings with sweep angles of 60 deg

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Moul, Thomas M.; Fears, Scott P.; Ross, Holly M.; Foster, John V.

    1995-01-01

    A wind tunnel investigation was conducted in the Langley 12-Foot Low-Speed Wind Tunnel to study the low-speed stability and control characteristics of a series of four flying wings over an extended range of angle of attack (-8 deg to 48 deg). Because of the current emphasis on reducing the radar cross section of new military aircraft, the planform of each wing was composed of lines swept at a relatively high angle of 60 deg, and all the trailing-edge lines were aligned with one of the two leading edges. Three arrow planforms with different aspect ratios and one diamond planform were tested. The models incorporated leading-edge flaps for improved pitching-moment characteristics and lateral stability and had three sets of trailing-edge flaps that were deflected differentially for roll control, symmetrically for pitch control, and in a split fashion for yaw control. Top bodies of three widths and twin vertical tails of various sizes and locations were also tested on each model. A large aerodynamic database was compiled that could be used to evaluate some of the trade-offs involved in the design of a configuration with a reduced radar cross section and good flight dynamic characteristics.

  1. Low-speed wind-tunnel investigation of the stability and control characteristics of a series of flying wings with sweep angles of 70 deg

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ross, Holly M.; Fears, Scott P.; Moul, Thomas M.

    1995-01-01

    A wind-tunnel investigation was conducted in the Langley 12-Foot Low-Speed Tunnel to study the low-speed stability and control characteristics of a series of four flying wings over an extended range of angle of attack (-8 deg to 48 deg). Because of the current emphasis on reducing the radar cross section (RCS) of new military aircraft, the planform of each wing was composed of lines swept at a relatively high angle of 70 deg, and all the trailing edges and control surface hinge lines were aligned with one of the two leading edges. Three arrow planforms with different aspect ratios and one diamond planform were tested. The models incorporated leading-edge flaps for improved longitudinal characteristics and lateral stability and had three sets of trailing-edge flaps that were deflected differentially for roll control, symmetrically for pitch control, and in a split fashion for yaw control. Three top body widths and two sizes of twin vertical tails were also tested on each model. A large aerodynamic database was compiled that could be used to evaluate some of the trade-offs involved in the design of a configuration with a reduced RCS and good flight dynamic characteristics.

  2. Applications of Kinetic Inductance: Parametric Amplifier & Phase Shifter, 2DEG Coupled Co-planar Structures & Microstrip to Slotline Transition at RF Frequencies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Surdi, Harshad

    Kinetic inductance springs from the inertia of charged mobile carriers in alternating electric fields and it is fundamentally different from the magnetic inductance which is only a geometry dependent property. The magnetic inductance is proportional to the volume occupied by the electric and magnetic fields and is often limited by the number of turns of the coil. Kinetic inductance on the other hand is inversely proportional to the density of electrons or holes that exert inertia, the unit mass of the charge carriers and the momentum relaxation time of these charge carriers, all of which can be varied merely by modifying the material properties. Highly sensitive and broadband signal amplifiers often broaden the field of study in astrophysics. Quantum-noise limited travelling wave kinetic inductance parametric amplifiers offer a noise figure of around 0.5 K +/- 0.3 K as compared to 20 K in HEMT signal amplifiers and can be designed to operate to cover the entire W-band (75 GHz -- 115 GHz). The research cumulating to this thesis involves applying and exploiting kinetic inductance properties in designing a W-band orthogonal mode transducer, quadratic gain phase shifter with a gain of ~49 dB over a meter of microstrip transmission line. The phase shifter will help in measuring the maximum amount of phase shift Deltaφmax(I) that can be obtained from half a meter transmission line which helps in predicting the gain of a travelling wave parametric amplifier. In another project, a microstrip to slot line transition is designed and optimized to operate at 150 GHz and 220 GHz frequencies, that is used as a part of horn antenna coupled microwave kinetic inductance detector proposed to operate from 138 GHz to 250 GHz. In the final project, kinetic inductance in a 2D electron gas (2DEG) is explored by design, simulation, fabrication and experimentation. A transmission line model of a 2DEG proposed by Burke (1999), is simulated and verified experimentally by fabricating a

  3. Scienza dei servizi

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cavenago, Dario; Mezzanzanica, Mario

    I servizi sono oramai centrali nella vita sociale di ogni Paese. L'aspettativa di ogni attore sociale, sia esso cittadino/utente e/o istituzione, è quella di ricevere da uno scambio che ha alla base un servizio un contributo che si caratterizza per una qualità intrinseca. Il mantenimento di tale promessa richiede all'azienda erogatrice un forte coinvolgimento, nel disegno del servizio, degli utenti ed una capacità di gestione della conoscenza; ciò è particolarmente significativo per quei servizi che si caratterizzano per una forte personalizzazione o complessità progettuale. Disegnare un servizio, metterlo in produzione e gestirne l'erogazione ha una complessità variabile in base al grado di coinvolgimento dei destinati ed alle dimensioni critiche che esprimono le condizioni di fattibilità di un servizio di qualità appropriato alle attese degli utilizzatori. Ugualmente la globalizzazione dell'economia e la scarsità delle risorse ha portato l'attenzione, ai fini della sostenibilità delle condizioni sopra richiamate, di una ricerca di modelli e strumenti che permettano una valutazione e una standardizzazione dei processi di produzione ed erogazione secondo condizioni di economicità. Tali primi e sintetici elementi hanno condotto diversi attori istituzionali, grandi imprese ed università attraverso i loro centri di ricerca, ad una azione di riflessione sul grado di "ingegnerizzazione" dei processi sottesi alla erogazione dei servizi ed in particolare ai servizi che attuano le politiche dei grandi settori di base dell'economia di una Nazione: educazione, sanità, sociale, sviluppo infrastrutture ecc.

  4. Long-Term Monitoring of the High-Energy Gamma-Ray Emission from LS I +61 deg 303 and LS 5039

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hadasch, D.; Torres, D. F.; Tanaka, T.; Corbet, R. H. D.; Hill, A. B.; Dubois, R.; Dubus, G.; Glanzman, T.; Corbel, S.; Li, J.; Chen, Y. P.; Zhang, S.; Caliandro, G. A.; Kerr, M.; Richards, J. L.; Max-Moerbeck, W.; Readhead, A.; Pooley, G.

    2012-01-01

    The Fermi Large Area Telescope (LAT) reported the first definitive gigaelectron volts detections of the binaries LS I +61 deg 303 and LS 5039 in the first year after its launch in 2008 June. These detections were unambiguous as a consequence of the reduced positional uncertainty and the detection of modulated gamma-ray emission on the corresponding orbital periods. An analysis of new data from the LAT, comprising 30 months of observations, identifies a change in the gamma-ray behavior of LS I +61 deg 303. An increase in flux is detected in 2009 March and a steady decline in the orbital flux modulation is observed. Significant emission up to 30 gigaelectron volts is detected by the LAT; prior data sets led to upper limits only. Contemporaneous terraelectron volt observations no longer detected the source, or found it-in one orbit-close to periastron, far from the phases at which the source previously appeared at terraelectron volt energies. The detailed numerical simulations and models that exist within the literature do not predict or explain many of these features now observed at gigaelectron volt and terraelectron volt energies. New ideas and models are needed to fully explain and understand this behavior. A detailed phase-resolved analysis of the spectral characterization of LS I +61 deg 303 in the gigaelectron volt regime ascribes a power law with an exponential cutoff spectrum along each analyzed portion of the system's orbit. The on-source exposure of LS 5039 is also substantially increased with respect to our prior publication. In this case, whereas the general gamma-ray properties remain consistent, the increased statistics of the current data set allows for a deeper investigation of its orbital and spectral evolution.

  5. The role of the foehn effect in the record maximum temperature (+19.8 degC) observed at Signy Island (South Orkney Islands) on 30 January 1982.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    King, John; Bannister, Daniel; Hosking, Scott; Colwell, Steve

    2017-04-01

    Signy Island (60.7S, 45.6W) is one of the smaller islands in the South Orkney Islands group. A UK research station was established on the island in 1947 and operated as a year-round station until 1996, when it reverted to summer-only operation. A near-unbroken daily series of basic climatological observations is available for the period 1947-1996. Signy Island is low-lying, but is situated just a few km south of the much larger Coronation Island, which rises to over 1200 m elevation. On 30 January 1982, a record daily maximum temperature of +19.8 degC was reported by the station. The average monthly maximum temperature for January at Signy Island is +9.9 degC and a maximum January temperature of +13 degC has only been exceeded in one year apart from 1982, making the 1982 record truly exceptional. Examination of global reanalysis fields shows that this record temperature was associated with southward advection of an exceptionally warm air mass from the subtropical South Atlantic. However, during the southward passage of this air mass over the cold Southern Ocean, there was rapid cooling of the lowest kilometre of the atmosphere, leading to the formation of a deep stable layer with near-surface temperatures that were not exceptional for this region. At the time of the observed record temperature, the wind at 1 km had a strong northerly component and was thus blowing across the high topography of Coronation Island towards Signy Island. Using a high-resolution (1 km horizontal grid spacing) simulation made with the WRF model, we demonstrate that the flow across Coronation Island generated a foehn flow in the lee of Coronation Island that brought relatively unmodified warm air down towards the surface over Signy Island. We discuss this event within the context of the long-term climate records from this region.

  6. Formation of curved seafloor fabric by changes in rift propagation velocity and spreading rate - Application to the 95.5 deg W Galapagos propagator

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Acton, Gary; Stein, Seth; Engeln, Joseph F.

    1988-01-01

    Possible rigid plate models and shear models for the formation of curved seafloor lineaments by rift propagation are investigated and are applied to the Galapagos propagation rift system at 95 deg W. It is shown that the geometry noted at the Galapagos can result from either rift propagation acceleration or a spreading rate decrease during the last few hundred thousand years. It is postulated that the reverse curvature could result from either deceleration of rift propagation or an increase in spreading rate. The data interpreted as requiring a shear zone are found to be equally consistent with two distinct models based on rigid plate tectonics.

  7. An Investigation of Wing and Aileron Loads Due to Deflected Inboard and Outboard Ailerons on a 4-Percent-Thick 30 deg Sweptback Wing at Transonic Speeds

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Whitcomb, Charles F.; Critzos, Chris C.; Brown, Philippa F.

    1961-01-01

    An investigation has been conducted in the Langley 16-foot transonic tunnel to determine the changes in wing loading characteristics due to deflections of a plain faired flap-type inboard aileron, a plain faired flap-type outboard aileron, and a slab-sided thickened trailing edge outboard aileron. The test wing was 4 percent thick and had 30 sweep of the quarter chord, an aspect ratio of 3.0, a taper ratio of 0.2, and NACA 65A004 airfoil sections. The loading characteristics of the deflected ailerons were also investigated. The model was a sting-mounted wing-body combination, and pressure measurements over one wing panel (exposed area) and the ailerons were obtained for angles of attack from 0 to 20 at deflections up to +/- 15 deg for Mach numbers between 0.80 and 1.03. The test Reynolds number based on the wing mean aerodynamic chord was about 7.4 x 10(exp 6). The results of the investigation indicated that positive deflection of the plain faired flap-type inboard aileron caused significant added loading over the wing sections outboard of the aileron at all Mach numbers for model angles of attack from 0 deg or 4 deg up to 12 deg. Positive deflection of the two outboard ailerons (plain faired and slab sided with thickened trailing edge) caused significant added loading over the wing sections inboard of the ailerons for different model angle-of-attack ranges at the several test Mach numbers. The loading shapes over the ailerons were irregular and would be difficult to predict from theoretical considerations in the transonic speed range. The longitudinal and lateral center-of-pressure locations for the ailerons varied only slightly with increasing angle of attack and/or Mach number. Generally, the negative slopes of the variations of aileron hinge-moment coefficient with aileron deflection for all three ailerons varied similarly with Mach number at the test angles of attack.

  8. Association Between Cardiovascular and Intraocular Pressure Changes in a 14-day 6 deg Head Down Tilt (HDT) Bed Rest Study: Possible Implications in Retinal Anatomy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cromwell, R. L.; Zanello, S. B.; Yarbough, P. O.; Ploutz-Snyder, R.; Taibbi, G.; Brewer, J. L.; Vizzeri, G.

    2013-01-01

    Mean IOP significantly increased while at 6deg HDT and returned towards pre-bed rest values upon leaving bed rest. While mean IOP increased during bed rest, it remained within the normal limits for subject safety. A diuretic shift and cardiovascular deconditioning occurs during in-bed rest, as expected. There was no demonstrable correlation between the largest change in IOP (pre/post) and cardiovascular measure changes (pre/post). Additional mixed effects linear regression modeling may reveal some subclinical physiological changes that might assist in describing the VIIP syndrome pathophysiology.

  9. C-O-H ratios of silicate melt inclusions in basalts from the Galapagos Spreading Center near 95 deg W - A laser decrepitation mass spectrometry study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yonover, Robert N.; Sinton, John M.; Gibson, Everett K.; Sommer, Michael A.

    1989-01-01

    Ratios of C, O, and H dissolved in silicate glass inclusions and pillow rind glasses in samples from the Galapagos Spreading Center near 95 deg W were analyzed (using laser volatilization and mass spectrometry), and the data were assessed in terms of mantle source compositions, oxygen fugacity, kinetic fractionation, and magmatic degassing. It was found that glass inclusions in the Galapagos failing rift lavas are higher and more variable in CO2/H2O (about 0.641) relative to inclusions in propagating rift lavas (about 0.245). This difference is considered to reflect different degrees of degassing during contrasting magmatic histories of the two regions.

  10. Measurements of Aerodynamic Heat Transfer and Boundary-Layer Transition on a 10 deg Cone in Free Flight at Supersonic Mach Numbers up to 5.9

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rumsey, Charles B.; Lee, Dorothy B.

    1961-01-01

    Measurements of aerodynamic heat transfer have been made at six stations on the 40-inch-long 10 deg. total-angle conical nose of a rocket- propelled model which was flight tested at Mach numbers up to 5.9. are presented for a range of local Mach number just outside the bound- ary layer on the cone from 1.57 to 5.50, and a range of local Reynolds number from 6.6 x 10(exp 6) to 55.2 x 10(exp 6) based on length from the nose tip.

  11. Formation of curved seafloor fabric by changes in rift propagation velocity and spreading rate - Application to the 95.5 deg W Galapagos propagator

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Acton, Gary; Stein, Seth; Engeln, Joseph F.

    1988-01-01

    Possible rigid plate models and shear models for the formation of curved seafloor lineaments by rift propagation are investigated and are applied to the Galapagos propagation rift system at 95 deg W. It is shown that the geometry noted at the Galapagos can result from either rift propagation acceleration or a spreading rate decrease during the last few hundred thousand years. It is postulated that the reverse curvature could result from either deceleration of rift propagation or an increase in spreading rate. The data interpreted as requiring a shear zone are found to be equally consistent with two distinct models based on rigid plate tectonics.

  12. An Investigation of Wing and Aileron Loads Due to Deflected Inboard and Outboard Ailerons on a 4-Percent-Thick 30 deg Sweptback Wing at Transonic Speeds

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Whitcomb, Charles F.; Critzos, Chris C.; Brown, Philippa F.

    1961-01-01

    An investigation has been conducted in the Langley 16-foot transonic tunnel to determine the changes in wing loading characteristics due to deflections of a plain faired flap-type inboard aileron, a plain faired flap-type outboard aileron, and a slab-sided thickened trailing edge outboard aileron. The test wing was 4 percent thick and had 30 sweep of the quarter chord, an aspect ratio of 3.0, a taper ratio of 0.2, and NACA 65A004 airfoil sections. The loading characteristics of the deflected ailerons were also investigated. The model was a sting-mounted wing-body combination, and pressure measurements over one wing panel (exposed area) and the ailerons were obtained for angles of attack from 0 to 20 at deflections up to +/- 15 deg for Mach numbers between 0.80 and 1.03. The test Reynolds number based on the wing mean aerodynamic chord was about 7.4 x 10(exp 6). The results of the investigation indicated that positive deflection of the plain faired flap-type inboard aileron caused significant added loading over the wing sections outboard of the aileron at all Mach numbers for model angles of attack from 0 deg or 4 deg up to 12 deg. Positive deflection of the two outboard ailerons (plain faired and slab sided with thickened trailing edge) caused significant added loading over the wing sections inboard of the ailerons for different model angle-of-attack ranges at the several test Mach numbers. The loading shapes over the ailerons were irregular and would be difficult to predict from theoretical considerations in the transonic speed range. The longitudinal and lateral center-of-pressure locations for the ailerons varied only slightly with increasing angle of attack and/or Mach number. Generally, the negative slopes of the variations of aileron hinge-moment coefficient with aileron deflection for all three ailerons varied similarly with Mach number at the test angles of attack.

  13. Evaluation of three thermal protection systems in a hypersonic high-heating-rate environment induced by an elevon deflected 30 deg

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Taylor, A. H.; Jackson, L. R.; Weinstein, I.

    1977-01-01

    Three thermal protection systems proposed for a hypersonic research airplane were subjected to high heating rates in the Langley 8 foot, high temperature structures tunnel. Metallic heat sink (Lockalloy), reusable surface insulation, and insulator-ablator materials were each tested under similar conditions. The specimens were tested for a 10 second exposure on the windward side of an elevon deflected 30 deg. The metallic heat sink panel exhibited no damage; whereas the reusable surface insulation tiles were debonded from the panel and the insulator-ablator panel eroded through its thickness, thus exposing the aluminum structure to the Mach 7 environment.

  14. Subsonic and transonic pressure distributions around a bluff afterbody in the wake of a 120 deg cone for various separation distances

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sawyer, J. W.; Whitcomb, C. F.

    1971-01-01

    A wind-tunnel investigation was conducted at free-stream Mach numbers from 0.20 to 1.00 and Reynolds numbers, based on maximum afterbody diameter, from 2.25 million to 6.90 million on solid models of an attached inflatable decelerator (AID) concept. Tests were conducted to obtain static and ram surface pressure distributions about the basic shapes and at various separation distances between the 120 deg conical forebody and the inflated afterbody shape. The resulting data were used to study the feasibility of extracting a payload from a conical forebody by means of an AID.

  15. Comparison of the E(5) Critical Point Symmetry to the {gamma}-Rigid Solution of The Bohr Hamiltonian for {gamma} =30 deg

    SciTech Connect

    Bonatsos, D.; Lenis, D.; Petrellis, D.; Terziev, P. A.; Yigitoglu, I.

    2007-04-23

    A {gamma}-rigid solution of the Bohr Hamiltonian for {gamma}=30 deg. is derived. Bohr Hamiltonians {beta}-part being related to the second order Casimir operator of the Euclidean algebra E(4). The solution is called Z(4) since it is corresponds to the Z(5) model with the {gamma} variable ''frozen''. Parameter-free (up to overall scale factors) predictions for spectra and B(E2) transition rates are in close agreement to the E(5) critical point symmetry as well as to the experimental data in the Xe region around A=130.

  16. Impact of wet-oxidized Al2O3/AlGaN interface on AlGaN/GaN 2-DEGs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meer, Mudassar; Majety, Sridhar; Takhar, Kuldeep; Ganguly, Swaroop; Saha, Dipankar

    2017-04-01

    We investigated the impact of wet-oxidation of AlGaN in an AlGaN/GaN heterostructure by selectively probing the metal/AlGaN interface. The two-dimensional electron gas (2-DEG) characteristics show improved mobility with increasing oxidation time and Al2O3 thickness. The change is attributed to an interplay of the interface trap density (D it) and the oxide thickness. D it is found to reduce progressively for thicker gate oxides as determined by selectively probing the Al2O3/AlGaN interface and employing frequency dependent capacitance and conductance spectroscopy on these devices. The energies of the interface traps are found to be in the range of 0.35–0.45 eV below the conduction band edge. The D it is found to reduce from 2 × 1013 cm‑2 eV‑1 for 2.3 nm of Al2O3 to 5 × 1012 cm‑2 eV‑1 for 16 nm of Al2O3. Contrary to the earlier reports of increased 2-DEG electron density, the primary advantage is found to be a reduction in Dit leading to an increased electron mobility from 1730 to 2800 cm2V‑1s‑1.

  17. Spectra and angular distributions of atmospheric gamma rays from 0.3 to 10 MeV at lambda = 40 deg

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ling, J. C.; Gruber, D. E.

    1977-01-01

    Measurements of the spectral and angular distributions of atmospheric gamma sq cm rays in the energy range 0.3-10 MeV over Palestine, Texas, at residual depths of 2.5 and 70 g/sq cm are reported. In confirmation of the general features of a model prediction, the measurements show at 2.5 g/sq cm upward moving fluxes greater than the downward moving fluxes, the effect increasing with energy, and approximate isotropy at 70 g/sq cm. Numerous characteristic gamma-ray lines were observed, most prominently at 0.511, 1.6, 2.3, 4.4, and 6.1 MeV. Their intensities were also compared with model predictions. Observations were made with an actively shielded scintillator counter with two detectors, one of aperture 50 deg FWHM and the other of 120 deg FWHM. Above 1 MeV, contributions to the counting rate from photons penetrating the shield annulus and from neutron interactions were large; they were studied by means of a Monte Carlo code and are extensively discussed.

  18. Spectra and angular distributions of atmospheric gamma rays from 0.3 to 10 MeV at lambda = 40 deg

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ling, J. C.; Gruber, D. E.

    1977-01-01

    Measurements of the spectral and angular distributions of atmospheric gamma sq cm rays in the energy range 0.3-10 MeV over Palestine, Texas, at residual depths of 2.5 and 70 g/sq cm are reported. In confirmation of the general features of a model prediction, the measurements show at 2.5 g/sq cm upward moving fluxes greater than the downward moving fluxes, the effect increasing with energy, and approximate isotropy at 70 g/sq cm. Numerous characteristic gamma-ray lines were observed, most prominently at 0.511, 1.6, 2.3, 4.4, and 6.1 MeV. Their intensities were also compared with model predictions. Observations were made with an actively shielded scintillator counter with two detectors, one of aperture 50 deg FWHM and the other of 120 deg FWHM. Above 1 MeV, contributions to the counting rate from photons penetrating the shield annulus and from neutron interactions were large; they were studied by means of a Monte Carlo code and are extensively discussed.

  19. [The first wave of the German Health Interview and Examination Survey for Adults (DEGS1): sample design, response, weighting and representativeness].

    PubMed

    Kamtsiuris, P; Lange, M; Hoffmann, R; Schaffrath Rosario, A; Dahm, S; Kuhnert, R; Kurth, B M

    2013-05-01

    The "German Health Interview and Examination Survey for Adults" (DEGS) is part of the health monitoring program of the Robert Koch Institute (RKI) and is designed as a combined cross-sectional and longitudinal survey. The first wave (DEGS1; 2008-2011) comprised interviews and physical examinations. The target population were 18- to 79-year olds living in Germany. The mixed design consisted of a new sample randomly chosen from local population registries which was supplemented by participants from the "German National Health Interview and Examination Survey 1998" (GNHIES98). In total, 8,152 persons took part, among them 4,193 newly invited (response 42%) and 3,959 who had previously taken part in GNHIES98 (response 62%). 7,238 participants visited one of the 180 local study centres, 914 took part in the interview-only programme. The comparison of the net sample with the group of non-participants and with the resident population of Germany suggests a high representativeness regarding various attributes. To account for certain aspects of the population structure cross-sectional, trend and longitudinal analyses are corrected by weighting factors. Furthermore, different participation probabilities of the former participants of GNHIES98 are compensated for. An English full-text version of this article is available at SpringerLink as supplemental.

  20. A Transonic Wind-Tunnel Investigation of a Seaplane Configuration having a 40 Deg Sweptback Wing, TED No. NACA DE 387

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hieser, Gerald; Kudlacik, Louis; Gray, W. H.

    1956-01-01

    During the course of an aerodynamic loads investigation of a model of the Martin XP6M-1 flying boat in the.Langley 16-foot transonic tunnel, longitudinal-aerodynamic-performance information was obtained. Data were obtained at speeds up to and exceeding those anticipated for the seaplane in level flight and included the Mach number range from 0.84. to 1.09. The angle of attack was varied from -2deg to 6deg and the average Reynolds number, based on wing mean aerodyn&ic chord, was about 3.7 x 10(exp 6). This seaplane, although not designed to maintain level flight at Mach numbers beyond the force break, was found to have a transonic drag-rise coefficient of 0.0728, with an accompanying drag-rise Mach number of about 0.85. A large portion of the.drag rise and the relatively low value of drag-rise Mach number result from the axial coincidence of the maximum areas of the principal airplane components.

  1. Twelve-months prevalence of mental disorders in the German Health Interview and Examination Survey for Adults - Mental Health Module (DEGS1-MH): a methodological addendum and correction.

    PubMed

    Jacobi, Frank; Höfler, Michael; Strehle, Jens; Mack, Simon; Gerschler, Anja; Scholl, Lucie; Busch, Markus A; Hapke, Ulfert; Maske, Ulrike; Seiffert, Ingeburg; Gaebel, Wolfgang; Maier, Wolfgang; Wagner, Michael; Zielasek, Jürgen; Wittchen, Hans-Ulrich

    2015-12-01

    We recently published findings in this journal on the prevalence of mental disorders from the German Health Interview and Examination Survey for Adults Mental Health Module (DEGS1-MH). The DEGS1-MH paper was also meant to be the major reference publication for this large-scale German study program, allowing future users of the data set to understand how the study was conducted and analyzed. Thus, towards this goal highest standards regarding transparency, consistency and reproducibility should be applied. After publication, unfortunately, the need for an addendum and corrigendum became apparent due to changes in the eligible reference sample, and corresponding corrections of the imputed data. As a consequence the sample description, sample size and some prevalence data needed amendments. Additionally we identified a coding error in the algorithm for major depression that had a significant effect on the prevalence estimates of depression and associated conditions. This addendum and corrigendum highlights all changes and presents the corrected prevalence tables. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  2. Polarized Infrared Response of Subband Transitions in High Density 2DEG in GdTiO3/SrTiO3 Interfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Flaherty, Bill; Ouellette, Daniel; Moetakef, Pouya; Jackson, Clayton; Stemmer, Susanne; Allen, S. James; Exede Muri Team

    2014-03-01

    The 2-D electron gas at the interface between GdTiO3 and SrTiO3 layers has an electron density comparable to 3.4 x 1014 cm-2 per interface with potential applications for tunable plasmonic devices. Experiments are currently underway to measure the infrared response of this electron gas, with infrared electric fields perpendicular to the interface as well as parallel. The former may provide insight into the electric subband states. Using angle-resolved Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy with s- and p-polarized beams, we can compare the in- and out-of-plane response of the 2DEG. Normalizing it against the response of the bare substrate will allow us to extract the 2DEG contribution. These results will be compared to those predicted by Park and Millis, Phys. Rev. B87, 205145 (2013). Results to date display in-plane but little out-of-plane response. We will look at various GTO/STO interfaces, such as single interfaces and superlattices of alternating layers. Supported by ONR EXEDE MURI, ONR N00014-12-0976.

  3. Low-Speed Aerodynamic Characteristics of a Model of a Hypersonic Research Airplane at Angles of Attack up to 90 deg for a Range of Reynolds Numbers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bowman, James S., Jr.; Grantham, William D.

    1960-01-01

    Static force tests have been made at low subsonic speeds for a model of a hypersonic research airplane in the Langley high-speed 7- by 10-foot tunnel to determine the aerodynamic forces and moments up to an angle of attack of 90 deg for a range of Reynolds numbers. The Reynolds numbers, based on the mean aerodynamic chord, ranged from 740,000 to 1,900,000, which correspond to dynamic pressures from 15 to 100 lb/sq ft (Mach numbers from 0.10 to 0.27). The model was tested in the clean configuration with various horizontal-tail settings, horizontal tail off, lower rudder off, fuselage alone, and with various size strakes and slats on the nose of the model. Representative results of the present investigation are presented in plotted form, and a tabulation of all the data obtained is presented in a table. Appreciable effects on side force, yawing moment, and pitching moment are indicated by changes in Reynolds number for angles of attack of 40 to 90 deg.

  4. Cyclic Hardening Behaviors and Reduction in Fatigue Life of Type 316LN Austenitic Stainless Steel in 310 deg. C Low Oxygen-Containing Water

    SciTech Connect

    Hyunchul Cho; Byoung Koo Kim; Changheuil Jang; In Sup Kim; Seung Mo Hong

    2006-07-01

    Low cycle fatigue tests were conducted to investigate the cyclic behavior and the fatigue life of type 316LN stainless steel (SS) at various strain rates in 310 deg. C low oxygen-containing water. The strain rates were 0.008, 0.04, and 0.4%/s, and the applied strain amplitude was varied from 0.4 to 1.0%. The dissolved oxygen concentration of the test water was maintained below 1 ppb. The test material in 310 deg. C low oxygen-containing water experienced a primary hardening, followed by a softening. From our data, we confirm the occurrence of the dynamic strain aging (DSA), and finally it can be considered that the primary hardening was brought about by the DSA. The secondary hardening was observed distinctly for 0.4%/s and 0.4%. The improvement of fatigue resistance and the secondary hardening occurred under the same loading condition. Therefore, the improvement of fatigue resistance may be related to the occurrence of the secondary hardening. When the secondary hardening occurs, intense slip bands are replaced by the corduroy structure. The corduroy structure can induce retardation of crack initiation, and ultimately the fatigue resistance is improved. Comparative study between the fatigue life generated in the current study and some prediction models was performed to evaluate the reliability of our data. (authors)

  5. Probing Early Galaxy Growth and Dusty Star-Forming Systems Across Diverse Environments in the 28 deg2 Herschel/Stripe82/HETDEX Field

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Larson, Rebecca; Jogee, Shardha; Watson, Nicholas; Viero, Marco; Weinzirl, Tim; Yorke, Harold W.; Finkelstein, Steven; Papovich, Casey; Casey, Caitlin M.; Ciardullo, Robin; Gronwall, Caryl; LaMassa, Stephanie; Urry, C. Meg

    2015-08-01

    In the next few years, we will embark on an unprecedented study of how a million galaxies grow their stars and dark matter halos over a large a huge comoving volume (0.5 Gpc^3) in the cosmic web at the critical epoch (z~1.9 - 3.5), where cosmic star formation and black hole activity peak, and proto-clusters start to collapse. This study is enabled by the powerful synergy of six photometric and spectroscopic surveys, which are providing Herschel SPIRE, Spitzer IRAC, NEWFIRM K-band, DECam ugriz, and XMM X-ray imaging data, along with optical spectroscopic data from HETDEX over a very large-area (28 sq. deg.) in the Stripe82/HETDEX field. In this poster, we illustrate the power of these combined datasets and focus on studying dusty, star-forming systems (DSFSs) identified with the Herschel Stripe 82 Survey (HerS). Using the 250, 350, and 500 micron SPIRE data over our 28 sq. deg. field, we identify a number of possible high redshift (z > 4) DSFSs which will be prime candidates for follow-up observations. We discuss their properties and possible association with galaxies and quasars detected at X-ray, IR, optical, and UV wavelengths. We present examples of SED fits to DSFSs to constrain their star formation rates, redshifts and dust properties, and discuss broader implications for galaxy growth at early cosmic times. We acknowledge support from NSF grant AST-1413652 andthe JPL/NASA SURP Program.

  6. The effect of microstructural evolution on hardening behavior of type 17-4PH stainless steel in long-term aging at 350 deg. C

    SciTech Connect

    Wang Jun . E-mail: srwangjun@163.com; Zou Hong; Li Cong; Qiu Shaoyu; Shen Baoluo

    2006-12-15

    The effect of microstructural evolution on hardening behavior of 17-4PH stainless steel in long-term aging at 350 deg. C was studied by X-ray diffraction and transmission electron microscopy. The results showed that there is the matrix of lath martensite and nanometer-sized particles of {epsilon}-Cu precipitated from the matrix after the alloy is solution treated and tempered. When the alloy was aged 350 deg. C for 9 months, {alpha}-{alpha}' spinodal decomposition occurred along the grain boundaries and caused an increase in hardness which compensated for the weakening effect due to ripening of the {epsilon}-copper precipitates. Upon further aging to 12 months, the Cr-rich {alpha}'-phase and M{sub 23}C{sub 6} precipitated, both of which strengthened the alloy considerably and led to enhanced hardening despite the continued softening by overaging of the {epsilon}-copper precipitates. With the aging time extended to 15 months, substantial reversed austenite transformed and precipitation of the intermetallic G-phase occurred near the {epsilon}-Cu precipitates in the matrix. The abundant amount of reversed austenite that transformed led to rapid softening.

  7. Effect of Various Blade Modifications on Performance of a 16-Stage High-pressure-ratio Axial-flow Compressor.Angles 3 deg. 1; Effect on Over-all Performance Characteristics of Decreasing Twelfth Through Fifteenth State Stator-blade Angles 3 deg

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Medeiros, Arthur A.; Hatch, James E.; Dugan, James F., Jr.

    1952-01-01

    The stator-blade angles in the twelfth to fifteenth stages of a 16-stage high-pressure-ratio axial-flow compressor were decreased 3 deg The over-all performance of this compressor is compared with the performance of the same compressor with standard blade angles. The matching characteristics of the modified compressor and a two-stage turbine were also obtained and compared with those of the compressor with the original blade angles and the same turbine.

  8. Rotary balance data for a typical single-engine general aviation design for an angle-of-attack range of 8 deg to 90 deg. 1: Low-wing model A. [fluid flow and vortices data for general aviation aircraft to determine aerodynamic characteristics for various designs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hultberg, R. S.; Mulcay, W.

    1980-01-01

    Aerodynamic characteristics obtained in a rotational flow environment utilizing a rotary balance are presented in plotted form for a 1/5 scale, single engine, low-wing, general aviation airplane model. The configuration tested included the basic airplane, various control deflections, tail designs, fuselage shapes, and wing leading edges. Data are presented without analysis for an angle of attack range of 8 to 90 deg and clockwise and counterclockwise rotations covering a range from 0 to 0.85.

  9. Prognostic Impact of Diabetes and Prediabetes on Survival Outcomes in Patients With Chronic Heart Failure: A Post-Hoc Analysis of the GISSI-HF (Gruppo Italiano per lo Studio della Sopravvivenza nella Insufficienza Cardiaca-Heart Failure) Trial.

    PubMed

    Dauriz, Marco; Targher, Giovanni; Temporelli, Pier Luigi; Lucci, Donata; Gonzini, Lucio; Nicolosi, Gian Luigi; Marchioli, Roberto; Tognoni, Gianni; Latini, Roberto; Cosmi, Franco; Tavazzi, Luigi; Maggioni, Aldo Pietro

    2017-07-05

    The independent prognostic impact of diabetes mellitus (DM) and prediabetes mellitus (pre-DM) on survival outcomes in patients with chronic heart failure has been investigated in observational registries and randomized, clinical trials, but the results have been often inconclusive or conflicting. We examined the independent prognostic impact of DM and pre-DM on survival outcomes in the GISSI-HF (Gruppo Italiano per lo Studio della Sopravvivenza nella Insufficienza Cardiaca-Heart Failure) trial. We assessed the risk of all-cause death and the composite of all-cause death or cardiovascular hospitalization over a median follow-up period of 3.9 years among the 6935 chronic heart failure participants of the GISSI-HF trial, who were stratified by presence of DM (n=2852), pre-DM (n=2013), and non-DM (n=2070) at baseline. Compared with non-DM patients, those with DM had remarkably higher incidence rates of all-cause death (34.5% versus 24.6%) and the composite end point (63.6% versus 54.7%). Conversely, both event rates were similar between non-DM patients and those with pre-DM. Cox regression analysis showed that DM, but not pre-DM, was associated with an increased risk of all-cause death (adjusted hazard ratio, 1.43; 95% CI, 1.28-1.60) and of the composite end point (adjusted hazard ratio, 1.23; 95% CI, 1.13-1.32), independently of established risk factors. In the DM subgroup, higher hemoglobin A1c was also independently associated with increased risk of both study outcomes (all-cause death: adjusted hazard ratio, 1.21; 95% CI, 1.02-1.43; and composite end point: adjusted hazard ratio, 1.14; 95% CI, 1.01-1.29, respectively). Presence of DM was independently associated with poor long-term survival outcomes in patients with chronic heart failure. URL: http://www.clinicaltrials.gov. Unique identifier: NCT00336336. © 2017 The Authors. Published on behalf of the American Heart Association, Inc., by Wiley.

  10. [Knowledge and common sense of nurses on the health's inequities: an exploratory study.

    PubMed

    Cotichelli, Giordano; Di Meo, Giorgia; Giampieri, Paolo

    2016-01-01

    Introduzione. I dati statistici per il 2015 parlano di un peggioramento generale delle condizioni di vita e di salute della popolazione in Italia. Le possibili ricadute chiamano l’infermiere ad un coinvolgimento in tema di disuguaglianze nella salute. Lo studio è stato realizzato con lo scopo di valutare quanto gli infermieri conoscono e percepiscono la correlazione fra le condizioni di salute della popolazione e le iniquità di sistema. Metodo. E’ stato condotto uno studio esplorativo attraverso un aggiornamento bibliografico rispetto a precedenti lavori e la somministrazione di questionari a campioni di convenienza di professionisti e studenti di infermieristica e valutazione dei risultati secondo la prospettiva del mixed method. Risultati. La bibliografia infermieristica presente sul piano quantitativo è molto limitata. Il questionario fornisce risposte utili alla valutazione della percezione delle disuguaglianze nella salute in termini di equità orizzontale e verticale. Conclusioni. La conoscenza delle disuguaglianze nella salute non può essere al margine dei lavori scientifici e della stessa letteratura professionale. E’ necessario ridurre il divario fra gli aspetti valoriali propri della professione, che riverberano nella percezione delle iniquità esistenti, e l’assunzione piena del sapere correlato ai determinanti socio-economici della salute e della malattia.

  11. Exercise Thermoregulation After 6 hours of Chair Rest, 6 deg Head-Down Bed-Rest, and Water Immersion Deconditioning in Men

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Greenleaf, J. E.; Hutchinson, T.; Shaffer-Bailey, M.; Looft-Wilson, R.

    1996-01-01

    The purpose was to investigate the mechanism for the excessive exercise hyperthermia following deconditioning (reduction of physical fitness). Rectal (T(sub re)) and mean skin (T(bar)(sub sk)) temperatures and thermoregulatory responses were measured in six men [mean (SD) age, 32 (6) years; mass, 78.26 (5.80) kg; surface area, 1.95 (0.11) sq m; maximum oxygen uptake (VO2max), 48 (6) ml/min/kg; whilst supine in air at dry bulb temperature 23.2 (0.6)C, relative humidity 31.1 (11.1)% and air speed 5.6 (0.1) m/min] during 70 min of leg cycle exercise [51 (4)% VO2max] in ambulatory control (AC), or following 6 h of chair rest (CR), 6deg head-down bed rest (BR), and 20deg (W120) and 80deg (W180) foot-down water immersion [water temperature, 35.0 (0.1) C]. Compared with the AC exercise (Delta)T(sub re) [mean (SD) 0.77 (0.13)C], (Delta)T(sub re), after CR was 0.83 (0.08)C (NS), after BR 0.92 (0.13)C (*P <0.05), after W180 0.96 (0.13)C*, and after W120 1.03 (0.09)C*. All T(sub sk) responded similarly to exercise: they decreased (NS) by 0.5-0.7 C in minutes 4-8 and equilibrated at +0.1 to +0.5 C at 60-70. Skin heat conductance was not different among the five conditions (range = 147-159 kJ/sq/C. Results from an intercorrelation matrix suggested that total body sweat rate was more closely related to T(sub re) at 70 min (T(sub re70)) than limb sweat rate or blood flow. Only 36% of the variability in T(sub re70) could be accounted for by total sweating, and less than 10% from total body dehydration. It would appear that multiple factors are involved which may include change in sensitivity of thermo- and osmoreceptors.

  12. The southern Andes between 36 and 40 deg S latitude: a tomographic image of the lithospheric structure inferred from local earthquake data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bohm, M.; Asch, G.; Bataille, K.; Rietbrock, A.

    2003-04-01

    Subduction of the Nazca plate beneath South America and its associated processes cause high seismic activity along the active continental margin of South America. In order to investigate the seimic activity in the Southern Andes, a temporary seismic network was operated as part of the project ISSA 2000 (Integrated Seismological experiment in the Southern Andes) between 36 and 40 deg S reaching from the Chilean Pacific coast to 68 deg W in Argentina. The network consisted of 62 three-component seismographs recording continuously from November 1999 to April 2000. The earthquake data set comprises 328 local events with more than 8 P-wave and S-wave observations per event and a RMS error less than 0.5 s. Crustal seismicity concentrates in the forearc region along fault zones. Benioff seismicity is observed down to 150 km depth. From this data set we have selected 150 well locatable events, with a GAP less than 180 deg, to invert for three-dimensional P-wave velocity structure and hypocenter locations. The final data set provides 2283 P-wave and 1322 S-wave observations. Here we will present a tomographic model for P-wave velocity and Vp/Vs ratios. Velocity structures can be resolved down to a depth of 80 km. Resolution is best in the forearc, where ray coverage is densest, whereas in the backarc the resolution is low. Average P-wave velocities in the continental crust are 6.3 km/s for the upper crust and 6.9 to 7.4 km/s for the lower crust indicating felsic to mafic composition. Mantle velocities near 8.0 km/s are found below 55 km depth, rising to 8.34 km/s at 90 km depth. The down-going slab is defined by the location of the earthquakes and characterized by fast velocities (8.2 km/s). Low Vp values in the crust beneath the Coastal Cordillera are due to basal accretion of sediments. Increased Vp values beneath the Longitudinal Valley correlate with the relatively fast velocities obtained by the refraction seismic survey of the ISSA project.

  13. The Southern Andes Between 36 and 40 deg S Latitude: A Tomographic Image of the Lithospheric Structure Inferred From Local Earthquake Data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bohm, M.; Asch, G.; Bataille, K.; Rietbrock, A.

    2002-12-01

    Subduction of the Nazca plate beneath South America and its associated processes cause high seismic activity along the active continental margin of South America. In order to investigate the seimic activity in the Southern Andes, a temporary seismic network was operated as part of the project ISSA 2000 (Integrated Seismological experiment in the Southern Andes) between 36 and 40 deg S reaching from the Chilean Pacific coast to 68 deg W in Argentina. The network consisted of 62 three-component seismographs recording continuously from November 1999 to April 2000. The earthquake data set comprises 328 local events with more than 8 P-wave and S-wave observations per event and a RMS error less than 0.5 s. Crustal seismicity concentrates in the forearc region along fault zones. Benioff seismicity is observed down to 150 km depth. From this data set we selected 150 well locatable events, with a GAP less than 180 deg, to invert for three-dimensional P-wave velocity structure and hypocenter locations. The final data set provides 2283 P-wave and 1322 S-wave observations. Here we will present a tomographic model for P-wave velocity and Vp/Vs ratios. Velocity structures can be resolved down to a depth of 80 km. Resolution is best in the forearc, where ray coverage is densest, whereas in the backarc the resolution is low. Average P-wave velocities in the continental crust are 6.3 km/s for the upper crust and 6.9 to 7.4 km/s for the lower crust indicating felsic to mafic composition. Mantle velocities near 8.0 km/s are found below 55 km depth, rising to 8.34 km/s at 90 km depth. The down-going slab is defined by the location of the earthquakes and characterized by fast velocities (8.2 km/s). Low Vp values in the crust beneath the Coastal Cordillera are due to basal accretion of sediments. Increased Vp values beneath the Longitudinal Valley correlate with the relatively fast velocities obtained by the refraction seismic survey of the ISSA project.

  14. Exercise Thermoregulation After 6 hours of Chair Rest, 6 deg Head-Down Bed-Rest, and Water Immersion Deconditioning in Men

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Greenleaf, J. E.; Hutchinson, T.; Shaffer-Bailey, M.; Looft-Wilson, R.

    1996-01-01

    The purpose was to investigate the mechanism for the excessive exercise hyperthermia following deconditioning (reduction of physical fitness). Rectal (T(sub re)) and mean skin (T(bar)(sub sk)) temperatures and thermoregulatory responses were measured in six men [mean (SD) age, 32 (6) years; mass, 78.26 (5.80) kg; surface area, 1.95 (0.11) sq m; maximum oxygen uptake (VO2max), 48 (6) ml/min/kg; whilst supine in air at dry bulb temperature 23.2 (0.6)C, relative humidity 31.1 (11.1)% and air speed 5.6 (0.1) m/min] during 70 min of leg cycle exercise [51 (4)% VO2max] in ambulatory control (AC), or following 6 h of chair rest (CR), 6deg head-down bed rest (BR), and 20deg (W120) and 80deg (W180) foot-down water immersion [water temperature, 35.0 (0.1) C]. Compared with the AC exercise (Delta)T(sub re) [mean (SD) 0.77 (0.13)C], (Delta)T(sub re), after CR was 0.83 (0.08)C (NS), after BR 0.92 (0.13)C (*P <0.05), after W180 0.96 (0.13)C*, and after W120 1.03 (0.09)C*. All T(sub sk) responded similarly to exercise: they decreased (NS) by 0.5-0.7 C in minutes 4-8 and equilibrated at +0.1 to +0.5 C at 60-70. Skin heat conductance was not different among the five conditions (range = 147-159 kJ/sq/C. Results from an intercorrelation matrix suggested that total body sweat rate was more closely related to T(sub re) at 70 min (T(sub re70)) than limb sweat rate or blood flow. Only 36% of the variability in T(sub re70) could be accounted for by total sweating, and less than 10% from total body dehydration. It would appear that multiple factors are involved which may include change in sensitivity of thermo- and osmoreceptors.

  15. Isolated star-forming regions containing Herbig Ae/Be stars. 1: The young stellar aggregate associated with BD +40deg 4124

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hillenbrand, Lynne A.; Meyer, Michael R.; Strom, Stephen E.; Skrutskie, Michael F.

    1995-01-01

    We use optical and infrared photometry in combination with red optical spectra to study the star-forming region associated with the two Herbig Ae/Be stars BD + 40 deg 4124 and V1686 Cyg. We identify a partially embedded, dense, isolated cluster of pre-main sequence stars concentrated within 0.15 pc of the two young high-mass stars. The cluster is isolated in that it is separated by approximately 0.7 pc from a surrounding H alpha-bright rim and lies at the center of a molecular core with peak column density corresponding to 45 mag of visual extinction. The fraction of the stellar population with evidence for circumsteller activity is 100% amongst the optically visible cluster members and at least 50% amongst the embedded sources. This small region is characterized by an apparent age spread of approximately 3 Myr with evidence for both high-and low-mass stars forming relatively simultaneously (within several hundred thousand years). Comparison of the derived stellar mass distribution to that expected from Monte-Carlo sampling of the solar neighborhood mass spectrum reveals that this region is producing an unusually large number of intermediate-and high-mass stars. Our result suggests that not all star formation sites yield identical mass spectra, and that universal mass functions may be produced only when integrating over large spatial areas and/or over many star formation epochs. Futhermore, our data appear to exclude for the BD +40 deg 4124 region, the popular senario that low-mass star formation proceeds quietly and stochastically for several to ten Myr until the birth of an early type star, and its subsequent dynamical interaction with the cloud, ends all starformation processes in the core. Instead, we consider the hypothesis that star formation was induced in this region by the propagation of an external shock wave into the cloud core. This picture is similar to that invoked for other star-forming sites displaying a bright-rim morphology on optical images and

  16. The Caltech-NRAO Stripe 82 Survey (CNSS) Paper. I. The Pilot Radio Transient Survey in 50 Deg.(exp. 2)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mooley, K. P.; Hallinan, G.; Bourke, S.; Horesh, A.; Myers, S. T.; Frail, D. A.; Kulkarni, S. R.; Levitan, D. B.; Kasliwal, M. M.; Cenko, S. B.; hide

    2016-01-01

    We have commenced a multiyear program, the Caltech-NRAO Stripe 82 Survey (CNSS), to search for radio transients with the Jansky VLA in the Sloan Digital Sky Survey Stripe 82 region. The CNSS will deliver five epochs over the entire approx. 270 deg.(exp. 2) of Stripe 82, an eventual deep combined map with an rms noise of approx. 40 proper motion epoch y and catalogs at a frequency of 3 GHz, and having a spatial resolution of 3 inches. This first paper presents the results from an initial pilot survey of a 50 deg.(exp. 2) region of Stripe 82, involving four epochs spanning logarithmic timescales between 1 week and 1.5 yr, with the combined map having a median rms noise of 35 proper motion epoch y. This pilot survey enabled the development of the hardware and software for rapid data processing, as well as transient detection and follow-up, necessary for the full 270 deg.(exp. 2) survey. Data editing, calibration, imaging, source extraction, cataloging, and transient identification were completed in a semi-automated fashion within 6 hr of completion of each epoch of observations, using dedicated computational hardware at the NRAO in Socorro and custom-developed data reduction and transient detection pipelines. Classification of variable and transient sources relied heavily on the wealth of multiwavelength legacy survey data in the Stripe 82 region, supplemented by repeated mapping of the region by the Palomar Transient Factory. A total of 3.9(+0.5%/-0.9%) of the few thousand detected point sources werefound to vary by greater than 30%, consistent with similar studies at 1.4 and 5 GHz. Multiwavelength photometric data and light curves suggest that the variability is mostly due to shock-induced flaring in the jets of active galactic nuclei (AGNs). Although this was only a pilot survey, we detected two bona fide transients, associated with an RS CVn binary and a dKe star. Comparison with existing legacy survey data (FIRST, VLA-Stripe 82) revealed additional highly

  17. Aerodynamic Force Characteristics of a Series of Lifting Cone and Cone-Cylinder Configurations at a Mach Number of 6.83 and Angles of Attack up to 130 Deg

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Penland, Jim A.

    1961-01-01

    Force tests of a series of right circular cones having semivertex angles ranging from 5 deg to 45 deg and a series of right circular cone-cylinder configurations having semivertex angles ranging from 5 deg to 20 deg and an afterbody fineness ratio of 6 have been made in the Langley 11-inch hypersonic tunnel at a Mach number of 6.83, a Reynolds number of 0.24 x 10.6 per inch, and angles of attack up to 130 deg. An analysis of the results made use of the Newtonian and modified Newtonian theories and the exact theory. A comparison of the experimental data of both cone and cone-cylinder configurations with theoretical calculations shows that the Newtonian concept gives excellent predictions of trends of the force characteristics and the locations with respect to angle of attack of the points of maximum lift, maximum drag, and maximum lift-drag ratio. Both the Newtonian a.nd exact theories give excellent predictions of the sign and value of the initial lift-curve slope. The maximum lift coefficient for conical bodies is nearly constant at a value of 0.5 based on planform area for semivertex angles up to 30 deg. The maximum lift-drag ratio for conical bodies can be expected to be not greater than about 3.5, and this value might be expected only for slender cones having semivertex angles of less than 5 deg. The increments of angle of attack and lift coefficient between the maximum lift-drag ratio and the maximum lift coefficient for conical bodies decrease rapidly with increasing semivertex angles as predicted by the modified Newtonian theory.

  18. Heat transfer and pressure drop in a compact pin-fin heat exchanger with pin orientation at 18 deg to the flow direction

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Olson, D. A.

    1991-01-01

    The heat transfer and pressure drop characteristics of a novel, compact heat exchanger in helium gas were measured at 3.5 MPa and Reynolds numbers of 450 to 12,000. The pin-fin specimen consisted of pins, 0.51 mm high and spaced 2.03 mm on centers, spanning a channel through which the helium flows; the angle of the row of pins to the flow direction was 18 deg. The specimen was radiatively heated on the top side at heat fluxes up to 74 W/sq cm and insulated on the back side. Correlations were developed for the friction factor and Nusselt number. The Nusselt number compares favorably to those of past studies of staggered pin-fins, when the measured temperatures are extrapolated to the temperature of the wall-fluid interface.

  19. Terminal velocity of wind, mass loss, and absorption lines of the central star of the planetary nebula 75 + 35.1 deg

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Feibelman, Walter A.; Bruhweiler, Frederick C.

    1989-01-01

    The high-galactic latitude planetary nebula 75 + 35.1 deg was observed in the high-dispersion mode of the International Ultraviolet Explorer (IUE) satellite in the wavelength range 1150-1950 A. The N V resonance doublet at 1240 A and O V subordinate line at 1371 A exhibit strong stellar P Cygni profiles with absorption extending to -2150 km/s and -1000 km/s, respectively. Application of the first moment method implies a mass-loss rate of M = (1-3) x 10 to the -8th solar mass/yr. The high ionization of the wind lines and the presence of strong Fe VI and Fe V lines in the stellar photosphere support that this object is quite hot. A Teff of 75,000 + or - 10,000 K was adopted, although Tc = 94,000 K was found previously from low-resolution IUE data.

  20. THE MASSIVE AND DISTANT CLUSTERS OF WISE SURVEY. II. INITIAL SPECTROSCOPIC CONFIRMATION OF z ∼ 1 GALAXY CLUSTERS SELECTED FROM 10,000 deg{sup 2}

    SciTech Connect

    Stanford, S. A.; Gonzalez, Anthony H.; Gettings, Daniel P.; Brodwin, Mark; Eisenhardt, Peter R. M.; Stern, Daniel; Wylezalek, Dominika

    2014-08-01

    We present optical and infrared imaging and optical spectroscopy of galaxy clusters which were identified as part of an all-sky search for high-redshift galaxy clusters, the Massive and Distant Clusters of WISE Survey (MaDCoWS). The initial phase of MaDCoWS combined infrared data from the all-sky data release of the Wide-field Infrared Survey Explorer (WISE) with optical data from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey to select probable z ∼ 1 clusters of galaxies over an area of 10,000 deg{sup 2}. Our spectroscopy confirms 19 new clusters at 0.7 < z < 1.3, half of which are at z > 1, demonstrating the viability of using WISE to identify high-redshift galaxy clusters. The next phase of MaDCoWS will use the greater depth of the AllWISE data release to identify even higher redshift cluster candidates.

  1. Local heat/mass transfer distributions around sharp 180 deg turns in two-pass smooth and rib-roughened channels

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Han, J. C.; Chandra, P. R.; Lau, S. C.

    1988-01-01

    The napthalene sublimation technique was employed to study the detailed mass transfer distributions around the sharp 180 deg turns in a two-pass, square, smooth channel and in an identical channel with two rib-roughened opposite walls. Experiments conducted for Reynolds numbers of 15,000, 30,000, and 60,000 indicate that the Sherwood numbers on the top, outer, and inner walls around the turn in the rib-roughened channel are higher than the corresponding Sherwood numbers around the turn in the smooth channel. Sherwood numbers after the sharp turn are found to be higher than those before the turn for both the smooth and the ribbed channels.

  2. Terminal velocity of wind, mass loss, and absorption lines of the central star of the planetary nebula 75 + 35. 1 deg

    SciTech Connect

    Feibelman, W.A.; Bruhweiler, F.C. Catholic Univ. of America, Washington, DC )

    1989-12-01

    The high-galactic latitude planetary nebula 75 + 35.1 deg was observed in the high-dispersion mode of the International Ultraviolet Explorer (IUE) satellite in the wavelength range 1150-1950 A. The N V resonance doublet at 1240 A and O V subordinate line at 1371 A exhibit strong stellar P Cygni profiles with absorption extending to -2150 km/s and -1000 km/s, respectively. Application of the first moment method implies a mass-loss rate of M = (1-3) x 10 to the -8th solar mass/yr. The high ionization of the wind lines and the presence of strong Fe VI and Fe V lines in the stellar photosphere support that this object is quite hot. A Teff of 75,000 + or - 10,000 K was adopted, although Tc = 94,000 K was found previously from low-resolution IUE data. 18 refs.

  3. Terminal velocity of wind, mass loss, and absorption lines of the central star of the planetary nebula 75 + 35.1 deg

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Feibelman, Walter A.; Bruhweiler, Frederick C.

    1989-01-01

    The high-galactic latitude planetary nebula 75 + 35.1 deg was observed in the high-dispersion mode of the International Ultraviolet Explorer (IUE) satellite in the wavelength range 1150-1950 A. The N V resonance doublet at 1240 A and O V subordinate line at 1371 A exhibit strong stellar P Cygni profiles with absorption extending to -2150 km/s and -1000 km/s, respectively. Application of the first moment method implies a mass-loss rate of M = (1-3) x 10 to the -8th solar mass/yr. The high ionization of the wind lines and the presence of strong Fe VI and Fe V lines in the stellar photosphere support that this object is quite hot. A Teff of 75,000 + or - 10,000 K was adopted, although Tc = 94,000 K was found previously from low-resolution IUE data.

  4. A low speed wind tunnel investigation of Reynolds number effects on a 60-deg swept wing configuration with leading and trailing edge flaps

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rao, Dhanvada M.; Hoffler, Keith D.

    1988-01-01

    A low-speed wind tunnel test was performed to investigate Reynolds number effects on the aerodynamic characteristics of a supersonic cruise wing concept model with a 60-deg swept wing incorporating leading-edge and trailing-edge flap deflections. The Reynolds number ranged from 0.3 to 1.6 x 10 to the 6th, and corresponding Mach numbers from .05 to 0.3. The objective was to define a threshold Reynolds number above which the flap aerodynamics basically remained unchanged, and also to generate a data base useful for validating theoretical predictions for the Reynolds number effects on flap performance. This report documents the test procedures used and the basic data acquired in the investigation.

  5. A concept for transition mapping on a 10 deg-cone in the National Transonic Facility using flow-pressure variation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gartenberg, Ehud

    1995-01-01

    A conceptual study was performed to define a technique for mapping the boundary-layer transition on a 10 deg-Cone in the National Transonic Facility (NTF) as a means of determining this cryogenic-tunnel suitability for laminar flow testing. A major challenge was to devise a test matrix using a fixed surface pitot probe, varying the flow pressure to pr oduce the actual Reynolds numbers for boundary-layer transition. This constraint resulted from a lack of a suitable and reliable electrical motor to drive the probe along the cone's surface under cryogenic flow conditions. The initial phase of this research was performed by the author in collaboration with the late Dr. William B. Igoe from the Aerodynamics Division at NASA Langley Research Center. His comments made during the drafting of this document were invaluable and a source of inspiration.

  6. Experimental Surface Pressure Data Obtained on 65 deg Delta Wing Across Reynolds Number and Mach Number Ranges. Vol. 4: Large-radius leading edge

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chu, Julio; Luckring, James M.

    1996-01-01

    An experimental wind tunnel test of a 65 deg delta wing model with interchangeable leading edges was conducted in the Langley National Transonic Facility (NTF). The objective was to investigate the effects of Reynolds and Mach numbers on slender-wing leading-edge vortex flows with four values of wing leading-edge bluntness. Experimentally obtained pressure data are presented without analysis in tabulated and graphical formats across a Reynolds number range of 6 x 10(exp 6) to 120 x 10(exp 6) at a Mach number of 0.85 and across a Mach number range of 0.4 to 0.9 at Reynolds numbers of 6 x 10(exp 6) and 60 x 10(exp 6). Normal-force and pitching-moment coefficient plots for these Reynolds number and Mach number ranges are also presented.

  7. Experimental Surface Pressure Data Obtained on 65 deg Delta Wing Across Reynolds Number and Mach Number Ranges. Vol. 3: Medium-radius leading edge

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chu, Julio; Luckring, James M.

    1996-01-01

    An experimental wind tunnel test of a 65 deg delta wing model with interchangeable leading edges was conducted in the Langley National Transonic Facility (NTF). The objective was to investigate the effects of Reynolds and Mach numbers on slender-wing leading-edge vortex flows with four values of wing leading-edge bluntness. Experimentally obtained pressure data are presented without analysis in tabulated and graphical formats across a Reynolds number range of 6 x 10(exp 6) to 120 x 10(exp 6) at a Mach number of 0.85 and across a Mach number range of 0.4 to 0.9 at Reynolds numbers of 6 x 10(exp 6), 60 x 10(exp 6), and 120 x 10(exp 6). Normal-force and pitching-moment coefficient plots for these Reynolds number and Mach number ranges are also presented.

  8. Experimental Surface Pressure Data Obtained on 65 deg Delta Wing Across Reynolds Number and Mach Number Ranges. Volume 2; Small-Radius Leading Edge

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chu, Julio; Luckring, James M.

    1996-01-01

    An experimental wind tunnel test of a 65 deg. delta wing model with interchangeable leading edges was conducted in the Langley National Transonic Facility (NTF). The objective was to investigate the effects of Reynolds and Mach numbers on slender-wing leading-edge vortex flows with four values of wing leading-edge bluntness. Experimentally obtained pressure data are presented without analysis in tabulated and graphical formats across a Reynolds number range of 6 x 10(exp 6) to 84 x 10(exp 6) at a Mach number of 0.85 and across a Mach number range of 0.4 to 0.9 at Reynolds numbers of 6 x 10(exp 6) and 60 x 10(exp 6). Normal-force and pitching-moment coefficient plots for these Reynolds number and Mach number ranges are also presented.

  9. A detailed study of a 6 deg diameter field in Scutum. I - Data presentation and overall description of the interstellar matter distribution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reichen, M.; Lanz, T.; Golay, M.; Huguenin, D.

    1990-01-01

    Data on a detailed study of the absorption and interstellar matter distribution in the 6-deg diameter field centered on the star Epsilon Scutum, using frames from the SCAP-2000 UV survey, are presented. Ultraviolet magnitudes at 2000 A were obtained, and 322 stars were measured in the Geneva photometric system. In order to determine spectral types and confirm the distance determination, medium-resolution spectra were obtained for a small number of photometrically distant objects. An overall description of the distribution of interstellar material in the UV is made using star counting methods. Variations of the extinction law in different parts of the field are discussed. A new distance determination of the Sct OB2 association is proposed, and a list of additional probable members of the association is presented.

  10. Comparison of high energy gamma rays from absolute value of b greater than 30 deg with the galactic neutral hydrogen distribution

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ozel, M. E.; Ogelman, H.; Tumer, T.; Fichtel, C. E.; Hartman, R. C.; Kniffen, D. A.; Thompson, F. J.

    1978-01-01

    High-energy gamma-ray (energy above 35 MeV) data from the SAS 2 satellite have been used to compare the intensity distribution of gamma rays with that of neutral hydrogen (H I) density along the line of sight, at high galactic latitudes (absolute values greater than 30 deg). A model has been constructed for the case where the observed gamma-ray intensity has been assumed to be the sum of a galactic component proportional to the H I distribution plus an isotropic extragalactic emission. A chi-squared test of the model parameters indicates that about 30% of the total high-latitude emission may originate within the Galaxy.

  11. Static Testing of a Bridge Using an Interferometric Radar: The Case Study of “Ponte degli Alpini,” Belluno, Italy

    PubMed Central

    Pieraccini, Massimiliano

    2013-01-01

    Ground-based radar interferometry is an increasingly popular technique for monitoring civil infrastructures. In this paper, the static testing of a bridge is reported. It was an 8-span bridge, 297 m long, named “Ponte degli Alpini,” crossing the valley of the Ardo River. The radar has been used for testing a lateral span and a central span. The obtained results present elements of novelty not previously reported in the literature. In fact, some displacement measurements of the lateral span have been affected by a horizontal shift that has to be taken into account for a correct interpretation of the measured data. Furthermore, the measurements of the central span have been carried out with the radar positioned transversally with respect to the bridge deck; this unusual arrangement has allowed for obtaining displacement maps less geometrically distorted with respect to other cases reported in the literature. PMID:24222738

  12. Design and performance of a fixed, nonaccelerating, guide vane cascade that operates over an inlet flow angle range of 60 deg

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sanz, J. M.; Mcfarland, E. R.; Sanger, N. L.; Gelder, T. F.; Cavicchi, R. H.

    1984-01-01

    A unique set of wind tunnel guide vanes are designed with an inverse design code and analyzed with a panel method and an integral boundary layer code developed at the NASA Lewis Research Center. The fixed guide vanes, 80 feet long with 6-foot chord length, were designed for the NASA Ames 40 x 80/80 x 120 ft Wind Tunnel. Low subsonic flow is accepted over a 60 deg range of inlet angle from either the 40 x 80 leg or the 80 x 120 leg of the wind tunnel, and directed axially into the main leg of the tunnel where drive fans are located. Experimental tests of 1/10-scale models were conducted to verify design calculations.

  13. Wind tunnel investigation of a large-scale 25 deg swept-wing jet transport model with an external blowing triple-slotted flap

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Aoyagi, K.; Falarski, M. D.; Koenig, D. G.

    1973-01-01

    An investigation has been conducted to determine the aerodynamic characteristics of a large-scale subsonic jet transport model with an externally blown triple-slotted flap. The lift of the model was augmented by the turbofan engine exhaust impingement on the flap surface. The model had a 25 deg swept wing of aspect ratio 7.28 and four turbofan engines. The model was tested with two flap extents. One extended from 0.11 to 1.00 of the wing semispan, and the other extended from 0.11 to 0.75 of the wing semispan with a single-slotted aileron from 0.75 to 1.00 of the wing semispan. The results were obtained for several flap deflections with and without the horizontal tail at gross thrust coefficients from 0 to 4.0. Longitudinal and lateral data are presented with three and four engines operating.

  14. Investigation of real-gas and viscous effects on the aerodynamic characteristics of a 40 deg half-cone with suggested correlations for the shuttle orbiter

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hunt, J. L.; Jones, R. A.; Woods, W. C.

    1977-01-01

    Parameters were evaluated that might be used to correlate shuttle orbiter aerodynamic data to be used in extrapolating from wind-tunnel to flight conditions. Preliminary calculations indicate that the lee-side forces will have an insignificant influence on the aerodynamic characteristics of the orbiter for moderate angle-of-attack entries; therefore, this work is focused on phenomena which have an overriding influence on windward forces, namely, real-gas (equilibrium and nonequilibrium) and viscous-interaction effects. Analytically determined flow fields previously obtained on 40 deg blunted cones were used as a data source to evaluate various correlation parameters. Inviscid effects were found to be the dominant contributor to the aerodynamic coefficients in the altitude range of 64 to 76.2 km. The most suitable correlation of the aerodynamic forces on these cones is based on local dynamic pressure and local Mach number.

  15. Low-speed aerodynamic characteristics of a model having a 42 deg swept low wing with a supercritical airfoil, double-slotted flaps, and a T-tail

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fournier, P. G.; Sleeman, W. C., Jr.

    1972-01-01

    A low speed wind tunnel test was conducted in the Langley V/STOL tunnel to determine the static longitudinal and lateral stability characteristics of a general research model which simulated an advance configuration for a commercial transport airplane with a T tail. The model had a 42 deg swept, aspect ratio 6.78 wing with a supercritical airfoil and a high lift system which consisted of a leading edge slat and a double slotted flap. Various slat and flap deflection combinations represented clean, take off, and landing configurations. Effects on the longitudinal and lateral aerodynamic characteristics were determined for two flow through, simulated engine nacelles located on the sides of the fuselage near the rear of the model.

  16. Flow-field surveys on the windward side of the NASA 040A space shuttle orbiter at 31 deg angle of attack and Mach 20 in helium

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ashby, G. C., Jr.; Helms, V. T., III

    1977-01-01

    Pitot pressure and flow angle distributions in the windward flow field of the NASA 040A space shuttle orbiter configuration and surface pressures were measured, at a Mach number of 20 and an angle of attack of 31 deg. The free stream Reynolds number, based on model length, was 5.39 x 10 to the 6th power. Results show that cores of high pitot pressure, which are related to the body-shock-wing-shock intersections, occur on the windward plane of symmetry in the vicinity of the wing-body junction and near midspan on the wing. Theoretical estimates of the flow field pitot pressures show that conical flow values for the windward plane of symmetry surface are representative of the average level over the entire lower surface.

  17. Free-Flight Skin Temperature and Pressure Measurements on a Slightly Blunted 25 Deg Cone-Cylinder-Flare Configuration to a Mach Number of 9.89

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bond, Aleck C.; Rumsey, Charles B.

    1957-01-01

    Skin temperatures and surface pressures have been measured on a slightly blunted cone-cylinder-flare configuration to a maximum Mach number of 9.89 with a rocket-propelled model. The cone had a t o t a l angle of 25 deg and the flare had a 10 deg half-angle. Temperature data were obtained at eight cone locations, four cylinder locations, and seven flare locations; pressures were measured at one cone location, one cylinder location, and three flare locations. Four stages of propulsion were utilized and a reentry type of trajectory was employed in which the high-speed portion of flight was obtained by firing the last two stages during the descent of the model from a peak altitude of 99,400 feet. The Reynolds number at peak Mach number was 1.2 x 10(exp 6) per foot of model length. The model length was 6.68 feet. During the higher speed portions of flight, temperature measurements along one element of the nose cone indicated that the boundary layer was probably laminar, whereas on the opposite side of the nose the measurements indicated transitional or turbulent flow. Temperature distributions along one meridian of the model showed the flare to have the highest temperatures and the cylinder generally to have the lowest. A maximum temperature of 970 F was measured on the cone element showing the transitional or turbulent flow; along the opposite side of the model, the maximum temperatures of the cone, cylinder, and flare were 545 F, 340 F, and 680 F, respectively, at the corresponding time.

  18. The Sloan Digital Sky Survey Stripe 82 Imaging Data: Depth-Optimized Co-adds Over 300 deg$^2$ in Five Filters

    SciTech Connect

    Jiang, Linhua; Fan, Xiaohui; Bian, Fuyan; McGreer, Ian D.; Strauss, Michael A.; Annis, James; Buck, Zoë; Green, Richard; Hodge, Jacqueline A.; Myers, Adam D.; Rafiee, Alireza; Richards, Gordon

    2014-06-25

    We present and release co-added images of the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS) Stripe 82. Stripe 82 covers an area of ~300 deg(2) on the celestial equator, and has been repeatedly scanned 70-90 times in the ugriz bands by the SDSS imaging survey. By making use of all available data in the SDSS archive, our co-added images are optimized for depth. Input single-epoch frames were properly processed and weighted based on seeing, sky transparency, and background noise before co-addition. The resultant products are co-added science images and their associated weight images that record relative weights at individual pixels. The depths of the co-adds, measured as the 5σ detection limits of the aperture (3.''2 diameter) magnitudes for point sources, are roughly 23.9, 25.1, 24.6, 24.1, and 22.8 AB magnitudes in the five bands, respectively. They are 1.9-2.2 mag deeper than the best SDSS single-epoch data. The co-added images have good image quality, with an average point-spread function FWHM of ~1'' in the r, i, and z bands. We also release object catalogs that were made with SExtractor. These co-added products have many potential uses for studies of galaxies, quasars, and Galactic structure. We further present and release near-IR J-band images that cover ~90 deg(2) of Stripe 82. These images were obtained using the NEWFIRM camera on the NOAO 4 m Mayall telescope, and have a depth of about 20.0-20.5 Vega magnitudes (also 5σ detection limits for point sources).

  19. The Prevalence of Renal Failure. Results from the German Health Interview and Examination Survey for Adults, 2008-2011 (DEGS1).

    PubMed

    Girndt, Matthias; Trocchi, Pietro; Scheidt-Nave, Christa; Markau, Silke; Stang, Andreas

    2016-02-12

    The prevalence of non-end stage renal failure among adults in Germany is unknown. Accurate figures would enable us to estimate the overall need for kidney replacement therapies and the unexploited potential for disease prevention. Renal failure is also an important cardiovascular risk factor. Until now, American prevalence figures have often been applied to Germany despite dissimilarities between the two populations. We analyzed data on renal function from the nationwide German Health Interview and Examination Survey for Adults, 2008-2011 (DEGS1), which was carried out by the Robert Koch Institute. The glomerular filtration rate was estimated (eGFR) from the serum creatinine and cystatin C levels (CKD-EPI formula) and a semiquantitative measure of albuminuria. Relationships between renal failure and its possible determinants were quantified with adjusted prevalence ratios (PR) and 95% confidence intervals (95% CI). Roughly 2.3% (95% CI: [1.9; 2.6 ]) of persons aged 18-79 had an eGFR below 60 mL/min/1.73 m2. The prevalence rose with age. We extrapolated these figures conservatively to persons aged 80 and above, who were not included in the DEGS1, and arrived at a figure of at least 2 million persons in Germany with renal failure. 11.5% of the population have albuminuria of at least 30 mg/L. Diabetes mellitus (PR = 2.25, 95% CI: [1.59; 3.16]) and arterial hypertension (PR = 3.46, 95% CI: [1.95; 6.12]) are important determinants. This study provides the first representative estimate of the prevalence of renal failure in Germany. The condition is highly dependent on age but less prevalent than previously assumed on the basis of American prevalence figures.

  20. [Mental disorders in the general population : Study on the health of adults in Germany and the additional module mental health (DEGS1-MH)].

    PubMed

    Jacobi, F; Höfler, M; Strehle, J; Mack, S; Gerschler, A; Scholl, L; Busch, M A; Maske, U; Hapke, U; Gaebel, W; Maier, W; Wagner, M; Zielasek, J; Wittchen, H-U

    2014-01-01

    The German health interview and examination survey for adults (DEGS1) with the mental health module (DEGS1-MH) is the successor to the last survey of mental disorders in the general German population 15 years ago (GHS-MHS). This paper reports the basic findings on the 12-month prevalence of mental disorders, associated disabilities and self-reported healthcare utilization. A representative national cohort (age range 18-79 years, n = 5,317) was selected and individuals were personally examined (87.5 % face to face and 12.5 % via telephone) by a comprehensive clinical interview using the composite international diagnostic interview (CIDI) questionnaire. The overall 12-month prevalence of mental disorders was 27.7 % with substantial differences between subgroups (e.g. sex, age, socioeconomic status). Mental disorders were found to be particularly impairing (elevated number of disability days). Less than 50 % of those affected reported to be in contact with health services due to mental health problems within the last 12 months (range 10-40 % depending on the number of diagnoses). Mental disorders were found to be commonplace with a prevalence level comparable to that found in the 1998 predecessor study but several further adjustments will have to be made for a sound methodological comparison between the studies. Apart from individual distress, elevated self-reported disability indicated a high societal disease burden of mental disorders (also in comparison with many somatic diseases). Despite a relatively comprehensive and well developed mental healthcare system in Germany there are still optimisation needs for treatment rates.

  1. THE ALLEN TELESCOPE ARRAY TWENTY-CENTIMETER SURVEY-A 690 DEG{sup 2}, 12 EPOCH RADIO DATA SET. I. CATALOG AND LONG-DURATION TRANSIENT STATISTICS

    SciTech Connect

    Croft, Steve; Bower, Geoffrey C.; Backer, Don; Bauermeister, Amber; Blitz, Leo; Bock, Douglas; Cheng, Calvin; Dexter, Matt; Engargiola, Greg; Fields, Ed; Ackermann, Rob; Atkinson, Shannon; Backus, Peter; Bradford, Tucker; Davis, Mike; Dreher, John; Barott, William C.; Cork, Chris; Fleming, Matt; DeBoer, Dave

    2010-08-10

    We present the Allen Telescope Array Twenty-centimeter Survey (ATATS), a multi-epoch (12 visits), 690 deg{sup 2} radio image and catalog at 1.4 GHz. The survey is designed to detect rare, very bright transients as well as to verify the capabilities of the ATA to form large mosaics. The combined image using data from all 12 ATATS epochs has rms noise {sigma} = 3.94 mJy beam{sup -1} and dynamic range 180, with a circular beam of 150'' FWHM. It contains 4408 sources to a limiting sensitivity of 5{sigma} = 20 mJy beam{sup -1}. We compare the catalog generated from this 12 epoch combined image to the NRAO VLA Sky Survey (NVSS), a legacy survey at the same frequency, and find that we can measure source positions to better than {approx}20''. For sources above the ATATS completeness limit, the median flux density is 97% of the median value for matched NVSS sources, indicative of an accurate overall flux calibration. We examine the effects of source confusion due to the effects of differing resolution between ATATS and NVSS on our ability to compare flux densities. We detect no transients at flux densities greater than 40 mJy in comparison with NVSS and place a 2{sigma} upper limit of 0.004 deg{sup -2} on the transient rate for such sources. These results suggest that the {approx}>1 Jy transients reported by Matsumara et al. may not be true transients, but rather variable sources at their flux density threshold.

  2. Annealing behavior between room temperature and 2000 deg. C of deep level defects in electron-irradiated n-type 4H silicon carbide

    SciTech Connect

    Alfieri, G.; Monakhov, E.V.; Svensson, B.G.; Linnarsson, M.K.

    2005-08-15

    The annealing behavior of irradiation-induced defects in 4H-SiC epitaxial layers grown by chemical-vapor deposition has been systematically studied by means of deep level transient spectroscopy (DLTS). The nitrogen-doped epitaxial layers have been irradiated with 15-MeV electrons at room temperature and an isochronal annealing series from 100 to 2000 deg. C has been performed. The DLTS measurements, which have been carried out in the temperature range from 120 to 630 K after each annealing step, revealed the presence of six electron traps located in the energy range of 0.45-1.6 eV below the conduction-band edge (E{sub c}). The most prominent and stable ones occur at E{sub c}-0.70 eV (labeled Z{sub 1/2}) and E{sub c}-1.60 eV(EH{sub 6/7}). After exhibiting a multistage annealing process over a wide temperature range, presumably caused by reactions with migrating defects, a significant fraction of both Z{sub 1/2} and EH{sub 6/7} (25%) still persists at 2000 deg. C and activation energies for dissociation in excess of 8 and {approx}7.5 eV are estimated for Z{sub 1/2} and EH{sub 6/7}, respectively. On the basis of these results, the identity of Z{sub 1/2} and EH{sub 6/7} is discussed and related to previous assignments in the literature.

  3. THE SLOAN DIGITAL SKY SURVEY STRIPE 82 IMAGING DATA: DEPTH-OPTIMIZED CO-ADDS OVER 300 deg{sup 2} IN FIVE FILTERS

    SciTech Connect

    Jiang, Linhua; Fan, Xiaohui; McGreer, Ian D.; Green, Richard; Bian, Fuyan; Strauss, Michael A.; Buck, Zoë; Annis, James; Hodge, Jacqueline A.; Myers, Adam D.; Rafiee, Alireza; Richards, Gordon

    2014-07-01

    We present and release co-added images of the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS) Stripe 82. Stripe 82 covers an area of ∼300 deg{sup 2} on the celestial equator, and has been repeatedly scanned 70-90 times in the ugriz bands by the SDSS imaging survey. By making use of all available data in the SDSS archive, our co-added images are optimized for depth. Input single-epoch frames were properly processed and weighted based on seeing, sky transparency, and background noise before co-addition. The resultant products are co-added science images and their associated weight images that record relative weights at individual pixels. The depths of the co-adds, measured as the 5σ detection limits of the aperture (3.''2 diameter) magnitudes for point sources, are roughly 23.9, 25.1, 24.6, 24.1, and 22.8 AB magnitudes in the five bands, respectively. They are 1.9-2.2 mag deeper than the best SDSS single-epoch data. The co-added images have good image quality, with an average point-spread function FWHM of ∼1'' in the r, i, and z bands. We also release object catalogs that were made with SExtractor. These co-added products have many potential uses for studies of galaxies, quasars, and Galactic structure. We further present and release near-IR J-band images that cover ∼90 deg{sup 2} of Stripe 82. These images were obtained using the NEWFIRM camera on the NOAO 4 m Mayall telescope, and have a depth of about 20.0-20.5 Vega magnitudes (also 5σ detection limits for point sources)

  4. Sampling Elysium lavas (13 deg N, 203 deg W)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Allen, Carlton C.

    1994-01-01

    The proposed Pathfinder landing site presents the opportunity to determine chemical and mineralogical compositions of an Elysium lava flow. The flow is part of a geologic unit of planetary significance. The proposed site appears suitable for landing, and lava surfaces should be accessible to the Pathfinder instruments. By analogy to terrestrial flood basalts, any lava analyzed by Pathfinder is likely to be representative of the entire Elysium province.

  5. TRMM .25 deg x .25 deg Gridded Precipitation Text Product

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stocker, Erich; Kelley, Owen

    2009-01-01

    Since the launch of the Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM), the Precipitation Measurement Missions science team has endeavored to provide TRMM precipitation retrievals in a variety of formats that are more easily usable by the broad science community than the standard Hierarchical Data Format (HDF) in which TRMM data is produced and archived. At the request of users, the Precipitation Processing System (PPS) has developed a .25 x .25 gridded product in an easily used ASCII text format. The entire TRMM mission data has been made available in this format. The paper provides the details of this new precipitation product that is designated with the TRMM designator 3G68.25. The format is packaged into daily files. It provides hourly precipitation information from the TRMM microwave imager (TMI), precipitation radar (PR), and TMI/PR combined rain retrievals. A major advantage of this approach is the inclusion only of rain data, compression when a particular grid has no rain from the PR or combined, and its direct ASCII text format. For those interested only in rain retrievals and whether rain is convection or stratiform, these products provide a huge reduction in the data volume inherent in the standard TRMM products. This paper provides examples of the 3G68 data products and their uses. It also provides information about C tools that can be used to aggregate daily files into larger time samples. In addition, it describes the possibilities inherent in the spatial sampling which allows resampling into coarser spatial sampling. The paper concludes with information about downloading the gridded text data products.

  6. COSMOLOGICAL CONSTRAINTS FROM SUNYAEV-ZEL'DOVICH-SELECTED CLUSTERS WITH X-RAY OBSERVATIONS IN THE FIRST 178 deg{sup 2} OF THE SOUTH POLE TELESCOPE SURVEY

    SciTech Connect

    Benson, B. A.; Bleem, L. E.; Carlstrom, J. E.; Chang, C. L.; Crawford, T. M.; Crites, A. T.; De Haan, T.; Dudley, J. P.; Reichardt, C. L.; Aird, K. A.; Andersson, K.; Bazin, G.; Desai, S.; Armstrong, R.; Ashby, M. L. N.; Bautz, M.; Bayliss, M.; Brodwin, M.; Cho, H. M.; Clocchiatti, A.; and others

    2013-02-15

    We use measurements from the South Pole Telescope (SPT) Sunyaev-Zel'dovich (SZ) cluster survey in combination with X-ray measurements to constrain cosmological parameters. We present a statistical method that fits for the scaling relations of the SZ and X-ray cluster observables with mass while jointly fitting for cosmology. The method is generalizable to multiple cluster observables, and self-consistently accounts for the effects of the cluster selection and uncertainties in cluster mass calibration on the derived cosmological constraints. We apply this method to a data set consisting of an SZ-selected catalog of 18 galaxy clusters at z > 0.3 from the first 178 deg{sup 2} of the 2500 deg{sup 2} SPT-SZ survey, with 14 clusters having X-ray observations from either Chandra or XMM-Newton. Assuming a spatially flat {Lambda}CDM cosmological model, we find the SPT cluster sample constrains {sigma}{sub 8}({Omega} {sub m}/0.25){sup 0.30} = 0.785 {+-} 0.037. In combination with measurements of the cosmic microwave background (CMB) power spectrum from the SPT and the seven-year Wilkinson Microwave Anisotropy Probe data, the SPT cluster sample constrains {sigma}{sub 8} = 0.795 {+-} 0.016 and {Omega} {sub m} = 0.255 {+-} 0.016, a factor of 1.5 improvement on each parameter over the CMB data alone. We consider several extensions beyond the {Lambda}CDM model by including the following as free parameters: the dark energy equation of state (w), the sum of the neutrino masses ({Sigma}m {sub {nu}}), the effective number of relativistic species (N {sub eff}), and a primordial non-Gaussianity (f {sub NL}). We find that adding the SPT cluster data significantly improves the constraints on w and {Sigma}m {sub {nu}} beyond those found when using measurements of the CMB, supernovae, baryon acoustic oscillations, and the Hubble constant. Considering each extension independently, we best constrain w = -0.973 {+-} 0.063 and the sum of neutrino masses {Sigma}m {sub {nu}} < 0.28 eV at 95

  7. The XMM-BCS galaxy cluster survey: I. The X-ray selected cluster catalog from the initial 6 deg$^2$

    SciTech Connect

    Suhada, R.; Song, J.; Bohringer, H.; Mohr, J.J.; Chon, G.; Finoguenov, A.; Fassbender, R.; Desai, S.; Armstrong, R.; Zenteno, A.; Barkhouse, W.A.; /North Dakota U. /Paris, Inst. Astrophys.

    2011-11-01

    The XMM-Newton - Blanco Cosmology Survey project (XMM-BCS) is a coordinated X-ray, optical and mid-infrared cluster survey in a field also covered by Sunyaev-Zel dovich effect (SZE) surveys by the South Pole Telescope and the Atacama Cosmology Telescope. The aim of the project is to study the cluster population in a 14 deg{sup 2} field (center: {alpha} {approx} 23:29:18.4, {delta} {approx} -54:40:33.6). The uniform multi-wavelength coverage will also allow us for the first time to comprehensively compare the selection function of the different cluster detection approaches in a single test field and perform a cross-calibration of cluster scaling relations. In this work, we present a catalog of 46 X-ray selected clusters from the initial 6 deg{sup 2} survey core.We describe the XMM-BCS source detection pipeline and derive physical properties of the clusters. We provide photometric redshift estimates derived from the BCS imaging data and spectroscopic redshift measurements for a low redshift subset of the clusters. The photometric redshift estimates are found to be unbiased and in good agreement with the spectroscopic values. Our multi-wavelength approach gives us a comprehensive look at the cluster and group population up to redshifts z {approx} 1. The median redshift of the sample is 0.47 and the median mass M{sub 500} {approx} 1 x 10{sup 14} M{sub {circle_dot}} ({approx} 2 keV). From the sample, we derive the cluster log N - log S using an approximation to the survey selection function and find it in good agreement with previous studies. We compare optical mass estimates from the Southern Cosmology Survey available for part of our cluster sample with our estimates derived from the X-ray luminosity. Weak lensing masses available for a subset of the cluster sample are in agreement with our estimates. Optical masses based on cluster richness and total optical luminosity are found to be significantly higher than the X-ray values. The present results illustrate the

  8. Time-series Deployment of Chemical Sensor Data-logger in a Riftia Patch at Tica Vent (EPR 9\\deg50'N)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ding, K.; Seyfried, W. E.; Zhang, Z.; Yang, C.; Foustoukos, D.

    2004-12-01

    An in-situ chemical sensor array was deployed in a Riftia pachyptila patch at Tica diffuse flow vent area during a recent submersible investigation with Atlantis/Alvin (At-11-7) to the EPR 9\\deg50'N region. Chemical and temperature data were recorded continuously during the 13-day study to quantify short-term time series trends. Biological activity at Tica is unusually robust, which likely relates to a combination of chemical and physical factors in the vent ecosystem. The electrochemical array in the sensor unit consisted of pH, dissolved H2 and H2S electrodes, which made use of Ir, Pt and Ag base metal components respectively. The sensor measurements were referenced to dissolved Cl in the fluid using a junctioned Ag/AgCl electrode. A Ti sheathed E-type thermocouple was included to provide simultaneous temperature data. Moreover, the sensor array was coupled to a data-logging system through a high pressure conducting cable, which allowed continuous data scanning and recording at an interval of 5 seconds. Owing to the functionality of the inductively coupled communication link (ICL) between the sensor and the data logger, we were able to use real time temperature readings in the submersible to guide deployment. The warmest temperatures were observed at the fractured rock base of the tubeworm colony, which is where the sensor package was deployed. Temperature, however, varied systematically from approximately 10 to 20\\deg C throughout the 13-day experiment. Chemical data were generally in phase with temperature with the more extreme departures from ambient conditions associated with temperature maxima. In general, the lowest pH values were approximately 0.5 units less than ambient seawater, while dissolved H2S concentrations ranged from 10 and 100 μ mol/kg. The mean value of dissolved H2S was in the range of 20-30 μ mol/kg in excellent agreement with that actually measured using conventional approaches. Dissolved H2 concentrations, in contrast, were orders of

  9. Upper Ocean Meso-Submesoscale Eddy Variability in the Northwestern Pacific from Repeat ADCP Measurements and 1/48-deg MITgcm Simulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qiu, B.; Nakano, T.; Chen, S.; Wang, J.; Fu, L. L.; Klein, P.

    2016-12-01

    With the use of Ka-band radar interferometry, the Surface Water and Ocean Topography (SWOT) satellite will improve the measured sea surface height (SSH) resolution down to the spectral wavelength of 15km, allowing us to investigate for the first time the upper oceancirculation variability at the submesoscale range on the global scale. By analyzing repeat shipboardAcoustic Doppler Current Profiler (ADCP) measurements along 137°E, as well as the 1/48-deg MITgcm simulation output, in the northwest Pacific, we demonstrate that the observed/modeled upper ocean velocities are comprised of balanced geostrophic motions and unbalanced ageostrophic wave motions. The length scale, Lc, that separates the dominance between these two types of motions is found to depend sensitively on the energy level of local mesoscale eddy variability. In the eddy-abundant western boundary current region of Kuroshio, Lc can be shorter than 15km, whereas Lc exceeds 200km along the path of relatively stable North Equatorial Current. Judicious separation between the balanced and unbalanced surface ocean signals will both be a challenge and opportunity for the SWOT mission.

  10. Stellar density distribution in the NIR on the Galactic plane at longitudes 15-27 deg. Clues for the Galactic bar?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Picaud, S.; Cabrera-Lavers, A.; Garzón, F.

    2003-09-01

    Garzón et al. (\\cite{Garzon97}), López-Corredoira et al. (\\cite{Lopez99}) and Hammersley et al. (\\cite{Hammersley00}) have identified in TMGS and DENIS data a large excess of stars at l=27deg and b=0o which might correspond to an in-plane bar. We compared near infrared CAIN star counts and simulations from the Besançon Model of Galaxy on 15 fields between 15o and 45o in longitude and -2o and 2o in latitude. Comparisons confirm the existence of an overdensity at longitudes lower than 27o which is inhomogeneous and decreases very steeply off the Galactic plane. The observed excess in the star distribution over the predicted density is even higher than 100%. Its distance from the sun is estimated to be lower than 6 kpc. If this overdensity corresponds to the stellar population of the bar, we estimate its half-length to 3.9+/-0.4 kpc and its angle from the Sun-center direction to 45+/-9 degrees.

  11. A computer program for calculating the perfect gas inviscid flow field about blunt axisymmetric bodies at an angle of attack of 0 deg

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zoby, E. V.; Graves, R. A., Jr.

    1973-01-01

    A method for the rapid calculation of the inviscid shock layer about blunt axisymmetric bodies at an angle of attack of 0 deg has been developed. The procedure is of an inverse nature, that is, a shock wave is assumed and calculations proceed along rays normal to the shock. The solution is iterated until the given body is computed. The flow field solution procedure is programed at the Langley Research Center for the Control Data 6600 computer. The geometries specified in the program are sphores, ellipsoids, paraboloids, and hyperboloids which may conical afterbodies. The normal momentum equation is replaced with an approximate algebraic expression. This simplification significantly reduces machine computation time. Comparisons of the present results with shock shapes and surface pressure distributions obtained by the more exact methods indicate that the program provides reasonably accurate results for smooth bodies in axisymmetric flow. However, further research is required to establish the proper approximate form of the normal momentum equation for the two-dimensional case.

  12. Detection of 14 MeV neutrons in high temperature environment up to 500 deg. C using 4H-SiC based diode detector

    SciTech Connect

    Szalkai, D.; Klix, A.; Ferone, R.; Issa, F.; Ottaviani, L.; Vervisch, V.; Gehre, D.; Lyoussi, A.

    2015-07-01

    In reactor technology and industrial applications detection of fast and thermal neutrons plays a crucial role in getting relevant information about the reactor environment and neutron yield. The inevitable elevated temperatures make neutron yield measurements problematic. Out of the currently available semiconductors 4H-SiC seems to be the most suitable neutron detector material under extreme conditions due to its high heat and radiation resistance, large band-gap and lower cost of production than in case of competing diamond detectors. In the framework of the European I-Smart project, optimal {sup 4}H-SiC diode geometries were developed for high temperature neutron detection and have been tested with 14 MeV fast neutrons supplied by a deuterium-tritium neutron generator with an average neutron flux of 10{sup 10}-10{sup 11} n/(s*cm{sup 2}) at Neutron Laboratory of the Technical University of Dresden in Germany from room temperatures up to several hundred degrees Celsius. Based on the results of the diode measurements, detector geometries appear to play a crucial role for high temperature measurements up to 500 deg. C. Experimental set-ups using SiC detectors were constructed to simulate operation in the harsh environmental conditions found in the tritium breeding blanket of the ITER fusion reactor, which is planned to be the location of neutron flux characterization measurements in the near future. (authors)

  13. The Sloan Digital Sky Survey COADD: 275 deg{sup 2} of deep Sloan Digital Sky Survey imaging on stripe 82

    SciTech Connect

    Annis, James; Soares-Santos, Marcelle; Dodelson, Scott; Hao, Jiangang; Jester, Sebastian; Johnston, David E.; Kubo, Jeffrey M.; Lampeitl, Hubert; Lin, Huan; Miknaitis, Gajus; Yanny, Brian; Strauss, Michael A.; Gunn, James E.; Lupton, Robert H.; Becker, Andrew C.; Ivezić, Željko; Fan, Xiaohui; Jiang, Linhua; Seo, Hee-Jong; Simet, Melanie

    2014-10-20

    We present details of the construction and characterization of the coaddition of the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS) Stripe 82 ugriz imaging data. This survey consists of 275 deg{sup 2} of repeated scanning by the SDSS camera over –50° ≤ α ≤ 60° and –1.°25 ≤ δ ≤ +1.°25 centered on the Celestial Equator. Each piece of sky has ∼20 runs contributing and thus reaches ∼2 mag fainter than the SDSS single pass data, i.e., to r ∼ 23.5 for galaxies. We discuss the image processing of the coaddition, the modeling of the point-spread function (PSF), the calibration, and the production of standard SDSS catalogs. The data have an r-band median seeing of 1.''1 and are calibrated to ≤1%. Star color-color, number counts, and PSF size versus modeled size plots show that the modeling of the PSF is good enough for precision five-band photometry. Structure in the PSF model versus magnitude plot indicates minor PSF modeling errors, leading to misclassification of stars as galaxies, as verified using VVDS spectroscopy. There are a variety of uses for this wide-angle deep imaging data, including galactic structure, photometric redshift computation, cluster finding and cross wavelength measurements, weak lensing cluster mass calibrations, and cosmic shear measurements.

  14. Gas-jet and tangent-slot film cooling tests of a 12.5 deg cone at Mach number of 6.7

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nowak, Robert J.

    1988-01-01

    Tests were conducted in the Langley 8-Foot High Temperature Tunnel to determine the aerothermal effects of gaseous nitrogen-coolant ejection on a 3-ft base-diameter, 12.5 degree half-angle cone. Free-stream Mach number, total temperature, and unit Reynolds number per foot were 6.7, 3300 deg R, and 1.4 million, respectively. Two coolant ejection noses were tested, an ogive frustum with a forward-facing 0.8-in radius gas-jet tip, and a 3-in radius hemisphere with a 0.243-in high rearward-facing tangent slot. Data include surface pressures and heating rates, shock shapes, and shock-layer profiles; results are compared with no-cooling data obtained with 1-in and 3-in radius solid noses. Surface pressures were reduced with gas-jet ejection but were affected little by tangent-slot ejection. For both gas-jet and tangent-slot ejection, high coolant flow rates reduced heating even far downstream from the region of ejection; however, low coolant rates caused transition to turbulence and increased heating. Shock-layer profiles of pitot pressure, Mach number, and total temperature were reduced for both gas-jet and tangent-slot ejection. Insight into the gas-jet heat-flux mechanisms was obtained by using shock-layer rake data and established, no-cooling, heat-transfer equations.

  15. Flight Measurements of Horizontal-Tail Loads on the Bell X-5 Research Airplane at a Sweep Angle of 58.7 Deg

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Reed, Robert D

    1955-01-01

    A flight investigation was made at altitudes of 40,000, 25,000 and 15,000 feet to determine the horizontal-tail loads of the Bell X-5 research airplane at a sweep angle of 58.7 deg over the lift range of the airplane for Mach numbers from 0.61 to 1.00. The horizontal-tail loads were found to be nonlinear with lift throughout the lift ranges tested at all Mach numbers except at a Mach number of 1.00. The balancing tail loads reflected the changes which occur in the wing characteristics with increasing angle of attack. The nonlinearities were, in general, more pronounced at the higher angles of attack near the pitch-up where the balancing tail loads indicate that the wing-fuselage combination becomes unstable. No apparent effects of altitude on the balancing tail loads were evident over the comparable lift ranges of these tests at altitudes from 40,000 feet to 15,000 feet. Comparisons of balancing tail loads obtained from flight and windtunnel tests indicated discrepancies in absolute magnitudes, but the general trends of the data agree. Some differences in absolute magnitude may be accounted for by the tail load carried inboard of the strain-gage station and the load induced on the fuselage by the presence of the tail. These loads were not measured in flight.

  16. The HtrA/DegP family protease MamE is a bifunctional protein with roles in magnetosome protein localization and magnetite biomineralization

    PubMed Central

    Quinlan, Anna; Murat, Dorothée; Vali, Hojatollah; Komeili, Arash

    2011-01-01

    Summary Magnetotactic bacteria contain nanometer-sized, membrane-bound organelles, called magnetosomes, which are tasked with the biomineralization of small crystals of the iron oxide magnetite allowing the organism to use geomagnetic field lines for navigation. A key player in this process is the HtrA/DegP family protease MamE. In its absence, Magnetospirillum magneticum str AMB-1 is able to form magnetosome membranes but not magnetite crystals, a defect previously linked to the mislocalization of magnetosome proteins. In this work we use a directed genetic approach to find that MamE, and another predicted magnetosome-associated protease, MamO, likely function as proteases in vivo. However, as opposed to the complete loss of mamE where no biomineralization is observed, the protease-deficient variant of this protein still supports the initiation and formation of small, 20 nm-sized crystals of magnetite, too small to hold a permanent magnetic dipole moment. This analysis also reveals that MamE is a bifunctional protein with a protease-independent role in magnetosome protein localization and a protease-dependent role in maturation of small magnetite crystals. Together these results imply the existence of a previously unrecognized “checkpoint” in biomineralization where MamE moderates the completion of magnetite formation and thus committal to magneto-aerotaxis as the organism’s dominant mode of navigating the environment. PMID:21414040

  17. [Epidemiology of hepatitis A, B, and C among adults in Germany: results of the German Health Interview and Examination Survey for Adults (DEGS1)].

    PubMed

    Poethko-Müller, C; Zimmermann, R; Hamouda, O; Faber, M; Stark, K; Ross, R S; Thamm, M

    2013-05-01

    Ten years after seroepidemiological data were obtained in the German National Health Interview and Examination Survey 1998 (GNHIES98), German Health Interview and Examination Survey (DEGS1) data contribute to a population-based, representative surveillance of hepatitis A and B immunity and of the serological markers for hepatitis C in Germany. The prevalence of antibodies against the hepatitis A virus is 48.6 %. In comparison to the situation 10 years ago, seroprevalence is significantly higher among 18- to 39-year-old adults and is significantly lower in those aged 50-79 years. The association between age and seroprevalence has changed, indicating a decrease in naturally acquired hepatitis A immunity. Individual and population immunity has to be achieved through vaccination. Prevalence of hepatitis B antibodies indicates that 5.1 % of adults have been exposed to the virus, significantly fewer than 10 years ago (7.9 %). Prevalence of hepatitis B surface antibodies indicates that 22.9 % of adults have been vaccinated against hepatitis B. Vaccination coverage has increased in all age groups and is highest in the younger age groups. These positive trends can be attributed to the general recommendation since 1995 to vaccinate against hepatitis B. For hepatitis C, the prevalence of antibodies in the general population is 0.3 %. Germany thus remains a low-HCV-endemic country. An English full-text version of this article is available at SpringerLink as supplemental.

  18. Analysis of the Link between the Redox State and Enzymatic Activity of the HtrA (DegP) Protein from Escherichia coli

    PubMed Central

    Koper, Tomasz; Polit, Agnieszka; Sobiecka-Szkatula, Anna; Wegrzyn, Katarzyna; Scire, Andrea; Figaj, Donata; Kadzinski, Leszek; Zarzecka, Urszula; Zurawa-Janicka, Dorota; Banecki, Bogdan; Lesner, Adam; Tanfani, Fabio; Lipinska, Barbara; Skorko-Glonek, Joanna

    2015-01-01

    Bacterial HtrAs are proteases engaged in extracytoplasmic activities during stressful conditions and pathogenesis. A model prokaryotic HtrA (HtrA/DegP from Escherichia coli) requires activation to cleave its substrates efficiently. In the inactive state of the enzyme, one of the regulatory loops, termed LA, forms inhibitory contacts in the area of the active center. Reduction of the disulfide bond located in the middle of LA stimulates HtrA activity in vivo suggesting that this S-S bond may play a regulatory role, although the mechanism of this stimulation is not known. Here, we show that HtrA lacking an S-S bridge cleaved a model peptide substrate more efficiently and exhibited a higher affinity for a protein substrate. An LA loop lacking the disulfide was more exposed to the solvent; hence, at least some of the interactions involving this loop must have been disturbed. The protein without S-S bonds demonstrated lower thermal stability and was more easily converted to a dodecameric active oligomeric form. Thus, the lack of the disulfide within LA affected the stability and the overall structure of the HtrA molecule. In this study, we have also demonstrated that in vitro human thioredoxin 1 is able to reduce HtrA; thus, reduction of HtrA can be performed enzymatically. PMID:25710793

  19. The LD loop as an important structural element required for transmission of the allosteric signal in the HtrA (DegP) protease from Escherichia coli.

    PubMed

    Figaj, Donata; Gieldon, Artur; Bartczak, Marlena; Koper, Tomasz; Zarzecka, Urszula; Lesner, Adam; Lipinska, Barbara; Skorko-Glonek, Joanna

    2016-09-01

    High-temperature requirement A (HtrA; DegP) from Escherichia coli, an important element of the extracytoplasmic protein quality-control system, is a member of the evolutionarily conserved family of serine proteases. The characteristic feature of this protein is its allosteric mode of activation. The regulatory loops, L3, L2, L1 and LD, play a crucial role in the transmission of the allosteric signal. Yet, the role of LD has not been fully elucidated. Therefore, we undertook a study to explain the role of the individual LD residues in inducing and maintaining the proteolytic activity of HtrA. We investigated the influence of amino acid substitutions located within the LD loop on the kinetics of a model substrate cleavage as well as on the dynamics of the oligomeric structure of HtrA. We found that the mutations that were expected to disturb the loop's structure and/or interactions with the remaining regulatory loops severely diminished the proteolytic activity of HtrA. The opposite effect, that is, increased activity, was observed for G174S substitution, which was predicted to strengthen the interactions mediated by LD. HtrAG174S protein had an equilibrium shifted toward the active enzyme and formed preferentially high-order oligomeric forms.

  20. Analysis of the link between the redox state and enzymatic activity of the HtrA (DegP) protein from Escherichia coli.

    PubMed

    Koper, Tomasz; Polit, Agnieszka; Sobiecka-Szkatula, Anna; Wegrzyn, Katarzyna; Scire, Andrea; Figaj, Donata; Kadzinski, Leszek; Zarzecka, Urszula; Zurawa-Janicka, Dorota; Banecki, Bogdan; Lesner, Adam; Tanfani, Fabio; Lipinska, Barbara; Skorko-Glonek, Joanna

    2015-01-01

    Bacterial HtrAs are proteases engaged in extracytoplasmic activities during stressful conditions and pathogenesis. A model prokaryotic HtrA (HtrA/DegP from Escherichia coli) requires activation to cleave its substrates efficiently. In the inactive state of the enzyme, one of the regulatory loops, termed LA, forms inhibitory contacts in the area of the active center. Reduction of the disulfide bond located in the middle of LA stimulates HtrA activity in vivo suggesting that this S-S bond may play a regulatory role, although the mechanism of this stimulation is not known. Here, we show that HtrA lacking an S-S bridge cleaved a model peptide substrate more efficiently and exhibited a higher affinity for a protein substrate. An LA loop lacking the disulfide was more exposed to the solvent; hence, at least some of the interactions involving this loop must have been disturbed. The protein without S-S bonds demonstrated lower thermal stability and was more easily converted to a dodecameric active oligomeric form. Thus, the lack of the disulfide within LA affected the stability and the overall structure of the HtrA molecule. In this study, we have also demonstrated that in vitro human thioredoxin 1 is able to reduce HtrA; thus, reduction of HtrA can be performed enzymatically.