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Sample records for nendo handotai nano

  1. Site-Directed Mutagenesis of the Nidovirus Replicative Endoribonuclease NendoU Exerts Pleiotropic Effects on the Arterivirus Life Cycle

    PubMed Central

    Posthuma, Clara C.; Nedialkova, Danny D.; Zevenhoven-Dobbe, Jessika C.; Blokhuis, Jeroen H.; Gorbalenya, Alexander E.; Snijder, Eric J.

    2006-01-01

    The highly conserved NendoU replicative domain of nidoviruses (arteriviruses, coronaviruses, and roniviruses) belongs to a small protein family whose cellular branch is prototyped by XendoU, a Xenopus laevis endoribonuclease involved in nucleolar RNA processing. Recently, sequence-specific in vitro endoribonuclease activity was demonstrated for the NendoU-containing nonstructural protein (nsp) 15 of several coronaviruses. To investigate the biological role of this novel enzymatic activity, we have characterized a comprehensive set of arterivirus NendoU mutants. Deleting parts of the NendoU domain from nsp11 of equine arteritis virus was lethal. Site-directed mutagenesis of conserved residues exerted pleiotropic effects. In a first-cycle analysis, replacement of two conserved Asp residues in the C-terminal part of NendoU rendered viral RNA synthesis and virus production undetectable. In contrast, mutagenesis of other conserved residues, including two putative catalytic His residues that are absolutely conserved in NendoU and cellular homologs, produced viable mutants displaying reduced plaque sizes (20 to 80% reduction) and reduced yields of infectious progeny of up to 5 log units. A more detailed analysis of these mutants revealed a moderate reduction in RNA synthesis, with subgenomic RNA synthesis consistently being more strongly affected than genome replication. Our data suggest that the arterivirus nsp11 is a multifunctional protein with a key role in viral RNA synthesis and additional functions in the viral life cycle that are as yet poorly defined. PMID:16439522

  2. Nano Materials

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-03-01

    Nano Materials Henne van Heeren enablingMNT Drakensteynlaan 34 3319 RG Dordrecht The Netherlands Henne@enablingMNT.com Introduction... micro sized particles. Nanotubes From a Mancef patent investigation it was learned that carbon nanotechnology (mainly nanotubes, but also...for high purity nanotubes. RTO-EN-AVT-129bis 3 - 1 van Heeren, H. (2007) Nano Materials. In Nanotechnology Aerospace Applications

  3. Formula Nano

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2017-07-01

    Last April, six teams raced molecules on a metallic surface using a scanning tunnelling microscope in the first NanoCar Race. The event brought scientific research in nanotechnology to the attention of the wider public.

  4. Nano Step

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2012-09-25

    ISS033-E-007358 (25 Sept. 2012) --- Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency astronaut Aki Hoshide, Expedition 33 flight engineer, services the Nano Step payload in the Kibo laboratory of the International Space Station.

  5. Nano-technology and nano-toxicology.

    PubMed

    Maynard, Robert L

    2012-01-01

    Rapid developments in nano-technology are likely to confer significant benefits on mankind. But, as with perhaps all new technologies, these benefits are likely to be accompanied by risks, perhaps by new risks. Nano-toxicology is developing in parallel with nano-technology and seeks to define the hazards and risks associated with nano-materials: only when risks have been identified they can be controlled. This article discusses the reasons for concern about the potential effects on health of exposure to nano-materials and relates these to the evidence of the effects on health of the ambient aerosol. A number of hypotheses are proposed and the dangers of adopting unsubstantiated hypotheses are stressed. Nano-toxicology presents many challenges and will need substantial financial support if it is to develop at a rate sufficient to cope with developments in nano-technology.

  6. Nano-technology and nano-toxicology

    PubMed Central

    Maynard, Robert L.

    2012-01-01

    Rapid developments in nano-technology are likely to confer significant benefits on mankind. But, as with perhaps all new technologies, these benefits are likely to be accompanied by risks, perhaps by new risks. Nano-toxicology is developing in parallel with nano-technology and seeks to define the hazards and risks associated with nano-materials: only when risks have been identified they can be controlled. This article discusses the reasons for concern about the potential effects on health of exposure to nano-materials and relates these to the evidence of the effects on health of the ambient aerosol. A number of hypotheses are proposed and the dangers of adopting unsubstantiated hypotheses are stressed. Nano-toxicology presents many challenges and will need substantial financial support if it is to develop at a rate sufficient to cope with developments in nano-technology. PMID:22662021

  7. Sustainable nano-catalysis

    EPA Science Inventory

    A novel nano-catalyst system which bridges the homogenous and heterogeneous system is described that is cheaper, easily accessible (sustainable) and requires no need of catalyst filtration during the work-up. Because of its nano-size, i.e. high surface area, the contact between r...

  8. Sustainable nano-catalysis

    EPA Science Inventory

    A novel nano-catalyst system which bridges the homogenous and heterogeneous system is described that is cheaper, easily accessible (sustainable) and requires no need of catalyst filtration during the work-up. Because of its nano-size, i.e. high surface area, the contact between r...

  9. Nano-composite materials

    DOEpatents

    Lee, Se-Hee; Tracy, C. Edwin; Pitts, J. Roland

    2010-05-25

    Nano-composite materials are disclosed. An exemplary method of producing a nano-composite material may comprise co-sputtering a transition metal and a refractory metal in a reactive atmosphere. The method may also comprise co-depositing a transition metal and a refractory metal composite structure on a substrate. The method may further comprise thermally annealing the deposited transition metal and refractory metal composite structure in a reactive atmosphere.

  10. NanoSail-D

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Montgomery, Edward E., IV; Adams, Charles L.

    2008-01-01

    The "NanoSail-D" mission is currently scheduled for launch onboard a Falcon-1 Launch Vehicle in the early June 2008 timeframe. The NanoSail-D spacecraft will consist of a solar sail subsystem stowed in a 2U volume and a 1U spacecraft bus, provided by Ames Research Center. The primary objectives of the NanoSail-D technology demonstration mission are to fabricate, stow and deploy on-orbit a solar sail and perform a de-orbit maneuver to demonstrate a potential orbital debris mitigation technology. The NanoSail-D mission is being developed through a collaborative effort between the NASA Marshall Space Flight Center and the NASA Ames Research Center Small Spacecraft Office. Details of the NanoSail-D system will be presented, including: 1) design details of the solar sail reflective membrane quadrants, gossamer booms, deployment system and passive attitude control system, 2) design analysis results including structural, thermal, environmental, orbital debris and safety, and 3) test results including deployment, ascent venting, launch vibration and PPOD integration verification.

  11. Investigation on Nano Refrigeration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Senthil kumar, G.; Saravanan, K.; Ajay Kumar, K.

    2017-05-01

    Boiling heat transfer is imperative in the refrigeration and air conditioning systems. R22 is the mostly widely used alternative refrigerant in refrigeration equipment such as domestic refrigerators and air conditioners. Though the global warming up potential of R22is relatively high, it is affirmed that it is a long alternative refrigerant in lots of countries. By addition of nano particles to the refrigerant results in improvements in the thermo-physical properties and heat transfer characteristics of the refrigerant, thereby improving the performance of the refrigeration system. The results indicate that cuo nano refrigerant works normally and safely in the refrigeration system. The results indicate that heat transfer coefficient increases with the usage of nanocuo. Thus using cuo nano refrigerant in refrigeration system is found to be feasible. Objective of this project is to study the pre and post effects of addition of NRs in refrigeration and to predict COP and power consumption reduction.

  12. NanoLaunch

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jones, Jonathan; Harris, Lawanna

    2015-01-01

    NASA's NanoLaunch effort will provide the framework to mature both Earth-to-orbit and on-orbit propulsion and avionics technologies while also providing affordable, dedicated access to low-Earth orbit for CubeSat-class payloads. The project will also serve as an early career personnel training opportunity with mentors to gain hands-on project experience.

  13. Nano-Satellite Avionics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Culver, Harry

    1999-01-01

    Abstract NASA's Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC) is currently developing a new class of satellites called the nano-satellite (nano-sat). A major objective of this development effort is to provide the technology required to enable a constellation of tens to hundreds of nano-satellites to make both remote and in-situ measurements from space. The Nano-sat will be a spacecraft weighing a maximum of 10 kg, including the propellant mass, and producing at least 5 Watts of power to operate the spacecraft. The electronics are required to survive a total radiation dose rate of 100 krads for a mission lifetime of two years. There are many unique challenges that must be met in order to develop the avionics for such a spacecraft. The first challenge is to develop an architecture that will operate on the allotted 5 Watts and meet the diverging requirements of multiple missions. This architecture will need to incorporate a multitude of new advanced microelectronic technologies. The microelectronics developed must be a modular and scalable packaging of technology to solve the problem of developing a solution to both reduce cost and meet the requirements of various missions. This development will utilize the most cost effective approach, whether infusing commercially driven semiconductor devices into spacecraft applications or partnering with industry to design and develop low cost, low power, low mass, and high capacity data processing devices. This paper will discuss the nano-sat architecture and the major technologies that will be developed. The major technologies that will be covered include: (1) Light weight Low Power Electronics Packaging, (2) Radiation Hard/Tolerant, Low Power Processing Platforms, (3) High capacity Low Power Memory Systems (4) Radiation Hard reconfiguragble field programmable gate array (rFPGA)

  14. Nano-rods of zinc oxide in nano-graphene

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ortiz, Pedro; Chavira, Elizabeth; Monroy, Marel; Elizalde, José; Santiago, Patricia; Sato, Roberto; Tejeda, Adriana; González, Guillermina; Novelo, Omar; Flores, Carlos

    2014-03-01

    It's of great interest to study the devices based on nano-ZnO and graphene, for their electromagnetic and optical properties to increase the efficiency of solar cells. The graphene multilayers synthesis was done by mechanosynthesis, grinding in a mechanical agate mortar. The zinc oxide nano-rods were synthesized from zinc acetate dihydrate, Ace, (Sigma Aldrich) and ethylene diamine, En, (Sigma Aldrich) with a 1:2 ratio of reagents En/Ace. The ZnO nano-rods in nano-tubes graphene were obtained by mechanosynthesis. The X-ray powder diffraction, shows the shift of C with PDF 12-0212 and ZnO, Zincite PDF 36-1451, both with hexagonal unit cell. The grain size and morphology of graphene (multilayers and nano-tubes), ZnO nano-rods and ZnO-graphene mixture (multilayers, nano-tubes) were observed by scanning electron microscope. Transmission electron microscope, corroborates shown in SEM. Raman spectroscopy, shows the shift of multilayer graphene and the ZnO nano-rods. In photoluminescence measurements, observe the change in intensity in the band defects. Magnetic properties characterization was carried out by Vibrating Sample Magnetometry. We conclude that graphite multilayers dislocated by cutting efforts, forming graphene nano-tubes and encapsulated ZnO nano-rods within graphene.

  15. Biopolymer nano-particles and natural nano-carriers for nano-encapsulation of phenolic compounds.

    PubMed

    Faridi Esfanjani, Afshin; Jafari, Seid Mahdi

    2016-10-01

    Phenolic compounds are major micronutrients in our diet,(1) and evidence for their role in the prevention of degenerative diseases such as cancer, inflammation and neurodegenerative diseases is emerging. The easily destruction against environment stresses and low bioavailability of phenolics are main limitations of their application. Therefore, nano-encapsulated phenolics as a fine delivery system can solve their restrictions. Polymeric nanoparticles and natural nano-carriers are one of the most effective and industrial techniques which can be used for protection and delivery of phenolics. In this review, preparation, application and characterization of polymeric based nano-capsules and natural nano-carriers for phenolics have been considered and discussed including polymeric nanoparticles, polymeric complex nanoparticles, cyclodextrins, nano-caseins, nanocrystals, electrospun nano-fibers, electro-sprayed nano-particles, and nano-spray dried particles. Our main goal was to cover the relevant recent studies in the past few years. Although a number of different types of polymeric and natural based nano-scale delivery systems have been developed, there are relatively poor quantitative understanding of their in vivo absorption, permeation and release. Also, performing toxicity experiments, residual solvent analysis and studying their biological fate during digestion, absorption, and excretion of polymeric nanoparticle and natural nano-carriers containing phenolics should be considered in future researches. In addition, future investigations could focus on application of phenolic nano-scale delivery systems in pharmaceuticals and functional foods.

  16. Coupled nano-plasmons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Apostol, M.; Ilie, S.; Petrut, A.; Savu, M.; Toba, S.

    2014-05-01

    A simple model of coupled plasmons arising in two neighbouring nano-particles is presented. The coupled oscillations and the corresponding eigenfrequencies are computed. It is shown that the plasmons may be periodically transferred between the two particles. For larger separation distances between the two particles the retardation is included. The oscillation eigenmodes are the polaritons in this case. There are distances for which the particles do not couple to each other, i.e. the polaritonic coupling gets damped. The van der Waals-London-Casimir force is estimated for the two particles; it is shown that for large distances the force is repulsive. We compute also the polarizabilities of the two coupled nano-particles and their cross-section under the action of an external monochromatic plane wave, which exhibit resonances indicative of light trapping and field enhancement. A resonant force is also identified, acting upon the particles both on behalf of the external field and of each other.

  17. Nano-energetics Program

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-08-09

    NASA Launch First-Ever Test Rocket Fueled by green, Safe Aluminum-Ice Propellant \\.J ••• • ....... AFRI.!I.,; 3DISTRIBUTION A: Approved for public... Propellants & Explosives • Increased Energy Storage • Managed Energy Release • Increased Lethality & Range • Reduced Sensitivity • New Propulsion and...weight graphene sheets) that will eliminate structural catalyst •(2010) First Ever Nano-Aluminum Encapsulated with Ammonium Perchlorade and RDX

  18. Electrospray neutralization process and apparatus for generation of nano-aerosol and nano-structured materials

    SciTech Connect

    Bailey, Charles L.; Morozov, Victor; Vsevolodov, Nikolai N.

    2010-08-17

    The claimed invention describes methods and apparatuses for manufacturing nano-aerosols and nano-structured materials based on the neutralization of charged electrosprayed products with oppositely charged electrosprayed products. Electrosprayed products include molecular ions, nano-clusters and nano-fibers. Nano-aerosols can be generated when neutralization occurs in the gas phase. Neutralization of electrospan nano-fibers with molecular ions and charged nano-clusters may result in the formation of fibrous aerosols or free nano-mats. Nano-mats can also be produced on a suitable substrate, forming efficient nano-filters.

  19. Magnetic Nano-Materials: Truly Sustainable Green Chemistry Nano Catalysis

    EPA Science Inventory

    We envisioned a novel nano-catalyst system, which can bridge the homogenous and heterogeneous system, and simultaneously be cheaper, easily accessible (sustainable) and possibly does not require elaborate work-up. Because of its nano-size, i.e. high surface area, the contact betw...

  20. To be nano or not to be nano?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Joachim, Christian

    2005-02-01

    Nanomaterials, nanostructures, nanostructured materials, nanoimprint, nanobiotechnology, nanophysics, nanochemistry, radical nanotechnology, nanosciences, nanooptics, nanoelectronics, nanorobotics, nanosoldiers, nanomedecine, nanoeconomy, nanobusiness, nanolawyer, nanoethics to name a few of the nanos. We need a clear definition of all these burgeoning fields for the sake of the grant attribution, for the sake of research program definition, and to avoid everyone being lost in so many nanos.

  1. To be nano or not to be nano?

    PubMed

    Joachim, Christian

    2005-02-01

    Nanomaterials, nanostructures, nanostructured materials, nanoimprint, nanobiotechnology, nanophysics, nanochemistry, radical nanotechnology, nanosciences, nanooptics, nanoelectronics, nanorobotics, nanosoldiers, nanomedecine, nanoeconomy, nanobusiness, nanolawyer, nanoethics to name a few of the nanos. We need a clear definition of all these burgeoning fields for the sake of the grant attribution, for the sake of research program definition, and to avoid everyone being lost in so many nanos.

  2. PREFACE: Nano- and microfluidics Nano- and microfluidics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jacobs, Karin

    2011-05-01

    The field of nano- and microfluidics emerged at the end of the 1990s parallel to the demand for smaller and smaller containers and channels for chemical, biochemical and medical applications such as blood and DNS analysis [1], gene sequencing or proteomics [2, 3]. Since then, new journals and conferences have been launched and meanwhile, about two decades later, a variety of microfluidic applications are on the market. Briefly, 'the small flow becomes mainstream' [4]. Nevertheless, research in nano- and microfluidics is more than downsizing the spatial dimensions. For liquids on the nanoscale, surface and interface phenomena grow in importance and may even dominate the behavior in some systems. The studies collected in this special issue all concentrate on these type of systems and were part ot the priority programme SPP1164 'Nano- and Microfluidics' of the German Science Foundation (Deutsche Forschungsgemeinschaft, DFG). The priority programme was initiated in 2002 by Hendrik Kuhlmann and myself and was launched in 2004. Friction between a moving liquid and a solid wall may, for instance, play an important role so that the usual assumption of a no-slip boundary condition is no longer valid. Likewise, the dynamic deformations of soft objects like polymers, vesicles or capsules in flow arise from the subtle interplay between the (visco-)elasticity of the object and the viscous stresses in the surrounding fluid and, potentially, the presence of structures confining the flow like channels. Consequently, new theories were developed ( see articles in this issue by Münch and Wagner, Falk and Mecke, Bonthuis et al, Finken et al, Almenar and Rauscher, Straube) and experiments were set up to unambiguously demonstrate deviations from bulk, or 'macro', behavior (see articles in this issue by Wolff et al, Vinogradova and Belyaev, Hahn et al, Seemann et al, Grüner and Huber, Müller-Buschbaum et al, Gutsche et al, Braunmüller et al, Laube et al, Brücker, Nottebrock et al

  3. Reconfigurable Nano-Plasmonics Holography

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-04-01

    30 Sept. 2012 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Reconfigurable Nano -Plasmonics Holography 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT...of plasmonic holography by Reconfigurable Surface Plasmon Phase Modulators from micro -electromechanical devices. High dielectric constant...integration of the above components in a SP modulator device. 15. SUBJECT TERMS surface plasmon, nano -photonics, phase modulation, reconfigurable Air Force

  4. EDITORIAL: Nano Meets Spectroscopy Nano Meets Spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Birch, David J. S.

    2012-08-01

    The multidisciplinary two-day Nano Meets Spectroscopy (NMS) event was held at the National Physical Laboratory (NPL), Teddington, UK, in September 2011. The event was planned from the outset to be at the interface of several areas—in particular, spectroscopy and nanoscience, and to bring together topics and people with different approaches to achieving common goals in biomolecular science. Hence the meeting cut across traditional boundaries and brought together researchers using diverse techniques, particularly fluorescence and Raman spectroscopy. Despite engaging common problems, these techniques are frequently seen as mutually exclusive with the two communities rarely interacting at conferences. The meeting was widely seen to have lived up to its billing in good measure. It attracted the maximum capacity of ~120 participants, including 22 distinguished speakers (9 from outside the UK), over 50 posters and a vibrant corporate exhibition comprising 10 leading instrument companies and IOP Publishing. The organizers were Professor David Birch (Chair), Dr Karen Faulds and Professor Duncan Graham of the University of Strathclyde, Professor Cait MacPhee of the University of Edinburgh and Dr Alex Knight of NPL. The event was sponsored by the European Science Foundation, the Institute of Physics, the Royal Society of Chemistry, NPL and the Scottish Universities Physics Alliance. The full programme and abstracts are available at http://sensor.phys.strath.ac.uk/nms/program.php. The programme was quite ambitious in terms of the breadth and depth of scope. The interdisciplinary and synergistic concept of 'X meets Y' played well, cross-fertilization between different fields often being a source of inspiration and progress. Fluorescence and Raman spectroscopy provided the core, but the meeting had little repetition and also attracted contributions on more specialist techniques such as CARS, super-resolution, single molecule and chiral methods. In terms of application the

  5. Dispersive nanoSQUID magnetometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Levenson-Falk, E. M.; Antler, N.; Siddiqi, I.

    2016-11-01

    We describe the theory and implementation of a dispersive magnetometer based on an aluminum nanoSQUID. The nanoSQUID consists of a superconducting loop interrupted by two variable-thickness weak-link nanobridge Josephson junctions. When the nanoSQUID is placed in parallel with a lumped-element capacitor, it acts as the inductive element in a resonant tank circuit. By performing microwave reflectometry on the circuit, the SQUID inductance can be measured, providing a sensitive meter of the flux threading the SQUID loop. In this review we provide the theoretical basis for the device, describe design and operation considerations, and present characterization results on several devices.

  6. Nano-JASMINE: a nano size astrometry satellite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kobayashi, Yukiyasu; Yano, Taihei; Gouda, Naoteru; Yamada, Yoshiyuki; Takato, Naruhisa; Miyazaki, Satoshi; Suganuma, Masahiro; Ueda, Seiji; Nakasuka, Shin'ichi; Jasmine Working Group

    2005-04-01

    We present the outline and current status of the nano-JASMINE project. Nano-JASMINE is a nano size astrometry satellite (the total payload mass is between 1 kg and 10 kg), which is expected to be launched in 2006. The main purpose of the project is to prove and demonstrate the key technologies required for JASMINE (Japanese Astrometry Satellite Mission for Infrared Exploration) in a real space environment Gouda et. al. (2002). Nano-JASMINE will measure annual parallaxes of bright stars (7 mag) with an accuracy greater than 1 milliarcsecond after two years of operation. This is comparable to the accuracy of the Hipparcos catalog. Currently, the subject of major research and development of the project is to build optical and telescope structures using new material, and to establish a data acquisition and control system.

  7. Nano-optomechanical transducer

    DOEpatents

    Rakich, Peter T; El-Kady, Ihab F; Olsson, Roy H; Su, Mehmet Fatih; Reinke, Charles; Camacho, Ryan; Wang, Zheng; Davids, Paul

    2013-12-03

    A nano-optomechanical transducer provides ultrabroadband coherent optomechanical transduction based on Mach-wave emission that uses enhanced photon-phonon coupling efficiencies by low impedance effective phononic medium, both electrostriction and radiation pressure to boost and tailor optomechanical forces, and highly dispersive electromagnetic modes that amplify both electrostriction and radiation pressure. The optomechanical transducer provides a large operating bandwidth and high efficiency while simultaneously having a small size and minimal power consumption, enabling a host of transformative phonon and signal processing capabilities. These capabilities include optomechanical transduction via pulsed phonon emission and up-conversion, broadband stimulated phonon emission and amplification, picosecond pulsed phonon lasers, broadband phononic modulators, and ultrahigh bandwidth true time delay and signal processing technologies.

  8. Nano boron nitride flatland.

    PubMed

    Pakdel, Amir; Bando, Yoshio; Golberg, Dmitri

    2014-02-07

    Recent years have witnessed many breakthroughs in research on two-dimensional (2D) nanomaterials, among which is hexagonal boron nitride (h-BN), a layered material with a regular network of BN hexagons. This review provides an insight into the marvellous nano BN flatland, beginning with a concise introduction to BN and its low-dimensional nanostructures, followed by an overview of the past and current state of research on 2D BN nanostructures. A comprehensive review of the structural characteristics and synthetic routes of BN monolayers, multilayers, nanomeshes, nanowaves, nanoflakes, nanosheets and nanoribbons is presented. In addition, electronic, optical, thermal, mechanical, magnetic, piezoelectric, catalytic, ecological, biological and wetting properties, applications and research perspectives for these novel 2D nanomaterials are discussed.

  9. Nano-Dust Analyzer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gruen, E.; Horanyi, M.; Moebius, E.; Sternovsky, Z.; Auer, S.; Srama, R.; Juhasz, A.

    2010-12-01

    Recently, the STEREO WAVES instruments recorded a large number of intense electric field signals, which were interpreted as impacts from nanometer sized particles striking the spacecraft with velocities of about the solar wind speed [1]. This high flux and strong spatial and/or temporal variations of nanometer sized dust grains at low latitude appears to be uncorrelated with the solar wind properties. Early dust instruments onboard Pioneer 8 and 9 and Helios spacecraft detected a flow of submicron sized dust particles coming from the direction of the Sun. These particles originate in the inner solar system from mutual collisions among meteoroids and move on hyperbolic orbits that leave the Solar System under the prevailing radiation pressure force [2]. The observed fluxes of inner-source pickup ions also point to the existence of a much enhanced dust population in the nanometer size range [3]. A new highly sensitive instrument is being developed within NASA's Heliophysics Program to confirm the existence of the so-called nano-dust particles, characterize their impact parameters, and measure their chemical composition. The instrument is based on the Cassini Dust Analyzer (CDA) that has analyzed the composition of nanometer sized dust particles emanating from the Jovian and Saturnian systems but could not be pointed towards the Sun. By applying technologies implemented in solar wind instruments and coronagraphs a highly sensitive dust analyzer will be developed and tested in the laboratory. The measurements will enable us to identify the source of the dust by comparing their elemental composition with that of larger micrometeoroid particles of cometary and asteroid origin and will reveal interaction of nano-dust with the interplanetary medium by investigating the relation of the dust flux with solar wind and IMF properties. [1] Meyer-Vernet, N. et al., Solar Physics, 256, 463, 2009 [2] Zook, H.A. and Berg, O.E.: A source for hyperbolic cosmic dust particles

  10. Approaching the nano world

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stemmer, Andreas; Jacobs, Heiko; Knapp, Helmut F.

    1996-12-01

    At the interface of micro and macro world, vision plays a fundamental role in localizing targets and positioning micro- or nanorobots relative to them. Traditionally, far- field optics are used to achieve this task. However, in most practical applications optical diffraction limits resolution to the micrometer-range although image processing may provide us relative accuracies on the order of several nanometers in a few special cases. At ambient pressure, capillary condensation of water vapor severely hampers reproducible and reversible manipulations of micrometer- sized or smaller objects since the resulting adhesive forces between tool and object easily exceed the object's weight. The size of objects also dictates the useful dimensions of sensors and actuators and generally necessitates integration of several sensing and/or actuation functions into a single device. To overcome above mentioned difficulties in accessing the micro and nano world, sensing and actuating principles derived from scanning probe microscopies such as atomic force or optical near-field provide us with the necessary extension of the capabilities offered by traditional far-field systems. A fluid environment also prevents those hard-to-control effects of capillary forces.

  11. 3D nano-structures for laser nano-manipulation

    PubMed Central

    Seniutinas, Gediminas; Gervinskas, Gediminas; Brasselet, Etienne; Juodkazis, Saulius

    2013-01-01

    Summary The resputtering of gold films from nano-holes defined in a sacrificial PMMA mask, which was made by electron beam lithography, was carried out with a dry plasma etching tool in order to form well-like structures with a high aspect ratio (height/width ≈ 3–4) at the rims of the nano-holes. The extraordinary transmission through the patterns of such nano-wells was investigated experimentally and numerically. By doing numerical simulations of 50-nm and 100-nm diameter polystyrene beads in water and air, we show the potential of such patterns for self-induced back-action (SIBA) trapping. The best trapping conditions were found to be a trapping force of 2 pN/W/μm2 (numerical result) exerted on a 50-nm diameter bead in water. The simulations were based on the analytical Lorentz force model. PMID:24062979

  12. Nano-Biophotonics: new tools for chemical nano-analytics

    PubMed Central

    Huser, Thomas

    2008-01-01

    Summary The nondestructive chemical analysis of biological processes in the crowded intracellular environment, at cellular membranes, and between cells with a spatial resolution well beyond the diffraction limit is made possible through Nano-Biophotonics. A number of sophisticated schemes employing nanoparticles, nano-apertures, or shaping of the probe volume in the far field have significantly extended our knowledge about lipid rafts, macromolecular complexes, i.e. chromatin, vesicles, and cellular organelles, and their interactions and trafficking within the cell. Here, I review some of the most recent developments in Nano-Biophotonics that already are or soon will become relevant to the analysis of intracellular processes. The pros and cons of the various techniques will be discussed and an outlook of their prospects for the near future will be provided. PMID:18786651

  13. Nano-biophotonics: new tools for chemical nano-analytics.

    PubMed

    Huser, Thomas

    2008-10-01

    The nondestructive chemical analysis of biological processes in the crowded intracellular environment, at cellular membranes, and between cells with a spatial resolution well beyond the diffraction limit is made possible through Nano-Biophotonics. A number of sophisticated schemes employing nanoparticles, nano-apertures, or shaping of the probe volume in the far field have significantly extended our knowledge about lipid rafts, macromolecular complexes, such as chromatin, vesicles, and cellular organelles, and their interactions and trafficking within the cell. Here, I review some of the most recent developments in Nano-Biophotonics that already are or soon will become relevant to the analysis of intracellular processes. The pros and cons of the various techniques will be discussed and an outlook of their prospects for the near future will be provided.

  14. Principles of Nano-Optics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Novotny, Lukas; Hecht, Bert

    2006-06-01

    Nano-optics is the study of optical phenomena and techniques on the nanometer scale, that is, near or beyond the diffraction limit of light. It is an emerging field of study, motivated by the rapid advance of nanoscience and nanotechnology which require adequate tools and strategies for fabrication, manipulation and characterization at this scale. In Principles of Nano-Optics the authors provide a comprehensive overview of the theoretical and experimental concepts necessary to understand and work in nano-optics. With a very broad perspective, they cover optical phenomena relevant to the nanoscale across diverse areas ranging from quantum optics to biophysics, introducing and extensively describing all of the significant methods. This is the first textbook specifically on nano-optics. Written for graduate students who want to enter the field, it includes problem sets to reinforce and extend the discussion. It is also a valuable reference for researchers and course teachers. The first nano-optics textbook, it gives a bottom-up description of optical phenomena and techniques encountered in the rapidly expanding fields of nanoscience and nanotechnology Each chapter contains several exercises and problems with hints Numerous high quality illustrations and real-life examples

  15. Plasmon nano-optical tweezers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Juan, Mathieu L.; Righini, Maurizio; Quidant, Romain

    2011-06-01

    Conventional optical tweezers, formed at the diffraction-limited focus of a laser beam, have become a powerful and flexible tool for manipulating micrometre-sized objects. Extending optical trapping down to the nanometre scale would open unprecedented opportunities in many fields of science, where such nano-optical tweezers would allow the ultra-accurate positioning of single nano-objects. Among the possible strategies, the ability of metallic nanostructures to control light at the subwavelength scale can be exploited to engineer such nano-optical traps. This Review summarizes the recent advances in the emerging field of plasmon-based optical trapping and discusses the details of plasmon tweezers along with their potential applications to bioscience and quantum optics.

  16. Nano Materials Under High Pressures

    SciTech Connect

    Karmakar, S.; Garg, Nandini; Sharma, Surinder M.

    2010-12-01

    Materials comprising of units or particles of the size of a few nano-meters have significantly different high pressure behavior than their bulk counterparts. This is abundantly elucidated in our studies on transition metals encapsulated in carbon nanotubes. Carbon nanotubes filled with Argon also show that it affects the behavior of tubes as well as argon. Studies on nano-crystalline Si displays an interesting crystalline-amorphous reversible transition, unique of its kind in elemental solids. We also demonstrate that in some cases of nanocrystalline samples, a phase perceived to be an intermediate-transient may be actually realized.

  17. Photovoltaic cell with nano-patterned substrate

    DOEpatents

    Cruz-Campa, Jose Luis; Zhou, Xiaowang; Zubia, David

    2016-10-18

    A photovoltaic solar cell comprises a nano-patterned substrate layer. A plurality of nano-windows are etched into an intermediate substrate layer to form the nano-patterned substrate layer. The nano-patterned substrate layer is positioned between an n-type semiconductor layer composed of an n-type semiconductor material and a p-type semiconductor layer composed of a p-type semiconductor material. Semiconductor material accumulates in the plurality of nano-windows, causing a plurality of heterojunctions to form between the n-type semiconductor layer and the p-type semiconductor layer.

  18. Aligned Layers of Silver Nano-Fibers

    PubMed Central

    Golovin, Andrii B.; Stromer, Jeremy; Kreminska, Liubov

    2012-01-01

    We describe a new dichroic polarizers made by ordering silver nano-fibers to aligned layers. The aligned layers consist of nano-fibers and self-assembled molecular aggregates of lyotropic liquid crystals. Unidirectional alignment of the layers is achieved by means of mechanical shearing. Aligned layers of silver nano-fibers are partially transparent to a linearly polarized electromagnetic radiation. The unidirectional alignment and density of the silver nano-fibers determine degree of polarization of transmitted light. The aligned layers of silver nano-fibers might be used in optics, microwave applications, and organic electronics. PMID:28817042

  19. Mechano-micro/nano systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Horie, Mikio

    2004-10-01

    In recent years, the researches about Micro/Nano Systems are down actively in the bio-medical research fields, DNA research fields, chemical analysis systems fields, etc. In the results, a new materials and new functions in the systems are developed. In this invited paper, Mechano-Micro/Nano Systems, especially, motion systems are introduced. First, the research activities concerning the Mechano-Micro/Nano Systems in the world(MST2003, MEMS2003 and MEMS2004) and in Japan(Researech Projects on Nanotechnology and Materials in Ministry of Education, Culture, Sports, Science and Technology) are shown. Secondary, my research activities are introduced. As my research activities, (1) a comb-drive static actuator for the motion convert mechanisms, (2) a micro-nano fabrication method by use of FAB(Fast Atom Beam) machines, (3) a micro optical mirror manipulator for inputs-outputs optical switches, (4) a miniature pantograph mechanism with large-deflective hinges and links made of plastics are discussed and their performances are explained.

  20. Nano copper based high temperature solder alternative

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sharma, Akshay

    Nano Cu an alternative to high temperature solder is developed by the Advance Technological Center at the Lockheed Martin Corporation. A printable paste of Cu nano particles is developed with an ability to fuse at 200°C in reflow oven. After reflow the deposited material has nano crystalline and nano porous structure which affects its properties. Accelerated test are performed on nano Cu deposition having nano porous and nano crystalline structure for assessment and prediction of reliability. Nano Cu assemblies with different bond layer thickness are sheared to calculate the strength of the material and are correlated with the porous and crystalline structure of nano Cu. Thermal and isothermal fatigue test are performed on nano Cu to see the dependency of life on stress and further surface of failed assemblies were observed to determine the type of failure. Creep test at RT are performed to find the type of creep mechanism and how they are affected when subjected to high temperature. TEM, SEM, X-ray, C-SAM and optical microscopy is done on the nano Cu sample for structure and surface analysis.

  1. Nano-JASMINE Data Analysis and Publication

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yamada, Y.; Hara, T.; Yoshioka, S.; Kobayashi, Y.; Gouda, N.; Miyashita, H.; Hatsutori, Y.; Lammers, U.; Michalik, D.

    2012-09-01

    The core data reduction for the Nano-JASMINE mission is planned to be done with Gaia's Astrometric Global Iterative Solution (AGIS). A collaboration between the Gaia AGIS and Nano-JASMINE teams on the Nano-JASMINE data reduction started in 2007. The Nano-JASMINE team writes codes to generate AGIS input, and this is called Initial Data Treament (IDT). Identification of observed stars and their observed field of view, getting color index, are different from those of Gaia because Nano-JASMINE is ultra small satellite. For converting centroiding results on detector to the celestial sphere, orbit and attitude data of the satellite are used. In Nano-JASMINE, orbit information is derived from on board GPS data and attitude is processed from on-board star sensor data and on-ground Kalman filtering. We also show the Nano-JASMINE goals, status of the data publications and utilizations, and introduce the next Japanese space astrometric mission.

  2. Simulink controlled autonomous nano quadcopter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Venkatraman Santhanam, Hariharan

    Traditional quadcopters have generally been operated by a controller in real time. This has often required precious manpower and time. In recent years, research and development in the field of robotics has led to the creation of autonomous flying quadcopters, which save more manpower and time when compared to traditional quadcopters. This project presents the model development and implementation of an interface for the autonomous Nano quadcopter using Simulink. MATLAB Simulink was selected as the platform for simulation owing to its robustness, security and real-time simulation capabilities. A Simulink model was developed for the autonomous flight of the Nano quadcopter and an interface with MATLAB level 2 S-function was created to communicate with the quadcopter. Real-time simulation of the autonomous flight maintaining constant altitude was then achieved using a predefined set of control values.

  3. Metallic nano-particles for trapping light.

    PubMed

    Tang, Yongan; Vlahovic, Branislav

    2013-02-07

    We study metallic nano-particles for light trapping by investigating the optical absorption efficiency of the hydrogenated amorphous silicon thin film with and without metallic nano-particles on its top. The size and shape of these nano-particles are investigated as to their roles of light trapping: scattering light to the absorption medium and converting light to surface plasmons. The optical absorption enhancement in the red light region (e.g., 650nm) due to the light trapping of the metallic nano-particles is observed when a layer of metallic nano-particle array has certain structures. The investigation of the light with incident angles shows the importance of the coupling efficiency of light to surface plasmons in the metallic nano-particle light trapping. PACS: 73.20.Mf, 42.25.s, 88.40.hj.

  4. Functionalized Nano and Micro Structured Composite Coatings

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-06-01

    AFRL-RX-TY-TR-2011-0069 FUNCTIONALIZED NANO AND MICRO STRUCTURED COMPOSITE COATINGS (FINAL REPORT) Igor Luzinov and Konstantin Kornev...Technical Report 21-MAY-2009 -- 31-MAY-2011 Functional Polymeric Materials - from Research Labs to Field Applications: Functionalized Nano and Micro ...work was to conduct research on development of effective nano and micro structured composite coatings capable to collect and decontaminate the

  5. Biologically Inspired Nano-Contact Mechanics

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-07-20

    mechanics and micro / nano - fabrication, with potentially significant benefits if we can understand and mimic some of nature’s optimized solutions for...2000) has demonstrated that the micro and nano -scale architectures of the gecko foot fibers are responsible for the animal’s excellent attachment...2. REPORT TYPE Final DATES COVERED (From - To) 01 April 2005-30 Jun 2009 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE BIOLOGICALLY INSPIRED NANO -CONTACT MECHANICS 5a

  6. Nano-Optoelectronic Integration on Silicon

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-12-14

    Nano -Optoelectronic Integration on Silicon Roger Chen Electrical Engineering and Computer Sciences University of California at Berkeley Technical...COVERED 00-00-2012 to 00-00-2012 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Nano -Optoelectronic Integration on Silicon 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c. PROGRAM...silicon under conditions that are compatible with the process constraints of CMOS technology. This dissertation will present a variety of nano

  7. Nano-Bio Developments in Neuroscience

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Torimitsu, Keiichi

    Nano-biotechnology (nanobio) is one of the great technological fusions from various different fields. Analysis of biological functions significantly improved because of the recent nanotechnology development. We study this field based on neuroscience. Here we introduce our approach to this field, starting from neural analysis to receptor analysis in order to establish a nano-bio interface. Nano-gap electrode is one of the possible devices for this purpose. Combination of the electrode with receptor protein is investigated.

  8. Orientated Nano-Composites: Relationships Between Nano-Structure and Mechanical Properties

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2004-11-01

    been investigated, and the structure/property relationships discussed. Epoxy micro - and nano -composites have been manufactured using a range of...Epoxy micro - and nano -composites have been manufactured using a range of layered silicate modifiers, including mica and nanoclays. The fracture...4 2 Mechanical and Fracture Properties of Epoxy/Inorganic Micro - and Nano -composites ................ 5 2.1 Introduction

  9. Cellular-level surgery using nano robots.

    PubMed

    Song, Bo; Yang, Ruiguo; Xi, Ning; Patterson, Kevin Charles; Qu, Chengeng; Lai, King Wai Chiu

    2012-12-01

    The atomic force microscope (AFM) is a popular instrument for studying the nano world. AFM is naturally suitable for imaging living samples and measuring mechanical properties. In this article, we propose a new concept of an AFM-based nano robot that can be applied for cellular-level surgery on living samples. The nano robot has multiple functions of imaging, manipulation, characterizing mechanical properties, and tracking. In addition, the technique of tip functionalization allows the nano robot the ability for precisely delivering a drug locally. Therefore, the nano robot can be used for conducting complicated nano surgery on living samples, such as cells and bacteria. Moreover, to provide a user-friendly interface, the software in this nano robot provides a "videolized" visual feedback for monitoring the dynamic changes on the sample surface. Both the operation of nano surgery and observation of the surgery results can be simultaneously achieved. This nano robot can be easily integrated with extra modules that have the potential applications of characterizing other properties of samples such as local conductance and capacitance.

  10. Cellular-Level Surgery Using Nano Robots

    PubMed Central

    Song, Bo; Yang, Ruiguo; Xi, Ning; Patterson, Kevin Charles; Qu, Chengeng; Lai, King Wai Chiu

    2014-01-01

    The atomic force microscope (AFM) is a popular instrument for studying the nano world. AFM is naturally suitable for imaging living samples and measuring mechanical properties. In this article, we propose a new concept of an AFM-based nano robot that can be applied for cellular-level surgery on living samples. The nano robot has multiple functions of imaging, manipulation, characterizing mechanical properties, and tracking. In addition, the technique of tip functionalization allows the nano robot the ability for precisely delivering a drug locally. Therefore, the nano robot can be used for conducting complicated nano surgery on living samples, such as cells and bacteria. Moreover, to provide a user-friendly interface, the software in this nano robot provides a “videolized” visual feedback for monitoring the dynamic changes on the sample surface. Both the operation of nano surgery and observation of the surgery results can be simultaneously achieved. This nano robot can be easily integrated with extra modules that have the potential applications of characterizing other properties of samples such as local conductance and capacitance. PMID:23015517

  11. Nano-Electrochemistry and Nano-Electrografting with an Original Combined AFM-SECM

    PubMed Central

    Ghorbal, Achraf; Grisotto, Federico; Charlier, Julienne; Palacin, Serge; Goyer, Cédric; Demaille, Christophe; Ben Brahim, Ammar

    2013-01-01

    This study demonstrates the advantages of the combination between atomic force microscopy and scanning electrochemical microscopy. The combined technique can perform nano-electrochemical measurements onto agarose surface and nano-electrografting of non-conducting polymers onto conducting surfaces. This work was achieved by manufacturing an original Atomic Force Microscopy-Scanning ElectroChemical Microscopy (AFM-SECM) electrode. The capabilities of the AFM-SECM-electrode were tested with the nano-electrografting of vinylic monomers initiated by aryl diazonium salts. Nano-electrochemical and technical processes were thoroughly described, so as to allow experiments reproducing. A plausible explanation of chemical and electrochemical mechanisms, leading to the nano-grafting process, was reported. This combined technique represents the first step towards improved nano-processes for the nano-electrografting. PMID:28348337

  12. Coloration of cotton fibers using nano chitosan.

    PubMed

    Wijesena, Ruchira N; Tissera, Nadeeka D; de Silva, K M Nalin

    2015-12-10

    A method of coloration of cotton fabrics with nano chitosan is proposed. Nano chitosan were prepared using crab shell chitin nanofibers through alkaline deacetylation process. Average nano fiber diameters of nano chitosan were 18 nm to 35 nm and the lengths were in the range of 0.2-1.3 μm according to the atomic force microscope study. The degree of deacetylation of the material was found to be 97.3%. The prepared nano chitosan dyed using acid blue 25 (2-anthraquinonesulfonic acid) and used as the coloration agent for cotton fibers. Simple wet immersion method was used to color the cotton fabrics by nano chitosan dispersion followed by acid vapor treatment. Scanning electron microscope and atomic force microscope study of the treated cotton fiber revealed that the nano chitosan were consistently deposited on the cotton fiber surface and transformed in to a thin polymer layer upon the acid vapor treatment. The color strength of the dyed fabrics could be changed by changing the concentration of dyed nano chitosan dispersion.

  13. Nano-fabricated size exclusion chromatograph

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Svehla, D.; Feldman, S.; Feldman, J.; Grunthaner, F.; Shakkottai, P.; dle Castillo, L.; White, V.

    2002-01-01

    This poster describes the development of a nano-fabricated size exclusion chromatograph (nSEC) based on the principle that molecules traveling through a microcolumn containing nano-fabricated features will have characteristics elution times that directly correlate to molecular weight.

  14. Nano-Particles in Cosmic Plasma Environments

    SciTech Connect

    Mann, Ingrid

    2008-09-07

    Astronomical observations and in-situ measurements point to the existence of cosmic nano-particles, but in most cases their material composition and structure are not known. Nano-dust interacts differently than larger dust with the cosmic radiation and plasma environment. Its dynamics and behavior upon collision is not well studied.

  15. Multifunctional carbon nano-paper composite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Zhichun; Chu, Hetao; Wang, Kuiwen; Liu, Yanjv; Leng, Jinsong

    2013-08-01

    Carbon Nanotube (CNT), for its excellent mechanical, electrical properties and nano size, large special surface physical property, become the most promising material. But carbon nanotube can still fabricated in micro dimension, and can't be made into macro size, so to the carbon nanotube filled composite can't explore the properties of the CNT. Carbon nano-paper is made of pure CNT, with micro pore, and it turn micro sized CNT into macro shaped membrane. Based on the piezo-resistivity and electrical conductivity of the carbon nano-paper, we used the carbon nano-paper as functional layers fabricate functional composite, and studies its strain sensing, composite material deicing and shape memory polymer (SMP) material electric actuation performance. The results shown that the resin can pregnant the nano paper, and there was good bond for nano paper and composite. The functional composite can monitoring the strain with high sensitivity comparing to foil strain gauge. The functional composite can be heated via the carbon nano paper with low power supply and high heating rate. The composite has good deicing and heat actuation performance to composite material. For the good strain sensing, electric conductivity and self-heating character of the carbon nano-paper composite, it can be used for self sensing, anti lightning strike and deicing of composite materials in aircrafts and wind turbine blades.

  16. Nano-fabricated size exclusion chromatograph

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Svehla, D.; Feldman, S.; Feldman, J.; Grunthaner, F.; Shakkottai, P.; dle Castillo, L.; White, V.

    2002-01-01

    This poster describes the development of a nano-fabricated size exclusion chromatograph (nSEC) based on the principle that molecules traveling through a microcolumn containing nano-fabricated features will have characteristics elution times that directly correlate to molecular weight.

  17. CZT nanoRAIDER_VFG Factsheet

    SciTech Connect

    James, R.; A. E. Bolotnikov; Cui, Yonggang

    2016-01-15

    Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL) is working with FLIR System Inc., the manufacturer of the nanoRAIDER, to design a handheld device based on a position-sensitive virtual Frisch-grid (VFG) Cadmium-Zinc-Telluride (CdZnTe or CZT) detector array (with 1% or better energy resolution). The new device called nanoRAIDER VFG will be an improvement to the current nanoRAIDER, which is a compact gamma-ray detection instrument manufactured by FLIR Systems Inc. that employs relatively lower-performing CZT hemispheric detectors (i.e., 3%-FWHM CZT detectors). The nanoRAIDER will significantly improve the accuracy while maintaining similar efficiency, as compared to the nanoRAIDER, for in-field analysis of nuclear materials and detection of undeclared activities during inspections conducted by the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA). Since the nanoRAIDER is currently used by the IAEA as part of its Complementary Access toolkit, a relatively quick acceptance of the nanoRAIDER VFG for safeguards is anticipated. The nanoRAIDER VFG will help address several items listed in the IAEA’s Long-Term R&D Plan that could enhance the abilities to detect undeclared nuclear material and activities.

  18. Dipole nano-laser: Theory and properties

    SciTech Connect

    Ghannam, T.

    2014-03-31

    In this paper we outline the main quantum properties of the system of nano-based laser called Dipole Nano-Laser emphasizing mainly on its ability to produce coherent light and for different configurations such as different embedding materials and subjecting it to an external classical electric field.

  19. Nano Mechanical Machining Using AFM Probe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mostofa, Md. Golam

    Complex miniaturized components with high form accuracy will play key roles in the future development of many products, as they provide portability, disposability, lower material consumption in production, low power consumption during operation, lower sample requirements for testing, and higher heat transfer due to their very high surface-to-volume ratio. Given the high market demand for such micro and nano featured components, different manufacturing methods have been developed for their fabrication. Some of the common technologies in micro/nano fabrication are photolithography, electron beam lithography, X-ray lithography and other semiconductor processing techniques. Although these methods are capable of fabricating micro/nano structures with a resolution of less than a few nanometers, some of the shortcomings associated with these methods, such as high production costs for customized products, limited material choices, necessitate the development of other fabricating techniques. Micro/nano mechanical machining, such an atomic force microscope (AFM) probe based nano fabrication, has, therefore, been used to overcome some the major restrictions of the traditional processes. This technique removes material from the workpiece by engaging micro/nano size cutting tool (i.e. AFM probe) and is applicable on a wider range of materials compared to the photolithographic process. In spite of the unique benefits of nano mechanical machining, there are also some challenges with this technique, since the scale is reduced, such as size effects, burr formations, chip adhesions, fragility of tools and tool wear. Moreover, AFM based machining does not have any rotational movement, which makes fabrication of 3D features more difficult. Thus, vibration-assisted machining is introduced into AFM probe based nano mechanical machining to overcome the limitations associated with the conventional AFM probe based scratching method. Vibration-assisted machining reduced the cutting forces

  20. Nano-lens diffraction around a single heated nano particle.

    PubMed

    Selmke, Markus; Braun, Marco; Cichos, Frank

    2012-03-26

    The action of a nanoscopic spherically symmetric refractive index profile on a focused Gaussian beam may easily be envisaged as the action of a phase-modifying element, i.e. a lens: Rays traversing the inhomogeneous refractive index field n(r) collect an additional phase along their trajectory which advances or retards their phase with respect to the unperturbed ray. This lens-like action has long been understood as being the mechanism behind the signal of thin sample photothermal absorption measurements [Appl. Opt. 34, 41-50 (1995)], [Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 45, 7141-7151 (2006)], where a cylindrical symmetry and a different lengthscale is present. In photothermal single (nano-)particle microscopy, however, a complicated, though prediction-wise limited, electrodynamic scattering treatment was established [Phys. Rev. B 73, 045424 (2006)] during the emergence of this new technique. Our recent study [ACS Nano, DOI: 10.1021/nn300181h] extended this approach into a full ab-initio model and showed for the first time that the mechanism behind the signal, despite its nanoscopic origin, is also the lens-like action of the induced refractive index profile only hidden in the complicated guise of the theoretical generalized Mie-like framework. The diffraction model proposed here yields succinct analytical expressions for the axial photothermal signal shape and magnitude and its angular distribution, all showing the clear lens-signature. It is further demonstrated, that the Gouy-phase of a Gaussian beam does not contribute to the relative photothermal signal in forward direction, a fact which is not easily evident from the more rigorous EM treatment. The presented model may thus be used to estimate the signal shape and magnitude in photothermal single particle microscopy.

  1. Scale effects in gas nano flows

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barisik, Murat; Beskok, Ali

    2014-05-01

    Most previous studies on gas transport in nano-scale confinements assume dynamic similarity with rarefied gas flows, and employ kinetic theory based models. This approach is incomplete, since it neglects the van der Waals forces imposed on gas molecules by the surfaces. Using three-dimensional molecular dynamics (MD) simulations of force driven gas flows, we show the significance of wall force field in nano-scale confinements by defining a new dimensionless parameter (B) as the ratio of the wall force-penetration length to the channel height. Investigation of gas transport in different nano-channels at various Knudsen numbers show the importance of wall force field for finite B values, where the dynamic similarity between the rarefied and nano-scale gas flows break down. Comparison of MD results employing molecularly structured three-dimensional walls versus reflection of gas molecules from a two-dimensional planar surface with Maxwell distribution show that the nano-confinement effects cannot be resolved by the latter approach, frequently used in kinetic theory calculations. Molecularly structured walls determine the bulk flow physics by setting a proper tangential momentum accommodation coefficient, and they also determine the transport in the near wall region. Gas nano-flows with finite B exhibit significant differences in the local density and velocity profiles, affecting the mass flow rate and the formation of Knudsen's minimum in nano-channels.

  2. Nano-laser on silicon quantum dots

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Wei-Qi; Liu, Shi-Rong; Qin, Chao-Jian; Lü, Quan; Xu, Li

    2011-04-01

    A new conception of nano-laser is proposed in which depending on the size of nano-clusters (silicon quantum dots (QD)), the pumping level of laser can be tuned by the quantum confinement (QC) effect, and the population inversion can be formed between the valence band and the localized states in gap produced from the surface bonds of nano-clusters. Here we report the experimental demonstration of nano-laser on silicon quantum dots fabricated by nanosecond pulse laser. The peaks of stimulated emission are observed at 605 nm and 693 nm. Through the micro-cavity of nano-laser, a full width at half maximum of the peak at 693 nm can reach to 0.5 nm. The theoretical model and the experimental results indicate that it is a necessary condition for setting up nano-laser that the smaller size of QD (d < 3 nm) can make the localized states into band gap. The emission energy of nano-laser will be limited in the range of 1.7-2.3 eV generally due to the position of the localized states in gap, which is in good agreement between the experiments and the theory.

  3. Nano-Ceramic Coated Plastics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cho, Junghyun

    2013-01-01

    Plastic products, due to their durability, safety, and low manufacturing cost, are now rapidly replacing cookware items traditionally made of glass and ceramics. Despite this trend, some still prefer relatively expensive and more fragile ceramic/glassware because plastics can deteriorate over time after exposure to foods, which can generate odors, bad appearance, and/or color change. Nano-ceramic coatings can eliminate these drawbacks while still retaining the advantages of the plastic, since the coating only alters the surface of the plastic. The surface coating adds functionality to the plastics such as self-cleaning and disinfectant capabilities that result from a photocatalytic effect of certain ceramic systems. These ceramic coatings can also provide non-stick surfaces and higher temperature capabilities for the base plastics without resorting to ceramic or glass materials. Titanium dioxide (TiO2) and zinc oxide (ZnO) are the candidates for a nano-ceramic coating to deposit on the plastics or plastic films used in cookware and kitchenware. Both are wide-bandgap semiconductors (3.0 to 3.2 eV for TiO2 and 3.2 to 3.3 eV for ZnO), so they exhibit a photocatalytic property under ultraviolet (UV) light. This will lead to decomposition of organic compounds. Decomposed products can be easily washed off by water, so the use of detergents will be minimal. High-crystalline film with large surface area for the reaction is essential to guarantee good photocatalytic performance of these oxides. Low-temperature processing (<100 C) is also a key to generating these ceramic coatings on the plastics. One possible way of processing nanoceramic coatings at low temperatures (< 90 C) is to take advantage of in-situ precipitated nanoparticles and nanostructures grown from aqueous solution. These nanostructures can be tailored to ceramic film formation and the subsequent microstructure development. In addition, the process provides environment- friendly processing because of the

  4. Attostreaking with metallic nano-objects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Borisov, A. G.; Echenique, P. M.; Kazansky, A. K.

    2012-02-01

    The application of atto-second streaking spectroscopy (ASS) to direct time-domain studies of the plasmonic excitations in metallic nano-objects is addressed theoretically. The streaking spectrograms for a rectangular gold nano-antenna and spherical gold clusters are obtained within strong field approximation using classical electron trajectory calculations. The results reported here for spherical clusters are also representative of spherical nano-shells. This study demonstrates that ASS allows for detailed characterization of plasmonic modes, including near-field enhancement, frequency and decay rate. The role of the inhomogeneity of the induced electric fields is also demonstrated.

  5. Nano-plasmonic exosome diagnostics.

    PubMed

    Im, Hyungsoon; Shao, Huilin; Weissleder, Ralph; Castro, Cesar M; Lee, Hakho

    2015-06-01

    Exosomes have emerged as a promising biomarker. These vesicles abound in biofluids and harbor molecular constituents from their parent cells, thereby offering a minimally-invasive avenue for molecular analyses. Despite such clinical potential, routine exosomal analysis, particularly the protein assay, remains challenging, due to requirements for large sample volumes and extensive processing. We have been developing miniaturized systems to facilitate clinical exosome studies. These systems can be categorized into two components: microfluidics for sample preparation and analytical tools for protein analyses. In this report, we review a new assay platform, nano-plasmonic exosome, in which sensing is based on surface plasmon resonance to achieve label-free exosome detection. Looking forward, we also discuss some potential challenges and improvements in exosome studies.

  6. Instrumentation for Nano-porous, Nano-particulate Geopolymeric Materials Research

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2008-11-04

    nano-sized high surface area ceramic powders in geopolymers and geopolymeric composites. On the other hand, the Thinky ARE-250 mixer was purchased to...DATES COVERED (From - To) 6/15/07 - 6/14/08 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Instrumentation for Nano-porous, Nano-particulate Geopolymeric Materials... Geopolymers are a new class of ceramic materials which are best understood as rigid inorganic, aluminosilicate, hydrated gels, charge-balanced by cations

  7. Nano-extrusion: a promising tool for continuous manufacturing of solid nano-formulations.

    PubMed

    Baumgartner, Ramona; Eitzlmayr, Andreas; Matsko, Nadejda; Tetyczka, Carolin; Khinast, Johannes; Roblegg, Eva

    2014-12-30

    Since more than 40% of today's drugs have low stability, poor solubility and/or limited ability to cross certain biological barriers, new platform technologies are required to address these challenges. This paper describes a novel continuous process that converts a stabilized aqueous nano-suspension into a solid oral formulation in a single step (i.e., the NANEX process) in order to improve the solubility of a model drug (phenytoin). Phenytoin nano-suspensions were prepared via media milling using different stabilizers. A stable nano-suspension was obtained using Tween(®) 80 as a stabilizer. The matrix material (Soluplus(®)) was gravimetrically fed into the hot melt extruder. The suspension was introduced through a side feeding device and mixed with the molten polymer to immediately devolatilize the water in the nano-suspension. Phenytoin nano-crystals were dispersed and embedded in the molten polymer. Investigation of the nano-extrudates via transmission electron microscopy and atomic force microscopy showed that the nano-crystals were embedded de-aggregated in the extrudates. Furthermore, no changes in the crystallinity (due to the mechanical and thermal stress) occurred. The dissolution studies confirmed that the prepared nano-extrudates increased the solubility of nano-crystalline phenytoin, regardless of the polymer. Our work demonstrates that NANEX represents a promising new platform technology in the design of novel drug delivery systems to improve drug performance. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Indentation analysis of nano-particle using nano-contact mechanics models during nano-manipulation based on atomic force microscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Daeinabi, Khadijeh; Korayem, Moharam Habibnejad

    2011-03-01

    Atomic force microscopy is applied to measure intermolecular forces and mechanical properties of materials, nano-particle manipulation, surface scanning and imaging with atomic accuracy in the nano-world. During nano-manipulation process, contact forces cause indentation in contact area between nano-particle and tip/substrate which is considerable at nano-scale and affects the nano-manipulation process. Several nano-contact mechanics models such as Hertz, Derjaguin-Muller-Toporov (DMT), Johnson-Kendall-Roberts-Sperling (JKRS), Burnham-Colton-Pollock (BCP), Maugis-Dugdale (MD), Carpick-Ogletree-Salmeron (COS), Pietrement-Troyon (PT), and Sun et al. have been applied as the continuum mechanics approaches at nano-scale. In this article, indentation depth and contact radius between tip and substrate with nano-particle for both spherical and conical tip shape during nano-manipulation process are analyzed and compared by applying theoretical, semiempirical, and empirical nano-contact mechanics models. The effects of adhesion force, as the main contrast point in different nano-contact mechanics models, on nano-manipulation analysis is investigated for different contact radius, and the critical point is discussed for mentioned models.

  9. Characterization of Vapor Deposited Nano Structured Membranes

    SciTech Connect

    Jankowski, A; Cherepy, N; Ferreira, J; Hayes, J

    2004-03-25

    The vapor deposition methods of planar magnetron sputtering and electron-beam evaporation are used to synthesize materials with nano structured morphological features that have ultra-high surface areas with continuous open porosity at the nano scale. These nano structured membranes are used in a variety of fuel cells to provide electrode and catalytic functions. Specifically, stand alone and composite nickel electrodes for use in thin film solid-oxide, and molten carbonate fuel cells are formed by sputter deposition and electron bean evaporation, respectively. Also, a potentially high-performance catalyst material for the direct reformation of hydrocarbon fuels at low temperatures is deposited as a nano structure by the reactive sputtering of a copper-zinc alloy using a partial pressure of oxygen at an elevated substrate temperature.

  10. Nano Approaches to Modulate Host Cell Response

    Cancer.gov

    The Carolina Center of Cancer Nanotechnology Excellence (CCNE) is an NCI-funded multidisciplinary collaboration among a range of disciplines using nano approaches for cancer disease management and treatment.

  11. DNA Assembly Line for Nano-Construction

    ScienceCinema

    Oleg Gang

    2016-07-12

    Building on the idea of using DNA to link up nanoparticles scientists at Brookhaven National Lab have designed a molecular assembly line for high-precision nano-construction. Nanofabrication is essential for exploiting the unique properties of nanoparticl

  12. DNA Assembly Line for Nano-Construction

    SciTech Connect

    Oleg Gang

    2009-03-25

    Building on the idea of using DNA to link up nanoparticles scientists at Brookhaven National Lab have designed a molecular assembly line for high-precision nano-construction. Nanofabrication is essential for exploiting the unique properties of nanoparticl

  13. Green-nano approach to nanostructured polypyrrole.

    PubMed

    Liu, Zhen; Liu, Yang; Poyraz, Selcuk; Zhang, Xinyu

    2011-04-21

    Bulk quantities of polypyrrole nanofibers and nanospheres can be synthesized with a facile, one-step "green-nano" chemical oxidative polymerization approach, by simply using different reaction media. © The Royal Society of Chemistry 2011

  14. Nano-Electronics and Bio-Electronics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Srivastava, Deepak; Kwak, Dochan (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    Viewgraph presentation on Nano-Electronics and Bio-Electronics is discussed. Topics discussed include: NASA Ames nanotechnology program, Potential Carbon Nanotube (CNT) application, CNT synthesis,Computational Nanotechnology, and protein nanotubes.

  15. [Nano-safety science for sustainable nanotechnology].

    PubMed

    Yoshioka, Yasuo; Tsutsumi, Yasuo

    2014-01-01

    Recently, it is concerned that nanomaterials induce undesirable biological responses (NanoTox) which is different from conventional materials attributed to their unique physicochemical properties in the world. However, for our enjoying the benefits of nanomateirals, it is most important not to regulate nanomaterials in the blind way but to assure the security of nanomaterials and support the development of nanomaterial industries. These are duty of our country to be advanced country, technology-oriented nation and intellectual property nation. From these viewpoints, we are engaged on not NanoTox study but Nano-safety science study. In this review, we will introduce our Nano-safety science study using mainly silica nanoparticle.

  16. Nano-Engineering of Active Metamaterials

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-10-29

    AFRL-OSR-VA-TR-2014-0295 NANO -ENGINEERING OF ACTIVE METAMATERIALS Larry Dalton UNIVERSITY OF WASHINGTON Final Report 10/29/2014 DISTRIBUTION A...Std. Z39.18 FINAL TECHNICAL REPORT (AFOSR-FA9550-09-1-0682)— Nano -Engineering of Active Metamaterials: Publications related to this AFOSR contract...photochemical stability at telecommunication wavelengths by pump -probe methods [4,11]. Development and Application of New Synthesis and Processing

  17. Nano structural anodes for radiation detectors

    DOEpatents

    Cordaro, Joseph V.; Serkiz, Steven M.; McWhorter, Christopher S.; Sexton, Lindsay T.; Retterer, Scott T.

    2015-07-07

    Anodes for proportional radiation counters and a process of making the anodes is provided. The nano-sized anodes when present within an anode array provide: significantly higher detection efficiencies due to the inherently higher electric field, are amenable to miniaturization, have low power requirements, and exhibit a small electromagnetic field signal. The nano-sized anodes with the incorporation of neutron absorbing elements (e.g., .sup.10B) allow the use of neutron detectors that do not use .sup.3He.

  18. Production and Characterization of Nano-RDX

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2006-11-01

    1 PRODUCTION AND CHARACTERIZATION OF NANO-RDX P. Redner*, D. Kapoor, R. Patel, M. Chung, and D. Martin U.S. Army, RDECOM-ARDEC Picatinny, NJ...consisting of water, isobutanol as a surfactant, and a dispersant to ensure proper wetting of the surface of the material. This solution optimized...samples, and the end product , were then analyzed to determine the capabilities of the process and the value of the nano-sized RDX based on a comparison

  19. Nano-fabricated size exclusion chromatograph

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Svehla, D.; Feldman, S.; Feldman, J.; Grunthaner, F.; Shakkottai, P.; Castillo, L. del; White, V.

    2002-01-01

    This paper describes the development of a nano-fabricated size exclusion chromatograph (nSEC) based on the principle that molecules traveling through amicrocolumn containing nano-fabricated features will have characteristic elution times that directly correlate to molecular weight. Compared to conventional size exclusion chromatography, the nSEC offers greater control over the size exclusion process; mass fabrication; integration of the separation column with associated valves, pumps, and detectors; and dramatic reductions in instrument mass and power requirements.

  20. Lipid bilayers on nano-templates

    DOEpatents

    Noy, Aleksandr; Artyukhin, Alexander B.; Bakajin, Olgica; Stoeve, Pieter

    2009-08-04

    A lipid bilayer on a nano-template comprising a nanotube or nanowire and a lipid bilayer around the nanotube or nanowire. One embodiment provides a method of fabricating a lipid bilayer on a nano-template comprising the steps of providing a nanotube or nanowire and forming a lipid bilayer around the polymer cushion. One embodiment provides a protein pore in the lipid bilayer. In one embodiment the protein pore is sensitive to specific agents

  1. Nano-fabricated size exclusion chromatograph

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Svehla, D.; Feldman, S.; Feldman, J.; Grunthaner, F.; Shakkottai, P.; Castillo, L. del; White, V.

    2002-01-01

    This paper describes the development of a nano-fabricated size exclusion chromatograph (nSEC) based on the principle that molecules traveling through amicrocolumn containing nano-fabricated features will have characteristic elution times that directly correlate to molecular weight. Compared to conventional size exclusion chromatography, the nSEC offers greater control over the size exclusion process; mass fabrication; integration of the separation column with associated valves, pumps, and detectors; and dramatic reductions in instrument mass and power requirements.

  2. Cancer treatment with nano-diamonds.

    PubMed

    Gupta, Charu; Prakash, Dhan; Gupta, Sneh

    2017-01-01

    Diamond nano-particles find new and far-reaching applications in modern biomedical science and biotechnologies. Due to its excellent biocompatibility, nano-diamonds serve as versatile platforms that can be embedded within polymer-based microfilm devices. Nano-diamonds are complexed with a chemotherapeutic that enables sustained/slow release of the drug for a minimum of one month, with a significant amount of drug in reserve. This opens up the potential for highly localized drug release as a complementary and potent form of treatment with systemic injection towards the reduction of continuous dosing, and as such, attenuation of the often powerful side effects of chemotherapy. Nano-diamonds are quite economical, enabling the broad impact of these devices towards a spectrum of physiological disorders e.g. serving as a local chemotherapeutic patch, or as a pericardial device to suppress inflammation after open heart surgery. Nano-diamond patch could be used to treat a localized region where residual cancer cells might remain after a tumor is removed. Nano-diamonds can be used to explore a broad range of therapeutic classes, including additional small molecules, proteins, therapeutic antibodies, RNAi.

  3. Study on Locally Confined Deposition of Si Nanocrystals in High-Aspect-Ratio Si Nano-Pillar Array for Nano-Electronic and Nano-Photonic Applications

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-02-23

    Final Report for AOARD Grant FA4869-08-1-4011 Title: Study on Locally Confined Deposition of Si Nanocrystals in High-Aspect-Ratio Si Nano ...Pillar Array for Nano -Electronic and Nano -Photonic Applications” Date: Feb. 23, 2010 Name of Principal Investigators: Gong-Ru Lin and Hao-Chung...efficiencies of Si MOSLEDs via the detuning the size and density of high-aspect-ration Si nano -rod and buried Si nanospheres. A rapid thermal annealing

  4. NanoSWARM: A Nano-satellite Mission to Measure Particles and Fields Around the Moon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Garrick-Bethell, I.

    2015-12-01

    The NanoSWARM mission concept uses a fleet of cubesats around the Moon to address a number of open problems in planetary science: 1) The mechanisms of space weathering, 2) The origins of planetary magnetism, 3) The origins, distributions, and migration processes of surface water on airless bodies, and 4) The physics of small-scale magnetospheres. To accomplish these goals, NanoSWARM targets scientifically rich features on the Moon known as swirls. Swirls are high-albedo features correlated with strong magnetic fields and low surface-water. NanoSWARM cubesats will make the first near-surface (<1 km altitude) measurements of solar wind flux and magnetic fields at swirls. NanoSWARM cubesats will also perform low-altitude neutron measurements to provide key constraints on the distribution of polar hydrogen concentrations, which are important volatile sinks in the lunar water cycle. To release its cubesats, NanoSWARM uses a high-heritage mother ship in a low altitude, polar, circular orbit. NanoSWARM's results will have direct applications to the geophysics, volatile distribution, and plasma physics of numerous other bodies, in particular asteroids and the terrestrial planets. The technologies and methods used by NanoSWARM will enable many new cubesat missions in the next decade. NanoSWARM was proposed as a NASA Discovery mission in February 2015.

  5. NanoSWARM - A nano-satellite mission to measure particles and fields around the Moon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Garrick-Bethell, Ian; Russell, Christopher; Pieters, Carle; Weiss, Benjamin; Halekas, Jasper; Poppe, Andrew; Larson, Davin; Lawrence, David; Elphic, Richard; Hayne, Paul; Blakely, Richard; Kim, Khan-Hyuk; Choi, Young-Jun; Jin, Ho; Hemingway, Doug; Nayak, Michael; Puig-Suari, Jordi; Jaroux, Belgacem; Warwick, Steven

    2015-04-01

    The NanoSWARM mission concept uses a fleet of cubesats around the Moon to address a number of open problems in planetary science: 1) The mechanisms of space weathering, 2) The origins of planetary magnetism, 3) The origins, distributions, and migration processes of surface water on airless bodies, and 4) The physics of small-scale magnetospheres. To accomplish these goals, NanoSWARM targets scientifically rich features on the Moon known as swirls. Swirls are high-albedo features correlated with strong magnetic fields and low surface-water. NanoSWARM cubesats will make the first near-surface (<500 m altitude) measurements of solar wind flux and magnetic fields at swirls. NanoSWARM cubesats will also perform low-altitude neutron measurements to provide key constraints on the distribution of polar hydrogen concentrations, which are important volatile sinks in the lunar water cycle. To release its cubesats, NanoSWARM uses a high-heritage mother ship in a low altitude, polar, circular orbit. NanoSWARM's results will have direct applications to the geophysics, volatile distribution, and plasma physics of numerous other bodies, in particular asteroids and the terrestrial planets. The technologies and methods used by NanoSWARM will enable many new cubesat missions in the next decade, and expand the cubesat paradigm into deep space. NanoSWARM will be proposed as a NASA Discovery mission in early 2015.

  6. Mass production of polymer nano-wires filled with metal nano-particles.

    PubMed

    Lomadze, Nino; Kopyshev, Alexey; Bargheer, Matias; Wollgarten, Markus; Santer, Svetlana

    2017-08-17

    Despite the ongoing progress in nanotechnology and its applications, the development of strategies for connecting nano-scale systems to micro- or macroscale elements is hampered by the lack of structural components that have both, nano- and macroscale dimensions. The production of nano-scale wires with macroscale length is one of the most interesting challenges here. There are a lot of strategies to fabricate long nanoscopic stripes made of metals, polymers or ceramics but none is suitable for mass production of ordered and dense arrangements of wires at large numbers. In this paper, we report on a technique for producing arrays of ordered, flexible and free-standing polymer nano-wires filled with different types of nano-particles. The process utilizes the strong response of photosensitive polymer brushes to irradiation with UV-interference patterns, resulting in a substantial mass redistribution of the polymer material along with local rupturing of polymer chains. The chains can wind up in wires of nano-scale thickness and a length of up to several centimeters. When dispersing nano-particles within the film, the final arrangement is similar to a core-shell geometry with mainly nano-particles found in the core region and the polymer forming a dielectric jacket.

  7. Inhibition of urinary macromolecule heparin on aggregation of nano-COM and nano-COD crystals.

    PubMed

    Ou, Yan; Xue, Jun-Fa; Tan, Cai-Yan; Gui, Bao-Song; Sun, Xin-Yuan; Ouyang, Jian-Ming

    2015-01-19

    This research aims to study the influences of heparin (HP) on the aggregation of nano calcium oxalate monohydrate (COM) and nano calcium oxalate dihydrate (COD) with mean diameter of about 50 nm. The influences of different concentrations of HP on the mean diameter and Zeta potential of nano COM and nano COD were investigated using a nanoparticle size Zeta potential analyzer. HP could be adsorbed on the surface of nano COM and nano COD crystals, leading to an increase in the absolute value of Zeta potential on the crystals and an increase in the electrostatic repulsion force between crystals. Consequently, the aggregation of the crystals is reduced and the stability of the system is improved. The strong adsorption ability of HP was closely related to the -OSO3- and -COO- groups contained in the HP molecules. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy confirmed the coordination of HP with Ca2+ ions of COM and COD crystals. HP could inhibit the aggregation of nano COM and nano COD crystals and increase their stability in aqueous solution, which is conducive in inhibiting the formation of calcium oxalate stones.

  8. Recent patents on nano flavor preparation and its application.

    PubMed

    Feng, Tao; Xiao, Zuobing; Tian, Huaixiang

    2010-11-01

    Nano flavor preparation and its application have been reviewed in this paper. Nano flavor could be prepared by physical methods such as spray drying with microfluidization and ultrasonication, physical adsorption and so on, chemical methods such as complex formation, nano-sized self-structured liquid, and nano emulsification and so on. Different preparation technology could produce nano particles with different physical properties, thus they could be used in different occasions such as food, drug, cosmetics and so on. The article presents some promising patents on nano flavor preparation and its application.

  9. In Vitro Comparative Skin Irritation Induced by Nano and Non-Nano Zinc Oxide

    PubMed Central

    Vinardell, Maria Pilar; Llanas, Hector; Marics, Laura; Mitjans, Montserrat

    2017-01-01

    This study was designed to determine whether nano-sized ZnO has the potential to cause acute cutaneous irritation using cultured HaCaT keratinocytes and a human skin equivalent as in vitro models, compared to non-nanomaterials. Commercial nano ZnO with different sizes (50 nm and 100 nm) was characterized by dynamic light scattering (DLS) and microscopy (SEM) in different media. Nano ZnO reduced the cell viability of HaCaT in a dose-dependent and time-dependent manner, in a similar way to macro ZnO. However, the 3D-epidermis model revealed no irritation at 1 mg/mL after 24 h of exposure. In conclusion, nano-sized ZnO does not irritate skin, in a similar manner to non-nano ZnO. PMID:28336890

  10. Generation of Nano-Catalyst Particles by Spinodal Nano-Decomposition in Perovskite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kizaki, Hidetoshi; Kusakabe, Koichi; Nogami, Soichiro; Katayama-Yoshida, Hiroshi

    2008-10-01

    A new mechanism of nano-catalyst generation based on the spinodal nano-decomposition in self-regenerating perovskite catalysts for automotive-emissions control is proposed. To demonstrate existence of the spinodal nano-decomposition in real perovskite catalysts, we performed first-principles calculations to evaluate the free energy of La(Fe1-xPdx)O3 and La(Fe1-xRhx)O3. The result indicates appearance of a spinodal region in the phase diagram of each material. Formation of nano-catalyst particles in the perovskite host matrix is crucial for the self-regeneration of perovskite catalyst. Based on the spinodal nano-decomposition model, possible materials are designed for new three-way catalyst with no contents of precious metal.

  11. In Vitro Comparative Skin Irritation Induced by Nano and Non-Nano Zinc Oxide.

    PubMed

    Vinardell, Maria Pilar; Llanas, Hector; Marics, Laura; Mitjans, Montserrat

    2017-03-04

    This study was designed to determine whether nano-sized ZnO has the potential to cause acute cutaneous irritation using cultured HaCaT keratinocytes and a human skin equivalent as in vitro models, compared to non-nanomaterials. Commercial nano ZnO with different sizes (50 nm and 100 nm) was characterized by dynamic light scattering (DLS) and microscopy (SEM) in different media. Nano ZnO reduced the cell viability of HaCaT in a dose-dependent and time-dependent manner, in a similar way to macro ZnO. However, the 3D-epidermis model revealed no irritation at 1 mg/mL after 24 h of exposure. In conclusion, nano-sized ZnO does not irritate skin, in a similar manner to non-nano ZnO.

  12. Infrared nano-imaging of plasmonic hotspots on graphene nano-bubbles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fei, Zhe; Foley, Jonathan; Gannett, Will; Zettl, Alex; Liu, Mengkun; Ni, Guangxin; Dai, Siyuan; Keilmann, Fritz; Castro Neto, Antonio; Gray, Stephen; Wiederrecht, Gary; Fogler, Michael; Basov, Dimitri

    2015-03-01

    One of the major goals of plasmonics is to achieve strong enhancement of electromagnetic energy by forming plasmonic hot spots for various applications including bio-sensing, single molecule fingerprinting, surface enhanced spectroscopy, and etc. Here, we demonstrate by infrared nano-imaging that nano-bubbles formed on graphene/hexagonal boron nitride heterostructures are ideal for trapping electromagnetic energy thus forming ultra-confined plasmonic hot spots. The distributions of these hot spots are sensitively dependent on the size and shape of these nano-bubbles as well as the ingredients inside. Further analysis indicates that the observed plasmonic hotspots are formed due to a significant enhancement of the plasmon wavelength and intensity above graphene nano-bubbles filled with air or other low-k dielectric materials. Our work presents a novel scheme for plasmonic hot spots formation and sheds light on future applications of graphene nano-bubbles for plasmon-enhanced single molecule characterization.

  13. Respiring cellular nano-magnets.

    PubMed

    Talib, Ayesha; Khan, Zanib; Bokhari, Habib; Hidayathula, Syed; Jilani, Ghulam; Khan, Abid Ali

    2017-11-01

    Magnetotactic bacteria provide an interesting example for the biosynthesis of magnetic (Fe3O4 or Fe3S4) nanoparticles, synthesized through a process known as biologically controlled mineralization, resulting in complex monodispersed, and nanostructures with unique magnetic properties. In this work, we report a novel aerobic bacterial strain isolated from sludge of an oil refinery. Microscopic and staining analysis revealed that it was a gram positive rod with the capability to thrive in a medium (9K) supplemented, with Fe(2+) ions at an acidic pH (~3.2). The magnetic behaviour of these cells was tested by their alignment towards a permanent magnet, and later on confirmed by magnetometry analysis. The X-ray diffraction studies proved the cellular biosynthesis of magnetite nanoparticles inside the bacteria. This novel, bio-nano-magnet, could pave the way for green synthesis of magnetic nanoparticles to be used in industrial and medical applications such as MRI, magnetic hyperthermia and ferrofluids. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Resonant nano-cluster devices.

    PubMed

    Haglmüller, J; Rauter, H; Bauer, G; Pittner, F; Schalkhammer, T

    2005-04-01

    The resonance-enhanced absorption (REA) by metal clusters on a surface is an effective technique on which to base bio-optical devices. A four-layer device consisting of a metal mirror, a polymer or glass-type distance layer, a biomolecule interaction layer and a sub-monolayer of biorecognitively bound metal nano-clusters is reported. Experiments indicate a strong influence of the resonator homogeneity on the absorption maximum. Layer stability plays an important role in the overall performance of the device. Techniques and optimised lab protocols to set up biochips that use the REA process in the detection are presented. The sensors show one to three narrow reflection minima in the visible and or infra-red (IR) part of the spectrum and therefore they do not suffer from the spectral limitations associated with spherical gold colloids. Metal clusters (synthesised by thermal step reduction) as well as metal- dielectric shell clusters (synthesised by various shell deposition processes) are used to precisely shift the readout of the device to any frequency in the visible and near IR range. Disposable single-step protein chips, DNA assays as well as complex biochip arrays are established that use various DNARNA, antigen-antibody and protein-protein interaction systems.

  15. Study on Locally Confined Deposition of Si Nanocrystals in High-Aspect-Ratio Si Nano-Pillar Arrays for Nano-Electronic and Nano-Photonic Applications II

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-12-03

    photoluminescence characteristics of equivalent-size controlled silicon quantum dots by employing a nano- porous aluminum oxide membrane as the template for growing...characteristics of the equivalent-size controlled Si-QDs by employing the nano- porous AAO membrane as the template for growing Si-rich SiOx nano-rods...to achieve the spatially confined synthesis of Si-QD. The ultra-bright PL can be emitted from the SiOx nano-rod in nano- porous AAO membrane. In

  16. Opening Up the Optical Imaging Window Using Nano-Luciferin

    PubMed Central

    Patel, Apurva R.; Lim, Ed; Francis, Kevin P.; Singh, Mandip

    2014-01-01

    The objective of this study was to formulate nanoparticles of D-luciferin (Nano-Luc), DiR (Nano-DiR) and dual functional nanoparticles with DiR and luciferin (Nano-LucDiR) for in-vivo imaging as well as tracking of the nanoparticles in tumors. Nano-Luc and Nano-LucDiR were prepared using different lipids, and subsequently characterized for loading and entrapment efficiency, physical properties, release profile, toxicity and stability. We utilized Response Surface Methodology (RSM) to optimize the nanoparticles using design of experiment (DOE Vr.8.0). Nano-Luc was evaluated against free luciferin to establish its pharmacokinetic parameters in mice. In-vivo imaging of tumors and tracking of nanoparticles was carried out with an IVIS® Spectrum-CT (Caliper) using xenograft, orthotopic and metastatic tumor models in BALB/c nude mice with different cell lines and different routes of nanoparticle administration (subcutaneous, intraperitoneal and intravenous). Particle size of both Nano-Luc and Nano-LucDiR were found to be <200 nm. Nano-Luc formulation showed a slow and controlled release upto 72h (90%) in vitro. The optimized Nano-Luc had loading efficiency of 5.0 mg/ml with 99% encapsulation efficiency. Nano-Luc and Nano-LucDiR formulations had good shelf stability. Nano-Luc and Nano-LucDiR enhanced plasma half-life of luciferin compared to free luciferin thus providing longer circulation of luciferin in plasma enabling imaging of tumors for more than 24h. Nano-LucDiR allowed simultaneous bioluminescent and fluorescent imaging to be conducted, with three-dimensional reconstruct of tumors without losing either signal during the acquisition time. Nano-Luc and Nano-LucDiR allowed prolonged reproducible in-vivo imaging of tumors, especially during multimodality 3D imaging. PMID:24831312

  17. The Petrography of Meteoritic Nano-Diamonds

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dai, Z. R.; Bradley, J. P.; Brownlee, D. E.; Joswiak, D. J.

    2003-01-01

    At least some meteoritic nanodiamonds are likely of presolar origin because of their association with anomalous Xe-HL and Te isotopic components indicative of a supernova (SN) origin. But the abundance of Xe is such that only approx. 1 in 10(exp 6) nano-diamonds contains a Xe atom, and the bulk C-13/C-12 composition of nano-diamond acid residues is chondritic (solar). Therefore, it is possible that a significant fraction of meteoritic nano-diamonds formed within the solar nebula. Nano-diamonds have recently been detected for the first time within the accretion discs of young stars by the Infrared Space Observatory (ISO). No comparable evidence of nanodiamonds in the interstellar medium has yet been found. We have identified nano-diamonds in acid etched thin-sections of meteorites, polar micrometeorites, and interplanetary dust particles (IDPs) with the goal of determining their distribution as a function of heliocentric distance. (It is assumed the meteorites and the polar micrometeorites are from asteroids at 2-4 AU and at least some of the IDPs are from comets at >50AU). We found that nano-diamonds are heterogeneously distributed throughout carbon-rich meteoritic materials (we identified them in some IDPs and not in others), and that their abundance may actually decrease with heliocentric distance, consistent with the hypothesis that some of them formed within the inner solar system and not in a presolar (SN) environment. In order to gain further insight about the origins of meteoritic nano-diamonds we are currently investigating their distribution in unetched thin-sections. We have examined a chondritic cluster IDP (U220GCA), fragments of the Tagish Lake (CM1) meteorite, and a SN graphite spherule (KE3d8) isolated from the Murchison (CM) meteorite. We selected U220GCA because its nano-diamond abundance (in acid etched thin-sections) appears to be as much as approx. 10X higher than in Murchison matrix, Tagish Lake because it has a higher reported nano

  18. The Petrography of Meteoritic Nano-Diamonds

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dai, Z. R.; Bradley, J. P.; Brownlee, D. E.; Joswiak, D. J.

    2003-01-01

    At least some meteoritic nanodiamonds are likely of presolar origin because of their association with anomalous Xe-HL and Te isotopic components indicative of a supernova (SN) origin. But the abundance of Xe is such that only approx. 1 in 10(exp 6) nano-diamonds contains a Xe atom, and the bulk C-13/C-12 composition of nano-diamond acid residues is chondritic (solar). Therefore, it is possible that a significant fraction of meteoritic nano-diamonds formed within the solar nebula. Nano-diamonds have recently been detected for the first time within the accretion discs of young stars by the Infrared Space Observatory (ISO). No comparable evidence of nanodiamonds in the interstellar medium has yet been found. We have identified nano-diamonds in acid etched thin-sections of meteorites, polar micrometeorites, and interplanetary dust particles (IDPs) with the goal of determining their distribution as a function of heliocentric distance. (It is assumed the meteorites and the polar micrometeorites are from asteroids at 2-4 AU and at least some of the IDPs are from comets at >50AU). We found that nano-diamonds are heterogeneously distributed throughout carbon-rich meteoritic materials (we identified them in some IDPs and not in others), and that their abundance may actually decrease with heliocentric distance, consistent with the hypothesis that some of them formed within the inner solar system and not in a presolar (SN) environment. In order to gain further insight about the origins of meteoritic nano-diamonds we are currently investigating their distribution in unetched thin-sections. We have examined a chondritic cluster IDP (U220GCA), fragments of the Tagish Lake (CM1) meteorite, and a SN graphite spherule (KE3d8) isolated from the Murchison (CM) meteorite. We selected U220GCA because its nano-diamond abundance (in acid etched thin-sections) appears to be as much as approx. 10X higher than in Murchison matrix, Tagish Lake because it has a higher reported nano

  19. Nano-plastics in the aquatic environment.

    PubMed

    Mattsson, K; Hansson, L-A; Cedervall, T

    2015-10-01

    The amount of plastics released to the environment in modern days has increased substantially since the development of modern plastics in the early 1900s. As a result, concerns have been raised by the public about the impact of plastics on nature and on, specifically, aquatic wildlife. Lately, much attention has been paid to macro- and micro-sized plastics and their impact on aquatic organisms. However, micro-sized plastics degrade subsequently into nano-sizes whereas nano-sized particles may be released directly into nature. Such particles have a different impact on aquatic organisms than larger pieces of plastic due to their small size, high surface curvature, and large surface area. This review describes the possible sources of nano-sized plastic, its distribution and behavior in nature, the impact of nano-sized plastic on the well-being of aquatic organisms, and the difference of impact between nano- and micro-sized particles. We also identify research areas which urgently need more attention and suggest experimental methods to obtain useful data.

  20. Instrument platforms for nano liquid chromatography.

    PubMed

    Šesták, Jozef; Moravcová, Dana; Kahle, Vladislav

    2015-11-20

    The history of liquid chromatography started more than a century ago and miniaturization and automation are two leading trends in this field. Nanocolumn liquid chromatography (nano LC) and largely synonymous capillary liquid chromatography (capillary LC) are the most recent results of this process where miniaturization of column dimensions and sorbent particle size play crucial role. Very interesting results achieved in the research of extremely miniaturized LC columns at the end of the last century lacked distinctive raison d'être and only advances in mass spectrometry brought a real breakthrough. Configuration of nano LC-electrospray ionization mass spectrometry (LC-ESI-MS) has become a basic tool in bioanalytical chemistry, especially in proteomics. This review discusses and summarizes past and current trends in the realization of nano liquid chromatography (nano LC) platforms. Special attention is given to the mobile phase delivery under nanoflow rates (isocratic, gradient) and sample injection to the nanocolumn. Available detection techniques applied in nano LC separations are also briefly discussed. We followed up the key themes from the original scientific reports over gradual improvements up to the contemporary commercial solutions. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Rotation Motion of Designed Nano-Turbine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Jingyuan; Wang, Xiaofeng; Zhao, Lina; Gao, Xingfa; Zhao, Yuliang; Zhou, Ruhong

    2014-07-01

    Construction of nano-devices that can generate controllable unidirectional rotation is an important part of nanotechnology. Here, we design a nano-turbine composed of carbon nanotube and graphene nanoblades, which can be driven by fluid flow. Rotation motion of nano-turbine is quantitatively studied by molecular dynamics simulations on this model system. A robust linear relationship is achieved with this nano-turbine between its rotation rate and the fluid flow velocity spanning two orders of magnitude, and this linear relationship remains intact at various temperatures. More interestingly, a striking difference from its macroscopic counterpart is identified: the rotation rate is much smaller (by a factor of ~15) than that of the macroscopic turbine with the same driving flow. This discrepancy is shown to be related to the disruption of water flow at nanoscale, together with the water slippage at graphene surface and the so-called ``dragging effect''. Moreover, counterintuitively, the ratio of ``effective'' driving flow velocity increases as the flow velocity increases, suggesting that the linear dependence on the flow velocity can be more complicated in nature. These findings may serve as a foundation for the further development of rotary nano-devices and should also be helpful for a better understanding of the biological molecular motors.

  2. Rotation Motion of Designed Nano-Turbine

    PubMed Central

    Li, Jingyuan; Wang, Xiaofeng; Zhao, Lina; Gao, Xingfa; Zhao, Yuliang; Zhou, Ruhong

    2014-01-01

    Construction of nano-devices that can generate controllable unidirectional rotation is an important part of nanotechnology. Here, we design a nano-turbine composed of carbon nanotube and graphene nanoblades, which can be driven by fluid flow. Rotation motion of nano-turbine is quantitatively studied by molecular dynamics simulations on this model system. A robust linear relationship is achieved with this nano-turbine between its rotation rate and the fluid flow velocity spanning two orders of magnitude, and this linear relationship remains intact at various temperatures. More interestingly, a striking difference from its macroscopic counterpart is identified: the rotation rate is much smaller (by a factor of ~15) than that of the macroscopic turbine with the same driving flow. This discrepancy is shown to be related to the disruption of water flow at nanoscale, together with the water slippage at graphene surface and the so-called “dragging effect”. Moreover, counterintuitively, the ratio of “effective” driving flow velocity increases as the flow velocity increases, suggesting that the linear dependence on the flow velocity can be more complicated in nature. These findings may serve as a foundation for the further development of rotary nano-devices and should also be helpful for a better understanding of the biological molecular motors. PMID:25068725

  3. Rotation motion of designed nano-turbine.

    PubMed

    Li, Jingyuan; Wang, Xiaofeng; Zhao, Lina; Gao, Xingfa; Zhao, Yuliang; Zhou, Ruhong

    2014-07-28

    Construction of nano-devices that can generate controllable unidirectional rotation is an important part of nanotechnology. Here, we design a nano-turbine composed of carbon nanotube and graphene nanoblades, which can be driven by fluid flow. Rotation motion of nano-turbine is quantitatively studied by molecular dynamics simulations on this model system. A robust linear relationship is achieved with this nano-turbine between its rotation rate and the fluid flow velocity spanning two orders of magnitude, and this linear relationship remains intact at various temperatures. More interestingly, a striking difference from its macroscopic counterpart is identified: the rotation rate is much smaller (by a factor of ~15) than that of the macroscopic turbine with the same driving flow. This discrepancy is shown to be related to the disruption of water flow at nanoscale, together with the water slippage at graphene surface and the so-called "dragging effect". Moreover, counterintuitively, the ratio of "effective" driving flow velocity increases as the flow velocity increases, suggesting that the linear dependence on the flow velocity can be more complicated in nature. These findings may serve as a foundation for the further development of rotary nano-devices and should also be helpful for a better understanding of the biological molecular motors.

  4. Nano-plasmonic phenomena in graphene

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Basov, Dimitri

    2014-03-01

    Infrared nano-spectroscopy and nano-imaging experiments have uncovered a rich variety of optical effects associated with the Dirac plasmons of graphene [Fei et al. Nano Lett. 11, 4701 (2011)]. We were able to directly image Dirac plasmons propagating over sub-micron distances [Fei et al. Nature 487, 82 (2012)]. We have succeeded in altering both the amplitude and wavelength of these plasmons by gate voltage in common graphene/SiO2/Si back-gated structures. Scanning plasmon interferometry has allowed us to visualize grain boundaries in CVD graphene. These latter experiments revealed that the grain boundaries tend to form electronic barriers that impede both electrical transport and plasmon propagation. Our results attest to the feasibility of using these electronic barriers to realize tunable plasmon reflectors: a precondition for implementation of various metamaterials concepts [Fei et al. Nature Nano 8, 821 (2013)]. Finally, we have carried out pump-probe experiments interrogating ultra-fast dynamics of plasmons in exfoliated graphene with the nano-scale spatial resolution [Wagner et al. (under review)].

  5. Morphology and antifungal effect of nano-ZnO and nano-Pd-doped nano-ZnO against Aspergillus and Candida.

    PubMed

    Gondal, Mohammed A; Alzahrani, Alhusain J; Randhawa, Mohammad A; Siddiqui, Mohammad N

    2012-01-01

    The present work was aimed to study the activity of nano-particulated ZnO and nano Pd doped nano-ZnO against Aspergillus and Candida species, commonly contaminating the water supply systems. Micro-ZnO was purchased from the market (Aldrich, USA) while nano ZnO were synthesized using sole gel and precipitation methods and their morphology was determined using XRD and TEM techniques. The average grain size of nano-ZnO estimated by these techniques was 30 nm and 20 nm, respectively. The doping of nano-ZnO with 5 % Pd was achieved by a thermal decomposition method and its morphology; as characterized by XRD, TEM and FESEM techniques; gave an average grain size of 35 nm. Serial dilutions of nano-ZnO doped with 5 % Pd, pure nano-ZnO and micro-ZnO (as a control) were prepared from 10 mg/mL stock solution of each in dermasel agar (OXOID), inoculated with standard strains of Candida albicans and Aspergillus niger and incubated at 37°C for 24 and 48 hours, respectively. Their antimicrobial effect was compared by the minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC), determined as the dilution giving a negligible growth of microorganism. Nano-ZnO doped with 5 % nano-Pd, pure nano-ZnO and micro-ZnO, showed antifungal activity against Aspergilus niger with an MIC of 1.25, 2.5 and 5mg/mL, respectively. However, Candida albicans yeasts were relatively resistant to these compounds, with an MIC of 2.5, 5 and 10 mg/mL for Pd doped nano-ZnO, nano-ZnO and micro-ZnO, respectively. Thus nano-ZnO was twice as potent in killing Aspergillus, as compared to its non-nano-counterpart and loading of nano-ZnO with 5 % nano-Pd further increased its activity, four times that of micro-ZnO. Further investigations are needed to confirm the potential use of nano-ZnO and its doping with nano-Pd in the treatment of water supply systems and food preservation.

  6. Development of nano SiO2 incorporated nano zinc phosphate coatings on mild steel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tamilselvi, M.; Kamaraj, P.; Arthanareeswari, M.; Devikala, S.; Selvi, J. Arockia

    2015-03-01

    This paper reports the development of nano SiO2 incorporated nano zinc phosphate coatings on mild steel at low temperature for achieving better corrosion protection. A new formulation of phosphating bath at low temperature with nano SiO2 was attempted to explore the possibilities of development of nano zinc phosphate coatings on mild steel with improved corrosion resistance. The coatings developed were studied by Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM), Energy-Dispersive X-ray Spectroscopy (EDX), X-ray Diffraction (XRD), Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM) and Electrochemical measurements. Significant variation in the coating weight, morphology and corrosion resistance was observed as nano SiO2 concentrations varied from 0.5-4 g/L. The results showed that, the nano SiO2 in the phosphating solution changed the initial potential of the interface between mild steel substrate and phosphating solution and reduce the activation energy of the phosphating process, increase the nucleation sites and yielded zinc phosphate coatings of higher coating weight, greater surface coverage and enhanced corrosion resistance. Better corrosion resistance was observed for coatings derived from phosphating bath containing 1.5 g/L nano SiO2. The new formulation reported in the present study was free from Ni or Mn salts and had very low concentration of sodium nitrite (0.4 g/L) as accelerator.

  7. Determining the Cost Effectiveness of Nano-Satellites

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-09-01

    of categories. Mini-satellites are less than 1,000 kilograms. Micro -sats are less than 100 kilograms. Nano -satellites are less than 10 kilograms...score was 88%. 2. Nano -satellite Altimeter A previous study suggested a 40 centimeter per side micro -satellite could achieve accuracy close to the... micro -satellites because there were few nano -satellite missions at the time. A researcher could add data on nano -satellite class systems to Bearden’s

  8. Nano-donuts on metal surfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rai, Abhishek; Nayak, Jayita; Roy Barman, Sudipta

    2015-03-01

    Nano-structures comprising of a pit surrounded by a circular ridge that resemble nano-donuts have been observed on flat terraces of both Au(1 1 1) and Al(1 0 0) surfaces after low energy (1.5-2 keV) rare gas (rg) ion implantation. From time lapse scanning tunneling microscopy, we demonstrate that these donuts originate from the rg bubbles that migrate out from the sub-surface region. The circular shape of the donuts is observed for both Ar and Ne bubbles. The donuts and the related nano-structures represent different stages of large time scale co-operative relaxation of Au atoms by long range elastic interaction after the rg bubbles leave the metal.

  9. Micro and Nano Systems for Space Exploration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Manohara, Harish

    2007-01-01

    This slide presentation reviews the use of micro and nano systems in Space exploration. Included are: an explanation of the rationales behind nano and micro technologies for space exploration, a review of how the devices are fabricated, including details on lithography with more information on Electron Beam (E-Beam) lithography, and X-ray lithography, a review of micro gyroscopes and inchworm Microactuator as examples of the use of MicroElectoMechanical (MEMS) technology. Also included is information on Carbon Nanotubes, including a review of the CVD growth process. These micro-nano systems have given rise to the next generation of miniature X-ray Diffraction, X-ray Fluorescence instruments, mass spectrometers, and terahertz frequency vacuum tube oscillators and amplifiers, scanning electron microscopes and energy dispersive x-ray spectroscope. The nanotechnology has also given rise to coating technology, such as silicon nanotip anti-reflection coating.

  10. Tracking microbial interactions with NanoSIMS

    SciTech Connect

    Musat, Niculina; Musat, Florin; Weber, Peter Kilian; Pett-Ridge, Jennifer

    2016-10-01

    The combination of stable isotope probing (SIP), NanoSIMS imaging and microbe identification via fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) is often used to link identity to function at the cellular level in microbial communities. Many opportunities remain for nanoSIP to identify metabolic interactions and nutrient fluxes within syntrophic associations and obligate symbioses where exchanges can be extremely rapid. However, additional data, such as genomic potential, gene expression or other imaging modalities are often critical to deciphering the mechanisms underlying specific interactions, and researchers must keep sample preparation artefacts in mind. Here we focus on recent applications of nanoSIP, particularly where used to track exchanges of isotopically labelled molecules between organisms. We highlight metabolic interactions within syntrophic consortia, carbon/nitrogen fluxes between phototrophs and their heterotrophic partners, and symbiont–host nutrient sharing.

  11. Nano-granular texture of cement hydrates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ioannidou, Katerina; Ulm, Franz-Josef; Levitz, Pierre; Del Gado, Emanuela; Pellenq, Roland J.-M.

    2017-06-01

    Mechanical behavior of concrete crucially depends on cement hydrates, the "glue" of cement. The design of high performance and more environmentally friendly cements demands a deeper understanding of the formation of the multiscale structure of cement hydrates, when they precipitate and densify. We investigate the precipitation and setting of nano-grains of cement hydrates using a combination of Monte Carlo and Molecular Dynamics numerical simulations and study their texture from nano up to the micron scale. We characterize the texture of cement hydrates using the local volume fraction distribution, the pore size distribution, the scattering intensity and the chord length distribution and we compare them with experiments. Our nano-granular model provides cement structure with realistic texture and mechanics and can be further used to investigate degradation mechanisms.

  12. Micro and Nano Systems for Space Exploration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Manohara, Harish

    2007-01-01

    This slide presentation reviews the use of micro and nano systems in Space exploration. Included are: an explanation of the rationales behind nano and micro technologies for space exploration, a review of how the devices are fabricated, including details on lithography with more information on Electron Beam (E-Beam) lithography, and X-ray lithography, a review of micro gyroscopes and inchworm Microactuator as examples of the use of MicroElectoMechanical (MEMS) technology. Also included is information on Carbon Nanotubes, including a review of the CVD growth process. These micro-nano systems have given rise to the next generation of miniature X-ray Diffraction, X-ray Fluorescence instruments, mass spectrometers, and terahertz frequency vacuum tube oscillators and amplifiers, scanning electron microscopes and energy dispersive x-ray spectroscope. The nanotechnology has also given rise to coating technology, such as silicon nanotip anti-reflection coating.

  13. Modelling nano-clusters and nucleation.

    PubMed

    Catlow, C Richard A; Bromley, Stefan T; Hamad, Said; Mora-Fonz, Miguel; Sokol, Alexey A; Woodley, Scott M

    2010-01-28

    We review the growing role of computational techniques in modelling the structures and properties of nano-particulate oxides and sulphides. We describe the main methods employed, including those based on both electronic structure and interatomic potential approaches. Particular attention is paid to the techniques used in searching for global minima in the energy landscape defined by the nano-particle cluster. We summarise applications to the widely studied ZnO and ZnS systems, to silica nanochemistry and to group IV oxides including TiO(2). We also consider the special case of silica cluster chemistry in solution and its importance in understanding the hydrothermal synthesis of microporous materials. The work summarised, together with related experimental studies, demonstrates a rich and varied nano-cluster chemistry for these materials.

  14. Nano-Computed Tomography: Technique and Applications.

    PubMed

    Kampschulte, M; Langheinirch, A C; Sender, J; Litzlbauer, H D; Althöhn, U; Schwab, J D; Alejandre-Lafont, E; Martels, G; Krombach, G A

    2016-02-01

    Nano-computed tomography (nano-CT) is an emerging, high-resolution cross-sectional imaging technique and represents a technical advancement of the established micro-CT technology. Based on the application of a transmission target X-ray tube, the focal spot size can be decreased down to diameters less than 400 nanometers (nm). Together with specific detectors and examination protocols, a superior spatial resolution up to 400 nm (10 % MTF) can be achieved, thereby exceeding the resolution capacity of typical micro-CT systems. The technical concept of nano-CT imaging as well as the basics of specimen preparation are demonstrated exemplarily. Characteristics of atherosclerotic plaques (intraplaque hemorrhage and calcifications) in a murine model of atherosclerosis (ApoE (-/-)/LDLR(-/-) double knockout mouse) are demonstrated in the context of superior spatial resolution in comparison to micro-CT. Furthermore, this article presents the application of nano-CT for imaging cerebral microcirculation (murine), lung structures (porcine), and trabecular microstructure (ovine) in contrast to micro-CT imaging. This review shows the potential of nano-CT as a radiological method in biomedical basic research and discusses the application of experimental, high resolution CT techniques in consideration of other high resolution cross-sectional imaging techniques. Nano-computed tomography is a high resolution CT-technology for 3D imaging at sub-micrometer resolution. The technical concept bases on a further development of the established ex-vivo-micro-CT technology. By improvement of the spatial resolution, structures at a cellular level become visible (e.g. osteocyte lacunae). © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  15. Nano-grains form carbonate "fault mirrors"

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Siman-Tov, Shalev; Aharonov, Einat; Sagy, Amir; Emmanuel, Simon

    2013-04-01

    Many faults are characterized by naturally polished glossy surfaces, termed fault mirrors (FMs), which form during slip. Recent experiments also find that FMs form during rapid (but not slow) sliding between rock surfaces, and that FM formation coincides with pronounced friction reduction. The structure of FMs and the mechanism of their formation are thus important for understanding the mechanics of frictional sliding in general, and during earthquakes in particular. Here we characterize the small-scale structure of natural carbonate FMs from 3 different faults along a tectonically active region of the Dead Sea Transform. Atomic force microscopy measurements indicate that the FMs possess extremely smooth surface topography, accounting for their mirror-like appearance. Electron microscope characterization tools revealed a thin (< 1 µm) layer, composed of tightly packed nano-scaled grains, coating a rougher layer composed of micron-size calcite crystals. The crystals contain closely-spaced, plastically-formed, mechanical twins, which define new sub-grain boundaries. The narrow sub-grains are observed to break into sub-micron pieces near the sheared surface. This observation suggests a new brittle-ductile mechanism for nano-grain formation. Our observations further suggest that FMs require two main ingredients: (i) Nano grains and (ii) a hard and very smooth surface, probably formed by nano-grain sintering, a plastic process requiring high temperatures that arise only during rapid enough sliding. Both nano-grains and nano-scale-smooth surfaces were previously suggested to induce frictional weakening. We discuss possible physical processes that may control the observed connection between FM formation and frictional weakening.

  16. Epigenetic effects of nano-sized materials.

    PubMed

    Stoccoro, Andrea; Karlsson, Hanna L; Coppedè, Fabio; Migliore, Lucia

    2013-11-08

    The term epigenetics includes several phenomena such as DNA methylation, histone tail modifications, and microRNA mediated mechanisms, which are able to mold the chromatin structure and/or gene expression levels, without altering the primary DNA sequence. Environmental agents can exert epigenetic properties and there is increasing evidence of epigenetic deregulation of gene expression in several human diseases, including cancer, cardiovascular diseases, autism spectrum disorders, autoimmune diseases, and neurodegeneration, among others. Given the widespread use and dispersion in the environment of nano-sized materials, this article summarizes the studies performed so far to evaluate their potential epigenetic properties. Those studies highlight the ability of certain nano-sized compounds to induce an impaired expression of genes involved in DNA methylation reactions leading to global DNA methylation changes, as well as changes of gene specific methylation of tumor suppressor genes, inflammatory genes, and DNA repair genes, all potentially involved in cancer development. Moreover, some nano-sized compounds are able to induce changes in the acetylation and methylation of histone tails, as well as microRNA deregulated expression. We also provided a detailed description of currently available methodologies to evaluate epigenetic modifications. Standard protocols are currently available to evaluate cytotoxic and genotoxic effects of nano-sized materials. By contrast, there are at present no available standard protocols to evaluate the epigenetic potential of any given compound. The currently available methodologies offer different, but often complementary information to characterize potential epigenetic changes induced by exposure to nano-sized compounds. Given the widespread use and dispersion in the environment of nano-sized materials, at present and foreseeable in the near future, and in light of the indication of potential epigenetic properties here reviewed, more

  17. Construction of coherent nano quantitative structure-properties relationships (nano-QSPR) models and catastrophe theory.

    PubMed

    Carbó-Dorca, R; Besalú, E

    2011-10-01

    The structure one can associate to coherent nano-quantitative structure-properties relationship (nano-QSPR) models is briefly discussed. Such nano-QSPR model functions are described as possessing three parts: a particle size polynomial; a typical QSPR function; and a special effects function. The expected behaviour of the particle size part is discussed from the point of view of catastrophe theory, in this way providing a plausible general picture about the emergence of new properties of nanoparticles and holographic location of information content.

  18. Three-Dimensional Nano-Lithography for Emerging Technologies

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2005-09-27

    SUBJECT TERMS Grayscale lithography, micro - and nano -fabrication, 3D micro ...meso-optics for optical system integration, and the burgeoning field of micro -electro-mechanical systems (MEMS), provide drive in the micro - and nano ...scientific literature, and presentations at conferences devoted to micro - and nano -fabrication and micro - optics. More importantly, we developed technology

  19. Electrokinetics Models for Micro and Nano Fluidic Impedance Sensors

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-11-01

    1 ELECTROKINETICS MODELS FOR MICRO AND NANO FLUIDIC IMPEDANCE SENSORS Yi Wang*, Hongjun Song, Ketan Bhatt, Kapil Pant CFD Research Corporation...analysis, design, and protocol development of novel micro - and nano - fluidics based impedance sensors. 1. INTRODUCTION Exposure to toxic...electrokinetic transport process at the micro - and nano -scale and to interrogate the sensor performance subject to the variations in design

  20. Micro and Nano-mediated 3D Cardiac Tissue Engineering

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-09-01

    AD_________________ Award Number: W81XWH-08-1-0701 TITLE: Micro and Nano -mediated 3D Cardiac...TITLE AND SUBTITLE 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER Micro and Nano -mediated 3D Cardiac Tissue Engineering 5b. GRANT NUMBER W81XWH-08-1-0701 5c. PROGRAM...ANNUAL REPORT 2011-12 Micro and Nano -mediated

  1. Active control of nano dimers response using piezoelectric effect

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mekkawy, Ahmed A.; Ali, Tamer A.; Badawi, Ashraf H.

    2016-09-01

    Nano devices can be used as building blocks for Internet of Nano-Things network devices, such as sensors/actuators, transceivers, and routers. Although nano particles response can be engineered to fit in different regimes, for such a nano particle to be used as an active nano device, its properties should be dynamically controlled. This controllability is a challenge, and there are many proposed techniques to tune nanoparticle response on the spot through a sort of control signal, wither that signal is optical (for all-optical systems) or electronic (for opto-electronic systems). This will allow the use of nano particles as nano-switches or as dynamic sensors that can pick different frequencies depending on surrounding conditions or depending on a smart decisions. In this work, we propose a piezoelectric substrate as an active control mediator to control plasmonic gaps in nano dimers. This method allows for integrating nano devices with regular electronics while communicating control signals to nano devices through applying electric signals to a piezoelectric material, in order to control the gaps between nano particles in a nano cluster. We do a full numerical study to the system, analyzing the piezoelectric control resolution (minimum gap change step) and its effect on a nanodimer response as a nanoantenna. This analysis considers the dielectric functions of materials within the visible frequencies range. The effects of different parameters, such as the piezoelectric geometrical structure and materials, on the gap control resolution and the operating frequency are studied.

  2. Nano-material and method of fabrication

    SciTech Connect

    Menchhofer, Paul A; Seals, Roland D; Howe, Jane Y; Wang, Wei

    2015-02-03

    A fluffy nano-material and method of manufacture are described. At 2000.times. magnification the fluffy nanomaterial has the appearance of raw, uncarded wool, with individual fiber lengths ranging from approximately four microns to twenty microns. Powder-based nanocatalysts are dispersed in the fluffy nanomaterial. The production of fluffy nanomaterial typically involves flowing about 125 cc/min of organic vapor at a pressure of about 400 torr over powder-based nano-catalysts for a period of time that may range from approximately thirty minutes to twenty-four hours.

  3. Desensitizing nano powders to electrostatic discharge ignition

    SciTech Connect

    Steelman, Ryan; Clark, Billy; Pantoya, Michelle L.; Heaps, Ronald J.; Daniels, Michael A.

    2015-08-01

    Electrostatic discharge (ESD) is a main cause for ignition in powder media ranging from grain silos to fireworks. Nanoscale particles are orders of magnitude more ESD ignition sensitive than their micron scale counterparts. This study shows that at least 13 vol. % carbon nanotubes (CNT) added to nano-aluminum and nano-copper oxide particles (nAl + CuO) eliminates ESD ignition sensitivity. The CNT act as a conduit for electric energy and directs electric charge through the powder to desensitize the reactive mixture to ignition. For nanoparticles, the required CNT concentration for desensitizing ESD ignition acts as a diluent to quench energy propagation.

  4. Nano polypeptide particles reinforced polymer composite fibers.

    PubMed

    Li, Jiashen; Li, Yi; Zhang, Jing; Li, Gang; Liu, Xuan; Li, Zhi; Liu, Xuqing; Han, Yanxia; Zhao, Zheng

    2015-02-25

    Because of the intensified competition of land resources for growing food and natural textile fibers, there is an urgent need to reuse and recycle the consumed/wasted natural fibers as regenerated green materials. Although polypeptide was extracted from wool by alkaline hydrolysis, the size of the polypeptide fragments could be reduced to nanoscale. The wool polypeptide particles were fragile and could be crushed down to nano size again and dispersed evenly among polymer matrix under melt extrusion condition. The nano polypeptide particles could reinforce antiultraviolet capability, moisture regain, and mechanical properties of the polymer-polypeptide composite fibers.

  5. Catalytic wateroxidation on derivatized nanoITO

    SciTech Connect

    Chen, Zuofeng; Concepcion, Javier J; Hull, Jonathan F; Hoertz, Paul G.; Meyer, Thomas J.

    2010-06-22

    Electrocatalytic water oxidation occurs on high surface area, nanocrystalline ITO (nanoITO) surface-derivatized by phosphonate-binding of the catalyst [Ru(Mebimpy)(4,4'-((HO)2OPCH2)2bpy)(OH2)]2+ (Mebimpy is 2,6-bis(1-methylbenzimidazol-2-yl)pyridine; bpy is 2,2'-bipyridine). With nanoITO, spectral data can be acquired on electrochemically generated intermediates and voltammograms monitored spectrophotometrically.

  6. Olefin metathesis in nano-sized systems

    PubMed Central

    Diallo, Abdou K; Gatard, Sylvain; Liang, Liyuan; Ornelas, Cátia; Martinez, Victor; Méry, Denise; Ruiz, Jaime

    2011-01-01

    Summary The interplay between olefin metathesis and dendrimers and other nano systems is addressed in this mini review mostly based on the authors’ own contributions over the last decade. Two subjects are presented and discussed: (i) The catalysis of olefin metathesis by dendritic nano-catalysts via either covalent attachment (ROMP) or, more usefully, dendrimer encapsulation – ring closing metathesis (RCM), cross metathesis (CM), enyne metathesis reactions (EYM) – for reactions in water without a co-solvent and (ii) construction and functionalization of dendrimers by CM reactions. PMID:21286399

  7. Reactive oxygen species-related activities of nano-iron metal and nano-iron oxides.

    PubMed

    Wu, Haohao; Yin, Jun-Jie; Wamer, Wayne G; Zeng, Mingyong; Lo, Y Martin

    2014-03-01

    Nano-iron metal and nano-iron oxides are among the most widely used engineered and naturally occurring nanostructures, and the increasing incidence of biological exposure to these nanostructures has raised concerns about their biotoxicity. Reactive oxygen species (ROS)-induced oxidative stress is one of the most accepted toxic mechanisms and, in the past decades, considerable efforts have been made to investigate the ROS-related activities of iron nanostructures. In this review, we summarize activities of nano-iron metal and nano-iron oxides in ROS-related redox processes, addressing in detail the known homogeneous and heterogeneous redox mechanisms involved in these processes, intrinsic ROS-related properties of iron nanostructures (chemical composition, particle size, and crystalline phase), and ROS-related bio-microenvironmental factors, including physiological pH and buffers, biogenic reducing agents, and other organic substances. Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  8. Report of International NanoSPD Steering Committee and statistics on recent NanoSPD activities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2014-08-01

    Abstract. The Université de Lorraine in Metz, France, is the selected site for the 6th International Conference on Nanomaterials by Severe Plastic Deformation (NanoSPD6) following a series of five earlier conferences. This introductory paper reports on several major developments in NanoSPD activities as well as on very recent NanoSPD citation data which confirm the continued growth and expansion of this important research area. Close attention is given to the topics of workshops, conferences and seminars organized during these last three years as well as on books and reviews published prior to the NanoSPD6 conference. A special concern of the committee is in introducing and discussing the appropriate terminology to be applied in this new field of materials science and engineering.

  9. Plasmonic graded nano-disks as nano-optical conveyor belt.

    PubMed

    Kang, Zhiwen; Lu, Haifei; Chen, Jiajie; Chen, Kun; Xu, Fang; Ho, Ho-Pui

    2014-08-11

    We propose a plasmonic system consisting of nano-disks (NDs) with graded diameters for the realization of nano-optical conveyor belt. The system contains a couple of NDs with individual elements coded with different resonant wavelengths. By sequentially switching the wavelength and polarization of the excitation source, optically trapped target nano-particle can be transferred from one ND to another. The feasibility of such function is verified based on the three-dimensional finite-difference time-domain technique and the Maxwell stress tensor method. Our design may provide an alternative way to construct nano-optical conveyor belt with which target molecules can be delivered between trapping sites, thus enabling many on-chip optofluidic applications.

  10. Nano-manipulation of diamond-based single photon sources.

    PubMed

    Ampem-Lassen, E; Simpson, D A; Gibson, B C; Trpkovski, S; Hossain, F M; Huntington, S T; Ganesan, K; Hollenberg, L C L; Prawer, S

    2009-07-06

    The ability to manipulate nano-particles at the nano-scale is critical for the development of active quantum systems. This paper presents a technique to manipulate diamond nano-crystals at the nano-scale using a scanning electron microscope, nano-manipulator and custom tapered optical fibre probes. The manipulation of a approximately 300 nm diamond crystal, containing a single nitrogen-vacancy centre, onto the endface of an optical fibre is demonstrated. The emission properties of the single photon source post manipulation are in excellent agreement with those observed on the original substrate.

  11. Every which way – nanos gene regulation in echinoderms

    PubMed Central

    Oulhen, Nathalie; Wessel, Gary M.

    2014-01-01

    Nanos is an essential factor of germ line success in all animals tested. This gene encodes a Zn-finger RNA-binding protein that in complex with its partner pumilio, binds to and changes the fate of several known transcripts. We summarize here the documented functions of nanos in several key organisms, and then emphasize echinoderms as a working model for how nanos expression is regulated. Nanos presence outside of the target cells is often detrimental to the animal, and in sea urchins, nanos expression appears to be regulated at every step of transcription, and post-transcriptional activity, making this gene product exciting, every which way. PMID:24376110

  12. Every which way--nanos gene regulation in echinoderms.

    PubMed

    Oulhen, Nathalie; Wessel, Gary M

    2014-03-01

    Nanos is an essential factor of germ line success in all animals tested. This gene encodes a Zn-finger RNA-binding protein that in complex with its partner pumilio binds to and changes the fate of several known transcripts. We summarize here the documented functions of Nanos in several key organisms, and then emphasize echinoderms as a working model for how nanos expression is regulated. Nanos presence outside of the target cells is often detrimental to the animal, and in sea urchins, nanos expression appears to be regulated at every step of transcription, and post-transcriptional activity, making this gene product exciting, every which way.

  13. Nano-Drugs Based on Nano Sterically Stabilized Liposomes for the Treatment of Inflammatory Neurodegenerative Diseases

    PubMed Central

    Turjeman, Keren; Bavli, Yaelle; Kizelsztein, Pablo; Schilt, Yaelle; Allon, Nahum; Katzir, Tamar Blumenfeld; Sasson, Efrat; Raviv, Uri; Ovadia, Haim; Barenholz, Yechezkel

    2015-01-01

    The present study shows the advantages of liposome-based nano-drugs as a novel strategy of delivering active pharmaceutical ingredients for treatment of neurodegenerative diseases that involve neuroinflammation. We used the most common animal model for multiple sclerosis (MS), mice experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE). The main challenges to overcome are the drugs’ unfavorable pharmacokinetics and biodistribution, which result in inadequate therapeutic efficacy and in drug toxicity (due to high and repeated dosage). We designed two different liposomal nano-drugs, i.e., nano sterically stabilized liposomes (NSSL), remote loaded with: (a) a “water-soluble” amphipathic weak acid glucocorticosteroid prodrug, methylprednisolone hemisuccinate (MPS) or (b) the amphipathic weak base nitroxide, Tempamine (TMN). For the NSSL-MPS we also compared the effect of passive targeting alone and of active targeting based on short peptide fragments of ApoE or of β-amyloid. Our results clearly show that for NSSL-MPS, active targeting is not superior to passive targeting. For the NSSL-MPS and the NSSL-TMN it was demonstrated that these nano-drugs ameliorate the clinical signs and the pathology of EAE. We have further investigated the MPS nano-drug’s therapeutic efficacy and its mechanism of action in both the acute and the adoptive transfer EAE models, as well as optimizing the perfomance of the TMN nano-drug. The highly efficacious anti-inflammatory therapeutic feature of these two nano-drugs meets the criteria of disease-modifying drugs and supports further development and evaluation of these nano-drugs as potential therapeutic agents for diseases with an inflammatory component. PMID:26147975

  14. Instrumentation for Nano-porous, Nano-particulate Geopolymeric Materials Research

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2008-11-04

    surface area ceramic powders in geopolymers and geopolymeric composites. On the other hand, the Thinky ARE-250 mixer was purchased to assist with...3. DATES COVERED (From - To) 6/15/07 – 6/14/08 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Instrumentation for Nano-porous, Nano-particulate Geopolymeric ...STATEMENT 13. SUPPLEMENTARY NOTES 14. ABSTRACT -- Geopolymers are a new class of ceramic materials which are best understood as rigid

  15. We Scream for Nano Ice Cream

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jones, M. Gail; Krebs, Denise L.; Banks, Alton J.

    2011-01-01

    There is a wide range of new products emerging from nanotechnology, and "nano ice cream" is an easy one that you can use to teach topics from surface area to volume applications. In this activity, students learn how ice cream can be made smoother and creamier tasting through nanoscience. By using liquid nitrogen to cool the cream mixture, students…

  16. Synthesis and characterization of struvite nano particles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rathod, K. R.; Jogiya, B. V.; Chauhan, C. K.; Joshi, M. J.

    2015-06-01

    Struvite, Ammonium Magnesium Phosphate Hexahydrate [(AMPH) - (NH4)MgPO4.6(H2O)], is one of the fascinating inorganic phosphate minerals. Struvite is one of the components of the urinary stones. Struvite occurs as crystallites in urine and grows as a type of kidney stone. In this study, struvite nano particles were synthesized by wet chemical technique. The aqueous solutions containing dissolved Mg(CH3COO)2.4H2O and (NH4)H2PO4 mixed at the Mg/P molar ratio of 1.00. The synthesized struvite nano particles were characterized by XRD, FT-IR, Thermal Analysis and TEM. From XRD, crystal structure of the nano particle was found to be orthorhombic and crystalline size was found to be within 11 to 26 nm. The FT-IR spectrum for the struvite nano particles confirmed the presence of a water molecule and metal-oxygen stretching vibration, O-H stretching and bending, N-H bending and stretching, P-O bending and stretching vibrations. The Thermal Analysis was carried out from room temperature to 900°C. From TEM analysis, particle size was 23 to 30 nm. All the results were compared with bulk struvite.

  17. Optical piezoelectric transducer for nano-ultrasonics.

    PubMed

    Lin, Kung-Hsuan; Chern, Gia-Wei; Yu, Cheng-Ta; Liu, Tzu-Ming; Pan, Chang-Chi; Chen, Guan-Ting; Chyi, Jen-Inn; Huang, Sheng-Wen; Li, Pai-Chi; Sun, Chi-Kuang

    2005-08-01

    Piezoelectric semiconductor strained layers can be treated as piezoelectric transducers to generate nanometer-wavelength and THz-frequency acoustic waves. The mechanism of nano-acoustic wave (NAW) generation in strained piezoelectric layers, induced by femtosecond optical pulses, can be modeled by a macroscopic elastic continuum theory. The optical absorption change of the strained layers modulated by NAW through quantum-confined Franz-Keldysh (QCFK) effects allows optical detection of the propagating NAW. Based on these piezoelectric-based optical principles, we have designed an optical piezoelectric transducer (OPT) to generate NAW. The optically generated NAW is then applied to one-dimensional (1-D) ultrasonic scan for thickness measurement, which is the first step toward multidimensional nano-ultrasonic imaging. By launching a NAW pulse and resolving the returned acoustic echo signal with femtosecond optical pulses, the thickness of the studied layer can be measured with <1 nm resolution. This nano-structured OPT technique will provide the key toward the realization of nano-ultrasonics, which is analogous to the typical ultrasonic techniques but in a nanometer scale.

  18. Superhydrophobic Behavior on Nano-structured Surfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schaeffer, Daniel

    2008-05-01

    Superhydrophobic behavior is observed in natural occurrences and has been thoroughly studied over the past few years. Water repellant properties on uniform arrays of vertically aligned nano-cones were investigated to determine the highest achievable contact angle (a measure of water drop repellency), which is measured from the reference plane on which the water drop sits to the tangent line of the point at which the drop makes contact with the reference plane. At low aspect ratios (height vs. width of the nano-cones), surface tension pulls the water into the nano-cone array, resulting in a wetted surface. Higher aspect ratios reverse the effect of the surface tension, resulting in a larger contact angle that causes water drops to roll off the surface. Fiber drawing, bundling, and redrawing are used to produce the structured array glass composite surface. Triple-drawn fibers are fused together, annealed, and sliced into thin wafers. The surface of the composite glass is etched to form nano-cones through a differential etching process and then coated with a fluorinated self-assembled monolayer (SAM). Cone aspect ratios can be varied through changes in the chemistry and concentration of the etching acid solution. Superhydrophobic behavior occurs at contact angles >150 and it is predicted and measured that optimal behavior is achieved when the aspect ratio is 4:1, which displays contact angles >=175 .

  19. We Scream for Nano Ice Cream

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jones, M. Gail; Krebs, Denise L.; Banks, Alton J.

    2011-01-01

    There is a wide range of new products emerging from nanotechnology, and "nano ice cream" is an easy one that you can use to teach topics from surface area to volume applications. In this activity, students learn how ice cream can be made smoother and creamier tasting through nanoscience. By using liquid nitrogen to cool the cream mixture, students…

  20. Optical properties of silver nano-cubes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Das, Ratan; Sarkar, Sumit

    2015-10-01

    Here in this work we are interested in the optical properties of uniform sized cubic silver nano-crystals. These silver nano-crystals are prepared by simple chemical reduction method using PVP as a capping agent. High Resolution Transmission Electron Microscopy (HRTEM) images and X-ray diffraction (XRD) analysis reveal that the produced nano-crystals are FCC in structure with a cubic morphology having an average size of 100 nm approximately. Further High Performance Liquid Chromatography (HPLC) study reveals the monodispersity of the prepared sample. UV/Vis study shows an absorption peak due to surface plasmon resonance (SPR) in the visible range which remains steady for more than two months and after that absorption peak position gets red shifted slowly as samples becomes more aged, confirming the agglomeration after two months. Most important optical property shown by the sample is the photoluminescence (PL), which gives an emission spectra in the visible range, confirming a band gap in the silver nano-cubes. It has been observed that the different PL spectra show an emission peak at 482 nm with different intensity for different excitation wavelength.

  1. Green Chemistry by Nano-Catalysis

    EPA Science Inventory

    The approach of using MW technique with nano-catalysis and benign aqueous reaction medium can offer an extraordinary synergistic effect with greater potential than these three individual components in isolation. To illustrate the ‘‘proof-of-concept’’ of this “Green and Sustainabl...

  2. Quantifying the properties of nano-composites.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Daw, Murray; Zhang, Bo; He, Jian; Tritt, Terry

    2008-03-01

    With the proliferation of nano-composites produced for possible thermoelectric application, we ask the question: To what extent is a given nano-composite like other composites? Or, in other words, when do we know that we have something new? To address this we apply the classical theory of composites to specific nano-composites grown and characterized at Clemson. The theory is very simple and assumes explicitly very simple properties of the materials, the most important being Fourier's Law/Ohm's Law. Given this assumption, the theory of composites can be applied to the nano-composites based on what is known of the microstructure. This ``classical'' result then forms the basis by which the properties can be compared to determine if non-classical effects are being observed. One simple theory is the application of rigorous bounds, such as the Hashin-Strikman Bounds which are based only on very simple microstructural descriptors. Another simple theory is the application of FEM, which can be constructed directly from SEM images of the samples using the NIST code ``OOF''. The FEM produces specific predictions for the composite properties. We find that the Hashin-Strikman Bounds are very useful for analyzing the thermal conductivities of composites, but are too loose to be useful for low-temperature electrical conductivity of composites composed of metals and insulators, where the FEM technique can be applied successfully.

  3. Nano Futures: shaping the nanoscience landscape

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Demming, Anna; Reed, Mark

    2017-06-01

    Nano Futures™ is a new journal, dedicated to bringing together the latest and most important results and perspectives from across nanoscience and related technologies. Highly selective, the journal's primary aim is to become the home for high urgency work that will define the future direction of new and emerging fields across nanoscience, with the expectation for lasting scientific and technological impact.

  4. Green Chemistry by Nano-Catalysis

    EPA Science Inventory

    The approach of using MW technique with nano-catalysis and benign aqueous reaction medium can offer an extraordinary synergistic effect with greater potential than these three individual components in isolation. To illustrate the ‘‘proof-of-concept’’ of this “Green and Sustainabl...

  5. Transferring metallic nano-island on hydrogen passivated silicon surface for nano-electronics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Deng, J.; Troadec, C.; Joachim, C.

    2009-11-01

    In a planar configuration, precise positioning of ultra-flat metallic nano-islands on semiconductor surface opens a way to construct nanostructures for atomic scale interconnects. Regular triangular Au nano-islands have been grown on atomically flat MoS2 substrates and manipulated by STM to form nanometer gap metal-pads connector for single molecule electronics study. The direct assembly of regular shaped metal nano-islands on H-Si(100) is not achievable. Here we present how to transfer Au triangle nano-islands from MoS2 onto H-Si(100) in a clean manner. In this experiment, clean MoS2 substrates are patterned as array of MoS2 pillars with height of 8 μm. The Au triangle nano-islands are grown on top of the pillars. Successful printing transfer of these Au nano-islands from the MoS2 pillars to the H-Si(100) is demonstrated.

  6. Characteristics of Cement Concrete with Nano Alumina Particles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jaishankar, P.; Karthikeyan, C.

    2017-07-01

    Concrete can be nano-engineered by incorporating nano sized building blocks or objects (e.g., nano particles and nano tubes) to control material behaviour and add novel properties. In this work an attempt has been made to study the effect of nano alumina on the properties of concrete composite. In order to investigate the effect of nano-alumina on the mechanical strength of cement composite, the specimens with different volume percentages (0%, 0.5%, 0.75% and 1%) nano-alumina, in each proportion three sample were cast totally making 58 specimens and after 28 days of curing they were tested. Based on experiment, the compressive strength of concrete cubes was all increased by incorporating nano alumina into matrix, when the fraction of nano alumina was 1% of the cement by weight the compressive strength of composites increased by 33.14% at 28 days. The test results showed that addition of nano alumina enhanced the compressive strength and reduced the initial setting time of concrete composite. Micro analysis was carried out by Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM) and Energy Dispersive Spectroscopy (EDS).The studies indicated that nano particle was uniformly distributed by improving the microstructure of concrete.

  7. Nano-formulations of drugs: Recent developments, impact and challenges.

    PubMed

    Jeevanandam, Jaison; Chan, Yen San; Danquah, Michael K

    2016-01-01

    Nano-formulations of medicinal drugs have attracted the interest of many researchers for drug delivery applications. These nano-formulations enhance the properties of conventional drugs and are specific to the targeted delivery site. Dendrimers, polymeric nanoparticles, liposomes, nano-emulsions and micelles are some of the nano-formulations that are gaining prominence in pharmaceutical industry for enhanced drug formulation. Wide varieties of synthesis methods are available for the preparation of nano-formulations to deliver drugs in biological system. The choice of synthesis methods depend on the size and shape of particulate formulation, biochemical properties of drug, and the targeted site. This article discusses recent developments in nano-formulation and the progressive impact on pharmaceutical research and industries. Additionally, process challenges relating to consistent generation of nano-formulations for drug delivery are discussed.

  8. Nano-Fiber Reinforced Enhancements in Composite Polymer Matrices

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chamis, Christos C.

    2009-01-01

    Nano-fibers are used to reinforce polymer matrices to enhance the matrix dependent properties that are subsequently used in conventional structural composites. A quasi isotropic configuration is used in arranging like nano-fibers through the thickness to ascertain equiaxial enhanced matrix behavior. The nano-fiber volume ratios are used to obtain the enhanced matrix strength properties for 0.01,0.03, and 0.05 nano-fiber volume rates. These enhanced nano-fiber matrices are used with conventional fiber volume ratios of 0.3 and 0.5 to obtain the composite properties. Results show that nano-fiber enhanced matrices of higher than 0.3 nano-fiber volume ratio are degrading the composite properties.

  9. Nano-ring arrays for sub-micron particle trapping

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Han, Xue; Truong, Viet Giang; Nic Chormaic, Síle

    2017-04-01

    Plasmonic tweezers based on nano-ring arrays on gold thin film are demonstrated. A cylindrical surface plasmon resonance is generated in the aperture of a nano-ring and a transmission peak results. When nano-slits are included to connect the nano-rings, the transmission peak becomes narrower. When the size of the aperture of the nano-ring is reduced, this peak is red-shifted. Both 0.5 μm and 1 μm polystyrene particles are trapped successfully by nano-ring arrays. A self-induced back-action effect is observed when a red-shifted laser beam is used. With multiple trapping sites provided by the nano-ring array, this type of plasmonic tweezers has huge potential to be integrated in lab-on-a-chip systems for life sciences research.

  10. Nano photonic sensors for microdamage detection : an exploratory simulation.

    SciTech Connect

    El-Kady, Ihab Fathy; Reda Taha, Mahmoud M.

    2005-04-01

    Nano photonic materials are synthetically manufactured crystals at the nano scale with the target of creating a microstructure with a special electro-magnetic periodicity. Such nano photonic materials have the ability to control light propagation and thus are capable of creating photonic bandgaps in the frequency domain. We propose using nano photonic crystals as sensors to detect microdamage in composite materials. We demonstrate using a simulation model that a nano photonic sensor attached to a composite bar experiences a significant change in its bandgap profile when damage is induced in the composite bar. The model predicts the frequency response of the nano photonic sensor using the transfer matrix method. A damage metric to evaluate the change in the frequency response is developed. Successful developments of nano photonic sensors allow damage identification at scales not attainable using current sensing technologies.

  11. Formulation and Drug Loading Features of Nano-Erythrocytes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dong, Xiaoting; Niu, Yawei; Ding, Yi; Wang, Yuemin; Zhao, Jialan; Leng, Wei; Qin, Linghao

    2017-03-01

    Nano erythrocyte ghosts have recently been used as drug carriers of water-soluble APIs due to inherit biological characteristics of good compatibility, low toxicity, and small side-effect. In this study, we developed a novel drug delivery system based on nano erythrocyte ghosts (STS-Nano-RBCs) to transport Sodium Tanshinone IIA sulfonate (STS) for intravenous use in rat. STS-Nano-RBCs were prepared by hypotonic lysis and by extrusion methods, and its biological properties were investigated compared with STS injection. The results revealed that STS-Nano-RBCs have narrow particle size distribution, good drug loading efficiency, and good stability within 21 days. Compared with STS injection, STS-Nano-RBCs extended the drug release time in vitro and in vivo with better repairing effect on oxidative stress-impaired endothelial cells. These results suggest that the nano erythrocyte ghosts system could be used to deliver STS.

  12. Polymer nanotechnology applied to polymeric nano-soft-materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nishi, T.; Fujinami, S.; Nakajima, K.; Sugimori, H.; Hatta, M.; Weber, M.; Jinnai, H.

    2009-08-01

    We have been developing new techniques to evaluate polymer nano-alloys and nano-composites. This "nanotechnology" can be classified into nano-three dimensional (3D) measurement, nano-physical properties evaluation systems, and nano-spectroscopy. As for the nano-3D measurement, we developed polymer oriented energy-filtered 3D transmission electron microscopy. With this method, we can access important 3D structural and elemental information that cannot be obtainable from ordinary TEM. Nano-physical properties evaluation systems were also established by developing atomic force microscopy force-distance curve measurement. The distribution of mechanical properties such as Young's modulus and adhesive energy was quantitatively obtained on high lateral resolution. These methods give new pieces of information unobtainable by the conventional techniques on polymer nanotechnology. Several results are shown here.

  13. Investigating the optical XNOR gate using plasmonic nano-rods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Akhlaghi, Majid; Kaboli, Milad

    2016-04-01

    In this paper, a coherent perfect absorption (CPA)-type XNOR gate based on plasmonic nano particle is proposed. It consists of two plasmonic nano rod arrays on top of two parallel arms with quartz substrate. The operation principle is based on the absorbable formation of a conductive path in the dielectric layer of a plasmonic nano-particles waveguide. Since the CPA efficiency depends strongly on the number of plasmonic nano-rod and the nano rod location, an efficient binary optimization method based the Particle Swarm Optimization (PSO) algorithm is used to design an optimized array of the plasmonic nano-rod in order to achieve the maximum absorption coefficient in the 'off' state and the minimum absorption coefficient in the 'on' state. In Binary PSO (BPSO), a group of birds consists a matrix with binary entries, control the presence ('1‧) or the absence ('0‧) of nano rod in the array.

  14. Sub-diffraction nano manipulation using STED AFM.

    PubMed

    Chacko, Jenu Varghese; Canale, Claudio; Harke, Benjamin; Diaspro, Alberto

    2013-01-01

    In the last two decades, nano manipulation has been recognized as a potential tool of scientific interest especially in nanotechnology and nano-robotics. Contemporary optical microscopy (super resolution) techniques have also reached the nanometer scale resolution to visualize this and hence a combination of super resolution aided nano manipulation ineluctably gives a new perspective to the scenario. Here we demonstrate how specificity and rapid determination of structures provided by stimulated emission depletion (STED) microscope can aid another microscopic tool with capability of mechanical manoeuvring, like an atomic force microscope (AFM) to get topological information or to target nano scaled materials. We also give proof of principle on how high-resolution real time visualization can improve nano manipulation capability within a dense sample, and how STED-AFM is an optimal combination for this job. With these evidences, this article points to future precise nano dissections and maybe even to a nano-snooker game with an AFM tip and fluorospheres.

  15. Nano-liquid chromatography in pharmaceutical and biomedical research.

    PubMed

    Gama, Mariana Roberto; Collins, Carol H; Bottoli, Carla B G

    2013-08-01

    Miniaturized separation techniques have emerged as environmentally friendly alternatives to available separation methods. Nano-liquid chromatography (nano-LC), microchip devices and nano-capillary electrophoresis are miniaturized methods that minimize reagent consumption and waste generation. Furthermore, the low levels of analytes, especially in biological samples, promote the search for more highly sensitive techniques; coupled to mass spectrometry, nano-LC has great potential to become an indispensable tool for routine analysis of biomolecules. This short review presents the fundamental aspects of nano-LC analytical instrumentation, discussing practical considerations and the primary differences between miniaturized and conventional instrumentation. Some theoretical aspects are discussed to better explain both the potential and the principal limitations of nano-LC. Recent pharmaceutical and biomedical applications of this separation technique are also presented to indicate the satisfactory performance for complex matrices, especially for proteomic analysis, that is obtained with nano-LC.

  16. A NANO enhancement to Moore's law

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Jerry; Shen, Yin-Lin; Reinhardt, Kitt; Szu, Harold

    2012-06-01

    In the past 46 years, Intel Moore observed an exponential doubling in the number of transistors in every 18 months through the size reduction of individual transistor components since 1965. In this paper, we are exploring the nanotechnology impact upon the Law. Since we cannot break down the atomic size barrier, the fact implies a fundamental size limit at the atomic or Nanotechnology scale. This means, no more simple 18 month doubling as in Moore's Law, but other forms of transistor doubling may happen at a different slope in new directions. We are particularly interested in the Nano enhancement area. (i) 3-D: If the progress in shrinking the in-plane dimensions (2D) is to slow down, vertical integration (3D) can help increasing the areal device transistor density and keep us on the modified Moore's Law curve including the 3rd dimension. As the devices continue to shrink further into the 20 to 30 nm range, the consideration of thermal properties and transport in such nanoscale devices becomes increasingly important. (ii) Carbon Computing: Instead of traditional Transistors, the other types of transistors material are rapidly developed in Laboratories Worldwide, e.g. IBM Spintronics bandgap material and Samsung Nano-storage material, HD display Nanotechnology, which are modifying the classical Moore's Law. We shall consider the overall limitation of phonon engineering, fundamental information unit 'Qubyte' in quantum computing, Nano/Micro Electrical Mechanical System (NEMS), Carbon NanoTubes (CNTs), single layer Graphemes, single strip Nano-Ribbons, etc., and their variable degree of fabrication maturities for the computing and information processing applications.

  17. The therapeutic effect of nano-encapsulated and nano-emulsion forms of carvacrol on experimental liver fibrosis.

    PubMed

    Hussein, Jihan; El-Banna, Mona; Mahmoud, Khaled F; Morsy, Safaa; Abdel Latif, Yasmin; Medhat, Dalia; Refaat, Eman; Farrag, Abdel Razik; El-Daly, Sherien M

    2017-06-01

    The present study aimed to compare the therapeutic efficiency of nano-encapsulated and nano-emulsion carvacrol administration on liver injury in thioacetamide (TAA) treated rats. To fulfill our target, we used sixty male albino rats classified into six groups as follow: control, nano-encapsulated carvacrol, nano-emulsion carvacrol, thioacetamide, treated nano-encapsulated carvacrol and treated nano-emulsion carvacrol groups. Blood samples were collected from all groups and the separated serum was used for analysis of the following biochemical parameters; aspartate aminotransferase (AST), alanine aminotransferase (ALT), S100 B protein, alpha fetoprotein (AFP) and caspase-3. The levels of malondialdehyde (MDA), reduced glutathione (GSH), nitric oxide (NO), monocyte chemoattractant protein-1(MCP-1) and hydroxyproline content were all evaluated in liver tissue homogenate. Histopathological examinations for liver tissues were also performed. Thioacetamide induced hepatic damage in rats as revealed by the significant increase in the levels of serum ALT, AST and produced oxidative stress as displayed by the significant elevation in the levels of hepatic MDA and NO concomitant with a significant decrease in GSH. In addition, thioacetamide significantly increased serum S100B protein, alpha fetoprotein and caspase-3 along with hepatic MCP-1 and hydroxyproline; these results were confirmed by the histopathological investigation. In contrast, nano-encapsulated and nano-emulsion carvacrol were able to ameliorate these negative changes in the thioacetamide injected rats. However, the effect of the nano-encapsulated form of carvacrol was more prominent than the nano-emulsion form. Nano-encapsulated and nano-emulsion carvacrol can ameliorate thioacetamide induced liver injury. These results could be attributed to the potential anti-inflammatory, antioxidant, and anti-apoptotic activities of carvacrol in addition to the effectiveness of the encapsulation technique that can protect

  18. Nano-structural characteristics and optical properties of silver chiral nano-flower sculptured thin films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Savaloni, Hadi; Haydari-Nasab, Fatemh; Malmir, Mariam

    2011-08-01

    Silver chiral nano-flowers with 3-, 4- and 5-fold symmetry were produced using oblique angle deposition method in conjunction with the rotation of sample holder with different speeds at different sectors of each revolution corresponding to symmetry order of the acquired nano-flower. Atomic force microscopy (AFM) and field emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM), were employed to obtain morphology and nano-structure of the films. Optical characteristics of silver chiral nano-flower thin films were obtained using single beam spectrophotometer with both s- and p-polarization incident light at 30° and 70° incidence angles and at different azimuthal angles ( φ). Optical spectra showed both TM (TDM (transverse dipole mode) and TQM (transverse quadruple mode)) and LM (longitudinal mode) Plasmon resonance peaks. For 3- and 4-fold symmetry chiral nano-flowers the s-polarization extinction spectra obtained at different azimuthal angles did not show significant change in the Plasmon peak position while 5-fold symmetry chiral nano-flower showed a completely different behavior, which may be the result of increased surface anisotropy, so when the φ angle is changed the s-polarization response from the surface can change more significantly than that for lower symmetries. In general, for 3-, 4- and 5-fold symmetry chiral nano-flowers a sharp peak at lower wavelengths (<450 nm) is observed in the s-polarization spectra, while in addition to this peak a broad peak at longer wavelengths (i.e., LM) observed in the p-polarization spectra, which is more dominant for 70° incidence angle.

  19. Advanced nano lithography via soft materials-derived and reversible nano-patterning methodology for molding of infrared nano lenses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Park, Jae Hong; Jang, Hyun Ik; Park, Jun Yong; Jeon, Seok Woo; Kim, Woo Choong; Kim, Hee Yeoun; Ahn, Chi Won

    2015-03-01

    The methodology suggested in this research provides the great possibility of creating nanostructures composed of various materials, such as soft polymer, hard polymer, and metal, as well as Si. Such nanostructures are required for a vast range of optical and display devices, photonic components, physical devices, energy devices including electrodes of secondary batteries, fuel cells, solar cells, and energy harvesters, biological devices including biochips, biomimetic or biosimilar structured devices, and mechanical devices including micro- or nano-scale sensors and actuators.

  20. A selective screen reveals discrete functional domains in Drosophila Nanos.

    PubMed Central

    Arrizabalaga, G; Lehmann, R

    1999-01-01

    The Drosophila protein Nanos encodes an evolutionarily conserved protein with two zinc finger motifs. In the embryo, Nanos protein function is required for establishment of the anterior-posterior body pattern and for the migration of primordial germ cells. During oogenesis, Nanos protein is involved in the establishment and maintenance of germ-line stem cells and the differentiation of oocyte precursor cells. To establish proper embryonic patterning, Nanos acts as a translational regulator of hunchback RNA. Nanos' targets for germ cell migration and development are not known. Here, we describe a selective genetic screen aimed at isolating new nanos alleles. The molecular and genetic analysis of 68 new alleles has allowed us to identify amino acids critical for nanos function. This analysis shows that the CCHC motifs, which coordinate two metal ions, are essential for all known functions of Nanos protein. Furthermore, a region C-terminal to the zinc fingers seems to constitute a novel functional domain within the Nanos protein. This "tail region" of Nanos is required for abdomen formation and germ cell migration, but not for oogenesis. PMID:10581288

  1. Effect of nano-SiO II on bismaleimide composite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Geng, Dongbing; Zeng, Liming; Li, Yi; Fu, Qiuzhou; Hu, Bing

    2007-07-01

    This paper is concerned with the effect of nano-SiO II particles on the thermal stability and mechanical behavior of composite materials. A nano-composite of three components is prepared by polymerizing nano-SiO II, chopped carbon fiber and bismalemide resin. The investigation's basic approach involves a blend of experimental and analytical studies to determine structure/property relationship. Nano-composite structures are characterized by dynamic mechanical analysis, and contents of nano-SiO II are subsequently correlated with mechanical properties such as tensile and flexural strength also the modulus. The results indicate that the content of nano-SiO II exhibits significant improvement on glass transition temperature (Tg) with Tg elevation by increasing concentration of nano-SiO II. The higher Tg is the result of steric hindrance by nano-SiO II particles in the nano-composite. The mechanical properties of the tensile and flexural strength are raised at first and followed by decreasing as the amount of nano-SiO II particles increased. All the modulus values mimic the tensile and flexural strength.

  2. Synthesis of gold nano-wire and nano-dumbbell shaped colloids and AuC60 nano-clusters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Landon, Preston B.; Jarvis, Brandon C.; Gilleland, Cody L.; Renfro, Tim; Gutierrez, Jose; Synowczynski, Jennifer; Hirsch, Samuel G.; Glosser, Robert

    2005-08-01

    A technique for the fabrication of colloidal gold nano-wire and nano-dumbbell shaped particles using carbon nanotubes and rod shaped viruses as templates is described. The gold (Au) encapsulation process was accomplished by the precipitation of gold chloride from aqueous solutions. When this process was conducted in the presence of hydroxylated C60, small pieces of phase-separated composites of AuC60 appeared to have formed. These nano-clusters may turn out to be large noble metal analogs of the alkali metal fullerides with the smallest geometrically possible Au aggregate consisting of 55 gold atoms. The existence of noble metal fullerene composites has been previously theorized. The alkali metal fullerides are examples of phase separated solids and have exhibited superconductivity with temperatures as high 33K. The mechanism required for the binding energy between C60 and gold has been observed to exist between C60 and many of the mirror metals (Al, Ag, Au, Cu, Ni). This binding energy is a charge transfer from the metal Fermi level into the C60 LUMO. If this bonding energy, is greater than the metals coagulation energy an Au/C60 size terminated mechanism during the formation of the gold aggregates by the adhesion of C60 to the surface is energetically favorable.

  3. Molecular modeling in structural nano-toxicology: interactions of nano-particles with nano-machinery of cells.

    PubMed

    Yanamala, Naveena; Kagan, Valerian E; Shvedova, Anna A

    2013-12-01

    Over the past two decades, nanotechnology has emerged as a key player in various disciplines of science and technology. Some of the most exciting applications are in the field of biomedicine - for theranostics (for combined diagnostic and therapeutic purposes) as well as for exploration of biological systems. A detailed understanding of the molecular interactions between nanoparticles and biological nano-machinery - macromolecules, membranes, and intracellular organelles - is crucial for obtaining adequate information on mechanisms of action of nanomaterials as well as a perspective on the long term effects of these materials and their possible toxicological outcomes. This review focuses on the use of structure-based computational molecular modeling as a tool to understand and to predict the interactions between nanomaterials and nano-biosystems. We review major approaches and provide examples of computational analysis of the structural principles behind such interactions. A rationale on how nanoparticles of different sizes, shape, structure and chemical properties can affect the organization and functions of nano-machinery of cells is also presented.

  4. Mechanical Properties of Polymer Nano-composites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Srivastava, Iti

    Thermoset polymer composites are increasingly important in high-performance engineering industries due to their light-weight and high specific strength, finding cutting-edge applications such as aircraft fuselage material and automobile parts. Epoxy is the most widely employed thermoset polymer, but is brittle due to extensive cross-linking and notch sensitivity, necessitating mechanical property studies especially fracture toughness and fatigue resistance, to ameliorate the low crack resistance. Towards this end, various nano and micro fillers have been used with epoxy to form composite materials. Particularly for nano-fillers, the 1-100 nm scale dimensions lead to fascinating mechanical properties, oftentimes proving superior to the epoxy matrix. The chemical nature, topology, mechanical properties and geometry of the nano-fillers have a profound influence on nano-composite behavior and hence are studied in the context of enhancing properties and understanding reinforcement mechanisms in polymer matrix nano-composites. Using carbon nanotubes (CNTs) as polymer filler, uniquely results in both increased stiffness as well as toughness, leading to extensive research on their applications. Though CNTs-polymer nano-composites offer better mechanical properties, at high stress amplitude their fatigue resistance is lost. In this work covalent functionalization of CNTs has been found to have a profound impact on mechanical properties of the CNT-epoxy nano-composite. Amine treated CNTs were found to give rise to effective fatigue resistance throughout the whole range of stress intensity factor, in addition to significantly enhancing fracture toughness, ductility, Young's modulus and average hardness of the nano-composite by factors of 57%, 60%, 30% and 45% respectively over the matrix as a result of diminished localized cross-linking. Graphene, a one-atom-thick sheet of atoms is a carbon allotrope, which has garnered significant attention of the scientific community and is

  5. Order of magnitude improvement of nano-contact spin torque nano-oscillator performance.

    PubMed

    Banuazizi, Seyed Amir Hossein; Sani, Sohrab R; Eklund, Anders; Naiini, Maziar M; Mohseni, Seyed Majid; Chung, Sunjae; Dürrenfeld, Philipp; Malm, B Gunnar; Åkerman, Johan

    2017-02-02

    Spin torque nano-oscillators (STNO) represent a unique class of nano-scale microwave signal generators and offer a combination of intriguing properties, such as nano sized footprint, ultrafast modulation rates, and highly tunable microwave frequencies from 100 MHz to close to 100 GHz. However, their low output power and relatively high threshold current still limit their applicability and must be improved. In this study, we investigate the influence of the bottom Cu electrode thickness (tCu) in nano-contact STNOs based on Co/Cu/NiFe GMR stacks and with nano-contact diameters ranging from 60 to 500 nm. Increasing tCu from 10 to 70 nm results in a 40% reduction of the threshold current, an order of magnitude higher microwave output power, and close to two orders of magnitude better power conversion efficiency. Numerical simulations of the current distribution suggest that these dramatic improvements originate from a strongly reduced lateral current spread in the magneto-dynamically active region.

  6. Performance Evaluation of Nano-JASMINE

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hatsutori, Y.; Kobayashi, Y.; Gouda, N.; Yano, T.; Murooka, J.; Niwa, Y.; Yamada, Y.

    We report the results of performance evaluation of the first Japanese astrometry satellite, Nano-JASMINE. It is a very small satellite and weighs only 35 kg. It aims to carry out astrometry measurement of nearby bright stars (z ≤ 7.5 mag) with an accuracy of 3 milli-arcseconds. Nano-JASMINE will be launched by Cyclone-4 rocket in August 2011 from Brazil. The current status is in the process of evaluating the performances. A series of performance tests and numerical analysis were conducted. As a result, the engineering model (EM) of the telescope was measured to be achieving a diffraction-limited performance and confirmed that it has enough performance for scientific astrometry.

  7. Dynamics of magnetic nano-particle assembly

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kondratyev, V. N.

    2010-11-01

    Ferromagnetically coupled nano-particle assembly is analyzed accounting for inter- and intra- particle electronic structures within the randomly jumping interacting moments model including quantum fluctuations due to the discrete levels and disorder. At the magnetic jump anomalies caused by quantization the magnetic state equation and phase diagram are found to indicate an existence of spinodal regions and critical points. Arrays of magnetized nano-particles with multiple magnetic response anomalies are predicted to display some specific features. In a case of weak coupling such arrays exhibit the well-separated instability regions surrounding the anomaly positions. With increasing coupling we observe further structure modification, plausibly, of bifurcation type. At strong coupling the dynamical instability region become wide while the stable regime arises as a narrow islands at small disorders. It is shown that exploring correlations of magnetic noise amplitudes represents convenient analytical tool for quantitative definition, description and study of supermagnetism, as well as self-organized criticality.

  8. Performance Evaluation of Nano-JASMINE

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hatsutori, Y.; Kobayashi, Y.; Gouda, N.; Yano, T.; Murooka, J.; Niwa, Y.; Yamada, Y.

    2011-02-01

    We report the results of performance evaluation of the first Japanese astrometry satellite, Nano-JASMINE. It is a very small satellite and weighs only 35 kg. It aims to carry out astrometry measurement of nearby bright stars (z ≤ 7.5 mag) with an accuracy of 3 milli-arcseconds. Nano-JASMINE will be launched by Cyclone-4 rocket in August 2011 from Brazil. The current status is in the process of evaluating the performances. A series of performance tests and numerical analysis were conducted. As a result, the engineering model (EM) of the telescope was measured to be achieving a diffraction-limited performance and confirmed that it has enough performance for scientific astrometry.

  9. Nano-photonics: past and present

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Szu, Harold

    2010-04-01

    Nanotech is at the scale of 10-9 meters, located at the mesocopic transition phase, which can take both classical mechanics (CM) and quantum mechanics (QM) descriptions bridging ten orders of magnitude phenomena, between the microscopic world of a single atom at 10-10 meters with the macroscopic world at meters. However, QM principles aid the understanding of any unusual property at the nanotech level. The other major difference between nano-photonics and other forms of optics is that the nano-scale is not very 'hands on'. For the most part, we will not be able to see the components with our naked eyes, but will be required to use some nanotech imaging tools, as follows:

  10. Nano-plasmonic phenomena in graphene nanoribbons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fei, Zhe; Goldflam, Michael; Wu, Jhih-Sheng; Dai, Siyuan; Wagner, Martin; McLeod, Alex; Liu, Mengkun; Post, Kirk; Zhu, Shou-En; Janssen, Guido; Fogler, Michael; Basov, Dimitri

    We report on infrared nano-imaging studies of confined plasmon modes inside patterned graphene nanoribbons. The confined geometry of these ribbons leads to distinct mode patterns and strong field enhancement, both of which evolve systematically with the ribbon width and excitation laser frequency. In addition, broadband nano-imaging in a wide mid-infrared region allowed us to evaluate in real space the effect of the plasmon-phonon coupling. Our data and modeling show that the plasmon damping rate increases significantly when approaching the substrate phonon. Furthermore, we observed one-dimensional edge plasmons that propagate strictly along the edges of our patterned graphene nanostructures. These edge modes appear to have a relatively shorter wavelength compared to two-dimensional plasmons.

  11. Magnetic resonances in nano-scale metamaterials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hao, Zhao; Liddle, Alex; Martin, Michael

    2006-03-01

    We have designed, fabricated, and optically measured several different kinds of nano-scale metamaterials. We make use e-beam nano-lithography technology at LBNL's Center for X-Ray Optics for fabricating these structures on extremely thin SiN substrates so that they are close to free-standing. Optical properties were measured as a function of incidence angle and polarization. We directly observe a strong magnetic resonance consistent with a negative magnetic permeability in our samples at mid- and near-IR optical frequencies. We will discuss the results in comparison with detailed simulations, and will discuss the electric dipole or quadrupole resonances observed in the samples. Finally, we will report on our progress towards constructing a fully negative index of refraction meta-material.

  12. Highly sensitive immunoassay based on SERS using nano-Au immune probes and a nano-Ag immune substrate.

    PubMed

    Shu, Lei; Zhou, Jun; Yuan, Xiaocong; Petti, Lucia; Chen, Jinping; Jia, Zhenhong; Mormile, Pasquale

    2014-06-01

    A super-high-sensitivity immunoassay based on surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) was implemented using the nano-Au immune probes and nano-Ag immune substrate. Ultraviolet-visible extinction spectra, transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) images, and SERS spectra were used to characterise the nano-Au immune probes and the nano-Ag immune substrate. The nano-Ag immune substrate was prepared by the in situ growth of Ag nanoparticles and the subsequent linkage of these nanoparticles with anti-apolipoprotein B on a silicon wafer. The nano-Ag immune substrate exhibited strong SERS activity, excellent reproducibility, and high biospecificity. The nano-Au immune probes were prepared by immobilising 4-mercaptobenzoic acid (4MBA) molecules as a Raman reporter and anti-apolipoprotein B onto the surfaces of Au nanoparticles. It was found that 4MBA induced the aggregation of Au nanoparticles, resulting in the generation of vast hot spots. Moreover, the nano-Au immune probes exhibited strong SERS activity and high biospecificity. A sandwich-type immunoassay structure consisting of the nano-Au immune probes and nano-Ag immune substrate was used to detect the concentration of apolipoprotein B, where the detection limit was as low as 2 fg/mL (3.878×10(-18) mol/L). Taken together, the experimental results indicate that the proposed immunoassay protocol has a great potential application in biological sensing and clinical diagnostics.

  13. Rapid Sintering of Nano-Diamond Compacts

    SciTech Connect

    Osipov, A.; Nauyoks, S; Zerda, T; Zaporozhets, O

    2009-01-01

    Diamond compacts were sintered from nano-size diamond crystals at high pressure, 8 GPa, and temperature above 1500 degrees C for very short times ranging from 5 to 11 s. Structure and mechanical properties of the compacts have been characterized. Although we have not completely avoided graphitization of diamonds, the amount of graphite produced was low, less than 2%, and despite relatively high porosity, the compacts were characterized by high hardness, bulk and Young moduli.

  14. Ultimate computing. Biomolecular consciousness and nano Technology

    SciTech Connect

    Hameroff, S.R.

    1987-01-01

    The book advances the premise that the cytoskeleton is the cell's nervous system, the biological controller/computer. If indeed cytoskeletal dynamics in the nanoscale (billionth meter, billionth second) are the texture of intracellular information processing, emerging ''NanoTechnologies'' (scanning tunneling microscopy, Feynman machines, von Neumann replicators, etc.) should enable direct monitoring, decoding and interfacing between biological and technological information devices. This in turn could result in important biomedical applications and perhaps a merger of mind and machine: Ultimate Computing.

  15. NanoRacks CubeSat Deployment

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2014-02-11

    ISS038-E-044883 (11 Feb. 2014) --- The Small Satellite Orbital Deployer (SSOD), in the grasp of the Kibo laboratory robotic arm, is photographed by an Expedition 38 crew member on the International Space Station as it begins the deployment of a set of NanoRacks CubeSats. The CubeSats program contains a variety of experiments such as Earth observations and advanced electronics testing.

  16. Cirrus Dopant Nano-Composite Coatings

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-11-01

    Dopant • How it works • What it does • Development path Cirrus Dopant • One-step additive for electrolytic/ electroless • Nano...turns • Dispersion strengthening & grain refinement Process • Electroless • DC Plating • Pulse Plating Dopant • Aqueous • Organic...Application beyond Au Cirrus Dopant R&D progress so far … … all with industry partners … … all with commercial baths formulations. 15 microns Electroless

  17. Asphaltenes-based polymer nano-composites

    DOEpatents

    Bowen, III, Daniel E

    2013-12-17

    Inventive composite materials are provided. The composite is preferably a nano-composite, and comprises an asphaltene, or a mixture of asphaltenes, blended with a polymer. The polymer can be any polymer in need of altered properties, including those selected from the group consisting of epoxies, acrylics, urethanes, silicones, cyanoacrylates, vulcanized rubber, phenol-formaldehyde, melamine-formaldehyde, urea-formaldehyde, imides, esters, cyanate esters, allyl resins.

  18. New Functional Device using Bio Nano Process

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-09-20

    various CNT/TiO2 compounds using functionalized CNTs that were oxidatively treated by organic compounds have been produced.3 However, it was...capable of holding metal oxide nano-particles (NPs) within its inner cavity. Cage-shaped proteins had been widely applied for fabricating... nanostructures .6-7 Two peptide aptamers, NHBP-1 (DYFSSPYYEQLF)8 and minTBP-1 (RKLPDA)9 were genetically fused at the Fig. 1 (a) Amino acid sequence of CDT1. The

  19. Reversible nano-lithography for commercial approaches

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Park, Jae Hong; Jang, Hyun Ik; Kim, Woo Choong; Yun, Hae S.; Park, Jun Yong; Jeon, Seok Woo; Kim, Hee Yeoun; Ahn, Chi Won

    2016-04-01

    The methodology suggested in this research provides the great possibility of creating nanostructures composed of various materials, such as soft polymer, hard polymer, and metal, as well as Si. Such nanostructures are required for a vast range of optical and display devices, photonic components, physical devices, energy devices including electrodes of secondary batteries, fuel cells, solar cells, and energy harvesters, biological devices including biochips, biomimetic or biosimilar structured devices, and mechanical devices including micro- or nano-scale sensors and actuators.

  20. Hybrid nano plasmonics for integrated biosensor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lin, Chii-Wann; Lee, Jun-Haw; Chiu, Nan-Fu; Lee, Szu-Yuan; Liu, Kou-Chen; Tsai, Feng-Yu; Yen, Chia-Yu; Lee, Chun-Nan

    2009-11-01

    SPR biosensor with OLED and nano-grating for HBV LAMP product detection is reported. Directional emissions by grating-coupler match the resonant condition of SP modes. Concentration changes result in color shift at specific angle. Real time detection of virus load down to 5 copies/25 ul can be achieved in 30 minutes. Surface plasmon Resonant (SPR) biosensor has been used for quantitative measurement of molecular interactions for its advantages of high sensitivity, label-free and real-time detection. In this paper, we report recent efforts on further enhancement of SPR biosensors by the heterogeneous integration of organic electroluminescence light source and nano-grating structure for the feasibility study on the fast and high sensitivity detection of HBV isothermal amplification products, Mg2P2O7. We demonstrated the surface plasmon coupled through hybrid nano-grating structure has highly directional emissions corresponding to the resonant condition of surface plasmon modes on the Au/air interface and controllable plasmonics band-gap by pitch modulation. SPGCE resulted in color change from yellowish green to orange at a certain viewing angle, when contacting glucose with concentration increasing from 10 to 40%.

  1. Scientific goals of Nano-JASMINE

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yamada, Yoshiyuki; Fujita, Sho; Gouda, Naoteru; Kobayashi, Yukiyasu; Hara, Takuji; Nishi, Ryoichi; Yoshioka, Satoshi; Hozumi, Shunsuke

    2013-02-01

    Nano-JASMINE is an ultrasmall Japanese satellite (with a weight of 35 kg), designed to carry out an astrometric mission. The target accuracy is 3 milliarcseconds (mas) for stars brighter than magnitude 7.5 at zw-band wavelengths of 0.6-1.0 μm. The observational strategy is the same as that of Gaia and Hipparcos. The time span of 20 years since the Hipparcos mission will enable us to update the proper motion data obtained at that time. With the help of these updated measurements, we expect that some stars will be resolved into multiple stars. In addition, taking advantage of the small primary mirror (with a diameter of 5 cm), we can measure bright stars which cannot be observed with Gaia because of saturation limits. The core data reduction for the Nano-JASMINE mission will use Gaia's Astrometric Global Iterative Solution (agis). A collaboration between the Gaia agis and Nano-JASMINE teams was initiated in 2007.

  2. The Next Technology Revolution - Nano Electronic Technology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Turlik, Iwona

    2004-03-01

    Nanotechnology is a revolutionary engine that will engender enormous changes in a vast majority of today's industries and markets, while potentially creating whole new industries. The impact of nanotechnology is particularly significant in the electronics industry, which is constantly driven by the need for higher performance, increased functionality, smaller size and lower cost. Nanotechnology can influence many of the hundreds of components that are typically assembled to manufacture modern electronic devices. Motorola manufactures electronics for a wide range of industries and communication products. In this presentation, the typical components of a cellular phone are outlined and technology requirements for future products, the customer benefits, and the potential impact of nanotechnology on many of the components are discussed. Technology needs include reliable materials supply, processes for high volume production, experimental and simulation tools, etc. For example, even routine procedures such as failure characterization may require the development of new tools for investigating nano-scale phenomena. Business needs include the development of an effective, high volume supply chain for nano-materials and devices, disruptive product platforms, and visible performance impact on the end consumer. An equally significant long-term industry need is the availability of science and engineering graduates with a multidisciplinary focus and a deep understanding of the fundamentals of nano-technology, that can harness the technology to create revolutionary products.

  3. Nano-ultrasonics: science and technology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lin, Kung-Hsuan; Hsieh, Chia-Lung; Liu, Tzu-Ming; Keller, Stacia; DenBaars, Steven P.; Chen, Guan-Ting; Pan, Chang-Chi; Chyi, Jen-Inn; Sun, Chi-Kuang

    2004-06-01

    Multiple quantum well (MQW) structure piezoelectric semiconductor can be treated as a piezoelectric transducer to generate nanometer wavelength and THz frequency acoustic waves. The generation mechanism of nano acoustic wave (NAW) in quantum wells induced by femtosecond optical pulses can be modeled by a macroscopic elastic continuum theory. The absorption of the MQW's modulated by NAW's through quantum confined Franz-Keldysh (QCFK) effect allows another femtosecond optical probe pulses to monitor the propagating NAW. Many applications in typical ultrasonics can be achieved by NAWs. The simultaneous waveform synthesis is demonstrated by an optical coherent control technique. The phase of the totally reflected NAW is studied. Acoustic coherent control can be achieved by designing the thickness of the cap layer on the MQW. We also demonstrated the feasibility to apply THz NAWs to acoustically control an electronic device with higher operation speed and spatial accuracy. Seismology, which is the first step toward ultrasonic imaging, was also demonstrated. The arrival time of the echo is obtained by processing the transient transmission changes of the probe. Ultrafast technique and nano technology are ready for nano ultrasonics.

  4. Nano-education from a European perspective

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Malsch, I.

    2008-03-01

    At a global level, educating the nanotechnology workforce has been discussed since the beginning of the new millennium. Scientists, engineers and technicians should be trained in nanotechnology. Most educators prefer training students first in their own discipline at the Bachelor level (physics, chemistry, biology, etc) followed by specialisation in nanoscience and technology at the Master's level. Some favour a broad interdisciplinary basic training in different nanosciences followed by specialisation in a particular application area. What constitutes a good nanoscience curriculum is also being discussed, as well as the application of e-learning methodologies. The European Union is stimulating the development of nanoscience education in universities. The Erasmus Mundus programme is funding nanoscience and nanotechnology education programmes involving universities in several European countries. The policy debate in Europe is moving towards vocational training in nanotechnology for educating the technicians needed in industry and research. The EU vocational training institute CEDEFOP published a report in 2005 The EU funded European gateway to nanotechnology Nanoforum has stimulated the accessibility of nano-education throughout Europe with reports and online databases of education courses and materials. For university education, they list courses at the Bachelor, Master's, and PhD level as well as short courses. The EU funded EuroIndiaNet project also reviewed Nano-education courses at the Master's level, short courses, e-learning programmes, summerschools and vocational training courses. In this presentation, I review Nanoforum and other publications on nano-education in Europe and highlight current trends and gaps.

  5. Micro/nano-fabrication technologies for cell biology.

    PubMed

    Qian, Tongcheng; Wang, Yingxiao

    2010-10-01

    Micro/nano-fabrication techniques, such as soft lithography and electrospinning, have been well-developed and widely applied in many research fields in the past decade. Due to the low costs and simple procedures, these techniques have become important and popular for biological studies. In this review, we focus on the studies integrating micro/nano-fabrication work to elucidate the molecular mechanism of signaling transduction in cell biology. We first describe different micro/nano-fabrication technologies, including techniques generating three-dimensional scaffolds for tissue engineering. We then introduce the application of these technologies in manipulating the physical or chemical micro/nano-environment to regulate the cellular behavior and response, such as cell life and death, differentiation, proliferation, and cell migration. Recent advancement in integrating the micro/nano-technologies and live cell imaging are also discussed. Finally, potential schemes in cell biology involving micro/nano-fabrication technologies are proposed to provide perspectives on the future research activities.

  6. Electrochemical method of producing nano-scaled graphene platelets

    DOEpatents

    Zhamu, Aruna; Jang, Joan; Jang, Bor Z.

    2013-09-03

    A method of producing nano-scaled graphene platelets with an average thickness smaller than 30 nm from a layered graphite material. The method comprises (a) forming a carboxylic acid-intercalated graphite compound by an electrochemical reaction; (b) exposing the intercalated graphite compound to a thermal shock to produce exfoliated graphite; and (c) subjecting the exfoliated graphite to a mechanical shearing treatment to produce the nano-scaled graphene platelets. Preferred carboxylic acids are formic acid and acetic acid. The exfoliation step in the instant invention does not involve the evolution of undesirable species, such as NO.sub.x and SO.sub.x, which are common by-products of exfoliating conventional sulfuric or nitric acid-intercalated graphite compounds. The nano-scaled platelets are candidate reinforcement fillers for polymer nanocomposites. Nano-scaled graphene platelets are much lower-cost alternatives to carbon nano-tubes or carbon nano-fibers.

  7. Antibacterial characteristics of heated scallop-shell nano-particles.

    PubMed

    Watanabe, Takashi; Fujimoto, Riku; Sawai, Jun; Kikuchi, Mikio; Yahata, Shinya; Satoh, Susumu

    2014-01-01

    Heated scallop-shell (HSS) nano-particles, prepared using a wet grinding mill, and microparticles were examined for their antibacterial activity against vegetative bacterial cells and spores. The median diameters of the nano-particles and micro-particles were approximately 20 nm and 30 µm, respectively. The antibacterial activity of HSS against Escherichia coli increased with an increase in concentration, regardless of particle size; however, the antibacterial activity of the nano-particles was much higher than that of micro-particles. The sporicidal activity of the nano-particles was also much higher than that of micro-particles, with HSS nano-particles able to kill Bacillus subtilis spores. A reduction of more than three orders of magnitude for B. subtilis spores was confirmed following a 30 min treatment at 5 mg/ml and 60℃, showing that the combination of HSS nano-particle treatment with mild heating was particularly effective for controlling bacterial spores.

  8. Superconducting properties of Nb-Cu nano-composites and nano-alloys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Parab, Pradnya; Kumar, Sanjeev; Bhui, Prabhjyot; Bagwe, Vivas; Bose, Sangita

    2016-05-01

    The evolution of the superconducting transition temperature (Tc) in nano-composite and nano-alloys of Nb-Cu, grown by DC magnetron co-sputtering are investigated. Microstructure of these films depends less strongly on the ratio of Nb:Cu but more on the growth temperature. At higher growth temperature, phase separated granular films of Nb and Cu were formed which showed superconducting transition temperatures (Tc) of ~ 7.2±0.5K, irrespective of the composition. Our results show that this is primarily influenced by the microstructure of the films determined during growth which rules out the superconducting proximity effect expected in these systems. At room temperature growth, films with nano-scale alloying were obtained at the optimal compositional range of 45-70 atomic% (At%) of Nb. These were also superconducting with a Tc of 3.2K.

  9. Physical properties of carboxymethyl cellulose based nano-biocomposites with Graphene nano-platelets.

    PubMed

    Ebrahimzadeh, Saba; Ghanbarzadeh, Babak; Hamishehkar, Hamed

    2016-03-01

    Carboxymethyl cellulose (CMC) based bio-nanocomposite filled with graphene nano-platelets (GNPs) was prepared using casting technique. The morphology, thermal, light barrier, water vapor permeability (WVP), contact angle, moisture absorption and mechanical properties of the resulted bio-nanocomposites were investigated. The results indicated with addition of 0.5% w/w GNPs to polymer matrix, ultimate tensile strength (UTS) decreased from 7.74 MPa (in the pure film) to 5.69 MPa however, strain to break (SB) increased from 12.49% to 19.87%. The GNPs caused to reducing of light transmission and increasing of the water repelling nature of nano-biocomposites. However, it had not effect on melting point of CMC based nano-biocomposites.

  10. Superconducting properties of Nb-Cu nano-composites and nano-alloys

    SciTech Connect

    Parab, Pradnya Kumar, Sanjeev; Bhui, Prabhjyot; Bose, Sangita; Bagwe, Vivas

    2016-05-23

    The evolution of the superconducting transition temperature (T{sub c}) in nano-composite and nano-alloys of Nb-Cu, grown by DC magnetron co-sputtering are investigated. Microstructure of these films depends less strongly on the ratio of Nb:Cu but more on the growth temperature. At higher growth temperature, phase separated granular films of Nb and Cu were formed which showed superconducting transition temperatures (T{sub c}) of ~ 7.2±0.5 K, irrespective of the composition. Our results show that this is primarily influenced by the microstructure of the films determined during growth which rules out the superconducting proximity effect expected in these systems. At room temperature growth, films with nano-scale alloying were obtained at the optimal compositional range of 45-70 atomic% (At%) of Nb. These were also superconducting with a T{sub c} of 3.2 K.

  11. Nano-fabrication with metallic glass-an exotic material for nano-electromechanical systems.

    PubMed

    Sharma, Parmanand; Kaushik, Neelam; Kimura, Hisamichi; Saotome, Yasunori; Inoue, Akihisa

    2007-01-24

    Completely glassy thin films of Zr-Al-Cu-Ni exhibiting a large supercooled liquid region (DeltaT(x) = 95 K), very smooth surface (R(a) = 0.2 nm) and high value of Vickers hardness (H(v) = 940) were deposited by sputtering. The micro/nano-patterning ability of these films is demonstrated by focused ion beam etching (smallest pattern approximately 12 nm), as well as by the imprint lithography technique (smallest feature approximately 34 nm). These glassy films having very good mechanical and chemical properties, combined with superb nano-patterning ability, integrateable with silicon integrated circuit technology, are promising for fabrication of a wide range of two- or three-dimensional components for future nano-electromechanical systems.

  12. Nano-imaging and nano-spectroscopy of tunable surface phonon polaritons in hexagonal boron nitride

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dai, Siyuan; Fei, Zhe; Ma, Qiong; Rodin, Aleksandr; Wagner, Martin; McLeod, Alexander; Liu, Mengkun; Gannett, Will; Regan, William; Thiemens, Mark; Dominguez, Gerardo; Castro Neto, Antonio; Zettl, Alex; Keilmann, Fritz; Jarillo-Herrero, Pablo; Fogler, Michael; Basov, Dimitri

    2014-03-01

    Van der Waals crystals such as graphene, topological insulators, cuprate high-temperature superconductors, and many other layered structures reveal a rich variety of enigmatic electronic, photonic and magnetic properties. We report infrared (IR) nano-imaging of surface phonon polaritons in a prototypical van-der-Waals crystal: hexagonal boron nitride (hBN). In the setting of an antenna-based IR spectroscopic nanoscope, we accomplished launching, detecting, and real space imaging of the polaritonic waves. We were able to alter both the wavelength and the amplitude of such waves by varying the number of crystal layers in our specimens. We demonstrated a new nano-photonics method for mapping the polariton dispersion. The dispersion is shown to be governed by the crystal thickness according to a scaling law that persists down to a few monolayers. Our results point to novel functionalities of van-der-Waals crystals as reconfigurable nano-photonic materials.

  13. Self Assembled, Ultra-Hydrophobic Micro/Nano-Textured Surfaces

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-04-01

    Self Assembled, Ultra-Hydrophobic Micro / Nano -Textured Surfaces by Adam M. Rawlett, Joshua A. Orlicki, Nicole Zander, Afia Karikari, and...5069 ARL-TN-275 April 2007 Self Assembled, Ultra-Hydrophobic Micro / Nano -Textured Surfaces Adam M. Rawlett, Joshua A. Orlicki, and...NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER 4. TITL Self A bled, Ultra-Hydrophobic Micro / Nano -Textured Surfaces 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER E ssem AND SUBTITLE 5d

  14. Micro and Nano-mediated 3D Cardiac Tissue Engineering

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-10-01

    0701 TITLE: Micro and Nano -mediated 3D Cardiac Tissue Engineering PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR: Rashid Bashir, PhD CONTRACTING ORGANIZATION...From - To) 24 Sep 2009 - 23 Sep 2010 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Micro and Nano -mediated 3D Cardiac Tissue Engineering 5a. CONTRACT...6. Award Organization: University of Illinois 7. Project Title: Micro and Nano -mediated 3D Cardiac Tissue Engineering 8. Current staff, role and

  15. Micro and Nano-mediated 3D Cardiac Tissue Engineering

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-10-01

    AD_________________ Award Number: W81XWH-08-1-0701 TITLE: Micro and Nano -mediated 3D Cardiac...5a. CONTRACT NUMBER Micro and Nano -mediated 3D Cardiac Tissue Engineering 5b. GRANT NUMBER W81XWH-08-1-0701 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 6...TATRC-funded Micro and Nano -mediated 3D Cardiac Tissue Engineering is a project of the University of Illinois Center for Nanoscale Science and

  16. Wide Bandgap III-Nitride Micro- and Nano-Photonics

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2008-05-05

    AND DATES COVERED Final Report 10/2003 – 10/2007 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Wide Bandgap III-Nitride Micro - and Nano -Photonics 5. FUNDING NUMBERS...device issues and to explore potential applications of III-nitrides for UV micro - and nano -photonic devices. The KSU team has achieved 1. n-type...Award No: DAAD19-03-1-0337 Project Title: Wide Bandgap III-Nitride Micro - and Nano -Photonics PI Name: Hongxing Jiang & Jingyu Lin PI Address

  17. Gluing Bifurcations in Coupled Spin Torque Nano-Oscillators

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-01-01

    REPORT Gluing bifurcations in coupled spin torque nano -oscillators 14. ABSTRACT 16. SECURITY CLASSIFICATION OF: Over the past few years it has been...shown, through theory and experiments, that the AC current produced by spin torque nano -oscillators (STNO), coupled in an array, can lead to feedback...Research Office P.O. Box 12211 Research Triangle Park, NC 27709-2211 15. SUBJECT TERMS Nano -oscillators, symmetry, bifurcations Katherine

  18. Optical Assembly and Characterization System for Nano-Photonics Research

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2016-03-01

    Unlimited Final Report: Optical Assembly and Characterization System for Nano -Photonics Research The views, opinions and/or findings contained in this...reviewed journals: Final Report: Optical Assembly and Characterization System for Nano -Photonics Research Report Title With this equipment funding support...Assembly and Characterization System for Nano -Photonics Research PI: Prof. Weidong Zhou, University of Texas at Arlington (UTA) 500 S. Cooper St

  19. Arrays of recycled power TM polarized nano-antennas.

    PubMed

    Hattori, Haroldo T; Li, Ziyuan

    2013-07-15

    In recent years, plasmonic nano-antennas have been used in a wide range of applications in sensing, particle detection, imaging and Surface Enhanced Raman Scattering (SERS) detection. Also, arrays of nano-antennas have been recently developed to produce more directional radiation beams or to operate over a wide range of wavelengths. In this article, it is shown that small arrays of nano-antennas can be created by recycling the power that flows through their antenna gaps.

  20. High Strength, Nano-Structured Mg-Al-Zn Alloy

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-01-01

    REPORT High strength, nano-structured Mg– Al – Zn alloy 14. ABSTRACT 16. SECURITY CLASSIFICATION OF: The mechanical behavior and microstructure of...Prescribed by ANSI Std. Z39.18 - High strength, nano-structured Mg– Al – Zn alloy Report Title ABSTRACT The mechanical behavior and microstructure of...strength, nano-structured Mg– Al – Zn alloy Block 13: Supplementary Note © 2011 . Published in Materials Science and Engineering, Vol. 528, (54), Ed. 0 (2011

  1. [Biomimetic mineralization of rod-like cellulose nano-whiskers and spectrum analysis].

    PubMed

    Qu, Ping; Wang, Xuan; Cui, Xiao-xia; Zhang, Li-ping

    2012-05-01

    Cellulose nano-whiskers/nano-hydroxyapatite composite was prepared with biomimetic mineralization using rod-like cellulose nano-whiskers as template. The cellulose nano-whiskers and cellulose nano-whiskers/nano-hydroxyapatite composite were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and scanning electron microscope-energy dispersive analysis of X-rays (SEM-EDXA). Variation and distribution of carbon, oxygen, calcium, and phosphorus in the composites were studied. The morphologies and growth mechanism of nano-hydroxyapatite were analyzed. The results showed that nano-hydroxyapatite was formed on the surface of cellulose nano-whiskers; the carbon-oxygen ratio of cellulose nano-whiskers and cellulose nano-whiskers/nano-hydroxyapatite composite was 1.81 and 1.54, respectively; the calcium-phosphorus ratio of the composite was 1.70. The nucleation of nano-hydroxyapatite was around the hydroxyl groups of cellulose nano-whiskers. It is suggested that there is coordination between the hydroxyl groups of cellulose nano-whiskers and calcium ions of nano-hydroxyapatite. The nano-hydroxyapatite can distribute in the matrix of cellulose nano-whiskers. From the atomic force microscope (AFM) images, we can see that the diameter of the spherical nano-hydroxyapatite particles was about 20 nm.

  2. Nano-cryosurgery: advances and challenges.

    PubMed

    Liu, Jing; Deng, Zhong-Shan

    2009-08-01

    In clinics, the minimally invasive freezing therapy, commonly known as cryosurgery, has been increasingly used for the controlled destruction of tumor tissue. However, there are still many bottlenecks to impede the success of a cryosurgery. One of the most critical factors has been that insufficient or inappropriate freezing will not completely destroy the target tumor tissues, which as a result may lead to tumor regenesis and thus failure of treatment. In addition, the surrounding healthy tissues may suffer from serious freeze injury due to unavoidable release of a large amount of cold from the freezing probe. To resolve these challenges, we recently proposed a new strategy, termed as nano-cryosurgery, to improve freezing efficiency of the conventional cryosurgical procedure. The basic principle of this protocol is to deliver functional suspension of nanoparticles with favorable physical and/or chemical properties into the target tissues, which then serve as adjuvant or drug carrier either to maximize the freezing heat transfer process, regulate freezing scale, modify ice-ball formation orientation or prevent the surrounding healthy tissues from being frozen. In addition, introduction of nanoparticles during cryosurgery could also help better image the edge of a tumor as well as the margin of the iceball. The new therapy raised many critical fundamental as well as practical issues for solving. This review is dedicated to present a comprehensive review on multiscale fundamental phase change heat transfer issues thus involved. Attentions would span from micro-scale heat transfer in cellular scale to tissue level. Some related thermal physical effects of nanoparticles on the freezing process such as ice nucleation enhancement, water transport during freezing of a single cell will be discussed. Cryosurgical thermal management of using nanoparticles to modify thermal properties of the tissue-particle components, regulate the growth orientation and strength of an ice

  3. Gaseous detonation synthesis and characterization of nano-oxide

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yan, Honghao; Wu, Linsong; Li, Xiaojie; Wang, Xiaohong

    2015-07-01

    Gaseous detonation is a new method of heating the precursor of nanomaterials into gas, and integrating it with combustible gas as mixture to be detonated for the synthesis of nanomaterials. In this paper, the mixed gas of oxygen and hydrogen is used as the source for detonation, to synthesize nano TiO2, nano SiO2 and nano SnO2 through gaseous detonation method, characterization and analysis of the products, it was found that the products from gaseous detonation method were of high purity, good dispersion, smaller particle size and even distribution. It also shows that for the synthesis of nano-oxides, gaseous detonation is universal.

  4. Nano-based PCMs for building energy efficiency

    SciTech Connect

    Biswas, Kaushik

    2016-01-01

    Thermal storage using phase change materials (PCMs) is seen as a viable method for improving the energy efficiency of buildings. PCMs have been used in building applications in various forms PCM slurries in heat exchangers, macro- or microencapsulated PCMs in building envelopes, bulk PCM for modulating photovoltaic temperatures, etc. In the last decade a new class of PCMs, called nano-enhanced PCM (or nanoPCM), has been extensively investigated with the goal of improving the heat transfer and thermal storage properties of PCMs. NanoPCMs can primarily be categorized as nano-encapsulated PCMs and nanoparticle-PCM composites. The former are nano-sized capsules in which the PCM forms the core and is surrounded by a high-conductivity membrane or shell. The latter consist of PCM supported within nanostructures or nanoparticles dispersed in PCMs. This article reviews the current state of nanoPCM synthesis and characterization of their heat transfer and thermal storage properties. Further, a critical review of nanoPCM applications and their potential energy benefits is performed. Nano-enhanced PCMs exhibit higher thermal conductivities than regular PCM. However, whether the higher conductivity is desirable in all applications and if the property enhancements are worth the cost and effort needed to create nanoPCMs are questions that still need to be answered.

  5. Synthesis and Characterization of Carbon Metal Nano Tubes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tiwari, B.; Tripathi, I. P.; Saxena, Sanjay; Singh, Sudhanshu; Haribhushan

    2010-11-01

    Nano technology is emerging as the latest technology these days. It is proving its importance in every sphere of life. Metal carbon nano tube due to their vast applications is being used very frequently. So to prepare CNTs a new method is developed. In this methods Complexes of transition metal Ni(II) with amino acids present in egg albumin have been synthesized. The complex is analyzed on the basis of spectroscopic methods of UV, IR, and NMR Spectroscopy. The amino acid metal Complex is decomposed at higher temperature to obtain metal carbon nano tubes. These metal carbon nano tubes are characterized using scanning probe instruments like DLS.

  6. Surface Nano-Structuring by Adsorption and Chemical Reactions

    PubMed Central

    Tanaka, Ken-ichi

    2010-01-01

    Nano-structuring of the surface caused by adsorption of molecules or atoms and by the reaction of surface atoms with adsorbed species is reviewed from a chemistry viewpoint. Self-assembly of adsorbed species is markedly influenced by weak mutual interactions and the local strain of the surface induced by the adsorption. Nano-structuring taking place on the surface is well explained by the notion of a quasi-molecule provided by the reaction of surface atoms with adsorbed species. Self-assembly of quasi-molecules by weak internal bonding provides quasi-compounds on a specific surface. Various nano-structuring phenomena are discussed: (i) self-assembly of adsorbed molecules and atoms; (ii) self-assembly of quasi-compounds; (iii) formation of nano-composite surfaces; (iv) controlled growth of nano-materials on composite surfaces. Nano-structuring processes are not always controlled by energetic feasibility, that is, the formation of nano-composite surface and the growth of nano-particles on surfaces are often controlled by the kinetics. The idea of the “kinetic controlled molding” might be valuable to design nano-materials on surfaces. PMID:28883340

  7. Recent development of nano-materials used in DNA biosensors.

    PubMed

    Xu, Kai; Huang, Junran; Ye, Zunzhong; Ying, Yibin; Li, Yanbin

    2009-01-01

    As knowledge of the structure and function of nucleic acid molecules has increased, sequence-specific DNA detection has gained increased importance. DNA biosensors based on nucleic acid hybridization have been actively developed because of their specificity, speed, portability, and low cost. Recently, there has been considerable interest in using nano-materials for DNA biosensors. Because of their high surface-to-volume ratios and excellent biological compatibilities, nano-materials could be used to increase the amount of DNA immobilization; moreover, DNA bound to nano-materials can maintain its biological activity. Alternatively, signal amplification by labeling a targeted analyte with nano-materials has also been reported for DNA biosensors in many papers. This review summarizes the applications of various nano-materials for DNA biosensors during past five years. We found that nano-materials of small sizes were advantageous as substrates for DNA attachment or as labels for signal amplification; and use of two or more types of nano-materials in the biosensors could improve their overall quality and to overcome the deficiencies of the individual nano-components. Most current DNA biosensors require the use of polymerase chain reaction (PCR) in their protocols. However, further development of nano-materials with smaller size and/or with improved biological and chemical properties would substantially enhance the accuracy, selectivity and sensitivity of DNA biosensors. Thus, DNA biosensors without PCR amplification may become a reality in the foreseeable future.

  8. A nano-cheese-cutter to directly measure interfacial adhesion of freestanding nano-fibers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Xin; Najem, Johnny F.; Wong, Shing-Chung; Wan, Kai-tak

    2012-01-01

    A nano-cheese-cutter is fabricated to directly measure the adhesion between two freestanding nano-fibers. A single electrospun fiber is attached to the free end of an atomic force microscope cantilever, while a similar fiber is similarly prepared on a mica substrate in an orthogonal direction. External load is applied to deform the two fibers into complementary V-shapes, and the force measurement allows the elastic modulus to be determined. At a critical tensile load, "pull-off" occurs when the adhering fibers spontaneously detach from each other, yielding the interfacial adhesion energy. Loading-unloading cycles are performed to investigate repeated adhesion-detachment and surface degradation.

  9. Nano/macro porous bioactive glass scaffold

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Shaojie

    Bioactive glass (BG) and ceramics have been widely studied and developed as implants to replace hard tissues of the musculo-skeletal system, such as bones and teeth. Recently, instead of using bulk materials, which usually do not degrade rapidly enough and may remain in the human body for a long time, the idea of bioscaffold for tissue regeneration has generated much interest. An ideal bioscaffold is a porous material that would not only provide a three-dimensional structure for the regeneration of natural tissue, but also degrade gradually and, eventually be replaced by the natural tissue completely. Among various material choices the nano-macro dual porous BG appears as the most promising candidate for bioscaffold applications. Here macropores facilitate tissue growth while nanopores control degradation and enhance cell response. The surface area, which controls the degradation of scaffold can also be tuned by changing the nanopore size. However, fabrication of such 3D structure with desirable nano and macro pores has remained challenging. In this dissertation, sol-gel process combined with spinodal decomposition or polymer sponge replication method has been developed to fabricate the nano-macro porous BG scaffolds. Macropores up to 100microm are created by freezing polymer induced spinodal structure through sol-gel transition, while larger macropores (>200um) of predetermined size are obtained by the polymer sponge replication technique. The size of nanopores, which are inherent to the sol-gel method of glass fabrication, has been tailored using several approaches: Before gel point, small nanopores are generated using acid catalyst that leads to weakly-branched polymer-like network. On the other hand, larger nanopores are created with the base-catalyzed gel with highly-branched cluster-like structure. After the gel point, the nanostructure can be further modified by manipulating the sintering temperature and/or the ammonia concentration used in the solvent

  10. Highly sensitive electrochemical impedance spectroscopic detection of DNA hybridization based on Au(nano)-CNT/PAN(nano) films.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Na; Yang, Tao; Jiang, Chen; Du, Meng; Jiao, Kui

    2009-01-15

    A polyaniline nanofibers (PAN(nano))/carbon paste electrode (CPE) was prepared via dopping PAN(nano) in the carbon paste. The nanogold (Au(nano)) and carbon nanotubes (CNT) composite nanoparticles were bound on the surface of the PAN(nano)/CPE. The immobilization and hybridization of the DNA probe on the Au(nano)-CNT/PAN(nano) films were investigated with differential pulse voltammetry (DPV) and cyclic voltammetry (CV) using methylene blue (MB) as indicator, and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) using [Fe(CN)(6)](3-/4-) as redox probe. The voltammetric peak currents of MB increased dramatically owing to the immobilization of the probe DNA on the Au(nano)-CNT/PAN(nano) films, and then decreased obviously owing to the hybridization of the DNA probe with the complementary single-stranded DNA (cDNA). The electron transfer resistance (R(et)) of the electrode surface increased after the immobilization of the probe DNA on the Au(nano)-CNT/PAN(nano) films and rose further after the hybridization of the probe DNA. The remarkable difference between the R(et) value at the DNA-immobilized electrode and that at the hybridized electrode could be used for the label-free EIS detection of the target DNA. The loading of the DNA probe on Au(nano)-CNT/PAN(nano) films was greatly enhanced and the sensitivity for the target DNA detection was markedly improved. The sequence-specific DNA of phosphinothricin acetyltransferase (PAT) gene and the polymerase chain reaction (PCR) amplification of nopaline synthase (NOS) gene from transgenically modified beans were determined with this label-free EIS DNA detection method. The dynamic range for detecting the PAT gene sequence was from 1.0 x 10(-12)mol/L to 1.0 x 10(-6)mol/L with a detection limit of 5.6 x 10(-13)mol/L.

  11. The effect of brushing with nano calcium carbonate and calcium carbonate toothpaste on the surface roughness of nano-ionomer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anisja, D. H.; Indrani, D. J.; Herda, E.

    2017-08-01

    Nanotechnology developments in dentistry have resulted in the development of nano-ionomer, a new restorative material. The surface roughness of restorative materials can increase bacteria adhesion and lead to poor oral hygiene. Abrasive agents in toothpaste can alter tooth and restorative material surfaces. The aim of this study is to identify the effect of brushing with nano calcium carbonate, and calcium carbonate toothpaste on surface roughness of nano-ionomer. Eighteen nano-ionomer specimens were brushed with Aquabidest (doubledistilled water), nano calcium carbonate and calcium carbonate toothpaste. Brushing lasted 30 minutes, and the roughness value (Ra) was measured after each 10 minute segment using a surface roughness tester. The data was analyzed using repeated ANOVA and one-way ANOVA test. The value of nano-ionomer surface roughness increased significantly (p<0.05) after 20 minutes of brushing with the nano calcium carbonate toothpaste. Brushing with calcium carbonate toothpaste leaves nano-ionomer surfaces more rugged than brushing with nano calcium carbonate toothpaste.

  12. Electrical Properties of Nitrogen Doped Float Zone Silicon.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1985-07-01

    examination from Shin - Etsu Handotai Co. throuqh Dr. T. Abe. The boule is typical of such material grown by Shin - Etsu and nitrogen doping was accomplished... Shin - Etsu FZ Nitrogen n 10 3 Handotai Hughes FZ residual p105 Aircraft Boron Monsanto CZ Phosphorus n 200 Monsanto CZ Phosphorus n 2.0 Several 3/8" x 3

  13. Ultrafast Nonlinear Plasmonics of Single Nano-Objects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Del Fatti, Natalia

    Investigating, understanding and modeling the physical properties of nano-objects are intense fields of research. Of particular interest are metal-based nano-objects, where their morphology and environment dependent surface plasmon resonances (SPR) have been extensively exploited to design new optical systems. As a SPR is associated to electromagnetic local field enhancement in the nano-object, it also leads to enhancement of its optical nonlinearity, opening many possibilities for investigating fundamental processes at nanoscale. Most of these studies were performed on large ensembles of nano-objects, providing mean information which impedes detailed comparison between experimental data and theoretical models. With the advance of single nanoparticle spectroscopy methods, the linear and nonlinear responses of a single nano-object can now be addressed, which, associated to determination of its morphology by electron microscopy, opens the way to their quantitative modeling. In this context we discuss experimental and theoretical investigations of the ultrafast response of individual model nano-objects, either formed by a single particle (gold nanorod) or by two particles at a nanometric distance (gold-silver nano-dimer). Results obtained in gold nanorods are in excellent quantitative agreement with a model computing the change of the metal dielectric function due to ultrafast electron heating and relaxation. This shows that the nonlinear response of a metal nano-object can be fully described as that of the bulk metal enhanced by plasmonic effects. Extension of these studies to more complex nano-objects, as nano-dimers formed by two different materials, permits analysis of the impact of their interaction. We demonstrate here the existence of Fano effect in the absorption of a single Ag-Au dimer, experimentally proving previous theoretical predictions. Furthermore, we show that ultrafast pump-probe nonlinear spectroscopy permits to selectively address at nanoscale only

  14. Antibacterial performance of nano polypropylene filter media containing nano-TiO2 and clay particles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shafiee, Sara; Zarrebini, Mohammad; Naghashzargar, Elham; Semnani, Dariush

    2015-10-01

    Disinfection and elimination of pathogenic microorganisms from liquid can be achieved by filtration process using antibacterial filter media. The advent of nanotechnology has facilitated the introduction of membranes consisting of nano-fiber in filtration operations. The melt electro-spun fibers due to their extremely small diameters are used in the production of this particular filtration medium. In this work, antibacterial polypropylene filter medium containing clay particles and nano-TiO2 were made using melt electro-spun technology. Antibacterial performance of polypropylene nano-filters was evaluated using E. coli bacteria. Additionally, filtration efficiency of the samples in terms fiber diameter, filter porosity, and fiber distribution using image processing technique was determined. Air permeability and dust aerosol tests were conducted to establish the suitability of the samples as a filter medium. It was concluded that as far as antibacterial property is concerned, nano-fibers filter media containing clay particles are preferential to similar media containing TiO2 nanoparticles.

  15. A Nano-in-Nano Polymer-Dendrimer Nanoparticle-Based Nanosystem for Controlled Multidrug Delivery.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Zongmin; Lou, Song; Hu, Yun; Zhu, Jie; Zhang, Chenming

    2017-08-07

    Codelivery of multiple chemotherapeutics with different action mechanisms is a promising strategy for cancer treatment. In this study, we developed a novel polymer-dendrimer hybrid nanoparticle-based nanosystem for efficient and controlled codelivery of two model chemotherapeutics, doxorubicin (DOX) and paclitaxel (PTX). The nanosystem was characterized to have a nano-in-nano structure with a size of around 150 nm. The model drugs could feasibly be loaded into the nanosystem ratiometrically with high drug-loading contents by controlling the feeding drug ratios. Also, the model drugs could be released from the nanosystem following a sequential release manner-specifically, quick PTX release and sustained DOX release. Acidic pH was found to enhance the release of both drugs. Moreover, the nanosystem was taken up by cancer cells rapidly and efficiently, and the delivered drugs could release sustainably and efficiently in cells to reach their action targets. In vitro cytotoxicity results demonstrated that, by optimizing drug ratios, the dual-drug-loaded nanosystem could result in better antitumor efficacy than the single-drug-loaded nanosystem or free dual-drug combination. Furthermore, the dual-drug-loaded nanosystem could induce significant changes in both the nucleus and tubulin patterns synergistically. All data suggest that the nano-in-nano polymer-dendrimer hybrid nanoparticle-based nanosystem is a promising candidate to achieve controlled multidrug delivery for effective combination cancer therapy.

  16. System Design for Nano-Network Communications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    ShahMohammadian, Hoda

    The potential applications of nanotechnology in a wide range of areas necessities nano-networking research. Nano-networking is a new type of networking which has emerged by applying nanotechnology to communication theory. Therefore, this dissertation presents a framework for physical layer communications in a nano-network and addresses some of the pressing unsolved challenges in designing a molecular communication system. The contribution of this dissertation is proposing well-justified models for signal propagation, noise sources, optimum receiver design and synchronization in molecular communication channels. The design of any communication system is primarily based on the signal propagation channel and noise models. Using the Brownian motion and advection molecular statistics, separate signal propagation and noise models are presented for diffusion-based and flow-based molecular communication channels. It is shown that the corrupting noise of molecular channels is uncorrelated and non-stationary with a signal dependent magnitude. The next key component of any communication system is the reception and detection process. This dissertation provides a detailed analysis of the effect of the ligand-receptor binding mechanism on the received signal, and develops the first optimal receiver design for molecular communications. The bit error rate performance of the proposed receiver is evaluated and the impact of medium motion on the receiver performance is investigated. Another important feature of any communication system is synchronization. In this dissertation, the first blind synchronization algorithm is presented for the molecular communication channels. The proposed algorithm uses a non-decision directed maximum likelihood criterion for estimating the channel delay. The Cramer-Rao lower bound is also derived and the performance of the proposed synchronization algorithm is evaluated by investigating its mean square error.

  17. Bio-inspired nano tools for neuroscience.

    PubMed

    Das, Suradip; Carnicer-Lombarte, Alejandro; Fawcett, James W; Bora, Utpal

    2016-07-01

    Research and treatment in the nervous system is challenged by many physiological barriers posing a major hurdle for neurologists. The CNS is protected by a formidable blood brain barrier (BBB) which limits surgical, therapeutic and diagnostic interventions. The hostile environment created by reactive astrocytes in the CNS along with the limited regeneration capacity of the PNS makes functional recovery after tissue damage difficult and inefficient. Nanomaterials have the unique ability to interface with neural tissue in the nano-scale and are capable of influencing the function of a single neuron. The ability of nanoparticles to transcend the BBB through surface modifications has been exploited in various neuro-imaging techniques and for targeted drug delivery. The tunable topography of nanofibers provides accurate spatio-temporal guidance to regenerating axons. This review is an attempt to comprehend the progress in understanding the obstacles posed by the complex physiology of the nervous system and the innovations in design and fabrication of advanced nanomaterials drawing inspiration from natural phenomenon. We also discuss the development of nanomaterials for use in Neuro-diagnostics, Neuro-therapy and the fabrication of advanced nano-devices for use in opto-electronic and ultrasensitive electrophysiological applications. The energy efficient and parallel computing ability of the human brain has inspired the design of advanced nanotechnology based computational systems. However, extensive use of nanomaterials in neuroscience also raises serious toxicity issues as well as ethical concerns regarding nano implants in the brain. In conclusion we summarize these challenges and provide an insight into the huge potential of nanotechnology platforms in neuroscience.

  18. Combined Toxicity of Nano-ZnO and Nano-TiO2: From Single- to Multinanomaterial Systems.

    PubMed

    Tong, Tiezheng; Wilke, Carolyn M; Wu, Jinsong; Binh, Chu Thi Thanh; Kelly, John J; Gaillard, Jean-François; Gray, Kimberly A

    2015-07-07

    Previous studies on the toxicity of engineered nanomaterials (ENMs) have been primarily based on testing individual ENMs, so little is known about the interactions and combined toxicity of multiple ENMs. In this study the toxicity of chemically stable nano-TiO2 and soluble nano-ZnO was investigated individually and in combination, by monitoring bacterial cell membrane integrity and ATP levels in a natural aqueous medium (Lake Michigan water). Both nano-TiO2 and nano-ZnO damage bacterial cell membranes under simulated solar irradiation (SSI), but their phototoxicity is not additive. Nano-ZnO at 1 mg/L, for example, surprisingly eliminates the damaging effect of nano-TiO2 at 10 mg/L. This phenomenon does not correlate with reactive oxygen species production, but is explained by a reduced extent of bacteria/nano-TiO2 contact in the presence of both nano-ZnO and dissolved zinc. The presence of nano-ZnO also exerts a significant decrease in bacterial ATP levels both under SSI and in the dark, a stress effect not captured by measuring bacterial cell membrane integrity. This inhibitory effect of nano-ZnO, however, is reduced somewhat by nano-TiO2 due to the adsorption of Zn(2+). Therefore, our results reveal that nanoparticle interactions and surface complexation reactions alter the original toxicity of individual nanoparticles and that comprehensive assessments of potential ENM toxicity in the environment require careful integration of complex physicochemical interactions between ENMs and various biological responses.

  19. PLA micro- and nano-particles.

    PubMed

    Lee, Byung Kook; Yun, Yeonhee; Park, Kinam

    2016-12-15

    Poly(d,l-lactic acid) (PLA) has been widely used for various biomedical applications for its biodegradable, biocompatible, and nontoxic properties. Various methods, such as emulsion, salting out, and precipitation, have been used to make better PLA micro- and nano-particle formulations. They are widely used as controlled drug delivery systems of therapeutic molecules, including proteins, genes, vaccines, and anticancer drugs. Even though PLA-based particles have challenges to overcome, such as low drug loading capacity, low encapsulation efficiency, and terminal sterilization, continuous innovations in particulate formulations will lead to development of clinically useful formulations.

  20. Nano scale electrochemistry: Application to solid electrolytes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Minhwan

    Electrochemistry underlies a variety of useful applications such as batteries, fuel cells, and ionic sensors. However, these applications are currently facing numerous problems and challenges such as low power/energy density, short running time, low efficiency, vulnerability to contamination and costliness. The rate of improvement has recently decreased because the fundamental scientific understanding for each electrochemical phenomenon is limited. For the fundamental understanding of physics behind the observed bulk phenomena, direct nano-scale observation should be of great help. In the last few decades, a variety of scanning probe based nano-scale electrical/electrochemical measurement schemes has been developed. The first part of this thesis presents a newly proposed method to obtain AC impedance maps and its application to a few solid electrolytes. The Kelvin Probe Microscopy (KPM) and electrostatic force microscopy (EFM) were considered as alternative methods to investigate ionic systems. A series of surface potential maps could reveal the local distribution and movement of ionic species. However, the geometric convolution between the tip and the surface causes significant artifacts in surface potential measurement. A novel method for suppressing this artifact is presented in this thesis. For the KPM or EFM, due to the long range property of electrostatic interaction and the finite size of probe, the detected electric signal is obscured and subject to complicated interaction. For that reason, the modeling and analysis of these techniques is crucial to obtain accurate information. Numerical calculations using the boundary element method help to link the observed electrostatic signal with quantitative physical parameters. In addition, this simulation shows the impact of the feature size and the tip geometry on the experimental resolution and accuracy. Besides the "probing" or "characterizing" capability, a sharp tip enables highly accurate and nano

  1. Nano-JASMINE: Simulation of Data Outputs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kobayashi, Y.; Yano, T.; Hatsutori, Y.; Gouda, N.; Murooka, J.; Niwa, Y.; Yamada, Y.

    We simulated the data outputs of the first Japanese astrometry satellite Nano-JASMINE, which is scheduled to be launched by the Cyclone-4 rocket in August 2011. The simulations were carried out using existing stellar catalogues such as the Hipparcos catalogue, the Tycho catalogue, and the Guide Star catalogue version 2.3. Several statics are shown such as the number of stars those will be measured distances using annual aberration observations. The method for determining the initial direction of the satellite's spin axis has also been discussed. In this case, the frequency of bright stars observed by the satellite is an important factor.

  2. Nano-JASMINE: Simulation of Data Outputs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kobayashi, Y.; Yano, T.; Hatsutori, Y.; Gouda, N.; Murooka, J.; Niwa, Y.; Yamada, Y.

    2011-02-01

    We simulated the data outputs of the first Japanese astrometry satellite Nano-JASMINE, which is scheduled to be launched by the Cyclone-4 rocket in August 2011. The simulations were carried out using existing stellar catalogues such as the Hipparcos catalogue, the Tycho catalogue, and the Guide Star catalogue version 2.3. Several statics are shown such as the number of stars those will be measured distances using annual aberration observations. The method for determining the initial direction of the satellite's spin axis has also been discussed. In this case, the frequency of bright stars observed by the satellite is an important factor.

  3. Silver nano-inukshuks on germanium.

    PubMed

    Aizawa, Masato; Cooper, Anne M; Malac, Marek; Buriak, Jillian M

    2005-05-01

    The integration of metallic nanostructures with semiconductors is important for a variety of technological applications. Through an efficient galvanic displacement reaction on germanium, complex silver nanostructures form spontaneously in aqueous conditions at room temperature. The structures, termed nano-inukshuks, are based on stacks of hexagonal metallic structures that grow, initially, parallel to the surface normal of the germanium. TEM, SEM, XPS, XRD, and EDS indicate that the structures are crystalline silver and, based on open cell potential studies, that their nucleation takes place in the first 100 s, followed by growth of the silver structures, most likely through Volmer-Weber growth.

  4. Nano-porous thermally sintered nano silica as novel fillers for dental composites.

    PubMed

    Atai, Mohammad; Pahlavan, Ayoub; Moin, Niloofar

    2012-02-01

    The study evaluates properties of an experimental dental composite consisting of a porous thermally sintered nano-silica as filler. The properties are compared with those of an experimental composite containing micro fillers and a commercially available nano-composite, Filtek Supreme(®) Translucent. Different models are used to predict the elastic modulus and strength of the composites. Nano-silica with primary particles of 12 nm was thermally sintered to form nanoporous filer particles. The experimental composites were prepared by incorporating 70 wt.% of the fillers into a mixture of Bis-GMA and TEGDMA as matrix phase. Having added photoinitiator system the composites were inserted into the test molds and light-cured. The microfiller containing composites were also prepared using micron size glass fillers. Degree of conversion (DC%) of the composites was measured using FTIR spectroscopy. Diametral tensile strength (DTS), flexural strength, flexural modulus and fracture toughness were measured. SEM was utilized to study the cross section of the fractured specimens. The surface topography of the specimens was investigated using atomic force microscopy (AFM). The specific surface area of the sintered nano silica was measured using BET method. The data were analyzed and compared by ANOVA and Tukey HSD tests (significance level=0.05). The results showed improvements in flexural modulus and fracture toughness of the composites containing sintered filler. AFM revealed a lower surface roughness for sintered silica containing composites. No significant difference was observed between DTS, DC%, and flexural strength of the sintered nanofiller composite and the Filtek Supreme(®). The results also showed that the modulus of the composite with sintered filler was higher than the model prediction. The thermally sintered nano-porous silica fillers significantly enhanced the mechanical properties of dental composites introducing a new approach to develop materials with

  5. Nano Traditional Chinese Medicine: Current Progresses and Future Challenges.

    PubMed

    Huang, Yi; Zhao, Yinglan; Liu, Fang; Liu, Songqing

    2015-01-01

    Nano traditional Chinese medicine (nano TCM) refers to bioactive ingredients, bioactive parts, medicinal materials or complex prescription, being approximately 100 nm in size, which are processed by nanotechnology. Nano TCM is a product of the TCM modernization, and is an application of nanotechnology in the field of TCM. This article reviews literatures on researches of nano TCM, which were published in the past 15 years. Different nanotechnologies have been used in preparation of Nano TCM in view of the varying aims of the study. The mechanical crushing technology is the main approach for nanolization of TCM material and complex prescription, and nanoparticulate drug delivery systems is the main approach for nanolization of bioactive ingredients or bioactive parts in TCM. Nano TCM has a number of advantages, for example, enhancing the bioavailability of TCM, reducing the adverse effects of TCM, achieving sustained release, attaining targeted delivery, enhancing pharmacological effects and improving the administration route of TCM. However, there are still many problems that must be resolved in nano TCM research. The main challenges to nano TCM include the theory system of TCM modernization, preparation technology, safety and stability, etc.

  6. Nano-Bio Quantum Technology for Device-Specific Materials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Choi, Sang H.

    2009-01-01

    The areas discussed are still under development: I. Nano structured materials for TE applications a) SiGe and Be.Te; b) Nano particles and nanoshells. II. Quantum technology for optical devices: a) Quantum apertures; b) Smart optical materials; c) Micro spectrometer. III. Bio-template oriented materials: a) Bionanobattery; b) Bio-fuel cells; c) Energetic materials.

  7. NanoLINEN: nanotoxicology link between India and European Nations.

    PubMed

    Dhawan, Alok; Shanker, Rishi; Laffon, Blanca; Tajes, Juan Fernandez; Fuchs, Dietmar; van der Laan, Gert; van Broekhuizen, Pieter; Becker, Heidi; Moriske, Heinz-Jorn; Teixeira, Joao P F; Carriere, Marie; Herlin-Boime, Nathalie; Engin, Ayse Basak; Coskun, Erdem; Karahalil, Bensu

    2011-02-01

    Nanotoxicology link between India and European Nations (NanoLINEN) is a consortium of 7 European laboratories and Indian Institute of Toxicology Research (CSIR Laboratory) from India to strengthen the research ties in the area of Nanomaterial Toxicology. The goal of this project is to develop robust risk assessment methodologies that will be useful for the community manufacturing and using nano-products.

  8. Tensile/Shear Behaviour of Multi-stitched/Nano Composites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bilisik, Kadir; Kaya, Gaye

    2017-02-01

    This study aims to investigate tensile/shear behavior of multi-stitched/nano composites. For this purpose, non-stitched, non-stitched/nano, multi-stitched and multi-stitched/nano composites were made. It was shown that the warp/filling tensile strength and modulus of composites were slightly reduced in both multi-stitched and multi-stitched/nano composites due to fiber breakage that resulted from the multi-stitching process. In addition, there were not significant differences between non-stitched and multi-stitched structures. The non-stitched/nano composite showed slightly higher in-plane shear strength compared with the non-stitched composite. The in-plane shear strength of the non-stitched composite, on the other hand, increased steadily compared to the multi-stitched composite because of the stitching process and the interface between the stitching yarn and polymer matrix. Stitching significantly improved the delamination resistance in the multi-stitched and multi-stitched/nano composites experienced a small amount of damaged areas. The incorporation of nano silica improved the damage resistance of multi-stitched composites. Therefore, the damaged tolerance composite was developed with stitching and the addition of the nano silica for various industrial applications, such as electronic boards.

  9. Development of Nano Processing Technology for Shape Memory Alloy Fibers

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-01-30

    Final Report AOARD-09-4037 (FA2386-09-1-4037) Title: Development of nano processing technology for shape memory alloy fibers PI: Hiroyuki...4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Development of nano processing technology for shape memory alloy fibers 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER FA23860914037 5b. GRANT NUMBER

  10. Tensile/Shear Behaviour of Multi-stitched/Nano Composites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bilisik, Kadir; Kaya, Gaye

    2017-07-01

    This study aims to investigate tensile/shear behavior of multi-stitched/nano composites. For this purpose, non-stitched, non-stitched/nano, multi-stitched and multi-stitched/nano composites were made. It was shown that the warp/filling tensile strength and modulus of composites were slightly reduced in both multi-stitched and multi-stitched/nano composites due to fiber breakage that resulted from the multi-stitching process. In addition, there were not significant differences between non-stitched and multi-stitched structures. The non-stitched/nano composite showed slightly higher in-plane shear strength compared with the non-stitched composite. The in-plane shear strength of the non-stitched composite, on the other hand, increased steadily compared to the multi-stitched composite because of the stitching process and the interface between the stitching yarn and polymer matrix. Stitching significantly improved the delamination resistance in the multi-stitched and multi-stitched/nano composites experienced a small amount of damaged areas. The incorporation of nano silica improved the damage resistance of multi-stitched composites. Therefore, the damaged tolerance composite was developed with stitching and the addition of the nano silica for various industrial applications, such as electronic boards.

  11. Biological effects of a nano red elemental selenium.

    PubMed

    Zhang, J S; Gao, X Y; Zhang, L D; Bao, Y P

    2001-01-01

    A novel selenium form, nano red elemental selenium (Nano-Se) was prepared by adding bovine serum albumin to the redox system of selenite and glutathione. Nano-Se has a 7-fold lower acute toxicity than sodium selenite in mice (LD(50) 113 and 15 mg Se/kg body weight respectively). In Se-deficient rat, both Nano-Se and selenite can increase tissue selenium and GPx activity. The biological activities of Nano-Se and selenite were compared in terms of cell proliferation, enzyme induction and protection against free racial-mediated damage in human hepatoma HepG2 cells. Nano-Se and selenite are similarly cell growth inhibited and stimulated synthesis of glutathione peroxidase (GPx), phospholipid hydroperoxide glutathione peroxidase (PHGPx) and thioredoxin reductase (TR). When HepG2 cells were co-treated with selenium and glutathione, Nano-Se showed less pro-oxidative effects than selenite, as measured by cell growth. These results demonstrate that Nano-Se has a similar bioavailability in the rat and antioxidant effects on cells.

  12. Synthesis of nano-textured biocompatible scaffolds from chicken eggshells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Asghar, Waseem; Kim, Young-Tae; Ilyas, Azhar; Sankaran, Jeyantt; Wan, Yuan; Iqbal, Samir M.

    2012-11-01

    Cell adhesion, morphology and growth are influenced by surface topography at nano and micrometer scales. Nano-textured surfaces are prepared using photolithography, plasma etching and long polymer chemical etching which are cost prohibitive and require specialized equipment. This article demonstrates a simple approach to synthesize nano-textured scaffolds from chicken eggshells. Varieties of pattern are made on the eggshells like micro-needle forests and nanopores, giving very uniform nano-textures to the surfaces. The surfaces are characterized for chemical composition and crystal phase. The novel patterns are transferred to PDMS surfaces and the nano-textured PDMS surfaces are used to study the effect of texturing on human fibroblast cell growth and attachment. The effects of surface topographies, along with laminin coating on cell cultures, are also studied. We find an exciting phenomenon that the initial seeding density of the fibroblast cells affects the influence of the nano-texturing on cell growth. These nano-textured surfaces give 16 times more fibroblast growth when compared to flat PDMS surfaces. The novel nano-textured patterns also double the laminin adsorption on PDMS.

  13. Synthesis of nano-textured biocompatible scaffolds from chicken eggshells.

    PubMed

    Asghar, Waseem; Kim, Young-Tae; Ilyas, Azhar; Sankaran, Jeyantt; Wan, Yuan; Iqbal, Samir M

    2012-11-30

    Cell adhesion, morphology and growth are influenced by surface topography at nano and micrometer scales. Nano-textured surfaces are prepared using photolithography, plasma etching and long polymer chemical etching which are cost prohibitive and require specialized equipment. This article demonstrates a simple approach to synthesize nano-textured scaffolds from chicken eggshells. Varieties of pattern are made on the eggshells like micro-needle forests and nanopores, giving very uniform nano-textures to the surfaces. The surfaces are characterized for chemical composition and crystal phase. The novel patterns are transferred to PDMS surfaces and the nano-textured PDMS surfaces are used to study the effect of texturing on human fibroblast cell growth and attachment. The effects of surface topographies, along with laminin coating on cell cultures, are also studied. We find an exciting phenomenon that the initial seeding density of the fibroblast cells affects the influence of the nano-texturing on cell growth. These nano-textured surfaces give 16 times more fibroblast growth when compared to flat PDMS surfaces. The novel nano-textured patterns also double the laminin adsorption on PDMS.

  14. The reactivity of nano silica with calcium hydroxide.

    PubMed

    Lin, Qing; Xu, Zhongzi; Lan, Xianghui; Ni, Yaru; Lu, Chunhua

    2011-11-01

    The reactivity of nano silica (SiO₂) with calcium hydroxide (Ca(OH)₂) was evaluated and characterized in this study. Ca(OH)₂ activated nano SiO₂ takes place through an exothermic process, which is mainly attributed to the breakdown of Si-O-Si bonds. Ca(2+) offsets the charge imbalance and bonds to Si-OH and Si-O(-) giving rise to calcium silicate hydrate (CSH) gel. Care has to be taken that the reactivity of nano SiO₂ with Ca(OH) ₂significantly depends on the Q³ percentage in nano SiO ₂. Q³ percentages significantly influence the reaction kinetic of nano SiO₂ . The higher Q³ percentage results in a higher reaction degree of nano SiO₂ with Ca(OH)₂ and shorter setting times of the pastes. The higher Q³ percentage results in a lower total reaction heat of nano SiO₂ with Ca(OH)₂. It is suggested that the Q³ percentages of nano SiO₂ should be in excess of 30% to keep the satisfactory setting properties of the pastes for the application requirements of bone cement.

  15. Towards sustainability: new approaches to nano-drug preparation.

    PubMed

    Cheow, Wean Sin; Xu, Rong; Hadinoto, Kunn

    2013-01-01

    The conversion of drugs into drug nanoparticles (nano-drugs) represents a feasible method to enhance bioavailability of otherwise sparingly soluble-drugs. Nano-drugs enhance bioavailability through the improvement of dissolution rate and saturation solubility of drugs, by virtue of their small sizes. Nano-drugs available in the market are usually produced by top-down methods, such as wet milling and high pressure homogenization. These conventional top-down methods, however, suffer from high energy and time requirement, as well as wide and inconsistent nano-drug size distribution. Furthermore, commercially available nano-drugs are predominantly crystalline while amorphous nano-drugs are largely neglected despite their propensity to generate high saturation solubility. In this review, nonconventional methods to prepare crystalline and amorphous nano-drugs are discussed, with the bioavailability enhancing characteristics highlighted. Both top-down and bottom-up methods are covered, finally, a sustainability-based perspective comparing amorphous and crystalline nano-drugs is presented.

  16. Nano-Engineered Drug Combinations for Breast Cancer Treatment

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-06-01

    Breast Cancer Treatment PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR: Joerg Lahann, Ph.D. CONTRACTING...CONTRACT NUMBER Nano-Engineered Drug Combinations for Breast Cancer Treatment 5b. GRANT NUMBER W81XWH-11-1-0111 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 6...10 19b. TELEPHONE NUMBER (include area code) 2 Nano-engineered Drug Combinations for Breast Cancer Treatment Progress Report

  17. Current safety practices in nano-research laboratories in China.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Can; Zhang, Jing; Wang, Guoyu

    2014-06-01

    China has become a key player in the global nanotechnology field, however, no surveys have specifically examined safety practices in the Chinese nano-laboratories in depth. This study reports results of a survey of 300 professionals who work in research laboratories that handle nanomaterials in China. We recruited participants at three major nano-research laboratories (which carry out research in diverse fields such as chemistry, material science, and biology) and the nano-chemistry session of the national meeting of the Chinese Chemical Society. Results show that almost all nano-research laboratories surveyed had general safety regulations, whereas less than one third of respondents reported having nanospecific safety rules. General safety measures were in place in most surveyed nano-research laboratories, while nanospecific protective measures existed or were implemented less frequently. Several factors reported from the scientific literature including nanotoxicology knowledge gaps, technical limitations on estimating nano-exposure, and the lack of nano-occupational safety legislation may contribute to the current state of affairs. With these factors in mind and embracing the precautionary principle, we suggest strengthening or providing nanosafety training (including raising risk awareness) and establishing nanosafety guidelines in China, to better protect personnel in the nano-workplace.

  18. Nano-liquid chromatography applied to enantiomers separation.

    PubMed

    Fanali, Salvatore

    2017-02-24

    This paper presents the state of the art concerning the separation of chiral compounds by means of nano-liquid chromatography (nano-LC). The enantiomers' separation and determination are a subject of fundamental importance in various application fields such as pharmaceutical industry, biomedicine, food, agrochemical etc. Nano-LC is a miniaturized chromatographic technique offering some advantages over conventional ones such as low consumption of mobile phase, sample volume and amount of chiral stationary phase, reduced costs etc. This is reported in the first part of the paper illustrating the features of the nano-LC. In addition, chiral resolution methods are briefly illustrated. Some chiral selectors, used in high-performance liquid chromatography have also been applied in nano-LC including cyclodextrins, glycopeptide antibiotics, modified polysaccharides etc. This is discussed in the second part of the review. Finally some examples of the applications available in literature are reported.

  19. Magnetic switching probability of perpendicularly magnetized nano-dot

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wibowo, N. A.; Trihandaru, S.

    2016-11-01

    Understanding of magnetization reversal mode plays an important role in spintronic devices performance. Especially in Heat Assisted Magnetic Recording, the contribution of thermal field in the magnetization dynamics becomes a crucial aspect which should be further explored. In this paper, Landau Lifshift-Gilbert equation was employed to investigate the magnetic switching dynamics for nano-dots with different magnetic anisotropies. This micromagnetic study shows that these nano-dots exhibit the different mode of switching. Multi-domain configuration dictates the switching process for nano-dot with strong magnetic anisotropy before magnetized in the driven magnetic field direction. Meanwhile, multi-domain configuration, domain-wall nucleation, and propagation take place in the process to achieve magnetized single-domain for the nano-dot with the lower level of magnetic anisotropy. Furthermore, in the absence of the external magnetic field, magnetic moments of this low magnetic anisotropies nano-dot is more probably to reverse.

  20. Nano-superconducting quantum interference devices with suspended junctions

    SciTech Connect

    Hazra, D.; Hasselbach, K.; Kirtley, J. R.

    2014-04-14

    Nano-Superconducting Quantum Interference Devices (nano-SQUIDs) are usually fabricated from a single layer of either Nb or Al. We describe here a simple method for fabricating suspended nano-bridges in Nb/Al thin-film bilayers. We use these suspended bridges, which act as Josephson weak links, to fabricate nano-SQUIDs which show critical current oscillations at temperatures up to 1.5 K and magnetic flux densities up to over 20 mT. These nano-SQUIDs exhibit flux modulation depths intermediate between all-Al and all-Nb devices, with some of the desirable characteristics of both. The suspended geometry is attractive for magnetic single nanoparticle measurements.

  1. Towards future systems with nano-optics contributions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kaminska, Bozena; Najiminaini, Mohamadreza; Chuo, Yindar; Landrock, Clint; Omrane, Badr; Carson, Jeffrey J. L.

    2013-03-01

    The long anticipated deployment of nano-optics that can enable next generation computing has encountered several practical impediments that have delayed widespread adoption in commercial processes. However, the global market in nano-enabled products is expected to grow to over $80B USD within the next 3 years. In response, the research community is creating solutions to overcome challenging issues such as reliability and cost-effective fabrication. New approaches in sensing, continuous uptime powering, and post silicon manufacturing will maximize overall performance and allow unprecedented commercial applications. This paper reviews present limitations of nano-optics and then considers the new generation of devices and their manufacturing that may turn promises into reality. We highlight several recent innovations: high sensitivity/selectivity nano-optical sensing devices; sustainable power from polymer energy harvesting and storage; optical variable devices for visual authentication of secure documents; and nano-template masters for high-volume manufacturing.

  2. Photo-nano immunotherapy for metastatic cancers (Conference Presentation)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, Feifan

    2016-03-01

    We constructed a multifunction nano system SWNT-GC and investigated the synergize photothermal and immunological effects. Here, we improve the SWNT-GC nano system and design a new synergistic nano-particle, both have the photothermal effects and immunological effects. We investigate the therapeutic effects and detect the immune response with metastatic mouse tumor models. We also study the therapeutic mechanism after treatment in vitro and in vivo. With the enhancement of nano-materials on photothermal effects, laser treatment could destroy primary tumor and protect normal tissue with low dose laser irradiation. With the immunological effects of nano-materials, the treatment could trigger specific antitumor immune response, to eliminate the metastasis tumor. It is providing a promising treatment modality for the metastatic cancers.

  3. Nano-structured surface plasmon resonance sensor for sensitivity enhancement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Jae-Ho; Kim, Hyo-Sop; Kim, Jin-Ho; Choi, Sung-Wook; Cho, Yong-Jin

    2008-08-01

    A new nano-structured SPR sensor was devised to improve its sensitivity. Nano-scaled silica particles were used as the template to fabricate nano-structure. The surface of the silica particles was modified with thiol group and a single layer of the modified silica particles was attached on the gold or silver thin film using Langmuir-Blodgett (LB) method. Thereafter, gold or silver was coated on the template by an e-beam evaporator. Finally, the nano-structured surface with basin-like shape was obtained after removing the silica particles by sonication. Applying the new developed SPR sensor to a model food of alcoholic beverage, the sensitivities for the gold and silver nano-structured sensors, respectively, had 95% and 126% higher than the conventional one.

  4. [The genetic toxicity and toxicology mechanism of metal nano materials].

    PubMed

    Shen, Liping; Wang, Zhidong; Zhou, Pingkun

    2015-09-01

    Although metal nano materials have been widely used in various fields, the potential risks of it still could not be neglected. In this paper, the effects and mechanisms of genotoxicity caused by different nano materials were discussed. Human body can be exposed to metal nano materials through multiple pathways, metals nano follow the blood stream in circulatory system and distribute to organs. Metal nano particles are mainly uptaken into cells by endocytosis, and direct or indirect damages to genes can be induced by these particles after metabolism in cells. These damages would affect the course of cell cycle and the stability of the genome, resulting in gene mutation or chromosome aberration, and even leading to the death or malignant transformation of cells.

  5. Minimum ignition energy of nano and micro Ti powder in the presence of inert nano TiO₂ powder.

    PubMed

    Chunmiao, Yuan; Amyotte, Paul R; Hossain, Md Nur; Li, Chang

    2014-06-15

    The inerting effect of nano-sized TiO2 powder on ignition sensitivity of nano and micro Ti powders was investigated with a Mike 3 apparatus. "A little is not good enough" is also suitable for micro Ti powders mixed with nano-sized solid inertants. MIE of the mixtures did not significantly increase until the TiO2 percentage exceeded 50%. Nano-sized TiO2 powders were ineffective as an inertant when mixed with nano Ti powders, especially at higher dust loadings. Even with 90% nano TiO2 powder, mixtures still showed high ignition sensitivity because the statistic energy was as low as 2.1 mJ. Layer fires induced by ignited but unburned metal particles may occur for micro Ti powders mixed with nano TiO2 powders following a low level dust explosion. Such layer fires could lead to a violent dust explosion after a second dispersion. Thus, additional attention is needed to prevent metallic layer fires even where electric spark potential is low. In the case of nano Ti powder, no layer fires were observed because of less flammable material involved in the mixtures investigated, and faster flame propagation in nanoparticle clouds.

  6. Measuring Understanding of Nanoscience and Nanotechnology: Development and Validation of the Nano-Knowledge Instrument (NanoKI)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schönborn, K. J.; Höst, G. E.; Lundin Palmerius, K. E.

    2015-01-01

    As the application of nanotechnology in everyday life impacts society, it becomes critical for citizens to have a scientific basis upon which to judge their perceived hopes and fears of 'nano'. Although multiple instruments have been designed for assessing attitudinal and affective aspects of nano, surprisingly little work has focused on…

  7. Biomineralization regulation by nano-sized features in silk fibroin proteins: synthesis of water-dispersible nano-hydroxyapatite.

    PubMed

    Huang, Xiaowei; Liu, Xi; Liu, Shanshan; Zhang, Aili; Lu, Qiang; Kaplan, David L; Zhu, Hesun

    2014-11-01

    In the present study, silk fibroin (SF) was used as a template to prepare nano-hydroxyapatite (nano-HA) via a biomineralization process. We observed that the content of SF affected both the morphology and water dispersibility of nano-HA particles. Scanning electron microscope (SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD), zetasizer, and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) were used to examine nano-HA particle features including the surface morphology, aggregation performance, and crystallization. Rod-like nano-HA particles with desired water dispersibility were achieved when the ratio of SF/HA (calculated) was above 7:3. SEM, TEM, and zeta potential results revealed that nano-HA particles were enclosed by the SF which formed a negative charge layer preventing the aggregation of HA nanoparticles in aqueous solution. Moreover, the nano-HA particles were able to re-disperse in water without precipitation for two weeks at room temperature, 60°C, and 90°C. Our work suggested a facile and effective approach of designing water-dispersible nano-HA particles which may have wide potential application in tissue engineering especially bone regeneration.

  8. Measuring Understanding of Nanoscience and Nanotechnology: Development and Validation of the Nano-Knowledge Instrument (NanoKI)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schönborn, K. J.; Höst, G. E.; Lundin Palmerius, K. E.

    2015-01-01

    As the application of nanotechnology in everyday life impacts society, it becomes critical for citizens to have a scientific basis upon which to judge their perceived hopes and fears of 'nano'. Although multiple instruments have been designed for assessing attitudinal and affective aspects of nano, surprisingly little work has focused on…

  9. Nano silver and nano zinc-oxide in surface waters - exposure estimation for Europe at high spatial and temporal resolution.

    PubMed

    Dumont, Egon; Johnson, Andrew C; Keller, Virginie D J; Williams, Richard J

    2015-01-01

    Nano silver and nano zinc-oxide monthly concentrations in surface waters across Europe were modeled at ~6 x 9 km spatial resolution. Nano-particle loadings from households to rivers were simulated considering household connectivity to sewerage, sewage treatment efficiency, the spatial distribution of sewage treatment plants, and their associated populations. These loadings were used to model temporally varying nano-particle concentrations in rivers, lakes and wetlands by considering dilution, downstream transport, water evaporation, water abstraction, and nano-particle sedimentation. Temporal variability in concentrations caused by weather variation was simulated using monthly weather data for a representative 31-year period. Modeled concentrations represent current levels of nano-particle production.Two scenarios were modeled. In the most likely scenario, half the river stretches had long-term average concentrations exceeding 0.002 ng L(-1) nano silver and 1.5 ng L(-1) nano zinc oxide. In 10% of the river stretches, these concentrations exceeded 0.18 ng L(-1) and 150 ng L(-1), respectively. Predicted concentrations were usually highest in July.

  10. Nano-volcanic Eruption of Silver

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lin, Shih-Kang; Nagao, Shijo; Yokoi, Emi; Oh, Chulmin; Zhang, Hao; Liu, Yu-Chen; Lin, Shih-Guei; Suganuma, Katsuaki

    2016-10-01

    Silver (Ag) is one of the seven metals of antiquity and an important engineering material in the electronic, medical, and chemical industries because of its unique noble and catalytic properties. Ag thin films are extensively used in modern electronics primarily because of their oxidation-resistance. Here we report a novel phenomenon of Ag nano-volcanic eruption that is caused by interactions between Ag and oxygen (O). It involves grain boundary liquation, the ejection of transient Ag-O fluids through grain boundaries, and the decomposition of Ag-O fluids into O2 gas and suspended Ag and Ag2O clusters. Subsequent coating with re-deposited Ag-O and the de-alloying of O yield a conformal amorphous Ag coating. Patterned Ag hillock arrays and direct Ag-to-Ag bonding can be formed by the homogenous crystallization of amorphous coatings. The Ag “nano-volcanic eruption” mechanism is elaborated, shedding light on a new mechanism of hillock formation and new applications of amorphous Ag coatings.

  11. Dynamics of current induced nano-skyrmions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Natarajan, Kanimozhi; Rajamani, Amuda; Arumugam, Brinda

    2017-08-01

    The dynamics of magnetic skyrmions is investigated in a composite free layer spin valve nano pillar for different coupling mechanisms in the absence of Dzyaloshinski-Moriya Interaction (DMI). Nano meter sized skyrmions and anti skyrmions are trapped with different helices in the free layer. The spin polarised current under specific choice of system parameters changes the droplet solitons into skyrmions and anti skyrmions. The current driven dynamics is studied and the condition at which an isolated skyrmion exists, is reported. We have optimised the current density (J) and spin wave vector (k) for which Skyrmion Hall Effect (SHE) completely vanishes and as a result the velocity, size and shape of skyrmions are preserved. When the coupling between the composite free layers is changed, skyrmion-anti skyrmion pair and radial skyrmion-chiral skyrmion pair emerge. For the specific values of 'J' and 'k' these pairs show coupled motion along the layer and hence these pairs could also be used as a bit in the data processing and storage devices. Our investigation ascertains that a single material can host all the localised magnetic structures if the current density, spin wave vector and coupling constant are suitably chosen and tuned. This study would really be of fundamental importance owing to the possible applications in information processing and data storage in skyrmion based logic circuits and magnetic sensors.

  12. Spiders spinning electrically charged nano-fibres

    PubMed Central

    Kronenberger, Katrin; Vollrath, Fritz

    2015-01-01

    Most spider threads are on the micrometre and sub-micrometre scale. Yet, there are some spiders that spin true nano-scale fibres such as the cribellate orb spider, Uloborus plumipes. Here, we analyse the highly specialized capture silk-spinning system of this spider and compare it with the silk extrusion systems of the more standard spider dragline threads. The cribellar silk extrusion system consists of tiny, morphologically basic glands each terminating through exceptionally long and narrow ducts in uniquely shaped silk outlets. Depending on spider size, hundreds to thousands of these outlet spigots cover the cribellum, a phylogenetically ancient spinning plate. We present details on the unique functional design of the cribellate gland–duct–spigot system and discuss design requirements for its specialist fibrils. The spinning of fibres on the nano-scale seems to have been facilitated by the evolution of a highly specialist way of direct spinning, which differs from the aqua-melt silk extrusion set-up more typical for other spiders. PMID:25631231

  13. Spiders spinning electrically charged nano-fibres.

    PubMed

    Kronenberger, Katrin; Vollrath, Fritz

    2015-01-01

    Most spider threads are on the micrometre and sub-micrometre scale. Yet, there are some spiders that spin true nano-scale fibres such as the cribellate orb spider, Uloborus plumipes. Here, we analyse the highly specialized capture silk-spinning system of this spider and compare it with the silk extrusion systems of the more standard spider dragline threads. The cribellar silk extrusion system consists of tiny, morphologically basic glands each terminating through exceptionally long and narrow ducts in uniquely shaped silk outlets. Depending on spider size, hundreds to thousands of these outlet spigots cover the cribellum, a phylogenetically ancient spinning plate. We present details on the unique functional design of the cribellate gland-duct-spigot system and discuss design requirements for its specialist fibrils. The spinning of fibres on the nano-scale seems to have been facilitated by the evolution of a highly specialist way of direct spinning, which differs from the aqua-melt silk extrusion set-up more typical for other spiders. © 2015 The Author(s) Published by the Royal Society. All rights reserved.

  14. Nano-volcanic Eruption of Silver

    PubMed Central

    Lin, Shih-kang; Nagao, Shijo; Yokoi, Emi; Oh, Chulmin; Zhang, Hao; Liu, Yu-chen; Lin, Shih-guei; Suganuma, Katsuaki

    2016-01-01

    Silver (Ag) is one of the seven metals of antiquity and an important engineering material in the electronic, medical, and chemical industries because of its unique noble and catalytic properties. Ag thin films are extensively used in modern electronics primarily because of their oxidation-resistance. Here we report a novel phenomenon of Ag nano-volcanic eruption that is caused by interactions between Ag and oxygen (O). It involves grain boundary liquation, the ejection of transient Ag-O fluids through grain boundaries, and the decomposition of Ag-O fluids into O2 gas and suspended Ag and Ag2O clusters. Subsequent coating with re-deposited Ag-O and the de-alloying of O yield a conformal amorphous Ag coating. Patterned Ag hillock arrays and direct Ag-to-Ag bonding can be formed by the homogenous crystallization of amorphous coatings. The Ag “nano-volcanic eruption” mechanism is elaborated, shedding light on a new mechanism of hillock formation and new applications of amorphous Ag coatings. PMID:27703220

  15. Wetting of topological nano-patterned surfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gang, O.; Alvine, K.; Black, C. T.

    2005-03-01

    We have investigated the evolution of simple hydrocarbon and fluorocarbon liquid films on nano-patterned surfaces of near-hexagonally packed 20 nm wide nano-cavities [1]. Our x-ray measurements show that the behavior of wetting films on patterned surfaces differs from the expected δμ-1/3 dependence found for the van der Waals interacting flat films [2]. Two different regimes (filling and growing) for the wetting film evolution were observed as a function of the chemical potential offset δμ. The filling regime exhibits a δμ-3/4 dependence for the adsorption of the liquid film into nanocavity; a significant enhancement compared to the flat surface. These results qualitatively confirm the theoretically predicted increase of the wetting exponent for the curved surface. However, quantitatively, the measured exponent for the paraboloid-like cavity is considerably lower than the predicted value [3]. *C. T. Black et al, Appl. Phys. Lett., 79, 409, (2001). *O. Gang et al, M. Fukuto, P.Huber, P.Pershan, Coll. and Surf. A 206, 293, 2002 *Rascon, C. and A.O. Parry, Nature, 407: p. 986 (2000); Robbins, M.O et al Phys. Rev. A, 43(8), 4344 (1991).

  16. Nano-optics with single quantum systems.

    PubMed

    Hecht, Bert

    2004-04-15

    This paper reviews the recent progress in using single quantum systems, here mainly single fluorescent molecules, as local probes for nano-optical field distributions. We start by discussing the role of the absorption cross-section for the spatial resolution attainable in such experiments and its behaviour for different environmental conditions. It is shown that the spatial distribution of field components in a high-numerical aperture laser focus can be mapped with high precision using single fluorescent molecules embedded in a thin polymer film on glass. With this proof-of-principle experiment as a starting point, the possibility of mapping strongly confined and enhanced nano-optical fields close to material structures, e.g. sharp metal tips, is discussed. The mapping of the spatial distribution of the enhanced field at an etched gold tip using a single molecule is presented as an example. Energy transfer effects and quenching are identified as possible artefacts in this context. Finally, it is demonstrated that the local quenching at a sharp metal structure nevertheless can be exploited as a novel contrast mechanism for ultrahigh-resolution optical microscopy with single-molecule sensitivity.

  17. Gold nano-particles fixed on glass

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Worsch, Christian; Wisniewski, Wolfgang; Kracker, Michael; Rüssel, Christian

    2012-09-01

    A simple process for producing wear resistant gold nano-particle coatings on transparent substrates is proposed. Soda-lime-silica glasses were sputtered with gold and subsequently coated with SiO2 using a combustion chemical vapor deposition technique. Some samples were first coated with silica, sputtered with gold and then coated with a second layer of silica. The samples were annealed for 20 min at either 550 or 600 °C. This resulted in the formation of round, well separated gold nano-particles with sizes from 15 to 200 nm. The color of the coated glass was equivalent to that of gold-ruby glasses. Silica/gold/silica coatings annealed at 600 °C for 20 min were strongly adherent and scratch resistant. X-ray diffraction and electron backscatter diffraction (EBSD) were used to describe the crystal orientations of the embedded particles. The gold particles are preferably oriented with their (1 1 1) planes perpendicular to the surface.

  18. NanoSQUIDs: Basics & recent advances

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    José Martínez-Pérez, Maria; Koelle, Dieter

    2017-08-01

    Superconducting Quantum Interference Devices (SQUIDs) are one of the most popular devices in superconducting electronics. They combine the Josephson effect with the quantization of magnetic flux in superconductors. This gives rise to one of the most beautiful manifestations of macroscopic quantum coherence in the solid state. In addition, SQUIDs are extremely sensitive sensors allowing us to transduce magnetic flux into measurable electric signals. As a consequence, any physical observable that can be converted into magnetic flux, e.g., current, magnetization, magnetic field or position, becomes easily accessible to SQUID sensors. In the late 1980s it became clear that downsizing the dimensions of SQUIDs to the nanometric scale would encompass an enormous increase of their sensitivity to localized tiny magnetic signals. Indeed, nanoSQUIDs opened the way to the investigation of, e.g., individual magnetic nanoparticles or surface magnetic states with unprecedented sensitivities. The purpose of this chapter is to present a detailed survey of microscopic and nanoscopic SQUID sensors. We will start by discussing the principle of operation of SQUIDs, placing the emphasis on their application as ultrasensitive detectors for small localized magnetic signals. We will continue by reviewing a number of existing devices based on different kinds of Josephson junctions and materials, focusing on their advantages and drawbacks. The last sections are left for applications of nanoSQUIDs in the fields of scanning SQUID microscopy and magnetic particle characterization, placing special stress on the investigation of individual magnetic nanoparticles.

  19. Axonal outgrowth on nano-imprinted patterns.

    PubMed

    Johansson, Fredrik; Carlberg, Patrick; Danielsen, Nils; Montelius, Lars; Kanje, Martin

    2006-03-01

    Nanotechnology has provided methods to fabricate surface patterns with features down to a few nm. If cells or cell processes exhibit contact guidance in response to such small patterns is an interesting question and could be pertinent for many applications. In the present study we investigated if axonal outgrowth was affected by nano-printed patterns in polymethylmethacrylate (PMMA)-covered silicon chips. To this end adult mouse sympathetic and sensory ganglia were mounted in Matrigel on the chips close to the nano-patterns. The patterns consisted of parallel grooves with depths of 300 nm and varying widths of 100-400 nm. The distance between two adjacent grooves was 100-1600 nm. The chips were cultured in medium containing 25 ng/ml of nerve growth factor to stimulate axonal outgrowth. After 1 week of incubation, axonal outgrowth was investigated by immunocytochemistry or scanning electron microscopy. Axons displayed contact guidance on all patterns. Furthermore, we found that the nerve cell processes preferred to grow on ridge edges and elevations in the patterns rather than in grooves, a seemingly claustrophobic behavior. We conclude that axons of peripheral neurons might be guided by nanopatterns on PMMA when the lateral features are 100 nm or larger. The present results can be utilized for nerve regenerating scaffolds or the construction of a stable, high-resolution electronic interface to neurons, which is required for future brain machine interfaces.

  20. Low Energy Dissipation Nano Device Research

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yu, Jenny

    2015-03-01

    The development of research on energy dissipation has been rapid in energy efficient area. Nano-material power FET is operated as an RF power amplifier, the transport is ballistic, noise is limited and power dissipation is minimized. The goal is Green-save energy by developing the Graphene and carbon nantube microwave and high performance devices. Higher performing RF amplifiers can have multiple impacts on broadly field, for example communication equipment, (such as mobile phone and RADAR); higher power density and lower power dissipation will improve spectral efficiency which translates into higher system level bandwidth and capacity for communications equipment. Thus, fundamental studies of power handling capabilities of new RF (nano)technologies can have broad, sweeping impact. Because it is critical to maximizing the power handling ability of grephene and carbon nanotube FET, the initial task focuses on measuring and understanding the mechanism of electrical breakdown. We aim specifically to determine how the breakdown voltage in graphene and nanotubes is related to the source-drain spacing, electrode material and thickness, and substrate, and thus develop reliable statistics on the breakdown mechanism and probability.

  1. A large area nano-gap interdigitated electrode array on a polymer substrate as a disposable nano-biosensor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shim, Joon S.; Rust, Michael J.; Ahn, Chong H.

    2013-03-01

    A low-cost nano-gap interdigitated electrode array (IDA) on a polymer substrate has been developed to realize a disposable nano-biosensor for biochemical clinical analysis. Utilizing the common instruments for optical lithography, nano-scale features were fabricated on a thermoplastic polymer to produce an electrochemical nano-biosensor in a disposable format. The IDA was realized on a 3-inch cyclo-olefin copolymer wafer, which illustrates the utility of our fabrication technique as a large-area nanofabrication process for a polymer using low temperature processes. In order to demonstrate the use of the sensor for lab-on-a-chip applications, the developed IDA was integrated with a microfluidic channel and applied for the electrochemical detection of poly-aminophenol with 10-8 M detection limit. The results indicate the developed fabrication technique is suitable for the inexpensive mass fabrication of highly sensitive nano-biosensors for disposable applications.

  2. Nano-encapsulation of fish oil in nano-liposomes and its application in fortification of yogurt.

    PubMed

    Ghorbanzade, Tahere; Jafari, Seid Mahdi; Akhavan, Sahar; Hadavi, Roxana

    2017-02-01

    Fish oils have many dietary benefits, but due to their strong odors and rapid deterioration, their application in food formulations is limited. For these reasons, nano-liposome was used to nano-encapsulate fish oil in this study and encapsulated fish oil was utilized in fortifying yogurt. Physicochemical properties of produced yogurt including pH, acidity, syneresis, fatty acid composition, peroxide value as well as sensory tests were investigated during three weeks storage at 4°C. Nano-liposome encapsulation resulted in a significant reduction in acidity, syneresis and peroxide value. The results of gas chromatography analyses revealed that after 21days storage, yogurt fortified with nano-encapsulated fish oil had a higher DHA and EPA contents than yogurt containing free fish oil. Overall, the results of this study indicates that adding nano-encapsulated fish oil into yogurt gave closer characteristics to control sample in terms of sensory characteristics than yogurt fortified with free fish oil.

  3. Structural evolution of Ag-Cu nano-alloys confined between AlN nano-layers upon fast heating.

    PubMed

    Janczak-Rusch, J; Chiodi, M; Cancellieri, C; Moszner, F; Hauert, R; Pigozzi, G; Jeurgens, L P H

    2015-11-14

    The structural evolution of a Ag-Cu/AlN nano-multilayer (NML), as prepared by magnetron-sputtering on a α-Al2O3 substrate, was monitored during fast heating by real-time in situ XRD analysis (at the synchrotron), as well as by ex situ microstructural analysis using SEM, XPS and in-house XRD. The as-deposited NML is constituted of alternating nano-layers (thickness ≈ 10 nm) of a chemically inert AlN barrier and a eutectic Ag-Cu(40at%) nano-alloy. The nano-alloy in the as-deposited state is composed of a fcc matrix of Ag nano-grains (≈6 nm), which are supersaturated by Cu, and some smaller embedded Cu rich nano-grains (≈4 nm). Heating up to 265 °C activates segregation of Cu out of the supersaturated Ag nano-grains phase, thus initiating phase separation. At T > 265 °C, the phase-separated Cu metal partially migrates to the top NML surface, thereby relaxing thermally-accumulated compressive stresses in the confined alloy nano-layers and facilitating grain coarsening of (still confined) phase-separated nano-crystallites. Further heating and annealing up to 420 °C results in complete phase separation, forming extended Ag and Cu domains with well-defined coherent Ag/AlN interfaces. The observed outflow of Cu well below the eutectic melting point of the bulk Ag-Cu alloy might provide new pathways for designing low-temperature nano-structured brazing materials.

  4. Nano-composites for water remediation: a review.

    PubMed

    Tesh, Sarah J; Scott, Thomas B

    2014-09-17

    As global populations continue to increase, the pressure on water supplies will inevitably intensify. Consequently the international need for more efficient and cost effective water remediation technologies will also rise. The introduction of nano-technology into the industry may represent a significant advancement and zero-valent iron nano-particles (INPs) have been thoroughly studied for potential remediation applications. However, the application of water dispersed INP suspensions is limited and somewhat contentious on the grounds of safety, whilst INP reaction mechanisms, transport properties and ecotoxicity are areas still under investigation. Theoretically, the development of nano-composites containing INPs to overcome these issues provides the logical next step for developing nano-materials that are better suited to wide application across the water industry. This review provides an overview of the range of static, bulk nano-composites containing INPs being developed, whilst highlighting the limitations of individual solutions, overall classes of technology, and lack of comparative testing for nano-composites. The review discusses what further developments are needed to optimize nano-composite water remediation systems to subsequently achieve commercial maturity.

  5. Nano-Satellite Secondary Spacecraft on Deep Space Missions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Klesh, Andrew T.; Castillo-Rogez, Julie C.

    2012-01-01

    NanoSat technology has opened Earth orbit to extremely low-cost science missions through a common interface that provides greater launch accessibility. They have also been used on interplanetary missions, but these missions have used one-off components and architectures so that the return on investment has been limited. A natural question is the role that CubeSat-derived NanoSats could play to increase the science return of deep space missions. We do not consider single instrument nano-satellites as likely to complete entire Discovery-class missions alone,but believe that nano-satellites could augment larger missions to significantly increase science return. The key advantages offered by these mini-spacecrafts over previous planetary probes is the common availability of advanced subsystems that open the door to a large variety of science experiments, including new guidance, navigation and control capabilities. In this paper, multiple NanoSat science applications are investigated, primarily for high risk/high return science areas. We also address the significant challenges and questions that remain as obstacles to the use of nano-satellites in deep space missions. Finally, we provide some thoughts on a development roadmap toward interplanetary usage of NanoSpacecraft.

  6. Characterization of individual nano-objects with nanoprojectile-SIMS

    PubMed Central

    Liang, C.-K.; Verkhoturov, S. V.; Bisrat, Y.; Dikler, S.; DeBord, J. D.; Fernandez-Lima, F. A.; Schweikert, E. A.; Della-Negra, S.

    2013-01-01

    Secondary ion mass spectrometry (SIMS) applied in the event-by-event bombardment/detection mode is uniquely suited for the characterization of individual nano-objects. In this approach, nano-objects are examined one-by-one, allowing for the detection of variations in composition. The validity of the analysis depends upon the ability to physically isolate the nano-objects on a chemically inert support. This requirement can be realized by deposition of the nano-objects on a Nano-Assisted Laser Desorption/Ionization (NALDI™) plate. The featured nanostructured surface provides a support where nano-objects can be isolated if the deposition is performed at a proper concentration. We demonstrate the characterization of individual nano-objects on a NALDI™ plate for two different types of nanometric bacteriophages: Qβ and M13. Scanning electron microscope (SEM) images verified that the integrity of the phages is preserved on the NALDI™ substrate. Mass spectrometric data show secondary ions from the phages are identified and resolved from those from the underlying substrate. PMID:24163487

  7. Nano-Satellite Secondary Spacecraft on Deep Space Missions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Klesh, Andrew T.; Castillo-Rogez, Julie C.

    2012-01-01

    NanoSat technology has opened Earth orbit to extremely low-cost science missions through a common interface that provides greater launch accessibility. They have also been used on interplanetary missions, but these missions have used one-off components and architectures so that the return on investment has been limited. A natural question is the role that CubeSat-derived NanoSats could play to increase the science return of deep space missions. We do not consider single instrument nano-satellites as likely to complete entire Discovery-class missions alone,but believe that nano-satellites could augment larger missions to significantly increase science return. The key advantages offered by these mini-spacecrafts over previous planetary probes is the common availability of advanced subsystems that open the door to a large variety of science experiments, including new guidance, navigation and control capabilities. In this paper, multiple NanoSat science applications are investigated, primarily for high risk/high return science areas. We also address the significant challenges and questions that remain as obstacles to the use of nano-satellites in deep space missions. Finally, we provide some thoughts on a development roadmap toward interplanetary usage of NanoSpacecraft.

  8. Preparation and application of functionalized nano drug carriers.

    PubMed

    Gong, Rudong; Chen, Gaimin

    2016-05-01

    Targeting at category memory characteristics and preparation methods of functionalized nano drugs, preparation technology of functionalized nano drug carriers is studied, and then important role of functionalized nano drug carrier in preparation of medicine is studied. Carry out the relevant literature search with computer, change limited language in the paper to Chinese and necessarily remove repetitive studies. After first review of 1260 retrieved literature, it can be found that nano drug is with accurate quantity, relatively good targeting, specificity and absorbency. Necessary research of nano drug carriers can prevent and treat disease to a certain extent. Preparation of functionalized nanocarrier is simple and convenient, which can improve frequency of use of nano preparation technology and provide better development space for medical use. Therefore, nanocarriers should be combined with drugs with relatively strong specificity in clinics, in order to be able to conduct effective research on nanometer intelligent drug, effectively promote long-term development of nano biotechnology, and then provide favorable, reliable basis for clinical diagnosis and treatment.

  9. Current HPLC Methods for Assay of Nano Drug Delivery Systems.

    PubMed

    Tekkeli, Serife Evrim Kepekci; Kiziltas, Mustafa Volkan

    2017-01-01

    In nano drug formulations the mechanism of release is a critical process to recognize controlled and targeted drug delivery systems. In order to gain high bioavailability and specificity from the drug to reach its therapeutic goal, the active substance must be loaded into the nanoparticles efficiently. Therefore, the amount in biological fluids or tissues and the remaining amount in nano carriers are very important parameters to understand the potential of the nano drug delivery systems. For this aim, suitable and validated quantitation methods are required to determine released drug concentrations from nano pharmaceutical formulations. HPLC (High Performance Liquid Chromatography) is one of the most common techniques used for determination of released drug content out of nano drug formulations, in different physical conditions, over different periods of time. Since there are many types of HPLC methods depending on detector and column types, it is a challenge for the researchers to choose a suitable method that is simple, fast and validated HPLC techniques for their nano drug delivery systems. This review's goal is to compare HPLC methods that are currently used in different nano drug delivery systems in order to provide detailed and useful information for researchers. Copyright© Bentham Science Publishers; For any queries, please email at epub@benthamscience.org.

  10. Nano-patterning and single electron tunnelling using STM

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hu, Xiaoming; Sarid, D.; von Blanckenhagen, P.

    1999-06-01

    A scanning tunnelling microscope with a gold tip was used to create clusters and form nano-dots, lines and corrals on a clean stepped Si(111) surface by applying a series of bias pulses to the tip-sample tunnelling junction. Nano-dots with diameters as small as a few nm can be realized. By decreasing the distances between nano-dots, it is possible to create continuous nano-lines of a few nm wide and over a few hundred nm long, which can be used as connections between micro- and nano-electronic components. A nano-corral of about 40 nm in diameter formed by many Au dots of a few nm in diameter each was also created on the Si(111) surface. Single electron tunnelling effects through nano-dots were studied and it was found that `Coulomb staircases' can be observed in the I-V (current-voltage) curve at room temperature through an Au tip-Au cluster-Si substrate double junction system.

  11. Sub-Diffraction Nano Manipulation Using STED AFM

    PubMed Central

    Chacko, Jenu Varghese; Canale, Claudio; Harke, Benjamin; Diaspro, Alberto

    2013-01-01

    In the last two decades, nano manipulation has been recognized as a potential tool of scientific interest especially in nanotechnology and nano-robotics. Contemporary optical microscopy (super resolution) techniques have also reached the nanometer scale resolution to visualize this and hence a combination of super resolution aided nano manipulation ineluctably gives a new perspective to the scenario. Here we demonstrate how specificity and rapid determination of structures provided by stimulated emission depletion (STED) microscope can aid another microscopic tool with capability of mechanical manoeuvring, like an atomic force microscope (AFM) to get topological information or to target nano scaled materials. We also give proof of principle on how high-resolution real time visualization can improve nano manipulation capability within a dense sample, and how STED-AFM is an optimal combination for this job. With these evidences, this article points to future precise nano dissections and maybe even to a nano-snooker game with an AFM tip and fluorospheres. PMID:23799123

  12. Effects of nano-fluid and surfaces with nano structure on the increase of CHF

    SciTech Connect

    Kim, Seontae; Kim, Hyung Dae; Kim, Hyungmo; Ahn, Ho Seon; Jo, Hangjin; Kim, Joonwon; Kim, Moo Hwan

    2010-05-15

    Critical heat flux (CHF) has necessitated inconvenient compromises between economy and safety in most industries related to thermal systems. Recent development of nanotechnology has enabled synthesis of nano-sized particles and development of new heat transfer fluids with suspended nano-sized particles, i.e., nanofluids. When nanofluids were used in boiling heat transfer cooling, anomalous increase of CHF was reported. Subsequently, nanoparticle deposition on the boiling surface was revealed to contribute to CHF enhancement. Research on surface characteristics determined that three major characteristics affect CHF: wettability, liquid spreadability and multi-scale geometry. We fabricated artificially modified surfaces with arrays of octagonal micro-posts, or ZnO nanorods, or both, and measured their performance in enhancing CHF. The presence of three major characteristics enhanced CHF most. (author)

  13. The Nano-Micro Interface: Bridging the Micro and Nano Worlds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fecht, Hans-Jörg; Werner, Matthias

    2004-12-01

    Two exciting worlds of science and technology - the nano and micro dimensions. The former is a booming new field of research, the latter the established size range for electronics, and for mutual technological benefit and future commercialization, suitable junctions need to be found. Functional nanostructures such as DNA computers, sensors, neural interfaces, nanooptics or molecular electronics need to be wired to their 'bigger' surroundings. Coming from the opposite direction, microelectronics have experienced an unprecedented miniaturization drive in the last decade, pushing ever further down through the micro size scale towards submicron circuitry. Bringing these two worlds together is a new interdisciplinary challenge for scientists and engineers alike - recognized and substantially funded by the European Commission and other major project initiators worldwide. This book offers a wide range of information from technologies to materials and devices as well as from research to administrative know-how collected by the editors from renowned key members of the nano/micro community.

  14. The Nano-Micro Interface: Bridging the Micro and Nano Worlds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fecht, Hans-Jörg; Werner, Matthias

    2003-09-01

    Two exciting worlds of science and technology - the nano and micro dimensions. The former is a booming new field of research, the latter the established size range for electronics, and for mutual technological benefit and future commercialization, suitable junctions need to be found. Functional nanostructures such as DNA computers, sensors, neural interfaces, nanooptics or molecular electronics need to be wired to their 'bigger' surroundings. Coming from the opposite direction, microelectronics have experienced an unprecedented miniaturization drive in the last decade, pushing ever further down through the micro size scale towards submicron circuitry. Bringing these two worlds together is a new interdisciplinary challenge for scientists and engineers alike - recognized and substantially funded by the European Commission and other major project initiators worldwide. This book offers a wide range of information from technologies to materials and devices as well as from research to administrative know-how collected by the editors from renowned key members of the nano/micro community.

  15. Shaping functional nano-objects by 3D confined supramolecular assembly.

    PubMed

    Deng, Renhua; Liang, Fuxin; Li, Weikun; Liu, Shanqin; Liang, Ruijing; Cai, Mingle; Yang, Zhenzhong; Zhu, Jintao

    2013-12-20

    Nano-objects are generated through 3D confined supramolecular assembly, followed by a sequential disintegration by rupturing the hydrogen bonding. The shape of the nano-objects is tunable, ranging from nano-disc, nano-cup, to nano-toroid. The nano-objects are pH-responsive. Functional materials for example inorganic or metal nanoparticles are easily complexed onto the external surface, to extend both composition and microstructure of the nano-objects. Copyright © 2013 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  16. Synergy among binary (MWNT, SLG) nano-carbons in polymer nano-composites: a Raman study.

    PubMed

    Xu, Peng; Loomis, James; King, Ben; Panchapakesan, Balaji

    2012-08-10

    Load transfer and mechanical strength of reinforced polymers are fundamental to developing advanced composites. This paper demonstrates enhanced load transfer and mechanical strength due to synergistic effects in binary mixtures of nano-carbon/polymer composites. Different compositional mixtures (always 1 wt% total) of multi-wall carbon nanotubes (MWNTs) and single-layer graphene (SLG) were mixed in polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS), and effects on load transfer and mechanical strength were studied using Raman spectroscopy. Significant shifts in the G-bands were observed both in tension and compression for single as well as binary nano-carbon counterparts in polymer composites. Small amounts of MWNT₀.₁ dispersed in SLG₀.₉=PDMS samples (subscripts represent weight percentage) reversed the sign of the Raman wavenumbers from positive to negative values demonstrating reversal of lattice stress. A wavenumber change from 10 cm⁻¹ in compression to 10 cm⁻¹ in tension, and an increase in elastic modulus of ~103% was observed for MWNT₀.₁SLG₀.₉=PDMS with applied uniaxial tension. Extensive scanning electron microscopy revealed the bridging of MWNT between two graphene plates in polymer composites. Mixing small amounts of MWNTs in SLG/PDMS eliminated the previously reported compressive deformation of SLG and significantly enhanced load transfer and mechanical strength of composites in tension. The orientation order of MWNT with application of uniaxial tensile strain directly affected the shift in Raman wavenumbers (2D-band and G-band) and load transfer. It is observed that the cooperative behavior of binary nano-carbons in polymer composites resulted in enhanced load transfer and mechanical strength. Such binary compositions could be fundamental to developing advanced composites such as nano-carbon based mixed dimensional systems.

  17. Understanding and Quantifying the Reactivity of Energetic NanoParticles and NanoComposites

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-01-05

    Aerosol Synthesis and Reactivity of Thin Oxide Shell Aluminum Nanoparticles via Fluorocarboxylic Acid Functional Coating, Particle & Particle...Received Paper G. Feng,, S. Chowdhury, G. Jian,, M.R Zachariah. Modified Aerosol Routes to Core-Shell Nano-Energetic Materials Synthesis , Materials...Hydride (- AlH3 ) was also conducted. In this study the ignition characteristics were determined through the use of two separate modified T-jump

  18. Synergy among binary (MWNT, SLG) nano-carbons in polymer nano-composites: a Raman study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Peng; Loomis, James; King, Ben; Panchapakesan, Balaji

    2012-08-01

    Load transfer and mechanical strength of reinforced polymers are fundamental to developing advanced composites. This paper demonstrates enhanced load transfer and mechanical strength due to synergistic effects in binary mixtures of nano-carbon/polymer composites. Different compositional mixtures (always 1 wt% total) of multi-wall carbon nanotubes (MWNTs) and single-layer graphene (SLG) were mixed in polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS), and effects on load transfer and mechanical strength were studied using Raman spectroscopy. Significant shifts in the G-bands were observed both in tension and compression for single as well as binary nano-carbon counterparts in polymer composites. Small amounts of MWNT0.1 dispersed in SLG0.9/PDMS samples (subscripts represent weight percentage) reversed the sign of the Raman wavenumbers from positive to negative values demonstrating reversal of lattice stress. A wavenumber change from 10 cm-1 in compression to 10 cm-1 in tension, and an increase in elastic modulus of ˜103% was observed for MWNT0.1SLG0.9/PDMS with applied uniaxial tension. Extensive scanning electron microscopy revealed the bridging of MWNT between two graphene plates in polymer composites. Mixing small amounts of MWNTs in SLG/PDMS eliminated the previously reported compressive deformation of SLG and significantly enhanced load transfer and mechanical strength of composites in tension. The orientation order of MWNT with application of uniaxial tensile strain directly affected the shift in Raman wavenumbers (2D-band and G-band) and load transfer. It is observed that the cooperative behavior of binary nano-carbons in polymer composites resulted in enhanced load transfer and mechanical strength. Such binary compositions could be fundamental to developing advanced composites such as nano-carbon based mixed dimensional systems.

  19. An overview to nano-scale analytical techniques: Nano-liquid chromatography and capillary electrochromatography.

    PubMed

    Fanali, Salvatore

    2017-08-01

    Nano-liquid chromatography (nano-LC) and CEC are microfluidic techniques mainly used for analytical purposes. They have been applied to the separation and analysis of a large number of compounds, e.g., peptides, proteins, drugs, enantiomers, antibiotics, pesticides, nutraceutical, etc. Analytes separation is carried out into capillaries containing selected stationary phase. The mobile phase is moved either by a pump (nano-LC) or by an EOF, respectively. The two tools can offer some advantages over conventional techniques, e.g., high selectivity, separation efficiency, resolution, short analysis time and consumption of low volumes of mobile phase. Flow rates in the range 50-800 nL/min are usually applied. The low flow rate reduces the chromatographic dilution increasing the mass sensitivity. Special attention must be paid in avoiding peak dispersion selecting the appropriate detector, injector and tube connection. Finally due to the low flow rate these microfluidic techniques can be easily coupled with mass spectrometry. © 2017 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  20. Knotting of linear DNA in nano-slits and nano-channels: a numerical study.

    PubMed

    Orlandini, Enzo; Micheletti, Cristian

    2013-03-01

    The amount and type of self-entanglement of DNA filaments is significantly affected by spatial confinement, which is ubiquitous in biological systems. Motivated by recent advancements in single DNA molecule experiments based on nanofluidic devices and by the introduction of algorithms capable of detecting knots in open chains, we investigate numerically the entanglement of linear, open DNA chains confined inside nano-slits. The results regard the abundance, type, and length of occurring knots and are compared with recent findings for DNA inside nano-channels. In both cases, the width of the confining region, D, spans the 30 nm-1 μm range and the confined DNA chains are 1-4 μm long. It is found that the knotting probability is maximum for slit widths in the 70-100 nm range. However, over the considered DNA contour lengths, the maximum incidence of knots remains below 20%, while for channel confinement it tops 50%. Further differences of the entanglement are seen for the average contour length of the knotted region, which drops significantly below D ~100 nm for channel-confinement, while it stays approximately constant for slit-like confinement. These properties ought to reverberate in different kinetic properties of linear DNA depending on confinement and could be detectable experimentally or exploitable in nano-technological applications.

  1. Surface/Fluid Interactions in Micro and Nano-Channels

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-05-15

    05-2007 Final 01-01-2004 - 31-12-2006 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER SURFACE/FLUID INTERACTIONS IN MICRO & NANO -CHANNELS 5b. GRANT NUMBER...NOTES 14. ABSTRACT This research project investigates the dynamics of surface/fluid interactions that occur in micro - and nano -cnanneis. For example...ANSI Std. Z39.18 SURFACE/FLUID INTERACTIONS IN MICRO & NANO -CHANNELS AFSOR FA9950-04-0106 Carl D. Meinhart Department of Mechanical Engineering

  2. Flexible Micro-and Nano-Patterning Tools for Photonics

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2016-03-10

    AFRL-AFOSR-VA-TR-2016-0125 Flexible Micro - and Nano -Patterning Tools for Photonics Henry Smith LUMARRAY INC. 15 WARD ST. SOMERVILLE, MA 21434228 03...14-01-2015 4.  TITLE AND SUBTITLE Flexible Micro - and Nano -Patterning Tools for Photonics - OSD STTR Phase 2 5a.  CONTRACT NUMBER FA9550-12-C-0082 5b...2016https://livelink.ebs.afrl.af.mil/livelink/llisapi.dll DISTRIBUTION A: Distribution approved for public release. FLEXIBLE MICRO - AND NANO - PATTERNING

  3. Micro and Nano-mediated 3D Cardiac Tissue Engineering

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-10-01

    Micro and Nano -mediated 3D Cardiac Tissue Engineering PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR:  Rashid Bashir, PhD, PI  Brian Cunningham, PhD, co-PI  Hyunjoon...SUBTITLE Micro and Nano -mediated 3D Cardiac Tissue Engineering 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER W81XWH-08-1-0701 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT...Optical  Characterization (Cunningham) Mechano‐Biology  of Cardiac Cells (Saif) Micro / Nano ‐ Medicated  Cardiac Tissue  Engineering Dr. M. Gibb, Head of

  4. Method of producing nano-scaled inorganic platelets

    DOEpatents

    Zhamu, Aruna; Jang, Bor Z.

    2012-11-13

    The present invention provides a method of exfoliating a layered material (e.g., transition metal dichalcogenide) to produce nano-scaled platelets having a thickness smaller than 100 nm, typically smaller than 10 nm. The method comprises (a) dispersing particles of a non-graphite laminar compound in a liquid medium containing therein a surfactant or dispersing agent to obtain a stable suspension or slurry; and (b) exposing the suspension or slurry to ultrasonic waves at an energy level for a sufficient length of time to produce separated nano-scaled platelets. The nano-scaled platelets are candidate reinforcement fillers for polymer nanocomposites.

  5. Steroid Nanocrystals Prepared Using the Nano Spray Dryer B-90

    PubMed Central

    Baba, Koichi; Nishida, Kohji

    2013-01-01

    The Nano Spray Dryer B-90 offers a new, simple, and alternative approach for the production of drug nanocrystals. In this study, the preparation of steroid nanocrystals using the Nano Spray Dryer B-90 was demonstrated. The particle size was controlled by selecting the mesh aperture size. Submicrometer steroid particles in powder form were successfully obtained. These nanoparticles were confirmed to have a crystal structure using powder X-ray diffraction pattern analysis. Since drug nanocrystals have recently been considered as a novel type of drug formulation for drug delivery systems, this study will be useful for nano-medical applications. PMID:24300400

  6. Carbon nanotube-based nano-fluidic devices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Masoud Seyyed Fakhrabadi, Mir; Rastgoo, Abbas; Taghi Ahmadian, Mohammad

    2014-02-01

    The paper investigates the influences of fluid flow on static and dynamic behaviours of electrostatically actuated carbon nanotubes (CNTs) using strain gradient theory. This nonclassical elasticity theory is applied in order to obtain more accurate results possessing higher agreement with the experimental data. The effects of various fluid parameters such as the fluid viscosity, velocity, mass and temperature on the pull-in properties of the CNTs with two cantilever and doubly clamped boundary conditions are studied. The results reveal the applicability of the proposed nano-system as nano-valves or nano-fluidic sensors.

  7. Nano bubbles in liquid of a noble-gas mixture.

    PubMed

    Yamamoto, Takenori; Ohnishi, Shuhei

    2010-02-07

    Large-scale molecular dynamics (MD) simulations with over one million atoms are used to investigate nano bubbles in Ar-Ne liquid. The simulations demonstrate cavitations in the stretched liquid, and bubble creation and collapse. We find that a small cavity created in the stretched liquid spontaneously transforms into a nano bubble with the homogeneous vapor region. The equilibrium spherical bubble of 11.4 nm in radius is obtained after the long-time MD run. The surface tension of the nano bubble is found to be larger than that of the flat surface.

  8. Nano active materials for lithium-ion batteries.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yonggang; Li, Huiqiao; He, Ping; Hosono, Eiji; Zhou, Haoshen

    2010-08-01

    Lithium-ion batteries have been widely used to power portable electronic devices, such as mobile phones, digital cameras, laptops etc., and are considered to be a promising choice of power system for the next generation of electric vehicles, which are central to the reduction of CO(2) emissions arising from transport. In order to increase energy and power density to meet the future challenges of energy storage, many efforts have been made to develop nano active materials for lithium-ion batteries. Herein we review the advantages of nano active materials for lithium-ion batteries. Moreover, some disadvantages of nano active materials and their solutions are also discussed.

  9. Nano active materials for lithium-ion batteries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Yonggang; Li, Huiqiao; He, Ping; Hosono, Eiji; Zhou, Haoshen

    2010-08-01

    Lithium-ion batteries have been widely used to power portable electronic devices, such as mobile phones, digital cameras, laptops etc., and are considered to be a promising choice of power system for the next generation of electric vehicles, which are central to the reduction of CO2 emissions arising from transport. In order to increase energy and power density to meet the future challenges of energy storage, many efforts have been made to develop nano active materials for lithium-ion batteries. Herein we review the advantages of nano active materials for lithium-ion batteries. Moreover, some disadvantages of nano active materials and their solutions are also discussed.

  10. Tunable nano dispersed LC based patch antenna

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Karim, Afaque; Yadav, Harsh; Ahmad, Shakeb

    2015-06-01

    This paper presents Patch antenna based on pure and Nano dispersed liquid crystals (LCs) for earth and space applications. Patch antenna are one of the most attractive antennas designed for RF frequency. To fulfill the demand of modern antenna i.e. tunability, a design of LC based patch antenna with optimum frequency of 15 GHz is investigated. In this design, NLC and ZnO doped NLC were used as a dielectric substrate. Its dielectric permittivity was controlled by biasing voltage. The dielectric properties of the 4-Cyano-4' -pentylbiphenyl (5CB) nematic liquid crystal (NLC), and NLC doped with Zinc oxide (ZnO) Nanoparticles was studied at room temperature. The concentration of doping material was 0.5% by w.t. in ZnO. Results shows that dielectric parameters are strong function of frequency and applied bias voltage. Moreover, Using doped NLC as dielectric substrate one gets more tunability or shift in resonant frequency in the proposed geometry.

  11. Novel nano bearings constructed by physical adsorption

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Yongbin

    2015-09-01

    The paper proposes a novel nano bearing formed by the physical adsorption of the confined fluid to the solid wall. The bearing is formed between two parallel smooth solid plane walls sliding against one another, where conventional hydrodynamic lubrication theory predicted no lubricating effect. In this bearing, the stationary solid wall is divided into two subzones which respectively have different interaction strengths with the lubricating fluid. It leads to different physical adsorption and slip properties of the lubricating fluid at the stationary solid wall respectively in these two subzones. It was found that a significant load-carrying capacity of the bearing can be generated for low lubricating film thicknesses, because of the strong physical adsorption and non-continuum effects of the lubricating film.

  12. Nano-encapsulated PCM via Pickering Emulsification

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Xuezhen; Zhang, Lecheng; Yu, Yi-Hsien; Jia, Lisi; Sam Mannan, M.; Chen, Ying; Cheng, Zhengdong

    2015-08-01

    We designed a two-step Pickering emulsification procedure to create nano-encapsulated phase changing materials (NEPCMs) using a method whose simplicity and low energy consumption suggest promise for scale-up and mass production. Surface-modified amphiphilic zirconium phosphate (ZrP) platelets were fabricated as the Pickering emulsifiers, nonadecane was chosen as the core phase change material (PCM), and polystyrene, the shell material. The resultant capsules were submicron in size with remarkable uniformity in size distribution, which has rarely been reported. Differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) characterization showed that the capsulation efficiency of NEPCMs, and they were found to be thermal stable, as characterized by the DSC data for the sample after 200 thermal cycles. NEPCMs exhibit superior mechanical stability and mobility when compared with the well-developed micro-encapsulated phase change materials (MEPCMs). NEPCMs find useful applications in thermal management, including micro-channel coolants; solar energy storage media; building temperature regulators; and thermal transfer fabrics.

  13. Synchronization of spin torque nano-oscillators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Turtle, James; Buono, Pietro-Luciano; Palacios, Antonio; Dabrowski, Christine; In, Visarath; Longhini, Patrick

    2017-04-01

    Synchronization of spin torque nano-oscillators (STNOs) has been a subject of extensive research as various groups try to harness the collective power of STNOs to produce a strong enough microwave signal at the nanoscale. Achieving synchronization has proven to be, however, rather difficult for even small arrays while in larger ones the task of synchronization has eluded theorists and experimentalists altogether. In this work we solve the synchronization problem, analytically and computationally, for networks of STNOs connected in series. The procedure is valid for networks of arbitrary size and it is readily extendable to other network topologies. These results should help guide future experiments and, eventually, lead to the design and fabrication of a nanoscale microwave signal generator.

  14. Hierarchical Micro-Nano Coatings by Painting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kirveslahti, Anna; Korhonen, Tuulia; Suvanto, Mika; Pakkanen, Tapani A.

    2016-03-01

    In this paper, the wettability properties of coatings with hierarchical surface structures and low surface energy were studied. Hierarchically structured coatings were produced by using hydrophobic fumed silica nanoparticles and polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE) microparticles as additives in polyester (PES) and polyvinyldifluoride (PVDF). These particles created hierarchical micro-nano structures on the paint surfaces and lowered or supported the already low surface energy of the paint. Two standard application techniques for paint application were employed and the presented coatings are suitable for mass production and use in large surface areas. By regulating the particle concentrations, it was possible to modify wettability properties gradually. Highly hydrophobic surfaces were achieved with the highest contact angle of 165∘. Dynamic contact angle measurements were carried out for a set of selected samples and low hysteresis was obtained. Produced coatings possessed long lasting durability in the air and in underwater conditions.

  15. Nano-ADEPT Aeroloads Wind Tunnel Test

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, Brandon; Cassell, A.; Yount, B.; Kruger, C.; Brivkalns, C.; Makino, A.; Zarchi, K.; McDaniel, R.; Venkatapathy, E.; Swanson, G.

    2015-01-01

    Analysis completed since the test suggests that all test objectives were met– This claim will be verified in the coming weeks as the data is examined further– Final disposition of test objective success will be documented in a final reportsubmitted to NASA stakeholders (early August 2015)– Expect conference paper in early 2016• Data products and observations made during testing will be used to refinecomputational models of Nano-ADEPT• Carbon fabric relaxed from its pre-test state during the test– System-level tolerance for relaxation will be driven by destination-specific andmission-specific aerothermal and aerodynamic requirements• Bonus experiment of asymmetric shape demonstrates that an asymmetricdeployable blunt body can be used to generate measureable lift– With a strut actuation system and a robust GN&C algorithm, this effect could beused to steer a blunt body at hypersonic speeds to aid precision landing

  16. NGC1068: a nano-diamond factory?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rouan, D.; Gratadour, D.; Clénet, Y.; Gendron, E.

    2004-12-01

    We present recent Adaptive Optics images in Ks, L and M bands of NGC 1068, obtained with NAOS-CONICA on VLT. The very peculiar structure of four parallel elongated nodules unveiled by deconvolution underlines a strong correlation with the radio jet which appears as a major actor to shape the NLR. We the Ks-L and L-M color ratio reveal dust at a very high temperature (about 500-600 K) up to 70 pc north of the nucleus. We explore several mechanisms to explain the color temperature. We favour the transient heating of Very Small Grains as the most efficient process to produce high color temperature. Since nano-diamonds are preferentially formed in UV field or in shocks, and that they reproduce nicely the observed color temperature, we propose that they indeed represent a major component of the VSG population.

  17. Nano-Fabricated Gratings for Electrons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gronniger, Glen; Savas, Tim; Batelaan, Herman

    2005-05-01

    We explore the lower energy range for electron diffraction from a Au and Pd coated nano-fabricated transmission grating. This has the promise of providing a route to the lowest energy electron interferometer currently possible. Starting at 1000 eV we get well resolved diffraction peaks. As 60 eV electron energy is approached the diffraction peaks broaden to the extent that they are hard to resolve. We attribute this to an effective loss of transverse coherence length. We show that the broadening and coherence loss can be modeled with a path integral calculation where the essential ingredient is a random spatially varying potential with a typical length scale of 200 nm. The effect of other coatings, such as Ni, is investigated and indicates that lower electron energies can be reached. Work supported by NSF, DOD-EPSCoR.

  18. Photosynthetic Machineries in Nano-Systems

    PubMed Central

    Nagy, László; Magyar, Melinda; Szabó, Tibor; Hajdu, Kata; Giotta, Livia; Dorogi, Márta; Milano, Francesco

    2014-01-01

    Photosynthetic reaction centres are membrane-spanning proteins, found in several classes of autotroph organisms, where a photoinduced charge separation and stabilization takes place with a quantum efficiency close to unity. The protein remains stable and fully functional also when extracted and purified in detergents thereby biotechnological applications are possible, for example, assembling it in nano-structures or in optoelectronic systems. Several types of bionanocomposite materials have been assembled by using reaction centres and different carrier matrices for different purposes in the field of light energy conversion (e.g., photovoltaics) or biosensing (e.g., for specific detection of pesticides). In this review we will summarize the current status of knowledge, the kinds of applications available and the difficulties to be overcome in the different applications. We will also show possible research directions for the close future in this specific field. PMID:24678673

  19. Transdermal drug delivery: from micro to nano

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pegoraro, Carla; MacNeil, Sheila; Battaglia, Giuseppe

    2012-03-01

    Delivery across skin offers many advantages compared to oral or intravenous routes of drug administration. Skin however is highly impermeable to most molecules on the basis of size, hydrophilicity, lipophilicity and charge. For this reason it is often necessary to temporarily alter the barrier properties of skin for effective administration. This can be done by applying chemical enhancers, which alter the lipid structure of the top layer of skin (the stratum corneum, SC), by applying external forces such as electric currents and ultrasounds, by bypassing the stratum corneum via minimally invasive microneedles or by using nano-delivery vehicles that can cross and deliver their payload to the deeper layers of skin. Here we present a critical summary of the latest technologies used to increase transdermal delivery.

  20. Novel nano bearings constructed by physical adsorption

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Yongbin

    2015-01-01

    The paper proposes a novel nano bearing formed by the physical adsorption of the confined fluid to the solid wall. The bearing is formed between two parallel smooth solid plane walls sliding against one another, where conventional hydrodynamic lubrication theory predicted no lubricating effect. In this bearing, the stationary solid wall is divided into two subzones which respectively have different interaction strengths with the lubricating fluid. It leads to different physical adsorption and slip properties of the lubricating fluid at the stationary solid wall respectively in these two subzones. It was found that a significant load-carrying capacity of the bearing can be generated for low lubricating film thicknesses, because of the strong physical adsorption and non-continuum effects of the lubricating film. PMID:26412488

  1. Block copolymer structures in nano-pores

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pinna, Marco; Guo, Xiaohu; Zvelindovsky, Andrei

    2010-03-01

    We present results of coarse-grained computer modelling of block copolymer systems in cylindrical and spherical nanopores on Cell Dynamics Simulation. We study both cylindrical and spherical pores and systematically investigate structures formed by lamellar, cylinders and spherical block copolymer systems for various pore radii and affinity of block copolymer blocks to the pore walls. The obtained structures include: standing lamellae and cylinders, ``onions,'' cylinder ``knitting balls,'' ``golf-ball,'' layered spherical, ``virus''-like and mixed morphologies with T-junctions and U-type defects [1]. Kinetics of the structure formation and the differences with planar films are discussed. Our simulations suggest that novel porous nano-containers can be formed by confining block copolymers in pores of different geometries [1,2]. [4pt] [1] M. Pinna, X. Guo, A.V. Zvelindovsky, Polymer 49, 2797 (2008).[0pt] [2] M. Pinna, X. Guo, A.V. Zvelindovsky, J. Chem. Phys. 131, 214902 (2009).

  2. Stoffenmanager Nano version 1.0: a web-based tool for risk prioritization of airborne manufactured nano objects.

    PubMed

    Van Duuren-Stuurman, Birgit; Vink, Stefan R; Verbist, Koen J M; Heussen, Henri G A; Brouwer, Derk H; Kroese, Dinant E D; Van Niftrik, Maikel F J; Tielemans, Erik; Fransman, Wouter

    2012-07-01

    Stoffenmanager Nano (version 1.0) is a risk-banding tool developed for employers and employees to prioritize health risks occurring as a result of exposure to manufactured nano objects (MNOs) for a broad range of worker scenarios and to assist implementation of control measures to reduce exposure levels. In order to prioritize the health risks, the Stoffenmanager Nano combines the available hazard information of a substance with a qualitative estimate of potential for inhalation exposure. The development of the Stoffenmanager Nano started with a review of the available literature on control banding. Input parameters for the hazard assessment of MNOs were selected based on the availability of these parameters in, for instance, Safety Data Sheets or product information sheets. The conceptual exposure model described by Schneider et al. (2011) was used as the starting point for exposure banding. During the development of the Stoffenmanager Nano tool, the precautionary principle was applied to deal with the uncertainty regarding hazard and exposure assessment of MNOs. Subsequently, the model was converted into an online tool (http://nano.stoffenmanager.nl), tested, and reviewed by a number of companies. In this paper, we describe the Stoffenmanager Nano. This tool offers a practical approach for risk prioritization in exposure situations where quantitative risk assessment is currently not possible. Updates of this first version are anticipated as more data become available in the future.

  3. Effects of micro-nano and non micro-nano MSWI ashes addition on MSW anaerobic digestion.

    PubMed

    Lo, H M; Chiu, H Y; Lo, S W; Lo, F C

    2012-06-01

    This study aims at investigating the effects of micro-nano municipal solid waste (MSW) incinerator (MSWI) fly ash (FA) and bottom ash (BA) on the MSW anaerobic digestion. Results showed that suitable micro-nano and non micro-nano MSWI ashes addition (FA/MSW 3, 6, 18 and 30 g g(-1) VS and BA/MSW 12, 36, 60 and 120 g g(-1) VS) could enhance the biogas production compared to the control. It was particularly found to have the highest biogas production at the micro-nano MSWI BA/MSW ratio of 36 g g(-1) VS (∼193 mL g(-1) VS MSW, ∼3.5 times to the control). Micro-nano MSWI FA and BA added bioreactors had the higher biogas production than the corresponding non micro-nano MSWI FA and BA added ones. Suitable MSWI ashes addition could improve the biogas production due to the released metals levels suitable for the MSW anaerobic digestion particularly found in the micro-nano added bioreactors.

  4. A novel diamond micro-/nano-machining process for the generation of hierarchical micro-/nano-structures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhu, Zhiwei; To, Suet; Ehmann, Kornel F.; Xiao, Gaobo; Zhu, Wule

    2016-03-01

    A new mechanical micro-/nano-machining process that combines rotary spatial vibrations (RSV) of a diamond tool and the servo motions of the workpiece is proposed and applied for the generation of multi-tier hierarchical micro-/nano-structures. In the proposed micro-/nano-machining system, the servo motion, as the primary cutting motion generated by a slow-tool-servo, is adopted for the fine generation of the primary surfaces with complex shapes. The RSV, as the tertiary cutting operation, is superimposed on the secondary fundamental rotary cutting motion to construct secondary nano-structures on the primary surface. Since the RSV system generally works at much higher frequencies and motion resolution than the primary and secondary motions, it leads to an inherent hierarchical cutting architecture. To investigate the machining performance, complex micro-/nano-structures were generated and explored by both numerical simulations and actual cutting tests. Rotary vibrations of the diamond tool at a constant rotational distance offer an inherent constant cutting velocity, leading to the ability for the generation of homogeneous micro-/nano-structures with fixed amplitudes and frequencies of the vibrations, even over large-scale surfaces. Furthermore, by deliberately combining the non-resonant three-axial vibrations and the servo motion, the generation of a variety of micro-/nano-structures with complex shapes and with flexibly tunable feature sizes can be achieved.

  5. Effect of micro/nano-particles in cavitation erosion.

    PubMed

    Li, Y J; Chen, H S; Chen, D R; Wang, J D

    2009-02-01

    The tests in de-ionized water with micro/nano CeO2 particles are carried out to study the effect of the micro/nano particles in inception of cavitation erosion. The existence of micro/nano particles is found to be the requisite factor and the degree of cavitation erosion is related to the sizes of the particles. Particles in the micro/nano scale may act as the transporters of micro bubbles to keep or get close to the solid surface together and the pressure fluctuation induced by the surface roughness causes the collapse of bubbles and erosion of the surface. Discrete phase models are employed to simulation the moving tracks of the particles. The sizes of the particles affect their capabilities of keeping and getting close to the surface. The effect of the particles of a certain size in cavitation erosion is determined by the combinational action of the two.

  6. Synthesis of mesoporous nano-hydroxyapatite by using zwitterions surfactant

    EPA Science Inventory

    Mesoporous nano-hydroxyapatite (mn-HAP) was successfully synthesized via a novel micelle-templating method using lauryl dimethylaminoacetic acid as zwitterionic surfactant. The systematic use of such a surfactant in combination with microwave energy inputenables the precise contr...

  7. Electrochemical micro/nano-machining: principles and practices.

    PubMed

    Zhan, Dongping; Han, Lianhuan; Zhang, Jie; He, Quanfeng; Tian, Zhao-Wu; Tian, Zhong-Qun

    2017-03-06

    Micro/nano-machining (MNM) is becoming the cutting-edge of high-tech manufacturing because of the increasing industrial demand for supersmooth surfaces and functional three-dimensional micro/nano-structures (3D-MNS) in ultra-large scale integrated circuits, microelectromechanical systems, miniaturized total analysis systems, precision optics, and so on. Taking advantage of no tool wear, no surface stress, environmental friendliness, simple operation, and low cost, electrochemical micro/nano-machining (EC-MNM) has an irreplaceable role in MNM. This comprehensive review presents the state-of-art of EC-MNM techniques for direct writing, surface planarization and polishing, and 3D-MNS fabrications. The key point of EC-MNM is to confine electrochemical reactions at the micro/nano-meter scale. This review will bring together various solutions to "confined reaction" ranging from electrochemical principles through technical characteristics to relevant applications.

  8. Using nano-chitosan for harvesting microalga Nannochloropsis sp.

    PubMed

    Farid, Mohammad Sadegh; Shariati, Ahmad; Badakhshan, Amir; Anvaripour, Bagher

    2013-03-01

    In this study, chitosan and nano-chitosan were used as flocculants agents for harvesting microalga Nannochloropsis sp. chitosan was modified to nano-chitosan by crosslinking with sodium tripolyphosphate. The effects of type and dosage of flocculants and the pH of the culture were investigated on biomass recovery. Optimum dosages for both bio-flocculants were found. The results showed that the dosage of flocculant consumption decreases by 40% and biomass recovery increases by 9% when nano-chitosan instead of chitosan is used as flocculant agent. Also, the recycled water from the harvesting process was reused which increases the growth of microalgae by about 7%. Finally, the cost analysis of harvesting process showed the feasibility of using nano-chitosan as flocculation agent. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Nano-structured titanium coating for improving biological performance.

    PubMed

    Xie, Youtao; Yang, Fei; Zheng, Xuebin; Ding, Chuanxian; Dai, Kerong; Huang, Liping

    2011-12-01

    Nano-structured titanium coating was obtained by alkali treating the vacuum plasma sprayed samples following hot water immersing for 24 h. The influences of the surface microstructure on the biological performance were studied. A canine model was applied for in vivo evaluation of the bone bonding ability of the coatings. The histological examination results demonstrate that new bone was formed more rapidly on the nano-structured coating implants and grew into the porosity than the as-sprayed one. After 4 weeks implantation, the nano-structured implants were found to appose directly to the surrounding bone while large lacunae could still be observed at the interface between the as-sprayed samples and bone. All these results indicate that a nano-structured surface on the porous titanium coating is favorable for bone bonding.

  10. National solar technology roadmap: Nano-architecture PV

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang, Yong

    2007-06-01

    This roadmap addresses nano-architecture solar cells that use nanowires, nanotubes, and nanocrystals, including single-component, core-shell, embedded nanowires or nanocrystals either as absorbers or transporters.

  11. Potential Nano-Enabled Environmental Applications for Radionuclides

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    This document provides information about nanotechnology materials and processes that may be applicable when cleaning up radioactively contaminated sites or materials, and presents a snapshot of lessons learned in nano-science and engineering.

  12. Nano-Diamonds in Chondritic Interplanetary Dust Particles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dai, Z. R.; Joswiak, D. J.; Bradley, J. P.; Brownlee, D. E.; Hill, H. G. M.

    2001-01-01

    In-situ acid etching of ultramicrotomed thin sections has lead to the identification of nano-diamonds in interplanetary dust particles. Additional information is contained in the original extended abstract.

  13. "Nano" Scale Biosignatures and the Search for Extraterrestrial Life

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Oehler, D. Z.; Robert, F.; Meibom, A.; Mostefaoui, S.; Selo, M.; Walter, M. R.; Sugitani, K.; Allwood, A.; Mimura, K.; Gibson, E. K.

    2008-01-01

    A critical step in the search for remnants of potential life forms on other planets lies in our ability to recognize indigenous fragments of ancient microbes preserved in some of Earth's oldest rocks. To this end, we are building a database of nano-scale chemical and morphological characteristics of some of Earth's oldest organic microfossils. We are primarily using the new technology of Nano-Secondary ion mass spectrometry (NanoSIMS) which provides in-situ, nano-scale elemental analysis of trace quantities of organic residues. The initial step was to characterize element composition of well-preserved, organic microfossils from the late Proterozoic (0.8 Ga) Bitter Springs Formation of Australia. Results from that work provide morphologic detail and nitrogen/carbon ratios that appear to reflect the well-established biological origin of these 0.8 Ga fossils.

  14. Creating micro and nano structures in polymers by moulding.

    PubMed

    Hoyle, R

    2007-09-01

    Moulding micro and nano surface features and discrete micro components in polymers reproducibly and in large volumes is now possible. The factors involved in successful micro injection moulding operations, including component size, aspect ratio and surface area, are examined.

  15. Near-field NanoThermoMechanical memory

    SciTech Connect

    Elzouka, Mahmoud; Ndao, Sidy

    2014-12-15

    In this letter, we introduce the concept of NanoThermoMechanical Memory. Unlike electronic memory, a NanoThermoMechanical memory device uses heat instead of electricity to record, store, and recover data. Memory function is achieved through the coupling of near-field thermal radiation and thermal expansion resulting in negative differential thermal resistance and thermal latching. Here, we demonstrate theoretically via numerical modeling the concept of near-field thermal radiation enabled negative differential thermal resistance that achieves bistable states. Design and implementation of a practical silicon based NanoThermoMechanical memory device are proposed along with a study of its dynamic response under write/read cycles. With more than 50% of the world's energy losses being in the form of heat along with the ever increasing need to develop computer technologies which can operate in harsh environments (e.g., very high temperatures), NanoThermoMechanical memory and logic devices may hold the answer.

  16. Nano-JASMINE: current status and data output

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kobayashi, Yukiyasu; Yano, Taihei; Gouda, Naoteru; Niwa, Yoshito; Murooka, Jyunpei; Yamada, Yoshiyuki; Sako, Nobutada; Nakasuka, Shin'ichi

    2010-07-01

    The current status of the Nano-JASMINE project is reported. Nano-JASMINE is a very small-sized (50 cm cubic form) satellite that is expected to carry out astrometric observations of nearby bright stars. The satellite will determine distances of more than 8000 stars by performing annual parallax measurements, which is the only direct method to measure the distance of an astronomical object. The mission is required to continue for more than two years to obtain reliable annual parallax measurements. In addition, Nano-JASMINE will serve as a preliminary to the main JASMINE mission. We expect that Nano-JASMINE will be launched in August 2011 from the Alcantara Space Center in Brazil using the Cyclone-4 rocket.

  17. Visualization and processing of images in nano-resolution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vozenilek, Vit; Pour, Tomas

    2017-02-01

    The paper aims to apply the methods of image processing which are widely used in Earth remote sensing for processing and visualization of images in nano-resolution because most of these images are currently analyzed only by an expert researcher without proper statistical background. Nano-resolution level may range from a resolution in picometres to the resolution of a light microscope that may be up to about 200 nanometers. Images in nano-resolution play an essential role in physics, medicine, and chemistry. Three case studies demonstrate different image visualization and image analysis approaches for different scales at the nano-resolution level. The results of case studies prove the suitability and applicability of Earth remote sensing methods for image visualization and processing for the nanoresolution level. It even opens new dimensions for spatial analysis at such an extreme spatial detail.

  18. A planar nano-positioner driven by shear piezoelectric actuators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dong, W.; Li, H.; Du, Z.

    2016-08-01

    A planar nano-positioner driven by the shear piezoelectric actuators is proposed in this paper based on inertial sliding theory. The performance of the nano-positioner actuated by different driving signals is analyzed and discussed, e.g. the resolution and the average velocity which depend on the frequency, the amplitude and the wave form of the driving curves. Based on the proposed design, a prototype system of the nano-positioner is developed by using a capacitive sensor as the measurement device. The experiment results show that the proposed nano-positioner is capable of outputting two-dimensional motions within an area of 10 mm × 10 mm at a maximum speed of 0.25 mm/s. The corresponding resolution can be as small as 21 nm. The methodology outlined in this paper can be employed and extended to shear piezoelectric actuators involved in high precision positioning systems.

  19. Plasmonic nano-antenna a-Si:H solar cell.

    PubMed

    Di Vece, Marcel; Kuang, Yinghuan; van Duren, Stephan N F; Charry, Jamie M; van Dijk, Lourens; Schropp, Ruud E I

    2012-12-03

    In this work the effects of plasmonics, nano-focusing, and orthogonalization of carrier and photon pathways are simultaneously explored by measuring the photocurrents in an elongated nano-scale solar cell with a silver nanoneedle inside. The silver nanoneedles formed the support of a conformally grown hydrogenated amorphous silicon (a-Si:H) n-i-p junction around it. A spherical morphology of the solar cell functions as a nano-lens, focusing incoming light directly on the silver nanoneedle. We found that plasmonics, geometric optics, and Fresnel reflections affect the nanostructured solar cell performance, depending strongly on light incidence angle and polarization. This provides valuable insight in solar cell processes in which novel concepts such as plasmonics, elongated nanostructures, and nano-lenses are used.

  20. MULTIFUNCTIONAL NANO-BIO MATERIALS WITHIN CELLULAR MACHINERY.

    PubMed

    Rozhkova, E A; Ulasov, I V; Kim, D-H; Dimitrijevic, N M; Novosad, V; Bader, S D; Lesniak, M S; Rajh, T

    2011-08-01

    Functional nanoscale materials that possess specific physical or chemical properties can leverage energy transduction in vivo. Once these materials integrate with biomolecules they combine physical properties of inorganic material and the biorecognition capabilities of bio-organic moieties. Such nano-bio hybrids can be interfaced with living cells, the elementary functional units of life. These nano-bio systems are capable of bio-manipulation or actuation via altering intracellular biochemical pathways. Thus, nano-bio conjugates are appealing for a wide range of applications from the life sciences and nanomedicine to catalysis and clean energy production. Here we highlight recent progress in our efforts to develop smart nano-bio hybrid materials, and to study their performance within cellular machinery under application of external stimuli, such as light or magnetic fields.

  1. Nano-fiber diameters as liquid concentration sensors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chyad, Radhi M.; Mat Jafri, Mohd Zubir; Ibrahim, Kamarulazizi

    2013-05-01

    Manufacturing technologies of nano-fiber sensors offer a number of approved properties of optical fiber sensors utilized in various sensory applications. The nano-fiber sensor is utilized to sense the difference in the concentration of D-glucose in double-distilled deionized water and to measure the refractive index (RI) of a sugar solution. Our proposed method exhibited satisfactory capability based on bimolecular interactions in the biological system. The response of the nano-fiber sensors indicates a different kind of interaction among various groups of AAs. These results can be interpreted in terms of solute-solute and solute-solvent interactions and the structure making or breaking ability of solutes in the given solution. This study utilized spectra photonics to measure the transmission of light through different concentrations of sugar solution, employing cell cumber and nano-optical fibers as sensors.

  2. Fabrication of micro/nano-structures by electrohydrodynamic jet technique

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Dazhi; Zhao, Xiaojun; Lin, Yigao; Ren, Tongqun; Liang, Junsheng; Liu, Chong; Wang, Liding

    2017-08-01

    Electrohydrodynamic jet (E-Jet) is an approach to the fabrication of micro/nano-structures by the use of electrical forces. In this process, the liquid is subjected to electrical and mechanical forces to form a liquid jet, which is further disintegrated into droplets. The major advantage of the E-Jet technique is that the sizes of the jet formed can be at the nanoscale far smaller than the nozzle size, which can realize high printing resolution with less risk of nozzle blockage. The E-Jet technique, which mainly includes E-Jet deposition and E-Jet printing, has a wide range of applications in the fabrication of micro/nano-structures for micro/nano-electromechanical system devices. This technique is also considered a micro/nano-fabrication method with a great potential for commercial use. This study mainly reviews the E-Jet deposition/printing fundamentals, fabrication process, and applications.

  3. Nano-cone resistive memory for ultralow power operation.

    PubMed

    Kim, Sungjun; Jung, Sunghun; Kim, Min-Hwi; Kim, Tae-Hyeon; Bang, Suhyun; Cho, Seongjae; Park, Byung-Gook

    2017-03-24

    SiN x -based nano-structure resistive memory is fabricated by fully silicon CMOS compatible process integration including particularly designed anisotropic etching for the construction of a nano-cone silicon bottom electrode (BE). Bipolar resistive switching characteristics have significantly reduced switching current and voltage and are demonstrated in a nano-cone BE structure, as compared with those in a flat BE one. We have verified by systematic device simulations that the main cause of reduction in the performance parameters is the high electric field being more effectively concentrated at the tip of the cone-shaped BE. The greatly improved nonlinearity of the nano-cone resistive memory cell will be beneficial in the ultra-high-density crossbar array.

  4. Synthesis of mesoporous nano-hydroxyapatite by using zwitterions surfactant

    EPA Science Inventory

    Mesoporous nano-hydroxyapatite (mn-HAP) was successfully synthesized via a novel micelle-templating method using lauryl dimethylaminoacetic acid as zwitterionic surfactant. The systematic use of such a surfactant in combination with microwave energy inputenables the precise contr...

  5. Nano-cone resistive memory for ultralow power operation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Sungjun; Jung, Sunghun; Kim, Min-Hwi; Kim, Tae-Hyeon; Bang, Suhyung; Cho, Seongjae; Park, Byung-Gook

    2017-03-01

    SiN x -based nano-structure resistive memory is fabricated by fully silicon CMOS compatible process integration including particularly designed anisotropic etching for the construction of a nano-cone silicon bottom electrode (BE). Bipolar resistive switching characteristics have significantly reduced switching current and voltage and are demonstrated in a nano-cone BE structure, as compared with those in a flat BE one. We have verified by systematic device simulations that the main cause of reduction in the performance parameters is the high electric field being more effectively concentrated at the tip of the cone-shaped BE. The greatly improved nonlinearity of the nano-cone resistive memory cell will be beneficial in the ultra-high-density crossbar array.

  6. Near-field NanoThermoMechanical memory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Elzouka, Mahmoud; Ndao, Sidy

    2014-12-01

    In this letter, we introduce the concept of NanoThermoMechanical Memory. Unlike electronic memory, a NanoThermoMechanical memory device uses heat instead of electricity to record, store, and recover data. Memory function is achieved through the coupling of near-field thermal radiation and thermal expansion resulting in negative differential thermal resistance and thermal latching. Here, we demonstrate theoretically via numerical modeling the concept of near-field thermal radiation enabled negative differential thermal resistance that achieves bistable states. Design and implementation of a practical silicon based NanoThermoMechanical memory device are proposed along with a study of its dynamic response under write/read cycles. With more than 50% of the world's energy losses being in the form of heat along with the ever increasing need to develop computer technologies which can operate in harsh environments (e.g., very high temperatures), NanoThermoMechanical memory and logic devices may hold the answer.

  7. Engineered nano particles: Nature, behavior, and effect on the environment.

    PubMed

    Goswami, Linee; Kim, Ki-Hyun; Deep, Akash; Das, Pallabi; Bhattacharya, Satya Sundar; Kumar, Sandeep; Adelodun, Adedeji A

    2017-03-13

    Increased application of engineered nano particles (ENPs) in production of various appliances and consumer items is increasing their presence in the natural environment. Although a wide variety of nano particles (NPs) are ubiquitously dispersed in ecosystems, risk assessment guidelines to describe their ageing, direct exposure, and long-term accumulation characteristics are poorly developed. In this review, we describe what is known about the life cycle of ENPs and their impact on natural systems and examine if there is a cohesive relationship between their transformation processes and bio-accessibility in various food chains. Different environmental stressors influence the fate of these particles in the environment. Composition of solid media, pore size, solution chemistry, mineral composition, presence of natural organic matter, and fluid velocity are some environmental stressors that influence the transformation, transport, and mobility of nano particles. Transformed nano particles can reduce cell viability, growth and morphology, enhance oxidative stress, and damage DNA in living organisms.

  8. Probabilistic environmental risk assessment of five nanomaterials (nano-TiO2, nano-Ag, nano-ZnO, CNT, and fullerenes).

    PubMed

    Coll, Claudia; Notter, Dominic; Gottschalk, Fadri; Sun, Tianyin; Som, Claudia; Nowack, Bernd

    2016-01-01

    The environmental risks of five engineered nanomaterials (nano-TiO2, nano-Ag, nano-ZnO, CNT, and fullerenes) were quantified in water, soils, and sediments using probabilistic Species Sensitivity Distributions (pSSDs) and probabilistic predicted environmental concentrations (PECs). For water and soil, enough ecotoxicological endpoints were found for a full risk characterization (between 17 and 73 data points per nanomaterial for water and between 4 and 20 for soil) whereas for sediments, the data availability was not sufficient. Predicted No Effect Concentrations (PNECs) were obtained from the pSSD and used to calculate risk characterization ratios (PEC/PNEC). For most materials and environmental compartments, exposure and effect concentrations were separated by several orders of magnitude. Nano-ZnO in freshwaters and nano-TiO2 in soils were the combinations where the risk characterization ratio was closest to one, meaning that these are compartment/ENM combinations to be studied in more depth with the highest priority. The probabilistic risk quantification allows us to consider the large variability of observed effects in different ecotoxicological studies and the uncertainty in modeled exposure concentrations. The risk characterization results presented in this work allows for a more focused investigation of environmental risks of nanomaterials by consideration of material/compartment combinations where the highest probability for effects with predicted environmental concentrations is likely.

  9. Hydrodynamics of Macromolecular and Nano-Composite Materials

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2005-08-05

    polymer solutions or melts, biaxial liquid crystal polymers or suspension flows of biaxial nano-particles; (b). studies of nematodynamics as well as...performance material; (c). development of an effective theory to characterize the effective material properties for the nano- suspension and/or liquid crystal...polymer; (d). studies of coupled flow and magnetic and electric field assisted rocessing for liquid crystal polymers as well as suspension flows

  10. UV Nano Lights - Nonlinear Quantum Dot-Plasmon Coupling

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2016-06-20

    AFRL-AFOSR-JP-TR-2016-0072 UV Nano- Lights - Nonlinear Quantum Dot-Plasmon Coupling Eric Waclawik QUEENSLAND UNIVERSITY OF TECHNOLOGY Final Report 06...Final 3.  DATES COVERED (From - To)  03 Feb 2014 to 02 Feb 2016 4.  TITLE AND SUBTITLE UV Nano- Lights - Nonlinear Quantum Dot-Plasmon Coupling 5a...coupled to gold (Au) nanoparticles, were examined both theoretically and experimentally. This work was performed to establish if confined light fields

  11. Nano-plasmonic antennas in the near infrared regime.

    PubMed

    Berkovitch, N; Ginzburg, P; Orenstein, M

    2012-02-22

    Plasmonic nano-antennas constitute a central research topic in current science and engineering with an enormous variety of potential applications. Here we review the recent progress in the niche of plasmonic nano-antennas operating in the near infrared part of the spectrum which is important for a variety of applications. Tuning of the resonance into the near infrared regime is emphasized in the perspectives of fabrication, measurement, modeling, and analytical treatments, concentrating on the vast recent achievements in these areas.

  12. Simple route for nano-hydroxyapatite properties expansion.

    PubMed

    Rojas, L; Olmedo, H; García-Piñeres, A J; Silveira, C; Tasic, L; Fraga, F; Montero, M L

    2015-10-20

    Simple surface modification of nano-hydroxyapatite, through acid-basic reactions, allows expanding the properties of this material. Introduction of organic groups such as hydrophobic alkyl chains, carboxylic acid, and amide or amine basic groups on the hydroxyapatite surface systematically change the polarity, surface area, and reactivity of hydroxyapatite without modifying its phase. Physical and chemical properties of the new derivative particles were analyzed. The biocompatibility of modified Nano-Hap on Raw 264.7 cells was also assessed.

  13. Nano-ionomer tooth repair in pediatric dentistry.

    PubMed

    Killian, Constance Marie; Croll, Theodore P

    2010-01-01

    Resin-modified glass ionomer cements have shown their reliability and durability in various applications in young dental patients. The latest generation of these materials, the nano-ionomer, has been introduced, and its improved properties make it an effective alternative for restoring primary and permanent teeth. The purpose of this paper was to describe the properties of the nano-ionomer, provide indications for its use, and illustrate the technique for applying the material. Representative clinical cases are presented.

  14. Relaxed structural property of Al nano-cluster: Theory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Diwan, Bhoopendra Dhar; Khaskalam, Amit

    2013-06-01

    In this paper we have studied the thermodynamic property of metallic Aluminium (Al) nano-clusters with relaxed structure by model approach. The relaxed cohesive energy is higher than that of the un-relaxed one due to relaxation process decreasing the total energy. It is found that cohesive energy of nano-clauster depends on the size of the clusters and increase with increasing the cluster size.

  15. The heterogeneity of spermatogonia is revealed by their topology and expression of marker proteins including the germ cell-specific proteins Nanos2 and Nanos3.

    PubMed

    Suzuki, Hitomi; Sada, Aiko; Yoshida, Shosei; Saga, Yumiko

    2009-12-15

    Spermatogonial stem cells (SSCs) reside in undifferentiated type-A spermatogonia and contribute to continuous spermatogenesis by maintaining the balance between self-renewal and differentiation, thereby meeting the biological demand in the testis. Spermatogonia have to date been characterized principally through their morphology, but we herein report the detailed characterization of undifferentiated spermatogonia in mouse testes based on their gene expression profiles in combination with topological features. The detection of the germ cell-specific proteins Nanos2 and Nanos3 as markers of spermatogonia has enabled the clear dissection of complex populations of these cells as Nanos2 was recently shown to be involved in the maintenance of stem cells. Nanos2 is found to be almost exclusively expressed in A(s) to A(pr) cells, whereas Nanos3 is detectable in most undifferentiated spermatogonia (A(s) to A(al)) and differentiating A(1) spermatogonia. In our present study, we find that A(s) and A(pr) can be basically classified into three categories: (1) GFRalpha1(+)Nanos2(+)Nanos3(-)Ngn3(-), (2) GFRalpha1(+)Nanos2(+)Nanos3(+)Ngn3(-), and (3) GFRalpha1(-)Nanos2(+/-)Nanos3(+)Ngn3(+). We propose that the first of these groups is most likely to include the stem cell population and that Nanos3 may function in transit amplifying cells.

  16. Investigation of nanoSQUID designs for practical applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bechstein, Sylke; Köhn, Claudia; Drung, Dietmar; Storm, Jan-Hendrik; Kieler, Oliver; Morosh, Viacheslav; Schurig, Thomas

    2017-03-01

    In the recent past, considerable effort was spent on the development of superconducting quantum interference device (SQUID) designs for magnetic detection in the micro- and nano-scale. Where these novel nanoSQUIDs were mostly of a simple format, real applications require more elaborate designs including auxiliary components such as coils and transformers. Therefore, we have developed SQUID designs based on a Nb/HfTi/Nb thin-film technology which offers both, nano-patterning and waferscale manufacturing of complex design structures. Employing e-beam lithography and chemical-mechanical polishing process steps, the area of the superconductor-normal conductor-superconductor Josephson junctions of these nanoSQUIDs has been varied between 150 nm × 150 nm and 200 nm × 200 nm, whereas the thickness of the barrier is about 20 nm. In order to enable real practical applications, nanoSQUID designs with a number of implemented auxiliary components and design features, such as gradiometric feedback loops, gradiometric transformers, and rf filters, have been carefully investigated. This paper combines a summary of recent achievements with a presentation of detailed measurements of the device performance in magnetic fields of up to a few tens of millitesla. This investigation is intended to pave the way for future practical complex nanoSQUID tools.

  17. Nano forsterite biocomposites for medical applications: Mechanical properties and bioactivity.

    PubMed

    Furtos, Gabriel; Naghiu, Marieta-Adriana; Declercq, Heidi; Gorea, Maria; Prejmerean, Cristina; Pana, Ovidiu; Tomoaia-Cotisel, Maria

    2016-10-01

    The aim of the present study was to obtain and to investigate nano forsterite and nano forsterite biocomposites for biomedical application. New self-curing forsterite biocomposites were obtained by mixing nano forsterite powder (5, 15, 30, 50, 70 wt %) with 2,2-bis[4-(2-hydroxy-3-methacryloyloxypropoxy)-phenyl]propane (bis-GMA) and triethyleneglycol dimethacrylate (TEGDMA) monomers. The new nano forsterite biocomposites were investigated for mechanical properties: compressive strength (CS) (143-147.12 MPa), compressive modulus (CM) (1.67-2.75 GPa), diametral tensile strength (DTS) (27.33-31.55 MPa), flexural strength (FS) (59.47-83.20 MPa) and flexural modulus (FM) (2.05-8.60 GPa). Increases of CS, DTS, FS with increasing amount of forsterite were observed up to 50 wt %. The highest CM and FM values were registered for 70 wt % and a direct correlation between the forsterite volume fraction (%) was observed. SEM micrographs revealed the morphology of surface of fractured biocomposites after CS test. XPS indicated that these biocomposites promoted the hydroxyapatite formation on their surface immersed in simulated body fluid (SBF). AFM images showed that the growth of the hydroxyapatite layer occurs with a preferred orientation on the surface of forsterite biocomposites after immersion in SBF. Incorporation of nano forsterite in the polymer matrix (bis-GMA/TEGDMA) did show osteoblast adhesion and proliferation was improved on nano forsterite biocomposites. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Biomed Mater Res Part B: Appl Biomater, 104B: 1290-1301, 2016.

  18. Effect of micro/nano silica particle feeding for mice.

    PubMed

    So, Soo Jeong; Jang, Ik Soon; Han, Chong Soo

    2008-10-01

    The toxic effect of nano and micron sized silica particle was studied on mice. The size of the nano and micron sized silica were approximately 30 nm and approximately 30 microm, respectively. The mice, Balb/c (20 approximately 30 g, white) and C57BL/6J (black) for the experiment were classified to normal, nano sized silica (1%), and micron sized silica (1%) dieted groups. After feeding for 10 weeks, the blood was tested biochemically and hematologically. There was no difference between the groups in the tested items except ALT (Alanine Aminotransferase). The nano sized silica particle dieted group showed higher value of ALT than normal and micron sized silica dieted groups. H&E staining of the liver of the nano sized particle dieted group indicated some fatty liver pattern while the contents of Si in the livers of the groups were almost the same. From the results, it was suggested that the nano sized silica particle had a toxic effect on the liver even though there was no significant different on the health in total fed amount of 140 g silica/kg mouse.

  19. Designing super selectivity in multivalent nano-particle binding.

    PubMed

    Martinez-Veracoechea, Francisco J; Frenkel, Daan

    2011-07-05

    A key challenge in nano-science is to design ligand-coated nano-particles that can bind selectively to surfaces that display the cognate receptors above a threshold (surface) concentration. Nano-particles that bind monovalently to a target surface do not discriminate sharply between surfaces with high and low receptor coverage. In contrast, "multivalent" nano-particles that can bind to a larger number of ligands simultaneously, display regimes of "super selectivity" where the fraction of bound particles varies sharply with the receptor concentration. We present numerical simulations that show that multivalent nano-particles can be designed such that they approach the "on-off" binding behavior ideal for receptor-concentration selective targeting. We propose a simple analytical model that accounts for the super selective behavior of multivalent nano-particles. The model shows that the super selectivity is due to the fact that the number of distinct ligand-receptor binding arrangements increases in a highly nonlinear way with receptor coverage. Somewhat counterintuitively, our study shows that selectivity can be improved by making the individual ligand-receptor bonds weaker. We propose a simple rule of thumb to predict the conditions under which super selectivity can be achieved. We validate our model predictions against the Monte Carlo simulations.

  20. Application of Gaia Analysis Software AGIS to Nano-JASMINE

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yamada, Y.; Lammers, U.; Gouda, N.

    2011-07-01

    The core data reduction for the Nano-JASMINE mission is planned to be done with Gaia's Astrometric Global Iterative Solution (AGIS). Nano-JASMINE is an ultra small (35 kg) satellite for astrometry observations in Japan and Gaia is ESA's large (over 1000 kg) next-generation astrometry mission. The accuracy of Nano-JASMINE is about 3 mas, comparable to the Hipparcos mission, Gaia's predecessor some 20 years ago. It is challenging that such a small satellite can perform real scientific observations. The collaboration for sharing software started in 2007. In addition to similar design and operating principles of the two missions, this is possible thanks to the encapsulation of all Gaia-specific aspects of AGIS in a Parameter Database. Nano-JASMINE will be the test bench for the Gaia AGIS software. We present this idea in detail and the necessary practical steps to make AGIS work with Nano-JASMINE data. We also show the key mission parameters, goals, and status of the data reduction for the Nano-JASMINE.

  1. Micro/nano-fabrication technologies for cell biology

    PubMed Central

    Qian, Tongcheng

    2012-01-01

    Micro/nano-fabrication techniques, such as soft lithography and electrospinning, have been well-developed and widely applied in many research fields in the past decade. Due to the low costs and simple procedures, these techniques have become important and popular for biological studies. In this review, we focus on the studies integrating micro/nano-fabrication work to elucidate the molecular mechanism of signaling transduction in cell biology. We first describe different micro/nano-fabrication technologies, including techniques generating three-dimensional scaffolds for tissue engineering. We then introduce the application of these technologies in manipulating the physical or chemical micro/nano-environment to regulate the cellular behavior and response, such as cell life and death, differentiation, proliferation, and cell migration. Recent advancement in integrating the micro/nano-technologies and live cell imaging are also discussed. Finally, potential schemes in cell biology involving micro/nano-fabrication technologies are proposed to provide perspectives on the future research activities. PMID:20490938

  2. Modelling of nano-silica in cement paste

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rupasinghe, Madhuwanthi; Mendis, Priyan; Sofi, Massoud; Ngo, Tuan

    2013-08-01

    Recently published experimental evidence shows that nano-silica is a material that can be used to enhance the strength and durability characteristics of concrete. Engineered concrete at the nano-scale is achieved through the integration of nano-materials in suitable proportions and relevant mixing methods. Being a pozzolanic and reactive material along with nucleation effects and miniature particle size, nano-silica has been found to significantly improve the micro-structural characteristics of concrete making it denser and more uniform. The ongoing research work at the University of Melbourne is based on a novel modelling approach to further investigate the performance characteristics of nano-silica on cement paste at the micro-meter scale. The volumetric proportions of different phases present in concrete are computed considering hydration characteristics of cement and those of nanosilica. A Representative Volume Element (RVE) of the cement paste at micro scale is developed considering the hydrated gel as the matrix material while other phases present are integrated as randomly distributed spherical particles. Constitutive material models for these phases are assumed. The stress-strain relationship for the RVE is then generated using COMSOL Multiphysics software. The approach proposed in this paper is an initiation towards developing an acute and compressive model to predict the performance characteristics of nano-engineered concrete.

  3. The many faces of nano in newspaper reporting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boholm, Max; Boholm, Åsa

    2012-02-01

    The morpheme nano in languages such as Swedish and English is a constituent of many words. This article linguistically analyses the meaning potential of nano by focusing on word use in a Swedish newspaper corpus comprising 2,564 articles (1.6 million words) covering a 22-year period (1988-2010). Close to 400 word forms having nano as a constituent have been identified and analyzed. The results suggest that nano covers a broad and heterogeneous conceptual field: (i) as a prefix of the SI system; (ii) in relation to the scientific activities of nanoscience and nanotechnology, including their sub-processes and actors; and (iii) in relation to objects. The identified meanings of nano, besides the standard definition (i.e. `billionth part' in relation to SI units), are `operating at the nanometre level' in relation to activities and their actors and `nanometre sized' and `nanotechnological' in relation to objects; in addition, the less precise and non-technical meaning `very small' is identified. We discuss the implications of the findings for a hypothesis about media influence on public understanding of technology, suggesting that repeated findings in Europe and the USA of little self-reported understanding and knowledge of nanotechnology or nanoscience among the public make sense in light of the polysemy of nano reflected in its broad variety of verbal forms and usages.

  4. Second strain gradient elasticity of nano-objects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cordero, Nicolas M.; Forest, Samuel; Busso, Esteban P.

    2016-12-01

    Mindlin's second strain gradient continuum theory for isotropic linear elastic materials is used to model two different kinds of size-dependent surface effects observed in the mechanical behaviour of nano-objects. First, the existence of an initial higher order stress represented by Mindlin's cohesion parameter, b0, makes it possible to account for the relaxation behaviour of traction-free surfaces. Second, the higher order elastic moduli, ci, coupling the strain tensor and its second gradient are shown to significantly affect the apparent elastic properties of nano-beams and nano-films under uni-axial loading. These two effects are independent from each other and allow for separated identification of the corresponding material parameters. Analytical results are provided for the size-dependent apparent shear modulus of a nano-thin strip under shear. Finite element simulations are then performed to derive the dependence of the apparent Young modulus and Poisson ratio of nano-films with respect to their thickness, and to illustrate hole free surface relaxation in a periodic nano-porous material.

  5. Synthesis and characterization of monosodium urate (MSU) nano particles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tank, Nirali S.; Rathod, K. R.; Parekh, B. B.; Parikh, K. D.; Joshi, M. J.

    2016-05-01

    In Gout the deposition of crystals of Monosodium Urate (MSU) in various connective tissues and joints occurs, which is very painful with immflamation. The deposition likely to begin with nano particles form and expected to grow in to micro-paricles and hence it is important to synthesize and characrterize MSU nano-particles. The MSU nano particles were synthesized by wet chemical method using NaOH and uric acid (C5H4N4O3) and then characterized by powder XRD, TEM, FT-IR and thermal analysis. From the powder XRD the triclinic structure was found and 40 nm average particle size was estimated by using Scherrer's formula. From TEM the particle size was found to be in the range of 20 to 60 nm. The FT-IR spectrum for the MSU nano particles confirmed the presence of O-H stretching, N-H stretching, N-H rocking, C = O, C = C Enol or Keto and C = N vibrations. The thermal analysis was carried out from room temperature to 900°C. With comparison to the bulk MSU the thermal stability of MSU nano particles was slightly higher and 1.5 water molecules were found to be associated with MSU nano particles. Present results are compared with the bulk MSU.

  6. Naming it 'nano': Expert views on 'nano' terminology in informed consent forms of first-in-human nanomedicine trials.

    PubMed

    Satalkar, Priya; Elger, Bernice Simone; Shaw, David

    2016-04-01

    Obtaining valid informed consent (IC) can be challenging in first-in-human (FIH) trials in nanomedicine due to the complex interventions, the hype and hope concerning potential benefits, and fear of harms attributed to 'nano' particles. We describe and analyze the opinions of expert stakeholders involved in translational nanomedicine regarding explicit use of 'nano' terminology in IC documents. We draw on content analysis of 46 in-depth interviews with European and North American stakeholders. We received a spectrum of responses (reluctance, ambivalence, absolute insistence) on explicit mention of 'nano' in IC forms with underlying reasons. We conclude that consistent, clear and honest communication regarding the 'nano' dimension of investigational product is critical in IC forms of FIH trials.

  7. Control and Optimization of Coherence of a Nano-Sized Spin-Torque Microwave Oscillator for Military Nano-Electronics

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2008-12-01

    Recent discovery of the spin-torque effect (Slonczewski, 1996; Berger, 1996; Tsoi et al., 1998; Kiselev et al., 2003) in magnetic multilayers driven...which consists of a nano-scale metallic contact attached to a magnetic multilayer or a multilayered magnetic nano-pillar (Slavin and Tiberkevich...and is, in general, close to the ferromagnetic resonance ( FMR ) frequency 0ω of the “free” magnetic layer (upper blue layer in Fig.1). From the

  8. Mirror Metrology Using Nano-Probe Supports

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Robinson, David; Hong, Maoling; Byron, Glenn; McClelland, Ryan; Chan, Kai-Wing

    2012-01-01

    Thin, lightweight mirrors are needed for future x-ray space telescopes in order to increase x-ray collecting area while maintaining a reduced mass and volume capable of being launched on existing rockets. However, it is very difficult to determine the undistorted shape of such thin mirrors because the mounting of the mirror during measurement causes distortion. Traditional kinematic mounts have insufficient supports to control the distortion to measurable levels and prevent the mirror from vibrating during measurement. Over-constrained mounts (non-kinematic) result in an unknown force state causing mirror distortion that cannot be determined or analytically removed. In order to measure flexible mirrors, it is necessary to over-constrain the mirror. Over-constraint causes unknown distortions to be applied to the mirror. Even if a kinematic constraint system can be used, necessary imperfections in the kinematic assumption can lead to an unknown force state capable of distorting the mirror. Previously, thicker, stiffer, and heavier mirrors were used to achieve low optical figure distortion. These mirrors could be measured to an acceptable level of precision using traditional kinematic mounts. As lighter weight precision optics have developed, systems such as the whiffle tree or hydraulic supports have been used to provide additional mounting supports while maintaining the kinematic assumption. The purpose of this invention is to over-constrain a mirror for optical measurement without causing unacceptable or unknown distortions. The invention uses force gauges capable of measuring 1/10,000 of a Newton attached to nano-actuators to support a thin x-ray optic with known and controlled forces to allow for figure measurement and knowledge of the undeformed mirror figure. The mirror is hung from strings such that it is minimally distorted and in a known force state. However, the hanging mirror cannot be measured because it is both swinging and vibrating. In order to

  9. The nano-epsilon dot method for strain rate viscoelastic characterisation of soft biomaterials by spherical nano-indentation.

    PubMed

    Mattei, G; Gruca, G; Rijnveld, N; Ahluwalia, A

    2015-10-01

    Nano-indentation is widely used for probing the micromechanical properties of materials. Based on the indentation of surfaces using probes with a well-defined geometry, the elastic and viscoelastic constants of materials can be determined by relating indenter geometry and measured load and displacement to parameters which represent stress and deformation. Here we describe a method to derive the viscoelastic properties of soft hydrated materials at the micro-scale using constant strain rates and stress-free initial conditions. Using a new self-consistent definition of indentation stress and strain and corresponding unique depth-independent expression for indentation strain rate, the epsilon dot method, which is suitable for bulk compression testing, is transformed to nano-indentation. We demonstrate how two materials can be tested with a displacement controlled commercial nano-indentor using the nano-espilon dot method (nano-ε̇M) to give values of instantaneous and equilibrium elastic moduli and time constants with high precision. As samples are tested in stress-free initial conditions, the nano-ε̇M could be useful for characterising the micro-mechanical behaviour of soft materials such as hydrogels and biological tissues at cell length scales.

  10. Pressurized nano-liquid-junction interface for coupling capillary electrochromatography and nano-liquid chromatography with mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    D'Orazio, Giovanni; Fanali, Salvatore

    2013-11-22

    A new nano-liquid-junction interface for coupling both capillary electrochromatography (CEC) or nano-liquid chromatography (nano-LC) with mass spectrometry (MS) was studied. The interface was a small T piece of polymeric material where capillary column and tip capillary were positioned at 180° while the third exit (at 90°) was occupied by a capillary delivering a liquid-assisting spray ionization for CEC experiments or by the electrode for the high voltage spray for nano-LC. Experiments were carried out analyzing mixtures of some organophosphorus pesticides (OPPs) or anti-inflammatory and related acidic drugs with MS detection in positive or negative ion mode, respectively. Analyzed OPPs compounds were baseline resolved utilizing the novel interface in both nano-LC and CEC obtaining good sensitivity and repeatability. For CEC-MS, the limits of detection ranged between 0.03 and 6.80 μg/mL and the intra-day repeatability was RSD <3.8% and <13% for the retention times and peak areas, respectively. The interface was easy to handle and good reproducibility, between 2.5 and 3.5% for the retention time and <10% for the efficiencies, was obtained when the interface was installed by two different analysts. Furthermore, it could be used for both CEC and nano-LC. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Fabrication of nano-electrode arrays of free-standing carbon nanotubes on nano-patterned substrate by imprint method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chang, W. S.; Kim, J. W.; Choi, D. G.; Han, C. S.

    2011-01-01

    The synthesis of isolated carbon nanotubes with uniform outer diameters and ordered spacing over wafer-scale areas was investigated for fabrication of nano-electrode arrays on silicon wafers for field emission and sensor devices. Multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) were grown on TiN electrode layer with iron catalyst patterned by nano-imprint lithography (NIL), which allows the precise placement of individual CNTs on a substrate. The proposed techniques, including plasma-enhanced chemical vapor deposition (PECVD) and NIL, are simple, inexpensive, and reproducible methods for fabrication of nano-scale devices in large areas. The catalyst patterns were defined by an array of circles with 200 nm in diameter, and variable lengths of pitch. The nano-patterned master and Fe catalyst were observed with good pattern fidelity over a large area by atomic force microscope (AFM) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Nano-electrodes of MWCNTs had diameters ranging from 50 nm to 100 nm and lengths of about 300 nm. Field emission tests showed the reducing ignition voltage as the geometry of nanotube arrays was controlled by catalyst patterning. These results showed a wafer-scale approach to the control of the size, pitch, and position of nano-electrodes of nanotubes for various applications including electron field-emission sources, electrochemical probes, functionalized sensor elements, and so on.

  12. Comparative evaluation of hydroxyapatite and nano-bioglass in two forms of conventional micro- and nano-particles in repairing bone defects (an animal study).

    PubMed

    Nosouhian, Saied; Razavi, Mohammad; Jafari-Pozve, Nasim; Rismanchian, Mansour

    2015-01-01

    Many synthetic bone materials have been introduced for repairing bone defects. The aim of this study is to comparatively evaluate the efficacy of nano-hydroxyapatite (HA) and nano-bioglass bone materials with their traditional micro counterparts in repairing bone defects. In this prospective animal study, four healthy dogs were included. First to fourth premolars were extracted in each quadrant and five cavities in each quadrant were created using trephine. Sixteen cavities in each dog were filled by HA, nano-HA, bioglass, and nano-bioglass and four defects were left as the control group. All defects were covered by a nonrestorable membrane. Dogs were sacrificed after 15, 30, 45, and 60 days sequentially. All 20 samples were extracted by trephine #8 with a sufficient amount of surrounding bone. All specimens were investigated under an optical microscope and the percentage of total regenerated bone, lamellar, and woven bone were evaluated. Data analysis was carried out by SPSS Software ver. 15 and Mann-Whitney U-test (α =0.05). After 15 days, the bone formation percentage showed a significant difference between HA and nano-HA and between HA and bioglass (P < 0.001). The nano-HA group showed the highest rate of bone formation after 15 days. Nano-bioglass and bioglass and nano-HA and nano-bioglass groups represented a significant difference and nano-bioglass showed the highest rate of bone formation after 30 days (P = 0.01). After 45 days, the bone formation percentage showed a significant difference between nano-bioglass and bioglass and between nano-HA and nano-bioglass groups (P = 0.01). Nano-HA and nano-bioglass biomaterials showed promising results when compared to conventional micro-particles in the repair of bone defects.

  13. Performance of concrete incorporating colloidal nano-silica

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zeidan, Mohamed Sabry

    Nanotechnology, as one of the most modern fields of science, has great market potential and economic impact. The need for research in the field of nanotechnology is continuously on the rise. During the last few decades, nanotechnology was developing rapidly into many fields of applied sciences, engineering and industrial applications, especially through studies of physics, chemistry, medicine and fundamental material science. These new developments may be attributed to the fact that material properties and performance can be significantly improved and controlled through nano-scale processes and nano-structures. This research program aims at 1) further understanding the behavior of cementitious materials when amended on the nano-scale level and 2) exploring the effect of this enhancement on the microstructure of cement matrix. This study may be considered as an important step towards better understanding the use of nano-silica in concrete. The main goal of the study is to investigate the effect of using colloidal nano-silica on properties of concrete, including mechanical properties, durability, transport properties, and microstructure. The experimental program that was conducted included a laboratory investigation of concrete mixtures in which nano-silica was added to cement or to a combination of cement and Class F fly ash. Various ratios of nano-silica were used in concrete mixtures to examine the extent and types of improvements that could be imparted to concrete. The conducted experimental program assessed these improvements in terms of reactivity, mechanical properties, and durability of the mixtures under investigation. Advanced testing techniques---including mercury intrusion porosimetry (MIP) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM)---were used to investigate the effect of nano-silica on the microstructure of the tested mixtures. In addition, the effect of nano-silica on the alkali-silica reaction (ASR) was examined using various techniques, including testing

  14. Where bone meets implant: the characterization of nano-osseointegration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grandfield, Kathryn; Gustafsson, Stefan; Palmquist, Anders

    2013-05-01

    The recent application of electron tomography to the study of biomaterial interfaces with bone has brought about an awareness of nano-osseointegration and, to a further extent, demanded increasingly advanced characterization methodologies. In this study, nanoscale osseointegration has been studied via laser-modified titanium implants. The micro- and nano-structured implants were placed in the proximal tibia of New Zealand white rabbits for six months. High-resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM), analytical microscopy, including energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDXS) and energy-filtered TEM (EFTEM), as well as electron tomography studies were used to investigate the degree of nano-osseointegration in two- and three-dimensions. HRTEM indicated the laser-modified surface encouraged the formation of crystalline hydroxyapatite in the immediate vicinity of the implant. Analytical studies suggested the presence of a functionally graded interface at the implant surface, characterized by the gradual intermixing of bone with oxide layer. Yet, the most compelling of techniques, which enabled straightforward visualization of nano-osseointegration, proved to be segmentation of electron tomographic reconstructions, where thresholding techniques identified bone penetrating into the nanoscale roughened surface features of laser-modified titanium. Combining high-resolution, analytical and three-dimensional electron microscopy techniques has proven to encourage identification and understanding of nano-osseointegration.The recent application of electron tomography to the study of biomaterial interfaces with bone has brought about an awareness of nano-osseointegration and, to a further extent, demanded increasingly advanced characterization methodologies. In this study, nanoscale osseointegration has been studied via laser-modified titanium implants. The micro- and nano-structured implants were placed in the proximal tibia of New Zealand white rabbits for six months

  15. Formation of surface nano-structures by plasma expansion induced by highly charged ions

    SciTech Connect

    Moslem, W. M.; El-Said, A. S.

    2012-12-15

    Slow highly charged ions (HCIs) create surface nano-structures (nano-hillocks) on the quartz surface. The formation of hillocks was only possible by surpassing a potential energy threshold. By using the plasma expansion approach with suitable hydrodynamic equations, the creation mechanism of the nano-hillocks induced by HCIs is explained. Numerical analysis reveal that within the nanoscale created plasma region, the increase of the temperature causes an increase of the self-similar solution validity domain, and consequently the surface nano-hillocks become taller. Furthermore, the presence of the negative (positive) nano-dust particles would lead to increase (decrease) the nano-hillocks height.

  16. Comparison of Antimicrobial Properties of Nano Quinolone with its Microscale Effects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Behbahani, G. Rezaie; Sadr, M. Hossaini; Nabipour, H.; Behbahani, H. Rezaei; Vahedpour, M.; Barzegar, L.

    2013-06-01

    Nano nalidixic acid was prepared by ultrasonic method in carbon tetrachloride. Nano nalidixic acid (quinolone antibiotic) was characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), infrared spectroscopy (IR) and scanning electron microscope (SEM). The antibacterial activities of nano nalidixic acid were tested against microorganisms and compared with the microscale drug. The results show that nano nalidixic acid has good inhibitory properties against two Gram-positive species, Staphylococcus aureus and Bacillus subtilis. Nano nalidixic acid also showed good antifungal activity against Candida albicans. Nano nalidixic acid can be injected into the human body as a decontaminating agent to prevent the growth of harmful microorganisms more effectively than the micro-sized drug.

  17. AFM force measurement on nano scale Polystyrene

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Guoyu; Zahra Fakhraai Team

    2014-03-01

    Large surface/volume ratio can significantly change the mechanical properties of polymer film with nanometer thickness. Intuitively, the average response contains a larger component of the liquid like layer on the surface compared with the bulk, which should lead to reduced elastic constant. But the ultra small length scale makes it challenging to directly measure the viscoelastic response of nanostructured polymers. When the film thickness is decreased, some measurement supports that the elastic moduli of amorphous polymer films also decreases , while others show the rubbery modulus stiffens. Though the indentation on millimeter and micrometer scale has become common, not much research has investigated the yield stress and strain on nano scale indentation, which contains much larger percentage and effect from the free surface layer. In this study, we use regular AFM tip to indent onto the surface of polystyrene nanodroplets, under various loading speeds to study relaxation times and mechanical response in these systems. . Thanks to the support from NBIC and NCF in U Penn.

  18. Framing the nano-biointeractions by proteomics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sabella, S.; Maiorano, G.; Rizzello, L.; Kote, S.; Cingolani, R.; Pompa, P. P.

    2012-03-01

    Knowledge of the molecular mechanisms underlying the interactions between nanomaterials and living systems is fundamental for providing more effective products for nanomedicine and drug delivery. Controlling the response of cells/bacteria (such as activation of inflammatory processes or apoptosis/necrosis in tumor cells or pathogenic bacteria) by tuning specific properties of the nanomaterials is ultimately the challenging goal. Notably, this may also provide crucial information in the assessment of any toxic risks induced by nanoparticles on humans. However, in studying the nano-biointeractions, it is imperative to take into account the dynamic evolutions of nanoparticles in the biological environments (in terms of protein corona formation, size and charge changes) in synergy with the dynamic events occurring in cells, including signal transduction, metabolic processes, homeostasis and membrane trafficking. In this context, we discuss the impact of analytical technologies, especially in the field of proteomics, which can provide major insights into the processes affecting the NPs surface as well as the cells and bacteria functionalities. In particular, we show that a precise control of the chemical-physical characteristics of the interacting nanoparticles or nanostructures may impact the cells by inducing changes in the proteomic profiles with direct consequences on their viability.

  19. Nano-Aramid Fiber Reinforced Polyurethane Foam

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Semmes, Edmund B.; Frances, Arnold

    2008-01-01

    Closed cell polyurethane and, particularly, polyisocyanurate foams are a large family of flexible and rigid products the result of a reactive two part process wherein a urethane based polyol is combined with a foaming or "blowing" agent to create a cellular solid at room temperature. The ratio of reactive components, the constituency of the base materials, temperature, humidity, molding, pouring, spraying and many other processing techniques vary greatly. However, there is no known process for incorporating reinforcing fibers small enough to be integrally dispersed within the cell walls resulting in superior final products. The key differentiating aspect from the current state of art resides in the many processing technologies to be fully developed from the novel concept of milled nano pulp aramid fibers and their enabling entanglement capability fully enclosed within the cell walls of these closed cell urethane foams. The authors present the results of research and development of reinforced foam processing, equipment development, strength characteristics and the evolution of its many applications.

  20. Nano-Optomechanical Systems for Gas Chromatography.

    PubMed

    Venkatasubramanian, Anandram; Sauer, Vincent T K; Roy, Swapan K; Xia, Mike; Wishart, David S; Hiebert, Wayne K

    2016-11-09

    Microgas chromatography (GC) is promising for portable chemical analysis. We demonstrate a nano-optomechanical system (NOMS) as an ultrasensitive mass detector in gas chromatography. Bare, native oxide, silicon surfaces are sensitive enough to monitor volatile organic compounds at ppm levels, while simultaneously demonstrating chemical selectivity. The NOMS is able to sense GC peaks from derivatized metabolites at physiological concentrations. This is an important milestone for small-molecule quantitation assays in next generation metabolite analyses for applications such as disease diagnosis and personalized medicine. The optical microring, which plays an important role in the nanomechanical signal transduction mechanism, can also be used as an analyte concentration sensor. Different adsorption kinetics regimes are realized at different temperatures allowing temporary condensation of the analyte onto the sensor surfaces. This effect amplifies the signal, resulting in a 1 ppb level limit of detection, without partition enhancement from absorbing media. This sensitivity bodes well for NOMS as universal, ultrasensitive detectors in micro-GC, breath analysis, and other chemical-sensing applications.

  1. Nano-encapsulated PCM via Pickering Emulsification

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Xuezhen; Zhang, Lecheng; Yu, Yi-Hsien; Jia, Lisi; Sam Mannan, M.; Chen, Ying; Cheng, Zhengdong

    2015-01-01

    We designed a two-step Pickering emulsification procedure to create nano-encapsulated phase changing materials (NEPCMs) using a method whose simplicity and low energy consumption suggest promise for scale-up and mass production. Surface-modified amphiphilic zirconium phosphate (ZrP) platelets were fabricated as the Pickering emulsifiers, nonadecane was chosen as the core phase change material (PCM), and polystyrene, the shell material. The resultant capsules were submicron in size with remarkable uniformity in size distribution, which has rarely been reported. Differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) characterization showed that the capsulation efficiency of NEPCMs, and they were found to be thermal stable, as characterized by the DSC data for the sample after 200 thermal cycles. NEPCMs exhibit superior mechanical stability and mobility when compared with the well-developed micro-encapsulated phase change materials (MEPCMs). NEPCMs find useful applications in thermal management, including micro-channel coolants; solar energy storage media; building temperature regulators; and thermal transfer fabrics. PMID:26278332

  2. NanoComposite Stainless Steel Powder Technologies

    SciTech Connect

    DeHoff, R.; Glasgow, C.

    2012-07-25

    Oak Ridge National Laboratory has been investigating a new class of Fe-based amorphous material stemming from a DARPA, Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency initiative in structural amorphous metals. Further engineering of the original SAM materials such as chemistry modifications and manufacturing processes, has led to the development of a class of Fe based amorphous materials that upon processing, devitrify into a nearly homogeneous distribution of nano sized complex metal carbides and borides. The powder material is produced through the gas atomization process and subsequently utilized by several methods; laser fusing as a coating to existing components or bulk consolidated into new components through various powder metallurgy techniques (vacuum hot pressing, Dynaforge, and hot isostatic pressing). The unique fine scale distribution of microstructural features yields a material with high hardness and wear resistance compared to material produced through conventional processing techniques such as casting while maintaining adequate fracture toughness. Several compositions have been examined including those specifically designed for high hardness and wear resistance and a composition specifically tailored to devitrify into an austenitic matrix (similar to a stainless steel) which poses improved corrosion behavior.

  3. Nano-functionalization of protein microspheres

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yoon, Sungkwon; Nichols, William T.

    2014-08-01

    Protein microspheres are promising building blocks for the assembly of complex functional materials. Here we demonstrate a set of three techniques that add functionality to the surface of protein microspheres. In the first technique, a positive surface charge on the protein spheres is deposited by electrostatic adsorption. Negatively charged silica and gold nanoparticle colloids can then electrostatically bind reversibly to the microsphere surface. In the second technique, nanoparticles are covalently anchored to the protein shell using a simple one-pot process. The strong covalent bond between sulfur groups in cysteine in the protein shell irreversibly binds to the gold nanoparticles. In the third technique, surface morphology of the protein microsphere is tuned through hydrodynamic instability at the water-oil interface. This is accomplished through the degree of solubility of the oil phase in water. Taken together these three techniques form a platform to create nano-functionalized protein microspheres, which can then be used as building blocks for the assembly of more complex macroscopic materials.

  4. Nano-scaled chalcogenide-based memories.

    PubMed

    Redaelli, Andrea; Pirovano, Agostino

    2011-06-24

    Today phase change memory (PCM) technology has reached product maturity at 90 and 65 nm nodes, while the 45 nm node is under development and is expected to enter in the market soon. The continuous decrease of the cell size with scaling leads to an effective active area as small as 150 nm(2) and an active volume involved in the phase transformation of about 10(4) nm(3), thus entering definitively into the nanotechnology world. At this extremely reduced dimension, the reliability of the device must be carefully investigated. In this work we show that the cycling performance of the device is well maintained, not being a problem for either the bipolar transistor or the storage element. The phase transition from the amorphous to the crystalline state is, of course, one of the most interesting phenomena, impacting cell retention capability and device performance. The stochastic nature of nano-nuclei percolation in the amorphous matrix is shown as an important ingredient in the retention of PCM devices. The related dispersion in crystallization times is analyzed through a crystallization Monte Carlo model and a physical insight into nucleation and growth mechanisms is provided.

  5. Nano-enabled SERS reporting photosensitizers.

    PubMed

    Farhadi, Arash; Roxin, Áron; Wilson, Brian C; Zheng, Gang

    2015-01-01

    To impart effective cellular damage via photodynamic therapy (PDT), it is vital to deliver the appropriate light dose and photosensitizer concentration, and to monitor the PDT dose delivered at the site of interest. In vivo monitoring of photosensitizers has in large part relied on their fluorescence emission. Palladium-containing photosensitizers have shown promising clinical results by demonstrating near full conversion of light to PDT activity at the cost of having undetectable fluorescence. We demonstrate that, through the coupling of plasmonic nanoparticles with palladium-photosensitizers, surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) provides both reporting and monitoring capability to otherwise quiescent molecules. Nano-enabled SERS reporting of photosensitizers allows for the decoupling of the therapeutic and imaging mechanisms so that both phenomena can be optimized independently. Most importantly, the design enables the use of the same laser wavelength to stimulate both the PDT and imaging features, opening the potential for real-time dosimetry of photosensitizer concentration and PDT dose delivery by SERS monitoring.

  6. Nano-friction behavior of phosphorene

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bai, Lichun; Liu, Bo; Srikanth, Narasimalu; Tian, Yu; Zhou, Kun

    2017-09-01

    Nano-friction of phosphorene plays a significant role in affecting the controllability and efficiency of applying strain engineering to tune its properties. So far, the friction behavior of phosphorene has not been studied. This work studies the friction of single-layer and bilayer phosphorene on an amorphous silicon substrate by sliding a rigid tip. For the single-layer phosphorene, it is found that its friction is highly anisotropic, i.e. the friction is larger along the armchair direction than that along the zigzag direction. Moreover, pre-strain of the phosphorene also exhibits anisotropic effects. The friction increases with the pre-strain along the zigzag direction, but decreases with that along the armchair direction. Furthermore, the strong adhesion between the phosphorene and its substrate increases the friction between the phosphorene and the tip. For bilayer phosphorene, its friction highly depends on its stacking mode, which determines the contact interface with a commensurate or incommensurate pattern. This friction behavior is quite unique and greatly differs from that of graphene and molybdenum disulfide. Detailed analysis reveals that this behavior results from the combination effect of the friction contact area, the potential-energy profile of phosphorene, and its unique elongation.

  7. Inflammatory response to nano- and microstructured hydroxyapatite.

    PubMed

    Mestres, Gemma; Espanol, Montserrat; Xia, Wei; Persson, Cecilia; Ginebra, Maria-Pau; Ott, Marjam Karlsson

    2015-01-01

    The proliferation and activation of leukocytes upon contact with a biomaterial play a crucial role in the degree of inflammatory response, which may then determine the clinical failure or success of an implanted biomaterial. The aim of this study was to evaluate whether nano- and microstructured biomimetic hydroxyapatite substrates can influence the growth and activation of macrophage-like cells. Hydroxyapatite substrates with different crystal morphologies consisting of an entangled network of plate-like and needle-like crystals were evaluated. Macrophage proliferation was evaluated on the material surface (direct contact) and also in extracts i.e. media modified by the material (indirect contact). Additionally, the effect of supplementing the extracts with calcium ions and/or proteins was investigated. Macrophage activation on the substrates was evaluated by quantifying the release of reactive oxygen species and by morphological observations. The results showed that differences in the substrate's microstructure play a major role in the activation of macrophages as there was a higher release of reactive oxygen species after culturing the macrophages on plate-like crystals substrates compared to the almost non-existent release on needle-like substrates. However, the difference in macrophage proliferation was ascribed to different ionic exchanges and protein adsorption/retention from the substrates rather than to the texture of materials.

  8. Next generation nano-contamination monitoring

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kochevar, Steven; Pietrykowski, Thomas; Rodier, Dan

    2012-10-01

    Current particle counting techniques employ common technologies: lasers, detectors, and optics. The theory of light scattering and particles is well known, and is standard in most particle counters. However, the need to detect smaller particles (nanoparticles) challenges the technological limits of traditional light-scattering techniques. Counting nanoparticles in liquids offers unique problems because of the intensity of scattered light from the particles relative to the light scattered by the fluid and flow cell. Consequently, the particle may be lost in the background noise. New technologies employ sophisticated detection elements and high-powered lasers to provide three-dimensional particle signatures and real-time videos as the particle passes through the laser. Aerosol nanoparticle counting offers the challenge of light scatter in an open sample chamber. Simply, the nanoparticles are too small to be effectively illuminated by lasers, so a new technique employs dynamic mobility to classify specific particle sizes. This technique can provide particle counting - and accurate particle size classification - down to 5 nm. Employing traditional optical particle counting technology is not efficient for detecting nanoparticles, but new technologies can meet these challenges. When combined with other support equipment (e.g. WiFi, software, etc.), new technologies provide innovative techniques for monitoring nanoparticles and managing nano-contamination in clean environments.

  9. Nano Era Of Dentistry-An Update.

    PubMed

    Maman, Paramjot; Nagpal, Manju; Gilhotra, Ritu Mehra; Aggarwal, Geeta

    2017-08-25

    Management of the health of oral tissues is a prime requirement in dentistry. The prevention of tooth decay and the treatment of lesions and cavities are ongoing challenges. The limitations in dental materials, medications, instruments, procedures put off the accomplishment of this goal. Rationalization of science and technology has made possible to work out these limitations. Nanotechnology which is the outcome of this rationalization has become one of the most favored technologies in medical and dental application. The substantial contribution of nano dental materials is the identification of oral health related problems by better diagnosis and management of dental disorders by bionanomaterials. Application of nanodentistry holds promise for comprehensive dental care by utilizing nanomaterials ans ultimately by nanorobots. This review discusses the rationale of nanodentistry, nanocarriers researched in treatment of different dental diseases, the latest innovations in nanomaterials in various disciplines of dentistry; patent literature and related marketed products. Advances in nanotechnology have placed plenty of hopes in terms of improving the oral health care of dental patients. Copyright© Bentham Science Publishers; For any queries, please email at epub@benthamscience.org.

  10. Spin nano-oscillator-based wireless communication.

    PubMed

    Choi, Hyun Seok; Kang, Sun Yool; Cho, Seong Jun; Oh, Inn-Yeal; Shin, Mincheol; Park, Hyuncheol; Jang, Chaun; Min, Byoung-Chul; Kim, Sang-Il; Park, Seung-Young; Park, Chul Soon

    2014-06-30

    Spin-torque nano-oscillators (STNOs) have outstanding advantages of a high degree of compactness, high-frequency tunability, and good compatibility with the standard complementary metal-oxide-semiconductor process, which offer prospects for future wireless communication. There have as yet been no reports on wireless communication using STNOs, since the STNOs also have notable disadvantages such as lower output power and poorer spectral purity in comparison with those of LC voltage-controlled oscillators. Here we show that wireless communication is achieved by a proper choice of modulation scheme despite these drawbacks of STNOs. By adopting direct binary amplitude shift keying modulation and non-coherent demodulation, we demonstrate STNO-based wireless communication with 200-kbps data rate at a distance of 1 m between transmitter and receiver. It is shown, from the analysis of STNO noise, that the maximum data rate can be extended up to 1.48 Gbps with 1-ns turn-on time. For the fabricated STNO, the maximum data rate is 5 Mbps which is limited by the rise time measured in the total system. The result will provide a viable route to real microwave application of STNOs.

  11. Polymer hybrid nano/micro composites

    SciTech Connect

    Dzenis, Y.A.; Reneker, D.H.

    1994-12-31

    Nanocomposites based on ceramic and metal matrices attracted considerable attention during the past decade. Polymer based nanocomposites are much less well-known. Recently, a method of electrospinning of thin polymer fibers has been developed. Continuous, oriented fibers with diameters ranging from 50 nanometers to several microns have been prepared from over 30 different synthetic and natural polymers, including high temperature high modulus polyimide and polyaramid (Kevlar) fibers. The possible applications of these small fibers in hybrid polymer hierarchical composites are discussed. Micromechanics models of hybrid composites are developed based on the models for two component composites and on the principle of effective homogeneity. Effective thermoviscoelastic characteristics of nano and microfiber composite as well as nanofiber and microparticulate composites are calculated. ``Strong`` hybrid effects are observed in the dependence of effective moduli, loss factor, creep factor, and thermal expansion coefficient on fractional content of fibers of different diameters. The extrema are located at the higher fractions of larger reinforcing elements. Similarities of composite microstructures having synergistic ``extremal`` properties with some biological composites are noted.

  12. Nano-friction behavior of phosphorene.

    PubMed

    Bai, Lichun; Liu, Bo; Srikanth, Narasimalu; Tian, Yu; Zhou, Kun

    2017-09-01

    Nano-friction of phosphorene plays a significant role in affecting the controllability and efficiency of applying strain engineering to tune its properties. So far, the friction behavior of phosphorene has not been studied. This work studies the friction of single-layer and bilayer phosphorene on an amorphous silicon substrate by sliding a rigid tip. For the single-layer phosphorene, it is found that its friction is highly anisotropic, i.e. the friction is larger along the armchair direction than that along the zigzag direction. Moreover, pre-strain of the phosphorene also exhibits anisotropic effects. The friction increases with the pre-strain along the zigzag direction, but decreases with that along the armchair direction. Furthermore, the strong adhesion between the phosphorene and its substrate increases the friction between the phosphorene and the tip. For bilayer phosphorene, its friction highly depends on its stacking mode, which determines the contact interface with a commensurate or incommensurate pattern. This friction behavior is quite unique and greatly differs from that of graphene and molybdenum disulfide. Detailed analysis reveals that this behavior results from the combination effect of the friction contact area, the potential-energy profile of phosphorene, and its unique elongation.

  13. Nano-porous calcium phosphate balls.

    PubMed

    Kovach, Ildyko; Kosmella, Sabine; Prietzel, Claudia; Bagdahn, Christian; Koetz, Joachim

    2015-08-01

    By dropping a NaH2PO4·H2O precursor solution to a CaCl2 solution at 90°C under continuous stirring in presence of two biopolymers, i.e. gelatin (G) and chitosan (C), supramolecular calcium phosphate (CP) card house structures are formed. Light microscopic investigations in combination with scanning electron microscopy show that the GC-based flower-like structure is constructed from very thin CP platelets. Titration experiments indicate that H-bonding between both biopolymers is responsible for the synergistic effect in presence of both polymers. Gelatin-chitosan-water complexes play an important role with regard to supramolecular ordering. FTIR spectra in combination with powder X-ray diffraction show that after burning off all organic components (heating up >600°C) dicalcium and tricalcium phosphate crystallites are formed. From high resolution transmission electron microscopy (HR-TEM) it is obvious to conclude, that individual crystal platelets are dicalcium phosphates, which build up ball-like supramolecular structures. The results reveal that the GC guided crystal growth leads to nano-porous supramolecular structures, potentially attractive candidates for bone repair. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Micro and nano patternable magnetic carbon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sharma, Swati; Rostas, Arpad M.; Bordonali, Lorenzo; MacKinnon, Neil; Weber, Stefan; Korvink, Jan G.

    2016-12-01

    Carbon is conventionally not associated with magnetism, causing much of the discussion of its perspectives in nanotechnology to be centred on its electron-transport properties. Among the few existing examples of magnetic carbon production, none has found a direct route into scalable micro- and nanofabrication. Here we introduce a magnetic form of carbon whose precursor polymers can be lithographically patterned into micro- and nano-structures prior to pyrolysis. This unreactive and thermally robust material features a strong, room-temperature magnetism owing to a large number of unpaired electron spins with restricted mobility, which is achieved by controlling the progression of bond dissociation and formation during pyrolysis. The micro-manufacture of pyrolytic magnetic carbon, having (3.5 ±0.7 )×1015 spins/mg, can immediately benefit a number of spintronic and magnetic-microelectromechanical system applications, and the fabrication of composite magnetic materials. The material could also complement the magnetic resonance spectroscopy and imaging techniques. Additionally, this contribution sheds light on the controversial theories concerning the existence and mechanism of magnetic phenomena in carbon.

  15. Lipids, curvature, and nano-medicine*

    PubMed Central

    Mouritsen, Ole G

    2011-01-01

    The physical properties of the lamellar lipid-bilayer component of biological membranes are controlled by a host of thermodynamic forces leading to overall tensionless bilayers with a conspicuous lateral pressure profile and build-in curvature-stress instabilities that may be released locally or globally in terms of morphological changes. In particular, the average molecular shape and the propensity of the different lipid and protein species for forming non-lamellar and curved structures are a source of structural transitions and control of biological function. The effects of different lipids, sterols, and proteins on membrane structure are discussed and it is shown how one can take advantage of the curvature-stress modulations brought about by specific molecular agents, such as fatty acids, lysolipids, and other amphiphilic solutes, to construct intelligent drug-delivery systems that function by enzymatic triggering via curvature. Practical applications: The simple concept of lipid molecular shape and how it impacts on the structure of lipid aggregates, in particular the curvature and curvature stress in lipid bilayers and liposomes, can be exploited to construct liposome-based drug-delivery systems, e.g., for use as nano-medicine in cancer therapy. Non-lamellar-forming lysolipids and fatty acids, some of which may be designed to be prodrugs, can be created by phospholipase action in diseased tissues thereby providing for targeted drug release and proliferation of molecular entities with conical shape that break down the permeability barrier of the target cells and may hence enhance efficacy. PMID:22164124

  16. Inflammatory Response to Nano- and Microstructured Hydroxyapatite

    PubMed Central

    Mestres, Gemma; Espanol, Montserrat; Xia, Wei; Persson, Cecilia; Ginebra, Maria-Pau; Ott, Marjam Karlsson

    2015-01-01

    The proliferation and activation of leukocytes upon contact with a biomaterial play a crucial role in the degree of inflammatory response, which may then determine the clinical failure or success of an implanted biomaterial. The aim of this study was to evaluate whether nano- and microstructured biomimetic hydroxyapatite substrates can influence the growth and activation of macrophage-like cells. Hydroxyapatite substrates with different crystal morphologies consisting of an entangled network of plate-like and needle-like crystals were evaluated. Macrophage proliferation was evaluated on the material surface (direct contact) and also in extracts i.e. media modified by the material (indirect contact). Additionally, the effect of supplementing the extracts with calcium ions and/or proteins was investigated. Macrophage activation on the substrates was evaluated by quantifying the release of reactive oxygen species and by morphological observations. The results showed that differences in the substrate’s microstructure play a major role in the activation of macrophages as there was a higher release of reactive oxygen species after culturing the macrophages on plate-like crystals substrates compared to the almost non-existent release on needle-like substrates. However, the difference in macrophage proliferation was ascribed to different ionic exchanges and protein adsorption/retention from the substrates rather than to the texture of materials. PMID:25837264

  17. Nano Robotic Manipulation inside Electron Microscopes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fukuda, Toshio; Nakajima, Masahiro; Liu, Pou

    We report nanomanipulation and nanoassembly through nanorobotic manipulation inside electron microscopes. A hybrid nanorobotic manipulation system, which is integrated with a nanorobotic manipulator inside a transmission electron microscope (TEM) and nanorobotic manipulators inside a scanning electron microscope (SEM), is used. The elasticity of a multi-walled CNT (MWNT) is measured inside a TEM. The telescoping MWNT is fabricated by peeling off outer layers through destructive fabrication process. The electrostatic actuation of telescoping MWNT is directly observed by a TEM. A cutting technique for CNTs assisted by the presence of oxygen gas is also presented. The cutting procedure was conducted in less than 1 minute using a low-energy electron beam inside a scanning electron microscope. A bending technique of a CNT assisted by the presence of oxygen gas is also applied for the 3-D fabrication of nanosturucture. We expect that these techniques will be applied for the rapid prototyping nanoassembly of various CNT nanodevices. For the nano-biological applications, environmental-SEM (E-SEM) nanomanipulation system is also presented with the direct observation of the hydroscopic samples with non-drying treatment.

  18. The eNanoMapper database for nanomaterial safety information.

    PubMed

    Jeliazkova, Nina; Chomenidis, Charalampos; Doganis, Philip; Fadeel, Bengt; Grafström, Roland; Hardy, Barry; Hastings, Janna; Hegi, Markus; Jeliazkov, Vedrin; Kochev, Nikolay; Kohonen, Pekka; Munteanu, Cristian R; Sarimveis, Haralambos; Smeets, Bart; Sopasakis, Pantelis; Tsiliki, Georgia; Vorgrimmler, David; Willighagen, Egon

    2015-01-01

    The NanoSafety Cluster, a cluster of projects funded by the European Commision, identified the need for a computational infrastructure for toxicological data management of engineered nanomaterials (ENMs). Ontologies, open standards, and interoperable designs were envisioned to empower a harmonized approach to European research in nanotechnology. This setting provides a number of opportunities and challenges in the representation of nanomaterials data and the integration of ENM information originating from diverse systems. Within this cluster, eNanoMapper works towards supporting the collaborative safety assessment for ENMs by creating a modular and extensible infrastructure for data sharing, data analysis, and building computational toxicology models for ENMs. The eNanoMapper database solution builds on the previous experience of the consortium partners in supporting diverse data through flexible data storage, open source components and web services. We have recently described the design of the eNanoMapper prototype database along with a summary of challenges in the representation of ENM data and an extensive review of existing nano-related data models, databases, and nanomaterials-related entries in chemical and toxicogenomic databases. This paper continues with a focus on the database functionality exposed through its application programming interface (API), and its use in visualisation and modelling. Considering the preferred community practice of using spreadsheet templates, we developed a configurable spreadsheet parser facilitating user friendly data preparation and data upload. We further present a web application able to retrieve the experimental data via the API and analyze it with multiple data preprocessing and machine learning algorithms. We demonstrate how the eNanoMapper database is used to import and publish online ENM and assay data from several data sources, how the "representational state transfer" (REST) API enables building user friendly

  19. The eNanoMapper database for nanomaterial safety information

    PubMed Central

    Chomenidis, Charalampos; Doganis, Philip; Fadeel, Bengt; Grafström, Roland; Hardy, Barry; Hastings, Janna; Hegi, Markus; Jeliazkov, Vedrin; Kochev, Nikolay; Kohonen, Pekka; Munteanu, Cristian R; Sarimveis, Haralambos; Smeets, Bart; Sopasakis, Pantelis; Tsiliki, Georgia; Vorgrimmler, David; Willighagen, Egon

    2015-01-01

    Summary Background: The NanoSafety Cluster, a cluster of projects funded by the European Commision, identified the need for a computational infrastructure for toxicological data management of engineered nanomaterials (ENMs). Ontologies, open standards, and interoperable designs were envisioned to empower a harmonized approach to European research in nanotechnology. This setting provides a number of opportunities and challenges in the representation of nanomaterials data and the integration of ENM information originating from diverse systems. Within this cluster, eNanoMapper works towards supporting the collaborative safety assessment for ENMs by creating a modular and extensible infrastructure for data sharing, data analysis, and building computational toxicology models for ENMs. Results: The eNanoMapper database solution builds on the previous experience of the consortium partners in supporting diverse data through flexible data storage, open source components and web services. We have recently described the design of the eNanoMapper prototype database along with a summary of challenges in the representation of ENM data and an extensive review of existing nano-related data models, databases, and nanomaterials-related entries in chemical and toxicogenomic databases. This paper continues with a focus on the database functionality exposed through its application programming interface (API), and its use in visualisation and modelling. Considering the preferred community practice of using spreadsheet templates, we developed a configurable spreadsheet parser facilitating user friendly data preparation and data upload. We further present a web application able to retrieve the experimental data via the API and analyze it with multiple data preprocessing and machine learning algorithms. Conclusion: We demonstrate how the eNanoMapper database is used to import and publish online ENM and assay data from several data sources, how the “representational state transfer

  20. The Synergistic Effects of the Micro and Nano Particles in Micro-nano Composites on Enhancing the Resistance to Electrical Tree Degradation.

    PubMed

    Wang, Wenxuan; Yang, Ying

    2017-08-17

    A new method of increasing the durability and reliability of polymer dielectrics has been proposed by designing a composite structure of the micro and nano particles. The synergistic effects of the micro particles and nano particles are found to enhance the resistance to electrical tree and extend the lifetime of polymer dielectrics for insulations. Epoxy loaded with the micro and nano SiO2 particles at different concentrations are prepared as micro-nano composites. The micro particles show the blocking effects on the electrical tree channel and the interfaces of the nano particles lead to the inhibiting effects on the tree inception and propagation. The lifetime of the micro-nano composite samples in the experiments extends to 4 times of the neat epoxy. The new type of micro-nano composites can be widely applied in future electronic and electrical energy areas.

  1. Characterization of nano-scaled metal-hydrides confined in nano-porous carbon frameworks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peaslee, David Edward

    Metal hydrides are currently being studied to provide hydrogen for use in fuel cells and for transportation applications. Hydrogen can be stored in chemical compounds at higher density and lower volume than liquid H2 or compressed gas. Thermodynamic properties of metal hydrides differ between bulk and nano-sized particles. Many metal hydrides with useful volumetric and gravimetric capacities have high decomposition temperatures, but when placed in nano-sized frameworks (or templates) desorption and adsorption temperatures can be fine-tuned to meet engineering requirements for real-world systems. Additionally, some metal hydrides have shown a change in the decomposition pathway when infiltrated into these frameworks, thereby reducing the amount of unwanted byproducts, and potentially improving the cyclability of the material. The Temperature Programmed Decomposition Mass Spectrum Residual Gas Analyzer can be used to characterize gas desorption, decomposition temperatures, picogram changes in mass, and ionization energies for a variety of materials and gasses. The goal of the system is to characterize desorption of the hydrogen (including byproduct gasses) and the decomposition of the metal hydrides. The experimental apparatus is composed of four main components: the residual gas analyzer (RGA), the low temperature stage quartz crystal microbalance (QCM), the high temperature heating stage, and two vacuum chambers separated by a small flow hole which allows a direct line-of-site to the RGA.

  2. Modeling the Charge Transport in Graphene Nano Ribbon Interfaces for Nano Scale Electronic Devices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kumar, Ravinder; Engles, Derick

    2015-05-01

    In this research work we have modeled, simulated and compared the electronic charge transport for Metal-Semiconductor-Metal interfaces of Graphene Nano Ribbons (GNR) with different geometries using First-Principle calculations and Non-Equilibrium Green's Function (NEGF) method. We modeled junctions of Armchair GNR strip sandwiched between two Zigzag strips with (Z-A-Z) and Zigzag GNR strip sandwiched between two Armchair strips with (A-Z-A) using semi-empirical Extended Huckle Theory (EHT) within the framework of Non-Equilibrium Green Function (NEGF). I-V characteristics of the interfaces were visualized for various transport parameters. The distinct changes in conductance and I-V curves reported as the Width across layers, Channel length (Central part) was varied at different bias voltages from -1V to 1 V with steps of 0.25 V. From the simulated results we observed that the conductance through A-Z-A graphene junction is in the range of 10-13 Siemens whereas the conductance through Z-A-Z graphene junction is in the range of 10-5 Siemens. These suggested conductance controlled mechanisms for the charge transport in the graphene interfaces with different geometries is important for the design of graphene based nano scale electronic devices like Graphene FETs, Sensors.

  3. Infrared nano-imaging and nano-spectroscopy of surface plasmons in bilayer graphene

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fei, Zhe; Iwinski, Eric G.; Rodin, Alesandr S.; Wagner, Martin; Liu, Mengkun; Dai, Siyuan; Goldflam, Michael D.; Bao, Wenzhong; Lee, Yongjin; Lau, Chun Ning; Kailmann, Fritz; Castro-Neto, Antonio H.; Zhang, Lingfeng M.; Fogler, Michael M.; Basov, Dimitri N.

    2014-03-01

    Bernal stacking bilayer graphene (BLG) has demonstrated its capability for application in a wide range of fields including electronics, photonics and energy engineering. So far, plasmonic properties of BLG have not been fully explored experimentally despite broad interests. Here, we report infrared nano-imaging and nano-spectroscopy of surface plasmons (SPs) in BLG. We found that BLG also supported gate-tunable SPs in the mid-infrared range with nevertheless smaller wavelength compared to equally doped single-layer graphene (SLG) and randomly stacked double-layer graphene (DLG). In addition, the coupling between BLG plasmons and SiO2 phonons appeared much weaker compared to SLG plasmons. Further analysis indicated that these observations about SPs in BLG were attributed to interlayer coupling that affects strongly the electronic structure. Our work uncovered all the essential characteristics of BLG plasmons, and suggested the possibility of developing carbon-based plasmonic circuits where SLG, BLG and DLG are all functioning building blocks.

  4. Shape-tailored porous gold nanowires: from nano barbells to nano step-cones.

    PubMed

    Laocharoensuk, Rawiwan; Sattayasamitsathit, Sirilak; Burdick, Jared; Kanatharana, Proespichaya; Thavarungkul, Panote; Wang, Joseph

    2007-12-01

    Step-like porous gold nanowires of different shapes and diameters have been prepared by sequentially depositing alloy segments composed of different gold/silver ratios and de-alloying the silver component. For example, step-cone and nano-barbell porous gold nanowires were generated by a membrane-templated sequential deposition of gold-silver alloy segments from plating solutions of respectively decreasing or alternating gold/silver composition ratios. Alloy segments of different gold/silver ratios, prepared by using different plating potentials, also lead to multistep nanowires. In addition to step-like nanowires, we describe the preparation of cone- and bone-shaped porous nanowires from alloy nanowires of longitudinally changing compositions, generated via deposition from a flowing plating solution of a continuously changing composition. Such customization of the porous gold nanostructure is attributed to the chemical removal of silver and the different extents of gold reordering from alloy segments of different compositions. The latter leads to porous gold segments of smaller diameters from silver-rich alloy segments. The new "nanomachining" concept is versatile and could be extended to nanowires of diverse shapes with a variety of properties, generating an attractive assortment of nano-hardware.

  5. Synthesis and implementation of nano-chitosan and its acetophenone derivative for enhanced removal of metals.

    PubMed

    Mahmoud, Mohamed E; Abou Kana, Maram T H; Hendy, Ahmed A

    2015-11-01

    In the present study, nano-chitosan (Nano-Ch) was synthesized by ionic gelation of chitosan/tripolyphosphate system and successfully modified with acetophenone via Schiff's base condensation to produce nano-chitosan-modified-actophenone (Nano-Ch-Ac). The produced nano-materials were characterized by FT-IR, SEM, HR-TEM and TGA techniques. The average particle sizes were found in the range of 5.20-14.54nm based on the HR-TEM analysis. The metal interaction properties of Nano-Ch and Nano-Ch-Ac with Cu(II), Cd(II), Hg(II) and Pb(II) were compared in presence of various experimental parameters. Nano-Ch-Ac sorbent was found more superior in the extraction processes of all examined metal ions under the evaluated experimental parameters. This trend was confirmed from the highest determined metal sorption capacity values of metal ions as 1298-1608 and 810-1236μmolg(-1) in pH 7.0 by Nano-Ch-Ac and Nano-Ch sorbents, respectively. The adsorption equilibrium was established at 30.0min of contact time by the two nano-chitosan sorbents. The superiority of Nano-Ch-Ac was also confirmed from the dynamic applications of this nano-sorbent for removal of divalent metal ions from tap water, sea water and industrial wastewater (91.3-100.0±1.0-3.0).

  6. Synthesis and photoluminescence enhancement of nano-PAA-ZnCl2 with controllable dimension and morphology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Jianguo; Wang, Kaige; Zhou, Yukun; Wang, Shuang; Zhang, Chen; Wang, Guiren; Bai, Jintao

    2016-12-01

    One kind of ZnCl2 nano-films with controllable dimension and morphology is successfully synthesized on the top surface of nano-porous anodic alumina membrane (nano-PAAM) by self-organized method. The nano-PAA-ZnCl2 composite films are characterized by field emission scanning electron microscopy, energy dispersive spectrometer, and laser confocal Raman spectroscopy. The results indicate that the concentration of initial ZnCl2 solution, the depth of nano-PAAM substrate and the growth time of ZnCl2 crystals have important influences on the properties of nano-composite films. Furthermore, the characteristics of nano-composites such as the photoluminescence (PL) spectra are investigated. Compared with the nano-PAAM substrate, at room temperature, all of the nano-PAA-ZnCl2 composite films have both the same excitation center (335 nm) and emission center (430 nm), no matter what the nano-composite morphologies being; and the PL intensity of nano-PAA-ZnCl2 composite films are all enhanced and the maximum enhancement is two times; after annealing at 500 °C, the emission spectra of the nano-composite films stabilized at the 385 nm, 402 nm and 430 nm. The research provides a new, simple, economical and practical technology to fabricate nano-PAA composite films with higher luminousintensity.

  7. Enhancement of light harvesting efficiency of silicon solar cell utilizing arrays of poly(methyl methacrylate-co-acrylic acid) nano-spheres and nano-spheres with embedded silver nano-particles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Chee-Leong; Goh, Wee-Sheng; Chee, Swee-Yong; Yik, Lai-Kuan

    2017-02-01

    An array of uniformly distributed monolayer of poly(methyl methacrylate-co-acrylic acid) nano-spheres were deposited onto an amorphous silicon photovoltaic cell utilizing dip coating technique. The electrical characteristics of the coated photovoltaic cell reveal that the nano-spheres with an average diameter size of 101 nm exhibits excellent light harvesting characteristics if compared to the nano-spheres of other sizes. The power conversion efficiency from such integration of the nano-structures (i.e. 3.14% per PV cell) indicates that at least 1.6 times of improvement (or relative enhancement of 57%) can be achieved comparatively to the uncoated photovoltaic cell (i.e. 2% per PV cell). Further increment of the power conversion efficiency of the solar cell has been attained with the incorporation of the silver nano-particles into the nano-spheres of similar average size. With the inclusion of the silver nano-particles into such nano-spheres, the power conversion efficiency of the solar cell has attained 5.57% per PV cell, which is about 2.8 times (or relative enhancement of 179%) if compared to the uncoated samples. Hence, this novel and controllable technique of fabricating omnidirectional light-harvesting nano-spheres with embedded silver nano-particles will indubitably be beneficial to various types of optoelectronic devices.

  8. Modeling and control for micro and nano manipulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wejinya, Uchechukwu C.

    Manipulation of micro and nano entities implies the movement of micro and nano entities from an initial position (location) to the desire position (location). This operation is not only necessary, but a required task with great precision. The tools needed for the manipulation needs to be chosen properly because the capabilities of the human hand are very restricted. Smart micro and nano manipulation are becoming of great interest in many applications including medicine and industry. In industry, high precision manipulation systems are especially needed for mass production of both micro and nano systems which consist of different component in respective scales. The transition from assembling and manipulating micro and nano entities manually to mass products with high quality is only attainable by automated assembly and manipulation systems. An example is the testing of integrated circuits which can be carried out by exchanging the manipulation tool by an electric probe. Furthermore, in medical research it is customary to pick up a single cell (human, plant, or animal), and carry it to another device which is used to further analyze the cell. Consequently, the cell of interest has to be separated from the other cells and picked up using the appropriate micro/nano tool. Hence it becomes absolutely necessary that the appropriate tool be used for specific micro or nano entity manipulation and assembly. In this research, we focus on developing micro tool for manipulating micro and nano entities in liquid environment using a micro fluidic end effector system with in-situ Polyvinylidene Fluoride (PVDF) sensing. The microfluidic end effector system consists of a DC micro-diaphragm pump and compressor, one region of flexible latex tube, a Polyvinylidene Fluoride (PVDF) sensor for in-situ measurement of micro drag force, and a micro pipette. The micro pipette of the novel microfluidic end effector system has an internal diameter (ID) smaller than 20mum used for microfluidic

  9. Human safety review of "nano" titanium dioxide and zinc oxide.

    PubMed

    Schilling, Karsten; Bradford, Bobbie; Castelli, Dominique; Dufour, Eric; Nash, J Frank; Pape, Wolfgang; Schulte, Stefan; Tooley, Ian; van den Bosch, Jeroen; Schellauf, Florian

    2010-04-01

    Based on the current weight of evidence of all available data, the risk for humans from the use of nano-structured titanium dioxide (TiO(2)) or zinc oxide (ZnO) currently used in cosmetic preparations or sunscreens is considered negligible. There is a large body of information that when viewed in its entirety is considered as sufficient to demonstrate that these nano-structured ultraviolet (UV) filters, irrespective of various treatments (coatings) or crystalline structure, can be regarded as safe for use at concentrations up to 25% in cosmetic products to protect the skin from harmful effects of solar UV radiation. "Nano" TiO(2) and ZnO formulated in topically applied sunscreen products exist as aggregates of primary particles ranging from 30-150 nm in size. These aggregates are bonded such that the force of sunscreen product application onto the skin would have no impact on their structure or result in the release of primary particles. Multiple studies have shown that under exaggerated test conditions neither nano-structured TiO(2) nor ZnO penetrates beyond the stratum corneum of skin. Further, the distribution and persistence of these nano-structured metal oxides is the same compared to larger pigment-grade (i.e., >100 nm) particles, demonstrating equivalence in the recognition and elimination of such material from the body. Finally, the in vitro genotoxic and photogenotoxic profiles of these nano-structured metal oxides are of no consequence to human health. Whereas the most logical, straightforward conclusion based on data from internationally-recognized guideline studies and current 20+ year history of human use is that nano-structured TiO(2) and ZnO are safe, there will continue to be questions as "nano" conjures images of technology gone awry. Despite this rather sober view, the public health benefits of sunscreens containing nano TiO(2) and/or ZnO outweigh human safety concerns for these UV filters.

  10. A recipe to create nano-grains on dolomite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Røyne, Anja; Pluymakers, Anne

    2017-04-01

    Advances in imaging techniques in recent years have allowed for easy microstructure visualization at nano-resolution, and many studies have observed nano-grains in different materials, including rocks. An important example in geological systems is their seemingly ubiquitous occurrence on so-called mirror-like slip surfaces, produced in natural and experimental earthquakes of both carbonate and silicate rocks. It is, however, not yet clear whether these nano-grains can indeed be used as a reliable indicator of seismic slip. Since carbonates are prone to decarbonation at temperatures exceeding 550 - 600 °C, nano-grain formation may be formed due to heating rather than shear. In this study, we have investigated the effect of elevated temperatures on carbonate fault rocks. We used hand-polished mirror-like dolomite protolith, as well as natural fault mirror surfaces, obtained from the Foiana Fault Zone from the Southern Alps in Italy. The samples were heated to 200 to 800 degC in a 5 hour heating cycle, followed by slow cooling ( 12 h) to room temperature. Subsequently, we imaged the samples using SEM and AFM. Nano-grain formation on the surfaces of hand-polished samples starts around 400 ° C, and is pervasive at and above 600 ° C. Fault mirror samples are initially coated with naturally formed nano-grains and only very local patches on these surfaces display obvious morphological changes due to heating. Exposing both types of sample heated to 600 °C to DI water under the AFM shows rapid recrystallization and the formation of a more porous and blade-like crystal layer on the entire surface. This happens both in hand-polished and naturally polished surfaces. Fault mirror samples that have not been heated do not change when exposed to water. We have shown that nano-grains can form as a result of heating without shear, but that samples that have experienced high shear strain have a water- and heat-resistant coating composed of otherwise morphologically

  11. NanoClusters Enhance Drug Delivery in Mechanical Ventilation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pornputtapitak, Warangkana

    The overall goal of this thesis was to develop a dry powder delivery system for patients on mechanical ventilation. The studies were divided into two parts: the formulation development and the device design. The pulmonary system is an attractive route for drug delivery since the lungs have a large accessible surface area for treatment or drug absorption. For ventilated patients, inhaled drugs have to successfully navigate ventilator tubing and an endotracheal tube. Agglomerates of drug nanoparticles (also known as 'NanoClusters') are fine dry powder aerosols that were hypothesized to enable drug delivery through ventilator circuits. This Thesis systematically investigated formulations of NanoClusters and their aerosol performance in a conventional inhaler and a device designed for use during mechanical ventilation. These engineered powders of budesonide (NC-Bud) were delivered via a MonodoseRTM inhaler or a novel device through commercial endotracheal tubes, and analyzed by cascade impaction. NC-Bud had a higher efficiency of aerosol delivery compared to micronized stock budesonide. The delivery efficiency was independent of ventilator parameters such as inspiration patterns, inspiration volumes, and inspiration flow rates. A novel device designed to fit directly to the ventilator and endotracheal tubing connections and the MonodoseRTM inhaler showed the same efficiency of drug delivery. The new device combined with NanoCluster formulation technology, therefore, allowed convenient and efficient drug delivery through endotracheal tubes. Furthermore, itraconazole (ITZ), a triazole antifungal agent, was formulated as a NanoCluster powder via milling (top-down process) or precipitation (bottom-up process) without using any excipients. ITZ NanoClusters prepared by wet milling showed better aerosol performance compared to micronized stock ITZ and ITZ NanoClusters prepared by precipitation. ITZ NanoClusters prepared by precipitation methods also showed an amorphous state

  12. He bubble growth and interaction in W nano-tendrils

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smirnov, R. D.; Krasheninnikov, S. I.

    2015-11-01

    Tungsten plasma-facing components (PFCs) in fusion devices are exposed to variety of extreme plasma conditions, which can lead to alteration of tungsten micro-structure and degradation of the PFCs. In particular, it is known that filamentary nano-structures called fuzz can grow on helium plasma exposed tungsten surfaces. However, mechanism of the fuzz growth is still not fully understood. Existing experimental observations indicate that formation of helium nano-bubbles in tungsten plays essential role in fuzz formation and growth. In this work we investigate mechanisms of growth and interaction of helium bubbles in fuzz-like nano-tendrils using molecular dynamics simulations with LAMMPS code. We show that growth of the bubbles has anisotropic character producing complex stress field in the nano-tendrils with distinct compression and tension regions. We found that formation of large inter-bubble tension regions can cause lateral stretching and bending of the tendrils that consequently lead to their elongation and thinning at the stretching sites. The rate of nano-tendril growth due to the described mechanism is also evaluated from the simulations.

  13. Growth mechanism of carbon nanotubes: a nano Czochralski model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lu, Jingyu; Miao, Jianmin

    2012-07-01

    Carbon nanotubes (CNTs) have been under intense investigations during the past two decades due to their unique physical and chemical properties; however, there is still no commonly accepted growth mechanism to describe the growth behavior of CNTs. Here, we propose a nano Czochralski (CZ) model which regards the catalytic growth of a CNT as a CZ process taking place on the nano scale. The main idea is that, during the CNT growth, each catalyst particle acts as a nano crucible to nucleate and maintain the CNT growth, and the extruding CNT rotates relative to the nano crucible, leading to a chirality-dependent growth rate. In this case, the structural quality gradually changes along the CNT due to the dynamic generation-reconstruction-diffusion of defects during the CNT growth. The nano CZ mechanism may also apply to the catalytic growth of many other one-dimensional (1D) nanostructures (including various nanotubes and nanowires), thus further efforts will be stimulated in the quality and property control, as well as application explorations of these 1D nanomaterials.

  14. Electron-beam induced nano-etching of suspended graphene

    PubMed Central

    Sommer, Benedikt; Sonntag, Jens; Ganczarczyk, Arkadius; Braam, Daniel; Prinz, Günther; Lorke, Axel; Geller, Martin

    2015-01-01

    Besides its interesting physical properties, graphene as a two-dimensional lattice of carbon atoms promises to realize devices with exceptional electronic properties, where freely suspended graphene without contact to any substrate is the ultimate, truly two-dimensional system. The practical realization of nano-devices from suspended graphene, however, relies heavily on finding a structuring method which is minimally invasive. Here, we report on the first electron beam-induced nano-etching of suspended graphene and demonstrate high-resolution etching down to ~7 nm for line-cuts into the monolayer graphene. We investigate the structural quality of the etched graphene layer using two-dimensional (2D) Raman maps and demonstrate its high electronic quality in a nano-device: A 25 nm-wide suspended graphene nanoribbon (GNR) that shows a transport gap with a corresponding energy of ~60 meV. This is an important step towards fast and reliable patterning of suspended graphene for future ballistic transport, nano-electronic and nano-mechanical devices. PMID:25586495

  15. Nano-LISA for in vitro diagnostic applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maswadi, Saher; Glickman, Randolph D.; Elliott, Rowe; Barsalou, Norman

    2011-03-01

    We previously reported the detection of bacterial antigen with immunoaffinity reactions using laser optoacoustic spectroscopy and antibody-coupled gold nanorods (Ab-NR) as a contrast agent specifically targeted to the antigen of interest. The Nano-LISA (Nanoparticle Linked Immunosorbent Assay) method has been adapted to detect three very common blood-borne viral infectious agents, i.e. human T-lymphotropic virus (HTLV), human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and hepatitis-B (Hep-B). These agents were used in a model test panel to illustrate the performance of the Nano-LISA technique. A working laboratory prototype of a Nano-LISA microplate reader-sensor was assembled and tested against the panel containing specific antigens of each of the infectious viral agents. Optoacoustic (OA) responses generated by the samples were detected using the probe beam deflection technique, an all-optical, non-contact technique. A LabView graphical user interface was developed for control of the instrument and real-time display of the test results. The detection limit of Nano-LISA is at least 1 ng/ml of viral antigen, and can reach 10 pg/ml, depending on the binding affinity of the specific detection antibody used to synthesize the Ab-NR. The method has sufficient specificity, i.e. the detection reagents do not cross-react with noncomplementary antigens. Thus, the OA microplate reader, incorporating NanoLISA, has adequate detection sensitivity and specificity for use in clinical in vitro diagnostic testing.

  16. Growth mechanism of carbon nanotubes: a nano Czochralski model

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Carbon nanotubes (CNTs) have been under intense investigations during the past two decades due to their unique physical and chemical properties; however, there is still no commonly accepted growth mechanism to describe the growth behavior of CNTs. Here, we propose a nano Czochralski (CZ) model which regards the catalytic growth of a CNT as a CZ process taking place on the nano scale. The main idea is that, during the CNT growth, each catalyst particle acts as a nano crucible to nucleate and maintain the CNT growth, and the extruding CNT rotates relative to the nano crucible, leading to a chirality-dependent growth rate. In this case, the structural quality gradually changes along the CNT due to the dynamic generation-reconstruction-diffusion of defects during the CNT growth. The nano CZ mechanism may also apply to the catalytic growth of many other one-dimensional (1D) nanostructures (including various nanotubes and nanowires), thus further efforts will be stimulated in the quality and property control, as well as application explorations of these 1D nanomaterials. PMID:22747835

  17. NanoSail - D Orbital and Attitude Dynamics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Heaton, Andrew F.; Faller, Brent F.; Katan, Chelsea K.

    2013-01-01

    NanoSail-D unfurled January 20th, 2011 and successfully demonstrated the deployment and deorbit capability of a solar sail in low Earth orbit. The orbit was strongly perturbed by solar radiation pressure, aerodynamic drag, and oblate gravity which were modeled using STK HPOP. A comparison of the ballistic coefficient history to the orbit parameters exhibits a strong relationship between orbital lighting, the decay rate of the mean semi-major axis and mean eccentricity. A similar comparison of mean solar area using the STK HPOP solar radiation pressure model exhibits a strong correlation of solar radiation pressure to mean eccentricity and mean argument of perigee. NanoSail-D was not actively controlled and had no capability on-board for attitude or orbit determination. To estimate attitude dynamics we created a 3-DOF attitude dynamics simulation that incorporated highly realistic estimates of perturbing forces into NanoSail-D torque models. By comparing the results of this simulation to the orbital behavior and ground observations of NanoSail-D, we conclude that there is a coupling between the orbit and attitude dynamics as well as establish approximate limits on the location of the NanoSail-D solar center of pressure. Both of these observations contribute valuable data for future solar sail designs and missions.

  18. Ecological assessment of nano-enabled supercapacitors for automotive applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weil, M.; Dura, H.; Shimon, B.; Baumann, M.; Zimmermann, B.; Ziemann, S.; Lei, C.; Markoulidis, F.; Lekakou, T.; Decker, M.

    2012-09-01

    New materials on nano scale have the potential to overcome existing technical barriers and are one of the most promising key technologies to enable the decoupling of economic growth and resource consumption. Developing these innovative materials for industrial applications means facing a complex quality profile, which includes among others technical, economic, and ecological aspects. So far the two latter aspects are not sufficiently included in technology development, especially from a life cycle point of view. Supercapacitors are considered a promising option for electric energy storage in hybrid and full electric cars. In comparison with presently used lithium based electro chemical storage systems supercapacitors possess a high specific power, but a relatively low specific energy. Therefore, the goal of ongoing research is to develop a new generation of supercapacitors with high specific power and high specific energy. To reach this goal particularly nano materials are developed and tested on cell level. In the presented study the ecological implications (regarding known environmental effects) of carbon based nano materials are analysed using Life Cycle Assessment (LCA). Major attention is paid to efficiency gains of nano particle production due to scaling up of such processes from laboratory to industrial production scales. Furthermore, a developed approach will be displayed, how to assess the environmental impact of nano materials on an automotive system level over the whole life cycle.

  19. Graphene Nano-Composites for Hypervelocity Impact Applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Manasrah, Alharith

    The Low Earth Orbit (LEO) is a harsh environment cluttered with natural meteoroids and man-made debris, which can travel at velocities approaching 15 km/s. Most space activities within the LEO will encounter this environment. Thus, the spacecraft and its hardware must be designed to survive debris impact. This research introduces new procedures to produce a nano-composite material with mortar-brick nano-structure inspired from nacre. Nacre-like composites were successfully manufactured, based on three host polymers, with a wide range of graphene concentrations. The manufactured exfoliated graphene nano-platelet, embedded in a host polymer, provided good potential for enhancement of the hypervelocity impact (HVI) shield resistance. The nano-composites are suggested for use as a coating. Moreover, explicit dynamic finite element studies were conducted for further investigation of the hypervelocity impact of the graphene-based coatings in order to understand the effect of the coating on the crater formation and the exit velocity. This dissertation presents the results of the characterization and numerical sensitivity study of the developed material parameters. The numerical simulations were performed by implementing Autodyn smooth particle hydrodynamics. This study provides innovative, low-weight shielding enhancements for spacecraft, as well as other promising applications for the manufactured nano-composites.

  20. PREFACE: International Conference on Structural Nano Composites (NANOSTRUC 2012)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Njuguna, James

    2012-09-01

    Dear Colleagues It is a great pleasure to welcome you to NanoStruc2012 at Cranfield University. The purpose of the 2012 International Conference on Structural Nano Composites (NanoStruc2012) is to promote activities in various areas of materials and structures by providing a forum for exchange of ideas, presentation of technical achievements and discussion of future directions. NanoStruc brings together an international community of experts to discuss the state-of-the-art, new research results, perspectives of future developments, and innovative applications relevant to structural materials, engineering structures, nanocomposites, modelling and simulations, and their related application areas. The conference is split in 7 panel sessions, Metallic Nanocomposites and Coatings, Silica based Nanocomposites, safty of Nanomaterials, Carboin based Nanocomposites, Multscale Modelling, Bio materials and Application of Nanomaterials. All accepted Papers will be published in the IOP Conference Series: Materials Science and Engineering (MSE), and included in the NanoStruc online digital library. The abstracts will be indexed in Scopus, Compedex, Inspec, INIS (International Nuclear Information System), Chemical Abstracts, NASA Astrophysics Data System and Polymer Library. Before ending this message, I would like to acknowledge the hard work, professional skills and efficiency of the team which ensured the general organisation. As a conclusion, I would like to Welcome you to the Nanostruc2012 and wish you a stimulating Conference and a wonderful time. On behalf of the scientific committee, Signature James Njuguna Conference Chair The PDF of this preface also contains committee listings and associates logos.

  1. Production and Application of Olivine Nano-Silica in Concrete

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mardiana, Oesman; Haryadi

    2017-05-01

    The aim of this research was to produce nano silica by synthesis of nano silica through extraction and dissolution of ground olivine rock, and applied the nano silica in the design concrete mix. The producing process of amorphous silica used sulfuric acid as the dissolution reagent. The separation of ground olivine rock occurred when the rock was heated in a batch reactor containing sulfuric acid. The results showed that the optimum mole ratio of olivine- acid was 1: 8 wherein the weight ratio of the highest nano silica generated. The heating temperature and acid concentration influenced the mass of silica produced, that was at temperature of 90 °C and 3 M acid giving the highest yield of 44.90%. Characterization using Fourier Transform Infrared (FTIR ) concluded that amorphous silica at a wavenumber of 1089 cm-1 indicated the presence of siloxane, Si-O-Si, stretching bond. Characterization using Scanning Electron Microscope - Energy Dispersive Spectroscopy (SEM-EDS) showed the surface and the size of the silica particles. The average size of silica particles was between 1-10 μm due to the rapid aggregation of the growing particles of nano silica into microparticles, caused of the pH control was not fully achieved.

  2. Polychromatic white LED using GaN nano pyramid structure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Taek; Kim, Jusung; Yang, Moonseung; Park, Yongsoo; Chung, U.-In; Ko, Yongho; Cho, Yonghoon

    2013-03-01

    We have developed monolithic white light emitting diodes (LEDs) with a hybrid structure of planar c-planes and nano size hexagonal pyramids. The white spectrum is composed of blue and yellow emissions from the InGaN multi quantum wells (MQWs) on the planar c-planes and on the nano pyramids, respectively. The yellow emission is originated from quantum wells, wires, and dots that are formed at the sides, edges, and tops of the nano-pyramids, respectively. As a result, the emission peaks are different and the entire yellow spectrum is broad enough to make a white in combination with a blue emission. The longer wavelength from the InGaN on nano-pyramids than the wavelength from the InGaN on c-planes is explained by excess In supply from the dielectric selective growth mask. The color temperature is tuned from 3600K to 6400K by controlling the relative area ratio of c-plane and nano-pyramids.

  3. Nano zinc oxide-sodium alginate antibacterial cellulose fibres.

    PubMed

    Varaprasad, Kokkarachedu; Raghavendra, Gownolla Malegowd; Jayaramudu, Tippabattini; Seo, Jongchul

    2016-01-01

    In the present study, antibacterial cellulose fibres were successfully fabricated by a simple and cost-effective procedure by utilizing nano zinc oxide. The possible nano zinc oxide was successfully synthesized by precipitation technique and then impregnated effectively over cellulose fibres through sodium alginate matrix. XRD analysis revealed the 'rod-like' shape alignment of zinc oxide with an interplanar d-spacing of 0.246nm corresponding to the (101) planes of the hexagonal wurtzite structure. TEM analysis confirmed the nano dimension of the synthesized zinc oxide nanoparticles. The presence of nano zinc oxide over cellulose fibres was evident from the SEM-EDS experiments. FTIR and TGA studies exhibited their effective bonding interaction. The tensile stress-strain curves data indicated the feasibility of the fabricated fibres for longer duration utility without any significant damage or breakage. The antibacterial studies against Escherichia coli revealed the excellent bacterial devastation property. Further, it was observed that when all the parameters remained constant, the variation of sodium alginate concentration showed impact in devastating the E. coli. In overall, the fabricated nano zinc oxide-sodium alginate cellulose fibres can be effectively utilized as antibacterial fibres for biomedical applications. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. NanoSQUIDs based on niobium nitride films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Russo, R.; Esposito, E.; Crescitelli, A.; Di Gennaro, E.; Granata, C.; Vettoliere, A.; Cristiano, R.; Lisitskiy, M.

    2017-02-01

    We present an experimental investigation of nanoSQUIDs based on niobium nitride films. Niobium nitride has a relatively high critical temperature and a large upper critical magnetic field, making it a good material for superconducting electronics working in high magnetic field. We have fabricated nanoSQUIDs using electron beam lithography lift-off technique and deposition of niobium nitride films by magnetron sputtering at room temperature. The characterization of nanoSQUIDs was performed at 4.2 K and it consists mainly of current-voltage (IV) characteristics and critical current as a function of external magnetic field (magnetic pattern). The fabricated nanoSQUIDs show a hysteretic IV characteristic and they present a multi-values magnetic pattern. We show that by reducing the critical current by ion etching it is possible to obtain nanoSQUIDs with a single value magnetic pattern suitable for magnetic particle measurements. Magnetic noise analysis has been performed and a white noise of 0.3 μΦ0 Hz-1/2 has been estimated.

  5. Repairing 45 nm node defects through nano-machining

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    White, Roy; Dinsdale, Andrew; Robinson, Tod; Brinkley, David; Csuy, Jeffrey; Lee, David

    2007-10-01

    Recently questions have been raised about whether high aspect ratio (HAR) NanoBits TM can be effectively utilized to repair extension defects in 45 nm node and beyond. The primary concern has been how the effect of NanoBit TM deflection impacts edge placement, sidewall angle and z-depth control repeatability. Higher aspect ratio bits are required for defects that arise as mask feature sizes become smaller. As the aspect ratio of the NanoBit TM continues to increase to meet these demands, the cross sectional area of the bit used for nanomachining becomes thinner and more susceptible to bending under the forces applied during the nanomachining process. This is especially true when deeper features that require HAR NanoBits TM are being repaired. To overcome this trend RAVE LLC has developed a new repair process that utilizes the strength of the bit shape. Repair of 45 nm node defects that require HAR NanoBits TM will be demonstrated using a new repair process and cantilever design.

  6. Leaching of nano-ZnO in municipal solid waste.

    PubMed

    Sakallioglu, T; Bakirdoven, M; Temizel, I; Demirel, B; Copty, N K; Onay, T T; Uyguner Demirel, C S; Karanfil, T

    2016-11-05

    Despite widespread use of engineered nanomaterials (ENMs) in commercial products and their potential disposal in landfills, the fate of ENMs in solid waste environments are still not well understood. In this study, the leaching behavior of nano ZnO -one of the most used ENMs- in fresh municipal solid waste (MSW) was investigated. Batch reactors containing municipal solid waste samples were spiked with three different types of nano ZnO having different surface stabilization. The leaching of ZnO was examined under acidic, basic and elevated ionic strength (IS) conditions. The results of the 3-day batch tests showed that the percent of the added nano-ZnO mass retained within the solid waste matrix ranged between 80% and 93% on average for the three types of nano-ZnO tested. The pH and IS conditions did not significantly influence the leaching behavior of ZnO. To further analyze the behavior of ZnO in the MSW matrix, a kinetic particle deposition/detachment model was developed. The model was able to reproduce the main trends of the batch experiments. Reaction rate constants for the batch tests ranged from 0.01 to 0.4 1/hr, reflecting the rapid deposition of nano-ZnO within the MSW matrix.

  7. Viscoelasticity of Epoxy nano-composites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ahuja, Suresh

    2013-03-01

    Nanocomposites have been modeled in a multiscale covering from molecular scale (e.g., molecular dynamics, Monte Carlo), microscale (e.g., Brownian dynamics, dissipative particle dynamics, lattice Boltzmann, time-dependent Ginzburg-Landau method, dynamic density functional theory method) to mesoscale and macroscale (e.g., micromechanics, equivalent-continuum and self-similar approaches, finite element method) The presence of layered silicates in nonaqueous polymers changes the viscoelastic behavior of the unfilled matrix from liquid-like to solid-like because of the formation of a three-dimensional percolating network of exfoliated or intercalated stacks. This gel-like behavior is a direct consequence of the highly anisotropic nature of the nanoclays which prevents their free rotation and the dissipation of stress. Particle to particle interactions is the dominant mechanism in fumed silica nanocomposites whereas particle to polymer interaction is the dominant one in colloidal silica nanocomposites at identical filler concentrations. These interactions are balanced in each nanocomposite systems by the silica surface treatments (chain grafting, silane modification) and the molecular weight of the matrix. Two different types of nanocomposite structures exist namely, intercalated nanocomposites where the polymer chains are sandwiched between silicate layers and exfoliated nanocomposites where the layers can be considered individually but remain more or less dispersed in the polymer matrix. Yield stress from Carreau-Yasuda model has been correlated to exfoliation. Also, equilibrium modulus and zero shear rate viscosity has been used to analyze percolation threshold and sol-gel transition. Nano clays organically functionalized were mixed with Epoxy in a high shear mixer.

  8. Nano-ADEPT Aeroloads Wind Tunnel Test

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, Brandon; Yount, Bryan; Kruger, Carl; Brivkalns, Chad; Makino, Alberto; Cassell, Alan; Zarchi, Kerry; McDaniel, Ryan; Ross, James; Wercinski, Paul; Venkatapathy, Ethiraj; Swanson, Gregory; Gold, Nili

    2016-01-01

    A wind tunnel test of the Adaptable Deployable Entry and Placement Technology (ADEPT) was conducted in April 2015 at the US Army's 7 by10 Foot Wind Tunnel located at NASA Ames Research Center. Key geometric features of the fabric test article were a 0.7 meter deployed base diameter, a 70 degree half-angle forebody cone angle, eight ribs, and a nose-to-base radius ratio of 0.7. The primary objective of this wind tunnel test was to obtain static deflected shape and pressure distributions while varying pretension at dynamic pressures and angles of attack relevant to entry conditions at Earth, Mars, and Venus. Other objectives included obtaining aerodynamic force and moment data and determining the presence and magnitude of any dynamic aeroelastic behavior (buzz/flutter) in the fabric trailing edge. All instrumentation systems worked as planned and a rich data set was obtained. This paper describes the test articles, instrumentation systems, data products, and test results. Four notable conclusions are drawn. First, test data support adopting a pre-tension lower bound of 10 foot pounds per inch for Nano-ADEPT mission applications in order to minimize the impact of static deflection. Second, test results indicate that the fabric conditioning process needs to be reevaluated. Third, no flutter/buzz of the fabric was observed for any test condition and should also not occur at hypersonic speeds. Fourth, translating one of the gores caused ADEPT to generate lift without the need for a center of gravity offset. At hypersonic speeds, the lift generated by actuating ADEPT gores could be used for vehicle control.

  9. Nano-FTIR for Geochemical Sample Analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dominguez, G.; McCleod, A.; Gainsforth, Z.; Keilmann, F.; Westphal, A.; Thiemens, M. H.; Basov, D.

    2014-12-01

    Infrared (IR) spectroscopy is considered by many to be the "gold standard" for chemical identification, providing a direct connection between chemical compounds found in the laboratory and those found in natural samples including remote astrophysical environments. However, a well known limitation of using conventional IR spectroscopy is its spatial resolution determined by the wavelength of IR photons. Thus, while other techniques such as XANES and micro-Raman are capable of limited functional group mapping at tens to hundreds of nanometers, their use is limited by accessibility (the need for synchrotron beamlines) or the need for intense irradiation conditions (Raman) that can lead to sample alteration. These limitations and the wealth of information that can be extracted from detailed studies of unique micron-sized samples brought back by recent sample return missions such as NASA's Stardust mission, have motivated the development of a novel infrared mapping technique that is capable of mapping the chemical functional properties of geochemical samples with submicron resolutions. Here we describe our nano-FTIR imaging and analysis technique that allows us to bypass diffraction limited sample imaging in the infrared. Here we show, for the first time, that 1) the combination of an atomic-force microscope (AFM) and laser can be used to obtain the FTIR-equivalent spectra on spatial scales that are much smaller than the wavelength of IR radiation used 2) this technique responds to subtle shifts in cation concentrations as evidenced by changes in the frequencies of phonons at sub-micron scales 3) this technique can be used to identify regions of crystalline and semi-crystalline materials as demonstrated in our analysis of a cometary dust grain Iris. This work has clear implications for interpretations of astronomical observations and adds a new technique for the non-destructive characterization of terrestrial and extraterrestrial samples.

  10. X-ray Studies of Nano Composites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hexemer, Alexander

    Nano composite materials are an exciting and fast expanding field. X-ray scattering has been used in order to study the structure properties relation. During the last few years the field has expanded more towards the field of thin films where there's been a dramatic increase in the use of grazing incidence small angle X-ray scattering (GISAXS). The main issue of GISAXS has been the complex analysis framework necessary for simulating and fitting. In addition, existing software has restricted the scientist in systems that can be simulated and the speed to analyze large amounts of data. Over the last few years we have worked closely with our computational research and supercomputer division to enable the use of supercomputers to simulate at scattering data. We have developed a comprehensive analysis framework to simulate and fit a wide variety of materials and morphologies. The framework is designed to supply scientists with close to real-time feedback during beam times. Therefore, HipGISAXS (High Performance GISAXS) has been developed to run simulations on massively parallel platforms such as the Oak Ridge Supercomputer Titan (OLCF). Further, with inverse modeling algorithms for fitting available in HipGISAXS, such as particle swarm optimization, it can handle a large number of parameters during the structure fitting process. In September of 2014, HipGISAXS was used in a real time demonstration that married the SAXS/WAXS beamline at the ALS with the data handling and processing capabilities at NERSC, and simulation capabilities of running at-scale simulations on Titan at OLCF. Doe Early Carrier Award, SPOT and CAMERA.

  11. Electrospinning for nano- to mesoscale photonic structures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Skinner, Jack L.; Andriolo, Jessica M.; Murphy, John P.; Ross, Brandon M.

    2017-08-01

    The fabrication of photonic and electronic structures and devices has directed the manufacturing industry for the last 50 years. Currently, the majority of small-scale photonic devices are created by traditional microfabrication techniques that create features by processes such as lithography and electron or ion beam direct writing. Microfabrication techniques are often expensive and slow. In contrast, the use of electrospinning (ES) in the fabrication of micro- and nano-scale devices for the manipulation of photons and electrons provides a relatively simple and economic viable alternative. ES involves the delivery of a polymer solution to a capillary held at a high voltage relative to the fiber deposition surface. Electrostatic force developed between the collection plate and the polymer promotes fiber deposition onto the collection plate. Issues with ES fabrication exist primarily due to an instability region that exists between the capillary and collection plate and is characterized by chaotic motion of the depositing polymer fiber. Material limitations to ES also exist; not all polymers of interest are amenable to the ES process due to process dependencies on molecular weight and chain entanglement or incompatibility with other polymers and overall process compatibility. Passive and active electronic and photonic fibers fabricated through the ES have great potential for use in light generation and collection in optical and electronic structures/devices. ES produces fiber devices that can be combined with inorganic, metallic, biological, or organic materials for novel device design. Synergistic material selection and post-processing techniques are also utilized for broad-ranging applications of organic nanofibers that span from biological to electronic, photovoltaic, or photonic. As the ability to electrospin optically and/or electronically active materials in a controlled manner continues to improve, the complexity and diversity of devices fabricated from this

  12. Electrospinning for nano- to mesoscale photonic structures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Skinner, Jack L.; Andriolo, Jessica M.; Murphy, John P.; Ross, Brandon M.

    2016-12-01

    The fabrication of photonic and electronic structures and devices has directed the manufacturing industry for the last 50 years. Currently, the majority of small-scale photonic devices are created by traditional microfabrication techniques that create features by processes such as lithography and electron or ion beam direct writing. Microfabrication techniques are often expensive and slow. In contrast, the use of electrospinning (ES) in the fabrication of micro- and nano-scale devices for the manipulation of photons and electrons provides a relatively simple and economic viable alternative. ES involves the delivery of a polymer solution to a capillary held at a high voltage relative to the fiber deposition surface. Electrostatic force developed between the collection plate and the polymer promotes fiber deposition onto the collection plate. Issues with ES fabrication exist primarily due to an instability region that exists between the capillary and collection plate and is characterized by chaotic motion of the depositing polymer fiber. Material limitations to ES also exist; not all polymers of interest are amenable to the ES process due to process dependencies on molecular weight and chain entanglement or incompatibility with other polymers and overall process compatibility. Passive and active electronic and photonic fibers fabricated through the ES have great potential for use in light generation and collection in optical and electronic structures/devices. ES produces fiber devices that can be combined with inorganic, metallic, biological, or organic materials for novel device design. Synergistic material selection and post-processing techniques are also utilized for broad-ranging applications of organic nanofibers that span from biological to electronic, photovoltaic, or photonic. As the ability to electrospin optically and/or electronically active materials in a controlled manner continues to improve, the complexity and diversity of devices fabricated from this

  13. Sprayable superhydrophobic nano-chains coating with continuous self-jumping of dew and melting frost

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Shanlin; Zhang, Wenwen; Yu, Xinquan; Liang, Caihua; Zhang, Youfa

    2017-01-01

    Spontaneous movement of condensed matter provides a new insight to efficiently improve condensation heat transfer on superhydrophobic surface. However, very few reports have shown the jumping behaviors on the sprayable superhydrophobic coatings. Here, we developed a sprayable silica nano-porous coating assembled by fluorinated nano-chains to survey the condensates’ dynamics. The dewdrops were continuously removed by self- and/or trigger-propelling motion due to abundant nano-pores from random multilayer stacking of nano-chains. In comparison, the dewdrops just could be slipped under the gravity effect on lack of nano-pores coatings stacked by silica nano-spheres and nano-aggregates. More interestingly, the spontaneous jumping effect also occurred on micro-scale frost crystals under the defrosting process on nano-chains coating surfaces. Different from self-jumping of dewdrops motion, the propelling force of frost crystals were provided by a sudden increase of the pressure under the frost crystal. PMID:28074938

  14. Sprayable superhydrophobic nano-chains coating with continuous self-jumping of dew and melting frost.

    PubMed

    Wang, Shanlin; Zhang, Wenwen; Yu, Xinquan; Liang, Caihua; Zhang, Youfa

    2017-01-11

    Spontaneous movement of condensed matter provides a new insight to efficiently improve condensation heat transfer on superhydrophobic surface. However, very few reports have shown the jumping behaviors on the sprayable superhydrophobic coatings. Here, we developed a sprayable silica nano-porous coating assembled by fluorinated nano-chains to survey the condensates' dynamics. The dewdrops were continuously removed by self- and/or trigger-propelling motion due to abundant nano-pores from random multilayer stacking of nano-chains. In comparison, the dewdrops just could be slipped under the gravity effect on lack of nano-pores coatings stacked by silica nano-spheres and nano-aggregates. More interestingly, the spontaneous jumping effect also occurred on micro-scale frost crystals under the defrosting process on nano-chains coating surfaces. Different from self-jumping of dewdrops motion, the propelling force of frost crystals were provided by a sudden increase of the pressure under the frost crystal.

  15. Plasmonic Au nano-needle fabricated by optical vortex laser illumination

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Izumisawa, Kai; Sugimoto, Tatsuyuki; Nakamura, Yuri; Miyamoto, Katsuhiko; Torimoto, Tsukasa; Morita, Ryuji; Omatsu, Takashige

    2017-04-01

    We reported on a plasmonic metal Au nano-needle by nanosecond optical vortex pulse illumination. The Au nano-needle with a tip-diameter of <100 nm was structured by illumination of a single vortex pulse.

  16. Sprayable superhydrophobic nano-chains coating with continuous self-jumping of dew and melting frost

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Shanlin; Zhang, Wenwen; Yu, Xinquan; Liang, Caihua; Zhang, Youfa

    2017-01-01

    Spontaneous movement of condensed matter provides a new insight to efficiently improve condensation heat transfer on superhydrophobic surface. However, very few reports have shown the jumping behaviors on the sprayable superhydrophobic coatings. Here, we developed a sprayable silica nano-porous coating assembled by fluorinated nano-chains to survey the condensates’ dynamics. The dewdrops were continuously removed by self- and/or trigger-propelling motion due to abundant nano-pores from random multilayer stacking of nano-chains. In comparison, the dewdrops just could be slipped under the gravity effect on lack of nano-pores coatings stacked by silica nano-spheres and nano-aggregates. More interestingly, the spontaneous jumping effect also occurred on micro-scale frost crystals under the defrosting process on nano-chains coating surfaces. Different from self-jumping of dewdrops motion, the propelling force of frost crystals were provided by a sudden increase of the pressure under the frost crystal.

  17. Improvement of Delamination Resistance in Composite Laminates with Nano-Interlayers (Preprint)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2006-01-01

    AFRL-ML-WP-TP-2006-409 IMPROVEMENT OF DELAMINATION RESISTANCE IN COMPOSITE LAMINATES WITH NANO - INTERLAYERS (PREPRINT) Sangwook Sihn, Jin W...IMPROVEMENT OF DELAMINATION RESISTANCE IN COMPOSITE LAMINATES WITH NANO -INTERLAYERS (PREPRINT) 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 62102F 5d. PROJECT NUMBER...is a nano -interlayer which can be fabricated in the form of either a thin film of nano -modified epoxy reinforced with vapor grown nanofibers or a

  18. High-Throughput Nano-Biofilm Microarray for Antifungal Drug Discovery

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-06-25

    High-Throughput Nano- Biofilm Microarray for Antifungal Drug Discovery Anand Srinivasan,a,c Kai P. Leung,d Jose L. Lopez-Ribot,b,c Anand K...albicans biofilms (“nano- biofilms ”) encapsulated in an inert alginate matrix. We demonstrate that these nano- biofilms are similar to conventional...macroscopic biofilms in their morphological, ar- chitectural, growth, and phenotypic characteristics. We also demonstrate that the nano- biofilm microarray

  19. Weatherability and leach resistance of wood impregnated with nano-zinc oxide

    Treesearch

    Carol A. Clausen; Frederick Green; S. Nami Kartal

    2010-01-01

    Southern pine specimens vacuum-treated with nano-zinc oxide (nano-ZnO) dispersions were evaluated for leach resistance and UV protection. Virtually, no leaching occurred in any of the nano-ZnO–treated specimens in a laboratory leach test, even at the highest retention of 13 kg/m3. However, specimens treated with high concentrations of nano-ZnO...

  20. Reverse micelle-loaded lipid nano-emulsions: new technology for nano-encapsulation of hydrophilic materials.

    PubMed

    Anton, Nicolas; Mojzisova, Halina; Porcher, Emilien; Benoit, Jean-Pierre; Saulnier, Patrick

    2010-10-15

    This study presents novel, recently patented technology for encapsulating hydrophilic species in lipid nano-emulsions. The method is based on the phase-inversion temperature method (the so-called PIT method), which follows a low-energy and solvent-free process. The nano-emulsions formed are stable for months, and exhibit droplet sizes ranging from 10 to 200 nm. Hydrophilic model molecules of fluorescein sodium salt are encapsulated in the oily core of these nano-emulsion droplets through their solubilisation in the reverse micellar system. As a result, original, multi-scaled nano-objects are generated with a 'hydrophilic molecule in a reverse-micelles-in-oil-in-water' structure. Once fluorescein has been encapsulated it remains stable, for thermodynamic reasons, and the encapsulation yields can reach 90%. The reason why such complex objects can be formed is due to the soft method used (PIT method) which allows the conservation of the structure of the reverse micelles throughout the formulation process, up to their entrapment in the nano-emulsion droplets. In this study, we focus the investigation on the process itself, revealing its potential and limits. Since the formulation of nanocarriers for the encapsulation of hydrophilic substances still remains a challenge, this study may constitute a significant advance in this field. Copyright 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Structural and optical characterization of GaAs nano-crystals selectively grown on Si nano-tips by MOVPE.

    PubMed

    Skibitzki, Oliver; Prieto, Ivan; Kozak, Roksolana; Capellini, Giovanni; Zaumseil, Peter; Arroyo Rojas Dasilva, Yadira; Rossell, Marta D; Erni, Rolf; von Känel, Hans; Schroeder, Thomas

    2017-03-01

    We present the nanoheteroepitaxial growth of gallium arsenide (GaAs) on nano-patterned silicon (Si) (001) substrates fabricated using a CMOS technology compatible process. The selective growth of GaAs nano-crystals (NCs) was achieved at 570 °C by MOVPE. A detailed structure and defect characterization study of the grown nano-heterostructures was performed using scanning transmission electron microscopy, x-ray diffraction, micro-Raman, and micro-photoluminescence (μ-PL) spectroscopy. The results show single-crystalline, nearly relaxed GaAs NCs on top of slightly, by the SiO2-mask compressively strained Si nano-tips (NTs). Given the limited contact area, GaAs/Si nanostructures benefit from limited intermixing in contrast to planar GaAs films on Si. Even though a few growth defects (e.g. stacking faults, micro/nano-twins, etc) especially located at the GaAs/Si interface region were detected, the nanoheterostructures show intensive light emission, as investigated by μ-PL spectroscopy. Achieving well-ordered high quality GaAs NCs on Si NTs may provide opportunities for superior electronic, photonic, or photovoltaic device performances integrated on the silicon technology platform.

  2. Structural and optical characterization of GaAs nano-crystals selectively grown on Si nano-tips by MOVPE

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Skibitzki, Oliver; Prieto, Ivan; Kozak, Roksolana; Capellini, Giovanni; Zaumseil, Peter; Arroyo Rojas Dasilva, Yadira; Rossell, Marta D.; Erni, Rolf; von Känel, Hans; Schroeder, Thomas

    2017-03-01

    We present the nanoheteroepitaxial growth of gallium arsenide (GaAs) on nano-patterned silicon (Si) (001) substrates fabricated using a CMOS technology compatible process. The selective growth of GaAs nano-crystals (NCs) was achieved at 570 °C by MOVPE. A detailed structure and defect characterization study of the grown nano-heterostructures was performed using scanning transmission electron microscopy, x-ray diffraction, micro-Raman, and micro-photoluminescence (μ-PL) spectroscopy. The results show single-crystalline, nearly relaxed GaAs NCs on top of slightly, by the SiO2-mask compressively strained Si nano-tips (NTs). Given the limited contact area, GaAs/Si nanostructures benefit from limited intermixing in contrast to planar GaAs films on Si. Even though a few growth defects (e.g. stacking faults, micro/nano-twins, etc) especially located at the GaAs/Si interface region were detected, the nanoheterostructures show intensive light emission, as investigated by μ-PL spectroscopy. Achieving well-ordered high quality GaAs NCs on Si NTs may provide opportunities for superior electronic, photonic, or photovoltaic device performances integrated on the silicon technology platform.

  3. A dual-chambered microbial fuel cell with Ti/nano-TiO2/Pd nano-structure cathode

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hosseini, Mir Ghasem; Ahadzadeh, Iraj

    2012-12-01

    In this research, Ti/nano-TiO2/Pd nano-structure electrode is prepared, characterized and applied as cathode electrode in a dual-chambered microbial fuel cell with graphite anode and Flemion cation exchange membrane. Prepared nano-structured electrode morphology and mixed-culture biofilm formed on the anode are studied by scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Cell performance is investigated by polarization, cyclic voltammetery (CV) and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) methods. Results show that Ti/nano-TiO2/Pd electrode exhibits satisfactory long term performance as a cathode to reduce water dissolved oxygen. The maximum output power of the cell is about 200 mW m-2 normalized to the cathode surface area. Open circuit potential (OCP) of the cell is about 480 mV and value of the short circuit current is 0.21 mA cm-2 of the cathode geometric surface area. Thus this nano-structure cathode can produce comparable output power to that of platinum-based cathodes such as Pt-doped carbon paper; therefore due to the ease of preparation and low cost, this electrode can be applied as alternative to platinum-based cathodes in microbial fuel cells.

  4. Nano-composite of silk fibroin-chitosan/Nano ZrO2 for tissue engineering applications: fabrication and morphology.

    PubMed

    Teimouri, Abbas; Ebrahimi, Raheleh; Emadi, Rahmatollah; Beni, Batool Hashemi; Chermahini, Alireza Najafi

    2015-05-01

    A scaffold possessing certain desired features such as biodegradation, biocompatibility, and porous structure could serve as a template for tissue engineering. In the present study, silk fibroin (SF), chitosan (CS) and zirconia (Nano ZrO2) were all combined using the freeze drying technique to fabricate a bio-composite scaffold. The composite scaffold (SF/CS/Nano ZrO2) was characterized by SEM, XRD, TGA, BET and FT-IR studies. The scaffold was found to possess a porous nature with pore dimensions suitable for cell infiltration and colonization. The presence of zirconia in the SF/CS/Nano ZrO2 scaffold led to an increase in compressive strength and water uptake capacity while at the same time decreasing the porosity. Cytocompatibility of the SF/CS/Nano ZrO2 scaffold, assessed by MTT assay, revealed non-toxicity to the Human Gingival Fibroblast (HGF, NCBI: C-131). Thus, we suggest that SF/CS/Nano ZrO2 composite scaffold is a potential candidate to be used for tissue engineering.

  5. Nano-antidotes for drug overdose and poisoning.

    PubMed

    Forster, Vincent; Leroux, Jean-Christophe

    2015-06-03

    The number of intoxications from xenobiotics--natural or synthetic foreign chemicals, or substances given in higher doses than typically present in humans--has risen tremendously in the last decade, placing poisoning as the leading external cause of death in the United States. This epidemic has fostered the development of antidotal nanomedicines, which we call "nano-antidotes," capable of efficiently neutralizing offending compounds in situ. Although prototype nano-antidotes have shown efficacy in proof-of-concept studies, the gap to clinical translation can only be filled if issues such as the clinical relevance of intoxication models and the safety profile of nano-antidotes are properly addressed. As the unmet medical needs in resuscitative care call for better treatments, this Perspective critically reviews the recent progress in antidotal medicine and emerging nanotechnologies.

  6. Near Infrared Fluorescent NanoGUMBOS for Biomedical Imaging

    PubMed Central

    Bwambok, David K.; El-Zahab, Bilal; Challa, Santhosh K.; Li, Min; Chandler, Lin; Baker, Gary A.; Warner, Isiah M.

    2009-01-01

    Herein, we report on near infrared (NIR) fluorescent nanoparticles generated from an emergent class of materials we refer to as a Group of Uniform Materials Based on Organic Salts (GUMBOS). GUMBOS are largely frozen ionic liquids, although the concept is more general and is also easily applied to solid ionic materials with melting points in excess of 100 °C. Nanoparticles based on GUMBOS (nanoGUMBOS) derived from a NIR fluorophore are prepared using a reprecipitation method and evaluated for in vivo fluorescence imaging. Due to their uniformity, single-step preparation, and composite nature, nanoGUMBOS help to resolve issues with dye leakage problems innate to alternate cellular stains and unlock a myriad of applications for these materials, highlighting exciting possibilities for multifunctional nanoGUMBOS. PMID:19928781

  7. A triple quantum dot based nano-electromechanical memory device

    SciTech Connect

    Pozner, R.; Lifshitz, E.; Peskin, U.

    2015-09-14

    Colloidal quantum dots (CQDs) are free-standing nano-structures with chemically tunable electronic properties. This tunability offers intriguing possibilities for nano-electromechanical devices. In this work, we consider a nano-electromechanical nonvolatile memory (NVM) device incorporating a triple quantum dot (TQD) cluster. The device operation is based on a bias induced motion of a floating quantum dot (FQD) located between two bound quantum dots (BQDs). The mechanical motion is used for switching between two stable states, “ON” and “OFF” states, where ligand-mediated effective interdot forces between the BQDs and the FQD serve to hold the FQD in each stable position under zero bias. Considering realistic microscopic parameters, our quantum-classical theoretical treatment of the TQD reveals the characteristics of the NVM.

  8. Light-harvesting synthetic nano- and micromotors: a review.

    PubMed

    Eskandarloo, Hamed; Kierulf, Arkaye; Abbaspourrad, Alireza

    2017-08-31

    Nano- and micromotors are machines that can be made to perform specialized tasks as they propel themselves in response to certain stimuli. While the design of these self-propelling nano- and micromotors remains challenging, they have nevertheless attracted considerable research due to their many promising applications. Most self-propelled nano- and micromotors are based on the conversion of chemical energy into mechanical movement. Recently, however, the development of motors that can be propelled by light as an external stimulus has received much attention. The reason being that light is a renewable energy source that does not require any physical connection to the motor, does not usually lead to any waste products, and is easy to control. This review highlights recent progress in the development of light-harvesting synthetic motors that can be efficiently propelled and accurately controlled by exposure to light, and gives an overview of their fabrication methods, propulsion mechanisms, and practical applications.

  9. Gas sensing performance of nano zinc oxide sensors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sharma, Shiva; Chauhan, Pratima

    2016-04-01

    We report nano Zinc Oxide (ZnO) synthesized by sol-gel method possessing the crystallite size which varies from 25.17 nm to 47.27 nm. The Scanning electron microscope (SEM) image confirms the uniform distribution of nanograins with high porosity. The Energy dispersion X-ray (EDAX) spectrum gives the atomic composition of Zn and O in ZnO powders and confirms the formation of nano ZnO particles. These factors reveals that Nano ZnO based gas sensors are highly sensitive to Ammonia gas (NH3) at room temperature, indicating the maximum response 86.8% at 800 ppm with fast response time and recovery time of 36 sec and 23 sec respectively.

  10. Micro- and nano-structure based oligonucleotide sensors.

    PubMed

    Ferrier, David C; Shaver, Michael P; Hands, Philip J W

    2015-06-15

    This paper presents a review of micro- and nano-structure based oligonucleotide detection and quantification techniques. The characteristics of such devices make them very attractive for Point-of-Care or On-Site-Testing biosensing applications. Their small scale means that they can be robust and portable, their compatibility with modern CMOS electronics means that they can easily be incorporated into hand-held devices and their suitability for mass production means that, out of the different approaches to oligonucleotide detection, they are the most suitable for commercialisation. This review discusses the advantages of micro- and nano-structure based sensors and covers the various oligonucleotide detection techniques that have been developed to date. These include: Bulk Acoustic Wave and Surface Acoustic Wave devices, micro- and nano-cantilever sensors, gene Field Effect Transistors, and nanowire and nanopore based sensors. Oligonucleotide immobilisation techniques are also discussed.

  11. About Nano-JASMINE Satellite System and Project Status

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sako, Nobutada

    Intelligent Space Systems Laboratory, The University of Tokyo (ISSL) and National Astronomical Observatory of Japan (NAO) have been developing a small infrared astrometry satellite named “Nano-JASMINE”. The satellite size is about 50cm cubic and 20kg, which plays a pre-cursor role of JASMINE Project which is programmed by NAO and JAXA. In addition, since there has been only one astrometry satellite HIPPARCOS by ESA in the past, Nano-JASMINE is also expected to achieve certain scientific results in the field of astrometry. In this project, ISSL aims to develop new advanced small satellite bus system whose performance is comparable to that of 100-500kg sized satellites, including attitude stability of 1 arc-second and thermal stability of the mission subsystem of 1 mK. This paper overviews the Nano-JASMINE bus system with emphasis on attitude and thermal control systems.

  12. Gas sensing performance of nano zinc oxide sensors

    SciTech Connect

    Sharma, Shiva Chauhan, Pratima

    2016-04-13

    We report nano Zinc Oxide (ZnO) synthesized by sol-gel method possessing the crystallite size which varies from 25.17 nm to 47.27 nm. The Scanning electron microscope (SEM) image confirms the uniform distribution of nanograins with high porosity. The Energy dispersion X-ray (EDAX) spectrum gives the atomic composition of Zn and O in ZnO powders and confirms the formation of nano ZnO particles. These factors reveals that Nano ZnO based gas sensors are highly sensitive to Ammonia gas (NH{sub 3}) at room temperature, indicating the maximum response 86.8% at 800 ppm with fast response time and recovery time of 36 sec and 23 sec respectively.

  13. Broadband infrared vibrational nano-spectroscopy using thermal blackbody radiation

    DOE PAGES

    O’Callahan, Brian T.; Lewis, William E.; Möbius, Silke; ...

    2015-12-03

    Infrared vibrational nano-spectroscopy based on scattering scanning near-field optical microscopy (s-SNOM) provides intrinsic chemical specificity with nanometer spatial resolution. Here we use incoherent infrared radiation from a 1400 K thermal blackbody emitter for broadband infrared (IR) nano-spectroscopy.With optimized interferometric heterodyne signal amplification we achieve few-monolayer sensitivity in phonon polariton spectroscopy and attomolar molecular vibrational spectroscopy. Near-field localization and nanoscale spatial resolution is demonstrated in imaging flakes of hexagonal boron nitride (hBN) and determination of its phonon polariton dispersion relation. The signal-to-noise ratio calculations and analysis for different samples and illumination sources provide a reference for irradiance requirements and the attainablemore » near-field signal levels in s-SNOM in general. As a result, the use of a thermal emitter as an IR source thus opens s-SNOM for routine chemical FTIR nano-spectroscopy.« less

  14. Active Targeted Drug Delivery for Microbes Using Nano-Carriers

    PubMed Central

    Lin, Yung-Sheng; Lee, Ming-Yuan; Yang, Chih-Hui; Huang, Keng-Shiang

    2015-01-01

    Although vaccines and antibiotics could kill or inhibit microbes, many infectious diseases remain difficult to treat because of acquired resistance and adverse side effects. Nano-carriers-based technology has made significant progress for a long time and is introducing a new paradigm in drug delivery. However, it still has some challenges like lack of specificity toward targeting the infectious site. Nano-carriers utilized targeting ligands on their surface called ‘active target’ provide the promising way to solve the problems like accelerating drug delivery to infectious areas and preventing toxicity or side-effects. In this mini review, we demonstrate the recent studies using the active targeted strategy to kill or inhibit microbes. The four common nano-carriers (e.g. liposomes, nanoparticles, dendrimers and carbon nanotubes) delivering encapsulated drugs are introduced. PMID:25877093

  15. SNP typing on the NanoChip electronic microarray.

    PubMed

    Børsting, Claus; Sanchez, Juan J; Morling, Niels

    2005-01-01

    We describe a single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) typing protocol developed for the NanoChip electronic microarray. The NanoChip array consists of 100 electrodes covered by a thin hydrogel layer containing streptavidin. An electric currency can be applied to one, several, or all electrodes at the same time according to a loading protocol generated by the user. Biotinylated deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) is directed to the pad(s) via the electronic field(s) and bound to streptavidin in the hydrogel layer. Subsequently, fluorescently labeled reporter oligos and a stabilizer oligo are hybridized to the bound DNA. Base stacking between the short reporter and the longer stabilizer oligo stabilizes the binding of a matching reporter, whereas the binding of a reporter carrying a mismatch in the SNP position will be relatively weak. Thermal stringency is applied to the NanoChip array according to a reader protocol generated by the user and the fluorescent label on the matching reporter is detected.

  16. Tipping solutions: emerging 3D nano-fabrication/ -imaging technologies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Seniutinas, Gediminas; Balčytis, Armandas; Reklaitis, Ignas; Chen, Feng; Davis, Jeffrey; David, Christian; Juodkazis, Saulius

    2017-06-01

    The evolution of optical microscopy from an imaging technique into a tool for materials modification and fabrication is now being repeated with other characterization techniques, including scanning electron microscopy (SEM), focused ion beam (FIB) milling/imaging, and atomic force microscopy (AFM). Fabrication and in situ imaging of materials undergoing a three-dimensional (3D) nano-structuring within a 1-100 nm resolution window is required for future manufacturing of devices. This level of precision is critically in enabling the cross-over between different device platforms (e.g. from electronics to micro-/nano-fluidics and/or photonics) within future devices that will be interfacing with biological and molecular systems in a 3D fashion. Prospective trends in electron, ion, and nano-tip based fabrication techniques are presented.

  17. Theoretic analysis on electric conductance of nano-wire transistors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tsai, N.-C.; Chiang, Y.-R.; Hsu, S.-L.

    2010-01-01

    By employing the commercial software nanoMos and Vienna ab Initio Simulation Package ( VASP), the performance of nano-wire field-effect transistors is investigated. In this paper, the Density-Gradient Model (DG Model) is used to describe the carrier transport behavior of the nano-wire transistor under quantum effects. The analysis of the drain current with respect to channel length, body dielectric constant and gate contact work function is presented. In addition, Fermi energy and DOS (Density of State) are introduced to explore the relative stability of carrier transport and electrical conductance for the silicon crystal with dopants. Finally, how the roughness of the surface of the silicon-based crystal is affected by dopants and their allocation can be illuminated by a few broken bonds between atoms near the skin of the crystal.

  18. Guiding Molecular Motors with Nano-Imprinted Structures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bunk, Richard; Carlberg, Patrick; Månsson, Alf; Nicholls, Ian A.; Omling, Pär; Sundberg, Mark; Tågerud, Sven; Montelius, Lars

    2005-05-01

    This work, for the first time, demonstrates that nano-imprinted samples, with 100 nm wide polymer lines, can act as guides for molecular motors consisting of motor proteins actin and myosin. The motor protein function was characterized using fluorescence microscopy and compared to actomyosin motility on non-structured nitrocellulose surfaces. Our results open for further use of the nano-imprint technique in the production of disposable chips for bio-nanotechnological applications and miniaturized biological test systems. We discuss how the nano-imprinted motor protein assay system may be optimized and also how it compares to previously tested assay systems involving low-resolution UV-lithography and low throughput but high-resolution electron beam lithography.

  19. Preparation and acute toxicology of nano-magnetic ferrofluid.

    PubMed

    Xia, Zefeng; Wang, Guobin; Tao, Kaixiong; Li, Jianxing; Tian, Yuan

    2005-01-01

    The nano-magnetic ferrofluid was prepared by chemical coprecipitation and its acute toxicology was investigated. The effective diameter (Eff. Diam. ) of the magnetic particles was about 19.9 nm, and the concentration of the ferrofluid was 17. 54 mg/ml. The acute toxic reaction and the main viscera pathological morphology of mice were evaluated after oral, intravenous and intraperitoneal administration of the nano-magnetic ferrofluid of different doses respectively. Half lethal dose (LD50) > 2104. 8 mg/kg,maximum non-effect dose (ED0) = 320. 10mg/kg with oral; LDs,> 438. 50 mg/kg, EDo = 160. 05 mg/kg with intravenous route; and LDso >1578. 6 mg/kg, ED0 = 320. 10 mg/kg with intraperitoneal administration. Degeneration and necrosis of viscera were not found. So the nano-magnetic ferrofluid, of which toxicity is very low, may be used as a drug carrier.

  20. Crystalline silicon solar cells with micro/nano texture

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dimitrov, Dimitre Z.; Du, Chen-Hsun

    2013-02-01

    Crystalline silicon solar cells with two-scale texture consisting of random upright pyramids and surface nanotextured layer directly onto the pyramids are prepared and reflectance properties and I-V characteristics measured. Random pyramids texture is produced by etching in an alkaline solution. On top of the pyramids texture, a nanotexture is developed using an electroless oxidation/etching process. Solar cells with two-scale surface texturization are prepared following the standard screen-printing technology sequence. The micro/nano surface is found to lower considerably the light reflectance of silicon. The short wavelengths spectral response (blue response) improvement is observed in micro/nano textured solar cells compared to standard upright pyramids textured cells. An efficiency of 17.5% is measured for the best micro/nano textured c-Si solar cell. The efficiency improvement is found to be due to the gain in both Jsc and Voc.

  1. Formation of micro/nano structures out of soap bubbles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bai, Xiao-Dan; Liu, Jing

    2007-07-01

    We proposed to synthesize, etch and construct micro/nano structures through manipulating the large-scale bubbles composed of specific chemical compounds. The core of the method lies in the chemical reaction occurred at the interfaces between two or more soap bubbles. A unique virtue of the bubble is that it can have a rather large diameter however an extremely small membrane thickness, whose smallest size could reach nano scale. Therefore, the chemical reaction and synthesis occurred in the common interface of such contacting bubbles would lead to products with very small size. Several typical micro structures were fabricated to demonstrate the feasibility of the new method. Being flexible, easily controllable and environment friendly, the present concept may open a straightforward low-cost way for making micro/nano structures.

  2. Mesenchymal Stem Cells and Nano-Bioceramics for Bone Regeneration.

    PubMed

    Kankilic, Berna; Köse, Sevil; Korkusuz, Petek; Timuçin, Muharrem; Korkusuz, Feza

    Orthopedic disorders and trauma usually result in bone loss. Bone grafts are widely used to replace this tissue. Bone grafts excluding autografts unfortunately have disadvantages like evoking immune response, contamination and rejection. Autografts are of limited sources and optimum biomaterials that can replace bone have been searched for several decades. Bioceramics, which have the similar inorganic structure of natural bone, are widely used to regenerate bone or coat metallic implants. As people continuously look for a higher life quality, there are developments in technology almost everyday to meet their expectations. Nanotechnology is one of such technologies and it attracts everyone's attention in biomaterial science. Nano scale biomaterials have many advantages like larger surface area and higher biocompatibility and these properties make them more preferable than micro scale. Also, stem cells are used for bone regeneration besides nano-bioceramics due to their differentiation characteristics. This review covers current research on nano-bioceramics and mesenchymal stem cells and their role in bone regeneration.

  3. Lasing in nano-grating with Fano resonance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Ya-Bin; Deng, Zi-Lan; Dong, Jian-Wen

    2016-10-01

    We propose a new scheme of lasing in a nano-grating with Fano resonance by the independent control of dark and bright modes. The controllability of both dark and bright modes can be achieved by fine-tuning the widths of two kinds of metallic stripes in the nano-grating. It enables the match between resonant frequencies of the nano-grating structure and the absorption and emission frequencies of gain medium. For example, changing the width of the thin strip is to hit the emission peak of the gain medium, while the fat strip corresponds to the absorption peak of the gain medium. We work out an optimal example of silver grating immersing Rhodamine dye, verifying the lasing dynamic process with minimum threshold and maximum output power. It may provide a new way on low-threshold and high-efficient plasmon laser.

  4. A 20 nm spin Hall nano-oscillator.

    PubMed

    Dürrenfeld, Philipp; Awad, Ahmad A; Houshang, Afshin; Dumas, Randy K; Åkerman, Johan

    2017-01-19

    Spin Hall nano-oscillators (SHNOs) are an emerging class of pure spin current driven microwave signal generators. Through the fabrication of 20 nm nano-constrictions in Pt/NiFe bilayers, we demonstrate that SHNOs can be scaled down to truly nanoscopic dimensions, with the added benefit of ultra-low operating currents and improved power conversion efficiency. The lateral confinement leads to a strong shape anisotropy field as well as an additional demagnetizing field whose reduction with increasing auto-oscillation amplitude can yield a positive current tunability contrary to the negative tunability commonly observed for localized excitations in extended magnetic layers. Micromagnetic simulations corroborate the experimental findings and suggest that the active magnetodynamic area resides up to 100 nm outside of the nano-constriction.

  5. Zebrafish: an in vivo model for nano EHS studies.

    PubMed

    Lin, Sijie; Zhao, Yan; Nel, André E; Lin, Shuo

    2013-05-27

    To assure a responsible and sustainable growth of nanotechnology, the environmental health and safety (EHS) aspect of engineered nanomaterials and nano-related products needs to be addressed at a rate commensurate with the expansion of nanotechnology. Zebrafish has been demonstrated as a correlative in vivo vertebrate model for such task, and the current advances of using zebrafish for nano EHS studies are summarized here. In addition to morphological and histopathological observations, the accessibility of gene manipulation would greatly empower such a model for detailed mechanistic studies of any nanoparticles of interest. The potential for establishing high-throughput screening platforms to facilitate the nano EHS studies is highlighted, and a discussion is presented on how toxicogenomics approaches represent a future direction to guide the identification of toxicity pathways. Copyright © 2013 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  6. Broadband infrared vibrational nano-spectroscopy using thermal blackbody radiation

    SciTech Connect

    O’Callahan, Brian T.; Lewis, William E.; Möbius, Silke; Stanley, Jared C.; Muller, Eric A.; Raschke, Markus B.

    2015-12-03

    Infrared vibrational nano-spectroscopy based on scattering scanning near-field optical microscopy (s-SNOM) provides intrinsic chemical specificity with nanometer spatial resolution. Here we use incoherent infrared radiation from a 1400 K thermal blackbody emitter for broadband infrared (IR) nano-spectroscopy.With optimized interferometric heterodyne signal amplification we achieve few-monolayer sensitivity in phonon polariton spectroscopy and attomolar molecular vibrational spectroscopy. Near-field localization and nanoscale spatial resolution is demonstrated in imaging flakes of hexagonal boron nitride (hBN) and determination of its phonon polariton dispersion relation. The signal-to-noise ratio calculations and analysis for different samples and illumination sources provide a reference for irradiance requirements and the attainable near-field signal levels in s-SNOM in general. As a result, the use of a thermal emitter as an IR source thus opens s-SNOM for routine chemical FTIR nano-spectroscopy.

  7. Nano concentration by acoustically generated complex spiral vortex field

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tang, Qiang; Wang, Xiaofei; Hu, Junhui

    2017-03-01

    A strategy to concentrate nanoscale materials on the boundary between a nano suspension droplet and non-vibration substrate is demonstrated and analyzed. It employs the spiral vortex of acoustic streaming, generated by an ultrasonically vibrating needle parallel to and above the non-vibration substrate. The vortex drags nanoscale materials to the center of itself, forming a concentration spot. For 250 nm-diameter SiO2 nano particle suspension with an initial concentration of 0.09 mg/ml, the diameter of the concentration spot can be up to several hundred microns. The dependency of the spiral vortex field on the vibration distribution of the acoustic needle in the droplet is also clarified by experiments and computation, and the concentration conditions are obtained by analyzing the nano particle dynamics in the spiral vortex.

  8. Lab-based x-ray nanoCT imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Müller, Mark; Allner, Sebastian; Ferstl, Simone; Dierolf, Martin; Tuohimaa, Tomi; Pfeiffer, Franz

    2017-03-01

    Due to the recent development of transmission X-ray tubes with very small focal spot sizes, laboratory-based CT imaging with sub-micron resolutions is nowadays possible. We recently developed a novel X-ray nanoCT setup featuring a prototype nanofocus X-ray source and a single-photon counting detector. The system is based on mere geometrical magnification and can reach resolutions of 200 nm. To demonstrate the potential of the nanoCT system for biomedical applications we show high resolution nanoCT data of a small piece of human tooth comprising coronal dentin. The reconstructed CT data clearly visualize the dentin tubules within the tooth piece.

  9. Thermal performance of heat pipe with suspended nano-particles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shukla, K. N.; Solomon, A. Brusly; Pillai, B. C.; Ruba Singh, B. Jacob; Saravana Kumar, S.

    2012-11-01

    Nanofluids are employed as the working medium for a conventional cylindrical heat pipe. A cylindrical copper heat pipe of 19.5 mm outer diameter and 400 mm length was fabricated and tested with two different working fluids. The working fluids used in this study are DI-water and Nano-particles suspension (mixture of copper nano particle and DI-water). The overall heat transfer coefficient of the heat pipe was calculated based on the lumped thermal resistance network and compared with the heat transfer coefficient of base fluid filled heat pipe. There is a quantitative improvement in the heat transfer coefficient using nano-particles suspension as the working medium. A heat transfer correlation was also developed based on multiple regression least square method and the results were compared with that obtained by the experiment.

  10. Organic nano-floating-gate transistor memory with metal nanoparticles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Van Tho, Luu; Baeg, Kang-Jun; Noh, Yong-Young

    2016-04-01

    Organic non-volatile memory is advanced topics for various soft electronics applications as lightweight, low-cost, flexible, and printable solid-state data storage media. As a key building block, organic field-effect transistors (OFETs) with a nano-floating gate are widely used and promising structures to store digital information stably in a memory cell. Different types of nano-floating-gates and their various synthesis methods have been developed and applied to fabricate nanoparticle-based non-volatile memory devices. In this review, recent advances in the classes of nano-floating-gate OFET memory devices using metal nanoparticles as charge-trapping sites are briefly reviewed. Details of device fabrication, characterization, and operation mechanisms are reported based on recent research activities reported in the literature.

  11. Organic nano-floating-gate transistor memory with metal nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Van Tho, Luu; Baeg, Kang-Jun; Noh, Yong-Young

    2016-01-01

    Organic non-volatile memory is advanced topics for various soft electronics applications as lightweight, low-cost, flexible, and printable solid-state data storage media. As a key building block, organic field-effect transistors (OFETs) with a nano-floating gate are widely used and promising structures to store digital information stably in a memory cell. Different types of nano-floating-gates and their various synthesis methods have been developed and applied to fabricate nanoparticle-based non-volatile memory devices. In this review, recent advances in the classes of nano-floating-gate OFET memory devices using metal nanoparticles as charge-trapping sites are briefly reviewed. Details of device fabrication, characterization, and operation mechanisms are reported based on recent research activities reported in the literature.

  12. Zebrafish: an in vivo model for nano EHS studies

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Yan; Nel, André E.; Lin, Shuo

    2014-01-01

    To assure a responsible and sustainable growth of nanotechnology, the environmental health and safety (EHS) aspect of engineered nanomaterials and nano-related products needs to be addressed at a rate commensurate with the expansion of nanotechnology. Zebrafish has been demonstrated as a correlative in vivo vertebrate model for such task, and the current advances of using zebrafish for nano EHS studies are summarized here. In addition to morphological and histopathological observations, the accessibility of gene manipulation would greatly empower such a model for detailed mechanistic studies of any nanoparticles of interest. The potential for establishing high-throughput screening platforms to facilitate the nano EHS studies is highlighted, and a discussion is presented on how toxicogenomics approaches represent a future direction to guide the identification of toxicity pathways. PMID:23208995

  13. Direct Analysis of Pharmaceutical Drugs Using Nano-DESI MS

    PubMed Central

    Cardoso-Palacios, Carlos

    2016-01-01

    Counterfeit pharmaceutical drugs imply an increasing threat to the global public health. It is necessary to have systems to control the products that reach the market and to detect falsified medicines. In this work, molecules in several pharmaceutical tablets were directly analyzed using nanospray desorption electrospray ionization mass spectrometry (nano-DESI MS). Nano-DESI is an ambient surface sampling technique which enables sampling of molecules directly from the surface of the tablets without any sample pretreatment. Both the active pharmaceutical ingredients (APIs) and some excipients were detected in all analyzed tablets. Principal component analysis was used to analyze mass spectral features from different tablets showing strong clustering between tablets with different APIs. The obtained results suggest nano-DESI MS as future tool for forensic analysis to discern APIs present in unknown tablet samples. PMID:27766177

  14. Control and Manipulation of Nano Cracks Mimicking Optical Wave

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Suh, Young D.; Yeo, Junyeob; Lee, Habeom; Hong, Sukjoon; Kwon, Jinhyeong; Kim, Kyunkyu; Ko, Seung Hwan

    2015-11-01

    Generally, a fracture is considered as an uncontrollable thus useless phenomenon due to its highly random nature. The aim of this study is to investigate highly ordered cracks such as oscillatory cracks and to manipulate via elaborate control of mechanical properties of the cracking medium including thickness, geometry, and elastic mismatch. Specific thin film with micro-sized notches was fabricated on a silicon based substrate in order to controllably generate self-propagating cracks in large area. Interestingly, various nano-cracks behaved similar to optical wave including refraction, total internal reflection and evanescent wave. This novel phenomena of controlled cracking was used to fabricate sophisticated nano/micro patterns in large area which cannot be obtained even with conventional nanofabrication methods. We also have showed that the cracks are directly implementable into a nano/micro-channel application since the cracks naturally have a form of channel-like shape.

  15. Control and Manipulation of Nano Cracks Mimicking Optical Wave

    PubMed Central

    Suh, Young D.; Yeo, Junyeob; Lee, Habeom; Hong, Sukjoon; Kwon, Jinhyeong; Kim, Kyunkyu; Ko, Seung Hwan

    2015-01-01

    Generally, a fracture is considered as an uncontrollable thus useless phenomenon due to its highly random nature. The aim of this study is to investigate highly ordered cracks such as oscillatory cracks and to manipulate via elaborate control of mechanical properties of the cracking medium including thickness, geometry, and elastic mismatch. Specific thin film with micro-sized notches was fabricated on a silicon based substrate in order to controllably generate self-propagating cracks in large area. Interestingly, various nano-cracks behaved similar to optical wave including refraction, total internal reflection and evanescent wave. This novel phenomena of controlled cracking was used to fabricate sophisticated nano/micro patterns in large area which cannot be obtained even with conventional nanofabrication methods. We also have showed that the cracks are directly implementable into a nano/micro-channel application since the cracks naturally have a form of channel-like shape. PMID:26612107

  16. Nano-sized Adsorbate Structure Formation in Anisotropic Multilayer System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kharchenko, Vasyl O.; Kharchenko, Dmitrii O.; Yanovsky, Vladimir V.

    2017-05-01

    In this article, we study dynamics of adsorbate island formation in a model plasma-condensate system numerically. We derive the generalized reaction-diffusion model for adsorptive multilayer system by taking into account anisotropy in transfer of adatoms between neighbor layers induced by electric field. It will be found that with an increase in the electric field strength, a structural transformation from nano-holes inside adsorbate matrix toward separated nano-sized adsorbate islands on a substrate is realized. Dynamics of adsorbate island sizes and corresponding distributions are analyzed in detail. This study provides an insight into details of self-organization of adatoms into nano-sized adsorbate islands in anisotropic multilayer plasma-condensate systems.

  17. Prospectives of Antihypertensive Nano-ceuticals as Alternative Therapeutics.

    PubMed

    Niaz, Taskeen; Hafeez, Zeeshan; Imran, Muhammad

    2017-01-01

    Global death rate due to cardiovascular diseases (CVDs) is highest as compared to other ailments. Principal risk factor associated with CVDs is hypertension. Major classes of current antihypertensive (AHT) therapies include angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitors (ACEI), angiotensin receptor blockers (ARBs) and calcium channel blockers (CCBs). All these antihypertensive therapeutic drugs have low oral bioavailability and can induce upper respiratory tract abstraction, angioedema, reflex tachycardia and extreme hypotensive effect after oral administration which can cause lethal effects in patients with heart diseases. Controlled and targeted release by using antihypertensive nano-medicines can provide better solution to overcome above-mentioned side effects. Scientific evolution towards the development of biopolymer based nano-carrier systems has unlocked new horizons for safe and/or edible nano drug delivery systems. In this article, we have reviewed in detail various mechanisms of AHT drugs, major draw backs associated with current therapeutic strategies, and the advantages of AHT nano-medicines over conventional drugs. Furthermore, recent reports of bio-based nano/micro -carrier systems with different AHT drugs have been analyzed with their key features. In depth review has been presented for chitosan as a potential carrier of AHT drugs due to its distinctive properties comprising muco-adhesive attribute, permeation enhancement as well as its biocompatible and biodegradable nature. Chitosan based novel AHT nano-ceuticals can improve oral bioavailability, reduce hydrophobicity and increase the plasma half-life of AHT drugs by their sustained release in lower part of the GIT. Copyright© Bentham Science Publishers; For any queries, please email at epub@benthamscience.org.

  18. Damping Behavior of Alumina Epoxy Nano-Composites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Katiyar, Priyanka; Kumar, Anand

    2016-10-01

    Polymer nano composites, consisting of a polymer matrix with nanoparticle filler, have been predicted to be one of the most beneficial applications of nanotechnology. Addition of nano particulates to a polymer matrix enhances its performance by capitalizing on the nature and properties of the nano-scale fillers. The damping behavior of composites with nano structured phases is significantly different from that of micro structured materials. Viscoelastic homopolymer exhibit a high material damping response over a relatively narrow range of temperature and frequencies. In many practical situations, a polymeric structure is required to possess better strength and stiffness properties together with a reasonable damping behavior. Viscoelastic polymers show higher loss factor beyond the glassy region which comes with a significant drop in the specific modulus. Addition of nano alumina particles to epoxy leads to improved strength and stiffness properties with an increase in glass transition temperature while retaining its damping capability. Experimental investigations are carried out on composite beam specimen fabricated with different compositions of alumina nano particles in epoxy to evaluate loss factor, tan δ. Impact damping method is used for time response analysis. A single point Laser is used to record the transverse displacement of a point on the composite beam specimen. The experimental results are compared with theoretical estimation of loss factor using Voigt estimation. The effect of inter phase is included in theoretical estimation of loss factor. The result reveals that the study of interface properties is very important in deriving the overall loss factor of the composite since interface occupies a significant volume fraction in the composite.

  19. Cytocompatibility of PLA/Nano-HA composites for interface fixation.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Weimin; Guo, Daiqi; Chen, Yunfang; Xiu, Weili; Wang, Daping; Huang, Jinfang; Huang, Jianghong; Lu, Wei; Peng, Liangquan; Chen, Kang; Zeng, Yanjun

    2016-06-01

    When preliminary tests have confirmed a nano-hydroxyapatite (Nano-HA) content of 20% of the polylactic acid (PLA) composite material of Nano-HA interface fixation material for biomechanical requirements, there is a need for further observation of its biocompatibility and clinical applications, to provide reference data. Preparation of Nano-HA content of 20% PLA composite Nano-HA bone substitute material and extract. The establishment of the negative control group (containing 10% fetal bovine serum in DMEM complete medium), experimental group (extract), the positive control group (mass concentration of 0.64% phenol), and a co-culture of rabbit bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells (rBMSC) and materials extraction liquid. Observation of the morphological changes in rBMSC in culture at time points of 3, 5, and 7 days, the use of the MTT assay, and determination of the relative growth in the above set of rBMSC in cell culture at 3, 5, and 7 days, to judge the material's cytotoxicity. With time, the absorbance value of the three groups of cells were significantly increased (P < 0.01). The relative growth of the rBMSCs in experimental group in the first 3, 5, and 7 days was 95.3%, 96.8% and 97.6%; the cytotoxicity was according to the national standards I; the difference was not significant (P > 0.05) between the the experimental group and the negative control group; there was a significant difference between the positive control group and the other 2 groups (P < 0.05). Cells in the experimental group were seen having normal morphology, and spindle-shaped adherent growth. PLA composite artificial bone materials and Nano-HA show good cell compatibility, and the values for cytotoxicity, with reference to GB/T16886.5.2003 (China) standards, are in the safe range.

  20. Anisotropic lanthanide-based nano-clusters for imaging applications.

    PubMed

    Yang, Xiaoping; Wang, Shiqing; King, Tyler L; Kerr, Christopher J; Blanchet, Clement; Svergun, Dmitri; Pal, Robert; Beeby, Andrew; Vadivelu, Jamuna; Brown, Katherine A; Jones, Richard A; Zhang, Lijie; Huang, Shaoming

    2016-10-06

    We have developed a new class of lanthanide nano-clusters that self-assemble using flexible Schiff base ligands. Cd-Ln and Ni-Ln clusters, [Ln8Cd24(L(1))12(OAc)39Cl7(OH)2] (Ln = Nd, Eu), [Eu8Cd24(L(1))12(OAc)44], [Ln8Cd24(L(2))12(OAc)44] (Ln = Nd, Yb, Sm) and [Nd2Ni4(L(3))2(acac)6(NO3)2(OH)2], were constructed using different types of flexible Schiff base ligands. These molecular nano-clusters exhibit anisotropic architectures that differ considerably depending upon the presence of Cd (nano-drum) or Ni (square-like nano-cluster). Structural characterization of the self-assembled particles has been undertaken using crystallography, transmission electron microscopy and small-angle X-ray scattering. Comparison of the metric dimensions of the nano-drums shows a consistency of size using these techniques, suggesting that these molecules may share similar structural features in both solid and solution states. Photophysical properties were studied by excitation of the ligand-centered absorption bands in the solid state and in solution, and using confocal microscopy of microspheres loaded with the compounds. The emissive properties of these compounds vary depending upon the combination of lanthanide and Cd or Ni present in these clusters. The results provide new insights into the construction of novel high-nuclearity nano-clusters and offer a promising foundation for the development of new functional nanomaterials.

  1. In Vitro Phototoxicity and Hazard Identification of Nano-scale Titanium Dioxide

    EPA Science Inventory

    Nano-titanium dioxide (nano-Ti02) catalyzes many reactions under UV radiation and is hypothesized to cause phototoxicity. A human-derived line of retinal pigment epithelial cells (ARPE-19) was treated with six different samples of nano-Ti02 and exposed to UVA radiation. The Ti02 ...

  2. Superomniphobic Surfaces for Military Applications: Nano- and Micro-Fabrication Methods: Year Two Report

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-12-01

    Canada Superomniphobic Surfaces for Military Applications: Nano - and Micro -Fabrication Methods Year Two Report PWGSC Contract Number: W7707...This page intentionally left blank. Superomniphobic Surfaces for Military Applications: Nano - and Micro -Fabrication Methods...iii Executive summary Superomniphobic Surfaces for Military Applications: Nano - and Micro -Fabrication Methods: Year Two Report Amirfazli

  3. Novel Micro/Nano Approaches for Glucose Measurement Using pH-Sensitive

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2006-06-01

    AD_________________ Award Number: W81XWH-04-1-0596 TITLE: Novel Micro / Nano Approaches for...2006 2. REPORT TYPE Final 3. DATES COVERED (From - To) 1 Jun 2004 - 31 May 2006 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Novel Micro / Nano Approaches for Glucose...new methods and technologies for sampling, detecting, and monitoring glucose levels. Advances in the field of micro - and nano - electromechanical

  4. Nonlinear Optical Wave Equation for Micro- and Nano-Structured Media and Its Application

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-03-01

    AFRL-AFOSR-UK-TR-2013-0012 Nonlinear Optical Wave Equation for Micro - and Nano - Structured Media and Its Application Dr...September 2012 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Nonlinear Optical Wave Equation for Micro - and Nano - Structured Media and Its...Equation, Nano -structed Media, Nonlinear Fiber Lasers 16. SECURITY CLASSIFICATION OF: 17. LIMITATION OF ABSTRACT SAR 18, NUMBER OF PAGES 12

  5. Effects of nano-TiO2 on the agronomically-relevant Rhizobium-legume symbiosis

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The impact of nano-TiO2 on Rhizobium-legume symbiosis was studied using garden peas and the compatible bacterial partner Rhizobium leguminosarum bv. viciae 3841. Exposure to nano-TiO2 did not affect the germination of peas grown aseptically, nor did it impact the gross root structure. However, nano-...

  6. Laboratory Assessment of Nano-Silver Transport in Sand Columns Using Complex Conductivity Measurements

    EPA Science Inventory

    Nano-materials are emerging into the global marketplace. Nano-particles, and other throwaway nano-devices may constitute a whole new class of non-biodegradable pollutants of which scientists have very little understanding. Therefore, the production of significant quantities of n...

  7. Mussel-inspired nano-building block assemblies for mimicking extracellular matrix microenvironments with multiple functions.

    PubMed

    Wang, Zhenming; Jia, Zhanrong; Jiang, Yanan; Li, Pengfei; Han, Lu; Lu, Xiong; Ren, Fuzeng; Wang, Kefeng; Yuan, Huiping

    2017-08-03

    The assembly of nano-building blocks is an effective way to produce artificial extracellular matrix microenvironments with hierarchical micro/nano structures. However, it is hard to assemble different types of nano-building blocks, to form composite coatings with multiple functions, by traditional layer-by-layer (LbL) self-assembly methods. Inspired by the mussel adhesion mechanism, we developed polydopamine (PDA)-decorated bovine serum albumin microspheres (BSA-MS) and nano-hydroxyapatite (nano-HA), and assembled them to form bioactive coatings with micro/nano structures encapsulating bone morphogenetic protein-2 (BMP-2). First, PDA-decorated nano-HA (nano-pHA) was obtained by oxidative polymerization of dopamine on nano-HA. Second, BMP-2-encapsulated BSA microspheres were prepared through desolvation, and then were also decorated by PDA (pBSA-MS). Finally, the nano-pHA and pBSA-MS were assembled using the adhesive properties of PDA. Bone marrow stromal cell cultures and in vivo implantation, showed that the pHA/pBSA (BMP-2) coatings can promote cell adhesion, proliferation, and benefited for osteoinductivity. PDA decoration was also applied to assemble various functional nanoparticles, such as nano-HA, polystyrene, and Fe3O4 nanoparticles. In summary, this study provides a novel strategy for the assembly of biofunctional nano-building blocks, which surpasses traditional LbL self-assembly of polyelectrolytes, and can find broad applications in bioactive agents delivery or multi-functional coatings.

  8. Laboratory Assessment of Nano-Silver Transport in Sand Columns Using Complex Conductivity Measurements

    EPA Science Inventory

    Nano-materials are emerging into the global marketplace. Nano-particles, and other throwaway nano-devices may constitute a whole new class of non-biodegradable pollutants of which scientists have very little understanding. Therefore, the production of significant quantities of n...

  9. In Vitro Phototoxicity and Hazard Identification of Nano-scale Titanium Dioxide

    EPA Science Inventory

    Nano-titanium dioxide (nano-Ti02) catalyzes many reactions under UV radiation and is hypothesized to cause phototoxicity. A human-derived line of retinal pigment epithelial cells (ARPE-19) was treated with six different samples of nano-Ti02 and exposed to UVA radiation. The Ti02 ...

  10. Mechanical characterization of scalable cellulose nano-fiber based composites made using liquid composite molding process

    Treesearch

    Bamdad Barari; Thomas K. Ellingham; Issam I. Ghamhia; Krishna M. Pillai; Rani El-Hajjar; Lih-Sheng Turng; Ronald Sabo

    2016-01-01

    Plant derived cellulose nano-fibers (CNF) are a material with remarkable mechanical properties compared to other natural fibers. However, efforts to produce nano-composites on a large scale using CNF have yet to be investigated. In this study, scalable CNF nano-composites were made from isotropically porous CNF preforms using a freeze drying process. An improvised...

  11. Plasmon Nano-Optics: Designing Novel Nano-Tools for Biology and Medicine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Quidant, Romain

    Light plays a growing role in health science especially with the recent developments of new optical techniques that enable imaging biological processes down to the molecular scale and monitor dynamically physiological mechanisms in patients. In parallel, recent groundbreaking advances in nanotechnologies have opened new perspectives in medicine, for instance in creating new therapies or designing novel compact and highly sensitive diagnostic platforms. In this chapter, the aim is to discuss recent research that sits at the convergence of photonics, nanotechnology, and health. This research is based on the extraordinary optical properties of metallic nanoparticles (MNP) supporting Localized Surface Plasmon (LSP) (see Chap. 4 10.1007/978-3-642-28079-5_4".. We discuss how plasmonic MNP can be used as nano-sources of either light or heat for biological and medical applications.

  12. Preparation and Characterization of Nano-CL-20 Explosive

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bayat, Yadollah; Zeynali, Vida

    2011-10-01

    Nano-CL-20 was prepared via precipitative crystallization by spraying a solution of CL-20 in a solvent (ethyl acetate) into a nonsolvent (isooctane). Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and X-ray powder diffraction (XRD) were used to characterize the appearance and the size of the particles. The results revealed that nano-CL-20 particles have the shape of spheres or ellipsoids with an average size of 95 nm. Due to their small diameter and high surface energy, the particles tended to agglomerate. Impact sensitivity of nanosize CL-20 was decreased in comparison to micrometer-size CL-20.

  13. A nano-silver enzyme electrode for organophosphorus pesticide detection.

    PubMed

    Zheng, Qiqi; Yu, Yonghua; Fan, Kai; Ji, Feng; Wu, Jian; Ying, Yibin

    2016-08-01

    A nano-silver electrode immobilizing acetylcholinesterase (AChE) for the detection of organophosphorus (OPPs) pesticides is reported. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) was used to characterize the surface structure of two kinds of electrodes fabricated with different sizes of silver powders and the interface between chitosan layer and nano-silver powder layer. Cyclic voltammetry was carried out to characterize the response of silver/chitosan electrode in the absence and in the presence of thiocholine (TCh). It was also used to evaluate the insulativity of the chitosan layer. An amperometric method was performed to measure the response of the electrode to TCh, which is the product of the enzymatic reaction for detecting organophosphorus pesticides indirectly. Although there are many kinds of nanoparticles, silver was chosen for its internal advantage in detecting TCh at low potential without further modification. The result shows nano-silver powder has better performance than usual silver powder, and the limit of detection of paraoxon is 4 ppb under optimized conditions. One percent (w/v) chitosan solution was used as binder for the immobilization of nano-silver powder and AChE, which made it possible for independent electrode fabrication at room temperature, whereas 3% (w/v) chitosan solution was used as insulating compound for controlling the electrode area. Unlike traditional organic insulating ink, chitosan is safe and environmentally friendly, and it is used as insulating material for the first time. The flexible nano-silver/AChE/chitosan electrode was evaluated in Chinese chives and cabbage, and the recoveries of standard addition were 105.11 and 96.41%, respectively. Owing to the antibacterial property of nano-silver and the biocompatibility, safety, and biodegradability of chitosan, the proposed method is safe, facile, environmentally friendly, and has great potential in organophosphorus pesticide detection for food safety. Graphical Abstract Current

  14. Virus and Bacterial Cell Chemical Analysis by NanoSIMS

    SciTech Connect

    Weber, P; Holt, J

    2008-07-28

    In past work for the Department of Homeland Security, the LLNL NanoSIMS team has succeeded in extracting quantitative elemental composition at sub-micron resolution from bacterial spores using nanometer-scale secondary ion mass spectrometry (NanoSIMS). The purpose of this task is to test our NanoSIMS capabilities on viruses and bacterial cells. This initial work has proven successful. We imaged Tobacco Mosaic Virus (TMV) and Bacillus anthracis Sterne cells using scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and then analyzed those samples by NanoSIMS. We were able resolve individual viral particles ({approx}18 nm by 300 nm) in the SEM and extract correlated elemental composition in the NanoSIMS. The phosphorous/carbon ratio observed in TMV is comparable to that seen in bacterial spores (0.033), as was the chlorine/carbon ratio (0.11). TMV elemental composition is consistent from spot to spot, and TMV is readily distinguished from debris by NanoSIMS analysis. Bacterial cells were readily identified in the SEM and relocated in the NanoSIMS for elemental analysis. The Ba Sterne cells were observed to have a measurably lower phosphorous/carbon ratio (0.005), as compared to the spores produced in the same run (0.02). The chlorine/carbon ratio was approximately 2.5X larger in the cells (0.2) versus the spores (0.08), while the fluorine/carbon ratio was approximately 10X lower in the cells (0.008) than the spores (0.08). Silicon/carbon ratios for both cells and spores encompassed a comparable range. The initial data in this study suggest that high resolution analysis is useful because it allows the target agent to be analyzed separate from particulates and other debris. High resolution analysis would also be useful for trace sample analysis. The next step in this work is to determine the potential utility of elemental signatures in these kinds of samples. We recommend bulk analyses of media and agent samples to determine the range of media compositions in use, and to determine how

  15. [Nano-particles--pharmaceutical "dwarves" with know-how].

    PubMed

    Ziegler, Andreas S

    2008-12-01

    Self-cleaning surface coatings, tooth paste with repair effect, mini fuel cells and extremely small data memories, which contain the knowledge of whole libraries: After "micro" in the 1980ies and "electronic" in the 1990ies, "nano" is the technological keyword of this decade. The new nano-materials fascinate laymen and experts alike. Also in pharmacy the advance into dimensions unattainable so far, paved the way for the formulation of new pharmaceutical preparations. The nanotechnology offers innovative answers to previously unresolved galenic and/or biopharmaceutical questions and offers unexpected possibilities for drug targeting.

  16. Magnetic Micro/Nano Structures for Biological Manipulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Chen-Yu; Hsieh, Teng-Fu; Chang, Wei-Chieh; Yeh, Kun-Chieh; Hsu, Ming-Shinn; Chang, Ching-Ray; Chen, Jiann-Yeu; Wei, Zung-Hang

    2016-05-01

    Biomanipulation based on micro/nano structures is an attractive approach for biotechnology. To manipulate biological systems by magnetic forces, the magnetic labeling technology utilized magnetic nanoparticles (MNPs) as a common rule. Ferrofluid, well-dispersed MNPs, can be used for magnetic modification of the surface or as molds to form organized microstructures. For magnetic-based micro/nano structures, different methods to modulate magnetic field at the microscale have been developed. Specifically, this review focused on a new strategy which uses the concept of micromagnetism of patterned magnetic thin film with specific domain walls configurations to generate stable magnetic poles for cell patterning.

  17. Nano- and Microparticles in Welding Aerosol: Granulometric Analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kirichenko, K. Yu.; Drozd, V. A.; Chaika, V. V.; Gridasov, A. V.; Kholodov, A. S.; Golokhvast, K. S.

    The paper presents the first results of the study of the size of particles appearing in the welding process by means of laser granulometry. It is shown that welding aerosol is the source of nano-and micro-sized particles extremely dangerous for human and animal health. Particle size distribution in the microrange was from 1 to 10 μm and up to 100%. It is shown that in 9 cases out of 28 with the use of various welding modes, welding rods and components the emission of aerosol with nano-sized particles (from 45.5% to 99.4%) is observed.

  18. Electrical properties of epoxy resin based nano-composites

    SciTech Connect

    Tuncer, Enis; Sauers, Isidor; James, David Randy; Ellis, Alvin R; Paranthaman, Mariappan Parans; Aytug, Tolga; Sathyamurthy, Srivatsan; More, Karren Leslie; Li, Jing; Goyal, Amit

    2007-01-01

    We investigate the electrical properties of composite materials prepared as nano and sub-micro scale metal-oxide particles embedded in a commercial resin. The filler particles are barium titanate and calcium copper titanate. The physical and structural characteristics of constituents and the fabricated composites are reported. The electrical characterization of the composite samples are performed with the time- and frequency-domain dielectric spectroscopy techniques. The electrical breakdown strength of samples with nano and sub-micron size particles have better electrical insulation properties than the unfilled resin.

  19. Guided Self-Assembly of Nano-Precipitates into Mesocrystals

    PubMed Central

    Liu, H.; Gao, Y.; Xu, Z.; Zhu, Y.M.; Wang, Y.; Nie, J.F.

    2015-01-01

    We show by a combination of computer simulation and experimental characterization guided self-assembly of coherent nano-precipitates into a mesocrystal having a honeycomb structure in bulk materials. The structure consists of different orientation variants of a product phase precipitated out of the parent phase by heterogeneous nucleation on a hexagonal dislocation network. The predicted honeycomb mesocrystal has been confirmed by experimental observations in an Mg-Y-Nd alloy. The structure and lattice parameters of the mesocrystal and the size of the nano-precipitates are readily tuneable, offering ample opportunities to tailor its properties for a wide range of technological applications. PMID:26559002

  20. Surgical Materials: Current Challenges and Nano-enabled Solutions

    PubMed Central

    Annabi, Nasim; Tamayol, Ali; Shin, Su Ryon; Ghaemmaghami, Amir M.; Peppas, Nicholas A.; Khademhosseini, Ali

    2014-01-01

    Surgical adhesive biomaterials have emerged as substitutes to sutures and staples in many clinical applications. Nano-enabled materials containing nanoparticles or having a distinct nanotopography have been utilized for generation of a new class of surgical materials with enhanced functionality. In this review, the state of the art in the development of conventional surgical adhesive biomaterials is critically reviewed and their shortcomings are outlined. Recent advancements in generation of nano-enabled surgical materials with their potential future applications are discussed. This review will open new avenues for the innovative development of the next generation of tissue adhesives, hemostats, and sealants with enhanced functionality for various surgical applications. PMID:25530795

  1. Ductility and work hardening in nano-sized metallic glasses

    SciTech Connect

    Chen, D. Z.; Gu, X. W.; An, Q.; Goddard, W. A.; Greer, J. R.

    2015-02-09

    In-situ nano-tensile experiments on 70 nm-diameter free-standing electroplated NiP metallic glass nanostructures reveal tensile true strains of ∼18%, an amount comparable to compositionally identical 100 nm-diameter focused ion beam samples and ∼3 times greater than 100 nm-diameter electroplated samples. Simultaneous in-situ observations and stress-strain data during post-elastic deformation reveal necking and work hardening, features uncharacteristic for metallic glasses. The evolution of free volume within molecular dynamics-simulated samples suggests a free surface-mediated relaxation mechanism in nano-sized metallic glasses.

  2. Nano-patterned superconducting surface for high quantum efficiency cathode

    DOEpatents

    Hannon, Fay; Musumeci, Pietro

    2017-03-07

    A method for providing a superconducting surface on a laser-driven niobium cathode in order to increase the effective quantum efficiency. The enhanced surface increases the effective quantum efficiency by improving the laser absorption of the surface and enhancing the local electric field. The surface preparation method makes feasible the construction of superconducting radio frequency injectors with niobium as the photocathode. An array of nano-structures are provided on a flat surface of niobium. The nano-structures are dimensionally tailored to interact with a laser of specific wavelength to thereby increase the electron yield of the surface.

  3. Raman spectroscopy of polyhedral carbon nano-onions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Codorniu Pujals, Daniel; Arias de Fuentes, Olimpia; Desdín García, Luis F.; Cazzanelli, Enzo; Caputi, Lorenzo S.

    2015-09-01

    The Raman spectra of polyhedral carbon nano-onions (PCO), obtained by underwater arc discharge of graphite electrodes, are studied. While the general Raman spectrum of PCO is very similar to those of other carbon nanostructures, including spherical nano-onions, the fine structure of the G and 2D bands gives valuable information that allows using Raman spectroscopy for differentiating the PCO from other carbon structures. The interpretation of the features of the fine structure of the spectra is supported by evidences obtained by TEM.

  4. Reliability analysis of fault-tolerant reconfigurable nano-architectures

    SciTech Connect

    Bhaduri, D.; Graham, P. S.; Shukla, S. K.

    2004-01-01

    Manufacturing defects and transient errors will be abundant in high - density reconfigurable nano-scale designs. Recently, we have automated a computational scheme based on Markov Random Field (MRF) and Belief Propagation algorithms in a tool named NANOLAB to evaluate the reliability of nano architectures. In this paper, we show how our methodology can be exploited to design defect- and fault-tolerant programmable logic architectures. The effectiveness of such automation is illustrated by analyzing reconfigurable Boolean networks formed using different industry-based configurable logic blocks (CLBs), both in the presence of thermal perturbations and signal noise.

  5. Nano-Dots Enhanced White Organic Light-Emitting Diodes

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2006-11-30

    cleaned indium tin oxide (ITO) glass . The PEDOT: PSS layer was employed for hole-injection purpose. The second step was the spin-coating at 2,000 rpm...studied nano-dots were cadmium tellurium (CdTe) and cadmium selenium (CdSe). The CdTe nano-dot that prepared in aqueous solution was found immiscible...dot enhanced OLEDs. Glass ITO PEDOT: PSS (40 nm) Alq3 (20 nm) LiF (0.5 nm) Al (120 nm) BAlq (15 nm) CBP: Ir-complex: CdSe Q.D. (20 nm

  6. Method for nano-pumping using carbon nanotubes

    DOEpatents

    Insepov, Zeke [Darien, IL; Hassanein, Ahmed [Bolingbrook, IL

    2009-12-15

    The present invention relates generally to the field of nanotechnology, carbon nanotubes and, more specifically, to a method and system for nano-pumping media through carbon nanotubes. One preferred embodiment of the invention generally comprises: method for nano-pumping, comprising the following steps: providing one or more media; providing one or more carbon nanotubes, the one or more nanotubes having a first end and a second end, wherein said first end of one or more nanotubes is in contact with the media; and creating surface waves on the carbon nanotubes, wherein at least a portion of the media is pumped through the nanotube.

  7. Mechanical, Electrical, and Environmental Evaluation of Nano-Miniature Connectors

    SciTech Connect

    Hilton, J.W.

    2001-07-30

    Because of their small size (0.025-inch spacing), nano-miniature connectors have been chosen for JTA telemetry applications. At the time they were chosen, extensive testing had not been done to determine the mechanical, electrical, and environmental characteristics of these connectors at the levels required for use by weapon systems. Since nano-miniature connectors use some unique plating and wire crimping processes not used in most design agency connectors, it was decided that these properties should be tested thoroughly. This report describes the results of that testing.

  8. Calpain inhibitor nanocrystals prepared using Nano Spray Dryer B-90

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baba, Koichi; Nishida, Kohji

    2012-08-01

    The Nano Spray Dryer B-90 offers a new, simple, and alternative approach for the production of drug nanocrystals. Among attractive drugs, calpain inhibitor that inhibits programmed cell death `apoptosis' is a candidate for curing apoptosis-mediated intractable diseases such as Alzheimer's disease and Parkinson's disease. In this study, the preparation of calpain inhibitor nanocrystals using Nano Spray Dryer B-90 was demonstrated. The particle sizes were controlled by means of selecting mesh aperture sizes. The obtained average particle sizes were in the range of around 300 nm to submicron meter.

  9. Alliance for NanoHealth Competitive Research Program

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2008-10-01

    AWARD NUMBER: W81XWH-06-2-0067 PROJECT TITLE: Alliance for NanoHealth Competitive Research Program PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR: Jodie L. Conyers, PhD...Sep 2007-28 Sep 2008 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Alliance for NanoHealth Competitive Research Program 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER W81XWH-06-2...Networks for the Controlled Growth and Differentiation of Dental Stem Cells Jeffrey Hartgerink, PhD (Rice University) Rena D’Souza, DDS, PhD (UT

  10. Guided Self-Assembly of Nano-Precipitates into Mesocrystals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, H.; Gao, Y.; Xu, Z.; Zhu, Y. M.; Wang, Y.; Nie, J. F.

    2015-11-01

    We show by a combination of computer simulation and experimental characterization guided self-assembly of coherent nano-precipitates into a mesocrystal having a honeycomb structure in bulk materials. The structure consists of different orientation variants of a product phase precipitated out of the parent phase by heterogeneous nucleation on a hexagonal dislocation network. The predicted honeycomb mesocrystal has been confirmed by experimental observations in an Mg-Y-Nd alloy. The structure and lattice parameters of the mesocrystal and the size of the nano-precipitates are readily tuneable, offering ample opportunities to tailor its properties for a wide range of technological applications.

  11. From nano-plasmonic optics toward molecules bio-sensing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Su, Kai-Hung

    A systematic study on optical properties of nano-metallic particles was investigated. Nano metallic particle plasmon resonant peak wavelengths are significantly red-shifted from that of a single particle because of near-field coupling when two nano-particles are placed closer to each other. The shift decays approximately exponentially with increasing particle spacing and become negligible when the gap between the two particles exceeds about 2.5 times the particle short-axis length. While resonant peak of a finite 1D nano-particles chain is also significantly red-shifted, the peak wavelength is found to be non-monotonic and oscillating with the variation of the chain length. The results shown to occurs only for larger particles where phase retardation effects are important in plasmon coupling. Based on the coupling results from nano-particle interaction studies, we develop a new type of tunable plasmon resonance nano-particles, named tunable nano-plasmonic resonator (TNPR) which consists multi-layered Au/SiO2 nanodisks. Compared to single layered Au nanodisks, multilayered nanodisks TNPR exhibit several distinctive properties including significantly enhanced plasmon resonances and tunable resonance wavelengths which can be tailored to desired values by simply varying dielectric layer thickness while the particle diameter is kept constant. This tunable and augmented plasmon resonance holds a great potential in the applications of surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS). Characterized TNPR enhancement factor reaches as high as 4.7 x 10 10 for individual TNPRs, among the highest enhancement factor reported in single nanoparticle, indicating that our designed TNPR can serve as a great SERS active-substrate by matching the laser pumping frequency to maximize SERS enhancement. TNPR design was implemented for real bio-application. The sensitivity of non-optimized TNPR for in vitro proteolytic PSA assays reaches to 6pM. Compared to other cancer biomarker detection assays

  12. Surgical Materials: Current Challenges and Nano-enabled Solutions.

    PubMed

    Annabi, Nasim; Tamayol, Ali; Shin, Su Ryon; Ghaemmaghami, Amir M; Peppas, Nicholas A; Khademhosseini, Ali

    2014-10-01

    Surgical adhesive biomaterials have emerged as substitutes to sutures and staples in many clinical applications. Nano-enabled materials containing nanoparticles or having a distinct nanotopography have been utilized for generation of a new class of surgical materials with enhanced functionality. In this review, the state of the art in the development of conventional surgical adhesive biomaterials is critically reviewed and their shortcomings are outlined. Recent advancements in generation of nano-enabled surgical materials with their potential future applications are discussed. This review will open new avenues for the innovative development of the next generation of tissue adhesives, hemostats, and sealants with enhanced functionality for various surgical applications.

  13. Anti-flammable vinyl ester resin nano-composite with nano-titania

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Das, Rajib

    Anti-flammable material is a common expectation for any industry and household applications to protect the material from fire accident. Polymer composites also play a significant role in preparing anti flammable materials. Vinyl ester resins (VERs) are thermosetting resins that have excellent mechanical and thermal properties of epoxy resins and Nanotitania is an inexpensive, nontoxic and biocompatible inorganic material. In this paper to investigate the flame retardency of polymer nanocomposites VER is used as polymer matrix and TiO2 is used as inorganic nanofiller.3-[2-(2-aminoethylamino) ethylamino]propyl-trimethoxysilane (TATMS), a kind of silane is used as a coupling agent to functionalize the surface of nanoTiO2 to improve its flame retardency by adding Si and N2 group. TGA test and FTIR test have been performed and different peaks for Si and N2 in the modified nanofiller and weight loss of fabricated nanofiller confirmed that fabrication method was successful. After that, nanocomposite sample of VERs reinforced with nano TiO2 prepared and the effects of different loadings on mechanical and flame retardant properties are investigated after and before the modification of nanofillers. From tensile test result it is found that up to 5% loading of modified nanofiller the tensile strength is 62 MPa that is almost as same as pure VER and the tensile strength of unmodified nanofiller based PNC is 68 MPa which is not significant improvement in its mechanical property. From MCC test of flame retardancy it is found that the normalized heat release capacity of modified nanofiller based nanocomposite is decreased by 27.7% than unmodified nanofiller based PNC that is 9.8%. Also the normalized total heat release of modified nanofiller based PNC is 21.4% than unmodified PNC that is 12.4%.

  14. Wavelength tunable InGaN/GaN nano-ring LEDs via nano-sphere lithography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Sheng-Wen; Hong, Kuo-Bin; Tsai, Yu-Lin; Teng, Chu-Hsiang; Tzou, An-Jye; Chu, You-Chen; Lee, Po-Tsung; Ku, Pei-Cheng; Lin, Chien-Chung; Kuo, Hao-Chung

    2017-03-01

    In this research, nano-ring light-emitting diodes (NRLEDs) with different wall width (120 nm, 80 nm and 40 nm) were fabricated by specialized nano-sphere lithography technology. Through the thinned wall, the effective bandgaps of nano-ring LEDs can be precisely tuned by reducing the strain inside the active region. Photoluminescence (PL) and time-resolved PL measurements indicated the lattice-mismatch induced strain inside the active region was relaxed when the wall width is reduced. Through the simulation, we can understand the strain distribution of active region inside NRLEDs. The simulation results not only revealed the exact distribution of strain but also predicted the trend of wavelength-shifted behavior of NRLEDs. Finally, the NRLEDs devices with four-color emission on the same wafer were demonstrated.

  15. Wavelength tunable InGaN/GaN nano-ring LEDs via nano-sphere lithography

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Sheng-Wen; Hong, Kuo-Bin; Tsai, Yu-Lin; Teng, Chu-Hsiang; Tzou, An-Jye; Chu, You-Chen; Lee, Po-Tsung; Ku, Pei-Cheng; Lin, Chien-Chung; Kuo, Hao-Chung

    2017-01-01

    In this research, nano-ring light-emitting diodes (NRLEDs) with different wall width (120 nm, 80 nm and 40 nm) were fabricated by specialized nano-sphere lithography technology. Through the thinned wall, the effective bandgaps of nano-ring LEDs can be precisely tuned by reducing the strain inside the active region. Photoluminescence (PL) and time-resolved PL measurements indicated the lattice-mismatch induced strain inside the active region was relaxed when the wall width is reduced. Through the simulation, we can understand the strain distribution of active region inside NRLEDs. The simulation results not only revealed the exact distribution of strain but also predicted the trend of wavelength-shifted behavior of NRLEDs. Finally, the NRLEDs devices with four-color emission on the same wafer were demonstrated. PMID:28256529

  16. Thermite at the Nano-Scale

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mily, Edward Joseph, Jr.

    Physical vapor deposition of thin film thermites allow for a clean avenue for probing fundamental properties of nanoenergetic materials that prove difficult for traditional powder processing. Precise control over diffusion dimensions, microstructure, and total amount of material are able to be realized with this fabrication technique and the testing of such materials provide valuable insight into how oxidation occurs. This thesis provides several examples of how existing PVD techniques can be coupled with thermite constituents to further the energetic community's understanding of how oxidation occurs in the solid state with the variation of geometric and chemical alterations. The goal of these investigations was to elucidate which material properties and mechanisms drive exothermic activity. The thermite thin films of Al/CuO, Zr/CuO, and Mg/Cuo with varied reducing metal constituents were tested under slow heating conditions. The trend of the metal variation demonstrated the importance of terminal oxide diffusion properties in either impeding or enhancing oxygen exchange. When the reducing metal forms a terminal oxide with limited oxygen diffusivity, exothermicity requires elevated activation energies to commence self-sustaining reaction. In addition to the effects of chemical variation, bilayer thicknesses were varied and found to decrease exothermic peak temperatures similar to the trends found in intermetallic thin film energetics and powder energetic materials. The thin film thermites were also subjected to extreme initiation methods via laser driven flyer plate impact ignition and high heating rate heat treatment (105 K/s). General insight into nano thermite behavior at environments characteristic of applications was sought, and similar trends discovered among slow vs rapid testing. Decreasing reaction dimensions yielded higher reactivity and diffusion barrier properties role in impacting exothermic behavior persist to into the microsecond regime. Ultimately

  17. Spin torque driven nano-spintronic devices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhu, Xiaochun

    Spin momentum transfer, an effect first predicted theoretically and later observed by carefully designed experiments, has found its use in current-perpendicular-to-plane (CPP) magnetic devices over the past decade. Although extensive research on this subject has been conducted both experimentally and theoretically, the understanding of its effect and impact on the performance of actual magnetic devices with finite dimensions at nanometer scale are still far from complete. Innovations based on its utilization for novel devices application have also been rare. This thesis presents a series of systematic micromagnetic studies focusing on the spin momentum transfer effect in various CPP devices at deep submicrometer and nanometer dimensions. The thesis contributes to the subject of spin momentum transfer in two particular aspects: the insightful understanding of its impact to CPP magnetoresistive devices and its innovative utilization in novel MRAM designs. The thesis is organized as the following: Chapter 1 gives a general introduction on spin momentum transfer effect. In Chapter 2 of the thesis, the theoretical micromagnetic model and the numerical calculation methodology is presented. The work in Chapter 3, 4 and 5 is based on the micromagnetic modeling. In Chapter 3, current MRAM designs and challenges are reviewed. A new low power vertical ring shaped MRAM design and a new perpendicular MRAM are presented. The two new designs utilize both spin transfer torque and Ampere's field to switching memory states. They are free of write addressing disturbance and avoid the limit of the half selection problem in the conventional design. The magnetic performance as well as the scalability of memories is described in this chapter. Chapter 4 has investigated the magnetization oscillation excited by perpendicularly polarized spin transfer torque in CPP structure and designed its applications in microwave spin nano-oscillator and ferromagnetic resonance assisted recording

  18. Growth of periodic nano-layers of nano-crystals of Au, Ag, Cu by ion beam

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, Cydale C.; Zheng, B.; Muntele, C. I.; Muntele, I. C.; Ila, D.

    2005-01-01

    Multilayered thin films of SiO2/AU+ SiO2/, SiO2/Ag+ SiO2/, and SiO2/Cu+ SiO2/, were grown by deposition. We have previously shown that MeV ion Bombardment of multi-nano-layers of SiO2/AU+ SiO2/ produces Au nanocrystals in the AU+ SiO2 layers. An increased number of nano-layers followed by MeV ion bombardment produces a wide optical absorption band, of which its FWHM depends on the number of nano-layers of SiO2/AU+ SiO2/. We have successfully repeated this process for nano-layers of SiO2/Ag+ SiO2/, and SiO2/Cu+ SiO2/. In this work we used 5 MeV Si as the post deposition bombardment ion and monitored the location as well as the optical absorption's FWHM for each layered structure using Optical Absorption Photospectrometry. The concentration and location of the metal nano-crystals were measured by Rutherford Backscattering Spectrometry. We will report on the results obtained for nano-layered structures produced by post deposition bombardment of SiO2/AU+ SiO2/, SiO2/Ag+ SiO2/, and SiO2/Cu+ SiO2/ layered systems as well as the results obtained from a system containing a periodic combination of SiO2/AU+ SiO2/, SiO2/Ag+ SiO2/, and SiO2/Cu+ SiO2/.

  19. Growth of periodic nano-layers of nano-crystals of Au, Ag, Cu by ion beam

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, Cydale C.; Zheng, B.; Muntele, C. I.; Muntele, I. C.; Ila, D.

    2005-01-01

    Multilayered thin films of SiO2/AU+ SiO2/, SiO2/Ag+ SiO2/, and SiO2/Cu+ SiO2/, were grown by deposition. We have previously shown that MeV ion Bombardment of multi-nano-layers of SiO2/AU+ SiO2/ produces Au nanocrystals in the AU+ SiO2 layers. An increased number of nano-layers followed by MeV ion bombardment produces a wide optical absorption band, of which its FWHM depends on the number of nano-layers of SiO2/AU+ SiO2/. We have successfully repeated this process for nano-layers of SiO2/Ag+ SiO2/, and SiO2/Cu+ SiO2/. In this work we used 5 MeV Si as the post deposition bombardment ion and monitored the location as well as the optical absorption's FWHM for each layered structure using Optical Absorption Photospectrometry. The concentration and location of the metal nano-crystals were measured by Rutherford Backscattering Spectrometry. We will report on the results obtained for nano-layered structures produced by post deposition bombardment of SiO2/AU+ SiO2/, SiO2/Ag+ SiO2/, and SiO2/Cu+ SiO2/ layered systems as well as the results obtained from a system containing a periodic combination of SiO2/AU+ SiO2/, SiO2/Ag+ SiO2/, and SiO2/Cu+ SiO2/.

  20. Synthesis of SnO 2 micro-spheres, nano-rods and nano-flowers via simple hydrothermal route

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vuong, Dang Duc; Hien, Vu Xuan; Trung, Khuc Quang; Chien, Nguyen Duc

    2011-11-01

    SnO 2 micro-spheres (0.5-2 μm diameter), nano-flowers (petal size: 100-250 nm diameter; 500 nm-2 μm length) and nano-rods (3-6 nm diameter; 10-30 nm length) were synthesized by hydrothermal route. The samples were characterized by field emission scanning electron microscopy (FE-SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and X-ray diffraction (XRD). The influence of precursor, hydrothermal temperature and treatment time on the formation of SnO 2 multi-morphology was also investigated. Moreover, a possible formation mechanism and relationships among morphologies were discussed.