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Sample records for nelli norit villu

  1. Petrology of brecciated ferroan noritic anorthosite 67215

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mcgee, James J.

    1988-01-01

    A petrologic study of breccia 67215 is presented, showing that the rock has the bulk composition of a ferroan noritic anorthosite and is a polymict breccia containing several lithic clast types within a crushed, cataclastic matrix. The dominant lithic clasts contained in breccia 67215 are found to be igneous and metamorphic low- and high- Ca pyroxenes and olivine. Other clasts include granulated and sheared clasts, coarse-grained anorthosite with relatively Fe-rich augite, aphanitic, feldspathic microporphyritic melt breccias, and an impact-melt rock with strongly zoned relatively Mg-rich pyroxene. It is concluded that this rock type is relatively common in the highlands regolith excavated by the North Ray Crater.

  2. Subdivision of the Mg-suite noritic rocks into Mg-gabbronorites and Mg-norites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    James, O. B.; Flohr, M. K.

    1983-01-01

    Mg-suite noritic rocks can be divided into two groups, the Mg-gabbronorites and the Mg-norites. The rocks of these groups differ in ratios of high-Ca pyroxene to total pyroxene, compositions of pyroxene and plagioclase, assemblages of Ti-, Nb-, and Zr-bearing minerals, compositions of chrome spinel, bulk-rock Ti/Sm and Sc/Sm, and measured ages. The two groups probably crystallized from different types of parent magmas. Two hypotheses are offered for the differences in composition of the parent magmas. One hypothesis ascribes the differences to compositional heterogeneity of the mantle source areas. The other hypothesis ascribes the differences to variations in extent of partial melting of the mantle source regions and variations in extent of assimilation of the anorthosite and the highly differentiated residual liquid that were produced during the primordial lunar differentiation.

  3. Metamorphism of brecciated ANT rocks - Anorthositic troctolite 72559 and norite 78527. [Anorthositic-Noritic-Troctolitic

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nehru, C. E.; Warner, R. D.; Keil, K.; Taylor, G. J.

    1978-01-01

    Rake samples 72559 and 78527 are annealed rocks of ANT-suite mineralogy and bulk composition. The rocks were presumably derived from ancient lunar highland ANT rocks of cumulate origin. Sample 72559 is polymict and its precursors were anorthositic-troctolitic in composition. Sample 78527 is monomict and of noritic derivation. The precursors were brecciated due to impact processes; 72559 shows evidence of some impact melting. The samples were thermally metamorphosed forming rocks with granoblastic matrix textures. Coexisting matrix pyroxenes indicate equilibration temperatures of 950-1000 C for both rocks. Accessory opaque oxide minerals in the rocks show rather wide compositional variations. These probably primarily reflect compositional ranges inherited from the precursor/s with little integranular equilibration among them during metamorphism.

  4. Metamorphism of brecciated ANT rocks - Anorthositic troctolite 72559 and norite 78527. [Anorthositic-Noritic-Troctolitic

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nehru, C. E.; Warner, R. D.; Keil, K.; Taylor, G. J.

    1978-01-01

    Rake samples 72559 and 78527 are annealed rocks of ANT-suite mineralogy and bulk composition. The rocks were presumably derived from ancient lunar highland ANT rocks of cumulate origin. Sample 72559 is polymict and its precursors were anorthositic-troctolitic in composition. Sample 78527 is monomict and of noritic derivation. The precursors were brecciated due to impact processes; 72559 shows evidence of some impact melting. The samples were thermally metamorphosed forming rocks with granoblastic matrix textures. Coexisting matrix pyroxenes indicate equilibration temperatures of 950-1000 C for both rocks. Accessory opaque oxide minerals in the rocks show rather wide compositional variations. These probably primarily reflect compositional ranges inherited from the precursor/s with little integranular equilibration among them during metamorphism.

  5. U-Th-Pb isotopic systematics of lunar norite 78235

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Premo, W. R.; Tatsumoto, M.

    1991-01-01

    A pristine high-Mg noritic cumulate thought to be relict deep-seated lunar crust is studied with an eye to obtaining evidence of initial Pb isotopic composition and U/Pb ratios of early lunar magma sources and possibly of a primary magma ocean. A leaching procedure was conducted on polymineralic separates to assure the removal of secondary Pb components. The Pb from leached separates do not form a linear trend on the Pb-Pb diagram, indicating open-system behavior either from mixtures of Pb or postcrystallization disturbances. Calculated initial Pb compositions and corresponding U-238/Pb-204 (mu) values are presented, with the assumption of reasonably precise radiometric ages from the literature for norite 78236. The results obtained support the contention that high-Mg suite rocks are coeval with the ferroan anorthosites, both being produced during the earliest stages of lunar evolution.

  6. Nellie Bly: Teaching about a Pennsylvania Traveler.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mckee, Dr. Saundra

    1997-01-01

    Considers the career of Nellie Bly, a late 19th-century investigative reporter who gained fame and notoriety for her work. Bly covered wars, labor strikes, and once feigned insanity to write an expose of conditions in a mental institution. Includes a series of interdisciplinary learning activities constructed around Bly's career. (MJP)

  7. Nellie Bly: Teaching about a Pennsylvania Traveler.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mckee, Dr. Saundra

    1997-01-01

    Considers the career of Nellie Bly, a late 19th-century investigative reporter who gained fame and notoriety for her work. Bly covered wars, labor strikes, and once feigned insanity to write an expose of conditions in a mental institution. Includes a series of interdisciplinary learning activities constructed around Bly's career. (MJP)

  8. The meteorite component of Apollo 16 noritic impact melt breccias

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Korotev, Randy L.

    Noritic melt rocks (alias LKFM and VHA) from Apollo 16 have concentrations of Ni approximately three to five times those of impact melt rocks of similar composition from other lunar landing sites. The melt rock associated with Apollo 16 dimict breccias has the highest mean concentration of Ni of any lunar rock type (1150 µg/g in 11 samples). The Ni is contained in Fe-Ni metal that is dissimilar in composition to metal from ordinary chondrites in having a lower Ni concentration (6%) and lower Ni/Co ratio (17). It also has Ir/Ni and Ir/Au ratios of about one-half and one-third those of chondrites. The metal in the noritic impact melts is the carrier of the siderophile element signature of ancient meteorite group 1H. The composition of the Fe-Ni metal is dissimilar to that of chondrites because it derives from metal-rich meteorites, probably irons, that created the impact melts 3.9 Ga ago. The metal from these iron meteorites dominates the siderophile element concentrations of polymict samples at Apollo 16. Models that attempt to estimate indigenous concentrations of Ni and Co in Apollo 16 materials overestimate their abundance by assuming that the meteoritic component has chondritic ratios of Ir to Ni and Co. The type-2 melt (VHA) associated with the dimict breccias and the type-1 melt (Apollo 16 LKFM) were most likely produced by impact of two related iron meteoroids that impacted near the Apollo 16 site. The type-2 melt found in samples from station 7 is probably from the same impact as that producing the dimict breccias, although it could represent the impact of a third, related iron.

  9. Final Environmental Assessment Nellis Air Force Base School Initiative, Nellis Air Force Base, Clark County, Nevada

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-04-01

    employed, no significant impacts on any of the affected resources would occur. Further, socioeconomic benefits would accrue to Nellis AFB and CCSD with...sources of increased concentrations of GHG due to human activity include the combustion of fossil fuels and deforestation (CO2), livestock and rice... benefits to students living on-base and from throughout Clark County who attend the school. On- base students would continue to attend a high-quality

  10. Environmental Assessment Nellis Air Force Base Pipeline Project Nevada

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2005-03-01

    particulate matter less than 10 microns in diameter POTW publicly owned treatment works RCRA Resource Conservation and Recovery Act viii... treatment systems Consult with Nellis AFB EM, CES, and Nellis AFB flight and ordnance operations staff to identify affected operations or locations...Las Vegas bear poppy, a perennial herb, stands approximately 20 to 50 centimeters in height, with yellow flowers and with hirsute leaves that are

  11. Apollo 15 Mg- and Fe-norites - A redefinition of the Mg-suite differentiation trend

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lindstrom, M. M.; Marvin, U. B.; Mittlefehldt, D. W.

    The Apollo 15 highland rocks from the Apennine Front include clasts of mafic plutonic rocks from deep in the lunar crust that were brought to the surface by the Imbrium and Serenitatis impacts. The Apollo 15 norites exhibit wide variations in mineral and bulk compositions and include Fe-norites that plot between the three major pristine rock fields on a diagram of Mg' in mafic minerals vs An in paglioclase. Based on assemblages and compositions of minerals, and on ratios of elemental abundances, it is concluded that these Apollo 15 Fe-norites are differentiated members of the Mg-norite suite. The Apollo 15 and 17 norites and troctolites form a closely related suite of rocks, whose variations in mineral compositions represent the main differentiation trend of the Mg-suite. This trend in mineral compositions has a steeper slope than the previous Mg-suite field. The parent magmas for these Mg-suite rocks formed by partial melting deep in the lunar mantle. Differentiation by fractional crystallization may also have included assimilation of crustal components as the magmas rose from the mantle and crystallized plutons in the lower crust.

  12. Nellis AFB, Nevada. Revised Uniform Summary of Surface Weather Observations.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1986-11-01

    OSOtfTf 7L7nAL CLIMATOLOGY .ANCH ’:’ EAcmER WEATHER CONDITIONS 𔃼 3,,bS NELLI AFA NV 76-16 ALL ST rA AT -NAT1E YEARS .. (NTH PEPCENTAGE FPEOUENCY OF...NIUPLP; 723865 STATI0 NAME NELLIS AFA NV PE 1OO OF RECORD: 49-8b TOTAL MONTHLY SNOWFALL IN INCHES I -O-N-T-H-S- ALL YIA’ JAN F Ra APR MAY JUN JUL AUG...VERSUS WIND SPEEO USAFETAC FROM HOURLY OBSERVATIONS AIR WFATHSR SERVICL/MAC STATION NUMRLR: 723965 STATION NAME: NELLI AFA NV PERlOD Of RECORD: 77-S6 MONTH

  13. Ages of pristine noritic clasts from lunar breccias 15445 and 15455

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shih, C.-Y.; Nyquist, L. E.; Dasch, E. J.; Bogard, D. D.; Bansal, B. M.; Wiesmann, H.

    1993-01-01

    The Rb-Sr and Sm-Nd isotopic ages were determined for two Apollo 15 pristine lunar breccias, 15445 and 15455, collected near Spur Crater on the Apennine Front. The analyses of mineral separates from two norite samples in breccia 15445 showed that the Sm-Nd isotopic system for both norites from the large Clast B of 15445 was well defined, yielding precise ages of 4.28 +/- 0.03 Ga and 4.46 +/- 0.07 Ga, suggesting that the Cast B is a mixture of two or more lithologies. The overall age results indicate that some Mg-suite rocks are as old as ferroan-anorthosite-suite rocks. Moreover, age data of three major crustal rocks (a Mg suite, a ferroan-anorthosite suite, and an evolved suite) show that they all have variable ages.

  14. Petrologic evidence for a plutonic igneous origin of anorthositic norite clasts in 67955 and 77017

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ashwal, L. D.

    1975-01-01

    Clasts of anorthositic norite in 67955 and 77017, and several other samples, are suggested to represent material which crystallized from a silicate magma in a plutonic environment. Although no statement can be made regarding the ultimate origin of the parent melt, its composition was relatively felsic, starting within the primary field of crystallization of either plagioclase or spinel. The sequence of crystallization was: plagioclase (and/or spinel) olivine - low-Ca pyroxene - high-Ca pyroxene.

  15. Surface Observation Climatic Summaries for Nellis AFB, Nevada

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1992-05-01

    MS5KVILLE NC FRM HOURLY OBSIR•MWII8 61W’M NWEUR: 723865 STATION MNM: NELLIS AFB/LAB VIGAS IRV PERIOD OF RECORD: OCT 81 - SEP 91 LOT TO UITC: + 8...STATION SAM: NLIS AFB/L.S VIGA INV PRR[D OF 3U(OID: OCT 81 - SEP 91 LOT TO U2VS + 8 MNTWIH: JUlL LM MW STDAMM TOTAL 1 NZ MOMI OF H M WIITH M4 rURR DEG

  16. Sm-Nd for Norite 78236 and Eucrite Y980318/433: Implications for Planetary and Solar System Processes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nyquist, L. E.; Shih, C-Y.; Reese, Y. D.

    2008-01-01

    Here, we compare Sm-147-Nd-143 and Sm-146-Nd-142 data for lunar norite 78236 to those for approximately 4.54-4.56 Ga old cumulate eucrite Yamato 980318/433 and show that the norite data are compatible with its derivation from an isotopic reservoir similar to that from whence the eucrite pair came. Thus, lunar-like Sm-Nd isotopic systematics are not unique to the Earth-Moon system.

  17. Phase 1 Environmental Baseline Survey Nellis Terrace Housing Area, Parcel E-1, Nellis Air Force Base, Nevada

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-03-01

    12 3.17 RADON ............................................................................................................ 12 3.18 LEAD...subject property. 3.17 RADON See Section 3.17, pages 3-17 and 3-18 of the 2003 EBS for a description of radon with respect to Parcel E-1...which is a subpart of the Nellis Terrace Housing Area described therein. According to record searches, interviews, and a site reconnaissance, no radon

  18. Partial eclogitization of the Ambolten gabbro-norite, north-east Greenland Caledonides

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Gilotti, J.A.; Elvevold, S.

    1998-01-01

    Partially eclogitized igneous bodies composed of gabbro, leucogabbro, anorthosite and cross-cutting diabase dikes are well represented in the North-East Greenland Eclogite Province. A 200 x 100 meter intrusive body on Ambolten Island (78?? 20' N, 19?? 15' W) records a prograde transition from gabbro-norite to eclogite facies coronitic metagabro-norite surrounded by hydrated margins of undeformed to strongly foliated amphibolite. Igneous plagioclase + olivine + enstatite + augite + oxides convert to eclogite facies assemblages consisting of garnet, omphacite, diopside, enstatite, kyanite, zoisite, rutile and pargasitic amphibole through several coronitic reactions. Relict cumulus plagioclase laths are replaced by an outer corona of garnet, an inner corona of omphacite and an internal region of sodic plagioclase, garnet, kyanite, omphacite and zoisite. Olivine and intercumulus pyroxene are partly replaced by metamorphic pyroxenes and amphibole. The corona structures, zoning patterns, diversity of mineral compositions in a single thin section, and preservation of metastable asemblages are characteristic of diffusion-controlled metamorphism. The most extreme disequilibrium is found in static amphibolites, where igneous pyroxenes, plagioclase domains with eclogite facies, assemblages, and matrix amphibole coexist. Complete eclogitization was not attained at Ambolten due to a lack of fluids needed to drive diffusion during prograde and retrograde metamorphism. The P-T conditions of the high-pressure metamorphism are estimated at ??? 750??C and > 18 kbar. Well-equilibrated, foliated amphibolites from the margin of the gabbro-norite supports our contention that the entire North-East Greenland Eclogite Province experienced Caledonian high-pressure metamorphism, even though no eclogite facies assemblages have been found in the quartzofeldspathic host gneisses to date.

  19. Mineralogy of lunar norite 78235 - Second lunar occurrence of P2 sub 1 ca pyroxene from Apollo 17 soils

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Steele, I. M.

    1975-01-01

    A thin section of lunar rock 78235 is examined optically as well as with an electron microprobe and is shown to be a highly-shocked coarse norite. The rock is found to consist of approximately 30% low-Ca pyroxene, 55% Ca-rich plagioclase, and 15% glass veins. The composition of the glass veins is analyzed, and it is suggested that they resulted from shock melting of the norite. Comparisons with other noritic rocks indicate that the pyroxene in rock 78235 has P2 sub 1 ca symmetry. Based on this symmetry plus the coarse grain size, it is concluded that rock 78235 was formed under plutonic conditions. The origin of the minor phases in this rock is briefly considered.

  20. The parental magma for some rocks from the Norite 1 subzone of the Stillwater Complex - A lunar analog study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ryder, G.; Spettel, B.

    1985-01-01

    Single samples from three successive homogeneous but contrasting layers (anorthosite, anorthositic norite, and norite) in the Stillwater Complex Norite 1 subzone were subjected to detailed petrographic and major and trace element chemical analyses. The petrography and the element chemistry of the three layers are found to be generally consistent with formation from a common magma, although a simple model of liquidus phases and trapped magma is not quite consistent with petrography and chemistry. Changes of oxidation level from layer to layer are indicated by both iron in plagioclase and by the distribution coefficient for Eu required for compatibility with a common parent. Such oxidation changes can explain qualitatively the Mg/Fe variation otherwise attributed to trapped liquid. The data demonstrate that for individual lunar highlands igneous rocks, a general picture of the parent magma can be derived, but detailed petrochemical comparisons using a simple trapped liquid model might deny a common parentage for two samples when such in fact existed.

  1. The parental magma for some rocks from the Norite 1 subzone of the Stillwater Complex - A lunar analog study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ryder, G.; Spettel, B.

    1985-01-01

    Single samples from three successive homogeneous but contrasting layers (anorthosite, anorthositic norite, and norite) in the Stillwater Complex Norite 1 subzone were subjected to detailed petrographic and major and trace element chemical analyses. The petrography and the element chemistry of the three layers are found to be generally consistent with formation from a common magma, although a simple model of liquidus phases and trapped magma is not quite consistent with petrography and chemistry. Changes of oxidation level from layer to layer are indicated by both iron in plagioclase and by the distribution coefficient for Eu required for compatibility with a common parent. Such oxidation changes can explain qualitatively the Mg/Fe variation otherwise attributed to trapped liquid. The data demonstrate that for individual lunar highlands igneous rocks, a general picture of the parent magma can be derived, but detailed petrochemical comparisons using a simple trapped liquid model might deny a common parentage for two samples when such in fact existed.

  2. Orthopyroxene as a recorder of lunar crust evolution: An ion microprobe investigations of Mg-suite norites. [Abstract only

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Papike, J. J.; Fowler, G. W.; Shearer, C. K.

    1994-01-01

    The lunar Mg suite, which includes dunites, troctolites, and norites, could make up 20-30% of the Moon's crust down to a depth of 60 km. The remainder is largely anorthositic. This report focuses on norites because we have found that the chemical characteristics of orthopyroxene are effective recorders of their parental melt compositions. Many of the samples representing the Mg suite are small and unrepresentative. In addition, they are cumulates and thus are difficult to study by whole-rock techniques. Therefore, we decided to study these rocks by SIMS techniques to analyze a suite of trace elements in orthopyroxene. The 12 norite samples were selected from a recent compilation by Warren who attempted to select the best candidate samples from the standpoint of their pristine character. Our present database includes greater than 300 superior Electromagnetic Pulse (EMP) analyses and greater than 50 scanning ion mass spectroscopy (SIMS) analyses for 8 Rare Earth Elements (REE), Zr, Y, and Sr. The Mg#s for the parental melts calculated from Mg#s in orthopyroxene show that most melts have Mg#s in the range of 0.36-0.60. This compares with a range of Mg#s for lunar volcanic picritic glass beads of 0.4-0.68. Therefore, although the cumulate whole-rock compositions of the Mg suite can be extremely magnesian, the calculated parental melts are not anomalously high in Mg. A chemical characteristic of the Mg-suite norites that is more difficult to explain is the high KREEP content of the calculated parental melts. The REE contents for the calculated norite parental melts have REE that match or exceed the high-K KREEP component of Warren. Therefore, mixing of a KREEP component and a picritic melt cannot, by itself, explain the high estimated REE contents of the melts parental to norites. Advanced crystallization following KREEP incorporation, especially of plagiclase, may also be required.

  3. Fragments of ancient lunar crust: Ferroan noritic anorthosites from the descartes region of the Moon

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Norman, M. D.; Alibert, C.; Mcculloch, M. T.

    1993-01-01

    Noritic anorthosite clasts from breccia 67016 have bulk compositions similar to that of the upper crust of the Moon and petrogenetic affinities with pristine ferroan anorthosites. Rb-Sr and Sm-Nd isotopic compositions of mineral separates from one of these clasts suggest very old (greater than or = 4.4 Ga) ages, but interpretation of these data is complicated by the multi-stage history of the clasts which involved magmatic crystallization, brecciation, subsolidus recrystallization, and sulfide metasomatism. These clasts record some of the earliest events on the Moon, including early crust formation, accretionary bombardment, and degassing of the lunar interior. Modal analyses of these clasts show they are now composed of about 70 percent plagioclase, 28 percent pyroxene, 2 percent troilite, and minor amounts of ilmenite and chromite. No metallic iron, phosphates, or other trace phases were observed. Olivine is very rare, occurring only as relicts within secondary troilite+pyroxene intergrowths which may reflect reaction of olivine with sulfurous vapors. PIXE proton microprobe analyses of the sulfides show that the metasomatism was accompanied by enrichments of Cu, Zn, Ni, Se, and Sb. The clasts have been only mildly shocked since the observed texture was established. Major and minor element mineral compositions are very homogeneous and strikingly similar to those of pristine ferroan anorthosites. Pyroxene compositions indicate equilibration temperatures of 850-900 C. Except for the sulfide and chalcophile element metasomatism, these clasts appear to be essentially monomict and probably represent a noritic member of the ferroan anorthosite suite. Their low Ni contents and Ni/Co ratios are consistent with the interpretation of these clasts as igneous rocks which have escaped mixing with meteoritic material.

  4. Distribution of Sc, Ta, Hf, Zr, Co, and Fe in the crust of weathering of metalliferous gabbro-norites in volodarsk-volyn rock body

    SciTech Connect

    Borisenko, L.F.; Chudinov, V.I.

    1986-09-01

    Nuclear physics methods are used to determine the Sc, Ta, Hf, Zr, Co, and Fe contents in gabbro-norites and the component minerals of these rocks, as well as in the various zones of the crusts of weathering developed on gabbro-norites. It has been established that Sc, Ta, Hf, and Zr accumulate in the kaolinite zone, but Co is partly washed out of it.

  5. Agrobacterium-mediated transformation of Easter lily (Lilium longiflorum cv. Nellie White)

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Conditions were optimized for transient transformation of Lilium longiflorum cv. Nellie White using Agrobacterium tumefaciens. Bulb scale and basal meristem explants were inoculated with A. tumefaciens strain AGL1 containing the binary vector pCAMBIA 2301 which has the uidA gene that codes for ß-gl...

  6. Optimized conditions for biolistic-mediated transformation of Lilium longilforum 'Nellie White'

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    A variety of tissues were used for biolistic-mediated transformation of Lilum longiflorum 'Nellie White'. Transgenic plants were not recovered from five-month-old, non-embryogenic callus or suspension cells that had been bombarded with pDM327 that contains the bar-uidA fusion gene under control the ...

  7. Optimized growth and plant regeneration for callus of Lilium longiflorum cv. Nellie White

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The rates of growth and regeneration were compared for compact callus, friable callus, and suspension cells of Lilium longiflorum cv. Nellie White to determine the optimal culture conditions. The fresh weight was higher for compact callus induced from bulb scales cultured on Murashige and Skoog’s m...

  8. Phase 1 Environmental Baseline Survey for the Leasing of Nellis Air Force Base Land for Construction and Operation of a Youth Camp by the National Guard Bureau, Clark County, Nevada

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-01-01

    Assessment prepared by Nellis AFB (Nellis AFB 2006a) and the January 1998 Real Property Survey (U.S. Department of Justice 1999), which were prepared...return of the prison camp to Nellis AFB was also reviewed (U.S. Department of Justice 2006). 2.1.4 Nellis AFB Environmental Restoration Program Site...2006 (US Department of Justice 2006) also stated that the transformers were free of PCBs according to Federal Bureau of Prisons personnel

  9. Member’s Perception of Service Quality At the Nellis Air Force Base Officers Open Mess

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1993-05-01

    34 section of the revised SERVQUAL instruMent (Parasuraman et al., 1991). Club members were instructed to relate their feelings about the Nellis AFB...methods recommended by the researchers in the development of the SERVQUAL instrument (Parasuraman et al., 1988, 1991), (Zeithaml et al., 1990). Determining...is consistent with previous SERVQUAL research (Parasuraman et al. 1988 and 1991). The club members expect an Officers’ Club to deliver the type of

  10. Site Evaluation for Application of Fuel Cell Technology, Nellis Air Force Base, NV

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2001-03-01

    participated in the development and application of advanced fuel cell technology since fiscal yea 1993 (FY93). CERL selected and evaluated application sites...feedback to manufacturers for 29 of 30 commercially available fuel cell power plants and their thermal interfaces installed at Department of Defense...DoD) locations. This report presents an overview of the information collected at Nellis Air Force Base, NV, along with a conceptual fuel cell installation

  11. Cogenetic Rock Fragments from a Lunar Soil: Evidence of a Ferroan Noritic-Anorthosite Pluton on the Moon

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jolliff, B. L.; Haskin, L. A.

    1995-01-01

    The impact that produced North Ray Crater, Apollo 16 landing site, exhumed rocks that include relatively mafic members of the lunar ferroan anorthositic suite. Bulk and mineral compositions indicate that a majority of 2-4 mm lithic fragments from sample 67513, including impact breccias and monomict igneous rocks, are related to a common noritic-anorthosite precursor. Compositions and geochemical trends of these lithic fragments and of related samples collected along the rim of North Ray Crater suggest that these rocks derived from a single igneous body. This body developed as an orthocumulate from a mixture of cumulus plagioclase and mafic intercumulus melt, after the plagioclase had separated from any cogenetic mafic minerals and had become concentrated into a crystal mush (approximately 70 wt% plagioclase, 30 wt% intercumulus melt). We present a model for the crystallization of the igneous system wherein "system" is defined as cumulus plagioclase and intercumulus melt. The initial accumulation of plagioclase is analogous to the formation of thick anorthosites of the terrestrial Stillwater Complex; however, a second stage of formation is indicated, involving migration of the cumulus-plagioclase-intercumulus-melt system to a higher crustal level, analogous to the emplacement of terrestrial massif anorthosites. Compositional variations of the lithic fragments from sample 67513 are consistent with dominantly equilibrium crystallization of intercumulus melt. The highly calcic nature of orthocumulus pyroxene and plagioclase suggests some reaction between the intercumulus melt and cumulus plagioclase, perhaps facilitated by some recrystallization of cumulus plagioclase. Bulk compositions and mineral assemblages of individual rock fragments also require that most of the mafic minerals fortned in close contact with cumulus plagioclase, not as separate layers. The distribution of compositions (and by inference, modes) has a narrow peak at anorthosite and a broader, larger

  12. Cogenetic Rock Fragments from a Lunar Soil: Evidence of a Ferroan Noritic-Anorthosite Pluton on the Moon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jolliff, B. L.; Haskin, L. A.

    1995-06-01

    The impact that produced North Ray Crater, Apollo 16 landing site, exhumed rocks that include relatively mafic members of the lunar ferroan anorthositic suite. Bulk and mineral compositions indicate that a majority of 2-4 mm lithic fragments from sample 67513, including impact breccias and monomict igneous rocks, are related to a common noritic-anorthosite precursor. Compositions and geochemical trends of these lithic fragments and of related samples collected along the rim of North Ray Crater suggest that these rocks derived from a single igneous body. This body developed as an orthocumulate from a mixture of cumulus plagioclase and mafic intercumulus melt, after the plagioclase had separated from any cogenetic mafic minerals and had become concentrated into a crystal mush (approximately 70 wt% plagioclase, 30 wt% intercumulus melt). We present a model for the crystallization of the igneous system wherein "system" is defined as cumulus plagioclase and intercumulus melt. The initial accumulation of plagioclase is analogous to the formation of thick anorthosites of the terrestrial Stillwater Complex; however, a second stage of formation is indicated, involving migration of the cumulus-plagioclase-intercumulus-melt system to a higher crustal level, analogous to the emplacement of terrestrial massif anorthosites. Compositional variations of the lithic fragments from sample 67513 are consistent with dominantly equilibrium crystallization of intercumulus melt. The highly calcic nature of orthocumulus pyroxene and plagioclase suggests some reaction between the intercumulus melt and cumulus plagioclase, perhaps facilitated by some recrystallization of cumulus plagioclase. Bulk compositions and mineral assemblages of individual rock fragments also require that most of the mafic minerals fortned in close contact with cumulus plagioclase, not as separate layers. The distribution of compositions (and by inference, modes) has a narrow peak at anorthosite and a broader, larger

  13. Earth analog for Martian magnetic anomalies: remanence properties of hemo-ilmenite norites in the Bjerkreim-Sokndal intrusion, Rogaland, Norway

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McEnroe, S. A.; Brown, L. L.; Robinson, Peter

    2004-10-01

    To explain the very large remanent magnetic anomalies on Mars, which no longer has a global magnetic field, it is important to evaluate rocks on Earth with the necessary properties of high natural remanent magnetization (NRM) and coercivity. Here, we describe a possible analog from the 230-km 2 930 Ma Bjerkreim-Sokndal layered intrusion (BKS) in Rogaland, Norway. In the layered series of the BKS, fractional crystallization of jotunitic magma was punctuated by influx and mixing of more primitive magmas, producing six megacyclic units, each typically with early plagioclase-rich norites, intermediate hemo-ilmenite-rich norites and late magnetite norites with subordinate near end-member ilmenite. Following each influx, the magma resumed normal crystallization and, following the last, near the base of Megacyclic Unit IV, crystallization continued until norites gave way to massive fayalite-magnetite mangerites and quartz mangerites in the upper part of the intrusion. The Megacycles are marked on a regional aeromagnetic map by remanent-controlled negative anomalies over ilmenite norites and induced positive anomalies over magnetite norites and mangerites. A prominent negative anomaly (with amplitude -13,000 nT in a high-resolution helicopter survey, down to -27,000 nT below background in ground magnetic profiles) occurs over the central part of Megacyclic Unit IV. The anomaly is centered on ilmenite norite Unit IVe and is most intense where cumulate layering is near vertical at the southeast edge of the Bjerkreim Lobe of the intrusion at Heskestad. Here, Unit IVe is flanked to the east by magnetite norite of Unit IVc and country-rock gneisses (group E) and to the west by Unit IVf magnetite norite and mangerites (group W). Magnetic properties were measured on 128 oriented samples. Susceptibilities are similar for all three sample groups at ˜8×10 -2, but Koenigsberger ratios are very different, with average values of 7.7 for IVe, and <1 for groups E and W. The IVe samples

  14. In pursuit of empowerment: Sensei Nellie Kleinsmidt, race and gender challenges in South Africa.

    PubMed

    Jones, D E

    2001-01-01

    This chapter traces the way in which Nellie Kleinsmidt, known as the grandmother of karate in Africa, has negotiated discriminatory practices and overcome race and gender-related struggles, including the struggle to free the female body, in pursuit of empowerment. It explores her expectations and the constraints and frustrations she experienced, as well as the many contributions she has made to women's karate in South Africa. Nellie Kleinsmidt's karate career, which began in 1965, coincided with the early developments of South African karate. As a woman of colour her life and karate career were significantly shaped by apartheid legislation. It divided the country into areas of occupancy and residency according to race and was designed to prevent contact between the people of the government defined race groups. Black karate-kas were prohibited by law from practising karate in white designated areas. Lack of facilities and qualified instructors in areas allocated to Kleinsmidt's race group meant that she received very little formal karate instruction between 1966 and 1973. Soon after, she met Johan Roux, a white male. He was to become her chief karate instructor and life-long companion. They defied the apartheid legislation and in 1978 set up home together. They organized defiance campaigns, resisting the pressures from government to close their dojo because of its non-racial policies. Freeing her body at the broader political level involved the abolition of the race categories and all other apartheid legislation which impacted on her life choices and experiences. Initially this struggle and that of freeing her body occurred simultaneously. In her ongoing struggle against gender discrimination in the sport, it was in karate that Nellie Kleinsmidt could strive for the personal empowerment she sought. She could however not translate this into freedom in South African society itself. The impact of apartheid legislation together with the imposition of a sports moratorium

  15. Environmental Baseline Survey for JP-8 Pipeline Route Nellis Air Force Base Las Vegas, Nevada

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2005-01-01

    CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 6. AUTHOR( S ) 5d. PROJECT NUMBER 5e. TASK NUMBER 5f. WORK UNIT NUMBER 7. PERFORMING...ORGANIZATION NAME( S ) AND ADDRESS(ES) Nellis Air Force Base and CalNev Pipe Line, L.L.C. 8. PERFORMING ORGANIZATION REPORT NUMBER 9. SPONSORING...MONITORING AGENCY NAME( S ) AND ADDRESS(ES) 10. SPONSOR/MONITOR’S ACRONYM( S ) 11. SPONSOR/MONITOR’S REPORT NUMBER( S ) 12. DISTRIBUTION/AVAILABILITY STATEMENT

  16. 76 FR 39392 - Record of Decision for the F-35 Force Development Evaluation and Weapons School Beddown, Nellis...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-07-06

    ... Beddown, Nellis AFB, NV ACTION: Notice of Availability (NOA). SUMMARY: On June 24, 2011, the United States... was made available to the public on May 13, 2011, through a Federal Register NOA (Volume 76, Number 93, Page 28029) with a wait period that ended on June 14, 2011. Authority: This NOA is published...

  17. The seasonal variation of dissolved nutrients, chlorophyll a and suspended sediments at Nelly Bay, Magnetic Island

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Muslim, Ir; Jones, Graham

    2003-06-01

    A seasonal study of dissolved nutrients and chlorophyll a at Nelly Bay, Magnetic Island, in the central Great Barrier Reef (GBR) during 1993-1994, one of the driest climatic years in the previous century is reported. Comparison of nutrient concentrations in Nelly Bay with previous measurements suggest that significant changes in chlorophyll a, ammonium, and total dissolved nitrogen levels has occurred at this site during the last 5-6 years, prior to this study. Chlorophyll a was significantly correlated with suspended sediments ( r=0.49, P<0.001), and dissolved inorganic phosphate (DIP) ( r=0.47, P<0.001) throughout the study, with the correlations improving during high winds, for suspended sediments ( r=0.89, P<0.001) and DIP ( r=0.57, P<0.001). A highly significant correlation between DIP and chlorophyll a suggests that DIP is the main limiting nutrient in the bay. This correlation is weighted to the presence of Trichodesmium, a cyanobacterium that blooms prolifically in the GBR, and whose abundance was significantly correlated with low wind strength ( r=-0.72, P<0.02), chlorophyll a ( r=0.65), DIP ( r=0.82), and suspended sediments ( r=0.64, P<0.02-0.05).

  18. Effect of listening to Nellie the Elephant during CPR training on performance of chest compressions by lay people: randomised crossover trial

    PubMed Central

    Rawlins, L; Williams, J; Hallam, P

    2009-01-01

    Objectives To determine whether listening to music during cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) training increases the proportion of lay people delivering chest compressions of 100 per minute. Design Prospective randomised crossover trial. Setting Large UK university. Participants 130 volunteers (81 men) recruited on an opportunistic basis. Exclusion criteria included age under 18, trained health professionals, and cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) training within the past three months. Interventions Volunteers performed three sequences of one minute of continuous chest compressions on a skill meter resuscitation manikin accompanied by no music, repeated choruses of Nellie the Elephant (Nellie), and That’s the Way (I like it) (TTW) according to a pre-randomised order. Main outcome measures Rate of chest compressions delivered (primary outcome), depth of compressions, proportion of incorrect compressions, and type of error. Results Median (interquartile range) compression rates were 110 (93-119) with no music, 105 (98-107) with Nellie, and 109 (103-110) with TTW. There were significant differences within groups between Nellie v no music and Nellie v TTW (P<0.001) but not no music v TTW (P=0.055). A compression rate of between 95 and 105 was achieved with no music, Nellie, and TTW for 15/130 (12%), 42/130 (32%), and 12/130 (9%) attempts, respectively. Differences in proportions were significant for Nellie v no music and Nellie v TTW (P<0.001) but not for no music v TTW (P=0.55). Relative risk for a compression rate between 95 and 105 was 2.8 (95% confidence interval 1.66 to 4.80) for Nellie v no music, 0.8 (0.40 to 1.62) for TTW v no music, and 3.5 (1.97 to 6.33) for Nellie v TTW. The number needed to treat for listening to Nellie v no music was 5 (4 to 10)—that is, the number of cardiac arrests required during which lay responders listen to Nellie to facilitate one patient receiving compressions at the correct rate (v no music) would be between four and 10. A

  19. Effect of listening to Nellie the Elephant during CPR training on performance of chest compressions by lay people: randomised crossover trial.

    PubMed

    Rawlins, L; Woollard, M; Williams, J; Hallam, P

    2009-12-11

    To determine whether listening to music during cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) training increases the proportion of lay people delivering chest compressions of 100 per minute. Prospective randomised crossover trial. Large UK university. 130 volunteers (81 men) recruited on an opportunistic basis. Exclusion criteria included age under 18, trained health professionals, and cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) training within the past three months. Volunteers performed three sequences of one minute of continuous chest compressions on a skill meter resuscitation manikin accompanied by no music, repeated choruses of Nellie the Elephant (Nellie), and That's the Way (I like it) (TTW) according to a pre-randomised order. Rate of chest compressions delivered (primary outcome), depth of compressions, proportion of incorrect compressions, and type of error. Median (interquartile range) compression rates were 110 (93-119) with no music, 105 (98-107) with Nellie, and 109 (103-110) with TTW. There were significant differences within groups between Nellie v no music and Nellie v TTW (P<0.001) but not no music v TTW (P=0.055). A compression rate of between 95 and 105 was achieved with no music, Nellie, and TTW for 15/130 (12%), 42/130 (32%), and 12/130 (9%) attempts, respectively. Differences in proportions were significant for Nellie v no music and Nellie v TTW (P<0.001) but not for no music v TTW (P=0.55). Relative risk for a compression rate between 95 and 105 was 2.8 (95% confidence interval 1.66 to 4.80) for Nellie v no music, 0.8 (0.40 to 1.62) for TTW v no music, and 3.5 (1.97 to 6.33) for Nellie v TTW. The number needed to treat for listening to Nellie v no music was 5 (4 to 10)-that is, the number of cardiac arrests required during which lay responders listen to Nellie to facilitate one patient receiving compressions at the correct rate (v no music) would be between four and 10. A greater proportion of compressions were too shallow when participants listened to Nellie

  20. Surveys for Astragalus beatleyae on Nellis Bombing Range, Nye County, Nevada

    SciTech Connect

    O'Farrell, T.P.; Collins, E.

    1984-04-01

    Aerial and ground surveys of western portions of the US Air Force's Nellis Bombing Range, Nye County, Nevada, were conducted to determine if the rare plant, Astragalus beatleyae (Barneby), was widely distributed there. Additional information on its distribution will assist the US Department of Energy and the Fish and Wildlife Service in assessing the need to provide federal protection for this plant under the Endangered Species Act of 1973. Eleven areas were surveyed on foot between 18 and 20 July 1983 in potential habitat identified during a helicopter reconnaissance. Astragalus beatleyae was found in seven discrete groups at three major locations on contiguous portions of Pahute Mesa. Plants were distributed between 4.75 and 8.5 miles west of the species' type locality on the Nevada Test Site. One population was growing on an atypical habitat having deep, clay soils. 11 references, 4 figures.

  1. Ion microprobe investigation of plagioclase and orthopyroxene from lunar Mg-suite norites: Implications for calculating parental melt REE concentrations and for assessing postcrystallization REE redistribution

    SciTech Connect

    Papike, J.J.; Fowler, G.W.; Shearer, C.K.; Layne, G.D.

    1996-10-01

    The lunar Mg-suite, which includes dunites, troctolites, and norites, makes up to 20-30% of the Moon`s crust down to a depth of {approximately}60 km. The remainder is largely anorthosite. This report focuses on norites (which consist mostly of orthopyroxene and plagioclase) because we have found that both phases are effective recorders of their parental melt compositions. In an earlier report, we analyzed orthopyroxene from twelve samples (three from Apollo 14, two from A-15, and seven from A-17) by orthopyroxene from twelve samples (three from Apollo 14, two from A-15, and seven from A-17) by SIMS for eight REE (La, Ce, Nd, Sm, Eu, Dy, Er, Yb). Inversion of these data to estimated melt compositions yielded extremely high REE concentrations similar to KREEP. In this study, we report SIMS REE data for plagioclase from these same twelve samples. The major objective of this study is to estimate parental REE concentrations from both orthopyroxene and plagioclase data to see if both data inversions produce concordant from both orthopyroxene and plagioclase data to see if both data inversions produce concordant melt compositions and thus better constrain the composition of melts parental to Mg-suite norites. The estimated REE concentrations from both phases show some evidence of slight postcrystallization REE redistribution. Comparison of the observed ratio of REE for pyroxene/plagioclase to the ratio of the Ds for pyroxene/plagioclase is consistent with REE redistribution which involves LREE diffusing from pyroxene into plagioclase and HREE diffusing from plagioclase into pyroxene. However, apparently these postcrystallization exchanges have not seriously affected our ability to estimate melt REE concentrations. 34 refs., 7 figs., 5 tabs.

  2. Chronology, geochemistry, and petrology of a ferroan noritic anorthosite clast from Descartes breccia 67215: Clues to the age, origin, structure, and impact history of the lunar crust

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Norman, M. D.; Borg, L. E.; Nyquist, L. E.; Bogard, D. D.

    2003-04-01

    The petrology, major and trace element geochemistry, and Nd-Ar-Sr isotopic compositions of a ferroan noritic anorthosite clast from lunar breccia 67215 have been studied in order to improve our understanding of the composition, age, structure, and impact history of the lunar crust. The clast (designated 67215c) has an unusually well preserved igneous texture. Mineral compositions are consistent with classification of 67215c as a member of the ferroan anorthositic suite of lunar highlands rocks, but the texture and mineralogy show that it cooled more rapidly and at shallower depths than did more typical ferroan anorthosites (FANs). Incompatible trace element concentrations are enriched in 67215c relative to typical FANs, but diagnostic signatures such as Ti/Sm, Sc/Sm, plagiophile element ratios, and the lack of Zr/Hf and Nb/Ta fractionation show that this cannot be due to the addition of KREEP. Alternatively, 67215c may contain a greater fraction of trapped liquid than is commonly present in lunar FANs. 147Sm-143Nd isotopic compositions of mineral separates from 67215c define an isochron age of 4.40 ± 0.11 Gyr with a near-chondritic initial 143Nd of +0.85 ± 0.53. The 40Ar-39Ar composition of plagioclase from this clast records a post-crystallization thermal event at 3.93 ± 0.08 Gyr, with the greatest contribution to the uncertainty in this age deriving from a poorly constrained correction for lunar atmosphere 40Ar. Rb-Sr isotopic compositions are disturbed, probably by the same event recorded by the Ar isotopic compositions. Trace element compositions of FANs are consistent with crystallization from a moderately evolved magma ocean and do not support a highly depleted source composition such as that implied by the positive initial 143Nd of the ferroan noritic anorthosite 62236. Alternatively, the Nd isotopic systematics of lunar FANs may have been subject to variable degrees of modification by impact metamorphism, with the plagioclase fraction being more strongly

  3. In situ radiological surveying at the Double Tracks site, Nellis Air Force Range, Tonopah, Nevada

    SciTech Connect

    Riedhauser, S.R.; Tipton, W.J.

    1996-04-01

    A team from the Remote Sensing Laboratory conducted a series of in situ radiological measurements at the Double Tracks site on the Nellis Air Force Range just east of Goldfield, Nevada, during the periods of April 10-13 and June 5-9, 1995. The survey team measured the terrestrial gamma radiation at the site to determine the levels of natural and man-made radiation. This site includes the areas covered by previous surveys conducted from 1962 through 1993. The main purpose of the first expedition was to assess several new techniques for characterizing sites with dispersed plutonium. The two purposes of the second expedition were to characterize the distribution of transuranic contamination (primarily plutonium) at the site by measuring the gamma rays from americium-241 and to assess the performance of the two new detector platforms. Both of the new platforms performed well, and the characterization of the americium-241 activity at the site was completed. Several plots compare these ground-based system measurements and the 1993 aerial data. The agreement is good considering the systems are characterized and calibrated through independent means. During the April expedition, several methods for measuring the depth distribution of americium-241 in the field were conducted as a way of quickly and reliably obtaining depth profiles without the need to wait for laboratory analysis. Two of the methods were not very effective, but the results of the third method appear very promising.

  4. Construction of a Stormwater Detention System And Relocation of 12 Previously Assessed Housing Units, Military Family Housing Revitalization Project, Nellis Air Force Base, Nevada

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-02-01

    0 2 4 6 Miles 0 2 4 6 81 Kilometers 1:200,000 Clark County NEVADA Project Location Project Boundary Nellis AFB Boundary...1:9,000 15 15 93 La m b Craig N el lisPe co s Mi tch ell Project Location 0 400 800 1,200 Feet Drainage 1-3 Nellis MFH Revitalization Project 1- 4 ...2708 176 6 2 2654 208 12 3 2600 265 8 4 2430 73 17 5 2369 279 22 6 2315 0 13 7 2257 2 15 3-11 Temporary Haul Routes Interconnecting Channel

  5. Corrective Action Decision Document for Corrective Action Unit 486: Double Tracks RADSAFE Area, Nellis Air Force Range, Nevada

    SciTech Connect

    ITLV

    1999-07-12

    This Corrective Action Decision Document (CADD) has been prepared for Corrective Action Unit (CAU) 486, Double Tracks Radiological Safety (RADSAFE) Area (DTRSA) in accordance with the Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order (FFACO) of 1996 that was agreed to by the U.S. Department of Energy, Nevada Operations Office (DOE/NV); the Nevada Division of Environmental Protection (NDEP); and the U.S Department of Defense (FFACO, 1996). The CADD provides or references the specific information necessary to recommend a preferred corrective action for the single Corrective Action Site (CAS), 71-23-001-71DT, within CAU 486. Corrective Action Unit 486 is located on the Nellis Air Force Range 71 North, west of the Tonopah Test Range (TTR), Nevada. The TTR, located in the Nellis Air Force Range, is approximately 140 miles (mi) northwest of Las Vegas, Nevada (Figure 1-1). The DTRSA is located on the west side of the Cactus Range approximately 5 mi southwest of the Cactus Spring gate at the intersection of the Cactus Spring Road and the Double Tracks Control Point Road (Figure 1-2).

  6. Ion and electron microprobe study of troctolites, norite, and anorthosites from Apollo 14: Evidence for urKREEP assimilation during petrogenesis of Apollo 14 Mg-suite rocks

    SciTech Connect

    Shervais, J.W.; McGee, J.J.

    1998-09-01

    Most of the Moon`s highland crust comprises Fe-rich anorthosites with calcic plagioclase compositions. Subsequent evolution of the highland crust was dominated by troctolites, anorthosites, and norites of the Mg-suite. This plutonic series is characterized by calcic plagioclase, and mafic minerals with high mg{number_sign} (=100{sup *}Mg/[Mg + Fe]). In an effort to distinguish the origin of this important lunar rock series, the authors have analyzed the REE content of primary cumulus phases in ten Mg-suite cumulates using SIMS, along with their major and minor element compositions by electron microprobe analysis. Nine of these samples have high mg{number_sign}s, consistent with their formation from the most primitive parent melts of the Mg-suite. The data presented here show that Mg-suite troctolites and anorthosites preserve major and trace element characteristics acquired during their formation as igneous cumulate rocks and that these characteristics can be used to reconstruct related aspects of the parent magma composition. Data show that primitive cumulates of the Mg-suite crystallized from magmas with REE contents similar to high-K KREEP in both concentration and relative abundance. The highly enriched nature of this parent magma contrasts with its primitive major element characteristics, as pointed out by previous workers. This enigma is best explained by the mixing of residual magma ocean urKREEP melts with ultramagnesian komatiitic partial melts from the deep lunar interior. The data do not support earlier models that invoke crustal metasomatism to enrich the Mg-suite cumulates after formation, or models which call for a superKREEP parent for the troctolites and anorthosites.

  7. Environmental Assessment for Nellis Air Force Range Complex Fiber Optic Line Route from Indian Springs AFAF, Clark County to Cedar Pass Facility, NAFR North Range Nye County, Nevada

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1998-01-01

    Nevada Test Site and Nellis Air Force Range. Dr. Pippin was responsible for the cultural/ historical survey and cultural/ historical resources materials...transmits data generated by Air Force train ing, testing and evaluation programs related to air- and ground-based systems. A FOL network already...transmit data generated by Air Force training, testing and evaluation programs related to air- and ground-based systems. The proposed action would provide

  8. Iron mineralogy and bioaccessibility of dust generated from soils as determined by reflectance spectroscopy and magnetic and chemical properties--Nellis Dunes recreational area, Nevada

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Goldstein, Harland L.; Reynolds, Richard L.; Morman, Suzette A.; Moskowitz, Bruce; Kokaly, Raymond F.; Goossens, Dirk; Buck, Brenda J.; Flagg, Cody; Till, Jessica; Yauk, Kimberly; Berquó, Thelma S.

    2013-01-01

    Atmospheric mineral dust exerts many important effects on the Earth system, such as atmospheric temperatures, marine productivity, and melting of snow and ice. Mineral dust also can have detrimental effects on human health through respiration of very small particles and the leaching of metals in various organs. These effects can be better understood through characterization of the physical and chemical properties of dust, including certain iron oxide minerals, for their extraordinary radiative properties and possible effects on lung inflammation. Studies of dust from the Nellis Dunes recreation area near Las Vegas, Nevada, focus on characteristics of radiative properties (capacity of dust to absorb solar radiation), iron oxide mineral type and size, chemistry, and bioaccessibility of metals in fluids that simulate human gastric, lung, and phagolysosomal fluids. In samples of dust from the Nellis Dunes recreation area with median grain sizes of 2.4, 3.1, and 4.3 micrometers, the ferric oxide minerals goethite and hematite, at least some of it nanosized, were identified. In one sample, in vitro bioaccessibility experiments revealed high bioaccessibility of arsenic in all three biofluids and higher leachate concentration and bioaccessibility for copper, uranium, and vanadium in the simulated lung fluid than in the phagolysosomal fluid. The combination of methods used here to characterize mineral dust at the Nellis Dunes recreation area can be applied to global dust and broad issues of public health.

  9. A combined Sm-Nd, Rb-Sr, and U-Pb isotopic study of Mg-suite norite 78238: Further evidence for early differentiation of the Moon

    SciTech Connect

    Edmunson, J; E.Borg, L; Nyquist, L E; Asmerom, Y

    2008-11-17

    Lunar Mg-suite norite 78238 was dated using the Sm-Nd, Rb-Sr, and U-Pb isotopic systems in order to constrain the age of lunar magma ocean solidification and the beginning of Mg-suite magmatism, as well as to provide a direct comparison between the three isotopic systems. The Sm-Nd isotopic system yields a crystallization age for 78238 of 4334 {+-} 37 Ma and an initial {var_epsilon}{sub Nd}{sup 143} value of -0.27 {+-} 0.74. The age-initial {var_epsilon}{sub Nd}{sup 143} (T-I) systematics of a variety of KREEP-rich samples, including 78238 and other Mg-suite rocks, KREEP basalts, and olivine cumulate NWA 773, suggest that lunar differentiation was completed by 4492 {+-} 61 Ma assuming a Chondritic Uniform Reservoir bulk composition for the Moon. The Rb-Sr isotopic systematics of 78238 were disturbed by post-crystallization processes. Nevertheless, selected data points yield two Rb-Sr isochrons. One is concordant with the Sm-Nd crystallization age, 4366 {+-} 53 Ma. The other is 4003 {+-} 95 Ma and is concordant with an Ar-Ar age for 78236. The {sup 207}Pb-{sup 206}Pb age of 4333 {+-} 59 Ma is concordant with the Sm-Nd age. The U-Pb isotopic systematics of 78238 yield linear arrays equivalent to younger ages than the Pb-Pb system, and may reflect fractionation of U and Pb during sample handling. Despite the disturbed nature of the U-Pb systems, a time-averaged {mu} ({sup 238}U/{sup 204}Pb) value of the source can be estimated at 27 {+-} 30 from the Pb-Pb isotopic systematics. Because KREEP-rich samples are likely to be derived from source regions with the highest U/Pb ratios, the relatively low {mu} value calculated for the 78238 source suggests the bulk Moon does not have an exceedingly high {mu} value.

  10. Ion and electron microprobe study of troctolites, norite, and anorthosites from Apollo 14: evidence for urKREEP assimilation during petrogenesis of Apollo 14 Mg-suite rocks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shervais, John W.; McGee, James J.

    1998-09-01

    Most of the Moon's highland crust formed during the period 4.65-4.45 Ga ago from a vast magma ocean up to 800 km deep (Hess and Parmentier, 1995). This early lunar crust comprises Fe-rich anorthosites with calcic plagioclase compositions. Subsequent evolution of the highland crust was dominated by troctolites, anorthosites, and norites of the Mg-suite. This plutonic series is characterized by calcic plagioclase, and mafic minerals with high mg# (=100∗Mg/[Mg + Fe]). These rocks evidently formed by partial melting of ultramafic rocks of the lunar mantle, but their bulk rock incompatible element characteristics are too enriched to represent such a primitive source. Previous studies have suggested that this enrichment in incompatible trace elements is the result of metasomatism of the crust by fluids rich in REE and P. The products of this suggested metasomatic event are REE-rich phosphates (typically whitlockite) deposited interstitially. Alternatively, the incompatible element-rich nature of these plutonic rocks may represent a characteristic of their parent magma, acquired prior to crystallization of the plutons. In an effort to distinguish the origin of this important lunar rock series, we have analyzed the REE content of primary cumulus phases in ten Mg-suite cumulates using SIMS, along with their major and minor element compositions by electron microprobe analysis. Nine of these samples have high mg#s, consistent with their formation from the most primitive parent melts of the Mg-suite. The data presented here show that Mg-suite troctolites and anorthosites preserve major and trace element characteristics acquired during their formation as igneous cumulate rocks and that these characteristics can be used to reconstruct related aspects of the parent magma composition. Our data show that primitive cumulates of the Mg-suite crystallized from magmas with REE contents similar to high-K KREEP in both concentration and relative abundance. The highly enriched nature of

  11. Corrective Action Investigation Plan for Corrective Action Unit 486: Double Tracks RADSAFE Area Nellis Air Force Range, Nevada

    SciTech Connect

    IT Las Vegas

    1998-10-15

    This Corrective Action Investigation Plan (CAIP) has been developed in accordance with the Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order (FFACO) that was agreed to by the US Department of Energy, Nevada Operations Office (DOE/NV); the State of Nevada Division of Environmental Protection (NDEP); and the US Department of Defense (FFACO, 1996). The CAIP is a document that provides or references all of the specific information for investigation activities associated with Corrective Action Units (CAUs) or Corrective Action Sites (CASs). According to the FFACO, CASs are sites potentially requiring corrective action(s) and may include solid waste management units or individual disposal or release sites (FFACO, 1996). Corrective Action Units consist of one or more CASs grouped together based on geography, technical similarity, or agency responsibility for the purpose of determining corrective actions. This CAIP contains the environmental sample collection objectives and the criteria for conducting site investigation activities at CAU 486, the Double Tracks Radiological Safety (RADSAFE) Area (DTRSA) which is located on the Nellis Air Force Range 71North (N), west of the Tonopah Test Range (TTR). The TTR, included in the Nellis Air Force Range Complex, is approximately 255 kilometers (km) (140 miles [mi]) northwest of Las Vegas, Nevada (Figure 1-1). Corrective Action Unit 486 is comprised of CAS 71-23-001-71DT consisting of two areas of concern referred to as the vehicle decontamination area and the animal burial pit. The DTRSA is located on the west side of the Cactus Range approximately 8 km (5 mi) southwest of the Cactus Spring gate at the intersection of the Cactus Spring Road and the Double Tracks Control Point Road (Figure 1-2). The DTRSA was used during May 1963 to decontaminate vehicles, equipment, personnel, and animals from the Double Tracks test. The DTRSA is one of three areas identified as a potential location for the disposal of radioactively contaminated

  12. Range Reference Atmosphere, Nellis

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1990-12-01

    mecan to the intercept ol a given probability ellipse, equation 43 is also applicable. 2.7 Statistical Parameters for Non-Standard Orthogonal Axes...clockw ise fronti true north. Rotation of the mecans through (X (legrees: X, Xcos ~(90 -) W + sin (90 - () (44) ’ s (go - o.) u in (90 - (X) (45) Rotation...8217TABLE 3-1. Primary Physical Constants Used in RRA Production. P0 Standard atmospheric pressure at sea level (1.0 13250 X 10 Newton /in 2 ) (2116.22 Ib

  13. Origin of 78235, a lunar norite cumulate

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Winzer, S. R.; Nava, D. F.; Lum, R. K. L.; Schuhmann, S.; Schuhmann, P.; Philpotts, J. A.

    1975-01-01

    A chemical and petrographic study is reported of the phases from the rock 78235 which was returned on the Apollo 17 mission. Petrographic analysis of the thin sections from the bounder confirm its cumulate origin. In order to develop further the crystallization history for 78235, its subsequent shock history, and its relationship to other lunar crustal rocks, orthopyroxene, plagioclase, glass, and whole-rock samples were prepared and analyzed for major, minor, and trace elements. It is speculated that an early fractional crystallization event producing a layer of orthopyroxene-plagioclase cumulate with varying amounts of trapped liquid took place within 20 km of the surface of the moon.

  14. Streamlined Approach for Environmental Restoration (SAFER) Plan for Corrective Action Unit 411. Double Tracks Plutonium Dispersion (Nellis), Nevada Test and Training Range, Nevada, Revision 0

    SciTech Connect

    Matthews, Patrick K.

    2015-03-01

    This Streamlined Approach for Environmental Restoration (SAFER) Plan addresses the actions needed to achieve closure for Corrective Action Unit (CAU) 411, Double Tracks Plutonium Dispersion (Nellis). CAU 411 is located on the Nevada Test and Training Range and consists of a single corrective action site (CAS), NAFR-23-01, Pu Contaminated Soil. There is sufficient information and historical documentation from previous investigations and the 1996 interim corrective action to recommend closure of CAU 411 using the SAFER process. Based on existing data, the presumed corrective action for CAU 411 is clean closure. However, additional data will be obtained during a field investigation to document and verify the adequacy of existing information, and to determine whether the CAU 411 closure objectives have been achieved. This SAFER Plan provides the methodology to gather the necessary information for closing the CAU. The results of the field investigation will be presented in a closure report that will be prepared and submitted to the Nevada Division of Environmental Protection (NDEP) for review and approval. The site will be investigated based on the data quality objectives (DQOs) developed on November 20, 2014, by representatives of NDEP, the U.S. Air Force (USAF), and the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Field Office. The DQO process was used to identify and define the type, amount, and quality of data needed to determine whether CAU 411 closure objectives have been achieved. The following text summarizes the SAFER activities that will support the closure of CAU 411; Collect environmental samples from designated target populations to confirm or disprove the presence of contaminants of concern (COCs) as necessary to supplement existing information; If COCs are no longer present, establish clean closure as the corrective action; If COCs are present, the extent of contamination will be defined and further corrective actions

  15. Health effects following subacute exposure to geogenic dusts from arsenic-rich sediment at the Nellis Dunes Recreation Area, Las Vegas, NV.

    PubMed

    DeWitt, Jamie; Buck, Brenda; Goossens, Dirk; Hu, Qing; Chow, Rebecca; David, Winnie; Young, Sharon; Teng, Yuanxin; Leetham-Spencer, Mallory; Murphy, Lacey; Pollard, James; McLaurin, Brett; Gerads, Russell; Keil, Deborah

    2016-08-01

    Geogenic dust from arid environments is a possible inhalation hazard for humans, especially when using off-road vehicles that generate significant dust. This study focused on immunotoxicological and neurotoxicological effects following subacute exposure to geogenic dust generated from sediments in the Nellis Dunes Recreation Area near Las Vegas, Nevada that are particularly high in arsenic; the naturally-occurring arsenic concentrations in these surficial sediments ranged from 4.8 to 346μg/g. Dust samples from sediments used in this study had a median diameter of 4.5μm and also were a complex mixture of naturally-occurring metals, including aluminum, vanadium, chromium, manganese, iron, cobalt, copper, zinc, strontium, cesium, lead, uranium, and arsenic. Adult female B6C3F1 mice exposed via oropharyngeal aspiration to 0.01 to 100mg dust/kg body weight, four times, a week apart, for 28days, were evaluated 24h after the last exposure. Peripheral eosinophils were increased at all concentrations, serum creatinine was dose responsively increased beginning at 1.0mg/kg/day, and blood urea nitrogen was decreased at 10 and 100mg/kg/day. Antigen-specific IgM responses and natural killer cell activity were dose-responsively suppressed at 0.1mg/kg/day and above. Splenic CD4+CD25+ T cells were decreased at 0.01, 0.1, 10, and 100mg/kg/day. Antibodies against MBP, NF-68, and GFAP were selectively reduced. A no observed adverse effect level of 0.01mg/kg/day and a lowest observed adverse effect level of 0.1mg/kg/day were determined from IgM responses and natural killer cell activity, indicating that exposure to this dust, under conditions similar to our design, could affect these responses.

  16. Immunotoxicological and neurotoxicological profile of health effects following subacute exposure to geogenic dust from sand dunes at the Nellis Dunes Recreation Area, Las Vegas, NV.

    PubMed

    Keil, Deborah; Buck, Brenda; Goossens, Dirk; Teng, Yuanxin; Leetham, Mallory; Murphy, Lacey; Pollard, James; Eggers, Margaret; McLaurin, Brett; Gerads, Russell; DeWitt, Jamie

    2016-01-15

    Exposure to geogenic particulate matter (PM) comprised of mineral particles has been linked to human health effects. However, very little data exist on health effects associated with geogenic dust exposure in natural settings. Therefore, we characterized particulate matter size, metal chemistry, and health effects of dust collected from the Nellis Dunes Recreation Area (NDRA), a popular off-road vehicle area located near Las Vegas, NV. Adult female B6C3F1 mice were exposed to several concentrations of mineral dust collected from active and vegetated sand dunes in NDRA. Dust samples (median diameter: 4.4 μm) were suspended in phosphate-buffered saline and delivered at concentrations ranging from 0.01 to 100 mg dust/kg body weight by oropharyngeal aspiration. ICP-MS analyses of total dissolution of the dust resulted in aluminum (55,090 μg/g), vanadium (70 μg/g), chromium (33 μg/g), manganese (511 μg/g), iron (21,600 μg/g), cobalt (9.4 μg/g), copper (69 μg/g), zinc (79 μg/g), arsenic (62 μg/g), strontium (620 μg/g), cesium (13 μg/g), lead 25 μg/g) and uranium (4.7 μg/g). Arsenic was present only as As(V). Mice received four exposures, once/week over 28-days to mimic a month of weekend exposures. Descriptive and functional assays to assess immunotoxicity and neurotoxicity were performed 24 h after the final exposure. The primary observation was that 0.1 to 100 mg/kg of this sand dune derived dust dose-responsively reduced antigen-specific IgM antibody responses, suggesting that dust from this area of NDRA may present a potential health risk.

  17. Subdivision of the Mg-suite noritic rocks into Mg-gabbronorites and Mg-norites.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    James, O.B.; Flohr, M.K.

    1983-01-01

    The rocks of these two groups differ in ratios of high-Ca pyroxene to total pyroxene, compositions of pyroxene and plagioclase, assemblages of Ti-, Nb- and Zr-bearing minerals, compositions of chrome spinel, bulk-rock Ti/Sm and Sc/Sm, and measured ages. Two hypotheses are offered for differences in composition of the parent magmas: 1) compositional heterogeneity of the mantle source areas; 2) variations in extent of partial melting of mantle source regions and variations in extent of assimilation of the anorthosite and highly differentiated residual liquid that were produced during the primordial lunar differentiation.-P.Br.

  18. Evaluation of pilot-scale pulse-corona-induced plasma device to remove NO{sub x} from combustion exhausts from a subscale combustor and from a hush house at Nellis AFB, Nevada. Final report, August 1994--January 1997

    SciTech Connect

    Haythornthwaite, S.M.; Durham, M.D.; Anderson, G.L.; Rugg, D.E.

    1997-05-01

    Jet engine test cells (JETCs) are used to test-fire new, installed, and reworked jet engines. Because JETCs have been classified as stationary sources of pollutant emissions, they are subject to possible regulation under Title 1 of the Clean Air Act (CAA) as amended in 1990. In Phase 1 of the Small Business Innovation Research (SBIR) program, a novel NOx-control approach utilizing pulsed-corona-induced plasma successfully showed 90% removal of NOx in the laboratory. The objective of Phase 2 was to reproduce the laboratory-scale results in a pilot-scale system. The technology was successfully demonstrated at pilot scale in the field, on a slipstream of JETC flue gas at Nellis Air Force Base. Based on the field data, cost projections were made for a system to treat the full JETC exhaust. The technology efficiently converted NO into ONO, and a wet scrubber was required to achieve the treatment goal of 50-percent removal and destruction of NOx. The plasma simultaneously removes hydrocarbons from the flue gas stream. This project demonstrated that pulse-corona-induced plasma technology is scalable to practical industrial dimensions.

  19. Nellis Air Force Base, Nevada Photovoltaic Project

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-12-01

    retrieved October 27, 2007, from World Wide Web: http://www.whitehouse.gov/ask/20070327.html. 6 unprecedented growth in wind and solar technologies ...and delivers the highest efficiency solar electricity technology worldwide. Based on more than 20 years of innovation, SunPower delivers proven solar...SunPower believes it will compete with retail electric rates by reducing system cost by 50% by 2012.27 SunPower solar technology was developed by Dr

  20. Whoa, Nellie! [and] Whoa, Nellie!: Teacher and Parent Guide. Best Friends Series.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Benton, Hope

    This book for children (ages 8 to 14) and the accompanying teacher/parent guide present the story of a young girl (who happens to have a physical disability and uses a wheelchair), her friends, and their experiences at summer camp as they search for a favorite horse. Information on the disability is presented subtly and incidentally to encourage…

  1. Envirenmental Baseline Survey, Nellis Terrace Housing Area, Nellis Air Force Base, Nevada

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2003-12-01

    Not reported Activity 10: 1 Type ol Activity: Confirmed Release Date Reported to NDEP: 25-0ct-00 Petrolium Fund ID: Not reported Emergency Mngmnt...Confirmed Release Date Reported to NDEP: 10·Deo·01 Petrolium Fund ID: Not reported Emergency Mngmnt Tracking#: Not reported Location of Paper File

  2. Whoa, Nellie! [and] Whoa, Nellie!: Teacher and Parent Guide. Best Friends Series.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Benton, Hope

    This book for children (ages 8 to 14) and the accompanying teacher/parent guide present the story of a young girl (who happens to have a physical disability and uses a wheelchair), her friends, and their experiences at summer camp as they search for a favorite horse. Information on the disability is presented subtly and incidentally to encourage…

  3. Whoa, Nellie! Kicking Leadership Up a Notch: Leadership Matters

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Manthey, George

    2005-01-01

    In this article the author shares his personal experience illustrating that leadership matters. Poor leadership can create, or at least maintain, a culture of dissonance; quality leadership can make the heart sing. Williams Sanders and June Rivers (University of Tennessee), in their research on the residual effects of teacher quality, concluded,…

  4. Real Property Survey, Federal Prison Camp Nellis, Las Vegas, Nevada

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1999-01-26

    the transportation category including some oil, but primarily gas pipeltnes. Electric Power Transmission Line Data Source: PennWell Corporation ...Telephone: (800) 823-6277 This map includes information copyrighled by PennWell Corporation . This information is provided on a best effort basis and...Penn Well Corporation does not guarantee its accuracy nor warrant its fitness for any particular purpose. Such information has been reprinted with the

  5. Nellis Air Force Base Capital Improvements Program Environmental Assessment

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-08-01

    Engineer System ACM Asbestos-Containing Material ADP Area Development Plan AFB Air Force Base AGE Aerospace Ground Equipment AICUZ Air... engineering controls are in place. Impacts from hazardous materials and waste operations would apply to either Scenario 1, light construction, or Scenario...the following factors were considered: contributions from engine exhaust emissions (i.e., construction equipment, material handling, and

  6. Final Nellis Air Force Base Capital Improvements Program Environmental Assessment

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-08-01

    ACRONYMS AND ABBREVIATIONS 99 ABW 99th Air Base Wing ACC Air Combat Command ACES Automated Civil Engineer System ACM Asbestos-Containing Material ...contributions from engine exhaust emissions (i.e., construction equipment, material handling, and transportation), fugitive dust emissions (e.g...Development Evaluation FY Fiscal Year GHG greenhouse gas gpd Gallons Per Day HAP hazardous air pollutant HAZMART hazardous material pharmacy

  7. Whoa, Nellie! Kicking Leadership Up a Notch: Leadership Matters

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Manthey, George

    2005-01-01

    In this article the author shares his personal experience illustrating that leadership matters. Poor leadership can create, or at least maintain, a culture of dissonance; quality leadership can make the heart sing. Williams Sanders and June Rivers (University of Tennessee), in their research on the residual effects of teacher quality, concluded,…

  8. Phase 1 Environmental Baseline Survey, The Landings at Nellis Housing Area, Parcel H, Nellis Air Force Base, Nevada

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-06-01

    are of the Company President and Asbestos Consultant-Alec Felhaber and not of Mr. Jose Sandoval . Mr. Sandoval was the Asbestos Project Manager and...rc.:f"L Jose Sandoval Environmental Consultant Nevada License #M-1394 Construction & Environmental Consultants, Inc. m October 31, 2008...please feel free to call me at (915) 533-1147. Since ly, . .4 ~~VL--- Jose Sandoval Gl...._ Environmental Consultant Nevada License #M~ 1394

  9. MX Siting Investigation. Volume IIC. Geotechnical Report, Nellis Air Force Base Bombing and Gunnery Range (NBGR).

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1975-06-30

    Locate potential sites for shelters, pools and trenches using judgement based upon the results of items 1 and 2 above and criteria developed with...subsurface investigations conducted for the testing program of the U. S. Energy Research and Development Administration -(ERDA), formerly the U. S. Atomic...because it is used for other purposes. The remaiing 68 percent (approximately 700 nm2 ) is reserved for use by the Energy Research and Development

  10. The Amazing Nellie Bly: Teaching about Women in United States History

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Risinger, C. Frederick

    2013-01-01

    March is Women's History Month. While the approach to the study of the role of women in U.S. history has changed dramatically since the author was a classroom teacher, there is still a need to do more to fully integrate women into history throughout the curriculum and throughout the school year. Finding good sites to help classroom teachers and…

  11. The Amazing Nellie Bly: Teaching about Women in United States History

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Risinger, C. Frederick

    2013-01-01

    March is Women's History Month. While the approach to the study of the role of women in U.S. history has changed dramatically since the author was a classroom teacher, there is still a need to do more to fully integrate women into history throughout the curriculum and throughout the school year. Finding good sites to help classroom teachers and…

  12. A Case Study of the Water Supply System at Nellis Air Force Base Using Computer Simulation

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1989-09-01

    would flush would open up another fatal breach in the walls of public health.... Thirst, malnutrition , and disease would not be the only dangers...2072.0 30.000 2306.0 2216.0 2270.0 2060.0 99 Appendix C - Distribution Fitting HISTOGRA~M OF DAYTOT 1LOW H- IGH (X 10-ŗ) N 4.2 4. 50 5.8 5.8 6.2 5 6.2

  13. Environmental Assessment for the Joint Red Flag 󈧉 ADA Activities Nellis Air Force Base

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2005-03-01

    Prescribed by ANSI Std Z39-18 DECISION RECORD AND FINDING OF NO SIGNIFICANT IMPACT (DR/FONSI) JOINT RED FLAG –’05 ADA ACTIVITIES 1 Decision: I have...1500–1508]); Department of the Army Environmental Analysis of Army Actions (32 CFR 651); Department of the Air Force Environmental Impact Analysis...Standard Operating Procedures (SOP’s) and monitoring requirements to minimize potential environmental impacts . The project will be constructed under the

  14. Environmental Assessment, Volkmar Land Exchange Proposal and Nellis Air Force Base Withdrawal

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1999-01-15

    Field Guide to the Mammals ofNorth America,Third...Birder’s Handbook: A Field Guide to the Natural History ofNorth American Birds. Simon and Schuster. Harry Reid Center at University ofNevada, Las Vegas...edited by). 1987. Field Guide to the Birds ofNorth America. Second Edition. National Geographic Society. Washington, D.C. Seymour, Deni J. 1996.

  15. Final Base Realignment and Closure (BRAC) Environmental Assessment for Realignment of Nellis Air Force Base

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-03-01

    components only support the technological realism of these exercises. True combat realism can be achieved only by flying against “enemy” forces...interdiction strikes B-2 T Long range, high and low altitude bomber performing deep interdiction strikes with stealth technology B-52H T Long range...enemy air defenses F-117A T Light bomber with stealth technology F-22A B Air-to-air combat and intercept missions and air-to-ground missions with

  16. Environmental Statement on the Tactical Fighter Weapons Center (TFWC) Range Complex, Nellis Air Force Base

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1977-03-10

    Canada. Linsdale, J. M. 1936. The birds of Nevada. eacific Coast Avifauna, No. 23: 145 pp. Lotka , A. F. 1923. Contribution to quantitative...Kearns Bldg., Salt Lake City, Utah: 135 pp. Volterra , V. 1928. Va. .. ions and fluctud.ions of number of individua s in animal species living

  17. Envirenmental Baseline Survey, Dunning Circle Housing Area, Nellis Air Force Base, Nevada

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2003-12-01

    of Activity: Date Reported to NDEP: Petrolium Fund ID: Emergency Mngmnt Tracking#: Location of Paper File: Type of Media Impacted: Type of...Activity: Confirmed Refease Date Reported to NDEP; 10-Dec-01 Petrolium Fund ID: Not reported Emergency Mngmnt Tracking#: Not reported Location of

  18. Envirenmental Baseline Survey, Manch Manor Housing Area, Nellis Air Force Base, Nevada

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2003-12-01

    Reported to NDEP: 21-Jan-99 Petrolium Fund ID: Nat reponed Emergency Mngmnt Tracking#: 990121-3285 Location of Paper File: NDEP: Las Vegas Type of... Petrolium Fund ID: Not reported Emergency Mngmnt Tracking #: Not reported Location of Paper File: NDEP: Las Vegas Type of Media Impacted: Soil Type...Activity: Date Reported to NDEP: Petrolium Fund ID: Emergency Mngmnt Tracking #: 8-000596 Bob De Ninno Not N>nortP.rl 10220 SW Greenburg Road, Suite

  19. Operational Assessment of Target Acquisition Weapons Software (TAWS) Prediction Performance at Nellis AFB, NV

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2006-03-01

    target sat on a 10-15 cm thick layer of 2- 5 cm diameter pumice stone over a sandy-loam soil base. Trees, 4-6 m tall, were widely spaced in a rectangle...characteristics incident on the target and background. g. Soil Temperature (1) Soil temperature was measured 10 cm below the top of the pumice ...stone layer at the boundary between pumice stone layer and underlying soil. The sensor was placed 140 cm from the tank in a location unaffected by

  20. Proposed Deactivation and Closure of Federal Prison Camp, Nellis Air Force Base, Nevada. Environmental Assessment

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2006-01-01

    Suite 1204, Arlington VA 22202-4302. Respondents should be aware that notwithstanding any other provision of law, no person shall be subject to a...99 19a. NAME OF RESPONSIBLE PERSON a. REPORT unclassified b. ABSTRACT unclassified c. THIS PAGE unclassified Standard Form 298 (Rev. 8-98...Prescribed by ANSI Std Z39-18 ?age 2 Cecembe~ 29, 2005 • Pamela J. Chandler, Chief Site Seleccion & Environmental Review Branch Federal Bureau of

  1. Environmental Assessment Consolidated Communications Squadron Facility Nellis Air Force Base, NV

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2005-12-01

    management areas will be imposed by either action. • Water Resources: No impacts to floodplains, streams, wetlands. or groundwater will be imposed...3.8 WATER RESOURCES No natural water resources are found within the project site. This includes floodplains, streams. wetlands, and groundwater ...views of the site. Land use on properties adjacent to the project area includes a groundwater treatment facility located east of the project area. a

  2. Nellis and Creech Air Force Bases Capital Improvements Program Environmental Assessment

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2008-09-01

    certain areas for logical growth relative to the functionality of the area. The infrastructure and land use and transportation improvements are... transportation functions should be consolidated. Also, with the arrival of the F-22 and later the F-35, more munitions storage will be required to...Quality BRAC Base Realignment and Closure BTS Bureau of Transportation Statistics CAA Clean Air Act CAS Central Accumulation Site CCHD Clark

  3. Fingerprints in the Great Basin: The Nellis Air Force Base Regional Obsidian Sourcing Study

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2005-01-01

    A volcanic rock composed of quartz and feldspar that is greater then 69 percent SiO 2 by weight. Syenite : A crystalline rock composed mostly of...basic elements of the caldera, the rim, a marekanites from the early moat rhyolite that crystalline core composed of syenite , and mate- Novak (1985

  4. Installation Restoration Program Records Search for Nellis Air Force Base, Nevada.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1982-06-01

    elevated nitrate levels could have been caused by wastewater disposal prac- tices either off base or on base. D. ENVIRONMENTALLY SENSITIVE CONDITIONS 1...developers, bleach 1,100 USAF AIR DEMONSTRATION SQUADRON 3 Thunderbird Maintenance 148/1942 MEK, paint, thinner 25 JSAF HOSPITAL Dental Lab 625/1965...151 solid, 200 lb/mo Exterior Electric 817/1943 Golf Course Maintenance 1600/1952 Pesticides, caustic -- Heating Maintenance 817/1943 Hospital Boiler

  5. Finding of No Significant Impact: Military Family Housing Revitalization Project Nellis Air Force Base, Nevada

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2005-02-01

    units to be demolished in the Manch Manor area were constructed between 1960 and 1975 . The Manch Manor housing area is approximately 182 acres in...venomous snakes, lice , mites, and chiggers); structural pests (e.g., termites and powder post beetles); general household/nuisance pests (e.g., ants...Building Officials, 1997). Potential earthquakes in this zone have been correlated to a Modified Mercalli intensity (MMI) level value of VII

  6. Envirenmental Baseline Survey, Water Wells Annex, Nellis Air Force Base, Nevada

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2003-12-01

    distances recommended by the American Society for Testing and Materials guidelines for conducting Phase I site assessments ( American Society for Testing...3823 LESEE ROAD 16 TEXACO SERVICE STATION 3900 S VIRGINIA ST (COR 17 AMERICAN ASPHALT 3624 GOLDFIELD ST 18 SOUTHERN NEVADA PAVING, INC. 413 E GOWAN RD...MAP FINDINGS Distance (ft.),~S;;’’.:."------------------------------- 18 19 AMERICAN ASPHALT 3624 GOLDFIELD ST NORTH lAS VEGAS, NV 89030 UST

  7. Environmental Assessment to Repair the Airfield Infield at Nellis Air Force Base, Nevada

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1999-10-01

    This action would repair drainage in the infield area. Additionally, a soil treatment, "Soil Sement", would be added to the soil to stabilize the...to a lesser degree. Stormwater drainage in the infield area would be improved due to the proposed action; flooding and erosion will be reduced. A...1.1. Proposed Action The proposed action would be to grade the airfield infield and contour for effective drainage . Clearing and grubbing activities

  8. Location Forecast of Future Urban Residential Development Near Nellis Air Force Base, Nevada

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-09-01

    Office of the Secretary of Defense under MIPR DSAM70765, “Benchmark Future Analysis.” The technical monitor was Ms. Janice Larkin. The work was...in telecommuting . Fourth, this model is only forecasting the development locations of future high-density urban residential development. In reality...localized analysis can be performed us- ing local data and local expertise. The LEAMgroup Inc.15 has worked with various DoD entities to conduct focused

  9. Installation Restoration Program. Phase II. Confirmation/Quantification Stage 1 for Nellis Air Force Base, Nevada.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1985-08-09

    wastewater treatment plant effluent. Precipitation is an insignificant source of recharge. The deeper artesian ground water system consists of more permeable...Site 1- Main Base Landfill; - Site 17 Location of Former Sewage Treatment Plant (STP) Percolation Ponds; * "Site 4 - Fuel Tank Sludge Disposal Area...treatment plant effluent. Precipitation is an insignificant source of recharge. The artesian ground water system consists of the more permeable sediments

  10. 77 FR 8895 - Jimbilnan, Pinto Valley, Black Canyon, Eldorado, Ireteba Peaks, Nellis Wash, Spirit Mountain, and...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-02-15

    ... generations. Additionally, this plan will provide for accountability, interagency consistency, and continuity... forward and fully considered in developing the Draft EIS. DATES: The NPS in cooperation with the BLM...

  11. Renewal of the Nellis Air Force Range Land Withdrawal, Legislative Environmental Impact Statement. Volume 1. Chapters 1-11

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1999-03-01

    2 1 21 2 Nevada Note : Circled numbers are subdistricts as indicated on Tables 3.5- 2 and 3.5- 3 Figure 3.5-13. Base Metals Potential...Indian Springs, Tolicha Peak, and on the TTR include the two airfields shown in Figure 1- 2 . Facilities also include roads (see Figure 1- 3 ), radar...identified are Mud Lake, Kawich Range, and EC South on Figure 2 - 4 . • Jurisdictional Realignment – Change

  12. Environmental Assessment for Changes to Reveille Airspace at Nevada Test and Training Range Nellis Air Force Base, Nevada

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2002-03-01

    Collopy, H . Percivial, A. Tiller and P. Bohall. 1984. Effects of Low Altitude Military Training Flights on Wading Bird Colonies in Florida. Florida...Pahute green gentian Frosern paJwte.usis soc G2S2 Nyc County, Scrim of Palune Mesa on NTS, rcponedly occurs on NAFR. Pahutc Mesa beardtongue Penstcmou...var. musimomtm Range, NAFR (Oesen and E Dcsen nrnges). Sunnyside green gentian Frmrera gypstcolo soc G2S2 Nonheasrcrn Nye County, unconfinned on NAFR

  13. Phase 1 Environmental Baseline Survey Parcels E2, F, and I, Military Housing Areas, Nellis Air Force Base, Nevada

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-09-01

    thistle (Salsola sp.), a noxious weed, commonly occurs in 3.2 disturbed areas. There are no threatened, endangered or rare species located on...located on the parcel. Miscellaneous Structures – A wall exists on Parcel I. The wall is seven feet tall and marks the eastern boundary of the

  14. Environmental Baseline Survey Parcel E2, F, and I, Military Housing Areas Nellis Air Force Base, Nevada. Phase 1

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-09-01

    ephedra (Ephedra sp.). Russian thistle (Salsola sp.), a noxious weed, commonly occurs in 3.2 disturbed areas. There are no threatened, endangered...poles or transformers are located on the parcel. Miscellaneous Structures – A wall exists on Parcel I. The wall is seven feet tall and marks the

  15. Environmental Assessment for the Proposed Armed Forces Reserve Center/Organizational Maintenance Shop at Nellis Air Force Base

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1996-08-01

    1995. 4. Giancoli , Douglas C., " Physics , Principals with Application•, Third Edition, Prentice Hall, Englewood Cliffs, N. I., 1992 5. Golf Course...classrooms, library, learning center, assembly hall, arms vaults, woodworking shop, kitchen, medical examination rooms, medical storage, physical readiness

  16. TRACALS Evaluation Report. Initial Evaluation Report (AN/GPN-24) Nellis AFB, Nevada, 10 December 1979-6 Mar 1980.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1980-05-16

    Scott AFB, IL 62225 1 1842 EEG /EEIT, Scott AFB, IL 62225 1 1843 EES/EIELT, H-ickam AFB, H-I 96853 1 1844 EES/EIELT, Griffiss AFB, NY 13441 I HQ AFCC/DAPL...Time Control TDC Target Data Computer TO Technical Order TRACALS Traffic Cortrol and Landing Systems TSDA Transfer Switch Drawer Assembly TWT Traveling...the designated targets. The error detector outputs are fed to the TDC to update the beam position data during the next track interval. (b) Processor

  17. Renewal of the Nellis Air Force Range Land Withdrawal Legislative Environmental Impact Statement. Volume 2: Comments, Responses, and Appendices

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1999-03-01

    is normally controlled by the Federal Aviation Administration’s (FAA) Salt Lake Air Route Traffic (/ ÊÚ #S #S #S #S #S #S #S #S Beatty Rachel Tonopah...II 5° 13’ 00" w Rachel 37° 42’ OO".N Overflight I ,500’ AGL II 5° 50’ 00" w and above subsonic, 37° 42’ OO"N 5,000’ AGL and above II 5° 4I’ I8" w...in Caliente, Pioche, Alamo, Rachel , Pahrump, Beatty, Indian Springs, Hiko, and Goldfield; print ads were placed in the Las Vegas Review-Journal, Ely

  18. Nellis AFB, Las Vegas, Nevada, Revised Uniform Summary of Surface Weather Observations (RUSSWO). Part A-F

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1975-03-07

    L 5_*4 _. se 12 6Z,5l ,8 &.7 ,2 ,001 2.5 9,6 SSE . ,02 6,2 ,5i , i 04 , 28Z 120 s 0i .6 13 , . 9 .0 . t&SSW II so 84 IS6’ lei - $1 2,7 10*1 ,; a...o ESE_ 0 11 -.;41 Zd 1,_ .__ _.. ._0 5.5 .’ SE . 9 &91 3.6 293 4 _ 6.1 0.1SSE . 2 1.4 22 1j, 9 *4 9 I ,3 978 s I1. g2 , 5 9 3.7 .81 4 1_3 o2 1__...690 8_ _1 _0 20, 1 .ww 1271 .30 7.3 .1 ot ;0 14.,Z 9 .WNW ] 10l #, 21 031 1,? -,o41 TOTAL NUMiER OF OSSERVATIONS 2453 Cj C, USAFETAC AK 4I 08-5 (OL-A

  19. From Here to There and Back Again: The Story of a Mother, Her Son, Disability, and School Choice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mann, Glenys

    2016-01-01

    Nelly and her children live in Queensland, Australia. When it came time for her second youngest son to start school, Nelly was not prepared for the difficulty that she had enrolling him at the school of her choice. In spite of her son's disability, Nelly thought that it was natural that he would go to his local school with his sister. It is not…

  20. Final Environmental Assessment for the Integrated Natural Resources Management Plan for Nellis Air Force Base, Creech Air Force Base, and the Nevada Test And Training Range, NV

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2008-06-01

    the geology of the northern ranges. The Timber Mountain caldera is one of several centers of volcanic activity in the northern range. Other such...centers include the Black Mountain , Cactus Range, and Silent Canyon calderas , and Mount Helen dome. Volcanic tuff originating from the volcanic... Caldera Na- tional Landmark is present on NTS near Range EC South . Figure 3.11. Parks and natural areas located in the vicinity of NAFB and NTTR. 3

  1. Addendum to the Closure Report for Corrective Action Unit 411: Double Tracks Plutonium Dispersion (Nellis), Nevada Test and Training Range, Nevada, Revision 0

    SciTech Connect

    Burmeister, Mark

    2016-11-01

    The Corrective Action Unit (CAU) 411 Closure Report (CR) was published in June 2016 (NNSA/NFO, 2016). The purpose of this addendum is to clarify language in the CR relating to the field instrument for the detection of low-energy radiation (FIDLER), provide the waste disposal documentation for waste generated during the corrective action investigation (CAI), and reference a letter from the U.S. Air Force (USAF) regarding the closure of CAU 411.

  2. Final Environmental Assessment, Outgrant for Construction and Operation of a Solar Photovoltaic System in Area I, Nellis Air Force Base, Clark County, Nevada

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-03-01

    metro de d•sltlbuoloo de energfa. El sistema perm itirla a los 1Q a 15 megavallos de conionte alltma de enefgla renovables I Ia base aer&a de NeUls...oparacl6ra de un sistema solar fotovojtaico compuesto por paneles solares y una nueva linea de metro de dstrib,UCi6n de energia . El sistema P.Srtnitirfa a...los tO a 15 megavatios de eonieflte alterna de energfa renovables a Ia base aerea de Nel!js. La locallzaci6n propuesta para el sistema fotovoltaico

  3. Phase 1 Environmental Baseline Survey for the Acquisition of a Utility Easement by Clark County from Nellis Air Force Base, Clark County, Nevada

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2008-01-01

    Source: National Response Center, United States Coast Guard Telephone: 202-267-2180 Last EDR Contact: 07/23/2007 Next Scheduled EDR Contact: 10/22... Justice , Consent Decree Library Telephone: Varies Last EDR Contact: 08/23/2007 Next Scheduled EDR Contact: 10/22/2007 Data Release Frequency: Varies...locations. The U.S. Department of Justice ("the Department") provides this web site as a public service. It contains addresses of some locations where law

  4. Phase 1 Environmental Baseline Survey for Construction of a Wastewater Transmission Pipeline by the City of North Las Vegas on Nellis Air Force Base Clark County, Nevada

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-01-01

    Carey Avenue (the pipeline corridor is hereafter referred to as the subject property). The property involved is...N V S ub je ct P ro pe rty D O D G en er al li st in g fo r N el lis A FB N o. 7- El ev en # 15 44 9 38 59 N . N el lis B lv d...y D at ab as e C om m en ts Po te nt ia l T hr ea t t o Su bj ec t P ro pe rt y? N ev ad a C on st ru ct io n C

  5. Installation restoration program. Phase 2. Confirmation/quantification Stage 1 for Nellis Air Force Base, Nevada. Final report, October 1983-August 1985

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1985-08-09

    The field evaluation investigated 5 sites through drilling and sampling 12 new borings and sampling 5 preexisting base wells. Two ground-water systems exist beneath the base. The shallow ground-water system comprises approximately the upper 200 feet of valley sediments. It is maintained by upward leakage from a deeper artesian aquifer and recharged by septic tank effluent, irrigation waters, and wastewater treatment plant effluent. Precipitation is an insignificant source of recharge. The deeper artesian ground-water system consists of more permeable sediments at depths greater than about 200 feet. It is the principal source of ground water for the base and the Las Vegas Valley. Of 44 parameters analyzed in ground water, only 6 were present in one or more samples above detection limits. The detected parameters included two halocarbons (1,1,1-trichloroethane and toluene), two pesticides (aldrin and DDT isomers), nitrate, and phenol. Nitrate concentration in one monitoring well sample exceeded primary drinking water standards.

  6. Phase 1 Environmental Baseline Survey for Construction of a Solar Photovoltaic System by NV Energy on Nellis Air Force Base, Clark County, Nevada

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-01-01

    existing contamination or the potential for a release of hazardous substances into the environment or structures, but not well characterized pursuant to... well as the unique needs of the National Pollutant Discharge Elimination System (NPDES; see Appendix H) program. • PCB Activity Database (PADS; see...not pose an environmental threat to any surrounding properties, because there are were no contaminants of concern detected in monitoring wells

  7. Record of Technical Change No.1 for Corrective Action Investigation Plan for CAU 486: Double Tracks RADSAFE Area, Nellis Air Force Range, Nevada

    SciTech Connect

    2000-11-16

    Health Physics recommends that daily field screening levels be determined for gross gamma monitoring at the Double Tracks RADSAFE Area. This recommendation is predicated on the fact that there is significant daily variation in gross gamma detector response, even in the absence of a radiation source. Calculating daily field screening levels will help ensure the detection of radiation contamination in soil. The following sections of this memorandum discuss the radiation survey instruments that will be used during the characterization of the Double Tracks site, the anticipated radionuclides in the radiological source term, the survey instrument response to these radionuclides, the definition of the field screening levels, and recommendations on how to select the daily gross gamma field screening level.

  8. Phase 1 Environmental Baseline Survey for Leasing of Nellis Air Force Base Land for Construction and Operation of a Solar Photovoltaic System, Clark County, Nevada

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2006-09-01

    c a n S o c i e t y f o r T e s t i n g a n d M a t e r i a l s g u i d e l i n e s A S T M E 1 5 2 7 - 0 5 w h i c h d e f i n e g o o d...c o n t a m i n a t e d w i t h l o w c o n c e n t r a t i o n s ( < 5 p a r t s p e r b i l l i o n [ p p b ; s e e A p p e n d i x A...1 5 3 . 0 F I N D I N G S F O R S U B J E C T P R O P E R T Y

  9. Mechanical Properties of Alluvium from Nellis Air Force Range, Nevada; Luke Bombing and Gunnery Range, Arizona; and White Sands Missile Range, New Mexico.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1986-10-14

    ortepoesdCRS Dry sad ueBmi00n unr age rzn JD zagie 1960eeec ) 1-rv j -r - I A Table 1. Specific gravity and Atterberg limits for remolded Neilis Baseline sand...ld stress conditions in toe vicinity of a buri.o 7go - explsi~ etest . A total Of four strain paths were fo,)lowed and are eojj4 as the 2A, 2B, 3A -and...Were- peo,, rmed and the nominaliC? aewe :3 1zes for- ’ in mnAte" i li andj test3 type ag ; gven i n Tanle ".Toer, I: those3 tet Jr i1~~e in to ft) low

  10. Environmental Assessment for Leasing Nellis Air Force Base Land for Construction and Operation of a Solar Photovoltaic System, Clark County, Nevada

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2006-08-01

    3.5. Barbwire Russian Thistle in the Proposed Project Area ....................................28 Figure 3.6. Map Outlining 2004 Area III Desert ...native to the Mojave Desert at lower elevations, dominates in areas that are relatively undisturbed. Desert globemallow (Sphaeralcea ambigua) and... desert marigold (Baileya multiradirata) occur as isolated specimens. Barbwire Russian thistle (Salsola paulsenii) and cheatgrass (Bromus tectorum

  11. Environmental Baseline Survey, Real Property Transaction Between Nellis Air Force Base and the City of North Las Vegas for Construction of a Wastewater Treatment Facility, Clark County, Nevada. Phase 1

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-12-06

    Respondents should be aware that notwithstanding any other provision of law, no person shall be subject to a penalty for failing to comply with a...PAGES 552 19a. NAME OF RESPONSIBLE PERSON a. REPORT unclassified b. ABSTRACT unclassified c. THIS PAGE unclassified Standard Form 298 (Rev. 8...12 2.4 Personal Interviews ............................................................................................. 13 2.4.1 Sampling

  12. Phase 1 Environmental Baseline Survey for Leasing Nellis Air Force Base Land for Construction and Maintenance of a Stormwater Detention System and Relocation of Military Family Housing Clark County, Nevada

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2006-11-01

    Dixon B142 A. T. Hoffman B143 Hyman Brown, etux. B141 Leonard R. Wilson, et al. B120 Mary G. Parcell 2.1.2 Property Inspections A site...WAL - MART SUPERCENTER #2837 8840 4351 LAMONT STREET MANCH, J. E. ELEM 8943 4225 NORTH LAMONT ST. LOWMAN, MARY & ZEL ELEM STATE AND LOCAL...GeneratorClassification: (702) 453-1616 ANTOINETTE LAFLERContact: NVR000064923EPA ID: (209) 544-1486 UNITED RENTALS HWY TECHNOLOGYOwner: RCRAInfo: track the

  13. Environmental Assessment for Enhanced Use Lease of U.S. Air Force Lands to the City of North Las Vegas for Construction and Operation of a Water Reclamation Facility, Nellis Air Force Base, Nevada

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2008-01-01

    Federal Status Habitat Potential to occur within Project Area Razorback sucker Xyrauchen texanus Endangered Backwaters, sloughs, oxbow lakes , and...up to 39 per cent of water use in the valley, with the remainder coming from Lake Mead (Las Vegas Valley Water District 2008). 3.7.1 Surface Water...City of North Las Vegas North Las Vegas Water Reclamation Facility Environmental Assessment 8 Site 6 (Bay Lake Trail and Kier Road): Advantages to

  14. Corrective Action Investigation Plan for Corrective Action Unit 486: Double Tracks RADSAFE Ares, Nellis Air Force Range, Nevada, Rev. 0; DOE/NV--523 UPDATED WITH ROTC No.1 and 2

    SciTech Connect

    ITLV

    1999-11-16

    This CAIP presents a plan to investigate the DTRSA where unregulated disposal of radioactive and possibly hazardous waste occurred during decontamination activities for the Double Tracks test. The purpose of the corrective action investigation described in this CAIP is to: Identify and verify the locations of the decontamination facility and animal burial pit within the DTRSA; Identify the presence and nature of COPCs; Determine the vertical and lateral extent of COPCs; and Provide sufficient information and data to develop and evaluate appropriate corrective actions for the CAS. This CAIP was developed using the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) Data Quality Objectives (DQOs) (EPA, 1994d) process to clearly define the goals for collecting environmental data, to determine data uses, and to design a data collection program that will satisfy these uses. A DQO scoping meeting was held prior to preparation of this plan; a brief summary of the DQOs is presented in Section 3.4. A more detailed summary of the DQO process and results is included in Appendix A.

  15. Is intensive counseling in maternity care feasible and effective in promoting physical activity among women at risk for gestational diabetes? Secondary analysis of a cluster randomized NELLI study in Finland

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Women who are physically active during early pregnancy have notably lower odds of developing gestational diabetes than do inactive women. The purpose of the intervention was to examine whether intensified physical activity (PA) counseling in Finnish maternity care is feasible and effective in promoting leisure-time PA (LTPA) among pregnant women at risk of gestational diabetes. Methods Fourteen municipalities were randomized to intervention (INT) and usual care group (UC). Nurses in INT integrated five PA counseling sessions into routine maternity visits and offered monthly group meetings on PA instructed by physiotherapists. In UC conventional practices were continued. Feasibility evaluation included safety (incidence of PA-related adverse events; questionnaire), realization (timing and duration of sessions, number of sessions missed, attendance at group meetings; systematic record-keeping of the nurses and physiotherapists) and applicability (nurses’ views; telephone interview). Effectiveness outcomes were weekly frequency and duration of total and intensity-specific LTPA and meeting PA recommendation for health self-reported at 8-12 (baseline), 26-28 and 36-37 weeks’ gestation. Multilevel analysis with adjustments was used in testing for between-group differences in PA changes. Results The decrease in the weekly days of total and moderate-to-vigorous-intensity LTPA was smaller in INT (N = 219) than in UC (N = 180) from baseline to the first follow-up (0.1 vs. -1.2, p = 0.040 and −0.2 vs. -1.3, p = 0.016). A similar trend was seen in meeting the PA recommendation (−11%-points vs. -28%-points, p = 0.06). INT did not experience more adverse events classified as warning signs to terminate exercise than UC, counseling was implemented as planned and viewed positively by the nurses. Conclusions Intensified counseling had no effects on the duration of total or intensity-specific weekly LTPA. However, it was able to reduce the decrease in the weekly frequency of total and moderate-to-vigorous-intensity LTPA from baseline to the end of second trimester and was feasibly embedded into routine practices. Trial registration ISRCTN 33885819 ( http://www.isrctn.org) PMID:22950716

  16. 76 FR 65508 - Extension of the Public Comment Period for the Draft Site-Wide Environmental Impact Statement for...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-10-21

    ... (formerly known as the Nevada Test Site) and other NNSA-managed sites in Nevada, including the Remote Sensing Laboratory on Nellis Air Force Base, the North Las Vegas Facility, and the Tonopah Test Range...

  17. 1. Historic American Buildings Survey Joseph Hill, Photographer July 1936 ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. Historic American Buildings Survey Joseph Hill, Photographer July 1936 COPIED FROM AN OLD PHOTOGRAPH LOANED BY MRS. NELLY MUNRO - Old Baptist Parsonage, Snyder & Virginia Streets, Sublette, Lee County, IL

  18. The Red Dress: Getting to the Heart of Women's Health

    MedlinePlus

    ... Dereon (center right), and Nelly Furtado for Betsey Johnson (far right). Photo courtesy NIH/NHLBI For the ... Donna Karan, Ralph Lauren, Luca Luca, and Betsey Johnson. "In my own family, there is a history ...

  19. Verslag Van De 15e Conferentie Over Very Large Data Bases Van 22 t/m 25 Augustus 1989 Te Amsterdam (Report on the 15th Conference on Very Large Data Bases in Amsterdam from August 22 til August 25 1989)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1989-10-04

    8217Aunt Nellie Heuristic’ of ’Tante Nellie Methode’ (TNM): ’ Neem bet voorbeeld ter band. Ga ervan uit dat je bet voorbeeld over de telefoon moet...Un. Dortmund ’The LSD tree : spatial access to multidimensional point and non-point objects’ A. Henrich, H-W. Six and P. Widmayer; Fern Un., Hagen...USA ’Optimization and dataflow algorithms for nested tree queries’ M. Muralikrishna; DEC, Colorada Springs CO, USA ’Parallel processing of recursive

  20. Purification of Gram Quantities of C60. A New Inexpensive and Facile Method

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1993-11-22

    column containing Norit-A (alkaline decolorizing carbon or activated charcoal) and silica gel (1:2 by weight). Within 37 min, the C60 (purple fraction...saturated toluene solution of crude fullerenes to a column containing Norit®-A (alkaline decolorizing carbon or activated charcoal) and silica gel (1:2 by...using our newly developed method is as follows. A slurry of alkaline decolorizing carbon Norit® -A 7 (36 g) and silica gel8 (72 g) in toluene9 (200 mL

  1. Spectral reflectance studies of the Grimaldi Region of the Moon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peterson, C. A.; Hawke, B. R.; Lucey, P. G.; Coombs, C. R.; Spudis, P. D.

    Near-infrared reflectance spectra were used to investigate the composition and origin of the various geologic units in the Grimaldi region as well as the stratigraphy of the Grimaldi pre-impact target site. The results of our spectral analysis indicate that the portions of the Hevelius Formation that occur in the Grimaldi region are composed of noritic anorthosite and anorthositic norite. Gabbroic material was excavated from beneath Orientale-related units by small impact craters in three areas in the Grimaldi region. The primary ejecta deposits of the Grimaldi basin as well as the pre-Orientale floor unit are dominated by noritic anorthosite and anorthositic norite. The peak ring of Grimaldi is composed, at least in part, of pure anorthosite. The anorthosites on the inner ring and elsewhere within Grimaldi were derived from a layer of pure anorthosite that exists at depth beneath a more pyroxene-rich unit.

  2. Jules Verne Mare Soils as Revealed by Clementine UVVIS Data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yingst, R. A.; Head, J. W.

    1999-03-01

    To determine the nature of potentially low-Ca pyroxene (noritic) spectra in six South Pole-Aitken basin mare deposits, we undertake a multispectral analysis of a representative of these deposits, that associated with Jules Verne crater.

  3. Apollo 14 glasses of impact origin and their parent rock types.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chao, E. C. T.; Best, J. B.; Minkin, J. A.

    1972-01-01

    Eight chemical groups can be recognized on the basis of studies of more than 200 Apollo 14 glass particles of impact origin. It is found that the major rock type of a highland site is dominated by annealed noritic rocks rather than by anorthosites as previously suggested. Both mafic and salic rock types are associated with the noritic rocks. A number of tables are provided showing the chemical composition of the minerals investigated.

  4. Equilibrium isotherms of methane onto activated carbons using a static volumetric method.

    PubMed

    Kavitha, T; Kaliappan, S

    2009-07-01

    The aim of this research is to develop a technology for the storage of biogas. The present work pertains to the measurement of the adsorption capacity of methane onto activated carbons at room temperature at pressure range varying from 1 atm to 10 atm. The results were obtained with a static volumetric method. Adsorption isotherms for methane on Sorbonorit 4, Norit SX Plus, Sorbonorit B3, Norit PAC 200 XC were plotted. The equilibrium pressure data were analysed using Langmuir, Dubinin-Astakhov's (DA) and Dubinin-Radushkevich (DR) equations. The DA equation described the isotherm behavior better with the exponent n equals to 1.0 for Sorbonorit 4, Sorbonorit B3, Norit PAC 200 XC and 1.7 for Norit SX Plus than the other equations. The order of the adsorption capacity is as follows: Sorbonorit 4 (4.6 mmol/g) > Norit PAC 200 XC (3.81 mmol/g) > Sorbonorit B3 (3.52 mmol/g) > Norit SX Plus (3.51 mmol/g).

  5. Petrology of deep crustal xenoliths from the eastern Snake River Plain, Idaho

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matty, D. J.

    Xenoliths, collected from certain hybrid lava flows and vents at three localities in the eastern Snake River Plain region of southern Idaho, were derived from underlying crystal terrains which experienced granulite-facies metamorphism at approximately 3.0 AE. Lithologicaly, charnockite, opdalite, enderbite, and norite metaigneous xenoliths are predominent, but biotite-garnet gneiss and cognate noritic xenoliths derived from fractional crystallization of the host lavas also occur. The metamorphic charnockite-norite xenoliths are characterized by mineral assemblages containing compositionally homogeneous plagioclase + hypersthene + /-quartz +/-alkali feldspar +/-iron-titanium oxides +/-clinopyroxene +/-biotite. Iron-titanium oxide, two-feldspar, and two-pyroxene geothermometry calculations indicate that metamorphism of the xenoliths occurred at about 700 to 800 C. Corresponding pressures, estimated from garnet-plagioclase-orthopyroxene-quartz and plagioclase-clinopyroxene-quartz relationships, range from approximately 4 to 8 kbar.

  6. The Apollo 17 'melt sheet' - Chemistry, age and Rb/Sr systematics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Winzer, S. R.; Nava, D. F.; Schuhmann, S.; Philpotts, J. A.; Schuhmann, P. J.; Lum, R. K. L.; Lindstrom, M. M.; Lindstrom, D. J.

    1977-01-01

    Major, minor, and trace-element compositions, age data, and Rb/Sr systematics of Apollo 17 boulders have been compiled, and additional analyses performed on a norite breccia clast (77215) included in the Apollo 17, Station 7 boulder. The Apollo 17 boulders are found to be identical or nearly so in major, minor, and trace-element composition, suggesting that they all originated as an impact melt analogous to melt sheets found in larger terrestrial craters. The matrix dates (Ar-40/Ar-39) and Rb/Sr systematics available suggest that this impact melt formed by a single impact about 4 billion years ago. This impact excavated, shocked, brecciated, and melted norites, norite cumulates, and possibly anorthositic gabbros and dunites about 4.4 billion years old. The impact was likely a major one, possibly the Serenitatis basin-forming event.

  7. The relationships between geology and soil chemistry at the Apollo 17 landing site

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rhodes, J. M.; Rodgers, K. V.; Bansal, B. M.; Wiesmann, H.; Shih, C.; Nyquist, L. E.; Hubbard, N. J.

    1974-01-01

    Within the wide compositional range of the Apollo 17 soils, three distinct chemical groups have been recognized, each one corresponding broadly with a major geological and physiographic unit. These groups are: (1) Valley Floor type soils, (2) South Massif type soils, and (3) North Massif type soils. The observed chemical variations within and between these three groups is interpreted by means of mixing models in terms of lateral transport and mixing of prevailing local rock types, such as high-titanium basalts, KREEP-like noritic breccias, anorthositic gabbro breccias and orange glass. According to these models, North Nassif types evolved on the lower slopes of the North Massif and Sculptured Hills where anorthositic gabbro predominates over noritic breccia and where lateral mixing with basalt is effective, whereas the South Massif type soils originally developed on the upper slopes of the South Massif, where anorthositic breccia and noritic breccias are equally abundant, and where lateral mixing with basalt was minimal.

  8. The Apollo 17 'melt sheet' - Chemistry, age and Rb/Sr systematics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Winzer, S. R.; Nava, D. F.; Schuhmann, S.; Philpotts, J. A.; Schuhmann, P. J.; Lum, R. K. L.; Lindstrom, M. M.; Lindstrom, D. J.

    1977-01-01

    Major, minor, and trace-element compositions, age data, and Rb/Sr systematics of Apollo 17 boulders have been compiled, and additional analyses performed on a norite breccia clast (77215) included in the Apollo 17, Station 7 boulder. The Apollo 17 boulders are found to be identical or nearly so in major, minor, and trace-element composition, suggesting that they all originated as an impact melt analogous to melt sheets found in larger terrestrial craters. The matrix dates (Ar-40/Ar-39) and Rb/Sr systematics available suggest that this impact melt formed by a single impact about 4 billion years ago. This impact excavated, shocked, brecciated, and melted norites, norite cumulates, and possibly anorthositic gabbros and dunites about 4.4 billion years old. The impact was likely a major one, possibly the Serenitatis basin-forming event.

  9. Catalysis by basic carbons: Preparation of dihydropyridines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Perozo-Rondón, E.; Calvino-Casilda, V.; Martín-Aranda, R. M.; Casal, B.; Durán-Valle, C. J.; Rojas-Cervantes, M. L.

    2006-06-01

    The condensation of benzaldehyde and different substituted benzaldehydes, such as 2-nitrobenzaldehyde, 3-nitrobenzaldehyde, and 2,4-dichlorobenzaldehyde, with ethyl cyanoacetate was carried out using two alkaline carbons (Na-Norit and Cs-Norit) as catalysts in the absence of solvent. The reaction products are precursors in the production of 1,4-dihydropyridine derivatives, which have expanding practical applications as pharmaceuticals in the line of calcium channel blockers. High values of activity and selectivity were obtained. The most active carbon (Cs-Norit), which contains basic sites with p Kb = 11.2, is more active than pyridine, and less than piperidine. The selectivity to the desired condensation product when using these activated carbons is, at least, as high as in the case of the homogeneous catalyst. This "green" and "clean" method (alkaline doped carbon catalyst in the absence of solvent) can be extended to the preparation of other intermediates with medical applications.

  10. Geological structure and ore mineralization of the South Sopchinsky and Gabbro-10 massifs and the Moroshkovoe Lake target, Monchegorsk area, Kola Peninsula, Russia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pripachkin, Pavel V.; Rundkvist, Tatyana V.; Miroshnikova, Yana A.; Chernyavsky, Alexey V.; Borisenko, Elena S.

    2016-12-01

    The South Sopchinsky massif (SSM), Gabbro-10 (G-10) massif, and Moroshkovoe Lake (ML) target Monchegorsk area, Kola Peninsula, are located at the junction of the Monchepluton and Monchetundra layered intrusions. The intrusions were studied in detail as they are targets for platinum-group element (PGE) mineralization. The rocks in these targets comprise medium- to coarse-grained mesocratic to leucocratic gabbronorites, medium-grained mesocratic to melanocratic norites and pyroxenites, and various veins mainly comprising norite, plagioclase-amphibole-magnetite rocks, and quartz-magnetite rocks. The veins contain Ni-Cu-PGE mineralization associated with magnetite and chromite. In all targets, the contacts between gabbronorite and norite-pyroxenite are undulating, and the presence of magmatic (intrusive) breccias suggests that these rocks formed through mingling of two distinct magmatic pulses. In places, the gabbronorites clearly crosscut the modal layering of the norites and pyroxenites. Trace element data indicate that the gabbronorites have similar compositions to rocks of the upper part of the Monchetundra intrusion, whereas the norites and pyroxenites resemble rocks from the lower to intermediate stratigraphic levels of the Monchepluton, such as in the Nude-Poaz and Sopcha massifs. Sulfide mineralization in the studied targets principally consists of secondary bornite, millerite, and chalcopyrite. In contrast, the primary sulfide assemblage within the layered sequence of the adjacent Monchepluton is characterized by pentlandite, chalcopyrite, and pyrrhotite. Therefore, the mineralization in the studied targets is interpreted to be of a contact style. We argue that the studied area represents the contact zone between gabbronorites of the Monchetundra intrusion and norites and pyroxenites of the Monchepluton. In addition, the rocks were overprinted by postmagmatic veining and remobilization of contact style sulfide and PGE mineralization.

  11. Composition of the lunar highland crust from near-infrared spectroscopy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pieters, C. M.

    1986-01-01

    An attempt is made to synthesize NIR reflectance spectra of the lunar highlands to obtain global information about the composition of the lunar near-side crust. Major rock types identified include noritic, anorthositic, gabbric, and troctolitic compositions. Seventy-five percent of the areas that represent samples from the upper 1-2 km of lunar crust exhibit noritic compositions with different amounts of pyroxene and/or brecciation alteration. The data demonstrate that the lunar near-side crust is clearly mineralogically heterogeneous, both laterally and vertically, and not well mixed below 1-2 km.

  12. Mineralogy of the Mafic Anomaly in the South Pole-Aitken Basin: Implications for excavation of the lunar mantle

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pieters, C. M.; Tompkins, S.; Head, J. W.; Hess, P. C.

    1997-01-01

    Mineralogy of South Pole-Aitken Basin (SPA) (the largest confirmed impact basin on the Moon) is evaluated using five-color images from Clementine. Although olivine-rich material as well as basalts rich in clinopyroxene are readily identified elsewhere on the farside, the dominant rock type observed across the interior of SPA is of a very noritic composition. This mineralogy suggests that lower crust rather than the mantle is the dominant source of the mafic component at SPA. The lack of variation in observed noritic composition is probably due to basin formation processes, during which extensive melting and mixing of target materials are likely to occur.

  13. Possible Supernova Detection with Neutron Detectors near the SNO Laboratory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Duba, C. A.; Browne, M. C.; Robertson, R. G. H.

    1998-10-01

    Before neutron detectors are installed into the heavy water at SNO to detect neutral-current interactions, they are allowed to 'cool down' underground from surface cosmic-ray activation. During this time, they will be in a position to measure neutron flux from the INCO Creighton Mine's norite rock walls. A nearby galactic supernova will increase neutron production in the norite via charged- and neutral-current interactions. The increase in the neutron flux, as well as the neutral-current detectors' sensitivity to neutron flux, will be summarized and the possible use of these proportional counters as a supernova detector will be discussed.

  14. Rock types present in lunar highland soils

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Reid, A. M.

    1974-01-01

    Several investigators have studied soils from the lunar highlands with the objective of recognizing the parent rocks that have contributed significant amounts of material to these soils. Comparing only major element data, and thus avoiding the problems induced by individual classifications, these data appear to converge on a relatively limited number of rock types. The highland soils are derived from a suite of highly feldspathic rocks comprising anorthositic gabbros (or norites), high alumina basalts, troctolites, and less abundant gabbroic (or noritic) anorthosites, anorthosites, and KREEP basalts.

  15. Apollo 16 stratigraphy - The ANT hills, the Cayley Plains, and a pre-Imbrian regolith

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Taylor, G. J.; Drake, M. J.; Hallam, M. E.; Marvin, U. B.; Wood, J. A.

    1973-01-01

    A total of 645 particles in the 1 to 2 mm size range has been classified in the Apollo 16 soil samples 60602,3, 61242,7, 66042,4, 67602,13, and 69942,13. Five major categories of lithic fragments recognized in these samples include (1) an anorthositic/noritic/troctolitic, or ANT suite, (2) light-matrix breccias, (3) poikiloblastic noritic/anorthositic fragments, (4) spinel-troctolites, and (5) feldspathic basalts. The petrography and phase chemistry of the lithic fragments are discussed along with results of the fragment census and the stratigraphy of the Apollo 16 site.

  16. Lunar sample 14425 - Characterization and resemblance to high-magnesium microtektites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Berliner, L.; Fujii, H.

    1985-01-01

    Measurements by energy-dispersive X-ray analysis of the surface of lunar sample 14425, a large glass bead, yield a noritic composition enriched in aluminum and magnesium and, as compared with other norites, depleted in iron and especially calcium. The sample is close in composition to the most basic microtektites. Spherical inclusions of nickel-iron, flattened where they protrude, are found to be enriched in sulfur and phosphorus, at least at the surface. The inclusions form approximately 1 percent of the volume.

  17. Apollo 16 stratigraphy - The ANT hills, the Cayley Plains, and a pre-Imbrian regolith

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Taylor, G. J.; Drake, M. J.; Hallam, M. E.; Marvin, U. B.; Wood, J. A.

    1973-01-01

    A total of 645 particles in the 1 to 2 mm size range has been classified in the Apollo 16 soil samples 60602,3, 61242,7, 66042,4, 67602,13, and 69942,13. Five major categories of lithic fragments recognized in these samples include (1) an anorthositic/noritic/troctolitic, or ANT suite, (2) light-matrix breccias, (3) poikiloblastic noritic/anorthositic fragments, (4) spinel-troctolites, and (5) feldspathic basalts. The petrography and phase chemistry of the lithic fragments are discussed along with results of the fragment census and the stratigraphy of the Apollo 16 site.

  18. Science Fiction: The Academic Awakening.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McNelly, Willis E., Ed.

    This book provides background information on science fiction for teachers of English at any level who are approaching science fiction for the first time. Contents are: an introduction by W.E. McNelly; "SF in the Classroom" by J. Williamson; "Second Thoughts on the Course in Science Fiction" by M.R. Hillegas; "Flatland and Beyond: Characterization…

  19. Foundation Course

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Connection: The Journal of the New England Board of Higher Education, 2007

    2007-01-01

    Nicholas C. Donohue is the new president and CEO of the Quincy, Massachusetts-based Nellie Mae Education Foundation, the largest philanthropy in New England devoted exclusively to education. Donohue has been a classroom teacher, a university trustee, and commissioner of education for the state of New Hampshire. Most recently, he served as special…

  20. Soft Factors Influence College Enrollment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fogg, Neeta P.; Harrington, Paul E.

    2010-01-01

    Evidence about the role that "soft factors" like student engagement and school environment play in influencing whether high school students go on to enroll in college is hard to come by. Over the past two years, the Center for Labor Market Studies (CLMS) of Northeastern University, with support from the Nellie Mae Education Foundation…

  1. Information Control: Preserving the Advantage

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-06-01

    and Development Center (SIDC) as all warfare centers merged under a single entity at Nellis Air Force Base , Nevada, signaling an institutional... propellant —this allows for freedom of maneuver to access new orbits based on emergent collection and/or dissemination requirements - Redundancy for...MAXWELL AIR FORCE BASE , ALABAMA JUNE 2015 DISTRIBUTION A. Approved for public release: distribution unlimited. ii APPROVAL

  2. Less is More: DoD’s Strategy for Facility Energy Security and Environmental Sustainability

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-05-22

    Force: 3 Edwards AFB Nellis AFB (including NTTR) Creech AFB Marine Corps: 3 MCAGCC Twentynine Palms MCLB Barstow Chocolate Mountain Aerial...Networking multiple generators – Introduction of renewable generation • Higher penetrations potentially provide greater benefit – Faster system...attending to energy, environmental, safety, and occupational health considerations. This MOU underscores the Administration’s commitment to fostering

  3. "Celebrate Women's History": Coloring Poster Activity Booklet.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ruthsdotter, Mary

    This booklet contains biographical information about Bessie Coleman, Nellie Bly, Gertrude Ederle, Sojourner Truth, Chien-Shiung Wu, Yoshiko Uchida, Madam C. J. Walker, Maria Martinez, Jovita Idar, Margaret Bourke-White, Sally Ride, and Sybil Ludington. These women are noted for their important contributions to United States history. It is hoped…

  4. Multiple Pathways for All Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stirling, Lee Anna

    2012-01-01

    Maine has been focusing on the importance of postsecondary training. Maine's Skowhegan Area High School (SAHS) and Somerset Career and Technical Center (SCTC) have partnered in a Multiple Pathways initiative (funded by the Nellie Mae Education Foundation) to increase students' high school completion rate and to increase enrollment in postsecondary…

  5. Department of Defense Energy Strategy: Teaching an Old Dog New Tricks

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-04-01

    million barrels per day, all located in Saudi Arabia.22 20 Top World Oil Producers 2005 Brazil Algeria Nigeria Kuwait UAE Venezuela Norway...installations. At Nellis AFB, NV, the Air Force recently awarded a contract to build the largest photovoltaic solar farm in the world, on track to

  6. Arts and the City: Tapping the Creative Energy of Urban Youths

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rodgerson, Susan; Wilson, Blenda J.

    2005-01-01

    When visitors enter the offices of the Nellie Mae Education Foundation, they are often taken by the art on display. The collection is striking and vibrant. Like all good art, each piece makes a statement--sometimes quietly, but boldly. When foundation staff proudly tell guests that the exhibit was created by Boston high school students, the…

  7. Expression of a cystatin transgene can confer resistance to root lesion nematodes in Lilium longiflorum

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Lilium longiflorum cv. “Nellie White” is an economically important cut flower, being one of the most valuable species with an annual wholesale value above $20,000,000 for pot plants sold in the US. The root lesion nematode (Pratylenchus penetrans) is one of the main pests for lily producers due to...

  8. 32 CFR Attachment 2 to Part 855 - Weather Alternate List

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... * * Formerly Shemya AFB. EGLIN AFB FL EIELSON AFB AK ELLSWORTH AFB SD ELMENDORF AFB AK FAIRCHILD AFB WA GRAND... LAUGHLIN AFB TX MALMSTROM AFB MT McCHORD AFB WA McCONNELL AFB KS MINOT AFB ND MT HOME AFB ID NELLIS AFB NV...

  9. 32 CFR Attachment 2 to Part 855 - Weather Alternate List

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... * * Formerly Shemya AFB. EGLIN AFB FL EIELSON AFB AK ELLSWORTH AFB SD ELMENDORF AFB AK FAIRCHILD AFB WA GRAND... LAUGHLIN AFB TX MALMSTROM AFB MT McCHORD AFB WA McCONNELL AFB KS MINOT AFB ND MT HOME AFB ID NELLIS AFB NV...

  10. 78 FR 55292 - National Register of Historic Places; Notification of Pending Nominations and Related Actions

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-09-10

    ..., Horace M., Training Center, Albright Ave. & Center Rd., Grand Canyon, 13000784 ARKANSAS Faulkner County... County Sexton, William K. and Nellie, House, 205 Mason Rd. (Marion Township), Howell, 13000797 Mason..., 13000800 Kessler, William and Margot, House, 1013 Cadieux Rd., Grosse Pointe Park, 13000801 NEW HAMPSHIRE...

  11. Soft Factors Influence College Enrollment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fogg, Neeta P.; Harrington, Paul E.

    2010-01-01

    Evidence about the role that "soft factors" like student engagement and school environment play in influencing whether high school students go on to enroll in college is hard to come by. Over the past two years, the Center for Labor Market Studies (CLMS) of Northeastern University, with support from the Nellie Mae Education Foundation…

  12. 40 CFR 197.2 - What definitions apply in subpart A?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... PROTECTION PROGRAMS PUBLIC HEALTH AND ENVIRONMENTAL RADIATION PROTECTION STANDARDS FOR YUCCA MOUNTAIN, NEVADA... everywhere outside the Yucca Mountain site, the Nellis Air Force Range, and the Nevada Test Site. High-level... material with the intent or capability to readily access or retrieve such material. Yucca...

  13. 40 CFR 197.2 - What definitions apply in subpart A?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... PROTECTION PROGRAMS PUBLIC HEALTH AND ENVIRONMENTAL RADIATION PROTECTION STANDARDS FOR YUCCA MOUNTAIN, NEVADA... everywhere outside the Yucca Mountain site, the Nellis Air Force Range, and the Nevada Test Site. High-level... material with the intent or capability to readily access or retrieve such material. Yucca...

  14. The Case for Bull Dogs and Mother Hens.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Neugebauer, Bonnie; Neugebauer, Roger

    1996-01-01

    Describes traits of effective child care team members: instigator--develops ideas; day-dream believer--suggests solutions; jester--relieves tension; mother hen--ensures fair treatment; nervous Nellie--critiques ideas; keeper of the faith--focuses on center's mission; bull dog--keeps on task; compromiser--preserves unity; and mover and…

  15. Trends in Education Philanthropy: A Roundtable with Foundation Leaders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Connection: The Journal of the New England Board of Higher Education, 2006

    2006-01-01

    In February 2006, Nellie Mae Education Foundation President and Chief Executive Officer Blenda J. Wilson convened a roundtable discussion on trends in education philanthropy. Wilson's guests were Ron Ancrum, president of Associated Grant Makers, which serves grantmaking members in Massachusetts and New Hampshire; Nancy P. Roberts, president of the…

  16. Airborne Wind Energy: Implementation and Design for the U.S. Air Force

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-03-01

    47,717 Mississippi MOODY AFB Colquitt EMC 48,535 Georgia DAVIS-MONTHAN AFB Tucson Elect Pwr...104,520 Arizona MT HOME AFB Idaho Electric 46,237 Idaho DOBBINS ARB Georgia Pwr Co...21,625 Georgia NELLIS AFB Nevada Power, WAPA 114,032 Nevada DOVER AFB City of Dover/Delaware

  17. 2. Photocopy of photograph (original photograph/negative located at the Remote ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    2. Photocopy of photograph (original photograph/negative located at the Remote Sensing Laboratory, Nellis Air Force Base, Las Vegas, Nevada). David Wehner, EG&G Photographic Services Photographer, October 13, 1992. Overall view of Japanese village, facing north - Nevada Test Site, Japanese Village, Area 4, Yucca Flat, 4-04 Road near Rainier Mesa Road, Mercury, Nye County, NV

  18. 1. Photocopy of photograph (original photograph/negative located at the Remote ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. Photocopy of photograph (original photograph/negative located at the Remote Sensing Laboratory, Nellis Air Force Base, Las Vegas, Nevada). R.B., Photograph for Civil Effects Test Organization, May 9, 1962. Historic view of Japanese village, facing west - Nevada Test Site, Japanese Village, Area 4, Yucca Flat, 4-04 Road near Rainier Mesa Road, Mercury, Nye County, NV

  19. 10 CFR 63.202 - Definitions for Subpart K.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... REPOSITORY AT YUCCA MOUNTAIN, NEVADA Preclosure Public Health and Environmental Standards § 63.202 Definitions for Subpart K. General environment means everywhere outside the Yucca Mountain site, the Nellis... material with the intent or capability to readily access or retrieve such material. Yucca Mountain...

  20. 10 CFR 63.202 - Definitions for Subpart K.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... REPOSITORY AT YUCCA MOUNTAIN, NEVADA Preclosure Public Health and Environmental Standards § 63.202 Definitions for Subpart K. General environment means everywhere outside the Yucca Mountain site, the Nellis... material with the intent or capability to readily access or retrieve such material. Yucca Mountain...

  1. "I Saw All That": A Lakota Girl's Puberty Ceremony.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bol, Marsha C.; Menard, Nellie Z. Star Boy

    2000-01-01

    Draws on the memoirs of Nellie Menard, Lakota archives, and other published materials to describe the traditional puberty ceremonies held for Lakota girls. Discusses the practice of seclusion, during which an elderly woman instructed the girl in appropriate behavior and women's crafts; the initiate's new social status; the ball-throwing ceremony;…

  2. Recreational kayak visitor use, distribution, and financial value of beaches in western Prince William Sound, Alaska, between 1987-1998

    Treesearch

    Paul Twardock; Christopher Monz

    2000-01-01

    Visitor use data was collected for the years 1987 to 1998 from sea kayak guide/outfitters, charter boats, lodges and rental businesses operating in western Prince William Sound, Alaska. The majority of the Sound is part of the Chugach National Forest and includes the 2.1 million-acre Nellie Juan Wilderness Study Area, where most recreational use examined in this study...

  3. Multiple Pathways for All Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stirling, Lee Anna

    2012-01-01

    Maine has been focusing on the importance of postsecondary training. Maine's Skowhegan Area High School (SAHS) and Somerset Career and Technical Center (SCTC) have partnered in a Multiple Pathways initiative (funded by the Nellie Mae Education Foundation) to increase students' high school completion rate and to increase enrollment in postsecondary…

  4. Commentary on Carnoy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arnove, Robert F.; Stromquist, Nelly P.; Fox, Christine; Levin, Henry M.; Masemann, Vandra Lea; Epstein, Erwin H.

    2006-01-01

    This article presents a brief critical commentary on Martin Carnoy's presidential address from Robert F. Arnove, Nelly P. Stromquist, Christine Fox, Henry M. Levin, Vandra Lea Masemann, and Erwin H. Epstein. Among other things, Arnove finds particularly useful Carnoy's recommendations on ways to engage in comparative education research, from…

  5. Symptom development in response to combined infection of in vitro grown Lilium longiflorum with the root lesion nematode Pratylenchus penetrans and soilborne fungi collected from diseased roots of field-grown lilies

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Eight fungal isolates (ELRF 1-8) were isolated from necrotic roots of Lilium longiflorum cv. Nellie White (Easter lily) grown in a field in the U.S. Pacific Northwest. The eight fungal isolates were identified by sequencing and molecular phylogenetic analyses based on their ITS rDNA region. Five iso...

  6. Transgene expression of lilies grown in the greenhouse and outdoors

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Lilium longiflorum cv. Nellie White plants were transformed with either the bar-uidA fusion gene or the npt II and uidA genes and grown for two seasons in the greenhouse and outdoors in containers. All transgenes were under control of the CaMV 35S promoter. During the first year there was no differ...

  7. Our Most Valuable Population: The Case for Disconnected Young Adults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Donohue, Nicholas C.

    2009-01-01

    In May, President Obama stated the need for every American to have at least one year of postsecondary education. That sentiment echoes the Nellie Mae Education Foundation's 2008 report, "What It Takes to Succeed in the 21st Century--and How New Englanders Are Faring." The report cites a growing consensus that reveals the minimum…

  8. "Celebrate Women's History": Coloring Poster Activity Booklet.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ruthsdotter, Mary

    This booklet contains biographical information about Bessie Coleman, Nellie Bly, Gertrude Ederle, Sojourner Truth, Chien-Shiung Wu, Yoshiko Uchida, Madam C. J. Walker, Maria Martinez, Jovita Idar, Margaret Bourke-White, Sally Ride, and Sybil Ludington. These women are noted for their important contributions to United States history. It is hoped…

  9. Cytological changes of Easter lily (Lilium longiflorum) upon root lesion nematode (Pratylenchus penetrans) infection

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Lilium longiflorum cv. Nellie White, commonly known as Easter lily, is an important floral crop with an annual wholesale value of over $26 million in the U.S. The root lesion nematode (RLN), Pratylenchus penetrans, is a major pest of lily due to the significant root damage it causes. In this study w...

  10. Sm-Nd study of the Sudbury Complex, Ontario

    SciTech Connect

    Faggart, B.E. Jr.; Basu, A.R.; Tatsumoto, M.

    1985-01-01

    Sm-Nd systematics of sixteen whole-rock samples from traverses across the North and South Ranges of the Sudbury Complex, Ontario, Canada were determined. Ten mineral separates from five of these rocks were also analyzed. An internal mineral isochron age of 1840 +/- 21 m.y. with an initial /sup 143/Nd//sup 144/Nd of 0.50986 +/- 4 was obtained for the crystallization of the norite of the Lower Irruptive. This age is in agreement with two high-precision U-Pb dates obtained from zircons in the same unit by other investigators. Within the Complex, Sm concentration values ranged from 14 to 62 times chondritic value in samples of norite and quartz diorite, respectively. Nd concentrations extended from 32 to 161 times that of chondrite with the values for the micropegmatite consistently averaging higher than those for the norite. Initial epsilon Nd values at 1840 m.y. range from -6.98 for a norite sample to -8.83 for a quartz diorite sample from the sublayer, thus falling on the crustal evolution trend of Nd as represented by Australian shales. The overall REE patterns for Sudbury samples also show a strong similarity to the REE abundances of upper crustal rocks. These data suggest that the Sudbury Complex originated entirely from the melting of crustal rocks by way of asteroid impact.

  11. Siderophile and volatile trace elements in 72255 and 72275. [meteoritic and igneous composition of lunar rocks

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Morgan, J. W.; Ganapathy, R.; Higuchi, H.; Anders, E.

    1974-01-01

    Of six samples from boulder 1 at Station 2, four contain a unique meteoritic component, which is attributed to the Crisium projectile. The other two samples are meteorite free, igneous rocks: an unusual, alkali- and Ge-rich pigeonitic basalt, and an alkali-poor norite of unexceptional trace element chemistry.

  12. Possible petrogenetic associations among igneous components in North Massif soils: Evidence in 2-4 MM soil particles from 76503

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jolliff, Bradley L.; Bishop, Kaylynn M.; Haskin, Larry A.

    1992-12-01

    Studies of Apollo 17 highland igneous rocks and clasts in breccias from the North and South Massifs have described magnesian troctolite, norite, anorthositic gabbro, dunite, spinel cataclasites, and granulitic lithologies that may have noritic anothosite or anorthositic norite/gabbro as igneous precursors, and have speculated on possible petrogenetic relationships among these rock types. Mineral compositions and relative proportions of plagioclase and plagioclase-olivine particles in samples 76503 indicate that the precursor lithology of those particles were troctolitic anorthosite, not troctolite. Mineral and chemical compositions of more pyroxene-rich, magnesian breccias and granulites in 76503 indicate that their precursor lithology was anorthositic norite/gabbro. The combination of mineral compositions and whole-rock trace-element compositional trends supports a genetic relationship among these two groups as would result from differentiation of a single pluton. Although highland igneous lithologies in Apollo 17 materials have been described previously, the proportions of different igneous lithologies present in the massifs, their frequency of association, and how they are related are not well known. We consider the proportions of, and associations among, the igneous lithologies found in a North Massif soil, which may represent those of the North Massif or a major part of it.

  13. Distribution of materials excavated by the lunar crater Bullialdus and implications for the geologic history of the Nubium region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tompkins, Stefanie; Pieters, Carle M.; Mustard, John F.; Pinet, Patrick; Chevrel, Serge D.

    1994-08-01

    Previous spectroscopic studies of the lunar crater Bullialdus, located in the Nubium Basin, indicated an unusual stratigraphy of two gabbroic layers overlying a noritic unit. The possible existence of a layered mafic pluton at Bullialdus was suggested. To investigate the geologic context with more detailed spatial information, charge-coupled device (CCD) images of Bullialdus were obtained using eight filters. A linear mixing model was used to investigate the fractional abundances of spectral end-members chosen from within the multispectral image. Since the reflectance properties of lunar materials over this wavelength range are sensitive to variations in composition and soil maturity, fractional abundance images were used to create a new geologic map of the crater. The spatial relationships of the surface materials confirm the previously inferred stratigraphy, and further reveal the central peaks to exhibit two distinct compositional units: noritic anorthosite and anorthositic norite. Three models for the origin of the observed stratigraphy are considered: Bullialdus has excavated stratigraphic units containing (1) early mare basalt overlying anorthositic-noritic crustal material, (2) part of a layered mafic pluton, and/or (3) part of an impact melt sheet formed by the Nubium Basin impact event.

  14. Insight into the adsorption of PPCPs by porous adsorbents: Effect of the properties of adsorbents and adsorbates.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Zengyin; Xie, Jiawen; Zhang, Mancheng; Zhou, Qing; Liu, Fuqiang

    2016-07-01

    Adsorption is an efficient method for removal of pharmaceuticals and personal care products (PPCPs). Magnetic resins are efficient adsorbents for water treatment and exhibit potential for PPCP removal. In this study, the magnetic hypercrosslinked resin Q100 was used for adsorption of PPCPs. The adsorption behavior of this resin was compared with those of two activated carbons, namely, Norit and F400D. Norit exhibited the fastest adsorption kinetics, followed by Q100. Norit featured a honeycomb shape and long-range ordered pore channels, which facilitated the diffusion of PPCPs. Moreover, the large average pore size of Q100 reduced diffusion resistance. The adsorbed amounts of 11 PPCPs on the three adsorbents increased with increasing adsorbate hydrophobicity. For Q100, a significant linear correlation was observed between the adsorption performance for PPCPs and hydrophobicity (logD value) of adsorbates (R(2) = 0.8951); as such, PPCPs with high logD values (>1.69) could be efficiently removed. Compared with those of Norit and F400D, the adsorption performance of Q100 was less affected by humic acid because of the dominant hydrophobic interaction. Furthermore, Q100 showed improved regeneration performance, which renders it promising for PPCP removal in practical applications. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Distribution of materials excavated by the lunar crater Bullialdus and implications for the geologic history of the Nubium region

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tompkins, Stefanie; Pieters, Carle M.; Mustard, John F.; Pinet, Patrick; Chevrel, Serge D.

    1994-01-01

    Previous spectroscopic studies of the lunar crater Bullialdus, located in the Nubium Basin, indicated an unusual stratigraphy of two gabbroic layers overlying a noritic unit. The possible existence of a layered mafic pluton at Bullialdus was suggested. To investigate the geologic context with more detailed spatial information, charge-coupled device (CCD) images of Bullialdus were obtained using eight filters. A linear mixing model was used to investigate the fractional abundances of spectral end-members chosen from within the multispectral image. Since the reflectance properties of lunar materials over this wavelength range are sensitive to variations in composition and soil maturity, fractional abundance images were used to create a new geologic map of the crater. The spatial relationships of the surface materials confirm the previously inferred stratigraphy, and further reveal the central peaks to exhibit two distinct compositional units: noritic anorthosite and anorthositic norite. Three models for the origin of the observed stratigraphy are considered: Bullialdus has excavated stratigraphic units containing (1) early mare basalt overlying anorthositic-noritic crustal material, (2) part of a layered mafic pluton, and/or (3) part of an impact melt sheet formed by the Nubium Basin impact event.

  16. Possible petrogenetic associations among igneous components in North Massif soils: Evidence in 2-4 mm soil particles from 76503

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jolliff, Bradley L.; Bishop, Kaylynn M.; Haskin, Larry A.

    1992-01-01

    Studies of Apollo 17 highland igneous rocks and clasts in breccias from the North and South Massifs have described magnesian troctolite, norite, anorthositic gabbro, dunite, spinel cataclasites, and granulitic lithologies that may have noritic anothosite or anorthositic norite/gabbro as igneous precursors, and have speculated on possible petrogenetic relationships among these rock types. Mineral compositions and relative proportions of plagioclase and plagioclase-olivine particles in samples 76503 indicate that the precursor lithology of those particles were troctolitic anorthosite, not troctolite. Mineral and chemical compositions of more pyroxene-rich, magnesian breccias and granulites in 76503 indicate that their precursor lithology was anorthositic norite/gabbro. The combination of mineral compositions and whole-rock trace-element compositional trends supports a genetic relationship among these two groups as would result from differentiation of a single pluton. Although highland igneous lithologies in Apollo 17 materials have been described previously, the proportions of different igneous lithologies present in the massifs, their frequency of association, and how they are related are not well known. We consider the proportions of, and associations among, the igneous lithologies found in a North Massif soil, which may represent those of the North Massif or a major part of it.

  17. NOVEL OXIDANT FOR ELEMENTAL MERCURY CONTROL FROM FLUE GAS

    EPA Science Inventory

    A novel economical oxidant has been developed for elemental mercury (Hg(0)) removal from coal-fired boilers. The oxidant was rigorously tested in a lab-scale fixed-bed system with the Norit America's FGD activated carbon (DOE's benchmark sorbent) in a typical PRB subbituminous/l...

  18. NOVEL ECONOMICAL HG(0) OXIDATION REAGENT FOR MERCURY EMISSIONS CONTROL FROM COAL-FIRED BOILERS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The authors have developed a novel economical additive for elemental mercury (Hg0) removal from coal-fired boilers. The oxidation reagent was rigorously tested in a lab-scale fixed-bed column with the Norit America's FGD activated carbon (DOE's benchmark sorbent) in a typical PRB...

  19. NOVEL ECONOMICAL HG(0) OXIDATION REAGENT FOR MERCURY EMISSIONS CONTROL FROM COAL-FIRED BOILERS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The authors have developed a novel economical additive for elemental mercury (Hg0) removal from coal-fired boilers. The oxidation reagent was rigorously tested in a lab-scale fixed-bed column with the Norit America's FGD activated carbon (DOE's benchmark sorbent) in a typical PRB...

  20. NOVEL OXIDANT FOR ELEMENTAL MERCURY CONTROL FROM FLUE GAS

    EPA Science Inventory

    A novel economical oxidant has been developed for elemental mercury (Hg(0)) removal from coal-fired boilers. The oxidant was rigorously tested in a lab-scale fixed-bed system with the Norit America's FGD activated carbon (DOE's benchmark sorbent) in a typical PRB subbituminous/l...

  1. Special Advanced Studies for Pollution Prevention. Delivery Order 0058: "The Monitor" - Fall 1999

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2001-04-01

    any purpose other than Government procurement does not in any way obligate the U.S. Government. The fact that the Government formulated or supplied...AFB Moody AFB Mountain Home AFB Nellis AFB Offutt AFB Seymour Johnson AFB Paul F. Ebersbach Sue Landry Greg Miller Daniel A. Barnett John Thompson...5804’ -@*A )* C<( EPA AND ENVIROSMART PRODUCTS COMPANY SIGN AGREEMENT TO DEVELOP SAFER DETERGENTS AND CLEANERS 4

  2. Insurgent Design: The Re-Emergence of Al-Qaida from 9/11 to the Present

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-12-01

    organization change, organization design, state formation, terrorism 15. NUMBER OF PAGES 81 16. PRICE CODE 17. SECURITY CLASSIFICATION OF...Drone: How America’s War on Terror Became a Global War on Tribal Islam (New York, NY: HarperCollins, 2013); Nelly Lahoud, The Jihadis’ Path to Self...Divisions within Al-Qa’ida and Its Periphery, ed. Assaf Moghadam and Brian Fishman (West Point, NY: Combating Terrorism Center, 2010), 45-68. 4 This

  3. Defense AT&L (Volume 36, Number 6, November-December 2007)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-12-01

    photovoltaic array at Nellis AFB. The Navy is fa- cilitating a new geothermal electricity generation plant at Naval Air Station Fallon and...that is, installations with a plant replacement value in excess of $100 million) and 24 major realignments (400 or more net reduction of military...included the largest use of solar power in a housing development ever attempted. Those are just a few of the many initiatives the installations and

  4. Defense Infrastructure: DOD has Made Limited Progress in Assessing Foreign Encroachment Risks on Federally Managed Land

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2016-04-13

    encroachment concerns as urban growth around the ranges; competition for radio frequencies or airspace; air pollution ; noise pollution ; unexploded...the United States. For example, the U.S. Air Force Nevada Test and Training Range at Nellis Air Force Base, Nevada; the U.S. Army National Training...Center at Ft. Irwin, California; the U.S. Marine Corps Air Ground Combat Center at Twentynine Palms, California; and the U.S. Navy Fallon Range

  5. Merging the Tribes: Streamlining DoD’s Acquisition of Unmanned Aerial Systems

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2006-02-10

    Predator was piloted by United States Air Force Major Shannon Rogers and his crew, located halfway around the world at Nellis AFB, Nevada. After...tracking the vehicle for over two hours, Major Rogers was finally given permission to destroy the vehicle: Just as Rogers pushed the button to let fly one...34Stay on the target and hope he drives fast," said Rogers coolly. The car passed, and the truck exploded violently when the Hellfire struck. Rogers let

  6. Cutting the Cord: Discrimination and Command Responsibility in Autonomous Lethal Weapons

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-02-13

    C2) architecture, increase economies of scale through cooperative swarms, reduce the psychological stresses affecting RPA pilots by their...to human 180°x 90° binocular vision, but our distant vision is poor by any standard of optics. Modern optical sights can see over many miles and may...Nellis Air Force Base 57 th Wing, “MQ-1 Predator Fast Facts,” (September 2004). Smell, taste and touch are not addressed as they are not

  7. Encroachment/Sustainability Technologies Workshop: December 9-10, 2004

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2005-10-01

    agencies for the management of sensitive resources: • Merriam’s Bearpaw Poppy - a desert wildflower restricted to southern Nevada and adjacent regions of... California that formally was listed as a can- didate threatened species. As part of the Air Force’s botanical inventory work at Nellis Range...05-34 Since 1996, about $675K is spent annually for conservation and management pro- grams for both the California least tern and the western snowy

  8. Beating Terrorism without Bullets. Air Force Civil Engineer, Volume 13, Number 01, 2005

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2005-01-01

    rebuilt schools and clinics following devastating earthquakes in El Salvador . This “out-of- the box” method of fulfilling the annual two-week training...Gaddey, 99th Medical Squadron, Nellis AFB, Nev., level concrete for a new school’s foundation in Tecoluca, El Salvador . Center, left: SrA Brandon...cut bricks that an El Salvadoran Army soldier (right) will use for the walls of a new school in Tecoluca, El Salvador . (top & bottom photos by SSgt

  9. The Application of the Computer Supported Network Analysis System (CSNAS) to Acquisition Management as Applied to the Precision Location Strike System (PLSS).

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1986-09-01

    required for the tasks on their respective schedules (7:1). Development. Information presented during a February 1986 CSb4AS training session...to the primary mission equipment, training and training equipment, special test equipment, spares, supplies, support equipment, technical orders...hour take-down/set-up time and a training / contingency deployment version of the CPS located at Nellis AFB, Nevada (28:6). Aircraft Mission Subsystem

  10. Using Large Group Displays to Support Intensive Team Activities in C2

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-06-01

    Organization (DSTO) Edinburgh, PO Box 1500, Edinburgh SA 511 Australia (*) E-mail: : Point of contact information Denis.Gouin@drdc...Experiment (JEFX) 2004 exercises at Nellis Air Operations Center ( Darling & Means, 2005). This work echoes many of the considerations and challenges of...they use. For example, the DataWall evaluations ( Darling & Means, 2005) highlighted the need to use the displays to: “provide activity awareness to

  11. The Air Land Sea Bulletin. Issue No. 2204-1, January 2004

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2004-01-01

    fratricide prevention. Current Status: Will be combined with ALSA JSEAD pub. Final Coordination Draft in world wide review. POC: Team A: alsaa ...US) Version Released Dec 03 POC: Team A alsaa @langley.af.mil 21 ALSB 2004-1 Current as of: 1/23/2004 ALSA PROJECTS UPDATE CURRENT ALSA...at Nellis AGOS, 3-6 Feb 04 POC: Team A alsaa @langley.af.mil 13. JAOC / AAMDC: Multi- Service Procedures for Joint Air Operations Center and

  12. Natural Gas Engine-Driven Heat Pump Demonstration at DoD Installations: Performance and Reliability Summary

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-06-09

    and outdoor air temperatures during the hottest time of the year; taken form GHP 19 (Nellis AFB) during early July 2007...Ambient Air Temperature Air Side COP (UNIT) Figure 22. Typical COP and outdoor air temperatures during the hottest time of the year; taken form GHP 19...conclusions. During that period, the aver- age outdoor air temperature was 51˚F, with the coldest extreme tempera- ture of 21˚F occurring at the Fort

  13. The Joe 2010 Joint Operating Environment

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-02-18

    in biofuels as well as the discovery of massive oil deposits off the Brazilian coast will increase its energy independence, while a growing...ranges of the National Training Center, Twenty-Nine Palms , Fallon, and Nellis were just beginning to change U.S. preparations for war. Precision attack...the second largest source of hard currency after the sale of oil . These flows of money are generally resilient in economic downturns and add a measure

  14. Supporting Air and Space Expeditionary Forces: Analysis of CONUS Centralized Intermediate Repair Facilities

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2008-01-01

    Florida) AFMC/ ACCa 2 6 Andrews ANG (Maryland) ANG 18 0 Buckley ANG (Colorado) ANG 18 0 Dannelly Field ANG (Alabama) ANG 18 0 Des Moines ANG (Iowa) ANG...A B Mountain Home AFB ACC 18 24 Seymour-Johnson AFB ACC 87 Langley AFB ACC 18 Nellis AFB ACC 39 8 10 17 Eglin AFB AFMC/ ACCa 8 8 3 Tyndall AFB AETC 48

  15. A Hyper-Heuristic Ensemble Method for Static Job-Shop Scheduling.

    PubMed

    Hart, Emma; Sim, Kevin

    2016-01-01

    We describe a new hyper-heuristic method NELLI-GP for solving job-shop scheduling problems (JSSP) that evolves an ensemble of heuristics. The ensemble adopts a divide-and-conquer approach in which each heuristic solves a unique subset of the instance set considered. NELLI-GP extends an existing ensemble method called NELLI by introducing a novel heuristic generator that evolves heuristics composed of linear sequences of dispatching rules: each rule is represented using a tree structure and is itself evolved. Following a training period, the ensemble is shown to outperform both existing dispatching rules and a standard genetic programming algorithm on a large set of new test instances. In addition, it obtains superior results on a set of 210 benchmark problems from the literature when compared to two state-of-the-art hyper-heuristic approaches. Further analysis of the relationship between heuristics in the evolved ensemble and the instances each solves provides new insights into features that might describe similar instances.

  16. Outbreak of campylobacteriosis associated with a long-distance obstacle adventure race--Nevada, October 2012.

    PubMed

    Zeigler, Mariah; Claar, Chad; Rice, Daviesha; Davis, Jack; Frazier, Tammy; Turner, Alex; Kelley, Corinna; Capps, Jonathan; Kent, Andrea; Hubbard, Valerie; Ritenour, Christiana; Tuscano, Cristina; Qiu-Shultz, Zuwen; Leaumont, Collette Fitzgerald

    2014-05-02

    On October 12, 2012, the Nellis Air Force Base Public Health Flight (Nellis Public Health), near Las Vegas, Nevada, was notified by the Mike O'Callaghan Federal Medical Center (MOFMC) emergency department (ED) of three active-duty military patients who went to the ED during October 10-12 with fever, vomiting, and hemorrhagic diarrhea. Initial interviews by clinical staff members indicated that all three patients had participated October 6-7 in a long-distance obstacle adventure race on a cattle ranch in Beatty, Nevada, in which competitors frequently fell face first into mud or had their heads submerged in surface water. An investigation by Nellis Public Health, coordinated with local and state health officials, identified 22 cases (18 probable and four confirmed) of Campylobacter coli infection among active-duty service members and civilians. A case-control study using data provided by patients and healthy persons who also had participated in the race showed a statistically significant association between inadvertent swallowing of muddy surface water during the race and Campylobacter infection (odds ratio = 19.4; p<0.001). Public health agencies and adventure race organizers should consider informing race attendees of the hazards of inadvertent ingestion of surface water.

  17. Apollo 16 rocks - Petrology and classification.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wilshire, H. G.; Stuart-Alexander, D. E.; Jackson, E. D.

    1973-01-01

    The Apollo 16 rocks are classified in three broad intergradational groups: (1) crystalline rocks, subdivided into igneous rocks and metaclastic rocks, (2) glass, and (3) breccias, which are subdivided into five groups on the basis of clast and matrix colors. Most of the rocks were derived by impact brecciation of an anorthosite-norite suite but may represent ejecta from more than one major basin. First-cycle breccias are believed to have consisted of clasts of crushed anorthosite-norite in a fine-grained partly fused matrix with a chemical composition similar to that of the clasts. Most of the other recognized breccia types could have been produced by rebrecciation of first-cycle breccias.

  18. Geochemistry of lunar crustal rocks from breccia 67016 and the composition of the moon

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Norman, Marc D.; Taylor, Stuart R.

    1992-01-01

    The geochemistry of anorthositic clasts from an Apollo 16 breccia 67016 is studied in order to investigate the role of these rock types in lunar crustal evolution. The samples have aluminous, alkali-poor compositions and varied FeO and MgO contents. Three compositional groups are recognized. One group is poor in mafic constituents with low abundances of lithophile trace elements typical of lunar anorthosites, while the other two groups are more mafic and are distinguished from each other by FeO/MgO ratios greater than one in the case of ferroan noritic and less than one in the case of magnesian troctolitic. These mafic-enriched varieties have considerably higher lithophile element concentrations, at levels similar to that of the bulk lunar crust. The ferroan noritic clasts may represent a fundamental type of igneous rock in the lunar crust which has not been widely recognized.

  19. Compositional stratigraphy of crustal material from near-infrared spectra

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pieters, Carle M.

    1987-01-01

    An Earth-based telescopic program to acquire near-infrared spectra of freshly exposed lunar material now contains data for 17 large impact craters with central peaks. Noritic, gabbroic, anorthositic and troctolitic rock types can be distinguished for areas within these large craters from characteristic absorptions in individual spectra of their walls and central peaks. Norites dominate the upper lunar crust while the deeper crustal zones also contain significant amounts of gabbros and anorthosites. Data for material associated with large craters indicate that not only is the lunar crust highly heterogeneous across the nearside, but that the compositional stratigraphy of the lunar crust is nonuniform. Crustal complexity should be expected for other planetary bodies, which should be studied using high spatial and spectral resolution data in and around large impact craters.

  20. Time and duration of lunar highlands crust formation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Carlson, R. W.; Lugmair, G. W.

    1981-01-01

    Due to remaining uncertainties in model parameters and assumptions in the calculation of model ages, it is not yet possible to resolve the precise dating and duration of lunar crust-mantle differentiation phenomena. Norites 78236 and 73255,27,45 were examined utilizing the Sm-Nd radiometric system. The systematics of 78236 show post-crystallization disturbance but indicate a crystallization date 4.34 AE ago. An isochron is defined by the 73255,27,45 data, with a crystallization date of 4.23 AE. The initial Nd isotopic composition of both norites is within uncertainty limits for a 'chondritic' reference reservoir at the time of their respective crystallizations. The implications for lunar crustal formation persisting over a time span of nearly 350 million years are discussed.

  1. New observations on the quartz monzodiorite-granite suite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marvin, U. B.; Holmberg, B. B.; Lindstrom, M. M.; Martinez, R. R.

    Five new fragments of quartz monzodiorite (QMD) were identified in particles from soil 15403, which was collected from the boulder sampled as rock 15405, an impact-melt breccia containing clasts of KREEP basalt, QMD, granite, and a more primitive alkali norite. Petrographic and geochemical studies of the fragments show considerable variation in modal proportions and bulk composition. This heterogeneity is due to unrepresentative sampling in small fragments of coarse-grained rocks. Variations in the proportions of accessory minerals have marked effects on incompatible-trace-element concentrations and ratios. Semiquantitative calculations support the derivation of QMD from 60-percent fractional crystallization of a KREEP basalt magma as suggested by Hess (1989). Apollo 15 KREEP basalt cannot be the actual parent magma because the evolved rocks predate volcanic KREEP basalts. It is suggested that ancient KREEP basalt magmas have crystallized as plutons, with alkali norite clasts offering the only direct evidence of this precursor.

  2. New observations on the quartz monzodiorite-granite suite. [in lunar soil

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Marvin, U. B.; Holmberg, B. B.; Lindstrom, M. M.; Martinez, R. R.

    1991-01-01

    Five new fragments of quartz monzodiorite (QMD) were identified in particles from soil 15403, which was collected from the boulder sampled as rock 15405, an impact-melt breccia containing clasts of KREEP basalt, QMD, granite, and a more primitive alkali norite. Petrographic and geochemical studies of the fragments show considerable variation in modal proportions and bulk composition. This heterogeneity is due to unrepresentative sampling in small fragments of coarse-grained rocks. Variations in the proportions of accessory minerals have marked effects on incompatible-trace-element concentrations and ratios. Semiquantitative calculations support the derivation of QMD from 60-percent fractional crystallization of a KREEP basalt magma as suggested by Hess (1989). Apollo 15 KREEP basalt cannot be the actual parent magma because the evolved rocks predate volcanic KREEP basalts. It is suggested that ancient KREEP basalt magmas have crystallized as plutons, with alkali norite clasts offering the only direct evidence of this precursor.

  3. Catalytic reduction of SO{sub 2} with methane over molybdenum catalyst. Quarterly technical report, September 1, 1994--November 30, 1994

    SciTech Connect

    Wiltowski, T.

    1995-03-01

    One of the primary concerns in coal utilization is the emission of sulfur compounds, especially SO{sub 2}. This project deals with catalytic reduction of SO{sub 2} with methane using molybdenum sulfide catalyst supported on different activated carbons: Darco TRS, Norit ROZ-3, and an activated carbon prepared from Illinois coal IBC-110. The work conducted during this quarter has concentrated on catalyst preparation and characterization along with synthesis of activated carbon from IBC-110 coal, as well as, construction of the apparatus for catalytic tests of SO{sub 2} reduction with methane. It was found that Darco TRS supported catalysts have larger surface area than the pure activated carbon, whereas the impregnation of Norit ROZ-3 did not significantly change the BET surface area. Also, the synthesis of activated carbon support from IBC-110 is in progress.

  4. Detection of T-2 Toxin by a Modified Radioimmunoassay.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1982-08-06

    trichothecenes tested only H T-2 cross-reacted significantlv (10.3%). .’I 4 .p *1P ° S- 3 The occurrence of mycotoxins in nature depends on such factors as...other trichothecene mycotoxins were purchased from Calbiochem-Behringer Corporation, La Jolla, Cal., and Mycolabs Company, Chesterfield, Mo...Sigma Chemicals Corporation, St. Louis, 1o.) to 1.25 g neutral Norit A Charcoal (Siema). Distilled water was added to a final volume of 50 ml. The

  5. A summary of the petrology and geochemistry of pristine highlands rocks

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Norman, M. D.; Ryder, G.

    1979-01-01

    The petrology and geochemistry of pristine lunar highlands rock samples consisting of ferroan anorthosites, norites, troctolites, spinel troctolites/dunite/lherzolite, and KREEP, are described. In addition, petrographic and chemical evidence is presented which shows that low-siderophile rocks are the result of endogenous igneous activity and not impact melt differentiation. For example, these rocks contain Fe-metal as a late-crystallizing phase, and have W/La ratios higher than polymict breccias.

  6. Apollo 17, Station 6 boulder sample 76255 - Absolute petrology of breccia matrix and igneous clasts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Warner, J. L.; Phinney, W. C.; Simonds, C. H.

    1976-01-01

    The matrix of 76255 is the finest-grained, most clast-laden, impact-melt polymict breccia sampled from the Station 6 boulder. The paper speculates on how the matrix of 76255 fits into and enhances existing thermal models of breccia lithification. Emphasis is on the detailed petrology of five lithic clasts, two of which display mineralogical and textural affinities to mare basalts, while three, a gabbro, a norite, and a troctolite are considered primitive plutonic rocks.

  7. Geometries of deformed granitoid inclusions in the Sudbury Igneous Complex of the Sudbury Impact Structure, Canada: Evidence for deformation during solidification of the impact melt sheet

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lenauer, Iris; Riller, Ulrich

    2010-05-01

    The Main Mass of the 1.85 Ga Sudbury Igneous Complex (SIC) occupies the central portion of the Sudbury Impact Structure and represents an impact melt sheet that resulted from hypervelocity impact into Archaean and Proterozoic target rocks. During cooling, the ca. 3 km thick melt sheet differentiated into layers of norite, quartz gabbro and granophyre and now hosts one of the world's largest Cu-Ni-PGE deposits. Meteorite impact occurred apparently during an ongoing orogeny, i.e., the ca. 1.89 to 1.80 Ga Penokean orogeny. However, structural evidence for this is still sparse Dike-like, granitoid inclusions are exposed in the norite layer of the southern SIC. Here, sub-planar inclusions are folded and characterized by axial-planar cleavage. More specifically, fold mullions of the granitoid inclusions formed by layer-parallel NNW-SSE shortening. Cuspate-lobate geometries of the inclusion interfaces indicate that the granitoid inclusions were mechanically more competent than the norite host rock during ductile deformation of both lithologies. The contrast in mechanical strength between granitoid inclusions and norite host rock indicates ductile deformation at high temperature and low strain rates in the unconsolidated melt sheet. Shortening directions inferred from the geometry of the inclusions agree with those obtained from inversion of brittle-ductile faults from the same area, geometry of deformation in the metasedimentary strata of the Proterozoic target rocks and l-s mylonitic fabrics developed in the granophyre layer of the SIC and the overlying impact melt breccias. Collectively, these structural characteristics indicate that orogenic deformation in the Sudbury area occurred during cooling and solidification of the impact melt sheet.

  8. Apollo 17, Station 6 boulder sample 76255 - Absolute petrology of breccia matrix and igneous clasts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Warner, J. L.; Phinney, W. C.; Simonds, C. H.

    1976-01-01

    The matrix of 76255 is the finest-grained, most clast-laden, impact-melt polymict breccia sampled from the Station 6 boulder. The paper speculates on how the matrix of 76255 fits into and enhances existing thermal models of breccia lithification. Emphasis is on the detailed petrology of five lithic clasts, two of which display mineralogical and textural affinities to mare basalts, while three, a gabbro, a norite, and a troctolite are considered primitive plutonic rocks.

  9. Petrology of 60035 - Evolution of a polymict ANT breccia

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Warner, R. D.; Taylor, G. J.; Keil, K.

    1980-01-01

    Extensive analysis of the lunar rock sample 60035 with optical microscopy and electron microprobe methods show it to be a polymict ANT breccia partly coated with glass, containing abundant clasts which have troctolitic/noritic anorthosite compositions. At least two episodes of crushing and mixing were involved in the petrogenesis of 60035, and annealing and mineral equilibration have not been extensive since the formation of the breccia.

  10. Characterization of crust formation on a parent body of achondrites and the moon by pyroxene crystallography and chemistry

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Takeda, H.; Miyamoto, M.; Ishii, T.; Reid, A. M.

    1976-01-01

    Single crystal X-ray diffraction and electron microprobe techniques were used to study lunar crustal pyroxenes in a cataclastic norite, a pyroxene-rich clast, and anorthosite lunar samples, and also in meteorites including diogenites, eucrites, and the Yamoto (1) howardite. The crystallographic and chemical characteristics of pyroxenes in these materials are compared and are discussed in terms of the lower stability limit of pigeonite. A mechanical mixing model of howardite is proposed.

  11. Chemical Properties of the Fullerenes

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1993-11-01

    fullerenes’ , a new form of elemental carbon . Fullerenes have potential application as novel sorbent materials to enhance the adsorption capabilities for...and multicomponent UV-visible absorption. We have also employed the separation method of Tour et a3, using Norit A decolorizing carbon as the...strength of the carbon - carbon bonds in Co is 453 l/mole. The absorption spectrum of C, gas in equilibrium with the solid was reco)rded between 500 and

  12. A Summary of the Geology of Eastern Massachusetts,

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1975-07-01

    mapped. The predominate igneous rocks are granite and granodiorite. Other igneous rocks mapped are syenites , volcanics and gabbrodiorities. Outcrops of...Gra. Gra. Acton Gra. W Holl ow Dio. Ayer Gra. ket Qtz. Dio. Dracut Norite Beverly Worcester Phyll. Syenite includes Brim- Nasr.oba FM Wam-tta FM 1...Bevr,rly Syenite ttanan Vol Dedham et al ron Syen Mattawan Vole. Granodio Marlboro FM Andover Gre et al Naphoba FM Dedham Granodio Marl.boro FM Cherry

  13. Petrology of 60035 - Evolution of a polymict ANT breccia

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Warner, R. D.; Taylor, G. J.; Keil, K.

    1980-01-01

    Extensive analysis of the lunar rock sample 60035 with optical microscopy and electron microprobe methods show it to be a polymict ANT breccia partly coated with glass, containing abundant clasts which have troctolitic/noritic anorthosite compositions. At least two episodes of crushing and mixing were involved in the petrogenesis of 60035, and annealing and mineral equilibration have not been extensive since the formation of the breccia.

  14. Petrology of gabbroic xenoliths in 1960 Kilauea basalt: crystalline remnants of prior (1955) magmatism

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Fodor, R.V.; Moore, R.B.

    1994-01-01

    The 1960 Kapoho lavas of Kilauea's east rift zone contain 1-10 cm xenoliths of olivine gabbro, olivine gabbro-norite, and gabbro norite. Textures are poikilitic (ol+sp+cpx in pl) and intergranular (cpx+pl??ol??opx). Poikilitic xenoliths, which we interpret as cumulates, have the most primitive mineral compositions, Fo82.5, cpx Mg# 86.5, and An80.5. Many granular xenoliths (ol and noritic gabbro) contain abundant vesicular glass that gives them intersertal, hyaloophitic, and overall 'open' textures to suggest that they represent 'mush' and 'crust' of a magma crystallization environment. Their phase compositions are more evolved (Fo80-70, cpx Mg# 82-75, and An73-63) than those of the poikilitic xenoliths. Associated glass is basaltic, but evolved (MgO 5 wt%; TiO2 3.7-5.8 wt%). The gabbroic xenolith mineral compositions fit existing fractional crystallization models that relate the origins of various Kilauea lavas to one another. FeO/MgO crystal-liquid partitioning is consistent with the poikilitic ol-gabbro assemblage forming as a crystallization product from Kilauea summit magma with ???8 wt% MgO that was parental to evolved lavas on the east rift zone. For example, least squares calculations link summit magmas to early 1955 rift-zone lavas (???5 wt% MgO) through ???28-34% crystallization of the ol+sp+cpx+pl that comprise the poikilitic ol-gabbros. The other ol-gabbro assemblages and the olivine gabbro-norite assemblages crystallized from evolved liquids, such as represented by the early 1955 and late 1955 lavas (???6.5 wt% MgO) of the east rift zone. The eruption of 1960 Kapoho magmas, then, scoured the rift-zone reservoir system to entrain portions of cumulate and solidification zones that had coated reservoir margins during crystallization of prior east rift-zone magmas. ?? 1994 Springer-Verlag.

  15. Study the properties of activated carbon and oxyhydroxide aluminum as sorbents for removal humic substances from natural waters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shiyan, L. N.; Machekhina, K. I.; Gryaznova, E. N.

    2016-02-01

    The present work relates to the problem of high-quality drinking water supply using processes of adsorption on activated carbon and aluminum oxyhydroxide for removal humic- type organic substances. Also the paper reports on sorbtion properties of the activeted carbon Norit SA UF and oxyhydroxide aluminum for removal humic substances. It was found out that the maximum adsorption capacity of activated carbon to organic substances is equal to 0.25 mg/mg and aluminum oxyhydroxide is equal to 0.3 mg/mg. It is shown that the maximum adsorption capacity of activated carbon Norit SA UF to iron (III) ions is equal to 0.0045 mg/mg and to silicon ions is equal to 0.024 mg/mg. Consequently, the aluminum oxyhydroxide has better adsorption characteristics in comparison with the activated carbon for removal of humic substances, iron and silicon ions. It is associated with the fact that activated carbon has a large adsorption surface, and this is due to its porous structure, but not all molecules can enter into these pores. Therefore, the fibrous structure of aluminum oxyhydroxide promotes better sorption capacity. The presented results suggest that activated carbon Norit SA UF and aluminum oxyhydroxide can be used as sorbents for removal humic substances or other organic substances from groundwater and natural waters.

  16. The diorite at West Warren, south-central Massachusetts

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Pomeroy, John S.

    1974-01-01

    Follated, syntectonic, concordant intrusive bodies of mostly diorite and meladiorite with less abundant quartz diorite and norite have been mapped in the West Warren area of south-central Massachusetts. The rocks of the pluton range from a medium colored phase of diorite and quartz diorite to a dark colored phase of meladiorite and norite. Major minerals In the dioritic rocks are calcic andesine, green hornblende, brown biotite, and hypersthene. Igneous textures are dominant, and retrograde or deuteric effects are generally minor. Silica and alumina contents of the dioritic rocks are somewhat higher than for average diorites; conversely, the oxides of iron, magnesium, and calcium are generally lower. Normative quartz, albite, and anorthite are higher and orthoclase is lower in the samples than In the average diorite. Sizeable plutons of diorite-norite are uncommon in central Massachusetts. The West Warren body, roughly 26 km2 (10 square miles) in area, bears little petrochemical relation to adjacent rock units. The pluton can be construed as belonging to a belt of intrusive mafic rocks which stretches from southeastern New York to coastal Maine.

  17. Metasedimentary and igneous xenoliths from Tallante (Betic Cordillera, Spain): Inferences on crust-mantle interactions and clues for post-collisional volcanism magma sources

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bianchini, Gianluca; Braga, Roberto; Langone, Antonio; Natali, Claudio; Tiepolo, Massimo

    2015-04-01

    The deep seated xenolith association exhumed in the Pliocenic volcano of Tallante (Betic Cordillera, Spain) includes protogranular mantle peridotites, felsic (metasedimentary) crustal rocks, as well as cumulus igneous rocks such as norites and amphibole (± phlogopite)-clinopyroxenites. The whole xenolith suite equilibrated at the same pressure (0.7-0.9 GPa) representing the local crust-mantle boundary (MOHO) characterized by extreme lithological heterogeneity. This heterogeneity resulted from orogenic processes that induced the juxtaposition of crustal rocks (variably depleted in fusible components) within mantle domains including metasomes, as it is commonly observed in orogenic mantle massifs of the Mediterranean area. In this contribution, we report new mineral compositions of igneous parageneses recorded in these xenoliths, and we present Sr-Nd isotope data on both igneous and metasedimentary xenoliths that integrate those from the literature. Sr-Nd isotopes coherently indicate a restitic character of the metasedimentary xenoliths, which according to model ages were affected by partial melting in Paleozoic times. Sr-Nd isotopic errorchrons on the igneous xenoliths, on the other hand, qualitatively indicate Tertiary ages, which are corroborated by U-Pb zircon datings of one norite xenolith and two composite xenoliths having zircon-bearing norite veinlets. The new data are discussed proposing that MOHO lithologies of Tallante could provide significant source compositions for the genesis of the Neogene volcanics of the Betic area, which included calcalkaline lavas as well as more potassic products such as lamproites.

  18. Petrographic and petrological study of lunar rock materials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Winzer, S. R.

    1976-01-01

    Samples returned from Apollo 14 (14171, 14305, 14319), Apollo 15 (15255), Apollo 16 (61175, 67455), and Apollo 17 (77215) were studied optically and selected polished sections by SEM/Microprobe. Splits and separates from 77215, 67455, 61175 and 15255 were prepared; 77215 and 67455 were analyzed for major, minor and LIL trace elements. The data indicate that 77215, a noritic breccia clast found in the Station7 boulder, is a norite cumulate similar to and probably derived from the same body as 78235. The Apollo 17 boulders are found to be part of the same melt sheet, which was formed by a major impact event, possibly Serenitatis, about 4 B. Y. ago. The Apollo 14 and 16 breccias are polymict, their clast populations indicating quite different provenance. The Apollo 14 breccias are possibly the result of multiple impacts, while the other breccias studied appear to have been formed by single impacts. ANT suite clasts included in 61175 are, for the most part, granulites resulting from subsolidus recrystallization of norites, anorthosites or gabbros. This metamorphism appears to have occurred prior to the impact event forming 61175.

  19. Geochemistry of Mine Waste and Mill Tailings, Meadow Deposits, Streambed Sediment, and General Hydrology and Water Quality for the Frohner Meadows Area, Upper Lump Gulch, Jefferson County, Montana

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Klein, Terry L.; Cannon, Michael R.; Fey, David L.

    2004-01-01

    Frohner Meadows, an area of low-topographic gradient subalpine ponds and wetlands in glaciated terrane near the headwaters of Lump Gulch (a tributary of Prickly Pear Creek), is located about 15 miles west of the town of Clancy, Montana, in the Helena National Forest. Mining and ore treatment of lead-zinc-silver veins in granitic rocks of the Boulder batholith over the last 120 years from two sites (Frohner mine and the Nellie Grant mine) has resulted in accumulations of mine waste and mill tailings that have been distributed downslope and downstream by anthropogenic and natural processes. This report presents the results of an investigation of the geochemistry of the wetlands, streams, and unconsolidated-sediment deposits and the hydrology, hydrogeology, and water quality of the area affected by these sources of ore-related metals. Ground water sampled from most shallow wells in the meadow system contained high concentrations of arsenic, exceeding the Montana numeric water-quality standard for human health. Transport of cadmium and zinc in ground water is indicated at one site near Nellie Grant Creek based on water-quality data from one well near the creek. Mill tailings deposited in upper Frohner Meadow contribute large arsenic loads to Frohner Meadows Creek; Nellie Grant Creek contributes large arsenic, cadmium, and zinc loads to upper Frohner Meadows. Concentrations of total-recoverable cadmium, copper, lead, and zinc in most surface-water sites downstream from the Nellie Grant mine area exceeded Montana aquatic-life standards. Nearly all samples of surface water and ground water had neutral to slightly alkaline pH values. Concentrations of arsenic, cadmium, lead, and zinc in streambed sediment in the entire meadow below the mine waste and mill tailings accumulations are highly enriched relative to regional watershed-background concentrations and exceed consensus-based, probable-effects concentrations for streambed sediment at most sites. Cadmium, copper, and

  20. An Aerial Radiological Survey of the City of North Las Vegas (Downtown) and the Motor Speedway

    SciTech Connect

    Piotr Wasiolek

    2007-12-01

    As part of the proficiency training for the Radiological Mapping mission of the Aerial Measuring System (AMS), a survey team from the Remote Sensing Laboratory-Nellis (RSL-Nellis) conducted an aerial radiological survey on December 11-12, 2007, with the purpose of mapping natural radiation background and locating any man-made radioactive sources. The survey covered 19.4 square miles (9.2 square miles over the downtown area of the City of North Las Vegas and 10.2 square miles over the Las Vegas Motor Speedway [LVMS]). The flight lines over the surveyed areas are presented in Figures 1 and 2. A total of four 2.5-hour-long flights were performed at an altitude of 150 ft above ground level (AGL) with 300 ft of flight line spacing. Water line and test line flights were conducted over the Lake Mead and Government Wash areas to ensure quality control of the data. The data were collected by the AMS data acquisition system-REDAR V using an array of twelve 2-inch x 4-inch x 16-inch sodium iodide (NaI) detectors flown on-board a twin-engine Bell 412 helicopter. Data in the form of gamma energy spectra were collected continually (every second) over the course of the survey and were geo-referenced using a differential Global Positioning System. Collection of spectral data allows the system to distinguish between ordinary fluctuations in natural background radiation levels and the signature produced by man-made radioisotopes sources. Spectral data can also be used to identify specific radioactive isotopes. As a courtesy service with the approval of the U.S. Department of Energy, National Nuclear Security Administration, Nevada Site Office, RSL-Nellis is providing this summary to the office of the Mayor of City of North Las Vegas and LVMS security along with the gross counts-based exposure rate and man-made counts maps.

  1. Possible magnetic field contributions generated in oxides in Super Earths

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nellis, W. J.

    2010-12-01

    Planetary magnetic fields are generated by convective motion of conducting fluids. The highest pressure on oxides in Earth is about 130 GPa (1.3 Mbar) at about 3000 K at the core-mantle boundary. At these conditions electrical conductivities and viscosities of solid oxides are too small and large, respectively, to produce a significant contribution to Earth’s magnetic field. However, oxides in super-Earth exoplanets reach interior pressures and temperatures much larger than those in Earth. Recent work has shown that solid Al2O3 is highly disordered up to ~400 GPa [1] and probably becomes a metallic glass with minimum metallic conductivity (MMC) at ~300 GPa under both shock and static compression [2]. This insulator-metal transition is probably entropy-driven; i. e., substantial compressive energy is absorbed by breaking chemical bonds, which leads to metallic energy bands. Since Al2O3 is estimated to melt on the Hugoniot at ~400 GPa, viscosity is expected to decrease near this pressure. Since interior pressures of 300 GPa are achieved at greater depths than in Earth, magnitudes of fields from oxides in super Earths are expected to be relatively small compared to the surface field of Earth. Nevertheless, the possibility exists that many extrasolar rocky planets have finite magnetic fields whether or not they have fluid Fe cores. Because of disorder, this conclusion based on experiments on Al2O3 is not expected to depend sensitively on which oxide is present. It is worth noting that fluid Fe in Earth and fluid metallic H in Jupiter [3] are also expected to have MMC, ~2000/(ohm-cm). [1] W. J. Nellis, G. I. Kanel, S. V. Razorenov, A. S. Savinykh, A. M. Rajenderan, J. Phys.: Conf. Ser. 215, 012148 (2010). [2] W. J. Nellis, Phys. Rev. B (in press). [3] W. J. Nellis, S. T. Weir, and A. C. Mitchell, Science 273, 936 (1996).

  2. Special Nevada Report

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1991-09-23

    detailed explanation of the high consumptive use of water on Nellis AFB, possible explanations include: loss of water from the distribution system...include special programs such as educational impact assistance funds and payment in lieu of taxes (PILT) which may be distributed using formulas that...airspace used for defense-related training missions. Fifty percent of the historic nesting distribution 8-41 &nu -J C 100 4), C C6 4) U) E-oe , 6 4 4)6.0

  3. Expeditionary Readiness Course Expansion Final Supplemental Environmental Assessment, Nevada Test and Training Range

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-09-01

    Tolicha Peak. Prepared for the U.S. Air Force, Nellis Air Force Base. Valid as of January 4, 2010. MacMahon, James A. 1992. The Audubon Society Nature...for Natural Resource Managers. Arlington, VA: The Nature Conservancy. MacMahon, James A. 1992. The Audubon Society Nature Guides: Deserts. New York...Resources Manager, 99 CES/CEANS John Roe, Water Resources Specialist, 99 CES/CEANC MSgt David Ferguson, Silver Flag Alpha, 99 GCTS/LGS 6.2 NORTH

  4. Crew Stress and Fatigue in the PAVE LOW III System

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1980-07-01

    hours local time, tc 300C (860F) at 2355 hours on landing at Nellis AFB NV. Prior to the return flight cockpit temperatures reached a very hot...PER ORMING ORGANIZATION NAME AN ,- AGO ’RE.IS lo i7GY A V CLE MN 7 PROJ T ASK S t r eB AREA c A BCA IuaLNIT PjM9ES USAF School of Aerospace Modicine...incident report form (Appendix F). Cockpit temperatures , body temperatures , and heart rate were continuously monitored on an inflight data recorder

  5. Destiny in the Pacific: Implications for U.S. Policy of Rising Japanese Nationalism and Economic Power.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1986-06-01

    1963. McNelly, Theodore. Polaiti n md Governmnt in Jan. 3rd edition. New York: University Press of America, 1984. Mishima , Yukio and Bownas...in East Asia." Currnt Histo=ax 82 (October 1983): 313-317, 339-343. " Mishima Yukio ." 31aua Interaxp~te 7 (Winter 1971): 71-87. Morinaga, Kazuhiko...p. 6.) Other examples include the writings of Shimizu Ikutaro, Hori Yukio , and Nakagawa Yasuhiro, the latter considered to be a good example of

  6. Leveraging Traditional Battle Damage Assessment Procedures to Measure Effects from a Computer Network Attack

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-06-01

    detect and locate North Vietnam’s SA-2 surface to air missile radars. During testing at Eglin AFB, Florida, these new “Wild Weasel ” aircraft flew...detecting the target radar, engineers had to rig “a system to monitor our own signals, so we knew what had gone out. That way, if a Wild Weasel crew...would fly the Wild Weasel missions over North Vietnam. As early as 1975, Exercise RED FLAG, conducted at Nellis AFB, Nevada, inte- grated EW assets

  7. JTIDS/MIDS Spectrum Support

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-03-09

    JTIDS Deconfliction Spectrum Certification • IRAC 33583/1, Link 16 Certification – Effective March 25, 2004 – Operational Limits Provided • 100/50...Certification Continued • Voice – TSDF calculations will be in accordance with IRAC 33583 • 12 platforms or less is counted as 1 voice pool – 12.55% (16kb) or...Renewal Notice Removed/Out Of Service Nellis Temp • TSDF or Pulse Density around any terminal limited by IRAC 33583 – 100% TSDF in a 100 nm radius, 400

  8. Addendum to the Environmental Assessment for the Armed Forces Reserve Center and Operational Maintenance Facility for the 63rd Regional Support Command

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1998-05-29

    Nellis AFB, Las Vegas, Nevada .t :. Prepared for: 63rd ARCOM ··-·· ":; PALM Figure 1-2, Composition of Buildings on Block with AFRC/OMS Facility...S. Its purpose is to provide motor transport and maintenance training in support of the Marine Corps Twentynine Palms operations. Table 2-2...0 R&Cli&TIO" ·. On May 25 and 26, 1918, ·repr:eaentativea froa the u.s • &nvironaental Prote~tion Agency (EPA) and the u.s . Acay Tan~ Autoaoti

  9. Corrective action investigation plan for CAU Number 453: Area 9 Landfill, Tonopah Test Range

    SciTech Connect

    1997-05-14

    This Corrective Action Investigation Plan (CAIP) contains the environmental sample collection objectives and criteria for conducting site investigation activities at the Area 9 Landfill, Corrective Action Unit (CAU) 453/Corrective Action (CAS) 09-55-001-0952, which is located at the Tonopah Test Range (TTR). The TTR, included in the Nellis Air Force Range, is approximately 255 kilometers (140 miles) northwest of Las Vegas, Nevada. The Area 9 Landfill is located northwest of Area 9 on the TTR. The landfill cells associated with CAU 453 were excavated to receive waste generated from the daily operations conducted at Area 9 and from range cleanup which occurred after test activities.

  10. Air Force Federal Photovoltaic Utilization Program

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wise, J. F.

    1985-03-01

    The technical and financial history of the Federal Photovoltaic Utilization Program within the US Air Force is briefly reported. The projects included microwave sites at Edwards Air Force Base, communication vans at Nellis Air Force Base Tactical Range, photovoltaic homes at Tyndal and Kirtland Air Force Bases, a community energy system at McClellan Air Force Base, and an aircraft arresting system that employs a photovoltaic power supply to drive engines that erect and remove barriers for keeping aircraft from travelling off the end of a runway.

  11. The Coast Artillery Journal. Volume 73, Number 6, December 1930

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1930-12-01

    Which )le""s Sometlling. BOOK REVIEWS __ m 596 George HTasllington: C𔃺l11l11ander-in..(’hfef-JIaUaof tile Kllights-Rags: The St01’]1 of a Dog TVho TVe...privilege. We thank you and all those who have made this camp what it is. Sincerely, NELLIE and ROBERT WELDEN. (his parents) 595 BOOK REVIEWS George...596 BOOK REVIEWS 597 The publishers, Houghton Mifflin, and the printers, Riverside Press, are to be congratulated on having produced mechanically an

  12. F-22 Aircraft Force Development Evaluation and Weapons School Beddown, Final Environmental Impact Statement

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1999-10-01

    environmental justice guidelines since the proportion of minority and low-income people within the affected area are higher than the proportion in the county. The Air Force will continue to employ noise abatement procedures to reduce noise effects in the surrounding communities and assist local officials who seek to establish or modify noise attenuation measures for residences. For Nellis Air Force Range and the encompassing NRC, flight and ordnance delivery activities proposed for the F-22s would have negligible changes to current conditions.

  13. Geology of the Zambales Range, Luzon, Philippine Islands: Ophiolite derived from an island arc-back arc basin pair

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hawkins, James W.; Evans, Cynthia A.

    The Zambales Range Ophiolite comprises peridotite, gabbro-norite, diabase dikes and sills, and a range of basaltic rock types including pillows, massive and brecciated rocks. The mafic and ultramafic section of the ophiolite is typical of other ophiolites and of rocks presumed to form oceanic crust and upper mantle. The peridotite is mainly saxonite, but extensive areas are underlain by dunite; it has been serpentinized to varied extent throughout all of the range. Chromite is an abundant constituent of the peridotite, and in many areas it forms very large concentrations, some of which are currently being mined. Clinopyroxene is a minor constituent in most of the peridotite mass, but locally there are occurrences of lherzolitic rocks. The entire peridotite mass shows effects of deformation at high temperature (e.g., >600°C) as well as widespread evidence for intense shearing and recrystallization at low temperature (e.g., 200-500°C) with the development of serpentine, talc, and amphibole on fault zones. We recognize two major blocks of crust and upper mantle, Acoje block and Coto block, which are distinguished on the basis of their crustal section thicknesses and on the geochemistry of the crust and mantle rocks. A thick zone (0.7-1.3 km) ofcumulate textured ultramafic rocks with varied amounts of olivine, clinopyroxene, and orthopyroxene structurally overlies the peridotite of the Acoje block. This layered series also contains chromite and sulfide minerals; the layered series grades upward into gabbro-norite and plagioclase is a minor component of layered series rocks near the petrologic contact. The plutonic mafic rocks which overlie the layered ultramafic rocks of the Acoje block are mainly cumulate textured norite. Both massive and layered rocks are present; the layered units of the norite series include anorthosite, pyroxenite, olivine norite, and a wide range of norite varieties having variable proportions of the major minerals. Calcic amphibole is a minor

  14. Pyroclastic Deposits in the Floor-fractured Crater Alphonsus

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Allen, Carlton C.; Donaldson-Hanna, Kerri L.; Pieters, Carle M.; Moriarty, Daniel P.; Greenhagen, Benjamin T.; Bennett, Kristen A.; Kramer, Georgiana Y.; Paige, David A.

    2013-01-01

    Alphonsus, the 118 km diameter floor-fractured crater, is located immediately east of Mare Nubium. Eleven pyroclastic deposits have been identified on the crater's floor. Early telescopic spectra suggest that the floor of Alphonsus is noritic, and that the pyroclastic deposits contain mixtures of floor material and a juvenile component including basaltic glass. Head and Wilson contend that Nubium lavas intruded the breccia zone beneath Alphonsus, forming dikes and fractures on the crater floor. In this model, the magma ascended to the level of the mare but cooled underground, and a portion broke thru to the surface in vulcanian (explosive) eruptions. Alternatively, the erupted material could be from a source unrelated to the mare, in the style of regional pyroclastic deposits. High-resolution images and spectroscopy from the Moon Mineralogy Mapper (M3), Diviner Lunar Radiometer, and Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter Camera Narrow Angle Camera (NAC) provide data to test these formation models. Spectra from M3 confirm that the crater floor is primarily composed of noritic material, and that the Nubium lavas are basaltic. Spectra from the three largest pyroclastic deposits in Alphonsus are consistent with a minor low- Ca pyroxene component in a glass-rich matrix. The centers of the 2 micron absorption bands have wavelengths too short to be of the same origin as the Nubium basalts. Diviner Christiansen feature (CF) values were used to estimate FeO abundances for the crater floor, Nubium soil, and pyroclastic deposits. The estimated abundance for the crater floor (7.5 +/- 1.4 wt.%) is within the range of FeO values for Apollo norite samples. However, the estimated FeO abundance for Nubium soil (13.4 +/- 1.4 wt.%) is lower than those measured in most mare samples. The difference may reflect contamination of the mare soil by highland ejecta. The Diviner-derived FeO abundance for the western pyroclastic deposit is 13.8 +/- 3.3 wt.%. This is lower than the values for mare soil

  15. JV Task 119 - Effects of Aging on Treated Activated Carbons

    SciTech Connect

    Edwin Olson; Lucinda Hamre; John Pavlish; Blaise Mibeck

    2009-03-25

    . As measured by the 50% breakthrough time, no changes in capacity were observed for Norit LH samples stored frozen and likely none for Norit LH samples stored under high humidity conditions. The major aging effects on capacity for the EERC brominated sample were seen as a decrease in capacity during the first week of storage under high humidity conditions. Storage of the Norit LH and the EERC 5% brominated samples under low humidity conditions resulted in slightly improved capacities. Storage of the 15% brominated sample under high humidity conditions also improved the capacity. Surface analysis using x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) showed some migration of bromine to and from the surface occurred during storage, although no net loss of bromine was observed. The migration to the surface in the case of the 15% brominated carbon correlates with the increased capacity observed for this sample. The XPS elemental speciation data for the EERC brominated carbons showed a trend toward more bromide being formed at the expense of covalent bromine during storage. This was especially great for the 15% and the 5% stored in low humidity. The Norit LH samples did not show this increase in bromide concentration. This is consistent with the lack of change in capacity for the Norit LH during storage. The carbon speciation data showed generally more oxidization of carbon surfaces with storage, especially formation of carboxylate groups. The least increase in carboxylate groups was seen for the Norit LH stored under low humidity, which correlates with its increased capacity. In conclusion, the observed changes in surface chemistry can be related to the minimal changes in capacity observed, but the factors operate in different directions, so the relationships are complex. High-quality x-ray absorption fine structure spectra were obtained for most of the samples. Significant changes were observed in the x-ray absorption near edge structure and extended x-ray absorption fine

  16. A ferroan region of the lunar highlands as recorded in meteorites MAC88104 and MAC88105

    SciTech Connect

    Jolliff, B.L.; Korotev, R.L.; Haskin, L.A. )

    1991-11-01

    MacAlpine Hills 88104 and 88105 (MAC88104/5) are paired meteorites of noritic anorthosite composition from the lunar highlands. MAC88105 is a breccia composed mainly of melt-breccia clasts in a fine-grained, fragmental, and partly glassy matrix. The most abundant melt lithologies are feldspathic and are similar in composition to the bulk meteorite. Other melt lithologies include feldspathic melt rocks, mafic melt breccias, and a rare melt breccia relatively enriched in incompatible trace elements. Subordinate lithic clasts are granulitic breccias and ferroan (relatively low Mg/(Mg + Fe)) igneous lithologies, including troctolitic anorthosite, anorthositic norite, gabbronorite, and anorthosite. Igneous clasts having mafic mineral compositions more magnesian than Fo{sub 55} and En{sub 60} were not observed. Rare fragments of glass spheres and shards as well as glass clasts indicate that the meteorite was derived from an immature regolith. The bulk composition of MAC88105 is characterized by a molar Mg/(Mg + Fe) ratio of 0.62, at the extreme low end of the range for meteorites from the lunar highlands. Its low concentrations of incompatible trace elements and feldspathic bulk composition (29% Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}), suggests that it, like the other lunar meteorites, formed at a site far removed from the areas sampled by the Apollo missions. Similarities in mineral compositions among the different lithologies of the breccia and the distribution of mineral fragments suggest that most components of the meteorite were derived from a crustal section dominated by material with a noritic anorthosite composition and an affinity of the ferroan suite of plutonic rocks.

  17. Magmatic structure and geochemistry of the Luanga Mafic-Ultramafic Complex: Further constraints for the PGE-mineralized magmatism in Carajás, Brazil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mansur, Eduardo Teixeira; Ferreira Filho, Cesar Fonseca

    2016-12-01

    The Luanga Complex is part of the Serra Leste Magmatic Suite, a cluster of PGE-mineralized mafic-ultramafic intrusions located in the northeastern portion of the Carajás Mineral Province. The Luanga Complex is a medium-sized layered intrusion consisting of three main zones: i. the lower Ultramafic Zone comprising ultramafic adcumulates (peridotite), ii. the Transition Zone comprising interlayered ultramafic and mafic cumulates (harzburgite, orthopyroxenite and norite) and iii. the upper Mafic Zone comprising a monotonous sequence of mafic cumulates (norite) with minor orthopyroxenite layers. Several PGE-mineralized zones occur in the Transition Zone but the bulk of the PGE resources are hosted within a 10-50 meter thick interval of disseminated sulfides at the contact of the Ultramafic and Transition Zones. The compositional range of cumulus olivine (Fo78.9-86.4) is comparable to those reported for layered intrusions originated from moderate primitive parental magmas. Mantle normalized alteration-resistant trace element patterns of noritic rocks are fractionated, as indicated by relative enrichment in LREE and Th, with negative Nb and Ta anomalies, suggesting assimilation of older continental crust. Ni contents in olivine in the Luanga Complex (up to 7500 ppm) stand among the highest values reported in layered intrusions globally. The highest Ni contents in olivine in the Luanga Complex occur in distinctively PGE enriched (Pt + Pd > 1 ppm) intervals of the Transition Zone, in both sulfide-poor and sulfide bearing (1-3 vol.%) rocks. The origin of the PGE- and Ni-rich parental magma of the Luanga Complex is discussed considering the upgrading of magmas through dissolution of previously formed Ni-rich sulfide melts. Our results suggest that high Ni contents in olivine and/or orthopyroxene provide an additional exploration tool for Ni-PGE deposits, particularly useful for target selection in large magmatic provinces.

  18. Petrology and geochemistry of alkali gabbronorites from Lunar Breccia 67975

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    James, Odette B.; Lindstrom, Marilyn M.; Flohr, Marta K.

    Clasts of an unusual type of lunar highlands igneous rock, alkali gabbronorite, have been found in Apollo 16 breccia 67975. The alkali gabbronorites form two distinct subgroups, magnesian and ferroan. Modes and bulk compositions are highly varied. The magnesian alkali gabbronorites are composed of bytownitic plagioclase (Or2-5An82-89), hypersthene (Wo3-5En49-62), augite (Wo39-42En36-44), a silica mineral, and trace Ba-rich K-feldspar. The ferroan alkali gabbronorites are composed of ternary plagioclase (Or11-22An65-74), pigeonite (Wo6-9En35-47), augite (Wo38-40En29-35), Ba-rich K-feldspar, and a silica mineral. Trace minerals in both subgroups are apatite, REE-rich whitlockite, and zircon. The magnesian and ferroan alkali gabbronorites appear to have formed by progressive differentiation of the same, or closely related, parent magmas; the compositional data indicate that these magmas were REE-rich. The ternary plagioclase is probably a high-temperature metastable phase formed during crystallization. In composition and mineralogy, the 67975 alkali gabbronorites show many similarities to Apollo 12 and 14 alkali norites, alkali gabbronorites, and alkali anorthosites, and all these rocks together constitute a distinctive alkali suite. In addition, the alkali gabbronorites show some similarities to KREEP basalts, Mg-norites, and some felsites. These data suggest genetic links between some or all of these types of pristine rocks. Two types of relationships are possible. The first is that alkali-suite rocks crystallized in plutons of KREEP basalt magma, and KREEP basalts are their extrusive equivalents. The second is that the alkali-suite rocks and some felsites all crystallized in plutons of Mg-norite parent magmas, and KREEP basalt magmas formed by remelting of these plutons. Additional studies are needed to resolve which of these hypotheses is correct.

  19. The great lunar hot spot and the composition and origin of the Apollo mafic (``LKFM'') impact-melt breccias

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Korotev, Randy L.

    2000-02-01

    Thorium-rich, mafic impact-melt breccias from the Apollo 14-17 missions, that is, those breccias identified with the composition known as ``LKFM,'' are regarded largely as products of basin-forming impacts that penetrated the feldspathic crust and sampled underlying mafic material and magma-ocean residuum carrying the compositional signature of KREEP (potassium, rare earth elements, phosphorous). Despite considerable compositional variation among such breccias, compositions of all of them correspond to mixtures of only four components: (1) a norite with composition generally similar to that of Apollo 15 basalt (mean abundance: 58% range: ~30-95%), (2) Fo~90 dunite (mean: 13%, range: 1-27%), (3) feldspathic upper crust (mean: 29%, range: 4-50%), and FeNi metal (0.1-1.7%). Petrographic evidence has shown that much of the feldspathic component, but none of the KREEP component, is clastic. This observation and the high proportion of KREEP norite component in the breccias suggest that the melt zone of the impact or impacts forming the breccias contained little feldspathic material but consisted predominantly of material with the average composition of KREEP norite. The dunite component probably derives ultimately from the upper mantle. These conclusions support the hypothesis that the breccias were not formed in typical feldspathic crust but instead by one or more impacts into what is designated here ``the great lunar hot spot,'' that is, the anomalous Th-rich terrane in the Imbrium-Procellarum area identified by the Apollo and Lunar Prospector gamma-ray spectrometers. The LKFM composition is a special product of the great lunar hot spot and is not the average composition of the lower crust in typical feldspathic highlands. Similarly, Mg-suite and alkali-suite plutonic rocks of the Apollo collection are likely all differentiation products of the hot spot, not of plutons that might occur in typical feldspathic crust.

  20. Petrology and geochemistry of alkali gabbronorites from lunar breccia 67975

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    James, Odette B.; Lindstrom, Marilyn M.; Flohr, Marta K.

    1987-09-01

    Clasts of an unusual type of lunar highlands igneous rock, alkali gabbronorite, have been found in Apollo 16 breccia 67975. The alkali gabbronorites form two distinct subgroups, magnesian and ferroan. Modes and bulk compositions are highly varied. The magnesian alkali gabbronorites are composed of bytownitic plagioclase (Or2-5An82-89), hypersthene (Wo3-5En49-62), augite (Wo39-42En36-44), a silica mineral, and trace Ba-rich K-feldspar. The ferroan alkali gabbronorites are composed of ternary plagioclase (Or11-22An65-74), pigeonite (Wo6-9En35-47), augite (Wo38-40En29-35), Ba-rich K-feldspar, and a silica mineral. Trace minerals in both subgroups are apatite, REE-rich whitlockite, and zircon. The magnesian and ferroan alkali gabbronorites appear to have formed by progressive differentiation of the same, or closely related, parent magmas; the compositional data indicate that these magmas were REE-rich. The ternary plagioclase is probably a high-temperature metastable phase formed during crystallization. In composition and mineralogy, the 67975 alkali gabbronorites show many similarities to Appllo 12 and 14 alkali norites, alkali gabbronorites, and alkali anorthosites, and all these rocks together constitute a distinctive alkali suite. In addition, the alkali gabbronorites, show some similarities to KREEP basalts, Mg-norites, and some felsites. These data suggest genetic links between some or all of these types of pristine rocks. Two types of relationships are possible. The first is that alkali-suite rocks crystallized in plutons of KREEP basalt magma, and KREEP basalts are their extrusive equivalents. The second is that the alkali-suite rocks and some felsites all crystallized in plutons of Mg-norite parent magmas, and KREEP basalt magmas formed by remelting of these plutons. Additional studies are needed to resolve which of these hypotheses is correct.

  1. Global High Resolution Mineral Maps Of The Moon Using Data From the Kaguya Multiband Imager and LRO Diviner Lunar Radiometer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lucey, P. G.; Lemelin, M.; Ohtake, M.; Gaddis, L. R.; Greenhagen, B. T.; Yamamoto, S.; Hare, T. M.; Taylor, J.; Martel, L.; Norman, J.

    2016-12-01

    We combine visible and near-IR multispectral data from the Kaguya Multiband Imager (MI) with thermal infrared multispectral data from the LRO Diviner Lunar Radiometer Experiment to produce global mineral abundance data at 60-m resolution. The base data set applies a radiative transfer mixing model to the Kaguya MI data to produce global maps of plagioclase, low-Ca pyroxene, high-Ca pyroxene and olivine. Diviner thermal multispectral data are highly sensitive to the ratio of plagioclase to mafic minerals and provide independent data to both validate and improve confidence in the derived mineral abundances. The data set is validated using a new set of mineral abundances derived for lunar soils from all lunar sampling sites resolvable using MI data. Modal abundances are derived using X-ray diffraction patterns analyzed with quantitative Rietveldt analysis. Modal abundances were derived from 124 soils from 47 individual Apollo sampling stations. Some individual soil locations within sampling stations can be resolved increasing the total number of resolved locations to 56. With quantitative mineral abundances we can examine the distribution of classically defined lunar rock types in unprecedented detail. In the Feldspathic Highlands Terrane (FHT) the crust is dominated in surface area by noritic anorthosite consistent with a highly mixed composition. Classically defined anorthosite is widespread in the FHT, but much less abundant than the mafic anorthosites. The Procellarum KREEP Terrane and the South Pole Aitken Basin are more noritic than the FHT as previously recognized with abundant norite exposed. While dunite is not found, varieties of troctolitic rocks are widespread in basin rings, especially Crisium, Humorum and Moscoviense, and also occur in the core of the FHT. Only troctolites and anorthosites appear consistently concentrated in basin rings. We have barely scratched the surface of the full resolution data, but have completed an inventory of rock types on

  2. Detection of T-2 Toxin by an Improved Radioimmunoassay

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1983-02-01

    tested, only H-T-2 cross-reacted significantly (10.3%). The occurrence of mycotoxins depends on biological samples. Albumin-coated charcoal was pre...Chemical Co., St. Louis, Mo.) to 1.25 g of neutral Almost all food products can be contaminated Norit A Charcoal (Sigma). Distilled water was added I to a...Chemkab. T-2 toxin standards and other trichothe- vials were incubated at 37*C for 30 min and then LU cene mycotoxins were purchased from Calbiochem

  3. The petrology and geochemistry of impact melts, granulites, and hornfelses from consortium breccia 61175

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Winzer, S. R.; Meyerhoff, M.; Nava, D. F.; Schuhmann, S.; Philpotts, J. A.; Lindstrom, D. J.; Lum, R. K. L.; Lindstrom, M. M.; Schuhmann, P.

    1977-01-01

    The matrix and 58 clasts from breccia 61175 were analyzed for major, minor, and trace elements. The matrix is anorthositic and has lithophile trace element abundances 20 to 40 times chondrite. Clasts comprise impact melt rocks, xenocryst and xenolith-free very high aluminum (VHA) and anorthositic basalts, anorthosite, anorthosite-norite-troctolite granulites, and hornfelses. The VHA and anorthositic basalts are considered to be impact melts, and the hornfelses were probably formed by incorporation of breccias or preexisting melt rocks into a melt sheet prior to cooling. The range of melt-rock lithophile trace element abundances might indicate more than one melt sheet.

  4. Uranium in NIMROC standard igneous rock samples

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rowe, M. W.; Herndon, J. M.

    1976-01-01

    Results are reported for analysis of the uranium in multiple samples of each of six igneous-rock standards (dunite, granite, lujavrite, norite, pyroxenite, and syenite) prepared as geochemical reference standards for elemental and isotopic compositions. Powdered rock samples were examined by measuring delayed neutron emission after irradiation with a flux of the order of 10 to the 13th power neutrons/sq cm per sec in a nuclear reactor. The measurements are shown to compare quite favorably with previous uranium determinations for other standard rock samples.

  5. Crystallization Age and Impact Resetting of Ancient Lunar Crust from the Descartes Terrane

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Norman, M. D.; Borg, L. E.; Nyquist, L. E.; Bogard, D. D.

    2002-01-01

    Lunar ferroan anorthosites (FANs) are relics of an ancient, primary feldspathic crust that is widely believed to have crystallized from a global magma ocean. Compositions and ages of FANs provide fundamental information about the origin and magmatic evolution of the Moon, while the petrology and thermal history of lunar FANs illustrate the structure and impact history of the lunar crust. Here we report petrologic, geochemical, and isotopic (Nd-Sr-Ar) studies of a ferroan noritic anorthosite clast from lunar breccia 67215 to improve our understanding of the composition, age, and thermal history of the Moon.

  6. Large Meteorite Impacts and Planetary Evolution

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1997-01-01

    Topics considered include: Petrography, geochemistry and geochronology; impact-induced hydrothermal base metal mineralization; nickel-and platinum group element -enriched quartz norite in the latest jurassic morokweng impact structure, south Africa; extraterrestrial helium trapped in fullerenes in the sudbury; synthetic aperture radar characteristics of a glacially modified meltsheet; the chicxulub seismic experiment; chemical compositions of chicxulub impact breccias; experimental investigation of the chemistry of vaporization of targets in relation to the chicxulub impact; artificial ozone hole generation following a large meteoroid impact into an oceanic site; three dimensional modeling of impactite bodies of popigai impact crater, Russia.

  7. Some petrological aspects of Imbrium stratigraphy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ridley, W. I.

    1977-01-01

    Descriptions are given of the petrochemistry of two Apennine Front breccias, both ejected to the surface during excavation of Spur Crater. The first clast type is breccia number 15445, a spinel pyroxenite whose mineralogy and petrochemistry are consistent with the original rock type being a garnet pyroxenite. The second rock, breccia 15459, is plutonic norite, in which coarsely exsolved inverted pigeonite is associated with anorthitic plagioclase. Application of mineral geothermometers indicates crystallization of these rocks below 1100 C; hence their textures probably developed largely by solid state recrystallization during impact-metamorphism.

  8. The Sudbury-Serenitatis analogy and 'so-called' pristine nonmare rocks

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Warren, Paul H.

    1992-01-01

    The Serenitatis Basin is the one lunar basin from which we confidently identify a suite of samples as pieces of the impact melt sheet: the distinctive Apollo 17 noritic breccias. Recent studies of the Sudbury Complex indicate that its 'irruptive' is almost entirely of impact-melt origin, making it the closest terrestrial analog to the Serenitatis melt sheet. Any attempt to model the evolution of the Moon's crust should be compatible with the relatively well-understood Sudbury Complex. However, the Sudbury-Moon analogy might be a misleading oversimplification, if applied too rigidly. The cause of evolutionary differences between the Serenitatis impact melt and the Sudbury impact melt is discussed.

  9. Bullialdus - Strengthening the case for lunar plutons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pieters, Carle M.

    1991-11-01

    Although many craters expose materials of a composition different from that of the local surroundings, Bullialdus has excavated material representing three distinct stratigraphic zones that occur in the upper 6 km of crust, the top two of which are gabbroic and the deepest of which is noritic. This three-component stratigraphy at Bullialdus provides strong evidence that the lunar crust includes pockets of compositionally layered material reminiscent of mafic layered plutons. When combined with previous information on the compositional diversity at other large craters, these remote analyses obtained in a geologic context substantially strengthen the hypothesis suggested from lunar samples that plutons play an integral role in lunar crustal evolution.

  10. Importance of Micropore-Mesopore Interfaces in Carbon Dioxide Capture by Carbon-Based Materials.

    PubMed

    Durá, Gema; Budarin, Vitaliy L; Castro-Osma, José A; Shuttleworth, Peter S; Quek, Sophie C Z; Clark, James H; North, Michael

    2016-08-01

    Mesoporous carbonaceous materials (Starbons®) derived from low-value/waste bio-resources separate CO2 from CO2 /N2 mixtures. Compared to Norit activated charcoal (AC), Starbons® have much lower microporosities (8-32 % versus 73 %) yet adsorb up to 65 % more CO2 . The presence of interconnected micropores and mesopores is responsible for the enhanced CO2 adsorption. The Starbons® also showed three-four times higher selectivity for CO2 adsorption rather than N2 adsorption compared to AC. © 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  11. Workshop on Pristine Highlands Rocks and the early History of the Moon

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Longhi, J. (Editor); Ryder, G. (Editor)

    1983-01-01

    Oxide composition of the Moon, evidence for an initially totally molten Moon, geophysical contraints on lunar composition, random sampling of a layered intrusion, lunar highland rocks, early evolution of the Moon, mineralogy and petrology of the pristine rocks, relationship of the pristine nonmore rocks to the highlands soils and breccias, ferroan anorthositic norite, early lunar igneous history, compositional variation in ferroan anosthosites, a lunar magma ocean, deposits of lunar pristine rocks, lunar and planetary compositions and early fractionation in the solar nebula, Moon composition models, petrogenesis in a Moon with a chondritic refractory lithophile pattern, a terrestrial analog of lunar ilmenite bearing camulates, and the lunar magma ocean are summarized.

  12. The petrology and geochemistry of impact melts, granulites, and hornfelses from consortium breccia 61175

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Winzer, S. R.; Meyerhoff, M.; Nava, D. F.; Schuhmann, S.; Philpotts, J. A.; Lindstrom, D. J.; Lum, R. K. L.; Lindstrom, M. M.; Schuhmann, P.

    1977-01-01

    The matrix and 58 clasts from breccia 61175 were analyzed for major, minor, and trace elements. The matrix is anorthositic and has lithophile trace element abundances 20 to 40 times chondrite. Clasts comprise impact melt rocks, xenocryst and xenolith-free very high aluminum (VHA) and anorthositic basalts, anorthosite, anorthosite-norite-troctolite granulites, and hornfelses. The VHA and anorthositic basalts are considered to be impact melts, and the hornfelses were probably formed by incorporation of breccias or preexisting melt rocks into a melt sheet prior to cooling. The range of melt-rock lithophile trace element abundances might indicate more than one melt sheet.

  13. Major and trace element chemistry of Luna 24 samples from Mare Crisium

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Blanchard, D. P.; Brannon, J. C.; Aaboe, E.; Budahn, J. R.

    1978-01-01

    Atomic absorption spectrometry and instrumental neutron activation analysis were employed to analyze six Luna 24 soils for major and trace elements. The analysis revealed well-mixed soils, though size fractions of each of the soils showed quite dissimilar compositions. Thus the regolith apparently has not been extensively reworked. Noritic breccia admixed preferentially to the finest size fractions and differential comminution of one or more other soil components accounted for the observed elemental distributions as a function of grain size. The ferrobasalt composition and one or more components with higher MgO contents have been identified in the samples.

  14. Nevada National Security Site Environmental Report 2010

    SciTech Connect

    C. Wills, ed.

    2011-09-13

    This NNSSER was prepared to satisfy DOE Order DOE O 231.1B, “Environment, Safety and Health Reporting.” Its purpose is to (1) report compliance status with environmental standards and requirements, (2) present results of environmental monitoring of radiological and nonradiological effluents, (3) report estimated radiological doses to the public from releases of radioactive material, (4) summarize environmental incidents of noncompliance and actions taken in response to them, (5) describe the NNSA/NSO Environmental Management System and characterize its performance, and (6) highlight significant environmental programs and efforts. This NNSSER summarizes data and compliance status for calendar year 2010 at the Nevada National Security Site (NNSS) (formerly the Nevada Test Site) and its two support facilities, the North Las Vegas Facility (NLVF) and the Remote Sensing Laboratory–Nellis (RSL-Nellis). It also addresses environmental restoration (ER) projects conducted at the Tonopah Test Range (TTR). Through a Memorandum of Agreement, NNSA/NSO is responsible for the oversight of TTR ER projects, and the Sandia Site Office of NNSA (NNSA/SSO) has oversight of all other TTR activities. NNSA/SSO produces the TTR annual environmental report available at http://www.sandia.gov/news/publications/environmental/index.html.

  15. U-Pb and Sm-Nd ages for the Stillwater Complex and its associated sills and dikes, Beartooth Mountains, Montana: identification of a parent magma?

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Premo, W.R.; Helz, R.T.; Zientek, M.L.; Langston, R.B.

    1990-01-01

    Seven analyses from two samples of the Lower Banded series of the Stillwater Complex, Montana, yielded a U-Pb zircon-baddeleyite age of 2705??4 Ma. A more precise age of 2704??1 Ma is obtained if we regress only five of seven analyses. In either case, the age is in very good agreement with the previously reported Sm-Nd mineral isochron age of 2701??8 Ma for a gabbro from the Lower Banded series. Noncumulate mafic sills and dikes that immediately underlie the Stillwater Complex are separated into five compositional groups. U-Pb zircon ages for a group 1 gabbronorite (2711??1 Ma) and a group 3 mafic norite (2703??10Ma) are comparable to previously reported U-Pb zircon ages for a group 1 diabase (2713??3 Ma) and a group 4 high-Ti norite (2712??3 Ma). Mineral separates from group 2 yielded a four-point Pb-Pb internal isochron age of 2704??25 Ma, and separates from group 6 yielded a Sm-Nd internal isochron age of 2706??64 Ma. These results indicate that groups 1 and 4 of the associated sills and dikes are perhaps slightly older than the complex and that groups 2,3, and 6 may be coeval with it, supporting the idea that these three groups are the best candidates for a Stillwater parent magma. -from Authors

  16. The copper-nickel concentration log: A tool for stratigraphic interpretation within the ultramafic and basal zones of the stillwater complex, Montana

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Drew, L.J.; Bawiec, W.J.; Page, N.J.; Schuenemeyer, J.H.

    1985-01-01

    An analogue to the electric well log was devised for copper-nickel concentration drill-hole data from the Basal and lower part of the Ultramafic zones of the Stillwater Complex using automated data processing. The copper-nickel concentration logs graphically represent intensity (concentration) values that reflect the distribution of the elements in sulfide and silicate minerals. Four major patterns are recognized by their characteristic variations in copper and nickel intensity: (1) relatively flat, low-level copper-intensity signatures associated with arcuate nickel-intensity patterns that correlate with rocks in the Peridotite member of the Ultramafic zone; (2) arcuate or bulb-like patterns of copper and nickel intensity that correlate closely with the Basal bronzite cumulate member of the Basal zone; (3) complex patterns consisting of intervals of low-intensity copper and moderate-intensity nickel, spikes of high nickel and copper intensity, and high copper intensity associated with low nickel intensity that correlate respectively with cordierite-pyroxene hornfels, massive sulfide, norites and mineralized diabase dikes in the Basal norite member; and (4) large intervals of extremely low copper and nickel intensity that correlate with quartz-orthopyroxene hornfels. The recognition and interpretation of these patterns allow two- and three-dimensional stratigraphic and lithologic reconstructions to be done by means of concentration-log correlations instead of variable quality lithologic logging. ?? 1985.

  17. Petrology and comparative thermal and mechanical histories of clasts in breccia 62236

    SciTech Connect

    Nord, G.L. Jr.; Wandless, M.

    1983-02-15

    Lunar breccia 62236 contains large lithic fragments of troctolite, norite, and anorthosite. The mafic phases, olivine, inverted pigeonite, and augite, fill interstitial areas between larger plagioclases and appear to be cumulate phases with extensive adcumulus growth. Pyroxene compositional homogeneity indicates that cation exchange during cooling was limited to an area of about 1 mm. Primary augite and pigeonite both contain 30 ..mu..m-wide lamellae of the other along '001'. Pigeonite inverted to orthopyroxene without retaining any crystallographic orientation and subsequently exsolved fine lamellae of augite on (100). Profiles across orthopyroxene-augite interfaces obtained in the analytical transmission electron microscope show an increase of approx.5% wollastonite in augite within 0.5 ..mu..m of the interface, suggesting that short-range cation exchange continued to temperatures below 500 /sup 0/C. The entire sample has undergone heterogeneous shock deformation. Shock melting of the troctolitic clast suggests pressures of 200-300 kb and well-developed basal twinning in augite from the norite clasts suggest pressures of 50-300 kbars. The present evidence indicates that 62236 contains parts of a slowly cooled microlayered accumulate that has been heterogeneously shocked several times and combined into the present breccia.

  18. Lunar highlands volcanism implications from Luna 20 and Apollo 16

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wilshire, H.G.; Wilhelms, D.E.; Howard, K.A.

    1974-01-01

    Highlands materials sampled at the Apollo 16 and Luna 20 sites represent units of distinctive morphology that are widespread on the lunar nearside. Samples from the Apollo 16 site represent hilly and furrowed materials of the Descartes highlands and Cayley Formation. Materials were collected by Luna 20 from terrain resembling the Descartes terrain. Most photogeologic interpretations of these units favored volcanic origins, but the samples fail to support this interpretation. Luna 20 soil fragments are mainly glassy microbreccia with lithic inclusions of fine-grained hornfels; less than 3 percent of the fragments have textures of volcanic rocks, and most of these are likely crystalline products of impact melting. Apollo 16 soils formed on ejecta derived from a plutonic anorthosite-norite-troctolite suite. The similarity of Luna 20 soils indicates that these too formed as regolith on ejecta of anorthosite-norite-troctolitc composition. Interpretation of the samples from the two locations now suggests that hilly and furrowed terrains, previously thought to be of volcanic origin, are impact ejecta; in view of the plutonic nature of the source rocks and their extensive fusion and metamorphism, it is likely that the ejecta were derived from multiring basins. At one point, the Apollo 16 site, the Cayley Formation is composed of basin ejecta.

  19. Petrology and comparative thermal and mechanical histories of clasts in breccia 62236.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Nord, G.L.; Wandless, M.-V.

    1983-01-01

    This breccia contains large lithic fragments of troctolite, norite and anorthosite. The mafic phases olivine, inverted pigeonite and augite fill interstitial areas between large plagioclases and appear to be cumulate phases with extensive adcumulus growth. Pyroxene homogeneity indicates that cation exchange during cooling was limited to approx 1 mm. Primary augite and pigeonite both contain 30 mu m-wide lamellae of the other along '001'. Pigeonite inverted to orthopyroxene without retaining any crystallographic orientation and subsequently exsolved fine lamellae of augite of (100). TEM profiles show an increase of approx 5% wollastonite in augite within 0.5 mu m of the interface, suggesting that short- range cation exchange continued to T = or < 500oC. The entire sample has undergone heterogeneous shock deformation. Shock melting of the troctolite clast suggests P of 200-300 kbar, and basal twinning in augite from the norite clasts suggests P of 50-300 kbar. The present evidence indicates that 62236 contains parts of a slowly cooled microlayered adcumulate that has been heterogeneously shocked several times and combined into breccia.-P.Br.

  20. Petrology and geochemistry of the Eastern Loma de Cabrera Batholith, Dominican Republic

    SciTech Connect

    Cribb, J.W.; Lewis, J.F.

    1985-01-01

    The Eastern Loma de Cabrera Batholith, located in the NW Cordillera Central, Dominican Republic, is a heterogeneous intrusive complex composed of a zoned ultramafic-mafic core surrounded by tonalite and diorite. The batholith intrudes metasbasaltic rocks of the Duarte Complex of early Cretaceous age. The ultramafic-mafic core consists of peridotite, olivine-pyroxenite, pyroxenite, and augite-hypersthene gabbro-norite. Pyroxenites and gabbro-norites exhibit large scale interlayering and small scale layering involving a regular variation in the proportions of ortho- and clinopyroxene. Tonalities and diorites are mafic to leucocratic, some being porphyritic. Petrographic types include hornblende, hornblende-pyroxene, hornblende-biotite, and muscovite-biotite types. Aplites are abundant. Intrusive relations suggest that ultramafic-mafic complex is the oldest intrusive phase, and was partially amphibolitized during later intrusion of the felsic rocks. Ultramafic-mafic rocks contain 43-54% SiO/sub 2/ and MgO ranges from 8-45%. Trace and REE in these rocks are relatively depleted. Tonalitic rocks range in SiO/sub 2/ from 53-76%, with K/sub 2/O varying from 0.15-2.9%. In addition, they are LREE enriched. A small Eu anomaly is best explained by fractionation of plagioclase and hornblende. Trends shown by Rb-Sr data suggest that fractional crystallization of hornblende and plagioclase, that is high level fractionation, is the important factor in controlling chemical variation in the tonalites.

  1. Chemical composition of crystalline rock fragments from Luna 16 and Luna 20 fines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cimbalnikova, A.; Palivcova, M.; Frana, J.; Mastalka, A.

    1977-01-01

    The chemical composition (bulk, rare earth, and trace elements) of the Luna 16 mare regolith and luna 20 highland regolith is discussed. The rock samples considered are 14 basaltic rock fragments (Luna 16) and 13 rock fragments of the ANT suite (Luna 20). On the basis of bulk composition, two types of basaltic rocks have been differentiated and defined in the Luna 16 regolith: mare basalts (fundamental crystalline rocks of Mare Fecunditatis) and high-alumina basalts. The bulk analyses of rock fragments of the ANT suite also enabled distinction of two rock types: anorthositic norites and troctolites and/or spinal-troctolites (the most abundant crystalline rocks of the highland region, the landing site of luna 20), and anorthosites. The chemical compositions of Luna 16 and Luna 20 regolith samples are compared. Differences in the chemistry of the Luna 16 mare regolith and that of mare basalts are discussed. The chemical affinity between the Luna 20 highland regolith and (a) anorthositic norites and (b) troctolites and/or spinel-troctolites has been ascertained.

  2. Rock types of South Pole-Aitken basin and extent of basaltic volcanism

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Pieters, C.M.; Head, J. W.; Gaddis, L.; Jolliff, B.; Duke, M.

    2001-01-01

    The enormous pre-Nectarian South Pole-Aitken (SPA) basin represents a geophysically and compositionally unique region on the Moon. We present and analyze the mineralogical diversity across this basin and discuss the implications for basin evolution. Rock types are derived from Clementine multispectral data based on diagnostic characteristics of ferrous absorptions in fresh materials. Individual areas are characterized as noritic (dominated by low-Ca pyroxene), gabbroic/basaltic (dominated by high-Ca pyroxene), feldspathic (<3-6% FeO), and olivine-gabbro (dominated by high-Ca pyroxene and olivine). The anorthositic crust has effectively been removed from the interior of the basin. The style of volcanism within the basin extends over several 100 Myr and includes mare basalt and pyroclastic deposits. Several areas of ancient (pre-Orientale) volcanism, or cryptomaria, have also been identified. The nonmare mafic lithology that occurs across the basin is shown to be noritic in composition and is pervasive laterally and vertically. We interpret this to represent impact melt/breccia deposits derived from the lower crust. A few localized areas are identified within the basin that contain more diverse lithologies (gabbro, olivine-gabbro), some of which may represent material from the deepest part of the lower crust and perhaps uppermost mantle involved in the SPA event. Copyright 2001 by the American Geophysical Union.

  3. Lunar Meteorite Queen Alexandra Range 93069 and the Iron Concentration of the Lunar Highlands Surface

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Korotev, Randy L.; Jolliff, Bradley L.; Rockow, Kaylynn M.

    1996-01-01

    Lunar meteorite Queen Alexandra Range 93069 is a clast-rich, glassy-matrix regolith breccia of ferroan, highly aluminous bulk composition. It is similar in composition to other feldspathic lunar meteorites but differs in having higher concentrations of siderophile elements and incompatible trace elements. Based on electron microprobe analyses of the fusion crust, glassy matrix, and clasts, and instrumental neutron activation analysis of breccia fragments, QUE 93069 is dominated by nonmare components of ferroan, noritic- anorthosite bulk composition. Thin section QUE 93069,31 also contains a large, impact-melted, partially devitrified clast of magnesian, anorthositic-norite composition. The enrichment in Fe, Sc, and Cr and lower Mg/Fe ratio of lunar meteorites Yamato 791197 and Yamato 82192/3 compared to other feldspathic lunar meteorites can be attributed to a small proportion (5-10%) of low-Ti mare basalt. It is likely that the non- mare components of Yamato 82192/3 are similar to and occur in similar abundance to those of Yamato 86032, with which it is paired. There is a significant difference between the average FeO concentration of the lunar highlands surface as inferred from the feldspathic lunar meteorites (mean: approx. 5.0%; range: 4.3-6.1 %) and a recent estimate based on data from the Clementine mission (3.6%).

  4. MAC88105 - A regolith breccia from the lunar highlands: Mineralogical, petrological, and geochemical studies

    SciTech Connect

    Koeberl, C. ); Kurat, G.; Branstaetter, F. )

    1991-11-01

    The new large lunar meteorite MAC88105 is a dense breccia, with lithic and mineral clasts and fragments set into a welded matrix. It is a regolith breccia which shows some recrystallization and evidence for a late shock event during which anorthositic glass veins were formed. Shock effects (most probably due to impact ejection from the moon) are present throughout the sample and require a shock pressure of about 25-30 GPa, in agreement with observations made on other lunar meteorites. The presence of devitrified glass (spheres and shards) supports a regolith origin. Most common are meta-meltbreccias consisting of abundant anorthitic plagioclase clasts and a dense, fine-grained matrix. Some fine-grained hornfelsic to granulitic metabreccias are also present. Lithic clast compositions are predominantly anorthositic noritic (or noritic anorthositic), and anorthositic troctolitic. The bulk comparison of MAC88105 is different from that of the lunar meteorites and suggests a different source, which is supported by cosmic-ray and noble gas data. At this time it seems likely that about four individual impact events have been responsible for delivering the seven highland meteorites.

  5. Experimental study of eclogitization and melting of basic rocks at P = 4 GPa and T = 1200-1400°C

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gorbachev, N. S.; Shapovalov, Yu. B.; Kostyuk, A. V.

    2017-06-01

    Experimental study of gabbro-norite eclogitization and melting at P = 4 GPa has made it possible to reveal the effective influence of fluid and temperature on the phase relationships. The melt composition varies from andesite-dacite in "dry conditions" to phonolite and carbonate in the presence of a fluid. The Grt-containing melting curve is replaced by the Cpx-containing liquidus as the temperature changes or a fluid is added. Hence, the possible presence of "garnetitite" and "clinopyroxenite" in the upper mantle was proved experimentally. The ultimate pressure of the spinel facies at the depth of the eclogite upper mantle is controlled by the stability of Cht ≤ 4 GPa. The revealed similarity of the spectra of REE-adakite, tonalite-trondhjemite-granodiorite (TTG), and melts formed under the partial melting of eclogitized gabbro-norite does not contradict the existing ideas of the eclogite source of the TTG rocks. Wide variations in the interphase microelement distribution factors D (Grt, Cpx)/L are indicative of effective fractionation of the microelements in the course of eclogite melting and differentiation.

  6. Comparative study of the adsorption of acetaminophen on activated carbons in simulated gastric fluid.

    PubMed

    Rey-Mafull, Carlos A; Tacoronte, Juan E; Garcia, Raquel; Tobella, Jorge; Llópiz, Julio C; Iglesias, Alberto; Hotza, Dachamir

    2014-01-01

    Samples of commercial activated carbons (AC) obtained from different sources: Norit E Supra USP, Norit B Test EUR, and ML (Baracoa, Cuba) were investigated. The adsorption of acetaminophen, Co = 2500 mg/L, occured in simulated gastric fluid (SGF) at pH 1.2 in contact with activated carbon for 4 h at 310 K in water bath with stirring. Residual acetaminophen was monitored by UV visible. The results were converted to scale adsorption isotherms using alternative models: Langmuir TI and TII, Freundlich, Dubinin-Radushkevich (DR) and Temkin. Linearized forms of the characteristic parameters were obtained in each case. The models that best fit the experimental data were Langmuir TI and Temkin with R(2) ≥0.98. The regression best fits followed the sequence: Langmuir TI = Temkin > DR > LangmuirTII > Freundlich. The microporosity determined by adsorption of CO2 at 273 K with a single term DR regression presented R(2) > 0.98. The adsorption of acetaminophen may occur in specific sites and also in the basal region. It was determined that the adsorption process of acetaminophen on AC in SGF is spontaneous (ΔG <0) and exothermic (-ΔHads.). Moreover, the area occupied by the acetaminophen molecule was calculated with a relative error from 7.8 to 50%.

  7. Anatomy of a deep crustal volcanic conduit system; The Reinfjord Ultramafic Complex, Seiland Igneous Province, Northern Norway

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grant, Thomas B.; Larsen, Rune B.; Anker-Rasch, Lars; Grannes, Kim Rune; Iljina, Markku; McEnroe, Suzanne; Nikolaisen, Even; Schanche, Mona; Øen, Endre

    2016-05-01

    The Reinfjord Ultramafic Complex, Seiland Igneous Province represents a lower crustal magma chamber (25-30 km depth) that likely records a deep conduit system for mantle derived melts ascending through the continental crust. It consists of cumulates of dunite, wehrlite, olivine clinopyroxene as well as subordinate lherzolite and websterites, intruded into gabbro-norite and metasediment gneisses. Field, petrographic and geochemical data show that the intrusion developed through fractional crystallization and interactions between new batches of magma and partially solidified cumulates. This resulted in a 'reverse fractionation sequence' whereby cumulates became progressively more MgO and olivine rich with time. Contamination by partial melting of the gabbro-norite is evident in the marginal zones, but is limited in the central parts of the intrusion. Interrupted crystallization sequences of olivine → olivine + clinopyroxene and the absence of significant amounts of more evolved melts, suggests that large volumes of melt passed through the system to shallower levels in the crust leaving behind the cumulate sequences observed at Reinfjord. Therefore, the Reinfjord Ultramafic Complex represents a deep crustal conduit system, through which mantle derived melts passed. The parent melts are likely to have formed from partial melting of mantle with residual garnet and clinopyroxene.

  8. Remote sensing and geologic studies of the orientale basin region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hawke, B. Ray; Lucey, P. G.; Taylor, G. J.; Bell, Jeffrey F.; Peterson, C. A.; Blewett, D.; Horton, K.; Spudis, P. D.

    1991-06-01

    Both visual and near-infrared spectral observations are combined with multispectral imaging to study the Orientale interior and exterior, the Cruger region, Grimaldi Region, the Schiller-Schickard Region, and the Humorum Region of the Moon. It was concluded that anorthosites occur in the Inner Rook Mountains of Orientale, the inner ring of Grimaldi, and the main ring of Humorum. Imaging spectroscopy shows that the entire eastern Inner Rook Mountains are composed of anorthosites. Orientale ejecta are strikingly like the surface materials in the region where Apollo 16 landed. This similarity indicates similar mineralogy, i.e., noritic anorthosite. Thus, Orientile ejecta is more mafic than the Inner Rook Mountains. This situation is also true for the Nectaris, Humorum, and Gramaldi basins. Isolated areas of the Orientale region show the presence of gabbroic rocks, but, in general, Orientale ejecta are noritic anorthosites, which contain much more low-Ca pyroxene than high-Ca pyroxene. Ancient (pre-Orientale) mare volcanism apparently occurred in several areas of the western limb.

  9. Remote sensing and geologic studies of the orientale basin region

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hawke, B. Ray; Lucey, P. G.; Taylor, G. J.; Bell, Jeffrey F.; Peterson, C. A.; Blewett, D.; Horton, K.; Spudis, P. D.

    1991-01-01

    Both visual and near-infrared spectral observations are combined with multispectral imaging to study the Orientale interior and exterior, the Cruger region, Grimaldi Region, the Schiller-Schickard Region, and the Humorum Region of the Moon. It was concluded that anorthosites occur in the Inner Rook Mountains of Orientale, the inner ring of Grimaldi, and the main ring of Humorum. Imaging spectroscopy shows that the entire eastern Inner Rook Mountains are composed of anorthosites. Orientale ejecta are strikingly like the surface materials in the region where Apollo 16 landed. This similarity indicates similar mineralogy, i.e., noritic anorthosite. Thus, Orientile ejecta is more mafic than the Inner Rook Mountains. This situation is also true for the Nectaris, Humorum, and Gramaldi basins. Isolated areas of the Orientale region show the presence of gabbroic rocks, but, in general, Orientale ejecta are noritic anorthosites, which contain much more low-Ca pyroxene than high-Ca pyroxene. Ancient (pre-Orientale) mare volcanism apparently occurred in several areas of the western limb.

  10. Ophiolite belts in the Koryak Upland, Northeast Asia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Palandzhjan, S. A.

    1986-08-01

    In the packets of tectonic slices there are preserved large-size fragments of Late Precambrian-Early Paleozoic, Late Paleozoic-Triassic, Late Jurassic-Valanginian, Albian-Campanian, and Late Cretaceous ophiolite suites developed in both oceanic and marginal (back-arc) basins. Same belts (or zones) of ophiolites often comprise fragments of different-age complexes. In the Paleozoic ophiolites which, judging from the volcanic series compositions, were formed in different paleo-oceanic environments, mafic complexes are the thickest and include gabbro-norite and gabbro-troctolite series; they are associated with less depleted metamorphic peridotite complexes (lherzolite and pyroxene-rich harzburgite). Marginal basin ophiolites of Late Jurassic-Valanginian age incorporate thin mafic rock bodies of gabbro-norite composition; they are associated with lherzolites, pyroxene-rich harzburgites, olivine-rich harzburgites, and major dunite bodies. Petrochemical types of metamorphic peridotite massifs are given and it is assumed that the latter are fragments of an ancient peridotite layer which throughout the Phanerozoic served as the mantle basement for the crust of oceanic or marginal basins occurring in the northwestern Paleo-Pacific.

  11. Extension of AOAC official method 999.14 (choline in infant formula and milk) to the determination of choline in dietary supplements.

    PubMed

    Rader, Jeanne I; Weaver, Carol M; Trucksess, Mary W

    2004-01-01

    AOAC Official Method 999.14 is applicable for the determination of choline in milk and infant formulas. To date, its use has not been extended beyond these matrixes. We modified Official Method 999.14 and applied it to the determination of choline in a range of choline-containing dietary supplements. Dietary supplement tablets, capsules, wafers, softgels, liquid products, and drink powders were included. We found that the standard curve could be extended to cover a wider range of choline concentrations and defined a procedure for the use of Norit for samples in which the vitamin C content was high enough to interfere with the analysis. Recoveries of choline added to infant formula powders and to representative dietary supplement tablets, capsules, powdered drink mix, and wafer products were 85-114%. The use of Norit during the procedure did not affect the recovery of choline added to infant formula powders or to dietary supplements. An alkaline digestion was included for use with a product containing lecithin as the sole source of choline. Ten of 11 dietary supplement products analyzed by the modified method contained amounts of choline at or above declarations found on the product labels. The remaining product contained about 40% of the label-declared amount of choline.

  12. Use of liquid phase adsorption for characterizing pore network connectivity in activated carbon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ismadji, Suryadi; Bhatia, Suresh K.

    2002-08-01

    A simple percolation theory-based method for determination of the pore network connectivity using liquid phase adsorption isotherm data combined with a density functional theory (DFT)-based pore size distribution is presented in this article. The liquid phase adsorption experiments have been performed using eight different esters as adsorbates and microporous-mesoporous activated carbons Filtrasorb-400, Norit ROW 0.8 and Norit ROX 0.8 as adsorbents. The density functional theory (DFT)-based pore size distributions of the carbons were obtained using DFT analysis of argon adsorption data. The mean micropore network coordination numbers, Z, of the carbons were determined based on DR characteristic plots and fitted saturation capacities using percolation theory. Based on this method, the critical molecular sizes of the model compounds used in this study were also obtained. The incorporation of percolation concepts in the prediction of multicomponent adsorption equilibria is also investigated, and found to improve the performance of the ideal adsorbed solution theory (IAST) model for the large molecules utilized in this study.

  13. Chemical mixing model studies of lunar orbital geochemical data - Apollo 16 and 17 highlands compositions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Spudis, P. D.; Hawke, B. R.

    1982-01-01

    Chemical mixing model studies of lunar geochemical data for the central and Taurus-Littrow lunar highlands were performed utilizing pristine highland rock types as end member compositions. The central highlands show considerable diversity in composition; anorthosite is the principal rock type in the Apollo 16/Descartes region, while norite predominates in the highlands west of the landing site. This change in crustal composition is coincident with a major color boundary seen in earth-based multispectral data and probably represents the presence of distinct geochemical provinces within the central highlands. The Taurus-Littrow highlands are dominated by norite; anorthosite is far less abundant than in the central highlands. This suggests that the impact target for the Serenitatis basin was different than that of the Nectaris basin and further strengthens the hypothesis that the lunar highlands are petrologically heterogeneous on a regional basis. It is suggested that the lunar highlands should be viewed in terms of geochemical provinces that have undergone distinct and complex igneous and impact histories.

  14. Intractions of mantle and crustal magmas in the southern part of the Ivrea Zone (Italy)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sinigoi, S.; Antonini, P.; Demarchi, G.; Longinelli, A.; Mazzucchelli, M.; Negrini, L.; Rivalenti, G.

    1991-10-01

    In the southern part of the Ivrea Zone (Italy), the majority of the Mafic Formation is composed of: 1. amphibole-bearing gabbro; 2. a series of rocks ranging from norites to charnockites; 3. leucocratic charnockites. In the proximity of metasedimentary septa within the Mafic Formation, the igneous lithologies are in many places intimately and chaotically intermingled, giving rise to a marble-cake structure. Whole-rock chemistry, and oxygen and strontium isotopic compositions indicate that the mafic and felsic rocks are dominated by mantle and crustal sources respectively. The norite-charnockite suite may be modelled as the mixing product of basic and acid melts. Abundant plastic deformation structures suggest that mafic and hybrid rocks experienced an important tectonic event during or soon after their crystallization. Melting of crustal country rocks continued after the deformation event and produced the undeformed leucocratic charnockites. The study area exemplifies some of the possible effects of the intrusion of a large volume of basic magma into hot crust.

  15. Geological and geochemical analysis of stratigraphic units in the South Pole - Aitken Basin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Borst, A.; Bexkens, F.; Foing, B.; Koschny, D.; Davies, G.; van Westrenen, W.

    2009-04-01

    The South Pole-Aitken (SPA) Basin, located on the Lunar far side, is one of the oldest and largest recognized impact structure in the solar system. This PreNectarian basin (>3.9 Ga) measures 2500 km in diameter with depths up to 13 km. A large mafic province was formed by the impact that effectively removed the upper crust [1]. Hence, deep-seated lower crustal and possibly even mantle materials are exposed in the severely modified Basin interior, providing the unique opportunity to probe and study the composition and structure of the Lunar interior. Consequently, the SPA Basin is a frequently proposed site for future sample return missions and detailed multispectral studies will required to aid landing site selection [2]. Previous studies on the multispectral dataset of Clementine (1994) by Pieters and Tompkins [1,3] revealed fresh mafic compositions of both low-Ca pyroxene or high-Ca pyroxene dominated rocks, referred to as norites and gabbros respectively. Some regions contained spectral features of olivine (troctolite), such as in Olivine Hill, which could suggest the presence of mantle derived deposits tapped during SPA impact. Using an algorithm developed by Pieters et al. [1] we have produced images for three subregions, covering the central and northern part of the SPA Basin. The algorithm is based on three diagnostic features in the UV/VIS spectrum of Clementine's 11 band multispectral dataset. The parameters are assigned to an RGB composite and allow distinction between mature soils, anorthosite (blue), norite (pink) and gabbro/troctolite compositions (green). Furthermore, we have used Clementine's Near Infrared database to produce a NIR band ratio image (2000 nm/1250 nm), as a parameter to distinguish between olivine and pyroxene-rich materials where we aim to detect traces of excavated mantle material (modified from LeMoeulic et al. [4]). Regretfully, we found that the NIR ratio method does not confirm olivine-rich material exposed in Olivine Hill as it

  16. Bi-cycles petrographic association in middle part of East Pana PGE layers deposit

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Asavin, Alex; Veksler, Ilya; Gorbunov, Artem

    2016-04-01

    The PGE mineralization in the East Pana layered gabbroic intrusion forms three discrete layers at different stratigraphic levels, which are traditionally labeled as zones A, B and C. In order to investigate possible relationships of mineralization with magmatic layering we sampled a 120 m long drill core section across zone B in the middle part of the intrusion and carried out detailed petrographic, mineralogical and geochemical studies of the samples. The ore zone is located in medial part of the of East's Pana deposite. The samples represent mainly from a layered sequence of gabbro and gabbro-norite. This zone is composed of interlayers of gabbroic sequences and gabbro-norite of various color, with different structures and different relationship of rock-forming minerals of Ol-Opx-Cpx-Pl. We studied one of key's drill-hole section of ore zone, in which is located two ore horizons. Fundamental feature layered intrusions are presence in cross-section cycles includes of stable petrographic association. In section of ore zone it is possible to select two most contrast petrographic types. Whole-rock analyses and petrographic observations reveal two units of modal layering comprising, from bottom to top, melanocratic gabbro grading upwards into mesocratic gabbro and gabbro-norite overlain by pegmatoidal, gabbroic rock with has sharp footwall and hanging wall contacts.There is also an olivine-bearing gabbro at the bottom of the lower unit. The ore horizons are located in same gabbro-norite type rock. The ore horizons are located in same gabbro-norite type part. The second upper ore zone located in more differential species types. There is the common trend of system evolution of well distinguished on triangle of Ol-Pl-Di, Ol-Pl-Q and other. However composition of the rocks in the two parts of our section show us similar, but independent trends. For example on diagram differentiation of rocks composition, with normative content of anorthite on the X axis, trends of

  17. An Aerial Radiological Survey of Selected Areas of the City of North Las Vegas

    SciTech Connect

    Piotr Wasiolek

    2008-06-01

    As part of the proficiency training for the Radiological Mapping mission of the Aerial Measuring System (AMS), a survey team from the Remote Sensing Laboratory-Nellis (RSL-Nellis) conducted an aerial radiological survey of selected areas of the city of North Las Vegas for the purpose of mapping natural radiation background and locating any man-made radioactive sources. Survey areas were selected in collaboration with the City Manager's office and included four separate areas: (1) Las Vegas Motor Speedway (10.6 square miles); (2) North Las Vegas Downtown Area (9.2 square miles); (3) I-15 Industrial Corridor (7.4 square miles); and (4) Future site of University of Nevada Las Vegas campus (17.4 square miles). The survey was conducted in three phases: Phase 1 on December 11-12, 2007 (Areas 1 and 2), Phase 2 on February 28, 2008 (Area 3), and Phase 3 on March 19, 2008 (Area 4). The total completed survey covered a total of 44.6 square miles. The flight lines (without the turns) over the surveyed areas are presented in Figures 1, 2, 3, and 4. A total of eight 2.5-hour-long flights were performed at an altitude of 150 ft above ground level (AGL) with 300 feet of flight-line spacing. Water line and test line flights were conducted over the Lake Mead and Government Wash areas to ensure quality control of the data. The data were collected by the AMS data acquisition system (REDAR V) using an array of twelve 2-inch x 4-inch x 16-inch sodium iodide (NaI) detectors flown on-board a twin-engine Bell 412 helicopter. Data, in the form of gamma energy spectra, were collected continually (every second) over the course of the survey and were geo-referenced using a differential Global Positioning System. Collection of spectral data allows the system to distinguish between ordinary fluctuations in natural background radiation levels and the signature produced by man-made radioisotopes. Spectral data can also be used to identify specific radioactive isotopes. As a courtesy service, with

  18. Helmet-mounted tracker and display (HMT/D) interfaces: developing a standardized helmet-vehicle interface (HVI)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kocian, Dean F.

    1998-08-01

    The successful integration of technology and human factors meets its ultimate challenge in the area of military performance. Nowhere are the stakes so high and the competition so rigorous as in the arena of combat. This paper documents the attempt to define, develop, and test a 'standardized' interface for helmet-mounted tracker and displays as these systems begin to phase into the military inventory as standard equipment for USAF and USN fighter aircraft. The design that has been evolved is based upon active use and refinement in an environment that is as close to combat conditions, as resources permit. Many of the design ideas and lessons-learned covered in this paper came either directly or indirectly from pilots and support personnel of the USAF 422 Test and Evaluation Squadron located at Nellis AFB, NV.

  19. Corrective action investigation plan for CAU No. 424: Area 3 Landfill Complex, Tonopah Test Range, Nevada

    SciTech Connect

    1997-04-01

    This Correction Action Investigation Plan contains the environmental sample collection objectives and the criteria for conducting site investigation activities at the Area 3 Landfill Complex, CAU No. 424, which is located at the Tonopah Test Range (TTR). The TTR, included in the Nellis Air Force Range, is approximately 255 kilometers (140 miles) northwest of Las Vegas, nevada. The CAU 424 is comprised of eight individual landfill sites that are located around and within the perimeter of the Area 3 Compound. Due to the unregulated disposal activities commonly associated with early landfill operations, an investigation will be conducted at each CAS to complete the following tasks: identify the presence and nature of possible contaminant migration from the landfills; determine the vertical and lateral extent of possible contaminant migration; ascertain the potential impact to human health and the environment; and provide sufficient information and data to develop and evaluate appropriate corrective action strategies for each CAS.

  20. Tonopah Test Range closure sites revegetation plan

    SciTech Connect

    Anderson, D.C.; Hall, D.B.

    1997-05-01

    This document is a revegetation plan for long-term stabilization (revegetation) of land disturbed by activities associated with the closure of a Bomblet Pit and the Five Points Landfill. Both sites are on the Tonopah Test Range (TTR) located in south-central Nevada. This document contains general reclamation practices and procedures that will be followed during the revegetation of these sites. The revegetation procedures proposed have been developed over several years of research and include the results of reclamation trials at Area 11 and Area 19 on the Nevada Test Site (NTS), and more recently at the Double Tracks (Nellis Air Force Range) reclamation demonstration plots. In addition, the results of reclamation efforts and concurrent research efforts at the Yucca Mountain Project have been considered in the preparation of this revegetation plan.

  1. Underground test area quality assurance project plan, Nevada test site, Nevada. Revision 1

    SciTech Connect

    1997-04-01

    This Quality Assurance Project Plan (QAPP) is one of the planning documents used for the Underground Test Area (UGTA) Subproject at the Nevada Test Site (NTS) which falls under the oversight of the U.S. Department of Energy, Nevada Operations Office (DOE/NV) Nevada Environmental Restoration Project (NV ERP). The Nevada ERP consists of environmental restoration activities on the NTS, Tonopah Test Range, Nellis Air Force Range, and eight sites in five other states. The UGTA Subproject constitutes a component of the Nevada Environmental Restoration Project. The purposes of the UGTA Subproject are to define boundaries around each Corrective Action Unit (CAU), as defined by the Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order (FFACO), that establish areas containing water that may be unsafe for domestic or municipal use and to establish monitoring programs for each CAU that will verify modeling upon which the boundaries are based.

  2. Corrective action investigation plan for Corrective Action Unit Number 423: Building 03-60 Underground Discharge Point, Tonopah Test Range, Nevada

    SciTech Connect

    1997-10-27

    This Corrective Action Investigation Plan (CAIP) contains the environmental sample collection objectives and the criteria for conducting site investigation activities at Corrective Action Unit (CAU) Number 423, the Building 03-60 Underground Discharge Point (UDP), which is located in Area 3 at the Tonopah Test Range (TTR). The TTR, part of the Nellis Air Force Range, is approximately 225 kilometers (140 miles) northwest of Las Vegas, Nevada. CAU Number 423 is comprised of only one Corrective Action Site (CAS) which includes the Building 03-60 UDP and an associated discharge line extending from Building 03-60 to a point approximately 73 meters (240 feet) northwest. The UDP was used between approximately 1965 and 1990 to dispose of waste fluids from the Building 03-60 automotive maintenance shop. It is likely that soils surrounding the UDP have been impacted by oil, grease, cleaning supplies and solvents as well as waste motor oil and other automotive fluids released from the UDP.

  3. [Wooden chests for the midwife's equipment].

    PubMed

    Carlén-Nilsson, C

    1993-01-01

    In the museum of medical history in Lund there are several wooden chests containing partly identical instruments apparently belonging to a midwife. The instruments dated from before 1900, e.g. lancets and horn cups for blood-letting, a pewter enema syringe, a wooden stethoscope, a "tobacco pipe" and glass bottles. The use of the tobacco pipe was first puzzling, but it appeared to be a breast reliver. What do we know about the date of the chests? One chest has belonged to Kjersti Nilsdotter, a midwife educated in Lund 1872-1873. Her certificate was in the chest. From Ronnie Hunt, Minnesota we have got information about another chest of the same type. That belonged to Nelly Gustafsson, a midwife educated in Lund probably about 1870. She emigrated to USA and was a practising midwife in Lindstrom, Minnesota from about 1900.

  4. Corrective action investigation plan for Corrective Action Unit Number 427: Area 3 septic waste system numbers 2 and 6, Tonopah Test Range, Nevada

    SciTech Connect

    1997-09-19

    This Corrective Action Investigation Plan (CAIP) contains the environmental sample collection objectives and the criteria for conducting site investigation activities at the Area 3 Compound, specifically Corrective Action Unit (CAU) Number 427, which is located at the Tonopah Test Range (TTR). The TTR, included in the Nellis Air Force Range, is approximately 255 kilometers (140 miles) northwest of Las Vegas, Nevada. The Corrective Action Unit Work Plan, Tonopah Test Range, Nevada divides investigative activities at TTR into Source Groups. The Septic Tanks and Lagoons Group consists of seven CAUs. Corrective Action Unit Number 427 is one of three septic waste system CAUs in TTR Area 3. Corrective Action Unit Numbers 405 and 428 will be investigated at a future data. Corrective Action Unit Number 427 is comprised of Septic Waste Systems Number 2 and 6 with respective CAS Numbers 03-05-002-SW02 and 03-05-002-SW06.

  5. Chemical data and variation diagrams of igneous rocks from the Timber Mountain-Oasis Valley Caldera Complex, southern Nevada

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Quinlivan, W.D.; Byers, F.M.

    1977-01-01

    Silica variation diagrams presented here are based on 162 chemical analyses of tuffs, lavas, and intrusives, representative of volcanic centers of the Timber Mountain-Oasis Valley caldera complex and cogenetic rocks of the Silent Canyon ca1dera. Most of the volcanic units sampled are shown on the U.S. Geological Survey geologic map of the Timber Mountain caldera area (I-891) and are described in U.S. Geological Survey Professional Paper 919. Early effusives of the complex, although slightly altered, are probably chemically, and petrographically, more like the calc-alkalic Fraction Tuff (Miocene) of the northern Nellis Air Force Base Bombing and Gunnery Range to the north, whereas effusives of later Miocene age, such as the Paintbrush and Timber Mountain Tuffs, are alkali-calcic.

  6. Corrective action decision document for the Roller Coaster Lagoons and North Disposal Trench (Corrective Action Unit Number 404)

    SciTech Connect

    1997-03-26

    The North Disposal Trench, located north of the eastern most lagoon, was installed in 1963 to receive solid waste and construction debris from the Operation Roller Coaster man camp. Subsequent to Operation Roller Coaster, the trench continued to receive construction debris and range cleanup debris (including ordnance) from Sandia National Laboratories and other operators. A small hydrocarbon spill occurred during Voluntary Corrective Action (VCA) activities (VCA Spill Area) at an area associated with the North Disposal Trench Corrective Action Site (CAS). Remediation activities at this site were conducted in 1995. A corrective action investigation was conducted in September of 1996 following the Corrective Action Investigation Plan (CAIP); the detailed results of that investigation are presented in Appendix A. The Roller Coaster Lagoons and North Disposal Trench are located at the Tonopah Test Range (TTR), a part of the Nellis Air Force Range, which is approximately 225 kilometers (140 miles) northwest of Las Vegas, Nevada, by air.

  7. Atmospheric channel characterization for ORCA testing at NTTR

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Andrews, L. C.; Phillips, R. L.; Crabbs, R.; Wayne, D.; Leclerc, T.; Sauer, P.

    2010-02-01

    The DARPA Optical RF Communications Adjunct (ORCA) program was created to bring high data rate networking to the warfighter via airborne platforms. Recent testing of the ORCA system was conducted by the Northrop Grumman Corporation (NGC) at the Nevada Test and Training Range (NTTR) at the Nellis Air Force Range near Tonopah, NV. The University of Central Florida (UCF) conducted a parallel test to measure path-averaged values of the refractiveindex structure parameter, the inner scale of turbulence, and the outer scale of turbulence along the ORCA propagation path from an airborne platform to the ground at Antelope Peak. In addition, weather instrumentation was set up at ground level on Antelope Peak to measure local conditions on the mountain top. This paper presents background information on expected atmospheric conditions for the channel, models that were used by UCF for the measurements, path-averaged values of the three atmospheric parameters, and a Cn2 profile model as a function of altitude.

  8. Corrective action investigation plan: Cactus Spring Waste Trenches. Revision 2

    SciTech Connect

    1997-02-01

    This Correction Action Investigation Plan (CAIP) contains environmental sample collection objectives and logic for the CAU No. 426, which includes the Cactus Spring Waste Trenches, CAS No. RG-08-001-RG-CS. The Cactus Spring Waste Trenches are located at the Tonopah Test Range (TTR) which is part of the Nellis Air Force Range, approximately 255 kilometers (km) (140 miles [mi]) northwest of Las Vegas, Nevada, by air. The purpose of this investigation is to generate sufficient data to establish the types of waste buried in the trenches, identify the presence and nature of contamination, determine the vertical extent of contaminant migration below the Cactus Spring Waste Trenches, and determine the appropriate course of action for the site. The potential courses of action for the site are clean closure, closure in place (with or without remediation), or no further action.

  9. Design, development, fabrication, and safety-of-flight testing of a panoramic night vision goggle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jackson, Timothy W.; Craig, Jeffrey L.

    1999-07-01

    A novel approach to significantly increasing the field of view (FOV) of night vision goggles (NVGs) has been developed. This approach uses four image intensifier tubes instead of the usual two to produce a 100 degree wide FOV. A conceptual demonstrator device was fabricated in November 1995 and limited flight evaluations were performed. Further development of this approach continues with eleven advanced technology demonstrators delivered in March 1999 that feature five different design configurations. Some of the units will be earmarked for ejection seat equipped aircraft due to their low profile design allowing the goggle to be retained safely during and after ejection. Other deliverables will be more traditional in design approach and lends itself to transport and helicopter aircraft as well as ground personnel. Extensive safety-of-flight testing has been accomplished as a precursor to the F-15C operational utility evaluation flight testing at Nellis AFB that began in March 1999.

  10. NV/YMP RADIOLOGICAL CONTROL MANUAL

    SciTech Connect

    U.S. DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY, NATIONAL NUCLEAR SECURITY ADMINISTRATION NEVADA SITE OFFICE; BECHTEL NEVADA

    2004-11-01

    This manual contains the radiological control requirements to be used for all radiological activities conducted by programs under the purview of the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Site Office (NNSA/NSO) and the Yucca Mountain Office of Repository Development (YMORD). Compliance with these requirements will ensure compliance with Title 10 Code of Federal Regulations Part 835 (10 CFR 835), Occupational Radiation Protection. Programs covered by this manual are located at the Nevada Test Site (NTS); Nellis Air Force Base and North Las Vegas, Nevada; Santa Barbara and Pleasanton, California; and at Andrews Air Force Base, Maryland. In addition, field work by NNSA/NSO at other locations is also covered by this manual.

  11. An Aerial Radiological Survey of the Las Vegas Strip and Adjacent Areas

    SciTech Connect

    Wasiolek, Piotr

    2009-02-01

    As proficiency training for the Radiological Mapping mission of the Aerial Measuring System (AMS), a survey team from the Remote Sensing Laboratory–Nellis (RSL-Nellis) conducted an aerial radiological survey of the Las Vegas Strip and adjacent areas on December 29, 2008. This survey was one of the bi-annual surveys carried in support of the city of Las Vegas Police Department (LVPD) before significant events on the Las Vegas Strip: e.g., the annual New Year’s Eve and July Fourth celebrations. The AMS operation and appropriate law enforcement agencies selected this area as an appropriate urban location to exercise AMS capability for mapping environmental radiation and searching for man-made radioactive sources. The surveys covered approximately 11 square miles. Each survey required a 2.5-hour-long flight, performed at an altitude of 300 ft above ground level (AGL) at a line spacing of 600 ft. Water line and test line flights are conducted over the Lake Mead and Government Wash areas to determine the non-terrestrial background contributed by aircraft, radon, and cosmic activity, and to determine the altitude-dependent air mass correction. The data were collected by the AMS data acquisition system (REDAR V) using an array of twelve 2" x 4" x 16" sodium iodide (NaI) detectors flown on-board a twin-engine Bell 412 helicopter. Gamma energy spectral data were collected second-by-second over the survey area. This spectral data allows the system to distinguish between natural terrestrial background contributions and man-made radioisotope contributions. Spectral data can also be used to identify specific man-made radioactive isotopes. Data geo-locations were determined with a Real-Time Differential Global Positioning System (RDGPS).

  12. Nevada National Security Site Environmental Report 2011

    SciTech Connect

    Cathy Wills, ed

    2012-09-12

    This report was prepared to meet the information needs of the public and the requirements and guidelines of the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) for annual site environmental reports. It was prepared by National Security Technologies, LLC (NSTec), for the U.S. Department of Energy, National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Site Office (NNSA/NSO). This and previous years reports, called Annual Site Environmental Reports (ASERs), Nevada Test Site Environmental Reports (NTSERs), and, beginning in 2010, Nevada National Security Site Environmental Reports (NNSSERs), are posted on the NNSA/NSO website at http://www.nv.energy.gov/library/publications/aser.aspx. This NNSSER was prepared to satisfy DOE Order DOE O 231.1B, 'Environment, Safety and Health Reporting.' Its purpose is to (1) report compliance status with environmental standards and requirements, (2) present results of environmental monitoring of radiological and nonradiological effluents, (3) report estimated radiological doses to the public from releases of radioactive material, (4) summarize environmental incidents of noncompliance and actions taken in response to them, (5) describe the NNSA/NSO Environmental Management System and characterize its performance, and (6) highlight significant environmental programs and efforts. This NNSSER summarizes data and compliance status for calendar year 2011 at the Nevada National Security Site (NNSS) (formerly the Nevada Test Site) and its two support facilities, the North Las Vegas Facility (NLVF) and the Remote Sensing Laboratory-Nellis (RSL-Nellis). It also addresses environmental restoration (ER) projects conducted at the Tonopah Test Range (TTR). Through a Memorandum of Agreement, NNSA/NSO is responsible for the oversight of TTR ER projects, and the Sandia Site Office of NNSA (NNSA/SSO) has oversight of all other TTR activities. NNSA/SSO produces the TTR annual environmental report available at http://www.sandia.gov/news/publications/environmental/index.html.

  13. Regolith breccia Northwest Africa 7533: Mineralogy and petrology with implications for early Mars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hewins, Roger H.; Zanda, Brigitte; Humayun, Munir; Nemchin, Alexander; Lorand, Jean-Pierre; Pont, Sylvain; Deldicque, Damien; Bellucci, Jeremy J.; Beck, Pierre; Leroux, Hugues; Marinova, Maya; Remusat, Laurent; GöPel, Christa; Lewin, Eric; Grange, Marion; Kennedy, Allen; Whitehouse, Martin J.

    2017-01-01

    Northwest Africa 7533, a polymict Martian breccia, consists of fine-grained clast-laden melt particles and microcrystalline matrix. While both melt and matrix contain medium-grained noritic-monzonitic material and crystal clasts, the matrix also contains lithic clasts with zoned pigeonite and augite plus two feldspars, microbasaltic clasts, vitrophyric and microcrystalline spherules, and shards. The clast-laden melt rocks contain clump-like aggregates of orthopyroxene surrounded by aureoles of plagioclase. Some shards of vesicular melt rocks resemble the pyroxene-plagioclase clump-aureole structures. Submicron size matrix grains show some triple junctions, but most are irregular with high intergranular porosity. The noritic-monzonitic rocks contain exsolved pyroxenes and perthitic intergrowths, and cooled more slowly than rocks with zoned-pyroxene or fine grain size. Noritic material contains orthopyroxene or inverted pigeonite, augite, calcic to intermediate plagioclase, and chromite to Cr-bearing magnetite; monzonitic clasts contain augite, sodic plagioclase, K feldspar, Ti-bearing magnetite, ilmenite, chlorapatite, and zircon. These feldspathic rocks show similarities to some rocks at Gale Crater like Black Trout, Mara, and Jake M. The most magnesian orthopyroxene clasts are close to ALH 84001 orthopyroxene in composition. All these materials are enriched in siderophile elements, indicating impact melting and incorporation of a projectile component, except for Ni-poor pyroxene clasts which are from pristine rocks. Clast-laden melt rocks, spherules, shards, and siderophile element contents indicate formation of NWA 7533 as a regolith breccia. The zircons, mainly derived from monzonitic (melt) rocks, crystallized at 4.43 ± 0.03 Ga (Humayun et al.) and a 147Sm-143Nd isochron for NWA 7034 yielding 4.42 ± 0.07 Ga (Nyquist et al.) defines the crystallization age of all its igneous portions. The zircon from the monzonitic rocks has a higher Δ17O than other Martian

  14. Serenitatis: The Oldest, Largest Impact Basin Sampled in the Solar System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ryder, G.

    1997-01-01

    The Serenitatis Basin was recognized in the early 1960s as a multiring impact basin. Poikilitic impact melt breccias collected on the Apollo 17 mission, generally inferred to be Serenitatis impact melt, precisely define its age as 3.893 +/- 0.009 Ga. On the topographic map produced from Clementine data, the basin has a well-defined, circular structure corresponding closely with mare fill. In the review by , this circular structure has a diameter of 620 km (Taurus ring). The main rim is deemed to have a diameter of 920 km (Vitruvius ring). Thus Serenitatis is both the oldest and the largest basin in the solar system to which we can confidently assign samples. The central flooded part of the Serenitatis Basin displays a mascon gravity anomaly. Gravity and topographic studies by Neumann, correcting for the mascon, indicate that the crust was thinned to about 30 km compared to a surrounding thickness of about 55 km. The rim has a slightly thickened crust. The Apollo 17 landing site lies between the Taurus and the Vitruvius rings. Remote studies show that the Taurus highlands differ in chemical composition from those around the Crisium and Nectaris Basins. They are consistently lower in alumina and higher in Fe and radioactive elements: the highlands are the noritic, rather than the anorthosite, stereotype of the ancient highlands. Tracks show that many of the poikilitic impact melt breccias rolled from high in the massifs, possibly from ledges. They vary in grain size and texture. Larger boulders display sharp contacts between texturally different units, which differ slightly big significantly in composition. They have about 18% Al2O3 and incompatible elements of about 100x chondrites. The breccias contain lithic clasts. Feldspathic granulitic breccias are the most common, but these do not form any significant component of the melt composition itself. Other lithic components are mainly plutonic igneous rocks such as norite and troctolite. Ferroan anorthosites and mare

  15. Field and Microstructure Study of Transpressive Jogdadi shear zone near Ambaji, Aravalli- Delhi Mobile Belt, NW India and its tectonic implication on the exhumation of granulites.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tiwari, Sudheer Kumar; Biswal, Tapas Kumar

    2016-04-01

    Aravalli- Delhi mobile belt is situated in the northwestern part of Indian shield. It comprises tectono- magmatic histories from Archean to Neoproterozoic age. It possesses three tectono- magmatic metamorphic belts namely Bhilwara Supergroup (3000 Ma), Aravalli Supergorup (1800 Ma) and Delhi Supergroup (1100 -750Ma). The Delhi Supergroup is divided in two parts North Delhi and South Delhi; North Delhi (1100 Ma to 850 Ma) is older than South Delhi (850 Ma to 750 Ma). The study area falls in the South Delhi terrane; BKSK granulites are the major unit in this terrane. BKSK granulites comprise gabbro- norite-basic granulite, pelitic granulite, calcareous granulite and occur within the surrounding of low grade rocks as meta- rhyolite, quartzite, mica schist and amphibolites. The high grade and low grade terranes share a sheared margin. Granulites have undergone three phases of folding, intruded by three phases of granites and traversed by many shear zones. One of the shear zones is Jogdadi shear zone which consists of granitic mylonites and other sheared rocks. Jogdadi shear zone carries the evidence of both ductile as well as brittle shearing. It strikes NW- SE; the mylonitic foliation dip moderately to SW or NE and stretching lineations are oblique towards SE. The shear zone is folded and gabbro- norite - basic granulite occurs at the core. One limb of fold passes over coarse grained granite while other limb occurs over gabbro- norite- basic granulite. Presence of mylonitic foliation, asymmetric folding, S-C fabrics, porphyroclasts, mica fishes and book shelf- gliding are indicative of ductile deformation. Most of the porphyroclasts are sigmoidal and delta types but there are also some theta and phi type porphyroclasts. Book shelf-gliding structures are at low angle to the C plane. The shear zone successively shows protomylonite, mylonite and ultramylonites from margin to the centre. As the mylonitization increases recrystallized quartz grains appear. Porphyroclasts

  16. Early History of Island Arcs - Evidence from the Mariana Trench

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hawkins, J. W.

    2004-12-01

    Among the many problems concerning the initiation and early history of island arcs is the question - what underlies arc plutonic and volcanic series ? Conventional wisdom is that arcs are built on older ocean crust. Their deep roots should include high-Mg eruptions, crystal cumulates complementry to higher-level differentiated lavas, plutonic rocks compositionally equivalent to lavas, and depleted mantle residue complementary to extracted arc magmas. If built on older ocean crust, the "roots" should overlie seafloor sediments, pillows, dikes, etc. (i.e., ophiolites). Probable exposures of deep roots of arcs are rare; exposures such as Tonsina Complex, Alaska and Zambales Range, Luzon are notable for a lack of evidence for subjacent ocean crust. The Zambales shows unmistakeable evidence for continuity from depleted harzburgite/dunite to a thick layered cumulate series of wehrlite,dunite, pyroxenite; these are overlain by norite, gabbro and arc tholeiite basalt. Much of the cumulate series and norite-gabbro has blasto-mylonite texture. These petrologic features suggest upwelling of parental peridotite mantle into a realm of oceanic lithosphere extension. The nascent arc has replaced former ocean crust rather than being built on it. The extensional regime, owing to subduction and seaward trench roll-back, has driven opening of back arc basins, caused forearc rifting, and provided a rift setting for initiation of arc magmatism. Rocks dredged from the Mariana Trench (14 to 18 N) from depths of 9000 to 3000 m, display evidence for near-solidus penetrative deformation that developed higher amphibolite facies mylonites and blasto-mylonites. Rocks include depleted peridotite, pyroxenite, wehrlite, cumulate amphibolite, norite/gabbro, tonalite. High-T metamorphism is shown by equilibrium assemblages of labradorite-bytownite, AL-hornblende, ortho- and clino- pyroxene. Highly deformed homogeneous calcic plagioclase has cross-cutting veins of xenoblastic plagioclase and rare

  17. The origin of water in the primitive Moon as revealed by the lunar highlands samples

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barnes, Jessica J.; Tartèse, Romain; Anand, Mahesh; McCubbin, Francis M.; Franchi, Ian A.; Starkey, Natalie A.; Russell, Sara S.

    2014-03-01

    The recent discoveries of hydrogen (H) bearing species on the lunar surface and in samples derived from the lunar interior have necessitated a paradigm shift in our understanding of the water inventory of the Moon, which was previously considered to be a ‘bone-dry’ planetary body. Most sample-based studies have focused on assessing the water contents of the younger mare basalts and pyroclastic glasses, which are partial-melting products of the lunar mantle. In contrast, little attention has been paid to the inventory and source(s) of water in the lunar highlands rocks which are some of the oldest and most pristine materials available for laboratory investigations, and that have the potential to reveal the original history of water in the Earth-Moon system. Here, we report in-situ measurements of hydroxyl (OH) content and H isotopic composition of the mineral apatite from four lunar highlands samples (two norites, a troctolite, and a granite clast) collected during the Apollo missions. Apart from troctolite in which the measured OH contents in apatite are close to our analytical detection limit and its H isotopic composition appears to be severely compromised by secondary processes, we have measured up to ˜2200 ppm OH in the granite clast with a weighted average δD of ˜ -105±130‰, and up to ˜3400 ppm OH in the two norites (77215 and 78235) with weighted average δD values of -281±49‰ and -27±98‰, respectively. The apatites in the granite clast and the norites are characterised by higher OH contents than have been reported so far for highlands samples, and have H isotopic compositions similar to those of terrestrial materials and some carbonaceous chondrites, providing one of the strongest pieces of evidence yet for a common origin for water in the Earth-Moon system. In addition, the presence of water, of terrestrial affinity, in some samples of the earliest-formed lunar crust suggests that either primordial terrestrial water survived the aftermath

  18. Thermal Forensics of Zircons from the Mesoproterozoic Sudbury Impact Structure (ontario, Canada)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Prado, D.; Mojzsis, S. J.

    2010-12-01

    The Sudbury Igneous Complex (SIC) forms the central part of the Mesoproterozoic (ca. 1.85 Ga) Sudbury impact structure and comprises three lithological units: norite (bottom), quartz gabbro, and granophyre (top). To determine the precise timing of the impact and the subsequent thermal behavior of the crust to this impact, an experimental approach was formulated to directly assess the associated impact energies by exploiting the crystallo-chemical response of zircon (Zr(SiO4)). The differential (slow) diffusional response of constituent elements (e.g. U, Th, Pb, REEs, Ti) in zircon at different temperatures and time-scales of the thermal pulse associated with impact makes this mineral an ideal recorder of the timing and condition of impact energies. Because titanium concentration in zircon is a function of temperature, we can also use this relationship a useful thermometer to probe time vs. temperature during the impact and its aftermath. Here, we report our studies of individual zircon grains extracted from SIC norite and granophyre drill core samples via standard heavy-mineral techniques (no zircons were found in the quartz gabbro unit). Grains were both hand-picked under an optical microscope and cast in epoxy, or entire heavy-mineral aliquots were cast without bias that arises from hand-picking. Electron imaging was used to identify individual zircons; many of the norite zircons displayed sets of planar deformation features (PDFs) attributable to shock wave deformation from impact, but none of the granophyre zircons displayed such structures. The largest and least altered grains from the sample aliquot we prepared were removed from their mounts and recast in epoxy with standard zircon AS-3 in anticipation of titanium thermometry and uranium-lead geochronology by high-resolution ion microprobe in depth-profile mode. Depth profiling reveals relationships between zircon growth time and the geochemical environment during crystallization and cooling after impact. We

  19. New data for paleoprotherozoic PGE-bearing anorthosite of Kandalaksha massif (Baltic shield): U-Pb and Sm-Nd ages

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Steshenko, Ekaterina; Bayanova, Tamara; Serov, Pavel

    2015-04-01

    The aims of this researches were to study the isotope U-Pb age of zircon and rutile and Sm-Nd (rock forming and sulphide minerals) on Kandalaksha anorthosite massif due to study of polimetamorphic history. In marginal zone firstly have been obtained the presence of sulphide mineralization with PGE (Chashchin, Petrov , 2013). Kandalaksha massif is located in the N-E part of Baltic shield and consists of three parts. Marginal zone (mesocratic metanorite) lies at the base of the massif. Main zone is composed of leucocratic metagabbro. The upper zone is alteration of mataanorthosite and leucocratic metagabbro. All rocks were subjected to granulate polymetamorphism. Two fractions of single grains from anorthosite of the massif gave precise U-Pb age, which is equal to 2450± 3 Ma. Leucocratic gabbro-norite were dated by U-Pb method, with age up to 2230 ± 10 Ma. This age reflects the time of granulite metamorphism according to data of (Mitrofanov, Nirovich, 2003). Two fractions of rutile have been analyzed by U-Pb method and reflect age of 1700 ± 10 Ma. It is known that the closure temperature of U-Pb system rutile is 400-450 ° C (Mezger et.al., 1989), thus cooling processes of massif rocks to these temperatures was about 1.7 Ga. These data reflect one of the stages of metamorphic alteration of the massif. Three stages of metamorphism are distinguished by Sm-Nd method. Isotope Sm-Nd dating on Cpx-WR line gives the age of 2311 Ma which suggested of high pressure granulite metamorphism. Moreover Cpx-Pl line reflect the age 1908 Ma of low pressure granulite metamorphism. Also two-points (Grt-Rt) Sm-Nd isochrone yield the age 1687 Ma of the last metamorphic alterations in Kandalaksha anorthosite massif. Model Sm-Nd age of the leucocratic gabbro-norite is 2796 Ma with positive ɛNd (+0.32). It means that the source of gabbro-norite was mantle reservoir. All investigations are devoted to memory of academician PAS F. MItrofanov which was a leader of scientific school for

  20. Method, instruments, and results of the determination of elements contained in Venusian rock by the Vega-2 interplanetary probe

    SciTech Connect

    Surkov, Y.A.; Dudin, A.D.; Kharyukova, V.P.; Manvelyan, O.S.; Moskaleva, L.P.; Shcheglov, O.P.

    1986-04-01

    With an x-ray fluorescent spectrometer installed in the lander of the Vega-2 interplanetary station, elements contained in Venusian rock were determined for the northern part of Terra Aphroditae. The composition proved to be most similar to that of rocks of the anorthosite-norite-troctolite (ANT) group which constitute the basis of the moon's continental crust. The determination of the abundance of basic rock-forming elements from Mg to Fe, and also of some heavier rare elements, was carried out by x-ray-radiometry with the use of instruments installed in the lander. The measuring element included three radioisotope sources (one source of plutonium-238 and two sources of iron-55), four gas-discharge proportional counters, and soil collectors in which was placed the rock material to be analyzed.

  1. Lunar and Planetary Science Conference, 17th, Houston, TX, Mar. 17-21, 1986, Proceedings. Part 2

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ryder, Graham (Editor); Schubert, Gerald (Editor)

    1987-01-01

    The topics discussed in this volume include lunar endogenic rocks and processes; lunar regoliths and breccias; the terrestrial planets; shergottites; primitive materials, exposure, and atmospheres; and impacts and crater tectonics. Papers are presented on the petrology and geochemistry of alkali gabbronorites from lunar breccia 67975; the formation of Apollo 17 orange and black glass beads; mixing levels, the Apennine Front soil component, and compositional trends in the Apollo 15 soils; the meteorite component of Apollo 16 noritic impact melt breccias; and constraints on the lithospheric structure of Venus from mechanical models and tectonic surface features. Consideration is also given to a fractal interpretation of topography and geoid spectra on the earth, moon, Venus, and Mars; rare earth patterns in shergottite phosphates and residues; nuclide production by primary cosmic-ray protons; gas chromatographic instrumentation for the analysis of aerosols and gases in Titan's atmosphere; and finite-element models of non-Newtonian crater relaxation.

  2. Crustal structure beneath Montserrat, Lesser Antilles, constrained by xenoliths, seismic velocity structure and petrology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kiddle, E. J.; Edwards, B. R.; Loughlin, S. C.; Petterson, M.; Sparks, R. S. J.; Voight, B.

    2010-04-01

    Noritic anorthosite, gabbroic anorthosite and hornblende-gabbro xenoliths are ubiquitous in the host andesite at Montserrat. Other xenoliths include quartz diorite, metamorphosed biotite-gabbro, plagioclase-hornblendite and plagioclase-clinopyroxenite. Mineral compositions suggest a majority of the xenoliths are cognate. Cumulate, hypabyssal and crescumulate textures are present. A majority of the xenoliths are estimated to have seismic velocities of 6.7-7.0 km/s for pore-free assemblages. These estimates are used in conjunction with petrological models to constrain the SEA CALIPSO seismic data and the structure of the crust beneath Montserrat. Andesitic upper crust is interpreted to overlie a lower crust dominated by amphibole and plagioclase. Xenolith textures and seismic data indicate the presence of hypabyssal intrusions in the shallow crust. The structure of the crust is consistent with petrological models indicating that fractionation is the dominant process producing andesite at Montserrat.

  3. Longwave thermal infrared spectral variability in individual rocks

    SciTech Connect

    Balick, Lee K; Gillespie, Alan; French, Andrew; Danilina, Iryna

    2008-01-01

    A hyperspectral imaging spectrometer measuring in the longwave thermal infrared (7.6-11.6 {micro}m) with a spatial resolution less than 4 mm was used in the field to observe the variability of emissivity spectra within individual rocks. The rocks were obtained commercially, were on the order of 20 cm in size and were selected to have distinct spectral features: they include alabaster (gypsum), soapstone (steatite with talc), obsidian (volcanic glass), norite (plagioclase and orthopyroxene), and 'jasper' (silica with iron oxides). The advantages of using an imaging spectrometer to spectrally characterize these rocks are apparent. Large spectral variations were observed within individual rocks that may be attributed to roughness, surface geometry, and compositional variation. Non-imaging spectrometers would normally miss these variations as would small samples used in laboratory measurements, spatially averaged spectra can miss the optimum spectra for identification materials and spatially localized components of the rock can be obscured.

  4. Petrogenesis of gabbronorite at Yakobi and northwest Chichagof Islands, Alaska.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Himmelberg, G.R.; Loney, R.A.; Nabelek, P.I.

    1987-01-01

    Irregular bodies up to 55 km in outcrop of gabbronorite occur within a 40-43 m.y. composite pluton consisting largely of tonalite. The gabbronorites include rocks ranging from hornblende pyroxenite to quartz-bearing norite and gabbronorite and, are the host rocks for a magmatic Ni-Co sulphide deposit consisting mainly of pyrrhotite, pentlandite and chalcopyrite. The tonalite pluton ranges from hornblende diorite to biotite granodiorite, the contacts between the different rock types being gradational. The field, petrographic and chemical data, including trace-element abundances, of the gabbronorites and tonalite pluton are compatible with an origin by either: 1) fractional crystallization of a tholeiitic magma with subsequent assimilation by tonalite that was simultaneously undergoing fractional crystallization, or 2) fractional crystallization of a quartz diorite magma yielding the range of gabbronorite and tonalite plutons. -L.C.H.

  5. Shock metamorphic effects in lunar microcraters

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schaal, R. B.; Hoerz, F.; Gibbons, R. V.

    1976-01-01

    Detailed petrographic descriptions and results of electron microprobe analyses are presented for impact glasses as well as shocked and unshocked minerals associated with individual lunar microcraters (diameters of 0.4 to 4.4 mm). Rocks of four typical lunar lithologies are studied: anorthosite, anorthositic norite, ophitic basalt, and polymict breccia. Textures, mineralogies, and chemical compositions are examined along a radial traverse through each microcrater; i.e., across the impact glasses lining the crater wall, the shock-metamorphosed zone immediately underlying the glass liner, and the unshocked host rock. The microcraters are discussed in a sequence of increasing mineralogical complexity of the host rock (from anorthosite to polymict breccia) in order to distinguish shock effects among mineral types. The shock metamorphic features observed are found to be comparable to those reported in shocked basalt from Lonar Crater, India, and are categorized into five shock-intensity classes with pressures experimentally calibrated.

  6. Sorption of cobalt on activated carbons from aqueous solutions

    SciTech Connect

    Paajanen, A.; Lehto, J.; Santapakka, T.; Morneau, J.P.

    1997-01-01

    The efficiencies of 15 commercially available activated carbons were tested for the separation of trace cobalt ({sup 60}Co) in buffer solutions at pH 5.0, 6.7, and 9.1. On the basis of the results four carbon products, Diahope-006, Eurocarb TN5, Hydraffin DG47, and Norit ROW Supra, were selected for further study. These carbons represented varying (low, medium and high) cobalt removal efficiencies and were prepared of three typical raw materials: peat, coconut shell, or coal. Study was made of the effects on sorption efficiencies of factors of interest in metal/radionuclide-bearing waste effluents. These factors were pH, sodium ions, borate, and citrate.

  7. Polanyi Evaluation of Adsorptive Capacities of Commercial Activated Carbons

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Monje, Oscar; Surma, Jan M.

    2017-01-01

    Commercial activated carbons from Calgon (207C and OVC) and Cabot Norit (RB2 and GCA 48) were evaluated for use in spacecraft trace contaminant control filters. The Polanyi potential plots of the activated carbons were compared using to those of Barnebey-Cheney Type BD, an untreated activated carbon with similar properties as the acid-treated Barnebey-Sutcliffe Type 3032 utilized in the TCCS. Their adsorptive capacities under dry conditions were measured in a closed loop system and the sorbents were ranked for their ability to remove common VOCs found in spacecraft cabin air. This comparison suggests that these sorbents can be ranked as GCA 48 207C, OVC RB2 for the compounds evaluated.

  8. Partial characterization of GTP-binding proteins in Neurospora

    SciTech Connect

    Hasunuma, K.; Miyamoto-Shinohara, Y.; Furukawa, K.

    1987-08-14

    Six fractions of GTP-binding proteins separated by gel filtration of a mycelial extract containing membrane components of Neurospora crassa were partially characterized. (/sup 35/S)GTP gamma S bound to GTP-binding protein was assayed by repeated treatments with a Norit solution and centrifugation. The binding of (/sup 35/S)GTP gamma S to GTP-binding proteins was competitively prevented in the presence of 0.1 to 1 mM GTP but not in the presence of ATP. These GTP-binding proteins fractionated by the gel column had Km values of 20, 7, 4, 4, 80 and 2 nM. All six fractions of these GTP-binding proteins showed the capacity to be ADP-ribosylated by pertussis toxin.

  9. Petrogenesis of late Paleozoic tholeiitic, Nb-enriched, calc-alkaline and adakitic rocks in southwestern Mongolia: Implications for intra-oceanic arc evolution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cai, Keda; Sun, Min; Xiao, Wenjiao; Yuan, Chao; Zhao, Guochun; Long, Xiaoping; Tumurkhuu, Dondov; Zhou, Kefa

    2014-08-01

    Intra-oceanic subduction has been taken as one of the most important contributors to the crustal growth of the immense Central Asian Orogenic Belt (CAOB), however, the detailed geological processes of the development and growth of numerous island arcs still remain unclear. In order to explore the development history of representative ancient island arcs, we have conducted geochronological and geochemical studies on an intrusive rock association in southwestern Mongolia. The studied rock association comprises a mafic intrusive complex (consisting of norite and diabase-porphyry), diabase and diorite dykes. New zircon geochronological data and whole-rock geochemical compositions reveal sequential magmatic events of an island arc development. The mafic intrusive complex has an emplacement age of 356 Ma old. Geochemically, its two components of norite and diabase-porphyry have a common “tholeiitic” character, but show striking differences in elemental contents. The norites are characterized by relatively higher MgO (7.25-16.1 wt.%), lower TiO2 (0.54-0.93 wt.%) and relatively lower Nb contents (0.99-6.39 ppm) than those of the Nb-enriched (Nb > 9 ppm) diabase-porphyry. These characters, together with variable Nb/La ratios, suggest that the parental magma of the norites was derived from a refractory mantle source metasomatized by slab-derived fluids and/or melts, whereas, the generation of the Nb-enriched diabase-porphyry was associated with the mantle metasomatism by slab-derived melts. The 335 Ma diabase dykes have negative Nb-Ta-Ti anomalies and elevated LREE and LILE contents, similar to calc-alkaline subduction-related magmas, which together with high zircon εHf(t) values (+ 10.6 to + 15.8) indicate a derivation from a mantle wedge metasomatized by slab-related fluids. The 290 Ma dioritic dykes show the highest SiO2 (53.1-58.3 wt.%) and total alkali (K2O + Na2O = 5.84-7.77 wt.%) contents, and their distinctively high Sr/Y (56.1-97.9) ratios and low Yb (< 1.9 ppm

  10. Major and trace element chemistry of Boulder 1 at Station 2, Apollo 17

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Blanchard, D. P.; Haskin, L. A.; Jacobs, J. W.; Brannon, J. C.; Korotev, R. L.

    1975-01-01

    Twenty-seven samples from Boulder 1 at Station 2 are analyzed for major and trace elements by atomic absorption spectrophotometry and neutron activation analysis. Two types of matrix and several types of clast materials are characterized on the basis of their chemistry. It is shown that one matrix type is a common material at the Apollo 17 site, while the other is probably exotic to that site. The most unusual clast materials found are coarse norite (an old rock no longer found in millimeter fragments at the site) and pigeonite basalt (possibly a highland volcanic rock). It is concluded that the boulder-forming process combined materials from at least two different localities or vertical strata.

  11. Study of adsorption process of iron colloid substances on activated carbon by ultrasound

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Machekhina, K. I.; Shiyan, L. N.; Yurmazova, T. A.; Voyno, D. A.

    2015-04-01

    The paper reports on the adsorption of iron colloid substances on activated carbon (PAC) Norit SA UF with using ultrasound. It is found that time of adsorption is equal to three hours. High-frequency electrical oscillation is 35 kHz. The adsorption capacity of activated carbon was determined and it is equal to about 0.25 mg iron colloid substances /mg PAC. The iron colloid substances size ranging from 30 to 360 nm was determined. The zeta potential of iron colloid substances which consists of iron (III) hydroxide, silicon compounds and natural organic substances is about (-38mV). The process of destruction iron colloid substances occurs with subsequent formation of a precipitate in the form of Fe(OH)3 as a result of the removal of organic substances from the model solution.

  12. Impact melt breccias at the Apollo 17 landing site

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ryder, Graham

    1992-01-01

    Impact melt breccias are by far the most common highland rock type collected on the Apollo 17 mission. They tend to be fine grained, with virtually no clast-free impact melt rocks having been identified. All the highland boulders sampled are impact melt breccia, with the possible exception of one South Massif boulder that might have a friable matrix (but nonetheless consists dominantly of impact melt) and a shocked igneous norite boulder from the North Massif. The impact melt breccias were originally described as metaclastic, but their melt origin became apparent as work progressed. Chemical compositions appear to allow natural groupings of the impact melt breccias. Various groupings of the impact melt breccias are discussed.

  13. Permian magmatic sequences of the Bilihe gold deposit in central Inner Mongolia, China: Petrogenesis and tectonic significance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Chunhua; Nie, Fengjun

    2015-08-01

    The Bilihe gold deposit is located in the eastern section of the Ondor Sum-Yanji Suture at the southern margin of the Xing'an-Mongolian Orogenic Belt (XMOB) and the northern margin of the North China Craton (NCC), central Inner Mongolia. The magmatic rocks in the ore district are generally high-K calc-alkaline, enriched in LREE, Zr, and Hf, and depleted in HREE, Nb, Ta, and P. The magmatic evolution sequences are norite gabbro → granodiorite porphyry → granite or norite gabbro → andesite → dacite porphyry → granodiorite, which show a trend of decreasing TiO2, FeO, MgO, CaO, and P2O5 with increasing SiO2. In the Bilihe ore district, hydrothermal processes were coeval with granitic magmatism for a period of ~ 17 Myr (272-255 Ma). The ages of the granite, granodiorite porphyry, granodiorite, and dacite porphyry are 271.5-264.1 Ma, 269.8-255.8 Ma, 268.3 Ma, and 268.6-259.4 Ma, respectively. The magmatic rocks contain magmatic, hydrothermal, and magmatic-hydrothermal zircons. The magmatic zircons have δCe > 4, La < 3 ppm, and SmN/LaN > 2.5; the hydrothermal zircons have δCe < 4, La > 3 ppm, and SmN/LaN < 2.5. The Nb/Ta and Zr/Hf ratios of granodiorite are 12.7-14.99 and 40.2-46.56, respectively. The Zr/Hf ratios successively increase in the sequence of granite (27.4-29.02) → granodiorite porphyry (29.19-32.18) → dacite porphyry (33.54-38.5) → norite gabbro (36.75-38.37), and their Nb/Ta ratios are 9.09-12.38. Zircons in granodiorite yield ε Hf (t) values of - 0.29 to - 56 (n = 13) and 2.07-7.62 (n = 5), and they give a Hf two-stage model age (tDM2) of 807-4765 Ma. The ε Hf (t) values of the zircons in granite, granodiorite porphyry, and dacite porphyry are - 0.46 to 8.03, 3.17 to 10.32, and - 0.78 to 6.58, respectively, and their Hf tDM2 ages are 787-1324 Ma, 638-1091 Ma, and 868-1343 Ma, respectively. Dehydration partial melting of subducted oceanic crust resulted in the formation of dacite porphyry; partial melting of depleted mantle resulted in

  14. ACTIVE IMMUNIZATION OF MICE WITH THE POLYSACCHARIDES OF PNEUMOCOCCI TYPES I, II AND III

    PubMed Central

    Zozaya, José; Clark, Janet

    1933-01-01

    1. Pneumococcus polysaccharides Types I, II and III adsorbed on collodion particles, and Types I and III adsorbed on carbon (norit) are antigenic in mice. 2. Unadsorbed pneumococcus polysaccharide of Type I is antigenic in mice in proper dilution. One preparation of Type II polysaccharide was not antigenic, while another one immunized against Types I and II. Type III polysaccharide was only slightly antigenic against Type III but immunized against Type I. 3. The antigenicity of pneumococcus polysaccharide in optimal dosage is tentatively explained by an adsorption phenomenon taking place in the body in instances in which the polysaccharides had not been adsorbed before injection. 4. The aggressin-like action of large doses of pneumococcus polysaccharides Types I, II and III is further established. PMID:19870119

  15. Experimental melting relations of 63545, 76015, and 76055. [lunar rocks

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Delano, J. W.

    1977-01-01

    The experiments discussed were conducted for the purpose of placing additional constraints on the origin of lunar highlands noritic compositions. The sample 63545 represents a fine-grained, crystalline melt rock consisting of pink spinel, plagioclase, divine, interstitial glass, minor oxides, and metal. According to Chao (1973), 76055 is an olivine-bearing micronorite hornfels with abundant xenocrysts and xenoliths. The sample 76015 is a vesicular, poikilitic impact melt with a homogeneous matrix. The obtained experimental melting relations of 63545, 76055, and 76015, are examined, taking into account experimental petrology and trace element chemistry of mare basalts. It is concluded that the studied compositions do not represent magmas derived by partial melting of either cosmic or differentiated source regions at any pressure in the moon. Presently available information would seem to favor an origin by impact-fusion of several highlands components.

  16. Composition of the Lower Crust Identified at Basin Rings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pieters, C. M.; Head, J. W.; Dhingra, D.; Isaacson, P.; Klima, R.; Petro, N.; Taylor, L. A.

    2011-10-01

    In contrast to the extensively mixed lunar megaregolith [e.g., 6], materials exposed along the inner ring of several impact basins exhibit compositionally distinct mineral lithologies. We interpret these rocktypes to be deep-seated materials brought to the surface and exposed by the basin forming event. An initial survey of such materials using data from the Moon Mineralogy Mapper (M3) reveals compositions expected from the lunar samples (anorthosite, norites, troctolites), as well as new and unusual lithologies (pink spinel anorthosite, pyroxenite, and perhaps dunite). A simple magma ocean model is consistent with remote observations and samples from the upper crust, but is inadequate to describe our observations of the lower crust. We are beginning to glimpse the actual complexity of lunar lower crust evolution.

  17. Some thoughts on the origin of lunar ANT-KREEP and mare basalts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wakita, H.; Laul, J. C.; Schmitt, R. A.

    1975-01-01

    It is suggested that a series of ANT (anorthosite-norite-troctolite)-KREEP type rocks and the source material for mare basalts sampled by Apollo 11, 12, 15, and 17 may have been derived from a common magmatic differentiation. This differentiation is studied on the basis of a model which proposes that, in the early history of the moon, extensive melting occurred in the outer lunar shell and a magma layer of 100-200 km was formed. The presence of a residual liquid which has not yet been sampled is suspected between high-K KREEP and the Apollo 11 basalt materials. This residual liquid would have a FeO/MgO ratio greater than one and would be significantly enriched in apatite, zircon, K-feldspar, and ilmenite minerals.

  18. Mineralogy, petrology and chemistry of ANT-suite rocks from the lunar highlands

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Prinz, M.; Keil, K.

    1977-01-01

    Anorthositic-noritic-troctolitic (ANT) rocks are the oldest and most abundant rocks of the lunar surface, and comprise about 90% of the suite of the lunar highlands. Consideration is given to the mineralogy, petrology, bulk chemistry, and origin of ANT-suite rocks. Problems associated in classifying and labeling lunar highland rocks because of textural complexities occurring from impact modifications are discussed. The mineralogy of ANT-suite rocks, dominated by plagioclase, olivine and pyrozene, and containing various minor minerals, is outlined. The petrology of ANT-suite rocks is reviewed along with the major element bulk composition of these rocks, noting that they are extremely depleted in K2O and P2O5. Various models describing the origin of ANT-suite rocks are summarized, and it is suggested that this origin involves a parental liquid of high-alumina basalt with low Fe/Fe+Mg.

  19. Petrology of Apollo 15 black-and-white rocks 15445 and 15455 - Fragments of the Imbrium impact melt sheet

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ryder, G.; Bower, J. F.

    1977-01-01

    The paper describes two macroscopically similar black-and-white rocks, 15445 and 15455, which were collected from the rim of Spur Crater on the Apennine Front. The two Apollo 15 rocks are very similar in chemistry and clast population, but the matrix of 15455 is finer grained than that of 15445. The 15445 sample contains a lithic clast assemblage of plutonic/metamorphic spinel troctolite, troctolite, norite, and anorthosite, and its fine-grained vesicular black coherent matrix consists of a melt-bonded aggregate of small mineral clasts which are mainly olivine, plagioclase, and pink spinel. The two rocks are distinct from any other large samples from the Apollo 15 site. It is suggested that the rocks are samples of an impact melt sheet which forms a bedrock unit of the Apennine Front, and that this melt sheet did not form in a local small-scale event but was produced during the Imbrium impact event.

  20. Shock metamorphic effects in lunar microcraters

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schaal, R. B.; Hoerz, F.; Gibbons, R. V.

    1976-01-01

    Detailed petrographic descriptions and results of electron microprobe analyses are presented for impact glasses as well as shocked and unshocked minerals associated with individual lunar microcraters (diameters of 0.4 to 4.4 mm). Rocks of four typical lunar lithologies are studied: anorthosite, anorthositic norite, ophitic basalt, and polymict breccia. Textures, mineralogies, and chemical compositions are examined along a radial traverse through each microcrater; i.e., across the impact glasses lining the crater wall, the shock-metamorphosed zone immediately underlying the glass liner, and the unshocked host rock. The microcraters are discussed in a sequence of increasing mineralogical complexity of the host rock (from anorthosite to polymict breccia) in order to distinguish shock effects among mineral types. The shock metamorphic features observed are found to be comparable to those reported in shocked basalt from Lonar Crater, India, and are categorized into five shock-intensity classes with pressures experimentally calibrated.

  1. Rock 67015 - A feldspathic fragmental breccia with KREEP-rich melt clasts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Marvin, U. B.; Lindstrom, M. M.

    1983-01-01

    The feldspathic fragmental breccia (FFB) 67015, from the rim of North Ray Crater, contains a wider range of clast lithologies than have previously been described for FFBs. The present petrological and chemical study reveals two components of major importance: a dark, vesicular, KREEP-rich melt rock of very high alumina basalt composition common at the Apollo 16 site, and a large clast of medium-grained ferroan anorthositic norite which composition falls among the most magnesian members of the ferroan anorthosite suite of pristine cumulate rocks. This latter material constitutes a previously missing member of certain mixing models, which were designed to account for the North Ray Crater melt rocks and bulk breccias.

  2. Moon: possible nature of the body that produced the imbrian basin, from the composition of apollo 14 samples.

    PubMed

    Ganapathy, R; Laul, J C; Morgan, J W; Anders, E

    1972-01-07

    Soils from the Apollo 14 site contain nearly three times as much meteoritic material as soils from the Apollo 11, Apollo 12, and Luna 16 sites. Part of this material consists of the ubiquitous micrometeorite component, of primitive (carbonaceous-chondrite-like) composition. The remainder, seen most conspicuously in coarse glass and norite fragments, has a decidedly fractionated composition, with volatile elements less than one-tenth as abundant as siderophiles. This material seems to be debris of the Cyprus-sized planetesimal that produced the Imbrian basin. Compositionally this planetesimal has no exact counterpart among known meteorite classes, though group IVA irons come close. It also resembles the initial composition of the earth as postulated by the two-component model. Apparently the Imbrian planetesimal was an Earth satellite swept up by the moon during tidal recession or capture, or an asteroid deflected by Mars into terrestrial space.

  3. Distribution and geologic history of materials excavated by the lunar crater Bullialdus

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tompkins, Stefanie; Pieters, Carle M.; Mustard, John F.

    1993-03-01

    The crater Bullialdus is a 61 km, Eratosthenian-age impact crater located on the western edge of Mare Nubium. Previous analysis of the spatial distribution of materials in the area using nine telescopic near-infrared spectra suggested a possible three-layer structure prior to the impact event: two shallow gabbroic layers and one deeper noritic layer (from a potential depth of 5.5 km). The initial interpretation of this stratigraphy was that Bullialdus may have tapped a layered mafic pluton, such as have been invoked to explain the existence of Mg-suite rocks. High-spatial resolution CCD images of Bullialdus were analyzed to better map the spatial distribution of the observed lithologies, and to assess the plausibility of the pluton interpretation.

  4. The Distribution and Modes of Occurrence of Anorthosite on the Moon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hawke, B. R.; Spudis, P. D.; Taylor, G. J.; Lucey, P. G.; Peterson, C. A.

    1993-07-01

    Introduction: A major unresolved question is whether there is an enrichment in plagioclase in the lunar crust. If a magma ocean once existed on the Moon, an anorthositic crust should have been formed by plagioclase floatation. Therefore, it is important to determine the distribution and modes of occurrence of anorthosite on the lunar surface. We have been conducting remote sensing studies of impact deposits to investigate the composition and stratigraphy of the lunar crust [1-4]. Numerous deposits of pure anorthosite (plagioclase >90%) have been identified, and an interesting pattern has emerged. Distribution and Modes of Occurrence: Orientale Basin region. With the exception of the Inner Rook massifs, all the highlands units associated with the Orientale basin appear to be composed of either noritic anorthosite or anorthositic norite. Our spectral data indicate that the Inner Rook ring of the Orientale basin is a mountain range composed of pure anorthosite [1,2]. Grimaldi Basin region. Spectra obtained for the inner ring of Grimaldi indicate that this feature is composed, at least in part, of pure anorthosite [2]. Another anorthosite deposit has been identified just inside the outer Grimaldi ring. This material was excavated from beneath the basin floor material by subsequent impacts. Humorum Basin region. At least a portion of the mare-bounding ring of Humorum is composed of anorthosite [2,4]. However, the entire ring is not composed of anorthosite, and to date, no anorthosites have been identified on the outer Humorum rings. Nectaris Basin region. While noritic anorthosites and anorthositic norites are the dominant rock types in the region, anorthosite deposits have been identified [3]. Anorthosite occurs in two areas on the east wall of Kant crater, which is located on a platform massif of the main Nectaris basin ring, in two areas within Cyrillus A and in Bohnenberger F. In addition, Pieters [5] found additional anorthosite deposits in the central peaks of

  5. Remote sensing studies of the Orientale region of the moon - A pre-Galileo view

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hawke, B. R.; Lucey, P. G.; Taylor, G. J.; Bell, J. F.; Peterson, C. A.; Blewett, D. T.; Horton, K.; Smith, G. A.; Spudis, P. D.

    1991-11-01

    Both an extensive data base of visible and near-infrared spectra and multispectral images (ultraviolet and visible) of the Orientale region of the moon have been acquired. The results show that the eastern Inner Rook Mountains are composed of anorthosite. Portions of the main ring of the Humorum basin and the inner ring of Grimaldi are also composed of anorthosite. Other deposits within the Orientale basin and the major ejecta unit outside the basin are dominated by noritic anorthosites; mature surfaces have spectra nearly identical to those taken of areas in the vicinity of the Apollo 16 site. Thus, it appears that Orientale ejecta are more mafic than materials that are thought to have originated at depth (i.e., the anorthosites in the Inner Rook Mountains).

  6. Foraging westward for pristine nonmare rocks - Complications for petrogenetic models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Warren, P. H.; Taylor, G. J.; Keil, K.; Marshall, C.; Wasson, J. T.

    New advances are reported concerning an investigation which is being conducted to find and characterize more 'pristine' (compositionally endogenous) lunar rocks. Eleven nonmare samples are characterized petrographically and (except for two clasts that were prohibitively small) by chemical composition. The samples are assessed whether they are pristine on the basis of diagnostic features discussed by Warren and Wasson (1977). Five samples are found to be almost certainly pristine. They include the alkali-rich anorthosite 12073c, the troctolite 14179c, the anorthositic troctolite 14321c1, the troctolitic anorthosite 14321c2, and the anorthositic norite 15565c. Correlations between petrochemistry and longitude are also investigated, taking into account Eu fractionations, Sc-Ti-Sm fractionations, and Ca/Na-Mg/Fe fractionations.

  7. Distribution and geologic history of materials excavated by the lunar crater Bullialdus

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tompkins, Stefanie; Pieters, Carle M.; Mustard, John F.

    1993-01-01

    The crater Bullialdus is a 61 km, Eratosthenian-age impact crater located on the western edge of Mare Nubium. Previous analysis of the spatial distribution of materials in the area using nine telescopic near-infrared spectra suggested a possible three-layer structure prior to the impact event: two shallow gabbroic layers and one deeper noritic layer (from a potential depth of 5.5 km). The initial interpretation of this stratigraphy was that Bullialdus may have tapped a layered mafic pluton, such as have been invoked to explain the existence of Mg-suite rocks. High-spatial resolution CCD images of Bullialdus were analyzed to better map the spatial distribution of the observed lithologies, and to assess the plausibility of the pluton interpretation.

  8. Remote sensing studies of the terrain northwest of Humorum basin

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hawke, B. R.; Peterson, Chris A.; Lucey, Paul G.; Taylor, G. J.; Blewett, David T.; Campbell, Bruce A.; Coombs, Cassandra R.; Spudis, Paul D.

    1993-01-01

    We have used near-infrared reflectance spectra and Earth-based radar data to investigate the composition and origin of the various geologic units northwest of Humorum basin as well as the stratigraphy of the Humorum preimpact target site. The results of our spectral analysis indicate that at least a portion of the inner, mare-bounding ring is composed of pure anorthosite. Other highlands units in the region are dominated by noritic anorthosite. The anorthosites on the inner ring may have been derived from a layer of anorthosite that exists at depth beneath a more pyroxene-rich unit. Both Gassendi G and F craters expose mare material from beneath a highlands-rich surface unit that was emplaced as a result of the Letronne, Gassendi, and other impact events. This ancient basalt unit was emplaced after the formation of Humorum basin but prior to the Orientale impact.

  9. Adcumulus growth of anorthosite at the base of the lunar crust

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morse, S. A.

    Unzoned plagioclase crystals imply isothermal adcumulus solidification and cannot result from reactive equilibrium crystallization in dry magma. Extraction of latent heat upward through lunar crust results only in chilled or cotectic mesocumulate rocks, not anorthosite or adcumulates. Adcumulus growth of anorthosite requires exchange of refractory for incompatible components between the site of crystal growth and nearby fresh magma, and the extraction of calories from growing crystals to the flowing, supercooled magma. Supercooling can be acquired at remote sites like upwellings and then be carried by convective flow beneath crust which is accreting plagioclase by flotation or in situ nucleation and growth. If transport distances are larger than the scale of rockbergs, cotectic norites and troctolites may result. Impact-induced upwellings tend to promote growth of buoyant rather than mafic crust, hence impacts are not solely destructive.

  10. In vitro adsorption of tilidine HCl by activated charcoal.

    PubMed

    Cordonnier, J A; Van den Heede, M A; Heyndrickx, A M

    In vitro studies were carried out in order to determine the adsorption of tilidine HCl, a narcotic analgesic, by activated charcoal (max. adsorption capacity 185.5 mg/g of charcoal). The path of the adsorption isotherms at pH 1.2 and 7.5 suggests that the in vivo adsorption of tilidine HCl may be increased when the drug passes from the stomach to the intestine, unless the intestinal content exerts a displacing effect. Nevertheless, the adsorption was dependent on the quantity of activated charcoal used, becoming more complete when the quantity of activated charcoal was increased. The effects of additives on the adsorption capacity of activated charcoal were also investigated in vitro. Ethanol, sorbitol and sucrose significantly reduced drug adsorption, while cacao powder, milk and starch had no effect on tilidine adsorption. At an acid pH, Federa Activated Charcoal significantly adsorbed more drug than either Norit A or Activated Charcoal Merck.

  11. Getting rid of mercury

    SciTech Connect

    Reisch, M.S.

    2008-11-24

    Anticipating a US rule on mercury removal from coal flue gas, technology providers jockey for position. By 2013, if the federal rule imposing regulation of mercury emissions which have begun or are about to begin in 20 eastern states goes nationwide, mercury control will be big business. For the near term, utilities are adopting activated carbon to control mercury emissions. McIlvaine Co. projects the US market for activated carbon will jump from 10 million lb in 2010 to 350 million by 2013. Norit and Calgon Carbon are already increasing production of activated carbon (mainly from coal) and ADA Environmental Solutions (ADA-ES) is building a new plant. Albermarle is developing a process to treat activated carbon with bromine; Corning has developed a sulfur impregnated activated carbon filtration brick. New catalysts are being developed to improve the oxidation of mercury for removal from flue gas. 2 photos.

  12. Petrology of the Apollo 12 highland component

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Simon, S. B.; Papike, J. J.

    1985-11-01

    Petrologic study of highland rock fragments handpicked from the Apollo 12 coarse fines confirms the KREEPy nature of the A-12 highland components and the importance of norites and alkali anorthosites. This is in contrast to the calcic, non-KREEPy A-16 and A-11 highland lithologies. The results add to the complexity of the igneous lunar highland rocks, which models for the formation of the lunar crust must take into account. A model involving moonwide differentiation followed by serial magmatism and heavy brecciation seems to be required. Results also show that non-KREEPy highland materials are present at the A-12 site and may represent Copernican and Imbrium ejecta, whereas the KREEPy materials may represent pre-Imbrian terra, as at the A-14 site.

  13. Foraging westward for pristine nonmare rocks - Complications for petrogenetic models

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Warren, P. H.; Taylor, G. J.; Keil, K.; Marshall, C.; Wasson, J. T.

    1981-01-01

    New advances are reported concerning an investigation which is being conducted to find and characterize more 'pristine' (compositionally endogenous) lunar rocks. Eleven nonmare samples are characterized petrographically and (except for two clasts that were prohibitively small) by chemical composition. The samples are assessed whether they are pristine on the basis of diagnostic features discussed by Warren and Wasson (1977). Five samples are found to be almost certainly pristine. They include the alkali-rich anorthosite 12073c, the troctolite 14179c, the anorthositic troctolite 14321c1, the troctolitic anorthosite 14321c2, and the anorthositic norite 15565c. Correlations between petrochemistry and longitude are also investigated, taking into account Eu fractionations, Sc-Ti-Sm fractionations, and Ca/Na-Mg/Fe fractionations.

  14. Origin of PGE-depleted Ni-Cu sulfide mineralization in the Triassic Hongqiling No.7 orthopyroxenite intrusion, Central Asian Orogenic Belt, NE China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Yan; Wei, Bo

    2014-05-01

    The ~216 Ma Hongqiling No.7 intrusion is located in the southern margin of the Central Asian Orogenic Belt, NE China. It hosts the second largest magmatic Ni-Cu sulfide deposit in China. The intrusion crops out in an area of ~0.013 km2 on the surface. It intruded gneisses and marbles of the Paleozoic Hulan Formation. The intrusion is mainly composed of orthopyroxenite (~95 vol.%), with minor harzburgite and norite. Over 90 vol.% of the intrusion contains disseminated, net-textured or massive sulfides. The bulk sulfide ores (recalculated to 100% sulfide) have low average PGE concentrations (5.6 ppb Os, 3.1 ppb Ir, 4.7 ppb Ru, 2.2 ppb Rh, 31 ppb Pt and 11 ppb Pd) and high Cu/Pd ratios (3×105 to 3×107), consistent with the compositions of sulfide liquids segregated from PGE-depleted magma. Olivine composition (Fo

  15. Preparation of activated carbons from agricultural residues for pesticide adsorption.

    PubMed

    Ioannidou, Ourania A; Zabaniotou, Anastasia A; Stavropoulos, George G; Islam, Md Azharul; Albanis, Triantafyllos A

    2010-09-01

    Activated carbons (ACs) can be used not only for liquid but also for vapour phase applications, such as water treatment, deodorisation, gas purification and air treatment. In the present study, activated carbons produced from agricultural residues (olive kernel, corn cobs, rapeseed stalks and soya stalks) via physical steam activation were tested for the removal of Bromopropylate (BP) from water. For the characterization of the activated carbons ICP, SEM, FTIR and XRD analyses were performed. Adsorption kinetics and equilibrium isotherms were investigated for all biomass activated carbons in aqueous solutions. Experimental data of BP adsorption have fitted best to the pseudo 2nd-order kinetic model and Langmuir isotherm. The study resulted that corn cobs showed better adsorption capacity than the other biomass ACs. Comparison among ACs from biomass and commercial ones (F400 and Norit GL50) revealed that the first can be equally effective for the removal of BP from water with the latter.

  16. Some thoughts on the origin of lunar ANT-KREEP and mare basalts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wakita, H.; Laul, J. C.; Schmitt, R. A.

    1975-01-01

    It is suggested that a series of ANT (anorthosite-norite-troctolite)-KREEP type rocks and the source material for mare basalts sampled by Apollo 11, 12, 15, and 17 may have been derived from a common magmatic differentiation. This differentiation is studied on the basis of a model which proposes that, in the early history of the moon, extensive melting occurred in the outer lunar shell and a magma layer of 100-200 km was formed. The presence of a residual liquid which has not yet been sampled is suspected between high-K KREEP and the Apollo 11 basalt materials. This residual liquid would have a FeO/MgO ratio greater than one and would be significantly enriched in apatite, zircon, K-feldspar, and ilmenite minerals.

  17. Survey of lunar plutonic and granulitic lithic fragments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bickel, C. E.; Warner, J. L.

    1978-01-01

    A catalog of lunar plutonic rocks and granulitic impactites belonging to the ANT suite has been compiled. The coarser-grained, plutonic rocks in the compilation are probably pristine; they belong to two groups, Mg-rich plutonic rocks and anorthosites, with a preponderance of the latter type. The granulitic impactites, however, have bulk and mineral compositions that fall between the two groups defined by the pristine nonmare samples of Warren and Wasson (1977). Thus the granulitic impactites may have originated by metamorphism of mixed impactites in early breccia sheets. The catalog, representative of the lunar crust before the end of heavy bombardment, suggests a crust with over 78 vol. % plagioclase and about equal proportions of material with noritic and troctolitic affinity.

  18. Mineralogy, petrology and chemistry of ANT-suite rocks from the lunar highlands

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Prinz, M.; Keil, K.

    1977-01-01

    Anorthositic-noritic-troctolitic (ANT) rocks are the oldest and most abundant rocks of the lunar surface, and comprise about 90% of the suite of the lunar highlands. Consideration is given to the mineralogy, petrology, bulk chemistry, and origin of ANT-suite rocks. Problems associated in classifying and labeling lunar highland rocks because of textural complexities occurring from impact modifications are discussed. The mineralogy of ANT-suite rocks, dominated by plagioclase, olivine and pyrozene, and containing various minor minerals, is outlined. The petrology of ANT-suite rocks is reviewed along with the major element bulk composition of these rocks, noting that they are extremely depleted in K2O and P2O5. Various models describing the origin of ANT-suite rocks are summarized, and it is suggested that this origin involves a parental liquid of high-alumina basalt with low Fe/Fe+Mg.

  19. Trace geochemistry of lunar material

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Morrison, G. H.

    1974-01-01

    The lunar samples from the Apollo 16 and 17 flights which were analyzed include soil, igneous rock, anorthositic gabbro, orange soil, subfloor basalt, and norite breccia. Up to 57 elements including majors, minors, rare earths and other trace elements were determined in the lunar samples. The analytical techniques used were spark source mass spectrometry and neutron activation analysis. The latter was done either instrumentally or with group radiochemical separations. The differences in abundances of the elements in lunar soils at the various sites are discussed. With regard to the major elements only Si is about the same at all the sites. A detailed analysis which was performed on a sample of the Allende meteorite is summarized.

  20. Platinum potential of mafic-ultramafic massifs in the western part of the Dambuka ore district (Upper Amur Region, Russia)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Melnikov, A. V.; Stepanov, V. A.; Moiseenko, V. G.

    2016-02-01

    New data on the Pt potential of mafic-ultramafic massifs of the Khani-Maya, Uldegit, and Dzhalta complexes in the western part of the Dambuka ore district are discussed. The Khani-Maya Complex is represented by metamorphosed gabbro, gabbronorites, gabbro anorthosites, subordinate pyroxenites, hornblendites, and peridotites. The Uldegit Complex is composed of pyroxenites, hornblendites, gabbro, gabbronorites, norites, troctolites, peridotites, dunites, actinolite-tremolites, serpentinites, anthophyllites, and tremolite-plagioclase rocks. The Dzhalta Complex is formed of peridotites, gabbro, eclogitized gabbro, hornblendites, cortlandites, and pyroxenites. All these complexes differ from each other by the concentrations of Ni, Cu, Co, Au, and platinoids depending on the composition of the constituting rocks and the presence of sulfide minerals.

  1. X-ray Absorption Spectroscopy of Bimetallic Pt-Re Catalysts for Hydrogenolysis of Glycerol to Propanediols

    SciTech Connect

    O Daniel; A DeLaRiva; E Kunkes; A Datye; J Dumesic; R Davis

    2011-12-31

    Bimetallic Pt-Re nanoparticles supported on Norit carbon were effective at converting aqueous glycerol to 1,3 (34 %) and 1,2 (33 %) propanediol at 443 K under 4 MPa of H{sub 2}. Results from X-ray absorption spectroscopy and analytical transmission electron microscopy confirmed that the nanoparticles were indeed bimetallic, with a particle size less than 2 nm in diameter. The Pt L{sub III} near edge spectra indicated that the Pt was reduced to the metallic state by treatment in H{sub 2} at 473 K, but that a partial positive charge remained on the Re. These oxidized Re species could be associated with charged Re atoms dispersed on the carbon support because spillover of H atoms from Pt was required to reduce Re in the bimetallic particles.

  2. Lithic fragments, glasses and chondrules from Luna 16 fines.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Keil, K.; Prinz, M.; Green, J. A.; Kurat, G.

    1972-01-01

    Electron probe determination of the bulk compositions of igneous and microbreccia lithic fragments, glasses and chondrules from Luna 16 fines and of the compositions of minerals in basaltic lithic fragments. It is found that the Luna 16 fines have a composition more similar to that of Apollo 11 than to those of Apollo 12 and 14 materials. The compositions of lithic fragments, glasses and chondrules from Luna 16 core tube layers A and D are similar. The glasses are compositional analogs of the lithic fragments and are produced largely from igneous rocks. The Luna 16 chondrules have an anorthositic-noritic-troctolitic composition. Evidence for the presence of ferric iron and water-bearing minerals in the Luna 16 material is not obtained. The occurrence of a great variety of igneous rocks in the material confirms an earlier conclusion that large-scale melting or partial melting to a considerable depth and an extensive igneous differentiation must have occurred on the moon.

  3. Rare earth element geochemistry of an anorthosite-diorite suite, Namaqua mobile belt, South Africa

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Conradie, J. A.; Schoch, A. E.

    1988-03-01

    A swarm of small dyke-like plutons, ranging in composition from anorthosite through diorite and norite, to hypersthenite and glimmerite, occurs in the western part of the Namaqua mobile belt, South Africa. Known as the Koperberg Suite, these rocks host important magmatic sulphide deposits. Zircon ages of approximately 1100 Ma suggest that the suite was emplaced after the peak of the regional high-grade metamorphism, dated at 1200 Ma. A postulated comagmatic origin for the various rock types is confirmed by the REE distributions of anorthosite, leucodiorite, diorite, hypersthenite and glimmerite. The Koperberg Suite resembles the well-known massif anorthosite complexes, typified by the Adirondack Suite, in most properties except for the dispersed mode of occurrence. It is now shown that the similarity also holds for the REE spectra. Thus, the predominant anorthosite and leucodiorite of the Koperberg Suite are comparable to similar rocks of the Adirondacks and the Burwash area, Ontario, albeit more enriched in LREE. More mafic rock types such as norite, mica-diorite and glimmerite are substantially enriched in LREE compared to mafic differentiates of massif anorthosites. Apatite is abundant in the mafic rocks and stores large proportions of the lanthanides. The occurrence of apatite- and mica-rich assemblages indicates source magmas enriched in K, REE and P. A few intrusives exhibit excessively enriched REE patterns which are attributed to late hydrothermal alteration or metasomatism. The REE data for syenite and two-pyroxene assemblages from the Copper District argue against a genetic relationship to the Koperberg Suite in spite of close spatial association.

  4. U-Pb and Sm-Nd ages for the Stillwater Complex and its associated sills and dikes, Beartooth Mountains, Montana: Identification of a parent magma

    SciTech Connect

    Premo, W.R. ); Helz, R.T. ); Zientek, M.L. ); Langston, R.B. )

    1990-11-01

    Seven analyses from two samples of the Lower Banded series of the Stillwater Complex, Montana, yielded a U-Pb zircon-baddeleyite age of 2,705 {plus minus}4 Ma. A more precise age of 2,704 {plus minus}1 Ma is obtained if the authors regress only five of seven analyses. In either case, the age is in very good agreement with the previously reported Sm-Nd mineral isochron age of 2,701 {plus minus}8 Ma for a gabbro from the Lower Banded series. Noncumulate mafic sills and dikes that immediately underlie the Stillwater Complex are separated into five compositional groups. U-Pb zircon ages for a group 1 gabbronorite (2,711 {plus minus}1 Ma) and a group 3 mafic norite (2,703 {plus minus}10 Ma) are comparable to previously reported U-Pb zircon ages for a group 1 diabase (2,713 {plus minus}3 Ma) and a group 4 high-Ti norite (2,712 {plus minus}3 Ma). Although group 2 high-Mg gabbronorite and group 6 olivine gabbro have not yet yielded significant amounts of zircon, baddeleyite, or sphene, mineral separates from group 2 yielded a four-point Pb-Pb internal isochron age of 2,704 {plus minus}25 Ma, and separates from group 6 yielded a Sm-Nd internal isochron age of 2,706 {plus minus}64 Ma, indicating that these groups are at least contemporaneous with intrusion of the Stillwater Complex. These results indicate that groups 1 and 4 of the associated sills and dikes are perhaps slightly older than the complex and that groups 2, 3, and 6 may be coeval with it, supporting the idea that these three groups are the best candidates for a Stillwater parent magma, a conclusion previously presented on the basis of detailed mineralogic and geochemical evidence.

  5. Geochemistry and zircon U-Pb geochronology of the ultramafic and mafic rocks emplaced within the anatectic series of the Variscan Pyrenees: The example of the Gavarnie-Heas dome (France)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kilzi, Mohammad A.; Grégoire, Michel; Bosse, Valérie; Benoît, Mathieu; Driouch, Youssef; de Saint Blanquat, Michel; Debat, Pierre

    2016-02-01

    The origin and evolution of ultramafic (UM), mafic (M) and intermediate rocks emplaced within the metamorphic and anatectic series of the middle crust of the Variscan segment of the Pyrenees are defined in the light of new isotopic data U-Pb zircon ages, and Sr, Nd isotopic ratios. In the Gavarnie-Heas dome (central Pyrenees), ultramafic, mafic and intermediate rocks form three massifs several kilometers in size emplaced within the anatectic series: (i) the Gloriettes massif, which mostly consists of norites with enclaves of ultramafic rocks; (ii) the Troumouse massif, which comprises intermediate rocks (gabbro-diorite and diorite) with norite enclaves, and (iii) the Aguila massif, which consists of intermediate rocks with hornblendite enclaves. U-Pb zircon geochronology (first data for these rock types in the Axial Zone of the Pyrenees) revealed an age of 294 Ma for the diorite crystallization and correlatively for the crystallization of the anatectic granite. This new radiometric age allows us to suggest that the Variscan orogeny continued at least until the Early Permian and spread over around 30 Ma. The Nd and Sr isotopic compositions of all UM and M samples plot within the field of the continental crust. Two scenarios can explain the genesis and the emplacement of the components of the magmatic suite: i) evolution of mantle melts and contamination (AFC); ii) evolution of melts originating from a heterogeneous source (mantle + crust) at the local or regional scale. The strong crustal affinity of all UM and M rock types from Gavarnie-Heas leads us to favor the second scenario.

  6. Petrological and geochemical studies of ultramafic-mafic rocks from the North Puruliya Shear Zone (eastern India)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mandal, Aditi; Ray, Arijit

    2015-12-01

    Ultramafic and mafic rocks occur within a linear belt, trending nearly E-W along North Puruliya Shear Zone of the Chhotanagpur Gneissic Complex (CGC). These rocks are classified as gabbro, norite, gabbro-norite, dolerite, diorite, olivine-websterite and lherzolite. Mafic rocks (Group 1) often occur in association with ultramafic variants (Group 2) and sometimes in isolation. A genetic link has been established between these mafic and ultramafic rocks using disposition of ultramafic and mafic rocks in the outcrop, systematic variation in modal mineralogy, co-linearity of plots in biaxial chemical variation diagram. Chemical composition of biotite and clinopyroxene reveal calc-alkaline nature and arc signature in these mafic-ultramafic rocks and whole rock geochemical characters indicate similarity with arc magma in subduction zone setting. The high values of Mg no. (47-81) and Al 2 O 3 (5.5-17.9) of mafic rocks indicate primitive, aluminous nature of the parental melt and presence of amphibole and biotite indicate its hydrous nature. The parent mafic melt evolved through fractionation of olivine, spinel, clinopyroxene and plagioclase. The crystal cumulates gave rise to the ultramafic rocks and the associated mafic rocks formed from residual melt. Crustal contamination played an important role in magmatic evolution as evident from variation in abundance of Rb in different lithomembers. Mafic-ultramafic rocks of the present study have been compared with intra-cratonic layered complexes, mafic-ultramafic rocks of high grade terrain, Alaskan type ultramafic-mafic complex and ophiolites. It is observed that the ultramafic-mafic rocks of present study have similarity with Alaskan type complex.

  7. The Composition of the Lunar Crust as Revealed by the Study of Impact Basin Rings using the Kaguya Multiband Imager

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lemelin, M.; Lucey, P. G.; Gaddis, L. R.; Miljkovic, K.

    2015-12-01

    Impact basins excavate material from below the lunar surface and expose it on their peak rings. Peak rings can thus be used as probes to study the composition of the lunar crust with depth, which can in turn be compared to models of the formation of the lunar crust. Global surveys conducted to find exposures of nearly pure minerals have found rare lithologies such as norites, troctolites, and anorthosites associated with many basins rings [Yamamoto et al., 2010; 2012, Nakamura et al., 2012], but the abundance of these lithologies relative to the rings as a whole was not determined. Taking a comprehensive approach, Cheek et al. [2013] found that every immature exposure in the inner rook ring of the Orientale basin consists of anorthosite, suggesting that a massive layer of anorthosite is present at the Orientale target site. In this study, we take the approach of Cheek et al. [2013] and examine all the immature exposures in the rings of 14 impact basins. We use Multiband Imager (415-1550 nm) data and radiative transfer modeling to quantify the abundance of the four major lunar minerals in the inner ring of these basins, and determine the dominant lithologies exposed by the rings. We identify the inner ring of these basins using GRAIL crustal thickness data, and derived the mineralogy at a spatial resolution of 80 meters per pixel. Our preliminary results indicate that the dominant lithology in the inner ring of 12 of the 14 basins is anorthosite, with modal plagioclase content ranging between 92-94 wt%, suggesting that a massive layer of anorthosite is widespread under the lunar surface. The dominant lithologies in the other two basins are noritic and gabbroic anorthosites. The other lithologies present in the 14 basins will be investigated next, and the depth of excavation of each of these basin rings as well as the crustal thickness at these sites will be used to determine the composition of the crust with depth.

  8. Xenoliths of mafic/ultramafic igneous rocks as carriers of information on lower crust beneath Złotoryja - Jawor volcanic complex (SW Poland).

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dajek, Michał; Matusiak-Malek, Magdalena; Puziewicz, Jacek; Lipa, Danuta; Ntaflos, Theodors

    2016-04-01

    The Cenozoic alkaline volcanic rocks in Lower Silesia (SW Poland) are known for their mantle peridotite xenoliths. However, the mafic and ultramafic xenoliths with cumulative textures and of composition of olivine- or hornblende clinopyroxenite, clinopyroxenite, websterite, norite and gabbro occur in some of the lavas (6 sites) of the Złotoryja-Jawor volcanic complex. The xenoliths are anhydrous, only in Wilcza Góra minor amount of amphibole occurs. The Mg# of clinopyroxene varies from 0.54 (Ostrzyca Proboszczowicka clinopyroxenite) to 0.89 (Góra Świątek clinopyroxenite). Forsterite content in olivine varies from 64% (Winna Góra gabbro) to 86% (Wilcza Góra hornblende clinopyroxenite). Anortite content in plagioclase in nortite and gabbros is 33-56%. The Mg# in amphibole is 0.43 to 0.76. Clinopyroxene trace element composition is typically LREE enriched, but in Wilcza Góra norite and Mnisza Góra clinopyroxenite it is LREE-depleted. The calculated pressures of clinopyroxene crystallization (calculated by the algorithm of Nimis and Ulmer, 1998, CMP, 1998, 122-135, assuming all Fe to be 2+) is from 0.45 to 0.96 GPa pointing to crystallization of the pyroxenitic rocks in lower crust or at crust/mantle boundary. Theoretical melts in equilibrium with clinopyroxene enriched in LREE resemble the alkaline lavas from the area and we suggest they are cognate with host magmas. We explain variations in composition of mafic xenoliths from Wilcza Góra, Winna Góra and Grodziec to be a result of magma fractionation. Xenoliths containing clinopyroxene impoverished in LREE may represent lithologies inherited from Variscan oceanic crust. Megacrysts of clinopyroxene present in some of the localities cannot result from disintegration of mafic xenoliths This study was possible thanks to project NCN UMO-2014/15/B/ST10/00095 of Polish National Centre for Science.

  9. The LHT (Lunar Highlands Type) Regolith Simulant Series

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stoeser, Douglas; Wilson, Steve; Weinstein, Michael; Rickman, Douglas; Lowers, Heather; Meeker, Gregory; Schrader, Christian; McLemore, Carole; Fikes, John

    2008-01-01

    Three NU-LHT (NASA/USGS-Lunar Highlands Type) regolith simulants have been produced to date: NU-LHT-1M, -ID, and -2M. A fourth simulant is currently in production: NU-LHT-3C. The "M" (medium) designation indicates a simulant with a grain size of <1 mm, "D" (dust) a simulant with a grain size of <36 microns, and "C" (coarse) a simulant with a 10 cm maximum particle size. The composition of these simulants is based on a NASA average Apollo 16 regolith chemical composition, However, the mixing model used to create our simulants is based on cationic nonnative mineral proportions derived from the target chemical composition to approximate lunar modal mineralogy rather than chemical composition per se. Accordingly, the amount of plagioclase, pyroxenes, olivine, and trace minerals in the simulant crystalline fraction approximates that of the lunar regolith. We also added synthetic agglutinate in amounts approximate for low-medium regolith maturity. A pure glass fraction was also added to simulate other types of lunar glasses present in the regolith. In addition, the 3C simulant will include synthetic impact melt breccia clasts for the >1 cm particles. The bulk raw materials used to create these simulants include clinopyroxene-norite, anorthosite, hartzburgite and noritic mill waste from the Stillwater Mine, Nye, MT, and olivine from the Twin Sisters dunite, WA. Added trace minerals include beach sand ilmenite, chromite, synthetic p-tricaicium phosphate (whitiockite), gem grade fluor-apatite, and pyrite. The agglutinate, glasses, and synthetic breccia were designed and prepared at an industrial plasma melting facility in Boulder, CO, using Stillwater mill waste feedstock for the melt. These simulants do not include nanophase-feO. The M and C simulant grain size distribution (down to 0.4 microns) approximates that of Apollo 16 regolith and the regolith in general.

  10. Compositional constraints on the genesis of diogenites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mittlefehldt, David W.; Beck, Andrew W.; Lee, Cin-Ty A.; McSween, Harry Y.; Buchanan, Paul C.

    2012-01-01

    We have done bulk rock compositional analyses (INAA, ICP-MS) and petrologic study of a suite of diogenite meteorites. Most contain orthopyroxenes with mg#s of 70.6-79.0. Meteorite Hills (MET) 00425 is magnesian (mg# of 83.9). Lewis Cliff (LEW) 88011 contains orthopyroxene grains of varying mg# (76.3-68.6). Queen Alexandra Range (QUE) 93009 (orthopyroxene mg# 70.6) contains coarse-grained noritic clasts (plagioclase An84.7-88.3), and is rich in incompatible trace elements. It has Eu/Eu* < 1, indicating that cumulate norites do not dominate its trace element inventory. Queen Alexandra Range 93009 may be transitional between diogenites and magnesian cumulate eucrites. Lewis Cliff 88679, a dimict breccia of harzburgite and orthopyroxenite, has anomalously low concentrations of highly incompatible elements (e.g., Nb, La, Ta, U) compared to other diogenites, but is similar to them in less highly incompatible elements (e.g., Y, Zr, Yb, Hf). It is unlikely that this characteristic reflects a low proportion of a trapped melt component. The highly incompatible elements were likely mobilized after impact mixing of the two parent lithologies. Graves Nunataks 98108 shows an extreme range in Eu/Eu* attributable to the heterogeneous distribution of plagioclase; one sample has the lowest Eu/Eu* among diogenites. We find no compelling evidence to support the hypothesis that diogenite parent magmas were contaminated by partial melts of the eucritic crust. We posit that subsolidus equilibration between orthopyroxene and minor/trace phases (including phosphates) resulted in preferential redistribution of Eu2+ relative to Eu3+ and other rare earth elements, and results in anomalously low Eu/Eu* in samples leached in acids that dissolve phosphates.

  11. Ranking low cost sorbents for mercury capture from simulated flue gases

    SciTech Connect

    H. Revata Seneviratne; Cedric Charpenteau; Anthe George; Marcos Millan; Denis R. Dugwell; Rafael Kandiyoti

    2007-12-15

    Coal fired utility boilers are the largest anthropogenic source of mercury release to the atmosphere, and mercury abatement legislation is already in place in the USA. The present study aimed to rank low cost mercury sorbents (char and activated carbon from the pyrolysis of scrap tire rubber and two coal fly ashes from UK power plants) against Norit Darco HgTM for mercury retention by using a novel bench-scale reactor. In this scheme, a fixed sorbent bed was tested for mercury capture efficiency from a simulated flue gas stream. Experiments with a gas stream of only mercury and nitrogen showed that while the coal ashes were the most effective in mercury capture, char from the pyrolysis of scrap tire rubber was as effective as the commercial sorbent Norit Darco HgTM. Tests conducted at 150{sup o}C, with a simulated flue gas mix that included N{sub 2}, NO, NO{sub 2}, CO{sub 2}, O{sub 2}, SO{sub 2} and HCl, showed that all the sorbents captured approximately 100% of the mercury in the gas stream. The introduction of NO and NO{sub 2} was found to significantly improve the mercury capture, possibly by reactions between NOx and the mercury. Since the sorbents' efficiency decreased with increasing test temperature, physical sorption could be the initial step in the mercury capture process. As the sorbents were only exposed to 64 ng of mercury in the gas stream, the mercury loadings on the samples were significantly less than their equilibrium capacities. The larger capacities of the activated carbons due to their more microporous structure were therefore not utilized. Although the sorbents have been characterized by BET surface area analysis and XRD analysis, further analysis is needed in order to obtain a more conclusive correlation of how the characteristics of the different sorbents correlate with the observed variations in mercury capture ability. 34 refs., 8 figs., 6 tabs.

  12. Evolution of the lunar crust: SIMS study of plagioclase from ferroan anorthosites

    SciTech Connect

    Papike, J.J.; Fowler, G.W.; Shearer, C.K.

    1997-06-01

    The lunar crust, down to a depth of {approximately}65 km, is composed of older (>4.5 Ga) ferroan anorthosites and younger (4.43-4.17 Ga) Mg-suite lithologies which include dunites, troctolites, and norites. The anorthosites are generally inferred to represent floating cumulates in a lunar magma ocean (possible depth 800 km, moon`s radius {approximately}1,738 km). The cumulates that are inferred to be located near the base of the magma ocean are dominantly olivine and pyroxene. The last dregs of the magma ocean are enriched in incompatible elements and have been named KREEP (K, rare earth elements, P). KREEP, formed in this manner, is probably concentrated near the crust/mantle boundary at {approximately}70 km depth. We are attempting to characterize melts parental to ferroan anorthosites and Mg-suite norites by analyzing REEs (La, Ce, Nd, Sm, Eu, Dy, Er, Yb) and Ba, Sr, and Y in their cumulus plagioclase. If the cumulus grains have not been compromised by postcrystallization effects and if we know the relevant mineral/melt partition coefficients (Ds) we can invert the trace element data for plagioclase to parental melt compositions. Melts parental to ferroan anorthosites are estimated to contain REE at concentrations ten to fifty times chondrites. Melts parental to the earlier crystallizing anorthosites (lower REE) have virtually no Eu anomaly, while melts parental to later crystallizing anorthosites (higher REE) have small negative Eu anomalies. This is qualitatively consistent with the fractionation of Eu relative to other REE by crystallization of plagioclase with large positive Eu anomalies. Melts parental to the Mg-suite have much higher total REE and very large negative Eu anomalies. 42 refs., 5 figs., 4 tabs.

  13. The Moon: Determining Minerals and their Abundances with Mid-IR Spectral Deconvolution II

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kozlowski, Richard W.; Donaldson Hanna, K.; Sprague, A. L.; Grosse, F. A.; Boop, T. S.; Warell, J.; Boccafola, K.

    2007-10-01

    We determine the mineral compositions and abundances at three locations on the lunar surface using an established spectral deconvolution algorithm (Ramsey 1996, Ph.D. Dissertation, ASU; Ramsey and Christiansen 1998, JGR 103, 577-596) for mid-infrared spectral libraries of mineral separates of varying grain sizes. Spectral measurements of the lunar surface were obtained at the Infrared Telescope Facility (IRTF) on Mauna Kea, HI with Boston University's Mid-Infrared Spectrometer and Imager (MIRSI). Our chosen locations, Aristarchus, Grimaldi and Mersenius C, have been previously observed in the VIS near-IR from ground-based telescopes and spacecraft (Zisk et al. 1977, The Moon 17, 59-99; Hawke et al. 1993, GRL 20, 419-422; McEwen et al. 1994, Science 266, 1858-1862; Peterson et al. 1995, 22, 3055-3058; Warell et al. 2006, Icarus 180, 281-291), however there are no sample returns for analysis. Surface mineral deconvolutions of the Grimaldi Basin infill are suggestive of anorthosite, labradorite, orthopyroxene, olivine, garnet and phosphate. Peterson et al. (1995) indicated the infill of Grimaldi Basin has a noritic anorthosite or anorthositic norite composition. Our spectral deconvolution supports these results. Modeling of other lunar locations is underway. We have also successfully modeled laboratory spectra of HED meteorites, Vesta, and Mercury (see meteorites and mercurian abstracts this meeting). These results demonstrate the spectral deconvolution method to be robust for making mineral identifications on remotely observed objects, in particular main-belt asteroids, the Moon, and Mercury. This work was funded by NSF AST406796.

  14. Early Jurassic subduction of the Paleo-Pacific Ocean in NE China: Petrologic and geochemical evidence from the Tumen mafic intrusive complex

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guo, Feng; Li, Hongxia; Fan, Weiming; Li, Jingyan; Zhao, Liang; Huang, Miwei; Xu, Wenliang

    2015-05-01

    Subduction of the Paleo-Pacific Oceanic Plate is widely considered to have caused extensive Mesozoic magmatism, lithospheric deformation and mineralization in East Asia. However, it is still unclear when this subduction began. Here we report an Early Jurassic (~ 187 Ma) mafic intrusive complex (including olivine norite, gabbro, and diorite) from the Tumen area in NE China. The olivine norite contains a mineral assemblage of olivine, pyroxene, Ca-plagioclase, and hornblende that crystallized in a water-saturated parental magma. The rocks in the complex show variable degrees of plagioclase and ferromagnesian mineral accumulation as reflected by positive Sr and Eu anomalies in primitive mantle-normalized incompatible element patterns. Mass-balance calculations indicate that the parental magma was calc-alkaline with arc-type trace element features (i.e., large ion incompatible and light rare earth element enrichment and Nb-Ta depletion). It also had Sr-Nd-Hf isotopic compositions (87Sr/86Sr(i) = 0.7042 to 0.7044, εNd(t) = + 2.5 to + 3.5 and εHf(t) = + 8.4 to + 10.5) similar to those of modern arc basalts. The parental magma was likely derived from 5 to 20% melting of a mantle wedge metasomatized by an addition of 3-4% hydrous sediment melt from the subducting Paleo-Pacific Oceanic slab. The Tumen mafic intrusive complex, together with other contemporaneous mafic intrusions, I-type granitoids, and felsic lavas, constitutes an Early Jurassic N-S-trending arc magmatic belt that was formed by westward subduction of the Paleo-Pacific Ocean.

  15. Aerial Measuring System (AMS)/Israel Atomic Energy Commission (IAEC) Joint Comparison Study Report

    SciTech Connect

    Wasiolek, P.; Halevy, I.

    2013-12-23

    Under the 13th Bilateral Meeting to Combat Nuclear Terrorism conducted on January 8–9, 2013, the committee approved the development of a cost-effective proposal to conduct a Comparison Study of the Aerial Measuring System (AMS) of the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA) and Israel Atomic Energy Commission (IAEC). The study was to be held at the Remote Sensing Laboratory (RSL), Nellis Air Force Base, Las Vegas, Nevada, with measurements at the Nevada National Security Site (NNSS). The goal of the AMS and the IAEC joint survey was to compare the responses of the two agencies’ aerial radiation detection systems to varied radioactive surface contamination levels and isotopic composition experienced at the NNSS, and the differing data processing techniques utilized by the respective teams. Considering that for the comparison both teams were using custom designed and built systems, the main focus of the short campaign was to investigate the impact of the detector size and data analysis techniques used by both teams. The AMS system, SPectral Advanced Radiological Computer System, Model A (SPARCS-A), designed and built by RSL, incorporates four different size sodium iodide (NaI) crystals: 1" × 1", 2" × 4" × 4", 2" × 4" ×16", and an “up-looking” 2" × 4" × 4". The Israel AMS System, Air RAM 2000, was designed by the IAEC Nuclear Research Center – Negev (NRCN) and built commercially by ROTEM Industries (Israel) and incorporates two 2" diameter × 2" long NaI crystals. The operational comparison was conducted at RSL-Nellis in Las Vegas, Nevada, during week of June 24–27, 2013. The Israeli system, Air RAM 2000, was shipped to RSL-Nellis and mounted together with the DOE SPARCS on a DOE Bell-412 helicopter for a series of aerial comparison measurements at local test ranges, including the Desert Rock Airport and Area 3 at the NNSS. A 4-person Israeli team from the IAEC NRCN supported the activity together with 11

  16. An Aerial Radiological Survey of Selected Areas of Area 18 - Nevada Test Site

    SciTech Connect

    Craig Lyons

    2009-07-31

    As part of the proficiency training for the Radiological Mapping mission of the Aerial Measuring System (AMS), a survey team from the Remote Sensing Laboratory-Nellis (RSL-Nellis) conducted an aerial radiological survey of selected areas of Area 18 of the Nevada Test Site (NTS) for the purpose of mapping man-made radiation deposited as a result of the Johnnie Boy and Little Feller I tests. The survey area centered over the Johnnie Boy ground zero but also included the ground zero and deposition area of the Little Feller I test, approximately 7,000 feet (2133 meters) southeast of the Johnnie Boy site. The survey was conducted in one flight. The completed survey covered a total of 4.0 square miles. The flight lines (with the turns) over the surveyed areas are presented in Figure 1. One 2.5-hour-long flight was performed at an altitude of 100 ft above ground level (AGL) with 200 foot flight-line spacing. A test-line flight was conducted near the Desert Rock Airstrip to ensure quality control of the data. The test line is not shown in Figure 1. However, Figure 1 does include the flight lines for a ''perimeter'' flight. The path traced by the helicopter flying over distinct roads within the survey area can be used to overlay the survey data on a base map or image. The flight survey lines were flown in an east-west orientation perpendicular to the deposition patterns for both sites. This technique provides better spatial resolution when contouring the data. The data were collected by the AMS data acquisition system (REDAR V) using an array of twelve 2-inch x 4-inch x 16-inch sodium iodide (NaI) detectors flown on-board a twin-engine Bell 412 helicopter. Data, in the form of gamma energy spectra, were collected every second over the course of the survey and were geo-referenced using a differential Global Positioning System. Spectral data allows the system to distinguish between ordinary fluctuations in natural background radiation levels and the signature produced by man

  17. Nevada National Security Site Environmental Report 2012

    SciTech Connect

    Wills, Cathy

    2013-09-11

    This report was prepared to meet the information needs of the public and the requirements and guidelines of the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) for annual site environmental reports. It was prepared by National Security Technologies, LLC (NSTec), for the U.S. Department of Energy, National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Field Office (NNSA/NFO) (formerly designated as the Nevada Site Office [NNSA/NSO]). The new field office designation occurred in March 2013. Published reports cited in this 2012 report, therefore, may bear the name or authorship of NNSA/NSO. This and previous years’ reports, called Annual Site Environmental Reports (ASERs), Nevada Test Site Environmental Reports (NTSERs), and, beginning in 2010, Nevada National Security Site Environmental Reports (NNSSERs), are posted on the NNSA/NFO website at http://www.nv.energy.gov/library/publications/aser.aspx. This NNSSER was prepared to satisfy DOE Order DOE O 231.1B, “Environment, Safety and Health Reporting.” Its purpose is to (1) report compliance status with environmental standards and requirements, (2) present results of environmental monitoring of radiological and nonradiological effluents, (3) report estimated radiological doses to the public from releases of radioactive material, (4) summarize environmental incidents of noncompliance and actions taken in response to them, (5) describe the NNSA/NFO Environmental Management System and characterize its performance, and (6) highlight significant environmental programs and efforts. This NNSSER summarizes data and compliance status for calendar year 2012 at the Nevada National Security Site (NNSS) (formerly the Nevada Test Site) and its two support facilities, the North Las Vegas Facility (NLVF) and the Remote Sensing Laboratory–Nellis (RSL-Nellis). It also addresses environmental restoration (ER) projects conducted at the Tonopah Test Range (TTR) and the Nevada Test and Training Range (NTTR). Through a Memorandum of Agreement, NNSA/NFO is

  18. Tc-99 Adsorption on Selected Activated Carbons - Batch Testing Results

    SciTech Connect

    Mattigod, Shas V.; Wellman, Dawn M.; Golovich, Elizabeth C.; Cordova, Elsa A.; Smith, Ronald M.

    2010-12-01

    CH2M HILL Plateau Remediation Company (CHPRC) is currently developing a 200-West Area groundwater pump-and-treat system as the remedial action selected under the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act Record of Decision for Operable Unit (OU) 200-ZP-1. This report documents the results of treatability tests Pacific Northwest National Laboratory researchers conducted to quantify the ability of selected activated carbon products (or carbons) to adsorb technetium-99 (Tc-99) from 200-West Area groundwater. The Tc-99 adsorption performance of seven activated carbons (J177601 Calgon Fitrasorb 400, J177606 Siemens AC1230AWC, J177609 Carbon Resources CR-1240-AW, J177611 General Carbon GC20X50, J177612 Norit GAC830, J177613 Norit GAC830, and J177617 Nucon LW1230) were evaluated using water from well 299-W19-36. Four of the best performing carbons (J177606 Siemens AC1230AWC, J177609 Carbon Resources CR-1240-AW, J177611 General Carbon GC20X50, and J177613 Norit GAC830) were selected for batch isotherm testing. The batch isotherm tests on four of the selected carbons indicated that under lower nitrate concentration conditions (382 mg/L), Kd values ranged from 6,000 to 20,000 mL/g. In comparison. Under higher nitrate (750 mg/L) conditions, there was a measureable decrease in Tc-99 adsorption with Kd values ranging from 3,000 to 7,000 mL/g. The adsorption data fit both the Langmuir and the Freundlich equations. Supplemental tests were conducted using the two carbons that demonstrated the highest adsorption capacity to resolve the issue of the best fit isotherm. These tests indicated that Langmuir isotherms provided the best fit for Tc-99 adsorption under low nitrate concentration conditions. At the design basis concentration of Tc 0.865 µg/L(14,700 pCi/L), the predicted Kd values from using Langmuir isotherm constants were 5,980 mL/g and 6,870 mL/g for for the two carbons. These Kd values did not meet the target Kd value of 9,000 mL/g. Tests

  19. Crystal accumulation in a 4.2 Ga lunar impact melt

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Norman, M. D.; Taylor, L. A.; Shih, C.-Y.; Nyquist, L. E.

    2016-01-01

    The ages of lunar impact basins and the role of fractional crystallization in producing compositional heterogeneity of lunar melt sheets are long-standing problems with significant implications for solar system dynamics and the petrologic evolution of the lunar crust. Here we document the formation of a basin-scale impact on the Moon at 4.20 ± 0.07 Ga based on the 147Sm-143Nd isochron age of a magnesian, noritic anorthosite melt rock from lunar breccia 67955. Major element compositions of plagioclase and mafic silicates in the melt rock imply a substantial component of primary Mg-suite cumulates or related lithologies in the pre-impact crustal stratigraphy. Trace element compositions of the plagioclase, including diagnostic ratios such as Sr/Ba, are also mostly similar to those in plagioclase from Mg-suite cumulates, with a small number of grains trending toward compositions observed in ferroan anorthosites. Mineral-melt distribution coefficients applied to trace element compositions of the 67955 plagioclase and pyroxene predict parental melt compositions that contrast strongly with the bulk rock. Compared to the whole rock, parental melts calculated from the plagioclase are enriched in REE (ΣREELa-Yb = 131-885, average 619 ppm vs. 39.8 ppm) and they have more fractionated REE patterns (La/Ybn = 1.2-9.8, average 4.9 vs. 1.5) with deep negative Eu anomalies (Eu/Eu∗ = 0.09-0.40 vs. 1.36). Trace element data for the pyroxenes also imply incompatible-element enriched parental melts. Subsolidus equilibration between the plagioclase and the pyroxene apparently rotated the REE patterns, but the conclusion that the parental melt was highly enriched in REE relative to the whole rock appears robust. Quantitative modeling shows that fractional crystallization of the 67955 whole rock composition cannot reproduce the range of Ba, Sr, Ti, and La concentrations measured in the 67955 plagioclase. Rather, the models require an initial melt composition that was strongly enriched

  20. Stagnation and Storage of Strongly Depleted Melts in Slow-Ultraslow Spreading Oceans: Evidence from the Ligurian Tethys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Piccardo, Giovanni; Guarnieri, Luisa; Padovano, Matteo

    2013-04-01

    Our studies of Alpine-Apennine ophiolite massifs (i.e., Lanzo, Voltri, Ligurides, Corsica) show that the Jurassic Ligurian Tethys oceanic basin was a slow-ultraslow spreading basin, characterized by the exposures on the seafloor of mantle peridotites with extreme compositional variability. The large majority of these peridotites are made of depleted spinel harzburgites and plagioclase peridotites. The former are interpreted as reactive peridotites formed by the reactive percolation of under-saturated, strongly trace element depleted asthenospheric melts migrated by porous flow through the mantle lithosphere. The latter are considered as refertilized peridotites formed by peridotite impregnation by percolated silica-saturated, strongly trace element depleted melts. Strongly depleted melts were produced as low-degrees, single melt increments by near fractional melting of the passively upwelling asthenosphere during the rifting stage of the basin. They escaped single melt increment aggregation, migrated isolated through the mantle lithosphere by reactive porous or channeled flow before oceanic opening, and were transformed into silica-saturated derivative liquids that underwent entrapment and stagnation in the shallow mantle lithosphere forming plagioclase-enriched peridotites. Widespread small bodies of strongly depleted gabbro-norites testify for the local coalescence of these derivative liquids. These melts never reached the surface (i.e., the hidden magmatism), since lavas with their composition have never been found in the basin. Subsequently, aggregated MORB melts upwelled within replacive dunite channels (as evidenced by composition of magmatic clinopyroxenes in dunites), intruded at shallow levels as olivine gabbro bodies and extruded as basaltic lavas, to form the crustal rocks of the oceanic lithosphere (i.e., the oceanic magmatism). Km-scale bodies of MORB olivine gabbros were intruded into the plagioclase-enriched peridotites, which were formed in the

  1. Large-scale magmatic layering in the Main Zone of the Bushveld Complex and episodic downward magma infiltration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hayes, Ben; Ashwal, Lewis D.; Webb, Susan J.; Bybee, Grant M.

    2017-03-01

    increase is produced by the downward infiltration of noritic magma into a previously emplaced plagioclase-rich crystal mush. Fresh noritic magma soaked down into the crystallizing anorthositic mush, partially dissolving plagioclase laths and assimilating Fe-enriched pore melt. The presence of multiple cycles showing upward increases in density in the Bellevue drillcore suggests that downward magma infiltration occurred episodically during crystallization of the Main Zone.

  2. Constraints on formation and evolution of the lunar crust from feldspathic granulitic breccias NWA 3163 and 4881

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McLeod, Claire L.; Brandon, Alan D.; Fernandes, Vera A.; Peslier, Anne H.; Fritz, Jörg; Lapen, Thomas; Shafer, John T.; Butcher, Alan R.; Irving, Anthony J.

    2016-08-01

    Lunar granulitic meteorites provide new constraints on the composition and evolution of the lunar crust as they are potentially derived from outside the Apollo and Luna landing sites. Northwest Africa (NWA) 3163, the focus of this study, and its paired stones NWA 4881 and NWA 4483, are shocked granulitic noritic anorthosites. They are petrographically and compositionally distinct from the Apollo granulites and noritic anorthosites. Northwest Africa 3163 is REE-depleted by an order of magnitude compared to Apollo granulites and is one of the most trace element depleted lunar samples studied to date. New in-situ mineral compositional data and Rb-Sr, Ar-Ar isotopic systematics are used to evaluate the petrogenetic history of NWA 3163 (and its paired stones) within the context of early lunar evolution and the bulk composition of the lunar highlands crust. The NWA 3163 protolith was the likely product of reworked lunar crust with a previous history of heavy REE depletion. The bulk feldspathic and pyroxene-rich fragments have 87Sr/86Sr that are indistinguishable and average 0.699282 ± 0.000007 (2σ). A calculated source model Sr TRD age of 4.340 ± 0.057 Ga is consistent with (1) the recently determined young FAS (Ferroan Anorthosite) age of 4.360 ± 0.003 Ga for FAS 60025, (2) 142Nd model ages for the closure of the Sm-Nd system for the mantle source reservoirs of the Apollo mare basalts (4.355-4.314 Ga) and (3) a prominent age peak in the Apollo lunar zircon record (c. 4.345 Ga). These ages are ∼100 Myr younger than predicted timescales for complete LMO crystallization (∼10 Myrs after Moon formation, Elkins-Tanton et al., 2011). This supports a later, major event during lunar evolution associated with crustal reworking due to magma ocean cumulate overturn, serial magmatism, or a large impact event leading to localized or global crustal melting and/or exhumation. The Ar-Ar isotopic systematics on aliquots of paired stone NWA 4881 are consistent with an impact event

  3. Ancient selenophysical structure over the Grimaldi cater: Constraints from GRAIL gravity and LOLA topography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhong, Zhen

    2016-07-01

    The Grimaldi impact crater is located near the western limb of the moon and lies to the southwest of the Oceanus Procellarum. A clearly visible positive gravity anomaly exists in its low-lying inner wall, implying a subsurface mass concentration beneath the crater. Exploration of this crater could extend our meaningful and fundamental understanding of giant impact processes as well as the structure of mare basins/craters. Limited by the low-resolution of previous gravity field models, it was once impossible to explore the structure beneath Grimaldi. The recent high-resolution gravity data from the Gravity Recovery and Interior Laboratory mission (GRAIL) make it possible to break through this barrier. Prior to our investigation of the selenophysical structure of the Grimaldi crater, we developed a flexure model that includes surface and subsurface loads. An admittance analysis was performed by combining high-resolution gravity data with the high-resolution topography data obtained from Lunar Orbiter Laser Altimeter (LOLA). Within 1σ _{STD} error constraints, we estimated the best-fit parameters over the crater Grimaldi as well as two other locations in its neighborhood. All the predicted admittance spectra closely matched their corresponding observations, indicating the feasibility of our model. The large load ratio (˜ 2.0) found at the Grimaldi crater site is an indirect mirror of the dominant subsurface load, consistent with its large positive gravity anomaly in its low-lying floor. All the locations observed have a crustal thickness around the minimum value (34 km) found in the recent highland crust; while the crustal density (2820 kg/m ^{3}) of Grimaldi lies between the densities of anorthosite and norite, implying that a possible ancient anorthositic highland crust existed around Grimaldi. It also suggests a mixed crust from the anorthositic upper and noritic lower crusts, revealing an excavated upper crust during the cratering impact process. All the

  4. Adhesion Between Volcanic Glass and Spacecraft Materials in an Airless Body Environment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Berkebile, Stephen; Street, Kenneth W., Jr.; Gaier, James R.

    2012-01-01

    The successful exploration of airless bodies, such as the Earth s moon, many smaller moons of the outer planets (including those of Mars) and asteroids, will depend on the development and implementation of effective dust mitigation strategies. The ultrahigh vacuum environment (UHV) on the surfaces of these bodies, coupled with constant ion and photon bombardment from the Sun and micrometeorite impacts (space weathering), makes dust adhesion to critical spacecraft systems a severe problem. As a result, the performance of thermal control surfaces, photovoltaics and mechanical systems can be seriously degraded even to the point of failure. The severe dust adhesion experienced in these environments is thought to be primarily due to two physical mechanisms, electrostatic attraction and high surface energies, but the dominant of these has yet to be determined. The experiments presented here aim to address which of these two mechanisms is dominant by quantifying the adhesion between common spacecraft materials (polycarbonate, FEP and PTFE Teflon, (DuPont) Ti-6-4) and a synthetic noritic volcanic glass, as a function of surface cleanliness and triboelectric charge transfer in a UHV environment. Adhesion force has been measured between pins of spacecraft materials and a plate of synthetic volcanic glass by determining the pull-off force with a torsion balance. Although no significant adhesion is observed directly as a result of high surface energies, the adhesion due to induced electrostatic charge is observed to increase with spacecraft material cleanliness, in some cases by over a factor of 10, although the increase is dependent on the particular material pair. The knowledge gained by these studies is envisioned to aid the development of new dust mitigation strategies and improve existing strategies by helping to identify and characterize mechanisms of glass to spacecraft adhesion for norite volcanic glass particles. Furthermore, the experience of the Apollo missions

  5. The tectonic evolution of the Kohistan-Karakoram collision belt along the Karakoram Highway transect, north Pakistan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Searle, M. P.; Khan, M. Asif; Fraser, J. E.; Gough, S. J.; Jan, M. Qasim

    1999-12-01

    The Kohistan arc terrane comprises an intra-oceanic island arc of Cretaceous age separating the Indian plate to the south from the Karakoram (Asian) plate to the north within the Indus suture zone of north Pakistan. The intra-oceanic arc volcanics (Chalt, Dras Group) were built on a foundation of dominantly mid-ocean ridge basalt (MORB)-related amphibolites of the Kamila Group. The subarc magma chamber is represented by multiple intrusions of a huge gabbro-norite complex (Chilas complex), which includes some ultramafic assemblages of residual mantle harzburgite and dunite, layered cumulates, and hornblendites cut by late stage dikes of hornblende + plagioclase pegmatites. The Chilas complex norites intrude the Gilgit metasediments of lower amphibolite and greenschist facies in northern Kohistan, which also form xenolithic roof pendants within the top of the Chilas complex. Along the southern margin of Kohistan, Jijal and Sapat complex ultramafics (dunites, harzburgites and websterites) form remnant suprasubduction zone ophiolitic mantle rocks along the hanging wall of the Main Mantle Thrust, the Cretaceous obduction plane along which Kohistan was emplaced onto Indian plate rocks. Garnet granulites of the Jijal complex, formed at 12-14 kbars, represent original magmatic lower crustal rocks subducted to depths of at least 45 km and metamorphosed during high-pressure and high-temperature subduction of earlier arc-related rocks. Obduction of the Sapat ophiolite and Kohistan arc occurred between ˜75 and 55 Ma. The closure of the Shyok suture zone separating Kohistan from the Karakoram plate must have occurred prior to 75 Ma, the age of the Jutal basic dikes which crosscut the closure-related fabrics, mainly late north directed backthrusting in the lower Hunza valley. Andean-type granitoid (gabbrodiorite-granodiorite-granite) emplacement along the Kohistan-Ladakh batholith ended at the time of India-Asia collision, ˜ 60-50 Myr ago. Postcollisional crustal thickening

  6. Some things we can infer about the Moon from the Composition of the Apollo 16 Regolith

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Korotev, Randy L.

    1997-01-01

    Characteristics of the regolith of Cayley plains as sampled at the Apollo 16 lunar landing site are reviewed and new compositional data are presented for samples of less than 1 mm fines ('soils') and 1-2 mm regolith particles. As a means of determining which of the many primary (igneous) and secondary (crystalline breccias) lithologic components that have been identified in the soil are volumetrically important and providing an estimate of their relative abundances, more than 3 x 10(exp 6) combinations of components representing nearly every lithology that has been observed in the Apollo 16 regolith were systematically tested to determine which combinations best account for the composition of the soils. Conclusions drawn from the modeling include the following. At the site, mature soil from the Cayley plains consists of 64.5% +/- 2.7% components representing 'prebasin' materials: anorthosites, feldspathic breccias, and a small amount (2.6% +/- 1.5% of total soil) of nonmare, mafic plutonic rocks, mostly gabbronorites. On average, these components are highly feldspathic, with average concentrations of 3l-32% Al2O3 and 2-3% FeO and a molar Mg/(Mg+Fe) ratio of O.68. The remaining 36% of the regolith is syn- and postbasin material: 28.8% +/- 2.4% mafic impact-melt breccias (MIMBS, i.e., 'LKFM' and 'VHA basalts') created at the time of basin formation, 6.0% +/- 1.4% mare-derived material (impact and volcanic glass, crystalline basalt) with an average TiO2 concentration of 2.4%, and 1% postbasin meteoritic material. The MIMBs are the principal (80-90%) carrier of incompatible trace elements (rare earths, Th, etc.) and the carrier of about one-half of the siderophile elements and elements associated with mafic mineral phases (Fe, Mg, Mn, Cr, Sc). Most (71 %) of the Fe in the present regolith derives from syn- and postbasin sources (MIMBS, mare-derived material, and meteorites). Thus, although the bulk composition of the Apollo 16 regolith is nominally that of noritic

  7. The Lac Des Iles Palladium Deposit, Ontario, Canada part I. The effect of variable alteration on the Offset Zone

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boudreau, Alan; Djon, Lionnel; Tchalikian, Arnaud; Corkery, John

    2014-06-01

    The recently discovered Offset Zone of the Mine Block Intrusion of the Lac des Iles Complex hosts palladium mineralization with unusually high Pd/Pt and Pd/Ir ratios in rocks that range from relatively unaltered norite to amphibolites and chlorite-actinolite-talc schist. Quantitative assessment of the effect of progressive alteration using mineral modes was done using total silicate H2O as a monitor of reaction progress ( ξ = moles H2O added to form alteration minerals per 100 g of rock). Major mineral modal variations define three reaction regions: (1) ξ = 0.00-0.03, characterized by epidote/clinozoisite formation and some amphibole; (2) ξ = 0.03-0.23, characterized by formation of chlorite, amphibole, quartz muscovite/sericite, and calcite after plagioclase + pyroxene; and (3) ξ = 0.23-0.28, characterized by the formation of talc after earlier formed amphibole. Epidote occurs as an incongruent product from the destruction of plagioclase that is itself lost as the reaction proceeds. Pyroxene is altered at about twice the rate of plagioclase, resulting in pyroxene-rich protoliths to be more altered than those relatively enriched in plagioclase. Major elements variations largely reflect variations in the plagioclase/pyroxene ratio of the protolith, but compositional trends suggest a loss of Na with reaction progress. The base metal sulfides chalcopyrite, pyrrhotite, and pentlandite show decreasing abundance with reaction progress, forming pyrite (± magnetite) as an intermediate reaction product that also is lost as the reaction proceeds. Millerite is overall low but increases slightly. A more limited data set on the platinum-group minerals suggests that platinum-group element (PGE)-arsenides increase whereas PGE-sulfides and PGE-Bi-tellurides decrease with reaction progress. Assuming ore element concentrations in the protolith were constant and similar to relatively fresh norites, Pd increases modestly, by 5 %, whereas Pt decreases by about 65 % in the most

  8. Remote sensing studies of anorthosite and other highland lithologies of Earth's Moon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peterson, Chris Allan

    Ground-based and spacecraft remote sensing data were used to investigate the lithology of various highlands regions of Earth's Moon and the stratigraphic relationships among lithologic types. Telescopic near-infrared reflection spectra of high spectral resolution were used to determine lithologies exposed at numerous locations on the lunar nearside. Multispectral imagery obtained by the Galileo and Clementine, spacecraft was compared with the results of interpretation of ground-based telescopic reflectance spectra. An iron mapping technique utilizing the spacecraft data was used to identify anorthosite on the lunar farside. Chapter 2 focuses on the Humorum basin region of the nearside. Anorthosite was identified in parts of the mare-bounding ring of Humorum, excavated by fresh craters from beneath the slightly more mafic material that dominates the surface of the highlands in this region. A region to the northwest appears anomalous in optical and radar data sets. Principal components analyses of ground-based spectra and multispectral imagery of this area suggests that mare basalt was excavated by Letronne crater and that at least some cryptomare is present in the region as well. Chapter 3 reports the results of analyses of numerous spectra of the Grimaldi basin region. Noritic anorthosite and anorthositic norite are the most common highland rock types present in the material emplaced there by both the Grimaldi and Orientale basin-forming impacts. Some outcrops of pure anorthosite have been exposed from beneath this more mafic material by craters on or near the inner rings of Grimaldi. Chapter 4 considers the distribution and modes of occurrence of anorthosite throughout the lunar surface. Anorthosite is associate with the inner rings of other nearside basins, including Orientale and Nectaris. On the farside, the distribution of anorthosite appears to be controlled in large part by the giant South Pole-Aitken basin. Areas near the rim of the basin were covered by

  9. The Effect of Variable Greenschist Alteration on the Offset Zone of the Lac Des Iles Pd Deposit, Ontario, Canada

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boudreau, A. E.

    2013-12-01

    The recently discovered Offset zone of the Mine Block Intrusion of the Lac des Iles Complex hosts Pd deposits with unusually high Pd/Pt and Pd/Ir ratios in rocks that range from relatively unaltered mineralized norite to chlorite-actinolite-talc schist. Questions remain as to the degree the deposit is magmatic or has been upgraded by later fluid activity. Quantitative assessment of the effect of progressive alteration using mineral modes was done using total silicate H2O as a monitor of reaction progress (ξ = moles H2O added to form alteration minerals). Major mineral modal variations define three reaction regions: (1) ξ = 0.00 - 0.03, characterized by epidote/clinozoisite formation and some amphibole, (2) ξ = 0.03 - 0.23, characterized by precipitation of chlorite, amphibole, quartz muscovite/sericite and calcite after plagioclase + pyroxene and (3) ξ = 0.23 - 0.28, characterized by the production of talc after earlier formed amphibole. Epidote occurs as an incongruent product from the destruction of plagioclase that is itself lost as the reaction proceeds. Pyroxene is altered at about twice the rate of plagioclase, resulting in pyroxene-rich protoliths to be more altered than those relatively enriched in plagioclase. Major elements variations largely reflect variations in the plagioclase/pyroxene ratio of the protolith but suggest mainly a loss of Na with reaction progress. Base metal sulfides chalcopyrite, pyrrhotite and pentlandite show decreasing abundance with reaction progress, dissolving incongruently to pyrite and magnetite as intermediate reaction products. Millerite is overall low but increase slightly. A more limited data set on the platinum-group minerals suggests that PGE-arsenides increase whereas PGE-sulfides and PGE-Bi-tellurides decrease with reaction progress. Assuming ore element concentrations in the protolith were constant and similar to relatively fresh norites, Pd increases modestly, by 5%, whereas Pt decreases by about 65% in the most

  10. Cambro-Ordovician Granites in the Araçuaí Belt, in Brazil: snapshots from a late orogenic collapse

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    De Campos, Cristina P.; Mendes, Júlio Cesar; de Medeiros, Silvia Regina; Ludka, Isabel P.

    2014-05-01

    Along the Brazilian Coast, surrounding the São Francisco Craton and adjacent mobile belts, deep segments of a Neoproterozoic orogen (Araçuaí-West Congo) generated over 120 Ma of successive magmatic episodes of granitic magmatism. The c.630-585 Ma calc-alkaline magmatic arc consists of metatonalite to metagranodiorite, with metadioritic to noritic facies and enclaves. During the syn-collisional and crustal thickening stage (c. 585 to 560 Ma) S-type metagranites have been built by dehydration melting of a diverse package of sediments. Around 545-525 Ma late orogenic crustal remelting formed mostly non-foliated garnet-cordierite leucogranites. In the post-orogenic stage (c. 510-480 Ma) inversely zoned calc-alkaline to alkaline plutons intruded previous units. This work will focus on the youngest post-orogenic magmatism. It will present the state of the art by reviewing structural measurements, detailed mapping of flow patterns and additional geochemical and isotopic data. The architecture of around 10 plutons, ranging from c. 20 to 200 km2 in surface area, unravels deep mushroom- to funnel-like magma chambers and/or conduits. Available data point towards different compositional domains, which are interfingered in complex concentric layers, so that, each pluton depicts a unique internal flow pattern. In the silica-richer structures concentric fragmented or folded layers of granite, in a hybrid K-gabbroic/dioritic matrix, contrast with predominantly homogeneous K-basaltic to gabbroic regions. These may be separated by magmatic shear zones where mixing is enhanced, also resulting in hybrid compositions. Sharp and pillow-like contacts between granitic and K-basaltic rocks locally depict a frozen-in situation of different intrusive episodes. In the silica-poorer plutonic bodies gradational contacts are more frequent and may be the result of convection enhanced diffusion. For all plutons, however, mostly sub-vertical internal contacts between most- and least

  11. Low-Sulfide PGE ores in paleoproterozoic Monchegorsk pluton and massifs of its southern framing, Kola Peninsula, Russia: Geological characteristic and isotopic geochronological evidence of polychronous ore-magmatic systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chashchin, V. V.; Bayanova, T. B.; Mitrofanov, F. P.; Serov, P. A.

    2016-01-01

    New U-Pb and Sm-Nd isotopic geochronological data are reported for rocks of the Monchegorsk pluton and massifs of its southern framing, which contain low-sulfide PGE ores. U-Pb zircon ages have been determined for orthopyroxenite (2506 ± 3 Ma) and mineralized norite (2503 ± 8 Ma) from critical units of Monchepluton at the Nyud-II deposit, metaplagioclasite (2496 ± 4 Ma) from PGE-bearing reef at the Vurechuaivench deposit, and host metagabbronorite (2504.3 ± 2.2. Ma); the latter is the youngest in Monchepluton. In the southern framing of Monchepluton, the following new datings are now available: U-Pb zircon ages of mineralized metanorite from the lower marginal zone (2504 ± 1 Ma) and metagabbro from the upper zone (2478 ± 20 Ma) of the South Sopcha PGE deposit, as well as metanorite from the Lake Moroshkovoe massif (2463.1 ± 2.7 Ma). The Sm-Nd isochron (rock-forming minerals, sulfides, whole-rock samples) age of orthopyroxenite from the Nyud-II deposit (2497 ± 36 Ma) is close to results obtained using the U-Pb method. The age of harzburgite from PGE-bearing 330 horizon reef of the Sopcha massif related to Monchepluton is 2451 ± 64 Ma at initial ɛNd =-6.0. The latter value agrees with geological data indicating that this reef was formed due to the injection of an additional portion of high-temperature ultramafic magma, which experienced significant crustal contamination. The results of Sm-Nd isotopic geochronological study of ore-bearing metaplagioclasite from PGE reef of the Vurechuaivench deposit (2410 ± 58 Ma at ɛNd =-2.4) provide evidence for the appreciable effect of metamorphic and hydrothermal metasomatic alterations on PGE ore formation. The Sm-Nd age of mineralized norite from the Nyud-II deposit is 1940 ± 32 Ma at initial ɛNd =-7.8. This estimate reflects the influence of the Svecofennian metamorphism on the Monchepluton ore-magmatic system, which resulted in the rearrangement of the Sm-Nd system and its incomplete closure. Thus, the new

  12. Mafic and felsic igneous rocks at Gale crater

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sautter, Violaine; Cousin, Agnès; Mangold, Nicolas; Toplis, Michael; Fabre, Cécile; Forni, Olivier; Payré, Valérie; Gasnault, Olivier; Ollila, Anne; Rapin, William; Fisk, Martin; Meslin, Pierre-Yves; Wiens, Roger; Maurice, Sylvestre; Lasue, Jérémie; Newsom, Horton; Lanza, Nina

    2015-04-01

    The Curiosity rover landed at Gale, an early Hesperian age crater formed within Noachian terrains on Mars. The rover encountered a great variety of igneous rocks to the west of the Yellow Knife Bay sedimentary unit (from sol 13 to 800) which are float rocks or clasts in conglomerates. Textural and compositional analyses using MastCam and ChemCam Remote micro Imager (RMI) and Laser Induced Breakdown Spectroscopy (LIBS) with a ˜300-500 µm laser spot lead to the recognition of 53 massive (non layered) igneous targets, both intrusive and effusive, ranging from mafic rocks where feldspars form less than 50% of the rock to felsic samples where feldspar is the dominant mineral. From morphology, color, grain size, patina and chemistry, at least 5 different groups of rocks have been identified: (1) a basaltic class with shiny aspect, conchoidal frature, no visible grains (less than 0.2mm) in a dark matrix with a few mm sized light-toned crystals (21 targets) (2) a porphyritic trachyandesite class with light-toned, bladed and polygonal crystals 1-20 mm in length set in a dark gray mesostasis (11 targets); (3) light toned trachytes with no visible grains sometimes vesiculated or forming flat targets (6 targets); (4) microgabbro-norite (grain size < 1mm) and gabbro-norite (grain size >1 mm) showing dark and light toned crystals in similar proportion ( 8 targets); (5) light-toned diorite/granodiorite showing coarse granular (>4 mm) texture either pristine or blocky, strongly weathered rocks (9 rock targets). Overall, these rocks comprise 2 distinct geochemical series: (i) an alkali-suite: basanite, gabbro trachy-andesite and trachyte) including porphyritic and aphyric members; (ii) quartz-normative intrusives close to granodioritic composition. The former looks like felsic clasts recently described in two SNC meteorites (NWA 7034 and 7533), the first Noachian breccia sampling the martian regolith. It is geochemically consistent with differentiation of liquids produced by low

  13. Clean slate corrective action investigation plan

    SciTech Connect

    1996-05-01

    The Clean Slate sites discussed in this report are situated in the central portion of the Tonopah Test Range (TTR), north of the Nevada Test Site (NTS) on the northwest portion of the Nellis Air Force Range (NAFR) which is approximately 390 kilometers (km) (240 miles [mi]) northwest of Las Vegas, Nevada. These sites were the locations for three of the four Operation Roller Coaster experiments. These experiments evaluated the dispersal of plutonium in the environment from the chemical explosion of a plutonium-bearing device. Although it was not a nuclear explosion, Operation Roller Coaster created some surface contamination which is now the subject of a corrective action strategy being implemented by the Nevada Environmental Restoration Project (NV ERP) for the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE). Corrective Action Investigation (CAI) activities will be conducted at three of the Operation Roller Coaster sites. These are Clean Slate 1 (CS-1), Clean Slate 2 (CS-2), and Clean Slate 3 (CS-3) sites, which are located on the TTR. The document that provides or references all of the specific information relative to the various investigative processes is called the Corrective Action Investigation Plan (CAIP). This CAIP has been prepared for the DOE Nevada Operations Office (DOE/NV) by IT Corporation (IT).

  14. Breast cancer education for Native American women: creating culturally relevant communications.

    PubMed

    Robinson, Frances; Sandoval, Nellie; Baldwin, Julie; Sanderson, Priscilla R

    2005-12-01

    In the Navajo language, the word for cancer translates as the sore that does not heal. This literal linkage to a sense of hopelessness reflects a cultural perspective that impedes cancer detection in its early, more treatable stages. As a coauthor of this article and a Navajo breast cancer survivor, Nellie Sandoval, BS, MS, explains that the very topic of cancer is taboo to discuss among the Navajo population, for to speak of cancer is to invite it. When statistical data from the San Juan Regional Tumor Registry supported the authors' anecdotal findings regarding late diagnoses, they created Breast Cancer: It Can Be Healed. The first Navajo-language video to address such cultural barriers, it discusses the triad of early detection-breast self-examination, clinical examination, and mammography. Its success sparked creation of a second video, sponsored by the Native American Cancer Research Partnership (NACRP). The 12-minute video, Breast Cancer: The Healing Begins, focuses on treatment options, including surgery, radiation, and hormone therapy. By conducting field screenings throughout the Navajo Nation, the NACRP team has enhanced the video's visual imagery and messages and has confirmed the value of cultural relevancy in cancer education.

  15. Distribution, life history, management, and current status of Astragalus beatleyae on the US Department of Energy`s Nevada Test Site

    SciTech Connect

    Blomquist, K.W.; Wills, C.A.; Ostler, W.K.; Rautenstrauch, K.R.; O`Farrell, T.P.

    1992-11-01

    A beatleyae is a small milk vetch found in south-central Nevada on portions of the Nevada Test Site (NTS) and Nellis Air Force Range. This species has been classified as a Category 1 candidate species for federal listing under the Endangered Species Act because of its limited range and threats from human activities, primarily activities conducted by the US Department of Energy, Nevada Field Office (DOE/NV). The status of A. beatleyae was last evaluated over 13 years ago (Rhoads et al., 1979, Beatley, 1978). Since then, numerous conservation measures have been taken by DOE/NV and additional information on the status of this population has been obtained. Field surveys have been conducted to locate new populations of A. beatleyae. Because of this work, the known range of this species has been expanded approximately 300%. DOE/NV has established. a conservation agreement with the US Fish and Wildlife Service and developed a Species Management Plan. This report is a presentation of the results of that population monitoring study. Also included in this report are a review of other field investigations and conservation measures taken by DOE/NV, a review of the current threats to A. beatleyae, and a reassessment of the status of this species under the Endangered Species Act.

  16. Distribution, life history, management, and current status of Astragalus beatleyae on the US Department of Energy's Nevada Test Site

    SciTech Connect

    Blomquist, K.W.; Wills, C.A.; Ostler, W.K.; Rautenstrauch, K.R.; O'Farrell, T.P.

    1992-11-01

    A beatleyae is a small milk vetch found in south-central Nevada on portions of the Nevada Test Site (NTS) and Nellis Air Force Range. This species has been classified as a Category 1 candidate species for federal listing under the Endangered Species Act because of its limited range and threats from human activities, primarily activities conducted by the US Department of Energy, Nevada Field Office (DOE/NV). The status of A. beatleyae was last evaluated over 13 years ago (Rhoads et al., 1979, Beatley, 1978). Since then, numerous conservation measures have been taken by DOE/NV and additional information on the status of this population has been obtained. Field surveys have been conducted to locate new populations of A. beatleyae. Because of this work, the known range of this species has been expanded approximately 300%. DOE/NV has established. a conservation agreement with the US Fish and Wildlife Service and developed a Species Management Plan. This report is a presentation of the results of that population monitoring study. Also included in this report are a review of other field investigations and conservation measures taken by DOE/NV, a review of the current threats to A. beatleyae, and a reassessment of the status of this species under the Endangered Species Act.

  17. Tonopah Test Range Air Monitoring: CY2015 Meteorological, Radiological, and Airborne Particulate Observations

    SciTech Connect

    Nikolich, George; Shadel, Craig; Chapman, Jenny; McCurdy, Greg; Etyemezian, Vicken; Miller, Julianne J.; Mizell, Steve

    2016-09-01

    In 1963, the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) (formerly the Atomic Energy Commission [AEC]), implemented Operation Roller Coaster on the Tonopah Test Range (TTR) and an adjacent area of the Nevada Test and Training Range (NTTR) (formerly the Nellis Air Force Range). The operation resulted in radionuclide-contaminated soils at the Clean Slate I, II, and III sites. This report documents observations made during ongoing monitoring of radiological, meteorological, and dust conditions at stations installed adjacent to Clean Slate I and Clean Slate III, and at the TTR Sandia National Laboratories (SNL) Range Operations Control (ROC) center. The primary objective of the monitoring effort is to determine if winds blowing across the Clean Slate sites are transporting particles of radionuclide-contaminated soil beyond the physical and administrative boundaries of the sites. Radionuclide assessment of airborne particulates in 2015 found the gross alpha and gross beta values of dust collected from the filters at the monitoring stations are consistent with background conditions. The meteorological and particle monitoring indicate that conditions for wind-borne contaminant movement exist at the Clean Slate sites and that, although the transport of radionuclide-contaminated soil by suspension has not been detected, movement by saltation is occurring.

  18. Striking a chord with amnesic patients: evidence that song facilitates memory.

    PubMed

    Haslam, Catherine; Cook, Michael

    2002-01-01

    There have been several reports in the literature, mainly anecdotal, of amnesic patients demonstrating an ability to learn and remember song. Yet there has been little systematic investigation of this phenomenon. In this paper we report findings from three experiments investigating memory for song in two amnesic patients, Joan and Nellie. In the first study we explored recognition memory for various elements of song (i.e. lyrics, melody, lyrics and melody combined) and found that amnesic patients were better than chance at distinguishing studied from novel materials when given explicit instructions. In experiment 2, the ability to generate lyrics and melody was explored in one patient. Although this patient could only generate melodies, her performance in this modality was equivalent to that of matched controls. Memory for the semantic content of song was investigated in a final study using explicit testing conditions. The results showed that both patients were significantly better than chance at identifying correct responses, indicating that they acquired and retained knowledge of the general content of studied songs. These findings not only highlight the special nature of song in facilitating memory in amnesic patients, but given the level of accuracy in memory performance observed, suggest an alternative direction in rehabilitation.

  19. Environmental assessment for double tracks test site, Nevada Test Site, Nye County, Nevada

    SciTech Connect

    1996-04-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy, Nevada Operations Office (DOE/NV), with appropriate approvals from the U.S. Air Force (USAF), proposes to conduct environmental restoration operations at the Double Tracks test site located on the Nellis Air Force Range (NAFR) in Nye County, Nevada. This environmental assessment (EA) evaluates the potential environmental consequences of four alternative actions for conducting the restoration operation and of the no action alternative. The EA also identifies mitigation measures, where appropriate, designed to protect natural and cultural resources and reduce impacts to human health and safety. The environmental restoration operation at the Double Tracks test site would serve two primary objectives. First, the proposed work would evaluate the effectiveness of future restoration operations involving contamination over larger areas. The project would implement remediation technology options and evaluate how these technologies could be applied to the larger areas of contaminated soils on the Nevada Test Site (NTS), the Tonopah Test Range (TTR), and the NAFR. Second, the remediation would provide for the removal of plutonium contamination down to or below a predetermined level which would require cleanup of 1 hectare (ha) (2.5 acres), for the most likely case, or up to 3.0 ha (7.4 acres) of contaminated soil, for the upper bounding case.

  20. Saturn Apollo Program

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1967-01-09

    This is the official NASA portrait of astronaut Edwin E. (Buzz) Aldrin. Prior to joining NASA, Aldrin flew 66 combat missions in F-86s while on duty in Korea. At Nellis Air Force Base, Nevada, he served as an aerial gunnery instructor. Following his assignment as aide to the dean of faculty at the Air Force Academy, Aldrin flew F-100s as a flight commander at Bitburg, Germany. Aldrin was one of the third group of astronauts named by NASA in October 1963 and has logged 289 hours and 53 minutes in space, of which, 7 hours and 52 minutes were spent in Extra Vehicular Activity (EVA). On November 11, 1966, he launched into space aboard the Gemini 12 spacecraft on a 4-day flight, which brought the Gemini program to a successful close. During that mission, Aldrin established a new record for EVA, spending 5-1/2 hours outside the spacecraft. July 16-24, 1969, Aldrin served as lunar module pilot for Apollo 11, the first manned lunar landing mission. Aldrin followed Neil Armstrong onto the lunar surface on July 20, 1969, completing a 2-hour and 15 minute lunar EVA. Aldrin resigned from NASA in July 1971.

  1. Characteristics and migration patterns of mule deer on the Nevada Test Site

    SciTech Connect

    Giles, K.R.; Cooper, J.

    1985-04-01

    When NTS deer migrate, the majority of the animals stay within the confines of the NTS or the Nellis Bombing Range, and present little potential for radiation transport off the NTS. Also, the few deer that leave the NTS area do so during the winter when they cannot legally be hunted in Nevada. The one exception from the apparent migration pattern was a buck that was followed by telemetry until the end of April, when the animal could no longer be located, and was harvested the following fall in the Kawich Peak area about 120.9 km (75 mi.) northwest of the study area. The makeup of the deer herds on the NTS is quite different from that of deer in offsite areas. The large buck population indicates that an aged pristine herd exists on the NTS. In general, it should be noted that the deer populations are tied to the available water sources, although a vast area of excellent deer range is present but unavailable to the deer because of the lack of available water sources. This range condition has been maintained because of the periodic changes of available water due to construction activity, therefore resulting in a browsing rest rotation system. 11 refs., 5 figs.

  2. Corrective action decision document second gas station, Tonopah Test Range, Nevada (Corrective Action Unit No. 403). Revision No. 1

    SciTech Connect

    1997-06-01

    This Corrective Action Decision Document (CADD) for Second Gas Station has been developed for the U.S. Department of Energy`s (DOE) Nevada Environmental Restoration Project to meet the requirements of the Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order (FFACO) of 1996 as stated in Appendix VI, {open_quotes}Corrective Action Strategy{close_quotes}. The Second Gas Station Corrective Action Site (CAS) No. 03-02-004-03 is the only CAS in CAU No. 403. The Second Gas Station CAS is located within Area 3 of the Tonopah Test Range (TTR), west of the Main Road at the location of former Underground Storage Tanks (USTs) and their associated fuel dispensary stations. The TTR is approximately 225 kilometers (km) (140 miles [mi]) northwest of Las Vegas, Nevada, by air and approximately 56 km (3 5 mi) southeast of Tonopah, Nevada, by road. The TTR is bordered on the south, east, and west by the Nellis Air Force Range and on the north by sparsely populated public land administered by the Bureau of Land Management and the U.S. Forest Service.

  3. National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants Submittal - 1998

    SciTech Connect

    Stuart Black; Yvonne Townsend

    1999-06-01

    The Nevada Test Site (NTS) is operated by the U.S. Department of Energy Nevada Operations Office (DOE/NV) as the site for nuclear weapons testing, now limited to readiness activities and experiments in support of the national Stockpile Stewardship Management Program. It is located in Nye County, Nevada, with the southeast corner about 105 km (65 mi) northwest of Las Vegas, Nevada. The NTS covers about 3,500 km2 (1,350 mi2), an area larger than Rhode Island. Its size is about 46 to 56 km (28 to 35 mi) east to west and from 64 to 88 km (40 to 55 mi)north to south. The NTS is surrounded, except on the south side, by public exclusion areas (Nellis Air Force Range) that provide another 24 to 104 km (15 to 65 mi) between the NTS and public lands. The NTS is characterized by desert valley and Great Basin mountain topography, with a climate, flora, and fauna typical of the southwest deserts. Surface waters are scarce on the NTS and there is great depth to slow-moving groundwater.

  4. National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants Calendar Year 1999

    SciTech Connect

    R. F. Grossman

    2000-06-01

    The Nevada Test Site (NTS) is operated by the US Department of Energy's Nevada Operations Office (DOE/NV) as the site for nuclear weapons testing, now limited to readiness activities and experiments in support of the national Stockpile Stewardship Management Program. It is located in Nye County, Nevada, with the southeast corner about 105 km (65 mi) northwest of Las Vegas, Nevada. The NTS covers about 3,561 km{sup 2} (1,375 mi{sup 2}), an area larger than Rhode Island. Its size is about 46 to 56 km (28 to 35 mi) east to west and from 64 to 88 km (40 to 55 mi) north to south. The NTS is surrounded, except on the south side, by public exclusion areas (Nellis Air Force Range [NAFR]) that provide another 24 to 104 km (15 to 65 mi) between the NTS and public lands. The NTS is characterized by desert valley and Great Basin mountain topography, with a climate, flora, and fauna typical of the southwest deserts. Population density within 150 km (93 mi) of the NTS is only about 0.2 persons per square kilometer, excluding the Las Vegas area. Restricted access, low population density in the surrounding area, and extended wind transport times are advantageous factors for the activities conducted at the NTS. Surface waters are scarce on the NTS and there is great depth to slow-moving groundwater.

  5. Update on the Stockpile Monitor Program

    SciTech Connect

    Rivera, T.; Harry, H.H.

    1999-04-01

    In 1991 the Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) launched a program to develop a comprehensive database of warhead storage conditions. Because of the extended lifetimes expected of the Stockpile, it became desirable to obtain as much detailed information on the storage environments as possible. Temperature and relative humidity at various facilities capable of storing and/or handling nuclear weapons were used as monitoring locations. The Stockpile Monitor Program (SMP) was implemented in a variety of locations as illustrated in a figure. Probably the most useful data come from the most extreme conditions monitored. The hottest outside temperatures and relative humidities come from Barksdale, while some of the lowest relative humidity values come from Nellis, which continue to be monitored. The coldest conditions come from Grand Forks, Griffiss, and KI Sawyer, none of which are presently being monitored. For this reason, the authors would like to begin monitoring Minot, ND. The outside extreme temperatures are ameliorated by the structures to a significant degree. For example, the hottest outside temperature (120 F) is contrasted by the corresponding cooler inside temperature (85 F), and the coldest outside temperature ({minus}35 F) is contrasted by the corresponding warmer inside temperature (+25 F). These data have become useful for calculations related to stockpile-to-target sequence (STS) and other analyses. SMP information has been provided to a number of outside agencies.

  6. Phage therapy treatment of the coral pathogen Vibrio coralliilyticus

    PubMed Central

    Cohen, Yossi; Joseph Pollock, F; Rosenberg, Eugene; Bourne, David G

    2013-01-01

    Vibrio coralliilyticus is an important coral pathogen demonstrated to cause disease outbreaks worldwide. This study investigated the feasibility of applying bacteriophage therapy to treat the coral pathogen V. coralliilyticus. A specific bacteriophage for V. coralliilyticus strain P1 (LMG23696), referred to here as bacteriophage YC, was isolated from the seawater above corals at Nelly Bay, Magnetic Island, central Great Barrier Reef (GBR), the same location where the bacterium was first isolated. Bacteriophage YC was shown to be a lytic phage belonging to the Myoviridae family, with a rapid replication rate, high burst size, and high affinity to its host. By infecting its host bacterium, bacteriophage YC was able to prevent bacterial-induced photosystem inhibition in pure cultures of Symbiodinium, the photosymbiont partner of coral and a target for virulence factors produced by the bacterial pathogen. Phage therapy experiments using coral juveniles in microtiter plates as a model system revealed that bacteriophage YC was able to prevent V. coralliilyticus-induced photoinactivation and tissue lysis. These results demonstrate that bacteriophage YC has the potential to treat coral disease outbreaks caused by the bacterial pathogen V. coralliilyticus, making it a good candidate for phage therapy treatment of coral disease. PMID:23239510

  7. Las Vegas

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2001-01-01

    This image of Las Vegas, NV was acquired on August, 2000 and covers an area 42 km (25 miles) wide and 30 km (18 miles) long. The image displays three bands of the reflected visible and infrared wavelength region, with a spatial resolution of 15 m. McCarran International Airport to the south and Nellis Air Force Base to the NE are the two major airports visible. Golf courses appear as bright red areas of worms. The first settlement in Las Vegas (which is Spanish for The Meadows) was recorded back in the early 1850s when the Mormon church, headed by Brigham Young, sent a mission of 30 men to construct a fort and teach agriculture to the Indians. Las Vegas became a city in 1905 when the railroad announced this city was to be a major division point. Prior to legalized gambling in 1931, Las Vegas was developing as an agricultural area. Las Vegas' fame as a resort area became prominent after World War II. The image is located at 36.1 degrees north latitude and 115.1 degrees west longitude.

    The U.S. science team is located at NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif. The Terra mission is part of NASA's Science Mission Directorate.

  8. Housekeeping Closure Report for Corrective Action Unit 119: Storage Tanks, Nevada Test Site, Nevada

    SciTech Connect

    U.S. Department of Energy, Nevada Operations Office

    2000-06-26

    The Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order was entered into by the State of Nevada, US Department of Energy, and US Department of Defense to identify sites of potential historical contamination and implement corrective actions based on public health and environmental considerations. The facilities subject to this agreement include the Nevada Test Site (NTS), parts of the Tonopah Test Range, parts to the Nellis Air Force Range, the Central Nevada Test Area, and the Project Shoal Area. Corrective Action Sites (CASs) are areas potentially requiring corrective actions and may include solid waste management units, individual disposal, or release sites. Based on geography, technical similarity, agency responsibility, or other appropriate reasons, CASs are grouped together into Corrective Action Units (CAUs) for the purpose of determining appropriate corrective actions. This report contains the Closure Verification Forms for cleanup activities that were performed at 19 CASs with in CAU 119 on the NTS. The form for each CAS provides the location, directions to the site, general description, and photographs of the site before and after cleanup activities. Activities included verification of the prior removal of both aboveground and underground gas/oil storage tanks, gas sampling tanks, pressure fuel tanks, tank stands, trailers, debris, and other material. Based on these former activities, no further action is required at these CASs.

  9. Geologic Map of the Pahranagat Range 30' x 60' Quadrangle, Lincoln and Nye Counties, Nevada

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Jayko, A.S.

    2007-01-01

    Introduction The Pahranagat Range 30' x 60' quadrangle lies within an arid, sparsely populated part of Lincoln and Nye Counties, southeastern Nevada. Much of the area is public land that includes the Desert National Wildlife Range, the Pahranagat National Wildlife Refuge, and the Nellis Air Force Base. The topography, typical of much of the Basin and Range Province, consists of north-south-trending ranges and intervening broad alluvial valleys. Elevations range from about 1,000 to 2,900 m. At the regional scale, the Pahranagat Range quadrangle lies within the Mesozoic and early Tertiary Sevier Fold-and-Thrust Belt and the Cenozoic Basin and Range Province. The quadrangle is underlain by a Proterozoic to Permian miogeoclinal section, a nonmarine clastic and volcanic section of middle Oligocene or older to late Miocene age, and alluvial deposits of late Cenozoic age. The structural features that are exposed reflect relatively shallow crustal deformation. Mesozoic deformation is dominated by thrust faults and asymmetric or open folds. Cenozoic deformation is dominated by faults that dip more than 45i and dominostyle tilted blocks. At least three major tectonic events have affected the area: Mesozoic (Sevier) folding and thrust faulting, pre-middle Oligocene extensional deformation, and late Cenozoic (mainly late Miocene to Holocene) extensional deformation. Continued tectonic activity is expressed in the Pahranagat Range area by seismicity and faults having scarps that cut alluvial deposits.

  10. Las Vegas

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2001-10-22

    This image of Las Vegas, NV was acquired on August, 2000 and covers an area 42 km (25 miles) wide and 30 km (18 miles) long. The image displays three bands of the reflected visible and infrared wavelength region, with a spatial resolution of 15 m. McCarran International Airport to the south and Nellis Air Force Base to the NE are the two major airports visible. Golf courses appear as bright red areas of worms. The first settlement in Las Vegas (which is Spanish for The Meadows) was recorded back in the early 1850s when the Mormon church, headed by Brigham Young, sent a mission of 30 men to construct a fort and teach agriculture to the Indians. Las Vegas became a city in 1905 when the railroad announced this city was to be a major division point. Prior to legalized gambling in 1931, Las Vegas was developing as an agricultural area. Las Vegas' fame as a resort area became prominent after World War II. The image is located at 36.1 degrees north latitude and 115.1 degrees west longitude. http://photojournal.jpl.nasa.gov/catalog/PIA11096

  11. Corrective Action Investigation Plan for Corrective Action Unit 406: Area 3 Building 03-74 and Building 03-58 Under ground Discharge Points and Corrective Action Unit 429: Area 3 Building 03-55 and Area 9 Building 09-52 Underground Discharge Points, Tonopah Test Range, Nevada

    SciTech Connect

    DOE /NV

    1999-05-20

    This Corrective Action Investigation Plan (CAIP) has been developed in accordance with the Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order (FFACO) that was agreed to by the US Department of Energy, Nevada Operations Office (DOE/NV); the State of Nevada Division of Environmental Protection (NDEP); and the US Department of Defense (FFACO, 1996). The CAIP is a document that provides or references all of the specific information for investigation activities associated with Corrective Action Units (CAUs) or Corrective Action Sites (CASs). According to the FFACO (1996), CASs are sites potentially requiring corrective action(s) and may include solid waste management units or individual disposal or release sites. Corrective Action Units consist of one or more CASs grouped together based on geography, technical similarity, or agency responsibility for the purpose of determining corrective actions. This CAIP contains the environmental sample collection objectives and the criteria for conducting site investigation activities at the Underground Discharge Points (UDPs) included in both CAU 406 and CAU 429. The CAUs are located in Area 3 and Area 9 of the Tonopah Test Range (TTR). The TTR, included in the Nellis Air Force Range, is approximately 255 kilometers (km) (140 miles [mi]) northwest of Las Vegas, Nevada.

  12. Double Tracks revegetation and monitoring plan

    SciTech Connect

    1997-07-01

    This document is a reclamation plan for short-term and long-term stabilization of land disturbed by activities associated with interim clean-up of radionuclide-contaminated surface soil at the Double Tracks site. This document has been prepared to provide general reclamation practices and procedures that will be followed during restoration of the cleanup site. Reclamation demonstration plots were established near the site in the fall of 1994 to evaluate the performance of several native species and to evaluate different irrigation strategies. Results of the study at Double Tracks, as well as the results from numerous studies conducted at other sites (Area 11 and Area 19 of the Nevada Test Site), have been summarized and incorporated into this final reclamation plan for the interim cleanup of the Double Tracks site, located northwest of the Nevada Test Site on the Nellis Air Force Range. Surface soils at Double Tracks were contaminated as a result of the detonation of a device containing plutonium and depleted uranium using chemical explosives. The total amount of Pu deposited on the site was between 980 and 1,600 grams and was scattered downwind south of the detonation site. Short-term stabilization consists of the application of a chemical soil stabilizer that is applied immediately following excavation of the contaminated soils to minimize Pu resuspension. Long-term stabilization is accomplished by the establishment of a permanent vegetation.

  13. Double tracks test site characterization report

    SciTech Connect

    1996-05-01

    This report presents the results of site characterization activities performed at the Double Tracks Test Site, located on Range 71 North, of the Nellis Air Force Range (NAFR) in southern Nevada. Site characterization activities included reviewing historical data from the Double Tracks experiment, previous site investigation efforts, and recent site characterization data. The most recent site characterization activities were conducted in support of an interim corrective action to remediate the Double Tracks Test Site to an acceptable risk to human health and the environment. Site characterization was performed using a phased approach. First, previously collected data and historical records sere compiled and reviewed. Generalized scopes of work were then prepared to fill known data gaps. Field activities were conducted and the collected data were then reviewed to determine whether data gaps were filled and whether other areas needed to be investigated. Additional field efforts were then conducted, as required, to adequately characterize the site. Characterization of the Double Tracks Test Site was conducted in accordance with the US Department of Energy`s (DOE) Streamlined Approach for Environmental Restoration (SAFER).

  14. DOUBLE TRACKS Test Site interim corrective action plan

    SciTech Connect

    1996-06-01

    The DOUBLE TRACKS site is located on Range 71 north of the Nellis Air Force Range, northwest of the Nevada Test Site (NTS). DOUBLE TRACKS was the first of four experiments that constituted Operation ROLLER COASTER. On May 15, 1963, weapons-grade plutonium and depleted uranium were dispersed using 54 kilograms of trinitrotoluene (TNT) explosive. The explosion occurred in the open, 0.3 m above the steel plate. No fission yield was detected from the test, and the total amount of plutonium deposited on the ground surface was estimated to be between 980 and 1,600 grams. The test device was composed primarily of uranium-238 and plutonium-239. The mass ratio of uranium to plutonium was 4.35. The objective of the corrective action is to reduce the potential risk to human health and the environment and to demonstrate technically viable and cost-effective excavation, transportation, and disposal. To achieve these objectives, Bechtel Nevada (BN) will remove soil with a total transuranic activity greater then 200 pCI/g, containerize the soil in ``supersacks,`` transport the filled ``supersacks`` to the NTS, and dispose of them in the Area 3 Radioactive Waste Management Site. During this interim corrective action, BN will also conduct a limited demonstration of an alternative method for excavation of radioactive near-surface soil contamination.

  15. Modeling background radiation in Southern Nevada.

    PubMed

    Haber, Daniel A; Burnley, Pamela C; Adcock, Christopher T; Malchow, Russell L; Marsac, Kara E; Hausrath, Elisabeth M

    2017-02-06

    Aerial gamma ray surveys are an important tool for national security, scientific, and industrial interests in determining locations of both anthropogenic and natural sources of radioactivity. There is a relationship between radioactivity and geology and in the past this relationship has been used to predict geology from an aerial survey. The purpose of this project is to develop a method to predict the radiologic exposure rate of the geologic materials by creating a high resolution background model. The intention is for this method to be used in an emergency response scenario where the background radiation environment is unknown. Two study areas in Southern Nevada have been modeled using geologic data, images from the Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER), geochemical data, and pre-existing low resolution aerial surveys from the National Uranium Resource Evaluation (NURE) Survey. Using these data, geospatial areas that are homogenous in terms of K, U, and Th, referred to as background radiation units, are defined and the gamma ray exposure rate is predicted. The prediction is compared to data collected via detailed aerial survey by the Department of Energy's Remote Sensing Lab - Nellis, allowing for the refinement of the technique. By using geologic units to define radiation background units of exposed bedrock and ASTER visualizations to subdivide and define radiation background units within alluvium, successful models have been produced for Government Wash, north of Lake Mead, and for the western shore of Lake Mohave, east of Searchlight, NV.

  16. Spatial and temporal variability of microbes in selected soils at the Nevada Test Site

    SciTech Connect

    Angerer, J.P.; Winkel, V.K.; Ostler, W.K.; Hall, P.F.

    1993-12-31

    Large areas encompassing almost 800 hectares on the Nevada Test Site, Nellis Air Force Range and the Tonopah Test Range are contaminated with plutonium. Decontamination of plutonium from these sites may involve removal of plants and almost 370,000 cubic meters of soil. The soil may be subjected to a series of processes to remove plutonium. After decontamination, the soils will be returned to the site and revegetated. There is a paucity of information on the spatial and temporal distribution of microbes in soils of the Mojave and Great Basin Deserts. Therefore, this study was initiated to determine the biomass and diversity of microbes in soils prior to decontamination. Soils were collected to a depth of 10 cm along each of five randomly located 30-m transects at each of four sites. To ascertain spatial differences, soils were collected from beneath major shrubs and from associated interspaces. Soils were collected every three to four months to determine temporal (seasonal) differences in microbial parameters. Soils from beneath shrubs generally had greater active fungi and bacteria, and greater non-amended respiration than soils from interspaces. Temporal variability also was found; total and active fungi, and non-amended respiration were correlated with soil moisture at the time of sampling. Information from this study will aid in determining the effects of plutonium decontamination on soil microorganisms, and what measures, if any, will be required to restore microbial populations during revegetation of these sites.

  17. Three-step emergency cricothyroidotomy.

    PubMed

    MacIntyre, Allan; Markarian, Mark K; Carrison, Dale; Coates, Jay; Kuhls, Deborah; Fildes, John J

    2007-12-01

    Surgical cricothyroidotomy is the airway of choice in combat. It is too dangerous for combat medics to perform orotracheal intubation, because of the time needed to complete the procedure and the light signature from the intubation equipment, which provides an easy target for the enemy. The purpose of this article was to provide a modified approach for obtaining a surgical airway in complete darkness, with night-vision goggles. At our desert surgical skills training location at Nellis Air Force Base (Las Vegas, Nevada), Air Force para-rescue personnel received training in this technique using human cadavers. This training was provided during the fall and winter months of 2003-2006. Through trial and error, we developed a "quick and easy" method of obtaining a surgical airway in complete darkness, using three steps. The steps involve the traditional skin and cricothyroid membrane incisions but add the use of an elastic bougie as a guide for endotracheal tube placement. We have discovered that the bougie not only provides an excellent guide for tube placement but also eliminates the use of additional equipment, such as tracheal hooks or dilators. Furthermore, the bevel of the endotracheal tube displaces the cricothyroid membrane laterally, which allows placement of larger tubes and yields a better tracheal seal. Combat medics can perform the three-step surgical cricothyroidotomy quickly and efficiently in complete darkness. An elastic bougie is required to place a larger endotracheal tube. No additional surgical equipment is needed.

  18. A conceptual model and preliminary estimate of potential tritium migration from the Benham (U-20c) site, Pahute Mesa, Nevada Test Site

    SciTech Connect

    Brikowski, T.; Mahin, G.

    1993-08-01

    U-20c is the site of a large below-water-table nuclear test near the Nevada Test Site boundary. A conceptual model of potential groundwater migration of tritium from U-20c is constructed and quantitatively evaluated in this report. The lower portion of the collapse chimney at Benham is expected to intersect 200 m of permeable rhyolite lava, overlain by similar thicknesses of low-permeability zeolitized bedded tuff, then permeable welded tuff. Vertical groundwater flow through the chimney is predicted to be minimal, horizontal transport should be controlled by the regional groundwater flow. Analytic solutions treating only advective transport indicate 1 to 2 km of tritium movement (95% confidence interval 0.7--2.5 km) within 5 years after test-related pressure-temperature transients have dissipated. This point lies at the axis of a potentiometric surface trough along the west edge of Area 20, Nevada Test Site. Within 25 years, movement is predicted to extend to 3 km (95% confidence interval 2--5 km) approximately to the intersection of the trough and the Nevada Test Site boundary. Considering the effects of radioactive decay, but not dispersion, plume concentration would fall below Safe Drinking Water Act standards by 204 years, at a predicted distance of 11 km (95% confidence interval 7--31 km). This point is located in the eastern portion of the Timber Mountain Caldera moat within the Nellis Air Force Range (military bombing range).

  19. Final environmental impact statement for the Nevada Test Site and off-site locations in the state of Nevada: Mitigation action plan

    SciTech Connect

    1997-02-01

    The DOE Notice of Availability for this environmental impact statement was published in the Federal Register on Friday, October 18, 1996 (61 FR 54437). The final environmental impact statement identifies potential adverse effects resulting from the four use alternatives evaluated and discusses measures that DOE considered for the mitigation of these potential adverse effects. The Secretary of Energy signed the Record of Decision on the management and operation of the Nevada Test Site and other DOE sites in the state of Nevada on December 9, 1996. These decisions will result in the continuation of the multipurpose, multi-program use of the Nevada Test Site, under which DOE will pursue a further diversification of interagency, private industry, and public-education uses while meeting its Defense Program, Waste Management, and Environmental Restoration mission requirements at the Nevada Test Site and other Nevada sites, including the Tonopah Test Range, the Project Shoal Site, the Central Nevada Test Area, and on the Nellis Air Force Range Complex. The Record of Decision also identifies specific mitigation actions beyond the routine day-to-day physical and administrative controls needed for implementation of the decisions. These specific mitigation actions are focused on the transportation of waste and on groundwater availability. This Mitigation Action Plan elaborates on these mitigation commitments.

  20. Official Portrait of Astronaut Edwin E. Aldrin

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1967-01-01

    This is the official NASA portrait of astronaut Edwin E. (Buzz) Aldrin. Prior to joining NASA, Aldrin flew 66 combat missions in F-86s while on duty in Korea. At Nellis Air Force Base, Nevada, he served as an aerial gunnery instructor. Following his assignment as aide to the dean of faculty at the Air Force Academy, Aldrin flew F-100s as a flight commander at Bitburg, Germany. Aldrin was one of the third group of astronauts named by NASA in October 1963 and has logged 289 hours and 53 minutes in space, of which, 7 hours and 52 minutes were spent in Extra Vehicular Activity (EVA). On November 11, 1966, he launched into space aboard the Gemini 12 spacecraft on a 4-day flight, which brought the Gemini program to a successful close. During that mission, Aldrin established a new record for EVA, spending 5-1/2 hours outside the spacecraft. July 16-24, 1969, Aldrin served as lunar module pilot for Apollo 11, the first manned lunar landing mission. Aldrin followed Neil Armstrong onto the lunar surface on July 20, 1969, completing a 2-hour and 15 minute lunar EVA. Aldrin resigned from NASA in July 1971.

  1. Equation of state measurements of shocked ammonia gas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lang, John; Dattelbaum, Dana; Goodwin, Peter; Coe, Joshua; Garcia, Daniel

    2015-03-01

    Ammonia is one of the constituents of the fluid product mixture arising from explosives detonation. Few shock compression experiments have been performed on NH3 in either the gas or condensed phase. Earlier work by Dick (J. Chem. Phys. 74, 4053) and Mitchell, et al. (J. Chem. Phys. 76, 6273) examined the shock compressibility of liquid NH3. Nellis, et al. (Science 240, 781) also performed experiments on liquid mixtures of NH3 with water and isopropanol (a ``synthetic Uranus'') to develop an equation of state (EOS) for the outer planets. Here, we present the results from a series of gas gun-driven plate impact experiments on NH3 gas at elevated initial density. PDV and VISAR optical diagnostics were used to directly measure shock velocities and particle velocities in the shocked gas, used in quantifying the principal Hugoniot locus, and pressure and density of the shocked gas. Emission was measured using both 5-color pyrometry and streak spectroscopy, from which we estimated the temperature of the shocked gas. The pressure and density measurements were in good agreement with results from simulations using the SESAME EOS for NH3, however the measured temperatures were found to be consistently lower than in the simulations, and lower than shocked atomic gas species such as Ar.

  2. Monitoring of a Southern Giant Petrel Macronectes giganteus population on the Frazier Islands, Wilkes Land, Antarctica

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Creuwels, J.C.S.; Stark, J.S.; Woehler, Eric J.; Van Franeker, J. A.; Ribic, C.A.

    2005-01-01

    Since 1956, Southern Giant Petrels on the Frazier Islands, East Antarctica, have been counted with different census techniques, sometimes varying within seasons and among islands, which hindered analysis of the data. Protective measures for the islands from 1986 onwards have increased the need for reliable long-term census data, but reduced the ways to collect these data. Published and unpublished data were re-examined, and population trends were reconstructed based on two relatively standardised techniques: the number of active chicks (AC) and the number of apparently occupied nests (AON) around hatching. AC-values from Nelly Island from 1959 to 1998 indicate substantial periodic fluctuations, but no consistent long-term change. Since the late 1970s, AC-values on the other two islands and AON-values suggest that the breeding population may have grown by 35%. This recent growth, however, is within the extent of periodic fluctuations observed in Southern Giant Petrel population that is stable over the long term. ?? Springer-Verlag 2004.

  3. Resource Conservation and Recovery Act Industrial Sites quality assurance project plan: Nevada Test Site, Nevada

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-06-01

    This quality assurance project plan (QAPjP) describes the measures that shall be taken to ensure that the environmental data collected during characterization and closure activities of Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) Industrial Sites at the Nevada Test Site (NTS) are meaningful, valid, defensible, and can be used to achieve project objectives. These activities are conducted by the US Department of Energy Nevada Operations Office (DOE/NV) under the Nevada Environmental Restoration (ER) Project. The Nevada ER Project consists of environmental restoration activities on the NTS, Tonopah Test Range, Nellis Air Force Range, and eight sites in five other states. The RCRA Industrial Sites subproject constitutes a component of the Nevada ER Project. Currently, this QAPjP is limited to the seven RCRA Industrial Sites identified within this document that are to be closed under an interim status and pertains to all field-investigation, analytical-laboratory, and data-review activities in support of these closures. The information presented here supplements the RCRA Industrial Sites Project Management Plan and is to be used in conjunction with the site-specific subproject sampling and analysis plans.

  4. Roll Utilization of an F-100A Airplane During Service Operational Flying

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Matranga, Gene J.

    1959-01-01

    As a means of evaluating the roll utilization of a fighter airplane capable of supersonic speeds, an instrumented North American F-100A fighter airplane was flown by U.S. Air Force pilots at Nellis Air Force Base, NV, during 20 hours of service operational flying. Mach numbers up to 1.22 and altitudes up to 50,000 feet were realized in this investigation. Results of the study showed that except for high g barrel rolls performed as evasive maneuvers and rolls performed in acrobatic flying, rolling was utilized primarily as a means of changing heading. Acrobatic and air combat maneuvering produced the largest bank angles (1,200 deg), roll velocities (3.3 radians/sec), rolling accelerations (8 radians/sq sec) and sideslip angles (10.8 deg). Full aileron deflections were utilized on numerous occasions. Although high rolling velocities and accelerations also were experienced during several air-to-air gunnery missions, generally, air-to-air gunnery and air-to-ground gunnery and bombing required only two-thirds of maximum aileron deflection. The air-to-air gunnery and air combat maneuvers initiated from supersonic speeds utilized up to two-thirds aileron deflection and bank angles of less than 18 deg and resulted in rolling velocities and accelerations of 2 radians per second and 4.6 radians/sq sec, respectively. Rolling maneuvers were often initiated from high levels of normal acceleration, but from levels of negative normal acceleration only once.

  5. Quantitative EPMA Compositional Mapping of NWA 2995: Characterization, and Petrologic Interpretation of Mafic Clasts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Carpenter, P. K.; Hahn, T. M.; Korotev, R. L.; Ziegler, R. A.; Jolliff, B. L.

    2017-01-01

    We present the first fully quantitative compositional maps of lunar meteorite NWA 2995 using electron microprobe stage mapping, and compare selected clast mineralogy and chemistry. NWA 2995 is a feldspathic fragmental breccia containing numerous highland fine grained lithologies, including anorthosite, norite, olivine basalt, subophitic basalt, gabbro, KREEP-like basalt, granulitic and glassy impact melts, coarse-grained mineral fragments, Fe-Ni metal, and glassy matrix [1]. Chips of NWA 2995, representing these diverse materials, were analyzed by INAA and fused-bead electron-probe microanalysis (EPMA); comparison of analytical data suggests grouping of lunar meteorites NWA 2995, 2996, 3190, 4503, 5151, and 5152. The mean composition of NWA 2995 corresponds to a 2:1 mixture of feldspathic and mare material, with approximately 5% KREEP component [2]. Clast mineral chemistry and petrologic interpretation of paired stone NWA 2996 has been reported by Mercer et al. [3], and Gross et al. [4]. This study combines advances in quantitative EPMA compositional mapping and data analysis, as applied to selected mafic clasts in a polished section of NWA 2995, to investigate the origin of mafic lithic components and to demonstrate a procedural framework for petrologic analysis.

  6. Seventh Foray - Whitlockite-rich lithologies, a diopside-bearing troctolitic anorthosite, ferroan anorthosites, and KREEP

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Warren, P. H.; Taylor, G. J.; Keil, K.; Kallemeyn, G. W.; Shirley, D. N.; Wasson, J. T.

    1983-01-01

    Seventeen nonmare samples, most of them pristine, are characterized, and implications of the new data are discussed. Five pristine samples are from Apollo 14, near the center of the KREEP-rich zone in the moon's western hemisphere. Three of them are alkali anorthosites rich in Ca-phosphate (whitlockite), which apparently crystallized from magmas with REE contents roughly 6 x those of high-K KREEP. The alkali anorthosites probably formed from Mg-rich magmas that assimilated large amounts of urKREEP, but some might have formed by metasomatism of ferroan anorthosite by urKREEP. The gabbronorite/norite classification scheme is not well suited to western hemisphere lithologies, probably due mainly to the overriding effects of longitude-petrochemistry correlations. A diopside-bearing Mg-rich lithology indicates that a low degree of melting was not a prerequisite for producing gabbroic (high-Ca pyroxene-rich) Mg-rich magmas, and suggests that some source regions of Mg-rich magmas were relatively Ca-rich. Several pristine KREEP fragments from Apollo 15 station 2 are texturally and compositionally much like other pristine KREEP, and thus reinforce the evidence that KREEP is highly uniform. The pristine anorthosites, on the other hand, demonstrate further that lunar anorthosites are diverse.

  7. Mineral chemistry of isotropic gabbros from the Manamedu Ophiolite Complex, Cauvery Suture Zone, southern India: Evidence for neoproterozoic suprasubduction zone tectonics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yellappa, T.; Tsunogae, T.; Chetty, T. R. K.; Santosh, M.

    2016-11-01

    The dismembered units of the Neoproterozoic Manamedu Ophiolite Complex (MOC) in the Cauvery Suture Zone, southern India comprises a well preserved ophiolitic sequence of ultramafic cumulates of altered dunites, pyroxenites, mafic cumulates of gabbros, gabbro-norites and anorthosites in association with plagiogranites, isotropic gabbros, metadolerites, metabasalts/amphibolites and thin layers of ferruginous chert bands. The isotropic gabbros occur as intrusions in association with gabbroic anorthosites, plagiogranite and metabasalts/amphibolites. The gabbros are medium to fine grained with euhedral to subhedral orthopyroxenes, clinopyroxenes and subhedral plagioclase, together with rare amphiboles. Mineral chemistry of isotropic gabbros reveal that the clinopyroxenes are diopsidic to augitic in composition within the compositional ranges of En(42-59), Fs(5-12), Wo(31-50). They are Ca-rich and Na poor (Na2O < 0.77 wt%) characterized by high-Mg (Mg# 79-86) and low-Ti (TiO2 < 0.35 wt%) contents. The tectonic discrimination plots of clinopyroxene data indicate island arc signature of the source magma. Our study further confirms the suprasubduction zone origin of the Manamedu ophiolitic suite, associated with the subduction-collision history of the Neoproterozoic Mozambique ocean during the assembly of Gondwana supercontinent.

  8. Peak-ring structure and kinematics from a multi-disciplinary study of the Schrödinger impact basin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kring, David A.; Kramer, Georgiana Y.; Collins, Gareth S.; Potter, Ross W. K.; Chandnani, Mitali

    2016-10-01

    The Schrödinger basin on the lunar farside is ~320 km in diameter and the best-preserved peak-ring basin of its size in the Earth-Moon system. Here we present spectral and photogeologic analyses of data from the Moon Mineralogy Mapper instrument on the Chandrayaan-1 spacecraft and the Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter Camera (LROC) on the LRO spacecraft, which indicates the peak ring is composed of anorthositic, noritic and troctolitic lithologies that were juxtaposed by several cross-cutting faults during peak-ring formation. Hydrocode simulations indicate the lithologies were uplifted from depths up to 30 km, representing the crust of the lunar farside. Through combining geological and remote-sensing observations with numerical modelling, we show that a Displaced Structural Uplift model is best for peak rings, including that in the K-T Chicxulub impact crater on Earth. These results may help guide sample selection in lunar sample return missions that are being studied for the multi-agency International Space Exploration Coordination Group.

  9. Ammonium exchange in leakage waters of waste dumps using natural zeolite from the Krapina region, Croatia.

    PubMed

    Farkas, A; Rozić, M; Barbarić-Mikocević, Z

    2005-01-14

    The paper presents the results of investigating the treatment of leakage waters from waste dumps using activated carbon and natural zeolite clinoptilolite, known as a very selective and efficient cation exchanger for ammonium ions. The results are presented of chemical and physical analyses of leakage waters characterized by a high content of ammonium (820 mg L(-1)) and organic pollutants (1033 mg L(-1) C). Physical and chemical characteristics of zeolite and the exchange of ammonium ions in model and real solutions were determined in laboratory trials. Treatment of leakage water with 0.04-2.5% (w/w) activated carbon (Norit 0.8 Supra) led to a reduction of total organic carbon in leakage water from 1033 to 510 mg L(-1). Pretreatment of leakage water with activated carbon did not improve the exchange of ammonium ions on zeolite. Without pretreatment of leakage water, the exchange of ammonium ions amounted to 4.2 mg NH4+/g zeolite. Addition of activated carbon, regardless of its mass, increased the exchange of ammonium ions to only 5.7 mg NH4+/g zeolite. In the model solution of an equal concentration of ammonium as the real solution, 17.70 mg NH4+/g zeolite was exchanged. Organic pollutants that were not eliminated by activated carbon (most probably components of natural origin) adsorbed to zeolite and prevented the exchange of NH4+ ions, which was also reduced due to the presence of K+ and Ca2+ ions.

  10. Ion microprobe mass analysis of plagioclase from 'non-mare' lunar samples

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Meyer, C., Jr.; Anderson, D. H.; Bradley, J. G.

    1974-01-01

    The ion microprobe was used to measure the composition and distribution of trace elements in lunar plagioclase, and these analyses are used as criteria in determining the possible origins of some nonmare lunar samples. The Apollo 16 samples with metaclastic texture and high-bulk trace-element contents contain plagioclase clasts with extremely low trace-element contents. These plagioclase inclusions represent unequilibrated relicts of anorthositic, noritic, or troctolitic rocks that have been intermixed as a rock flour into the KREEP-rich matrix of these samples. All of the plagioclase-rich inclusions which were analyzed in the KREEP-rich Apollo 14 breccias were found to be rich in trace elements. This does not seem to be consistent with the interpretation that the Apollo 14 samples represent a pre-Imbrium regolith, because such an ancient regolith should have contained many plagioclase clasts with low trace-element contents more typical of plagioclase from the pre-Imbrium crust. Ion-microprobe analyses for Ba and Sr in large plagioclase phenocrysts in 14310 and 68415 are consistent with the bulk compositions of these rocks and with the known distribution coefficients for these elements. The distribution coefficient for Li (basaltic liquid/plagioclase) was measured to be about 2.

  11. Anorthositic oceanic crust in the Archean Earth

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jagoutz, E.; Dawson, J. B.; Hoernes, S.; Spettel, B.; Waenke, H.

    1985-01-01

    Ultrapure minerals separated from eclogite inclusions in kimberlites were analyzed for Sm, Nd, Sr, and oxygen isotopes and for major and trace elements. Clinopyroxene (cpx) and garnet (gnt) are the only primary mineral phases in these rocks, and mineral phases and their alteration products. The WR sub calc. is the reconstructed bulk composition excluding all the contamination influences. Two groups of eclogites: are distinguished: (1) type A Noritic-anorthositic eclogites; and (2) type B Ti-ferrogabbroic eclogites. The oxygen isotopes are primary mantle-derived features of these rocks and are not caused by posteruption processes, as they were measured on unaltered, clean mineral separates and show a correlation with REE pattern and Sr and Nd isotopes. It is suggested that the variation of the oxygen isotopes are caused by crustal-level fluid-rock interaction at relatively low temperature. It is shown that oxygen isotopes variation in MORB basalts caused by the hydrothermal system are in the same range as the observed oxygen isotope variation in eclogites. A model to explain the new set of data is proposed. It is thought that some of these eclogites might be emplaced into the upper lithosphere or lower crust at the time corresponding to their internal isochron age. The calculated WR composition was used to estimate model ages for these rocks.

  12. JV Task 126 - Mercury Control Technologies for Electric Utilities Burning Bituminous Coal

    SciTech Connect

    Jason Laumb; John Kay; Michael Jones; Brandon Pavlish; Nicholas Lentz; Donald McCollor; Kevin Galbreath

    2009-03-29

    The EERC developed an applied research consortium project to test cost-effective mercury (Hg) control technologies for utilities burning bituminous coals. The project goal was to test innovative Hg control technologies that have the potential to reduce Hg emissions from bituminous coal-fired power plants by {ge}90% at costs of one-half to three-quarters of current estimates for activated carbon injection (ACI). Hg control technology evaluations were performed using the EERC's combustion test facility (CTF). The CTF was fired on pulverized bituminous coals at 550,000 Btu/hr (580 MJ/hr). The CTF was configured with the following air pollution control devices (APCDs): selective catalytic reduction (SCR) unit, electrostatic precipitator (ESP), and wet flue gas desulfurization system (WFDS). The Hg control technologies investigated as part of this project included ACI (three Norit Americas, Inc., and eleven Envergex sorbents), elemental mercury (Hg{sup 0}) oxidation catalysts (i.e., the noble metals in Hitachi Zosen, Cormetech, and Hitachi SCR catalysts), sorbent enhancement additives (SEAs) (a proprietary EERC additive, trona, and limestone), and blending with a Powder River Basin (PRB) subbituminous coal. These Hg control technologies were evaluated separately, and many were also tested in combination.

  13. Mineralogy and carbothermal reduction behaviour of vanadium-bearing titaniferous magnetite ore in Eastern India

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Samanta, Saikat; Goswami, Manik Chandra; Baidya, Tapan Kumar; Mukherjee, Siddhartha; Dey, Rajib

    2013-10-01

    Vanadium-bearing titaniferous magnetite bands hosted by Precambrian gabbro-norite-anorthositic rocks or their metamorphic equivalents were discovered in some parts of Eastern Indian Shield, containing 48%-49% Fe (total), 10%-25% TiO2, and 0.3%-2.20% V2O5 by mass. Mineralogical and petrological study, composition, and characterization of the vanadium-bearing titaniferous magnetite ore were carried out by scanning electron microscopy-energy dispersive X-ray (SEM-EDX), wave length X-ray florescence (WDXRF), inductively coupled plasma-atomic emission spectroscopy (ICP-AES), X-ray diffraction (XRD), etc. Chemical beneficiation for valuable metals, such as Fe, Ti, and V, was performed by reduction roasting. The direct and indirect reduction were investigated by mixing the lump ore with solid activated charcoal in a closed reactor and purging the reducing gas mixture in standard reducibility index apparatus at different temperatures and time intervals. The reduction roasting parameters were optimized. Finally, the reduced samples were crushed and upgraded by magnetic separation. The results show that, the maximum mass fractions of magnetic and nonmagnetic parts achieved are 69.36% and 30.64%, respectively, which contain 10.6% TiO2 and 0.84% V2O5 in the magnetic part and 36.5% TiO2 and 0.22% V2O5 in the nonmagnetic part.

  14. Geochronology and petrogenesis of the western highlands alkali suite: Radiogenic isotopic evidence from Apollo 14

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Snyder, Gregory A.; Taylor, Lawrence A.; Halliday, Alex N.

    1993-01-01

    Several rocks of alkalic affinity, from the western highlands of the Moon, have been analyzed for their Nd and Sr isotopic compositions. One sample yields a Sm-Nd mineral isochron of 4110 = 41 Ma. This age, in conjunction with U-Pb zircon ages on two other alkalic rocks from the Apollo 14 landing site suggests a distinct western highlands 'event' which was approximately 100 Ma in duration. Since the last dregs of the lunar magma ocean likely crystallized prior to 4.3 Ga, this alkalic 'event' may have included the re-melting of evolved plutons or the remobilization of urKREEP trapped liquid from upper mantle cumulates. Alkalic lithologies such as granites and felsites have been known from the Moon since the earliest days of the Apollo lunar sample returns. However, not until 1977 were alkali-rich rocks recognized from typical highlands suites such as ferroan anorthosites (FAN) and norites and Mg-suite rocks. In the intervening years, several other alkali suite samples have been discovered and characterized, mostly through labor-intesive breccia pull-apart studies of clasts and analyses of coarse-fine fractions of soils. We will speculate on the origins of this suite of lunar highlands rocks.

  15. Select metal adsorption by activated carbon made from peanut shells.

    PubMed

    Wilson, Kermit; Yang, Hong; Seo, Chung W; Marshall, Wayne E

    2006-12-01

    Agricultural by-products, such as peanut shells, contribute large quantities of lignocellulosic waste to the environment each growing season; but few, if any, value-added uses exist for their disposal. The objective of this study was to convert peanut shells to activated carbons for use in adsorption of select metal ions, namely, cadmium (Cd2+), copper (Cu2+), lead (Pb2+), nickel (Ni2+) and zinc (Zn2+). Milled peanut shells were pyrolyzed in an inert atmosphere of nitrogen gas, and then activated with steam at different activation times. Following pyrolysis and activation, the carbons underwent air oxidation. The prepared carbons were evaluated either for adsorption efficiency or adsorption capacity; and these parameters were compared to the same parameters obtained from three commercial carbons, namely, DARCO 12x20, NORIT C GRAN and MINOTAUR. One of the peanut shell-based carbons had metal ion adsorption efficiencies greater than two of the three commercial carbons but somewhat less than but close to Minotaur. This study demonstrates that peanut shells can serve as a source for activated carbons with metal ion-removing potential and may serve as a replacement for coal-based commercial carbons in applications that warrant their use.

  16. Impedance spectroscopy study of a catechol-modified activated carbon electrode as active material in electrochemical capacitor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cougnon, C.; Lebègue, E.; Pognon, G.

    2015-01-01

    Modified activated carbon (Norit S-50) electrodes with electrochemical double layer (EDL) capacitance and redox capacitance contributions to the electric charge storage were tested in 1 M H2SO4 to quantify the benefit and the limitation of the surface redox reactions on the electrochemical performances of the resulting pseudo-capacitive materials. The electrochemical performances of an electrochemically anodized carbon electrode and a catechol-modified carbon electrode, which make use both EDL capacitance of the porous structure of the carbon and redox capacitance, were compared to the performances obtained for the pristine carbon. Nitrogen gas adsorption measurements have been used for studying the impact of the grafting on the BET surface area, pore size distribution, pore volume and average pore diameter. The electrochemical behavior of carbon materials was studied by cyclic voltammetry and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS). The EIS data were discussed by using a complex capacitance model that allows defining the characteristic time constant, the global capacitance and the frequency at which the maximum charge stored is reached. The EIS measurements were achieved at different dc potential values where a redox activity occurs and the evolution of the capacitance and the capacitive relaxation time with the electrode potential are presented. Realistic galvanostatic charge/discharge measurements performed at different current rates corroborate the results obtained by impedance.

  17. Regolith in the South Pole-Aitken Basin is Mainly Indigenous Material

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Haskin, L. A.; Gillis, J. J.; Jolliff, B. L.; Korotev, R. L.

    2003-01-01

    This abstract is concerned with the probability that a mission to a site within the South Pole-Aitken basin (SPA) would yield a meaningful sample of typical SPA floor material. The probability seems favorable, barring a highly atypical landing site, because the chemical composition of the SPA interior, as determined remotely from orbit, is different from that of the surrounding lunar surface. How representative would the sample be? To what extent have lateral transport or later events compromised the original chemical and mineralogical composition of the floor material? Where or in what kind of deposit should the mission land to provide the best example? We address these questions from the point of view of modeling of impact ejecta deposits. SPA is the largest lunar impact basin. Shallow for its diameter, it has a subdued gravity signature, a lower albedo, and a more Th- and Ferich interior than the surrounding highlands (the Feldspathic Highlands Terrane, FHT). Its floor may represent noritic or perhaps (but less abundant) gabbroic lower crust of the FHT, the upper crust stripped away by the basin-forming impact, possibly an oblique one.

  18. Composition of Apollo 17 core 76001

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Korotev, Randy L.; Bishop, Kaylynn M.

    1993-01-01

    Core 76001 is a single drive tube containing a column of regolith taken at the base of the North Massif, station 6, Apollo 17. The core material is believed to have accumulated through slow downslope mass wasting from the massif. As a consequence, the core soil is mature throughout its length. Results of INAA for samples taken every half centimeter along the length of the core indicate that there is only minor systematic compositional variation with depth. Concentrations of elements primarily associated with mare basalt (Sc, Fe) and noritic impact melt breccia (Sm) decrease slightly with depth, particularly between 20 cm and the bottom of the core at 32 cm depth. This is consistent with petrographic studies that indicate a greater proportion of basalt and melt breccia in the top part of the core. However, Sm/Sc and La/Sm ratios are remarkably constant with depth, indicating no variation in the ratio of mare material to Sm-rich highlands material with depth. Other than these subtle changes, there is no compositional evidence for the two stratigraphic units (0-20 cm and 20-32 cm) defined on the basis of modal petrography, although all samples with anomalously high Ni concentrations (Fe-Ni metal nuggets) occur above 20 cm depth.

  19. Sm-Nd Isotopic Systematics of Troctolite 76335

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Edmunson, J.; Nyquist, L. E.; Borg, L. E.

    2007-01-01

    A study of the Sm-Nd isotopic systematics of lunar Mg-suite troctolite 76335 was undertaken to further establish the early chronology of lunar magmatism. Because the Rb-Sr isotopic systematics of similar sample 76535 yielded an age of 4570 +/- 70 Ma [2, lambda = 1.402 x 10(exp -11)], 76335 was expected to yield an old age. In contrast, the Sm-Nd and K-Ar ages of 76535 indicate that the sample is approximately 4260 Ma old, one of the youngest ages obtained for a Mg-suite rock. This study establishes the age of 76335 and discusses the constraints placed on its petrogenesis by its Sm-Nd isotope systematics. The Sm-Nd isotopic system of lunar Mg-suite troctolite 76335 indicates an age of 4278 +/- 60 Ma with an initial epsilon (sup 143)(sub Nd) value of 0.06 +/- 0.39. These values are consistent with the Sm-Nd isotopic systematics of similar sample 76535. Thus, it appears that a robust Sm-Nd age can be determined from a highly brecciated lunar sample. The Sm-Nd isotopic systematics of troctolites 76335 and 76535 appear to be different from those dominating the Mg-suite norites and KREEP basalts. Further analysis of the Mg-suite must be completed to reveal the isotopic relationships of these early lunar rocks.

  20. Capture of formaldehyde by adsorption on nanoporous materials.

    PubMed

    Bellat, Jean-Pierre; Bezverkhyy, Igor; Weber, Guy; Royer, Sébastien; Averlant, Remy; Giraudon, Jean-Marc; Lamonier, Jean-François

    2015-12-30

    The aim of this work is to assess the capability of a series of nanoporous materials to capture gaseous formaldehyde by adsorption in order to develop air treatment process and gas detection in workspaces or housings. Adsorption-desorption isotherms have been accurately measured at room temperature by TGA under very low pressure (p<2 hPa) on various adsorbents, such as zeolites, mesoporous silica (SBA15), activated carbon (AC NORIT RB3) and metal organic framework (MOF, Ga-MIL-53), exhibiting a wide range of pore sizes and surface properties. Results reveal that the NaX, NaY and CuX faujasite (FAU) zeolites are materials which show strong adsorption capacity and high affinity toward formaldehyde. In addition, these materials can be completely regenerated by heating at 200°C under vacuum. These cationic zeolites are therefore promising candidates as adsorbents for the design of air depollution process or gas sensing applications. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Modeling the adsorption of mixed gases based on pure gas adsorption properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tzabar, N.; Holland, H. J.; Vermeer, C. H.; ter Brake, H. J. M.

    2015-12-01

    Sorption-based Joule-Thomson (JT) cryocoolers usually operate with pure gases. A sorption-based compressor has many benefits; however, it is limited by the pressure ratios it can provide. Using a mixed-refrigerant (MR) instead of a pure refrigerant in JT cryocoolers allows working at much lower pressure ratios. Therefore, it is attractive using MRs in sorption- based cryocoolers in order to reduce one of its main limitations. The adsorption of mixed gases is usually investigated under steady-state conditions, mainly for storage and separation processes. However, the process in a sorption compressor goes through various temperatures, pressures and adsorption concentrations; therefore, it differs from the common mixed gases adsorption applications. In order to simulate the sorption process in a compressor a numerical analysis for mixed gases is developed, based on pure gas adsorption characteristics. The pure gas adsorption properties have been measured for four gases (nitrogen, methane, ethane, and propane) with Norit-RB2 activated carbon. A single adsorption model is desired to describe the adsorption of all four gases. This model is further developed to a mixed-gas adsorption model. In future work more adsorbents will be tested using these four gases and the adsorption model will be verified against experimental results of mixed-gas adsorption measurements.

  2. A survey of lunar rock types and comparison of the crusts of earth and moon

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wood, J. A.

    1977-01-01

    The principal known types of lunar rocks are briefly reviewed, and their chemical relationships discussed. In the suite of low-KREEP highland rocks, Fe/(Fe + Mg) in the normative mafic minerals increases and the albite content of normative plagio-clase decreases as the total amount of normative plagioclase increases, the opposite of the trend predicted by the Bowen reaction principle. The distribution of compositions of rocks from terrestrial layered mafic intrusives is substantially different: here the analyses fall in several discrete clusters (anorthositic rocks, norites, granophyres and ferrogabbros, ultramafics), and the chemical trends noted above are not reproduced. It is suggested that the observed trends in lunar highland rocks could be produced by crystal fractionation in a deep global surface magma system if (1) plagiociase tended to float, upon crystallization, and (2) the magma was kept agitated and well mixed (probably by thermal convection) until crystallization was far advanced and relatively little residual liquid was left. After the crustal system solidified, but before extensive cooling had developed a thick, strong lithosphere, mantle convection was able to draw portions of the lunar anorthositic crust down into the mantle.

  3. Adsorption of ciprofloxacin on surface-modified carbon materials.

    PubMed

    Carabineiro, S A C; Thavorn-Amornsri, T; Pereira, M F R; Figueiredo, J L

    2011-10-01

    The adsorption capacity of ciprofloxacin (CPX) was determined on three types of carbon-based materials: activated carbon (commercial sample), carbon nanotubes (commercial multi-walled carbon nanotubes) and carbon xerogel (prepared by the resorcinol/formaldehyde approach at pH 6.0). These materials were used as received/prepared and functionalised through oxidation with nitric acid. The oxidised materials were then heat treated under inert atmosphere (N2) at different temperatures (between 350 and 900°C). The obtained samples were characterised by adsorption of N2 at -196 °C, determination of the point of zero charge and by temperature programmed desorption. High adsorption capacities ranging from approximately 60 to 300 mgCPxgC(-1) were obtained (for oxidised carbon xerogel, and oxidised thermally treated activated carbon Norit ROX 8.0, respectively). In general, it was found that the nitric acid treatment of samples has a detrimental effect in adsorption capacity, whereas thermal treatments, especially at 900 °C after oxidation, enhance adsorption performance. This is due to the positive effect of the surface basicity. The kinetic curves obtained were fitted using 1st or 2nd order models, and the Langmuir and Freundlich models were used to describe the equilibrium isotherms obtained. The 2nd order and the Langmuir models, respectively, were shown to present the best fittings. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Peak-ring structure and kinematics from a multi-disciplinary study of the Schrödinger impact basin.

    PubMed

    Kring, David A; Kramer, Georgiana Y; Collins, Gareth S; Potter, Ross W K; Chandnani, Mitali

    2016-10-20

    The Schrödinger basin on the lunar farside is ∼320 km in diameter and the best-preserved peak-ring basin of its size in the Earth-Moon system. Here we present spectral and photogeologic analyses of data from the Moon Mineralogy Mapper instrument on the Chandrayaan-1 spacecraft and the Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter Camera (LROC) on the LRO spacecraft, which indicates the peak ring is composed of anorthositic, noritic and troctolitic lithologies that were juxtaposed by several cross-cutting faults during peak-ring formation. Hydrocode simulations indicate the lithologies were uplifted from depths up to 30 km, representing the crust of the lunar farside. Through combining geological and remote-sensing observations with numerical modelling, we show that a Displaced Structural Uplift model is best for peak rings, including that in the K-T Chicxulub impact crater on Earth. These results may help guide sample selection in lunar sample return missions that are being studied for the multi-agency International Space Exploration Coordination Group.

  5. Remote Sensing and Geologic Studies of the Schiller-Schickard Region of the Moon

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Blewett, David T.; Hawke, B. Ray; Lucey, Paul G.; Taylor, G. Jeffrey; Jaumann, Ralf; Spudis, Paul D.

    1995-01-01

    Near-infrared reflectance spectra, multispectral images, and photogeologic data for the Schiller-Schickard (SS) region were obtained and analyzed in order to determine the composition and origin of a variety of geologic units. These include light plains deposits, Orientale-related deposits, mare units, and dark-haloed impact craters (DHCs). Spectral data indicate that the pre-Orientale highland surface was dominated by noritic anorthosite. Near-IR spectra show that DHCs in the region have excavated ancient (greater than 3.8 Ga) mare basalts from beneath highland-bearing material emplaced by the Orientale impact. Ancient mare basalts were widespread in the SS region prior to the Orientale event, and their distribution appears to have been controlled by the presence of several old impact basins, including the Schiller-Zucchius basin and a basin previously unrecognized. Both near-IR spectra and multispectral images indicate that light plains and other Orientale-related units in the SS region contain major amounts of local, pre-Orientale mare basalt. The amounts of local material in these deposits approach, but seldom exceed, the maximum values predicted by the local mixing hypothesis of Oberbeck and co-workers.

  6. Probing the Depths of Space Weathering: A Cross-sectional View of Lunar Rock 76015

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Noble, Sarah K.; Keller, L. P.; Stroud, Rhonda

    2007-01-01

    The term "space weathering" refers to the cumulative effects of several processes operating at the surface of any solar system body not protected by a thick atmosphere. These processes include cosmic and solar ray irradiation, solar wind implantation and sputtering, as well as melting and vaporization due to micrometeorite bombardment. Space weathering discussions have generally centered around soils but exposed rocks will also incur the effects of weathering. Rocks have much longer surface lifetimes than an individual soil grain and thus record a longer history of exposure. By studying the weathering products which have built up on a rock surface, we can gain a deeper perspective on the weathering process and better assess the relative importance of various weathering components. The weathered coating, or patina, of the lunar rock 76015 has been previously studied using SEM and TEM. It is a noritic breccia with both "glazed" (smooth glassy) and "classic" (microcratered and pancake-bearing) patina coatings. Previous TEM work on 76015 relied on ultramicrotomy to prepare cross sections of the patina coating, but these sections were limited by the "chatter" and loss of material in these brittle samples. Here we have used a focused ion beam (FIB) instrument to prepare cross sections in which the delicate stratigraphy of the patina coating is beautifully preserved.

  7. Peak-ring structure and kinematics from a multi-disciplinary study of the Schrödinger impact basin

    PubMed Central

    Kring, David A.; Kramer, Georgiana Y.; Collins, Gareth S.; Potter, Ross W. K.; Chandnani, Mitali

    2016-01-01

    The Schrödinger basin on the lunar farside is ∼320 km in diameter and the best-preserved peak-ring basin of its size in the Earth–Moon system. Here we present spectral and photogeologic analyses of data from the Moon Mineralogy Mapper instrument on the Chandrayaan-1 spacecraft and the Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter Camera (LROC) on the LRO spacecraft, which indicates the peak ring is composed of anorthositic, noritic and troctolitic lithologies that were juxtaposed by several cross-cutting faults during peak-ring formation. Hydrocode simulations indicate the lithologies were uplifted from depths up to 30 km, representing the crust of the lunar farside. Through combining geological and remote-sensing observations with numerical modelling, we show that a Displaced Structural Uplift model is best for peak rings, including that in the K–T Chicxulub impact crater on Earth. These results may help guide sample selection in lunar sample return missions that are being studied for the multi-agency International Space Exploration Coordination Group. PMID:27762265

  8. Regolith in the South Pole-Aitken Basin is Mainly Indigenous Material

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Haskin, L. A.; Gillis, J. J.; Jolliff, B. L.; Korotev, R. L.

    2003-01-01

    This abstract is concerned with the probability that a mission to a site within the South Pole-Aitken basin (SPA) would yield a meaningful sample of typical SPA floor material. The probability seems favorable, barring a highly atypical landing site, because the chemical composition of the SPA interior, as determined remotely from orbit, is different from that of the surrounding lunar surface. How representative would the sample be? To what extent have lateral transport or later events compromised the original chemical and mineralogical composition of the floor material? Where or in what kind of deposit should the mission land to provide the best example? We address these questions from the point of view of modeling of impact ejecta deposits. SPA is the largest lunar impact basin. Shallow for its diameter, it has a subdued gravity signature, a lower albedo, and a more Th- and Ferich interior than the surrounding highlands (the Feldspathic Highlands Terrane, FHT). Its floor may represent noritic or perhaps (but less abundant) gabbroic lower crust of the FHT, the upper crust stripped away by the basin-forming impact, possibly an oblique one.

  9. Magma mixing and mingling on Deer, Niblack, and Etolin Islands, southeastern Alaska

    SciTech Connect

    Lindline, J.; Crawford, W.A.; Crawford, M.L. . Geology Dept.)

    1993-03-01

    Intimately associated 20 m.a. hornblende-biotite granites and olivine gabbro norites occur on Etolin, Niblack and Deer Islands, southwest of Wrangell, Alaska. The field relationships suggest multiple injections of mafic and felsic phases within this igneous complex. Ellipsoidal to angular mafic magmatic enclaves occur in the granite, ranging in number from sparse to tightly packed swarms. Slightly curved decimeter sized rafts of fine grained mafic enclaves comprise a frozen fountain of mafic magma in the felsic host. Course-grained felsic dikes containing gabbroic zenoliths and ubiquitous fine-grained mafic pillows exhibiting sharp and sutured chilled borders intrude the layered gabbro. Synplutonic northeast trending fine-grained mafic and fine-grained felsic dikes mutually cross-cut the felsic pillow-bearing dikes. The granite consists of green hornblende, dark brown biotite, plagioclase and quartz. The mafic mineral assemblage changes from olivine, orthopyroxene, clinopyroxene, and plagioclase in the gabbro through intermediate-grained phases containing altered clinopyroxene, brown hornblende, red-brown biotite, plagioclase and quartz. The increase in proportion of hydrous mafic minerals from the gabbro to the fine-grained mafic enclaves and changes in pleochroic colors of biotite and hornblende from the intermediate-grained phases to the fine-grained mafic enclaves suggest chemical interaction between the mafic enclaves and their felsic host.

  10. The life and times of Big Bertha - Lunar breccia 14321

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Duncan, A. R.; Grieve, R. A. F.; Weill, D. F.

    1975-01-01

    The assembly and metamorphic history of polymict breccia 14321 are reconstructed. The earliest formed fragmental component of 14321 (microbreccia-1) is dominated by KREEP-rich norite, extruded and subsequently brecciated and lithified in an ejecta blanket at approximately 1000 C in the general region of Mare Imbrium after the Serenitatis impact but prior to the Imbrium impact. This early microbreccia component and lesser amounts of mare-type basalt, microgranite, rhyolite glass, anorthosite and olivine microbreccia were assembled at the Apollo 14 site as part of the Fra Mauro ejecta blanket from the Imbrium impact. The resulting microbreccia-3 incorporates all the lithic types above and accretionary lapilli structures (microbreccia-2) in a dark matrix annealed at approximately 700 C. A later impact on the Fra Mauro excavated and mutually abraded microbreccia-3 and a local, 14321-type, basalt which were assembled into polymict breccia 14321. Final placement of 14321 at its sampling location was accomplished during the minor Cone Crater impact event.

  11. Butanol production in acetone-butanol-ethanol fermentation with in situ product recovery by adsorption.

    PubMed

    Xue, Chuang; Liu, Fangfang; Xu, Mengmeng; Tang, I-Ching; Zhao, Jingbo; Bai, Fengwu; Yang, Shang-Tian

    2016-11-01

    Activated carbon Norit ROW 0.8, zeolite CBV901, and polymeric resins Dowex Optipore L-493 and SD-2 with high specific loadings and partition coefficients were studied for n-butanol adsorption. Adsorption isotherms were found to follow Langmuir model, which can be used to estimate the amount of butanol adsorbed in acetone-butanol-ethanol (ABE) fermentation. In serum-bottle fermentation with in situ adsorption, activated carbon showed the best performance with 21.9g/L of butanol production. When operated in a fermentor, free- and immobilized-cell fermentations with adsorption produced 31.6g/L and 54.6g/L butanol with productivities of 0.30g/L·h and 0.45g/L·h, respectively. Thermal desorption produced a condensate containing ∼167g/L butanol, which resulted in a highly concentrated butanol solution of ∼640g/L after spontaneous phase separation. This in situ product recovery process with activated carbon is energy efficient and can be easily integrated with ABE fermentation for n-butanol production. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Geochronology and petrogenesis of the western highlands alkali suite: Radiogenic isotopic evidence from Apollo 14

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Snyder, Gregory A.; Taylor, Lawrence A.; Halliday, Alex N.

    1993-01-01

    Several rocks of alkalic affinity, from the western highlands of the Moon, have been analyzed for their Nd and Sr isotopic compositions. One sample yields a Sm-Nd mineral isochron of 4110 = 41 Ma. This age, in conjunction with U-Pb zircon ages on two other alkalic rocks from the Apollo 14 landing site suggests a distinct western highlands 'event' which was approximately 100 Ma in duration. Since the last dregs of the lunar magma ocean likely crystallized prior to 4.3 Ga, this alkalic 'event' may have included the re-melting of evolved plutons or the remobilization of urKREEP trapped liquid from upper mantle cumulates. Alkalic lithologies such as granites and felsites have been known from the Moon since the earliest days of the Apollo lunar sample returns. However, not until 1977 were alkali-rich rocks recognized from typical highlands suites such as ferroan anorthosites (FAN) and norites and Mg-suite rocks. In the intervening years, several other alkali suite samples have been discovered and characterized, mostly through labor-intesive breccia pull-apart studies of clasts and analyses of coarse-fine fractions of soils. We will speculate on the origins of this suite of lunar highlands rocks.

  13. Notes on Lithology, Mineralogy, and Production for Lunar Simulants

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rickman, D. L.; Stoeser, D. B.; Benzel, W. M.; Schrader, C. M.; Edmunson, J. E.

    2011-01-01

    The creation of lunar simulants requires a very broad range of specialized knowledge and information. This document covers several topic areas relevant to lithology, mineralogy, and processing of feedstock materials that are necessary components of the NASA lunar simulant effort. The naming schemes used for both terrestrial and lunar igneous rocks are discussed. The conflict between the International Union of Geological Sciences standard and lunar geology is noted. The rock types known as impactites are introduced. The discussion of lithology is followed by a brief synopsis of pyroxene, plagioclase, and olivine, which are the major mineral constituents of the lunar crust. The remainder of the text addresses processing of materials, particularly the need for separation of feedstock minerals. To illustrate this need, the text includes descriptions of two norite feedstocks for lunar simulants: the Stillwater Complex in Montana, United States, and the Bushveld Complex in South Africa. Magnetic mineral separations, completed by Hazen Research, Inc. and Eriez Manufacturing Co. for the simulant task, are discussed.

  14. Removal of Cr6+ from wastewater via adsorption with high-specific-surface-area nitrogen-doped hierarchical porous carbon derived from silkworm cocoon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, Junting; Zhang, Zhengping; Ji, Jing; Dou, Meiling; Wang, Feng

    2017-05-01

    The development of highly efficient adsorbents is an effective way to remove Cr6+ from wastewater for environment protection. Herein, a high-specific-surface-area nitrogen-doped hierarchical porous carbon (NHPC) derived from silkworm cocoon was synthesized and applied as an efficient adsorbent for the removal of Cr6+ from wastewater. The resultant NHPC possesses a specific surface area as high as 3134 m2 g-1 and a unique hierarchical porous structure with a large number of small mesopores (2-4 nm) and micropores (0.8-2 nm) embedded in the sidewall of bowl-like macropores (200-300 nm), in which sufficient exposure of adsorption sites and high-flow transfer of Cr6+ ions can be achieved. As a result, the NHPC exhibits a remarkable adsorption performance with a larger adsorption capacity (366.3 mg g-1), a higher adsorption rate (4 × 10-2 g mg-1 min-1) and a superior recyclability in comparison with the commercial adsorbent (Norit CGP). Thermodynamic and kinetic analyses indicate that the adsorption process is spontaneous and endothermic, which fits well with the pseudo-second-order kinetic model and Langmuir isotherm model. This biomass-based porous carbon with well-defined hierarchical porous structure can be applied as a promising adsorbent for the removal of Cr6+ from wastewater.

  15. Composition of the Cayley Formation at Apollo 16 as inferred from impact melt splashes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morris, Richard V.; Horz, Friedrich; See, Thomas H.

    1986-11-01

    Abundances of major and trace elements and magnetic properties of 50 impact melt splashes (IMSs) from the Apollo 16 landing site are analzyed to determine the composition of their meteoritic component. MgO-Sc and Ca-Sc variation diagrams and least-squares mixing models are utilized to analyze the IMS, soil, and rock data. Consideration is given to progenitor lithologies of the IMS, the number of impact events represented by the IMS, and the heterogeneity of impact melts from single events. It is observed that the IMSs are composed of either a mixture of anorthosite and low-Sc impact melt rocks or anorthositic norite. It is determined that the surface Cayley layer is composed of TiO2, MgO, Sc, and La concentrations of 0.69, and 7.1 wt pct and 10.5 and 21.2 microg/g, respectively and 0.38 and 5.9 wt pct and 6.1 and 11.8 microg/g, respectively, for the subsurface Cayley layer. The Descartes Formation composition is estimated as TiO2, MgO, Sc, and La concentrations of 0.25, and 3.5 wt pct and 7.7 and 2.2 microg/g, respectively.

  16. Composition of the Cayley Formation at Apollo 16 as inferred from impact melt splashes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Morris, Richard V.; Horz, Friedrich; See, Thomas H.

    1986-01-01

    Abundances of major and trace elements and magnetic properties of 50 impact melt splashes (IMSs) from the Apollo 16 landing site are analzyed to determine the composition of their meteoritic component. MgO-Sc and Ca-Sc variation diagrams and least-squares mixing models are utilized to analyze the IMS, soil, and rock data. Consideration is given to progenitor lithologies of the IMS, the number of impact events represented by the IMS, and the heterogeneity of impact melts from single events. It is observed that the IMSs are composed of either a mixture of anorthosite and low-Sc impact melt rocks or anorthositic norite. It is determined that the surface Cayley layer is composed of TiO2, MgO, Sc, and La concentrations of 0.69, and 7.1 wt pct and 10.5 and 21.2 microg/g, respectively and 0.38 and 5.9 wt pct and 6.1 and 11.8 microg/g, respectively, for the subsurface Cayley layer. The Descartes Formation composition is estimated as TiO2, MgO, Sc, and La concentrations of 0.25, and 3.5 wt pct and 7.7 and 2.2 microg/g, respectively.

  17. On the age of KREEP. [in lunar highland rocks

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Palme, H.

    1977-01-01

    It is noted that the variable Rb-Sr model ages of lunar highland rocks containing a significant amount of KREEP basalt may be best explained by some fractionation of Rb from Sr during metamorphism 3.9 billion years ago, but the uniformity of the KREEP-type trace-element pattern in different highland samples indicates that elements such as the rare earth were hardly fractionated at all during the metamorphic event. Data are presented which show that the Rb/Sr fractionation 3.9 billion years ago was due to Rb mobilization alone in most cases and that this fractionation can be accounted for by coupling of Rb to other, less volatile incompatible elements. Variations of Rb in lunar highland rocks are analyzed, a correction method is applied for the Rb/Sr fractionation, and results are evaluated separately for Apollo 16 VHA and KREEP basalts, Apollo 17 noritic breccias, Apollo 14 KREEP breccias, Apollo 15 KREEP basalts, and Apollo 15-KREEP-enriched breccias. Evidence for volatilization of alkalis from glasses of impact origin is summarized, and an apparent correlation is discussed between meteoritic component (as given by the Ir/Au ratio) and rock type (as given by the U or Rb content) for many lunar highland samples.

  18. Apennine Front revisited - Diversity of Apollo 15 highland rock types

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lindstrom, Marilyn M.; Marvin, Ursula B.; Vetter, Scott K.; Shervais, John W.

    1988-01-01

    The Apollo 15 landing site is geologically the most complex of the Apollo sites, situated at a mare-highland interface within the rings of two of the last major basin-forming impacts. Few of the Apollo 15 samples are ancient highland rocks derived from the early differentiation of the moon, or impact melts from major basin impacts. Most of the samples are regolith breccias containing abundant clasts of younger volcanic mare and KREEP basalts. The early geologic evolution of the region can be understood only by examining the small fragments of highland rocks found in regolith breccias and soils. Geochemical and petrologic studies of clasts and matrices of three impact melt breccias and four regolith breccias are presented. Twelve igneous and metamorphic rocks show extreme diversity and include a new type of ferroan norite. Twenty-five samples of highland impact melt are divided into groups based on composition. These impact melts form nearly a continuum over more than an order of magnitude in REE concentrations. This continuum may result from both major basin impacts and younger local events. Highland rocks from the Apennine Front include most of the highland rock types found at all of the other sites. An extreme diversity of highland rocks is a fundamental characteristic of the Apennine Front and is a natural result of its complex geologic evolution.

  19. The UG2 Merensky Reef interval of the Bushveld Complex northwest of Pretoria

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maier, W. D.; Bowen, M. P.

    1996-07-01

    Northwest of Pretoria, the UG2 Merensky Reef interval overlies a Critical Zone Lower Zone sequence that contains numerous large blocks of floor material. Nevertheless, individual layers can be correlated with equivalent units at Crocodile River mine, the Rustenburg, Impala, Union, and Amandelbult sections. Concentrations of platinum-group elements in two borehole intersections of the UG2 chromitite are 4 ppm over 1.2 m and 2.4 ppm over 2.2 m. Therefore, bulk PGE levels appear to be only moderately lower than those at Western Platinum mine. This renders models explaining PGE enrichment by upward percolating melt or fluids problematic. The Merensky Reef, although containing sulphides, is only weakly mineralized with PGE (0.6 ppm). The UG2 pyroxenite is separated from the UG2 chromitite by a 15 m noritic layer. The introduction of feldspathic cumulates between two units that elsewhere directly overly each other may be explained by the more evolved composition of resident magma in those parts of the chamber distally located with regard to a major feeder zone at Union Section. It also suggests that the UG2 unit is a multiple rather than a single cyclic unit.

  20. The nature of the meteoritic components of Apollo 16 soil, as inferred from correlations of iron, cobalt, iridium, and gold with nickel

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Korotev, Randy L.

    1987-01-01

    The Apollo 16 soil concentrations of Ni, Fe, Co, Ir, and Au were studied to determine the correlations with Ni. The correlations obtained indicate that the variation in the siderophile element concentrations in Apollo 16 soils result from the variation in the concentration of a Fe-Ni metal (with the mean composition of 5.6 pct Ni and 0.36 pct Co) that contributes about 0.4-0.5 pct to a typical soil from Apollo 16. It is shown that the siderophile elements of the 'ancient meteorite component' of Anders et al. (1973) and Hertogen et al. (1977) are located in the grains of Fe-Ni metal that in turn are contained in noritic impact melt breccias produced about 3.9 Ga ago. The ancient Fe-Ni is different from the metal of ordinary chondrites by having lower Ni/Co, Ir/Ni, and Ir/Au ratios. It is shown that Ni in the Apollo 16 soil is contributed approximately equally by the 'ancient meteorite component' and the 'micrometeorite component' (dominated by carbonaceous chondrites); however, most of the variation in Ni concentration results from the variation of the ancient Fe-Ni metal among samples of Apollo 16 soil.

  1. The ionic strength effect on microcystin and natural organic matter surrogate adsorption onto PAC.

    PubMed

    Campinas, Margarida; Rosa, Maria João

    2006-07-15

    This work aims to contribute to a better understanding of the ionic strength effect on microcystin and natural organic matter (NOM) surrogate adsorption by analyzing the importance of adsorbate molecular size, and surface concentration. Adsorption kinetics and/or isotherms were performed on PAC Norit SA-UF for four microcystin variants (MC-LR, MC-LY, MC-LW, MC-LF), and three NOM surrogates (salicylic acid (SA), tannic acid (TA), Aldrich humic acid (AHA)) at different solution ionic strengths. Results showed that the ionic strength effect depends upon the adsorbate surface concentration, cation charge (mono or divalent), and adsorbate molecular size. Potassium seemed not to affect the MC-LR adsorption, while calcium enhanced MC-LR kinetics and adsorption capacity. K+ and, particularly, Ca2+ improved the adsorption kinetics of the other microcystin variants. For identical surface concentration and ionic strength, the impact of K+ and Ca2+ on NOM surrogates depended on the adsorbate molecular size: K+ effect was only observed for AHA, whereas Ca2+ caused no effect on SA adsorption, slightly enhanced TA adsorption, and greatly enhanced AHA adsorption. MC-LR isotherms with two salt concentrations (KCl or CaCl2) indicated that, for the studied range of equilibrium surface concentration (5.3-18.7 mg/g), an enhanced adsorption regime prevails, and no transition regime was observed.

  2. Geochronology and petrogenesis of the western highlands alkali suite: Radiogenic isotopic evidence from Apollo 14

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Snyder, Gregory A.; Taylor, Lawrence A.; Halliday, Alex N.

    1993-03-01

    Several rocks of alkalic affinity, from the western highlands of the Moon, have been analyzed for their Nd and Sr isotopic compositions. One sample yields a Sm-Nd mineral isochron of 4110 = 41 Ma. This age, in conjunction with U-Pb zircon ages on two other alkalic rocks from the Apollo 14 landing site suggests a distinct western highlands 'event' which was approximately 100 Ma in duration. Since the last dregs of the lunar magma ocean likely crystallized prior to 4.3 Ga, this alkalic 'event' may have included the re-melting of evolved plutons or the remobilization of urKREEP trapped liquid from upper mantle cumulates. Alkalic lithologies such as granites and felsites have been known from the Moon since the earliest days of the Apollo lunar sample returns. However, not until 1977 were alkali-rich rocks recognized from typical highlands suites such as ferroan anorthosites (FAN) and norites and Mg-suite rocks. In the intervening years, several other alkali suite samples have been discovered and characterized, mostly through labor-intesive breccia pull-apart studies of clasts and analyses of coarse-fine fractions of soils. We will speculate on the origins of this suite of lunar highlands rocks.

  3. Remote Sensing Studies of Anorthosite Deposits on the Moon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hawke, B. R.; Taylor, G. J.; Lucey, P. G.; Peterson, C. A.; Blewett, D. T.; Spudis, P. D.

    1995-09-01

    Introduction: In recent years, we have been conducting a variety of remote sensing studies of lunar basin and crater deposits in order to determine the composition of surface units and to investigate the stratigraphy of the lunar crust [1-6]. Special attention has been given to determining the distribution and modes of occurrence of pure anorthosite (plagioclase >90%) in order to answer the critical question of whether or not the lunar crust is enriched in plagioclase. In previous studies, we have utilized telescopic near-infrared spectra to determine the lithology of relatively small areas (2-10 km) of the lunar surface. Now, high resolution multispectral images are available from the Galileo and Clementine missions. We are currently utilizing a variety of techniques to extract compositional information from these new data sets. Chief among these is the production of FeO abundance maps from Clementine and Galileo multispectral images using the method presented by Lucey et al. [7]. Distribution and Modes of Occurrence: Orientale Basin region. With the exception of the Inner Rook massifs, all the highland units associated with the Orientale Basin appear to be composed of either noritic anorthosite or anorthositic norite. Our spectral data indicate that the Inner Rook ring is composed of pure anorthosite [1,2]. Relatively low (<4%) FeO values are exhibited by most portions of this mountain range. Grimaldi Basin region. Spectra obtained for the inner ring of Grimaldi indicate that portions of this ring are composed of pure anorthosite. Low FeO values are also displayed by segments of the inner ring. Other highlands units in the Grimaldi region are composed of more mafic material [2,5]. Humorum Basin region. At least a portion of the inner ring of Humorum is composed of anorthosite [2,6]. However, Galileo and Clementine data demonstrate that the entire ring is not composed of anorthosite, and no anorthosites have yet been identified on the outer Humorum rings. Nectaris

  4. SNO Data: Results from Experiments at the Sudbury Neutrino Observatory

    DOE Data Explorer

    The Sudbury Neutrino Observatory (SNO) was built 6800 feet under ground, in INCO's Creighton mine near Sudbury, Ontario. SNO is a heavy-water Cherenkov detector that is designed to detect neutrinos produced by fusion reactions in the sun. It uses 1000 tonnes of heavy water, on loan from Atomic Energy of Canada Limited (AECL), contained in a 12 meter diameter acrylic vessel. Neutrinos react with the heavy water (D2O) to produce flashes of light called Cherenkov radiation. This light is then detected by an array of 9600 photomultiplier tubes mounted on a geodesic support structure surrounding the heavy water vessel. The detector is immersed in light (normal) water within a 30 meter barrel-shaped cavity (the size of a 10 story building!) excavated from Norite rock. Located in the deepest part of the mine, the overburden of rock shields the detector from cosmic rays. The detector laboratory is extremely clean to reduce background signals from radioactive elements present in the mine dust which would otherwise hide the very weak signal from neutrinos. (From http://www.sno.phy.queensu.ca/]

    The SNO website provides access to various datasets. See also the SNO Image Catalog at http://www.sno.phy.queensu.ca/sno/images/ and computer-generated images of SNO events at http://www.sno.phy.queensu.ca/sno/events/ and the list of published papers.

  5. South Pole-Aitken Basin Mission (SPAM)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weitz, C. M.; Yingst, R. A.; Minitti, M.; Head, J. W., III; Prockter, L.; Dahl, J. M.; Cooper, C. D.; Crumpler, L.; Gershman, R.; Welch, R.; Jet Propulsion LABORATORY Team

    1997-03-01

    Recent Clementine data of the farside of the moon has shown high resolution details of the South Pole-Aitken basin. The basin is over 2500 km in diameter, making it the largest impact basin thus far identified in our solar system. Estimates for the excavation depth from the basin suggest that the lower crust/upper mantle may have been reached. Clementine UVVIS data show noritic compositions and high FeO wt pct compositions, supporting that at least the lower crust may have been excavated. Because the geology of the area offers a unique opportunity to study the stratigraphy of the lunar crust at depth as well as the composition of rocks from the lunar farside, we have selected a site in the South Pole-Aitken basin for a sample return mission. Although the mission described below is currently unsuitable as a Discovery class mission, other scenarios are still possible that will reduce the mass and make the mission more feasible.

  6. Lunar central peak mineralogy and iron content using the Kaguya Multiband Imager: Reassessment of the compositional structure of the lunar crust

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lemelin, Myriam; Lucey, Paul G.; Song, Eugenie; Taylor, G. Jeffrey

    2015-05-01

    Ryder and Wood (1977) suggested that the lunar crust becomes more mafic with depth because the impact melts associated with the large Imbrium and Serenitatis basins are more mafic than the surface composition of the Moon. In this study, we reexamine the hypothesis that the crust becomes more mafic with depth; we analyze the composition of crater central peaks by using recent remote sensing data and combining the best practices of previous studies. We compute the mineralogy for 34 central peaks using (1) nine-band visible and near-infrared data from the Kaguya Multiband Imager, (2) an improved version of Hapke's radiative transfer model validated with spectra of lunar soils with well-known modal mineralogy, and (3) new crustal thickness models from the Gravity Recovery and Interior Laboratory data to examine the variation in composition with depth. We find that there is no increase in mafic mineral abundances with proximity to the crust/mantle boundary or with depth from the current lunar surface and, therefore, that the crust does not become more mafic with depth. We find that anorthosite with very low mafic abundance ("purest anorthosite" or PAN) is a minority constituent in these peaks, and there is no clear evidence of a distinct PAN-rich layer in the middle crust as previously proposed. The composition of most of the central peaks we analyze is more mafic than classically defined anorthosites with an average noritic anorthosite composition similar to that of the lunar surface.

  7. Age and origin of the Cortlandt Complex, New York: Implications from Sm-Nd data

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Domenick, M.A.; Basu, A.R.

    1982-01-01

    Sm-Nd systematics for nine whole-rock samples of hornblende norites, pyroxenites and a lamprophyre from various parts of the Cortlandt Complex were analyzed. Six of these samples from the central and eastern parts of the complex give an isochron age of 430??34 (2 ??) Ma with an e{open}Nd value of -2.9??0.5, and the other three samples from the western part, including the lamprophyre, define a similar age of 394??33 (2 ??) Ma but with a distinctly different e{open}Nd value of -1.4??0.4. The two different initial 143Nd/144Nd ratios corresponding to these e{open}-values are interpreted to reflect continental crustal contamination of the lamprophyric parental liquid prior to final emplacement and crystal fractionation to produce the different rock types of the complex. The intrusion age of 430 Ma for the complex clearly post-dates the major metamorphic event of the Taconic orogeny. The Nd-isotopic data also suggest a relationship between the Cortlandt Complex and a belt of lamprophyric dike rocks to the west, known as the Beemerville trend, which cuts across the metamorphic trends of the Taconic (Ratcliffe 1981). ?? 1982 Springer-Verlag.

  8. Precursor lithologies and metamorphic history of granulitic breccias from North Ray crater, Station 11, Apollo 16

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ostertag, R.; Stoffler, D.; Borchardt, R.; Palme, H.; Spettel, B.; Wanke, H.

    1987-01-01

    Two distinctly different types of granulitic breccias in the ejecta of North Ray crater, Station 11, Apollo 16 have been analyzed for their modal and chemical composition. Samples 67485, 67488, 67615, 67749, 67947, and 67566 are characterized by a fine-grained granoblastic to poikiloblastic matrix and abundant lithic and mineral clasts predominantly derived from ferroan anorthosites. The mineral clasts in sample 67566 were derived from ferroan anorthosites and Mg-rich lithologies. The fine-grained granulitic breccias are compositionally almost identical to the feldspathic microporphyritic melt breccias (fmmbs) of Station 11, Apollo 16 which are older than, and therefore are possible precursors of, the fine-grained granulitic breccias. The second type of granulitic lithology (67746) is medium-grained, anorthositic-noritic in composition, and contains well equilibrated minerals derived from Mg-rich rocks. The precursors of both granulitic lithologies were KREEP-free and according to their Ir/Au ratio were old lunar highland rocks. A comparison of major, minor, and trace element contents shows that the two types of granulites are unrelated. The different recrystallization textures of the two types of granulitic lithologies imply different metamorphic histories. Metamorphism of the fine-grained granulitic breccias occurred near the lunar surface and the heat source was probably a superheated impact melt. The texture and degree of equilibration in the minerals of 67746 require a much more intense metamorphism with slow cooling. Metamorphism of lunar rocks and breccias was a wide-spread process that occurred several times in lunar history.

  9. New metallic alloys incorporating fullerenes and carbon nanotubes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Doome, R. J.; Fonseca, A.; Nagy, J. B.

    1998-08-01

    In order to open new routes to fullerenes application, we have investigated the effect of fullerenes and nanotubes in metallic alloys. Fullerenes mixture and carbon nanotubes have been used as new carbon sources in the synthesis of metallic alloys (Al, Fe and Ni). After melting under inert atmosphere, macroscopic homogeneous alloys were obtained with iron and nickel but the aluminium based alloys looked rather inhomogeneous due to an incomplete melting. From the samples analysis by chemical reactions and XPS, it was concluded that the carbon is essentially located on the alloy surface as carbide and sp2 structures. Except for the aluminium based alloy where some fullerenes were still detected, thermal treatment as well as metal catalytic effect led to the decomposition of the fullerenes in the alloys. Nevertheless, carbon nanotubes kept their structure and were trapped in the alloys. The hardness of these new alloys were determined and compared to values of common alloys incorporating graphite and norit-A as carbon sources. The preliminary results showed slightly higher hardness values for alloys incorporating fullerenes and weaker values for alloys incorporating carbon nanotubes.

  10. Adsorption of methylene blue and Congo red from aqueous solution by activated carbon and carbon nanotubes.

    PubMed

    Szlachta, M; Wójtowicz, P

    2013-01-01

    This study was conducted to determine the adsorption removal of dyes by powdered activated carbon (PAC, Norit) and multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs, Chinese Academy of Science) from an aqueous solution. Methylene blue (MB) and Congo red (CR) were selected as model compounds. The adsorbents tested have a high surface area (PAC 835 m(2)/g, MWCNTs 358 m(2)/g) and a well-developed porous structure which enabled the effective treatment of dye-contaminated waters and wastewaters. To evaluate the capacity of PAC and MWCNTs to adsorb dyes, a series of batch adsorption experiments was performed. Both adsorbents exhibited a high adsorptive capacity for MB and CR, and equilibrium data fitted well with the Langmuir model, with the maximum adsorption capacity up to 400 mg/g for MB and 500 mg/g for CR. The separation factor, RL, revealed the favorable nature of the adsorption process under experimental conditions. The kinetics of adsorption was studied at various initial dye concentrations and solution temperatures. The pseudo-second-order model was used for determining the adsorption kinetics of MB and CR. The data obtained show that adsorption of both dyes was rapid in the initial stage and followed by slower processing to reach the plateau. The uptake of dyes increased with contact time, irrespective of their initial concentration and solution temperature. However, changes in the solution temperature did not significantly influence dye removal.

  11. Structural characteristics of activated carbons and ibuprofen adsorption affected by bovine serum albumin.

    PubMed

    Melillo, M; Gun'ko, V M; Tennison, S R; Mikhalovska, L I; Phillips, G J; Davies, J G; Lloyd, A W; Kozynchenko, O P; Malik, D J; Streat, M; Mikhalovsky, S V

    2004-03-30

    Structural characteristics of a series of MAST carbons were studied using scanning electron microscopy images and the nitrogen adsorption isotherms analyzed with several models of pores and different adsorption equations. A developed model of pores as a mixture of gaps between spherical nanoparticles and slitlike pores was found appropriate for MAST carbons. Adsorption of ibuprofen [2-(4-isobutylphenyl)propionic acid] on activated carbons possessing different pore size distributions in protein-free and bovine serum albumin (BSA)-containing aqueous solutions reveals the importance of the contribution of mesopores to the total porosity of adsorbents. The influence of the mesoporosity increases when considering the removal of the drug from the protein-containing solution. Cellulose-coated microporous carbon Norit RBX adsorbs significantly smaller amounts of ibuprofen than uncoated micro/mesoporous MAST carbons whose adsorption capability increases with increasing mesoporosity and specific surface area, burnoff dependent variable. A similar effect of broad pores is observed on adsorption of fibrinogen on the same carbons. Analysis of the ibuprofen adsorption data using Langmuir and D'Arcy-Watt equations as the kernel of the Fredholm integral equation shows that the nonuniformity of ibuprofen adsorption complexes diminishes with the presence of BSA. This effect may be explained by a partial adsorption of ibuprofen onto protein molecules immobilized on carbon particles and blocking of a portion of narrow pores.

  12. Origins of Large Peridotite Bodies within Mesoarchean Orthogneisses in SW Greenland

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Szilas, K.; Kelemen, P. B.; Bernstein, S.

    2015-12-01

    Peridotite bodies with sizes up to 500 x 1000 m are found within Mesoarchaean orthogneisses in the Fiskefjord region of SW Greenland. Here we present field observations, bulk-rock major, trace, and platinum-group element data, and mineral chemistry for some these peridotites. The largest of these (known as Seqi), has previously been mined for industrial grade olivine. Seqi is mainly dunitic, consisting of highly fosteritic olivine with a median Mg# of 92.6. It also hosts extensive layers of chromitite (up to 30 cm wide), which are always associated with interstitial orthopyroxene. The other peridotite bodies are generally thinner (<100 m thick, but up to 2000 m long) and are associated with coarse norite and orthopyroxenite with obvious cumulate textures. Amphibolite of tholeiitic basaltic composition is intercalated with these thinner peridotite bodies and suggests that they represent metamorphosed layered igneous complexes. Based on field observations, the latter predate the Mesoarchaean regional TTG-type orthogneisses dated at ca. 3000 Ma. We interpret the peridotites of the Fiskefjord region to have formed as ultramafic cumulates derived from Archean high-Mg magmas. The Seqi dunites contain hydrous minerals such as amphibole and phlogopite, and have U-shaped bulk-rock trace element patterns with elevated Th. This may support the currently accepted subduction zone model for the formation of the Archean crust in this region.

  13. Biosorption of model pollutants in liquid phase on raw and modified rice husks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Toniazzo, L.; Fierro, V.; Braghiroli, F.; Amaral, G.; Celzard, A.

    2013-03-01

    We studied the application of rice husk (RH) as a biosorbent and we demonstrated that it can be employed for the treatment of dyeing wastewater streams. RH was obtained from Nile Delta (Egypt) and it was used as received, or after a chemical treatment using HNO3 or NaOH, or after conversion into activated carbon (RH-AC) using H3PO4 as activating agent. A commercial activated carbon GAC 830 provided by NORIT was also tested for comparison purposes. These materials were evaluated by adsorption of methylene blue (MB) with an initial concentration of 20 ppm in an aqueous solution at 30°C. The results showed that alkali-treated and RH-AC were the best sorbents. They got a nearly complete MB removal from water and they had better performance than GAC 830. Therefore, the use of RH for pollutant removal makes this method an environment-friendly option and an economically feasible alternative to treat industrial effluents.

  14. Halogen Variations in Apatite of the Lac Des Iles Palladium Deposit, Ontario, Canada

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boudreau, A. E.

    2014-12-01

    Analysis of apatite from the Mine Block Intrusion (MBI) of the Lac des Iles Igneous Complex show two pronounced trends in the halogens. Apatite from relatively fresh norite and melanorites from the Pd-sulfide zone contain up to 57 mole % chlorapatite endmember with significant hydroxyapatite component. In contrast, in altered rock (amphibolite and greenschist assemblages) and in the more evolved barren rocks the chlorapatite component is typically less than 10 mole % with wide variation in the F- and OH-endmember components. The latter trend is attributed to Cl loss to degassing and alteration whereas the former is attributed to Cl-enrichment in the ore-bearing rocks. It is suggested that the relatively H2O-rich and intermediate Cl content of the early igneous fluids degassed from the deeper levels of the MBI can explain the high Pd/Pt and Pd/Ir ratios of the deposit. A model is presented in which disseminated Pd-rich sulfide are initially introduced by a high temperature magmatic fluid that also influenced crystallization to produce the gross modal variations of the igneous host rock. This high temperature mineralization event was subsequently modified by the influx of late igneous and country fluids at amphibolite to greenschist conditions.

  15. The Lac Des Iles Palladium Deposit, Ontario, Canada. Part II. Halogen variations in apatite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schisa, Paul; Boudreau, Alan; Djon, Lionnel; Tchalikian, Arnaud; Corkery, John

    2015-03-01

    Analysis of apatite from the Mine Block Intrusion (MBI) of the Lac des Iles Igneous Complex shows two pronounced trends in the halogens. Apatite from relatively fresh norite and melanorites from the Pd-sulfide zone contain up to 57 mol% chlorapatite endmember with significant hydroxyapatite component. In contrast, in altered rock (amphibolite and greenschist assemblages) the chlorapatite component is typically less than 10 mol% with wide variation in the F- and OH-endmember components. The latter trend is attributed to Cl loss to degassing and alteration, whereas the former is attributed to Cl enrichment in the ore-bearing rocks. It is suggested that the relatively H2O-rich and intermediate Cl content of the early igneous fluids degassed from the deeper levels of the MBI can explain the high Pd/Pt and Pd/Ir ratios of the deposit. A model is presented in which disseminated Pd-rich sulfides are initially introduced by a high-temperature magmatic fluid that also influenced crystallization to produce the gross modal variations of the igneous host rock. This high-temperature mineralization event was subsequently modified by the influx of late igneous and country fluids at amphibolite to greenschist conditions.

  16. Luna 20 soil - Abundance and composition of phases in the 45-125 micron fraction.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Reid, A. M.; Warner, J. L.; Ridley, W. I.; Brown, R. W.

    1973-01-01

    Glass compositions in the Luna 20 soil indicate a minor contribution of mare rocks and a major contribution of highly feldspathic highland material. Glasses with the composition of highland basalt (anorthositic gabbro or norite) predominate in a range of highly aluminous glasses. The analyses of minerals in the soil show that the highland rocks have a unique assemblage of minerals that can readily be distinguished from the mineral assemblages of either mare or KREEP basalts. The soils are characterized by abundant anorthitic, low-Fe plagioclase. Highly magnesian orthopyroxenes, pigeonites, and augites are the most prominent pyroxenes. Unlike mare basalt pyroxenes, clinopyroxenes with intermediate Ca values are not abundant, but extreme iron enrichment toward pyroxferroite does occur. Olivines are more abundant than at other sites and are Mg-rich, low in Ca and Cr. Spinels with compositions approaching MgAl2O4 predominate over pleonastes and chromites. Ilmenite and metal are present but not abundant. The mineral compositions are consistent with derivation from a suite of highly feldspathic rocks in which highland basalt compositions predominate.

  17. Lunar and Planetary Science XXXVI, Part 5

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2005-01-01

    Topics discussed include: Automation Recognition oF Crater-Like Structures in Terrestrial and Plantary Images; Condensation from Cluster-IDP Enriched Vapor Inside the Snow Line: Implications for Mercury, Asteroids, and Enstatite Chondrites; Tomographic Location of Potential Melt-Bearing Phenocrysts in Lunar Glass Spherules; Source and Evolution of Vapor Due to Impacts into Layered Carbonates and Silicates; Noble Gases and I-Xe Ages of the Zag Meteorite; The MArs Hand Lens Imager (MAHLI) for the 209 Mars Science Laboratory; The Sedimentary Rocks of Meridiani Planum, in Context; Three-System Isotopic of Lunar Norite 78238: Rb-Sr Results; Constraints on the Role of Curium-247 as a Source of Fission Xenon in the Early Solar System; New Features in the ADS Abstract Service; Cassini RADAR's First Look at Titan; Volcanism and Volatile Recycling on Venus from Lithospheric Delamination; The Fate of Water in the Martian Magma Ocean and the Formation of an Early Atmosphere; Mars Odyssey Neutron Spectrometer Water-Equivalent Hydrogen: Comparison with Glacial; Landforms on Tharsis; Using Models of Permanent Shadow to Constrain Lunar Polar Water Ice Abundances; Martian Radiative Transfer Modeling Using the Optimal Spectral Sampling Method; Petrological and Geochemical Consideration on the Tuserkanite Meteorite; and Mineralogy of Asteroids from Observations with the Spitzer Space Telescope.

  18. The moon - Mid-infrared (7.5- to 11.4-microns) spectroscopy of selected regions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sprague, A. L.; Witteborn, F. C.; Kozlowski, R. W.; Cruikshank, D. P.; Bartholomew, M. J.; Graps, A. L.

    1992-01-01

    Scaled spectral emissivity spectra have been obtained from five locations on the illuminated lunar surface and are interpreted in terms of differences in their mineralogic composition. The emission maximum, which typically falls near 8.0 microns for lunar rocks and fines, is observed to be shifted from 7.9 microns for noritic Copernicus crater walls to 8.1 microns for the olivine-rich central peak. Two mare locations show the emission maximum centered at 8.0 microns, consistent with laboratory emission measurements of basalts. An emissivity minimum at 10.5 microns in the spectrum from central peak 2 is attributed to the presence of olivine. Minima centered at 8.75 microns in the crater wall spectra resemble minima in laboratory spectra from pyroxene. A broad minimum centered at 8.5 microns in the Kepler ejecta spectrum and a sharp drop in emissivity at wavelengths longer than 11 microns in spectra from both mare locations suggest plagioclase.

  19. Treatment of azo dye-containing wastewater by a Fenton-like process in a continuous packed-bed reactor filled with activated carbon.

    PubMed

    Mesquita, Isabel; Matos, Luís C; Duarte, Filipa; Maldonado-Hódar, F J; Mendes, Adélio; Madeira, Luis M

    2012-10-30

    In this work, oxidation with a Fenton-like process of a dye solution was carried out in a packed-bed reactor. Activated carbon Norit RX 3 Extra was impregnated with ferrous sulfate and used as catalyst (7 wt.% of iron). The effect of the main operating conditions in the Chicago Sky Blue (CSB) degradation was analyzed. It was found that the increase in temperature leads to a higher removal of the dye and an increased mineralization. However, it also increases the iron leaching, but the values observed were below 0.4 ppm (thus, far below European Union limits). It was possible to reach, at steady-state, a dye conversion of 88%, with a total organic carbon (TOC) removal of ca. 47%, being the reactor operated at 50°C, pH 3, W(cat)/Q=4.1 g min mL(-1) (W(cat) is the mass of catalyst and Q the total feed flow rate) and a H(2)O(2) feed concentration of 2.25 mM (for a CSB feed concentration of 0.012 mM). The same performance was reached in three consecutive cycles.

  20. Geochemistry of grain-size fractions of soils from the Taurus-Littrow valley floor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Korotev, R. L.

    1976-01-01

    Results are presented for a study in which high-precision instrumental neutron activation analysis was applied to determine the abundances of seven rare-earth and nine other elements in two grain-size fractions (90 to 150 microns and less than 20 microns) of eight soils from the Taurus-Littrow Valley floor and one Apollo 11 bulk-soil fraction with grain sizes of less than 1 mm. Compositional differences between the two size fractions of two valley-floor soils are examined, and mixing of soil components is investigated. It is found that a five-component mixing model describes very adequately the chemical composition of bulk soils with grain sizes of less than 1 mm as mixtures of local Apollo 17 rock types (basalt, anorthositic gabbro, noritic breccia), orange glass, and meteorites, but does not describe well the chemical compositions of the other two size fractions. A ten-component model is used to show that the compositions of those two size fractions can be well represented as mixtures of the five components if the mineralogy and chemical composition of the basalt component are allowed to vary in the size fractions.

  1. The nature of the meteoritic components of Apollo 16 soil, as inferred from correlations of iron, cobalt, iridium, and gold with nickel

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Korotev, Randy L.

    1987-01-01

    The Apollo 16 soil concentrations of Ni, Fe, Co, Ir, and Au were studied to determine the correlations with Ni. The correlations obtained indicate that the variation in the siderophile element concentrations in Apollo 16 soils result from the variation in the concentration of a Fe-Ni metal (with the mean composition of 5.6 pct Ni and 0.36 pct Co) that contributes about 0.4-0.5 pct to a typical soil from Apollo 16. It is shown that the siderophile elements of the 'ancient meteorite component' of Anders et al. (1973) and Hertogen et al. (1977) are located in the grains of Fe-Ni metal that in turn are contained in noritic impact melt breccias produced about 3.9 Ga ago. The ancient Fe-Ni is different from the metal of ordinary chondrites by having lower Ni/Co, Ir/Ni, and Ir/Au ratios. It is shown that Ni in the Apollo 16 soil is contributed approximately equally by the 'ancient meteorite component' and the 'micrometeorite component' (dominated by carbonaceous chondrites); however, most of the variation in Ni concentration results from the variation of the ancient Fe-Ni metal among samples of Apollo 16 soil.

  2. CO2 sorption on surface-modified carbonaceous support: Probing the influence of the carbon black microporosity and surface polarity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gargiulo, Valentina; Alfè, Michela; Ammendola, Paola; Raganati, Federica; Chirone, Riccardo

    2016-01-01

    The use of solid sorbents is a convenient option in post-combustion CO2 capture strategies. Sorbents selection is a key point because the materials are required to be both low-cost and versatile in typical post-combustion conditions in order to guarantee an economically advantageous overall process. This work compares strategies to tailor the chemico-physical features of carbon black (CB) by surface-modification and/or coating with a CO2-sorbent phase. The influence of the CB microporosity, enhanced by chemical/thermal treatments, is also taken into account. Three CB surface modifications are performed and compared: (i) oxidation and functionalization with amino-groups, (ii) coating with iron oxides and (iii) impregnation with an ionic liquid (IL). The CO2 capture performance is evaluated on the basis of the breakthrough curves measured at atmospheric pressure and room temperature in a lab-scale fixed bed micro-reactor. Most of tested solids adsorb a CO2 amount significantly higher than a 13X zeolite and DARCO FGD (Norit) activated carbon (up to 4 times more in the best case). The sorbents bearing basic functionalities (amino-groups and IL) exhibit the highest CO2 sorption capacity. The use of a microporous carbonaceous support limits the accessibility of CO2 toward the adsorbing phase (IL or FM) lowering the number of accessible binding sites for CO2.

  3. Tonopah Test Range Air Monitoring: CY2013 Meteorological, Radiological, and Airborne Particulate Observations

    SciTech Connect

    Mizell, Steve A; Nikolich, George; Shadel, Craig; McCurdy, Greg; Etyemezian, Vicken; Miller, Julianne J

    2014-10-01

    In 1963, the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) (formerly the Atomic Energy Commission [AEC]), implemented Operation Roller Coaster on the Tonopah Test Range (TTR) and an adjacent area of the Nevada Test and Training Range (NTTR) (formerly the Nellis Air Force Range). This test resulted in radionuclide-contaminated soils at Clean Slate I, II, and III. This report documents observations made during on-going monitoring of radiological, meteorological, and dust conditions at stations installed adjacent to Clean Slate I and Clean Slate III and at the TTR Range Operations Control center. The primary objective of the monitoring effort is to determine if winds blowing across the Clean Slate sites are transporting particles of radionuclide-contaminated soils beyond both the physical and administrative boundaries of the sites. Results for the calendar year (CY) 2013 monitoring include: (1) the gross alpha and gross beta values from the monitoring stations are approximately equivalent to the highest values observed during the CY2012 reporting at the surrounding Community Environmental Monitoring Program (CEMP) stations (this was the latest documented data available at the time of this writing); (2) only naturally occurring radionuclides were identified in the gamma spectral analyses; (3) the ambient gamma radiation measurements indicate that the average annual gamma exposure is similar at all three monitoring stations and periodic intervals of increased gamma values appear to be associated with storm fronts passing through the area; and (4) the concentrations of both resuspended dust and saltated sand particles generally increase with increasing wind speed. However, differences in the observed dust concentrations are likely due to differences in the soil characteristics immediately adjacent to the monitoring stations. Neither the resuspended particulate radiological analyses nor the ambient gamma radiation measurements suggest wind transport of radionuclide-contaminated soils.

  4. Developmental regulation of the gene for chimeric calcium/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase in anthers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Poovaiah, B. W.; Xia, M.; Liu, Z.; Wang, W.; Yang, T.; Sathyanarayanan, P. V.; Franceschi, V. R.

    1999-01-01

    Chimeric Ca(2+)/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase (CCaMK) was cloned from developing anthers of lily (Lilium longiflorum Thumb. cv. Nellie White) and tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum L. cv. Xanthi). Previous biochemical characterization and structure/function studies had revealed that CCaMK has dual modes of regulation by Ca(2+) and Ca(2+)/calmodulin. The unique structural features of CCaMK include a catalytic domain, a calmodulin-binding domain, and a neural visinin-like Ca(2+)-binding domain. The existence of these three features in a single polypeptide distinguishes it from other kinases. Western analysis revealed that CCaMK is expressed in a stage-specific manner in developing anthers. Expression of CCaMK was first detected in pollen mother cells and continued to increase, reaching a peak around the tetrad stage of meiosis. Following microsporogenesis, CCaMK expression rapidly decreased and at later stages of microspore development, no expression was detected. A tobacco genomic clone of CCaMK was isolated and transgenic tobacco plants were produced carrying the CCaMK promoter fused to the beta-glucuronidase reporter gene. Both CCaMK mRNA and protein were detected in the pollen sac and their localizations were restricted to the pollen mother cells and tapetal cells. Consistent results showing a stage-specific expression pattern were obtained by beta-glucuronidase analysis, in-situ hybridization and immunolocalization. The stage- and tissue-specific appearance of CCaMK in anthers suggests that it could play a role in sensing transient changes in free Ca(2+) concentration in target cells, thereby controlling developmental events in the anther.

  5. The Effect of an Electrically Conducting Lower Mantle on Dynamo Generated Planetary Magnetic Fields

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vilim, R.; Stanley, S.

    2012-12-01

    Recent studies have shown that the lower mantles of Earth[1], Mercury[2], and large terrestrial exoplanets[3, 4] may be good conductors of electricity. This raises questions about the effect of an electrically conducting lower mantle on magnetic field generation in these planets. A core dynamo generated magnetic field can interact with an electrically conducting mantle in two ways. First, magnetic fields lines can be be frozen into the solid mantle. The flows in the core can then stretch the magnetic field lines at the core mantle boundary increasing their strength. Second, any field observed at the surface will be attenuated due to the screening effect, which preferentially attenuates the components of the magnetic field that vary quickest in time. We use a numerical dynamo model to investigate the effect of a conducting mantle on dynamo generated planetary magnetic fields. [1] Ohta, K., Cohen, R. E., Hirose, K., Haule, K., Shimizu, K., and Ohishi, Y. (2012). Experimental and Theoretical Evidence for Pressure-Induced Metallization in FeO with Rocksalt-Type Structure. PRL, 108, 026403 [2] Smith, D. E., Zuber, M. T., Phillips, R. J., Solomon, S. C., Hauck, S. A. II, Lemoine, F. G., Mazarico, E., Neumann, G.A., Peale, S.J., Margot, J.L., Johnson C.L., Torrence, M.H., Perry, M.E., Rowlands D.D., Goossens, S., Head, J.W., Taylor, A.H. (2012). Gravity Field and Internal Structure of Mercury from MESSENGER. Science [3] Nellis, W. J. (2011). Metallic liquid hydrogen and likely Al2O3 metallic glass. The European Physical Journal Special Topics, 196, 121-130 [4] Tsuchiya, T. (2011). Prediction of a hexagonal SiO2 phase affecting stabilities of MgSiO3 and CaSiO3 at multimegabar pressures. PNAS, 108, 1252-1255

  6. Molecular dynamics of water at high temperatures and pressures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brodholt, John; Wood, Bernard

    1990-09-01

    There are currently no precise P-V-T data for water at pressures above 8.9 kbars and temperatures above 900°C. Many petrological processes in the lower crust and upper mantle take place under more extreme conditions, however and petrologists commonly rely on empirical equations of state such as the modified Redlich-Kwong equation (MRK) to extrapolate the low pressure data. In this study we have taken an alternative approach and attempted to simulate the P-V-T properties of water using molecular dynamics. The TIP4P intermolecular potential for H 2O ( JORGENSEN et al., 1983) has had considerable success predicting the properties of water at low temperatures and pressures up to 10 kbar ( MADURA et al., 1988). We have extended its application by making molecular dynamics (MD) simulations at a density of 1.0 g/cc from 300 to 2300 K and 0.5 to 40 kbars. The results agree with the P-V-T data of BURNHAM et al. (1969) (up to 10 kbars) with an average error of under 2%. This is a much better concordance than is obtained with any of the currently used versions of MRK. At 300 kbars and 2000 K the MD simulations predict densities within 8% of those obtained in the shock wave experiments of KORMER (1968). This is a very good agreement given the fact that water ionizes to some extent at high pressures ( MITCHELL and NELLIS, 1982) and we have made no provisions for this effect. We conclude that molecular dynamics simulations provide the possibility of estimating P-V-T properties in the upper mantle P-T regime with very good accuracy.

  7. Institute of Geophyics and Planetary Physics. Annual report for FY 1994

    SciTech Connect

    Ryerson, F.J.

    1995-09-29

    The Institute of Geophysics and Planetary Physics (IGPP) is a Multicampus Research Unit of the University of California (UC). IGPP was founded in 1946 at UC Los Angeles with a charter to further research in the earth and planetary sciences and in related fields. The Institute now has branches at UC campuses in Los Angeles, San Diego, Riverside, and Irvine and at Los Alamos and Lawrence Livermore national laboratories. The University-wide IGPP has played an important role in establishing interdisciplinary research in the earth and planetary sciences. For example, IGPP was instrumental in founding the fields of physical oceanography and space physics, which at the time fell between the cracks of established university departments. Because of its multicampus orientation, IGPP has sponsored important interinstitutional consortia in the earth and planetary sciences. Each of the six branches has a somewhat different intellectual emphasis as a result of the interplay between strengths of campus departments and Laboratory programs. The IGPP branch at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) was approved by the Regents of the University of California in 1982. IGPP-LLNL emphasizes research in seismology, geochemistry, cosmochemistry, high-pressure sciences, and astrophysics. It provides a venue for studying the fundamental aspects of these fields, thereby complementing LLNL programs that pursue applications of these disciplines in national security and energy research. IGPP-LLNL is directed by Charles Alcock and is structured around three research centers. The Center for Geosciences, headed by George Zandt and Frederick Ryerson, focuses on research in geophysics and geochemistry. The Center for High-Pressure Sciences, headed by William Nellis, sponsors research on the properties of planetary materials and on the synthesis and preparation of new materials using high-pressure processing.

  8. Nevada Test Site Environmental Report 2009

    SciTech Connect

    Cathy Wills, ed.

    2010-09-13

    The Nevada Test Site Environmental Report 2009 was prepared to meet the information needs of the public and the requirements and guidelines of the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) for annual site environmental reports. It was prepared by National Security Technologies, LLC (NSTec), for the U.S. Department of Energy, National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Site Office (NNSA/NSO). This and previous years’ Nevada Test Site Environmental Reports (NTSERs) are posted on the NNSA/NSO website at http://www.nv.doe.gov/library/publications/aser.aspx. This NTSER was prepared to satisfy DOE Order DOE O 231.1A, “Environment, Safety and Health Reporting.” Its purpose is to (1) report compliance status with environmental standards and requirements, (2) present results of environmental monitoring of radiological and nonradiological effluents, (3) report estimated radiological doses to the public from releases of radioactive material, (4) summarize environmental incidents of noncompliance and actions taken in response to them, (5) describe the NNSA/NSO Environmental Management System and characterize its performance, and (6) highlight significant environmental programs and efforts. This NTSER summarizes data and compliance status for calendar year 2009 at the Nevada Test Site (NTS) and its two support facilities, the North Las Vegas Facility (NLVF) and the Remote Sensing Laboratory (RSL)-Nellis. It also addresses environmental restoration (ER) projects conducted at the Tonopah Test Range (TTR). Through a Memorandum of Agreement, NNSA/NSO is responsible for the oversight of TTR ER projects, and the Sandia Site Office of NNSA (NNSA/SSO) has oversight of all other TTR activities. NNSA/SSO produces the TTR annual environmental report available at http://www.sandia.gov/news/publications/environmental/index.html.

  9. Nevada National Security Site Radiological Control Manual

    SciTech Connect

    Radiological Control Managers’ Council

    2012-03-26

    This document supersedes DOE/NV/25946--801, 'Nevada Test Site Radiological Control Manual,' Revision 1 issued in February 2010. Brief Description of Revision: A complete revision to reflect a recent change in name for the NTS; changes in name for some tenant organizations; and to update references to current DOE policies, orders, and guidance documents. Article 237.2 was deleted. Appendix 3B was updated. Article 411.2 was modified. Article 422 was re-written to reflect the wording of DOE O 458.1. Article 431.6.d was modified. The glossary was updated. This manual contains the radiological control requirements to be used for all radiological activities conducted by programs under the purview of the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) and the U.S. Department of Energy, National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Site Office (NNSA/NSO). Compliance with these requirements will ensure compliance with Title 10 Code of Federal Regulations (CFR) Part 835, 'Occupational Radiation Protection.' Programs covered by this manual are located at the Nevada National Security Site (NNSS); Nellis Air Force Base and North Las Vegas, Nevada; Santa Barbara and Livermore, California; and Andrews Air Force Base, Maryland. In addition, fieldwork by NNSA/NSO at other locations is covered by this manual. Current activities at NNSS include operating low-level radioactive and mixed waste disposal facilities for United States defense-generated waste, assembly and execution of subcritical experiments, assembly/disassembly of special experiments, the storage and use of special nuclear materials, performing criticality experiments, emergency responder training, surface cleanup and site characterization of contaminated land areas, environmental activity by the University system, and nonnuclear test operations, such as controlled spills of hazardous materials at the Hazardous Materials Spill Center. Currently, the major potential for occupational radiation exposure is associated with the burial of

  10. Clean Slate 2 Revegetation and Monitoring Plan

    SciTech Connect

    David Anderson

    1998-02-01

    This document is a reclamation plan for short-term and long-term stabilization of land disturbed by activities associated with interim clean-up of radionuclide-contaminated surface soil at Clean Slate 2 located northwest of the Nevada Test Site on the Nellis Air Force Range. Surface soils at Clean Slate 2 were contaminated as a result of the detonation of a device containing plutonium and depleted uranium using chemical explosives. Excavation of contaminated soils at Clean Slate 2 will follow procedures similar to those used during the cleanup of the Double Tracks and Clean Slate 1 sites. A maximum of approximately 33 cm (12 in) of the surface soils will be excavated and removed from the site. Near ground zero, where contamination levels are highest, approximately 2 m (7 ft) of soil may be removed. The maximum area to be excavated is estimated to be 18.4 hectares (45.4) acres. In addition to the disturbance associated with soil excavation, approximately 2.0 hectares (5.0) acres will be disturbed by the construction of staging areas and placement of support facilities. Short term stabilization consists of an application of a chemical soil stabilizer and long-term stabilizations involves the establishment of a permanent vegetative cover using selective native plant species, site preparation techniques, increasing organic matter and water holding capacity, irrigation to ensure seed germination and plant establishment. The cleanup site will be monitored to ensure success of revegetation and resuspension of soil particles is within established limits.

  11. Tonopah Test Range Air Monitoring. CY2014 Meteorological, Radiological, and Airborne Particulate Observations

    SciTech Connect

    Nikoloch, George; Shadel, Craig; Chapman, Jenny; Mizell, Steve A.; McCurdy, Greg; Etyemezian, Vicken; Miller, Julianne J.

    2015-10-01

    In 1963, the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) (formerly the Atomic Energy Commission [AEC]), implemented Operation Roller Coaster on the Tonopah Test Range (TTR) and an adjacent area of the Nevada Test and Training Range (NTTR) (formerly the Nellis Air Force Range). This test resulted in radionuclide-contaminated soils at Clean Slate I, II, and III. This report documents observations made during ongoing monitoring of radiological, meteorological, and dust conditions at stations installed adjacent to Clean Slate I and Clean Slate III and at the TTR Range Operations Control center. The primary objective of the monitoring effort is to determine if winds blowing across the Clean Slate sites are transporting particles of radionuclide-contaminated soils beyond both the physical and administrative boundaries of the sites. Results for the calendar year (CY) 2014 monitoring are: (1) the gross alpha and gross beta values from the monitoring stations are approximately equivalent to the highest values observed during the CY2014 reporting at the surrounding Community Environmental Monitoring Program (CEMP) stations; (2) only naturally occurring radionuclides were identified in the gamma spectral analyses; (3) the ambient gamma radiation measurements indicate that the average annual gamma exposure is similar at all three monitoring stations and periodic intervals of increased gamma values appear to be associated with storm fronts passing through the area; and (4) the concentrations of both resuspended dust and saltated sand particles generally increase with increasing wind speed. Differences in the observed dust concentrations are likely the result of differences in the soil characteristics immediately adjacent to the monitoring stations. Neither the resuspended particulate radiological analyses nor the ambient gamma radiation measurements suggest wind transport of radionuclide-contaminated soils.

  12. Exploring for hydrocarbons in geothermally and hydrothermally complex areas -- a southern Nevada example

    SciTech Connect

    Harris, A.G.; Repetski, J.E.; Grow, J.A.

    1995-06-01

    Time-based isograd maps using conodont color alteration indices (CAI) have been compiled and interpreted for a large area in southern Nevada that includes Yucca Mountain, the Nevada Test Site, and the Nellis Air Force Bombing and Gunnery Range. These maps were produced to evaluate the controversy about possible important mineral and (or) energy resources near Yucca Mountain, the potential burial site for high-level nuclear waste. The hydrocarbon potential of the Yucca Mountain area has been likened to that of the Railroad and Pine Valley areas, 200 km to the northeast where 35 million barrels of oil have been produced from Paleozoic and lower Tertiary strata. In 1991, two companies with no previous drilling experience in Nevada drilled three oil exploration wells within 20 km of Yucca Mountain and within or close to the Timber Mountain caldera system. No shows of oil or gas were found in these wells. The deepest well was drilled to 5,000 feet and penetrated 2,200 feet of upper Tertiary valley-fill deposits and volcanic rocks overlying an overturned sequence of Upper Cambrian and Lower Ordovician rocks having conodonts with CAI values of 5. Our new conodont sampling, however, has targeted some thermally favorable areas for hydrocarbons east of Yucca mountain, but their maturation history suggests that the potential for oil is substantially lower than in the Railroad and Pine Valley areas. Cambrian through Triassic rocks in the vicinity of Yucca Mountain have experienced temperatures too high for oil to be preserved, except for a narrow zone (20 x 100 km) northeast of Yucca Mountain, where Mississippian through Triassic rocks are just within the upper limit of the oil generating window. Most of this zone, however, lies on Federal lands that are, for now, inaccessible for a variety of security and environmental reasons.

  13. Sound velocities in highly oriented pyrolytic graphite shocked to 18 GPa: Orientational order dependence and elastic instability

    SciTech Connect

    Lucas, Marcel; Winey, J. M.; Gupta, Y. M.

    2015-12-28

    Previous reports of rapid phase transformation above 18 GPa [Erskine and Nellis, Nature 349, 317 (1991)] and large elastic waves below 18 GPa [Lucas et al., J. Appl. Phys. 114, 093515 (2013)] for shock-compressed ZYB-grade highly-oriented pyrolytic graphite (HOPG), but not for less oriented ZYH-grade HOPG, indicated a link between the orientational order dependence of the HOPG response above and below the phase transformation stress. To gain insight into this link and into the mechanical response of HOPG shocked to peak stresses approaching the phase transformation onset, the compressibility of ZYB- and ZYH-grade HOPG in the shocked state was examined using front surface impact experiments. Particle velocity histories and sound velocities were measured for peak stresses reaching 18 GPa. Although the locus of the measured peak stress-particle velocity states is indistinguishable for the two grades of HOPG, the measured sound velocities in the peak state reveal significant differences between the two grades. Specifically, 1) The measured sound velocities are somewhat higher for ZYH-grade HOPG, compared to ZYB-grade HOPG. 2) The measured sound velocities for ZYH-grade HOPG increase smoothly with compression, whereas those for ZYB-2 grade HOPG exhibit a significant reduction in the compression dependence from 12 GPa to 17 GPa and an abrupt increase from 17 GPa to 18 GPa. 3) The longitudinal moduli, determined from the measured sound velocities, are smaller than the calculated bulk moduli for ZYB-grade HOPG shocked to peak stresses above 15 GPa, indicating the onset of an elastic instability. The present findings demonstrate that the softening of the longitudinal modulus (or elastic instability) presented here is linked to the large elastic waves and the rapid phase transformation reported previously – all observed only for shocked ZYB-grade HOPG. The elastic instability in shocked ZYB-grade HOPG is likely a precursor to the rapid phase transformation observed above

  14. Evaluation of soil radioactivity data from the Nevada Test Site

    SciTech Connect

    1995-03-01

    Since 1951, 933 nuclear tests have been conducted at the Nevada Test Site (NTS) and test areas on the adjacent Tonopah Test Range (TTR) and Nellis Air Force Range (NAFR). Until the early 1960s. the majority of tests were atmospheric, involving detonation of nuclear explosive devices on the ground or on a tower, suspended from a balloon or dropped from an airplane. Since the signing of the Limited Test Ban Treaty in 1963, most tests have been conducted underground, although several shallow subsurface tests took place between 1962 and 1968. As a result of the aboveground and near-surface nuclear explosions, as well as ventings of underground tests, destruction of nuclear devices with conventional explosives, and nuclear-rocket engine tests, the surface soil on portions of the NTS has been contaminated with radionuclides. Relatively little consideration was given to the environmental effects of nuclear testing during the first two decades of operations at the NTS. Since the early 1970s, however, increasingly strict environmental regulations have forced greater attention to be given to contamination problems at the site and how to remediate them. One key element in the current environmental restoration program at the NTS is determining the amount and extent of radioactivity in the surface soil. The general distribution of soil radioactivity on the NTS is already well known as a result of several programs carried out in the 1970s and 1980s. However, questions have been raised as to whether the data from those earlier studies are suitable for use in the current environmental assessments and risk analyses. The primary purpose of this preliminary data review is to determine to what extent the historical data collected at the NTS can be used in the characterization/remediation process.

  15. Corrective Action Investigation Plan for Corrective Action Unit No. 423: Building 03-60 Underground Discharge Point, Tonopah Test Range, Nevada

    SciTech Connect

    DOE /NV

    1997-10-01

    This Corrective Action Investigation Plan (CAIP) has been developed in accordance with the Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order (FFACO) that was agreed to by the US Department of Energy, Nevada Operations Office (DOE/NV), the State of Nevada Division of Environmental Protection (NDEP), and the US Department of Defense. The CAIP is a document that provides or references all of the specific information for investigation activities associated with Corrective Action Units (CAUS) or Corrective Action Sites (CASs) (FFACO, 1996). As per the FFACO (1996), CASs are sites potentially requiring corrective action(s) and may include solid waste management units or individual disposal or release sites. Corrective Action Units consist of one or more CASs grouped together based on geography, technical similarity, or agency responsibility for the purpose of determining corrective actions. This CAIP contains the environmental sample collection objectives and the criteria for conducting site investigation activities at CAU No. 423, the Building 03-60 Underground Discharge Point (UDP), which is located in Area 3 at the Tonopah Test Range (TTR). The TTR, part of the Nellis Air Force Range, is approximately 225 kilometers (km) (140 miles [mi]) northwest of Las Vegas, Nevada (Figures 1-1 and 1-2). Corrective Action Unit No. 423 is comprised of only one CAS (No. 03-02-002-0308), which includes the Building 03-60 UDP and an associated discharge line extending from Building 03-60 to a point approximately 73 meters (m) (240 feet [ft]) northwest as shown on Figure 1-3.

  16. Corrective action investigation plan for the Roller Coaster RADSAFE Area, Corrective Action Unit 407, Tonopah Test Range, Nevada

    SciTech Connect

    1998-04-01

    This Corrective Action Investigation Plan (CAIP) has been developed in accordance with the Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order (FFACO) that was agreed to by the US Department of Energy, Nevada Operations Office (DOE/NV); the State of Nevada Division of Environmental Protection (NDEP); and the US Department of Defense (FFACO, 1996). The CAIP is a document that provides or references all of the specific information for investigation activities associated with Corrective Action Units (CAUs) or Corrective Action Sites (CASs). According to the FFACO (1996), CASs are sites potentially requiring corrective action(s) and may include solid waste management units or individual disposal or release sites. CAUs consist of one or more CASs grouped together based on geography, technical similarity, or agency responsibility for the purpose of determining corrective actions. This CAIP contains the environmental sample collection objectives and the criteria for conducting site investigation activities at CAU No. 407, the Roller Coaster RADSAFE Area (RCRSA) which is located on the Tonopah Test Range (TTR). The TTR, included in the Nellis Air Force Range Complex, is approximately 255 km (140 mi) northwest of Las Vegas, Nevada. CAU No. 407 is comprised of only one CAS (TA-23-001-TARC). The RCRSA was used during May and June 1963 to decontaminate vehicles, equipment, and personnel from the Clean Slate tests. The surface and subsurface soils are likely to have been impacted by plutonium and other contaminants of potential concern (COPCs) associated with decontamination activities at this site. The purpose of the corrective action investigation described in this CAIP is to: identify the presence and nature of COPCs; determine the vertical and lateral extent of COPCs; and provide sufficient information and data to develop and evaluate appropriate corrective actions for the CAS.

  17. Corrective action decision document, Second Gas Station, Tonopah test range, Nevada (Corrective Action Unit No. 403)

    SciTech Connect

    1997-11-01

    This Corrective Action Decision Document (CADD) for Second Gas Station (Corrective Action Unit [CAU] No. 403) has been developed for the U.S. Department of Energy`s (DOE) Nevada Environmental Restoration Project to meet the requirements of the Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order (FFACO) of 1996 as stated in Appendix VI, {open_quotes}Corrective Action Strategy{close_quotes} (FFACO, 1996). The Second Gas Station Corrective Action Site (CAS) No. 03-02-004-0360 is the only CAS in CAU No. 403. The Second Gas Station CAS is located within Area 3 of the Tonopah Test Range (TTR), west of the Main Road at the location of former Underground Storage Tanks (USTs) and their associated fuel dispensary stations. The TTR is approximately 225 kilometers (km) (140 miles [mi]) northwest of Las Vegas, Nevada, by air and approximately 56 km (35 mi) southeast of Tonopah, Nevada, by road. The TTR is bordered on the south, east, and west by the Nellis Air Force Range and on the north by sparsely populated public land administered by the Bureau of Land Management and the U.S. Forest Service. The Second Gas Station CAS was formerly known as the Underground Diesel Tank Site, Sandia Environmental Restoration Site Number 118. The gas station was in use from approximately 1965 to 1980. The USTs were originally thought to be located 11 meters (m) (36 feet [ft]) east of the Old Light Duty Shop, Building 0360, and consisted of one gasoline UST (southern tank) and one diesel UST (northern tank) (DOE/NV, 1996a). The two associated fuel dispensary stations were located northeast (diesel) and southeast (gasoline) of Building 0360 (CAU 423). Presently the site is used as a parking lot, Building 0360 is used for mechanical repairs of vehicles.

  18. Earth Observations taken by Expedition 26 crewmember

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2010-11-26

    ISS026-E-006255 (30 Nov. 2010) --- This night time image, photographed by an Expedition 26 crew member on the International Space Station, features the Las Vegas, Nevada metropolitan area, located near the southern tip of the state within the Mohave Desert of the southwestern USA. While the city of Las Vegas proper is famous for its casinos and resort hotels – the city bills itself as “the entertainment capital of the world” – the metropolitan area includes several other incorporated cities and unincorporated (not part of a state-recognized municipality) areas. Crew members onboard the ISS observe and photograph numerous metropolitan sites when the areas are illuminated by sunlight, but the extent and pattern of these areas are perhaps best revealed by the city lights at night. The surrounding dark desert presents a stark contrast to the brightly lit, regular street grid of the developed metropolitan area. The Vegas Strip (center) is reputed to be the brightest spot on Earth due to the concentration of lights associated with its hotels and casinos. The tarmac of McCarran International Airport to the south is a dark feature by comparison. The airstrips of Nellis Air Force Base on the northeastern fringe of the metropolitan area are likewise dark compared to the well-lit adjacent streets and neighborhoods. The dark mass of Frenchman Mountain borders the metropolitan area to the east. Acquisition of focused night time images such as this one requires space station crew members to track the target with the handheld camera while the ISS is moving at a speed of more than seven kilometers per second (15,659 miles per hour) relative to Earth’s surface. This was achieved during ISS Expedition Six using a homemade tracking device, but subsequent crews have needed to develop manual tracking skills. These skills, together with advances in digital camera technology, have enabled recent ISS crews to acquire striking night time images of Earth.

  19. Hot Oxygen Corona in Mars' Upper Thermosphere and Exosphere: A Comparison of Results Using the MGITM and MTGCM

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Y.; Combi, M. R.; Tenishev, V.; Bougher, S. W.

    2013-12-01

    The evaluation of the global atmospheric loss rate and the water inventory allows a better understanding of the physics that drives the current state of the Martian atmosphere. The production of energetic particles in Mars's upper thermosphere and exosphere results in the formation of the hot corona, where the most of the escape of neutral atoms occur. In this study, we evaluate the oxygen atom inventory by studying the production and distribution of energetic oxygen. Dissociative recombination (DR) of O2+ ion is the dominant source of the production of hot atomic oxygen, which occurs mostly deep in the dayside of the thermosphere, and the most important reaction in the Martian atmosphere. For the computation, we adopt the latest available branching ratios and appropriate choice of the rate coefficient. We carry out a study of the seasonal and solar cycle variability on the hot oxygen corona. To describe self-consistently the upper thermosphere and exosphere, a combination of our 3D Direct Simulation Monte Carlo (DSMC) model [Valeille, A., Combi, M., Bougher, S., Tenishev, V., Nagy, A., 2009. J. Geophys. Res. 114, E11006. doi:10.1029/2009JE003389] and the 3D Mars Thermosphere General Circulation Model (MTGCM) [Bougher, S. W., Bell, J. M., Murphy, J. R., Lopez-Valverde, M. A., Withers, P. G., 2006. Geophys. Res. Lett. 32, doi: 10.1029/2005GL024059. L02203] is used. The simulated results using MTGCM as the thermosphere / ionosphere input are compared with those using Mars Global Ionosphere Thermosphere Model (MGITM) [Bougher, S. W., Pawlowski, D., Bell, J., Nelli, S., McDunn, T., Murphy, J., Chizek, M., and Ridley, A., 2013. in final preparation], the newly developed 3D Martian atmosphere model. In this comparison, we investigate the differences in the results and the impacts of the recent development of the atmosphere model on the hot oxygen corona. This study also compares our computed total oxygen escape rate with those from other recent exosphere model studies.

  20. Methodology for calculating guideline concentrations for safety shot sites

    SciTech Connect

    1997-06-01

    Residual plutonium (Pu), with trace quantities of depleted uranium (DU) or weapons grade uranium (WU), exists in surficial soils at the Nevada Test Site (NTS), Nellis Air Force Range (NAFR), and the Tonopah Test Range (TTR) as the result of the above-ground testing of nuclear weapons and special experiments involving the detonation of plutonium-bearing devices. The special experiments (referred to as safety shots) involving plutonium-bearing devices were conducted to study the behavior of Pu as it was being explosively compressed; ensure that the accidental detonation of the chemical explosive in a production weapon would not result in criticality; evaluate the ability of personnel to manage large-scale Pu dispersal accidents; and develop criteria for transportation and storage of nuclear weapons. These sites do not pose a health threat to either workers or the general public because they are under active institutional control. The DOE is committed to remediating the safety shot sites so that radiation exposure to the public, both now and in the future, will be maintained within the established limits and be as low as reasonably achievable. Remediation requires calculation of a guideline concentration for the Pu, U, and their decay products that are present in the surface soil. This document presents the methodology for calculating guideline concentrations of weapons grade plutonium, weapons grade uranium, and depleted uranium in surface soils at the safety shot sites. Emphasis is placed on obtaining site-specific data for use in calculating dose to potential residents from the residual soil contamination.

  1. Postpartum weight retention is associated with elevated ratio of oxidized LDL lipids to HDL-cholesterol.

    PubMed

    Puhkala, Jatta; Luoto, Riitta; Ahotupa, Markku; Raitanen, Jani; Vasankari, Tommi

    2013-12-01

    Oxidized LDL lipids (ox-LDL) are associated with lifestyle diseases such as cardiovascular diseases, metabolic syndrome and type 2 diabetes. The present study investigated how postpartum weight retention effects on ox-LDL and serum lipids. The study is a nested comparative research of a cluster-randomized controlled trial, NELLI (lifestyle and counselling during pregnancy). During early pregnancy (8-12 weeks) and 1 year postpartum, 141 women participated in measurements for determining of plasma lipids: total cholesterol (T-C), LDL-cholesterol (LDL-C), HDL-cholesterol (HDL-C), triacylglycerols (TAG) and ox-LDL. Subjects were stratified into tertiles (weight loss, unaltered weight and weight gain groups) based on their weight change from baseline to follow-up. Ox-LDL was determined by baseline level of conjugated dienes in LDL lipids. Among the group of weight gainers, concentration of TAG reduced less (-0.14 vs. -0.33, p = 0.002), HDL-C reduced more (-0.31 vs. -0.16, p = 0.003) and ox-LDL/HDL-C ratio increased (3.0 vs. -0.2, p = 0.003) when compared to group of weight loss. Both T-C and LDL-C elevated more (0.14 vs. -0.21, p = 0.008; 0.31 vs. 0.07, p = 0.015) and TAG and ox-LDL reduced less (-0.33 vs. 0.20, p = 0.033; -3.33 vs. -0.68, p = 0.026) in unaltered weight group compared to weight loss group. The women who gained weight developed higher TAG and ox-LDL/HDL-C ratio as compared to those who lost weight. Postpartum weight retention of 3.4 kg or more is associated with atherogenic lipid profile.

  2. Surface and Airborne Arsenic Concentrations in a Recreational Site near Las Vegas, Nevada, USA.

    PubMed

    Goossens, Dirk; Buck, Brenda J; Teng, Yuanxin; McLaurin, Brett T

    2015-01-01

    Elevated concentrations of arsenic, up to 7058 μg g(-1) in topsoil and bedrock, and more than 0.03 μg m(-3) in air on a 2-week basis, were measured in the Nellis Dunes Recreation Area (NDRA), a very popular off-road area near Las Vegas, Nevada, USA. The elevated arsenic concentrations in the topsoil and bedrock are correlated to outcrops of yellow sandstone belonging to the Muddy Creek Formation (≈ 10 to 4 Ma) and to faults crossing the area. Mineralized fluids moved to the surface through the faults and deposited the arsenic. A technique was developed to calculate airborne arsenic concentrations from the arsenic content in the topsoil. The technique was tested by comparing calculated with measured concentrations at 34 locations in the NDRA, for 3 periods of 2 weeks each. We then applied it to calculate airborne arsenic concentrations for more than 500 locations all over the NDRA. The highest airborne arsenic concentrations occur over sand dunes and other zones with a surficial layer of aeolian sand. Ironically these areas show the lowest levels of arsenic in the topsoil. However, they are highly susceptible to wind erosion and emit very large amounts of sand and dust during episodes of strong winds, thereby also emitting much arsenic. Elsewhere in the NDRA, in areas not or only very slightly affected by wind erosion, airborne arsenic levels equal the background level for airborne arsenic in the USA, approximately 0.0004 μg m(-3). The results of this study are important because the NDRA is visited by more than 300,000 people annually.

  3. American Recovery and Reinvestment Act (ARRA) FEMP Technical Assistance for Geothermal Resource Evaluation Projects

    SciTech Connect

    Robert P. Breckenridge; Thomas R. Wood; Joel Renner

    2010-09-01

    The purpose of this document is to report on the evaluation of geothermal resource potential on and around three different United States (U. S.) Air Force Bases (AFBs): Nellis AFB and Air Force Range (AFR) in the State of Nevada (see maps 1 and 5), Holloman AFB in the State of New Mexico (see map 2), and Mountain Home AFB in the State of Idaho (see map 3). All three sites are located in semi-arid parts of the western U. S. The U. S. Air Force, through its Air Combat Command (ACC) located at Langley AFB in the State of Virginia, asked the Federal Energy Management Program (FEMP) for technical assistance to conduct technical and feasibility evaluations for the potential to identify viable geothermal resources on or around three different AFBs. Idaho National Laboratory (INL) is supporting FEMP in providing technical assistance to a number of different Federal Agencies. For this report, the three different AFBs are considered one project because they all deal with potential geothermal resource evaluations. The three AFBs will be evaluated primarily for their opportunity to develop a geothermal resource of high enough quality grade (i.e., temperature, productivity, depth, etc.) to consider the possibility for generation of electricity through a power plant. Secondarily, if the resource for the three AFBs is found to be not sufficient enough for electricity generation, then they will be described in enough detail to allow the base energy managers to evaluate if the resource is suitable for direct heating or cooling. Site visits and meetings by INL personnel with the staff at each AFB were held in late FY-2009 and FY-2010. This report provides a technical evaluation of the opportunities and challenges for developing geothermal resources on and around the AFBs. An extensive amount of literature and geographic information was evaluated as a part of this assessment. Resource potential maps were developed for each of the AFBs.

  4. Developmental regulation of the gene for chimeric calcium/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase in anthers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Poovaiah, B. W.; Xia, M.; Liu, Z.; Wang, W.; Yang, T.; Sathyanarayanan, P. V.; Franceschi, V. R.

    1999-01-01

    Chimeric Ca(2+)/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase (CCaMK) was cloned from developing anthers of lily (Lilium longiflorum Thumb. cv. Nellie White) and tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum L. cv. Xanthi). Previous biochemical characterization and structure/function studies had revealed that CCaMK has dual modes of regulation by Ca(2+) and Ca(2+)/calmodulin. The unique structural features of CCaMK include a catalytic domain, a calmodulin-binding domain, and a neural visinin-like Ca(2+)-binding domain. The existence of these three features in a single polypeptide distinguishes it from other kinases. Western analysis revealed that CCaMK is expressed in a stage-specific manner in developing anthers. Expression of CCaMK was first detected in pollen mother cells and continued to increase, reaching a peak around the tetrad stage of meiosis. Following microsporogenesis, CCaMK expression rapidly decreased and at later stages of microspore development, no expression was detected. A tobacco genomic clone of CCaMK was isolated and transgenic tobacco plants were produced carrying the CCaMK promoter fused to the beta-glucuronidase reporter gene. Both CCaMK mRNA and protein were detected in the pollen sac and their localizations were restricted to the pollen mother cells and tapetal cells. Consistent results showing a stage-specific expression pattern were obtained by beta-glucuronidase analysis, in-situ hybridization and immunolocalization. The stage- and tissue-specific appearance of CCaMK in anthers suggests that it could play a role in sensing transient changes in free Ca(2+) concentration in target cells, thereby controlling developmental events in the anther.

  5. Insulator to semiconductor transformation of planetary ice mixtures compressed by laser-driven shock wave and its implication for interior properties of icy giant planets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Okuchi, T.; Ozaki, N.; Sano, T.; Sakawa, Y.; Kodama, R.

    2016-12-01

    Molecular ices in the universe are consisting of hydrogen, oxygen, carbon, and nitrogen. Such ices containing these elements coalesced to develop into icy giant planets such as Uranus, Neptune, as well as those in some extrasolar planetary systems. Properties of such planetary ices at elevated pressures and temperatures are essential clues for understanding the layering structures and material circulations inside these icy giant planets. In particular, strong magnetic fields are generated in the deep interiors of these planets by thermal convection, so that the planetary ices are expected to be electrically conductive at the relevant pressure and temperature conditions.Here by using high-power nanosecond laser pulses from GEKKO-XII neodymium-doped glass laser system installed at the Institute of Laser Engineering, Osaka University, four distinct chemical types of planetary ices are shock-compressed, and initial appearance and subsequent increase of free electron careers within each chemical type are experimentally observed. The chemical types include (i) H2O, (ii) H2O + carbon, (iii) H2O + nitrogen, and (iv) H2O + carbon + nitrogen. Their hydrogen/oxygen to carbon and hydrogen/oxygen to nitrogen molar ratios reflect that of the cosmic ice, so that our type (iv) corresponds to "synthetic Uranus" used by Nellis and coworkers. The measured conditions include pressures between 50 GPa to 190 GPa and temperatures between 3000 K and 14000 K, which were simultaneously determined with density and optical reflectivity at 532 nm of the solutions using picosecond time-resolved optical diagnostics for shock-compressed state of the materials. A common occurrence of insulator to electronic semiconductor transition was observed for all the chemical types, while the transition pressure conditions are substantially different among these types. Carbon-bearing ices consistently show lower transition pressure and temperature, indicating that electronically semiconducting states inside

  6. The role of the LLNL Atmospheric Release Advisory Capability in a FRMAC response to a nuclear power plant incident

    SciTech Connect

    Baskett, R.L.; Sullivan, T.J.; Ellis, J.S.; Foster, C.S.

    1994-12-31

    The Federal Radiological Emergency Response Plan (FRERP) can provide several emergency response resources in response to a nuclear power plant (NPP) accident if requested by a state or local agency. The primary FRERP technical resources come from the US Department of Energy`s (DOE) Federal Radiological Monitoring and Assessment Center (FRMAC). Most of the FRMAC assets are located at the DOE Remote Sensing Laboratory (RSL) at Nellis Air Force Base, Las Vegas, Nevada. In addition, the primary atmospheric dispersion modeling and dose assessment asset, the Atmospheric Release Advisory Capability (ARAC) is located at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) in Livermore, California. In the early stages of a response, ARAC relies on its automatic worldwide meteorological data acquisition via the Air Force Global Weather Center (AFGWC). The regional airport data are supplemented with data from on-site towers and sodars and the National Oceanographic & Atmospheric Administration`s (NOAA) field-deployable real-time rawinsonde system. ARAC is prepared with three-dimensional regional-scale diagnostic dispersion model to simulate the complex mixed fission product release from a reactor accident. The program has been operational for 18 years and is presently developing its third generation system. The current modernization includes faster central computers, a new site workstation system. The current modernization includes faster central computers, a new site workstation system, improvements in its diagnostic dispersion models, addition of a new hybrid-particle source term, and implementation of a mesoscale prognostic model. AS these new capabilities evolve, they will be integrated into the FRMAC`s field-deployable assets.

  7. Corrrective action decision document for the Cactus Spring Waste Trenches (Corrective Action Unit No. 426). Revision No. 1

    SciTech Connect

    1997-06-01

    The Corrective Action Decision Document (CADD) for the Cactus Spring Waste Trenches (Corrective Action Unit [CAU] No. 426) has been prepared for the US Department of Energy`s (DOE) Nevada Environmental Restoration Project. This CADD has been developed to meet the requirements of the Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order (FFACO) of 1996, stated in Appendix VI, {open_quotes}Corrective Action Strategy{close_quotes} (FFACO, 1996). The Cactus Spring Waste Trenches Corrective Action Site (CAS) No. RG-08-001-RG-CS is included in CAU No. 426 (also referred to as the {open_quotes}trenches{close_quotes}); it has been identified as one of three potential locations for buried, radioactively contaminated materials from the Double Tracks Test. The trenches are located on the east flank of the Cactus Range in the eastern portion of the Cactus Spring Ranch at the Tonopah Test Range (TTR) in Nye County, Nevada, on the northern portion of Nellis Air Force Range. The TTR is approximately 225 kilometers (km) (140 miles [mi]) northwest of Las Vegas, Nevada, by air and approximately 56 km (35 mi) southeast of Tonopah, Nevada, by road. The trenches were dug for the purpose of receiving waste generated during Operation Roller Coaster, primarily the Double Tracks Test. This test, conducted in 1963, involved the use of live animals to assess the biological hazards associated with non-nuclear detonation of plutonium-bearing devices (i.e., inhalation uptake of plutonium aerosol). The CAS consists of four trenches that received solid waste and had an overall impacted area of approximately 36 meters (m) (120 feet [ft]) long x 24 m (80 ft) wide x 3 to 4.5 m (10 to 15 ft) deep. The average depressions at the trenches are approximately 0.3 m (1 ft) below land surface.

  8. Naturally Occurring Asbestos in the Southern Nevada Region: Potential for Human Exposure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Buck, B. J.; Metcalf, R. V.; Berry, D.; McLaurin, B.; Kent, D.; Januch, J.; Goossens, D.

    2015-12-01

    Naturally occurring fibrous actinolite, winchite, magnesioriebeckite, richterite, magnesiohornblende, and erionite have been found in rock, soil, and dust in southern Nevada and northwestern Arizona. The areas containing naturally occurring asbestos (NOA) include urban areas (e.g. Boulder City) and rural areas where people routinely enjoy outdoor activities including horseback riding, running, hiking, bicycling, and off-road-vehicle (ORV) recreation. A recent study showing mesothelioma in young people and women suggests some form of environmental exposure. Rock, soil, dust and clothing were analyzed using scanning electron microscope (SEM) and energy dispersive spectroscopy (EDS); additional rock samples were analyzed using wavelength dispersive electron probe microanalysis (EPMA); additional soil samples were analyzed using PLM (polarizing light microscopy) and TEM (transmission electron microscopy) using the Fluidized Bed Asbestos Segregator preparation method. Winds have transported and mixed the Ca-amphiboles, which are primarily from Nevada, with the Na-amphiboles that are primarily from northwestern Arizona. Erionite, which has not previously been reported in this area, was a common soil component found in 5 of 6 samples. The erionite source has not yet been determined. Winds have transported the amphibole and erionite particles into the Nellis Dunes Recreation Area - an ORV recreation area located 35 km north of Boulder City that otherwise would not be geologically predicted to contain fibrous amphiboles. In Boulder City, wind directions are primarily bimodal N-NE and S-SW with the strongest winds in the spring coming from the S-SW. The arid climate in this part of the Mojave Desert greatly increases the potential for wind erosion and human exposures. These results suggest that the entire Las Vegas Basin has, at times, received these particles through wind transport. Because the most likely human exposure pathway is through inhalation of dust, the Las Vegas

  9. Surface and Airborne Arsenic Concentrations in a Recreational Site near Las Vegas, Nevada, USA

    PubMed Central

    Goossens, Dirk

    2015-01-01

    Elevated concentrations of arsenic, up to 7058 μg g-1 in topsoil and bedrock, and more than 0.03 μg m-3 in air on a 2-week basis, were measured in the Nellis Dunes Recreation Area (NDRA), a very popular off-road area near Las Vegas, Nevada, USA. The elevated arsenic concentrations in the topsoil and bedrock are correlated to outcrops of yellow sandstone belonging to the Muddy Creek Formation (≈ 10 to 4 Ma) and to faults crossing the area. Mineralized fluids moved to the surface through the faults and deposited the arsenic. A technique was developed to calculate airborne arsenic concentrations from the arsenic content in the topsoil. The technique was tested by comparing calculated with measured concentrations at 34 locations in the NDRA, for 3 periods of 2 weeks each. We then applied it to calculate airborne arsenic concentrations for more than 500 locations all over the NDRA. The highest airborne arsenic concentrations occur over sand dunes and other zones with a surficial layer of aeolian sand. Ironically these areas show the lowest levels of arsenic in the topsoil. However, they are highly susceptible to wind erosion and emit very large amounts of sand and dust during episodes of strong winds, thereby also emitting much arsenic. Elsewhere in the NDRA, in areas not or only very slightly affected by wind erosion, airborne arsenic levels equal the background level for airborne arsenic in the USA, approximately 0.0004 μg m-3. The results of this study are important because the NDRA is visited by more than 300,000 people annually. PMID:25897667

  10. The History of the APS Shock Compression of Condensed Matter Topical Group

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Forbes, Jerry W.

    2001-06-01

    To provide broader scientific recognition and to advance the science of shock-compressed condensed matter, a group of APS members worked within the Society to make this technical field an active part of APS. Individual papers were given at APS meetings starting in the 1950’s and then later whole sessions were organized starting at the 1967 Pasadena meeting. Topical conferences began in 1979 in Pullman, WA where George Duvall and Dennis Hayes were co-chairs. Most all early topical conferences were sanctioned by the APS while those held after 1985 were official APS meetings. In 1984, after consulting with a number of people in the shock wave field, Robert Graham circulated a petition to form an APS topical group. He obtained signatures from a balanced cross-section of the community. William Havens, the executive secretary of APS, informed Robert Graham by letter on November 28, 1984 that the APS Council had officially accepted the formation of this topical group at its October 28, 1984 meeting. The first election occurred July 23, 1985 where Robert Graham was elected chairman, William Nellis vice-chairman, and Jerry Forbes secretary/treasurer. The topical group remains viable today by holding a topical conference in odd numbered years and shock wave sessions at APS general meetings in even numbered years A major benefit of being an official unit of APS is the allotment of APS fellows every year. The APS shock compression award established in 1987, has also provided broad recognition of many major scientific accomplishments in this field.

  11. Surviving coral bleaching events: porites growth anomalies on the Great Barrier Reef.

    PubMed

    Cantin, Neal E; Lough, Janice M

    2014-01-01

    Mass coral bleaching affected large parts of the Great Barrier Reef (GBR) in 1998 and 2002. In this study, we assessed if signatures of these major thermal stress events were recorded in the growth characteristics of massive Porites colonies. In 2005 a suite of short (<50 cm) cores were collected from apparently healthy, surviving Porites colonies, from reefs in the central GBR (18-19°S) that have documented observations of widespread bleaching. Sites included inshore (Nelly Bay, Pandora Reef), annually affected by freshwater flood events, midshelf (Rib Reef), only occasionally affected by freshwater floods and offshore (Myrmidon Reef) locations primarily exposed to open ocean conditions. Annual growth characteristics (extension, density and calcification) were measured in 144 cores from 79 coral colonies and analysed over the common 24-year period, 1980-2003. Visual examination of the annual density bands revealed growth hiatuses associated with the bleaching years in the form of abrupt decreases in annual linear extension rates, high density stress bands and partial mortality. The 1998 mass-bleaching event reduced Porites calcification by 13 and 18% on the two inshore locations for 4 years, followed by recovery to baseline calcification rates in 2002. Evidence of partial mortality was apparent in 10% of the offshore colonies in 2002; however no significant effects of the bleaching events were evident in the calcification rates at the mid shelf and offshore sites. These results highlight the spatial variation of mass bleaching events and that all reef locations within the GBR were not equally stressed by the 1998 and 2002 mass bleaching events, as some models tend to suggest, which enabled recovery of calcification on the GBR within 4 years. The dynamics in annual calcification rates and recovery displayed here should be used to improve model outputs that project how coral calcification will respond to ongoing warming of the tropical oceans.

  12. Surviving Coral Bleaching Events: Porites Growth Anomalies on the Great Barrier Reef

    PubMed Central

    Cantin, Neal E.; Lough, Janice M.

    2014-01-01

    Mass coral bleaching affected large parts of the Great Barrier Reef (GBR) in 1998 and 2002. In this study, we assessed if signatures of these major thermal stress events were recorded in the growth characteristics of massive Porites colonies. In 2005 a suite of short (<50 cm) cores were collected from apparently healthy, surviving Porites colonies, from reefs in the central GBR (18–19°S) that have documented observations of widespread bleaching. Sites included inshore (Nelly Bay, Pandora Reef), annually affected by freshwater flood events, midshelf (Rib Reef), only occasionally affected by freshwater floods and offshore (Myrmidon Reef) locations primarily exposed to open ocean conditions. Annual growth characteristics (extension, density and calcification) were measured in 144 cores from 79 coral colonies and analysed over the common 24-year period, 1980–2003. Visual examination of the annual density bands revealed growth hiatuses associated with the bleaching years in the form of abrupt decreases in annual linear extension rates, high density stress bands and partial mortality. The 1998 mass-bleaching event reduced Porites calcification by 13 and 18% on the two inshore locations for 4 years, followed by recovery to baseline calcification rates in 2002. Evidence of partial mortality was apparent in 10% of the offshore colonies in 2002; however no significant effects of the bleaching events were evident in the calcification rates at the mid shelf and offshore sites. These results highlight the spatial variation of mass bleaching events and that all reef locations within the GBR were not equally stressed by the 1998 and 2002 mass bleaching events, as some models tend to suggest, which enabled recovery of calcification on the GBR within 4 years. The dynamics in annual calcification rates and recovery displayed here should be used to improve model outputs that project how coral calcification will respond to ongoing warming of the tropical oceans. PMID:24586377

  13. Differential interaction of Salmonella enterica serovars with lettuce cultivars and plant-microbe factors influencing the colonization efficiency.

    PubMed

    Klerks, Michel M; Franz, Eelco; van Gent-Pelzer, Marga; Zijlstra, Carolien; van Bruggen, Ariena H C

    2007-11-01

    The availability of knowledge of the route of infection and critical plant and microbe factors influencing the colonization efficiency of plants by human pathogenic bacteria is essential for the design of preventive strategies to maintain safe food. This research describes the differential interaction of human pathogenic Salmonella enterica with commercially available lettuce cultivars. The prevalence and degree of endophytic colonization of axenically grown lettuce by the S. enterica serovars revealed a significant serovar-cultivar interaction for the degree of colonization (S. enterica CFUs per g leaf), but not for the prevalence. The evaluated S. enterica serovars were each able to colonize soil-grown lettuce epiphytically, but only S. enterica serovar Dublin was able to colonize the plants also endophytically. The number of S. enterica CFU per g of lettuce was negatively correlated to the species richness of the surface sterilized lettuce cultivars. A negative trend was observed for cultivars Cancan and Nelly, but not for cultivar Tamburo. Chemotaxis experiments revealed that S. enterica serovars actively move toward root exudates of lettuce cultivar Tamburo. Subsequent micro-array analysis identified genes of S. enterica serovar Typhimurium that were activated by the root exudates of cultivar Tamburo. A sugar-like carbon source was correlated with chemotaxis, while also pathogenicity-related genes were induced in presence of the root exudates. The latter revealed that S. enterica is conditioned for host cell attachment during chemotaxis by these root exudates. Finally, a tentative route of infection is described that includes plant-microbe factors, herewith enabling further design of preventive strategies.

  14. Petrology and geochemistry of mafic and ultramafic cumulates occurring as xenoliths in volcanic rocks from Polish part of Central European Volcanic Province.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dajek, Michał; Matusiak-Małek, Magdalena; Puziewicz, Jacek; Ntaflos, Theodoros

    2015-04-01

    Mafic xenoliths coexisting with the peridotitic ones in rocks from Polish part of Cenozoic European Volcanic Province have been scarcely examined. (Bakun-Czubarow and Białowolska, 2003, Mineralogical Society of Poland- Spec. Pap. and references therein; Matusiak, 2006, Min. Polonica- Spec. Pap.; Puziewicz et al., 2011, JoP). In this study we present new results on mafic and ultramafic xenolithic rocks from the Wilcza Góra, Winna Góra, Góra Świątek, Mnisia Górka and Grodziec volcanic rocks in the Złotoryja-Jawor Volcanic Complex. The studied xenoliths are either plagioclase-free (clinopyroxenite, websterite) or plagioclase-bearing (anorthosite, gabbro, olivine-bearing gabbro and norite). Both the types may occur in the same volcanic rock. The cumulative xenoliths are smaller than peridotitic ones, blackish and show clear cumulative, coarse grained textures. Beside the rock-forming phases, the xenoliths occasionally contain spinel, sulfides and amphibole. Usually clinopyroxene grains occurring in gabbros are strongly corroded or disintegrated, while other phases are well-preserved. Contacts between xenolith and host volcanic rock are usually sharp with subhedral crystals of clinopyroxene growing at the xenolith surface. The mineral grains are usually zoned and chemical equilibrium between phases is scarce. Clinopyroxene in plagioclase-free rocks has composition of diopside with occasionally elevated Al, Ti and Cr contents. It's mg# varies from 0.89 to 0.79. It is slightly to moderately enriched in LREE; the REE patterns are concave, and the normalized values vary significantly between localities. It shows negative Sr anomaly, depth of Ti anomaly is variable. Orthopyroxene is Al-rich enstatite with mg# varying from 0.85 down to 0.75. Orthopyroxene in websterites is LREE depleted and show strong positive Ti and Zr-Hf anomalies. Opaques are ilmenite - Ti-magnetite solid solution and/or sulfides Clinopyroxene forming plagioclase-bearing rocks also has composition

  15. Lithologic Distribution and Geologic History of the Apollo 17 Site: The Record in Soils and Small Rock Particles from the Highland Massifs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jolliff, Bradley L.; Rockow, Kaylynn M.; Korotev, Randy L.; Haskin, Larry A.

    1996-01-01

    Through analysis by instrumental neutron activation (INAA) of 789 individual lithic fragments from the 2 mm-4 mm grain-size fractions of five Apollo 17 soil samples (72443, 72503, 73243, 76283, and 76503) and petrographic examination of a subset, we have determined the diversity and proportions of rock types recorded within soils from the highland massifs. The distribution of rock types at the site, as recorded by lithic fragments in the soils, is an alternative to the distribution inferred from the limited number of large rock samples. The compositions and proportions of 2 mm-4 mm fragments provide a bridge between compositions of less than 1 mm fines and types and proportions of rocks observed in large collected breccias and their clasts. The 2 mm-4 mm fraction of soil from South Massif, represented by an unbiased set of lithic fragments from station-2 samples 72443 and 72503, consists of 71% noritic impact-melt breccia, 7% Incompatible-Trace-Element-(ITE)-poor highland rock types (mainly granulitic breccias), 19% agglutinates and regolith breccias, 1% high-Ti mare basalt, and 2% others (very-low-Ti (VLT) basalt, monzogabbro breccia, and metal). In contrast, the 2 mm - 4 mm fraction of a soil from the North Massif, represented by an unbiased set of lithic fragments from station-6 sample 76503, has a greater proportion of ITE-poor highland rock types and mare-basalt fragments: it consists of 29% ITE-poor highland rock types (mainly granulitic breccias and troctolitic anorthosite), 25% impact-melt breccia, 13% high-Ti mare basalt, 31 % agglutinates and regolith breccias, 1% orange glass and related breccia, and 1% others. Based on a comparison of mass- weighted mean compositions of the lithic fragments with compositions of soil fines from all Apollo 17 highland stations, differences between the station-2 and station-6 samples are representative of differences between available samples from the two massifs. From the distribution of different rock types and their

  16. JV Task 122 - Assessment of Mercury Control Options for the San Miguel Electric Cooperative Power Plant

    SciTech Connect

    Nicholas Lentz; Brandon Pavlish; John Kay; Michael Jones

    2009-02-01

    In the United States, testing has been under way at electric coal-fired power plants to find viable and economical mercury control strategies to meet pending regulations. San Miguel Electric Cooperative (SMEC) engaged the Energy & Environmental Research Center (EERC) through a request for proposal (RFP) to perform research tests to evaluate sorbent-based technologies at its coal-fired San Miguel Generating Station to identify possible technology options that could be used by SMEC to meet the mercury reduction requirements of future U.S. federal standards. The goal of the testing was to target a mercury removal of {ge}90%. The EERC has successfully field-tested several sorbent-based technologies in previous projects that offer promise and potential to achieve a target removal of {ge}90%. Based on these field test results, yet recognizing that fuel type and plant operating conditions affect mercury capture significantly, the EERC proposed research tests to evaluate potential sorbent-based technologies provided by Norit Americas and the EERC that could potentially meet SMEC's mercury control objectives. Over the period of May through mid-June 2008, the EERC tested injection of both treated and nontreated activated carbon (AC) provided by Norit Americas and sorbent enhancement additives (SEAs) provided by the EERC. Tests were performed at San Miguel Unit 1 (450 MW) and included injection at the inlet of the air heater (AH) (temperature of 720 F). The test coal was a Texas lignite fuel with an average moisture content of 31.19%, an ash content of 26.6%, a heating value of 5,094 Btu/lb, a sulfur content of 2.7%, and a mercury concentration of 0.182 ppm, all reported on an as-received basis. Pilot-scale testing results identified DARCO{reg_sign} Hg-LH, SEA2 + DARCO{reg_sign} Hg, and the ChemMod sorbents as technologies with the potential to achieve the target mercury removal of {ge}90% at the full-scale test. Mercury concentrations were tracked with continuous mercury

  17. Evolved mare basalt magmatism, high Mg/Fe feldspathic crust, chondritic impactors, and the petrogenesis of Antarctic lunar breccia meteorites Meteorite Hills 01210 and Pecora Escarpment 02007

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Day, James M. D.; Floss, Christine; Taylor, Lawrence A.; Anand, Mahesh; Patchen, Allan D.

    2006-12-01

    Antarctic lunar meteorites Meteorite Hills 01210 and Pecora Escarpment 02007 are breccias that come from different regolith lithologies on the Moon. MET 01210 is composed predominantly of fractionated low-Ti basaltic material and is classified as an immature, predominantly basaltic glassy matrix regolith breccia. PCA 02007 is a predominantly feldspathic regolith breccia consisting of metamorphosed feldspathic, noritic, troctolitic and noritic-anorthosite clasts, agglutinate and impact-glasses, as well as a number of basaltic clasts with mare and possible non-mare affinities. The basalt clasts in MET 01210 have undergone 'Fenner' trend enrichments in iron and may also have witnessed late-stage crystallization of zircon or a zirconium-rich mineral. Some of the features of MET 01210 are similar to other basaltic lunar breccia meteorites (e.g., Northwest Africa 773; Elephant Moraine 87521/96008; Yamato 793274/981031), but it is not paired with them. The presence of metamorphic anorthositic clasts as well as agglutinates indicates a small regolith component. Similarities with previously discovered evolved (e.g., LaPaz Icefield 02205; Northwest Africa 032) and ferroan (e.g., Asuka 881757; Yamato 793169) basaltic lunar meteorites suggest a similar mare source region for MET 01210. Despite lack of evidence for pairing, PCA 02007 shares many features with other feldspathic regolith breccias (e.g., Yamato 791197, Queen Alexandra Range 94281), including a high Mg/Fe whole-rock composition, glass spherules, agglutinate fragments and a diverse clast inventory spanning the range of ferroan anorthosite and high magnesium suite rocks. Some of the basalt fragments in this sample are fractionated and have an igneous origin. However, the majority of the basalt fragments are impact melt clasts. PCA 02007 supports previous studies of feldspathic lunar meteorites that have suggested an aluminous crust for the Moon, with compositions more similar to magnesium granulite breccias than

  18. Topographic-Compositional Relationships within the South Pole Aitken Basin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lucey, P. G.; Holtzmann, J.; Blewett, D. T.; Taylor, G. J.; Hawke, B. R.

    1999-01-01

    The South Pole Aitken (SPA) Basin is an immense structure that dominates the geology of much of the farside of the Moon. Its floor is composed mostly of impact deposits, though it also has numerous relatively small regions of mare basalt. The basin floor exhibits a lower albedo and higher mafic mineral abundance than the surrounding highlands [ I ]. The origin of this mafic anomaly is a major question in lunar geology. Hypotheses for the presence of the mafic anomaly were briefly reviewed in [2] and include mare deposits mixed and obscured by basin or crater ejecta (cryptomaria), a large impact melt sheet that may have differentiated, exposed lower crustal material, and a significant component of excavated mantle. A study of mineralogy as revealed in Clementine UV-VIS imagery for limited portions of the basin found a predominantly low-Capyroxene (noritic) character [2], ruling out cryptomaria as an important contributor to the mafic enhancement. A few small cryptomaria, revealed by dark-halo impact craters and light plains units with high-FeO contents, have been found in SPA; however, it appears that extensive cryptomaria are lacking in this basin. The uniformly noritic lithology within SPA led to favor exposed lower crust or a homogenized melt sheet as the explanation for the mafic anomaly. Models of basin formation predict that a basin the size of SPA should have excavated through the entire lunar crust (assuming nonoblique impact), potentially exposing or mixing a large component of material from the mantle. Comparison of SPA floor FeO and Ti02 (derived from Clementine UV-VIS observations) and also Th (from Lunar Prospector) with model-mantle chemistries appears to be consistent with a mixture of approximately equal proportions of lower-crust and mantle material. In the present study, we examine the relationship between the basin's topography and composition in order to provide further insight on the origin of the basin floor material. Data: Clementine UV

  19. Melt-rock reaction an melt impregnation in oceanic peridotites: insights from the Ligurian-Piemontese ophiolites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Piccardo, G. B.

    2011-12-01

    saturation of the rising melts and further extension led to formation of plagioclase-facies shear zones and porous flow percolation under plagioclase-facies conditions. Melt-peridotite interaction (olivine corrosion and ortopyroxene + plagioclase precipitation) and melt interstitial crystallization (impregnation) enriched in gabbro-noritic components the lithospheric peridotites that were widely impregnated when the conductive heat loss prevailed on percolation heating and the depleted melts stagnated in the upper lithospheric mantle. Sometime pockets of melts formed strongly depleted gabbro-norite intrusions (Ross & Elthon, 1993; Piccardo & Guarnieri, 2011). The early depleted MORB-type melts were completely entrapped into the shallow mantle lithosphere and refertilized it. Later plagioclase-facies shear zones were frequently infiltrated by aggregated MORB-type melts and transformed by reactive percolation to dunite channels, sometimes 10-100-meters wide. These high porosity channels are considered the fastest way to deliver oceanic MORB to shallow levels. These melts form the gabbroic intrusions and the basaltic extrusions of the oceanic crustal rocks of Jurassic Ligurian Tethys.

  20. Assessment of chemical element migration in soil-plant complex of Urov endemic localities of East Transbaikalia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vadim V., Ermakov; Valentina, Danilova; Sabsbakhor, Khushvakhtova; Aklexander, Degtyarev; Sergey, Tyutikov; Victor, Berezkin; Elena, Karpova

    2014-05-01

    The comparative evaluation of the levels of biologically active chemical elements and their migration in the soil-plant complex of two Urov endemic locations in East Transbaikalia (Zolinsky and Uryumkansky) and background areas (Western Baikal region and the western area of the Trans-Baikal region) was conducted. The predominant soil-forming rocks in East Transbaikalia are weathering products of Proterozoic carbonated granitoids PR2. The surface rocks consist from granite, granodiorite, diorite quartz diorite, gabbro, norite, gabbro-norite and other. Soils - mountain and cryogenic meadow forests, mountain permafrost taiga podzolised, meadow alluvial, peaty meadow [2]. The paludification of narrow valleys and thermokarst phenomena are typical in Urov endemic localities. It reflects on the spotted of soil and differentiation of chemical composition of soils and plants. Most of the chemical elements in soils were determined by means of X-ray fluorescence, and trace elements in soils and plants - by atomic absorption spectrometry. The selenium content was measured by spectrofluorimetric method [3]. The research processed by methods of variation statistics. It was found that the soils of two locations of the Urov subregion of the biosphere were more enriched with iron, barium, calcium, uranium, thorium, phosphorus, and to a lesser extent strontium compared to background soils. The ratio of Ca: P was significantly higher in the soil of background areas, and Ca: Sr, on the contrary, in endemic soils. In assessing the migration of trace elements in soil-plant complex by means of the total content of trace elements and biological absorption coefficient found a marked accumulation by plants manganese, chromium, arsenic and weak plants accumulation of cobalt and nickel. Soil landscape is not much different in content of selenium, but its migration in plants was reduced in places of spread of Urov disease [1]. The concentrators of cadmium (leaves of different species of willow