Science.gov

Sample records for nemad esinevad green

  1. Brooklyn Green, North Green, South Green, & West Green, parts ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Brooklyn Green, North Green, South Green, & West Green, parts of Brown Road, Canterbury Road (Route 169), Hartford Road (Route 6), Hyde Road, Pomfret Road (Route 169), Prince Hill Road, Providence Road (Route 6), Wauregan Road (Routes 169 & 205), & Wolf Den Road, Brooklyn, Windham County, CT

  2. Green Architecture

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Seung-Ho

    Today, the environment has become a main subject in lots of science disciplines and the industrial development due to the global warming. This paper presents the analysis of the tendency of Green Architecture in France on the threes axes: Regulations and Approach for the Sustainable Architecture (Certificate and Standard), Renewable Materials (Green Materials) and Strategies (Equipments) of Sustainable Technology. The definition of 'Green Architecture' will be cited in the introduction and the question of the interdisciplinary for the technological development in 'Green Architecture' will be raised up in the conclusion.

  3. Code Green.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McMinn, John

    2002-01-01

    Assesses the integrated approach to green design in the new Computer Science Building at Toronto's York University. The building design fulfills the university's demand to combine an energy efficient design with sustainability. Floor and site plans are included. (GR)

  4. Green Infrastructure

    EPA Science Inventory

    Large paved surfaces keep rain from infiltrating the soil and recharging groundwater supplies. Alternatively, Green infrastructure uses natural processes to reduce and treat stormwater in place by soaking up and storing water. These systems provide many environmental, social, an...

  5. Green Roofs

    SciTech Connect

    2004-08-01

    A New Technology Demonstration Publication Green roofs can improve the energy performance of federal buildings, help manage stormwater, reduce airborne emissions, and mitigate the effects of urban heat islands.

  6. Green Coffee

    MedlinePlus

    ... orange in combination with caffeine or caffeine-containing herbs can increase blood pressure and heart rate in ... serious heart problems. Avoid this combination.Caffeine-containing herbs and supplementsUsing green coffee along with other caffeine- ...

  7. Green foot.

    PubMed

    LeFeber, W P; Golitz, L E

    1984-07-01

    Pseudomonas aeruginosa may infect the skin surface, nails, hair follicles, or deeper tissues. We report a 13-year-old male with an asymptomatic green discoloration of the toenails and sole of the right foot. Pseudomonas aeruginosa was cultured from the shoe, but not from the discolored skin. We suspect that constant wearing of occlusive, rubber-soled, basketball shoes associated with hyperhidrosis allowed colonization of his shoe with pseudomonas. This case is unique in that colonization resulted in a green color of the foot not associated with infection of the skin.

  8. Going Green.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kennedy, Mike

    2001-01-01

    Discusses the benefits that schools and universities can gain by adopting environmentally sensitive practices in their design and operations. Includes resources for locating additional information about green schools and a list of 11 features that represent a comprehensive, sustainable school. (GR)

  9. Green Schools.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kozlowski, David, Ed.

    1998-01-01

    Discusses "going green" concept in school-building design, its cost-savings benefits through more efficient energy use, and its use by the State University of New York at Buffalo as solution to an energy retrofit program. Examples are provided of how this concept can be used, even for small colleges without large capital budgets, and how it can…

  10. Green Power

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schaffhauser, Dian

    2009-01-01

    In the world of higher education, even the most ambitious sustainability plans often begin with tiny steps taken by individual departments. Michael Crowley, a program manager for Environmental Health & Engineering (EH&E) and former assistant director of the Harvard (Massachusetts) Green Campus Initiative, explains that going for small wins through…

  11. Buying Green

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Layng, T. V. Joe

    2010-01-01

    In "Buying Green," Joe Layng recognizes that, like all choices we make, our decisions as consumers are more likely to be influenced by their short-term consequences for us as individuals (price, quality) than they are by their long-term consequences for society (environmental impact). He believes that the equation can be tilted in favor of greener…

  12. Green pioneers.

    PubMed

    Trueland, Jennifer

    The government has set tough targets for the NHS in England to reduce its carbon footprint. In this article, nurses and managers at Nottinghamshire Healthcare NHS Trust explain how a programme of 'greening' initiatives - including a trial of electric cars for community staff - have slashed the trust's CO2 output.

  13. Think green.

    PubMed

    Serb, Chris

    2008-08-01

    Hospitals typically don't come to mind when you think about cutting-edge environmental programs, but that's changing. Rising energy costs, the need to replace older facilities, and a growing environmental consciousness have spurred hospitals nationwide to embrace a green ideology. The executive suite is a vocal and active player in these efforts. PMID:19062433

  14. Green pioneers.

    PubMed

    Trueland, Jennifer

    The government has set tough targets for the NHS in England to reduce its carbon footprint. In this article, nurses and managers at Nottinghamshire Healthcare NHS Trust explain how a programme of 'greening' initiatives - including a trial of electric cars for community staff - have slashed the trust's CO2 output. PMID:23763098

  15. Going Green

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Witkowsky, Kathy

    2009-01-01

    Going green saves money and can even make money. Sustainable practices promote better health, less absenteeism, and more productivity. They also attract students, who are paying increasing attention to schools' environmental policies. Beyond being the smart thing to do, administrators at the University of Washington say repeatedly, it's the right…

  16. Green Leaders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kennedy, Mike

    2008-01-01

    More and more people are viewing the world through green-tinted glasses, and those ideas about making school and university facilities more environmentally friendly suddenly are appearing to be prudent and responsible. Among the groups that have been advocating for environmentally friendly school design for years are the Collaborative for High…

  17. Think green.

    PubMed

    Serb, Chris

    2008-08-01

    Hospitals typically don't come to mind when you think about cutting-edge environmental programs, but that's changing. Rising energy costs, the need to replace older facilities, and a growing environmental consciousness have spurred hospitals nationwide to embrace a green ideology. The executive suite is a vocal and active player in these efforts.

  18. Green toxicology.

    PubMed

    Maertens, Alexandra; Anastas, Nicholas; Spencer, Pamela J; Stephens, Martin; Goldberg, Alan; Hartung, Thomas

    2014-01-01

    Historically, early identification and characterization of adverse effects of industrial chemicals was difficult because conventional toxicological test methods did not meet R&D needs for rapid, relatively inexpensive methods amenable to small amounts of test material. The pharmaceutical industry now front-loads toxicity testing, using in silico, in vitro, and less demanding animal tests at earlier stages of product development to identify and anticipate undesirable toxicological effects and optimize product development. The Green Chemistry movement embraces similar ideas for development of less toxic products, safer processes, and less waste and exposure. Further, the concept of benign design suggests ways to consider possible toxicities before the actual synthesis and to apply some structure/activity rules (SAR) and in silico methods. This requires not only scientific development but also a change in corporate culture in which synthetic chemists work with toxicologists. An emerging discipline called Green Toxicology (Anastas, 2012) provides a framework for integrating the principles of toxicology into the enterprise of designing safer chemicals, thereby minimizing potential toxicity as early in production as possible. Green Toxicology`s novel utility lies in driving innovation by moving safety considerations to the earliest stage in a chemical`s lifecycle, i.e., to molecular design. In principle, this field is no different than other subdisciplines of toxicology that endeavor to focus on a specific area - for example, clinical, environmental or forensic toxicology. We use the same principles and tools to evaluate an existing substance or to design a new one. The unique emphasis is in using 21st century toxicology tools as a preventative strategy to "design out" undesired human health and environmental effects, thereby increasing the likelihood of launching a successful, sustainable product. Starting with the formation of a steering group and a series of workshops

  19. Green Manufacturing

    SciTech Connect

    Patten, John

    2013-12-31

    Green Manufacturing Initiative (GMI): The initiative provides a conduit between the university and industry to facilitate cooperative research programs of mutual interest to support green (sustainable) goals and efforts. In addition to the operational savings that greener practices can bring, emerging market demands and governmental regulations are making the move to sustainable manufacturing a necessity for success. The funding supports collaborative activities among universities such as the University of Michigan, Michigan State University and Purdue University and among 40 companies to enhance economic and workforce development and provide the potential of technology transfer. WMU participants in the GMI activities included 20 faculty, over 25 students and many staff from across the College of Engineering and Applied Sciences; the College of Arts and Sciences' departments of Chemistry, Physics, Biology and Geology; the College of Business; the Environmental Research Institute; and the Environmental Studies Program. Many outside organizations also contribute to the GMI's success, including Southwest Michigan First; The Right Place of Grand Rapids, MI; Michigan Department of Environmental Quality; the Michigan Department of Energy, Labor and Economic Growth; and the Michigan Manufacturers Technical Center.

  20. Green Phosphors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Singh, Vijay; Chakradhar, R. P. S.; Rao, J. L.; Dhoble, S. J.; Kim, S. H.

    2014-11-01

    Manganese-doped LaMgAl11O19 powder has been prepared by an easy combustion method. Powder x-ray diffraction and scanning electron microscopy have been used to characterize the as-prepared phosphor. The electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) spectrum of LaMgAl11O19:Mn2+ phosphor exhibits six-line hyperfine structure centered at g ≈ 1.973. The number of spins participating in resonance ( N) and the paramagnetic susceptibility ( χ) for the resonance signal at g ≈ 1.973 have been calculated as a function of temperature. The photoluminescence spectrum exhibits green emission at 516 nm, which is attributed to 4T1 → 6A1 transition of Mn2+ ions. From EPR and luminescence studies, it is observed that Mn2+ ions occupy Mg2+ sites and Mn2+ ions are located at tetrahedral sites in the prepared phosphors.

  1. Green nanotechnology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smith, Geoff B.

    2011-10-01

    Nanotechnology, in particular nanophotonics, is proving essential to achieving green outcomes of sustainability and renewable energy at the scales needed. Coatings, composites and polymeric structures used in windows, roof and wall coatings, energy storage, insulation and other components in energy efficient buildings will increasingly involve nanostructure, as will solar cells. Nanostructures have the potential to revolutionize thermoelectric power and may one day provide efficient refrigerant free cooling. Nanomaterials enable optimization of optical, opto-electrical and thermal responses to this urgent task. Optical harmonization of material responses to environmental energy flows involves (i) large changes in spectral response over limited wavelength bands (ii) tailoring to environmental dynamics. The latter includes engineering angle of incidence dependencies and switchable (or chromogenic) responses. Nanomaterials can be made at sufficient scale and low enough cost to be both economic and to have a high impact on a short time scale. Issues to be addressed include human safety and property changes induced during manufacture, handling and outdoor use. Unexpected bonuses have arisen in this work, for example the savings and environmental benefits of cool roofs extend beyond the more obvious benefit of reduced heat flows from the roof into the building.

  2. Green Flight Challenge

    NASA Video Gallery

    The CAFE Green Flight Challenge sponsored by Google will be held at the CAFE Foundation Flight Test Center at Charles M. Schulz Sonoma County Airport in Santa Rosa, Calif. The Green Flight Challeng...

  3. Blue-green algae

    MedlinePlus

    “Blue-green algae” describes a large and diverse group of simple, plant-like organisms found in salt water and some large fresh water lakes. Blue-green algae products are used for many conditions, but so ...

  4. What Is Green?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pokrandt, Rachel

    2010-01-01

    Green is a question with varying answers and sometimes no answer at all. It is a question of location, resources, people, environment, and money. As green really has no end point, a teacher's goal should be to teach students to question and consider green. In this article, the author provides several useful metrics to help technology teachers…

  5. Public Libraries Going Green

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miller, Kathryn

    2010-01-01

    Going green is now a national issue, and patrons expect their library to respond in the same way many corporations have. Libraries are going green with logos on their Web sites, programs for the public, and a host of other initiatives. This is the first book to focus strictly on the library's role in going green, helping you with: (1) Collection…

  6. Show Me the Green

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Norbury, Keith

    2013-01-01

    Gone are the days when green campus initiatives were a balm to the soul and a drain on the wallet. Today's environmental initiatives are all about saving lots of green--in every sense of the word. The environmental benefits of green campus projects--whether wind turbines or better insulation--are pretty clear. Unfortunately, in today's…

  7. The Green Man

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Watson-Newlin, Karen

    2010-01-01

    The Jolly Green Giant. Robin Hood. The Bamberg Cathedral. Tales of King Arthur. Ecology. What do they have in common? What legends and ancient myths are shrouded in the tales of the Green Man? Most often perceived as an ancient Celtic symbol as the god of spring and summer, the Green Man disappears and returns year after year, century after…

  8. In the Green

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kennedy, Mike

    2011-01-01

    Education officials used to debate whether they could afford to pursue green design and construction. Now the green movement has gained a foothold not just in education, but in society at large, and the prevailing attitude seems to have shifted. Can schools afford "not" to go green? As budgets are slashed repeatedly, education administrators must…

  9. EPA's Green Roof Research

    EPA Science Inventory

    This is a presentation on the basics of green roof technology. The presentation highlights some of the recent ORD research projects on green roofs and provices insight for the end user as to the benefits for green roof technology. It provides links to currently available EPA re...

  10. Promoting green engineering through green chemistry.

    PubMed

    Kirchhoff, Mary M

    2003-12-01

    The decisions made by chemists in designing chemical products and processes directly impactthe options available to engineers. The physical and chemical properties of a material, for example, dictate the type of reactor that must be used in a given process. The task of the engineer is simplified when chemists design products and processes that reduce or eliminate the use and generation of hazardous substances. Green chemistry provides a foundation on which to build green engineering. This paper highlights green chemistry technologies that minimize the need for engineering safeguards in the areas of feedstocks, reagents, solvents, and syntheses. PMID:14700319

  11. Green Cleaning Label Power

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Balek, Bill

    2012-01-01

    Green cleaning plays a significant and supportive role in helping education institutions meet their sustainability goals. However, identifying cleaning products, supplies and equipment that truly are environmentally preferable can be daunting. The marketplace is inundated with products and services purporting to be "green" or environmentally…

  12. Lighting: Green Light.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maniccia, Dorine

    2003-01-01

    Explains that by using sustainable (green) building practices, schools and universities can make their lighting systems more efficient, noting that embracing green design principles can help schools attract students. Discusses lighting-control technologies (occupancy sensing technology, daylighting technology, and scheduling based technologies),…

  13. Greening the Future

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Williamson, Norma Velia

    2011-01-01

    Because educators vicariously touch the future through their students, the author believes that they sometimes have the uncanny ability to see the future. One common future forecast is the phenomenal growth of green jobs in the emerging green economy, leading to the creation of the "Reach of the Sun" Solar Energy Academy at La Mirada High School…

  14. Green Buildings and Health.

    PubMed

    Allen, Joseph G; MacNaughton, Piers; Laurent, Jose Guillermo Cedeno; Flanigan, Skye S; Eitland, Erika Sita; Spengler, John D

    2015-09-01

    Green building design is becoming broadly adopted, with one green building standard reporting over 3.5 billion square feet certified to date. By definition, green buildings focus on minimizing impacts to the environment through reductions in energy usage, water usage, and minimizing environmental disturbances from the building site. Also by definition, but perhaps less widely recognized, green buildings aim to improve human health through design of healthy indoor environments. The benefits related to reduced energy and water consumption are well-documented, but the potential human health benefits of green buildings are only recently being investigated. The objective of our review was to examine the state of evidence on green building design as it specifically relates to indoor environmental quality and human health. Overall, the initial scientific evidence indicates better indoor environmental quality in green buildings versus non-green buildings, with direct benefits to human health for occupants of those buildings. A limitation of much of the research to date is the reliance on indirect, lagging and subjective measures of health. To address this, we propose a framework for identifying direct, objective and leading "Health Performance Indicators" for use in future studies of buildings and health. PMID:26231502

  15. Green Infrastructure 101

    EPA Science Inventory

    Green Infrastructure 101 • What is it? What does it do? What doesn’t it do? • Green Infrastructure as a stormwater and combined sewer control • GI Controls and Best Management Practices that make sense for Yonkers o (Include operations and maintenance requirements for each)

  16. 10 Paths to Green

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kennedy, Mike

    2008-01-01

    Some institutions may feel comfortable with a few baby steps into the green world, while others may be ready to commit totally to environmental consciousness. Here, the author discusses 10 areas in which educators and administrators can beef up their green portfolio. These areas are in: alternative fuel, bikes/walking, water, education tools,…

  17. Custodial Operations: Green & Sustainable

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Campbell, J. Kirk

    2008-01-01

    Custodial Operations can have a significant impact on institutional green and sustainable goals if given the proper support and challenge. This article describes the green and sustainable custodial operations in place at Carleton College in Northfield, Minnesota. The article reviews the college's sustainable efforts on biodegradables, packaging,…

  18. Green Building Research Laboratory

    SciTech Connect

    Sailor, David Jean

    2013-12-29

    This project provided support to the Green Building Research Laboratory at Portland State University (PSU) so it could work with researchers and industry to solve technical problems for the benefit of the green building industry. It also helped to facilitate the development of PSU’s undergraduate and graduate-level training in building science across the curriculum.

  19. Sowing Green Seeds

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yingjun, Chen; Jianzhuang, Rong

    2004-01-01

    This article deals with the development of environmental education Hunan Yueyang Middle School Number One. Famous for its beautiful environment and lush green trees, the school has won titles such as "park" unit, "garden" school, "green school" and "National Advanced Unit for Environmental Education." In order to popularize scientific knowledge of…

  20. Green Buildings and Health.

    PubMed

    Allen, Joseph G; MacNaughton, Piers; Laurent, Jose Guillermo Cedeno; Flanigan, Skye S; Eitland, Erika Sita; Spengler, John D

    2015-09-01

    Green building design is becoming broadly adopted, with one green building standard reporting over 3.5 billion square feet certified to date. By definition, green buildings focus on minimizing impacts to the environment through reductions in energy usage, water usage, and minimizing environmental disturbances from the building site. Also by definition, but perhaps less widely recognized, green buildings aim to improve human health through design of healthy indoor environments. The benefits related to reduced energy and water consumption are well-documented, but the potential human health benefits of green buildings are only recently being investigated. The objective of our review was to examine the state of evidence on green building design as it specifically relates to indoor environmental quality and human health. Overall, the initial scientific evidence indicates better indoor environmental quality in green buildings versus non-green buildings, with direct benefits to human health for occupants of those buildings. A limitation of much of the research to date is the reliance on indirect, lagging and subjective measures of health. To address this, we propose a framework for identifying direct, objective and leading "Health Performance Indicators" for use in future studies of buildings and health.

  1. Green Chemistry and Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hjeresen, Dennis L.; Schutt, David L.; Boese, Janet M.

    2000-01-01

    Many students today are profoundly interested in the sustainability of their world. Introduces Green Chemistry and its principles with teaching materials. Green Chemistry is the use of chemistry for pollution prevention and the design of chemical products and processes that are environmentally benign. (ASK)

  2. The Green Revolution.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Huke, Robert E.

    1985-01-01

    Modern agriculture's green revolution refers to a complex package that includes improved seeds and a wide range of efficient management practices. The genetic history of and technological developments that led to the green revolution are described, and its impact discussed. (RM)

  3. A Green Clean

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kravitz, Robert

    2006-01-01

    In the professional cleaning industry, green cleaning has been much discussed in the past few years. Usually, the information pertains to the many reasons why a green cleaning program should be started, the steps involved to get the program off the ground, and the potential benefits. However, although many facility managers and school…

  4. Green tea in dermatology.

    PubMed

    Pazyar, Nader; Feily, Amir; Kazerouni, Afshin

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this brief review is to summarize all in vitro, in vivo, and controlled clinical trials on green tea preparations and their uses in dermatology. An extensive literature search was carried out to identify in vivo and in vitro studies as well as clinical trials. Twenty studies were assessed and the results suggest that oral administration of green tea can be effective in the scavenging of free radicals, cancer prevention, hair loss, and skin aging plus protection against the adverse effects associated with psoralen-UV-A therapy. Topical application of green tea extract should be potentially effective for atopic dermatitis, acne vulgaris, rosacea, androgenetic alopecia, hirsutism, keloids, genital warts, cutaneous leishmaniasis, and candidiosis. There are promising results with the use of green tea for several dermatologic conditions; however, the efficacy of oral and topical green tea has not always been confirmed. PMID:23346663

  5. Green tea in dermatology.

    PubMed

    Pazyar, Nader; Feily, Amir; Kazerouni, Afshin

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this brief review is to summarize all in vitro, in vivo, and controlled clinical trials on green tea preparations and their uses in dermatology. An extensive literature search was carried out to identify in vivo and in vitro studies as well as clinical trials. Twenty studies were assessed and the results suggest that oral administration of green tea can be effective in the scavenging of free radicals, cancer prevention, hair loss, and skin aging plus protection against the adverse effects associated with psoralen-UV-A therapy. Topical application of green tea extract should be potentially effective for atopic dermatitis, acne vulgaris, rosacea, androgenetic alopecia, hirsutism, keloids, genital warts, cutaneous leishmaniasis, and candidiosis. There are promising results with the use of green tea for several dermatologic conditions; however, the efficacy of oral and topical green tea has not always been confirmed.

  6. Building the green way.

    PubMed

    Lockwood, Charles

    2006-06-01

    Just five or six years ago, the term "green building" evoked visions of barefoot, tie-dyed, granola-munching denizens. There's been a large shift in perception. Of course, green buildings are still known for conserving natural resources by, for example, minimizing on-site grading, using alternative materials, and recycling construction waste. But people now see the financial advantages as well. Well-designed green buildings yield lower utility costs, greater employee productivity, less absenteeism, and stronger attraction and retention of workers than standard buildings do. Green materials, mechanical systems, and furnishings have become more widely available and considerably less expensive than they used to be-often cheaper than their standard counterparts. So building green is no longer a pricey experiment; just about any company can do it on a standard budget by following the ten rules outlined by the author. Reliable building-rating systems like the U.S. Green Building Council's rigorous Leadership in Energy and Environmental Design (LEED) program have done much to underscore the benefits of green construction. LEED evaluates buildings and awards points in several areas, such as water efficiency and indoor environmental quality. Other rating programs include the UK's BREEAM (Building Research Establishment's Environmental Assessment Method) and Australia's Green Star. Green construction is not simply getting more respect; it is rapidly becoming a necessity as corporations push it fully into the mainstream over the next five to ten years. In fact, the author says, the owners of standard buildings face massive obsolescence. To avoid this problem, they should carry out green renovations. Corporations no longer have an excuse for eschewing environmental and economic sustainability. They have at their disposal tools proven to lower overhead costs, improve productivity, and strengthen the bottom line.

  7. Going Green: Greening Your Marketing Efforts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Germain, Carol Anne

    2009-01-01

    There is no doubt that the "Going Green" movement is in full swing. With global warming and other ecological concerns, people are paying closer attention to environmental issues and striving to live in a more sustainable world. For libraries, this is a perfect opportunity to be active in a campus-wide program and simultaneously promote library…

  8. Collection Development "Green Business": The Green Capitalist

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eagan, Robert

    2009-01-01

    The "greening" of corporate behemoths like Wal-Mart, DuPont, and Toyota has received much media attention in recent years. But consider small businesses: according to the U.S. Small Business Administration, of the estimated 27 million firms in the United States, 99.7 percent have fewer than 500 employees, 97.5 percent have fewer than 20, and more…

  9. White is green

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Glicksman, Hal

    1998-12-01

    Green is the center of the visible spectrum and the hue to which we are most sensitive. In RGB color, green is 60 percent of white. When we look through a prism at a white square, as Goethe did, we see white between yellow and cyan, just where green appears in the spectrum of Newton. Additional arguments were published previously and appear at www.csulb.edu/-percept, along with the Percept color chart of the hue/value relationships. A new argument, derived from the perception of leaves, is presented here. The Percept color chart transformed into a color wheel is also presented.

  10. Green Light Pulse Oximeter

    DOEpatents

    Scharf, John Edward

    1998-11-03

    A reflectance pulse oximeter that determines oxygen saturation of hemoglobin using two sources of electromagnetic radiation in the green optical region, which provides the maximum reflectance pulsation spectrum. The use of green light allows placement of an oximetry probe at central body sites (e.g., wrist, thigh, abdomen, forehead, scalp, and back). Preferably, the two green light sources alternately emit light at 560 nm and 577 nm, respectively, which gives the biggest difference in hemoglobin extinction coefficients between deoxyhemoglobin, RHb, and oxyhemoglobin, HbO.sub.2.

  11. Green Supercomputing at Argonne

    SciTech Connect

    Pete Beckman

    2009-11-18

    Pete Beckman, head of Argonne's Leadership Computing Facility (ALCF) talks about Argonne National Laboratory's green supercomputing—everything from designing algorithms to use fewer kilowatts per operation to using cold Chicago winter air to cool the machine more efficiently.

  12. The Green Revolution Game.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Corbridge, Stuart

    1985-01-01

    The Green Revolution game helps college students learn about agrarian change in which people use science to transform nature. The rational and basic objectives of the game are discussed, and the game's strengths and weaknesses are examined. (RM)

  13. No More Green Thumbs!

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bland, Judith A.

    1977-01-01

    An alternative method of bacterial spore staining using malachite green is described. This technique is designed to save time and expense by a less messy procedure. Advantages and adaptations of the technique are also given. (MR)

  14. Expanding the Green Revolution.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mellor, John W.; Riely, Frank Z.

    1989-01-01

    Described are some of the successes of the Green Revolution in third-world nations. Discussed are research priorities; misconceptions; and improvements in management skills, training and education, infrastructure, and international trade. (CW)

  15. Green Clay Minerals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Velde, B.

    2003-12-01

    Color is a problem for scientific study. One aspect is the vocabulary one used to describe color. Mint green, bottle green, and Kelly green are nice names but not of great utility in that people's physical perception of color is not always the same. In some industries, such as colored fabric manufacture, current use is to send a set of standard colors which are matched by the producer. This is similar to the use of the Munsell color charts in geology. None of these processes makes use of physical optical spectral studies. The reason is that they are difficult to obtain and interpret. For a geologist, color is very important but we rarely have the possibility to standardize the method of our color perception. One reason is that color is both a reflective and transmission phenomenon. The thickness of the sample is critical to any transmission characteristics. Hence, a field color determination is different from one made by using a petrographic microscope. Green glauconite in a hand specimen is not the same color in 30 μm thick thin section seen with a microscope using transmitted light.A second problem is that color in a spectral identification is the result of several absorption emissions,with overlapping signal, forming a complicated spectrum. Interpretation depends very greatly on the spectrum of the light source and the conditions of transmission-reflection of the sample. As a result, for this text, we will not attempt to analyze the physical aspect of green in green clays. In the discussion which follows, reference is made concerning color, to thin section microscopic perception.Very briefly, green clay minerals are green, because they contain iron. This is perhaps not a great revelation to mineralogists, but it is the key to understanding the origin and stability of green clay minerals. In fact, iron can color minerals either red or green or in various shades of orange and brown. The color most likely depends upon the relative abundance of the iron ion valence

  16. Green Logistics Management

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chang, Yoon S.; Oh, Chang H.

    Nowadays, environmental management becomes a critical business consideration for companies to survive from many regulations and tough business requirements. Most of world-leading companies are now aware that environment friendly technology and management are critical to the sustainable growth of the company. The environment market has seen continuous growth marking 532B in 2000, and 590B in 2004. This growth rate is expected to grow to 700B in 2010. It is not hard to see the environment-friendly efforts in almost all aspects of business operations. Such trends can be easily found in logistics area. Green logistics aims to make environmental friendly decisions throughout a product lifecycle. Therefore for the success of green logistics, it is critical to have real time tracking capability on the product throughout the product lifecycle and smart solution service architecture. In this chapter, we introduce an RFID based green logistics solution and service.

  17. Green Supercomputing at Argonne

    ScienceCinema

    Beckman, Pete

    2016-07-12

    Pete Beckman, head of Argonne's Leadership Computing Facility (ALCF) talks about Argonne National Laboratory's green supercomputing—everything from designing algorithms to use fewer kilowatts per operation to using cold Chicago winter air to cool the machine more efficiently. Argonne was recognized for green computing in the 2009 HPCwire Readers Choice Awards. More at http://www.anl.gov/Media_Center/News/2009/news091117.html Read more about the Argonne Leadership Computing Facility at http://www.alcf.anl.gov/

  18. Apollo 15 green glasses.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ridley, W. I.; Reid, A. M.; Warner, J. L.; Brown, R. W.

    1973-01-01

    The samples analyzed include 28 spheres, portions of spheres, and angular fragments from soil 15101. Emerald green glasses from other soils are identical to those from 15101. The composition of the green glass is unlike that of any other major lunar glass group. The Fe content is comparable to that in mare basalts, but Ti is much lower. The Mg content is much higher than in most lunar materials analyzed to date, and the Cr content is also high. The low Al content is comparable to that of mare basalt glasses.

  19. Raising a "Green Generation"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leger-Ferraro, Susan

    2010-01-01

    These days, "going green" is at the forefront of conversation in political, entertainment, and corporate circles. Yet to truly impact change, future generations must carry the torch of transformation. To ensure success, adults need to begin the practices with the fertile minds of young children in early education. Practicing sustainability is not…

  20. A Green Role Model

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hoffman, Paul J.

    2008-01-01

    Building a new green campus and adopting a philosophy of sustainability is exciting, but if not done properly, it is not always the wisest decision. As one considers the education, health, and safety of a campus community, along with its business objectives, one may discover that there are numerous ways to make the campus more sustainable without…

  1. News: Green Chemistry & Technology

    EPA Science Inventory

    A series of 21 articles focused on different features of green chemistry in a recent issue of Chemical Reviews. Topics extended over a wide range to include the design of sustainable synthetic processes to biocatalysis. A selection of perspectives follows as part of this colu

  2. The Green Team

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jahnigen, Charlie

    2006-01-01

    As interest in green building grows, much discussion has focused on aligning a project with the principles of Leadership in Energy and Environmental Design (LEED) certification: (1) cost savings through energy and water conservation; (2) improved worker productivity; (3) health, insurance and risk-management benefits; and (4) enhanced building…

  3. The Green Obligation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Adams, Cameron

    2007-01-01

    As the green movement grows, studies provide conclusive evidence about the benefits of environmentally conscious practices indoors and outdoors. Schools are no exception. Many of these studies demonstrate how poor indoor air quality (IAQ) in schools adversely affects many of the nation's 55 million students with health problems such as asthma and…

  4. The Green Hunter.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reid, Ed

    1991-01-01

    Environmentalists who oppose hunting have little understanding of the sport, its ethics and regulations, and its immense role in wildlife conservation. "Green" hunting involves not only the hunter's methods but also his perceptions of the hunt as a cultural or spiritual experience. (SV)

  5. Putting on the green

    EPA Science Inventory

    The green chemistry movement is scrutinized for marks of tangible success in this short perspective. Beginning with the easily identified harm of the Union Carbide Bhopal, India disaster and the concerns of Love Canal site in Niagara Falls, NY the public can begin to more easily ...

  6. Brassica greens herbicide screening

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The objective of this study was to screen herbicides for potential use in brassica greens. Plots were in a RBD with 4 replications. The study was direct seeded on May 19, 2009 with a seeding rate of 272,000 seeds/acre (‘Savanna’ mustard). Treatments included trifluralin PPI + DCPA pre-emergence ap...

  7. Toward Green Challenge Courses.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, Karl E.

    1999-01-01

    Designing environmentally friendly challenge courses involves considering factors such as clearing, trees versus poles, soil erosion and compaction, toilet design, waste disposal, and carrying capacity. Strategies used in "green development" such as systems thinking, solution multipliers, and brainstorming with stakeholders could promote challenge…

  8. Green Schools: Electric Youth

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Demski, Jennifer

    2008-01-01

    A student committee whose main duty is changing light bulbs may sound like the punch line to a bad joke, but as the students and faculty at Montgomery County Public Schools (MCPS) in Rockville, MD, know, changing a light bulb is no laughing matter. As part of the district's green initiative, all standard incandescent and fluorescent light bulbs…

  9. Green Supercomputing at Argonne

    ScienceCinema

    Pete Beckman

    2016-07-12

    Pete Beckman, head of Argonne's Leadership Computing Facility (ALCF) talks about Argonne National Laboratory's green supercomputing—everything from designing algorithms to use fewer kilowatts per operation to using cold Chicago winter air to cool the machine more efficiently.

  10. The Green Bank Telescope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Prestage, R. M.; Constantikes, K. T.; Hunter, T. R.; King, L. J.; Lacasse, R. J.; Lockman, F. J.; Norrod, R. D.

    2009-08-01

    The Robert C. Byrd Green Bank Telescope of the National Radio Astronomy Observatory is the world's premiere single-dish radio telescope operating at centimeter to long millimeter wavelengths. This paper describes the history, construction, and main technical features of the telescope.

  11. Green chemistry metrics

    EPA Science Inventory

    Synthetic chemists have always had an objective to achieve reliable and high-yielding routes to the syntheses of targeted molecules. The importance of minimal waste generation has emphasized the use of green chemistry principles and sustainable development. These directions lead ...

  12. Elements of Green.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Turckes, Steven; Engelbrecht, Kathie

    2002-01-01

    Discusses incorporating green design into school construction, asserting that schools can improve their impact on the environment and reduce their operating costs while educating people about the value of sustainable design. Addresses energy reduction (including daylighting), site design for low environmental impact, flexible design, indoor air…

  13. Lean Green Machines

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Villano, Matt

    2011-01-01

    Colleges and universities have been among the leaders nationwide in adopting green initiatives, partly due to their demographics, but also because they are facing their own budget pressures. Virtualization has become the poster child of many schools' efforts, because it provides significant bang for the buck. However, more and more higher…

  14. EPA NRMRL green Infrastructure research

    EPA Science Inventory

    Green Infrastructure is an engineering approach to wet weather flow management that uses infiltration, evapotranspiration, capture and reuse to better mimic the natural drainage processes than traditional gray systems. Green technologies supplement gray infrastructure to red...

  15. Green tea: potential health benefits.

    PubMed

    Schneider, Craig; Segre, Tiffany

    2009-04-01

    Green tea has been used widely and in high doses for centuries as a health tonic in many societies. Evidence suggests that green tea is effective for treating genital warts. There is some supportive evidence for the use of green tea in cancer prevention. Drinking green tea is associated with a decrease in all-cause mortality, but not in cancer-related mortality. Small clinical studies have found that green tea may also be helpful in losing and managing weight, and lowering cholesterol. Epidemiologic evidence suggests that green tea may prevent stroke and cardiovascular disease. Green tea appears to be safe, although there have been case reports of hepatotoxicity possibly related to a specific extract in pill or beverage form. Green tea seems to be a low-risk complementary therapy for a number of conditions, but more studies are needed.

  16. The green highway forum

    SciTech Connect

    2006-07-01

    In late 2004, as part of American Coal Ash Association's (ACAA) strategic planning process, a plan was approved by its Board of Directors implementing a 'green highways' concept which emphasized use of coal combustion products (CCPs) in highways in a variety of ways including being used alone, in combination with other forms of CCPs, and combined with non ash materials. The incentives behind the developed concept were the derived advantages from beneficial technical economic and environmental impacts. Although the primary use of fly ash is concrete, other forms of CCPs could be considered for more non-traditional highway applications. For example, these might include soils stabilization, binders for in-place pavement recycling, use in flowable fills, aggregates, source materials for structural fills and embankments, components in manufactured soils, and for granular base courses beneath pavements. At this same time, unknown to ACCA, EPA Region 3 in Philadelphia was working with the Wetlands and Watershed Work Group, a non-profit organization involved in wetlands policy and management along with the Federal Highway Administration (FHWA) on their own Green Highways initiative. These groups were planning a conference, the 'Green Highway Forum'. This was held in College Park, Maryland at the University of Maryland, Nov 8-10 2005. At the conference a draft 'roadmap' was presented as a guide to executive level participants bringing the diverse viewpoints of many agencies and interest groups together. Ten guiding principals were considered. The 'Green Highways' is a new effort to recognize the 'greenness' of many projects already completed and those to be initiated. 2 photos.

  17. "Green" School Programs. Research Brief

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnston, J. Howard

    2009-01-01

    What are "Green School" programs and how do they benefit students, teachers and the community? Green School programs seek to weave concepts of sustainability and environmental awareness into the social and academic culture of the school community. Green schools are high performance facilities that have been designed, built, renovated operated or…

  18. It's Not Easy Building Green.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Higgins, Joseph

    2003-01-01

    Discusses green buildings, facilities designed, constructed, and operated in an environmentally friendly and resource-efficient way. Discusses reasons for campuses to "go green," the "shades of green" or variations in environmental-friendliness, certification through the Leadership in Energy and Environmental Design (LEED) rating system, financial…

  19. Green Roofs for Stormwater Management

    EPA Science Inventory

    This project evaluated green roofs as a stormwater management tool. Results indicate that the green roofs are capable of removing 40% of the annual rainfall volume from a roof through retention and evapotranspiration. Rainfall not retained by green roofs is detained, effectively...

  20. Greening from the Top Down.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oberndorfer, Erica

    2002-01-01

    Green roofs, with their topsoil and plants, improve insulation, filter air, reduce water runoff, and provide habitat for urban wildlife. They are compatible with schools because they save energy; schools' flat roofs are conducive to greening; and green roofs can be outdoor classrooms for botany, ecology, and energy efficiency. Although scarce in…

  1. Green Schools on Ordinary Budgets

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hanson, Mark E.

    2010-01-01

    Some in the green building industry have spoken for some time now of green buildings not needing to cost more. Jason McLennan in his 2004 book "The Philosophy of Sustainable Design" discusses not falling into the "green is always more" syndrome. He goes on to explain the concept of tunneling through the cost barrier. A 2007 cost study by the…

  2. Magnetic fields of green.

    PubMed

    Branton, Scott; Lile, Lawrence

    2011-01-01

    By incorporating even the basic elements of a more environmentally friendly, "green"construction and design in an MRI setting can create a safer, more pleasant space for the patients and staff, better images, and operational cost savings. Using building systems that have reduced amounts of steel can decrease construction time, increase thermal insulation, and reduce the weight of the structure meaning less energy required to transport and install. HVAC systems and lighting design can also play a major role in creating a "green"MRI suite. LEED certification places a focus on quality of the built environment, life cycle cost, and a productive indoor environment, as well as impact on the exterior environment. An LEED certified building considers costs and benefits for the lifetime of the building. PMID:22043731

  3. Green biorefinery - Industrial implementation.

    PubMed

    Kamm, B; Schönicke, P; Hille, Ch

    2016-04-15

    Oil refineries currently generate a multitude of products for almost every sphere of life at very high efficiency. However, fossil raw materials are just available in limited quantities. The development of comparable BIOREFINERIES is necessary to make a variety of competitive biological products regarding their equivalent products based on fossil raw materials. The product range of a biorefinery comprises products that can be manufactured on the basis of crude oil, as well as such products that cannot be produced on the basis of crude oil (Kamm, Gruber, & Kamm, 2011). GREEN BIOREFINERIES [GBR's] are complex systems of sustainable, environment- and resource-friendly technologies for a comprehensive material and energy use or recovery of renewable raw materials in form of green and waste biomasses from a sustainable land use as target (Kamm et al., 2009; Digman, Runge, Shinners, & Hatfield, 2013). PMID:26675876

  4. Magnetic fields of green.

    PubMed

    Branton, Scott; Lile, Lawrence

    2011-01-01

    By incorporating even the basic elements of a more environmentally friendly, "green"construction and design in an MRI setting can create a safer, more pleasant space for the patients and staff, better images, and operational cost savings. Using building systems that have reduced amounts of steel can decrease construction time, increase thermal insulation, and reduce the weight of the structure meaning less energy required to transport and install. HVAC systems and lighting design can also play a major role in creating a "green"MRI suite. LEED certification places a focus on quality of the built environment, life cycle cost, and a productive indoor environment, as well as impact on the exterior environment. An LEED certified building considers costs and benefits for the lifetime of the building.

  5. Green biorefinery - Industrial implementation.

    PubMed

    Kamm, B; Schönicke, P; Hille, Ch

    2016-04-15

    Oil refineries currently generate a multitude of products for almost every sphere of life at very high efficiency. However, fossil raw materials are just available in limited quantities. The development of comparable BIOREFINERIES is necessary to make a variety of competitive biological products regarding their equivalent products based on fossil raw materials. The product range of a biorefinery comprises products that can be manufactured on the basis of crude oil, as well as such products that cannot be produced on the basis of crude oil (Kamm, Gruber, & Kamm, 2011). GREEN BIOREFINERIES [GBR's] are complex systems of sustainable, environment- and resource-friendly technologies for a comprehensive material and energy use or recovery of renewable raw materials in form of green and waste biomasses from a sustainable land use as target (Kamm et al., 2009; Digman, Runge, Shinners, & Hatfield, 2013).

  6. Green chemistry: development trajectory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moiseev, I. I.

    2013-07-01

    Examples of applications of green chemistry methods in heavy organic synthesis are analyzed. Compounds, which can be produced by the processing of the biomass, and the criteria for the selection of the most promising products are summarized. The current status of the ethanol production and processing is considered. The possibilities of the use of high fatty acid triglycerides, glycerol, succinic acid, and isoprene are briefly discussed. The bibliography includes 67 references.

  7. Underwater green laser vibrometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Antończak, Arkadiusz J.; Kozioł, Paweł; Wąż, Adam T.; Sotor, Jarosław Z.; Dudzik, Grzegorz; Kaczmarek, Paweł R.; Abramski, Krzysztof M.

    2012-06-01

    We have developed a laser vibrometer based on an monolithic single-frequency green laser operating at 532 nm. This wavelength can be particularly useful in the case of underwater vibrometry, especially with regard to the minimum of water absorption for this wavelength range (blue-green window). Using polarizing optics, we proposed a configuration that allows the elimination of parasitic reflections at the air-glass-water boundary. A measurement of heterodyne signals as a mixing result of scattered and reference beams has been performed. The study was conducted in aqueous medium for the scattering waterproof paper and retro-reflective surface. In both configurations we have obtained signals with a relatively high S/N ratio > 20 dB (for scattering surface) and > 31 dB (for retro-reflective tape) with the Resolution Bandwidth RBW 10 kHz for a vibrometer output power of 5 mW and the distance to the moving object 1.2 m (including 0.3 m in air). In our opinion, laser Doppler vibrometry LDV based on high-performance single frequency solid-state lasers with a wavelength range corresponding to the blue-green window allows effective measurement of vibration in the underwater environment.

  8. INL Green Building Strategy

    SciTech Connect

    Jennifer Dalton

    2005-05-01

    Green buildings, also known as sustainable buildings, resource efficient buildings, and high performance buildings, are structures that minimize the impact on the environment by using less energy and water, reducing solid waste and pollutants, and limiting the depletion of natural resources. As Idaho National Laboratory (INL) becomes the nation’s premier nuclear energy research laboratory, the physical infrastructure will be established to help accomplish the mission. This infrastructure, particularly the buildings, should incorporate green design features in order to be environmentally responsible and reflect an image of progressiveness and innovation to the public and prospective employees. With this in mind, the recommendations described in this strategy are intended to form the INL foundation for green building standards. The recommendations in this strategy are broken down into three levels: Baseline Minimum, Leadership in Energy and Environmental Design (LEED)Certification, and Innovative. Baseline Minimum features should be included in all new occupied buildings no matter what the purpose or size. These features do not require significant research, design, or capital costs and yet they can reduce Operation and Maintenance (O&M) costs and produce more environmentally friendly buildings. LEED Certification features are more aggressive than the Baseline Minimums in that they require documentation, studies, and/or additional funding. Combined with the Baseline Minimums, many of the features in this level will need to be implemented to achieve the goal of LEED certification. LEED Silver certification should be the minimum goal for all new buildings (including office buildings, laboratories, cafeterias, and visitor centers) greater than 25,000 square feet or a total cost of $10 million. Innovative features can also contribute to LEED certification, but are less mainstream than those listed in the previous two levels. These features are identified as areas where

  9. Green Chemistry Metrics with Special Reference to Green Analytical Chemistry.

    PubMed

    Tobiszewski, Marek; Marć, Mariusz; Gałuszka, Agnieszka; Namieśnik, Jacek

    2015-01-01

    The concept of green chemistry is widely recognized in chemical laboratories. To properly measure an environmental impact of chemical processes, dedicated assessment tools are required. This paper summarizes the current state of knowledge in the field of development of green chemistry and green analytical chemistry metrics. The diverse methods used for evaluation of the greenness of organic synthesis, such as eco-footprint, E-Factor, EATOS, and Eco-Scale are described. Both the well-established and recently developed green analytical chemistry metrics, including NEMI labeling and analytical Eco-scale, are presented. Additionally, this paper focuses on the possibility of the use of multivariate statistics in evaluation of environmental impact of analytical procedures. All the above metrics are compared and discussed in terms of their advantages and disadvantages. The current needs and future perspectives in green chemistry metrics are also discussed. PMID:26076112

  10. Green Chemistry Metrics with Special Reference to Green Analytical Chemistry.

    PubMed

    Tobiszewski, Marek; Marć, Mariusz; Gałuszka, Agnieszka; Namieśnik, Jacek

    2015-06-12

    The concept of green chemistry is widely recognized in chemical laboratories. To properly measure an environmental impact of chemical processes, dedicated assessment tools are required. This paper summarizes the current state of knowledge in the field of development of green chemistry and green analytical chemistry metrics. The diverse methods used for evaluation of the greenness of organic synthesis, such as eco-footprint, E-Factor, EATOS, and Eco-Scale are described. Both the well-established and recently developed green analytical chemistry metrics, including NEMI labeling and analytical Eco-scale, are presented. Additionally, this paper focuses on the possibility of the use of multivariate statistics in evaluation of environmental impact of analytical procedures. All the above metrics are compared and discussed in terms of their advantages and disadvantages. The current needs and future perspectives in green chemistry metrics are also discussed.

  11. Challenges to global green job growth.

    PubMed

    Sweeney, Sean; Kubit, Jill; Renner, Michael

    2009-01-01

    The authors recognize that green is a relative term and that what's green today may be decidedly not green tomorrow. They developed the idea of "shades of green" to try to capture the differences between jobs and looked at where the green jobs currently are. They found that green jobs in renewables are likely to grow, but in other sectors green jobs face enormous challenges. Among them are investment, technology, agriculture, labor market, and urbanization hurdles.

  12. Seasonal greening in grasslands

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Orescanin, Biljana

    Grasslands cover about one quarter of the Earth's land and are currently considered to act as carbon sinks, taking up an estimated 0.5 Gt C per year. Thus, robust understanding of the grassland biome (e.g. representation of seasonal cycle of plant growth and the amount of green mass, often referred to as phenology, in global carbon models) plays a key role in understanding and predicting the global carbon cycle. The focus of this research is on improvement of a grassland biome representation in a biosphere model, which sometimes fails to correctly represent the phenology of vegetation. For this purpose, as a part of Simple Biosphere model (SiB3), a phenology model is tested and improved to provide more realistic representation of plant growth dependence on available moisture, which along with temperature and light controls plant growth. The new methodology employs integrated soil moisture in plant growth simulation. This new representation addresses the nature of the plants to use their root system to access the water supply. At same time it represents the plant's moisture recourses more accurately than the currently used vapor pressure method, which in grasslands is often non-correlated with soil conditions. The new technique has been developed and tested on data from the Skukuza flux tower site in South Africa and evaluated at 6 different flux tower sites around the world covering a variety of climate conditions. The technique is relatively easy and inexpensive to implement into the existing model providing excellent results capturing both the onset of green season and greening cycle at all locations. Although the method is developed for grasslands biome its representation of natural plant processes provides a good potential for its global use.

  13. Greening critical care

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Climate change and environmental stewardship are phrases that have been defining the past few decades and promoting change in our societies. The sensitivities of intensive care as a specialty make the process of greening an intensive care unit a challenge, but not one that is insurmountable. This paper discusses opportunities for critical care to reduce its environmental impact and provide a framework change. The article includes suggestions of what can be done as an individual, as a unit and as a hospital. Generally, practices in critical care are accepted without questioning the environmental consequences. We believe it is time for change, and critical care should give environmental stewardship a higher priority. PMID:21635700

  14. Green chemistry: principles and practice.

    PubMed

    Anastas, Paul; Eghbali, Nicolas

    2010-01-01

    Green Chemistry is a relatively new emerging field that strives to work at the molecular level to achieve sustainability. The field has received widespread interest in the past decade due to its ability to harness chemical innovation to meet environmental and economic goals simultaneously. Green Chemistry has a framework of a cohesive set of Twelve Principles, which have been systematically surveyed in this critical review. This article covers the concepts of design and the scientific philosophy of Green Chemistry with a set of illustrative examples. Future trends in Green Chemistry are discussed with the challenge of using the Principles as a cohesive design system (93 references). PMID:20023854

  15. Green light in photomorphogenic development

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maruhnich, Stefanie Anne

    Light quality, quantity, and duration provide essential environmental cues that shape plant growth and development. Over the last century, researchers have worked to discover how plants sense, integrate, and respond to red, blue, and far-red light. Green light is often considered a “benign” wavelength with little to no effect in plant development. However, sparse experiments in the literature demonstrate that green effects are often counterintuitive to normal light responses and oppose red- and blue-light-induced responses. Green light effects on plant growth and development are described here through the use of custom, tunable LED, light-emitting diode, chambers. These light sources allow for specific light qualities and quantities to be administered. The effects of green wavebands were assessed when red and blue photomorphogenic systems were active to answer the question: Are the effects of an inhibitor (green light) more evident in the presence of inducers (red and blue light)? In seedlings, supplemental green light increased hypocotyl elongation opposite to classical inhibition of hypocotyl elongation associated with growth in light and induced by red and blue wavebands. Results indicate that added green light induced a reversion of light-grown phenotypes. In mature plants, supplemental green light induced phenotypes typical of the shade-avoidance syndrome, including elongated petioles, smaller leaf areas, and leaf hyponasty. These responses are typical of lower-light conditions or far-red enriched environments. Contrary to far-red-light-induced shade-avoidance, data indicate green delays flowering. In Arabidopsis and strawberry plants, anthocyanin levels also decreased when green light was added to red and blue light treatments, which is again opposite to normal light-induced phenotypes. Photoreceptor mutants were tested and indicate green light effects in early development are cryptochromedependent. However, green-light-induced shade-avoidance responses

  16. Can Growth Be Green?

    PubMed

    Gough, Ian

    2015-01-01

    This short article, based on a presentation at the London School of Economics, criticizes the common opinion that "green growth" offers a relatively painless - some even say pain-free - transition path for capitalist economies. After a brief summary of the daunting arithmetic entailed in combining fast decarbonization with continuing growth, the article advances 3 propositions. First, market-based carbon mitigation programs, such as carbon trading, cannot be sufficient and must be coupled with other policy pillars that foster transformative investment and widespread regulation. Second, a political economy of climate policy needs to draw on the lessons of comparative social policy research, which emphasizes the role of international pressures, interests, institutions, and ideas. Taking these into account gives a more realistic perspective on climate policy making in today's neoliberal world. Third, more radical policies on both consumption and production are called for, to ensure that carbon mitigation is not pursued at the expense of equity and social welfare. These include policies to restrain high-carbon luxury consumption and a transition toward shorter paid working time. The conclusion is that a realistic program of green growth will be immensely difficult and entail radical political change.

  17. Greening of orthopedic surgery.

    PubMed

    Lee, Rushyuan J; Mears, Simon C

    2012-06-01

    Every year, 4 billion pounds of waste are produced by health care facilities, and the amount continues to increase annually. In response, a movement toward greening health care has been building, with a particular focus on the operating room. Between 20% and 70% of health care waste originates from a hospital's operating room, and up to 90% of operating room waste is improperly sorted and sent for costly and unneeded hazardous waste processing. Recent successful changes include segregation of hospital waste, substitution of the ubiquitous polypropylene plastic wrap used for the sterilization and handling of surgical equipment with metal cases, and the reintroduction of reusable surgical gowns. Orthopedic-related changes include the successful reprocessing and reuse of external fixators, shavers, blades, burs, and tourniquets. These changes have been shown to be environmentally and economically beneficial. Early review indicates that these changes are feasible, but a need exists for further evaluation of the effect on the operating room and flow of the surgical procedure and of the risks to the surgeons and operating room staff. Other key considerations are the effects of reprocessed and reused equipment on patient care and outcome and the role of surgeons in helping patients make informed decisions regarding surgical care. The goals of this study were to summarize the amount and types of waste produced in hospitals and operating rooms, highlight the methods of disposal used, review disposal methods that have been developed to reduce waste and improve recycling, and explore future developments in greening health care.

  18. Can Growth Be Green?

    PubMed

    Gough, Ian

    2015-01-01

    This short article, based on a presentation at the London School of Economics, criticizes the common opinion that "green growth" offers a relatively painless - some even say pain-free - transition path for capitalist economies. After a brief summary of the daunting arithmetic entailed in combining fast decarbonization with continuing growth, the article advances 3 propositions. First, market-based carbon mitigation programs, such as carbon trading, cannot be sufficient and must be coupled with other policy pillars that foster transformative investment and widespread regulation. Second, a political economy of climate policy needs to draw on the lessons of comparative social policy research, which emphasizes the role of international pressures, interests, institutions, and ideas. Taking these into account gives a more realistic perspective on climate policy making in today's neoliberal world. Third, more radical policies on both consumption and production are called for, to ensure that carbon mitigation is not pursued at the expense of equity and social welfare. These include policies to restrain high-carbon luxury consumption and a transition toward shorter paid working time. The conclusion is that a realistic program of green growth will be immensely difficult and entail radical political change. PMID:26077854

  19. Green(ing) English: Voices Howling in the Wilderness?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bruce, Heather E.

    2011-01-01

    The relatively new fields of ecocriticism in literary studies and ecocomposition in rhetoric and composition studies provide a usable foundation for those interested in green(ing) English. Nevertheless, even suggesting that interest in the environment within English studies is a relatively new concern is somewhat misleading. Contemplation of…

  20. Investigating Green: Creating Surveys to Answer Questions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Farenga, Stephen; Joyce, Beverly A.; Ness, Daniel

    2010-01-01

    Being green means different things to different people. Some suggest that being green means saving energy, not wasting paper towels, going solar, harnessing wind, using less fertilizer, or buying products that are organically grown. Given that being green can mean a lot of things, what does "being green" or "going green" mean to both you and your…

  1. 7 CFR 51.574 - Green.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ..., CERTIFICATION, AND STANDARDS) United States Standards for Celery Definitions § 51.574 Green. Green means that the middle portions of the outer branches on the stalk are generally green to light green color. ... 7 Agriculture 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Green. 51.574 Section 51.574 Agriculture...

  2. Lighting Demands in Green Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Danis, Jim; Thurnquist, Annmarie

    2011-01-01

    Growing up in a more eco-conscious world, incoming students are more savvy about "greening" the world around them. A decade ago, green college campuses were those that offered recycling bins in residence halls. Now education institutions are integrating sustainability efforts into as many aspects of their campus operations as possible. And that…

  3. "Green" Classes Flourish in Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cavanagh, Sean

    2009-01-01

    Courses focused on renewable and alternative energy are taking hold across the country as educators seek to channel students' concerns about the environment and conservation into classroom lessons. This article talks about the rising interest in "green" curriculum. Here, the author describes the Green Tech class that introduces students to the…

  4. Green as the New Norm

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kennedy, Mike

    2009-01-01

    Lured by the recognition that comes with a Leadership in Energy and Environmental Design (LEED) rating from the U.S. Green Building Council, many schools and universities have become aware of that certification process. But for years, the involvement was limited to a few trendsetters; according to the Green Building Council's database, only about…

  5. News from Online: Green Chemistry

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Uffelman, Erich S.

    2004-01-01

    Green chemistry closely relates to energy and environmental problems, and includes the promotion of environmental friendly products and systems within the framework of renewable resources. Various websites on green chemistry are reviewed, one of which lists the 12 commandments of this particular subject.

  6. Savvy Schools Are Going Green

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    St. Gerard, Vanessa

    2008-01-01

    This article describes how the green phenomenon is spreading, especially among schools, which have found that not only are they being environmentally friendly, they are also saving big money. Green buildings focus on efficiency and renewable energy, water stewardship, environmentally preferable building materials and specifications, waste…

  7. Virtual Rewards for Driving Green

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pritchard, Josh

    2010-01-01

    Carbon dioxide from automobiles is a major contributor to global climate change. In "Virtual Rewards for Driving Green," Josh Pritchard proposes a computer application that will enable fuel-efficient drivers to earn "green" dollars with which to buy digital merchandise on the Web. Can getting items that exist only in cyberspace actually change a…

  8. The "Green" Root Beer Laboratory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clary, Renee; Wandersee, James

    2010-01-01

    No, your students will not be drinking green root beer for St. Patrick's Day--this "green" root beer laboratory promotes environmental awareness in the science classroom, and provides a venue for some very sound science content! While many science classrooms incorporate root beer-brewing activities, the root beer lab presented in this article has…

  9. Green from the inside out

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Seydel, Jennifer

    2011-01-01

    "Green school" is an umbrella term that covers a number of educational approaches, such as environment-based curricula, environment-integrated curricula, education for sustainability, and education for sustainable development. Green schools enrich the traditional secondary curriculum by relating it to practical issues of environmental…

  10. Recent developments of green tribology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Si-Wei

    2016-06-01

    Green tribology is a new field of great interest to a large number of tribologists. This article reviews the latest advances in this area including energy conservation, emission reduction, super-low friction and super-low wear, wind turbines, smart coatings, and fundamentals. Moreover, an overview of the future development of green tribology is also presented.

  11. [Sarcoid granuloma in green tattooing].

    PubMed

    Kremser, M

    1987-01-01

    The case report is presented of a 34-year old man with the sudden appearance of multiple granulomas at the site of green tattoo markings which had been undertaken 8 years previously. Unusual was his case history of an anaphylactic reaction after the ingestion of green pistachio nuts. A non-immunological food intolerance without cross-reaction to the dye of the green tattoo namely phthalocyanine, was detected. Aerosil, colloidal silica, was found to be the trigger substance; it was present exclusively in the green dye, and was responsible for the patient's sarcoid reaction. Excision of the green tattoos employing pedicle flaps was successful. At the latest follow-up examination no features of sarcoidosis were detected. PMID:3564486

  12. Green tea gets molecular.

    PubMed

    Rouzer, Carol A; Marnett, Lawrence J

    2011-09-01

    Green tea and its major polyphenolic flavonoid, epigallocatechin gallate (EGCG), have been credited with cancer chemopreventive activity for many years; the mechanism for this activity, however, has remained obscure. Now, as reported in this issue of the journal (beginning on page 1366), Urusova and colleagues showed direct binding of EGCG to the peptidyl prolyl cis/trans isomerase Pin1, which inhibited Pin1 enzymatic activity. They showed that Pin1 expression is required for EGCG effects on cell growth, c-Jun activation, and transcription regulation mediated by NF-κB and activator protein-1. The data provide a glimpse of the mechanism of action of EGCG and set a new bar for the future study of natural products with chemopreventive activity. PMID:21893494

  13. Habitat goes green

    SciTech Connect

    Kriescher, P.; Smith, M.

    1999-12-01

    A Denver family enjoys the financial and personal benefits of owning an affordable, energy-efficient home. On Earth Day, April 22, 1997, Habitat for Humanity of Metro Denver witnessed the realization of a dream. As Luis and Estella Valadez and their four children cut the ribbon on their 1,100 square foot (102 m{sup 2}) northwest Denver home, it signified the completion of the Denver Habitat affiliate's first ``Green'' home. Building this dream involved developing a plan to build affordable Habitat homes that also embodied a sense of stewardship of the Earth's environment. The affiliate also wanted to use this effort to achieve the additional goal of reducing the homeowner's utility and maintenance bills.

  14. USING GREEN CHEMISTRY TO INFLUENCE PROCESS DEVELOPMENT

    EPA Science Inventory

    The twelve principles of green chemistry by Anastas and Warner provide the researcher with a foundation or pathway which allows opportunities to incorporate greenness into an existing reaction or when developing alternative technologies. The twelve additional principles of green ...

  15. Green Roofs for Stormwater Runoff Control - Abstract

    EPA Science Inventory

    This project evaluated green roofs as a stormwater management tool. Specifically, runoff quantity and quality from green and flat asphalt roofs were compared. Evapotranspiration from planted green roofs and evaporation from unplanted media roofs were also compared. The influence...

  16. 7 CFR 29.2274 - Green (G).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... INSPECTION Standards Official Standard Grades for Virginia Fire-Cured Tobacco (u.s. Type 21) § 29.2274 Green (G). A term applied to green-colored tobacco. Any leaf which has a green color affecting 20...

  17. 7 CFR 29.2274 - Green (G).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... INSPECTION Standards Official Standard Grades for Virginia Fire-Cured Tobacco (u.s. Type 21) § 29.2274 Green (G). A term applied to green-colored tobacco. Any leaf which has a green color affecting 20...

  18. 7 CFR 29.2274 - Green (G).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... INSPECTION Standards Official Standard Grades for Virginia Fire-Cured Tobacco (u.s. Type 21) § 29.2274 Green (G). A term applied to green-colored tobacco. Any leaf which has a green color affecting 20...

  19. 7 CFR 29.2274 - Green (G).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... INSPECTION Standards Official Standard Grades for Virginia Fire-Cured Tobacco (u.s. Type 21) § 29.2274 Green (G). A term applied to green-colored tobacco. Any leaf which has a green color affecting 20...

  20. 7 CFR 29.2274 - Green (G).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... INSPECTION Standards Official Standard Grades for Virginia Fire-Cured Tobacco (u.s. Type 21) § 29.2274 Green (G). A term applied to green-colored tobacco. Any leaf which has a green color affecting 20...

  1. Stormwater Attenuation by Green Roofs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sims, A.; O'Carroll, D. M.; Robinson, C. E.; Smart, C. C.

    2014-12-01

    Innovative municipal stormwater management technologies are urgently required in urban centers. Inadequate stormwater management can lead to excessive flooding, channel erosion, decreased stream baseflows, and degraded water quality. A major source of urban stormwater is unused roof space. Green roofs can be used as a stormwater management tool to reduce roof generated stormwater and generally improve the quality of runoff. With recent legislation in some North American cities, including Toronto, requiring the installation of green roofs on large buildings, research on the effectiveness of green roofs for stormwater management is important. This study aims to assess the hydrologic response of an extensive sedum green roof in London, Ontario, with emphasis on the response to large precipitation events that stress municipal stormwater infrastructure. A green roof rapidly reaches field capacity during large storm events and can show significantly different behavior before and after field capacity. At field capacity a green roof has no capillary storage left for retention of stormwater, but may still be an effective tool to attenuate peak runoff rates by transport through the green roof substrate. The attenuation of green roofs after field capacity is linked to gravity storage, where gravity storage is the water that is temporarily stored and can drain freely over time after field capacity has been established. Stormwater attenuation of a modular experimental green roof is determined from water balance calculations at 1-minute intervals. Data is used to evaluate green roof attenuation and the impact of field capacity on peak flow rates and gravity storage. In addition, a numerical model is used to simulate event based stormwater attenuation. This model is based off of the Richards equation and supporting theory of multiphase flow through porous media.

  2. Antioxidant effects of green tea

    PubMed Central

    FORESTER, SARAH C.; LAMBERT, JOSHUA D.

    2013-01-01

    Consumption of green tea (Camellia sinensis) may provide protection against chronic diseases, including cancer. Green tea polyphenols are believed to be responsible for this cancer preventive effect, and the antioxidant activity of the green tea polyphenols has been implicated as a potential mechanism. This hypothesis has been difficult to study in vivo due to metabolism of these compounds and poor understanding of the redox environment in vivo. Green tea polyphenols can be direct antioxidants by scavenging reactive oxygen species or chelating transition metals as has been demonstrated in vitro. Alternatively, they may act indirectly by up-regulating phase II antioxidant enzymes. Evidence of this latter effect has been observed in vivo, yet more work is required to determine under which conditions these mechanisms occur. Green tea polyphenols can also be potent pro-oxidants, both in vitro and in vivo, leading to the formation of hydrogen peroxide, the hydroxyl radical, and superoxide anion. The potential role of these pro-oxidant effects in the cancer preventive activity of green tea is not well understood. The evidence for not only the antioxidant, but also pro-oxidant, properties of green tea are discussed in the present review. PMID:21538850

  3. Green tea and bone metabolism.

    PubMed

    Shen, Chwan-Li; Yeh, James K; Cao, Jay J; Wang, Jia-Sheng

    2009-07-01

    Osteoporosis is a major health problem in both elderly women and men. Epidemiological evidence has shown an association between tea consumption and the prevention of age-related bone loss in elderly women and men. Ingestion of green tea and green tea bioactive compounds may be beneficial in mitigating bone loss of this population and decreasing their risk of osteoporotic fractures. This review describes the effect of green tea or its bioactive components on bone health, with an emphasis on (i) the prevalence and etiology of osteoporosis; (ii) the role of oxidative stress and antioxidants in osteoporosis; (iii) green tea composition and bioavailability; (iv) the effects of green tea and its active components on osteogenesis, osteoblastogenesis, and osteoclastogenesis from human epidemiological, animal, as well as cell culture studies; (v) possible mechanisms explaining the osteoprotective effects of green tea bioactive compounds; (vi) other bioactive components in tea that benefit bone health; and (vii) a summary and future direction of green tea and bone health research and the translational aspects. In general, tea and its bioactive components might decrease the risk of fracture by improving bone mineral density and supporting osteoblastic activities while suppressing osteoclastic activities.

  4. It's hard to be green: Reverse green value chain.

    PubMed

    Couto, João; Tiago, Teresa; Gil, Artur; Tiago, Flávio; Faria, Sandra

    2016-08-01

    Firms have recently discovered that it is not enough to optimize internal processes and relationships with partners along the value chain to create a sustainable competitive market position. A clear customer orientation, which acknowledges that consumer buying behavior is complex and includes many elements implied in the value chain, is required. As companies offering green products are no exception to this rule, this study analyzes consumer behavior in Europe from a reserve green supply chain management perspective, using descriptive analyses and a structural equation model, with data collected by Flash Barometer comprising 26,573 responses from 28 European countries. The results suggest that European consumers are conscious of the green concept, but are not willing to buy or pay more for these products since the value is unclear. Companies offering green products must therefore rethink their strategies, especially in terms of value proposition, communication strategies, and eco-labeling.

  5. It's hard to be green: Reverse green value chain.

    PubMed

    Couto, João; Tiago, Teresa; Gil, Artur; Tiago, Flávio; Faria, Sandra

    2016-08-01

    Firms have recently discovered that it is not enough to optimize internal processes and relationships with partners along the value chain to create a sustainable competitive market position. A clear customer orientation, which acknowledges that consumer buying behavior is complex and includes many elements implied in the value chain, is required. As companies offering green products are no exception to this rule, this study analyzes consumer behavior in Europe from a reserve green supply chain management perspective, using descriptive analyses and a structural equation model, with data collected by Flash Barometer comprising 26,573 responses from 28 European countries. The results suggest that European consumers are conscious of the green concept, but are not willing to buy or pay more for these products since the value is unclear. Companies offering green products must therefore rethink their strategies, especially in terms of value proposition, communication strategies, and eco-labeling. PMID:27209347

  6. [Development of green hospitals home and abroad].

    PubMed

    Yang, Yiju; Zeng, Na; Shen, Minxue; Sun, Zhenqiu

    2013-09-01

    Green hospital construction is a new challenge for medical industry after global sustainable development strategy was put forward. The core connotation of green hospital includes green building, green healthcare, patient safety, and doctor-patient harmony. Many countries have established green building evaluation system to deal with energy crisis. Leadership in Energy and Environmental Design (LEED), Green Guide for Health Care (GGHC) in the U.S., and Evaluation System for Green Hospital Building (CSUS/GBC 2-2011) in China have guiding significance for the development of green hospitals in China. The evaluation system of green hospitals home and abroad still focuses on green building, and establishment of suitable synthesis evaluation system of green hospitals in China needs further research. PMID:24071694

  7. [Development of green hospitals home and abroad].

    PubMed

    Yang, Yiju; Zeng, Na; Shen, Minxue; Sun, Zhenqiu

    2013-09-01

    Green hospital construction is a new challenge for medical industry after global sustainable development strategy was put forward. The core connotation of green hospital includes green building, green healthcare, patient safety, and doctor-patient harmony. Many countries have established green building evaluation system to deal with energy crisis. Leadership in Energy and Environmental Design (LEED), Green Guide for Health Care (GGHC) in the U.S., and Evaluation System for Green Hospital Building (CSUS/GBC 2-2011) in China have guiding significance for the development of green hospitals in China. The evaluation system of green hospitals home and abroad still focuses on green building, and establishment of suitable synthesis evaluation system of green hospitals in China needs further research.

  8. Green roofs: potential at LANL

    SciTech Connect

    Pacheco, Elena M

    2009-01-01

    Green roofs, roof systems that support vegetation, are rapidly becoming one of the most popular sustainable methods to combat urban environmental problems in North America. An extensive list of literature has been published in the past three decades recording the ecological benefits of green roofs; and now those benefits have been measured in enumerated data as a means to analyze the costs and returns of green roof technology. Most recently several studies have made substantial progress quantifying the monetary savings associated with storm water mitigation, the lessoning of the Urban Heat Island, and reduction of building cooling demands due to the implementation of green roof systems. Like any natural vegetation, a green roof is capable of absorbing the precipitation that falls on it. This capability has shown to significantly decrease the amount of storm water runoff produced by buildings as well as slow the rate at which runoff is dispensed. As a result of this reduction in volume and velocity, storm drains and sewage systems are relieved of any excess stress they might experience in a storm. For many municipalities and private building owners, any increase in storm water mitigation can result in major tax incentives and revenue that does not have to be spent on extra water treatments. Along with absorption of water, vegetation on green roofs is also capable of transpiration, the process by which moisture is evaporated into the air to cool ambient temperatures. This natural process aims to minimize the Urban Heat Island Effect, a phenomenon brought on by the dark and paved surfaces that increases air temperatures in urban cores. As the sun distributes solar radiation over a city's area, dark surfaces such as bitumen rooftops absorb solar rays and their heat. That heat is later released during the evening hours and the ambient temperatures do not cool as they normally would, creating an island of constant heat. Such excessively high temperatures induce heat

  9. Gore proposes green strategy

    SciTech Connect

    1995-04-26

    A national environmental technology strategy laying out incentives for developing and using {open_quotes}green{close_quotes} technology was announced last week by Vice President Al Gore. The plan proposes a national goal of cutting waste 40%-50% and using 20%-25% less materials/unit of gross domestic product by Earth Day 2020. To meet that goal, the federal government aims to streamline environmental permitting, provide federal sites where US firms can test and demonstrate new technologies, create flexible regulation that encourages efficient and effective technologies, encourage research on pollution prevention, and improve monitoring data and information systems. The Administration says environmental technology is providing job growth twice that of the economy as a whole, and global markets are expected to rise from $300 billion to $500 billion by 2000. It adds that the US is the world market leader but only by a slim- and slipping-margin. Whereas previous federal support for environmental technologies focused on the front end of R&D and prototyping, the new strategy aims to bring technologies to market and encourage exports, according to the Administration`s National Commission for Employment Policy, which issued two reports last week. The commission says federal environmental policies now produce 68,000-80,000 jobs and contribute $3.5 billion-$3.7 billion to the economy.

  10. Movie Trailer: 'Romancing the Green'

    NASA Video Gallery

    The research and development by NASA Aeronautics of next generation "green" technologies and systems are highlighted in this parody of a "coming attraction" trailer produced by NASA Television. The...

  11. A blueprint for green marketing.

    PubMed

    Davis, J J

    1991-01-01

    Companies have rushed to market environmentally acceptable products. But according to the author, many have ignored the planning considerations that should have preceded the development and promotion of these "green" products. PMID:10112307

  12. Balancing green and grain trade

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Yiping; Wang, Kaibo; Lin, Yishan; Shi, Weiyu; Song, Yi; He, Xinhua

    2015-10-01

    Since 1999, China's Grain for Green project has greatly increased the vegetation cover on the Loess Plateau. Now that erosion levels have returned to historic values, vegetation should be maintained but not expanded further as planned.

  13. USPS – Lean Green Teams

    SciTech Connect

    2012-08-01

    Institutional change case study details the U.S. Postal Service's Lean Green Teams, which collaborate across functions to identify and implement low- and no-cost ways to conserve natural resources, purchase fewer consumable products, and reduce waste.

  14. Green Construction in Building Renovation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ksit, Barbara; Majcherek, Michał

    2016-06-01

    Modern materials and construction solutions draw more and more attention to ecology and building certification. Among the criteria appearing in revitalization, an important element is bringing plants back into heavily urbanized areas. In its natural form, this is not possible to carry out everywhere, often requiring large amounts of space. Nowadays, however, there are a number of green roofs and green wall systems, allowing "greener" construction without making significant changes in the urban environment. The article includes a presentation and analysis of selected solutions of biological surfaces known as green roofs and green walls, specifying various solutions and their most important features. The case study focuses primarily on material and design solutions, as well as the potential benefits, risks and limitations in their use. Plants structures on the surfaces of vertical and horizontal partitions continue to be a very interesting alternative to take into account when applying for grants, such as LEED or BREEAM certificates.

  15. Green Building and School Construction.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    DiNola, Ralph; Guerra, Jerry

    2002-01-01

    Discusses the benefits of green, or high-performance, buildings, such as health and comfort, cost effectiveness, and sustainability. Explores the barriers to their use by schools--most notably cost. Offers suggestions on overcoming these barriers. (EV)

  16. The Road to a Green District

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gutter, Rachel; Knupp, Emily

    2011-01-01

    Green design, green construction, and green operations for new buildings are rapidly becoming the norm for school districts throughout the country. Today, increased availability of green products and technology coupled with cost savings that are realized through an integrated design process mean that schools like Arabia Mountain High School in…

  17. The Road to a Green District

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gutter, Rachel; Knupp, Emily

    2010-01-01

    Green design, green construction and green operations for new buildings are rapidly becoming the norm for school districts throughout the country. Today, increased availability of green products and technology coupled with cost savings that are realized through an integrated design process mean that schools like Arabia Mountain High School can be…

  18. Brief Discussion on Green Building Materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cai, Jia-wei; Sun, Jian

    2014-08-01

    With more and more emphasizes on the environment and resources, the concept of green buildings has been widely accepted. Building materials are vectors of architectures, only if green building materials and related technical means are used, can we construct green buildings to achieve the purpose of energy conservation and environmental protection. This paper introduces the relationship between green building materials and green buildings, the current situation of green building materials in China, as well as the measures to accelerate the development of green building materials.

  19. 75 FR 32743 - Action Affecting Export Privileges; Green Supply, Inc.; Robert Leland Green and William Robert...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-06-09

    ... Bureau of Industry and Security Action Affecting Export Privileges; Green Supply, Inc.; Robert Leland Green and William Robert Green; Order Denying Export Privileges In the Matter of: Green Supply, Inc., 3059 Audrian Road 581,) Vandalia, Missouri 63382, Respondent; Robert Leland Green, 3059 Audrian...

  20. Green politics in Germany: what is Green health care policy?

    PubMed

    Wörz, M; Wismar, M

    2001-01-01

    For the first time ever, a Green party has governed in Germany. From September 1998 to January 2001 the German Green party, Bündnis 90/Die Grünen, held the Federal Ministry of Health. Little has been said so far about Bündnis 90/Die Grünen and its relation to health policy. This article is intended to fill that void. An analysis of the health policy program of the Greens reveals that it centers around moving the health sector toward more comprehensiveness and decentralization, strengthened patients' rights, increased use of preventive and alternative medicine, and a critique of the German cost-containment debate and policy. The current health policy program of the Greens is closest to that of the Party of Democratic Socialism, and to a lesser extent it has affinities to the program of the Social Democratic Party. The health policy program of Bündnis 90/Die Grünen is furthest from those of the Christian Democratic Union and the Free Democratic Party. The health care reforms passed in 1998 and 1999 were not a shift toward a "Green paradigm" of health care policy, because they included no fundamental changes. In addition, cost-containment is still a major political goal in German health care policy. PMID:11809012

  1. Making green infrastructure healthier infrastructure.

    PubMed

    Lõhmus, Mare; Balbus, John

    2015-01-01

    Increasing urban green and blue structure is often pointed out to be critical for sustainable development and climate change adaptation, which has led to the rapid expansion of greening activities in cities throughout the world. This process is likely to have a direct impact on the citizens' quality of life and public health. However, alongside numerous benefits, green and blue infrastructure also has the potential to create unexpected, undesirable, side-effects for health. This paper considers several potential harmful public health effects that might result from increased urban biodiversity, urban bodies of water, and urban tree cover projects. It does so with the intent of improving awareness and motivating preventive measures when designing and initiating such projects. Although biodiversity has been found to be associated with physiological benefits for humans in several studies, efforts to increase the biodiversity of urban environments may also promote the introduction and survival of vector or host organisms for infectious pathogens with resulting spread of a variety of diseases. In addition, more green connectivity in urban areas may potentiate the role of rats and ticks in the spread of infectious diseases. Bodies of water and wetlands play a crucial role in the urban climate adaptation and mitigation process. However, they also provide habitats for mosquitoes and toxic algal blooms. Finally, increasing urban green space may also adversely affect citizens allergic to pollen. Increased awareness of the potential hazards of urban green and blue infrastructure should not be a reason to stop or scale back projects. Instead, incorporating public health awareness and interventions into urban planning at the earliest stages can help insure that green and blue infrastructure achieves full potential for health promotion. PMID:26615823

  2. Making green infrastructure healthier infrastructure

    PubMed Central

    Lõhmus, Mare; Balbus, John

    2015-01-01

    Increasing urban green and blue structure is often pointed out to be critical for sustainable development and climate change adaptation, which has led to the rapid expansion of greening activities in cities throughout the world. This process is likely to have a direct impact on the citizens’ quality of life and public health. However, alongside numerous benefits, green and blue infrastructure also has the potential to create unexpected, undesirable, side-effects for health. This paper considers several potential harmful public health effects that might result from increased urban biodiversity, urban bodies of water, and urban tree cover projects. It does so with the intent of improving awareness and motivating preventive measures when designing and initiating such projects. Although biodiversity has been found to be associated with physiological benefits for humans in several studies, efforts to increase the biodiversity of urban environments may also promote the introduction and survival of vector or host organisms for infectious pathogens with resulting spread of a variety of diseases. In addition, more green connectivity in urban areas may potentiate the role of rats and ticks in the spread of infectious diseases. Bodies of water and wetlands play a crucial role in the urban climate adaptation and mitigation process. However, they also provide habitats for mosquitoes and toxic algal blooms. Finally, increasing urban green space may also adversely affect citizens allergic to pollen. Increased awareness of the potential hazards of urban green and blue infrastructure should not be a reason to stop or scale back projects. Instead, incorporating public health awareness and interventions into urban planning at the earliest stages can help insure that green and blue infrastructure achieves full potential for health promotion. PMID:26615823

  3. Making green infrastructure healthier infrastructure.

    PubMed

    Lõhmus, Mare; Balbus, John

    2015-01-01

    Increasing urban green and blue structure is often pointed out to be critical for sustainable development and climate change adaptation, which has led to the rapid expansion of greening activities in cities throughout the world. This process is likely to have a direct impact on the citizens' quality of life and public health. However, alongside numerous benefits, green and blue infrastructure also has the potential to create unexpected, undesirable, side-effects for health. This paper considers several potential harmful public health effects that might result from increased urban biodiversity, urban bodies of water, and urban tree cover projects. It does so with the intent of improving awareness and motivating preventive measures when designing and initiating such projects. Although biodiversity has been found to be associated with physiological benefits for humans in several studies, efforts to increase the biodiversity of urban environments may also promote the introduction and survival of vector or host organisms for infectious pathogens with resulting spread of a variety of diseases. In addition, more green connectivity in urban areas may potentiate the role of rats and ticks in the spread of infectious diseases. Bodies of water and wetlands play a crucial role in the urban climate adaptation and mitigation process. However, they also provide habitats for mosquitoes and toxic algal blooms. Finally, increasing urban green space may also adversely affect citizens allergic to pollen. Increased awareness of the potential hazards of urban green and blue infrastructure should not be a reason to stop or scale back projects. Instead, incorporating public health awareness and interventions into urban planning at the earliest stages can help insure that green and blue infrastructure achieves full potential for health promotion.

  4. 77 FR 2296 - Office of Federal High-Performance Green Buildings; the Green Building Advisory Committee...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-01-17

    ... provides the schedule for three teleconference meetings of the Green Building Advisory Committee (the... ADMINISTRATION Office of Federal High-Performance Green Buildings; the Green Building Advisory Committee; Notification of Upcoming Public Advisory Teleconference Meetings AGENCY: Office of Governmentwide...

  5. Greening the global water system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hoff, H.; Falkenmark, M.; Gerten, D.; Gordon, L.; Karlberg, L.; Rockström, J.

    2010-04-01

    SummaryRecent developments of global models and data sets enable a new, spatially explicit and process-based assessment of green and blue water in food production and trade. An initial intercomparison of a range of different (hydrological, vegetation, crop, water resources and economic) models, confirms that green water use in global crop production is about 4-5 times greater than consumptive blue water use. Hence, the full green-to-blue spectrum of agricultural water management options needs to be used when tackling the increasing water gap in food production. The different models calculate considerable potentials for complementing the conventional approach of adding irrigation, with measures to increase water productivity, such as rainwater harvesting, supplementary irrigation, vapour shift and soil and nutrient management. Several models highlight Africa, in particular sub-Saharan Africa, as a key region for improving water productivity in agriculture, by implementing these measures. Virtual water trade, mostly based on green water, helps to close the water gap in a number of countries. It is likely to become even more important in the future, when inequities in water availability are projected to grow, due to climate, population and other drivers of change. Further model developments and a rigorous green-blue water model intercomparison are proposed, to improve simulations at global and regional scale and to enable tradeoff analyses for the different adaptation options.

  6. Green chemistry, biofuels, and biorefinery.

    PubMed

    Clark, James H; Luque, Rafael; Matharu, Avtar S

    2012-01-01

    In the current climate of several interrelated impending global crises, namely, climate change, chemicals, energy, and oil, the impact of green chemistry with respect to chemicals and biofuels generated from within a holistic concept of a biorefinery is discussed. Green chemistry provides unique opportunities for innovation via product substitution, new feedstock generation, catalysis in aqueous media, utilization of microwaves, and scope for alternative or natural solvents. The potential of utilizing waste as a new resource and the development of integrated facilities producing multiple products from biomass is discussed under the guise of biorefineries. Biofuels are discussed in depth, as they not only provide fuel (energy) but are also a source of feedstock chemicals. In the future, the commercial success of biofuels commensurate with consumer demand will depend on the availability of new green (bio)chemical technologies capable of converting waste biomass to fuel in a context of a biorefinery. PMID:22468603

  7. Green chemistry, biofuels, and biorefinery.

    PubMed

    Clark, James H; Luque, Rafael; Matharu, Avtar S

    2012-01-01

    In the current climate of several interrelated impending global crises, namely, climate change, chemicals, energy, and oil, the impact of green chemistry with respect to chemicals and biofuels generated from within a holistic concept of a biorefinery is discussed. Green chemistry provides unique opportunities for innovation via product substitution, new feedstock generation, catalysis in aqueous media, utilization of microwaves, and scope for alternative or natural solvents. The potential of utilizing waste as a new resource and the development of integrated facilities producing multiple products from biomass is discussed under the guise of biorefineries. Biofuels are discussed in depth, as they not only provide fuel (energy) but are also a source of feedstock chemicals. In the future, the commercial success of biofuels commensurate with consumer demand will depend on the availability of new green (bio)chemical technologies capable of converting waste biomass to fuel in a context of a biorefinery.

  8. Green tea and the skin.

    PubMed

    Hsu, Stephen

    2005-06-01

    Plant extracts have been widely used as topical applications for wound-healing, anti-aging, and disease treatments. Examples of these include ginkgo biloba, echinacea, ginseng, grape seed, green tea, lemon, lavender, rosemary, thuja, sarsaparilla, soy, prickly pear, sagebrush, jojoba, aloe vera, allantoin, feverwort, bloodroot, apache plume, and papaya. These plants share a common character: they all produce flavonoid compounds with phenolic structures. These phytochemicals are highly reactive with other compounds, such as reactive oxygen species and biologic macromolecules, to neutralize free radicals or initiate biological effects. A short list of phenolic phytochemicals with promising properties to benefit human health includes a group of polyphenol compounds, called catechins, found in green tea. This article summarizes the findings of studies using green tea polyphenols as chemopreventive, natural healing, and anti-aging agents for human skin, and discusses possible mechanisms of action.

  9. Green Schools Project Final Report

    SciTech Connect

    Verdict, M.

    2000-09-27

    The Alliance to Save Energy has responded to interest in the Green Schools concept from the New England states of Maine, New Hampshire and Vermont. The Alliance conducted a train-the-trainers workshop in Augusta, Maine March 17--18, 1999. This work is part of a Green Schools replication project leveraged by funds from another source, NORDAX, which contributed $80,000 to provide partial support to staff at the Maine Energy Education Project (MEEP), Vermont Energy Education Program (VEEP), and New Hampshire Governor's Office to develop Green Schools Projects. DOE funds were used to conduct training, develop a network of state and local government, business and school partners to support school efficiency activities in those three states.

  10. Solid acids for green chemistry.

    PubMed

    Clark, James H

    2002-09-01

    Solid acids and especially those based on micelle-templated silicas and other mesoporous high surface area support materials are beginning to play a significant role in the greening of fine and specialty chemicals manufacturing processes. A wide range of important organic reactions can be efficiently catalyzed by these materials, which can be designed to provide different types of acidity as well as high degrees of reaction selectivity. The solid acids generally have high turnover numbers and can be easily separated from the organic components. The combination of this chemistry with innovative reaction engineering offers exciting opportunities for innovative green chemical manufacturing in the future. PMID:12234209

  11. Blue-green upconversion laser

    DOEpatents

    Nguyen, Dinh C.; Faulkner, George E.

    1990-01-01

    A blue-green laser (450-550 nm) uses a host crystal doped with Tm.sup.3+. The Tm.sup.+ is excited through upconversion by a red pumping laser and an IR pumping laser to a state which transitions to a relatively lower energy level through emissions in the blue-green band, e.g., 450.20 nm at 75 K. The exciting laser may be tunable dye lasers or may be solid-state semiconductor laser, e.g., GaAlAs and InGaAlP.

  12. Blue-green upconversion laser

    DOEpatents

    Nguyen, D.C.; Faulkner, G.E.

    1990-08-14

    A blue-green laser (450--550 nm) uses a host crystal doped with Tm[sup 3+]. The Tm[sup 3+] is excited through upconversion by a red pumping laser and an IR pumping laser to a state which transitions to a relatively lower energy level through emissions in the blue-green band, e.g., 450.20 nm at 75 K. The exciting laser may be tunable dye lasers or may be solid-state semiconductor laser, e.g., GaAlAs and InGaAlP. 3 figs.

  13. Green chemistry for chemical synthesis.

    PubMed

    Li, Chao-Jun; Trost, Barry M

    2008-09-01

    Green chemistry for chemical synthesis addresses our future challenges in working with chemical processes and products by inventing novel reactions that can maximize the desired products and minimize by-products, designing new synthetic schemes and apparati that can simplify operations in chemical productions, and seeking greener solvents that are inherently environmentally and ecologically benign. PMID:18768813

  14. Harvesting "Green-Collar" Jobs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roach, Ronald

    2009-01-01

    Emerging in recent years from the need for increased energy efficiency and conservation, greater reduction of greenhouse gas emissions, and stepped-up action to clean the environment, green jobs have arisen as a distinct employment sector within the U.S. and around the world. While social and political activists have taken the lead to make sure…

  15. A Deeper Shade of Green

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schachter, Ron

    2009-01-01

    For many schools, "Going Green" once meant turning out the lights after leaving the classroom, filling the recycle bins, and celebrating Earth Day. Not anymore. Although such activities remain staples of environmentally conscious school systems, that consciousness has exploded in an era of high energy prices, global warming threats, and…

  16. Overcoming Obstacles to Going Green

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kennedy, Mike

    2010-01-01

    In recent years, green design has evolved from a cutting-edge idea embraced by ecology-obsessed activists to an idea embraced as a badge of honor by schools and universities across the nation. A consensus has formed among architects, school facility managers and educators that sustainably designed projects are desirable and make sense for the…

  17. Green Chile Pepper Harvest Mechanization

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Pungent green chile (genus /Capsicum/, also spelled chili) is a large, fragile fruit growing on berry shrubs. Chile is harvested by hand to maximize yields and minimize fruit damage. Labor for hand harvesting chile is increasingly costly and difficult to obtain. Harvest mechanization is viewed as...

  18. What Makes Green Schools Better?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schimmel, Barry

    2011-01-01

    Green energy represents a way to empower students by demonstrating creative problem-solving with an eye on protecting precious resources, both capital and natural. Many school districts have already taken the initiative during the past five years to implement energy projects, whether for the educational or economic opportunities, or both.…

  19. Green Chemistry with Microwave Energy

    EPA Science Inventory

    Green chemistry utilizes a set of 12 principles that reduces or eliminates the use or generation of hazardous substances in the design, manufacture, and applications of chemical products (1). This newer chemical approach protects the environment by inventing safer and eco-friendl...

  20. Green chemistry for chemical synthesis

    PubMed Central

    Li, Chao-Jun; Trost, Barry M.

    2008-01-01

    Green chemistry for chemical synthesis addresses our future challenges in working with chemical processes and products by inventing novel reactions that can maximize the desired products and minimize by-products, designing new synthetic schemes and apparati that can simplify operations in chemical productions, and seeking greener solvents that are inherently environmentally and ecologically benign. PMID:18768813

  1. India and the Green Revolution.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hilden, Clark G.

    In the 1960s it was predicted that famine would strike India because the country lacked the necessary resources to feed its rapidly growing population. Yet, in the 1970s and 1980s new agricultural developments occured that have helped abate the crisis. These developments comprise what is now called the Green Revolution. India's food/population…

  2. Green Team to the Rescue

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Neeper, Lance S.; Dymond, Stacy K.

    2012-01-01

    Teachers created an after-school club called The Green Team and implemented an instructional strategy know as service-learning to teach environmental science. This article describes the transformation that occurred over a three-year period and illustrates how service-learning can provide a framework for environmental education. (Contains 1 figure,…

  3. Grow Your Green Campus Organically!

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schaffhauser, Dian

    2009-01-01

    When it comes to environmental savvy, Delta College (Michigan) is like a lot of small institutions of higher education: It has a passel of green efforts underway, which could fall under all sorts of headings. The IT organization at the 11,000-student community college campus has virtualized its server operations and is on track to roll out a…

  4. Energy Perspective: Is Hydroelectricity Green?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Childress, Vincent W.

    2009-01-01

    The current worldwide concern over energy is primarily related to imported oil, oil drilling and refining capacity, and transportation capacity. However, this concern has bolstered interest in a broader range of "green" energy technologies. In this article, the author discusses the use of hydroelectricity as an alternative energy source and…

  5. "Greening up" the Suzuki Reaction

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aktoudianakis, Evangelos; Chan, Elton; Edward, Amanda R.; Jarosz, Isabel; Lee, Vicki; Mui, Leo; Thatipamala, Sonya S.; Dicks, Andrew P.

    2008-01-01

    This article describes the rapid, green synthesis of a biaryl compound (4-phenylphenol) via a Pd(0)-catalyzed Suzuki cross-coupling reaction in water. Mild reaction conditions and operational simplicity makes this experiment especially amenable to both mid- and upper-level undergraduates. The methodology exposes students to purely aqueous…

  6. Some Exercises Reflecting Green Chemistry Concepts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Song, Yu-Min; Wang, Yong-Cheng; Geng, Zhi-Yuan

    2004-01-01

    Some exercises to introduce students to the concept of green chemistry are given. By doing these exercises, students develop an appreciation for the role of green chemistry on feedstock substitution, milder reaction conditions, reduced environmental exposure, and resource conservation.

  7. Green jobs and a strong middle class.

    PubMed

    Podesta, John D

    2009-01-01

    Green jobs are critical to building a strong middle class, and millions of green jobs can be created through energy efficiency. The models already exist for this work, but we need sustained investment to bring them to scale.

  8. 77 FR 66616 - Office of Federal High-Performance Green Buildings; Green Building Advisory Committee...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-11-06

    ... ADMINISTRATION Office of Federal High-Performance Green Buildings; Green Building Advisory Committee... provides the schedule and agenda for the November 27, 2012, meeting of the Green Building Advisory... High-Performance Green Buildings, Office of Government-wide Policy, General Services...

  9. 77 FR 24494 - Office of Federal High-Performance Green Buildings; Green Building Advisory Committee...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-04-24

    ... ADMINISTRATION Office of Federal High-Performance Green Buildings; Green Building Advisory Committee... and agenda for the May 9, 2012, meeting of the Green Building Advisory Committee Meeting (the... Sandler, Designated Federal Officer, Office of Federal High-Performance Green Buildings, Office...

  10. 75 FR 1591 - Green Technology Pilot Program

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-01-12

    ... Patent and Trademark Office Green Technology Pilot Program ACTION: Proposed collection; comment request...@uspto.gov . Include A0651-0062 Green Technology Pilot Program comment@ in the subject line of the... examination pilot program for patent applications pertaining to green technologies, including greenhouse...

  11. 75 FR 64692 - Green Technology Pilot Program

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-10-20

    ... Patent and Trademark Office Green Technology Pilot Program ACTION: Proposed collection; comment request...: ] E-mail: InformationCollection@uspto.gov . Include ``0651- 0062 Green Technology Pilot Program... pertaining to green technologies, including greenhouse gas reduction, to be advanced out of turn...

  12. Teaching Teachers to Teach Green Engineering

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Flynn, Ann Marie; Naraghi, Mohammad H.; Austin, Nicole; Helak, Sean; Manzer, Jarrod

    2006-01-01

    The work provides guidelines for instructors who wish to incorporate green engineering concepts into a typical non-green engineering course without diluting course content or modifying the course syllabus by identifying 5 critical elements necessary to the successful integration of green engineering concepts into any traditional, design-oriented,…

  13. Plant mediated green synthesis: modified approaches

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Das, Ratul Kumar; Brar, Satinder Kaur

    2013-10-01

    Plant mediated green synthesis of different metallic nanoparticles has emerged as one of the options for implementation of green chemistry principles, and successfully made an important contribution towards green nanotechnology. However, beyond the synthesis and application aspects, the science of green synthesis has carried some wrong perceptions in an unforeseen fashion. In this review, some of the key issues related to the green synthesis of metallic nanoparticles employing plants as reducing/capping agents have been addressed. Random selection of plants and its overall impact on the different aspects of green synthesis have been discussed. Emphasis is given to the setting of some standard selection criteria to be adopted for selecting a plant for use in green synthesis. How selection of a plant can positively or negatively influence both procedure and products of a green synthesis process is the prime concern of this article. In addition to selection, the key issue of biocompatibility associated with green synthesized metallic nanoparticles has been considered. Both selection of plant and biocompatibility were reconsidered for their minute details in terms of synthesis, analysis and data interpretation in the green synthesis approach. The key factors capable of fine tuning the core meaning of ``green'' in the synthesis of any metallic nanoparticles were taken into consideration. This article is an effort towards keeping the core meaning of green synthesis.

  14. Plant mediated green synthesis: modified approaches.

    PubMed

    Das, Ratul Kumar; Brar, Satinder Kaur

    2013-11-01

    Plant mediated green synthesis of different metallic nanoparticles has emerged as one of the options for implementation of green chemistry principles, and successfully made an important contribution towards green nanotechnology. However, beyond the synthesis and application aspects, the science of green synthesis has carried some wrong perceptions in an unforeseen fashion. In this review, some of the key issues related to the green synthesis of metallic nanoparticles employing plants as reducing/capping agents have been addressed. Random selection of plants and its overall impact on the different aspects of green synthesis have been discussed. Emphasis is given to the setting of some standard selection criteria to be adopted for selecting a plant for use in green synthesis. How selection of a plant can positively or negatively influence both procedure and products of a green synthesis process is the prime concern of this article. In addition to selection, the key issue of biocompatibility associated with green synthesized metallic nanoparticles has been considered. Both selection of plant and biocompatibility were reconsidered for their minute details in terms of synthesis, analysis and data interpretation in the green synthesis approach. The key factors capable of fine tuning the core meaning of "green" in the synthesis of any metallic nanoparticles were taken into consideration. This article is an effort towards keeping the core meaning of green synthesis. PMID:24056951

  15. 7 CFR 29.3522 - Green (G).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Green (G). 29.3522 Section 29.3522 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards, Inspections, Marketing... Type 95) § 29.3522 Green (G). A term applied to green-colored, immature, or crude tobacco. Any...

  16. 7 CFR 29.3029 - Green (G).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Green (G). 29.3029 Section 29.3029 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards, Inspections, Marketing... Green (G). A color term applied to immature or crude tobacco. Any leaf which has a green color...

  17. 7 CFR 51.574 - Green.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... Standards for Celery Definitions § 51.574 Green. Green means that the middle portions of the outer branches... 7 Agriculture 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Green. 51.574 Section 51.574 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards, Inspections,...

  18. 7 CFR 51.574 - Green.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... Standards for Celery Definitions § 51.574 Green. Green means that the middle portions of the outer branches... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Green. 51.574 Section 51.574 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards, Inspections,...

  19. 21 CFR 73.3124 - Phthalocyanine green.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Phthalocyanine green. 73.3124 Section 73.3124 Food... COLOR ADDITIVES EXEMPT FROM CERTIFICATION Medical Devices § 73.3124 Phthalocyanine green. (a) Identity. The color additive is phthalocyanine green (CAS Reg. No. 1328-53-6), Colour Index No. 74260. (b)...

  20. 21 CFR 73.3124 - Phthalocyanine green.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Phthalocyanine green. 73.3124 Section 73.3124 Food... COLOR ADDITIVES EXEMPT FROM CERTIFICATION Medical Devices § 73.3124 Phthalocyanine green. (a) Identity. The color additive is phthalocyanine green (CAS Reg. No. 1328-53-6), Colour Index No. 74260. (b)...

  1. Greening a K-12 School System

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Frantz, Steve

    2010-01-01

    The author, who has retired as Scarsdale elementary principal, was asked by the superintendent Michael McGill if he was interested in leading Scarsdale's green initiative. Early on in Scarsdale, they referred to their work as the "green initiative." After agreeing to lead the initiative, he set out to learn more about greening at K-12 school…

  2. Trends in Utility Green Pricing Programs (2005)

    SciTech Connect

    Bird, L.; Brown, E.

    2006-10-01

    This report presents year-end 2005 data on utility green pricing programs, and examines trends in consumer response and program implementation over time. The data in this report, which were obtained via a questionnaire distributed to utility green pricing program managers, can be used by utilities to benchmark the success of their green power programs.

  3. An Approach towards Teaching Green Chemistry Fundamentals

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    van Arnum, Susan D.

    2005-01-01

    A useful metrics system for the assessment of the environmental impact of chemical processes is utilized to illustrate several of the principles of green chemistry. The use of this metrics system in conjunction with laboratory experiments in green chemistry would provide for reinforcement in both the theory and practice of green chemistry.

  4. Green Roofs for Stormwater Runoff Control

    EPA Science Inventory

    This project evaluated green roofs as a stormwater management tool. Specifically, runoff quantity and quality from green and flat asphalt roofs were compared. Evapotranspiration from planted green roofs and evaporation from unplanted media roofs were also compared. The influence...

  5. 21 CFR 73.3124 - Phthalocyanine green.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... COLOR ADDITIVES EXEMPT FROM CERTIFICATION Medical Devices § 73.3124 Phthalocyanine green. (a) Identity. The color additive is phthalocyanine green (CAS Reg. No. 1328-53-6), Colour Index No. 74260. (b) Uses... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Phthalocyanine green. 73.3124 Section 73.3124...

  6. 7 CFR 51.574 - Green.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Green. 51.574 Section 51.574 Agriculture Regulations... FRESH FRUITS, VEGETABLES AND OTHER PRODUCTS 1,2 (INSPECTION, CERTIFICATION, AND STANDARDS) United States Standards for Celery Definitions § 51.574 Green. Green means that the middle portions of the outer...

  7. 21 CFR 73.3124 - Phthalocyanine green.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... COLOR ADDITIVES EXEMPT FROM CERTIFICATION Medical Devices § 73.3124 Phthalocyanine green. (a) Identity. The color additive is phthalocyanine green (CAS Reg. No. 1328-53-6), Colour Index No. 74260. (b) Uses... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Phthalocyanine green. 73.3124 Section 73.3124...

  8. 74. SACRED HEART CATHOLIC CHURCH, NORTHWEST CORNER OF GREENE AND ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    74. SACRED HEART CATHOLIC CHURCH, NORTHWEST CORNER OF GREENE AND THIRTEENTH STREETS, SOUTH (FRONT) ELEVATION ON GREENE STREET 56/61 - Greene Street Historic District, Greene Street, Gordon Highway to Augusta Canal Bridge, Augusta, Richmond County, GA

  9. Green-E general program and public information support program report, August 1, 1999 - September 30, 2000

    SciTech Connect

    Brown, Kirk

    2000-09-30

    Green-E Program support from the Dept. of Energy augmented the costs of implementing the objectives of the Green-E Renewable Electricity Project; general program implementation; regional adaptation; developing strategic partnerships; and public information/education/outreach.

  10. Green pigments of the Pompeian artists' palette

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aliatis, Irene; Bersani, Danilo; Campani, Elisa; Casoli, Antonella; Lottici, Pier Paolo; Mantovan, Silvia; Marino, Iari-Gabriel; Ospitali, Francesca

    2009-08-01

    Green colored samples on wall paintings and green powder from a pigment pot found in Pompeii area are investigated by micro-Raman, FT-IR and, for one sample, SEM-EDX. To obtain the green color, green earths and malachite were used, together with mixture of Egyptian blue and yellow ochre. The mineralogical identification of the green earths has been attempted through the comparison of the vibrational features, discriminating between celadonite and glauconite spectra. Traces of a modern synthetic pigment containing copper phthalocyanine were found in a fresco fragment.

  11. Health-promoting effects of green tea

    PubMed Central

    SUZUKI, Yasuo; MIYOSHI, Noriyuki; ISEMURA, Mamoru

    2012-01-01

    Green tea is manufactured from the leaves of the plant Camellia sinensis Theaceae and has been regarded to possess anti-cancer, anti-obesity, anti-atherosclerotic, anti-diabetic, anti-bacterial, and anti-viral effects. Many of the beneficial effects of green tea are related to the activities of (−)-epigallocatechin gallate (EGCG), a major component of green tea catechins. For about 20 years, we have engaged in studies to reveal the biological activities and action mechanisms of green tea and EGCG. This review summarizes several lines of evidence to indicate the health-promoting properties of green tea mainly based on our own experimental findings. PMID:22450537

  12. Green chemistry for nanoparticle synthesis.

    PubMed

    Duan, Haohong; Wang, Dingsheng; Li, Yadong

    2015-08-21

    The application of the twelve principles of green chemistry in nanoparticle synthesis is a relatively new emerging issue concerning the sustainability. This field has received great attention in recent years due to its capability to design alternative, safer, energy efficient, and less toxic routes towards synthesis. These routes have been associated with the rational utilization of various substances in the nanoparticle preparations and synthetic methods, which have been broadly discussed in this tutorial review. This article is not meant to provide an exhaustive overview of green synthesis of nanoparticles, but to present several pivotal aspects of synthesis with environmental concerns, involving the selection and evaluation of nontoxic capping and reducing agents, the choice of innocuous solvents and the development of energy-efficient synthetic methods. PMID:25615873

  13. Operational options for green ships

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sherbaz, Salma; Duan, Wenyang

    2012-09-01

    Environmental issues and rising fuel prices necessitate better energy-efficiency in all sectors. The shipping industry is one of the major stakeholders, responsible for 3% of global CO2 emissions, 14%-15% of global NO X emissions, and 16% of global SO X emissions. In addition, continuously rising fuel prices are also an incentive to focus on new ways for better energy-effectiveness. The green ship concept requires exploring and implementing technology on ships to increase energy-efficiency and reduce emissions. Ship operation is an important topic with large potential to increase cost-and-energy-effectiveness. This paper provided a comprehensive review of basic concepts, principles, and potential of operational options for green ships. The key challenges pertaining to ship crew i.e. academic qualifications prior to induction, in-service training and motivation were discussed. The author also deliberated on remedies to these challenges.

  14. Green chemistry for nanoparticle synthesis.

    PubMed

    Duan, Haohong; Wang, Dingsheng; Li, Yadong

    2015-08-21

    The application of the twelve principles of green chemistry in nanoparticle synthesis is a relatively new emerging issue concerning the sustainability. This field has received great attention in recent years due to its capability to design alternative, safer, energy efficient, and less toxic routes towards synthesis. These routes have been associated with the rational utilization of various substances in the nanoparticle preparations and synthetic methods, which have been broadly discussed in this tutorial review. This article is not meant to provide an exhaustive overview of green synthesis of nanoparticles, but to present several pivotal aspects of synthesis with environmental concerns, involving the selection and evaluation of nontoxic capping and reducing agents, the choice of innocuous solvents and the development of energy-efficient synthetic methods.

  15. Color us (or somebody) green

    SciTech Connect

    Hill, L.W.

    1993-04-01

    Customers are turning green with environmental awareness in the marketplace. This movement is quickly gaining momentum with increasing demand for natural ingredients, recyclable materials, and low pollution technology. Although foresters have practiced environmental awareness for a long time and have become pretty good at it, the green consumerism needs their attention. Products from the world's forests circulate in world trade. Consumer attitudes about what these products are, where they come from and how they are produced and transported affect our profession. The international Forest Stewardship Council (FSC) was formed in 1992 to set a worldwide standard for good forest management by promoting widely recognized and respected principles of good forest management. The ten principles are listed.

  16. The green beards of language

    PubMed Central

    Lindenfors, Patrik

    2013-01-01

    Language transfers information on at least three levels; (1) what is said, (2) how it is said (what language is used), and, (3) that it is said (that speaker and listener both possess the ability to use language). The use of language is a form of honest cooperation on two of these levels; not necessarily on what is said, which can be deceitful, but always on how it is said and that it is said. This means that the language encoding and decoding systems had to evolve simultaneously, through mutual fitness benefits. Theoretical problems surrounding the evolution of cooperation disappear if a recognition system is present enabling cooperating individuals to identify each other – if they are equipped with “green beards”. Here, I outline how both the biological and cultural aspects of language are bestowed with such recognition systems. The biological capacities required for language signal their presence through speech and understanding. This signaling cannot be invaded by “false green beards” because the traits and the signal of their presence are one and the same. However, the real usefulness of language comes from its potential to convey an infinite number of meanings through the dynamic handling of symbols – through language itself. But any specific language also signals its presence to others through usage and understanding. Thus, languages themselves cannot be invaded by “false green beards” because, again, the trait and the signal of its presence are one and the same. These twin green beards, in both the biological and cultural realms, are unique to language. PMID:23610647

  17. "Green" pyrotechnics: a chemists' challenge.

    PubMed

    Steinhauser, Georg; Klapötke, Thomas M

    2008-01-01

    Fireworks are probably the application of chemistry which resonates best with the general public. However, fireworks and (civil and military) pyrotechnic applications cause environmental pollution and thus have given rise to the development of new, environmentally friendly pyrotechnic compounds and formulations. Nitrogen-rich energetic materials, such as the derivatives of tetrazoles and tetrazines, are about to revolutionize traditional pyrotechnic compositions. This Review summarizes the sources of pollution in current formulations and recent efforts toward "green" pyrotechnics.

  18. Green lights program in China

    SciTech Connect

    Dadi, Zhuo; Hong, Liu

    1996-12-31

    In China`s 9th 5-year plan (1996-2000), the Chinese government has placed high priority on energy conservation. The China Green Lights Program (CGLP) is listed as one of the key projects of energy conservation. The basic strategy of the CGLP is to mobilise all of the potential contributors to participate in the program, and to use market signals and supplementary non-market instruments to facilitate its implementation. Governmental funds and loans will be used as seed money to attract private participation in the program. The program contains the following elements: (1) Information dissemination to educate the public on the economic and other values of the program and to provide CGLP information to increase consumer awareness and, as a result, increase the demand for energy-efficient lighting systems. (2) Development of standards and codes for lighting systems, establishment of product specifications, and enforcement of product standards. (3) Development of quality certification and labelling system to provide assurances to consumers that the products they are purchasing will meet their performance and cost saving expectations. (4) Highlighted support and financing for production technology development and production capacity expansion. (5) Demonstration and pilot projects to boost consumer confidence in green lighting systems and to demonstrate new production technologies and processes. (6) International co-operation to expand the international exchange and absorb advanced technology and experience for implementation of the China Green Lights Program.

  19. Antimutagenic properties of green tea.

    PubMed

    Bunkova, R; Marova, I; Nemec, M

    2005-03-01

    In this work biological effects of two common kinds of green tea (Chinese Gunpowder and Japanese Sencha) were analyzed using three independent tests of antimutagenicity: 1) the Ames test with Salmonella typhimurium TA98, 2) cytogenetic analysis of peripheral blood lymphocytes (CAPL), and 3) test with Saccharomyces cerevisiae D7. Tea extracts were allowed to be antimutagenic based on their ability to inhibit the mutagenic effect of standard mutagens. Amounts of (-)catechin and (-)catechin gallate in tea extracts were determined by high performance liquid chromatography on reversed phase (RP-HPLC). Antioxidant capacity was found using total radical-trapping antioxidant parameter (TRAP) method. Extracts from Gunpowder and Sencha exhibited high antimutagenic activity in the Ames test (24.7+/-3.7% and 34.1+/-2, 1% of inhibition without metabolic activation; 74.9+/-1.7% and 62.7+/-4.3% of inhibition with metabolic activation, respectively) as well as in S. cerevisiae D7 test (Gunpowder: 62.7+/-5.7% of Trp convertants inhibition and 52.6+/-5.3% of Ilv revertants inhibition; Sencha: 45.6+/-4.2% of Trp convertants inhibition, 50.0+/-4.8% of Ilv revertants inhibition). In the CAPL method reduced number of abberant cells as well as decreased number of chromosome breaks was observed using both green tea extracts. Antioxidant capacity and antimutagenicity of green tea extracts was higher than activity of tea catechins and flavonoids.

  20. Green tea and skin--anticarcinogenic effects.

    PubMed

    Mukhtar, H; Katiyar, S K; Agarwal, R

    1994-01-01

    Because of its special aroma, green tea is a popular beverage consumed by some human populations worldwide. In recent years, many laboratory studies have shown that in a variety of animal tumor bioassay systems the administration of green tea, specifically the polyphenolic fraction isolated from green tea leaves (green tea polyphenols), affords protection against cancer induction. In mouse skin tumor bioassay systems, topical application of green tea polyphenols to skin has been shown to result in protection against a) 3-methylcholanthrene-induced skin tumorigenicity, b) 7,12-dimethylbenz(a)anthracene (DMBA)-induced skin tumor initiation, c) 12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate and other tumor promoters caused tumor promotion in DMBA-initiated skin, and d) benzoyl peroxide- and 4-nitroquinoline N-oxide caused enhanced malignant progression of nonmalignant lesions. Green tea extract has also been shown to cause partial regression of established skin papillomas in mouse. Similarly, chronic oral feeding of green tea polyphenols or water extract of green tea has also been shown to result in the protection against both chemical carcinogen- and ultraviolet B radiation-induced skin tumorigenicity. Collectively these data suggest that green tea possesses significant chemopreventive effect against each stage of carcinogenesis, and that it may be useful against inflammatory responses associated with the exposure of skin to chemical tumor promoters as well as to solar radiation. Available data regarding the mechanism by which green tea affords these diversified effects is discussed.

  1. Blue-green and green phosphors for lighting applications

    DOEpatents

    Setlur, Anant Achyut; Chandran, Ramachandran Gopi; Henderson, Claire Susan; Nammalwar, Pransanth Kumar; Radkov, Emil

    2012-12-11

    Embodiments of the present techniques provide a related family of phosphors that may be used in lighting systems to generate blue or blue-green light. The phosphors include systems having a general formula of: ((Sr.sub.1-zM.sub.z).sub.1-(x+w)A.sub.wCe.sub.x).sub.3(Al.sub.1-ySi.s- ub.y)O.sub.4+y+3(x-w)F.sub.1-y-3(x-w) (I), wherein 0green light. Further, the phosphors may be used in blends with other phosphors, or in combined lighting systems, to produce white light suitable for illumination.

  2. Green tea and theanine: health benefits.

    PubMed

    Cooper, Raymond

    2012-03-01

    Historically, the medicinal use of green tea dates back to China 4700 years ago and drinking tea continues to be regarded traditionally in Asia as a general healthful practice. Numerous scientific publications now attest to the health benefits of both black and green teas, including clinical and epidemiological studies. Although all tea contains beneficial antioxidants, high-quality green and white teas have them in greater concentrations than black tea. Today, scientists believe that the main active ingredients of green tea include the polyphenols, in particular the catechins and the amino acid, theanine. Studies on the health benefits of drinking tea, particularly green tea, are finding exciting results, particularly in cancer research. Modern studies in both Asia and the West have provided encouraging results indicating that drinking green tea contributes to fighting many different kinds of cancers including stomach, oesophageal, ovarian and colon. Recent studies describing the health benefits of these compounds will be reviewed.

  3. YCF1: A Green TIC?

    PubMed Central

    de Vries, Jan; Sousa, Filipa L.; Bölter, Bettina; Soll, Jürgen; Gould, Sven B.

    2015-01-01

    A pivotal step in the transformation of an endosymbiotic cyanobacterium to a plastid some 1.5 billion years ago was the evolution of a protein import apparatus, the TOC/TIC machinery, in the common ancestor of Archaeplastida. Recently, a putative new TIC member was identified in Arabidopsis thaliana: TIC214. This finding is remarkable for a number of reasons: (1) TIC214 is encoded by ycf1, so it would be the first plastid-encoded protein of this apparatus; (2) ycf1 is unique to the green lineage (Chloroplastida) but entirely lacking in glaucophytes (Glaucophyta) and the red lineage (Rhodophyta) of the Archaeplastida; (3) ycf1 has been shown to be one of the few indispensable plastid genes (aside from the ribosomal machinery), yet it is missing in the grasses; and (4) 30 years of previous TOC/TIC research missed it. These observations prompted us to survey the evolution of ycf1. We found that ycf1 is not only lacking in grasses and some parasitic plants, but also for instance in cranberry (Ericaceae). The encoded YCF proteins are highly variable, both in sequence length and in the predicted number of N-terminal transmembrane domains. The evolution of the TOC/TIC machinery in the green lineage experienced specific modifications, but our analysis does not support YCF1 to be a general green TIC. It remains to be explained how the apparent complete loss of YCF1 can be tolerated by some embryophytes and whether what is observed for YCF1 function in a member of the Brassicaceae is also true for, e.g., algal and noncanonical YCF1 homologs. PMID:25818624

  4. Solvent replacement for green processing.

    PubMed Central

    Sherman, J; Chin, B; Huibers, P D; Garcia-Valls, R; Hatton, T A

    1998-01-01

    The implementation of the Montreal Protocol, the Clean Air Act, and the Pollution Prevention Act of 1990 has resulted in increased awareness of organic solvent use in chemical processing. The advances made in the search to find "green" replacements for traditional solvents are reviewed, with reference to solvent alternatives for cleaning, coatings, and chemical reaction and separation processes. The development of solvent databases and computational methods that aid in the selection and/or design of feasible or optimal environmentally benign solvent alternatives for specific applications is also discussed. Images Figure 2 Figure 3 PMID:9539018

  5. National Green Building Standard Analysis

    SciTech Connect

    NAHB Research Center, Upper Marlboro, Maryland

    2012-07-01

    DOE's Building America Program is a research and development program to improve the energy performance of new and existing homes. The ultimate goal of the Building America Program is to achieve examples of cost-effective, energy efficient solutions for all U.S. climate zones. Periodic maintenance of an ANSI standard by review of the entire document and action to revise or reaffirm it on a schedule not to exceed five years is required by ANSI. In compliance, a consensus group has once again been formed and the National Green Building Standard is currently being reviewed to comply with the periodic maintenance requirement of an ANSI standard.

  6. Chlorella: 125 years of the green survivalist.

    PubMed

    Krienitz, Lothar; Huss, Volker A R; Bock, Christina

    2015-02-01

    Chlorella, the archetype of unicellular green algae, is a high-performance primary producer in aquatic and terrestrial ecosystems. Under the simple spherical morphology of Chlorella, many other 'green balls' unfolded as independent phylogenetic lineages as a result of convergent evolution. By contrast, green algae with strikingly different phenotypes were unmasked as close relatives of Chlorella by modern molecular techniques. Here, we point to the increasing impact of these diverse protists on ecology, evolution, and biotechnology in the light of integrative taxonomy.

  7. Tensile strength of dried gelcast green bodies

    SciTech Connect

    Nunn, S.D.; Omatete, O.O.; Walls, C.A.; Barker, D.L.

    1994-04-01

    Ceramic green bodies were prepared by three different techniques, dry pressing, slip casting, and gelcasting. The tensile strength of the green bodies was measured using a diametral compression test. It was found that the gelcast samples were from 2 to 20 times stronger than the conventionally formed green bodies. SEM examination of the gelcast samples revealed a homogeneous, brittle fracture surface indicating a very uniform distribution of the binder and excellent dispersion of the ceramic powder.

  8. Customer Aggregation: An Opportunity for Green Power?

    SciTech Connect

    Holt, E.; Bird, L.

    2001-02-26

    We undertook research into the experience of aggregation groups to determine whether customer aggregation offers an opportunity to bring green power choices to more customers. The objectives of this report, therefore, are to (1) identify the different types of aggregation that are occurring today, (2) learn whether aggregation offers an opportunity to advance sales of green power, and (3) share these concepts and approaches with potential aggregators and green power advocates.

  9. Lipoproteins binding malachite green to slow the decolorization of malachite green in Pseudomonas sp. JT-1.

    PubMed

    Wu, Jun; Li, Liguan; Du, Hongwei; Jiang, Lijuan; Zhang, Qiong; Wei, Zhongbo; Wang, Xiaolin; Xiao, Lin; Yang, Liuyan

    2011-01-01

    Lipoproteins of a malachite green (MG)-decolorizing bacterium Pseudomonas sp. JT-1 could bind MG to form green MG-Lipoproteins complexes, which prevented the decolorization of MG by triphenylmethane reductase.

  10. [Toxic hepatitis triggered by green tea].

    PubMed

    Rohde, Johan; Jacobsen, Claire; Kromann-Andersen, Hans

    2011-01-17

    Green tea is associated with various beneficial health effects, but several cases of hepatotoxic side effects have been reported. We present the first Danish case of toxic hepatitis following the consumption of 4-6 cups of green tea per day for six months. Green tea's main chemical component is epigallocatechin gallate (EGCG). Animal studies have shown that EGCG accumulated in the liver is most toxic when consumed fasting and that it causes greater hepatotoxicity upon repeated administration. Green tea hepatotoxicity should be kept in mind and cases are notifiable to the food authorities. PMID:21241631

  11. Homoserine Esterification in Green Plants

    PubMed Central

    Giovanelli, John; Mudd, S. Harvey; Datko, Anne H.

    1974-01-01

    Extracts of phylogenetically diverse plans were surveyed for their ability to synthesize the following homoserine esters which are potential precursors for methionine and threonine synthesis in green plants: O-acetyl-, O-oxalyl-, O-succinyl-, O-malonyl-, and O-phosphohomoserine. Synthesis of O-acylhomoserine esters was detected only in Pisum sativum L. and Lathyrus sativus L. Extracts of P. sativum, a plant known to accumulate O-acetylhomoserine, catalyzed the specific synthesis of this ester from homoserine and acetyl-CoA. Extracts of L. sativus, a plant known to accumulate O-oxalylhomoserine, catalyzed the specific synthesis of this ester from homoserine and oxalyl-CoA. None of the other plants surveyed, including representatives of the green algae, horsetails, gymnosperms, and angiosperms, catalyzed the synthesis of any of the O-acylhomoserine esters studied. In contrast, synthesis of O-phosphohomoserine by the reaction catalyzed by homoserine kinase was demonstrated in extracts of all plants examined, including the two exceptional legumes. These results suggest that, among the five homoserine esters studied, O-phosphohomoserine is the major activated homoserine derivative in plants. Direct confirmation of the dominant physiological role of O-phosphohomoserine in the synthesis of cystathionine in the transsulfuration pathway of methionine biosynthesis in plants has recently been provided (Datko, A. H., Giovanelli, J., and Mudd, S. H. 1974. J. Biol. Chem. 249: 1139-1155). PMID:16658961

  12. GreenLight Model 960.

    PubMed

    Fernandes, Richard; Carey, Conn; Hynes, James; Papkovsky, Dmitri

    2013-01-01

    The importance of food safety has resulted in a demand for a more rapid, high-throughput method for total viable count (TVC). The industry standard for TVC determination (ISO 4833:2003) is widely used but presents users with some drawbacks. The method is materials- and labor-intensive, requiring multiple agar plates per sample. More importantly, the method is slow, with 72 h typically required for a definitive result. Luxcel Biosciences has developed the GreenLight Model 960, a microtiter plate-based assay providing a rapid high-throughput method of aerobic bacterial load assessment through analysis of microbial oxygen consumption. Results are generated in 1-12 h, depending on microbial load. The mix and measure procedure allows rapid detection of microbial oxygen consumption and equates oxygen consumption to microbial load (CFU/g), providing a simple, sensitive means of assessing the microbial contamination levels in foods (1). As bacteria in the test sample grow and respire, they deplete O2, which is detected as an increase in the GreenLight probe signal above the baseline level (2). The time required to reach this increase in signal can be used to calculate the CFU/g of the original sample, based on a predetermined calibration. The higher the initial microbial load, the earlier this threshold is reached (1).

  13. Gamete Dialogs in Green Lineages.

    PubMed

    Mori, Toshiyuki; Kawai-Toyooka, Hiroko; Igawa, Tomoko; Nozaki, Hisayoshi

    2015-10-01

    Gamete fusion is a core process of sexual reproduction and, in both plants and animals, different sex gametes fuse within species. Although most of the molecular factors involved in gamete interaction are still unknown in various sex-possessing eukaryotes, reports of such factors in algae and land plants have been increasing in the past decade. In particular, knowledge of gamete interaction in flowering plants and green algae has increased since the identification of the conserved gamete fusion factor generative cell specific 1/hapless 2 (GCS1/HAP2). GCS1 was first identified as a pollen generative cell-specific transmembrane protein in the lily (Lilium longiflorum), and was then shown to function not only in flowering plant gamete fusion but also in various eukaryotes, including unicellular protists and metazoans. In addition, although initially restricted to Chlamydomonas, knowledge of gamete attachment in flowering plants was also acquired. This review focuses on recent progress in the study of gamete interaction in volvocine green algae and flowering plants and discusses conserved mechanisms of gamete recognition, attachment, and fusion leading to zygote formation.

  14. Notes on the geology of Green River Valley between Green River, Wyoming, and Green River, Utah

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Reeside, J.B.

    1925-01-01

    During July, August, and part of September, 1922, I had the privilege of accompanying a party sent out jointly by the Utah Power & Light Co. and the United States Geological Survey to gather such data as were still needed to complete a study of the power resources of Green River between Green River, Wyo., and Green River, Utah. The chief deficiency to be supplied was a continuous topographic map of the valley in sufficient detail to permit calculation of the storage capacity of any reservoir site that might be used, the stream gradient, and similar features. Maps on a satisfactory scale of a number of isolated stretches of the river had already been made by public or private agencies, and it was necessary to verify them and connect them on a uniform datum. Inasmuch as it was deemed unlikely that a dam higher than 300 feet would be constructed anywhere on the part of the river to be examined, a plane 300 feet above the water surface was made the upper limit of mapping. Over such parts of the valley as had been mapped already the progress of the party was naturally very rapid, and even where no mapping had previously been done, the 300-foot limit set upon the work and the usual narrowness of the valley combined to reduce the extent of the area to be mapped, so that the speed maintained was relatively high. Under this condition of rapid movement it was seldom possible to make more than the most cursory examination of the rocks, though occasionally circumstances permitted more or less detailed observation. The notes here recorded are therefore mostly of a rather generalized character, but as they pertain in part to localities that are difficult of access and not often visited by geologists, and that are at the same time classic in the history of American geology, I venture to to record them for whatever value they may have to other geologists.

  15. Greening Steel Work: Varieties of Capitalism and the "Greening" of Skills

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Evans, Claire; Stroud, Dean

    2016-01-01

    An important driver of change in work, employment and skills is European Union policy aims of sustainable economic growth and the cultivation of a green economy. Part of the latter--which is supported by increasing environmental regulation--focuses on the development of a "green skills agenda," which involves the "greening" of…

  16. Adult Learning Meets the Green Economy: Lessons from a Green Jobs Education Project

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wagner, Cecelia

    2013-01-01

    The new "green economy" affects adult education and workforce development as adult workers seek skills and knowledge that will help them find success in work and life. Recent years have brought about increased interest in and discussion of training for green jobs. Since the introduction of the Green Jobs Act in 2007, questions about how exactly to…

  17. Green Skills for Green Economy: Case of the Environmental Education Role in Kazakhstan's Economy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dlimbetova, Gaini; Zhylbaev, Zhanbol; Syrymbetova, Lyailya; ?liyeva, Aiman

    2016-01-01

    The research on situation with developing "green skills" in conditions of transition to "green economy" is analysed in this article. Kazakhstan like many other states has been going through transition to "green economy" since 2013. Economic reforms have made an impact on the system of environmental education. The…

  18. Green Roofs: A Part of Green Infrastructure Strategy for Urban Areas

    EPA Science Inventory

    This is a presentation on the basics of green roof technology. The presentation highlights some of the recent ORD research projects on green roofs and provides insight for the end user as to the benefits for green roof technology. It provides links to currently available EPA rep...

  19. 78 FR 21368 - Office of Federal High-Performance Green Buildings; Green Building Advisory Committee...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-04-10

    ... ADMINISTRATION Office of Federal High-Performance Green Buildings; Green Building Advisory Committee... provides the schedule and agenda for the May 1, 2013, meeting of the Green Building Advisory Committee... disabilities. Due to limited conference space, individuals must register to attend as instructed below...

  20. The Red Road to Green: Tribal Peoples' Worldviews Preceded "Green" Trend

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pember, Mary Annette

    2008-01-01

    Green is definitely "in." Green refers not to fashion but the philosophy of environmental protection, stewardship, and social justice. There is nothing new about the green philosophy for tribal colleges and universities (TCUs) and the Native communities they serve. Responsible stewardship of Mother Earth is a natural outgrowth of TCU's missions…

  1. Green Engineering-Integration of Green Chemistry, Pollution Prevention, and Risk-Based Considerations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shonnard, David; Lindner, Angela; Nguyen, Nhan; Ramachandran, Palghat A.; Fichana, Daniel; Hesketh, Robert; Slater, C. Stewart; Engler, Richard

    Literature sources on green chemistry and green engineering are numerous. The objective of this chapter is to familiarize readers with some of the green engineering and chemistry concepts, approaches and tools. In order to do this, the chapter is organized into five sections as follows.

  2. To Green or Not to Green? Evaluation of Green Stormwater Infrastructure in Kansas City Middle Blue River Project

    EPA Science Inventory

    The City of Kansas City, Mo., Water Services Department is implementing a pilot project to measure and evaluate the performance of green infrastructure. Information obtained through this pilot project will be used to guide the design of green solutions throughout Kansas City und...

  3. Green light induces shade avoidance symptoms.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Tingting; Maruhnich, Stefanie A; Folta, Kevin M

    2011-11-01

    Light quality and quantity affect plant adaptation to changing light conditions. Certain wavelengths in the visible and near-visible spectrum are known to have discrete effects on plant growth and development, and the effects of red, far-red, blue, and ultraviolet light have been well described. In this report, an effect of green light on Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) rosette architecture is demonstrated using a narrow-bandwidth light-emitting diode-based lighting system. When green light was added to a background of constant red and blue light, plants exhibited elongation of petioles and upward leaf reorientation, symptoms consistent with those observed in a shaded light environment. The same green light-induced phenotypes were also observed in phytochrome (phy) and cryptochrome (cry) mutant backgrounds. To explore the molecular mechanism underlying the green light-induced response, the accumulation of shade-induced transcripts was measured in response to enriched green light environments. Transcripts that have been demonstrated to increase in abundance under far-red-induced shade avoidance conditions either decrease or exhibit no change when green light is added. However, normal far-red light-associated transcript accumulation patterns are observed in cryptochrome mutants grown with supplemental green light, indicating that the green-absorbing form of cryptochrome is the photoreceptor active in limiting the green light induction of shade-associated transcripts. These results indicate that shade symptoms can be induced by the addition of green light and that cryptochrome receptors and an unknown light sensor participate in acclimation to the enriched green environment.

  4. 33 CFR 117.415 - Green River.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Green River. 117.415 Section 117.415 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY BRIDGES DRAWBRIDGE OPERATION REGULATIONS Specific Requirements Kentucky § 117.415 Green River. (a) The draw of the...

  5. 33 CFR 117.415 - Green River.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Green River. 117.415 Section 117.415 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY BRIDGES DRAWBRIDGE OPERATION REGULATIONS Specific Requirements Kentucky § 117.415 Green River. (a) The draw of the...

  6. 33 CFR 117.415 - Green River.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Green River. 117.415 Section 117.415 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY BRIDGES DRAWBRIDGE OPERATION REGULATIONS Specific Requirements Kentucky § 117.415 Green River. (a) The draw of the...

  7. 33 CFR 117.415 - Green River.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Green River. 117.415 Section 117.415 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY BRIDGES DRAWBRIDGE OPERATION REGULATIONS Specific Requirements Kentucky § 117.415 Green River. (a) The draw of the...

  8. A Green Marketing Course for Business Undergraduates

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rudell, Fredrica

    2011-01-01

    Since the 1970s, periodic calls have been made for incorporation of sustainability issues into marketing and other business courses. Now more than ever, we need to prepare students for careers in the green economy. This article will describe the author's experience teaching a Green Marketing course to business undergraduates. A review of content,…

  9. Green's function methods in heavy ion shielding

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wilson, John W.; Costen, Robert C.; Shinn, Judy L.; Badavi, Francis F.

    1993-01-01

    An analytic solution to the heavy ion transport in terms of Green's function is used to generate a highly efficient computer code for space applications. The efficiency of the computer code is accomplished by a nonperturbative technique extending Green's function over the solution domain. The computer code can also be applied to accelerator boundary conditions to allow code validation in laboratory experiments.

  10. 78 FR 29366 - Green Mountain Power Corporation

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-05-20

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission Green Mountain Power Corporation Notice of Filing Take notice that on May 2, 2013, Green Mountain Power Corporation filed additional information in support of its request...

  11. 7 CFR 29.1024 - Green (G).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Green (G). 29.1024 Section 29.1024 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards, Inspections, Marketing... Type 92) § 29.1024 Green (G). A color term applied to immature or crude tobacco. Any leaf which has...

  12. Green-fleshed watermelon contains chlorophyll

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Many popular and technical reports on watermelon ignore an uncommon color, green, even though mention of this color has been in the literature since 1901. However, what causes the green hue has not been reported. Since some cucurbits have chloroplasts, and chlorophyll in the flesh tissue, we surmi...

  13. Green Team News and Upcoming Events | Poster

    Cancer.gov

    By Melissa Porter, Staff Writer Spring Plant Swap 2013 This past October, you may have seen several members of the Green Team standing in front of Building 549 giving out free plants or offering to take extra plants off your hands—this was the first Green Team Fall Plant Swap.

  14. GREEN ROOFS — A GROWING TREND

    EPA Science Inventory

    One of the most interesting stormwater control systems under evaluation by EPA are “green roofs”. Green roofs are vegetative covers applied to building roofs to slow, or totally absorb, rainfall runoff during storms. While the concept of over-planted roofs is very ancient, the go...

  15. Potato poisoning - green tubers and sprouts

    MedlinePlus

    ... sprouts URL of this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/002875.htm Potato plant poisoning - green tubers and sprouts To use the ... green tubers or new sprouts of the potato plant. This article is for information only. DO NOT use it ...

  16. MICROWAVES IN GREEN AND SUSTAINABLE CHEMISTRY

    EPA Science Inventory

    In this chapter, we have outlined roles of microwave chemistry in the establishment of green and sustainable chemistry. Many examples, mostly from the authors' laboratories, have been presented of green microwave processes under solvent-free conditions or with solvents, including...

  17. 33 CFR 117.415 - Green River.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Green River. 117.415 Section 117... OPERATION REGULATIONS Specific Requirements Kentucky § 117.415 Green River. (a) The draw of the CSX... vicinity. (b) The draw of the CSX Transportation Railroad bridge, Mile 79.6 at Small-house, is...

  18. Investment Primer for Green Revolving Funds

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weisbord, Dano

    2012-01-01

    Developing return-oriented green revolving funds (GRFs) is a rapidly growing trend at colleges and universities. A green revolving fund (GRF) is a special account designated for investment in on-campus projects that improve energy efficiency or decrease material use. GRFs invest in a variety of cost-saving initiatives, resulting in significant…

  19. Greening School Grounds: Creating Habitats for Learning.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grant, Tim, Ed.; Littlejohn, Gail, Ed.

    Schoolyard greening is an excellent way to promote hands-on, interdisciplinary learning about the environment through projects that benefit schools and increase green space and biodiversity in communities. This book features step-by-step instructions for numerous schoolyard projects from tree nurseries to school composting to native plant gardens,…

  20. 33 CFR 117.967 - Greens Bayou.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Greens Bayou. 117.967 Section 117.967 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY BRIDGES DRAWBRIDGE OPERATION REGULATIONS Specific Requirements Texas § 117.967 Greens Bayou. The draw of the Port...

  1. 33 CFR 117.967 - Greens Bayou.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Greens Bayou. 117.967 Section 117.967 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY BRIDGES DRAWBRIDGE OPERATION REGULATIONS Specific Requirements Texas § 117.967 Greens Bayou. The draw of the Port...

  2. 33 CFR 117.967 - Greens Bayou.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Greens Bayou. 117.967 Section 117.967 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY BRIDGES DRAWBRIDGE OPERATION REGULATIONS Specific Requirements Texas § 117.967 Greens Bayou. The draw of the Port...

  3. 33 CFR 117.967 - Greens Bayou.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Greens Bayou. 117.967 Section 117.967 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY BRIDGES DRAWBRIDGE OPERATION REGULATIONS Specific Requirements Texas § 117.967 Greens Bayou. The draw of the Port...

  4. How Green Is Your School Yard?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Poole, Wally

    1993-01-01

    Proposes a collection of ideas and resources for "greening" the school yard as a component of the curriculum. Recommends using an acronym such as GREEN (Generate Rewarding Environmental Experience Naturally). Lists resources in Canada for ideas and assistance in planning and implementing a school project to increase environmental awareness. (KS)

  5. 33 CFR 117.967 - Greens Bayou.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Greens Bayou. 117.967 Section 117.967 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY BRIDGES DRAWBRIDGE OPERATION REGULATIONS Specific Requirements Texas § 117.967 Greens Bayou. The draw of the Port...

  6. Introducing Green Chemistry in Teaching and Research.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Collins, Terrence J.

    1995-01-01

    Describes key elements for the research and teaching components of green chemistry, an environmentally friendly approach to chemistry. Presents an outline of an introductory course to green chemistry and other efforts at Carnegie Mellon University to incorporate the environment in a fertile manner into teaching. (JRH)

  7. EVOLVING FROM GREEN CHEMISTRY TO SUSTAINABLE CHEMISTRY

    EPA Science Inventory

    The twelve principles of green chemistry provide a foundation and pathway which allows researchers to incorporate greenness into existing reactions or when developing new technologies. Research from our laboratory has adopted many of these principles and utlizes them as a major c...

  8. Careers: Going Green while Doing Good

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arnett, Sally E.; Kozlowski, Patti; Peach, Peggy

    2011-01-01

    Career and technical education (CTE) is starting to turn green. Due to a host of reports, research, workforce initiatives, and scholarly speaking engagements, it is evident that higher education and workforce consultants recognize the need for today's students to gain exposure to sustainability or green career pathways. But for secondary and…

  9. Three Case Studies in Green Cleaning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    State Education Standard, 2012

    2012-01-01

    This article presents case studies from three districts implementing green cleaning. In 2008, Missouri passed legislation requiring state education officials to convene a committee of stakeholders with the purpose of developing green cleaning guidelines and specifications for schools. The guide, published by the Department of Elementary and…

  10. Green Schools for Everyone within This Generation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Van Mourik, Jaime

    2011-01-01

    At the U.S. Green Building Council (USGBC), people see the profound, positive impact that green buildings have on people's lives and the innovation they have poured into the marketplace--from office and retail buildings to government facilities and individual homes. However, none of these markets speaks more powerfully to the benefits and…

  11. Green Team Recognized with HHS Green Champion Award Honorable Mention | Poster

    Cancer.gov

    Courtesy of the NCI at Frederick Green Team The NCI at Frederick Green Team received a Department of Health and Human Services (HHS) Green Champion Award honorable mention in June for the team’s plant swap initiative, begun in October 2012.  “The Green Team has been doing a great job this past year, and it is wonderful that their efforts have been recognized by the HHS through the Green Champion Awards,” said Craig Reynolds, Ph.D., director of the NCI Office of Scientific Operations (OSO). 

  12. Green Packaging Management of Logistics Enterprises

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Guirong; Zhao, Zongjian

    From the connotation of green logistics management, we discuss the principles of green packaging, and from the two levels of government and enterprises, we put forward a specific management strategy. The management of green packaging can be directly and indirectly promoted by laws, regulations, taxation, institutional and other measures. The government can also promote new investment to the development of green packaging materials, and establish specialized institutions to identify new packaging materials, standardization of packaging must also be accomplished through the power of the government. Business units of large scale through the packaging and container-based to reduce the use of packaging materials, develop and use green packaging materials and easy recycling packaging materials for proper packaging.

  13. The Greening Role of Tour Operators.

    PubMed

    Lozano, Javier; Arbulú, Italo; Rey-Maquieira, Javier

    2016-01-01

    This paper shows that the tour operators (TOs) can play a coordinating role in the adoption of environmental management upstream the tourism supply chain. This is done using a dynamic model to analyze the environmental management adoption by hotels in a tourism destination induced by a TO. The TO can create incentives to greening hotels' management through the sharing of an environmental price premium. We show that the extent of green management adoption depends on interest rate, the willingness to pay for environmental quality, and hotels' organizational inertia. We also show how the financial yields from green management are shared between TOs and hotels. Finally, we consider a destination manager that subsidizes hotels' green management. If the destination manager does not take the greening role of TOs into account, she could mistake the true trade-off that she faces between the destination's economic and environmental outcomes for the win-win setting that characterizes the general problem.

  14. The Greening Role of Tour Operators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lozano, Javier; Arbulú, Italo; Rey-Maquieira, Javier

    2016-01-01

    This paper shows that the tour operators (TOs) can play a coordinating role in the adoption of environmental management upstream the tourism supply chain. This is done using a dynamic model to analyze the environmental management adoption by hotels in a tourism destination induced by a TO. The TO can create incentives to greening hotels' management through the sharing of an environmental price premium. We show that the extent of green management adoption depends on interest rate, the willingness to pay for environmental quality, and hotels' organizational inertia. We also show how the financial yields from green management are shared between TOs and hotels. Finally, we consider a destination manager that subsidizes hotels' green management. If the destination manager does not take the greening role of TOs into account, she could mistake the true trade-off that she faces between the destination's economic and environmental outcomes for the win-win setting that characterizes the general problem.

  15. The Greening Role of Tour Operators.

    PubMed

    Lozano, Javier; Arbulú, Italo; Rey-Maquieira, Javier

    2016-01-01

    This paper shows that the tour operators (TOs) can play a coordinating role in the adoption of environmental management upstream the tourism supply chain. This is done using a dynamic model to analyze the environmental management adoption by hotels in a tourism destination induced by a TO. The TO can create incentives to greening hotels' management through the sharing of an environmental price premium. We show that the extent of green management adoption depends on interest rate, the willingness to pay for environmental quality, and hotels' organizational inertia. We also show how the financial yields from green management are shared between TOs and hotels. Finally, we consider a destination manager that subsidizes hotels' green management. If the destination manager does not take the greening role of TOs into account, she could mistake the true trade-off that she faces between the destination's economic and environmental outcomes for the win-win setting that characterizes the general problem. PMID:26253501

  16. Green nanocomposites: synthesis and characterization.

    PubMed

    Laza, A L; Jaber, M; Miehé-Brendlé, J; Demais, H; Le Deit, H; Delmotte, L; Vidal, L

    2007-09-01

    A series of intercalated and exfoliated nanocomposites montmorillonite-ulvan was prepared. Ulvan, extracted from the green algae, is a water-soluble polysaccharide biopolymer. Depending on the drying process, air or freeze drying, ulvan were inserted in the interlayer space or adsorbed on the both sides of inorganic layers. The crystallization of water molecules bounded to the ulvan induced the delamination of the layers during the lyophilization. Thermogravimetric experiments show a high percentage (approximately 51%) of organic matter for the freeze dried samples and a lowest one (approximately 17%) for the air dried solids. X-Ray Diffraction patterns exhibit a d(001) varying with the content of organic matter. When the delamination occurs, the (001) reflection disappears. Transmission electron microscopy micrographs show individual layers for the highest amount of ulvan.

  17. 78. VIEW OF NORTH SIDE OF GREENE STREET LOOKING WEST ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    78. VIEW OF NORTH SIDE OF GREENE STREET LOOKING WEST FROM SIDEWALK IN FRONT OF SACRED HEART CHURCH - Greene Street Historic District, Greene Street, Gordon Highway to Augusta Canal Bridge, Augusta, Richmond County, GA

  18. 79. VIEW OF NORTH SIDE OF GREENE STREET LOOKING EAST ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    79. VIEW OF NORTH SIDE OF GREENE STREET LOOKING EAST FROM SIDEWALK IN FRONT OF SACRED HEART CHURCH - Greene Street Historic District, Greene Street, Gordon Highway to Augusta Canal Bridge, Augusta, Richmond County, GA

  19. Green chemistry of carbon nanomaterials.

    PubMed

    Basiuk, Elena V; Basiuk, Vladimir A

    2014-01-01

    The global trend of looking for more ecologically friendly, "green" techniques manifested itself in the chemistry of carbon nanomaterials. The main principles of green chemistry emphasize how important it is to avoid the use, or at least to reduce the consumption, of organic solvents for a chemical process. And it is precisely this aspect that was systematically addressed and emphasized by our research group since the very beginning of our work on the chemistry of carbon nanomaterials in early 2000s. The present review focuses on the results obtained to date on solvent-free techniques for (mainly covalent) functionalization of fullerene C60, single-walled and multi-walled carbon nanotubes (SWNTs and MWNTs, respectively), as well as nanodiamonds (NDs). We designed a series of simple and fast functionalization protocols based on thermally activated reactions with chemical compounds stable and volatile at 150-200 degrees C under reduced pressure, when not only the reactions take place at a high rate, but also excess reagents are spontaneously removed from the functionalized material, thus making its purification unnecessary. The main two classes of reagents are organic amines and thiols, including bifunctional ones, which can be used in conjunction with different forms of nanocarbons. The resulting chemical processes comprise nucleophilic addition of amines and thiols to fullerene C60 and to defect sites of pristine MWNTs, as well as direct amidation of carboxylic groups of oxidized nanotubes (mainly SWNTs) and ND. In the case of bifunctional amines and thiols, reactions of the second functional group can give rise to cross-linking effects, or be employed for further derivatization steps. PMID:24730288

  20. PPR proteins of green algae.

    PubMed

    Tourasse, Nicolas J; Choquet, Yves; Vallon, Olivier

    2013-01-01

    Using the repeat finding algorithm FT-Rep, we have identified 154 pentatricopeptide repeat (PPR) proteins in nine fully sequenced genomes from green algae (with a total of 1201 repeats) and grouped them in 47 orthologous groups. All data are available in a database, PPRdb, accessible online at http://giavap-genomes.ibpc.fr/ppr. Based on phylogenetic trees generated from the repeats, we propose evolutionary scenarios for PPR proteins. Two PPRs are clearly conserved in the entire green lineage: MRL1 is a stabilization factor for the rbcL mRNA, while HCF152 binds in plants to the psbH-petB intergenic region. MCA1 (the stabilization factor for petA) and PPR7 (a short PPR also acting on chloroplast mRNAs) are conserved across the entire Chlorophyta. The other PPRs are clade-specific, with evidence for gene losses, duplications, and horizontal transfer. In some PPR proteins, an additional domain found at the C terminus provides clues as to possible functions. PPR19 and PPR26 possess a methyltransferase_4 domain suggesting involvement in RNA guanosine methylation. PPR18 contains a C-terminal CBS domain, similar to the CBSPPR1 protein found in nucleoids. PPR16, PPR29, PPR37, and PPR38 harbor a SmR (MutS-related) domain similar to that found in land plants pTAC2, GUN1, and SVR7. The PPR-cyclins PPR3, PPR4, and PPR6, in addition, contain a cyclin domain C-terminal to their SmR domain. PPR31 is an unusual PPR-cyclin containing at its N terminus an OctotricoPeptide Repeat (OPR) and a RAP domain. We consider the possibility that PPR proteins with a SmR domain can introduce single-stranded nicks in the plastid chromosome.

  1. PPR proteins of green algae

    PubMed Central

    Tourasse, Nicolas J; Choquet, Yves; Vallon, Olivier

    2013-01-01

    Using the repeat finding algorithm FT-Rep, we have identified 154 pentatricopeptide repeat (PPR) proteins in nine fully sequenced genomes from green algae (with a total of 1201 repeats) and grouped them in 47 orthologous groups. All data are available in a database, PPRdb, accessible online at http://giavap-genomes.ibpc.fr/ppr. Based on phylogenetic trees generated from the repeats, we propose evolutionary scenarios for PPR proteins. Two PPRs are clearly conserved in the entire green lineage: MRL1 is a stabilization factor for the rbcL mRNA, while HCF152 binds in plants to the psbH-petB intergenic region. MCA1 (the stabilization factor for petA) and PPR7 (a short PPR also acting on chloroplast mRNAs) are conserved across the entire Chlorophyta. The other PPRs are clade-specific, with evidence for gene losses, duplications, and horizontal transfer. In some PPR proteins, an additional domain found at the C terminus provides clues as to possible functions. PPR19 and PPR26 possess a methyltransferase_4 domain suggesting involvement in RNA guanosine methylation. PPR18 contains a C-terminal CBS domain, similar to the CBSPPR1 protein found in nucleoids. PPR16, PPR29, PPR37, and PPR38 harbor a SmR (MutS-related) domain similar to that found in land plants pTAC2, GUN1, and SVR7. The PPR-cyclins PPR3, PPR4, and PPR6, in addition, contain a cyclin domain C-terminal to their SmR domain. PPR31 is an unusual PPR-cyclin containing at its N terminus an OctotricoPeptide Repeat (OPR) and a RAP domain. We consider the possibility that PPR proteins with a SmR domain can introduce single-stranded nicks in the plastid chromosome. PMID:24021981

  2. Green chemistry of carbon nanomaterials.

    PubMed

    Basiuk, Elena V; Basiuk, Vladimir A

    2014-01-01

    The global trend of looking for more ecologically friendly, "green" techniques manifested itself in the chemistry of carbon nanomaterials. The main principles of green chemistry emphasize how important it is to avoid the use, or at least to reduce the consumption, of organic solvents for a chemical process. And it is precisely this aspect that was systematically addressed and emphasized by our research group since the very beginning of our work on the chemistry of carbon nanomaterials in early 2000s. The present review focuses on the results obtained to date on solvent-free techniques for (mainly covalent) functionalization of fullerene C60, single-walled and multi-walled carbon nanotubes (SWNTs and MWNTs, respectively), as well as nanodiamonds (NDs). We designed a series of simple and fast functionalization protocols based on thermally activated reactions with chemical compounds stable and volatile at 150-200 degrees C under reduced pressure, when not only the reactions take place at a high rate, but also excess reagents are spontaneously removed from the functionalized material, thus making its purification unnecessary. The main two classes of reagents are organic amines and thiols, including bifunctional ones, which can be used in conjunction with different forms of nanocarbons. The resulting chemical processes comprise nucleophilic addition of amines and thiols to fullerene C60 and to defect sites of pristine MWNTs, as well as direct amidation of carboxylic groups of oxidized nanotubes (mainly SWNTs) and ND. In the case of bifunctional amines and thiols, reactions of the second functional group can give rise to cross-linking effects, or be employed for further derivatization steps.

  3. GREEN GALAXIES IN THE COSMOS FIELD

    SciTech Connect

    Pan, Zhizheng; Kong, Xu; Fan, Lulu E-mail: xkong@ustc.edu.cn

    2013-10-10

    We present research on the morphologies, spectra, and environments of ≈2350 'green valley' galaxies at 0.2 < z < 1.0 in the COSMOS field. The bimodality of dust-corrected NUV–r {sup +} color is used to define 'green valley'; it removes dusty star-forming galaxies from galaxies that are truly transitioning between the blue cloud and the red sequence. Morphological parameters of green galaxies are intermediate between those of blue and red galaxy populations, both on the Gini-asymmetry and the Gini-M{sub 20} planes. Approximately 60%-70% of green disk galaxies have intermediate or big bulges, and only 5%-10% are pure disk systems, based on morphological classification using the Zurich Estimator of Structural Types. The obtained average spectra of green galaxies are intermediate between blue and red ones in terms of [O II], Hα, and Hβ emission lines. Stellar population synthesis on the average spectra shows that green galaxies are on average older than blue galaxies but younger than red galaxies. Green galaxies and blue galaxies have similar projected galaxy density (Σ{sub 10}) distributions at z > 0.7. At z < 0.7, the fractions of M{sub *} < 10{sup 10.0} M{sub ☉} green galaxies located in a dense environment are found to be significantly larger than those of blue galaxies. The morphological and spectral properties of green galaxies are consistent with the transitioning population between the blue cloud and the red sequence. The possible mechanisms for quenching star formation activities in green galaxies are discussed. The importance of active galactic nucleus feedback cannot be well constrained in our study. Finally, our findings suggest that environmental conditions, most likely starvation and harassment, significantly affect the transformation of M{sub *} < 10{sup 10.0} M{sub ☉} blue galaxies into red galaxies, especially at z < 0.5.

  4. Analytical Methods for Malachite Green : Completion Report : Malachite Green Analysis in Water.

    SciTech Connect

    Allen, John L.; Gofus, Jane E.; Meinertz, Jeffery R.

    1991-06-01

    Malachite green is a known teratogen and therefore its use is limited to nonfood fish under an Investigational New Animal Drug permit (INAD), number 2573. Although a charcoal adsorption column was developed to remove malachite green from hatchery water, INAD compliance requires that the malachite green residue concentrations in any effluent from hatcheries using the chemical be quantified. Therefore, we developed a method for the analysis of malachite green residues in water. Enrichment of the residues of malachite green in water on a diol column followed by High Performance Liquid Chromatographic (HPLC) analysis gives a minimum sensitivity of less than 10 ppb for the chemical. When combined with post-column oxidation using a lead oxide post-column reactor, the procedure can be used for the simultaneous analysis of malachite green in its leuco form, a decomposition product of the dye, as well as its chromatic form. Recovery of the leuco form is pH dependent and water samples should be adjusted to pH 6 to optimize recovery of this form. Water samples spiked with malachite green were concentrated on a diol column followed by elution with 0.05 M p-toluene sulfonic acid in methanol. The methanol elutes were analyzed by HPLC. Pond water samples spiked with malachite green and leuco malachite green yielded average recoveries of 95.4% for malachite green and 57.3% for leuco malachite green. Tap water samples spiked with the carbinol form of malachite green gave average recoveries of 98.6%. The method is very sensitive and is capable of detecting malachite green residues in water at less than 10 ppb. Fish culturists, who cannot find an effective replacement for malachite green, can utilize the method to ensure that their effluents comply with INAD regulations. 13 refs., 2 figs., 7 tabs.

  5. Thermalization of Green functions and quasinormal modes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    David, Justin R.; Khetrapal, Surbhi

    2015-07-01

    We develop a new method to study the thermalization of time dependent retarded Green function in conformal field theories holographically dual to thin shell AdS Vaidya space times. The method relies on using the information of all time derivatives of the Green function at the shell and then evolving it for later times. The time derivatives of the Green function at the shell is given in terms of a recursion formula. Using this method we obtain analytic results for short time thermalization of the Green function. We show that the late time behaviour of the Green function is determined by the first quasinormal mode. We then implement the method numerically. As applications of this method we study the thermalization of the retarded time dependent Green function corresponding to a minimally coupled scalar in the AdS3 and AdS5 thin Vaidya shells. We see that as expected the late time behaviour is determined by the first quasinormal mode. We apply the method to study the late time behaviour of the shear vector mode in AdS5 Vaidya shell. At small momentum the corresponding time dependent Green function is expected to relax to equilibrium by the shear hydrodynamic mode. Using this we obtain the universal ratio of the shear viscosity to entropy density from a time dependent process.

  6. Targeting DNA methylation with green tea catechins.

    PubMed

    Yiannakopoulou, Eugenia C

    2015-01-01

    Aberrant epigenetic alterations in the genome such as DNA methylation play a significant role in cancer development. Green tea catechins have been reported to modulate epigenetic processes. This review aims to synthesize evidence on the modulation of DNA methylation by green tea catechins. Green tea catechins have been reported to reverse DNA methylation of tumor suppressor genes and increase transcription of these genes. Green tea catechins and especially epigallocatechin gallate modulate DNA methylation by attenuating the effect of DNA methyltransferase 1 (DNMT1). However, the exact mechanism of DNMT1 inhibition is not delineated. Suggested mechanisms include direct enzymatic inhibition, indirect enzymatic inhibition, reduced DNMT1 expression and translation. The possible effect of green tea catechins on other pathways of DNA methylation, i.e. methyl-CpG binding domain proteins, has not been investigated. Furthermore, the link between redox properties and epigenetic modulation by green tea catechins has not been defined either. Since green tea catechins are natural compounds with a rather acceptable safety profile, further research on their action as inhibitors of DNA methylation seems worthwhile.

  7. Green Campus initiative and its impacts on quality of life of stakeholders in Green and Non-Green Campus universities.

    PubMed

    Tiyarattanachai, Ronnachai; Hollmann, Nicholas M

    2016-01-01

    In 2010, Universitas Indonesia (UI) developed the UI GreenMetric World University Ranking for universities to share information about their sustainability practices. This ranking system was well aligned with the basis of Sustainability for Higher Education. The scoring system can also be used as a guideline for universities to achieve sustainability in their campuses. Since its first launch, more universities around the world have increasingly participated in the ranking system including many universities in Thailand. This study compared perception of stakeholders in Green Campus and Non-Green Campus universities in Thailand regarding stakeholders' satisfaction on sustainability practices and perceived quality of life at their campuses. The results showed that stakeholders at the studied Green Campus University were more satisfied and had significantly better perceived quality of life compared to stakeholders from the studied Non-Green Campus university. The results suggested that universities should adopt the criteria set in the UI GreenMetric World University Ranking to achieve better sustainability in their campuses and improve quality of life of their stakeholders. PMID:26848424

  8. Green Campus initiative and its impacts on quality of life of stakeholders in Green and Non-Green Campus universities.

    PubMed

    Tiyarattanachai, Ronnachai; Hollmann, Nicholas M

    2016-01-01

    In 2010, Universitas Indonesia (UI) developed the UI GreenMetric World University Ranking for universities to share information about their sustainability practices. This ranking system was well aligned with the basis of Sustainability for Higher Education. The scoring system can also be used as a guideline for universities to achieve sustainability in their campuses. Since its first launch, more universities around the world have increasingly participated in the ranking system including many universities in Thailand. This study compared perception of stakeholders in Green Campus and Non-Green Campus universities in Thailand regarding stakeholders' satisfaction on sustainability practices and perceived quality of life at their campuses. The results showed that stakeholders at the studied Green Campus University were more satisfied and had significantly better perceived quality of life compared to stakeholders from the studied Non-Green Campus university. The results suggested that universities should adopt the criteria set in the UI GreenMetric World University Ranking to achieve better sustainability in their campuses and improve quality of life of their stakeholders.

  9. Dynamic indocyanine green angiography measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Holmes, Timothy; Invernizzi, Alessandro; Larkin, Sean; Staurenghi, Giovanni

    2012-11-01

    Dynamic indocyanine green imaging uses a scanning laser ophthalmoscope and a fluorescent dye to produce movies of the dye-filling pattern in the retina and choroid of the eye. It is used for evaluating choroidal neovascularization. Movies are examined to identify the anatomy of the pathology for planning treatment and to evaluate progression or response to treatment. The popularity of this approach is affected by the complexity and difficulty in interpreting the movies. Software algorithms were developed to produce images from the movies that are easy to interpret. A mathematical model is formulated of the flow dynamics, and a fitting algorithm is designed that solves for the flow parameters. The images provide information about flow and perfusion, including regions of change between examinations. Imaged measures include the dye fill-time, temporal dispersion, and magnitude of the dye dilution temporal curves associated with image pixels. Cases show how the software can help to identify clinically relevant anatomy such as feeder vessels, drain vessels, capillary networks, and normal choroidal draining vessels. As a potential tool for research into the character of neovascular conditions and treatments, it reveals the flow dynamics and character of the lesion. Future varieties of this methodology may be used for evaluating the success of engineered tissue transplants, surgical flaps, reconstructive surgery, breast surgery, and many other surgical applications where flow, perfusion, and vascularity of tissue are important.

  10. Subsonic Ultra Green Aircraft Research

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bradley, Marty K.; Droney, Christopher K.

    2011-01-01

    This Final Report summarizes the work accomplished by the Boeing Subsonic Ultra Green Aircraft Research (SUGAR) team in Phase 1, which includes the time period of October 2008 through March 2010. The team consisted of Boeing Research and Technology, Boeing Commercial Airplanes, General Electric, and Georgia Tech. The team completed the development of a comprehensive future scenario for world-wide commercial aviation, selected baseline and advanced configurations for detailed study, generated technology suites for each configuration, conducted detailed performance analysis, calculated noise and emissions, assessed technology risks, and developed technology roadmaps. Five concepts were evaluated in detail: 2008 baseline, N+3 reference, N+3 high span strut braced wing, N+3 gas turbine battery electric concept, and N+3 hybrid wing body. A wide portfolio of technologies was identified to address the NASA N+3 goals. Significant improvements in air traffic management, aerodynamics, materials and structures, aircraft systems, propulsion, and acoustics are needed. Recommendations for Phase 2 concept and technology projects have been identified.

  11. Brownian dynamics without Green's functions

    SciTech Connect

    Delong, Steven; Donev, Aleksandar; Usabiaga, Florencio Balboa; Delgado-Buscalioni, Rafael; Griffith, Boyce E.

    2014-04-07

    We develop a Fluctuating Immersed Boundary (FIB) method for performing Brownian dynamics simulations of confined particle suspensions. Unlike traditional methods which employ analytical Green's functions for Stokes flow in the confined geometry, the FIB method uses a fluctuating finite-volume Stokes solver to generate the action of the response functions “on the fly.” Importantly, we demonstrate that both the deterministic terms necessary to capture the hydrodynamic interactions among the suspended particles, as well as the stochastic terms necessary to generate the hydrodynamically correlated Brownian motion, can be generated by solving the steady Stokes equations numerically only once per time step. This is accomplished by including a stochastic contribution to the stress tensor in the fluid equations consistent with fluctuating hydrodynamics. We develop novel temporal integrators that account for the multiplicative nature of the noise in the equations of Brownian dynamics and the strong dependence of the mobility on the configuration for confined systems. Notably, we propose a random finite difference approach to approximating the stochastic drift proportional to the divergence of the configuration-dependent mobility matrix. Through comparisons with analytical and existing computational results, we numerically demonstrate the ability of the FIB method to accurately capture both the static (equilibrium) and dynamic properties of interacting particles in flow.

  12. Green Nanoparticles for Mosquito Control

    PubMed Central

    Soni, Namita; Prakash, Soam

    2014-01-01

    Here, we have used the green method for synthesis of silver and gold nanoparticles. In the present study the silver (Ag) and gold (Au) nanoparticles (NPs) were synthesized by using the aqueous bark extract of Indian spice dalchini (Cinnamomum zeylanicum) (C. zyelanicum or C. verum J. Presl). Additionally, we have used these synthesized nanoparticles for mosquito control. The larvicidal activity has been tested against the malaria vector Anopheles stephensi and filariasis vector Culex quinquefasciatus. The results were obtained using UV-visible spectrophotometer and the images were recorded with a transmission electron microscope (TEM). The efficacy tests were then performed at different concentrations and varying numbers of hours by probit analysis. The synthesized AgNPs were in spherical shape and average sizes (11.77 nm AgNPs and 46.48 nm AuNPs). The larvae of An. stephensi were found highly susceptible to the synthesized AgNPs and AuNPs than the Cx. quinquefasciatus. These results suggest that the C. zeylanicum synthesized silver and gold nanoparticles have the potential to be used as an ideal ecofriendly approach for the control of mosquito. PMID:25243210

  13. A generalized Green`s formula for elliptic problems in domains with edges

    SciTech Connect

    Nazarov, S.A.; Plamenevskii, B.A.

    1995-03-01

    The usual Green`s formula connected with the operator of a boundary-value problem fails when both of the solutions u and v that occur in it have singularities that are too strong at a conic point or at an edge on the boundary of the domain. We deduce a generalized Green`s formula that acquires an additional bilinear form in u and v and is determined by the coefficients in the expansion of solutions near singularities of the boundary. We obtain improved asymptotic representations of solutions in a neighborhood of an edge of positive dimension, which together with the generalized Green`s formula makes it possible, for example, to describe the infinite-dimensional kernel of the operator of an elliptic problem in a domain with edge.

  14. Green infrastructure monitoring in Camden, NJ

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Camden County Municipal Utilities Authority (CCMUA) installed green infrastructure Stormwater Control Measures (SCMs) at multiple locations around the city of Camden, NJ. The SCMs include raised downspout planter boxes, rain gardens, and cisterns. The cisterns capture water ...

  15. NASA Now: Biology: Extreme Green Biofuels

    NASA Video Gallery

    Learn what makes something a “green” technology, how scientists are using climactic adaptation in their research and what aspects of plants NASA is most interested in for generating biofuel.

  16. Green Energy: Advancing Bio-Hydrogen (Presentation)

    SciTech Connect

    Alber, D.

    2007-07-01

    Developing a model of metabolism linked to H2 production in green algae. Develop tools for parameter discovery and optimization at organism level and advance knowledge of hydrogen-producting photosynthetic organisms.

  17. Trends in Utility Green Pricing Programs (2006)

    SciTech Connect

    Bird, L.; Kaiser, M.

    2007-10-01

    In the early 1990s, only a handful of utilities offered their customers a choice of purchasing electricity generated from renewable energy sources. Today, more than 750 utilities--or about 25% of all utilities nationally--provide their customers a "green power" option. Through these programs, more than 70 million customers have the ability to purchase renewable energy to meet some portion or all of their electricity needs--or make contributions to support the development of renewable energy resources. Typically, customers pay a premium above standard electricity rates for this service. This report presents year-end 2006 data on utility green pricing programs, and examines trends in consumer response and program implementation over time. The data in this report, which were obtained via a questionnaire distributed to utility green pricing program managers, can be used by utilities to benchmark the success of their green power programs.

  18. Trends in Utility Green Pricing Programs (2006)

    SciTech Connect

    Bird, Lori; Kaiser, Marshall

    2007-10-01

    In the early 1990s, only a handful of utilities offered their customers a choice of purchasing electricity generated from renewable energy sources. Today, more than 750 utilities—or about 25% of all utilities nationally—provide their customers a “green power” option. Through these programs, more than 70 million customers have the ability to purchase renewable energy to meet some portion or all of their electricity needs—or make contributions to support the development of renewable energy resources. Typically, customers pay a premium above standard electricity rates for this service. This report presents year-end 2006 data on utility green pricing programs, and examines trends in consumer response and program implementation over time. The data in this report, which were obtained via a questionnaire distributed to utility green pricing program managers, can be used by utilities to benchmark the success of their green power programs.

  19. Nathaniel Everett Green: artist and astronomer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McKim, R. J.

    2004-02-01

    N. E. Green, a well-known BAA member from the decade of the 1890s, managed to successfully combine his hobby with his profession as a landscape artist and art teacher. One-time drawing master to Queen Victoria, and exhibitor at the Royal Academy, Green became equally famous for his beautiful and realistic drawings of the planets, above all for his expedition to Madeira in 1877 to observe the perihelic opposition of Mars. He inevitably became an important figure in the early martian 'canal debate'. Green was an Original Member of the BAA who twice directed the early Saturn Section, and ultimately served as President in 1896-'98. In this paper Green's life and works are reviewed, together with new details of his instruments and his approach to painting and drawing. Opportunity has been taken to publish some more of his original work, in colour, for the very first time.

  20. Green Buildings in Use: Post Occupancy Evaluations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Watson, Chris

    2007-01-01

    This article briefly describes users' experiences of two "green" education buildings. It goes on to conclude that stakeholders' negotiation of building performance is necessary to minimise environmental impact, just as it is necessary to achieve other aspects of building performance.

  1. Village Green Project and Air Sensor Kits

    EPA Science Inventory

    This is a presentation for the OAQPS Teachers Workshop. Will provide a background overview on the Village Green Project and our air sensor kit for outreach, then have the teachers try putting it together.

  2. Green technology approach towards herbal extraction method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mutalib, Tengku Nur Atiqah Tengku Ab; Hamzah, Zainab; Hashim, Othman; Mat, Hishamudin Che

    2015-05-01

    The aim of present study was to compare maceration method of selected herbs using green and non-green solvents. Water and d-limonene are a type of green solvents while non-green solvents are chloroform and ethanol. The selected herbs were Clinacanthus nutans leaf and stem, Orthosiphon stamineus leaf and stem, Sesbania grandiflora leaf, Pluchea indica leaf, Morinda citrifolia leaf and Citrus hystrix leaf. The extracts were compared with the determination of total phenolic content. Total phenols were analyzed using a spectrophotometric technique, based on Follin-ciocalteau reagent. Gallic acid was used as standard compound and the total phenols were expressed as mg/g gallic acid equivalent (GAE). The most suitable and effective solvent is water which produced highest total phenol contents compared to other solvents. Among the selected herbs, Orthosiphon stamineus leaves contain high total phenols at 9.087mg/g.

  3. 7 CFR 29.2524 - Green (G).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... INSPECTION Standards Official Standard Grades for Kentucky and Tennessee Fire-Cured and Foreign-Grown Fire...-colored tobacco. Any leaf which has a green color affecting 20 percent or more of its surface may...

  4. 7 CFR 29.2524 - Green (G).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... INSPECTION Standards Official Standard Grades for Kentucky and Tennessee Fire-Cured and Foreign-Grown Fire...-colored tobacco. Any leaf which has a green color affecting 20 percent or more of its surface may...

  5. 7 CFR 29.2524 - Green (G).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... INSPECTION Standards Official Standard Grades for Kentucky and Tennessee Fire-Cured and Foreign-Grown Fire...-colored tobacco. Any leaf which has a green color affecting 20 percent or more of its surface may...

  6. 7 CFR 29.2524 - Green (G).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... INSPECTION Standards Official Standard Grades for Kentucky and Tennessee Fire-Cured and Foreign-Grown Fire...-colored tobacco. Any leaf which has a green color affecting 20 percent or more of its surface may...

  7. 7 CFR 29.2524 - Green (G).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... INSPECTION Standards Official Standard Grades for Kentucky and Tennessee Fire-Cured and Foreign-Grown Fire...-colored tobacco. Any leaf which has a green color affecting 20 percent or more of its surface may...

  8. Green function analysis of a Raman FEL

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shvets, G.; Wurtele, J. S.

    1995-04-01

    This paper derives, in closed form, the Green function of an FEL operating in the strongly Raman regime. This Green function allows for the calculation of the temporal and spacial evolution of an arbitrary input radiation pulse. For the first time superradiance, originally studied in Compton regime by Bonifacio and co-workers [Phys. Rev. Lett. 73 (1994) 70; Nucl. Instr. and Meth. A 239 (1985) 36], has been seen numerically in a strongly Raman FEL.

  9. Green's function calculations of light nuclei

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, ZhongHao; Wu, Qiang; Xu, FuRong

    2016-09-01

    The influence of short-range correlations in nuclei was investigated with realistic nuclear force. The nucleon-nucleon interaction was renormalized with V lowk technique and applied to the Green's function calculations. The Dyson equation was reformulated with algebraic diagrammatic constructions. We also analyzed the binding energy of 4He, calculated with chiral potential and CD-Bonn potential. The properties of Green's function with realistic nuclear forces are also discussed.

  10. Green Computing: Need of the Hour

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jena, Rabindra Ku

    Environmental and energy conservation issues have taken center stage in the global business arena in recent years. The reality of rising energy costs and their impact on international affairs coupled with the increased concern over the global warming climate crisis and other environmental issues have shifted the social and economic consciousness of the business community. This paper discusses the green computing needs and also studies the participation of different stockholders for implementation of green computing concepts in India.

  11. Familiarization and Detection of Green Monopropellants Image

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Coan, Mary R.

    2015-01-01

    Ammonium dinitramide (ADN) and hydroxyl ammonium nitrate (HAN) are green monopropellants which will be appearing at Kennedy Space Center (KSC) for processing in the next few years. These are relatively safe replacements for hydrazine as a monopropellant; however, little is known about methods of leak detection, vapor scrubbing, air emissions, or cleanup that will be required for safe and environmentally benign operations at KSC. The goal of this work is to develop leak detection and related technologies for the two new green monopropellants.

  12. Jackson Park Hospital Green Building Medical Center

    SciTech Connect

    Dorsey, William; Vasquez, Nelson

    2010-05-01

    Jackson Park Hospital completed the construction of a new Medical Office Building on its campus this spring. The new building construction has adopted the City of Chicago's recent focus on protecting the environment, and conserving energy and resources, with the introduction of green building codes. Located in a poor, inner city neighborhood on the South side of Chicago, Jackson Park Hospital has chosen green building strategies to help make the area a better place to live and work.

  13. Green pricing: A Colorado case study

    SciTech Connect

    Blank, E.; Udall, J.R.

    1996-12-31

    A model program for green pricing targeted primarily at large customers is proposed in this paper. The program would create a partnership between a local community group, a renewables advocacy group, and several Colorado utilities. The first part of the paper summarizes pertinent background issues, including utility experience with green pricing programs. The rest of the paper outlines the program proposal, focusing primarily on organizational structure.

  14. Global Greening Is Firm, Drivers Are Mixed

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kauppi, P.; Meyfroidt, P.; Ausubel, J. H.; Graven, H. D.; Birdsey, R.; Posch, M.; Wernick, I.; Myneni, R. B.; Stenberg, P.

    2015-12-01

    Evidence for global greening is converging, asserting an increase in CO2 uptake and biomass of the terrestrial biosphere. Global greening refers to global net increases in the area of green canopy, stocks of carbon, and the duration of the growing season. The growing seasons in general have prolonged while the stock of biomass carbon has increased and the rate of deforestation has decelerated, although these trends are mixed in the Tropics. Evidence for these trends comes from firm empirical data obtained through atmospheric CO2 observations, remote sensing, forest inventories and land use statistics. The drivers of global greening cannot be assessed based only on unambiguous empirical measurements. They include spatially and temporally heterogeneous combinations of changing land use and management - including green revolution and increasing yields, afforestation, forest protection and management, and abandonment of agricultural land -, changes in the global environment (increased CO2, warmer temperatures and longer growing seasons in the northern latitudes, acceleration of the global nitrogen cycle), and shifts in demand for forest and farm products. The global trade of biomass-derived commodities affects the link between consumption patterns and the land cover impact. Global greening confirms the immediacy of global change and may be associated with more or less biodiversity and diverse environmental and human consequences depending on local circumstances. Understanding causes, mechanisms, and implications of global greening requires integrated analyses spanning land use and management, demand for products of the terrestrial biosphere, and the atmosphere and climate. Understanding the pace and drivers of global greening matters crucially for assessing the future of the terrestrial C sink; ecological, economic, social, and cultural assessments of the bio-economy; and the preservation of ecosystems.

  15. The origins of Schwinger's Euclidean Green's functions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miller, Michael E.

    2015-05-01

    This paper places Julian Schwinger's development of the Euclidean Green's function formalism for quantum field theory in historical context. It traces the techniques employed in the formalism back to Schwinger's work on waveguides during World War II, and his subsequent formulation of the Minkowski space Green's function formalism for quantum field theory in 1951. Particular attention is dedicated to understanding Schwinger's physical motivation for pursuing the Euclidean extension of this formalism in 1958.

  16. Innovation: driving the green culture in healthcare.

    PubMed

    Porter-O'Grady, Tim; Malloch, Kathy

    2010-01-01

    Going green is more than a fad, and it is a mindset and a set of behaviors, knowledge, and dedication to sustainability of our environment and resources. The role of the leader now requires more than traditional strategies to strategically and swiftly move to a green reality. In this article, the involvement of individuals, the work of innovation, an infrastructure for significant cultural change, and new decision-making models are presented as necessary components for transforming organizational cultures.

  17. Building green supply chains in eco-industrial parks towards a green economy: Barriers and strategies.

    PubMed

    Li, Jacqueline; Pan, Shu-Yuan; Kim, Hyunook; Linn, Jean H; Chiang, Pen-Chi

    2015-10-01

    As suggested by UNEP, the key to sustainable development is to create a "green economy" which should encapsulate all three sectors: the industry, the people, and the government. Therefore, there is an urgent need to develop and implement the green technologies into the existing facilities, especially in the developing countries. In this study, the role of green supply chains in eco-industrial parks (EIPs) towards a green economy was investigated. The strategies and effective evaluation procedures of the green economy were proposed by assessing the barriers from the perspective of institution, regulation, technology, and finance. In addition, three case studies from iron and steel-making, paper mill and pulping, and petrochemical industries were presented and illustrated for building the green supply chains. For example, in the case of Lin-Hai Industrial Park, a total of 15 efficient green supply chains using waste-to-resources technologies were established by 2012, resulting in an economic benefit of USD 100 million per year. It suggests that the green supply chains should be established to achieve both economic growth and environmental protection. With these successful experiences, building a green supply chain within industrial park should be extensively promoted to make traditional industries around the world being environmentally bearable, economic viable, and social equitable.

  18. Building green supply chains in eco-industrial parks towards a green economy: Barriers and strategies.

    PubMed

    Li, Jacqueline; Pan, Shu-Yuan; Kim, Hyunook; Linn, Jean H; Chiang, Pen-Chi

    2015-10-01

    As suggested by UNEP, the key to sustainable development is to create a "green economy" which should encapsulate all three sectors: the industry, the people, and the government. Therefore, there is an urgent need to develop and implement the green technologies into the existing facilities, especially in the developing countries. In this study, the role of green supply chains in eco-industrial parks (EIPs) towards a green economy was investigated. The strategies and effective evaluation procedures of the green economy were proposed by assessing the barriers from the perspective of institution, regulation, technology, and finance. In addition, three case studies from iron and steel-making, paper mill and pulping, and petrochemical industries were presented and illustrated for building the green supply chains. For example, in the case of Lin-Hai Industrial Park, a total of 15 efficient green supply chains using waste-to-resources technologies were established by 2012, resulting in an economic benefit of USD 100 million per year. It suggests that the green supply chains should be established to achieve both economic growth and environmental protection. With these successful experiences, building a green supply chain within industrial park should be extensively promoted to make traditional industries around the world being environmentally bearable, economic viable, and social equitable. PMID:26241931

  19. Why do green rods of frog and toad retinas look green?

    PubMed

    Govardovskii, Victor I; Reuter, Tom

    2014-09-01

    Amphibian “green” rods express a blue-sensitive cone visual pigment, and should look yellow. However,when observing them axially under microscope one sees them as green. We used single-cell microspectrophotometry (MSP) to reveal the basis of the perceived color of these photoreceptors. Conventional side-on MSP recording of the proximal cell segments reveals no selective longwave absorbing pigment explaining the green color. End-on MSP recording shows, in addition to the green rod visual pigment, an extra 2- to 4-fold attenuation being almost flat throughout the visible spectrum. This attenuation is absent in red (rhodopsin) rods, and vanishes in green rods when the retina is bathed in high-refractive media, and at wide illumination aperture. The same treatments change the color from green to yellow. It seems that the non-visual pigment attenuation is a result of slender green rod myoids operating as non-selective light guides. We hypothesize that narrow myoids, combined with photomechanical movements of melanin granules, allow a wide range of sensitivity regulation supporting the operation of green rods as blue receptors at mesopic-to low-photopic illumination levels.End-on transmittance spectrum of green rods looks similar to the reflectance spectrum of khaki military uniforms. So their greenness is the combined result of optics and human color vision.

  20. 7 CFR 457.137 - Green pea crop insurance provisions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ...) The producer's commitment to plant and grow green peas, and to deliver the green pea production to the... 7 Agriculture 6 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Green pea crop insurance provisions. 457.137 Section... CORPORATION, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE COMMON CROP INSURANCE REGULATIONS § 457.137 Green pea crop...

  1. 7 CFR 457.137 - Green pea crop insurance provisions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ...) The producer's commitment to plant and grow green peas, and to deliver the green pea production to the... 7 Agriculture 6 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Green pea crop insurance provisions. 457.137 Section... CORPORATION, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE COMMON CROP INSURANCE REGULATIONS § 457.137 Green pea crop...

  2. 7 CFR 51.1011 - Good green color.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Good green color. 51.1011 Section 51.1011 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards, Inspections, Marketing... green color. Good green color means that the skin of the lime is of a good green color characteristic...

  3. 7 CFR 51.1011 - Good green color.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Good green color. 51.1011 Section 51.1011 Agriculture... Standards for Persian (Tahiti) Limes Definitions § 51.1011 Good green color. Good green color means that the skin of the lime is of a good green color characteristic of the Persian variety....

  4. 7 CFR 51.1011 - Good green color.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Good green color. 51.1011 Section 51.1011 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards, Inspections, Marketing... green color. Good green color means that the skin of the lime is of a good green color characteristic...

  5. 7 CFR 51.1011 - Good green color.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Good green color. 51.1011 Section 51.1011 Agriculture... Standards for Persian (Tahiti) Limes Definitions § 51.1011 Good green color. Good green color means that the skin of the lime is of a good green color characteristic of the Persian variety....

  6. 7 CFR 51.1011 - Good green color.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Good green color. 51.1011 Section 51.1011 Agriculture... Standards for Persian (Tahiti) Limes Definitions § 51.1011 Good green color. Good green color means that the skin of the lime is of a good green color characteristic of the Persian variety....

  7. Information Brief on Green Power Marketing, 2nd Edition

    SciTech Connect

    Sweezey, B.; Houston, A.

    1998-02-01

    This document is the second in a series of information briefs on green power marketing activity in the United States. It includes descriptions of utility green pricing programs, green power marketing activity, retail access legislation and pilot programs, and other data and information supporting the development of green power markets.

  8. Greening Community Colleges: An Environmental Path to Improving Educational Outcomes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rogers, Kimberly R.; Pleasants, Rachel

    2011-01-01

    The emerging and expanding green economy has the potential to create not just jobs, but career opportunities across the United States as green manufacturing, green products, and green services fuel demand for workers at all skill levels. Community colleges are leading the way in defining and addressing these opportunities. They are: developing…

  9. Light production by green plants.

    PubMed

    STREHLER, B L; ARNOLD, W

    1951-07-01

    1. Green plants have been found to emit light of approximately the same color as their fluorescent light for several minutes following illumination. This light is about 10(-3) the intensity of the fluorescent light, about one-tenth second after illumination below saturation or 10(-6) of the intensity of the absorbed light. 2. The decay curve follows bimolecular kinetics at 6.5 degrees C. and reaction order 1.6 at 28 degrees C. 3. This light saturates as does photosynthesis at higher light intensities and in about the same intensity range as does photosynthesis. 4. An action spectrum for light emitted as a function of the wave length of exciting light has been determined. It parallels closely the photosynthetic action spectrum. 5. The intensity of light emission was studied as a function of temperature and found to be optimal at about 37 degrees C. with an activation energy of approximately 19,500 calories. Two-temperature studies indicated that the energy may be trapped in the cold, but that temperatures characteristic for enzymatic reactions are necessary for light production. 6. Illumination after varying dark periods showed initial peaks of varying height depending on the preceding dark period. 7. 5 per cent CO(2) reversibly depresses the amount of light emitted by about 30 per cent. About 3 minutes are required for this effect to reach completion at room temperatures. 8. Various inhibitors of photosynthesis were tested for their effect on luminescence and were all inhibitory at appropriate concentrations. 9. Irradiation with ultraviolet light (2537A) inhibits light production at about the same rate as it inhibits photosynthesis. 10. This evidence suggests that early and perhaps later chemical reactions in photosynthesis may be partially reversible.

  10. Green Solvents for Precision Cleaning

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Grandelli, Heather; Maloney, Phillip; DeVor, Robert; Surma, Jan; Hintze, Paul

    2013-01-01

    Aerospace machinery used in liquid oxygen (LOX) fuel systems must be precision cleaned to achieve a very low level of non-volatile residue (< 1 mg0.1 m2), especially flammable residue. Traditionally chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs) have been used in the precision cleaning of LOX systems, specifically CFC 113 (C2Cl3F3). CFCs have been known to cause the depletion of ozone and in 1987, were banned by the Montreal Protocol due to health, safety and environmental concerns. This has now led to the development of new processes in the precision cleaning of aerospace components. An ideal solvent-replacement is non-flammable, environmentally benign, non-corrosive, inexpensive, effective and evaporates completely, leaving no residue. Highlighted is a green precision cleaning process, which is contaminant removal using supercritical carbon dioxide as the environmentally benign solvent. In this process, the contaminant is dissolved in carbon dioxide, and the parts are recovered at the end of the cleaning process completely dry and ready for use. Typical contaminants of aerospace components include hydrocarbon greases, hydraulic fluids, silicone fluids and greases, fluorocarbon fluids and greases and fingerprint oil. Metallic aerospace components range from small nuts and bolts to much larger parts, such as butterfly valves 18 in diameter. A fluorinated grease, Krytox, is investigated as a model contaminant in these preliminary studies, and aluminum coupons are employed as a model aerospace component. Preliminary studies are presented in which the experimental parameters are optimized for removal of Krytox from aluminum coupons in a stirred-batch process. The experimental conditions investigated are temperature, pressure, exposure time and impeller speed. Temperatures of 308 - 423 K, pressures in the range of 8.3 - 41.4 MPa, exposure times between 5 - 60 min and impeller speeds of 0 - 1000 rpm were investigated. Preliminary results showed up to 86 cleaning efficiency with the

  11. City of Austin: Green habitat learning project. A green builder model home project

    SciTech Connect

    1995-12-01

    The purpose of the Year 14 UCETF project was to design and construct a residential structure that could serve as a demonstration facility, training site, and testing and monitoring laboratory for issues related to the implementation of sustainable building practices and materials. The Model Home Project builds on the previous and existing efforts, partially funded by the UCETF, of the City of Austin Green Builder Program to incorporate sustainable building practices into mainstream building activities. The Green Builder Program uses the term {open_quotes}green{close_quotes} as a synonym for sustainability. In the research and analysis that was completed for our earlier reports in Years 12 and 13, we characterized specific elements that we associate with sustainability and, thus, green building. In general, we refer to a modified life cycle assessment to ascertain if {open_quotes}green{close_quotes} building options reflect similar positive cyclical patterns found in nature (i.e. recyclability, recycled content, renewable resources, etc.). We additionally consider economic, human health and synergistic ecological impacts associated with our building choices and characterize the best choices as {open_quotes}green.{close_quotes} Our ultimate goal is to identify and use those {open_quotes}green{close_quotes} materials and processes that provide well for us now and do not compromise similar benefits for future generations. The original partnership developed for this project shifted during the year from a project stressing advanced (many prototypical) {open_quotes}green{close_quotes} building materials and techniques in a research and demonstration context, to off-the-shelf but underutilized {open_quotes}green{close_quotes} materials in the practical social context of using {open_quotes}green{close_quotes} technologies for low income housing. That project, discussed in this report, is called the Green Habitat Learning Project.

  12. View northwest showing Brooklyn Green and Town Hall from just ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    View northwest showing Brooklyn Green and Town Hall from just souty of the intersection of Routes 6 and 169 in Brooklyn, Connecticut - Brooklyn Green, North Green, South Green, & West Green, parts of Brown Road, Canterbury Road (Route 169), Hartford Road (Route 6), Hyde Road, Pomfret Road (Route 169), Prince Hill Road, Providence Road (Route 6), Wauregan Road (Routes 169 & 205), & Wolf Den Road, Brooklyn, Windham County, CT

  13. Green tea: nature's defense against malignancies.

    PubMed

    Butt, Masood Sadiq; Sultan, Muhammad Tauseef

    2009-05-01

    The current practice of introducing phytochemicals to support the immune system or fight against diseases is based on centuries old traditions. Nutritional support is a recent advancement in the domain of diet-based therapies; green tea and its constituents are one of the important components of these strategies to prevent and cure various malignancies. The anti-carcinogenic and anti-mutagenic activities of green tea were highlighted some years ago suggesting that it could reduce the prevalence of cancer and even provide protection. The pharmacological actions of green tea are mainly attributed to polyphenols that includes epigallocatechin-3-gallate (EGCG), epicatechin, epicatechin-3-gallate, epigallocatechin. Green tea and its components effectively mitigate cellular damage arising due to oxidative stress. Green tea is supposed to enhance humoral and cell-mediated immunity, decreasing the risk of certain cancers, and may have certain advantage in treating inflammatory disorders. Much of the cancer chemopreventive properties of green tea are mediated by EGCG that induces apoptosis and promotes cell growth arrest, by altering the expression of cell cycle regulatory proteins, activating killer caspases, and suppressing nuclear factor kappa-B activation. Besides, it regulates and promotes IL-23 dependent DNA repair and stimulates cytotoxic T cells activities in a tumor microenvironment. It also blocks carcinogenesis by modulating the signal transduction pathways involved in cell proliferation, transformation, inflammation and metastasis. The review is intended to highlight the chemistry of green tea, its antioxidant potential, its immunopotentiating properties and mode of action against various cancer cell lines that showed its potential as a chemopreventive agent against colon, skin, lung, prostate, and breast cancer.

  14. 19 CFR 351.522 - Green light and green box subsidies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 3 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Green light and green box subsidies. 351.522 Section 351.522 Customs Duties INTERNATIONAL TRADE ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE ANTIDUMPING AND... box subsidies. (a) Certain agricultural subsidies. The Secretary will treat as...

  15. 19 CFR 351.522 - Green light and green box subsidies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 3 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Green light and green box subsidies. 351.522 Section 351.522 Customs Duties INTERNATIONAL TRADE ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE ANTIDUMPING AND... box subsidies. (a) Certain agricultural subsidies. The Secretary will treat as...

  16. 19 CFR 351.522 - Green light and green box subsidies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 3 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Green light and green box subsidies. 351.522 Section 351.522 Customs Duties INTERNATIONAL TRADE ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE ANTIDUMPING AND... box subsidies. (a) Certain agricultural subsidies. The Secretary will treat as...

  17. The Green Quad as a Catalyst for Change: Spreading Green Values across the University and Community

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Whiteman, David

    2010-01-01

    The University of South Carolina's "Green Quad" aspires to be a living-learning community that integrates sustainability into all aspects of its operations and serves as a model and advocate for sustainability on campus and in the larger community. This article outlines the general approach and specific strategies pursued by the Green Quad staff…

  18. STRATEGIES FOR GREEN REACTION CHEMISTRIES: APPLICATION OF GREEN CATALYSIS AND PROCESS INTENSIFICATION

    EPA Science Inventory

    An intramural research effort within the Sustainable Technology Division (STD) is focused on the development of novel technologies for the synthesis of chemicals in a green and sustainable manner. To extend on the scope of green chemistry, this research also incorporates enginee...

  19. Using Green Star Metrics to Optimize the Greenness of Literature Protocols for Syntheses

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Duarte, Rita C. C.; Ribeiro, M. Gabriela T. C.; Machado, Adélio A. S. C.

    2015-01-01

    A procedure to improve the greenness of a synthesis, without performing laboratory work, using alternative protocols available in the literature is presented. The greenness evaluation involves the separate assessment of the different steps described in the available protocols--reaction, isolation, and purification--as well as the global process,…

  20. EVALUATING THE GREENNESS OF GREEN CHEMISTRY VIA TRADITIONAL AND THERMODYNAMIC LIFE CYCLE ASSESSMENT

    EPA Science Inventory

    Developments in Green Chemistry are expected to result in novel approaches that are more environmentally benign than traditional methods. Much of the research in green chemistry focuses on replacing toxic and hazardous substances such as solvents, catalysts and reaction media by...

  1. Harvard University: Green Loan Fund. Green Revolving Funds in Action: Case Study Series

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Foley, Robert

    2011-01-01

    The Green Loan Fund at Harvard University has been an active source of capital for energy efficiency and waste reduction projects for almost a decade. This case study examines the revolving fund's history from its inception as a pilot project in the 1990s to its regeneration in the early 2000s to its current operations today. The green revolving…

  2. Machinability of Green Powder Metallurgy Components: Part II. Sintered Properties of Components Machined in Green State

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Robert-Perron, Etienne; Blais, Carl; Pelletier, Sylvain; Thomas, Yannig

    2007-06-01

    The green machining process is virtually a must if the powder metallurgy (PM) industries are to solve the lower machining performances associated with PM components. This process is known for lowering the rate of tool wear. Recent improvements in binder/lubricant technologies have led to high-green-strength systems that enable green machining. Combined with the optimized cutting parameters determined in Part I of the study, the green machining of PM components seems to be a viable process for fabricating high performance parts on large scale and complete other shaping processes. This second part of our study presents a comparison between the machining behaviors and the sintered properties of components machined prior to or after sintering. The results show that the radial crush strength measured on rings machined in their green state is equal to that of parts machined after sintering.

  3. Effects of advanced oxidation on green sand properties via iron casting into green sand molds.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yujue; Cannon, Fred S; Voigt, Robert C; Komarneni, Sridhar; Furness, J C

    2006-05-01

    The effects of advanced oxidation (AO) processing on the properties of green sand were studied via pouring cast iron into green sand molds. Upon cooling, the green sand molds were autopsied at various distances from the metal-sand interface. Autopsy green sand samples collected from a mold that incorporated AO water were characterized and compared to controlled samples collected from a similar autopsied mold made with conventional tap water (TAP). It was found that the AO processing removed a coating of coal pyrolysis products from the clay surface that typically accumulated on the clay surface. As a result, the AO-conditioned green sand retained 10-15% more active clay as measured bythe standard ultrasonic methylene blue titration than did the TAP-conditioned green sand. The AO processing also nearly doubled the generation of activated carbon from the normalized amount of coal composition of the green sand during the casting process. The AO-enhanced activated carbon generation and the AO-incurred clay surface cleaning provided the AO-conditioned green sand with higher normalized pore volume, and thus higher normalized m-xylene adsorption capacity, i.e., relative to before-metal-pouring conditions. Furthermore, mathematical analysis indicated that the AO-conditioned green sand better retained its important properties after pouring than did the TAP-conditioned green sand. Effectively, this meant after metal pouring, the AO-conditioned sample offered about the same net properties as the TAP-conditioned sample, even though the AO-conditioned sample contained less clay and coal before metal pouring. These results conformed to the full-scale foundry empirical finding that when AO is used, foundries need less makeup clay and coal addition through each casting cycle, and they release less air emissions. PMID:16719117

  4. Greening of the Earth and its drivers

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Zhu, Zaichun; Piao, Shilong; Myneni, Ranga B.; Huang, Mengtian; Zeng, Zhenzhong; Canadell, Josep G.; Ciais, Philippe; Sitch, Stephen; Friedlingstein, Pierre; Arneth, Almut; et al

    2016-04-25

    Global environmental change is rapidly altering the dynamics of terrestrial vegetation, with consequences for the functioning of the Earth system and provision of ecosystem services1, 2. Yet how global vegetation is responding to the changing environment is not well established. Here we use three long-term satellite leaf area index (LAI) records and ten global ecosystem models to investigate four key drivers of LAI trends during 1982 2009. We show a persistent and widespread increase of growing season integrated LAI (greening) over 25% to 50% of the global vegetated area, whereas less than 4% of the globe shows decreasing LAI (browning).more » Factorial simulations with multiple global ecosystem models suggest that CO2 fertilization effects explain 70% of the observed greening trend, followed by nitrogen deposition (9%), climate change (8%) and land cover change (LCC) (4%). CO2 fertilization effects explain most of the greening trends in the tropics, whereas climate change resulted in greening of the high latitudes and the Tibetan Plateau. LCC contributed most to the regional greening observed in southeast China and the eastern United States. In conclusion, the regional effects of unexplained factors suggest that the next generation of ecosystem models will need to explore the impacts of forest demography, differences in regional management intensities for cropland and pastures, and other emerging productivity constraints such as phosphorus availability.« less

  5. Greening of the Earth and its drivers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhu, Zaichun; Piao, Shilong; Myneni, Ranga B.; Huang, Mengtian; Zeng, Zhenzhong; Canadell, Josep G.; Ciais, Philippe; Sitch, Stephen; Friedlingstein, Pierre; Arneth, Almut; Cao, Chunxiang; Cheng, Lei; Kato, Etsushi; Koven, Charles; Li, Yue; Lian, Xu; Liu, Yongwen; Liu, Ronggao; Mao, Jiafu; Pan, Yaozhong; Peng, Shushi; Peñuelas, Josep; Poulter, Benjamin; Pugh, Thomas A. M.; Stocker, Benjamin D.; Viovy, Nicolas; Wang, Xuhui; Wang, Yingping; Xiao, Zhiqiang; Yang, Hui; Zaehle, Sönke; Zeng, Ning

    2016-08-01

    Global environmental change is rapidly altering the dynamics of terrestrial vegetation, with consequences for the functioning of the Earth system and provision of ecosystem services. Yet how global vegetation is responding to the changing environment is not well established. Here we use three long-term satellite leaf area index (LAI) records and ten global ecosystem models to investigate four key drivers of LAI trends during 1982-2009. We show a persistent and widespread increase of growing season integrated LAI (greening) over 25% to 50% of the global vegetated area, whereas less than 4% of the globe shows decreasing LAI (browning). Factorial simulations with multiple global ecosystem models suggest that CO2 fertilization effects explain 70% of the observed greening trend, followed by nitrogen deposition (9%), climate change (8%) and land cover change (LCC) (4%). CO2 fertilization effects explain most of the greening trends in the tropics, whereas climate change resulted in greening of the high latitudes and the Tibetan Plateau. LCC contributed most to the regional greening observed in southeast China and the eastern United States. The regional effects of unexplained factors suggest that the next generation of ecosystem models will need to explore the impacts of forest demography, differences in regional management intensities for cropland and pastures, and other emerging productivity constraints such as phosphorus availability.

  6. Voluntary Green Power Market Forecast through 2015

    SciTech Connect

    Bird, L.; Holt, E.; Sumner, J.; Kreycik, C.

    2010-05-01

    Various factors influence the development of the voluntary 'green' power market--the market in which consumers purchase or produce power from non-polluting, renewable energy sources. These factors include climate policies, renewable portfolio standards (RPS), renewable energy prices, consumers' interest in purchasing green power, and utilities' interest in promoting existing programs and in offering new green options. This report presents estimates of voluntary market demand for green power through 2015 that were made using historical data and three scenarios: low-growth, high-growth, and negative-policy impacts. The resulting forecast projects the total voluntary demand for renewable energy in 2015 to range from 63 million MWh annually in the low case scenario to 157 million MWh annually in the high case scenario, representing an approximately 2.5-fold difference. The negative-policy impacts scenario reflects a market size of 24 million MWh. Several key uncertainties affect the results of this forecast, including uncertainties related to growth assumptions, the impacts that policy may have on the market, the price and competitiveness of renewable generation, and the level of interest that utilities have in offering and promoting green power products.

  7. Green Mono Propulsion Activities at MSFC

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Robinson, Joel W.

    2014-01-01

    In 2012, the National Aeronautics & Space Administration (NASA) Space Technology Mission Directorate (STMD) began the process of building an integrated technology roadmap, including both technology pull and technology push strategies. Technology Area 1 (TA-01) for Launch Propulsion Systems and TA-02 In-Space Propulsion are two of the fourteen TAs that provide recommendations for the overall technology investment strategy and prioritization of NASA's space technology activities. Identified within these documents are future needs of green propellant use. Green ionic liquid monopropellants and propulsion systems are beginning to be demonstrated in space flight environments. Starting in 2010 with the flight of Prisma, a 1-N thruster system began on-orbit demonstrations operating on ammonium dinitramide based propellant. The NASA Green Propellant Infusion Mission (GPIM) plans to demonstrate both 1-N, and 22-N hydroxyl ammonium nitrate (HAN)-based thrusters in a 2015 flight demonstration. In addition, engineers at MSFC have been evaluating green propellant alternatives for both thrusters and auxiliary power units (APUs). This paper summarizes the status of these development/demonstration activities and investigates the potential for evolution of green propellants from small spacecraft and satellites to larger spacecraft systems, human exploration, and launch system auxiliary propulsion applications.

  8. Scalar Green function of the Kerr spacetime

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Huan; Zhang, Fan; Zimmerman, Aaron; Chen, Yanbei

    2014-03-01

    In this paper we study the scalar Green function in the Kerr spacetime using Wentzel-Kramers-Brillouin (WKB) methods. The Green function can be expressed by Fourier-transforming to its frequency-domain counterpart, and with the help of complex analysis it can be divided into parts: 1) the "direct part," which propagates on the light cone and dominates at very early times; 2) the "quasinormal-mode part," which represents the waves traveling around the photon sphere and is important at early and intermediate times; and 3) the "tail part," which is due to scattering by the Coulomb-type potential and becomes more important at later times. We focus on the "quasinormal-mode part" of the Green function and derive an approximate analytical formula for it using WKB techniques. This approximate Green function diverges at points that are connected by null geodesics, and it recovers the fourfold singular structure of Green functions that are seen in Schwarzschild and other spacetimes. It also carries unique signatures of the Kerr spacetime such as frame dragging. Along the way, we also derive approximate quasinormal-mode wave functions and expressions for the black hole excitation factors in the Kerr spacetime. We expect this work to benefit the understanding of both wave propagation and the problem of self-force in the Kerr spacetime.

  9. Peroxisomal targeting signals in green algae.

    PubMed

    Shinozaki, Akiko; Sato, Nagisa; Hayashi, Yasuko

    2009-03-01

    Peroxisomal enzymatic proteins contain targeting signals (PTS) to enable their import into peroxisomes. These targeting signals have been identified as PTS1 and PTS2 in mammalian, yeast, and higher plant cells; however, no PTS2-like amino acid sequences have been observed in enzymes from the genome database of Cyanidiochyzon merolae (Bangiophyceae), a primitive red algae. In studies on the evolution of PTS, it is important to know when their sequences came to be the peroxisomal targeting signals for all living organisms. To this end, we identified a number of genes in the genome database of the green algae Chlamydomonas reinhardtii, which contains amino acid sequences similar to those found in plant PTS. In order to determine whether these sequences function as PTS in green algae, we expressed modified green fluorescent proteins (GFP) fused to these putative PTS peptides under the cauliflower mosaic virus 35S promoter. To confirm whether granular structures containing GFP-PTS fusion proteins accumulated in the peroxisomes of Closterium ehrenbergii, we observed these cells after the peroxisomes were stained with 3, 3'-diaminobenzidine. Our results confirm that the GFP-PTS fusion proteins indeed accumulated in the peroxisomes of these green algae. These findings suggest that the peroxisomal transport system for PTS1 and PTS2 is conserved in green algal cells and that our fusion proteins can be used to visualize peroxisomes in live cells.

  10. Green surgical practices for health care.

    PubMed

    Kwakye, Gifty; Brat, Gabriel A; Makary, Martin A

    2011-02-01

    The objective of this study was to identify leading practices to promote environmentally friendly and efficient efforts in the provision of surgical health care. Health care is the second leading contributor to waste in the United States. Despite widespread enthusiasm for "going green" in the US economy, little substantive information is available to the medical community, to our knowledge. We explore safe and efficient strategies for hospitals and providers to protect the environment while delivering high-quality care. We performed a systematic review of the literature using relevant PubMed search terms and surveyed a panel of hospital managers and chief executive officers of health care organizations pursuing green initiatives. Recommendations were itemized and reviewed by a 7-member panel to generate a consensus agreement. We identified 43 published articles and used interview data from the panel. The following 5 green recommendations for surgical practices were identified: operating room waste reduction and segregation, reprocessing of single-use medical devices, environmentally preferable purchasing, energy consumption management, and pharmaceutical waste management. The medical community has a large opportunity to implement green practices in surgical units. These practices can provide significant benefits to the health care community and to the environment. Additional research and advocacy are needed to further explore green practices in health care.

  11. A Review of the Health Benefits of Greenness

    PubMed Central

    James, Peter; Banay, Rachel F.; Hart, Jaime E.; Laden, Francine

    2015-01-01

    Researchers are increasingly exploring how neighborhood greenness, or vegetation, may affect health behaviors and outcomes. Greenness may influence health by promoting physical activity and social contact; decreasing stress; and mitigating air pollution, noise, and heat exposure. Greenness is generally measured using satellite-based vegetation indices or land-use databases linked to participants’ addresses. In this review, we found fairly strong evidence for a positive association between greenness and physical activity, and a less consistent negative association between greenness and body weight. Research suggests greenness is protective against adverse mental health outcomes, cardiovascular disease, and mortality, though most studies were limited by cross-sectional or ecological design. There is consistent evidence that greenness exposure during pregnancy is positively associated with birth weight, though findings for other birth outcomes are less conclusive. Future research should follow subjects prospectively, differentiate between greenness quantity and quality, and identify mediators and effect modifiers of greenness-health associations. PMID:26185745

  12. Photooxidative Death in Blue-Green Algae

    PubMed Central

    Abeliovich, A.; Shilo, M.

    1972-01-01

    When incubated in the light under 100% oxygen, wild-type blue-green algae (Anacystis nidulans, Synechococcus cedrorum) die out rapidly at temperatures of 4 to 15 C, and at 35 C (or at 26 C in the case of S. cedrorum) in the absence of CO2. Photosynthesis is impaired in these cells long before they die. Blocking of photosystem II at high temperatures in the presence of CO2 sensitizes the algae to photooxidative death. Photooxidative death and bleaching of photosynthetic pigments are separable phenomena. Photooxidative conditions were demonstrated in Israeli fish ponds using A. nidulans as the test organism during dense summer blooms, when dissolved CO2 is low, and in winter, when water temperatures generally drop below 15 C. This finding suggests that photooxidative death may be responsible for the sudden decomposition of blue-green blooms in summer, and may be a factor in the absence of blue-green blooms in winter. PMID:4626540

  13. Indocyanine green fluorescence-guided redo parathyroidectomy.

    PubMed

    Chakedis, Jeffery M; Maser, Christina; Brumund, Kevin T; Bouvet, Michael

    2015-09-02

    Re-operative neck surgery for hyperparathyroidism is a technically difficult operation that requires adjunctive studies to assist with finding the parathyroid tissues. Intraoperative tests help minimise exploration of the neck and decrease injuries to the surrounding structures. Indocyanine green is a near-infrared fluorescent dye that in pre-clinical models was found to be useful in locating the parathyroid glands of dogs. No study has yet reported its use as a tool for parathyroid localisation in humans. We investigated the use of indocyanine green to assist with localisation of a recurrent parathyroid adenoma using a near-infrared imaging system. After exposure of the neck tissues, the parathyroid gland fluoresced brightly and directed our dissection. Exploration of the neck was minimal, and allowed for fast localisation and excision of the adenoma. Overall, use of indocyanine green is a simple and safe technique of intraoperative parathyroid localisation that warrants further investigation.

  14. High Performance Green LEDs by Homoepitaxial

    SciTech Connect

    Wetzel, Christian; Schubert, E Fred

    2009-11-22

    This work's objective was the development of processes to double or triple the light output power from green and deep green (525 - 555 nm) AlGaInN light emitting diode (LED) dies within 3 years in reference to the Lumileds Luxeon II. The project paid particular effort to all aspects of the internal generation efficiency of light. LEDs in this spectral region show the highest potential for significant performance boosts and enable the realization of phosphor-free white LEDs comprised by red-green-blue LED modules. Such modules will perform at and outperform the efficacy target projections for white-light LED systems in the Department of Energy's accelerated roadmap of the SSL initiative.

  15. Green tea extract for periodontal health

    PubMed Central

    Venkateswara, Babu; Sirisha, K.; Chava, Vijay K.

    2011-01-01

    Tea, the commonly consumed beverage, is gaining increased attention in promoting overall health. In specific, green tea is considered a healthful beverage due to the biological activity of its polyphenols namely catechins. Among the polyphenols Epigallo catechin 3 gallate and Epicatechin 3 Gallate are the most predominant catechins. The antioxidant, antimicrobial, anticollagenase, antimutagenic, and c hemopreventive properties of these catechins proved to be helpful in the treatment of chronic diseases like periodontal disease. Studies have demonstrated that the type of processing mainly effects the concentration of catechins. Several epidemiological studies have proved that green tea also has some general health benefitting properties like antihypertensive, reduction of cardiovascular risk, antibacterial, antiviral, and antifungal activity. The present review concentrates on the effects of green tea in periodontal and general health. PMID:21772716

  16. Green corona and solar sector structure

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Antonucci, E.; Svalgaard, L.

    1974-01-01

    Analysis of the green-line corona for the interval 1947-1970 suggests the existence of large-scale organization of the emission. The green-line emission at high northern latitudes (approximately 40 to 60 deg) is correlated with the emission at high southern latitudes 6, 15, and 24 days later, while the low-latitude green corona seems to be correlated on both sides of the equator with no time lag. These coronal features are recurrent with a 27-day period at all latitudes between plus or minus 60 deg, and these large-scale structures are believed to be associated with the solar magnetic sector structure. The high correlation between northern and southern high-latitude emission at 15 days time lag is explained as a signature of a two-sector structure, while four sectors are associated with the 6- and 24-day peaks.

  17. Green technologies--assumption of economic recovery.

    PubMed

    Siljeg, Mario; Zorić, Sandra Tucak; Vucinić, Aleksandra Anić; Kalambura, Sanja; Cemerin, Vedrana; Jovicić, Nives

    2014-03-01

    Green technologies include implementation of technological projects in the field of environmental protection through all associated components, such as: waters, soil, air or biodiversity. Hence, such projects potentially become a driving force of new economic momentum in the conditions of post-crisis recovery. In addition, the support of this segment by the institutions of the European Union, either in terms of organization through the establishment of rules and systems for monitoring and control of environmental protection measures, and most importantly in terms of finances, by supporting the development of infrastructure for environmental protection, is today an indisputable category. The aim of the research is to show the potential of green technologies in the initiation of economic activities based on content analysis of the collected literature, as well as to determine the correlation between green technologies and environmental protection and the measures for the reduction of the impact of energy sector on the greenhouse gas emissions.

  18. Chloroplast Phylogenomic Inference of Green Algae Relationships

    PubMed Central

    Sun, Linhua; Fang, Ling; Zhang, Zhenhua; Chang, Xin; Penny, David; Zhong, Bojian

    2016-01-01

    The green algal phylum Chlorophyta has six diverse classes, but the phylogenetic relationship of the classes within Chlorophyta remains uncertain. In order to better understand the ancient Chlorophyta evolution, we have applied a site pattern sorting method to study compositional heterogeneity and the model fit in the green algal chloroplast genomic data. We show that the fastest-evolving sites are significantly correlated with among-site compositional heterogeneity, and these sites have a much poorer fit to the evolutionary model. Our phylogenomic analyses suggest that the class Chlorophyceae is a monophyletic group, and the classes Ulvophyceae, Trebouxiophyceae and Prasinophyceae are non-monophyletic groups. Our proposed phylogenetic tree of Chlorophyta will offer new insights to investigate ancient green algae evolution, and our analytical framework will provide a useful approach for evaluating and mitigating the potential errors of phylogenomic inferences. PMID:26846729

  19. Hydroliquefaction of green wastes to produce fuels.

    PubMed

    Beauchet, R; Pinard, L; Kpogbemabou, D; Laduranty, J; Lemee, L; Lemberton, J L; Bataille, F; Magnoux, P; Ambles, A; Barbier, J

    2011-05-01

    The direct liquefaction of a biomass composed of a mixture of wastes (straw, wood and grass) was studied using Nickel Raney as catalyst and tetralin as a solvent. Tetralin allows to solubilize green waste from 330°C at relatively low hydrogen pressure, and avoids the recondensation of the intermediate products. The green waste deoxygenation results mainly from a decarboxylation reaction. The addition of Raney Ni in the feed, increases the gas yield due to methane formation, without diminishing the yield in solvolysis oil. The catalyst hydrogenolyses the small molecules present in the light fraction. Moreover, it improves the quality of the oil by increasing the hydrogen transfer between the solvent and the solvolysis oil. As a consequence, the oxygen content decreases and the yield of oil soluble in hexane strongly increases. The catalyst allows to obtain straight long chain alkanes (C(13)-C(26)), which result from the hydrogenation of the extractives compounds of the green waste. PMID:21377355

  20. Indocyanine green fluorescence-guided redo parathyroidectomy.

    PubMed

    Chakedis, Jeffery M; Maser, Christina; Brumund, Kevin T; Bouvet, Michael

    2015-01-01

    Re-operative neck surgery for hyperparathyroidism is a technically difficult operation that requires adjunctive studies to assist with finding the parathyroid tissues. Intraoperative tests help minimise exploration of the neck and decrease injuries to the surrounding structures. Indocyanine green is a near-infrared fluorescent dye that in pre-clinical models was found to be useful in locating the parathyroid glands of dogs. No study has yet reported its use as a tool for parathyroid localisation in humans. We investigated the use of indocyanine green to assist with localisation of a recurrent parathyroid adenoma using a near-infrared imaging system. After exposure of the neck tissues, the parathyroid gland fluoresced brightly and directed our dissection. Exploration of the neck was minimal, and allowed for fast localisation and excision of the adenoma. Overall, use of indocyanine green is a simple and safe technique of intraoperative parathyroid localisation that warrants further investigation. PMID:26336189

  1. Green chemistry oriented organic synthesis in water.

    PubMed

    Simon, Marc-Olivier; Li, Chao-Jun

    2012-02-21

    The use of water as solvent features many benefits such as improving reactivities and selectivities, simplifying the workup procedures, enabling the recycling of the catalyst and allowing mild reaction conditions and protecting-group free synthesis in addition to being benign itself. In addition, exploring organic chemistry in water can lead to uncommon reactivities and selectivities complementing the organic chemists' synthetic toolbox in organic solvents. Studying chemistry in water also allows insight to be gained into Nature's way of chemical synthesis. However, using water as solvent is not always green. This tutorial review briefly discusses organic synthesis in water with a Green Chemistry perspective. PMID:22048162

  2. Green tea extract for external anogenital warts.

    PubMed

    2015-10-01

    Catephen (Kora Corporation Ltd) is a herbal medicinal product consisting predominantly of catechins (sinecatechins) extracted from Camellia sinensis (L.) O. Kuntze folium (green tea leaf) formulated as a topical preparation for the treatment of external genital and perianal warts (condylomata acuminata).(1) Marketing authorisation for an ointment containing 0.1g of green tea extract per gram (10%) was granted by the Medicines and Healthcare products Regulatory Agency (MHRA) under the mutual recognition procedure in February 2015.(2) Here, we consider the evidence for Catephen ointment in the management of external genital and perianal warts and its place within current management strategies. PMID:26471269

  3. Satellite Communications with NRAO Green Bank Antennas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ford, John M.; Ford, H. Alyson; Watts, Galen

    2014-11-01

    The National Radio Astronomy Observatory's Green Bank facility has several medium and large antennas that are available for satellite communications. The 100 meter Robert C. Byrd Green Bank Telescope (GBT), the largest and most sensitive antenna on site, is capable of receiving signals at frequencies as high as 86 GHz. In addition to the GBT are the fully operational 43 meter, 20 meter, and 13.7 meter antennas, and three mothballed 26 meter antennas. A transmitter could be fitted to any of these antennas for spacecraft uplinks. We discuss the characteristics of these antennas and possible operational models for future planetary science mission support.

  4. Green space propulsion: Opportunities and prospects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gohardani, Amir S.; Stanojev, Johann; Demairé, Alain; Anflo, Kjell; Persson, Mathias; Wingborg, Niklas; Nilsson, Christer

    2014-11-01

    Currently, toxic and carcinogenic hydrazine propellants are commonly used in spacecraft propulsion. These propellants impose distinctive environmental challenges and consequential hazardous conditions. With an increasing level of future space activities and applications, the significance of greener space propulsion becomes even more pronounced. In this article, a selected number of promising green space propellants are reviewed and investigated for various space missions. In-depth system studies in relation to the aforementioned propulsion architectures further unveil possible approaches for advanced green propulsion systems of the future.

  5. Structure an reactivity of green rust

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Christiansen, B. C.; Stipp, S. L. S.

    2003-04-01

    Contaminants mobility in the environment depends on particle surfaces reactivity they come into contact with. Fe--oxides, which are ubiquitous in soils, sediments and linings of fractures in rocks, are known as active immobilisers for many components. Water moving from reducing environments bear substantial quantities of Fe(II) and when it oxidises, a suite of very fine--grained minerals can form, including ferrihydrite, lepidocrocite, goethite and members of the Green Rust family. Green Rust, built of brucite-type layers of Fe(II)Fe(III)--hydroxide, has anions such as sulphate, chloride, carbonate and water filling the interlayers. The type of anion defines the crystal structure. Because Green Rust is thought to be an important intermediate in the oxidative transformation of Fe(II) phases, a better understanding of its structure and its transformation behaviour will lead to improved understanding of reactivity and uptake of contaminants, improving predictive models for risk assessment. Green Rust is difficult to study because it oxidises within minutes of exposure to air. We used an atomic force microscope (AFM) mounted inside a glove box to observe the formation and transformation of Green Rust--sulphate and we have developed a method for obtaining X--ray diffraction (XRD) patterns from samples in an inert atmosphere. This avoids the use of glycerol and other treatments that may alter the crystal structure, making it possible to collect clearer patterns while avoiding any possibility of alteration. Some previously undefined XRD peaks from untreated Green Rust-sulphate suggest internal ordering of sulphate and water. AFM evidence indicates that it can form from topotactic transformation of Fe(OH)_2 as the starting phase [1]. It is known that further oxidation of Green Rust leads to formation of Fe(III)--phases but current experiments are investigating the influence of carbon dioxide on the conversion of Green Rust--sulphate. [1] Bernal, J.D., Dasgupta, D

  6. A teenage girl with green hair.

    PubMed

    Schwartz, Richard H; Yasin, Shima K; Yoo, Jinny K

    2014-01-01

    An adolescent girl with blond hair, her family, and classmates noted that her hair was progressively turning green. Initially the green color was thought to be secondary to chlorine from the local swimming pool. This was not the real cause. The chlorotrichosis was actually caused by an excessive amount of dissolved copper from copper pipes in the home plumbing system. Copper had leached from the plumbing and accumulated in the pipes because the rented house had been vacant for many months. Risk factors for chlorotrichosis include light-colored hair, copper plumbing, long periods when the water was not thoroughly flushed out of the copper pipes, and frequent shampooing.

  7. Green chemistry oriented organic synthesis in water.

    PubMed

    Simon, Marc-Olivier; Li, Chao-Jun

    2012-02-21

    The use of water as solvent features many benefits such as improving reactivities and selectivities, simplifying the workup procedures, enabling the recycling of the catalyst and allowing mild reaction conditions and protecting-group free synthesis in addition to being benign itself. In addition, exploring organic chemistry in water can lead to uncommon reactivities and selectivities complementing the organic chemists' synthetic toolbox in organic solvents. Studying chemistry in water also allows insight to be gained into Nature's way of chemical synthesis. However, using water as solvent is not always green. This tutorial review briefly discusses organic synthesis in water with a Green Chemistry perspective.

  8. Green tea extract for external anogenital warts.

    PubMed

    2015-10-01

    Catephen (Kora Corporation Ltd) is a herbal medicinal product consisting predominantly of catechins (sinecatechins) extracted from Camellia sinensis (L.) O. Kuntze folium (green tea leaf) formulated as a topical preparation for the treatment of external genital and perianal warts (condylomata acuminata).(1) Marketing authorisation for an ointment containing 0.1g of green tea extract per gram (10%) was granted by the Medicines and Healthcare products Regulatory Agency (MHRA) under the mutual recognition procedure in February 2015.(2) Here, we consider the evidence for Catephen ointment in the management of external genital and perianal warts and its place within current management strategies.

  9. Evaluation of green roof as green technology for urban stormwater quantity and quality controls

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kok, K. H.; Sidek, L. M.; Abidin, M. R. Z.; Basri, H.; Muda, Z. C.; Beddu, S.

    2013-06-01

    Promoting green design, construction, reconstruction and operation of buildings has never been more critical than now due to the ever increasing greenhouse gas emissions and rapid urbanizations that are fuelling climate change more quickly. Driven by environmental needs, Green Building Index (GBI) was founded in Malaysia to drive initiative to lead the property industry towards becoming more environment-friendly. Green roof system is one of the assessment criteria of this rating system which is under category of sustainable site planning and management. An extensive green roof was constructed in Humid Tropics Center (HTC) Kuala Lumpur as one of the components for Stormwater Management Ecohydrology (SME) in order to obtain scientific data of the system. This paper evaluates the performance of extensive green roof at Humid Tropics Center with respect to urban heat island mitigation and stormwater quantity and quality controls. Findings indicate that there was a reduction of around 1.5°C for indoor temperature of the building after installation of green roof. Simulations showed that the peak discharge was reduced up to 24% relative to impervious brown roof. The results show an increment of pH and high concentration of phosphate for the runoff generated from the green roof and the runoff water quality ranged between class I and II under INWQS.

  10. pGreen-S: a clone vector bearing absence of enhanced green fluorescent protein for screening recombinants.

    PubMed

    Tang, Jinbao; Liang, Shujuan; Zhang, Jinbao; Gao, Zhiqin; Zhang, Suhua

    2009-05-01

    The bacterial cloning vector, pGreen-S, was constructed by inserting the enhanced green fluorescent protein (EGFP) gene at the XbaI restriction site of pUC18 plasmid. When expressed in Escherichia coli DH5alpha produced colonies that were an absinthe green color under daylight and strongly fluorescent green under longwave ultraviolet light. The pGreen-S vector was used to select for directional insert based on the loss of green fluorescence in recombinant colonies that was caused by the absence of EGFP. The EGFP reporter system differs from the conventional complementation of lacZ, making screening recombinants simpler, less expensive, and more effective.

  11. Ultrasound and green chemistry--Further comments.

    PubMed

    Cintas, Pedro

    2016-01-01

    In the light of recent discussions regarding the association of sonochemistry and sustainable methods, as well as the controversial misuse and abuse of the "green" concept through the scientific literature, this manuscript provides further thoughts hoping to be of benefit to the broad readership of this journal and practitioners of sustainable chemistry in general. PMID:26384906

  12. Green Infrastructure, Ecosystem Services, and Human Health.

    PubMed

    Coutts, Christopher; Hahn, Micah

    2015-08-18

    Contemporary ecological models of health prominently feature the natural environment as fundamental to the ecosystem services that support human life, health, and well-being. The natural environment encompasses and permeates all other spheres of influence on health. Reviews of the natural environment and health literature have tended, at times intentionally, to focus on a limited subset of ecosystem services as well as health benefits stemming from the presence, and access and exposure to, green infrastructure. The sweeping influence of green infrastructure on the myriad ecosystem services essential to health has therefore often been underrepresented. This survey of the literature aims to provide a more comprehensive picture-in the form of a primer-of the many simultaneously acting health co-benefits of green infrastructure. It is hoped that a more accurately exhaustive list of benefits will not only instigate further research into the health co-benefits of green infrastructure but also promote consilience in the many fields, including public health, that must be involved in the landscape conservation necessary to protect and improve health and well-being.

  13. Green Schools as High Performance Learning Facilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gordon, Douglas E.

    2010-01-01

    In practice, a green school is the physical result of a consensus process of planning, design, and construction that takes into account a building's performance over its entire 50- to 60-year life cycle. The main focus of the process is to reinforce optimal learning, a goal very much in keeping with the parallel goals of resource efficiency and…

  14. New Tools: How Green Is Your School?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lamping, Jerry

    2012-01-01

    Indoor environmental quality (IEQ) may not be the only aspect of a green school, but it is one of the most significant. Advanced environmental instrumentation technology now provides school business officials with tools to measure the factors that contribute to their schools' IEQ. These new devices make it possible to identify the toxic or…

  15. Going Green: Eco-Friendly Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Whelan, Debra Lau

    2007-01-01

    A growing number of studies show that a school's physical condition--especially its lighting and indoor air quality--directly affect student performance. A 2005 Turner Construction survey of green buildings found that 70 percent of districts with sustainable schools reported improved student performance. It also makes perfect sense that…

  16. Identification of green rust in groundwater.

    PubMed

    Christiansen, B C; Balic-Zunic, T; Dideriksen, K; Stipp, S L S

    2009-05-15

    Green rust, a family of Fe(II), Fe(III) layered double hydroxides, is believed to be present in environments close to the Fe(II)/ Fe(III) transition zone. Attempts to identify members of this family in nature have proven difficult because the material is oxidized after only a few minutes exposure to air. In this paper, we present a sampling method for capturing green rust so it is not oxidized. We then we used the method to identify the compound in a groundwater sample taken below the water table from fractures in granite. X-ray diffraction patterns were weak, but clearly identical to those of synthetic GR(CO3), the green rustfamily memberwhere carbonate and water occupy the interlayer between the iron-hydroxide layers. The method was then tested on samples taken from an artesian well and a deep underground experimental station, both within the Fe(II)/ Fe(III) redox zone. In both cases, GR(CO3), could be identified. Currently, transport models for predicting the behavior of contaminants in groundwater do not include parameters for green rust This work demonstrates they should.

  17. Profiling USGA putting greens using GPR

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    All USGA-specification putting greens require a subsurface drainage system. A typical subsurface installation is a herringbone pattern of buried 100-mm dia. PVC drainage pipes, designed such that the central main line is placed along the line of maximum slope. Laterals are spaced no more than 5 m, r...

  18. Green Infrastructure, Ecosystem Services, and Human Health.

    PubMed

    Coutts, Christopher; Hahn, Micah

    2015-08-01

    Contemporary ecological models of health prominently feature the natural environment as fundamental to the ecosystem services that support human life, health, and well-being. The natural environment encompasses and permeates all other spheres of influence on health. Reviews of the natural environment and health literature have tended, at times intentionally, to focus on a limited subset of ecosystem services as well as health benefits stemming from the presence, and access and exposure to, green infrastructure. The sweeping influence of green infrastructure on the myriad ecosystem services essential to health has therefore often been underrepresented. This survey of the literature aims to provide a more comprehensive picture-in the form of a primer-of the many simultaneously acting health co-benefits of green infrastructure. It is hoped that a more accurately exhaustive list of benefits will not only instigate further research into the health co-benefits of green infrastructure but also promote consilience in the many fields, including public health, that must be involved in the landscape conservation necessary to protect and improve health and well-being. PMID:26295249

  19. Going green: Metro Health starts health commune.

    PubMed

    2007-01-01

    Taking on a total rebranding and environmentally friendly overhaul, Metro Health looks forward as it moves into a new facility. Incorporating green building details, Metro is managing environmental impact to improve its future in its Grand Rapids, MI, community. PMID:18161444

  20. Green light signaling and adaptive response

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Tingting; Folta, Kevin M.

    2012-01-01

    To a plant, the sun’s light is not exclusively energy for photosynthesis, it also provides a package of data about time and prevailing conditions. The plant’s surroundings may dampen or filter solar energies, altering spectral profiles of their light environment. Plants use this information to adjust form and physiology, tailoring gene expression to best match ambient conditions. Extensive literature exists on how blue, red and far-red light contribute to plant adaptive responses. A growing body of work identifies discrete effects of green light (500–565 nm) that also shape plant biology. Green light responses are known to be either mediated through, or independent of, the cryptochrome blue light receptors. Responses to green light share a general tendency to oppose blue- or red-light-induced responses, including stem growth rate inhibition, anthocyanin accumulation or chloroplast gene expression. Recent evidence demonstrates a role for green light in sensing a shaded environment, independent from far-red shade responses. PMID:22301972

  1. Efficiency of staining hair with indocyanine green

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kulyabina, Tatyana V.; Kochubey, Vyacheslav I.

    2005-06-01

    The efficiency of staining hair with indocyanine green (ICG) solution depending on type of hair, natural color, staining time and other parameters was investigated. Bonding ICG with hair material occurs due to interaction between ICG molecules and keratinocyte albumin. The penetration of ICG dye into hair meets with difficulties owing to surface protective layer.

  2. State Governments: Promoting Green Cleaning in Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Balek, Bill

    2012-01-01

    Environmentally preferable products, sustainability, "green," reducing environmental footprint--have all become part of the everyday lexicon as schools, businesses, households, and the public sector have increasingly focused on strategies and tactics designed to reduce their impact on the environment and human health. State governments have been…

  3. Distribution of green infrastructure along walkable roads

    EPA Science Inventory

    Low-income and minority neighborhoods frequently lack healthful resources to which wealthier communities have access. Though important, the addition of facilities such as recreation centers can be costly and take time to implement. Urban green infrastructure, such as street trees...

  4. Green Engineering Principle #4 Maximize Efficiency

    EPA Science Inventory

    As one reads the twelve principles of Green Engineering, there is one message that stands out and becomes ever increasingly more evident with each principle. Moreover, that message is simplicity! It is simplicity that will allow us, as a society, to become more sustainable.Althou...

  5. The sources of Schwinger's Green's functions

    PubMed Central

    Schweber, Silvan S.

    2005-01-01

    Julian Schwinger's development of his Green's functions methods in quantum field theory is placed in historical context. The relation of Schwinger's quantum action principle to Richard Feynman's path-integral formulation of quantum mechanics is reviewed. The nonperturbative character of Schwinger's approach is stressed as well as the ease with which it can be extended to finite temperature situations. PMID:15930139

  6. GREEN INFRASTRUCTURE RESEARCH PROGRAM: Rain Gardens

    EPA Science Inventory

    the National Risk Management Research Laboratory (NRMRL) rain garden evaluation is part of a larger collection of long-term research that evaluates a variety of stormwater management practices. The U.S. EPA recognizes the potential of rain gardens as a green infrastructure manag...

  7. Trends in Utility Green Pricing Programs (2004)

    SciTech Connect

    Bird, L.; Brown, E.

    2005-10-01

    In the early 1990s, only a handful of utilities offered their customers a choice of purchasing electricity generated from renewable energy sources. Today, nearly 600 utilities in regulated electricity markets--or almost 20% of all utilities nationally--provide their customers a "green power" option. Because some utilities offer programs in conjunction with cooperative associations or other publicly owned power entities, the number of distinct programs totals about 125. Through these programs, more than 40 million customers spanning 34 states have the ability to purchase renewable energy to meet some portion or all of their electricity needs--or make contributions to support the development of renewable energy resources. Typically, customers pay a premium above standard electricity rates for this service. This report presents year-end 2004 data on utility green pricing programs, and examines trends in consumer response and program implementation over time. The data in this report, which were obtained via a questionnaire distributed to utility green pricing program managers, can be used by utilities as benchmarks by which to gauge the success of their green power programs.

  8. GREEN CHEMISTRY AND POLLUTION PREVENTION TOOLS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Green Chemistry and Design for the Environment bring benefits as they can be a relatively low societal cost way to avoid pollution before it occurs. EPA supports these fields from the early stages of research and knowledge development through to assessment, economic analysis, edu...

  9. Green Chemistry by Nano-Catalysis

    EPA Science Inventory

    The approach of using MW technique with nano-catalysis and benign aqueous reaction medium can offer an extraordinary synergistic effect with greater potential than these three individual components in isolation. To illustrate the ‘‘proof-of-concept’’ of this “Green and Sustainabl...

  10. Are Red Apples Sweeter Than Green Apples?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fraser, Chris

    1999-01-01

    Describes how a classroom observation of apples led to the development of a science project. Discusses the correlation between the greenness and the acidity of apples. Finds that the greener the apple, the lower its pH, and thus the more acidic and less sweet it tastes. (Author/CCM)

  11. Going Green: Environmentally Friendly Schools Pay Off

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    LaFee, Scott

    2008-01-01

    The notion of campuses that are energy-efficient and ecologically friendly, and that provide a healthy, productive, comfortable environment for students and staff has been around for some time. But for many educators, green schools have remained more good intention than proven approach, a huge risk that few school leaders could--or would--take.…

  12. Green Era Should Herald Smarter Buildings

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carlson, Scott

    2008-01-01

    In the past two decades, the most elite and ambitious colleges have commissioned buildings by "starchitects" for notoriety. However, people live in a green era now and there is a need for a new kind of star architecture to go with it, one in which the building is a star for its efficiency as well as its elegance. The new star architecture would…

  13. The Environmental Crisis, Greens and Community Development.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cannan, Crescy

    2000-01-01

    Thought and practice from the green movement should be used to widen understanding of the environment and development of community projects for a sustainable economy and convivial communities. In turn, community development's expertise in democratic processes could inform environmental action. (SK)

  14. Trends in Utility Green Pricing Programs (2005)

    SciTech Connect

    Bird, Lori; Brown, Elizabeth

    2006-10-01

    In the early 1990s, only a handful of utilities offered their customers a choice of purchasing electricity generated from renewable energy sources. Today, more than 600 utilities—or about 20% of all utilities nationally—provide their customers a “green power” option. Because some utilities offer programs in conjunction with cooperative associations or other publicly owned power entities, the number of distinct programs totals more than 130. Through these programs, more than 50 million customers have the ability to purchase renewable energy to meet some portion or all of their electricity needs—or make contributions to support the development of renewable energy resources. Typically, customers pay a premium above standard electricity rates for this service. This report presents year-end 2005 data on utility green pricing programs, and examines trends in consumer response and program implementation over time. The data in this report, which were obtained via a questionnaire distributed to utility green pricing program managers, can be used by utilities to benchmark the success of their green power programs.

  15. Jack C. Greene 1921-2001

    SciTech Connect

    Siebentritt, Jr., Carl R.; Cloutier, Roger J.; French, Jr., Clayton S.; Stansbury, Paul S. ); Strom, Daniel J. )

    2001-12-01

    Jack C. Greene was born on June 3rd, 1921 in Roundup, Montana and died on September 4, 2001 in his home in Oxnard, California. He was a charter member and Fellow of the Health Physics Society and spent his career in civil defense and radiological preparedness. He served as an advisor to the National Council on Radiation Protection and Measurements (NCRP).

  16. The Greening of a Business School.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Becker, Thomas

    1997-01-01

    Describes the University of South Alabama's program of envirotech student internships in Latin America. Encourages business schools to reshape the anti-environmental attitudes prevalent in present and future managers by demonstrating how "green" can be profitable, especially in the international arena, through outcome-oriented instruction. (AIM)

  17. "Green" composites and nanocomposites from soybean oil

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In this study, we report preparation of epoxidized soybean oil (ESO) based "green" composites and nanocomposites. The high strength and stiffness composites and nanocomposites are formed through flax fiber and organoclay reinforcement. The epoxy resin, 1,1,1-tris(p-hydroxyphenyl)ethane triglycidyl...

  18. Living Green: Examining Sustainable Dorms and Identities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Watson, Lesley; Johnson, Cathryn; Hegtvedt, Karen A.; Parris, Christie L.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of living in "green" dorms on students' environmentally responsible behaviors (ERBs), in concert with other factors, including individual identity and social context in the form of behavior modeling by peers. Design/methodology/approach: The sample of 243 consists of students…

  19. Lake Michigan Green Bay: Nearshore Variability

    EPA Science Inventory

    We conducted a high-resolution survey in the nearshore of Lake Michigan’s Green Bay at a 15 meter contour using towed electronic instrumentation. The 365 km survey was conducted Aug 18-21, 2010. We also conducted four cross-contour tows. Along the survey tracks we sampled fixe...

  20. There's a Green Glob in Your Classroom.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dugdale, Sharon

    1983-01-01

    Discusses computer games (called intrinsic models) focusing on mathematics rather than on unrelated motivations (flashing lights or sounds). Games include "Green Globs," (equations/linear functions), "Darts"/"Torpedo" (fractions), "Escape" (graphing), and "Make-a-Monster" (equivalent fractions and common denominators). Includes source for each…

  1. Identification of green rust in groundwater.

    PubMed

    Christiansen, B C; Balic-Zunic, T; Dideriksen, K; Stipp, S L S

    2009-05-15

    Green rust, a family of Fe(II), Fe(III) layered double hydroxides, is believed to be present in environments close to the Fe(II)/ Fe(III) transition zone. Attempts to identify members of this family in nature have proven difficult because the material is oxidized after only a few minutes exposure to air. In this paper, we present a sampling method for capturing green rust so it is not oxidized. We then we used the method to identify the compound in a groundwater sample taken below the water table from fractures in granite. X-ray diffraction patterns were weak, but clearly identical to those of synthetic GR(CO3), the green rustfamily memberwhere carbonate and water occupy the interlayer between the iron-hydroxide layers. The method was then tested on samples taken from an artesian well and a deep underground experimental station, both within the Fe(II)/ Fe(III) redox zone. In both cases, GR(CO3), could be identified. Currently, transport models for predicting the behavior of contaminants in groundwater do not include parameters for green rust This work demonstrates they should. PMID:19544836

  2. Green Infrastructure, Ecosystem Services, and Human Health

    PubMed Central

    Coutts, Christopher; Hahn, Micah

    2015-01-01

    Contemporary ecological models of health prominently feature the natural environment as fundamental to the ecosystem services that support human life, health, and well-being. The natural environment encompasses and permeates all other spheres of influence on health. Reviews of the natural environment and health literature have tended, at times intentionally, to focus on a limited subset of ecosystem services as well as health benefits stemming from the presence, and access and exposure to, green infrastructure. The sweeping influence of green infrastructure on the myriad ecosystem services essential to health has therefore often been underrepresented. This survey of the literature aims to provide a more comprehensive picture—in the form of a primer—of the many simultaneously acting health co-benefits of green infrastructure. It is hoped that a more accurately exhaustive list of benefits will not only instigate further research into the health co-benefits of green infrastructure but also promote consilience in the many fields, including public health, that must be involved in the landscape conservation necessary to protect and improve health and well-being. PMID:26295249

  3. Green and High Performance Factory Crafted Housing

    SciTech Connect

    Thomas-Rees, Stephanie; Chasar, David; Chandra, Subrato; Stroer, Dennis

    2009-01-27

    This paper summarizes the design features and the "green" and energy-efficient certification processes conducted for the 2008 International Builders' Show homes, one of which received the very first E-Scale produced by BAIHP for the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Builders Challenge Program.

  4. The Green Certificate Apprenticeship Training Process.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Taylor, Douglas; Deane, Arthur

    1984-01-01

    The Green Certificate Farm Training Program is on-the-job training with instruction delivered on a farm site, requiring the employer-farmer to serve as trainer. Trainees learn operational as well as management and entrepreneurial skills upon completion of a test and are certified at the levels of farm worker, foreman, or farm business manager. (SK)

  5. Ultrasound and green chemistry--Further comments.

    PubMed

    Cintas, Pedro

    2016-01-01

    In the light of recent discussions regarding the association of sonochemistry and sustainable methods, as well as the controversial misuse and abuse of the "green" concept through the scientific literature, this manuscript provides further thoughts hoping to be of benefit to the broad readership of this journal and practitioners of sustainable chemistry in general.

  6. Economic Woes May Hurt Colleges' Green Efforts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carlson, Scott

    2008-01-01

    Recent events on Wall Street raise a complicated question: Will the financial crisis help or hurt colleges' sustainability efforts? Both are possible. In this article, the author discusses how the Wall Street meltdown may hurt colleges' green initiatives. However, advocates of sustainability see an opportunity to change the conversation. A…

  7. Greening the Toronto District School Board.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Root, Emily

    2002-01-01

    The Toronto District School Board (Ontario) established a department of environmental education to lighten the school board's impact on the environment and to increase ecological literacy among students. School programs have been developed in the areas of eco-literacy, energy conservation, waste management, and school yard greening. One program…

  8. Successful Strategies for Planning a Green Building.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Browning, William D.

    2003-01-01

    Presents several strategies for successful green building on campus: develop a set of clear environmental performance goals (buildings as pedagogical tools, climate-neutral operations, maximized human performance), use Leadership in Energy and Environmental Design (LEED) as a gauge of performance, and use the project to reform the campus building…

  9. Green Bank (National Radio Astronomical Observatory)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Murdin, P.

    2000-11-01

    Located in Green Bank, Pocahontas County, West Virginia. The site of the world's largest fully steerable radio telescope, which was under construction during 1999 and 2000. The National Radio Astronomy Observatory (NRAO) is a facility of the US National Science Foundation, and is operated under a cooperative agreement by Associated Universities, Inc. (AUI)....

  10. THE IMPACT OF EPA'S GREEN POWER PURCHASES

    EPA Science Inventory

    All federal agencies, including EPA, are required to reduce life-cycle greenhouse gas emissions attributed to facility energy use by 30% below 1990 levels by 2010. A key approach to reducing facility greenhouse gas emissions, employed by EPA, involves the purchase of "green power...

  11. Putting Green to Work on Your Campus

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ellis, Martha

    2008-01-01

    Conferences, publications, media, and state mandates provide a plethora of information about community colleges "going green." Indeed, many community college presidents have signed the American College & University Presidents Climate Commitment, a pledge to reduce the carbon footprints of their institutions. But the task is not easy. Each…

  12. Galileo, Gauss, and the Green Monster

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kalman, Dan; Teague, Daniel J.

    2013-01-01

    Galileo dropped cannonballs from the leaning tower of Pisa to demonstrate something about falling bodies. Gauss was a giant of mathematics and physics who made unparalleled contributions to both fields. More contemporary (and not a person), the Green Monster is the left-field wall at the home of the Boston Red Sox, Fenway Park. Measuring 37 feet…

  13. Origin of strigolactones in the green lineage.

    PubMed

    Delaux, Pierre-Marc; Xie, Xiaonan; Timme, Ruth E; Puech-Pages, Virginie; Dunand, Christophe; Lecompte, Emilie; Delwiche, Charles F; Yoneyama, Koichi; Bécard, Guillaume; Séjalon-Delmas, Nathalie

    2012-09-01

    The aims of this study were to investigate the appearance of strigolactones in the green lineage and to determine the primitive function of these molecules. We measured the strigolactone content of several isolated liverworts, mosses, charophyte and chlorophyte green algae using a sensitive biological assay and LC-MS/MS analyses. In parallel, sequence comparison of strigolactone-related genes and phylogenetic analyses were performed using available genomic data and newly sequenced expressed sequence tags. The primitive function of strigolactones was determined by exogenous application of the synthetic strigolactone analog, GR24, and by mutant phenotyping. Liverworts, the most basal Embryophytes and Charales, one of the closest green algal relatives to Embryophytes, produce strigolactones, whereas several other species of green algae do not. We showed that GR24 stimulates rhizoid elongation of Charales, liverworts and mosses, and rescues the phenotype of the strigolactone-deficient Ppccd8 mutant of Physcomitrella patens. These findings demonstrate that the first function of strigolactones was not to promote arbuscular mycorrhizal symbiosis. Rather, they suggest that the strigolactones appeared earlier in the streptophyte lineage to control rhizoid elongation. They may have been conserved in basal Embryophytes for this role and then recruited for the stimulation of colonization by glomeromycotan fungi.

  14. The Search for the Green Canoe.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morgan, Gary

    1993-01-01

    A search for an environment-friendly ("green") canoe looked at the environmental impact of the production of different canoes. The production of aluminum, synthetic, and wood canvas canoes created negative environmental impacts, including exposure of people to toxic chemicals, emissions into the atmosphere, and imbalances in the ecosystem. (KS)

  15. Irreversible sediment formation in green tea infusions.

    PubMed

    Xu, Yong-Quan; Chen, Gen-Sheng; Wang, Qiu-Shuang; Yuan, Hai-Bo; Feng, Chun-Hong; Yin, Jun-Feng

    2012-03-01

    The formation of irreversible tea sediment (IRS) and its chemical components in green tea infusions were investigated. The results showed that the amounts of IRS in the green tea infusions from various tea cultivars ranged from 0.10 to 1.47 mg/mL. The amount of IRS was influenced remarkably by the chemical components in the green tea infusion. Principal component analysis and regression analysis indicated that gallated catechins, Mn, Ca, caffeine, Na, and (-)-gallocatechin gallate (GCG) were the principal components. IRS (mg/mL) = -4.226 + 0.275 gallated catechins + 79.551 Na + 7.321 Mn + 21.055 Ca + 0.513 caffeine - 0.129 GCG (R2 = 0.697). The contents of the main chemical components in the reversible tea sediment (RTS) and IRS were markedly different, especially the minerals. Large amount of minerals participated in the formation of irreversible green tea sediment. The amount of IRS increased with the extraction temperature. PMID:22329921

  16. Green polymer chemistry: biocatalysis and biomaterials

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This overview briefly surveys the practice of green chemistry in polymer science. Eight related themes can be discerned from the current research activities: 1) biocatalysis, 2) bio-based building blocks and agricultural products, 3) degradable polymers, 4) recycling of polymer products and catalys...

  17. Green polymer chemistry: a brief review

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This review briefly surveys the research done on green polymer chemistry in the past few years. For convenience, these research activities can be grouped into 8 themes: 1) greener catalysis, 2) diverse feedstock base, 3) degradable polymers and waste minimization, 4) recycling of polymer products a...

  18. 14. Photo copy of drawing, April 3, 1952, GREEN'S LEDGE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    14. Photo copy of drawing, April 3, 1952, GREEN'S LEDGE L/S MODERNIZATION. Drawing no. NY 1517, U.S. Coast Guard Civil Engineering Unit, Warwick, Rhode Island. - Green's Ledge Lighthouse, Long Island Sound, Norwalk, Fairfield County, CT

  19. GREEN CHEMICAL SYNTHESIS THROUGH CATALYSIS AND ALTERNATE REACTION CONDITIONS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Green chemical synthesis through catalysis and alternate reaction conditions

    Encompassing green chemistry techniques and methodologies, we have initiated several projects at the National Risk Management Research laboratory that focus on the design and development of chemic...

  20. Lick Run: Green Infrastructure in Cincinnati and Beyond

    EPA Science Inventory

    By capturing and redistributing rain water or runoff in plant-soil systems such as green roofs, rain gardens or swales, green infrastructure restores natural hydrologic cycles and reduces runoff from overburdened gray infrastructure. Targeted ecosystem restoration, contaminant fi...

  1. Green Infrastructure & Sustainable Urban Land Use Decision Analysis Workshop

    EPA Science Inventory

    Introduce green infrastructure, concepts and land use alternatives, to City of Cleveland operations staff. Discuss potential of green alternatives to impact daily operations and routine maintenance activities. Tie in sustainability concepts to long-term City planning and discu...

  2. A proposed ecosystem services classification system to support green accounting

    EPA Science Inventory

    There are a multitude of actual or envisioned, complete or incomplete, ecosystem service classification systems being proposed to support Green Accounting. Green Accounting is generally thought to be the formal accounting attempt to factor environmental production into National ...

  3. Porter Takes Reins of the FNL Green Team | Poster

    Cancer.gov

    Courtesy of the FNL Green Team Melissa Porter, who recently joined the staff of Craig Reynolds, Ph.D., director, Office of Scientific Operations, as administrative manager, has stepped forward to lead the Frederick National Laboratory for Cancer Research (FNL) Green Team in its efforts to promote a “green” work environment. “I am excited to lead the FNL Green Team and have been impressed by the enthusiasm and commitment of the FNL Green Team,” Porter said.

  4. Reduction of halogenated ethanes by green rust.

    SciTech Connect

    O'Loughlin, E. J.; Burris, D. R.; Environmental Research; Air Force Research Lab.; Integrated Science and Technology, Inc.

    2004-01-01

    Green rusts, mixed Fe{sup II}/Fe{sup III} hydroxide minerals present in many suboxic environments, have been shown to reduce a number of organic and inorganic contaminants. The reduction of halogenated ethanes was examined in aqueous suspensions of green rust, both alone and with the addition of Ag{sup I} (AgGR) and Cu{sup II} (CuGR). Hexachloroethane (HCA), pentachloroethane (PCA), 1,1,1,2-tetrachloroethane (1,1,1,2-TeCA), 1,1,2,2-tetrachloroethane (1,1,2,2-TeCA), 1,1,1-trichloroethane (1,1,1-TCA), 1,1,2-trichloroethane (1,1,2-TCA), 1,1-dichloroethane (1,1-DCA), and 1,2-dibromoethane were reduced in the presence of green rust alone, AgGR, or CuGR; only 1,2-dichloroethane and chloroethane were nonreactive. The reduction was generally more rapid for more highly substituted ethanes than for ethanes having fewer halogen groups (HCA > PCA > 1,1,1,2-TeCA > 1,1,1-TCA > 1,1,2,2-TeCA > 1,1,2-TCA > 1,1-DCA), and isomers with the more asymmetric distributions of halogen groups were more rapidly reduced than the isomer with greater symmetry (e.g., 1,1,1-TCA > 1,1,2-TCA). The addition of Ag{sup I} or Cu{sup II} to green rust suspensions resulted in a substantial increase in the rate of halogenated ethane reduction as well as significant differences in the product distributions with respect to green rust alone.

  5. Green Careers and the Community College: Embrace the Possibility

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Diritsky, Irene L.

    2014-01-01

    This article identifies emerging green themes and describes the green career paths that exist for students who have completed community college level coursework. It also explores the green employment opportunities, future trends, job titles, and salary ranges expected in these positions. It questions the community college's higher education…

  6. An Overview of "Green School" Development in China in 2001

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zhiyan, Jiao; Hongying, Zeng; Xuhong, Song

    2004-01-01

    This article presents an overview of "green school" development in China in 2001. The authors state, that there were improvements in the organization and management of "green schools." And a number of provinces have established environmental education coordination committees or "green school" lead groups. Furthermore, at the local level,…

  7. Green Propulsion Auxiliary Power Unit Demonstration at MSFC

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Robinson, Joel W.

    2014-01-01

    MSFC has embarked on use of green propellant replacement of hydrazine for a variety of applications. This paper focused on activities for auxiliary power unit but MSFC is actively investigating use of green propellants for thruster applications. MSFC is interested in partnership with the international community to address the infusion of green propellant into greater use.

  8. A Green Building--The Good, the Bad, the Neutral

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McDermott, Richard L.

    2010-01-01

    In 2010, it's good to be Green. In the stampede to sustainable design, there are probably some Green features that have not received a lot of scrutiny, and some that may not apply to all projects. The author happens to have joined an institution with one of the larger Green office/classrooms buildings in the U.S. The University of Texas Health…

  9. Cost and Red Tape Hamper Colleges' Efforts to Go Green

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carlson, Scott

    2008-01-01

    This article describes how the certification program developed by the U.S. Green Building Council has been a popular way for colleges to "go green," but its certification process has been hampering colleges' efforts. The private, nonprofit Leadership in Energy and Environmental Design (LEED) program has become synonymous with green construction,…

  10. Green Student Centers' Influence on the Campus Environment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harrell, Krista L.

    2012-01-01

    Green building and design is an emerging trend in institutions of higher education. It is important to consider the practices and expectations of the users of green buildings. The attitudes of faculty, staff, and students play a key role in the overall successful performance of green buildings. This study offers direction for the intentional…

  11. 21 CFR 73.3111 - Chromium oxide greens.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Chromium oxide greens. 73.3111 Section 73.3111... COLOR ADDITIVES EXEMPT FROM CERTIFICATION Medical Devices § 73.3111 Chromium oxide greens. (a) Identity and specifications. The color additive chromium oxide greens (chromic oxide) (CAS Reg. No....

  12. 21 CFR 73.3111 - Chromium oxide greens.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Chromium oxide greens. 73.3111 Section 73.3111... COLOR ADDITIVES EXEMPT FROM CERTIFICATION Medical Devices § 73.3111 Chromium oxide greens. (a) Identity and specifications. The color additive chromium oxide greens (chromic oxide) (CAS Reg. No....

  13. 21 CFR 73.3111 - Chromium oxide greens.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Chromium oxide greens. 73.3111 Section 73.3111... COLOR ADDITIVES EXEMPT FROM CERTIFICATION Medical Devices § 73.3111 Chromium oxide greens. (a) Identity and specifications. The color additive chromium oxide greens (chromic oxide) (CAS Reg. No....

  14. Sustainability in Schools: Why Green Buildings Have Become a Catalyst

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barr, Stephanie; Dunbar, Brian; Schiller, Craig

    2012-01-01

    With the increase in both green school construction and research linking green schools to healthier students, higher performance and financial return on investment, it is no surprise that the green school design practices are quickly becoming standard practice. This is reason for celebration, yet there are still many mountains to climb to achieve…

  15. Building Effective Green Energy Programs in Community Colleges

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bozell, Maureen R.; Liston, Cynthia D.

    2010-01-01

    Community colleges across the country are engaged in large-scale federal and state initiatives to train low-income individuals for the nascent field that's become known as "green jobs." Many green economy advocates believe that green jobs training can be part of career pathways that help move unemployed and disconnected individuals--who are often…

  16. It Isn't Easy Being Green, or Is It?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stone, James R., III

    2010-01-01

    In the midst of an economic recession, double digit unemployment rates, and financial bailouts lies a promise of economic recovery through investments and training for a green economy and green collar occupations. This article discusses the impact of the green revolution on job creation and on career and technical education (CTE). The green…

  17. T. H. Green: Citizenship, Education and the Law

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Plant, Raymond

    2006-01-01

    This study situates Green's educational philosophy and practice in the context of his overall approach to philosophy. In Green's view, education should aim at the realisation of the common good, but what Green means by this term is closely connected to his views on human nature, ethical endeavour and indeed the evolution of human history. These…

  18. A Facilities Manager's Guide to Green Building Design.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Simpson, Walter

    2001-01-01

    Explains how the "green building" approach to educational facilities design creates healthy, naturally lit, attractive buildings with lower operating and life cycle costs. Tips on getting started on a green design and overcoming the barriers to the green design concept are discussed. (GR)

  19. Design of a Dynamic Undergraduate Green Chemistry Course

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kennedy, Sarah A.

    2016-01-01

    The green chemistry course taught at Westminster College (PA) incorporates nontraditional teaching techniques and texts to educate future chemists about the importance of using green chemistry principles. The course is designed to introduce green chemistry concepts and demonstrate their inherent necessity by discussing historical missteps by the…

  20. 21 CFR 73.2327 - Chromium oxide greens.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Chromium oxide greens. 73.2327 Section 73.2327... COLOR ADDITIVES EXEMPT FROM CERTIFICATION Cosmetics § 73.2327 Chromium oxide greens. (a) Identity and specifications. The color additive chromium oxide greens shall conform in identify and specifications to...

  1. 21 CFR 73.2327 - Chromium oxide greens.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Chromium oxide greens. 73.2327 Section 73.2327... COLOR ADDITIVES EXEMPT FROM CERTIFICATION Cosmetics § 73.2327 Chromium oxide greens. (a) Identity and specifications. The color additive chromium oxide greens shall conform in identify and specifications to...

  2. 21 CFR 73.2326 - Chromium hydroxide green.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Chromium hydroxide green. 73.2326 Section 73.2326... COLOR ADDITIVES EXEMPT FROM CERTIFICATION Cosmetics § 73.2326 Chromium hydroxide green. (a) Identity and specifications.The color additive chromium hydroxide green shall conform in identity and specifications to...

  3. 21 CFR 73.1326 - Chromium hydroxide green.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Chromium hydroxide green. 73.1326 Section 73.1326... COLOR ADDITIVES EXEMPT FROM CERTIFICATION Drugs § 73.1326 Chromium hydroxide green. (a) Identity. (1) The color additive chromium hydroxide green is principally hydrated chromic sesquioxide...

  4. 21 CFR 73.3111 - Chromium oxide greens.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Chromium oxide greens. 73.3111 Section 73.3111... COLOR ADDITIVES EXEMPT FROM CERTIFICATION Medical Devices § 73.3111 Chromium oxide greens. (a) Identity and specifications. The color additive chromium oxide greens (chromic oxide) (CAS Reg. No....

  5. 21 CFR 73.2326 - Chromium hydroxide green.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Chromium hydroxide green. 73.2326 Section 73.2326... COLOR ADDITIVES EXEMPT FROM CERTIFICATION Cosmetics § 73.2326 Chromium hydroxide green. (a) Identity and specifications.The color additive chromium hydroxide green shall conform in identity and specifications to...

  6. 21 CFR 73.1326 - Chromium hydroxide green.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Chromium hydroxide green. 73.1326 Section 73.1326... COLOR ADDITIVES EXEMPT FROM CERTIFICATION Drugs § 73.1326 Chromium hydroxide green. (a) Identity. (1) The color additive chromium hydroxide green is principally hydrated chromic sesquioxide...

  7. 21 CFR 73.1327 - Chromium oxide greens.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Chromium oxide greens. 73.1327 Section 73.1327... COLOR ADDITIVES EXEMPT FROM CERTIFICATION Drugs § 73.1327 Chromium oxide greens. (a) Identity. (1) The color additive chromium oxide greens is principally chromic sesquioxide (Cr2O3). (2) Color...

  8. 21 CFR 73.1327 - Chromium oxide greens.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Chromium oxide greens. 73.1327 Section 73.1327... COLOR ADDITIVES EXEMPT FROM CERTIFICATION Drugs § 73.1327 Chromium oxide greens. (a) Identity. (1) The color additive chromium oxide greens is principally chromic sesquioxide (Cr2O3). (2) Color...

  9. 76 FR 65511 - Office of Governmentwide Policy; Office of Federal High-Performance Green Buildings; the Green...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-10-21

    ... ADMINISTRATION Office of Governmentwide Policy; Office of Federal High- Performance Green Buildings; the Green Building Advisory Committee Notification of Upcoming Public Advisory Meeting AGENCY: Office of Governmentwide Policy, General Services Administration (GSA). ACTION: Meeting notice. SUMMARY: This...

  10. Steam cooking significantly improves in vitro bile acid binding of collard greens, kale, mustard greens, broccoli, green bell pepper, and cabbage.

    PubMed

    Kahlon, Talwinder Singh; Chiu, Mei-Chen M; Chapman, Mary H

    2008-06-01

    Bile acid binding capacity has been related to the cholesterol-lowering potential of foods and food fractions. Lowered recirculation of bile acids results in utilization of cholesterol to synthesize bile acid and reduced fat absorption. Secondary bile acids have been associated with increased risk of cancer. Bile acid binding potential has been related to lowering the risk of heart disease and that of cancer. Previously, we have reported bile acid binding by several uncooked vegetables. However, most vegetables are consumed after cooking. How cooking would influence in vitro bile acid binding of various vegetables was investigated using a mixture of bile acids secreted in human bile under physiological conditions. Eight replicate incubations were conducted for each treatment simulating gastric and intestinal digestion, which included a substrate only, a bile acid mixture only, and 6 with substrate and bile acid mixture. Cholestyramine (a cholesterol-lowering, bile acid binding drug) was the positive control treatment and cellulose was the negative control. Relative to cholestyramine, in vitro bile acid binding on dry matter basis was for the collard greens, kale, and mustard greens, 13%; broccoli, 10%; Brussels sprouts and spinach, 8%; green bell pepper, 7%; and cabbage, 5%. These results point to the significantly different (P < or = .05) health-promoting potential of collard greens = kale = mustard greens > broccoli > Brussels sprouts = spinach = green bell pepper > cabbage as indicated by their bile acid binding on dry matter basis. Steam cooking significantly improved the in vitro bile acid binding of collard greens, kale, mustard greens, broccoli, green bell pepper, and cabbage compared with previously observed bile acid binding values for these vegetables raw (uncooked). Inclusion of steam-cooked collard greens, kale, mustard greens, broccoli, green bell pepper, and cabbage in our daily diet as health-promoting vegetables should be emphasized. These green

  11. Steam cooking significantly improves in vitro bile acid binding of collard greens, kale, mustard greens, broccoli, green bell pepper, and cabbage.

    PubMed

    Kahlon, Talwinder Singh; Chiu, Mei-Chen M; Chapman, Mary H

    2008-06-01

    Bile acid binding capacity has been related to the cholesterol-lowering potential of foods and food fractions. Lowered recirculation of bile acids results in utilization of cholesterol to synthesize bile acid and reduced fat absorption. Secondary bile acids have been associated with increased risk of cancer. Bile acid binding potential has been related to lowering the risk of heart disease and that of cancer. Previously, we have reported bile acid binding by several uncooked vegetables. However, most vegetables are consumed after cooking. How cooking would influence in vitro bile acid binding of various vegetables was investigated using a mixture of bile acids secreted in human bile under physiological conditions. Eight replicate incubations were conducted for each treatment simulating gastric and intestinal digestion, which included a substrate only, a bile acid mixture only, and 6 with substrate and bile acid mixture. Cholestyramine (a cholesterol-lowering, bile acid binding drug) was the positive control treatment and cellulose was the negative control. Relative to cholestyramine, in vitro bile acid binding on dry matter basis was for the collard greens, kale, and mustard greens, 13%; broccoli, 10%; Brussels sprouts and spinach, 8%; green bell pepper, 7%; and cabbage, 5%. These results point to the significantly different (P < or = .05) health-promoting potential of collard greens = kale = mustard greens > broccoli > Brussels sprouts = spinach = green bell pepper > cabbage as indicated by their bile acid binding on dry matter basis. Steam cooking significantly improved the in vitro bile acid binding of collard greens, kale, mustard greens, broccoli, green bell pepper, and cabbage compared with previously observed bile acid binding values for these vegetables raw (uncooked). Inclusion of steam-cooked collard greens, kale, mustard greens, broccoli, green bell pepper, and cabbage in our daily diet as health-promoting vegetables should be emphasized. These green

  12. Green tea composition, consumption, and polyphenol chemistry.

    PubMed

    Graham, H N

    1992-05-01

    Tea is grown in about 30 countries but is consumed worldwide, although at greatly varying levels. It is the most widely consumed beverage aside from water with a per capita worldwide consumption of approximately 0.12 liter per year. Tea is manufactured in three basic forms. Green tea is prepared in such a way as to preclude the oxidation of green leaf polyphenols. During black tea production oxidation is promoted so that most of these substances are oxidized. Oolong tea is a partially oxidized product. Of the approximately 2.5 million metric tons of dried tea manufactured, only 20% is green tea and less than 2% is oolong tea. Green tea is consumed primarily in China, Japan, and a few countries in North Africa and the Middle East. Fresh tea leaf is unusually rich in the flavanol group of polyphenols known as catechins which may constitute up to 30% of the dry leaf weight. Other polyphenols include flavanols and their glycosides, and depsides such as chlorogenic acid, coumarylquinic acid, and one unique to tea, theogallin (3-galloylquinic acid). Caffeine is present at an average level of 3% along with very small amounts of the other common methylxanthines, theobromine and theophylline. The amino acid theanine (5-N-ethylglutamine) is also unique to tea. Tea accumulates aluminum and manganese. In addition to the normal complement of plant cell enzymes, tea leaf contains an active polyphenol oxidase which catalyzes the aerobic oxidation of the catechins when the leaf cell structure is disrupted during black tea manufacture. The various quinones produced by the enzymatic oxidations undergo condensation reactions which result in a series of compounds, including bisflavanols, theaflavins, epitheaflavic acids, and thearubigens, which impart the characteristic taste and color properties of black tea. Most of these compounds readily form complexes with caffeine. There is no tannic acid in tea. Thearubigens constitute the largest mass of the extractable matter in black tea but

  13. Greening etiolated barley plants under clinorotation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Syvash, O. O.; Dovbysh, E. P.; Zolotareva, E. K.

    Plants are capable to react to change of a gravitational field and have sensitive and selective mechanisms, allowing to be guided in a field of gravitation of the Earth. It is known, that changes of gravitational conditions (hyper- or hypogravity) influence metabolic processes in alive organisms. One of the important problems of space biology is studying influence of microgravity on development of the photosynthetic apparatus. Damaging action of weightlessness on photosynthetic processes in plants was shown in a lot of space experiments. However, results of these experiments are inconsistent and do not allow to conclude how varied conditions of weight influence photosynthesis and in particular biosynthesis of chlorophyll. The aim of the communication is an analysis of clinorotation effects on the pigment accumulation and photochemical characteristics of the photosynthetic apparatus during its formation at greening of barley seedlings. Barley plants were grown on a slow horizontal clinostat (2 rpm) and in vertical control at room temperature for 7-8 days (6 days in the dark and 1 or 2 day on white light, ˜ 90 μ Mm-2s-1). Protochlorophyllide (Pchld) and carotenoid (β -carotene, lutein, neoxantin, violaxantin) content in dark grown plants, as well as photosynthetic pigment content after 24 and 48h of greening was determined by TLC. It was found that the content of β -carotene, lutein and neoxantin in clinorotated etiolated plants was on 9-25% higher compared to control. Pchld and violaxantin level was less on 9-11% in clinorotated etiolated plants. The content of Chl a, b and carotenoids in control after 24h greening of barley seedlings exceeded on 10-20% their level in clinorotated variant. After 48h greening the total level of pigments doubled and the difference in the pigment content between control and clinorotated leaves averaged 0-12%, i.e. distinction in pigment content between control and clinorotated variants smoothed out in the greening process. No

  14. Caustics in asymptotic Green Function transmission models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roberts, R. A.

    2000-05-01

    Green Function-based beam transmission models are attractive due to their ability to explicitly handle transmission through complicated geometrical surfaces, such as flat-to-circular arc compound profiles. The beam model considered in this paper integrates the field generated by a point source positioned within a solid body over a radiating aperture surface (transducer face) in a fluid medium exterior to the solid body. In full generality, evaluation of the Green function at a point on the aperture surface requires an integration over the component surface (solid-water interface). For geometries of practical interest, this integration can be effectively evaluated by applying high-frequency asymptotic techniques (stationary phase analysis=ray theory). However, first-order asymptotic methods fail at focusing caustics, that is, when the component surface curvature focuses the field generated by the interior point source onto the aperture surface. Uniform asymptotic methods are available to treat such problems. However, implementation of uniform expansion methods in an algorithm applicable to arbitrarily curved component surfaces entails a complexity that outweighs algorithm utility. Past algorithms have therefore evaluated the Green function in these anomalous cases by performing an explicit numerical integration over the component surface. Work reported here hypothesizes that the singularity in the Green function amplitude from first-order analysis is an integrable singularity, and hence can be handled in the aperture surface integration through appropriate integration variable transformation. It is shown that an effective transformation of variables is provided by the ray coordinates which map the interior source location to points on the component surface, then onto points on the aperture surface. It is seen that zeros in the Jacobian of the surface aperture coordinate-to-ray coordinate mapping mollify the singularities in the first-order analysis Green function

  15. Green space, health and wellbeing: making space for individual agency.

    PubMed

    Bell, Sarah L; Phoenix, Cassandra; Lovell, Rebecca; Wheeler, Benedict W

    2014-11-01

    This essay examines the assumptions of green space use underpinning much existing green space and health research. It considers opportunities to move the field forward through exploring two often overlooked aspects of individual agency: the influence of shifting life circumstances on personal wellbeing priorities and place practices, and the role of personal orientations to nature in shaping how green space wellbeing opportunities are perceived and experienced. It suggests such efforts could provide more nuanced insights into the complex, personal factors that define and drive individual choices regarding the use of green spaces for wellbeing over time, thereby strengthening our understanding of the salutogenic potential (and limits) of green spaces. PMID:25453749

  16. 1. EXTERIOR VIEW OF MILL WORKER HOUSE AT 107 GREEN ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. EXTERIOR VIEW OF MILL WORKER HOUSE AT 107 GREEN STREET HOUSE IS A WOOD-FRAME DUPLEX WITH A PYRAMIDAL ROOF, KITCHEN ELL IN REAR, AND A PORCH EXTENDING FROM THE FRONT. NOTE 105 GREEN STREET TO RIGHT. THESE DWELLINGS WERE CONSTRUCTED BY HOGANSVILLE MANUFACTURING COMPANY c. 1900. THE MILL WAS LOCATED ON THE OTHER SIDE OF GREEN STREET UNTIL IT WAS DEMOLISHED IN THE 1970S. CURRENTLY THE SITE IS AN EMPTY LOT SURROUNDED BY A FENCE. - 107 Green Street (House), 107 Green Street, Hogansville, Troup County, GA

  17. Green space, health and wellbeing: making space for individual agency.

    PubMed

    Bell, Sarah L; Phoenix, Cassandra; Lovell, Rebecca; Wheeler, Benedict W

    2014-11-01

    This essay examines the assumptions of green space use underpinning much existing green space and health research. It considers opportunities to move the field forward through exploring two often overlooked aspects of individual agency: the influence of shifting life circumstances on personal wellbeing priorities and place practices, and the role of personal orientations to nature in shaping how green space wellbeing opportunities are perceived and experienced. It suggests such efforts could provide more nuanced insights into the complex, personal factors that define and drive individual choices regarding the use of green spaces for wellbeing over time, thereby strengthening our understanding of the salutogenic potential (and limits) of green spaces.

  18. GreenView and GreenLand Applications Development on SEE-GRID Infrastructure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mihon, Danut; Bacu, Victor; Gorgan, Dorian; Mészáros, Róbert; Gelybó, Györgyi; Stefanut, Teodor

    2010-05-01

    The GreenView and GreenLand applications [1] have been developed through the SEE-GRID-SCI (SEE-GRID eInfrastructure for regional eScience) FP7 project co-funded by the European Commission [2]. The development of environment applications is a challenge for Grid technologies and software development methodologies. This presentation exemplifies the development of the GreenView and GreenLand applications over the SEE-GRID infrastructure by the Grid Application Development Methodology [3]. Today's environmental applications are used in vary domains of Earth Science such as meteorology, ground and atmospheric pollution, ground metal detection or weather prediction. These applications run on satellite images (e.g. Landsat, MERIS, MODIS, etc.) and the accuracy of output results depends mostly of the quality of these images. The main drawback of such environmental applications regards the need of computation power and storage power (some images are almost 1GB in size), in order to process such a large data volume. Actually, almost applications requiring high computation resources have approached the migration onto the Grid infrastructure. This infrastructure offers the computing power by running the atomic application components on different Grid nodes in sequential or parallel mode. The middleware used between the Grid infrastructure and client applications is ESIP (Environment Oriented Satellite Image Processing Platform), which is based on gProcess platform [4]. In its current format, gProcess is used for launching new processes on the Grid nodes, but also for monitoring the execution status of these processes. This presentation highlights two case studies of Grid based environmental applications, GreenView and GreenLand [5]. GreenView is used in correlation with MODIS (Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer) satellite images and meteorological datasets, in order to produce pseudo colored temperature and vegetation maps for different geographical CEE (Central

  19. Nanocatalysis and prospects of green chemistry.

    PubMed

    Kalidindi, Suresh Babu; Jagirdar, Balaji R

    2012-01-01

    Designing and developing ideal catalyst paves the way to green chemistry. The fields of catalysis and nanoscience have been inextricably linked to each other for a long time. Thanks to the recent advances in characterization techniques, the old technology has been revisited with a new scope. The last decade has witnessed a flood of research activity in the field of nanocatalysis, with most of the studies focusing on the effect of size on catalytic properties. This led to the development of much greener catalysts with higher activity, selectivity and greater ease of separation from the reaction medium. This Minireview describes the emerging trends in the field of nanocatalysis with implications towards green chemistry and sustainability. PMID:22190344

  20. Green's function calculation from equipartition theorem.

    PubMed

    Perton, Mathieu; Sánchez-Sesma, Francisco José

    2016-08-01

    A method is presented to calculate the elastodynamic Green's functions by using the equipartition principle. The imaginary parts are calculated as the average cross correlations of the displacement fields generated by the incidence of body and surface waves with amplitudes weighted by partition factors. The real part is retrieved using the Hilbert transform. The calculation of the partition factors is discussed for several geometrical configurations in two dimensional space: the full-space, a basin in a half-space and for layered media. For the last case, it results in a fast computation of the full Green's functions. Additionally, if the contribution of only selected states is desired, as for instance the surface wave part, the computation is even faster. Its use for full waveform inversion may then be advantageous.

  1. Green piezoelectric for autonomous smart textile

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lemaire, E.; Borsa, C. J.; Briand, D.

    2015-12-01

    In this work, the fabrication of Rochelle salt based piezoelectric textiles are shown. Structures composed of fibers and Rochelle salt are easily produced using green processes. Both manufacturing and the material itself are really efficient in terms of environmental impact, considering the fabrication processes and the material resources involved. Additionally Rochelle salt is biocompatible. In this green paradigm, active sensing or actuating textiles are developed. Thus processing method and piezoelectric properties have been studied: (1) pure crystals are used as acoustic actuator, (2) fabrication of the textile-based composite is detailed, (3) converse effective d33 is evaluated and compared to lead zirconate titanate ceramic. The utility of textile-based piezoelectric merits its use in a wide array of applications.

  2. [Spectra of dark green jade from Myanmar].

    PubMed

    Mao, Jian; Chai, Lin-Tao; Guo, Shou-Guo; Fan, Jian-Liang; Bao, Feng

    2013-05-01

    Chemical compositions and spectral characteristics of one type of dark green jades assumed from omphacite jadeite from Myanmar jadeite mining area were studied by X-ray powder diffraction(XRD), X-ray fluorescence spectra(XRF), Raman spectra(RM) and UV-Vis Spectroscopy, etc. Based on testing by XRD and XRF, it was shown that it belongs to iron-enriched plagioclase, including albite and anorthite. The compositions range is between Ab0.731 An0.264 Or0.004 and Ab0.693 An0.303 Or0.004. Raman spectra of samples, albite jade and anorthite were collected and analyzed. Additionally, the distributions of Si, Al in the crystal structure were also discussed. UV-Vis spectra showed that dark green hue of this mineral is associated with d--d electronic transition of Fe3+ and Cr3+.

  3. Phycobilisomes in Blue-Green Algae

    PubMed Central

    Wildman, Ruth B.; Bowen, C. C.

    1974-01-01

    Fifteen species of freshwater blue-green algae, including unicellular, filamentous, and colonial forms, were subjected to a variety of fixatives, fixation conditions, and stains for comparison of the preservation of phycobilisomes. Absorption spectra of the corresponding in vivo and released photosynthetic pigments, in 10 of the species that were maintained in culture, demonstrated the presence of phycocyanin in all 10 species and phycoerythrin in only 2 of them. Spectroscope and electron microscope evidence was obtained for localization of phycobiliproteins in phycobilisomes of Nostoc muscorum. Phycobilisomes were observed in all species examined in situ, strenghening the hypothesis that phycobilisomes are common to all phycobiliprotein-containing photosynthetic blue-green algae. Images PMID:4204443

  4. Green's function calculation from equipartition theorem.

    PubMed

    Perton, Mathieu; Sánchez-Sesma, Francisco José

    2016-08-01

    A method is presented to calculate the elastodynamic Green's functions by using the equipartition principle. The imaginary parts are calculated as the average cross correlations of the displacement fields generated by the incidence of body and surface waves with amplitudes weighted by partition factors. The real part is retrieved using the Hilbert transform. The calculation of the partition factors is discussed for several geometrical configurations in two dimensional space: the full-space, a basin in a half-space and for layered media. For the last case, it results in a fast computation of the full Green's functions. Additionally, if the contribution of only selected states is desired, as for instance the surface wave part, the computation is even faster. Its use for full waveform inversion may then be advantageous. PMID:27586757

  5. Recommended Figures of Merit for Green Monopropellants

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Marshall. William M.; Deans, Matthew C.

    2013-01-01

    Hydrazine propellant has historically been used as a rocket thruster monopropellant since the mid-1960s. Mission managers are well aware of its characteristics and performance. However, it is a known toxic chemical and a wide effort is underway to reduce and/or eliminate its use worldwide. Several new propellant combinations have been developed in the last few years which tout or promise to provide same or better performance as hydrazine while being "non-toxic" or "green". Yet, there is no consistent definition for what constitutes "non-toxic" or "green", and thus no good figure of merit for which to compare. This paper seeks to review the three major categories of figures of merit, and discusses how they might be used to assess the viability of a propellant.

  6. Quirks of dye nomenclature. 6. Malachite green.

    PubMed

    Cooksey, C J

    2016-08-01

    Malachite green was discovered independently by two researchers in Germany in the 19(th) century and found immediate employment as a dye and a pigment. Subsequently, other uses, such as staining biological specimens, emerged. A much later application was the control of fungal and protozoan infections in fish, for which the dye remains popular, although illegal in many countries owing to a variety of toxicity problems. In solution, malachite green can exist as five different species depending on the pH. The location of the positive charge of the colored cation on a carbon atom or a nitrogen atom is still debated. The original names of this dye, and their origins, are briefly surveyed. PMID:27491273

  7. Quirks of dye nomenclature. 6. Malachite green.

    PubMed

    Cooksey, C J

    2016-08-01

    Malachite green was discovered independently by two researchers in Germany in the 19(th) century and found immediate employment as a dye and a pigment. Subsequently, other uses, such as staining biological specimens, emerged. A much later application was the control of fungal and protozoan infections in fish, for which the dye remains popular, although illegal in many countries owing to a variety of toxicity problems. In solution, malachite green can exist as five different species depending on the pH. The location of the positive charge of the colored cation on a carbon atom or a nitrogen atom is still debated. The original names of this dye, and their origins, are briefly surveyed.

  8. Nanocatalysis and prospects of green chemistry.

    PubMed

    Kalidindi, Suresh Babu; Jagirdar, Balaji R

    2012-01-01

    Designing and developing ideal catalyst paves the way to green chemistry. The fields of catalysis and nanoscience have been inextricably linked to each other for a long time. Thanks to the recent advances in characterization techniques, the old technology has been revisited with a new scope. The last decade has witnessed a flood of research activity in the field of nanocatalysis, with most of the studies focusing on the effect of size on catalytic properties. This led to the development of much greener catalysts with higher activity, selectivity and greater ease of separation from the reaction medium. This Minireview describes the emerging trends in the field of nanocatalysis with implications towards green chemistry and sustainability.

  9. Photoprotective effects of green tea polyphenols.

    PubMed

    Yusuf, Nabiha; Irby, Cynthia; Katiyar, Santosh K; Elmets, Craig A

    2007-02-01

    Non-melanoma skin cancer is the most common malignancy in humans and is equivalent to the incidence of malignancies in all other organs combined in the United States. Current methods of prevention depend on sunscreens in humans, efficacy of which is largely undetermined for non-melanoma skin cancers. Green tea polyphenols have the greatest effect with respect to chemoprevention and have been found to be most potent at suppressing the carcinogenic activity of UV radiation. They protect against many of the other damaging effects of UV radiation such as UV-induced sunburn response, UV-induced immunosuppression and photoaging of the skin. They exert their photoprotective effects by various cellular, molecular and biochemical mechanisms in in vitro and in vivo systems. Green tea polyphenols thus have the potential, when used in conjunction with traditional sunscreens, to further protect the skin against the adverse effects of ultraviolet radiation.

  10. Green colorants based on energetic azole borates.

    PubMed

    Glück, Johann; Klapötke, Thomas M; Rusan, Magdalena; Stierstorfer, Jörg

    2014-11-24

    The investigation of green-burning boron-based compounds as colorants in pyrotechnic formulations as alternative for barium nitrate, which is a hazard to health and to the environment, is reported. Metal-free and nitrogen-rich dihydrobis(5-aminotetrazolyl)borate salts and dihydrobis(1,3,4-triazolyl)borate salts have been synthesized and characterized by NMR spectroscopy, elemental analysis, mass spectrometry, and vibrational spectroscopy. Their thermal and energetic properties have been determined as well. Several pyrotechnic compositions using selected azolyl borate salts as green colorants were investigated. Formulations with ammonium dinitramide and ammonium nitrate as oxidizers and boron and magnesium as fuels were tested. The burn time, dominant wavelength, spectral purity, luminous intensity, and luminous efficiency as well as the thermal and energetic properties of these compositions were measured.

  11. Gluon Green functions free of quantum fluctuations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Athenodorou, A.; Boucaud, Ph.; De Soto, F.; Rodríguez-Quintero, J.; Zafeiropoulos, S.

    2016-09-01

    This letter reports on how the Wilson flow technique can efficaciously kill the short-distance quantum fluctuations of 2- and 3-gluon Green functions, remove the ΛQCD scale and destroy the transition from the confining non-perturbative to the asymptotically-free perturbative sector. After the Wilson flow, the behavior of the Green functions with momenta can be described in terms of the quasi-classical instanton background. The same behavior also occurs, before the Wilson flow, at low-momenta. This last result permits applications as, for instance, the detection of instanton phenomenological properties or a determination of the lattice spacing only from the gauge sector of the theory.

  12. Relativistic dynamics, Green function and pseudodifferential operators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cirilo-Lombardo, Diego Julio

    2016-06-01

    The central role played by pseudodifferential operators in relativistic dynamics is known very well. In this work, operators like the Schrodinger one (e.g., square root) are treated from the point of view of the non-local pseudodifferential Green functions. Starting from the explicit construction of the Green (semigroup) theoretical kernel, a theorem linking the integrability conditions and their dependence on the spacetime dimensions is given. Relativistic wave equations with arbitrary spin and the causality problem are discussed with the algebraic interpretation of the radical operator and their relation with coherent and squeezed states. Also we perform by means of pure theoretical procedures (based in physical concepts and symmetry) the relativistic position operator which satisfies the conditions of integrability: it is a non-local, Lorentz invariant and does not have the same problems as the "local"position operator proposed by Newton and Wigner. Physical examples, as zitterbewegung and rogue waves, are presented and deeply analyzed in this theoretical framework.

  13. Going green to be seen: status, reputation, and conspicuous conservation.

    PubMed

    Griskevicius, Vladas; Tybur, Joshua M; Van den Bergh, Bram

    2010-03-01

    Why do people purchase proenvironmental "green" products? We argue that buying such products can be construed as altruistic, since green products often cost more and are of lower quality than their conventional counterparts, but green goods benefit the environment for everyone. Because biologists have observed that altruism might function as a "costly signal" associated with status, we examined in 3 experiments how status motives influenced desire for green products. Activating status motives led people to choose green products over more luxurious nongreen products. Supporting the notion that altruism signals one's willingness and ability to incur costs for others' benefit, status motives increased desire for green products when shopping in public (but not private) and when green products cost more (but not less) than nongreen products. Findings suggest that status competition can be used to promote proenvironmental behavior. PMID:20175620

  14. Metal and nutrient dynamics on an aged intensive green roof.

    PubMed

    Speak, A F; Rothwell, J J; Lindley, S J; Smith, C L

    2014-01-01

    Runoff and rainfall quality was compared between an aged intensive green roof and an adjacent conventional roof surface. Nutrient concentrations in the runoff were generally below Environmental Quality Standard (EQS) values and the green roof exhibited NO3(-) retention. Cu, Pb and Zn concentrations were in excess of EQS values for the protection of surface water. Green roof runoff was also significantly higher in Fe and Pb than on the bare roof and in rainfall. Input-output fluxes revealed the green roof to be a potential source of Pb. High concentrations of Pb within the green roof soil and bare roof dusts provide a potential source of Pb in runoff. The origin of the Pb is likely from historic urban atmospheric deposition. Aged green roofs may therefore act as a source of legacy metal pollution. This needs to be considered when constructing green roofs with the aim of improving pollution remediation.

  15. Green chemistry: science and politics of change.

    PubMed

    Poliakoff, Martyn; Fitzpatrick, J Michael; Farren, Trevor R; Anastas, Paul T

    2002-08-01

    The chemical industry plays a key role in sustaining the world economy and underpinning future technologies, yet is under unprecedented pressure from the effects of globalization and change in many of its traditional markets. Against this background, what will be needed for the industry to embrace efforts to make it "greener"? We explore some of the issues raised by the development of "green chemistry" techniques and identify potential barriers to their implementation by industry. PMID:12161647

  16. Quantum thermodynamics: a nonequilibrium Green's function approach.

    PubMed

    Esposito, Massimiliano; Ochoa, Maicol A; Galperin, Michael

    2015-02-27

    We establish the foundations of a nonequilibrium theory of quantum thermodynamics for noninteracting open quantum systems strongly coupled to their reservoirs within the framework of the nonequilibrium Green's functions. The energy of the system and its coupling to the reservoirs are controlled by a slow external time-dependent force treated to first order beyond the quasistatic limit. We derive the four basic laws of thermodynamics and characterize reversible transformations. Stochastic thermodynamics is recovered in the weak coupling limit. PMID:25768745

  17. Establishing a green lights revolving fund

    SciTech Connect

    1996-07-01

    The report details the experiences of the City of Houston in establishing a Green Lights Revolving Fund. It provides examples of key documents and guidelines which can be used in other jurisdictions to establish an internal revolving fund to provide continuing monies through recapture of cost savings for an ongoing program of energy improvements in governmental facilities. It provides guidelines on how to establish a continuing source of funds for governmental facility energy improvements. The report provides background information on the ongoing energy improvement programs in the City of Houston, including its participation in the Environmental Protection Agency`s Green Lights Program. It reviews the steps required to establish a Green Lights Revolving Fund, including the administrative, legal, budgetary, accounting, interdepartmental, mayoral, and governing body approvals and actions needed to create a self-sustaining revolving fund devoted to energy improvements. The report also describes two funding sources in addition to the grant seed funds which were used to increase the initial funds available in the Green Lights Revolving Fund. It provides sample documents for modification and use in other jurisdictions that want to use similar funding sources. It reports the initial project submission and selection procedure and criteria, and provides a transferable project application kit based on the criteria specified. It also details a sample repayment memorandum of understanding between departments, which can be used in other governments. Other transferable products provided in the report are sample energy audit summaries which were conducted by qualified, independent staff to determine the accuracy of the departmental project costs and savings payback calculations.

  18. Carbon sequestration potential of extensive green roofs.

    PubMed

    Getter, Kristin L; Rowe, D Bradley; Robertson, G Philip; Cregg, Bert M; Andresen, Jeffrey A

    2009-10-01

    Two studies were conducted with the objective of quantifying the carbon storage potential of extensive green roofs. The first was performed on eight roofs in Michigan and four roofs in Maryland, ranging from 1 to 6 years in age. All 12 green roofs were composed primarily of Sedum species, and substrate depths ranged from 2.5 to 12.7 cm. Aboveground plant material was harvested in the fall of 2006. On average, these roofs stored 162 g C x m(-2) in aboveground biomass. The second study was conducted on a roof in East Lansing, MI. Twenty plots were established on 21 April 2007 with a substrate depth of 6.0 cm. In addition to a substrate only control, the other plots were sown with a single species of Sedum (S. acre, S. album, S. kamtshaticum, or S. spurium). Species and substrate depth represent typical extensive green roofs in the United States. Plant material and substrate were harvested seven times across two growing seasons. Results at the end of the second year showed that aboveground plant material storage varied by species, ranging from 64 g C x m(-2) (S. acre) to 239 g C x m(-2) (S. album), with an average of 168 g C x m(-2). Belowground biomass ranged from 37 g C x m(-2) (S. acre) to 185 g C x m(-2) (S. kamtschaticum) and averaged 107 g C x m(-2). Substrate carbon content averaged 913 g C x m(-2), with no species effect, which represents a sequestration rate of 100 g C x m(-2) over the 2 years of this study. The entire extensive green roof system sequestered 375 g C x m(-2) in above- and belowground biomass and substrate organic matter.

  19. < VAP > Green function in the resonance region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cirigliano, V.; Ecker, G.; Eidemüller, M.; Pich, A.; Portolés, J.

    2004-08-01

    We analyze the < VAP > three-point function of vector, axial-vector and pseudoscalar currents. In the spirit of large NC, a resonance dominated Green function is confronted with the leading high-energy behaviour from the operator product expansion. The matching is shown to be fully compatible with a chiral resonance Lagrangian and it allows to determine some of the chiral low-energy constants of O (p6).

  20. Green Chemistry at the present in Korea

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Seung-Kyu; Park, Hyeon-Soo

    2015-01-01

    Objectives Despite the great contribution made by chemical substances to the development of modern civilization, their indiscriminate use has caused various kinds of damage to the global environment and human beings. Accordingly, the major developed countries and international society have tried to ensure the safe use of chemicals and a reduction in the use of hazardous chemicals through the establishment of the United Nations Environment Programme and various international agreements. In this reason, we tried to introduce about Green Chemistry progress at the present in worldwide and Korea. Methods We checked and analyzed relative journals, reports using keyword as like Green Chemistry, alternative chemicals, eco-friendly etc. and major country’s government homepage search. Results Green Chemistry theory, which argues for the reduction or removal of harmfulness in chemicals throughout their entire life-cycle, has been spreading, and major developed countries, such as the US and Denmark, have developed and operate programs to provide reliable chemical information to help replace hazardous chemicals. Korea has also been conducting studies as like eco-innovation project. Through this project the “Alternative Chemical Search program,” has been developed, distributed, and operated since 2011 to provide reliable information to small and medium-sized businesses that have difficulties collecting information to ensure conformity to international regulations. The program provides information that includes the regulations of major countries and Korea, information on 340 alternative chemicals, 70 application cases, and 1:1 consulting. Conclusions The Alternative Chemical Search program is expected to contribute to the establishment of response systems for regulation of Korean small and medium-sized businesses, and it also will be used to provide basic data for Korean hazardous chemical regulation, together with the Act on the Registration and Evaluation, etc. of

  1. Green Building Policy Options for New Orleans

    SciTech Connect

    Doris, E.

    2011-09-01

    This document is adapted from a memo and report delivered to the City Council of New Orleans, the office of the Mayor of New Orleans, the Chairperson of the Citizen Stakeholders Group (New Orleans Energy Task Force) and the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Project Officer in 2008. The report outlines ideas for and potential impacts of various green building policies in New Orleans in the years following Hurricane Katrina.

  2. Green chemistry: science and politics of change.

    PubMed

    Poliakoff, Martyn; Fitzpatrick, J Michael; Farren, Trevor R; Anastas, Paul T

    2002-08-01

    The chemical industry plays a key role in sustaining the world economy and underpinning future technologies, yet is under unprecedented pressure from the effects of globalization and change in many of its traditional markets. Against this background, what will be needed for the industry to embrace efforts to make it "greener"? We explore some of the issues raised by the development of "green chemistry" techniques and identify potential barriers to their implementation by industry.

  3. Gemini 4 Recovery with Green Marker Dye

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1965-01-01

    Overhead view of the Gemini 4 spacecraft showing the yellow flotation collar used to stabilize the spacecraft in choppy seas. The green marker dye is highly visible from the air and is used as a locating aid. A crewmember is being hoisted aboard a U.S. Navy helicopter during recovery operations following the successful four-day, 62 revolution mission highlighted by Ed White's space walk.

  4. The greening of PCB analytical methods

    SciTech Connect

    Erickson, M.D.; Alvarado, J.S.; Aldstadt, J.H.

    1995-12-01

    Green chemistry incorporates waste minimization, pollution prevention and solvent substitution. The primary focus of green chemistry over the past decade has been within the chemical industry; adoption by routine environmental laboratories has been slow because regulatory standard methods must be followed. A related paradigm, microscale chemistry has gained acceptance in undergraduate teaching laboratories, but has not been broadly applied to routine environmental analytical chemistry. We are developing green and microscale techniques for routine polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) analyses as an example of the overall potential within the environmental analytical community. Initial work has focused on adaptation of commonly used routine EPA methods for soils and oils. Results of our method development and validation demonstrate that: (1) Solvent substitution can achieve comparable results and eliminate environmentally less-desirable solvents, (2) Microscale extractions can cut the scale of the analysis by at least a factor of ten, (3) We can better match the amount of sample used with the amount needed for the GC determination step, (4) The volume of waste generated can be cut by at least a factor of ten, and (5) Costs are reduced significantly in apparatus, reagent consumption, and labor.

  5. Plants grow better if seeds see green.

    PubMed

    Sommer, Andrei P; Franke, Ralf-Peter

    2006-07-01

    We report on the response of dry plant seeds to their irradiation with intense green light applied at biostimulatory doses. Red and near-infrared light delivered by lasers or arrays of light emitting diodes applied at such doses have been shown previously by us to have effects on mammalian cells. Effects include cell proliferation and elevation of cell vitality, and have practical applications in various biomedical fields. Growth processes induced by photoreceptor stimulation (phytochromes and cryptochromes) in plant seeds with green light were described so far only for imbibed seeds. In this paper, we show that irradiation of dry cress, radish and carrot seeds with intense green light (laser or arrays of light emitting diodes), applied at biostimulatory doses, resulted in a significant increase in biomass--14, 26, and 71 days after seeding, respectively. In the case of radish and carrot, the irradiation led to important changes in the root-to-foliage surface ratio. Seeds with a potential to grant growth acceleration could be of special interest in agricultural applications, and could even compensate for shorter growth seasons caused by climate change.

  6. Plants grow better if seeds see green

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sommer, Andrei P.; Franke, Ralf-Peter

    2006-07-01

    We report on the response of dry plant seeds to their irradiation with intense green light applied at biostimulatory doses. Red and near-infrared light delivered by lasers or arrays of light emitting diodes applied at such doses have been shown previously by us to have effects on mammalian cells. Effects include cell proliferation and elevation of cell vitality, and have practical applications in various biomedical fields. Growth processes induced by photoreceptor stimulation (phytochromes and cryptochromes) in plant seeds with green light were described so far only for imbibed seeds. In this paper, we show that irradiation of dry cress, radish and carrot seeds with intense green light (laser or arrays of light emitting diodes), applied at biostimulatory doses, resulted in a significant increase in biomass—14, 26, and 71 days after seeding, respectively. In the case of radish and carrot, the irradiation led to important changes in the root-to-foliage surface ratio. Seeds with a potential to grant growth acceleration could be of special interest in agricultural applications, and could even compensate for shorter growth seasons caused by climate change.

  7. Green tea polyphenols: DNA photodamage and photoimmunology.

    PubMed

    Katiyar, S K; Bergamo, B M; Vyalil, P K; Elmets, C A

    2001-12-31

    Green tea is a popular beverage consumed worldwide. The epicatechin derivatives, which are commonly called 'polyphenols', are the active ingredients in green tea and possess antioxidant, anti-inflammatory and anti-carcinogenic properties. Studies conducted by our group on human skin have demonstrated that green tea polyphenols (GTP) prevent ultraviolet (UV)-B-induced cyclobutane pyrimidine dimers (CPD), which are considered to be mediators of UVB-induced immune suppression and skin cancer induction. GTP treated human skin prevented penetration of UV radiation, which was demonstrated by the absence of immunostaining for CPD in the reticular dermis. The topical application of GTP or its most potent chemopreventive constituent (-)-epigallocatechin-3-gallate (EGCG) prior to exposure to UVB protects against UVB-induced local as well as systemic immune suppression in laboratory animals. Additionally, studies have shown that EGCG treatment of mouse skin inhibits UVB-induced infiltration of CD11b+ cells. CD11b is a cell surface marker for activated macrophages and neutrophils, which are associated with induction of UVB-induced suppression of contact hypersensitivity responses. EGCG treatment also results in reduction of the UVB-induced immunoregulatory cytokine interleukin (IL)-10 in skin as well as in draining lymph nodes, and an elevated amount of IL-12 in draining lymph nodes. These in vivo observations suggest that GTPs are photoprotective, and can be used as pharmacological agents for the prevention of solar UVB light-induced skin disorders associated with immune suppression and DNA damage.

  8. Green roof and storm water management policies: monitoring experiments on the ENPC Blue Green Wave

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Versini, Pierre-Antoine; Gires, Auguste; Fitton, George; Tchiguirinskaia, Ioulia; Schertzer, Daniel

    2015-04-01

    Currently widespread in new urban projects, green roofs have shown a positive impact on urban runoff at the building/parcel scale. Nevertheless, there is no specific policy promoting their implementation neither in Europe nor in France. Moreover they are not taken into account (and usually considered as an impervious area) in the sizing of a retention basin for instance. An interesting example is located in the heart of the Paris-East Cluster for Science and Technology (Champs-sur-Marne, France). Since 2013 a large (1 ha) wavy-form vegetated roof (called bleu green wave) is implemented. Green roof area and impervious areas are connected to a large retention basin, which has been oversized. The blue green wave represents a pioneering site where an initially amenity (decorative) design project has been transformed into a research oriented one. Several measurement campaigns have been conducted to investigate and better understand the hydrological behaviour of such a structure. Rainfall, humidity, wind velocity, water content and temperature have been particularly studied. The data collected are used for several purposes: (i) characterize the spatio-temporal variability of the green roof response, (ii) calibrate and validate a specific model simulating its hydrological behavior. Based on monitoring and modeling results, green roof performances will be quantified. It will be possible to estimate how they can reduce stormwater runoff and how these performances can vary in space and in time depending on green roof configuration, rainfall event characteristics and antecedent conditions. These quantified impacts will be related to regulation rules established by stormwater managers in order to connect the parcel to the sewer network. In the particular case of the building of a retention basin, the integration of green roof in the sizing of the basin will be studied. This work is funded by the European Blue Green Dream project (http://bgd.org.uk/, funded by Climate

  9. Green light for liver function monitoring using indocyanine green? An overview of current clinical applications.

    PubMed

    Vos, J J; Wietasch, J K G; Absalom, A R; Hendriks, H G D; Scheeren, T W L

    2014-12-01

    The dye indocyanine green is familiar to anaesthetists, and has been studied for more than half a century for cardiovascular and hepatic function monitoring. It is still, however, not yet in routine clinical use in anaesthesia and critical care, at least in Europe. This review is intended to provide a critical analysis of the available evidence concerning the indications for clinical measurement of indocyanine green elimination as a diagnostic and prognostic tool in two areas: its role in peri-operative liver function monitoring during major hepatic resection and liver transplantation; and its role in critically ill patients on the intensive care unit, where it is used for prediction of mortality, and for assessment of the severity of acute liver failure or that of intra-abdominal hypertension. Although numerous studies have demonstrated that indocyanine green elimination measurements in these patient populations can provide diagnostic or prognostic information to the clinician, 'hard' evidence - i.e. high-quality prospective randomised controlled trials - is lacking, and therefore it is not yet time to give a green light for use of indocyanine green in routine clinical practice.

  10. Annual suspended-sediment loads in the Green River at Green River, Utah, 1930-82

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Thompson, K.R.

    1984-01-01

    The Green River above gaging station 093150000 at Green River, Utah, drains about 44,850 square miles in Utah, Colorado, and Wyoming. The average annual precipitation near the station was 6.11 inches. Rocks ranging in age from Precambrian to Holocene are exposed in the Green River drainage basin above Green River, Utah. Shale, siltstone, and mudstone of Tertiary age probably are the most easily eroded rocks in the basin, and they contribute a large part of the sediment load in the Green River. During 1930-82, the U.S. Geological Survey collected records of fluvial sediment at station 093150000. Based on these records the mean annual suspended-sediment load was about 15,630,000 tons, ranging from 1,780,000 tons during 1934 to 43,400,000 tons during 1937. The minimum daily load of 54 tons was on September 27, 1956, and the maximum daily load of 2,230,000 tons was on July 11, 1936. Analysis of the suspended-sediment records collected from 1930-82 at station 093150000 indicated that the accuracy of the records is fair prior to 1945 and good for the remaining period of record. The records after 1945 reflect the use of improved sampling equipment. (USGS)

  11. PREFACE: Progress in Nonequilibrium Green's Functions IV

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bonitz, Michael; Balzer, Karsten

    2010-04-01

    This is the fourth volume1 of articles on the theory of Nonequilibrium Green's functions (NEGF) and their modern application in various fields such as plasma physics, semiconductor physics, molecular electronics and high energy physics. It contains 23 articles written by experts in many-body theory and quantum transport who summarize recent progress in their respective area of research. The articles are based on talks given at the interdisciplinary conference Progress in Nonequilibrium Green's functions IV which was held 17-21 August 2009 at the University of Glasgow, Scotland. This conference continues the tradition of the previous meetings which started in 1999 and which aimed at an informal exchange across field boundaries. The previous meetings and the earlier proceedings proved to be very stimulating not only for young researchers but also for experienced scientists, and we are convinced that this fourth volume will be as successful as the previous ones. As before, this volume includes only extended review-type papers which are written in a way that they are understandable to a broad interdisciplinary audience. All papers published in this volume of Journal of Physics: Conference Series have been peer reviewed through processes administrated by the Editors assuring highest scientific standards. In the review process some papers were substantially revised and improved and some were rejected. This conference would not have been possible without the remarkable work of the local organizing team around John Barker and Scott Roy and the generous financial support from the University of Glasgow and the Deutsche Forschungsgemeinschaft via SFB-Transregio 24. Michael Bonitz and Karsten Balzer Kiel, February 2010 1 The first two volumes are Progress in Nonequilibrium Green's functions, M Bonitz (ed) and Progress in Nonequilibrium Green's functions II, M Bonitz and D Semkat (eds), which were published by World Scientific (Singapore), in 2000 and 2003, respectively (ISBN

  12. Jackson Park Hospital Green Building Medical Center

    SciTech Connect

    William Dorsey; Nelson Vasquez

    2010-03-31

    Jackson Park Hospital completed the construction of a new Medical Office Building on its campus this spring. The new building construction has adopted the City of Chicago's recent focus on protecting the environment, and conserving energy and resources, with the introduction of green building codes. Located in a poor, inner city neighborhood on the South side of Chicago, Jackson Park Hospital has chosen green building strategies to help make the area a better place to live and work. The new green building houses the hospital's Family Medicine Residency Program and Specialty Medical Offices. The residency program has been vital in attracting new, young physicians to this medically underserved area. The new outpatient center will also help to allure needed medical providers to the community. The facility also has areas designated to women's health and community education. The Community Education Conference Room will provide learning opportunities to area residents. Emphasis will be placed on conserving resources and protecting our environment, as well as providing information on healthcare access and preventive medicine. The new Medical Office Building was constructed with numerous energy saving features. The exterior cladding of the building is an innovative, locally-manufactured precast concrete panel system with integral insulation that achieves an R-value in excess of building code requirements. The roof is a 'green roof' covered by native plantings, lessening the impact solar heat gain on the building, and reducing air conditioning requirements. The windows are low-E, tinted, and insulated to reduce cooling requirements in summer and heating requirements in winter. The main entrance has an air lock to prevent unconditioned air from entering the building and impacting interior air temperatures. Since much of the traffic in and out of the office building comes from the adjacent Jackson Park Hospital, a pedestrian bridge connects the two buildings, further

  13. Engineering assessment of inactive uranium mill tailings, Green River Site, Green River, Utah

    SciTech Connect

    1981-08-01

    Ford, Bacon and Davis Utah Inc. has reevaluated the Green River site in order to revise the December 1977 engineering assessment of the problems resulting from the existence of radioactive uranium mill tailings at Green River, Utah. This evaluation has included the preparation of topographic maps, the performance of core drillings and radiometric measurements sufficient to determine areas and volumes of tailings and radiation exposures of individuals and nearby populations, the investigations of site hydrology and meteorology, and the evaluation and costing of alternative remedial actions. Radon gas released from the 123,000 tons of tailings at the Green River site constitutes the most significant environmental impact, although windblown tailings and external gamma radiation also are factors.

  14. NYSERDA's Green Jobs-Green New York Program: Extending Energy Efficiency Financing To Underserved Households

    SciTech Connect

    Zimring, Mark; Fuller, Merrian

    2011-01-24

    The New York legislature passed the Green Jobs-Green New York (GJGNY) Act in 2009. Administered by the New York State Energy Research and Development Authority (NYSERDA), GJGNY programs provide New Yorkers with access to free or low-cost energy assessments,1 energy upgrade services,2 low-cost financing, and training for various 'green-collar' careers. Launched in November 2010, GJGNY's residential initiative is notable for its use of novel underwriting criteria to expand access to energy efficiency financing for households seeking to participate in New York's Home Performance with Energy Star (HPwES) program.3 The GJGNY financing program is a valuable test of whether alternatives to credit scores can be used to responsibly expand credit opportunities for households that do not qualify for traditional lending products and, in doing so, enable more households to make energy efficiency upgrades.

  15. Cancer prevention by green tea: evidence from epidemiologic studies.

    PubMed

    Yuan, Jian-Min

    2013-12-01

    In contrast to the consistent results of an inhibitory effect of green tea extracts and tea polyphenols on the development and growth of carcinogen-induced tumors in experimental animal models, results from human studies are mixed. Both observational and intervention studies have provided evidence in support of a protective role of green tea intake in the development of oral-digestive tract cancer or an inhibitory role of oral supplementation of green tea extract on a precancerous lesion of oral cavity. Evidence in support of green tea intake against the development of liver cancer risk is limited and inconsistent. An inverse association between green tea intake and lung cancer risk has been observed among never smokers but not among smokers. Although observational studies do not support a beneficial role of tea intake against the development of prostate cancer, several phase 2 clinical trials have shown an inhibitory effect of green tea extract against the progression of prostate premalignant lesions to malignant tumors. Prospective epidemiologic studies so far have not provided evidence for a protective effect of green tea consumption on breast cancer development. Current data neither confirm nor refute a definitive cancer-preventive role of green tea intake. Large randomized intervention trials on the efficacy of green tea polyphenols or extracts are required before a recommendation for green tea consumption for cancer prevention should be made.

  16. The scaling of green space coverage in European cities

    PubMed Central

    Fuller, Richard A.; Gaston, Kevin J.

    2009-01-01

    Most people on the planet live in dense aggregations, and policy directives emphasize green areas within cities to ameliorate some of the problems of urban living. Benefits of urban green spaces range from physical and psychological health to social cohesion, ecosystem service provision and biodiversity conservation. Green space coverage differs enormously among cities, yet little is known about the correlates or geography of this variation. This is important because urbanization is accelerating and the consequences for green space are unclear. Here, we use standardized major axis regression to explore the relationships between urban green space coverage, city area and population size across 386 European cities. We show that green space coverage increases more rapidly than city area, yet declines only weakly as human population density increases. Thus, green space provision within a city is primarily related to city area rather than the number of inhabitants that it serves, or a simple space-filling effect. Thus, compact cities (small size and high density) show very low per capita green space allocation. However, at high levels of urbanicity, the green space network is robust to further city compaction. As cities grow, interactions between people and nature depend increasingly on landscape quality outside formal green space networks, such as street plantings, or the size, composition and management of backyards and gardens. PMID:19324636

  17. Selling green power in California: Product, industry, and market trends

    SciTech Connect

    Wiser, R.H.; Pickle, S.J.

    1998-05-01

    As one of the first US stages to open its doors to retail electric competition, California offers an important opportunity to assess the effectiveness of green power marketing as a mechanism for supporting renewable energy. This report is an interim assessment of key green power product, industry, and market trends in California. The report identifies and analyzes: the potential size of the green power market in California; the companies participating in the green power market; the green power products being offered and their prices; the impact of the green market on renewable generators and the environment; and the influence of several public policies and non-governmental programs on the market for green power. Data used in this paper have been collected, in large part, from surveys and interviews with green power marketers that took place between December 1997 and April 1998. There remain legitimate concerns over the viability of green power marketing to support significant quantities of renewable energy and provide large environmental gains, and it is far too early to assess the overall strength of customer demand for renewable energy. A critical finding of this report is that, because of the high cost of acquiring and servicing residential customers and the low utility default service price, green power marketing affords new energy service providers one of the only viable entrees to California`s residential marketplace.

  18. The scaling of green space coverage in European cities.

    PubMed

    Fuller, Richard A; Gaston, Kevin J

    2009-06-23

    Most people on the planet live in dense aggregations, and policy directives emphasize green areas within cities to ameliorate some of the problems of urban living. Benefits of urban green spaces range from physical and psychological health to social cohesion, ecosystem service provision and biodiversity conservation. Green space coverage differs enormously among cities, yet little is known about the correlates or geography of this variation. This is important because urbanization is accelerating and the consequences for green space are unclear. Here, we use standardized major axis regression to explore the relationships between urban green space coverage, city area and population size across 386 European cities. We show that green space coverage increases more rapidly than city area, yet declines only weakly as human population density increases. Thus, green space provision within a city is primarily related to city area rather than the number of inhabitants that it serves, or a simple space-filling effect. Thus, compact cities (small size and high density) show very low per capita green space allocation. However, at high levels of urbanicity, the green space network is robust to further city compaction. As cities grow, interactions between people and nature depend increasingly on landscape quality outside formal green space networks, such as street plantings, or the size, composition and management of backyards and gardens.

  19. EIA and green procurement: Opportunities for strengthening their coordination

    SciTech Connect

    Uttam, Kedar; Faith-Ell, Charlotta; Balfors, Berit

    2012-02-15

    EIA plays an important role in enhancing the environmental performance of the construction sector. In recent years, the construction sector has been developing green procurement practices. Green procurement is a process that involves the incorporation of environmental requirements during the procurement of services and products. However, discussion on green procurement is rarely seen during the EIA phase. This paper addresses possible opportunities for improving the coordination between EIA and green procurement within the construction sector. The linking of EIA and green procurement has been postulated in the paper as an aid to strengthen the coordination between project planning and implementation. The paper is based on a literature review and is an outcome of an on-going research project concerning EIA and green procurement. This study indicated that it would be appropriate to introduce green procurement during the pre-decision phase of an EIA. In the present study, the opportunities for integrating green procurement at the stage of EIA are associated with the integration of project planning and EIA. Future research should investigate the mechanism through which the link can be established. - Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer This paper identifies opportunities to link EIA and green procurement. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Pre-decision phase of EIA could be appropriate for planning green procurement. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Future research should investigate the mechanism for establishing the link.

  20. Establishing Green Roof Infrastructure Through Environmental Policy Instruments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carter, Timothy; Fowler, Laurie

    2008-07-01

    Traditional construction practices provide little opportunity for environmental remediation to occur in urban areas. As concerns for environmental improvement in urban areas become more prevalent, innovative practices which create ecosystem services and ecologically functional land cover in cities will be in higher demand. Green roofs are a prime example of one of these practices. The past decade has seen the North American green roof industry rapidly expand through international green roof conferences, demonstration sites, case studies, and scientific research. This study evaluates existing international and North American green roof policies at the federal, municipal, and community levels. Green roof policies fall into a number of general categories, including direct and indirect regulation, direct and indirect financial incentives, and funding of demonstration or research projects. Advantages and disadvantages of each category are discussed. Salient features and a list of prompting standards common to successfully implemented green roof strategies are then distilled from these existing policies. By combining these features with data collected from an experimental green roof site in Athens, Georgia, the planning and regulatory framework for widespread green roof infrastructure can be developed. The authors propose policy instruments be multi-faceted and spatially focused, and also propose the following recommendations: (1) Identification of green roof overlay zones with specifications for green roofs built in these zones. This spatial analysis is important for prioritizing areas of the jurisdiction where green roofs will most efficiently function; (2) Offer financial incentives in the form of density credits and stormwater utility fee credits to help overcome the barriers to entry of the new technology; (3) Construct demonstration projects and institutionalize a commitment greening roofs on publicly-owned buildings as an effective way of establishing an educated

  1. Establishing green roof infrastructure through environmental policy instruments.

    PubMed

    Carter, Timothy; Fowler, Laurie

    2008-07-01

    Traditional construction practices provide little opportunity for environmental remediation to occur in urban areas. As concerns for environmental improvement in urban areas become more prevalent, innovative practices which create ecosystem services and ecologically functional land cover in cities will be in higher demand. Green roofs are a prime example of one of these practices. The past decade has seen the North American green roof industry rapidly expand through international green roof conferences, demonstration sites, case studies, and scientific research. This study evaluates existing international and North American green roof policies at the federal, municipal, and community levels. Green roof policies fall into a number of general categories, including direct and indirect regulation, direct and indirect financial incentives, and funding of demonstration or research projects. Advantages and disadvantages of each category are discussed. Salient features and a list of prompting standards common to successfully implemented green roof strategies are then distilled from these existing policies. By combining these features with data collected from an experimental green roof site in Athens, Georgia, the planning and regulatory framework for widespread green roof infrastructure can be developed. The authors propose policy instruments be multi-faceted and spatially focused, and also propose the following recommendations: (1) Identification of green roof overlay zones with specifications for green roofs built in these zones. This spatial analysis is important for prioritizing areas of the jurisdiction where green roofs will most efficiently function; (2) Offer financial incentives in the form of density credits and stormwater utility fee credits to help overcome the barriers to entry of the new technology; (3) Construct demonstration projects and institutionalize a commitment greening roofs on publicly-owned buildings as an effective way of establishing an educated

  2. Establishing green roof infrastructure through environmental policy instruments.

    PubMed

    Carter, Timothy; Fowler, Laurie

    2008-07-01

    Traditional construction practices provide little opportunity for environmental remediation to occur in urban areas. As concerns for environmental improvement in urban areas become more prevalent, innovative practices which create ecosystem services and ecologically functional land cover in cities will be in higher demand. Green roofs are a prime example of one of these practices. The past decade has seen the North American green roof industry rapidly expand through international green roof conferences, demonstration sites, case studies, and scientific research. This study evaluates existing international and North American green roof policies at the federal, municipal, and community levels. Green roof policies fall into a number of general categories, including direct and indirect regulation, direct and indirect financial incentives, and funding of demonstration or research projects. Advantages and disadvantages of each category are discussed. Salient features and a list of prompting standards common to successfully implemented green roof strategies are then distilled from these existing policies. By combining these features with data collected from an experimental green roof site in Athens, Georgia, the planning and regulatory framework for widespread green roof infrastructure can be developed. The authors propose policy instruments be multi-faceted and spatially focused, and also propose the following recommendations: (1) Identification of green roof overlay zones with specifications for green roofs built in these zones. This spatial analysis is important for prioritizing areas of the jurisdiction where green roofs will most efficiently function; (2) Offer financial incentives in the form of density credits and stormwater utility fee credits to help overcome the barriers to entry of the new technology; (3) Construct demonstration projects and institutionalize a commitment greening roofs on publicly-owned buildings as an effective way of establishing an educated

  3. Efficient computation of periodic and nonperiodic Green`s functions in layered media using the MPIE

    SciTech Connect

    Wilton, D.R.; Jackson, D.R.; Champagne, N.J.

    1998-03-27

    The mixed potential integral equation (MPIE) formulation is convenient for problems involving layered media because potential quantities involve low order singularities, in comparison to field quantities. For nonperiodic problems, the associated Green`s potentials involve spectral integrals of the Sommerfeld type, in the periodic case, discrete sums over sampled values of the same spectra are required. When source and observation points are in the same or in adjacent layers, the convergence of both representations is enhanced by isolating the direct and quasi-static image contributions associated with the nearby layers. In the periodic case, the convergence of direct and image contributions may be rapidly accelerated by means of the Ewadd method.

  4. Effects of green manures on growth, yield and quality of green okra (Abelmoschus esculentus L.) Har Lium Cultivar.

    PubMed

    Benjawan, Chutichudet; Chutichudet, P; Kaewsit, S

    2007-04-01

    This green manure experiment with the use of okra crop as indicator plant was carried out at Mahasarakham University Experimental Farm, Mahasarakham province, Northeast Thailand during May to September 2005 to investigate four types of green manure legume crops on growth, yield and quality of edible fresh pods of okra crop when grown on Roi-Et soil series (Oxic Paleustults). The four types of green manure plants include Jack bean, Cowpea, Green gram, and Giant sensitive plant. The experiment consisted of five treatments, i.e., T1 (Control), T2 (Jack bean), T3 (Cowpea), T4 (Green gram) and T5 (Giant sensitive plant). The experiment was laid in a Completely Randomized Design (CRD) with four replications. The results showed that Roi-Et soil series (Oxic Paleustults) contained some considerable mean values of organic matter (1.64-1.66%) but soil available phosphorus and exchangeable potassium were relatively low, particularly potassium. Green manures of the four legume plants slightly improved soil property of the Roi-Et soil series (tested at the end of the experimental period). The most effective green manure on stem diameter, bushy diameter, leaf numbers plant(-1) and leaf area of the fifth leaf of the okra plants, in most cases, was found with Jack bean and Cowpea ranked the second. However, in most cases, Cowpea gave a similar effect as that of Green gram and Giant sensitive plant. Pod length and weight pod(-1), pod diameter and edible fresh pod yields (5941.86 kg ha(-1)) were highest with Jack bean green manure treatment (T2), whilst the rest, in most cases, were similar. Green manure treatments gave highly significant effect on total soluble solids of pods over the control treatment, whilst total acidity, fibre and pectin contents were unaffected by green manure treatments. Green manure of Jack bean was the best legume crop for green manure to be used in improving soil fertility, particularly for Roi-Et soil series (Oxic Paleustults).

  5. Spectral estimation of green leaf area index of oats

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Best, R. G.; Harlan, J. C.

    1985-01-01

    Green leaf area index (LAI) is a measure of vegetative growth and development and is frequently used as an input parameter in yield estimation and evapotranspiration models. Extensive destructive sampling is usually required to achieve accurate estimates of green LAI in natural situations. In this investigation, a statistical modeling approach was used to predict the green LAI of oats from bidirectional reflectance data collected with multiband radiometers. Stepwise multiple regression models based on two sets of spectral reflectance factors accounted for 73 percent and 65 percent of the variance in green LAI of oats. Exponential models of spectral data transformations of greenness, normalized difference, and near-infrared/red ratio accounted for more of the variance in green LAI than the multiple regression models.

  6. Determination of malachite green and its leuco form in water

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Allen, J.L.; Meinertz, J.R.; Gofus, J.E.

    1992-01-01

    Liquid chromatographic (lc) analysis can detect malachite green residues in water at less than 10 mu-g/l. Water samples were concentrated on disposable diol columns, eluted with 0.05m P-toluene-sulfonic acid in methanol, and determined by reversed-phase lc. When combined with a lead oxide postcolumn reactor, the lc method can simultaneously determine both leuco and chromatic forms of malachite green. Recoveries averaged 95.4% For the chromatic form and 57.3% For the leuco form of malachite green oxalate and leuco malachite green in spiked pond water samples. Recoveries of the carbinol form of malachite green (an equilibrium product of the dye in water) from spiked tap water samples averaged 98.6%. Recoveries of leuco malachite green were low and ph-dependent.

  7. Green Tea (Camellia Sinensis): Chemistry and Oral Health.

    PubMed

    Khurshid, Zohaib; Zafar, Muhammad S; Zohaib, Sana; Najeeb, Shariq; Naseem, Mustafa

    2016-01-01

    Green tea is a widely consumed beverage worldwide. Numerous studies have suggested about the beneficial effects of green tea on oral conditions such as dental caries, periodontal diseases and halitosis. However, to date there have not been many review articles published that focus on beneficial effects of green tea on oral disease. The aim of this publication is to summarize the research conducted on the effects of green tea on oral cavity. Green tea might help reduce the bacterial activity in the oral cavity that in turn, can reduce the aforementioned oral afflictions. Furthermore, the antioxidant effect of the tea may reduce the chances of oral cancer. However, more clinical data is required to ascertain the possible benefits of green tea consumption on oral health. PMID:27386001

  8. Green Tea (Camellia Sinensis): Chemistry and Oral Health

    PubMed Central

    Khurshid, Zohaib; Zafar, Muhammad S.; Zohaib, Sana; Najeeb, Shariq; Naseem, Mustafa

    2016-01-01

    Green tea is a widely consumed beverage worldwide. Numerous studies have suggested about the beneficial effects of green tea on oral conditions such as dental caries, periodontal diseases and halitosis. However, to date there have not been many review articles published that focus on beneficial effects of green tea on oral disease. The aim of this publication is to summarize the research conducted on the effects of green tea on oral cavity. Green tea might help reduce the bacterial activity in the oral cavity that in turn, can reduce the aforementioned oral afflictions. Furthermore, the antioxidant effect of the tea may reduce the chances of oral cancer. However, more clinical data is required to ascertain the possible benefits of green tea consumption on oral health. PMID:27386001

  9. Green Tea (Camellia Sinensis): Chemistry and Oral Health.

    PubMed

    Khurshid, Zohaib; Zafar, Muhammad S; Zohaib, Sana; Najeeb, Shariq; Naseem, Mustafa

    2016-01-01

    Green tea is a widely consumed beverage worldwide. Numerous studies have suggested about the beneficial effects of green tea on oral conditions such as dental caries, periodontal diseases and halitosis. However, to date there have not been many review articles published that focus on beneficial effects of green tea on oral disease. The aim of this publication is to summarize the research conducted on the effects of green tea on oral cavity. Green tea might help reduce the bacterial activity in the oral cavity that in turn, can reduce the aforementioned oral afflictions. Furthermore, the antioxidant effect of the tea may reduce the chances of oral cancer. However, more clinical data is required to ascertain the possible benefits of green tea consumption on oral health.

  10. Green leaves are the stuff of life.

    PubMed

    1993-01-01

    Children, pregnant women, nursing mothers, and the elderly need to eat dark green leafy vegetables. These vegetables provide vitamin A which prevents night blindness and increases resistance to illness. The vitamin is also transferred to babies in breast milk; so mothers, in particular, need to consume these vegetables. Vitamin A is also contained in squash, sweet potatoes, carrots, mangoes, milk, eggs, and liver. Iron, which prevents tiredness and weakness, is found in meat, peas, beans, spinach, cassava leaves, and pumpkin leaves. Folic acid, which is necessary for healthy blood, is also found in dark green leafy vegetables. Pregnant women and the elderly especially need it. Protein is needed by all. Children need it for growth. Sources include meat, fish, eggs, milk, and cheese. However, protein is also found in dark green leafy vegetables, which can be grown or foraged, when the aforementioned sources are in short supply. Cultivated vegetable sources of protein include spinach, leeks, and the leaves of okra, cassava, papaya, hot peppers, beets, taro, and sweet potatoes. Wild vegetable sources are also available; however, care must be taken concerning plants that are poisonous or bitter. Some may require special preparation before eating. Vitamins and minerals escape with cooking, so a lid should be used and the time allotted should be as short as possible. Cooking water may be used for stew or soup, except when the leaves are poisonous before they are cooked (An example of this is cassava.). Children should begin eating these vegetables as soon as they stop breastfeeding. The vegetables can be mashed, ground, sieved or pureed in order for the children to eat them.

  11. Color preference in red-green dichromats.

    PubMed

    Álvaro, Leticia; Moreira, Humberto; Lillo, Julio; Franklin, Anna

    2015-07-28

    Around 2% of males have red-green dichromacy, which is a genetic disorder of color vision where one type of cone photoreceptor is missing. Here we investigate the color preferences of dichromats. We aim (i) to establish whether the systematic and reliable color preferences of normal trichromatic observers (e.g., preference maximum at blue, minimum at yellow-green) are affected by dichromacy and (ii) to test theories of color preference with a dichromatic sample. Dichromat and normal trichromat observers named and rated how much they liked saturated, light, dark, and focal colors twice. Trichromats had the expected pattern of preference. Dichromats had a reliable pattern of preference that was different to trichromats, with a preference maximum rather than minimum at yellow and a much weaker preference for blue than trichromats. Color preference was more affected in observers who lacked the cone type sensitive to long wavelengths (protanopes) than in those who lacked the cone type sensitive to medium wavelengths (deuteranopes). Trichromats' preferences were summarized effectively in terms of cone-contrast between color and background, and yellow-blue cone-contrast could account for dichromats' pattern of preference, with some evidence for residual red-green activity in deuteranopes' preference. Dichromats' color naming also could account for their color preferences, with colors named more accurately and quickly being more preferred. This relationship between color naming and preference also was present for trichromat males but not females. Overall, the findings provide novel evidence on how dichromats experience color, advance the understanding of why humans like some colors more than others, and have implications for general theories of aesthetics. PMID:26170287

  12. Color preference in red-green dichromats.

    PubMed

    Álvaro, Leticia; Moreira, Humberto; Lillo, Julio; Franklin, Anna

    2015-07-28

    Around 2% of males have red-green dichromacy, which is a genetic disorder of color vision where one type of cone photoreceptor is missing. Here we investigate the color preferences of dichromats. We aim (i) to establish whether the systematic and reliable color preferences of normal trichromatic observers (e.g., preference maximum at blue, minimum at yellow-green) are affected by dichromacy and (ii) to test theories of color preference with a dichromatic sample. Dichromat and normal trichromat observers named and rated how much they liked saturated, light, dark, and focal colors twice. Trichromats had the expected pattern of preference. Dichromats had a reliable pattern of preference that was different to trichromats, with a preference maximum rather than minimum at yellow and a much weaker preference for blue than trichromats. Color preference was more affected in observers who lacked the cone type sensitive to long wavelengths (protanopes) than in those who lacked the cone type sensitive to medium wavelengths (deuteranopes). Trichromats' preferences were summarized effectively in terms of cone-contrast between color and background, and yellow-blue cone-contrast could account for dichromats' pattern of preference, with some evidence for residual red-green activity in deuteranopes' preference. Dichromats' color naming also could account for their color preferences, with colors named more accurately and quickly being more preferred. This relationship between color naming and preference also was present for trichromat males but not females. Overall, the findings provide novel evidence on how dichromats experience color, advance the understanding of why humans like some colors more than others, and have implications for general theories of aesthetics.

  13. Circadian rhythms in the green sunfish retina

    PubMed Central

    1987-01-01

    We investigated the occurrence of circadian rhythms in retinomotor movements and retinal sensitivity in the green sunfish, Lepomis cyanellus. When green sunfish were kept in constant darkness, cone photoreceptors exhibited circadian retinomotor movements; rod photoreceptors and retinal pigment epithelium (RPE) pigment granules did not. Cones elongated during subjective night and contracted during subjective day. These results corroborate those of Burnside and Ackland (1984. Investigative Ophthalmology and Visual Science. 25:539-545). Electroretinograms (ERGs) recorded in constant darkness in response to dim flashes (lambda = 640 nm) exhibited a greater amplitude during subjective night than during subjective day. The nighttime increase in the ERG amplitude corresponded to a 3-10-fold increase in retinal sensitivity. The rhythmic changes in the ERG amplitude continued in constant darkness with a period of approximately 24 h, which indicates that the rhythm is generated by a circadian oscillator. The spectral sensitivity of the ERG recorded in constant darkness suggests that cones contribute to retinal responses during both day and night. Thus, the elongation of cone myoids during the night does not abolish the response of the cones. To examine the role of retinal efferents in generating retinal circadian rhythms, we cut the optic nerve. This procedure did not abolish the rhythms of retinomotor movement or of the ERG amplitude, but it did reduce the magnitude of the nighttime phases of both rhythms. Our results suggest that more than one endogenous oscillator regulates the retinal circadian rhythms in green sunfish. Circadian signals controlling the rhythms may be either generated within the eye or transferred to the eye via a humoral pathway. PMID:3598559

  14. Color preference in red–green dichromats

    PubMed Central

    Álvaro, Leticia; Moreira, Humberto; Lillo, Julio; Franklin, Anna

    2015-01-01

    Around 2% of males have red–green dichromacy, which is a genetic disorder of color vision where one type of cone photoreceptor is missing. Here we investigate the color preferences of dichromats. We aim (i) to establish whether the systematic and reliable color preferences of normal trichromatic observers (e.g., preference maximum at blue, minimum at yellow-green) are affected by dichromacy and (ii) to test theories of color preference with a dichromatic sample. Dichromat and normal trichromat observers named and rated how much they liked saturated, light, dark, and focal colors twice. Trichromats had the expected pattern of preference. Dichromats had a reliable pattern of preference that was different to trichromats, with a preference maximum rather than minimum at yellow and a much weaker preference for blue than trichromats. Color preference was more affected in observers who lacked the cone type sensitive to long wavelengths (protanopes) than in those who lacked the cone type sensitive to medium wavelengths (deuteranopes). Trichromats’ preferences were summarized effectively in terms of cone-contrast between color and background, and yellow-blue cone-contrast could account for dichromats’ pattern of preference, with some evidence for residual red–green activity in deuteranopes’ preference. Dichromats’ color naming also could account for their color preferences, with colors named more accurately and quickly being more preferred. This relationship between color naming and preference also was present for trichromat males but not females. Overall, the findings provide novel evidence on how dichromats experience color, advance the understanding of why humans like some colors more than others, and have implications for general theories of aesthetics. PMID:26170287

  15. Learnability of Red-Green Opponency

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ahumada, Albert J., Jr.

    1997-01-01

    Lennie, Haake, and Williams found that in the lateral geniculate nucleus (LGN), parvocellular unit responses are consistent with the hypothesis that their input connectivity is blind to the difference between middle-wavelength-sensitive (MWS) and long-wavelength-sensitive (LWS) cones. Most of their cells have a total MWS input weight opposite in sign and similar in magnitude to their total LWS input weight. If these weights are exactly balanced, the construction of a red-green opponent system from such units is simple: such units need only be aligned so the signs of their outputs agree. Ahumada and Mulligan described an associative learning process which can accomplish this alignment. If the units are not balanced (carry some luminance information), the strong overlap between the MWS and LWS spectral responses can cause units to agree more on the basis of luminance, and the associative process fails to produce red-green opponency. The learning theory requires that the LGN units be nearly balanced (more strongly encode chromaticity than luminance) and quantitatively expresses the requirement: the principal component of the LGN outputs must be in the red-green rather than the luminance direction. We show that the cone weights of the monkey LGN cells measured by Derrington, Krauskopf, and Lennie can satisfy this learnability criterion even if the MWS spectral response is close to the LWS spectral response, simulating anomalous trichromacy. The learnability theory provides a source of visual system variation for explaining why different anomalous trichromats may make the same average anomaloscope match (same pigments), but have either narrow (good opponent learning) or wide (poor learning) ranges of acceptable matches.

  16. On being green: can flow chemistry help?

    PubMed

    Ley, Steven V

    2012-08-01

    The principles of Green Chemistry are important but challenging drivers for most modern synthesis programs. To meet these challenges new flow chemistry tools are proving to be very effective by providing improved heat/mass transfer opportunities, lower solvent usage, less waste generation, hazardous compound containment, and the possibility of a 24/7 working regime. This machine-assisted approach can be used to effect repetitive or routine scale-up steps or when combined with reagent and scavenger cartridges, to achieve multi-step synthesis of complex natural products and pharmaceutical agents. PMID:22711555

  17. Texas facility's world-first 'green' milestone.

    PubMed

    Anderson, Bruce

    2011-02-01

    Healthcare facilities use nearly twice as much energy per square foot as office buildings, according to American HVAC and air handling equipment manufacturer Temtrol (citing statistics from the country's Green Building Council). As Bruce Anderson, vice-president, Marketing, CES Group LLC (of which Temtrol is a Group company), explains, when America's Dell Children's Medical Center of Central Texas, a paediatric facility built to field-leading environmental performance standards, expanded recently, the hospital's project team selected Temtrol's FANWALL technology for the air handlers used for a new MRI surgical unit "to provide energy-efficient, critical ventilation". PMID:21425713

  18. GreenArrow version 1.0

    SciTech Connect

    2006-03-29

    GreenArrow is a visualization program for displaying directed graphs that can use text in place of lines to represent the edges between nodes. This text can be animated to show the link direction, and allow for more text to be displayed then would normally be allowed. The text is also tapered and arced to show direction. The node labels can be wrapped around the node to avoid label crossing as well. The program is interactive, and allows the user to zoom, pan and rotate a graph, as well as manipulate the individual nodes.

  19. Green's Functions of Wave Equations in

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Deng, Shijin; Wang, Weike; Yu, Shih-Hsien

    2015-06-01

    We study the d'Alembert equation with a boundary. We introduce the notions of Rayleigh surface wave operators, delayed/advanced mirror images, wave recombinations, and wave cancellations. This allows us to obtain the complete and simple formula of the Green's functions for the wave equation with the presence of various boundary conditions. We are able to determine whether a Rayleigh surface wave is active or virtual, and study the lacunas of the wave equation in three dimensional with the presence of a boundary in the case of a virtual Rayleigh surface wave.

  20. Green Applications for Space Power Project

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Robinson, Joel (Principal Investigator)

    2014-01-01

    Spacecraft propulsion and power for many decades has relied on Hydrazine monopropellant technology for auxiliary power units (APU), orbital circularization, orbit raising/lowering and attitude control. However, Hydrazine is toxic and therefore requires special ground handling procedures to ensure launch crew safety. The Swedish Company ECAPS has developed a technology based upon the propellant Ammonium Dinitramide (ADN) that offers higher performance, higher density and reduced ground handling support than Hydrazine. This blended propellant is called LMP-103S. Currently, the United States Air Force (USAF) is pursuing a technology based on Hydroxyl Ammonium Nitrate (HAN, otherwise known as AF-M315E) with industry partners Aerojet and Moog. Based on the advantages offered by these propellants, MSFC should explore powering APU's with these propellants. Due to the availability of space hardware, the principal investigator has found a collection of USAF hardware, that will act as a surrogate, which operates on a Hydrazine derivative. The F-16 fighter jet uses H-70 or 30% diluted Hydrazine for an Emergency Power Unit (EPU) which supplies power to the plane. The PI has acquired two EPU's from planes slated for destruction at the Davis Monthan AFB. This CIF will include a partnership with 2 other NASA Centers who are individually seeking seed funds from their respective organizations: Kennedy Space Center (KSC) and Dryden Flight Research Center (DFRC). KSC is preparing for future flights from their launch pads that will utilize green propellants and desire a low-cost testbed in which to test and calibrate new leak detection sensors. DFRC has access to F-16's which can be used by MSFC & KSC to perform a ground test that demonstrates emergency power supplied to the jet. Neither of the green propellant alternatives have been considered nor evaluated for an APU application. Work has already been accomplished to characterize and obtain the properties of these 2 propellants