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Sample records for neoechinorhynchus sp acanthocephala

  1. Interaction of bass tapeworm, Proteocephalus ambloplitis, and Neoechinorhynchus sp. (Acanthocephala) in largemouth bass, Micropterus salmoides.

    PubMed

    Durborow, R M; Rogers, W A; Klesius, P H

    1988-12-01

    The number of plerocercoids of the bass tapeworm, Proteocephalus ambloplitis, in wild largemouth bass was negatively correlated (r = -0.94) with the number of Neoechinorhynchus sp. Competitive inhibition between the 2 parasites appeared to exist. Similarly, the numbers of Neoechinorhynchus sp. in wild bass decreased when adult bass tapeworms were present in the intestine. Proteocephalus ambloplitis plerocercoids used to challenge bass vaccinated with either P. ambloplitis adult or Neoechinorhynchus sp. antigens were smaller (P less than 0.05) when recovered than those used to challenge control bass. Based on preliminary results, both antigens might have enabled the bass to limit growth and/or development of the invading bass tapeworm, plerocercoids. Cross-protective immunity may be the reason for this occurrence, in which case, it could offer an explanation for competitive inhibition existing between P. ambloplitis and Neoechinorhynchus sp.

  2. Neoechinorhynchus (Neoechinorhynchus) chimalapasensis n. sp. (Acanthocephala: Neoechinorhynchidae) from the freshwater fish Awaous banana (Valenciennes) (Gobiidae) in Mexico.

    PubMed

    Salgado-Maldonado, Guillermo; Caspeta-Mandujano, Juan Manuel; Martínez-Ramírez, Emilio

    2010-03-01

    Neoechinorhynchus (Neoechinorhynchus) chimalapasensis n. sp. (Eoacanthocephala: Neoechinorhynchidae) is described from the intestine of Awaous banana (Valenciennes) (Pisces: Gobiidae) collected in the Río Negro, a tributary in the upper Río Coatzacoalcos basin, Santa María Chimalapa, Oaxaca State, Mexico. It is the third species of Neoechinorhynchus Stiles & Hassall, 1905 described from Mexican freshwater fishes, although 36 other species are known from freshwater fishes in the Americas. Like four other species of Neoechinorhynchus from freshwater fishes in North America and Mexico, N. (N.) limi Muzzall & Buckner, 1982, (N.) rutili (Müller, 1780) Stiles & Hassall, 1905, N. (N.) salmonis Ching, 1984 and N. (N.) roseus Salgado-Maldonado, 1978, males and females of the new species are less than 20 mm in length, lack conspicuous sexual dimorphism in size, have a small proboscis of about 0.1 mm in length with the largest hooks being the anteriormost, about 30-90 microm in length and of equal size, and have subequal lemnisci, larger than the proboscis receptacle but still relatively short and, in males, generally restricted to a position considerably anterior to the testes. The new species is closest to N. (N.) roseus, but it is distinguished from it by having: (1) a slightly larger cylindrical proboscis with almost parallel sides versus a globular proboscis with a rounded tip which is shorter and somewhat wider in N. (N.) roseus; (2) smaller but robust anterior proboscis hooks that do not reach the equatorial level or extend beyond the hooks of the middle circle as in N. (N.) roseus; and (3) the female gonopore situated ventrally subterminal, as opposed to being a significant distance anteriorly to the posterior extremity in N. (N.) roseus.

  3. Description and morphological variability of Neoechinorhynchus beringianus n. sp. (Acanthocephala: Neoechinorhynchidae) from north-eastern Asia.

    PubMed

    Mikhailova, E I; Atrashkevich, G I

    2008-09-01

    Neoechinorhynchus beringianus sp. n. is described from Pungitius pungitius L. in north-eastern Russia. Since 1986, when it was first found, it was reported as 'N. pungitius Dechtiar, 1971'. However, this new species differs from the latter in having an egg shell without a prolongation of the fertilisation membrane, a larger proboscis and proboscis hooks, a subterminal position of the female genital pore and a more slender trunk, and it occurs in a different site in the intestine. N. beringianus has a small, stout body with an asymmetrical position of the proboscis, which is located ventrally to and at an angle with the longitudinal axis of the body. The proboscis is wider than long, the hooks are of equal size in each circle but diminish in size posteriorly, whereas the lemnisci are subequal in length. It differs from those species of Neoechinorhynchus Stiles & Hassall, 1905 with somewhat similar characteristics in body length, proboscis size and proportions, proboscis hook lengths, egg size, size-ratio of the cement gland and testes, and the number of giant nuclei in the tegument and lemnisci. In different geographical populations of the new species, the sizes of both the proboscis and proboscis hooks exhibit some variation.

  4. A description of Neoechinorhynchus (Neoechinorhynchus) veropesoi n. sp. (Acanthocephala: Neoechinorhynchidae) from the intestine of the silver croaker fish Plagioscion squamosissimus (Heckel, 1840) (Osteichthyes: Sciaenidae) off the east coast of Brazil.

    PubMed

    Melo, F T V; Costa, P A F B; Giese, E G; Gardner, S L; Santos, J N

    2015-01-01

    Plagioscion squamosissimus (Heckel, 1840) (Osteichthyes: Sciaenidae) is considered piscivorous and is a generalist species endemic to the Amazon region. This fish is an important part of the natural ecosystems in which it occurs and provides basic functional components in the food web. The genus Neoechinorhynchus Stiles & Hassall, 1905 is distributed worldwide and parasitizes fish and turtles, but there are few reports of parasites of this genus in South America, due to the high diversity of fish that can be found in this region. A new species of thorny-headed worm (Acanthocephala: Neoechinorhynchidae) is described from P. squamosissimus from Guajará Bay, Belém, Pará, Brazil. In general, the unique characteristics of the hooks on the anterior end of the proboscis and the length-to-width ratio relationship separate this new species from other described species in the genus Neoechinorhynchus. Although the species in this genus are mostly found in North America, the dearth of species known from the neotropics may be due to the lack of studies in this region. PMID:26262594

  5. A description of Neoechinorhynchus (Neoechinorhynchus) veropesoi n. sp. (Acanthocephala: Neoechinorhynchidae) from the intestine of the silver croaker fish Plagioscion squamosissimus (Heckel, 1840) (Osteichthyes: Sciaenidae) off the east coast of Brazil.

    PubMed

    Melo, F T V; Costa, P A F B; Giese, E G; Gardner, S L; Santos, J N

    2015-01-01

    Plagioscion squamosissimus (Heckel, 1840) (Osteichthyes: Sciaenidae) is considered piscivorous and is a generalist species endemic to the Amazon region. This fish is an important part of the natural ecosystems in which it occurs and provides basic functional components in the food web. The genus Neoechinorhynchus Stiles & Hassall, 1905 is distributed worldwide and parasitizes fish and turtles, but there are few reports of parasites of this genus in South America, due to the high diversity of fish that can be found in this region. A new species of thorny-headed worm (Acanthocephala: Neoechinorhynchidae) is described from P. squamosissimus from Guajará Bay, Belém, Pará, Brazil. In general, the unique characteristics of the hooks on the anterior end of the proboscis and the length-to-width ratio relationship separate this new species from other described species in the genus Neoechinorhynchus. Although the species in this genus are mostly found in North America, the dearth of species known from the neotropics may be due to the lack of studies in this region.

  6. On a new species of Neoechinorhynchus Hamann, 1892 (Acanthocephala: Neoechinorhynchoidea Southwell et Macfie, 1925) from Indian threadfin fish, Leptomelanosoma indicum Shaw, 1804 from Visakhapatnam coast, Andhra Pradesh, India.

    PubMed

    Gudivada, Mani; Chikkam, Vijayalakshmi; Vankara, Anu Prasanna

    2010-10-01

    A new acanthocephalan of the genus Neoechinorhynchus Hamman, 1892 (Acanthocephala: Neoaechinorhynchoidea Southwell et Macfie, 1925) parasitic on threadfin fish, Leptomelanosoma indicum Shaw, 1804 from Visakhapatnam coast, Andhra Pradesh, India is described. Neoechinorhynchus indicus sp. nov is characterized by an enormous body size, structural characteristics of the hooks on proboscis, presence of body annulations, two guard cells, unequal lemnisci, sub-terminal genital pore and the host. N. indicus sp.nov is included in the genus by the presence of three rows of six hooks each on the proboscis and a single layered proboscis receptacle.

  7. On a new species of Neoechinorhynchus Hamann, 1892 (Acanthocephala: Neoechinorhynchoidea Southwell et Macfie, 1925) from Indian threadfin fish, Leptomelanosoma indicum Shaw, 1804 from Visakhapatnam coast, Andhra Pradesh, India.

    PubMed

    Gudivada, Mani; Chikkam, Vijayalakshmi; Vankara, Anu Prasanna

    2010-10-01

    A new acanthocephalan of the genus Neoechinorhynchus Hamman, 1892 (Acanthocephala: Neoaechinorhynchoidea Southwell et Macfie, 1925) parasitic on threadfin fish, Leptomelanosoma indicum Shaw, 1804 from Visakhapatnam coast, Andhra Pradesh, India is described. Neoechinorhynchus indicus sp. nov is characterized by an enormous body size, structural characteristics of the hooks on proboscis, presence of body annulations, two guard cells, unequal lemnisci, sub-terminal genital pore and the host. N. indicus sp.nov is included in the genus by the presence of three rows of six hooks each on the proboscis and a single layered proboscis receptacle. PMID:21966127

  8. Molecular identification and first description of the male of Neoechinorhynchus schmidti (Acanthocephala: Neoechinorhynchidae), a parasite of Trachemys scripta (Testudines) in México.

    PubMed

    García-Varela, Martín; García-Prieto, Luís; Rodríguez, Rodolfo Pérez

    2011-12-01

    The morphology of the males of Neoechinorhynchus schmidti (Acanthocephala: Neoechinorhynchidae) is unknown, because this species was described based exclusively on females. However, recently we collected 2 common slider turtles Trachemys scripta in Centla swamps, Tabasco, Mexico, parasitized by 27 specimens of an acanthocephalan whose females were morphologically identical to N. schmidti. The domains D2 and D3 of the large subunit of the nuclear ribosomal RNA (LSU) of 3 males and 2 females of this material were sequenced. The sequences of both sexes were identical, and based on this result, we described for the first time the morphology of the males of N. schmidti. In addition, 6 sequences of a congeneric species, also parasite of turtles (Neoechinorhynchus emyditoides) were generated in the current research. The 11 sequences of these 2 species were aligned with 13 sequences of another 4 species of the same genus, producing a data set of 24 taxa with 674 nucleotides. The genetic divergence between N. schmidti and N. emyditoides was 4% and intraspecific differences ranged from 0.01 to 0.02%. Pairwise differences between either of these species and 4 other congeners parasitic in fresh and brackish water fishes (Neoechinorhynchus golvani, Neoechinorhynchus roseum, Neoechinorhynchus saginatus, and Neoechinorhynchus sp.) varied from 9.5 to 33%. Maximum likelihood and maximum parsimony analyses show that N. schmidti and N. emyditoides are sister taxa. Bootstrap analysis also indicates that the sister relationship is reliably supported.

  9. Molecular identification and first description of the male of Neoechinorhynchus schmidti (Acanthocephala: Neoechinorhynchidae), a parasite of Trachemys scripta (Testudines) in México.

    PubMed

    García-Varela, Martín; García-Prieto, Luís; Rodríguez, Rodolfo Pérez

    2011-12-01

    The morphology of the males of Neoechinorhynchus schmidti (Acanthocephala: Neoechinorhynchidae) is unknown, because this species was described based exclusively on females. However, recently we collected 2 common slider turtles Trachemys scripta in Centla swamps, Tabasco, Mexico, parasitized by 27 specimens of an acanthocephalan whose females were morphologically identical to N. schmidti. The domains D2 and D3 of the large subunit of the nuclear ribosomal RNA (LSU) of 3 males and 2 females of this material were sequenced. The sequences of both sexes were identical, and based on this result, we described for the first time the morphology of the males of N. schmidti. In addition, 6 sequences of a congeneric species, also parasite of turtles (Neoechinorhynchus emyditoides) were generated in the current research. The 11 sequences of these 2 species were aligned with 13 sequences of another 4 species of the same genus, producing a data set of 24 taxa with 674 nucleotides. The genetic divergence between N. schmidti and N. emyditoides was 4% and intraspecific differences ranged from 0.01 to 0.02%. Pairwise differences between either of these species and 4 other congeners parasitic in fresh and brackish water fishes (Neoechinorhynchus golvani, Neoechinorhynchus roseum, Neoechinorhynchus saginatus, and Neoechinorhynchus sp.) varied from 9.5 to 33%. Maximum likelihood and maximum parsimony analyses show that N. schmidti and N. emyditoides are sister taxa. Bootstrap analysis also indicates that the sister relationship is reliably supported. PMID:21840414

  10. Phylogenetic relationships among Neoechinorhynchus species (Acanthocephala: Neoechinorhynchidae) from North-East Asia based on molecular data.

    PubMed

    Malyarchuk, Boris; Derenko, Miroslava; Mikhailova, Ekaterina; Denisova, Galina

    2014-02-01

    Phylogenetic and statistical analyses of DNA sequences of two genes, cytochrome oxidase subunit 1 (cox 1) of the mitochondrial DNA and 18S subunit of the nuclear ribosomal RNA (18S rRNA), was used to characterize Neoechinorhynchus species from fishes collected in different localities of North-East Asia. It has been found that four species can be clearly recognized using molecular markers-Neoechinorhynchus tumidus, Neoechinorhynchus beringianus, Neoechinorhynchus simansularis and Neoechinorhynchus salmonis. 18S sequences ascribed to Neoechinorhynchus crassus specimens from North-East Asia were identical to those of N. tumidus, but differed substantially from North American N. crassus. We renamed North-East Asian N. crassus specimens to N. sp., although the possibility that they represent a subspecies of N. tumidus cannot be excluded, taking into account a relatively small distance between cox 1 sequences of North-East Asian specimens of N. crassus and N. tumidus. Maximum likelihood, maximum parsimony and Bayesian inference analyses were performed for phylogeny reconstruction. All the phylogenetic trees showed that North-East Asian species of Neoechinorhynchus analyzed in this study represent independent clades, with the only exception of N. tumidus and N. sp. for 18S data. Phylogenetic analysis has shown that the majority of species sampled (N. tumidus+N. sp., N. simansularis and N. beringianus) are probably very closely related, while N. salmonis occupies separate position in the trees, possibly indicating a North American origin of this species. PMID:24064255

  11. Phylogenetic relationships among Neoechinorhynchus species (Acanthocephala: Neoechinorhynchidae) from North-East Asia based on molecular data.

    PubMed

    Malyarchuk, Boris; Derenko, Miroslava; Mikhailova, Ekaterina; Denisova, Galina

    2014-02-01

    Phylogenetic and statistical analyses of DNA sequences of two genes, cytochrome oxidase subunit 1 (cox 1) of the mitochondrial DNA and 18S subunit of the nuclear ribosomal RNA (18S rRNA), was used to characterize Neoechinorhynchus species from fishes collected in different localities of North-East Asia. It has been found that four species can be clearly recognized using molecular markers-Neoechinorhynchus tumidus, Neoechinorhynchus beringianus, Neoechinorhynchus simansularis and Neoechinorhynchus salmonis. 18S sequences ascribed to Neoechinorhynchus crassus specimens from North-East Asia were identical to those of N. tumidus, but differed substantially from North American N. crassus. We renamed North-East Asian N. crassus specimens to N. sp., although the possibility that they represent a subspecies of N. tumidus cannot be excluded, taking into account a relatively small distance between cox 1 sequences of North-East Asian specimens of N. crassus and N. tumidus. Maximum likelihood, maximum parsimony and Bayesian inference analyses were performed for phylogeny reconstruction. All the phylogenetic trees showed that North-East Asian species of Neoechinorhynchus analyzed in this study represent independent clades, with the only exception of N. tumidus and N. sp. for 18S data. Phylogenetic analysis has shown that the majority of species sampled (N. tumidus+N. sp., N. simansularis and N. beringianus) are probably very closely related, while N. salmonis occupies separate position in the trees, possibly indicating a North American origin of this species.

  12. Expanded description of Neoechinorhynchus (Hebesoma) manubrianus (Acanthocephala: Neoechinorhynchidae) from marine fish in Halong Bay, Vietnam.

    PubMed

    Amin, O M; Heckmann, R A

    2012-08-01

    Neoechinorhynchus manubrianus Amin, Ha & Ha, 2011 (Acanthocephala: Neoechinorhynchidae) (formerly Neoechinorhynchus manubriensis Amin, Ha & Ha, 2011), was recently described based on optical microscopy of four males and two females (none was gravid) from caroun croaker, Johnius carouna (Cuvier), flower croaker, Nibea albiflora (Richardson), and silver croaker, Pennabia argentata (Houttuyen) (Sciaenidae) in Halong Bay, Vietnam. Subsequently, many more specimens became available from N. albiflora that were studied using SEM. SEM studies showed many additional features that were not possible to discern with optical microscopy. These included the prominent angulation of the anterior trunk, the presence of (1) anterio-dorsal and (2) undulating mid-lateral fin-like protrusions of the body wall, uniquely shaped eggs as well as details of trunk micropores, proboscis, bursa, and female gonopore. Microscopical examination of eggs from the new collection demonstrated the presence of polar prolongation of fertilization membrane which places N. manubriensis in the subgenus Hebesoma. The features of trunk angulation, trunk fins, and egg morphology further distinguish N. manubriensis from all other species of Neoechinorhynchus Stiles and Hassall, 1905 from Vietnam or from any where else in the world.

  13. A review of the genus Neoechinorhynchus (Acanthocephala:Neoechinorhynchidae) from Australia with the description of two new species.

    PubMed

    Smales, L R

    2013-12-01

    Abstract Eight species of Neoechinorhynchus were reported from Australian waters. Neoechinorhynchus vittiformis n. sp. is described from Eleutheronema tetradactylum (Shaw). It can be distinguished from all its congeners by the following combination of characters: long cylindrical trunk without cuticular plaques, globular proboscis, proboscis armature with the anterior circle of hooks larger with simple roots and the middle and posterior hooks the same size and smaller, short neck, lemnisci nearly equal, almost reaching the anterior testis which is more than half the length of the posterior testis. Neoechinorhynchus (Neoechinorhynchus) bryanti n. sp., described from Liza subviridis (Valenciennes), also with an elongated trunk, can be distinguished from its congeners by the combination of a wider anterior trunk without cuticular plaques, a relatively long conical neck, a subglobular proboscis having anterior hooks with manubria, the hooks becoming gradually smaller posteriorly, the lemnisci not reaching level of testes and the anterior testis being longer than posterior testis. Neoechinorhynchus sp. resembled Neoechinorhynchus aldrichettae Edmonds, 1971 but had a rectangular-shaped proboscis with larger anterior hooks. New host and locality records were presented for N. aldrichettae, Neoechinorhynchus (Hebesoma) agilis (Rudolphi) and Neoechinorhynchus tylosuri Yamaguti, 1939 . No additional specimens of either Neoechinorhynchus ningalooensis Pichelin and Cribb, 2001 or the species inquirenda, Neoechinorhynchus magnus Southwell and Macfie, 1925, were available for study. Of the 8 putative species listed here, 5 (N. [N.] bryanti, N. magnus , N. ningalooensis, N. vittiformis, and Neoechinorhynchus sp.) are endemic to Australian waters. By comparison with the North American fauna the Australian fauna was considered impoverished. The morphological and zoogeographical similarities within the group of 8 long, slender neoechinorhynchid species found in the African, Indo

  14. Neoechinorhynchus curemai (Acanthocephala: Neoechinorhynchidae) in Prochilodus lineatus (Osteichthyes: Prochilodontidae) from the Paraná River, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Santos, R S; Martins, M L; Marengoni, N G; Francisco, C J; Piazza, R S; Takahashi, H K; Onaka, E M

    2005-11-25

    This work evaluated parasitic infections by Neoechinorhynchus curemai (Acanthocephala: Neoechinorhynchidae) in Prochilodus lineatus captured between August 2000 and August 2001 in the Paraná River, Presidente Epitácio, São Paulo, Brazil. Of 87 fishes examined, 59 were infected (25 males and 34 females). High mean intensities occurred in August 2000 (45.2, range 2-204), September 2000 (28.5, range 11-73), October 2000 (59.3, range 2-250) and February 2001 (27.3, range 3-73). There was no relationship of rainfall with mean intensity and prevalence. Males were more parasitized (P<0.05) than females. This work contributes to the knowledge of helminth parasites of fish from a little studied region of the Paraná River, showing diversity in their fauna when compared to other places in the same river.

  15. First report of Neoechinorhynchus (Acanthocephala: Neoechinorhynchidae) from marine fish of the eastern seaboard of Vietnam, with the description of six new species.

    PubMed

    Amin, O M; Ha, N V; Ha, D N

    2011-02-01

    The occurrence of acanthocephalans of the genus Neoechinorhynchus Stiles and Hassall, 1905 in Vietnamese waters is reported for the first time. Six new species are described from seven species of marine fish of the families Belonidae, Clupeidae, Megalopidae, Mugilidae, and Sciaenidae, collected in Halong Bay of the eastern seaboard of Vietnam in 2008 and 2009. These are Neoechinorhynchus (Neoechinorhynchus) plaquensis n. sp. characterized by dermal plaques covering the entire trunk; Neoechinorhynchus manubriensis n. sp. with very long anterior proboscis hooks having roots with prominent anterior manubria and very small and equal middle and posterior hooks, two pseudo-retractors in the receptacle, simple vagina, and terminal gonopore; Neoechinorhynchus pennahia n. sp. with equal anterior and middle proboscis and somewhat smaller posterior hooks, and terminal female gonopore; Neoechinorhynchus ampullata with many giant nuclei in the body wall and lemnisci and a parareceptacle structure complex which includes pumping ampullas reported for the first time; Neoechinorhynchus (Neoechinorhynchus) longinucleatus n. sp. with very long giant nuclei in the Lemnisci, anteriorly twisted vagina, and subterminal female gonopore. Neoechinorhynchus (Neoechinorhynchus) ascus n. sp. is the second species of Neoechinorhynchus found with the parareceptacle structure/ampulla complex. Neoechinorhynchus (Neoechinorhynchus) johnii Yamaguti, 1929 of Bilqees, 1972 is not N. johnii because of proboscis armature and other discrepancies with the Yamaguti material. Notes on host distribution and feeding habits are also included.

  16. Redescription of Neoechinorhynchus (Neoechinorhynchus) golvani Salgado-Maldonado, 1978 (Acanthocephala: Neoechinorhynchidae) and description of a new species from freshwater cichlids (Teleostei: Cichlidae) in Mexico.

    PubMed

    Salgado-Maldonado, Guillermo

    2013-05-01

    A redescription of Neoechinorhynchus (Neoechinorhynchus) golvani Salgado-Maldonado (An Inst Biol Univ Nal Autón Méx, Ser Zool 49:35-47, 1978) is presented, based on adult specimens collected from the type host Paraneetroplus fenestratus from the type location, the Lago de Catemaco lake, Veracruz state, Mexico, and its presence is recorded in other cichlids. Detailed studies of N. (N.) golvani using light microscopy revealed some taxonomically important, previously unreported features, such as the size and shape of fully developed adult males and females, and the structure of the eggs. Morphological variability in N. (N.) golvani is described. Based on these data, the geographic distribution of this species is documented. Neoechinorhynchus (Neoechinorhynchus) panucensis n. sp. is described from Herichthys labridens (Pellegrin), Amatitlania nigrofasciata (Günther), and Herichthys cyanoguttatus Baird and Girard (all of them Cichlidae), collected in the Río Atlapexco, a tributary to the upper Río Panuco basin, Hidalgo State, Mexico. This new species stand up alone because of its minute proboscis (♂ 50 × 60, ♀ 42-55 (48.5) × 48-63 (57.7)) and anterior hooks (♂ 27-30 (28.8) × 3-5 (4), ♀ 28-32 (30) × 5 (5)). A key to the species of Neoechinorhynchus recorded from freshwater fishes in Central and South America is included. PMID:23532542

  17. Redescription of Neoechinorhynchus (Neoechinorhynchus) golvani Salgado-Maldonado, 1978 (Acanthocephala: Neoechinorhynchidae) and description of a new species from freshwater cichlids (Teleostei: Cichlidae) in Mexico.

    PubMed

    Salgado-Maldonado, Guillermo

    2013-05-01

    A redescription of Neoechinorhynchus (Neoechinorhynchus) golvani Salgado-Maldonado (An Inst Biol Univ Nal Autón Méx, Ser Zool 49:35-47, 1978) is presented, based on adult specimens collected from the type host Paraneetroplus fenestratus from the type location, the Lago de Catemaco lake, Veracruz state, Mexico, and its presence is recorded in other cichlids. Detailed studies of N. (N.) golvani using light microscopy revealed some taxonomically important, previously unreported features, such as the size and shape of fully developed adult males and females, and the structure of the eggs. Morphological variability in N. (N.) golvani is described. Based on these data, the geographic distribution of this species is documented. Neoechinorhynchus (Neoechinorhynchus) panucensis n. sp. is described from Herichthys labridens (Pellegrin), Amatitlania nigrofasciata (Günther), and Herichthys cyanoguttatus Baird and Girard (all of them Cichlidae), collected in the Río Atlapexco, a tributary to the upper Río Panuco basin, Hidalgo State, Mexico. This new species stand up alone because of its minute proboscis (♂ 50 × 60, ♀ 42-55 (48.5) × 48-63 (57.7)) and anterior hooks (♂ 27-30 (28.8) × 3-5 (4), ♀ 28-32 (30) × 5 (5)). A key to the species of Neoechinorhynchus recorded from freshwater fishes in Central and South America is included.

  18. Morphological and molecular data reveal a new species of Neoechinorhynchus (Acanthocephala: Neoechinorhynchidae) from Dormitator maculatus in the Gulf of Mexico.

    PubMed

    Pinacho-Pinacho, Carlos Daniel; Sereno-Uribe, Ana L; García-Varela, Martín

    2014-12-01

    Neoechinorhynchus (Neoechinorhynchus) mexicoensis sp. n. is described from the intestine of Dormitator maculatus (Bloch 1792) collected in 5 coastal localities from the Gulf of Mexico. The new species is mainly distinguished from the other 33 described species of Neoechinorhynchus from the Americas associated with freshwater, marine and brackish fishes by having smaller middle and posterior hooks and possessing a small proboscis with three rows of six hooks each, apical hooks longer than other hooks and extending to the same level as the posterior hooks, 1 giant nucleus in the ventral body wall and females with eggs longer than other congeneric species. Sequences of the internal transcribed spacer (ITS) and the large subunit (LSU) of ribosomal DNA including the domain D2+D3 were used independently to corroborate the morphological distinction among the new species and other congeneric species associated with freshwater and brackish water fish from Mexico. The genetic divergence estimated among congeneric species ranged from 7.34 to 44% for ITS and from 1.65 to 32.9% for LSU. Maximum likelihood and Bayesian inference analyses with each dataset showed that the 25 specimens analyzed from 5 localities of the coast of the Gulf of Mexico parasitizing D. maculatus represent an independent clade with strong bootstrap support and posterior probabilities. The morphological evidence, plus the monophyly in the phylogenetic analyses, indicates that the acanthocephalans collected from intestine of D. maculatus from the Gulf of Mexico represent a new species, herein named N. (N.) mexicoensis sp. n. PMID:25064596

  19. Morphological and molecular data reveal a new species of Neoechinorhynchus (Acanthocephala: Neoechinorhynchidae) from Dormitator maculatus in the Gulf of Mexico.

    PubMed

    Pinacho-Pinacho, Carlos Daniel; Sereno-Uribe, Ana L; García-Varela, Martín

    2014-12-01

    Neoechinorhynchus (Neoechinorhynchus) mexicoensis sp. n. is described from the intestine of Dormitator maculatus (Bloch 1792) collected in 5 coastal localities from the Gulf of Mexico. The new species is mainly distinguished from the other 33 described species of Neoechinorhynchus from the Americas associated with freshwater, marine and brackish fishes by having smaller middle and posterior hooks and possessing a small proboscis with three rows of six hooks each, apical hooks longer than other hooks and extending to the same level as the posterior hooks, 1 giant nucleus in the ventral body wall and females with eggs longer than other congeneric species. Sequences of the internal transcribed spacer (ITS) and the large subunit (LSU) of ribosomal DNA including the domain D2+D3 were used independently to corroborate the morphological distinction among the new species and other congeneric species associated with freshwater and brackish water fish from Mexico. The genetic divergence estimated among congeneric species ranged from 7.34 to 44% for ITS and from 1.65 to 32.9% for LSU. Maximum likelihood and Bayesian inference analyses with each dataset showed that the 25 specimens analyzed from 5 localities of the coast of the Gulf of Mexico parasitizing D. maculatus represent an independent clade with strong bootstrap support and posterior probabilities. The morphological evidence, plus the monophyly in the phylogenetic analyses, indicates that the acanthocephalans collected from intestine of D. maculatus from the Gulf of Mexico represent a new species, herein named N. (N.) mexicoensis sp. n.

  20. Description of a new species of Neoechinorhynchus (Acanthocephala: Neoechinorhynchidae) a parasite of Dormitator latifrons from Southwestern Mexico based on morphological and molecular characters.

    PubMed

    Pinacho-Pinacho, Carlos Daniel; Pérez-Ponce de León, Gerardo; García-Varela, Martín

    2012-12-01

    Neoechinorhynchus mamesi n. sp. is described from the estuarine fish Dormitator latifrons collected in 3 localities along the coast of Chiapas State in Southwestern Mexico. The new species is characterized by possessing a small trunk, a very small proboscis with relatively very long apical proboscis hooks and small middle and posterior hooks, 2 giant nuclei in the ventral body wall, and males with testes smaller than the cement gland. A multivariate analysis of variance (MANOVA) and a Principal Component Analysis (PCA) of 46 morphometric traits for 21 mature females and 18 males of N. mamesi n. sp., N. brentnickoli and N. golvani, revealed morphological variation among species. DNA sequences of 2 genes, cytochrome oxidase subunit 1 (cox 1) of the mitochondrial DNA and the domains D2 and D3 of the large subunit of the nuclear ribosomal RNA (LSU) were used to corroborate the morphological distinction. The genetic divergence estimated among populations of N. brentnickoli and N. mamesi n. sp. ranged from 10.14 to 10.55% for LSU and from 20.53 to 22.06% for cox 1, whereas the genetic divergence between N. golvani and N. mamesi n. sp. ranged from 20.31 to 21.03% for LSU and from 22.24 to 24.95% for cox 1. Maximum likelihood, maximum parsimony and Bayesian inference analyses were performed for the combined data sets (LSU+cox 1) and each data set alone. All the phylogenetic analyses showed that the specimens from 3 coastal lagoons of Chiapas State in Southwestern Mexico represented a monophyletic clade with strong bootstrap support and Bayesian posterior probabilities. The haplotype network based on the analysis of the cox 1 sequences indicated that N. mamesi n. sp. is separated by 84 substitutions from N. brentnickoli, and with 69 substitutions from N. golvani. The morphological evidence, the multivariate analyses, in combination with the genetic divergence estimated with two genes, the reciprocal monophyly in all the phylogenetic analyses, and the haplotype network

  1. Detecting a complex of cryptic species within Neoechinorhynchus golvani (Acanthocephala: Neoechinorhynchidae) inferred from ITSs and LSU rDNA gene sequences.

    PubMed

    Martínez-Aquino, Andrés; Reyna-Fabián, Miriam E; Rosas-Valdez, Rogelio; Razo-Mendivil, Ulises; de León, Gerardo Pérez-Ponce; García-Varela, Martín

    2009-10-01

    Neoechinorhynchus golvani is an intestinal parasite of freshwater and brackish water fishes distributed in Mexico. The genetic variability of 40 samples representing 12 populations from north, south, and central Mexico, and 1 from Costa Rica, was estimated by sequencing 2 nuclear genes (ITS1, 5.8S, ITS2, and LSU rDNA, including the domain D2 + D3). The length of both genes ranged from 700 to 779 base pairs (bp) and from 813 to 821 bp, for ITSs and LSU, respectively. The genetic divergence among populations ranged from 19.5 to 35.3% with ITSs and from 9.28 to 19.58% with LSU. Maximum likelihood and maximum parsimony analyses were performed for each data set and also for 2 combined data sets (ITSs + LSU rDNA with and without outgroups), showing strong similarities among trees, with high bootstrap support in all cases. Genetic divergence, in combination with phylogenetic analyses, suggested that the acanthocephalan N. golvani represents a complex of cryptic species, which is composed of at least 3 lineages. The first lineage, corresponding with N. golvani, shows a wide distribution, including localities from northeastern Mexico, southwards through central and southeastern Mexico, and further down to Costa Rica. This lineage is associated with cichlid fishes in strictly freshwater environments. Lineages 2 and 3 are distributed in brackish water systems along the Gulf of Mexico and Pacific slopes, respectively; both are associated with eleotrid fishes, and apparently represent 2 cryptic species. The diversification of the eleotrid and cichlid lineages seems to be the result of independent host-switching events from the ancestral population.

  2. Checklist of the species of Neoechinorhynchus (Acanthocephala: Neoechinorhynchidae) in fishes and turtles in Middle-America, and their delimitation based on sequences of the 28S rDNA.

    PubMed

    Pinacho-Pinacho, Carlos Daniel; Sereno-Uribe, Ana L; De León, Gerardo Pérez-Ponce; García-Varela, Martín

    2015-07-09

    Among the acanthocephalans, Neoechinorhynchus is one of the most speciose genera, with 116 described species distributed worldwide. The adults of Neoechinorhynchus are found in the intestine of freshwater and brackish water fish, as well as in freshwater turtles. In this study, a checklist of the congeneric species of Neoechinorhynchus occurring in Middle-American fish and turtles is presented. The checklist contains the records established in all published accounts, as well as novel data from survey work conducted in the region comprising Neotropical areas of Mexico, as well as some localities in Central America. The species delimitation criteria used to discriminate among species is based on molecular data. In the last years, a large database derived from sequences of the D2 + D3 domains of the large subunit of rDNA (28S) was generated for 262 specimens corresponding to nine species of Neoechinorhynchus. This molecular marker has shown to be useful in establishing species limits within Neoechinorhynchus and in resolving phylogenetic relationships at species level. Based on our results, the domains D2 + D3 of the 28S rDNA could be considered as potential DNA barcodes to complement mitochondrial DNA to discriminate among acanthocephalan species.

  3. Checklist of the species of Neoechinorhynchus (Acanthocephala: Neoechinorhynchidae) in fishes and turtles in Middle-America, and their delimitation based on sequences of the 28S rDNA.

    PubMed

    Pinacho-Pinacho, Carlos Daniel; Sereno-Uribe, Ana L; De León, Gerardo Pérez-Ponce; García-Varela, Martín

    2015-01-01

    Among the acanthocephalans, Neoechinorhynchus is one of the most speciose genera, with 116 described species distributed worldwide. The adults of Neoechinorhynchus are found in the intestine of freshwater and brackish water fish, as well as in freshwater turtles. In this study, a checklist of the congeneric species of Neoechinorhynchus occurring in Middle-American fish and turtles is presented. The checklist contains the records established in all published accounts, as well as novel data from survey work conducted in the region comprising Neotropical areas of Mexico, as well as some localities in Central America. The species delimitation criteria used to discriminate among species is based on molecular data. In the last years, a large database derived from sequences of the D2 + D3 domains of the large subunit of rDNA (28S) was generated for 262 specimens corresponding to nine species of Neoechinorhynchus. This molecular marker has shown to be useful in establishing species limits within Neoechinorhynchus and in resolving phylogenetic relationships at species level. Based on our results, the domains D2 + D3 of the 28S rDNA could be considered as potential DNA barcodes to complement mitochondrial DNA to discriminate among acanthocephalan species. PMID:26250025

  4. Extraintestinal migration of Centrorhynchus sp. (Acanthocephala: Centrorhynchidae) in experimentally infected rats.

    PubMed

    Choi, Chang-Jin; Lee, Hye-Jung; Go, Jai-Hyang; Park, Yun-Kyu; Chai, Jong-Yil; Seo, Min

    2010-06-01

    Reptiles were known to serve as paratenic hosts for Centrorhynchus (Acanthocephala: Centrorhynchidae) in Korea, but the infection course in experimental animals was not elucidated yet. In this study, the tiger keelback snakes (Rhabdophis tigrinus) were collected and digested with artificial pepsin solution, and the larvae of Centrorhynchus were recovered from them. Then, the collected larvae were orally infected to rats for developmental observations. In rats, all the larvae were observed outside the intestine on day 3 post-infection (PI), including the mesentery and abdominal muscles. As for the development in rats, the ovary of Centrorhynchus sp. was observed at day 15 PI, and the cement glands were 3 in number. Based on the morphological characteristics, including the arrangement of proboscis hooks, these larvae proved to be a species of Centrorhynchus, and more studies were needed for species identification.

  5. The description of Mediorhynchus africanus n. sp. (Acanthocephala: Gigantorhynchidae) from galliform birds in Africa.

    PubMed

    Amin, Omar M; Evans, Paul; Heckmann, Richard A; El-Naggar, Atif M

    2013-08-01

    Mediorhynchus africanus n. sp. is described from specimens collected from the helmeted guinea fowls, Numida meliagris Linn. 1758 in Kruger National Park and elsewhere in subSaharan Africa from the same and other galliform birds. These specimens were previously assigned to Mediorhynchus gallinarum Bhaleroa (Proc Zool Soc Lond Ser B Syst Morph 107:199-203, 1937) described from chickens, Gallus gallus L. in India and subsequently reported from other Asian countries. The identification of the African forms as M. gallinarum was based on similarities in the structure and measurements of the proboscis, proboscis armature and receptacle, lemnisci, and reproductive organs. A detailed study of specimens from South Africa and descriptions reported from elsewhere in Africa revealed marked differences that clearly distinguish the African material as new species. The African specimens are pseudo-segmented and flattened, the proboscis has two prominent apical pores, sensory pits are prevalent throughout the trunk, the posterior end of the female is broad with dorso-terminal dome-like extension opposite the subterminal gonopore, and the eggs are large. The Asian specimens from Indonesia and elsewhere are cylindrical and non-segmented, the proboscis lacks prominent apical pores, sensory pits are rare on the trunk, the posterior end of the female is pointed with a terminal gonopore, and the eggs are markedly smaller. We used DNA sequence from one mitochondrial gene (cytochrome oxidase subunit I) and one nuclear gene (18S ribosomal RNA) to infer the phylogenetic relationships of M. africanus and M. gallinarum and selected Acanthocephala. Medioryhnchus is monophyletic and M. africanus and M. gallinarum are allopatric sister species (9.7% sequence divergence). All findings indicate that M. africanus should be ranked as a separate species.

  6. The Behavior Response of Amphipods Infected by Hedruris suttonae (Nematoda) and Pseudocorynosoma sp. (Acanthocephala).

    PubMed

    Casalins, Laura M; Brugni, Norma L; Rauque, Carlos A

    2015-12-01

    The manipulation of intermediate host behavior may increase chances of parasite transmission to the definitive host. In freshwater environments of the Neotropical Region, studies on behavioral manipulations by parasites are rare, and the majority of these consider only a single parasite species and/or 1 life stage of a particular parasite species. In Andean Patagonian lakes of Argentina, the amphipod Hyalella patagonica is infected by larvae of the fish nematode Hedruris suttonae and by the bird acanthocephalan Pseudocorynosoma sp. The 3 objectives of the present study were to determine whether H. suttonae and Pseudocorynosoma sp. differ in their effects on behavior of H. patagonica , whether such modification is associated with parasite development, and to assess the associations between behavioral traits. From naturally parasitized amphipods, activity (swimming levels) and phototaxis (light preference) was measured. Only in phototaxis trials did larvae of H. suttonae induce significantly higher levels of photophilia, suggesting that they are manipulative. Scores of activity and phototaxis were positive and significantly related for non-parasitized female amphipods and for amphipods parasitized by larvae of Pseudocorynosoma sp. but were not associated in amphipods parasitized with larvae of H. suttonae (infective and non-infective), suggesting that infection separated the relationship between these variables. PMID:26295566

  7. The Behavior Response of Amphipods Infected by Hedruris suttonae (Nematoda) and Pseudocorynosoma sp. (Acanthocephala).

    PubMed

    Casalins, Laura M; Brugni, Norma L; Rauque, Carlos A

    2015-12-01

    The manipulation of intermediate host behavior may increase chances of parasite transmission to the definitive host. In freshwater environments of the Neotropical Region, studies on behavioral manipulations by parasites are rare, and the majority of these consider only a single parasite species and/or 1 life stage of a particular parasite species. In Andean Patagonian lakes of Argentina, the amphipod Hyalella patagonica is infected by larvae of the fish nematode Hedruris suttonae and by the bird acanthocephalan Pseudocorynosoma sp. The 3 objectives of the present study were to determine whether H. suttonae and Pseudocorynosoma sp. differ in their effects on behavior of H. patagonica , whether such modification is associated with parasite development, and to assess the associations between behavioral traits. From naturally parasitized amphipods, activity (swimming levels) and phototaxis (light preference) was measured. Only in phototaxis trials did larvae of H. suttonae induce significantly higher levels of photophilia, suggesting that they are manipulative. Scores of activity and phototaxis were positive and significantly related for non-parasitized female amphipods and for amphipods parasitized by larvae of Pseudocorynosoma sp. but were not associated in amphipods parasitized with larvae of H. suttonae (infective and non-infective), suggesting that infection separated the relationship between these variables.

  8. Nyctiphanes couchii as intermediate host for Rhadinorhynchus sp. (Acanthocephala, Echinorhynchidae) from NW Iberian Peninsula waters.

    PubMed

    Gregori, M; Aznar, F J; Abollo, E; Roura, A; González, A F; Pascual, S

    2013-07-01

    In the mesozooplanktonic community of the coastal upwelling system of the Ría de Vigo (NW Spain), the euphausiid Nyctiphanes couchii has been identified for the first time in temperate waters of the NE Atlantic as the intermediate host for cystacanths of Rhadinorhynchus sp. Parasites were identified using morphological characters described in 20 cystacanths. The hooks of the proboscis were arranged in 14 rows of 26 hooks each, while the hooks of the basal circle were only slightly erected and were longer than remaining spines. A maximum-likelihood estimation (ML) tree inferred from the 18S rRNA data set of Palaeacantocephala revealed that our specimens belong to a highly supported clade with Rhadinorhynchus sp., Pararhadinorhynchus sp. and Transvena annulospinosa. Nonetheless, our morphological and phylogenetic analyses suggested that the status of Rhadinorhynchus pristis should be re-examined. The prevalences of parasites were 0.0019% and 0.0001% for frontal and coastal summer communities, and 0.0068% and 0.0008% for coastal and oceanic autumn communities, respectively. The presence of these cystacanths in different mesozooplankton communities throughout the study suggests that the recruitment of parasites may be affected by the oceanography.

  9. Acanthocephalus reunionensis n sp (Acanthocephala: Echinorhynchidae), a parasite of Anguilla species (Anguillidae) from Reunion Island.

    PubMed

    Smales, L R; Sasal, P; Taraschewski, H

    2007-06-01

    In a survey of 118 eels Anguilla bicolor, A. marmorata and A. mossambica, (Anguillidae) indigenous to Reunion Island in the Mascarene island group, western Indian Ocean, a new species of acanthocephalan, Acanthocepholus reunionensis n. sp., was found. With a proboscis hook formula of 19 rows of 4-5 hooks, and elongated cement glands arranged in three pairs, this species differs from all other species in the genus. This is the first record of the genus Acanthocephalus occurring in eels from the African Region.

  10. Sharpilosentis peruviensis n. g., n. sp. (Acanthocephala: Diplosentidae) from freshwater catfishes (Siluriformes) in the Amazonia.

    PubMed

    Lisitsyna, Olga; Scholz, Tomáš; Kuchta, Roman

    2015-06-01

    Sharpilosentis peruviensis n. g., n. sp. is described from the catfishes Duopalatinus cf. peruanus Eigenmann & Allen (type-host) and Oxydoras niger (Valenciennes) in the River Amazon basin, Peru. The new species belongs to the subfamily Diplosentinae Tubangui & Masilungan, 1937 of the family Diplosentidae Tubangui & Masilungan, 1937 because of its possession of an unarmed trunk, a cylindrical proboscis, proboscis hooks arranged in longitudinal rows and two tubular cement glands of the same length in males. Sharpilosentis n. g. differs from the other genera of the Diplosentidae in the morphology of the reproductive system: males have a large muscular penis covered with small tubercles and the vulva of females is devoid of muscular sphincters and the cephalic ganglion is located between the second and third part of the proboscis receptacle. In addition, proboscis hooks are of three types: large hooks with simple roots in the anterior part of the proboscis, transitional 6th hook in one from two adjacent rows with bifurcated root in the distal part and small hooks without roots in the posterior part of the proboscis. A partial sequence for the mitochondrial cox1 gene is provided for this new taxon. The taxonomic composition of the family Diplosentidae is discussed. PMID:25962462

  11. Sharpilosentis peruviensis n. g., n. sp. (Acanthocephala: Diplosentidae) from freshwater catfishes (Siluriformes) in the Amazonia.

    PubMed

    Lisitsyna, Olga; Scholz, Tomáš; Kuchta, Roman

    2015-06-01

    Sharpilosentis peruviensis n. g., n. sp. is described from the catfishes Duopalatinus cf. peruanus Eigenmann & Allen (type-host) and Oxydoras niger (Valenciennes) in the River Amazon basin, Peru. The new species belongs to the subfamily Diplosentinae Tubangui & Masilungan, 1937 of the family Diplosentidae Tubangui & Masilungan, 1937 because of its possession of an unarmed trunk, a cylindrical proboscis, proboscis hooks arranged in longitudinal rows and two tubular cement glands of the same length in males. Sharpilosentis n. g. differs from the other genera of the Diplosentidae in the morphology of the reproductive system: males have a large muscular penis covered with small tubercles and the vulva of females is devoid of muscular sphincters and the cephalic ganglion is located between the second and third part of the proboscis receptacle. In addition, proboscis hooks are of three types: large hooks with simple roots in the anterior part of the proboscis, transitional 6th hook in one from two adjacent rows with bifurcated root in the distal part and small hooks without roots in the posterior part of the proboscis. A partial sequence for the mitochondrial cox1 gene is provided for this new taxon. The taxonomic composition of the family Diplosentidae is discussed.

  12. Acanthocephaloides irregularis n. sp. (Acanthocephala: Arhythmacanthidae) from marine fishes off the Ukrainian Black Sea coast.

    PubMed

    Amin, Omar M; Oğuz, Mehmet C; Heckmann, Richard A; Tepe, Yahya; Kvach, Yuriy

    2011-10-01

    Acanthocephaloides irregularis n. sp. (Arhythmacanthidae) is described from four species of marine fishes in the Gulf of Odessa and Sukhyi Lyman, Ukrainan Black Sea waters, making it the tenth species of the genus. The hosts are the combtooth blenny Parablennius zvonimiri (Kolombatovic) (Blenniidae), the mushroom goby Ponticola eurycephalus (Kessler) (Gobiidae), the tubenose goby Proterorhinus marmoratus (Pallas) (Gobiidae) and the black-striped pipefish Syngnathus abaster Risso (Syngnathidae). The new species is most similar to its closest relative, Acanthocephaloides propinquus (Dujardin, 1845), in proboscis shape and armature (12 longitudinal rows of 5 hooks) and the shape of the trunk, reproductive system and lemnisci, but differs in having randomly distributed trunk spines. These trunk spines are organised in circular rings of individual spines separated by aspinose zones. The new species is also unique in having an anterior trunk collar, a very large triangular cephalic ganglion, nucleated pouches at the posterior end of the proboscis receptacle, and hooks and spines with roots bearing anterior manubria. Valid and invalid species of Acanthocephaloides Meyer, 1932 are listed and a key to all ten species is included.

  13. Parasite volume as an indicator of competition: the case of Acanthocephalus tumescens and Pseudocorynosoma sp. (Acanthocephala) in their intermediate host.

    PubMed

    Rauque, Carlos A; Semenas, Liliana

    2011-12-01

    In Lake Mascardi (Patagonia), 2 acanthocephalan species, Acanthocephalus tumescens and Pseudocorynosoma sp., share an amphipod intermediate host but have different definitive hosts. Because both acanthocephalan species are potentially capable of manipulating amphipod behavior, one of the parasites may, therefore, have no opportunity to complete its life cycle; accordingly, negative interactions between them can be expected. The purpose of the present work was to examine the possibility of competition in the intermediate host through a comparison of A. tumescens and Pseudocorynosoma sp. cystacanth volume. Specimens of the amphipod Hyalella patagonica were collected monthly over almost 2 yr. Amphipods were measured (total length), necropsied, and cystacanths collected. Cystacanths were also measured, and their volume was calculated. Size of both acanthocepalan species was positively associated with amphipod total length. Competition, during 3 different infection periods, was assessed: high level of Pseudocorynosoma sp. infection (HP), high level of A. tumescens infection (HA), and high level of mixed infection (HM). In Pseudocorynosoma sp., intra-specific competition in HM was the only interaction found. In contrast, in A. tumescens, inter-specific competition in HP, intra-specific competion in HA, and intra- and inter-specific competition in HM were found. We suggest that Pseudocorynosoma sp. is a non-plastic species mostly found in single infections, while A. tumescens is a more variable species occurring more frequently in co-infections.

  14. Sphaerechinorhynchus ophiograndis n. sp. (Acanthocephala:Plagiorhynchidae:Sphaerechinorhynchinae), described from the intestine of a king cobra, Ophiophagus hannah.

    PubMed

    Bolette, D P

    1997-04-01

    Six acanthocephalan specimens of an undescribed species of Sphaerechinorhynchus Johnston and Deland, 1929, were found attached to the mucosal surface of the proximal small intestine of a legally imported king cobra, Ophiophagus hannali (Cantor, 1836). These specimens are described as Sphaerechinorhynchus ophiograndis n. sp., the third species of the genus from snakes native to the Indo-Australian region, and the second species described from adults in the king cobra. Sphaerechinorhynchus ophiograndis n. sp. differs from Sphaerechinorhynchus serpenticola Schmidt and Kuntz, 1966 and Sphaerechinorhynchus rotun docapitus (Johnston, 1912) Johnston and Deland. 1929, by differences in proboscis and hook morphology, lemniscus length and appearance, testes presentation, number of cement glands, and, additionally from S. ronundocapitus, by overall trunk size and location of attachment within the host species.

  15. Acanthocephalus amini n. sp. (Acanthocephala: Echinorhynchidae) from the freshwater fish Cichlasoma urophthalmus (Günther) (Cichlidae) in Mexico.

    PubMed

    Salgado-Maldonado, Guillermo; Novelo-Turcotte, María Teresa

    2009-07-01

    Acanthocephalus amini n. sp. (Palaeacanthocephala: Echinorhynchidae) is described from the intestine of Cichlasoma urophthalmus (Günther) (Pisces: Cichlidae) collected in the Río Champotón, a river in Campeche State, Mexico. It is the fourth species of Acanthocephalus Koelreuther, 1771 described from North American freshwater fishes, although two other species are known from South America. The new species is distinguished from other members of Acanthocephalus by features of its trunk, which is small, clavate, slightly expanded medially and bluntly pointed posteriorly. It is further distinguished by having a cylindrical proboscis armed with 13-14 longitudinal rows of 11-12 stout hooks; the apical and medial proboscis hooks are almost uniform in size and shape, decreasing in size towards the base; the posteriormost hooks are smaller, straighter and more slender than the anterior and middle hooks; and the lateral rows of hooks are more widely spaced, forming a conspicuous longitudinal area devoid of hooks. Furthermore, the lemnisci are saccate and shorter than the proboscis receptacle; and the neck is very short with a thick collar of trunk tegument, which encircles the base of proboscis. In males, the testes are in the middle third of trunk, diagonal, spherical and small relative to the body size, and there are six clavate cement glands. In females, the uterus forms a conspicuous, elongate, cylindrical egg reservoir. The new species is most similar to A. alabamensis Amin & Williams, 1983, but can be distinguished by its swollen, clavate trunk, the largest proboscis hooks being present apically and medially, smaller testes, a shorter male reproductive system relative to body size and females with a prominent uterus. They have different hosts and geographical distribution. The new species can be differentiated from Brasacanthus sphoeroides Thatcher, 2001, a similar species in a monotypic echinorhynchid genus, because the latter is larger, has smaller proboscis hooks

  16. Description of Pallisentis (Brevitritospinus) punctati n. sp. (Acanthocephala: Quadrigyridae) from Channa punctatus in Bareilly, Uttar Pradesh, India

    PubMed Central

    GUPTA, Neelima; GUPTA, Dileep K.; SINGHAL, Priyanka

    2015-01-01

    Background: The genus Pallisentis is an endoparasitic acanthocephalan inhabiting the intestinal walls. Hooks and spines of the worm are significant taxonomical and adaptive tools. Methods: The parasites were fixed, dehydrated and examined under Olympus BX 53 Microscope with DIC attachment, digital camera and CELLSENS imaging system [Light microscopy (LM)] and fixed in 2% glutaraldehyde in 0.1 M cacodylate buffer, dehydrated, rotary-coated with gold palladium in NeoCoater 100–240V and examined in Neo JCM-6000 [scanning electron microscopy (SEM)]. Results: P. punctati n. sp. (prevalence 65.51%; mean intensity 3–6 par/host) is described. Females almost twice as large as males; proboscis hooks small; collar spine rows similar [16] and constant in both sexes but number of spines per row greater in females [22] than males [14]; trunk spine rows 28–39 (spines per row 14–18) in females and 20–26 (spines per row 10–12) in males. spine length of females almost twice as long as males, spines extend up to posterior testis in males and ¾ of total body length in females, Saefftigen’s pouch present, nuclei in cement gland 10–11, seminal vesicle, bursa and egg size small. SEM indicated lack of micro sculptures, and spines embedded on pre-trunk and trunk. Sex-based differences apparent (hook sizes, greater number of spines per row and longer spines in pre-trunk and trunk of females). Male trunk spine was narrower and of lateral spine with characteristic hooked appearance. Conclusion: A new species of Pallisentis based on LM and SEM is described, sexual diversity in hook and spine structure is reported. PMID:26811728

  17. New genus, new species of Acanthocephala (Echinorhynchidae) from the Brazilian frog Hylodes phyllodes (Anura: Leptodactylidae).

    PubMed

    Bursey, Charles R; Vrcibradic, Davor; Hatano, Fabio H; Rocha, Carlos Frederico D

    2006-04-01

    Anuracanthorhynchus tritaxisentis n. gen., n. sp. from the intestines of the Brazilian frog Hylodes phyllodes (Leptodactylidae) is described and illustrated. Anuracanthorhynchus tritaxisentis n. gen., n. sp., is unique among the echinorhynchid Acanthocephala by possessing a spherical proboscis supporting a small number of hooks of equal size. It is the sixth acanthocephalan species reported from South American anurans.

  18. Classification of the acanthocephala.

    PubMed

    Amin, Omar M

    2013-09-01

    In 1985, Amin presented a new system for the classification of the Acanthocephala in Crompton and Nickol's (1985) book 'Biology of the Acanthocephala' and recognized the concepts of Meyer (1931, 1932, 1933) and Van Cleave (1936, 1941, 1947, 1948, 1949, 1951, 1952). This system became the standard for the taxonomy of this group and remains so to date. Many changes have taken place and many new genera and species, as well as higher taxa, have been described since. An updated version of the 1985 scheme incorporating new concepts in molecular taxonomy, gene sequencing and phylogenetic studies is presented. The hierarchy has undergone a total face lift with Amin's (1987) addition of a new class, Polyacanthocephala (and a new order and family) to remove inconsistencies in the class Palaeacanthocephala. Amin and Ha (2008) added a third order (and a new family) to the Palaeacanthocephala, Heteramorphida, which combines features from the palaeacanthocephalan families Polymorphidae and Heteracanthocephalidae. Other families and subfamilies have been added but some have been eliminated, e.g. the three subfamilies of Arythmacanthidae: Arhythmacanthinae Yamaguti, 1935; Neoacanthocephaloidinae Golvan, 1960; and Paracanthocephaloidinae Golvan, 1969. Amin (1985) listed 22 families, 122 genera and 903 species (4, 4 and 14 families; 13, 28 and 81 genera; 167, 167 and 569 species in Archiacanthocephala, Eoacanthocephala and Palaeacanthocephala, respectively). The number of taxa listed in the present treatment is 26 families (18% increase), 157 genera (29%), and 1298 species (44%) (4, 4 and 16; 18, 29 and 106; 189, 255 and 845, in the same order), which also includes 1 family, 1 genus and 4 species in the class Polyacanthocephala Amin, 1987, and 3 genera and 5 species in the fossil family Zhijinitidae.

  19. Classification of the acanthocephala.

    PubMed

    Amin, Omar M

    2013-09-01

    In 1985, Amin presented a new system for the classification of the Acanthocephala in Crompton and Nickol's (1985) book 'Biology of the Acanthocephala' and recognized the concepts of Meyer (1931, 1932, 1933) and Van Cleave (1936, 1941, 1947, 1948, 1949, 1951, 1952). This system became the standard for the taxonomy of this group and remains so to date. Many changes have taken place and many new genera and species, as well as higher taxa, have been described since. An updated version of the 1985 scheme incorporating new concepts in molecular taxonomy, gene sequencing and phylogenetic studies is presented. The hierarchy has undergone a total face lift with Amin's (1987) addition of a new class, Polyacanthocephala (and a new order and family) to remove inconsistencies in the class Palaeacanthocephala. Amin and Ha (2008) added a third order (and a new family) to the Palaeacanthocephala, Heteramorphida, which combines features from the palaeacanthocephalan families Polymorphidae and Heteracanthocephalidae. Other families and subfamilies have been added but some have been eliminated, e.g. the three subfamilies of Arythmacanthidae: Arhythmacanthinae Yamaguti, 1935; Neoacanthocephaloidinae Golvan, 1960; and Paracanthocephaloidinae Golvan, 1969. Amin (1985) listed 22 families, 122 genera and 903 species (4, 4 and 14 families; 13, 28 and 81 genera; 167, 167 and 569 species in Archiacanthocephala, Eoacanthocephala and Palaeacanthocephala, respectively). The number of taxa listed in the present treatment is 26 families (18% increase), 157 genera (29%), and 1298 species (44%) (4, 4 and 16; 18, 29 and 106; 189, 255 and 845, in the same order), which also includes 1 family, 1 genus and 4 species in the class Polyacanthocephala Amin, 1987, and 3 genera and 5 species in the fossil family Zhijinitidae. PMID:24261131

  20. The description of Centrorhynchus globirostris n. sp. (Acanthocephala: Centrorhynchidae) from the pheasant crow, Centropus sinensis (Stephens) in Pakistan, with gene sequence analysis and emendation of the family diagnosis.

    PubMed

    Amin, Omar M; Heckmann, Richard A; Wilson, Eric; Keele, Brianna; Khan, Aly

    2015-06-01

    A new species of Centrorhynchus (Centrorhynchidae) with receptacle insertion at the posterior third of the proboscis is described from the pheasant crow Centropus sinensis (Stephens) (Cuculidae) in Pakistan. Centrorhynchu sglobirostris n. sp. is similar to the 98 other known species of Centrorhynchus Lühe, 1911 in having long cylindrical trunk with anterior dilation and transverse anastomoses of the secondary lacunar vessels. However, specimens of C. globirostris differ from all other species of the genus by having a unique globular proboscis not divided into anterior proboscis with rooted hooks and posterior proboscis with rootless spines. Posterior hooks of C. globirostris emerge at the level of the receptacle insertion and are uniquely fully rooted. Sequencing and phylogenetic analysis of C. globirostris 18S and 28S ribosomal RNA genes reveals the genetic and evolutionary relationships between C. globirostris and other members of Centrorhynchidae which have representative orthologs in public databases. Comparison to known acanthocephalans confirms appropriate inclusion in the genus Centrorhynchus. PMID:25804972

  1. The description of Centrorhynchus globirostris n. sp. (Acanthocephala: Centrorhynchidae) from the pheasant crow, Centropus sinensis (Stephens) in Pakistan, with gene sequence analysis and emendation of the family diagnosis.

    PubMed

    Amin, Omar M; Heckmann, Richard A; Wilson, Eric; Keele, Brianna; Khan, Aly

    2015-06-01

    A new species of Centrorhynchus (Centrorhynchidae) with receptacle insertion at the posterior third of the proboscis is described from the pheasant crow Centropus sinensis (Stephens) (Cuculidae) in Pakistan. Centrorhynchu sglobirostris n. sp. is similar to the 98 other known species of Centrorhynchus Lühe, 1911 in having long cylindrical trunk with anterior dilation and transverse anastomoses of the secondary lacunar vessels. However, specimens of C. globirostris differ from all other species of the genus by having a unique globular proboscis not divided into anterior proboscis with rooted hooks and posterior proboscis with rootless spines. Posterior hooks of C. globirostris emerge at the level of the receptacle insertion and are uniquely fully rooted. Sequencing and phylogenetic analysis of C. globirostris 18S and 28S ribosomal RNA genes reveals the genetic and evolutionary relationships between C. globirostris and other members of Centrorhynchidae which have representative orthologs in public databases. Comparison to known acanthocephalans confirms appropriate inclusion in the genus Centrorhynchus.

  2. Pomphorhynchus omarsegundoi sp. n. (Acanthocephala:Pomphorhynchidae), parasite of the banded knifefish Gymnotus carapo (Gymnotiformes:Gymnotidae) from the Paraná River basin, Argentina.

    PubMed

    Arredondo, Nathalia J; de Pertierra, Alicia A Gil

    2010-11-01

    Pomphorhynchus omarsegundoi sp. n. from Gymnotus carapo Linnaeus from the Paraná River basin in Argentina is described in this paper. The new species is characterised by having a small body; a non-spirally twisted long neck forming an inconspicuous asymmetrical bulb more developed dorsally than ventrally; a proboscis almost cylindrical, with 11 to 12 longitudinal rows of 5 to 7 (usually 6) hooks each; presence of an apical organ; a mean neck/body ratio of about 1/8; and a post-equatorial male reproductive system, occupying 35-42% of total length. The new species can be easily distinguished from the other four South American pomphorhynchid species by the inconspicuous asymmetrical bulb and the lower number of hooks per row. Pomphorhynchus omarsegundoi is the second acanthocephalan recorded from G. carapo in the Paraná River basin.

  3. The description and histopathology of Leptorhynchoides polycristatus n. sp. (Acanthocephala: Rhadinorhynchidae) from sturgeons, Acipenser spp. (Actinopterygii: Acipenseridae) in the Caspian Sea, Iran, with emendation of the generic diagnosis.

    PubMed

    Amin, Omar M; Heckmann, Richard A; Halajian, Ali; El-Naggar, Atif M; Tavakol, Sareh

    2013-11-01

    Of the three known species of Leptorhynchoides Kostylew 1924, two are reported from North American fishes: Leptorhynchoides aphredoderi Buckner and Buckner 1976 and Leptorhynchoides thecatus (Linton 1891) Kostylew 1924. The third species, Leptorhynchoides plagicephalus (Westrumb 1821) Kostylew 1924, is commonly found in the Caspian and Black Sea from at least four species of sturgeons including Acipenser stellatus Pallas 1771 and the Acipenser nudiventris Lovetzsky 1828 from which Leptorhynchoides polycristatus n. sp. was found. No taxonomic work has been reported for L. plagicephalus for the last 90 years. L. polycristatus n. sp. can be readily confused with L. plagicephalus because of many superficial similarities. Such similarities include the general shape of the trunk, proboscis, and organ systems. However, L. polycristatus is clearly distinguished from the other three species primarily by having (1) 19-20 proboscis hooks per row; (2) the shortest hooks are anterior and the longest at the middle; the opposite is true in L. plagicephalus; (3) with a cuticular collar enveloping the base of the proboscis hooks; (4) the surface of its proboscis hooks is ribbed; (5) with a broad collar of multiple rectangular cuticular crests encircling the anterior end of the trunk; this is the only member of Leptorhynchoides with such a structure; (6) with many large ovoid uninucleated cells in the subcuticular layer of the trunk; (7) with paired glandular clusters near the male reproductive opening and of suction cup-like sensory structures on the bursa; (8) with dorsoventral ligament across the vagina; (9) cement glands are in a cluster of eight arranged in two horizontal tiers of four glands each; (10) with female gonopore near terminal; (11) with structures interpreted as possible microtriches on the surface of the trunk; (12) and with thinner eggs. L. polycristatus caused extensive histopathological damage to host intestinal layers. The armed proboscis invades and attaches

  4. Plagiorhynchidae Meyer, 1931 (Acanthocephala) from Australasian birds and mammals, with descriptions of Plagiorhynchus (Plagiorhynchus) menurae (Johnston, 1912) and P. (P.) allisonae n. sp.

    PubMed

    Smales, Lesley R

    2002-03-01

    New host and locality records are given for Plagiorhynchus (Plagiorhynchus) charadrii (Yamaguti, 1939) Van Cleave, 1951 and P. (Prosthorhynchus) cylindraceus (Goeze, 1782) Schmidt & Kuntz, 1966. The uncertainty of identification of a plover host of P. (P.) charadrii as well as the origins of P. (P.) cylindraceus (found in Australia but not New Zealand) and its occurrence in both bird and mammal hosts are discussed. P. (P.) menurae (Johnston, 1912) Golvan, 1956 is redescribed, including the male, and new host, Menura alberti Bonaparte, and locality records are given. P. (P.) allisonae n. sp. is described from Haematopus ostralegus finschi (Martens) and H. unicolor (Forster) from the South Island of New Zealand. P. (P.) allisonae can be differentiated from its congeners by having a proboscis armature of 18-23 rows of 14-20 hooks, thorns of hooks shorter than simple roots with short manubria, eight tubular cement glands and eggs of 134-154 x 33-36 microm in size. The presence of P. (P.) gracilis Petrochenko, 1958 in Australia is questioned. New host and locality records are given for Porrorchis hylae (Johnston, 1914) Schmidt & Kuntz, 1967 and the northern distribution of P. hydromuris (Edmonds, 1957) Schmidt & Kuntz, 1967 confirmed.

  5. Helminths from the giant mottled eel Anguilla marmorata Quoy & Gaimard in Japan, with a description of Acanthocephalus longiacanthus n. sp. (Acanthocephala: Echinorhynchidae).

    PubMed

    Katahira, Hirotaka; Nagasawa, Kazuya

    2014-05-01

    Five helminths, including a new echinorhynchid acanthocephalan Acanthocephalus longiacanthus n. sp., are described based on specimens from the giant mottled eel Anguilla marmorata Quoy & Gaimard caught in a small river, western Japan. The new acanthocephalan is distinguished from the other congeners in terms of hook arrangement (8-9 longitudinal rows with 5-6 hooks per row) on proboscis, maximum length of hook blade (81-95 μm in male, 150-190 μm in female), lemnisci being longer than proboscis receptacle, and small-sized eggs (80-83 μm). Two monogeneans, Pseudodactylogyrus anguillae (Yin & Sproston, 1948) and P. bini (Kikuchi, 1929), and two acanthocephalans, Acanthocephalus gotoi Van Cleave, 1925 and Southwellina hispida (Van Cleave, 1925), were also found; this new material is described. The monogeneans are notorious as invasive parasites spreading worldwide via anthropogenic transportations of anguillid eels, but in Japanese waters A. marmorata appears to be an indigenous host for these parasites. Anguilla marmorata is a new host record for the acanthocephalans A. gotoi and S. hispida. PMID:24711116

  6. Helminths from the giant mottled eel Anguilla marmorata Quoy & Gaimard in Japan, with a description of Acanthocephalus longiacanthus n. sp. (Acanthocephala: Echinorhynchidae).

    PubMed

    Katahira, Hirotaka; Nagasawa, Kazuya

    2014-05-01

    Five helminths, including a new echinorhynchid acanthocephalan Acanthocephalus longiacanthus n. sp., are described based on specimens from the giant mottled eel Anguilla marmorata Quoy & Gaimard caught in a small river, western Japan. The new acanthocephalan is distinguished from the other congeners in terms of hook arrangement (8-9 longitudinal rows with 5-6 hooks per row) on proboscis, maximum length of hook blade (81-95 μm in male, 150-190 μm in female), lemnisci being longer than proboscis receptacle, and small-sized eggs (80-83 μm). Two monogeneans, Pseudodactylogyrus anguillae (Yin & Sproston, 1948) and P. bini (Kikuchi, 1929), and two acanthocephalans, Acanthocephalus gotoi Van Cleave, 1925 and Southwellina hispida (Van Cleave, 1925), were also found; this new material is described. The monogeneans are notorious as invasive parasites spreading worldwide via anthropogenic transportations of anguillid eels, but in Japanese waters A. marmorata appears to be an indigenous host for these parasites. Anguilla marmorata is a new host record for the acanthocephalans A. gotoi and S. hispida.

  7. A new acanthocephalan family, the Isthmosacanthidae (Acanthocephala: Echinorhynchida), with the description of Isthmosacanthus fitzroyensis n. g., n. sp. from threadfin fishes (Polynemidae) of northern Australia.

    PubMed

    Smales, Lesley R

    2012-06-01

    Isthmosacanthus fitzroyensis n. g., n. sp. is described from two species of protandrous fish, Eleutheronema tetradactylum (Shaw) and Polydactylus macrochir (Günther), from the waters around the coast of northern Australian. The new species can be distinguished from all others by the following combination of characters: proboscis shape and armature (22 rows of 13-14 hooks), short neck, trunk spined anteriorly and having two swellings (one bulbous) with a narrow isthmus in between, long tubular lemnisci and six tubular cement glands. Although I. fitzroyensis has been confused with a species of Pomphorhynchus Monticelli, 1905 in the literature, it can be distinguished from all pomphorhynchids, including species of Longicollum Yamaguti, 1935 and Pyriproboscis Amin, Abdullah & Mhaisen, 2003, by the suite of characters listed above. The placement of the species of Pyriproboscis in the Pomphorhynchidae Yamaguti, 1939 is problematical, because it has a short neck, two distinct hook types comprising the proboscis armature and only two rather than six cement glands. A new family, the Isthmosacanthidae n. fam., is erected to contain Isthmosacanthus together with Gorgorhynchoides Cable & Linderoth, 1963 and Golvanorhynchus Noronha, Fabio & Pinto, 1978, genera having an elongate to clavate proboscis, anterior trunk spines, elongate lemnisci, and six tubular cement glands. The validity of this determination, based on the importance of cement gland number and phylogenetic analysis, is argued.

  8. Breizacanthus aznari sp. n. (Acanthocephala: Arhythmacanthidae) from the banded cusk-eel Raneya brasiliensis (Ophidiiformes: Ophidiidae) from the Patagonian coast in Argentina.

    PubMed

    Hernández-Orts, Jesús Servando; Alama-Bermejo, Gema; Alberto Crespo, Enrique; Anibal García, Néstor; Antonio Raga, Juan; Esteban Montero, Francisco

    2012-12-01

    Breizacanthus aznari sp. n. is described from the banded cusk-eel Raneya brasiliensis (Kaup) (Ophidiiformes: Ophidiidae) from the Patagonian coast in Argentina. Breizacanthus Golvan, 1969 is currently composed of five species (including the new species) and is characterised by the absence of trunk spines; a short cylindrical proboscis with two types of hooks and lemnisci longer than the proboscis receptacle. Breizacanthus aznari is clearly distinguished from B. chabaudi Golvan, 1969 by having 12 longitudinal rows of hooks on the proboscis, instead of 16-18. The new species resembles B. golvani Gaevskaya et Shukhgalter, 1984, B. irenae Golvan, 1969, and B. ligur Paggi, Orecchia et Della Seta, 1975, all possessing 12 longitudinal rows of hooks. However, B. aznari differs from B. golvani in having 4-5 large hooks per row (vs. 8-9) and larger eggs. The new species can be distinguished from B. irenae by the shorter body size of females, the different range of numbers of large hooks of males (4-5 and 5-6, respectively), the smaller maximum number of small hooks of females (3 and 4, respectively), and the shorter lemnisci. Breizacanthus aznari differs from B. ligur by the smaller body length of females, the smaller maximum body length of males, the different range of numbers of large hooks of males (4-5 and 5-6, respectively), and smaller lemnisci. This is the first record of a species of Breizacanthus from fishes of the order Ophidiiformes and from the Southern Hemisphere. Comparative data on species of Euzetacanthus Golvan et Houlin, 1964 and Breizacanthus are also provided.

  9. Acanthocephala Larvae parasitizing Ameiva ameiva ameiva (Linnaeus, 1758) (Squamata: Teiidae).

    PubMed

    Macedo, Lilian Cristina; Melo, Francisco Tiago de Vasconcelos; Ávila-Pires, Teresa Cristina Sauer; Giese, Elane Guerreiro; dos Santos, Jeannie Nascimento

    2016-01-01

    Knowledge concerning the taxonomy and biology of species of Acanthocephala, helminth parasites of the helminth species of the phylum Acanthocephala, parasites of lizards in Brazilian Amazonia, is still insufficient, but reports of Acanthocephala in reptiles are becoming increasingly common in the literature. Cystacanth-stage Acanthocephalan larvae have been found in the visceral peritoneum during necropsy of Ameiva ameiva ameivalizards from the "Osvaldo Rodrigues da Cunha" Herpetology Collection of the Emílio Goeldi Museum, Belém, Pará, Brazil. The aim of this study was to present the morphological study of the Acanthocephala larvae found in A. ameiva ameiva lizard. PMID:27027551

  10. Acanthocephala Larvae parasitizing Ameiva ameiva ameiva (Linnaeus, 1758) (Squamata: Teiidae).

    PubMed

    Macedo, Lilian Cristina; Melo, Francisco Tiago de Vasconcelos; Ávila-Pires, Teresa Cristina Sauer; Giese, Elane Guerreiro; dos Santos, Jeannie Nascimento

    2016-01-01

    Knowledge concerning the taxonomy and biology of species of Acanthocephala, helminth parasites of the helminth species of the phylum Acanthocephala, parasites of lizards in Brazilian Amazonia, is still insufficient, but reports of Acanthocephala in reptiles are becoming increasingly common in the literature. Cystacanth-stage Acanthocephalan larvae have been found in the visceral peritoneum during necropsy of Ameiva ameiva ameivalizards from the "Osvaldo Rodrigues da Cunha" Herpetology Collection of the Emílio Goeldi Museum, Belém, Pará, Brazil. The aim of this study was to present the morphological study of the Acanthocephala larvae found in A. ameiva ameiva lizard.

  11. Morphological and molecular descriptions of Moniliformis saudi sp. n. (Acanthocephala: Moniliformidae) from the desert hedgehog, Paraechinus aethiopicus (Ehrenberg) in Saudi Arabia, with a key to species and notes on histopathology.

    PubMed

    Amin, Omar M; Heckmann, Richard A; Osama, Mohammed; Evans, R Paul

    2016-04-26

    A new acanthocepohalan species, Moniliformis saudi sp. n. is described from the desert hedgehog, Paraechinus aethiopicus (Ehrenberg), in central Saudi Arabia. Fourteen other valid species of Moniliformis Travassos, 1915 are recognised. The new species of Moniliformis is distinguished by having a small proboscis (315-520 µm long and 130-208 µm wide) with two apical pores, 14 rows of 8 hooks each and small hooks, thre largest being 25-31 µm long anteriorly. Distinguishing features are incorporated in a dichotomous key to the species of Moniliformis. The description is augmented by scanning electron microscopical (SEM) observation and DNA analysis of nuclear (18S rRNA) and mitochondrial (cytochrome oxidase subunit 1; cox1) gene sequences. Attached worms cause extensive damage to the immediate area of attachment in the host intestine. This includes tissue necrosis and blood loss due to damage to capillary beds. Worms also obstruct essential absorbing surfaces.

  12. Morphological and molecular descriptions of Moniliformis saudi sp. n. (Acanthocephala: Moniliformidae) from the desert hedgehog, Paraechinus aethiopicus (Ehrenberg) in Saudi Arabia, with a key to species and notes on histopathology.

    PubMed

    Amin, Omar M; Heckmann, Richard A; Osama, Mohammed; Evans, R Paul

    2016-01-01

    A new acanthocepohalan species, Moniliformis saudi sp. n. is described from the desert hedgehog, Paraechinus aethiopicus (Ehrenberg), in central Saudi Arabia. Fourteen other valid species of Moniliformis Travassos, 1915 are recognised. The new species of Moniliformis is distinguished by having a small proboscis (315-520 µm long and 130-208 µm wide) with two apical pores, 14 rows of 8 hooks each and small hooks, thre largest being 25-31 µm long anteriorly. Distinguishing features are incorporated in a dichotomous key to the species of Moniliformis. The description is augmented by scanning electron microscopical (SEM) observation and DNA analysis of nuclear (18S rRNA) and mitochondrial (cytochrome oxidase subunit 1; cox1) gene sequences. Attached worms cause extensive damage to the immediate area of attachment in the host intestine. This includes tissue necrosis and blood loss due to damage to capillary beds. Worms also obstruct essential absorbing surfaces. PMID:27189420

  13. Histopathologic aspects in Plagioscion squamosissimus (HECKEL, 1940) induced by Neoechinorhynchus veropesoi, metacestodes and anisakidae juveniles.

    PubMed

    Melo, Francisco Tiago de Vasconcelos; Rodrigues, Rogério Antonio Ribeiro; Giese, Elane Guerreiro; Gardner, Scott Lyell; Santos, Jeannie Nascimento dos

    2014-01-01

    Plagioscion squamosissimus (Heckel 1840), a fish endemic to the Amazon Basin and commonly known as the "silver croaker", plays an important role in the ecology and economy of Pará State, Brazil. Knowledge of host-parasite relationships is important to understanding the role of parasites in the control of natural host populations. This work describes histopathological aspects caused by several common intestinal parasites found during a helminthological survey of fish in northern Brazil. We observed a high prevalence of helminth infection, especially by J3 nematode juveniles of the family Anisakidae and metacestodes of the family Protocephalidae (both with 100% prevalence). An external capsule surrounded each juvenile with numerous juveniles inside sac-like structures formed of connective tissue. Inflammation was observed to be caused by infection of metacestodes, reaching the intestinal muscularis mucosa. Neoechinorhynchus veropesoi (38% prevalence) was found in the small intestine of P. squamosissimus, invading the mucosa, submucosa, and internal muscularis of the intestine causing intense inflammation. Histopathology of host-parasite relationships in fish has been rare, and the pathology of parasites in P. squamosissimus is described herein. PMID:25054502

  14. Ultrastructural and genetic diversity studies of two Sclerocollum (Acanthocephala) species infecting Siganid and Lutianid fishes from the Red Sea, Egypt.

    PubMed

    Abdou, Nahed E; Mahfouz, Magdy E

    2006-12-01

    Little is known about the distribution of Acanthocephala in local waters. A survey was carried out on the commercially important herbivorous Siganid fish, Siganus rivulatus and S. luridus, as well as Lutianid fish Centropristisfilamentosus inhabiting the Red Sea to determine the prevalence of Acanthocephala parasites. One hundred and thirteen fish were examined. The infection rates of S. rivulatus and S. luridus with Sclerocollum rubrimaris Schmidt and Paperna 1978 (Rhadinorhynchidae: Gorgorhynchinae) were 59 % & 33%, respectively. Meanwhile, 59% of C. filamentosus were found infected by Sclerocollum sp. The abundance, host-parasite relationships and microhabitat of S. rubrimaris were investigated and discussed. SEM was the employed to investigate the differences between the two species of Sclerocollum. For accurate estimation of genetic diversity of these species, randomly amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) genomic fingerprinting was proposed, using four different random primers. SEM studies showed that the two examined species differ in the length of proboscis hooks, the number of longitudinal rows of hooks on proboscis, distance between the bases of hooks and in egg size. The trunk surface of Sclerocollum sp. had minute, scale-like spines that were arranged in oblique lines whereas the trunk surface of S. rubrimaris had small pores and sclerotised plates on its anterior portion. RAPD primers revealed 52 amplification products and species-specific markers were identified. The deduced phenogram comprised two main clusters each includes one of the examined Sclerocollum species. Results indicated that RAPD markers are useful for the assessment of genetic diversity between the investigated Sclerocollum species which concur with SEM outcome.

  15. A case of Moniliformis moniliformis (Acanthocephala) infection in Iran.

    PubMed

    Berenji, Fariba; Fata, Abdolmajid; Hosseininejad, Zahra

    2007-06-01

    Only a few cases of Acanthocephala infections have been reported in humans, and Moniliformis moniliformis is the most common species around the world. We report here a case of infection with M. moniliformis, which passed in the stool of a 2-year-old girl in Iran. The patient had abdominal pain, diarrhea, vomiting, and facial edema. According to her mother, the patient had habit of eating dirt and once a cockroach was discovered in her mouth. In stool examination, eggs of M. moniliformis were not found. She was treated with levamisole and the clinical symptoms reduced within 2 weeks. The specimen contained 2 pieces of a female worm with a total length of 148 mm lacking the posterior end. The spiral musculature of the proboscis receptacle and the shape of the trunk allowed its generic determination. Previously 2 cases of M. moniliformis infection were reported in Iran. This is the 3rd case of M. moniliformis infection in Iran. PMID:17570979

  16. Lueheia inscripta (Westrumb, 1821) (Acanthocephala: Plagiorhynchidae) in anurans (Leptodactylidae: Bufonidae) from Mexico.

    PubMed

    Salgado-Maldonado, G; Caspeta-Mandujano, J M

    2010-06-01

    Juveniles of Lueheia inscripta (Westrumb, 1821 Travassos, 1919 (Acanthocephala: Plagiorhynchidae), an acanthocephalan with six lemnisci, are reported and described from mesenteries of frogs Leptodactylus fragilis Brochi, 1877 and a toad Bufo marinus (Linnaeus, 1758) from Morelos state, Mexico. These are new host records extending the known geographical distribution of this species from Brazil and Puerto Rico to Mexico.

  17. Pomphorhynchidae and quadrigyridae (Acanthocephala), including a new genus and species (Pallisentinae), from freshwater fishes, Cobitidae and Cyprinodontidae, in Turkey.

    PubMed

    Smales, Lesley R; Aydogdu, Ali; Emre, Yilmaz

    2012-09-01

    During a survey of freshwater fishes from Turkey two species of Acanthocephala, one of them new, were found. Pomphorhynchus tereticollis (Pomphorhynchidae) is reported at 24% prevalence in 37 Cobitis bilseli (Cobitidae) from Lake Beysehir, Konya, for the first time. The eoacanthoacaphalan Triaspiron aphanii gen. n. et sp. n. (Quadrigyridae), at a prevalence of 90%, is described from 29 Aphanius mento (Cyprinodontidae), from Kirkgöz Springs, Antalya. The new genus most closely resembles Raosentis Datta, 1947, both having a small spindle shaped trunk, and Acanthogyrus Thapar, 1927, both having a proboscis armature of three circles of hooks. Triaspiron differs from Raosentis in proboscis shape, cylindrical not globular, proboscis armature, three circles, a total of 16 hooks in all, not four circles, a total of 26-30 hooks in all, and trunk spination, two fields of spines in the anterior field with spines arranged in up to 40 circular rows, not a single field with 9-17 rows of spines. Triaspiron differs from Acanthogyrus in having fewer proboscis hooks, 16 compared with 18-24, arranged in three circles, one anterior and two posteriorly placed, with an unarmed region between, not three circles of hooks evenly spaced, and two fields of trunk spines, not one.

  18. Genetic and morphological evidence reveals the existence of a new family, genus and species of Echinorhynchida (Acanthocephala).

    PubMed

    Braicovich, Paola E; Lanfranchi, Ana L; Farber, Marisa D; Marvaldi, Adriana E; Luque, José L; Timi, Juan T

    2014-08-01

    Gymnorhadinorhynchus gen. n. is proposed to accommodate its type species, G. decapteri sp. n., a parasite of the marine fish Decapterus punctatus (Cuvier), caught from the coastal waters of Brazil. Gymnorhadinorhynchus decapteri sp. n. was morphologically most similar to species of two echinorhynchid families, the Rhadinorhynchidae and the Cavisomidae, particularly in the structure of the proboscis and the absence of somatic spines, respectively. This combination of morphological features made it difficult to assign our specimen to an extant family of the Acanthocephala. Therefore, in order to clarify the systematic placement of G. decapteri, a molecular phylogenetic analysis was performed based on the SSU and LSU rDNA and the mitochondrial cox1 gene sequences obtained for the new taxon and other 26 acanthocephalan species. The results of parsimony and maximum likelihood analyses, using individual, combined and concatenated sequence data, consistently indicate that the specimens do not belong to any known family of the Echinorhynchida. Rather, G. decapteri represents a distinct lineage that is closely related to the Transvenidae, but distantly related to both the Rhadinorhynchidae and the Cavisomidae. Gymnorhadinorhynchidae fam. n. is therefore erected. This newly described family can be distinguished from other families of Echinorhynchida by the combination of the following morphological characters: a proboscis cylindrical with 10 rows of 22-26 hooks, dorsoventral differences in proboscis hooks, basal hooks forming a ring and being abruptly larger than anterior hooks, absence of trunk spines and presence of four tubular cement glands. This combination, in addition to several molecular autapomorphies, justifies the erection of a new genus, Gymnorhadinorhynchus gen. n., in order to accommodate this new species. PMID:25185409

  19. Genetic and morphological evidence reveals the existence of a new family, genus and species of Echinorhynchida (Acanthocephala).

    PubMed

    Braicovich, Paola E; Lanfranchi, Ana L; Farber, Marisa D; Marvaldi, Adriana E; Luque, José L; Timi, Juan T

    2014-08-01

    Gymnorhadinorhynchus gen. n. is proposed to accommodate its type species, G. decapteri sp. n., a parasite of the marine fish Decapterus punctatus (Cuvier), caught from the coastal waters of Brazil. Gymnorhadinorhynchus decapteri sp. n. was morphologically most similar to species of two echinorhynchid families, the Rhadinorhynchidae and the Cavisomidae, particularly in the structure of the proboscis and the absence of somatic spines, respectively. This combination of morphological features made it difficult to assign our specimen to an extant family of the Acanthocephala. Therefore, in order to clarify the systematic placement of G. decapteri, a molecular phylogenetic analysis was performed based on the SSU and LSU rDNA and the mitochondrial cox1 gene sequences obtained for the new taxon and other 26 acanthocephalan species. The results of parsimony and maximum likelihood analyses, using individual, combined and concatenated sequence data, consistently indicate that the specimens do not belong to any known family of the Echinorhynchida. Rather, G. decapteri represents a distinct lineage that is closely related to the Transvenidae, but distantly related to both the Rhadinorhynchidae and the Cavisomidae. Gymnorhadinorhynchidae fam. n. is therefore erected. This newly described family can be distinguished from other families of Echinorhynchida by the combination of the following morphological characters: a proboscis cylindrical with 10 rows of 22-26 hooks, dorsoventral differences in proboscis hooks, basal hooks forming a ring and being abruptly larger than anterior hooks, absence of trunk spines and presence of four tubular cement glands. This combination, in addition to several molecular autapomorphies, justifies the erection of a new genus, Gymnorhadinorhynchus gen. n., in order to accommodate this new species.

  20. The complete mitochondrial genome sequence of Southwellina hispida supports monophyly of Palaeacanthocephala (Acanthocephala: Polymorphida).

    PubMed

    Gazi, Mohiuddin; Kim, Jiyeon; Park, Joong-Ki

    2015-08-01

    Acanthocephala is a relatively small, but distinct obligate parasitic group that includes 4 classes: Archiacanthocephala, Palaeacanthocephala, Polyacanthocephala, and Eoacanthocephala. The phylogenetic relationships of acanthocephalans are mainly based on nuclear ribosomal genes. In this study, we determined the complete mitochondrial genome sequence of Southwellina hispida (Palaeacanthocephala: Polymorphida), and used this genome sequence along with other platyzoan species (including syndermatan groups) to assess its phylogenetic position within Acanthocephala. The S. hispida mtDNA is a 14,742 bp circular molecule that contains 36 genes (lacking atp8) encoded in the same direction. Phylogenetic analyses of amino acid sequences for 12 protein-coding genes suggested palaeacanthocephalan species to be monophyletic, and this group to be sister to Eoacanthocephala. These results confirm other morphological and molecular data supporting palaeacanthocephalan monophyly. PMID:25656507

  1. The complete mitochondrial genome sequence of Southwellina hispida supports monophyly of Palaeacanthocephala (Acanthocephala: Polymorphida).

    PubMed

    Gazi, Mohiuddin; Kim, Jiyeon; Park, Joong-Ki

    2015-08-01

    Acanthocephala is a relatively small, but distinct obligate parasitic group that includes 4 classes: Archiacanthocephala, Palaeacanthocephala, Polyacanthocephala, and Eoacanthocephala. The phylogenetic relationships of acanthocephalans are mainly based on nuclear ribosomal genes. In this study, we determined the complete mitochondrial genome sequence of Southwellina hispida (Palaeacanthocephala: Polymorphida), and used this genome sequence along with other platyzoan species (including syndermatan groups) to assess its phylogenetic position within Acanthocephala. The S. hispida mtDNA is a 14,742 bp circular molecule that contains 36 genes (lacking atp8) encoded in the same direction. Phylogenetic analyses of amino acid sequences for 12 protein-coding genes suggested palaeacanthocephalan species to be monophyletic, and this group to be sister to Eoacanthocephala. These results confirm other morphological and molecular data supporting palaeacanthocephalan monophyly.

  2. A review of the genus Sclerocollum Schmidt & Paperna, 1978 (Acanthocephala: Cavisomidae) from rabbitfishes (Siganidae) in the Indian and Pacific Oceans.

    PubMed

    Pichelin, Sylvie; Smales, Lesley R; Cribb, Thomas Herbert

    2016-02-01

    Seven of the eleven species of Siganus Richardson (Siganidae) collected off the coasts of Australia, New Caledonia, French Polynesia and Palau were infected with species of Sclerocollum Schmidt & Paperna, 1978 (Acanthocephala: Cavisomidae). A Principal Component Analysis (PCA) and a Discriminant Analysis were performed on a morphometric dataset of specimens of Sclerocollum including borrowed type-specimens of Sc. rubrimaris Schmidt & Paperna, 1978 from the Indian Ocean and of Sc. robustum Edmonds, 1964, the only acanthocephalan species known previously from an Australian siganid. These analyses showed that the lengths of proboscis hooks were useful variables for separating specimens into groups and supported the presence of two known species (Sc. robustum and Sc. rubrimaris) and one new species (Sc. australis n. sp.) in Australian waters. We found Sc. robustum in Siganus lineatus (Valenciennes) from off Queensland and Sc. rubrimaris in S. fuscescens (Houttuyn) from off Western Australia and Queensland, S. punctatissimus Fowler & Bean from off Queensland and S. argenteus (Quoy & Gaimard), S. corallinus (Valenciennes), S. canaliculatus (Park) and S. doliatus Guérin-Méneville from off New Caledonia (all new host and locality records) which we compared with museum specimens of Sc. rubrimaris from S. rivulatus Forsskål & Niebuhr and S. argenteus [as S. rostratus (Valenciennes)] from the Red Sea. The third species, Sclerocollum australis n. sp., was found only in S. corallinus and S. doliatus from off Queensland. Sclerocollum australis n. sp. can be distinguished from its congeners by a unique combination of characters of the proboscis armature, including lengths of hooks 1-7. Specimens of Sclerocollum were also found in Zebrasoma velifer (Bloch) (Acanthuridae) from off Queensland, and Coradion altivelis McCulloch (Chaetodontidae) and Heniochus acuminatus (Linnaeus) (Chaetodontidae) from off New Caledonia. No acanthocephalans were found in siganids collected from

  3. A review of the genus Sclerocollum Schmidt & Paperna, 1978 (Acanthocephala: Cavisomidae) from rabbitfishes (Siganidae) in the Indian and Pacific Oceans.

    PubMed

    Pichelin, Sylvie; Smales, Lesley R; Cribb, Thomas Herbert

    2016-02-01

    Seven of the eleven species of Siganus Richardson (Siganidae) collected off the coasts of Australia, New Caledonia, French Polynesia and Palau were infected with species of Sclerocollum Schmidt & Paperna, 1978 (Acanthocephala: Cavisomidae). A Principal Component Analysis (PCA) and a Discriminant Analysis were performed on a morphometric dataset of specimens of Sclerocollum including borrowed type-specimens of Sc. rubrimaris Schmidt & Paperna, 1978 from the Indian Ocean and of Sc. robustum Edmonds, 1964, the only acanthocephalan species known previously from an Australian siganid. These analyses showed that the lengths of proboscis hooks were useful variables for separating specimens into groups and supported the presence of two known species (Sc. robustum and Sc. rubrimaris) and one new species (Sc. australis n. sp.) in Australian waters. We found Sc. robustum in Siganus lineatus (Valenciennes) from off Queensland and Sc. rubrimaris in S. fuscescens (Houttuyn) from off Western Australia and Queensland, S. punctatissimus Fowler & Bean from off Queensland and S. argenteus (Quoy & Gaimard), S. corallinus (Valenciennes), S. canaliculatus (Park) and S. doliatus Guérin-Méneville from off New Caledonia (all new host and locality records) which we compared with museum specimens of Sc. rubrimaris from S. rivulatus Forsskål & Niebuhr and S. argenteus [as S. rostratus (Valenciennes)] from the Red Sea. The third species, Sclerocollum australis n. sp., was found only in S. corallinus and S. doliatus from off Queensland. Sclerocollum australis n. sp. can be distinguished from its congeners by a unique combination of characters of the proboscis armature, including lengths of hooks 1-7. Specimens of Sclerocollum were also found in Zebrasoma velifer (Bloch) (Acanthuridae) from off Queensland, and Coradion altivelis McCulloch (Chaetodontidae) and Heniochus acuminatus (Linnaeus) (Chaetodontidae) from off New Caledonia. No acanthocephalans were found in siganids collected from

  4. Phylogenetic analyses of endoparasitic Acanthocephala based on mitochondrial genomes suggest secondary loss of sensory organs.

    PubMed

    Weber, Mathias; Wey-Fabrizius, Alexandra R; Podsiadlowski, Lars; Witek, Alexander; Schill, Ralph O; Sugár, László; Herlyn, Holger; Hankeln, Thomas

    2013-01-01

    The metazoan taxon Syndermata (Monogononta, Bdelloidea, Seisonidea, Acanthocephala) comprises species with vastly different lifestyles. The focus of this study is on the phylogeny within the syndermatan subtaxon Acanthocephala (thorny-headed worms, obligate endoparasites). In order to investigate the controversially discussed phylogenetic relationships of acanthocephalan subtaxa we have sequenced the mitochondrial (mt) genomes of Echinorhynchus truttae (Palaeacanthocephala), Paratenuisentis ambiguus (Eoacanthocephala), Macracanthorhynchus hirudinaceus (Archiacanthocephala), and Philodina citrina (Bdelloidea). In doing so, we present the largest molecular phylogenetic dataset so far for this question comprising all major subgroups of Acanthocephala. Alongside with publicly available mt genome data of four additional syndermatans as well as 18 other lophotrochozoan (spiralian) taxa and one outgroup representative, the derived protein-coding sequences were used for Maximum Likelihood as well as Bayesian phylogenetic analyses. We achieved entirely congruent results, whereupon monophyletic Archiacanthocephala represent the sister taxon of a clade comprising Eoacanthocephala and monophyletic Palaeacanthocephala (Echinorhynchida). This topology suggests the secondary loss of lateral sensory organs (sensory pores) within Palaeacanthocephala and is further in line with the emergence of apical sensory organs in the stem lineage of Archiacanthocephala.

  5. Transcriptome data reveal Syndermatan relationships and suggest the evolution of endoparasitism in Acanthocephala via an epizoic stage.

    PubMed

    Wey-Fabrizius, Alexandra R; Herlyn, Holger; Rieger, Benjamin; Rosenkranz, David; Witek, Alexander; Welch, David B Mark; Ebersberger, Ingo; Hankeln, Thomas

    2014-01-01

    The taxon Syndermata comprises the biologically interesting wheel animals ("Rotifera": Bdelloidea + Monogononta + Seisonidea) and thorny-headed worms (Acanthocephala), and is central for testing superordinate phylogenetic hypotheses (Platyzoa, Gnathifera) in the metazoan tree of life. Recent analyses of syndermatan phylogeny suggested paraphyly of Eurotatoria (free-living bdelloids and monogononts) with respect to endoparasitic acanthocephalans. Data of epizoic seisonids, however, were absent, which may have affected the branching order within the syndermatan clade. Moreover, the position of Seisonidea within Syndermata should help in understanding the evolution of acanthocephalan endoparasitism. Here, we report the first phylogenomic analysis that includes all four higher-ranked groups of Syndermata. The analyzed data sets comprise new transcriptome data for Seison spec. (Seisonidea), Brachionus manjavacas (Monogononta), Adineta vaga (Bdelloidea), and Paratenuisentis ambiguus (Acanthocephala). Maximum likelihood and Bayesian trees for a total of 19 metazoan species were reconstructed from up to 410 functionally diverse proteins. The results unanimously place Monogononta basally within Syndermata, and Bdelloidea appear as the sister group to a clade comprising epizoic Seisonidea and endoparasitic Acanthocephala. Our results support monophyly of Syndermata, Hemirotifera (Bdelloidea + Seisonidea + Acanthocephala), and Pararotatoria (Seisonidea + Acanthocephala), rejecting monophyly of traditional Rotifera and Eurotatoria. This serves as an indication that early acanthocephalans lived epizoically or as ectoparasites on arthropods, before their complex lifecycle with arthropod intermediate and vertebrate definite hosts evolved. PMID:24520404

  6. Transcriptome data reveal Syndermatan relationships and suggest the evolution of endoparasitism in Acanthocephala via an epizoic stage.

    PubMed

    Wey-Fabrizius, Alexandra R; Herlyn, Holger; Rieger, Benjamin; Rosenkranz, David; Witek, Alexander; Welch, David B Mark; Ebersberger, Ingo; Hankeln, Thomas

    2014-01-01

    The taxon Syndermata comprises the biologically interesting wheel animals ("Rotifera": Bdelloidea + Monogononta + Seisonidea) and thorny-headed worms (Acanthocephala), and is central for testing superordinate phylogenetic hypotheses (Platyzoa, Gnathifera) in the metazoan tree of life. Recent analyses of syndermatan phylogeny suggested paraphyly of Eurotatoria (free-living bdelloids and monogononts) with respect to endoparasitic acanthocephalans. Data of epizoic seisonids, however, were absent, which may have affected the branching order within the syndermatan clade. Moreover, the position of Seisonidea within Syndermata should help in understanding the evolution of acanthocephalan endoparasitism. Here, we report the first phylogenomic analysis that includes all four higher-ranked groups of Syndermata. The analyzed data sets comprise new transcriptome data for Seison spec. (Seisonidea), Brachionus manjavacas (Monogononta), Adineta vaga (Bdelloidea), and Paratenuisentis ambiguus (Acanthocephala). Maximum likelihood and Bayesian trees for a total of 19 metazoan species were reconstructed from up to 410 functionally diverse proteins. The results unanimously place Monogononta basally within Syndermata, and Bdelloidea appear as the sister group to a clade comprising epizoic Seisonidea and endoparasitic Acanthocephala. Our results support monophyly of Syndermata, Hemirotifera (Bdelloidea + Seisonidea + Acanthocephala), and Pararotatoria (Seisonidea + Acanthocephala), rejecting monophyly of traditional Rotifera and Eurotatoria. This serves as an indication that early acanthocephalans lived epizoically or as ectoparasites on arthropods, before their complex lifecycle with arthropod intermediate and vertebrate definite hosts evolved.

  7. Transcriptome Data Reveal Syndermatan Relationships and Suggest the Evolution of Endoparasitism in Acanthocephala via an Epizoic Stage

    PubMed Central

    Rieger, Benjamin; Rosenkranz, David; Witek, Alexander; Welch, David B. Mark; Ebersberger, Ingo; Hankeln, Thomas

    2014-01-01

    The taxon Syndermata comprises the biologically interesting wheel animals (“Rotifera”: Bdelloidea + Monogononta + Seisonidea) and thorny-headed worms (Acanthocephala), and is central for testing superordinate phylogenetic hypotheses (Platyzoa, Gnathifera) in the metazoan tree of life. Recent analyses of syndermatan phylogeny suggested paraphyly of Eurotatoria (free-living bdelloids and monogononts) with respect to endoparasitic acanthocephalans. Data of epizoic seisonids, however, were absent, which may have affected the branching order within the syndermatan clade. Moreover, the position of Seisonidea within Syndermata should help in understanding the evolution of acanthocephalan endoparasitism. Here, we report the first phylogenomic analysis that includes all four higher-ranked groups of Syndermata. The analyzed data sets comprise new transcriptome data for Seison spec. (Seisonidea), Brachionus manjavacas (Monogononta), Adineta vaga (Bdelloidea), and Paratenuisentis ambiguus (Acanthocephala). Maximum likelihood and Bayesian trees for a total of 19 metazoan species were reconstructed from up to 410 functionally diverse proteins. The results unanimously place Monogononta basally within Syndermata, and Bdelloidea appear as the sister group to a clade comprising epizoic Seisonidea and endoparasitic Acanthocephala. Our results support monophyly of Syndermata, Hemirotifera (Bdelloidea + Seisonidea + Acanthocephala), and Pararotatoria (Seisonidea + Acanthocephala), rejecting monophyly of traditional Rotifera and Eurotatoria. This serves as an indication that early acanthocephalans lived epizoically or as ectoparasites on arthropods, before their complex lifecycle with arthropod intermediate and vertebrate definite hosts evolved. PMID:24520404

  8. A new species of Heterosentis Van Cleave, 1931 (Acanthocephala: Arhythmacanthidae) parasitic in Pseudopercis numida Miranda Ribeiro, 1903 (Perciformes: Pinguipedidae) from southeastern Brazilian coastal zone.

    PubMed

    Vieira, Fabiiano M; Felizardo, Nilza N; Luque, José L

    2009-06-01

    Heterosentis brasiliensis n. sp. (Acanthocephala, Arhythmacanthidae), parasitic in namorado sandperch Pseudopercis numida Miranda-Ribeiro, 1903 (Perciformes, Pinguipedidae) from the littoral of Cabo Frio, State of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, is described and illustrated herein. Heterosentis brasiliensis n. sp. differs from all congeneric species by having 10 longitudinal rows of hooks in the proboscis, 6 or 7 hooks in each row, 3 or 4 small basal hooks in each row, and spines in the anterior ventral surface of the body. The similar species, Heterosentis heteracanthus (Linstow, 1896) and Heterosentis caballeroi Gupta & Fatma, 1983, also have 10 longitudinal rows of hooks, but H. heteracanthus differs from the new species by possessing trunk spines in the ventral and dorsal body surface. Heterosentis caballeroi differs from H. brasiliensis by the presence of 1 apical and 1 subapical hook in each longitudinal row; the largest apical, subapical, and basal hooks; lemnisci that are smaller than the proboscis receptacles; and a pre-equatorial male reproductive system. This is the first record of a Heterosentis species in a pinguipedid fish and from Brazilian coastal zone.

  9. Ultrastructure of the spermatozoon of the digenean Tergestia acanthocephala (Stossich, 1887) (Gymnophalloidea: Fellodistomidae): An intestinal parasite of Belone belone gracilis (Pisces: Teleostei).

    PubMed

    Kacem, H; Ndiaye, P I; Neifar, L; Torres, J; Miquel, J

    2015-06-01

    The ultrastructural organization of the spermatozoon of the digenean Tergestia acanthocephala (Gymnophalloidea: Fellodistomidae) is described. Live digeneans were collected from Belone belone gracilis (Teleostei: Belonidae), caught off the Gulf of Gabès in Chebba (Tunisia). The mature spermatozoon of T. acanthocephala exhibits the general pattern described in numerous digeneans, characterized by the presence of two axonemes of the different length of the 9+'1' pattern of the Trepaxonemata, a nucleus, two mitochondria, two bundles of parallel cortical microtubules, external ornamentation, spine-like bodies and granules of glycogen. Moreover, the morphology of the posterior spermatozoon extremity in T. acanthocephala corresponds to the fasciolidean type of Quilichini et al. (2010a).

  10. The complete mitochondrial genome sequence of Oncicola luehei (Acanthocephala: Archiacanthocephala) and its phylogenetic position within Syndermata.

    PubMed

    Gazi, Mohiuddin; Sultana, Tahera; Min, Gi-Sik; Park, Yung Chul; García-Varela, Martín; Nadler, Steven A; Park, Joong-Ki

    2012-06-01

    In the present study, we determined the complete mitochondrial genome sequence of Oncicola luehei (14,281bp), the first archiacanthocephalan representative and the second complete sequence from the phylum Acanthocephala. The complete genome contains 36 genes including 12 protein coding genes, 22 transfer RNA (tRNA) genes and 2 ribosomal RNA genes (rrnL and rrnS) as reported for other syndermatan species. All genes are encoded on the same strand. The overall nucleotide composition of O. luehei mtDNA is 37.7% T, 29.6% G, 22.5% A, and 10.2% C. The overall A+T content (60.2%) is much lower, compared to other syndermatan species reported so far, due to the high frequency (18.3%) of valine encoded by GTN in its protein-coding genes. Results from phylogenetic analyses of amino acid sequences for 10 protein-coding genes from 41 representatives of major metazoan groups including O. luehei supported monophyly of the phylum Acanthocephala and of the clade Syndermata (Acanthocephala+Rotifera), and the paraphyly of the clade Eurotatoria (classes Bdelloidea+Monogononta from phylum Rotifera). Considering the position of the acanthocephalan species within Syndermata, it is inferred that obligatory parasitism characteristic of acanthocephalans was acquired after the common ancestor of acanthocephalans diverged from its sister group, Bdelloidea. Additional comparison of complete mtDNA sequences from unsampled acanthocephalan lineages, especially classes Polyacanthocephala and Eoacanthocephala, is required to test if mtDNA provides reliable information for the evolutionary relationships and pattern of life history diversification found in the syndermatan groups.

  11. [Convergence of the cyst in cysticercoids (Cestoda, Hymenolepidata) and the tegument in cystacanths (Acanthocephala)].

    PubMed

    Nikishin, V P

    2011-01-01

    It was shown that despite fundamental differences in the organization of the tegument of cystacanths and the cyst wall of cysticeroids, they have a number of features similar in localization, morphology, terms of formation, and functional value. These include a powerful outer layer of glycocalyx on the surface of the tegument, filling of the distal department with dense substance, and the presence of complicated fibrillar systems. It is supposed that the nature of these particularities is convergent and is determined by the similarity of the life cycles of Hymenolepidata and Acanthocephala.

  12. Phylogeny of Syndermata (syn. Rotifera): Mitochondrial gene order verifies epizoic Seisonidea as sister to endoparasitic Acanthocephala within monophyletic Hemirotifera.

    PubMed

    Sielaff, Malte; Schmidt, Hanno; Struck, Torsten H; Rosenkranz, David; Mark Welch, David B; Hankeln, Thomas; Herlyn, Holger

    2016-03-01

    A monophyletic origin of endoparasitic thorny-headed worms (Acanthocephala) and wheel-animals (Rotifera) is widely accepted. However, the phylogeny inside the clade, be it called Syndermata or Rotifera, has lacked validation by mitochondrial (mt) data. Herein, we present the first mt genome of the key taxon Seison and report conflicting results of phylogenetic analyses: while mt sequence-based topologies showed monophyletic Lemniscea (Bdelloidea+Acanthocephala), gene order analyses supported monophyly of Pararotatoria (Seisonidea+Acanthocephala) and Hemirotifera (Bdelloidea+Pararotatoria). Sequence-based analyses obviously suffered from substitution saturation, compositional bias, and branch length heterogeneity; however, we observed no compromising effects in gene order analyses. Moreover, gene order-based topologies were robust to changes in coding (genes vs. gene pairs, two-state vs. multistate, aligned vs. non-aligned), tree reconstruction methods, and the treatment of the two monogonont mt genomes. Thus, mt gene order verifies seisonids as sister to acanthocephalans within monophyletic Hemirotifera, while deviating results of sequence-based analyses reflect artificial signal. This conclusion implies that the complex life cycle of extant acanthocephalans evolved from a free-living state, as retained by most monogononts and bdelloids, via an epizoic state with a simple life cycle, as shown by seisonids. Hence, Acanthocephala represent a rare example where ancestral transitional stages have counterparts amongst the closest relatives. PMID:26702959

  13. Phylogeny of Syndermata (syn. Rotifera): Mitochondrial gene order verifies epizoic Seisonidea as sister to endoparasitic Acanthocephala within monophyletic Hemirotifera.

    PubMed

    Sielaff, Malte; Schmidt, Hanno; Struck, Torsten H; Rosenkranz, David; Mark Welch, David B; Hankeln, Thomas; Herlyn, Holger

    2016-03-01

    A monophyletic origin of endoparasitic thorny-headed worms (Acanthocephala) and wheel-animals (Rotifera) is widely accepted. However, the phylogeny inside the clade, be it called Syndermata or Rotifera, has lacked validation by mitochondrial (mt) data. Herein, we present the first mt genome of the key taxon Seison and report conflicting results of phylogenetic analyses: while mt sequence-based topologies showed monophyletic Lemniscea (Bdelloidea+Acanthocephala), gene order analyses supported monophyly of Pararotatoria (Seisonidea+Acanthocephala) and Hemirotifera (Bdelloidea+Pararotatoria). Sequence-based analyses obviously suffered from substitution saturation, compositional bias, and branch length heterogeneity; however, we observed no compromising effects in gene order analyses. Moreover, gene order-based topologies were robust to changes in coding (genes vs. gene pairs, two-state vs. multistate, aligned vs. non-aligned), tree reconstruction methods, and the treatment of the two monogonont mt genomes. Thus, mt gene order verifies seisonids as sister to acanthocephalans within monophyletic Hemirotifera, while deviating results of sequence-based analyses reflect artificial signal. This conclusion implies that the complex life cycle of extant acanthocephalans evolved from a free-living state, as retained by most monogononts and bdelloids, via an epizoic state with a simple life cycle, as shown by seisonids. Hence, Acanthocephala represent a rare example where ancestral transitional stages have counterparts amongst the closest relatives.

  14. Acanthocephala of the bald eagle (Haliaeetus leucocephalus) in North America.

    PubMed

    Richardson, D J; Cole, R A

    1997-06-01

    Examination of bald eagles (Haliaeetus leucocephalus) collected from several locations in North America contributed new information concerning the acanthocephalan fauna of this host. Representatives of Arythmorhynchus brevis, representing a new host record, were collected from eagles in Florida, New Hampshire, and Wisconsin. Plagiorhynchus sp. was collected from an eagle in Florida. Corynosoma strumosum was collected from an eagle in Alaska. Andracantha phalacrocoracis, representing a new host record, was collected from an eagle in Alaska. Southwellina hispida, representing a new host record, was collected from eagles in Maine and Virginia. The occurrence of gravid or mature females of A. brevis, Plagiorhynchus sp., and S. hispida suggests that the bald eagle may serve as a competent definitive host for these species.

  15. Acanthocephala of the bald eagle (Haliaeetus leucocephalus) in North America

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Richardson, D.J.; Cole, R.A.

    1997-01-01

    Examination of bald eagles (Haliaeetus leucocephalus) collected from several locations in North America contributed new information concerning the acanthocephalan fauna of this host. Representatives of Arythmorhynchus brevis, representing a new host record, were collected from eagles in Florida, New Hampshire, and Wisconsin. Plagiorhynchus sp. was collected from an eagle in Florida. Corynosoma strumosum was collected from an eagle in Alaska. Andracantha phalacrocoracis, representing a new host record, was collected from an eagle in Alaska. Southwellina hispida, representing a new host record, was collected from eagles in Maine and Virginia. The occurrence of gravid or mature females of A. brevis, Plagiorhynchus sp., and S. hispida suggests that the bald eagle may serve as a competent definitive host for these species.

  16. New data on the occurrence of Acanthocephala in some fish in Admiralty Bay (South Shetland Islands).

    PubMed

    Zdzitowiecki, Krzysztof; Laskowski, Zdzisław

    2013-12-01

    New data on the infection with Acanthocephala of 33 fish caught in Admiralty Bay in November 2007 to January 2008 are given. These fish belong to 5 species: Notothenia rossii (22 immature specimens), Lindbergichthys nudifrons (n = 7), Trematomus bernacchii (n = 1), T. newnesi (n = 1) and Harpagifer antarcticus (n = 2). Three species of Echinorhynchida: Aspersentis megarhynchus, Metacanthocephalus dalmori and M. johnstoni and four species of Polymorphida: Corynosoma arctocephali, C. bullosum, C. hamanni and C. pseudohamanni, were found. Prevalence of N. rossii and L. nudifrons was 100%. The mean abundance of infection of N. rossii (125.09) was larger than that of Notothenia coriiceps (82.93). Data of infection of N. rossii in 2007 was almost identical with that in 1979 (mean abundance 118.66). The most abundant in this host were A. megarhynchus, M. johnstoni, C. hamanni and C. pseudohamanni (mean abundances 36.36, 29.77, 13.86 and 44.73, respectively). In total Echinorhynchida were more abundant than Polymorphida in 2007/08 (66.18 versus 58.91). Reverse situation was in 1979 (mean abundance 47.36 for Echinorhynchida and 71.3 for Polymorphida. Only 7 L. nudifrons were examined in 2007/08 and Echinorhynchida were more numerous in this host (mean abundance 26.71) than Polymorphida (10.29). Single specimens of other fish were infected with a few Acanthocephala belonging to species recorded in the same hosts with those found in 1978/79. PMID:24338317

  17. New data on the occurrence of Acanthocephala in some fish in Admiralty Bay (South Shetland Islands).

    PubMed

    Zdzitowiecki, Krzysztof; Laskowski, Zdzisław

    2013-12-01

    New data on the infection with Acanthocephala of 33 fish caught in Admiralty Bay in November 2007 to January 2008 are given. These fish belong to 5 species: Notothenia rossii (22 immature specimens), Lindbergichthys nudifrons (n = 7), Trematomus bernacchii (n = 1), T. newnesi (n = 1) and Harpagifer antarcticus (n = 2). Three species of Echinorhynchida: Aspersentis megarhynchus, Metacanthocephalus dalmori and M. johnstoni and four species of Polymorphida: Corynosoma arctocephali, C. bullosum, C. hamanni and C. pseudohamanni, were found. Prevalence of N. rossii and L. nudifrons was 100%. The mean abundance of infection of N. rossii (125.09) was larger than that of Notothenia coriiceps (82.93). Data of infection of N. rossii in 2007 was almost identical with that in 1979 (mean abundance 118.66). The most abundant in this host were A. megarhynchus, M. johnstoni, C. hamanni and C. pseudohamanni (mean abundances 36.36, 29.77, 13.86 and 44.73, respectively). In total Echinorhynchida were more abundant than Polymorphida in 2007/08 (66.18 versus 58.91). Reverse situation was in 1979 (mean abundance 47.36 for Echinorhynchida and 71.3 for Polymorphida. Only 7 L. nudifrons were examined in 2007/08 and Echinorhynchida were more numerous in this host (mean abundance 26.71) than Polymorphida (10.29). Single specimens of other fish were infected with a few Acanthocephala belonging to species recorded in the same hosts with those found in 1978/79.

  18. Acanthocephala Parasite (Profilicollis spp.) Loads in Correlation to Pacific Mole Crab (Emerita analoga) Size

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cheng, T.; Huang, S.; Galathe, M.; Jenkins, M.; Ramirez, A.; Crosby, L.; Barrera, J.; FitzHoward, S.

    2013-12-01

    Since 2002, San Francisco Bay students have been conducting marine ecosystem monitoring through a joint project with the Long-term Monitoring Program and Experiential Training for Students (LiMPETS), in conjunction with the Gulf of Farallones National Marine Sanctuary. Each year students collect population and demographic data on Pacific mole crabs (Emerita analoga), an indicator species that lives in the sandy beach habitat in temperate regions along the Pacific Ocean. Pacific mole crabs are filter feeding crustaceans that inhabit the intertidal swash zone and are known to be an intermediate host for parasitic ';spiny-headed' worms in the phylum Acanthocephala (Profilicollis spp.). Sampling takes place during their reproductive period, which occurs from spring to fall, and includes measuring total body length of the Pacific mole crabs and dissecting them to determine presence of Acanthocephalan parasites. We hypothesize that due to larger body mass, larger Pacific mole crabs will have a greater number of Acanthocephala parasites.We conducted several analyses using the LiMPETS long-term data. Specifically, we compared body length, crab gender, and parasite abundance from Pacific mole crabs sampled from four beaches located in the county and city of San Francisco. Our results indicated that larger Pacific mole crabs do not necessarily have more parasites, but are more likely to have at least one parasite, while female Pacific mole crabs carrying eggs, have more parasites than males or females without eggs. We also found that parasite loads per mole crab was highest in the spring. Further analysis will be conducted to determine factors affecting Pacific mole crab parasite loads. Studying Pacific mole crabs help evaluate the health of California's intertidal systems and how human activities, geologic changes, and climate changes all make huge impacts to the intertidal ecosystems.

  19. [Taxonomic diversity of parasites in agnathans and fishes from the Volga River basin. VI. Acanthocephala, Hirudinea and Bivalvia].

    PubMed

    Molodozhnikova, N M; Zhokhov, A E

    2008-01-01

    The checklist of Acanthocephala, Hirudinea, and Bivalvia parasitizing agnathans and fishes in the Volga River basin is presented. Hosts and areas of distribution are indicated for each parasites species. The checklist includes 10 species of acanthocephalans, 7 species of leeches, and 9 species of Bivalvia (at the glochidium stage) from 45 fish species. None of the given parasite species is alien for the Volga River basin.

  20. Ultrastructure of the spermatozoon of the digenean Tergestia acanthocephala (Stossich, 1887) (Gymnophalloidea: Fellodistomidae): An intestinal parasite of Belone belone gracilis (Pisces: Teleostei).

    PubMed

    Kacem, H; Ndiaye, P I; Neifar, L; Torres, J; Miquel, J

    2015-06-01

    The ultrastructural organization of the spermatozoon of the digenean Tergestia acanthocephala (Gymnophalloidea: Fellodistomidae) is described. Live digeneans were collected from Belone belone gracilis (Teleostei: Belonidae), caught off the Gulf of Gabès in Chebba (Tunisia). The mature spermatozoon of T. acanthocephala exhibits the general pattern described in numerous digeneans, characterized by the presence of two axonemes of the different length of the 9+'1' pattern of the Trepaxonemata, a nucleus, two mitochondria, two bundles of parallel cortical microtubules, external ornamentation, spine-like bodies and granules of glycogen. Moreover, the morphology of the posterior spermatozoon extremity in T. acanthocephala corresponds to the fasciolidean type of Quilichini et al. (2010a). PMID:25796547

  1. A checklist of metazoan parasites of fish from Tres Palos Lagoon, Guerrero, Mexico.

    PubMed

    Violante-González, Juan; Aguirre-Macedo, Ma Leopoldina; Mendoza-Franco, Edgar F

    2007-12-01

    An extensive survey of helminth parasites in fish species from Tres Palos Lagoon, in Guerrero, Mexico, resulted in identification of 39 metazoan parasite species (37 helminth and 2 crustaceans) in 13 fish species (n = 1,498). Specimen collection in this coastal lagoon was done between April 2000 and November 2003. Digenean species (18, 8 adult and 10 metacercariae) dominated the parasite fauna. The most widespread species of parasite were: Contracaecum sp. (Nematoda), Pseudoacanthostomum panamense, Austrodiplostomum compactum, Ascocotye (Phagicola) longa (Digenea), Neoechinorhynchus golvani (Acanthocephala), Ergasilus sp. (Copepoda), and Argulus sp. (Branchiura). Parasite fauna species composition exhibited a clear freshwater influence as 56.4% (22 of 39) of the identified species have a freshwater distribution in Mexico. For 32 of the parasite species, this report constitutes the first geographical host record for Tres Palos Lagoon, Guerrero, Mexico.

  2. Ultrastructural study of spermiogenesis and the spermatozoon of Cavisoma magnum (Southwell, 1927) (Acanthocephala, Palaeacanthocephala, Cavisomidae), from Siganus lineatus (Pisces, Teleostei, Siganidae) (Valenciennes, 1835) in New Caledonia.

    PubMed

    Foata, J; Quilichini, Y; Justine, J-L; Bray, R A; Marchand, B

    2012-02-01

    This paper presents an ultrastructural study of Cavisoma magnum (Acanthocephala, Cavisomatidae) with a Transmission Electron Microscopy tool. This parasite of the fish Siganus lineatus is here reported for the first time from off New Caledonia, South Pacific. It is the first study describing the ultrastructure, spermiogenesis and spermatozoon of a species of the family Cavisomatidae. The young spermatid of C. magnum possesses a centriole constituted of doublets without a central element. After the elaboration of a flagellum of 9+2 pattern, the centriole migrates in a nuclear groove. Then the flagellum migration occurs and gives rise to a spermatozoon. The distribution and the size of the protein granules are reported and the posterior extremity appears like a chromatin lamina wave. Comparative ultrastructural data are presented on sperm and spermiogenesis of the Acanthocephala and Rotifers examined to date and the phylogenetic implications are discussed.

  3. Cystacanths of Oncicola venezuelensis (Acanthocephala: Oligacanthorhynchidae) in Caribbean termites and various paratenic hosts in the U.S. Virgin Islands.

    PubMed

    Nickol, Brent B; Fuller, Claire A; Rock, Philip

    2006-06-01

    Cystacanths of Oncicola venezuelensis (Acanthocephala: Oligacanthorhynchidae) were discovered in the hemocoel of Caribbean termites (Nasutitermes acajutlae) on St. Thomas and St. John islands in the U.S. Virgin Islands. In addition to occurring in the insect intermediate host, cystacanths were present in subcutaneous nodules of lizards (Anolis cristatellus and Anolis stratulus), in the greater omentum of small Indian mongooses (Herpestes auropunctatus), and embedded in mesenteries of pearly-eyed thrashers (Margarops fuscatus). These vertebrates likely are paratenic hosts, although a definitive host in the Virgin Islands is yet to be discovered. Cystacanths from intermediate and paratenic hosts agree fully with the original description of proboscis armature, including size and shape of hooks and their roots, of the species. Qualitative features of developing and growing structures agree with the original description of the species, but the sizes are smaller.

  4. Falcaustra lowei n. sp. and other helminths from the Tarahumara frog, Rana tarahumarae (Anura: Ranidae), from Sonora, Mexico.

    PubMed

    Bursey, C R; Goldberg, S R

    2001-04-01

    Seventy-four specimens of Falcaustra lowei n. sp. were recovered from the intestines of 9 of 42 (21%) Tarahumara frogs. Rana tarahumarae, from Sonora, Mexico. F. lowei is the 14th Nearctic species to be described and belongs to that group of species possessing a pseudosucker, namely F. catesbeianae, F. chabaudi, F. chelydrae, F. mexicana, and F. wardi. The new species can be readily differentiated from these by the arrangement of caudal papillae and length of spicules. Priority description of F. affinis is established and F. concinnae is removed from synonymy with F. affinis. In addition to F. lowei, 3 species of Digenea, Glypthelmins quieta, Haematoloechus breviplexus, Langeronia macrocirra; 1 species of Eucestoda, Ophiotaenia magna; 7 species of Nematoda, F. inglisi, Foleyellides striatus, Oswaldocruzia pipiens, Rhabdias ranae, Subulascaris falcaustriformis, Physaloptera sp. (larvae): and 1 species of Acanthocephala, an unidentified oligacanthorhynchid cystacanth, were found.

  5. A new species of Pomphorhynchus (Acanthocephala: Palaeacanthocephala) in freshwater fishes from central Chile.

    PubMed

    Olmos, Viviana L; Habit, Evelyn M

    2007-02-01

    This study describes a new species of Pomphorhynchus collected from Percilia gillissi Girard, 1855 from the Zañartu canal, between the sister basins of the Itata and Laja rivers, in central Chile. Pomphorhynchus moyanoi n. sp. is characterized by an asymmetrical, well-differentiated subspherical bulb and 12-14 longitudinal rows of 13-14 hooks; the third and the fourth hook in each row are stout. Among South American species, P. moyanoi n. sp. shows some similarities to the Chilean species P. yamagutii Schmidt & Hugghins, 1973, but it differs in having a longer neck, larger bulb, and different proboscis armature arrangement. Pomphorhynchus moyanoi n. sp. differs from P. patagonicus Ortubay, Ubeda, Semenas & Kennedy 1991, in the bulb shape (protuberances), number of rows, fourth hook size and basal hook size. Pomphorhynchus moyanoi n. sp. also differs from P. sphaericus in the arrangement of hooks (number of rows and hooks per row), length and width of the proboscis, neck width, and symmetry of the bulb.

  6. Experimental investigation of physiological factors that may influence microhabitat specificity exhibited by Leptorhynchoides thecatus (Acanthocephala) in green sunfish (Lepomis cyanellus).

    PubMed

    Richardson, D J; Nickol, B B

    2000-08-01

    Representatives of Leptorhynchoides thecatus (Acanthocephala) inhabit ceca of green sunfish but cannot survive in the anterior intestine. The influence of elevated cecal protein concentrations, pH, and amounts of lumenal materials on the microhabitat specificity of L. thecatus was investigated. An attempt was made to alter the distribution of worms in starved fish, in fish of which cecal pH was reduced, and in fish of which intestinal protein concentration was elevated. Protein concentration and pH showed no effect on worm distribution. Starving hosts had no effect on worm number or distribution but resulted in retardation of worm growth and development, providing a mechanism by which worms may overwinter and by which peak egg production may coincide with abundance of the amphipod intermediate host. None of the factors investigated is solely responsible for the microhabitat specificity of L. thecatus. It is suggested that helminth site specificity is characterized by long histories of adaptation to specific habitats with many physiological adaptations being facilitated synergistically. Maximization of sexual congress may exert an important selective pressure favoring this establishment of microhabitat specificity.

  7. Validating the systematic position of Profilicollis Meyer, 1931 and Hexaglandula Petrochenko, 1950 (Acanthocephala: Polymorphidae) using cytochrome c oxidase (Cox 1).

    PubMed

    García-Varela, Martín; Pérez-Ponce de León, Gerardo

    2008-02-01

    Members of the Polymorphidae (Acanthocephala) are distributed worldwide as endoparasites of marine mammals, fish-eating birds, and waterfowl. The family contains 10 genera, with approximately 127 species. Polymorphids are characterized by having a spinose trunk with a bulbous proboscis, double-walled proboscis receptacle, long lemnisci, and 4 tubular cement glands. The taxonomic position of several genera within Polymorphidae has been controversial when considering morphological and ecological characters. The mitochondrial coding gene cytochrome-c oxidase representing species of 5 genera of polymorphids (Corynosoma, Lühe, 1904, Hexaglandula Petrochenko, 1950, Southwellina Witenberg 1932, Polymorphus Luhë, 1911, and Profilicollis Meyer, 1931) were sequenced to determine the sister-group relationships among 2 particular genera, i.e., Hexaglandula, and Profilicollis. Maximum likelihood and Bayesian analyses showed that Polymorphidae is a monophyletic assemblage, and that 3 major clades are present. Our results provide support for the idea that Hexaglandula represents an independent lineage, whereas, in the case of Profilicollis, there is no conclusive evidence that they are not members of Polymorphus. The analyses also confirm that Polymorphus is paraphyletic, suggesting that the genus represents a complex of species that should be reexamined and reclassified using morphological, ecological, and molecular data. Our observations suggest that decapods (intermediate hosts for the 2 genera under study) were independently colonized at least twice during the evolutionary history of the group.

  8. Helminth fauna parasitizing Pimelodus pohli (Actinopterygii: Pimelodidae) from the upper São Francisco River, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Sabas, Claudia Silveira São; Brasil-Sato, Marilia Carvalho

    2014-01-01

    The parasite fauna of catfish, Pimelodus pohli, from the São Francisco River Basin is presented. A total of 45 catfish from the upper São Francisco River (45°15'44″W 18°13'25″S), were examined from July 2009 to September 2011. Forty-three catfish (95.5%) were infected by at least one parasite species, with 885 parasite specimens being found, distributed across 17 species: Monogenea (Demidospermus uncusvalidus, Pavanelliella pavanellii, and Scleroductus sp.); Eucestoda (plerocercoids of Proteocephalidea); Digenea (metacercariae of Austrodiplostomum compactum, adults of Auriculostoma platense and Kalipharynx sp., and juvenile of Prosthenhystera obesa); Nematoda (larvae of Contracaecum sp., Hysterothylacium sp., Procamallanus pimelodus, Procamallanus sp., and unidentified of Cucullanidae, and adults of Cucullanus caballeroi, Philometra sp., and Procamallanus freitasi); and Acanthocephala (adults of Neoechinorhynchus pimelodi). Procamallanus freitasi and Scleroductus sp. were the taxa with the highest prevalence. Demidospermus uncusvalidus, P. freitasi, and Scleroductus sp. were the dominant species. The host's sex did not influence parasitic indexes; however, the total length of the catfish did appear to have some influence. The parasites, with except for P. obesa, were registered for the first time in P. pohli, as well as the occurrence of Kalipharynx sp. and C. caballeroi among pimelodid hosts from São Francisco River and South America. PMID:25271459

  9. Helminth fauna parasitizing Pimelodus pohli (Actinopterygii: Pimelodidae) from the upper São Francisco River, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Sabas, Claudia Silveira São; Brasil-Sato, Marilia Carvalho

    2014-01-01

    The parasite fauna of catfish, Pimelodus pohli, from the São Francisco River Basin is presented. A total of 45 catfish from the upper São Francisco River (45°15'44″W 18°13'25″S), were examined from July 2009 to September 2011. Forty-three catfish (95.5%) were infected by at least one parasite species, with 885 parasite specimens being found, distributed across 17 species: Monogenea (Demidospermus uncusvalidus, Pavanelliella pavanellii, and Scleroductus sp.); Eucestoda (plerocercoids of Proteocephalidea); Digenea (metacercariae of Austrodiplostomum compactum, adults of Auriculostoma platense and Kalipharynx sp., and juvenile of Prosthenhystera obesa); Nematoda (larvae of Contracaecum sp., Hysterothylacium sp., Procamallanus pimelodus, Procamallanus sp., and unidentified of Cucullanidae, and adults of Cucullanus caballeroi, Philometra sp., and Procamallanus freitasi); and Acanthocephala (adults of Neoechinorhynchus pimelodi). Procamallanus freitasi and Scleroductus sp. were the taxa with the highest prevalence. Demidospermus uncusvalidus, P. freitasi, and Scleroductus sp. were the dominant species. The host's sex did not influence parasitic indexes; however, the total length of the catfish did appear to have some influence. The parasites, with except for P. obesa, were registered for the first time in P. pohli, as well as the occurrence of Kalipharynx sp. and C. caballeroi among pimelodid hosts from São Francisco River and South America.

  10. Light and scanning electron microscopy on Serrasentis sagittifer Linton, 1889 (Acanthocephala): Palaeacanthocephala: Rhadinorhynchidae) infecting the common sea bream in Egypt.

    PubMed

    Mohamadain, Hoda Saady; Adel, Asmaa

    2015-04-01

    Serrasentis sagittifer is one of the most important acanthocephalan parasites parasitizing fish. This species attach to the intestinal wall via their armed proboscis which is anchored by rows of recurved spines. In the present study, Twenty two out of 50 fish specimens (44.0%) were found to be naturally infected by adult worms of Serrasentis Sagittifer Linton, 1889 (Acanthocephala: Rhadinorhynchidae) which were collected from the stomach and intestine of the common sea bream Pagrus pagrus (family: Sparidae) from locations along the Red Sea at Hurghada City, Egypt. The light and scanning microscopic study revealed that the adult worm possessed a proboscis which was long, cylindrical with a uniform width measured 0.81 ± 0.020 (0.77-0.84) mm in length and 0.48 ± 0.020 (0.33-0.69) mm in width. Claviform, armed with 25 (23-28) longitudinal rows of hooks which show a distinct dorsoventral asymmetry, with ventral hooks stouter, larger. Proboscis receptacle was 2.12 ± 0.30 (2.10-2.14) long, double-walled, with ganglion at mid-level; two unequal, long and thin lemnisci 2.9 ± 0.30(2.41-3.33) length, arised from the base of the neck, and extend up to the med-level of the trunk. The present species is compared morphologically and morphometrically with some of the previously recorded species isolated from different host species, which revealed that the present species should be classified as Serrasentis sagittifer with a new host record in Egypt. PMID:26012215

  11. Light and scanning electron microscopy on Serrasentis sagittifer Linton, 1889 (Acanthocephala): Palaeacanthocephala: Rhadinorhynchidae) infecting the common sea bream in Egypt.

    PubMed

    Mohamadain, Hoda Saady; Adel, Asmaa

    2015-04-01

    Serrasentis sagittifer is one of the most important acanthocephalan parasites parasitizing fish. This species attach to the intestinal wall via their armed proboscis which is anchored by rows of recurved spines. In the present study, Twenty two out of 50 fish specimens (44.0%) were found to be naturally infected by adult worms of Serrasentis Sagittifer Linton, 1889 (Acanthocephala: Rhadinorhynchidae) which were collected from the stomach and intestine of the common sea bream Pagrus pagrus (family: Sparidae) from locations along the Red Sea at Hurghada City, Egypt. The light and scanning microscopic study revealed that the adult worm possessed a proboscis which was long, cylindrical with a uniform width measured 0.81 ± 0.020 (0.77-0.84) mm in length and 0.48 ± 0.020 (0.33-0.69) mm in width. Claviform, armed with 25 (23-28) longitudinal rows of hooks which show a distinct dorsoventral asymmetry, with ventral hooks stouter, larger. Proboscis receptacle was 2.12 ± 0.30 (2.10-2.14) long, double-walled, with ganglion at mid-level; two unequal, long and thin lemnisci 2.9 ± 0.30(2.41-3.33) length, arised from the base of the neck, and extend up to the med-level of the trunk. The present species is compared morphologically and morphometrically with some of the previously recorded species isolated from different host species, which revealed that the present species should be classified as Serrasentis sagittifer with a new host record in Egypt.

  12. Divergent location of ribosomal genes in chromosomes of fish thorny-headed worms, Pomphorhynchus laevis and Pomphorhynchus tereticollis (Acanthocephala).

    PubMed

    Bombarová, Marta; Marec, Frantisek; Nguyen, Petr; Spakulová, Marta

    2007-10-01

    We studied distribution of ribosomal DNA (rDNA) sequences along with chromosomal location of the nucleolar organizer regions (NORs) in males of two fish parasites, Pomphorhynchus laevis and Pomphorhynchus tereticollis (Acanthocephala). Fluorescence in situ hybridization with 18S rDNA probe identified two clusters of rDNA in each species, but revealed a remarkable difference in their location on chromosomes. In P. laevis, the rDNA-FISH signals were found in long arms of the first chromosome pair and in short arms of the second pair. Whereas in P. tereticollis, rDNA clusters were located in long arms of both the first and second chromosome pairs. The divergent location of rDNA clusters in the chromosome No. 2 supports current classification of P. tereticollis, previously considered a synonym of P. laevis, as a separate species. A possible scenario of the second chromosome rearrangement during karyotype evolution of the two species involves two successive pericentric inversions. In both species, one or two prominent nucleoli were apparent within interphase nuclei stained with either silver nitrate or a fluorescent dye YOYO-1. However, a single large nucleolus was observed in early stages of mitosis and meiosis I regardless the number of rDNA clusters. Nevertheless, two bivalents with silver-stained NORs in diakinesis and two silver-stained sites in early prophase II nuclei indicated that all NORs are active. This means that each Pomphorhynchus NOR generates a nucleolus, but the resulting nucleoli have a strong tendency to associate in a large body.

  13. Cystacanths of Acanthocephala in notothenioid fish from the Beagle Channel (sub-Antarctica).

    PubMed

    Laskowski, Zdzisław; Jezewski, Witold; Zdzitowiecki, Krzysztof

    2008-06-01

    The morphology of relaxed cystacanths of polymorphid acanthocephalans collected from notothenioid fishes in the Beagle Channel (Magellanic subregion of sub-Antarctica) is described. A parasite of birds, Andracantha baylisi (Zdzitowiecki, 1986), was found in Patagonotothen longipes and Champsocephalus esox. It has: a proboscis 0.82-0.89 mm long; a proboscis hook formula of 16 rows of 9/10-10/11, including 4-5 basal hooks; distal hooks with the longest blades; a fore-trunk not separated from the hind-trunk by a constriction; large somatic spines arranged in two zones separated by a zone of small, loosely dispersed spines; and only the anterior 36-40% of ventral side of the trunk is covered with spines. One male specimen of Corynosoma sp. was found in Patagonotothen tessellata. It differs from A. baylisi in that the distal proboscis hooks are similar in length to the prebasal hooks, it has a smaller proboscis (0.77 mm) and in the distribution of the somatic spines, which are contiguous with the genital spines on the ventral side of the trunk and lack a zone of small spines between zones of larger spines. A parasite of seals and fur seals, Corynosoma evae Zdzitowiecki, 1984, was found in P. longipes and Champsocephalus esox. It has: a proboscis 0.61-0.78 mm long; a proboscis hook formula of 20-22 rows of 12-13, including 3/4-4 basal hooks; prebasal hooks with the longest blades; a trunk divided into fore-trunk and hind-trunk; somatic spines covering the anterior 64-74% of the ventral side of the trunk; genital spines present only in males; and a terminal genital opening in both sexes. Corynosoma beaglense n. sp. was found in Champsocephalus esox. It has: an almost cylindrical proboscis (length 0.52-0.56 mm); a proboscis hook formula of 16 rows of 9/10-10/11, including 4-4/5 basal hooks; distal hooks shorter than the prebasal hooks; a fore-trunk not separated from the hind-trunk by a constriction; somatic spines contiguous with the genital spines on the ventral side of

  14. Acanthocephala from amphibians in China with the description of a new species of Pseudoacanthocephalus (Echinorhynchida).

    PubMed

    Bush, Sarah E; Duszynski, Donald W; Nickol, Brent B

    2009-12-01

    Amphibians of 24 species were surveyed for acanthocephalans in 4 nature reserves in 2 Chinese provinces during 2004–2006. Pseudoacanthocephalus bufonis (Echinorhynchida) occurred in both nature reserves in Guangxi Province. In the Jing Xi County Provincial Nature Reserve, P. bufonis infected 36 of 62 amphibians at a mean intensity of 9.9. Less than 250 km away, at Shiwandashan National Nature Reserve, 5 of 20 amphibians were infected at a mean intensity of 6.2. Pseudoacanthocephalus bufonis was not found in either of the reserves in Guizhou Province. In the Kuan Kuoshui Nature Reserve, 9 of 28 amphibians were parasitized at a mean intensity of 2.0 by a previously undescribed species of Pseudoacanthocephalus , and no acanthocephalan occurred in a small sample of 2 toads at Dashahe Nature Reserve. The new species, Pseudoacanthocephalus reesei n. sp., differs from all others in the genus by typically having 14 longitudinal rows of 4 hooks, each of which is much longer than corresponding hooks of any other species of the genus. The length of proboscis hooks increases from the apex to the base of the proboscis, further distinguishing the new species from all but Pseudoacanthocephalus nguyenthileae .

  15. Acanthocephala in amphibians (Anura) and reptiles (Squamata) from Brazil and Paraguay with description of a new species.

    PubMed

    Smales, Lesley R

    2007-04-01

    In a survey of 1,732 amphibians and reptiles collected across São Paulo Province, Brazil, and 7 provinces in Paraguay, 26 species were found infected with acanthocephalans. Of 1,510 anurans, 14 anurans, representing 11 species, were infected with cystacanths of Centrorhynchus spp. and 1 anuran with cystacanths of Oligacanthorhynchus sp. Of 107 lizards, 1 lizard was infected with cystacanths of Centrorhynchus sp. and 1 lizard with cystacanths of Oligacanthorhynchus sp. Acanthocephalus caspanensis was found in 3 anurans (3 species) and Acanthocephalus lutzi in 3 anurans (2 species) and 2 snakes (2 species). The systematic position of A. lutzi cannot be resolved using presently available morphological data. Acanthocephalus saopaulensis n. sp. was found in a single individual of Bufo ictericus. The new species can be differentiated from all its congeners except A. caspanensis in having a sigmoid-shaped male posterior end and from A. caspanensis in having a proboscis armature of 16 rows of 5-7 hooks rather than 18-19 rows of 6-7 hooks and larger eggs. The status of Acanthocephalus and Pseudoacanthocephalus continues to be problematic.

  16. The genus Rhadinorhynchus (Acanthocephala: Rhadinorhynchidae) from marine fish in Australia with the description of four new species.

    PubMed

    Smales, Lesley R

    2014-10-01

    Species of Rhadinorhynchus, collected from Australian waters were examined. Specimens of Rhadinorhynchus from Scorpis aequipinnis, Girella tricuspidata, Johnius australis and Grammatobothus polyophthalmus could not be identified further. New host and locality records are reported for R. bicircumspinus found in Trachurus declivis and Rexea solandri from the east coast of Tasmania; R. carangis found in Trachinotus bailonii and T. copperingi from Queensland and Western Australian coasts; R. polynemi from Queensland; R. seriolae found in Seriola lalandi from the east coast of Australia. An immature female specimen of R. johnstoni provided no additional data on the species. Rhadinorhynchus biformis sp. nov., described from Pelates quadrilineatus and a trumpeter from Moreton Bay, Queensland differs from all its congeners in the pattern of the trunk spines, a single field of numerous small spines ventro-laterally, overlapping with irregular rows and circles of larger spines extending posteriorly. Rhadinorhynchus pichelinae sp. nov. described from Upeneichthys vlamingi from Point Peron, Western Australia differs from all its congeners in having proboscis armature of 10 longitudinal rows of 24-28, usually 26-27 hooks up to 87 long and a single field of 21-24 irregular circles of spines on the anterior trunk, with the posterior circles incomplete dorsally. Rhadinorhynchus polydactyli sp. nov. described from Polydactylus sp. from Moreton Bay is differentiated from all congenerics by the elongated neck of the females and having a proboscis armature of up to 34 hooks in 10 longitudinal rows. Rhadinorhynchus pomatomi sp. nov. found in Pomotomus saltrix differs from its most similar congeners, those without dorsal trunk spines, in having a proboscis armature of 12-15 rows of 20-22 hooks up to 73.5-80.5 long. Rhadinorhynchus bicircumspinus, R. biformis, R. pichelinae, R. polydactyli and R. pomatomi are known only from Australian waters while R. carangis and R. seriolae are also

  17. The genus Rhadinorhynchus (Acanthocephala: Rhadinorhynchidae) from marine fish in Australia with the description of four new species.

    PubMed

    Smales, Lesley R

    2014-10-01

    Species of Rhadinorhynchus, collected from Australian waters were examined. Specimens of Rhadinorhynchus from Scorpis aequipinnis, Girella tricuspidata, Johnius australis and Grammatobothus polyophthalmus could not be identified further. New host and locality records are reported for R. bicircumspinus found in Trachurus declivis and Rexea solandri from the east coast of Tasmania; R. carangis found in Trachinotus bailonii and T. copperingi from Queensland and Western Australian coasts; R. polynemi from Queensland; R. seriolae found in Seriola lalandi from the east coast of Australia. An immature female specimen of R. johnstoni provided no additional data on the species. Rhadinorhynchus biformis sp. nov., described from Pelates quadrilineatus and a trumpeter from Moreton Bay, Queensland differs from all its congeners in the pattern of the trunk spines, a single field of numerous small spines ventro-laterally, overlapping with irregular rows and circles of larger spines extending posteriorly. Rhadinorhynchus pichelinae sp. nov. described from Upeneichthys vlamingi from Point Peron, Western Australia differs from all its congeners in having proboscis armature of 10 longitudinal rows of 24-28, usually 26-27 hooks up to 87 long and a single field of 21-24 irregular circles of spines on the anterior trunk, with the posterior circles incomplete dorsally. Rhadinorhynchus polydactyli sp. nov. described from Polydactylus sp. from Moreton Bay is differentiated from all congenerics by the elongated neck of the females and having a proboscis armature of up to 34 hooks in 10 longitudinal rows. Rhadinorhynchus pomatomi sp. nov. found in Pomotomus saltrix differs from its most similar congeners, those without dorsal trunk spines, in having a proboscis armature of 12-15 rows of 20-22 hooks up to 73.5-80.5 long. Rhadinorhynchus bicircumspinus, R. biformis, R. pichelinae, R. polydactyli and R. pomatomi are known only from Australian waters while R. carangis and R. seriolae are also

  18. Description of Rhadinorhynchus dorsoventrospinosus (Acanthocephala: Rhadinor-hynchidae) from the red spot emperor Lethrinus lentjan with new host and locality records in Saudi Arabia.

    PubMed

    Al Ghamdi, Ali Othman

    2013-04-01

    Adult worms of Rhadinorhynchus dorsoventrospinosus (Acanthocephala: Rhadinor-hynchidae) were collected from the small intestine of the red spot emperor Lethrinus lentjan (family Lethrinidae) from locations along the Red Sea at Jeddah City, Saudi Arabia. Twenty three out of 70 fish specimens (32.9%) were found to be naturally infected. The parasite was described using photo research Zeiss microscopy and a scanning electron microscope (SEM). Light microscopic studies revealed that the adult worm possessed a proboscis which was long, cylindrical with a uniform width measured 0.44 +/- 0.02 (0.38-0.46) mm in length and 0.1 +/- 10.02 (0.09-0.15) mm in width. Proboscis hooks observed by scanning electron microscopy were large, uniform in size (14-16 rows of 26 hooks each) with a row of longer hooks at the base. Comparison between the present described species and four species of the same genus was done, it was observed that there was only one comparable species, R dorsoventrospinosus resembled the present parasite in the general morphology and differed from others, so the present studied species is classified as R. dorsoventrospinosus with new host and locality records.

  19. Ultrastructural study of spermiogenesis and the spermatozoon of Acanthocephaloides incrassatus (Molin, 1858) (Acanthocephala, Paleacanthocephala, Arhythmacanthidae) from Anguilla anguilla (Pisces, Teleostei) in Urbino ponds (Corsica Island).

    PubMed

    Foata, J; Quilichini, Y; Dal Pos, N; Greani, S; Marchand, B

    2012-07-01

    This study deals with first ultrastructure features of Acanthocephaloides incrassatus (Paleacanthocephala, Arhythmacanthidae), a parasite of the fish Anguilla anguilla, reported for the first time in a Mediterranean pond. The spermiogenesis of A. incrassatus shows original specificities which have never been pointed out to this day in ultrastructural studies on spermiogenesis: the centriolar derivative is divided into two parts of different densities: an electron-dense, and the other, electron-lucent; a ring form has been observed on each side of the axoneme; a centriole with one central element. After the elaboration of a flagellum of 9+2 pattern, the centriole migrates in a nuclear groove. Rapidly, the centriole disappears. Then, the flagellum migration occurs by a series of processes and gives rise to a spermatozoon. The spermatozoon of A. incrassatus presents its own specificities: it exhibits an evolution of the centriolar derivative characterized by only nine peripheral elements deprived of a central element in the anterior part, then nine peripheral and one central element, and finally, nine peripheral elements with two central elements. An assumption is emitted on a probable correspondence of the evolution of the derivative centriolar during the spermiogenesis and the evolution that occurs in the spermatozoon. Protein granules also show different sizes and forms, full or emptied of their contents compared with data on other Acanthocephala.

  20. Molecular phylogenetics of Floridosentis ward, 1953 (Acanthocephala: Neoechinorhynchidae) parasites of mullets (Osteichthyes) from Mexico, using 28S rDNA sequences.

    PubMed

    Rosas-Valdez, Rogelio; Morrone, Juan J; García-Varela, Martín

    2012-08-01

    Species of Floridosentis (Acanthocephala) are common parasites of mullets (Mugil spp., Mugilidae) found in tropical marine and brackish water in the Americas. Floridosentis includes 2 species distributed in Mexico, i.e., Floridosentis pacifica, restricted to the Pacific Ocean near Salina Cruz, Oaxaca, and Floridosentis mugilis, distributed along the coast of the Pacific Ocean and the Gulf of Mexico. We sampled 18 populations of F. mugilis and F. pacifica (12 from the Pacific and 6 from the Gulf of Mexico) and sequenced a fragment of the rDNA large subunit to evaluate phylogenetic relationships of populations of Floridosentis spp. from Mexico. Species identification of museum specimens of F. mugilis from the Pacific Ocean was confirmed by examination of morphology traits. Phylogenetic trees inferred with maximum parsimony, maximum likelihood, and Bayesian inference indicate that Floridosentis is monophyletic comprising of 2 major well-supported clades, the first clade corresponding to F. mugilis from the Gulf of Mexico, and the second to F. pacifica from the Pacific Ocean. Genetic divergence between species ranged from 7.68 to 8.60%. Intraspecific divergence ranged from 0.14 to 0.86% for F. mugilis and from 1.72 to 4.49% for F. pacifica. Data obtained from diagnostic characters indicate that specimens from the Pacific Ocean in Mexico have differences in some traits among locations. These results are consistent with the phylogenetic hypothesis, indicating that F. pacifica is distributed in the Pacific Ocean in Mexico with 3 major lineages.

  1. Ultrastructural study of spermiogenesis and the spermatozoon of Acanthocephaloides incrassatus (Molin, 1858) (Acanthocephala, Paleacanthocephala, Arhythmacanthidae) from Anguilla anguilla (Pisces, Teleostei) in Urbino ponds (Corsica Island).

    PubMed

    Foata, J; Quilichini, Y; Dal Pos, N; Greani, S; Marchand, B

    2012-07-01

    This study deals with first ultrastructure features of Acanthocephaloides incrassatus (Paleacanthocephala, Arhythmacanthidae), a parasite of the fish Anguilla anguilla, reported for the first time in a Mediterranean pond. The spermiogenesis of A. incrassatus shows original specificities which have never been pointed out to this day in ultrastructural studies on spermiogenesis: the centriolar derivative is divided into two parts of different densities: an electron-dense, and the other, electron-lucent; a ring form has been observed on each side of the axoneme; a centriole with one central element. After the elaboration of a flagellum of 9+2 pattern, the centriole migrates in a nuclear groove. Rapidly, the centriole disappears. Then, the flagellum migration occurs by a series of processes and gives rise to a spermatozoon. The spermatozoon of A. incrassatus presents its own specificities: it exhibits an evolution of the centriolar derivative characterized by only nine peripheral elements deprived of a central element in the anterior part, then nine peripheral and one central element, and finally, nine peripheral elements with two central elements. An assumption is emitted on a probable correspondence of the evolution of the derivative centriolar during the spermiogenesis and the evolution that occurs in the spermatozoon. Protein granules also show different sizes and forms, full or emptied of their contents compared with data on other Acanthocephala. PMID:22307764

  2. Influence of environmental changes in the north-western Atlantic Ocean on a parasite, Echinorhynchus gadi (Acanthocephala) of Atlantic cod ( Gadus morhua) occurring off coastal Labrador, Canada.

    PubMed

    Khan, R A

    2008-09-01

    A study was conducted to determine the influence of environmental change on an endoparasite, Echinorhynchus gadi (Acanthocephala) of Atlantic cod (Gadus morhua) over a 30-year period off the coast of Labrador in the north-western Atlantic, North Atlantic Fisheries Organization subareas 2J-3K. Cod, once an abundant fish species that had been commercially exploited for many decades, declined precipitously during the mid-1980s onwards. This decline was attributed to climatic changes that affected the entire food chain from zooplankton to fish, sea birds and marine mammals. A monitoring programme was introduced, sampling cod by otter trawling using research vessels. The fish, after capture, were frozen at - 20 degrees C, subsequently thawed and the digestive tract removed and examined for the parasite in 2006. Data from samples taken in 1976, 1980-81, 1986, 1990, 2000 and 2003 were compared statistically with those collected in 2006. The results indicate a decline in the prevalence and mean abundance of E. gadi in 1986 with a minimum in 2000 but increasing gradually in 2003 and 2006. These changes were coincident initially with a decline of oceanic temperature and the entire food web, including capelin (Mallotus villosus), a preferred prey of cod and primary source of E. gadi. The increase in prevalence and mean abundance of the parasite in 2006 were associated with an increase of oceanic temperature and the return of small schools of capelin to offshore areas. Cod older than 4 years harboured a greater abundance of E. gadi than younger fish, while no difference was observed between the sexes. The results suggest that the abundance of E. gadi can be useful as a bioindicator of environmental changes in the north-western Atlantic.

  3. Seasonal population dynamics of Pallisentis (Neosentis) celatus (Acanthocephala: Quadrigyridae) in the intestine of the rice-field eel Monopterus albus in China.

    PubMed

    Boping, Zeng; Wenbin, Wang

    2007-12-01

    Studies on the seasonal population dynamics of Pallisentis (Neosentis) celatus (Acanthocephala: Quadrigyridae) in the intestine of the rice-field eel Monopterus albus from the paddies and ditches in the Dong-ting Lake basin of China, were carried out with samples taken from June 2002 to May 2003. Prevalences were above 21% in all seasons sampled and with a distinct seasonal trend, which was highest (45.81%) in the spring and decreased by degrees. The mean intensity of infection was above 4.0 worms per fish. The maximum intensity of worms recovered from a single fish was 86 in the autumn of 2002. No significant seasonal differences were found in mean intensities, and differences in the mean abundance between winter and spring, winter and autumn were significant. Over-dispersed distributions of P. (N.) celatus in the host population, due to heterogeneity and feeding habits, were observed in all seasons. The size composition of both sexes of P. (N.) celatus showed males between 2.0 mm and 14.0 mm and females between 2.2 mm and 22.2 mm, with the main recruitment phase in the worm populations occurring in the summer and autumn, especially in the autumn, with the lowest recruitment occurring in the winter. The maturation and copulation of worms were mainly focused in the spring season. The sex ratio of female to male was both high in summer (1.09:1) and autumn (1.08:1). The higher proportion of females and the change in the worm sex ratio in summer can be attributed to the reduced longevity of male worms. As immature male worms exhibit a higher proportion of the worm population than females in all seasons, further studies are needed to determine if such a situation compensates for the shorter life span of males.

  4. Redescription of Rhadinorhynchus ornatus (Acanthocephala: Rhadinorhynchidae) from skipjack tuna, Katsuwonus pelamis, collected in the Pacific Ocean off South America, with special reference to new morphological features.

    PubMed

    Amin, Omar M; Heckmann, Richard A; Radwan, Nahla A E; Anchundia, Johan S Mantuano; Alcivar, Marcos A Zambrano

    2009-06-01

    Adults of Rhadinorhynchus ornatus Van Cleave, 1918 were collected from the small intestine of skipjack tuna, Katsuwonus pelamis (Linnaeus), in the high seas of the Pacific Ocean off the west coast of South America (new parasite locality record) and described using optical microscopy and a scanning electron microscope (SEM). Our specimens were somewhat comparable to those described from North America and Japan, but had more trunk spines. Definitive differences between the length and thickness of each of the dorsal and ventral proboscis hooks are noted for the first time, with most ventral middle hooks being relatively shorter and more robust than dorsal middle hooks. The SEM documented, for the first time, the different surface topography of the tegument in the proboscis, the neck, and in 3 trunk regions; the presence of microtrichs in the mid- and posterior trunk regions; the elevated base of trunk spines; the circular arrangement of basal proboscis hooks; the different morphology of all dorsal and ventral proboscis hooks and the striations of their surface; the ribbed surface topography of eggs; the elevated slit-like female gonopore; and the rimmed edge of the bursa. The presence of microtrichs on the tegumental surface is further supported by transmission electron microscopy studies. This is the first report of microtrichs in any species of Acanthocephala and the second report of striations in proboscis hooks. The geographical distribution of R. ornatus appears to correspond, at least in part, to that of its epipelagic primary host, K. pelamis, throughout the world in waters ranging in temperature from 14.7 to 30 C.

  5. A new species of Heterosentis Van Cleave, 1931 (Acanthocephala, Arhythmacanthidae), a parasite of pinguipedid fishes in the southwest Atlantic.

    PubMed

    Lanfranchi, Ana L; Timi, Juan T

    2011-02-01

    A new species of arhythmacanthid acanthocephalan, Heterosentis martini n. sp., parasitic in the Argentinean sandperch Pseudopercis semifasciata (Cuvier) (Perciformes, Pinguipedidae) from the coasts of Argentina is described. Heterosentis martini n. sp. differs from all congeneric species by having 10 longitudinal rows of hooks in the proboscis, each with 7-8 hooks, consisting of 1 medium apical and 3 larger sub-apical hooks with root, and 3-4 smaller, basal, curved hooks with rudimentary roots and spines in both ventral and dorsal regions of the body. The most similar species, Heterosentis heteracanthus (Linstow, 1896) Van Cleave, 1931, and Heterosentis brasiliensis Vieira, Felizardo and Luque, 2009, also have 10 longitudinal rows of hooks, but H. heteracanthus differs from the new species by having only 3-5 (more frequently 4) hooks in each row, with only the anterior hook large and bearing a developed root. Heterosentis brasiliensis differs from the new species by possessing 2 sub-apical hooks in each row (instead of 3), similar body length but shorter proboscis, and trunk spines restricted to the ventral surface of body.

  6. The importance of gobies (Gobiidae, Teleostei) as hosts and transmitters of parasites in the SW Baltic

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zander, C. D.; Strohbach, U.; Groenewold, S.

    1993-02-01

    The parasite fauna of five goby species (Gobiidae, Teleostei) was investigated in the Baltic Sea during the period 1987 to 1990. 13 parasite species were found in samples from the Lübeck Bight: Bothriocephalus scorpii, Schistocephalus sp. (Cestoda); Cryptocotyle concavum, Cryptocotyle lingua, Podocotyle atomon, Derogenes varicus (Digenea); Hysterothylacium sp. (cf. auctum), Contracaecum sp., Anisakis simplex (Nematoda); Corynosoma sp., Echinorhynchus gadi, Neoechinorhynchus rutili, Pomphorhynchus laevis (Acanthocephala). The number of parasite species were: 10 in the sand goby Pomatoschistus minutus, 8 in the black goby Gobius niger, 7 in the two-spotted goby Gobiusculus flavescens, 6 in the common goby Pomatoschistus microps, and 5 in the painted goby Pomatoschistus pictus. Neoechinorhynchus rutili occurred only in P. minutus, and Corynosoma sp. only in G. niger. The extent to which the gobies were parasitized clearly depended on the respective ways of life and, moreover, on the kind of prey ingested by the hosts. Additionally, the age of the hosts might be important. The highest rate of parasitism, more than 60%, was reached by Hysterothylacium sp. in G. niger and by Cryptocotyle concavum in P. microps. Infestation incidence lay mostly below 40% which means a satellite species status (Holmes, 1991). The number of parasite species was highest in summer; the highest intensities of single parasites occurred in spring ( Podocotyle atomon) or autumn ( Crytocotyle concavum). Bothriocephalus scorpii, Hysterothylacium sp. and Podocotyle infested their juvenile hosts very early, but only Hysterothylacium was accumulated by G. niger during its whole life span, whereas Bothriocephalus persisted also in older gobies in low intensities. The cercariae of Cryptocotyle spp. penetrate actively into their hosts; all the other parasites named were transmitted in larval form by prey organisms which consisted mainly of planktonic and benthic crustaceans. The gobies were final hosts

  7. Comparison of denitrification between Paracoccus sp. and Diaphorobacter sp.

    PubMed

    Chakravarthy, Srinandan S; Pande, Samay; Kapoor, Ashish; Nerurkar, Anuradha S

    2011-09-01

    Denitrification was compared between Paracoccus sp. and Diaphorobacter sp. in this study, both of which were isolated from activated sludge of a denitrifying reactor. Denitrification of both isolates showed contrasting patterns, where Diaphorobacter sp. showed accumulation of nitrite in the medium while Paracoccus sp. showed no accumulation. The nitrate reduction rate was 1.5 times more than the nitrite reduction in Diaphorobacter sp., as analyzed by the resting state denitrification kinetics. Increasing the nitrate concentration in the medium increased the nitrite accumulation in Diaphorobacter sp., but not in Paracoccus sp., indicating a branched electron transfer during denitrification. Diaphorobacter sp. was unable to denitrify efficiently at high nitrate concentrations from 1 M, but Paracoccus sp. could denitrify even up to 2 M nitrate. Paracoccus sp. was found to be an efficient denitrifier with insignificant amounts of nitrite accumulation, and it could also denitrify high amounts of nitrate up to 2 M. Efficient denitrification without accumulation of intermediates like nitrite is desirable in the removal of high nitrates from wastewaters. Paracoccus sp. is shown to suffice this demand and could be a potential organism to remove high nitrates effectively. PMID:21509603

  8. SP-100 surety evaluation

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1985-06-01

    This report describes surety evaluations conducted during GFY 1985 in support of the General Electric design for a Space Nuclear Power System - SP-100. Those surety evaluations address both safety and safeguards requirements, which are derived from OSNP-1 and supporting documents. The report includes results of neutronics (criticality) calculations performed by Los Alamos. The results have been benchmarked against independent calculations performed by General Electric with different codes. These comparisons show close agreement, and are summarized. Los Alamos has also provided specifications of explosion and fire environments, which have been used in evaluation of the GE SP-100 concept. Following the summary of key results, surety requirements are given and recommendations toward specification of requirements for later SP-100 project phases are presented. A conceptual design summary is presented. To establish a comprehensive background for surety evaluations, a reference mission profile and potential accidents for each phase of the mission are identified. The main body of the report addresses surety of the General Electric Thermoelectric Conversion design. GE has also developed a Stirling Engine concept, and performed comprehensive surety evaluations for it. These evaluations are reported.

  9. [Aspergillus insulicola Sp. Nov].

    PubMed

    de Montemayor, L; Santiago, A R

    1975-04-30

    A strain of Aspergillus sp. is described and proposed as a new species under the name "Aspergillus insulicola sp. nov." Montemayor & Santiago, 1973. This strain was isolated from soil samples taken in "Aves Island" during a scientific expedition.--Aves Island, situated at 15 degrees, 40 feet, 42 inches N and 63 degrees, 36 feet, 47 inches W, about 665 Km of the coast of Venezuela, has very special ecological conditions. Due to its smallness: 550 m long and 40 to 120 m across and to its low profile only 3 m over sea level, it is swept by the sea during the periodical storms and hurricanes in the area. It has thus a very interesting fauna and flora. We took a series of soil samples to study its mycological flora. Forty samples were inoculated by dilution method. In this first paper a species is described and proposed as a new species because of its macroscopic and microscopic characteristics, as well as by its biological properties, under the name "Aspergillus insulicola sp. nov.". In its study we have tried to follow as closely as possible the methods recommended by Kennet B. Raper & Dorothy Fenell, world authorities on the genera Aspergillus and Penicillium. The strain is being kept in USB under the number T1, and has been sent to ATCC & CBSC to be incorporated in their collections.

  10. Laser sculpting of atomic sp, sp(2) , and sp(3) hybrid orbitals.

    PubMed

    Liu, Chunmei; Manz, Jörn; Yang, Yonggang

    2015-01-12

    Atomic sp, sp(2) , and sp(3) hybrid orbitals were introduced by Linus Pauling to explain the nature of the chemical bond. Quantum dynamics simulations show that they can be sculpted by means of a selective series of coherent laser pulses, starting from the 1s orbital of the hydrogen atom. Laser hybridization generates atoms with state-selective electric dipoles, opening up new possibilities for the study of chemical reaction dynamics and heterogeneous catalysis. PMID:25257703

  11. Morphological and molecular differentiation of two new species of Pseudoacanthocephalus Petrochenko, 1958 (Acanthocephala: Echinorhynchidae) from amphibians and reptiles in the Philippines, with identification key for the genus.

    PubMed

    Tkach, Vasyl V; Lisitsyna, Olga I; Crossley, Janna L; Binh, Tran Thi; Bush, Sarah E

    2013-05-01

    The genus Pseudoacanthocephalus Petrochenko, 1958 currently includes 14 species of acanthocephalans parasitic in amphibians and reptiles worldwide. This work describes two new species of Pseudoacanthocephalus from amphibians and reptiles collected in several localities on Luzon Island, Philippines. Pseudoacanthocephalus nickoli n. sp. was found in two species of frogs, Rana luzonensis Boulenger and Rana similis (Günther), and Pseudoacanthocephalus smalesi n. sp. was found in a scincid lizard, Sphenomorphus abdictus Brown & Alcala. Differential diagnoses of the two new species of Pseudoacanthocephalus from their congeners are provided. Comparative analysis of nuclear ribosomal rRNA sequences encompassing the 3' end of 18S nuclear rDNA gene, internal transcribed spacer region (ITS1+5.8S+ITS2), and 5' end of the 28S gene strongly corroborated the morphological evidence and demonstrated significant differences between the two new species as well as between these species and closely related species from continental China and Vietnam. No intraspecific sequence variability was detected among different individuals representing each of the examined species. This is the first report of Pseudoacanthocephalus in the Philippines. A key to known species of Pseudoacanthocephalus is provided.

  12. A new arhythmacanthid species (Acanthocephala) in the intestine of Symphurus plagiusa and Ciclopsetta chittendeni from the coast of Campeche, Mexico, with ecological and histopathological observations.

    PubMed

    Santana-Piñeros, Ana María; Cruz-Quintana, Yanis; Centeno-Chalé, Oscar Arturo; Vidal-Martínez, Victor M

    2013-10-01

    A new species of Acanthocephaloides was recovered in the intestine of Symphurus plagiusa, the blackcheek tonguefish, and Cyclopsetta chittendeni, the Mexican flounder, from the Campeche coast, Mexico. The new species is characterized by having proboscis hooks arranged in 14 to 16 longitudinal rows, with 6-7 rooted hooks per row, a trunk covered with small cuticular spines (except in the zone of gonopore or bursa), a bursa without sensory structures, and the relative position of male post-equatorial reproductive system. The prevalence of Acanthocephaloides plagiusae n. sp. from S. plagiusa was low (0-7.3%) from July to October and high (29.4-40%) in November, January, and March. Similarly, the prevalence of A. plagiusae n. sp. from Cyclopsetta chittendeni was low (1.7%) in July and high (5.8%) March. Both hosts exhibited low (0.1-3.4) mean abundance. The variation in prevalence could be explained by the seasonal freshwater discharge from rivers, which affects the dispersal of parasites and the distribution of the host. Pathology changes, such as inflammation, loss of intestinal folds, increased mucous and rodlet cells, and detachment of intestinal epithelium, were associated with the proboscis hooks and spiny surface of A. plagiusae. This is the first record of an Acanthocephaloides species from a Mexican coastal zone.

  13. Two New Species of the Genus Pallisentis Van Cleave, 1928 (Acanthocephala: Quadrigyridae) from the Intestine of Channa punctatus (Bloch, 1793) from the River Gomti at Lucknow, India

    PubMed Central

    GUPTA, Rahul; MAURYA, Ramakant; SAXENA, Anand Murari

    2015-01-01

    Background: Acanthocephalans are fish parasites of worldwide distribution, penetrate their thorny proboscis into the intestinal wall of host and absorb nutrients. No diagnostic tool is available except postmortem investigations and identification by parasitologists. The aim of present study was to explore and assign taxonomical status to Pallisentis species prevalent in food fishes of river Gomti, Lucknow, India. Methods: A survey of fishes of river Gomti was carried out during the year 2011–2013. Acanthocephalans recovered from the intestine of Channa punctatus were kept in refrigerator for eversion of proboscis, fixed in A.F.A. fixative (50% alcohol, formalin and acetic acid in ratio of 100: 6: 2.5) for 24 hours further preserved in 70% ethanol. Camera Lucida diagrams of acetoalum carmine stained permanent mounts were made for morphometric studies. Results: Two new species of genus Pallisentis were identified and named as P. channai n. sp. and P. vinodai n. sp., their taxonomical status is based on major characters of proboscis hooks, spines of collar and trunk region, cement gland nuclei. On average 9 fishes were found infected with Pallisentis spp. out of 60 fishes examined randomly. Conclusion: Pallisentis spp. are important parasitic infection in Channidae fishes with the prevalence rate of 15%. Two new species of Pallisentis recognized from Channa punctatus of river Gomti, Lucknow, India and diagnostic features of genus are given. PMID:25904954

  14. [COMPARATIVE ANALYSIS OF LIPID METABOLISM INDICES IN SOME PARASITES OF THE WHITE CHARR (SALVELINUS ALBUS) FROM THE LAKE KRINOTSKOE].

    PubMed

    Gordeev, I I; Mikryakov, D V; Silkina, N I

    2015-01-01

    Comparative study of lipid metabolism indices (total lipids, separate lipid fractions, level of the lipid peroxidation processes, and antioxidant protection) was carried out in three parasite species collected from the white char in the Lake Kronotskoe: Diphyllobothrium ditremum Crepin, 1825 (Cestoda), Philonema oncorhynchi Kuitunen-Ekbaum, 1933 (Nematoda) H Neoechinorhynchus salmonis Ching, 1984 (Acanthocephala). Acanthocephalans possessed significantly greater levels of total lipids, triacylglycerol, and malondialdehyde; nematodes, of cholesterol and sterol esters; and cestodes, in phospholipids and constants of the substrate oxidation. Dependence between lipid metabolism of helminths and their taxonomic affiliation, morpho-functional features, the stage of the life cycle, and the site of infection in the host are discussed.

  15. [COMPARATIVE ANALYSIS OF LIPID METABOLISM INDICES IN SOME PARASITES OF THE WHITE CHARR (SALVELINUS ALBUS) FROM THE LAKE KRINOTSKOE].

    PubMed

    Gordeev, I I; Mikryakov, D V; Silkina, N I

    2015-01-01

    Comparative study of lipid metabolism indices (total lipids, separate lipid fractions, level of the lipid peroxidation processes, and antioxidant protection) was carried out in three parasite species collected from the white char in the Lake Kronotskoe: Diphyllobothrium ditremum Crepin, 1825 (Cestoda), Philonema oncorhynchi Kuitunen-Ekbaum, 1933 (Nematoda) H Neoechinorhynchus salmonis Ching, 1984 (Acanthocephala). Acanthocephalans possessed significantly greater levels of total lipids, triacylglycerol, and malondialdehyde; nematodes, of cholesterol and sterol esters; and cestodes, in phospholipids and constants of the substrate oxidation. Dependence between lipid metabolism of helminths and their taxonomic affiliation, morpho-functional features, the stage of the life cycle, and the site of infection in the host are discussed. PMID:26314155

  16. Acetobacter intermedius, sp. nov.

    PubMed

    Boesch, C; Trcek, J; Sievers, M; Teuber, M

    1998-03-01

    Strains of a new species in the genus Acetobacter, for which we propose the name A. intermedius sp. nov., were isolated and characterized in pure culture from different sources (Kombucha beverage, cider vinegar, spirit vinegar) and different countries (Switzerland, Slovenia). The isolated strains grow in media with 3% acetic acid and 3% ethanol as does A. europaeus, do, however, not require acetic acid for growth. These characteristics phenotypically position A. intermedius between A. europaeus and A. xylinus, DNA-DNA hybridizations of A. intermedius-DNA with DNA of the type strains of Acetobacter europaeus, A. xylinus, A. aceti, A. hansenii, A. liquefaciens, A. methanolicus, A. pasteurianus, A. diazotrophicus, Gluconobacter oxydans and Escherichia coli HB 101 indicated less than 60% DNA similarity. The important features of the new species are described. Acetobacter intermedius strain TF2 (DSM11804) isolated from the liquid phase of a tea fungus beverage (Kombucha) is the type strain.

  17. Yersinia aleksiciae sp. nov.

    PubMed

    Sprague, Lisa D; Neubauer, Heinrich

    2005-03-01

    Yersinia kristensenii consists of phenotypically heterogeneous strains. This is reflected by the existence of strains with various multilocus enzyme electrophoresis and 16S rRNA gene sequence types. Strains originally phenotyped as members of Y. kristensenii were studied using 16S rRNA gene sequencing, DNA-DNA hybridization, determination of the DNA base composition and various phenotypic tests. The results were compared to those of Yersinia type strains. Based on levels of DNA-DNA relatedness, a specific 16S rRNA gene sequence type and the presence of lysine decarboxylase activity, a novel species, Yersinia aleksiciae sp. nov., is proposed. The type strain is Y159(T) (=WA758(T)=DSM 14987(T)=LMG 22254(T)).

  18. DADiSP processing guide

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rogers, Melissa J. B.

    1993-01-01

    A guide for DADiSP software, intended for use by the Lambda Point Experiment (LPE) Team during and after the United States Microgravity Payload (USMP)-1 mission, is presented. DADiSP is a Data Analysis and Display Software developed and marketed by DSP Development Corporation, Cambridge, Massachusetts. This guide is intended to be used in addition to the DADiSP Worksheet User Manual and Reference Manual which are supplied by the company with the software. Technical support for DADiSP is available from DSP at (617) 577-1133. Access to DADiSP on Acceleration Characterization and Analysis Project (ACAP) EGSE is being provided to the LPE team during USMP-1 for off-line processing of SAMS data.

  19. Description of a new Echinorhynchid species (Acanthocephala) from the European eel, Anguilla anguilla, in Germany, with a key species of Acanthocephalus in Europe.

    PubMed

    Amin, Omar M; Thielen, F; Münderle, M; Taraschewski, H; Sures, B

    2008-12-01

    Acanthocephalus rhinensis n. sp. is described from the European eel. Anguilla anguilla (Linnaeus, 1758), collected in the Rhine River near the city of Karlsruhe, Germany. It is the sixth species of Acanthocephalus Koelreuther, 1771 described from European fish. Four other species are known from amphibians. The new species is distinguished from the other 5 species infecting fish by having a 1.2-mm-long proboscis armed with 15-21 rows of 13-16 hooks each, lemnisci about as long as receptacle, oblong and slightly pre-equatorial testes, and thin fusiform eggs, measuring 85-95 X 15-18 micro. Testes in the other European species are usually round to ovate, except in Ac. anguillae (Müller, 1780) Lühe, 1911 where they are also elongated but postequatorial. It aslo has an orange-brown belt encircling the anterior end of the trunk. The comparative distribution of Acanthocephalus in Europe and North America, and the validity of 2 presumably questionable species are discussed, Acanthocephalus falcatus (Froelich, 1789) Lühe, 1911 and Ac. Paronai (Cendorelli, 1897) Meyer, 1932. A dichotomus key distinguishing Ac. rhinensis from the other 9 European species is also included. The new species was only found in 3 of 390 eels examined during 11 yr; this may be related to the changing benthos community in the Rhine River.

  20. Actinoplanes couchii sp. nov.

    PubMed

    Kämpfer, Peter; Huber, Birgit; Thummes, Kathrin; Grün-Wollny, Iris; Busse, Hans-Jürgen

    2007-04-01

    A Gram-positive bacterium, strain GW8-1761(T), was isolated from soil close to the Marmore waterfalls, Terni, Italy. 16S rRNA gene sequence similarity studies showed that strain GW8-1761(T) belonged to the genus Actinoplanes, being most closely related to Actinoplanes italicus JCM 3165(T) (98.9 %), A. rectilineatus IFO 13941(T) (98.5 %), A. palleronii JCM 7626(T) (97.8 %), A. utahensis IFO 13244(T) (97.6 %) and A. cyaneus DSM 46137(T) (97.6 %). Strain GW8-1761(T) could be distinguished from any other Actinoplanes species with validly published names by 16S rRNA gene sequence similarity values of less than 97.5 %. Chemotaxonomic data [major menaquinone MK-9(H(4)); major polar lipids diphosphatidylglycerol, phosphatidylethanolamine and phosphatidylinositol, with phosphatidylcholine and aminoglycolipids absent; major fatty acids C(15 : 0), C(16 : 0), C(16 : 0) iso, C(17 : 1)omega8c and summed feature 3 (C(16 : 1)omega7c and/or C(15 : 0) iso 2-OH)] supported the affiliation of strain GW8-1761(T) to the genus Actinoplanes. The results of DNA-DNA hybridizations and physiological and biochemical tests allowed genotypic and phenotypic differentiation of strain GW8-1761(T) from the most closely related species. Strain GW8-1761(T) therefore merits species status, and we propose the name Actinoplanes couchii sp. nov., with the type strain GW8-1761(T) (=DSM 45050(T)=CIP 109316(T)). PMID:17392194

  1. Pseudomonas psychrotolerans sp. nov.

    PubMed

    Hauser, Elke; Kämpfer, Peter; Busse, Hans-Jürgen

    2004-09-01

    Three yellow-pigmented, Gram-negative, rod-shaped, non-spore-forming bacterial strains, C36T, C37 and C39, were isolated in the Medical Clinic for Small Animals and Ungulates at the University for Veterinary Medicine in Vienna, Austria. On the basis of 16S rRNA gene sequence similarity, strain C36T was shown to belong to the genus Pseudomonas; Pseudomonas oleovorans DSM 1045T was the nearest relative (99.5 % sequence similarity). Other Pseudomonas species shared <97 % sequence similarity with strain C36T. The presence of Q-9 as the major ubiquinone, the predominance of putrescine and spermidine in its polyamine patterns and its fatty acid profile [i.e. the predominance of C(16 : 0), summed feature 3 (C(16 : 1)omega7c and/or 2-OH C(15 : 0) iso), C(18 : 1)omega7c and the presence of 3-OH C(10 : 0), 3-OH C(12 : 0) and 2-OH C(12 : 0)] were in agreement with identification of this strain as a member of the genus Pseudomonas. Physiological and biochemical characteristics and the results of genomic fingerprinting clearly differentiated strain C36T from its phylogenetic relative P. oleovorans DSM 1045T. Results from DNA-DNA hybridization showed that strain C36T represents a species that is distinct from P. oleovorans DSM 1045T. These data demonstrate that strain C36T represents a novel species of the genus Pseudomonas, for which the name Pseudomonas psychrotolerans sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is C36T (= LMG 21977T = DSM 15758T). Additionally, physiological, biochemical, chemotaxonomic and genomic fingerprints indicate that P. oleovorans ATCC 29347 may not be a member of the species P. oleovorans sensu stricto. PMID:15388721

  2. Actinoplanes couchii sp. nov.

    PubMed

    Kämpfer, Peter; Huber, Birgit; Thummes, Kathrin; Grün-Wollny, Iris; Busse, Hans-Jürgen

    2007-04-01

    A Gram-positive bacterium, strain GW8-1761(T), was isolated from soil close to the Marmore waterfalls, Terni, Italy. 16S rRNA gene sequence similarity studies showed that strain GW8-1761(T) belonged to the genus Actinoplanes, being most closely related to Actinoplanes italicus JCM 3165(T) (98.9 %), A. rectilineatus IFO 13941(T) (98.5 %), A. palleronii JCM 7626(T) (97.8 %), A. utahensis IFO 13244(T) (97.6 %) and A. cyaneus DSM 46137(T) (97.6 %). Strain GW8-1761(T) could be distinguished from any other Actinoplanes species with validly published names by 16S rRNA gene sequence similarity values of less than 97.5 %. Chemotaxonomic data [major menaquinone MK-9(H(4)); major polar lipids diphosphatidylglycerol, phosphatidylethanolamine and phosphatidylinositol, with phosphatidylcholine and aminoglycolipids absent; major fatty acids C(15 : 0), C(16 : 0), C(16 : 0) iso, C(17 : 1)omega8c and summed feature 3 (C(16 : 1)omega7c and/or C(15 : 0) iso 2-OH)] supported the affiliation of strain GW8-1761(T) to the genus Actinoplanes. The results of DNA-DNA hybridizations and physiological and biochemical tests allowed genotypic and phenotypic differentiation of strain GW8-1761(T) from the most closely related species. Strain GW8-1761(T) therefore merits species status, and we propose the name Actinoplanes couchii sp. nov., with the type strain GW8-1761(T) (=DSM 45050(T)=CIP 109316(T)).

  3. Surfactant protein (SP)-A and SP-D as antimicrobial and immunotherapeutic agents.

    PubMed

    Awasthi, Shanjana

    2010-06-01

    Surfactant protein (SP)-A and SP-D belong to the "Soluble C-type Lectin" family of proteins and are collectively known as "Collectins". Based on their ability to recognize pathogens and to regulate the host defense, SP-A and SP-D have been recently categorized as "Secretory Pathogen Recognition Receptors". SP-A and SP-D were first identified in the lung; the expression of SP-A and SP-D has also been observed at other mucosal surfaces, such as lacrimal glands, gastrointestinal mucosa, genitourinary epithelium and periodontal surfaces. Since the role of these proteins is not fully elucidated at other mucosal surfaces, the focus of this article is on lung-SP-A and SP-D. It has become clear from research studies performed over a number of years that SP-A and SP-D are critical for the maintenance of lung homeostasis and the regulation of host defense and inflammation. However, none of the surfactant preparations available for clinical use have SP-A or SP-D. A review is presented here on SP-A- and SP-D-deficiencies in lung diseases, the importance of the administration of SP-A and SP-D, and recent patents and research directions that may lead to the design of novel SP-A- or SP-D-based therapeutics and surfactants.

  4. Specificity protein (Sp) transcription factors Sp1, Sp3 and Sp4 are non-oncogene addiction genes in cancer cells

    PubMed Central

    Hedrick, Erik; Cheng, Yating; Jin, Un-Ho; Kim, Kyounghyun; Safe, Stephen

    2016-01-01

    Specificity protein (Sp) transcription factor (TF) Sp1 is overexpressed in multiple tumors and is a negative prognostic factor for patient survival. Sp1 and also Sp3 and Sp4 are highly expressed in cancer cells and in this study, we have used results of RNA interference (RNAi) to show that the three TFs individually play a role in the growth, survival and migration/invasion of breast, kidney, pancreatic, lung and colon cancer cell lines. Moreover, tumor growth in athymic nude mice bearing L3.6pL pancreatic cancer cells as xenografts were significantly decreased in cells depleted for Sp1, Sp3 and Sp4 (combined) or Sp1 alone. Ingenuity Pathway Analysis (IPA) of changes in gene expression in Panc1 pancreatic cancer cells after individual knockdown of Sp1, Sp3 and Sp4 demonstrates that these TFs regulate genes and pathways that correlated with the functional responses observed after knockdown but also some genes and pathways that inversely correlated with the functional responses. However, causal IPA analysis which integrates all pathway-dependent changes in all genes strongly predicted that Sp1-, Sp3- and Sp4-regulated genes were associated with the pro-oncogenic activity. These functional and genomic results coupled with overexpression of Sp transcription factors in tumor vs. non-tumor tissues and decreased Sp1 expression with age indicate that Sp1, Sp3 and Sp4 are non-oncogene addiction (NOA) genes and are attractive drug targets for individual and combined cancer chemotherapies. PMID:26967243

  5. Pseudomonas grimontii sp. nov.

    PubMed

    Baïda, Nader; Yazourh, Asmae; Singer, Elisabeth; Izard, Daniel

    2002-09-01

    The vernacular name 'fluorescent Pseudomonas group 97-514' was coined for a group of 43 strains isolated from two French natural mineral waters. All these strains were gram-negative, rod-shaped and motile by means of a single polar flagellum. They produced fluorescent pigment (pyoverdin) on King B medium, catalase and cytochrome oxidase. They were capable of respiratory but not fermentative metabolism. They were not able to accumulate poly-beta-hydroxybutyrate and possessed an arginine dihydrolase system. DNA-DNA relatedness studies (S1 nuclease method) showed that the 43 strains of 'fluorescent Pseudomonas group 97-514' formed a genetically homogeneous group (DNA-DNA relatedness ranged from 70 to 100%). A total of 76 strains representing well-known or partially characterized species of the genus Pseudomonas sensu stricto had 7-56% DNA hybridization with strain CFML 97-514T. The highest DNA binding values were found with Pseudomonas veronii CIP 104663T (52%), Pseudomonas rhodesiae CIP 104664T (56%), Pseudomonas marginalis ATCC 10844T (56%), Pseudomonas gessardii CIP 105469T (53%) and Pseudomonas cedrella CIP 105541T (52%). Their unrelatedness was confirmed by deltaTm values greater than 7 degrees C. On the basis of the results of phenotypic and DNA-DNA hybridization studies, a novel Pseudomonas species, Pseudomonas grimontii sp. nov., is proposed for the 43 strains of 'fluorescent Pseudomonas group 97-514'. The type strain is strain CFML 97-514T (= CIP 106645T = ATCC BAA-140T). The G+C content of the DNA of the type strain was 58 mol%. A comparison of the complete 16S rRNA gene sequence of the type strain CFML 97-514T and the sequence of other strains of the genus Pseudomonas revealed that the novel species fell within the 'Pseudomonas fluorescens intrageneric cluster'. Members of P. grimontii grew at 4 degrees C but not at 41 degrees C. They were able to use D-xylose, alpha-L-rhamnose, alpha-aminobutyrate, meso-erythritol and itaconate as sole sources of carbon

  6. The description and host-parasite relationships of a new quadrigyrid species (Acanthocephala) from the Persian tooth-carp, Aphanius farsicus (Actinoptreygii: Cyprinodontidae) in Iran.

    PubMed

    Amin, Omar M; Gholami, Zeinab; Akhlaghi, Mostafa; Heckmann, Richard A

    2013-04-01

    Acanthogyrus (Acanthosentis) barmeshoori n. sp. (Quadrigyridae) is described from the Persian tooth-carp, Aphanius farsicus Teimori, Esmaeili, and Reichenbacher, 2011 (Cyprinodontidae) in the Maharlu Lake basin, southern Iran. Aphanius farsicus is an endemic freshwater fish found in streams and springs that drain into Maharlu Lake, Shiraz, Iran. The new species is the smallest of all the 44 known species of the subgenus Acanthosentis Verma and Datta, 1929, measuring between 0.26 and 1.68 mm in length. It is further distinguished by having a short cylindrical proboscis with very long anterior hooks widely separated from very small hooks in 2 very close circles posteriorly (hook length ratio about 4:1). It is separated from 4 other species of Acanthosentis with similar proboscis armature but with less-extreme diversification of hook length. The new species is also distinguished in having anterior para-receptacle structures (PRS) and a similar posterior structure like those reported in only 1 other species of Acanthosentis from Japan. Proboscis receptacle is single walled with a large triangular cephalic ganglion. Testes are large, pre-equatorial, and Saefftigen's pouch is prominent. Fourteen to 25 circles of spines cover the anterior 50-70% of the trunk, but a few spines may be present at posterior end of trunk. This is the first species of Acanthosentis where SEM images, showing external morphological details, are provided. From a total of 357 fish specimens examined between July 2006 and June 2007, 173 specimens (48.5%) were infected with individuals of the new species. The prevalence of infection decreased with increasing fish size. The parasite was observed all year, with the highest abundance and intensity in May while the prevalence was highest in February. The prevalence of acanthocephalans decreased with increasing fish size. While most worms were recovered in fish within the length range of 18-29.9 mm, 1 of the longest parasites (1.68 mm long) was found in

  7. [Toxocara sp. eggs and Ancylostoma sp. larva in public parks, Brazil].

    PubMed

    Guimarães, Antônio Marcos; Alves, Endrigo Gabellini Leonel; de Rezende, Glycia Ferreira; Rodrigues, Marcelo Costa

    2005-04-01

    Visceral and cutaneous larva migrans are parasitic zoonoses caused by the infection of larval nematodes Toxocara sp. and Ancylostoma sp. respectively. The objective of this study was to investigate the contamination by Toxocara sp. eggs and Ancylostoma sp. eggs and larva of soil samples collected from public parks and children's playground areas in state of Minas Gerais, Brazil, using both Baermann's method and centrifugal flotation technique. Toxocara sp. and Ancylostoma sp. eggs were observed in soil samples collected from public squares in 17.4% (4/23) and 69.6 (16/23) respectively. In schools and child day care settings the contamination by Ancylostoma sp. larva in sand samples was 11.1% (2/18). Public parks are settings of more potential risk of Toxocara sp. eggs and Ancylostoma sp. infection. Stool parasitology testing of 174 stool samples showed 58% and 23% of Ancylostoma sp and Toxocara sp eggs infection respectively.

  8. Lactobacillus apinorum sp. nov., Lactobacillus mellifer sp. nov., Lactobacillus mellis sp. nov., Lactobacillus melliventris sp. nov., Lactobacillus kimbladii sp. nov., Lactobacillus helsingborgensis sp. nov. and Lactobacillus kullabergensis sp. nov., isolated from the honey stomach of the honeybee Apis mellifera.

    PubMed

    Olofsson, Tobias C; Alsterfjord, Magnus; Nilson, Bo; Butler, Eile; Vásquez, Alejandra

    2014-09-01

    We previously discovered a symbiotic lactic acid bacterial (LAB) microbiota in the honey stomach of the honeybee Apis mellifera. The microbiota was composed of several phylotypes of Bifidobacterium and Lactobacillus. 16S rRNA gene sequence analyses and phenotypic and genetic characteristics revealed that the phylotypes isolated represent seven novel species. One grouped with Lactobacillus kunkeei and the others belong to the Lactobacillus buchneri and Lactobacillus delbrueckii subgroups of Lactobacillus. We propose the names Lactobacillus apinorum sp. nov., Lactobacillus mellifer sp. nov., Lactobacillus mellis sp. nov., Lactobacillus melliventris sp. nov., Lactobacillus kimbladii sp. nov., Lactobacillus helsingborgensis sp. nov. and Lactobacillus kullabergensis sp. nov. for these novel species, with the respective type strains being Fhon13N(T) ( = DSM 26257(T) = CCUG 63287(T)), Bin4N(T) ( = DSM 26254(T) = CCUG 63291(T)), Hon2N(T) ( = DSM 26255(T) = CCUG 63289(T)), Hma8N(T) ( = DSM 26256(T) = CCUG 63629(T)), Hma2N(T) ( = DSM 26263(T) = CCUG 63633(T)), Bma5N(T) ( = DSM 26265(T) = CCUG 63301(T)) and Biut2N(T) ( = DSM 26262(T) = CCUG 63631(T)).

  9. Lactobacillus apinorum sp. nov., Lactobacillus mellifer sp. nov., Lactobacillus mellis sp. nov., Lactobacillus melliventris sp. nov., Lactobacillus kimbladii sp. nov., Lactobacillus helsingborgensis sp. nov. and Lactobacillus kullabergensis sp. nov., isolated from the honey stomach of the honeybee Apis mellifera

    PubMed Central

    Alsterfjord, Magnus; Nilson, Bo; Butler, Èile; Vásquez, Alejandra

    2014-01-01

    We previously discovered a symbiotic lactic acid bacterial (LAB) microbiota in the honey stomach of the honeybee Apis mellifera. The microbiota was composed of several phylotypes of Bifidobacterium and Lactobacillus. 16S rRNA gene sequence analyses and phenotypic and genetic characteristics revealed that the phylotypes isolated represent seven novel species. One grouped with Lactobacillus kunkeei and the others belong to the Lactobacillus buchneri and Lactobacillus delbrueckiisubgroups of Lactobacillus. We propose the names Lactobacillus apinorum sp. nov., Lactobacillus mellifer sp. nov., Lactobacillus mellis sp. nov., Lactobacillus melliventris sp. nov., Lactobacillus kimbladii sp. nov., Lactobacillus helsingborgensis sp. nov. and Lactobacillus kullabergensis sp. nov. for these novel species, with the respective type strains being Fhon13NT ( = DSM 26257T = CCUG 63287T), Bin4NT ( = DSM 26254T = CCUG 63291T), Hon2NT ( = DSM 26255T = CCUG 63289T), Hma8NT ( = DSM 26256T = CCUG 63629T), Hma2NT ( = DSM 26263T = CCUG 63633T), Bma5NT ( = DSM 26265T = CCUG 63301T) and Biut2NT ( = DSM 26262T = CCUG 63631T). PMID:24944337

  10. Argonne's SpEC Module

    SciTech Connect

    Harper, Jason

    2014-05-05

    Jason Harper, an electrical engineer in Argonne National Laboratory's EV-Smart Grid Interoperability Center, discusses his SpEC Module invention that will enable fast charging of electric vehicles in under 15 minutes. The module has been licensed to BTCPower.

  11. Argonne's SpEC Module

    ScienceCinema

    Harper, Jason

    2016-07-12

    Jason Harper, an electrical engineer in Argonne National Laboratory's EV-Smart Grid Interoperability Center, discusses his SpEC Module invention that will enable fast charging of electric vehicles in under 15 minutes. The module has been licensed to BTCPower.

  12. The Sp(1)-Kepler problems

    SciTech Connect

    Meng Guowu

    2009-07-15

    Let n{>=}2 be a positive integer. To each irreducible representation {sigma} of Sp(1), an Sp(1)-Kepler problem in dimension (4n-3) is constructed and analyzed. This system is superintegrable, and when n=2 it is equivalent to a generalized MICZ-Kepler problem in dimension of 5. The dynamical symmetry group of this system is O-tilde*(4n) with the Hilbert space of bound states H({sigma}) being the unitary highest weight representation of O*-tilde(4n) with highest weight, (-1,{center_dot}{center_dot}{center_dot},-1,-(1+{sigma})), which occurs at the rightmost nontrivial reduction point in the Enright-Howe-Wallach classification diagram for the unitary highest weight modules. Here {sigma} is the highest weight of {sigma}. Furthermore, it is shown that the correspondence {sigma}{r_reversible}H({sigma}) is the theta-correspondence for dual pair (Sp(1),O*(4n))subset Sp(8n,R)

  13. Antioxidant capacity, polyphenol content and iron bioavailability from algae (Ulva sp., Sargassum sp. and Porphyra sp.) in human subjects.

    PubMed

    García-Casal, Maria N; Ramírez, José; Leets, Irene; Pereira, Ana C; Quiroga, Maria F

    2009-01-01

    Marine algae are easily produced and are good sources of Fe. If this Fe is bioavailable, algae consumption could help to combat Fe deficiency and anaemia worldwide. The objective of the present study was to evaluate Fe bioavailability, polyphenol content and antioxidant capacity from three species of marine algae distributed worldwide. A total of eighty-three subjects received maize- or wheat-based meals containing marine algae (Ulva sp., Sargassum sp. and Porphyra sp.) in different proportions (2.5, 5.0 and 7.5 g) added to the water to prepare the dough. All meals administered contained radioactive Fe. Absorption was evaluated calculating radioactive Fe incorporation in subjects' blood. The three species of marine algae were analysed for polyphenol content and reducing power. Algae significantly increased Fe absorption in maize- or wheat-based meals, especially Sargassum sp., due to its high Fe content. Increases in absorption were dose-dependent and higher in wheat- than in maize-based meals. Total polyphenol content was 10.84, 18.43 and 80.39 gallic acid equivalents/g for Ulva sp., Porphyra sp. and Sargassum sp., respectively. The antioxidant capacity was also significantly higher in Sargassum sp. compared with the other two species analysed. Ulva sp., Sargassum sp. and Porphyra sp. are good sources of bioavailable Fe. Sargassum sp. resulted in the highest Fe intake due to its high Fe content, and a bread containing 7.5 g Sargassum sp. covers daily Fe needs. The high polyphenol content found in Sargassum sp. could be partly responsible for the antioxidant power reported here, and apparently did not affect Fe absorption.

  14. SP-A and SP-D in host defense against fungal infections and allergies.

    PubMed

    Pandit, Hrishikesh; Madhukaran, Shanmuga P; Nayak, Annapurna; Madan, Taruna

    2012-01-01

    Innate immunity mediated by pattern recognition proteins is relevant in the host defense against fungi. SP-A and SP-D are two such proteins belonging to the class of collagen domain containing C-type lectins, or collectins. They bind to the sugar moieties present on the cell walls of various fungi in a dose dependent manner via their carbohydrate recognition domain (CRD). SP-A and SP-D directly interact with alveolar macrophages, neutrophils, lymphocytes. We review these roles of SP-A and SP-D against various clinically relevant fungal pathogens and fungal allergens. SP-A and SP-D gene deficient mice showed increased susceptibility/ resistance to various fungal infections. Patients of fungal infections and allergies are reported with alterations in the serum or lung lavage levels of SP-A and SP-D. There are studies associating the gene polymorphisms in SP-A and SP-D with alterations in their levels or functions or susceptibility of the host to fungal diseases. In view of the protective role of SP-D in murine models of Aspergillus fumigatus infections and allergies, therapeutic use of SP-D could be explored further.

  15. Janibacter alkaliphilus sp. nov., isolated from coral Anthogorgia sp.

    PubMed

    Li, Jie; Long, Li-Juan; Yang, Ling-Ling; Xu, Ying; Wang, Fa-Zuo; Li, Qing-Xin; Zhang, Si; Li, Wen-Jun

    2012-06-01

    A novel actinobacterium, designated strain SCSIO 10480(T), was isolated from a gorgonian coral sample of Anthogorgia sp. Phylogenetic and phenotypic properties of the organism supported that it belonged to the genus Janibacter. Phylogenetic analysis indicated that the levels of 16S rRNA gene sequence similarity between strain SCSIO 10480(T) and other type strains of recognized members of the genus Janibacter were 96.0-97.8 %. Growth in the presence of up to 17 % (w/v) NaCl and optimally at pH 9.0-10.0 was a distinctive characteristic of strain SCSIO 10480(T). Other biochemical and physiological properties and the fatty acid profile also differentiated the isolate from other members of Janibacter species. Based on the results obtained in this study, we propose that strain SCSIO 10480(T) should be classified within a novel species of the genus Janibacter, for which the name Janibacter alkaliphilus sp. nov. is proposed, with SCSIO 10480(T) (=CCTCC AB 2011027(T) = DSM 24723(T)) as the type strain.

  16. [Nosema sp. in white rats].

    PubMed

    Grobov, O F; Karakuiumchiani, M K; Orlova-Sokol'skaia, I A

    1975-01-01

    In 14 days after the intraperitoneal infection of mice with 30% brain emulsion of white mice or of newly-born rats in the peritoneal liquid there were found spores of Nosema sp. 5.37 plus or minus 0.88 x 3.04 plus or minus 0.07 in size. The subsequent attempts to passage this organism on the mice by adminestering into them the suspension from the brain and internal organs of infected animals yielded ho results. The material for diagnosing on microsporidians of mammals is being discussed.

  17. Key to acanthocephala reported in waterfowl

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    McDonald, Malcolm E.

    1988-01-01

    This is the third part of a continuing series on helminths reported in waterfowl (McDonald 1974, 1981). Coots and moorhens (in Family Rallidae, Order Gruiformes) are included with the Anatidae of Anseriformes. The goal of these studies i complete coverage of waterfowl helminths of the world, although the original incentive-inadequate knowledge of the parasites of North American waterfowl- is less true now. World coverage is desirable because the world distribution of the family, tribes, and even many species of waterfowl often results in world distribution of parasites.

  18. Glyphosate catabolism by Pseudomonas sp

    SciTech Connect

    Shinabarger, D.L.

    1986-01-01

    The pathway for the degradation of glyphosate (N-phosphonomethylglycine) by Pseudomonas sp. PG2982 has been determined using metabolic radiolabeling experiments. Radiorespirometry experiments utilizing (3-/sup 14/C) glyphosate revealed that approximately 50-59% of the C3 carbon was oxidized to CO/sub 2/. Fractionation of stationary phase cells labeled with (3-/sup 14/C)glyphosate revealed that from 45-47% of the assimilated C3 carbon is distributed to proteins and that amino acids methionine and serine are highly labeled. The nucleic acid bases adenine and guanine received 90% of the C3 label that was incorporated into nucleic acids, and the only pyrimidine base labeled was thymine. Pulse labeling of PG2982 cells with (3-/sup 14/C)glyphosate revealed that (3-/sup 14/C)sarcosine is an intermediate in glyphosate degradation. Examination of crude extracts prepared from PG2982 cells revealed the presence of an enzyme that oxidizes sarcosine to glycine and formaldehyde. These results indicate that the first step in glyphosate degradation by PG2982 is cleavage of the carbon-phosphorus bond, resulting in the release of sarcosine and a phosphate group. The phosphate group is utilized as a source of phosphorus, and the sarcosine is degraded to glycine and formaldehyde. Phosphonate utilization by Pseudomonas sp. PG2982 was investigated. Each of the ten phosphonates tested were utilized as a sole source of phosphorus by PG2982. Representative compounds tested included alkylphosphonates, 1-amino-substituted alkylphosphonates, amino-terminal phosphonates, and an arylphosphonate. PG2982 cultures degraded phenylphosphonate to benzene and produced methane from methylphosphonate. The data indicate that PG2982 is capable of cleaving the carbon-phosphorus bond of several structurally different phosphonates.

  19. Listeria floridensis sp. nov., Listeria aquatica sp. nov., Listeria cornellensis sp. nov., Listeria riparia sp. nov. and Listeria grandensis sp. nov., from agricultural and natural environments.

    PubMed

    den Bakker, Henk C; Warchocki, Steven; Wright, Emily M; Allred, Adam F; Ahlstrom, Christina; Manuel, Clyde S; Stasiewicz, Matthew J; Burrell, Angela; Roof, Sherry; Strawn, Laura K; Fortes, Esther; Nightingale, Kendra K; Kephart, Daniel; Wiedmann, Martin

    2014-06-01

    Sampling of agricultural and natural environments in two US states (Colorado and Florida) yielded 18 Listeria-like isolates that could not be assigned to previously described species using traditional methods. Using whole-genome sequencing and traditional phenotypic methods, we identified five novel species, each with a genome-wide average BLAST nucleotide identity (ANIb) of less than 85% to currently described species. Phylogenetic analysis based on 16S rRNA gene sequences and amino acid sequences of 31 conserved loci showed the existence of four well-supported clades within the genus Listeria; (i) a clade representing Listeria monocytogenes, L. marthii, L. innocua, L. welshimeri, L. seeligeri and L. ivanovii, which we refer to as Listeria sensu stricto, (ii) a clade consisting of Listeria fleischmannii and two newly described species, Listeria aquatica sp. nov. (type strain FSL S10-1188(T) = DSM 26686(T) = LMG 28120(T) = BEI NR-42633(T)) and Listeria floridensis sp. nov. (type strain FSL S10-1187(T) = DSM 26687(T) = LMG 28121(T) = BEI NR-42632(T)), (iii) a clade consisting of Listeria rocourtiae, L. weihenstephanensis and three novel species, Listeria cornellensis sp. nov. (type strain TTU A1-0210(T) = FSL F6-0969(T) = DSM 26689(T) = LMG 28123(T) = BEI NR-42630(T)), Listeria grandensis sp. nov. (type strain TTU A1-0212(T) = FSL F6-0971(T) = DSM 26688(T) = LMG 28122(T) = BEI NR-42631(T)) and Listeria riparia sp. nov. (type strain FSL S10-1204(T) = DSM 26685(T) = LMG 28119(T) = BEI NR- 42634(T)) and (iv) a clade containing Listeria grayi. Genomic and phenotypic data suggest that the novel species are non-pathogenic.

  20. SP140L, an Evolutionarily Recent Member of the SP100 Family, Is an Autoantigen in Primary Biliary Cirrhosis

    PubMed Central

    Saare, Mario; Hämarik, Uku; Venta, Rainis; Panarina, Marina; Zucchelli, Chiara; Pihlap, Maire; Remm, Anu; Kisand, Kai; Toots, Urve; Möll, Kaidi; Salupere, Riina; Musco, Giovanna; Uibo, Raivo; Peterson, Pärt

    2015-01-01

    The SP100 family members comprise a set of closely related genes on chromosome 2q37.1. The widely expressed SP100 and the leukocyte-specific proteins SP110 and SP140 have been associated with transcriptional regulation and various human diseases. Here, we have characterized the SP100 family member SP140L. The genome sequence analysis showed the formation of SP140L gene through rearrangements of the two neighboring genes, SP100 and SP140, during the evolution of higher primates. The SP140L expression is interferon-inducible with high transcript levels in B cells and other peripheral blood mononuclear cells. Subcellularly, SP140L colocalizes with SP100 and SP140 in nuclear structures that are devoid of SP110, PML, or p300 proteins. Similarly to SP100 and SP140 protein, we detected serum autoantibodies to SP140L in patients with primary biliary cirrhosis using luciferase immunoprecipitation system and immunoblotting assays. In conclusion, our results show that SP140L is phylogenetically recent member of SP100 proteins and acts as an autoantigen in primary biliary cirrhosis patients. PMID:26347895

  1. Differences in nutrient uptake capacity of the benthic filamentous algae Cladophora sp., Klebsormidium sp. and Pseudanabaena sp. under varying N/P conditions.

    PubMed

    Liu, Junzhuo; Vyverman, Wim

    2015-03-01

    The N/P ratio of wastewater can vary greatly and directly affect algal growth and nutrient removal process. Three benthic filamentous algae species Cladophora sp., Klebsormidium sp. and Pseudanabaena sp. were isolated from a periphyton bioreactor and cultured under laboratory conditions on varying N/P ratios to determine their ability to remove nitrate and phosphorus. The N/P ratio significantly influenced the algal growth and phosphorus uptake process. Appropriate N/P ratios for nitrogen and phosphorus removal were 5-15, 7-10 and 7-20 for Cladophora sp., Klebsormidium sp. and Pseudanabaena sp., respectively. Within these respective ranges, Cladophora sp. had the highest biomass production, while Pseudanabaena sp. had the highest nitrogen and phosphorus contents. This study indicated that Cladophora sp. had a high capacity of removing phosphorus from wastewaters of low N/P ratio, and Pseudanabaena sp. was highly suitable for removing nitrogen from wastewaters with high N/P ratio. PMID:25544498

  2. Relationship between the Unicellular Red Alga Porphyridium sp. and Its Predator, the Dinoflagellate Gymnodinium sp.

    PubMed

    Ucko, M; Cohen, E; Gordin, H; Arad, S M

    1989-11-01

    Contamination of algae cultivated outdoors by various microorganisms, such as bacteria, fungi, algae, and protozoa, can affect growth and product quality, sometimes causing fast collapse of the cultures. The main contaminant of Porphyridium cultures grown outdoors in Israel is a Gymnodinium sp., a dinoflagellate that feeds on the alga. Comparison of the effects of various environmental conditions, i.e., pH, salinity, and temperature, on Gymnodinium and Porphyridium species revealed that the Gymnodinium sp. has sharp optimum curves, whereas the Porphyridium sp. has a wider range of optimum conditions and is also more resistant to extreme environmental variables. The mode of preying on the alga was observed, and the specificity of the Gymnodinium sp. for the Porphyridium sp. was shown. In addition, Gymnodinium extract was shown to contain enzymatic degrading activity specific to the Porphyridium sp. cell wall polysaccharide.

  3. Superhard sp2-sp3 hybrid carbon allotropes with tunable electronic properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hu, Meng; Ma, Mengdong; Zhao, Zhisheng; Yu, Dongli; He, Julong

    2016-05-01

    Four sp2-sp3 hybrid carbon allotropes are proposed on the basis of first principles calculations. These four carbon allotropes are energetically more favorable than graphite under suitable pressure conditions. They can be assembled from graphite through intralayer wrinkling and interlayer buckling, which is similar to the formation of diamond from graphite. For one of the sp2-sp3 hybrid carbon allotropes, mC24, the electron diffraction patterns match these of i-carbon, which is synthesized from shock-compressed graphite (H. Hirai and K. Kondo, Science, 1991, 253, 772). The allotropes exhibit tunable electronic characteristics from metallic to semiconductive with band gaps comparable to those of silicon allotropes. They are all superhard materials with Vickers hardness values comparable to that of cubic BN. The sp2-sp3 hybrid carbon allotroes are promising materials for photovoltaic electronic devices, and abrasive and grinding tools.

  4. Helicotylenchus stylocercus n. sp. and Rotylenchus phaliurus n. sp. (Nematoda: Hoplolaimidae) from Costa Rica

    PubMed Central

    Siddiqi, M. R.; Pinochet, J.

    1979-01-01

    Two new species of plant-parasitic nematodes from Costa Rica are described. Helicotygenchus styloeercus n. sp., from soil around roots of banana at Coto, is distinguished hy the female tail, which bears a large pillarlike ventral projection. Rotylenchus phaliurus n. sp., from soil artmnd roots of Dioscoroea sp. at Sixaola, differs from R. caudaphasmidius in having the conus equal to or more than half the spear length, and large terminal annules on the female tail. PMID:19300653

  5. Launch vehicle integration requirements for SP-100

    SciTech Connect

    Shaw, L.T. Jr.; Womack, J.R.

    1984-01-31

    SP-100 is the designation for a nuclear reactor-based power plant being developed for both civil and military missions beginning in the 1990s for such potential space applications as communication satellites, space radar, electric propulsion and space stations. Typically, a system using the SP-100 along with a selected upper stage system would be launched by the National Space Transportation System (NSTS) Space Shuttle System into a near-earth orbit, deployed, and through upper stage propulsion burn(s) be inserted/transferred to its mission orbit. The nature of the advanced design SP-100 gives rise to a set of issues that require special attention to assure that payloads using this power plant are physically and functionally compatible with the NSTS and meet the safety requirements thereof. The purpose of this document is to define and present the requirements and interface provisions that, when satisfied, will ensure technical compability between SP-100 systems and the NSTS.

  6. Launch vehicle integration requirements for SP-100

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shaw, L. T., Jr.; Womack, J. R.

    1984-01-01

    SP-100 is the designation for a nuclear reactor-based power plant being developed for both civil and military missions beginning in the 1990s for such potential space applications as communication satellites, space radar, electric propulsion and space stations. Typically, a system using the SP-100 along with a selected upper stage system would be launched by the National Space Transportation System (NSTS) Space Shuttle System into a near-earth orbit, deployed, and through upper stage propulsion burn(s) be inserted/transferred to its mission orbit. The nature of the advanced design SP-100 gives rise to a set of issues that require special attention to assure that payloads using this power plant are physically and functionally compatible with the NSTS and meet the safety requirements thereof. The purpose of this document is to define and present the requirements and interface provisions that, when satisfied, will ensure technical compatibility between SP-100 systems and the NSTS.

  7. Nucleosides from the marine sponge Haliclona sp.

    PubMed

    Wang, Bin; Dong, Junde; Zhou, Xuefeng; Lee, Kyung Jin; Huang, Riming; Zhang, Si; Liu, Yonghong

    2009-01-01

    Three known nucleosides were isolated from the sponge Haliclona sp. The structures were established on the basis of NMR data and comparison with those reported, and chemotaxonomic relationships of the sponge nucleosides were discussed.

  8. Antibiotic resistance mechanisms of Myroides sp.

    PubMed

    Hu, Shao-hua; Yuan, Shu-xing; Qu, Hai; Jiang, Tao; Zhou, Ya-jun; Wang, Ming-xi; Ming, De-song

    2016-03-01

    Bacteria of the genus Myroides (Myroides spp.) are rare opportunistic pathogens. Myroides sp. infections have been reported mainly in China. Myroides sp. is highly resistant to most available antibiotics, but the resistance mechanisms are not fully elucidated. Current strain identification methods based on biochemical traits are unable to identify strains accurately at the species level. While 16S ribosomal RNA (rRNA) gene sequencing can accurately achieve this, it fails to give information on the status and mechanisms of antibiotic resistance, because the 16S rRNA sequence contains no information on resistance genes, resistance islands or enzymes. We hypothesized that obtaining the whole genome sequence of Myroides sp., using next generation sequencing methods, would help to clarify the mechanisms of pathogenesis and antibiotic resistance, and guide antibiotic selection to treat Myroides sp. infections. As Myroides sp. can survive in hospitals and the environment, there is a risk of nosocomial infections and pandemics. For better management of Myroides sp. infections, it is imperative to apply next generation sequencing technologies to clarify the antibiotic resistance mechanisms in these bacteria.

  9. Antibiotic resistance mechanisms of Myroides sp.*

    PubMed Central

    Hu, Shao-hua; Yuan, Shu-xing; Qu, Hai; Jiang, Tao; Zhou, Ya-jun; Wang, Ming-xi; Ming, De-song

    2016-01-01

    Bacteria of the genus Myroides (Myroides spp.) are rare opportunistic pathogens. Myroides sp. infections have been reported mainly in China. Myroides sp. is highly resistant to most available antibiotics, but the resistance mechanisms are not fully elucidated. Current strain identification methods based on biochemical traits are unable to identify strains accurately at the species level. While 16S ribosomal RNA (rRNA) gene sequencing can accurately achieve this, it fails to give information on the status and mechanisms of antibiotic resistance, because the 16S rRNA sequence contains no information on resistance genes, resistance islands or enzymes. We hypothesized that obtaining the whole genome sequence of Myroides sp., using next generation sequencing methods, would help to clarify the mechanisms of pathogenesis and antibiotic resistance, and guide antibiotic selection to treat Myroides sp. infections. As Myroides sp. can survive in hospitals and the environment, there is a risk of nosocomial infections and pandemics. For better management of Myroides sp. infections, it is imperative to apply next generation sequencing technologies to clarify the antibiotic resistance mechanisms in these bacteria. PMID:26984839

  10. Sp1 cooperates with Sp3 to upregulate MALAT1 expression in human hepatocellular carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Huang, Ziling; Huang, Lanshan; Shen, Siqiao; Li, Jia; Lu, Huiping; Mo, Weijia; Dang, Yiwu; Luo, Dianzhong; Chen, Gang; Feng, Zhenbo

    2015-11-01

    Long non-coding RNA (lncRNA) metastasis-associated lung adenocarcinoma transcript 1 (MALAT1), also known as nuclear-enriched transcript 2 (NEAT2), is highly conserved among mammals and highly expressed in the nucleus. It was first identified in lung cancer as a prognostic marker for metastasis but is also associated with several other solid tumors. In hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC), MALAT1 is a novel biomarker for predicting tumor recurrence after liver transplantation. The mechanism of overexpression in tumor progression remains unclear. In the present study, we investigated the role of specificity protein 1/3 (Sp1/3) in regulation of MALAT1 transcription in HCC cells. The results showed a high expression of Sp1, Sp3 and MALAT1 in HCC vs. paired non-tumor liver tissues, which was associated with the AFP level (Sp1, r=7.44, P=0.0064; MALAT1, r=12.37, P=0.0004). Co-silencing of Sp1 and Sp3 synergistically repressed MALAT1 expression. Sp1 binding inhibitor, mithramycin A (MIT), also inhibited MALAT1 expression in HCC cells. In conclusion, the upstream of MALAT1 contains five Sp1/3 binding sites, which may be responsible for MALAT1 transcription. Inhibitors, such as MIT, provide a potential therapeutic strategy for HCC patients with MALAT1 overexpression.

  11. Cheylostigmaeus tarae sp. nov. and Stigmaeus delaramae sp. nov. (Acari: Stigmaeidae) from Kurdistan, Iran.

    PubMed

    Khanjani, Mohammad; Nasrollahi, Siamak; Zamani, Ali Sina; Fayaz, Bahman Asali

    2014-01-01

    Two new species belonging to the family Stigmaeidae, Cheylostigmaeus tarae sp. nov. and Stigmaeus delaramae sp. nov., are described from specimens collected from soil and litter under pear trees, Pyrus communis L. (Rosaceae) in Iran. A key to all Iranian species of the genera Cheylostigmaeus (male) and Stigmaeus (female) are provided. 

  12. Helminths of two anuran species, Atelopus spurrelli (Bufonidae) and Dendrobates histrionicus (Dendrobatidae), from Colombia, South America.

    PubMed

    Goldberg, Stephen R; Bursey, Charles R

    2003-09-01

    Two species of anurans from Colombia, South America, Atelopus spurrelli and Dendrobates histrionicus, were examined for helminths. A. spurrelli was found to harbor three species of Nematoda, adults of Cosmocerca podicipinus and larvae of Physocephalus sp. and Porrocaecum sp. D. histrionicus was found to harbor, in addition to C. podicipinus, Physocephalus sp. and Porrocaecum sp. and cystacanths of three species of Acanthocephala: Centrorhynchus sp., Onicola sp. and Polymorphus sp. A. spurrelli and D. histrionicus represent new host records for these helminths. PMID:14550481

  13. Metallaphotoredox-catalysed sp(3)-sp(3) cross-coupling of carboxylic acids with alkyl halides.

    PubMed

    Johnston, Craig P; Smith, Russell T; Allmendinger, Simon; MacMillan, David W C

    2016-08-18

    In the past 50 years, cross-coupling reactions mediated by transition metals have changed the way in which complex organic molecules are synthesized. The predictable and chemoselective nature of these transformations has led to their widespread adoption across many areas of chemical research. However, the construction of a bond between two sp(3)-hybridized carbon atoms, a fundamental unit of organic chemistry, remains an important yet elusive objective for engineering cross-coupling reactions. In comparison to related procedures with sp(2)-hybridized species, the development of methods for sp(3)-sp(3) bond formation via transition metal catalysis has been hampered historically by deleterious side-reactions, such as β-hydride elimination with palladium catalysis or the reluctance of alkyl halides to undergo oxidative addition. To address this issue, nickel-catalysed cross-coupling processes can be used to form sp(3)-sp(3) bonds that utilize organometallic nucleophiles and alkyl electrophiles. In particular, the coupling of alkyl halides with pre-generated organozinc, Grignard and organoborane species has been used to furnish diverse molecular structures. However, the manipulations required to produce these activated structures is inefficient, leading to poor step- and atom-economies. Moreover, the operational difficulties associated with making and using these reactive coupling partners, and preserving them through a synthetic sequence, has hindered their widespread adoption. A generically useful sp(3)-sp(3) coupling technology that uses bench-stable, native organic functional groups, without the need for pre-functionalization or substrate derivatization, would therefore be valuable. Here we demonstrate that the synergistic merger of photoredox and nickel catalysis enables the direct formation of sp(3)-sp(3) bonds using only simple carboxylic acids and alkyl halides as the nucleophilic and electrophilic coupling partners, respectively. This metallaphotoredox

  14. Metallaphotoredox-catalysed sp(3)-sp(3) cross-coupling of carboxylic acids with alkyl halides.

    PubMed

    Johnston, Craig P; Smith, Russell T; Allmendinger, Simon; MacMillan, David W C

    2016-08-18

    In the past 50 years, cross-coupling reactions mediated by transition metals have changed the way in which complex organic molecules are synthesized. The predictable and chemoselective nature of these transformations has led to their widespread adoption across many areas of chemical research. However, the construction of a bond between two sp(3)-hybridized carbon atoms, a fundamental unit of organic chemistry, remains an important yet elusive objective for engineering cross-coupling reactions. In comparison to related procedures with sp(2)-hybridized species, the development of methods for sp(3)-sp(3) bond formation via transition metal catalysis has been hampered historically by deleterious side-reactions, such as β-hydride elimination with palladium catalysis or the reluctance of alkyl halides to undergo oxidative addition. To address this issue, nickel-catalysed cross-coupling processes can be used to form sp(3)-sp(3) bonds that utilize organometallic nucleophiles and alkyl electrophiles. In particular, the coupling of alkyl halides with pre-generated organozinc, Grignard and organoborane species has been used to furnish diverse molecular structures. However, the manipulations required to produce these activated structures is inefficient, leading to poor step- and atom-economies. Moreover, the operational difficulties associated with making and using these reactive coupling partners, and preserving them through a synthetic sequence, has hindered their widespread adoption. A generically useful sp(3)-sp(3) coupling technology that uses bench-stable, native organic functional groups, without the need for pre-functionalization or substrate derivatization, would therefore be valuable. Here we demonstrate that the synergistic merger of photoredox and nickel catalysis enables the direct formation of sp(3)-sp(3) bonds using only simple carboxylic acids and alkyl halides as the nucleophilic and electrophilic coupling partners, respectively. This metallaphotoredox

  15. Metallaphotoredox-catalysed sp3-sp3 cross-coupling of carboxylic acids with alkyl halides

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Johnston, Craig P.; Smith, Russell T.; Allmendinger, Simon; MacMillan, David W. C.

    2016-08-01

    In the past 50 years, cross-coupling reactions mediated by transition metals have changed the way in which complex organic molecules are synthesized. The predictable and chemoselective nature of these transformations has led to their widespread adoption across many areas of chemical research. However, the construction of a bond between two sp3-hybridized carbon atoms, a fundamental unit of organic chemistry, remains an important yet elusive objective for engineering cross-coupling reactions. In comparison to related procedures with sp2-hybridized species, the development of methods for sp3-sp3 bond formation via transition metal catalysis has been hampered historically by deleterious side-reactions, such as β-hydride elimination with palladium catalysis or the reluctance of alkyl halides to undergo oxidative addition. To address this issue, nickel-catalysed cross-coupling processes can be used to form sp3-sp3 bonds that utilize organometallic nucleophiles and alkyl electrophiles. In particular, the coupling of alkyl halides with pre-generated organozinc, Grignard and organoborane species has been used to furnish diverse molecular structures. However, the manipulations required to produce these activated structures is inefficient, leading to poor step- and atom-economies. Moreover, the operational difficulties associated with making and using these reactive coupling partners, and preserving them through a synthetic sequence, has hindered their widespread adoption. A generically useful sp3-sp3 coupling technology that uses bench-stable, native organic functional groups, without the need for pre-functionalization or substrate derivatization, would therefore be valuable. Here we demonstrate that the synergistic merger of photoredox and nickel catalysis enables the direct formation of sp3-sp3 bonds using only simple carboxylic acids and alkyl halides as the nucleophilic and electrophilic coupling partners, respectively. This metallaphotoredox protocol is suitable for

  16. Sp8 regulates inner ear development.

    PubMed

    Chung, Hyeyoung A; Medina-Ruiz, Sofia; Harland, Richard M

    2014-04-29

    A forward genetic screen of N-ethyl-N-nitrosourea mutagenized Xenopus tropicalis has identified an inner ear mutant named eclipse (ecl). Mutants developed enlarged otic vesicles and various defects of otoconia development; they also showed abnormal circular and inverted swimming patterns. Positional cloning identified specificity protein 8 (sp8), which was previously found to regulate limb and brain development. Two different loss-of-function approaches using transcription activator-like effector nucleases and morpholino oligonucleotides confirmed that the ecl mutant phenotype is caused by down-regulation of sp8. Depletion of sp8 resulted in otic dysmorphogenesis, such as uncompartmentalized and enlarged otic vesicles, epithelial dilation with abnormal sensory end organs. When overexpressed, sp8 was sufficient to induce ectopic otic vesicles possessing sensory hair cells, neurofilament innervation in a thickened sensory epithelium, and otoconia, all of which are found in the endogenous otic vesicle. We propose that sp8 is an important factor for initiation and elaboration of inner ear development.

  17. Sp8 regulates inner ear development.

    PubMed

    Chung, Hyeyoung A; Medina-Ruiz, Sofia; Harland, Richard M

    2014-04-29

    A forward genetic screen of N-ethyl-N-nitrosourea mutagenized Xenopus tropicalis has identified an inner ear mutant named eclipse (ecl). Mutants developed enlarged otic vesicles and various defects of otoconia development; they also showed abnormal circular and inverted swimming patterns. Positional cloning identified specificity protein 8 (sp8), which was previously found to regulate limb and brain development. Two different loss-of-function approaches using transcription activator-like effector nucleases and morpholino oligonucleotides confirmed that the ecl mutant phenotype is caused by down-regulation of sp8. Depletion of sp8 resulted in otic dysmorphogenesis, such as uncompartmentalized and enlarged otic vesicles, epithelial dilation with abnormal sensory end organs. When overexpressed, sp8 was sufficient to induce ectopic otic vesicles possessing sensory hair cells, neurofilament innervation in a thickened sensory epithelium, and otoconia, all of which are found in the endogenous otic vesicle. We propose that sp8 is an important factor for initiation and elaboration of inner ear development. PMID:24722637

  18. Changes in prevalence and intensity of infection of Profilicollis altmani (Perry, 1942) cystacanth (Acanthocephala) parasitizing the mole crab Emerita analoga (Stimpson, 1857): an El Niño cascade effect?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oliva, Marcelo E.; Barrios, Irene; Thatje, Sven; Laudien, Jürgen

    2008-03-01

    Prevalence and intensity changes in cystacanths of the acanthocephalan Profilicollis altmani parasitizing the mole crab Emerita analoga under El Niño (EN) and non-El Niño (non-EN) conditions are analyzed. Both, mean intensity and prevalence of infection by P. altmani differ significantly for the whole size range and for each size class of 10 mm intervals (except prevalence for size classes exceeding 18 mm carapace length) between EN (1998) and non-EN (2002) years, without observed size distribution differences in the intermediate host E. analoga under either condition. Significant difference in infestation rates of the intermediate host E. analoga is discussed as being an EN cascade effect on predators such as sea birds (i.e., Larus spp. and Calidris sp.), acting as definitive hosts of P. altmani, and which are known to decrease significantly in abundance during EN.

  19. Surfactant Proteins SP-A and SP-D Modulate Uterine Contractile Events in ULTR Myometrial Cell Line

    PubMed Central

    Sotiriadis, Georgios; Dodagatta-Marri, Eswari; Kouser, Lubna; Alhamlan, Fatimah S.; Kishore, Uday; Karteris, Emmanouil

    2015-01-01

    Pulmonary surfactant proteins SP-A and SP-D are pattern recognition innate immune molecules. However, there is extrapulmonary existence, especially in the amniotic fluid and at the feto-maternal interface. There is sufficient evidence to suggest that SP-A and SP-D are involved in the initiation of labour. This is of great importance given that preterm birth is associated with increased mortality and morbidity. In this study, we investigated the effects of recombinant forms of SP-A and SP-D (rhSP-A and rhSP-D, the comprising of trimeric lectin domain) on contractile events in vitro, using a human myometrial cell line (ULTR) as an experimental model. Treatment with rhSP-A or rhSP-D increased the cell velocity, distance travelled and displacement by ULTR cells. rhSP-A and rhSP-D also affected the contractile response of ULTRs when grown on collagen matrices showing reduced surface area. We investigated this effect further by measuring contractility-associated protein (CAP) genes. Treatment with rhSP-A and rhSP-D induced expression of oxytocin receptor (OXTR) and connexin 43 (CX43). In addition, rhSP-A and rhSP-D were able to induce secretion of GROα and IL-8. rhSP-D also induced the expression of IL-6 and IL-6 Ra. We provide evidence that SP-A and SP-D play a key role in modulating events prior to labour by reconditioning the human myometrium and in inducing CAP genes and pro-inflammatory cytokines thus shifting the uterus from a quiescent state to a contractile one. PMID:26641881

  20. Regulation of Sp1 by cell cycle related proteins

    PubMed Central

    Tapias, Alicia; Ciudad, Carlos J.; Roninson, Igor B.; Noé, Véronique

    2009-01-01

    Sp1 transcription factor regulates the expression of multiple genes, including the Sp1 gene itself. We analyzed the ability of different cell cycle regulatory proteins to interact with Sp1 and to affect Sp1 promoter activity. Using an antibody array, we observed that CDK4, SKP2, Rad51, BRCA2 and p21 could interact with Sp1 and we confirmed these interactions by co-immunoprecipitation. CDK4, SKP2, Rad51, BRCA2 and p21 also activated the Sp1 promoter. Among the known Sp1-interacting proteins, E2F-DP1, Cyclin D1, Stat3 and Rb activated the Sp1 promoter, whereas p53 and NFκB inhibited it. The proteins that regulated Sp1 gene expression were shown by positive chromatin immunoprecipitation to be bound to the Sp1 promoter. Moreover, SKP2, BRCA2, p21, E2F-DP1, Stat3, Rb, p53 and NFκB had similar effects on an artificial promoter containing only Sp1 binding sites. Transient transfections of CDK4, Rad51, E2F-DP1, p21 and Stat3 increased mRNA expression from the endogenous Sp1 gene in HeLa cells whereas overexpression of NFκB, and p53 decreased Sp1 mRNA levels. p21 expression from a stably integrated inducible promoter in HT1080 cells activated Sp1 expression at the promoter and mRNA levels, but at the same time it decreased Sp1 protein levels due to the activation of Sp1 degradation. The observed multiple effects of cell cycle regulators on Sp1 suggest that Sp1 may be a key mediator of cell cycle associated changes in gene expression. PMID:18769160

  1. Bartonella jaculi sp. nov., Bartonella callosciuri sp. nov., Bartonella pachyuromydis sp. nov. and Bartonella acomydis sp. nov., isolated from wild Rodentia.

    PubMed

    Sato, Shingo; Kabeya, Hidenori; Fujinaga, Yuta; Inoue, Kai; Une, Yumi; Yoshikawa, Yasuhiro; Maruyama, Soichi

    2013-05-01

    Four novel strains of members of the genus Bartonella, OY2-1(T), BR11-1(T), FN15-2(T) and KS2-1(T), were isolated from the blood of wild-captured greater Egyptian jerboa (Jaculus orientalis), plantain squirrel (Callosciurus notatus), fat-tailed gerbil (Pachyuromys duprasi) and golden spiny mouse (Acomys russatus). All the animals were imported to Japan as pets from Egypt, Thailand and the Netherlands. The phenotypic characterization (growth conditions, incubation periods, biochemical properties and cell morphologies), DNA G+C contents (37.4 mol% for strain OY2-1(T), 35.5 mol% for strain BR11-1(T), 35.7 mol% for strain FN15-2(T) and 37.2 mol% for strain KS2-1(T)), and sequence analyses of the 16S rRNA genes indicated that those strains belong to the genus Bartonella. Sequence comparisons of gltA and rpoB genes suggested that all of the strains should be classified as novel species of the genus Bartonella. In phylogenetic trees based on the concatenated sequences of five loci, including the 16S rRNA, ftsZ, gltA and rpoB genes and the ITS region, and on the concatenated deduced amino acid sequences of three housekeeping genes (ftsZ, gltA and rpoB), all strains formed distinct clades and had unique mammalian hosts that could be discriminated from other known species of the genus Bartonella. These data strongly support the hypothesis that strains OY2-1(T), BR11-1(T), FN15-2(T) and KS2-1(T) should be classified as representing novel species of the genus Bartonella. The names Bartonella jaculi sp. nov., Bartonella callosciuri sp. nov., Bartonella pachyuromydis sp. nov. and Bartonella acomydis sp. nov. are proposed for these novel species. Type strains of Bartonella jaculi sp. nov., Bartonella callosciuri sp. nov., Bartonella pachyuromydis sp. nov. and Bartonella acomydis sp. nov. are OY2-1(T) ( = JCM 17712(T) = KCTC 23655(T)), BR11-1(T) ( = JCM 17709(T) = KCTC 23909(T)), FN15-2(T) ( = JCM 17714(T) = KCTC 23657(T)) and KS2-1(T) ( = JCM 17706(T

  2. Blastocystis sp. Infection Mimicking Clostridium Difficile Colitis.

    PubMed

    Gil, Gaby S; Chaudhari, Shobhana; Shady, Ahmed; Caballes, Ana; Hong, Joe

    2016-01-01

    We report an unusual case of severe diarrhea related to Blastocystis sp. infection in a patient with end stage renal disease on hemodialysis. The patient was admitted due to profuse diarrhea associated with fever and leukocytosis. Pertinent stool work-up such as leukocytes in stool, stool culture, clostridium difficile toxin B PCR, and serology for hepatitis A, hepatitis B, and hepatitis C and cytomegalovirus screening were all negative. Ova and parasite stool examination revealed Blastocystis sp. The patient was given intravenous metronidazole with clinical improvement by day three and total resolution of symptoms by day ten. PMID:27247810

  3. Cyclin A–CDK phosphorylates Sp1 and enhances Sp1-mediated transcription

    PubMed Central

    de Borja, Patrick Fojas; Collins, N.Keith; Du, Ping; Azizkhan-Clifford, Jane; Mudryj, Maria

    2001-01-01

    Cyclin A-mediated activation of cyclin-dependent kinases (CDKs) is essential for cell cycle transversal. Cyclin A activity is regulated on several levels and cyclin A elevation in a number of cancers suggests a role in tumorigenesis. In the present study, we used a modified DNA binding site selection and PCR amplification procedure to identify DNA binding proteins that are potential substrates of cyclin A–CDK. One of the sequences identified is the Sp1 transcription factor binding site. Co-immunoprecipitation experiments show that cyclin A and Sp1 can interact physically. In vitro and in vivo phosphorylation studies indicate that cyclin A–CDK complexes can phosphorylate Sp1. The phosphorylation site is located in the N-terminal region of the protein. Cells overexpressing cyclin A have elevated levels of Sp1 DNA binding activity, suggesting that cyclin A–CDK-mediated phosphorylation augments Sp1 DNA binding properties. In co-transfection studies, cyclin A expression stimulated transcription from an Sp1-regulated promoter. Mutation of the phosphorylation site abrogated cyclin A–CDK-dependent phosphorylation, augmentation of Sp1 transactivation function and DNA binding activity. PMID:11598016

  4. ACMEV-SP2 (Single Particle Soot Photometer)

    DOE Data Explorer

    Sedlacek, Arthur

    2015-06-01

    The SP2 provides information on the amounts of rBC (refractory black carbon) and of other, non-refractory substances associated with individual rBC containing particles by simultaneously measuring the scattering and incandescence signals of such particles that are directed through the cavity of a 1064 nm Nd:YAG laser. (refractory Black Carbon) rBC mixing ratio (ng/Kg) and number size distribution time series collected during the DOE-ARM sponsored ACME-V field campaign held from June 1 to September 15, 2015 rBC mixing ratio is reported at STP conditions Time resolution: 10 sec Uncertainty: ~ 30% SP2 Unit: 25 Location: Deadhorse, AK Location: N 70-degree 11' 41'' - W 148-degress. 27' 55'' SP2_dateTime: UTC rBC concentration is in units of ng/Kg - dry air. Mass Equivalent Diameters [MED] used for size distribution (SP2_min; SP2_geo; and SP2_max) are in units of micrometers dN/dlogDp counts for a given size bin (SP2_geo) listed as 'SP2_cnts_0 - SP2_cnts_199' and are in units of #/cc. Column naming convention: 'SP2_cnts_X' are the number of particles in bin number _X. , where _X is the row number within the 'SP2_geo' size bin column that contains the mass equivalent diameter (e.g., SP2_cnts_0 = 0.01 microns; SP2_cnts_10 = 0.060 microns, etc.). The dN/dlogDp data is time-resolved where a given row is associated with the timestamp for that row. Note that the rBC column length is one field shorter than the SP2_datetime column. Last time field is not relevant to the rBC time series (see comment below on length of SP2_datetime column) Lengths for SP2_max; SP2_min; SP2_geo are one field longer then the number of SP2_cnts_XX columns . This is to provide bounds for image plots (if desired). Length for SP2_datetime is one field longer than that length of the SP2_cnts_XX columns This is to provide bounds for image plots (if desired) SP2 Calibration: Fullerene soot with corrrection applied for particle density as a function of particle size. No correction for OC content in

  5. Lagenidium sp. Ocular Infection Mimicking Ocular Pythiosis

    PubMed Central

    Reinprayoon, Usanee; Permpalung, Nitipong; Plongla, Rongpong; Mendoza, Leonel; Chindamporn, Ariya

    2013-01-01

    This is a report of a Lagenidium sp. in a Thai patient who was diagnosed with severe keratitis that was unresponsive to antibacterial and antifungal drugs. Examination of a corneal biopsy specimen confirmed the presence of aseptate hyphae. The internal transcribed spacer DNA sequence of the strain isolated showed 97% identity with Lagenidium giganteum and other Lagenidium species. PMID:23740721

  6. Lagenidium sp. ocular infection mimicking ocular pythiosis.

    PubMed

    Reinprayoon, Usanee; Permpalung, Nitipong; Kasetsuwan, Ngamjit; Plongla, Rongpong; Mendoza, Leonel; Chindamporn, Ariya

    2013-08-01

    This is a report of a Lagenidium sp. in a Thai patient who was diagnosed with severe keratitis that was unresponsive to antibacterial and antifungal drugs. Examination of a corneal biopsy specimen confirmed the presence of aseptate hyphae. The internal transcribed spacer DNA sequence of the strain isolated showed 97% identity with Lagenidium giganteum and other Lagenidium species. PMID:23740721

  7. Eremohadena afzalipouri sp. nov. from Iran

    PubMed Central

    Shirvani, Asghar; Shoghali, Mohammad Ali

    2012-01-01

    A new species of the genus Eremohadena Ronkay, Varga and Fabian, Eremohadena afzalipouri Shirvani sp. nov., is described from southeastern Iran. Holotype and female paratype and genitalia of both sexes are illustrated for the new species. A checklist of Iranian species of Eremohadena including nine species and subspecies is provided. PMID:23461693

  8. Cochliopodium arabianum n. sp. (Amorphea, Amoebozoa).

    PubMed

    Tekle, Yonas I; Gorfu, Lydia A; Anderson, O Roger

    2015-01-01

    A new species of Cochliopodium isolated from freshwater at Arabia Lake in Lithonia, GA, USA is described based on light microscopic morphology, fine structure, and molecular genetic evidence. Cochliopodium arabianum n. sp., previously labeled as "isolate Con1" in prior publications, has been shown to group within the genus Cochliopodium in our molecular phylogenetic analysis. Light microscopy and fine structure evidence indicates the new isolate not only shares characters of the genus but also unique distinctive features. Cochliopodium arabianum n. sp. is typically round when stationary; or oval to sometimes broadly flabellate or triangular in shape during locomotion, with average length of 35 μm and breadth of 51 μm. Fine structure evidence indicates C. arabianum n. sp. has tower-like scales, lacking a terminal spine, sharing high similarity with its closest relative C. actinophorum. However, the scales of C. arabianum n. sp. are unique in height and the breadth of the base plate. Both morphological and molecular data, including SSU-rDNA and COI, indicate that this new species falls in a clade sufficiently different from other species to suggest that it is a valid new species.

  9. New anamorphic yeast species: Candida infanticola sp. nov., Candida polysorbophila sp. nov., Candida transvaalensis sp. nov. and Trigonopsis californica sp. nov.

    PubMed

    Kurtzman, Cletus P

    2007-08-01

    Three new species of Candida and a new species of Trigonopsis are described based on their recognition from phylogenetic analysis of gene sequences from large subunit ribosomal RNA, ITS1/ITS2 rRNA, mitochondrial small subunit rRNA and cytochrome oxidase II. Candida infanticola sp. nov. (type strain NRRL Y-17858, CBS 7922) was isolated from the ear of an infant in Germany and is closely related to Candida sorbophila. Candida polysorbophila sp. nov. (type strain NRRL Y-27161, CBS 7317) is a member of the Zygoascus clade and was isolated in South Africa as a contaminant from an emulsion of white oil and polysorbate. Candida transvaalensis sp. nov. (type strain NRRL Y-27140, CBS 6663) was obtained from forest litter, the Transvaal, South Africa, and forms an isolated clade with Candida santjacobensis. Trigonopsis californica sp. nov. (type strain NRRL Y-27307, CBS 10351) represents a contaminant from wine in California, and forms a well-supported clade with Trigonopsis cantarellii, Trigonopsis variabilis and Trigonopsis vinaria.

  10. Cochliopodium arabianum n. sp. (Amorphea, Amoebozoa).

    PubMed

    Tekle, Yonas I; Gorfu, Lydia A; Anderson, O Roger

    2015-01-01

    A new species of Cochliopodium isolated from freshwater at Arabia Lake in Lithonia, GA, USA is described based on light microscopic morphology, fine structure, and molecular genetic evidence. Cochliopodium arabianum n. sp., previously labeled as "isolate Con1" in prior publications, has been shown to group within the genus Cochliopodium in our molecular phylogenetic analysis. Light microscopy and fine structure evidence indicates the new isolate not only shares characters of the genus but also unique distinctive features. Cochliopodium arabianum n. sp. is typically round when stationary; or oval to sometimes broadly flabellate or triangular in shape during locomotion, with average length of 35 μm and breadth of 51 μm. Fine structure evidence indicates C. arabianum n. sp. has tower-like scales, lacking a terminal spine, sharing high similarity with its closest relative C. actinophorum. However, the scales of C. arabianum n. sp. are unique in height and the breadth of the base plate. Both morphological and molecular data, including SSU-rDNA and COI, indicate that this new species falls in a clade sufficiently different from other species to suggest that it is a valid new species. PMID:25851131

  11. Power transmission studies for tethered SP-100

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bents, David J.

    1988-01-01

    The tether and/or transmission line connecting the SP-100 to space station presents some unorthodox challenges in high voltage engineering, power transmission, and distribution. The line, which doubles as a structural element of this unusual spacecraft, will convey HVDC from SP-100 to the platform in low Earth orbit, and environment where the local plasma is sufficient to cause breakdown of exposed conductors at potentials of only a few hundred volts. Its anticipated several years operation, and continuously accumulating exposure to meteoroids and debris, raises an increasing likelihood that mechanical damage, including perforation, will be sustained in service. The present concept employs an array of gas insulated solid wall aluminum coaxial tubes; a conceptual design which showed basic feasibility of the SP-100 powered space station. Practical considerations of launch, deployment and assembly have lead to investigation of reel deployable, dielectric insulated coaxial cables. To be competitive, the dielectric would have to operate reliably in a radiation environment under electrical stresses exceeding 50 kV/cm. The SP-100 transmission line high voltage interfaces are also considered.

  12. Power transmission studies for tethered SP-100

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bents, David J.

    1988-01-01

    The tether and/or transmission line connecting the SP-100 to Space Station presents some unorthodox challenges in high voltage engineering, power transmission, and distribution. The line, which doubles as a structural element of this unusual spacecraft, will convey HVDC from SP-100 to the platform in low Earth orbit, and environment where the local plasma is sufficient to cause breakdown of exposed conductors at potentials of only a few hundred volts. Its anticipated several years operation, and continuously accumulating exposure to meteoroids and debris, raises an increasing likelihood that mechanical damage, including perforation, will be sustained in service. The present concept employs an array of gas insulated solid wall aluminum coaxial tubes; a conceptual design which showed basic feasibility of the SP-100 powered Space Station. Practical considerations of launch, deployment and assembly have led to investigation of reel deployable, dielectric insulated coaxial cables. To be competitive, the dielectric would have to operate reliably in a radiation environment under electrical stresses exceeding 50 kV/cm. The SP-100 transmission line high voltage interfaces are also considered.

  13. Surfactant proteins, SP-A and SP-D, in respiratory fungal infections: their role in the inflammatory response.

    PubMed

    Carreto-Binaghi, Laura Elena; Aliouat, El Moukhtar; Taylor, Maria Lucia

    2016-06-01

    Pulmonary surfactant is a complex fluid that comprises phospholipids and four proteins (SP-A, SP-B, SP-C, and SP-D) with different biological functions. SP-B, SP-C, and SP-D are essential for the lungs' surface tension function and for the organization, stability and metabolism of lung parenchyma. SP-A and SP-D, which are also known as pulmonary collectins, have an important function in the host's lung immune response; they act as opsonins for different pathogens via a C-terminal carbohydrate recognition domain and enhance the attachment to phagocytic cells or show their own microbicidal activity by increasing the cellular membrane permeability. Interactions between the pulmonary collectins and bacteria or viruses have been extensively studied, but this is not the same for fungal pathogens. SP-A and SP-D bind glucan and mannose residues from fungal cell wall, but there is still a lack of information on their binding to other fungal carbohydrate residues. In addition, both their relation with immune cells for the clearance of these pathogens and the role of surfactant proteins' regulation during respiratory fungal infections remain unknown. Here we highlight the relevant findings associated with SP-A and SP-D in those respiratory mycoses where the fungal infective propagules reach the lungs by the airways.

  14. Remote sensing data of SP mountain and SP lava flow in north-central Arizona

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schaber, G. G.; Elachi, C.; Farr, T. G.

    1980-01-01

    Multifrequency airborne radar image data of SP Mountain and SP flow in north-central Arizona were obtained in diverse viewing directions and direct and cross-polarization and compared with surface and aerial photography, Landsat multispectral scanner data, airborne thermal infrared imagery, surface geology, and surface roughness statistics. The extremely blocky, basaltic andesite of SP flow is brighter on direct-polarization K-band images than on cross-polarized images taken simultaneously. This effect is explained by multiple scattering and the strong wavelength dependence of polarization effects caused by the rectilinear basaltic andesite scatters. Two distinct types of surface relief on SP flow, one extremely blocky, the other subdued, are clearly discriminated on the visible and thermal wavelength images but are separable only on the longer wavelength L-band radar image data.

  15. Candida flosculorum sp. nov. and Candida floris sp. nov., two yeast species associated with tropical flowers.

    PubMed

    Rosa, Carlos A; Pagnocca, Fernando C; Lachance, Marc-André; Ruivo, Carla C C; Medeiros, Adriana O; Pimentel, Mariana R C; Fontenelle, Julio C R; Martins, Rogério P

    2007-12-01

    Two ascomycetous yeast species, Candida flosculorum sp. nov. and Candida floris sp. nov., were isolated from tropical flowers and their associated insects. C. flosculorum was isolated from flower bracts of Heliconia velloziana and Heliconia episcopalis (Heliconiaceae) collected from two Atlantic rain forest sites in Brazil. C. floris was isolated from flowers of Ipomoea sp. (Convolvulaceae) growing on the banks of the river Paraguai in the pantanal ecosystem in Brazil and from an adult of the stingless bee Trigona sp. and a flower of Merremia quinquefolia (Convolvulaceae) in Costa Rica. C. flosculorum belongs to the Metschnikowiaceae clade and C. floris belongs to the Starmerella clade. The type strain of C. flosculorum is UFMG-JL13(T) (=CBS 10566(T)=NRRL Y-48258(T)) and the type strain of C. floris is UWO(PS) 00-226.2(T) (=CBS 10593(T)=NRRL Y-48255(T)).

  16. Pratylenchus australis n. sp. and Eutylenchus fueguensis n. sp. (Nematoda: Tylenchina) from southern Chile

    PubMed Central

    Valenzuela-A., Adelina; Raski, D. J.

    1985-01-01

    Two new species of nematodes from southern Chile are described and illustrated. Pratylenchus australis n. sp. is distinguished by its heavy cephalic sclerotization, smooth tail terminus, lack of spermatheca, and absence of males. Eutylenchus fueguensis n. sp. differs from other Eutylenchus spp. by the long female stylet (31 [28-32] μm), strongly sclerotized excretory duct opening posterior to nerve ring, and broadly rounded caudal alae of males. PMID:19294102

  17. Antibiofilm activity of Streptomyces sp. BFI 230 and Kribbella sp. BFI 1562 against Pseudomonas aeruginosa.

    PubMed

    Kim, Yong-Guy; Lee, Jin-Hyung; Kim, Chang-Jin; Lee, Jae-Chan; Ju, Yoon Jung; Cho, Moo Hwan; Lee, Jintae

    2012-12-01

    Members of the actinomycetes family are a rich source of bioactive compounds including diverse antibiotics. This study sought to identify novel and non-toxic biofilm inhibitors from the actinomycetes library for reducing the biofilm formation of Pseudomonas aeruginosa PAO1. After the screening of 4104 actinomycetes strains, we found that the culture spent medium (1 %, v/v) of Streptomyces sp. BFI 230 and Kribbella sp. BFI 1562 inhibited P. aeruginosa biofilm formation by 90 % without affecting the growth of planktonic P. aeruginosa cells, while the spent media enhanced the swarming motility of P. aeruginosa. Global transcriptome analyses revealed that the spent medium of Streptomyces sp. BFI 230 induced expression of phenazine, pyoverdine, pyochelin synthesis genes, and iron uptake genes in P. aeruginosa. The addition of exogenous iron restored the biofilm formation and swarming motility of P. aeruginosa in the presence of the spent medium of Streptomyces sp. BFI 230, which suggests that the Streptomyces sp. BFI 230 strain interfered iron acquisition in P. aeruginosa. Experiments on solvent extraction, heat treatment, and proteinase K treatment suggested that hydrophilic compound(s), possibly extracellular peptides or proteins from Streptomyces sp. BFI 230 cause the biofilm reduction of P. aeruginosa. Together, this study indicates that actinomycetes strains have an ability to control the biofilm of P. aeruginosa. PMID:22722911

  18. Remote sensing data of SP Mountain and SP Lava flow in North-Central Arizona

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Schaber, G.G.; Elachi, C.; Farr, T.G.

    1980-01-01

    Multifrequency airborne radar image data of SP Mountain [Official name of feature (U.S. Geological Survey, 1970)] and SP flow (and vicinity) in north-central Arizona were obtained in diverse viewing directions and direct and cross-polarization, then compared with surface and aerial photography, LANDSAT multispectral scanner data, airborne thermal infrared imagery, surface geology, and surface roughness statistics. The extremely blocky, basaltic andesite of SP flow is significantly brighter on direct-polarization K-band (0.9-cm wavelength) images than on cross-polarized images taken simultaneously. Conversely, for the longer wavelength (25 cm) L-band radar images, the cross-polarization image returns from SP flow are brighter than the direct-polarized image. This effect is explained by multiple scattering and the strong wavelength dependence of polarization effects caused by the rectilinear basaltic andesite scatters. Two distinct types of surface relief on SP flow, one extremely blocky, the other subdued, are found to be clearly discriminated on the visible and thermal wavelength images but are separable only on the longer wavelength L-band radar image data. The inability of the K- and X- (3-cm wavelength) band radars to portray the differences in roughness between the two SP flow surface units is attributed to the radar frequency dependence of the surface-relief scale, which, described as the Rayleigh criterion, represents the transition between quasispecular and primarily diffuse backscatter. ?? 1980.

  19. The Synthesis of Quinolone Natural Products from Pseudonocardia sp.

    PubMed Central

    Salvaggio, Flavia; Hodgkinson, James T.; Carro, Laura; Geddis, Stephen M.; Galloway, Warren R. J. D.; Welch, Martin

    2015-01-01

    Abstract The synthesis of four quinolone natural products from the actinomycete Pseudonocardia sp. is reported. The key step involved a sp2–sp3 Suzuki–Miyaura reaction between a common boronic ester lateral chain and various functionalised quinolone cores. The quinolones slowed growth of E. coli and S. aureus by inducing extended lag phases.

  20. Pulmonary surfactant protein A (SP-A) specifically binds dipalmitoylphosphatidylcholine

    SciTech Connect

    Kuroki, Y.; Akino, T. )

    1991-02-15

    Phospholipids are the major components of pulmonary surfactant. Dipalmitoylphosphatidylcholine is believed to be especially essential for the surfactant function of reducing the surface tension at the air-liquid interface. Surfactant protein A (SP-A) with a reduced denatured molecular mass of 26-38 kDa, characterized by a collagen-like structure and N-linked glycosylation, interacts strongly with a mixture of surfactant-like phospholipids. In the present study the direct binding of SP-A to phospholipids on a thin layer chromatogram was visualized using 125I-SP-A as a probe, so that the phospholipid specificities of SP-A binding and the structural requirements of SP-A and phospholipids for the binding could be examined. Although 125I-SP-A bound phosphatidylcholine and sphingomyeline, it was especially strong in binding dipalmitoylphosphatidylcholine, but failed to bind phosphatidylglycerol, phosphatidylinositol, phosphatidylethanolamine, and phosphatidylserine. Labeled SP-A also exhibited strong binding to distearoylphosphatidylcholine, but weak binding to dimyristoyl-, 1-palmitoyl-2-linoleoyl-, and dilinoleoylphosphatidylcholine. Unlabeled SP-A readily competed with labeled SP-A for phospholipid binding. SP-A strongly bound dipalmitoylglycerol produced by phospholipase C treatment of dipalmitoylphosphatidylcholine, but not palmitic acid. This protein also failed to bind lysophosphatidylcholine produced by phospholipase A2 treatment of dipalmitoylphosphatidylcholine. 125I-SP-A shows almost no binding to dipalmitoylphosphatidylglycerol and dipalmitoylphosphatidylethanolamine. The addition of 10 mM EGTA into the binding buffer reduced much of the 125I-SP-A binding to phospholipids. Excess deglycosylated SP-A competed with labeled SP-A for binding to dipalmitoylphosphatidylcholine, but the excess collagenase-resistant fragment of SP-A failed.

  1. Interaction of Sp1 zinc finger with transport factor in the nuclear localization of transcription factor Sp1

    SciTech Connect

    Ito, Tatsuo; Kitamura, Haruka; Uwatoko, Chisana; Azumano, Makiko; Itoh, Kohji; Kuwahara, Jun

    2010-12-10

    Research highlights: {yields} Sp1 zinc fingers themselves interact with importin {alpha}. {yields} Sp1 zinc finger domains play an essential role as a nuclear localization signal. {yields} Sp1 can be transported into the nucleus in an importin-dependent manner. -- Abstract: Transcription factor Sp1 is localized in the nucleus and regulates the expression of many cellular genes, but the nuclear transport mechanism of Sp1 is not well understood. In this study, we revealed that GST-fused Sp1 protein bound to endogenous importin {alpha} in HeLa cells via the Sp1 zinc finger domains, which comprise the DNA binding domain of Sp1. It was found that the Sp1 zinc finger domains directly interacted with a wide range of importin {alpha} including the armadillo (arm) repeat domain and the C-terminal acidic domain. Furthermore, it turned out that all three zinc fingers of Sp1 are essential for binding to importin {alpha}. Taken together, these results suggest that the Sp1 zinc finger domains play an essential role as a NLS and Sp1 can be transported into the nucleus in an importin-dependent manner even though it possesses no classical NLSs.

  2. Streptomyces glycovorans sp. nov., Streptomyces xishensis sp. nov. and Streptomyces abyssalis sp. nov., isolated from marine sediments.

    PubMed

    Xu, Ying; He, Jie; Tian, Xin-Peng; Li, Jie; Yang, Ling-Ling; Xie, Qiong; Tang, Shu-Kun; Chen, Yi-Guang; Zhang, Si; Li, Wen-Jun

    2012-10-01

    Strains YIM M 10366(T), YIM M 10378(T) and YIM M 10400(T) were isolated from marine sediments collected from the Xisha Islands in the South China Sea. All three isolates were able to grow optimally at pH 7.0, 28-37 °C and 0-3% (w/v) NaCl. Comparison of 16S rRNA gene sequences showed that these strains are members of the genus Streptomyces, exhibiting moderately high 16S rRNA gene sequence similarities of 97.0-98.8% to members of the most closely related Streptomyces species. Morphological characteristics, physiological characteristics and compositions of whole-cell sugars and phospholipids are consistent with the diagnostic characteristics of the genus Streptomyces, but still allowed differentiation amongst the three strains and their neighbours. Based on 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis, DNA-DNA relatedness, phenotypic characteristics and chemotaxonomic data, strains YIM M 10366(T), YIM M 10378(T) and YIM M 10400(T) were identified as members of three novel species of the genus Streptomyces, for which the names Streptomyces glycovorans sp. nov. (type strain YIM M 10366(T)  =DSM 42021(T)  =CCTCC AA2010005(T)), Streptomyces xishensis sp. nov. (type strain YIM M 10378(T)  = DSM 42022(T)  =CCTCC AA 2010006(T)) and Streptomyces abyssalis sp. nov. (type strain YIM M 10400(T)  =DSM 42024(T)  = CCTCC AA 2010008(T)) are proposed.

  3. Predominance of Blastocystis sp. subtype 4 in rural communities, Nepal.

    PubMed

    Lee, I L; Tan, T C; Tan, P C; Nanthiney, D R; Biraj, M K; Surendra, K M; Suresh, K G

    2012-04-01

    Blastocystis sp. is a common intestinal parasite. To date, there have been sporadic and scanty studies on Blastocystis sp. carried out in rural communities in Nepal. We surveyed the prevalence of Blastocystis sp. and its possible associated risk factors, and reported the predominant Blastocystis sp. subtype in two rural communities, Bolde Phediche and Bahunipati, in Nepal. Human faecal samples were collected from 241 participants, cultured using in vitro cultivation and examined for Blastocystis sp. The presence of Blastocystis sp. in faecal samples was further confirmed by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and subsequently genotyped using subtype-specific sequence tagged site (STS) primers. There were 26.1% (63/241) of the participants that were infected by Blastocystis sp. We detected 84.1% (53/63) of Blastocystis sp. subtype 4 infections in these rural communities. The unusually high prevalence of Blastocystis sp. subtype 4 can be attributed to the rearing of family-owned animals in barns built close to their houses. Eighty one percent (51/63) of the Blastocystis sp. infected participants drank not boiled or unfiltered water. The present study revealed that Blastocystis sp. could pose a health concern to the communities and travellers to the hilly area in Nepal. Infection may be transmitted through human-to-human, zoonotic and waterborne transmissions. We provide recommendations to ensure good public health practices.

  4. SP-100 space subsystems development progress

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mondt, Jack F.

    1991-09-01

    The space technology effort related to SP-100 subsystems is described in terms of the areas of primary focus and most significant progress. The SP-100 is briefly compared to the Voyager, and detailed descriptions of the converter subsystem, the heat-transport system, and the heat-rejection subsystem. Progress on the converter subsystem includes a high-voltage insulator composed of a single sapphire crystal, a compliant pad of coated niobium, an SiGe thermoelectric (TE) module, and a TE cell assembly. The test of the Nb1Zr piping related to the heat-transport subsystem is described, and the development is reported for the TEM pump and the gas separator. It is concluded that the critical technical issues related to the technologies have been addressed although further efforts are required. Future testing is described for the three major components of the space subsystems including the converter, pump, and the radiator.

  5. New tricycloalternarenes from fungus Alternaria sp.

    PubMed

    Shi, Xiu; Wei, Wei; Zhang, Wen-Jing; Hua, Cheng-Pin; Chen, Chao-Jun; Ge, Hui-Ming; Tan, Ren-Xiang; Jiao, Rui-Hua

    2015-01-01

    Two new tricycloalternarenes I (1) and J (2), together with five known derivatives (3-7), were isolated from the culture of marine fungus Alternaria sp. The structures were elucidated by a combination of spectroscopic approach ((1)H, (13)C NMR, HMBC, COSY, and NOESY) and the low-temperature (100 K) single-crystal X-ray crystallography analysis. The antimicrobial assays of tricycloalternarenes I (1) and J (2) were tested.

  6. Chlamydomonas sajao nov. sp. (Chlorophyta, Volvocales)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lewin, Ralph A.

    1984-06-01

    A new species of Chlamydomonas, namely, C. sajao nov. sp. of the Volvocales, Chlorophyta was isolated from a duckweed growing near a ricefield in the vicinity of Guangzhou, China. This interesting unicellular green alga, similar to C. mexicana from Mexico, secretes quantities of extracellular mucilaginous polysaccharides, and may be employed in improving soil quality. The new species resembles C. waldenburgensis Moewus in most characteristics but differs in three important features.

  7. Aliterella atlantica gen. nov., sp. nov., and Aliterella antarctica sp. nov., novel members of coccoid Cyanobacteria.

    PubMed

    Rigonato, Janaina; Gama, Watson Arantes; Alvarenga, Danillo Oliveira; Branco, Luis Henrique Zanini; Brandini, Frederico Pereira; Genuário, Diego Bonaldo; Fiore, Marli Fatima

    2016-09-01

    Two Cyanobacteria isolated from South Atlantic Ocean continental shelf deep water and from a marine green algae inhabiting the Admiralty Bay, King George Island, Antarctica were investigated based on morphological and ultrastructural traits, phylogeny of 16S rRNA gene sequences, secondary structure of the 16S-23S internal transcribed spacer regions and phylogenomic analyses. The majority of these evaluations demonstrated that both strains differ from the genera of cyanobacteria with validly published names and, therefore, supported the description of the novel genus as Aliterella gen. nov. The identity and phylogeny of 16S rRNA gene sequences, together with the secondary structure of D1D1' and BoxB intergenic regions, further supported the two strains representing distinct species: Aliterella atlantica gen. nov., sp. nov. (type SP469036, strain CENA595T) and Aliterella antarctica sp. nov. (type SP469035, strain CENA408T). The phylogenomic analysis of A. atlantica sp. nov. CENA595T, based on 21 protein sequences, revealed that this genus belongs to the cyanobacterial order Chroococcidiopsidales. The isolation and cultivation of two geographically distant unicellular members of a novel cyanobacterial genus and the sequenced genome of the type strain bring new insights into the current classification of the coccoid group, and into the reconstruction of their evolutionary history. PMID:27054834

  8. Aliterella atlantica gen. nov., sp. nov., and Aliterella antarctica sp. nov., novel members of coccoid Cyanobacteria.

    PubMed

    Rigonato, Janaina; Gama, Watson Arantes; Alvarenga, Danillo Oliveira; Branco, Luis Henrique Zanini; Brandini, Frederico Pereira; Genuário, Diego Bonaldo; Fiore, Marli Fatima

    2016-09-01

    Two Cyanobacteria isolated from South Atlantic Ocean continental shelf deep water and from a marine green algae inhabiting the Admiralty Bay, King George Island, Antarctica were investigated based on morphological and ultrastructural traits, phylogeny of 16S rRNA gene sequences, secondary structure of the 16S-23S internal transcribed spacer regions and phylogenomic analyses. The majority of these evaluations demonstrated that both strains differ from the genera of cyanobacteria with validly published names and, therefore, supported the description of the novel genus as Aliterella gen. nov. The identity and phylogeny of 16S rRNA gene sequences, together with the secondary structure of D1D1' and BoxB intergenic regions, further supported the two strains representing distinct species: Aliterella atlantica gen. nov., sp. nov. (type SP469036, strain CENA595T) and Aliterella antarctica sp. nov. (type SP469035, strain CENA408T). The phylogenomic analysis of A. atlantica sp. nov. CENA595T, based on 21 protein sequences, revealed that this genus belongs to the cyanobacterial order Chroococcidiopsidales. The isolation and cultivation of two geographically distant unicellular members of a novel cyanobacterial genus and the sequenced genome of the type strain bring new insights into the current classification of the coccoid group, and into the reconstruction of their evolutionary history.

  9. Direct transesterification of Oedogonium sp. oil be using immobilized isolated novel Bacillus sp. lipase.

    PubMed

    Sivaramakrishnan, Ramachandran; Muthukumar, Karuppan

    2014-01-01

    This work emphasizes the potential of the isolated Bacillus sp. lipase for the production of fatty acid methyl ester by the direct transesterification of Oedogonium sp. of macroalgae. Dimethyl carbonate was used as the extraction solvent and also as the reactant. The effect of solvent/algae ratio, water addition, catalyst, temperature, stirring and time on the direct transesterification was studied. The highest fatty acid methyl ester yield obtained under optimum conditions (5 g Oedogonium sp. powder, 7.5 ml of solvent (dimethyl carbonate)/g of algae, 8% catalyst (%wt/wt of oil), distilled water 1% (wt/wt of algae), 36 h, 55°C and 180 rpm) was 82%. Final product was subjected to thermogravimetric analysis and (1)H NMR analysis. The results showed that the isolated enzyme has good potential in catalyzing the direct transesterification of algae, and the dimethyl carbonate did not affect the activity of the isolated lipase. PMID:23890544

  10. Direct transesterification of Oedogonium sp. oil be using immobilized isolated novel Bacillus sp. lipase.

    PubMed

    Sivaramakrishnan, Ramachandran; Muthukumar, Karuppan

    2014-01-01

    This work emphasizes the potential of the isolated Bacillus sp. lipase for the production of fatty acid methyl ester by the direct transesterification of Oedogonium sp. of macroalgae. Dimethyl carbonate was used as the extraction solvent and also as the reactant. The effect of solvent/algae ratio, water addition, catalyst, temperature, stirring and time on the direct transesterification was studied. The highest fatty acid methyl ester yield obtained under optimum conditions (5 g Oedogonium sp. powder, 7.5 ml of solvent (dimethyl carbonate)/g of algae, 8% catalyst (%wt/wt of oil), distilled water 1% (wt/wt of algae), 36 h, 55°C and 180 rpm) was 82%. Final product was subjected to thermogravimetric analysis and (1)H NMR analysis. The results showed that the isolated enzyme has good potential in catalyzing the direct transesterification of algae, and the dimethyl carbonate did not affect the activity of the isolated lipase.

  11. Adhaeribacter aerophilus sp. nov., Adhaeribacter aerolatus sp. nov. and Segetibacter aerophilus sp. nov., isolated from air samples.

    PubMed

    Weon, Hang-Yeon; Kwon, Soon-Wo; Son, Jung-A; Kim, Soo-Jin; Kim, Yi-Seul; Kim, Byung-Yong; Ka, Jong-Ok

    2010-10-01

    Three bacterial isolates from air samples in Korea, designated strains 6424S-25(T), 6515J-31(T) and 6424S-61(T), were characterized using a polyphasic approach. The cells were strictly aerobic, Gram-stain-negative, non-motile, non-spore-forming and rod-shaped. Phylogenetic analysis of their 16S rRNA gene sequences revealed a clear affiliation with the phylum Bacteroidetes. Strains 6424S-25(T) and 6515J-31(T) showed 16S rRNA gene sequence similarities of 92.7-94.8 % to type strains of recognized species of the genus Adhaeribacter and strain 6424S-61(T) was closely related to Segetibacter koreensis Gsoil 664(T) (93.9 % similarity). The G+C contents of the DNA of strains 6424S-25(T), 6515J-31(T) and 6424S-61(T) were 44.5, 43.9 and 38.4 mol%, respectively. Major fatty acids of strains 6424S-25(T) and 6515J-31(T) were summed feature 4 (iso-C₁₇:₁ I and/or anteiso-C₁₇ :₁ B), iso-C₁₅:₀ and C₁₆:₁ω5c. The fatty acid content of strain 6424S-61(T) mainly comprised iso-C₁₅ :₁ G and iso-C₁₅:₀. Comparative analysis of phenotypic and phylogenetic traits indicated that strains 6424S-25(T) and 6515J-31(T) represented two novel species of the genus Adhaeribacter and that strain 6424S-61(T) should be considered as a novel species of the genus Segetibacter. The names Adhaeribacter aerophilus sp. nov. (type strain 6424S-25(T) =KACC 14118(T) =NBRC 106134(T)), Adhaeribacter aerolatus sp. nov. (type strain 6515J-31(T) =KACC 14117(T) =NBRC 106133(T)) and Segetibacter aerophilus sp. nov. (type strain 6424S-61(T) =KACC 14119(T) =NBRC 106135(T)) are proposed for these organisms.

  12. Burkholderia humisilvae sp. nov., Burkholderia solisilvae sp. nov. and Burkholderia rhizosphaerae sp. nov., isolated from forest soil and rhizosphere soil.

    PubMed

    Lee, Jae-Chan; Whang, Kyung-Sook

    2015-09-01

    Strains Y-12(T) and Y-47(T) were isolated from mountain forest soil and strain WR43(T) was isolated from rhizosphere soil, at Daejeon, Korea. The three strains grew at 10-55 °C (optimal growth at 28-30 °C), at pH 3.0-8.0 (optimal growth at pH 6.0) and in the presence of 0-4.0% (w/v) NaCl, growing optimally in the absence of added NaCl. On the basis of 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis, the three strains were found to belong to the genus Burkholderia, showing the closest phylogenetic similarity to Burkholderia diazotrophica JPY461(T) (97.2-97.7%); the similarity between the three sequences ranged from 98.3 to 98.7%. Additionally, the three strains formed a distinct group in phylogenetic trees based on the housekeeping genes recA and gyrB. The predominant ubiquinone was Q-8, the major fatty acids were C16 : 0 and C17  : 0 cyclo and the DNA G+C content of the novel isolates was 61.6-64.4 mol%. DNA-DNA relatedness among the three strains and the type strains of the closest species of the genus Burkholderia was less than 50%. On the basis of 16S rRNA, recA and gyrB gene sequence similarities, chemotaxonomic and phenotypic data, the three strains represent three novel species within the genus Burkholderia, for which the names Burkholderia humisilvae sp. nov. (type strain Y-12(T)= KACC 17601(T) = NBRC 109933(T) = NCAIM B 02543(T)), Burkholderia solisilvae sp. nov. (type strain Y-47(T) = KACC 17602(T)= NBRC 109934(T) = NCAIM B 02539(T)) and Burkholderia rhizosphaerae sp. nov. (type strain WR43(T) = KACC 17603(T) = NBRC 109935(T) = NCAIM B 02541(T)) are proposed.

  13. Bifidobacterium reuteri sp. nov., Bifidobacterium callitrichos sp. nov., Bifidobacterium saguini sp. nov., Bifidobacterium stellenboschense sp. nov. and Bifidobacterium biavatii sp. nov. isolated from faeces of common marmoset (Callithrix jacchus) and red-handed tamarin (Saguinus midas).

    PubMed

    Endo, Akihito; Futagawa-Endo, Yuka; Schumann, Peter; Pukall, Rüdiger; Dicks, Leon M T

    2012-03-01

    Five strains of bifidobacteria were isolated from faeces of a common marmoset (Callithrix jacchus) and a red-handed tamarin (Saguinus midas). The five isolates clustered inside the phylogenetic group of the genus Bifidobacterium but did not show high sequence similarities between the isolates and to known species in the genus by phylogenetic analysis based on 16S rRNA gene sequences. Sequence analyses of dnaJ1 and hsp60 also indicated their independent phylogenetic positions to each other in the Bifidobacterium cluster. DNA G+C contents of the species ranged from 57.3 to 66.3 mol%, which is within the values recorded for Bifidobacterium species. All isolates showed fructose-6-phosphate phosphoketolase activity. Based on the data provided, the five isolates represent five novel species, for which the names Bifidobacterium reuteri sp. nov. (type strain: AFB22-1(T) = JCM 17295(T) = DSM 23975(T)), Bifidobacterium callitrichos sp. nov. (type strain: AFB22-5(T) = JCM 17296(T) = DSM 23973(T)), Bifidobacterium saguini sp. nov. (type strain: AFB23-1(T) = JCM 17297(T) = DSM 23967(T)), Bifidobacterium stellenboschense sp. nov. (type strain: AFB23-3(T) = JCM 17298(T) = DSM 23968(T)) and Bifidobacterium biavatii sp. nov. (type strain: AFB23-4(T) = JCM 17299(T) = DSM 23969(T)) are proposed. PMID:22225994

  14. Burkholderia humi sp. nov., Burkholderia choica sp. nov., Burkholderia telluris sp. nov., Burkholderia terrestris sp. nov. and Burkholderia udeis sp. nov.: Burkholderia glathei-like bacteria from soil and rhizosphere soil.

    PubMed

    Vandamme, Peter; De Brandt, Evie; Houf, Kurt; Salles, Joana Falcão; Dirk van Elsas, Jan; Spilker, Theodore; Lipuma, John J

    2013-12-01

    Analysis of partial gyrB gene sequences revealed six taxa in a group of 17 Burkholderia glathei-like isolates which were further examined by (GTG)5-PCR fingerprinting, 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis, DNA-DNA hybridizations, determination of the DNA G+C content, whole-cell fatty acid analysis and an analysis of cell and colony morphology and more than 180 biochemical characteristics. The results demonstrated that one taxon consisting of three human clinical isolates represented Burkholderia zhejiangensis, a recently described methyl-parathion-degrading bacterium isolated from a wastewater-treatment system in China. The remaining taxa represented five novel species isolated from soil or rhizosphere soil samples, and could be distinguished by both genotypic and phenotypic characteristics. We therefore propose to formally classify these bacteria as Burkholderia humi sp. nov. (type strain, LMG 22934(T) = CCUG 63059(T)), Burkholderia choica sp. nov. (type strain, LMG 22940(T) = CCUG 63063(T)), Burkholderia telluris sp. nov. (type strain, LMG 22936(T) = CCUG 63060(T)), Burkholderia udeis sp. nov. (type strain, LMG 27134(T) = CCUG 63061(T)) and Burkholderia terrestris sp. nov. (type strain, LMG 22937(T) = CCUG 63062(T)).

  15. Two-Dimensional Phosphorus Carbide: Competition between sp(2) and sp(3) Bonding.

    PubMed

    Guan, Jie; Liu, Dan; Zhu, Zhen; Tománek, David

    2016-05-11

    We propose previously unknown allotropes of phosphorus carbide (PC) in the stable shape of an atomically thin layer. Different stable geometries, which result from the competition between sp(2) bonding found in graphitic C and sp(3) bonding found in black P, may be mapped onto 2D tiling patterns that simplify categorizing of the structures. Depending on the category, we identify 2D-PC structures that can be metallic, semimetallic with an anisotropic Dirac cone, or direct-gap semiconductors with their gap tunable by in-layer strain. PMID:27088819

  16. Two-Dimensional Phosphorus Carbide: Competition between sp(2) and sp(3) Bonding.

    PubMed

    Guan, Jie; Liu, Dan; Zhu, Zhen; Tománek, David

    2016-05-11

    We propose previously unknown allotropes of phosphorus carbide (PC) in the stable shape of an atomically thin layer. Different stable geometries, which result from the competition between sp(2) bonding found in graphitic C and sp(3) bonding found in black P, may be mapped onto 2D tiling patterns that simplify categorizing of the structures. Depending on the category, we identify 2D-PC structures that can be metallic, semimetallic with an anisotropic Dirac cone, or direct-gap semiconductors with their gap tunable by in-layer strain.

  17. Eremobiotus ginevrae sp. nov. and Paramacrobiotus pius sp. nov., two new species of Eutardigrada.

    PubMed

    Lisi, Oscar; Binda, Maria Grazia; Pilato, Giovanni

    2016-01-01

    Two new eutardigrade species are described: Eremobiotus ginevrae sp. nov. and Paramacrobiotus pius sp. nov. The first is similar to Eremobiotus alicatai (Binda, 1969) but differs in the claw shape and dimensions. It has been found in Sicily, Israel and Russia. The second species, belonging to the richtersi group, is currently found exclusively in Sicily. It has a smooth cuticle, three macroplacoids and a microplacoid, eggs with reticulated trunco-conical processes with small terminal thorns; the egg-shell is areolated and the areolae are clearly sculptured. PMID:27394740

  18. Discocriconemella inaratus n. sp. and Criconemoides inusitatus n. sp. (Nematoda) from Iowa

    PubMed Central

    Hoffmann, J. K.

    1974-01-01

    Discocriconemella inaratus n. sp. from Iowa prairies is characterized by a single offset disk-shaped head annule which is often discontinuous, a sigmoid vagina, a stylet length of 51-61 μm, and 77-100 smooth body annules. Criconemoides inusitatus n. sp. from Iowa woodlands is characterized by two offset head annules, a "closed" vulva, a straight vagina, no overlapping anterior vulva lip, a stylet length of 42-50 μm, and 71-86 smooth body annules. PMID:19308124

  19. O-GlcNAc modification of Sp3 and Sp4 transcription factors negatively regulates their transcriptional activities.

    PubMed

    Ha, Changhoon; Lim, Kihong

    2015-11-13

    The addition of O-linked N-acetylglucosamine (O-GlcNAc) on serine or threonine modifies a myriad of proteins and regulates their function, stability and localization. O-GlcNAc modification is common among chromosome-associated proteins, such as transcription factors, suggesting its extensive involvement in gene expression regulation. In this study, we demonstrate the O-GlcNAc status of the Sp family members of transcription factors and the functional impact on their transcriptional activities. We highlight the presence of O-GlcNAc residues in Sp3 and Sp4, but not Sp2, as demonstrated by their enrichment in GlcNAc positive protein fractions and by detection of O-GlcNAc residues on Sp3 and Sp4 co-expressed in Escherichia coli together with O-GlcNAc transferase (OGT) using an O-GlcNAc-specific antibody. Deletion mutants of Sp3 and Sp4 indicate that the majority of O-GlcNAc sites reside in their N-terminal transactivation domain. Overall, using reporter gene assays and co-immunoprecipitations, we demonstrate a functional inhibitory role of O-GlcNAc modifications in Sp3 and Sp4 transcription factors. Thereby, our study strengthens the current notion that O-GlcNAc modification is an important regulator of protein interactome.

  20. Effects of lung surfactant proteins, SP-B and SP-C, and palmitic acid on monolayer stability.

    PubMed Central

    Ding, J; Takamoto, D Y; von Nahmen, A; Lipp, M M; Lee, K Y; Waring, A J; Zasadzinski, J A

    2001-01-01

    Langmuir isotherms and fluorescence and atomic force microscopy images of synthetic model lung surfactants were used to determine the influence of palmitic acid and synthetic peptides based on the surfactant-specific proteins SP-B and SP-C on the morphology and function of surfactant monolayers. Lung surfactant-specific protein SP-C and peptides based on SP-C eliminate the loss to the subphase of unsaturated lipids necessary for good adsorption and respreading by inducing a transition between monolayers and multilayers within the fluid phase domains of the monolayer. The morphology and thickness of the multilayer phase depends on the lipid composition of the monolayer and the concentration of SP-C or SP-C peptide. Lung surfactant protein SP-B and peptides based on SP-B induce a reversible folding transition at monolayer collapse that allows all components of surfactant to be retained at the interface during respreading. Supplementing Survanta, a clinically used replacement lung surfactant, with a peptide based on the first 25 amino acids of SP-B also induces a similar folding transition at monolayer collapse. Palmitic acid makes the monolayer rigid at low surface tension and fluid at high surface tension and modifies SP-C function. Identifying the function of lung surfactant proteins and lipids is essential to the rational design of replacement surfactants for treatment of respiratory distress syndrome. PMID:11325728

  1. Fresh Water Cyanobacteria Geitlerinema sp. CCC728 and Arthrospira sp. CCC729 as an Anticancer Drug Resource

    PubMed Central

    Tiwari, Ratnakar; Srivastava, Vikas

    2015-01-01

    An increasing number of cancer patients worldwide, especially in third world countries, have raised concern to explore natural drug resources, such as the less explored fresh water filamentous cyanobacteria. Six strains of cyanobacteria (Phormidium sp. CCC727, Geitlerinema sp. CCC728, Arthrospira sp. CCC729, Phormidium sp. CCC731, Phormidium sp. CCC730, and Leptolyngbya sp. CCC732) were isolated (paddy fields and ponds in the Banaras Hindu University, campus) and five strains screened for anticancer potential using human colon adenocarcinoma (HT29) and human kidney adenocarcinoma (A498) cancer cell lines. Geitlerinema sp. CCC728 and Arthrospira sp. CCC729 were the most potent as determined by examination of morphological features and by inhibition of growth by graded concentrations of crude extracts and thin-layer chromatography (TLC) eluates. Cell cycle analysis and multiplex assays using cancer biomarkers also confirmed Geitlerinema sp. CCC728 and Arthrospira sp. CCC729 as cancer drug resources. Apoptotic studies in the cells of A498 (cancer) and MCF-10A (normal human epithelial) exposed to crude extracts and TLC fractions revealed no significant impact on MCF-10A cells emphasizing its importance in the development of anticancer drug. Identification of biomolecules from these extracts are in progress. PMID:26325186

  2. Binding of Sp1/Sp3 to the proximal promoter of the hMOR gene is enhanced by DAMGO.

    PubMed

    Xu, Y; Carr, L G

    2001-08-22

    The major binding site for morphine is the mu opioid receptor (MOR), which mediates morphine's analgesic and euphoric effects. The MOR gene is highly regulated at the level of transcription. The present study examined DNA-protein interactions in the human MOR (hMOR) -500 to -292 promoter region, and tested whether chronic opioid drug treatment could modulate these DNA-protein interactions. 5'-deletion and transient transfection assays in SK-N-SH cells revealed four regions that activated hMOR gene transcription. A 60 bp sequence (-351 to -292) upstream of the proximal transcription initiation site (-252) contained cis-elements required for basal promoter activity. Sp1 and Sp3 bound to this 60 bp region, which was confirmed by electromobility shift assays using a Sp1 consensus oligo as competitor and specific antibodies against Sp1 and Sp3. Methylation interference analysis localized the Sp1 binding site to the sequence CCCTCCTCCC (-310 to -301) and also suggested that additional transcription factors, other than Sp1-related proteins, contacted the -321 to -301 sequence. Moreover, the binding of Sp1/Sp3 to the hMOR promoter was significantly enhanced by chronic exposure to [D-Ala(2), N-Me-Phe(4), Gly(5)-ol] enkephalin (DAMGO), a selective MOR agonist, and this effect was attenuated specifically by pretreatment with a MOR antagonist, naloxone. Taken together, the present studies demonstrated, for the first time, that the binding of Sp1/Sp3 to the hMOR proximal promoter could be modulated by chronic DAMGO treatment. Such enhanced binding of Sp1/Sp3 to the promoter may lead to a functional change in hMOR gene transcription.

  3. Early SP-100 flight mission designs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Josloff, Allan T.; Shepard, Neal F.; Kirpich, Aaron S.; Murata, Ronald; Smith, Michael A.; Stephen, James D.

    1993-01-01

    Early flight mission objectives can be met with a Space Reactor Power System (SRPS) using thermoelectric conversion in conjunction with fast spectrum, lithium-cooled reactors. This paper describes two system design options using thermoelectric technology to accommodate an early launch. In the first of these options, radiatively coupled Radioiosotope Thermoelectric Generator (RTG) unicouples are adapted for use with a SP-100-type reactor heat source. Unicouples have been widely used as the conversion technology in RTGs and have demonstrated the long-life characteristics necessary for a highly relible SRPS. The thermoelectric leg height is optimized in conjunction with the heat rejection temperature to provide a mass optimum 6-kWe system configured for launch on a Delta II launch vehicle. The flight-demonstrated status of this conversion technology provides a high confidence that such a system can be designed, assembled, tested, and launched by 1997. The use of a SP-100-type reactor assures compliance with safety requirements and expedites the flight safety approval process while, at the same time, providing flight performance verification for a heat source technology with the growth potential to meet future national needs for higher power levels. A 15-kW2, Atlas IIAS-launched system using the compact, conductively coupled multicouple converters being developed under the SP-100 program to support an early flight system launch also described. Both design concepts have been scaled to 20-kWe in order to support recent studies by DOE/NASA for higher power early launch missions.

  4. SP-100 control drive assembly development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gleason, Thomas; Gilchrist, A. Richard; Schuster, Gary

    1993-01-01

    The SP-100 is an electrical generating nuclear power system for space operation. This paper describes the nuclear reactor control systems and the methods used to assure reliable performance for the 10-year design life. Reliable performance is achieved by redundancy and by selecting highly reliable components and design features. Reliability is quantified by analysis using established reliability data. Areas lacking reliability data are identified for development testing. A specific development test description is provided as an example to demonstrate how this process is meeting the system reliability goals.

  5. SP-100, a project manager's view

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Truscello, Vincent C.

    1983-01-01

    Born to meet the special needs of America's space effort, the SP-100 Program testifies to the cooperation among government agencies. The Department of Energy (DOE), the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA), and the Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency (DARPA) are working together to produce a 100-kW power system for use in outer space. At this point in the effort, it is appropriate to review: The approach to meet program goals; the status of activities of the Project Office, managed by the Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL); and, because this is a meeting on materials, answers beings developed by the Project Office to vital questions on refractory alloy technology.

  6. Norisoprenoids from the marine sponge Spheciospongia sp.

    PubMed

    Liu, Dong; Xu, Min-Juang; Wu, Li-Jun; Deng, Zhi-Wei; Lin, Wen-Han

    2009-09-01

    Chemical examination of a marine sponge Spheciospongia sp. collected from South China Sea resulted in the isolation of five norisoprenoid derivatives (1-5), of which two new compounds were designated with trivial names of spheciospongones A (1) and B (2). Their structures were determined on the basis of extensive 1D and 2D NMR, and MS spectroscopic data analysis in association with circular dichroism. Norisoprenoids were found from the sponge genus Spheciospongia for the first time, and were suggested to be the chemical marks for chemical taxonomy.

  7. Effect of Axial Torsion on sp Carbon Atomic Wires

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ravagnan, Luca; Manini, Nicola; Cinquanta, Eugenio; Onida, Giovanni; Sangalli, Davide; Motta, Carlo; Devetta, Michele; Bordoni, Andrea; Piseri, Paolo; Milani, Paolo

    2009-06-01

    Ab initio calculations within density-functional theory combined with experimental Raman spectra on cluster-beam deposited pure-carbon films provide a consistent picture of sp-carbon chains stabilized by sp3 or sp2 terminations, the latter being sensitive to torsional strain. This unexplored effect promises many exciting applications since it allows one to modify the conductive states near the Fermi level and to switch on and off the on-chain π-electron magnetism.

  8. Calcium Carbonate Formation by Synechococcus sp. Strain PCC 8806 and Synechococcus sp. Strain PCC 8807

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, Brady D.; William A. Apel; Michelle R. Walton

    2006-12-01

    Precipitation of CaCO3 catalyzed by the growth and physiology of cyanobacteria in the Genus Synechococcus represents a potential mechanism for sequestration of CO2 produced during the burning of coal for power generation. Microcosm experiments were performed in which Synechococcus sp. strain PCC 8806 and Synechococcus sp. strain PCC 8807 were tested for their ability to calcify when exposed to a fixed calcium concentration of 3.4 mM and bicarbonate concentrations of 0.5, 1.25 and 2.5 mM. Disappearance of soluble calcium was used as an indicator of CaCO3 formation; results from metabolically active microcosms were compared to controls with no cells or no carbonate added. Synechococcus sp. strain PCC 8806 removed calcium continuously over the duration of the experiment with approximately 18.6 mg of calcium in the solid phase. Calcium removal occurred over a two-day time period when Synechococcus sp. strain PCC 8807 was tested and only 8.9 mg of calcium was removed in the solid phase. The ability of the cyanobacteria to create an alkaline growth environment appeared to be the primary factor responsible for CaCO3 precipitation in these experiments. Removal of inorganic carbon by fixation into biomass was insignificant compared to the mass of inorganic carbon removed by incorporation into the growing CaCO3 solid.

  9. Clinical problems of sloths (Bradypus sp. and Choloepus sp.) in captivity.

    PubMed

    Diniz, L S; Oliveira, P M

    1999-03-01

    A 20-yr retrospective study of disease prevalence was carried out for 51 sloths (34 Bradypus sp. and 17 Choloepus sp.) at the São Paulo Zoo. A total of 81 clinical disorders were detected, including nutritional (45.7%), digestive (12.3%), and respiratory (12.3%) problems and injuries (6.1%). A definitive diagnosis was not possible in 8.6% of the cases. The incidence of disease varied according to seasonal climate (winter, 32.5%; spring, 24%; summer, 22.9%; autumn, 20.5%), time in captivity (96.4% of diseases occurred within the first 6 mo and 3.6% occurred thereafter), and type of enclosure (quarantine cage, 96.4%; exhibition enclosure, 3.6%). Both young animals (86.7%) and adults (3.2%) were affected. Parasites were identified by fecal examination in 45.4% of animals with clinical illness (Ascaris sp., 80%; Coccidia sp., 20%). Bacteria such as Salmonella enteritidis, Escherichia coli, and Citrobacter freundii were isolated from feces and/or organs. The first 6 mo in captivity are critical for these animals. Proper management and early identification of medical conditions in captivity have implications for sloth population in the wild.

  10. Infection Rates of Wolbachia sp. and Bartonella sp. in Different Populations of Fleas.

    PubMed

    Zurita, Antonio; Gutiérrez, Sara García; Cutillas, Cristina

    2016-11-01

    In the present study, a molecular detection of Bartonella sp. and Wolbachia sp. in Ctenocephalides felis (Siphonaptera: Pulicidae) isolated from Canis lupus familiaris from different geographical areas of Spain, Iran and South Africa, and in Stenoponia tripectinata tripectinata isolated from Mus musculus from the Canary Islands has been carried out by amplification of the 16S ribosomal RNA partial gene of Wolbachia sp. and intergenic spacer region (its region) of Bartonella sp. A total of 70 % of C. felis analysed were infected by W. pipientis. This percentage of prevalence was considerably higher in female fleas than in male fleas. Bartonella DNA was not detected in C. felis from dogs, while Bartonella elizabethae was detected and identified in S. t. tripectinata from M. musculus from the Canary Islands representing 43.75 % prevalence. This report is the first to identify B. elizabethae in S. t. tripectinata collected in M. musculus from the Canary Islands. Thus, our results demonstrate that this flea is a potential vector of B. elizabethae and might play roles in human infection. The zoonotic character of this bartonellosis emphasizes the need to alert public health authorities and the veterinary community of the risk of infection.

  11. Wickerhamiella slavikovae sp. nov. and Wickerhamiella goesii sp. nov., two yeast species isolated from natural substrates.

    PubMed

    Hagler, Allen N; Ribeiro, José R A; Pinotti, T; Brandão, Luciana R; Pimenta, Raphael S; Lins, U; Lee, Ching-Fu; Hsieh, Chin-Wen; Lachance, Marc-André; Rosa, Carlos A

    2013-08-01

    Two novel yeast species were isolated during three independent studies of yeasts associated with natural substrates in Brazil and Taiwan. Analysis of the sequences of the D1/D2 domains of the large subunit rRNA gene showed that these novel species belong to the Wickerhamiella clade. The first was isolated from freshwater and a leaf of sugar cane (Saccharum officinarum) in Brazil and from leaves of Wedelia biflora in Taiwan. Described here as Wickerhamiella slavikovae sp. nov., it differs by 56 nucleotide substitutions and 19 gaps in the D1/D2 region of the large subunit rRNA gene from Candida sorbophila, the least divergent species. The second species, named Wickerhamiella goesii sp. nov., was isolated from leaves and the rhizosphere of sugar cane collected in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. The species differs by 54 nucleotide substitutions and nine gaps in the D1/D2 domains from Candida drosophilae, its least divergent relative. The type strains are Wickerhamiella slavikovae sp. nov. IMUFRJ 52096(T) (= CBS 12417(T) = DBVPG 8032(T)) and Wickerhamiella goesii sp. nov. IMUFRJ 52102(T) (= CBS 12419(T) = DBVPG 8034(T)). PMID:23710055

  12. Mineralization of a Malaysian crude oil by Pseudomonas sp. and Achromabacter sp. isolated from coastal waters

    SciTech Connect

    Ahmad, J.; Ahmad, M.F.

    1995-12-31

    Regarded as being a potentially effective tool to combat oil pollution, bioremediation involves mineralization, i.e., the conversion of complex hydrocarbons into harmless CO{sub 2} and water by action of microorganisms. Therefore, in achieving optimum effectiveness from the application of these products on crude oil in local environments, the capability of the bacteria to mineralize hydrocarbons was evaluated. The microbial laboratory testing of mineralization on local oil degraders involved, first, isolation of bacteria found at a port located on the west coast of Peninsular Malaysia. Subsequently, these bacteria were identified by means of Biomereux`s API 20E and 20 NE systems and later screened by their growth on a Malaysian crude oil. Selected strains of Pseudomonas sp. and Achromabacter sp. were then exposed individually to a similar crude oil in a mineralization unit and monitored for 16 days for release of CO{sub 2}. Pseudomonas paucimobilis was found to produce more CO{sub 2} than Achromobacter sp. When tested under similar conditions, mixed populations of these two taxa produced more CO{sub 2} than that produced by any individual strain. Effective bioremediation of local crude in Malaysian waters can therefore be achieved from biochemically developed Pseudomonas sp. strains.

  13. Indirect Manganese Removal by Stenotrophomonas sp. and Lysinibacillus sp. Isolated from Brazilian Mine Water.

    PubMed

    Barboza, Natália Rocha; Amorim, Soraya Sander; Santos, Pricila Almeida; Reis, Flávia Donária; Cordeiro, Mônica Mendes; Guerra-Sá, Renata; Leão, Versiane Albis

    2015-01-01

    Manganese is a contaminant in the wastewaters produced by Brazilian mining operations, and the removal of the metal is notoriously difficult because of the high stability of the Mn(II) ion in aqueous solutions. To explore a biological approach for removing excessive amounts of aqueous Mn(II), we investigated the potential of Mn(II) oxidation by both consortium and bacterial isolates from a Brazilian manganese mine. A bacterial consortium was able to remove 99.7% of the Mn(II). A phylogenetic analysis of isolates demonstrated that the predominant microorganisms were members of Stenotrophomonas, Bacillus, and Lysinibacillus genera. Mn(II) removal rates between 58.5% and 70.9% were observed for Bacillus sp. and Stenotrophomonas sp. while the Lysinibacillus isolate 13P removes 82.7%. The catalytic oxidation of Mn(II) mediated by multicopper oxidase was not properly detected; however, in all of the experiments, a significant increase in the pH of the culture medium was detected. No aggregates inside the cells grown for a week were found by electronic microscopy. Nevertheless, an energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy of the isolates revealed the presence of manganese in Stenotrophomonas sp. and Lysinibacillus sp. grown in K medium. These results suggest that members of Stenotrophomonas and Lysinibacillus genera were able to remove Mn(II) by a nonenzymatic pathway. PMID:26697496

  14. Indirect Manganese Removal by Stenotrophomonas sp. and Lysinibacillus sp. Isolated from Brazilian Mine Water

    PubMed Central

    Barboza, Natália Rocha; Amorim, Soraya Sander; Santos, Pricila Almeida; Reis, Flávia Donária; Cordeiro, Mônica Mendes; Guerra-Sá, Renata; Leão, Versiane Albis

    2015-01-01

    Manganese is a contaminant in the wastewaters produced by Brazilian mining operations, and the removal of the metal is notoriously difficult because of the high stability of the Mn(II) ion in aqueous solutions. To explore a biological approach for removing excessive amounts of aqueous Mn(II), we investigated the potential of Mn(II) oxidation by both consortium and bacterial isolates from a Brazilian manganese mine. A bacterial consortium was able to remove 99.7% of the Mn(II). A phylogenetic analysis of isolates demonstrated that the predominant microorganisms were members of Stenotrophomonas, Bacillus, and Lysinibacillus genera. Mn(II) removal rates between 58.5% and 70.9% were observed for Bacillus sp. and Stenotrophomonas sp. while the Lysinibacillus isolate 13P removes 82.7%. The catalytic oxidation of Mn(II) mediated by multicopper oxidase was not properly detected; however, in all of the experiments, a significant increase in the pH of the culture medium was detected. No aggregates inside the cells grown for a week were found by electronic microscopy. Nevertheless, an energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy of the isolates revealed the presence of manganese in Stenotrophomonas sp. and Lysinibacillus sp. grown in K medium. These results suggest that members of Stenotrophomonas and Lysinibacillus genera were able to remove Mn(II) by a nonenzymatic pathway. PMID:26697496

  15. Tubulideres seminoli gen. et sp. nov. and Zelinkaderes brightae sp. nov. (Kinorhyncha, Cyclorhagida) from Florida

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sørensen, Martin V.; Heiner, Iben; Ziemer, Ole; Neuhaus, Birger

    2007-12-01

    One new kinorhynch genus and species and one new species from the genus Zelinkaderes are described from sandy sediment off Fort Pierce, Florida. The new genus and species, Tubulideres seminoli gen. et sp. nov. is characterized by the presence of the first trunk segment consisting of a closed ring, the second segment of a bent tergal plate with a midventral articulation and the following nine segments consisting of a tergal and two sternal plates. Cuspidate spines are not present, but flexible tubules are located on several segments, and in particular concentrated on the ventral side of the second segment. Middorsal spines are present on all trunk segments and are alternatingly offset to a position slightly lateral to the middorsal line. Zelinkaderes brightae nov. sp. is characterized by its spine formula in having middorsal spines on trunk segments 4, 6 and 8-11, lateroventral acicular spines on segment 2, lateral accessory cuspidate spines on segments 2 and 8, ventrolateral cuspidate spines on segments 4-6 and 9, lateroventral acicular spines present on segments 8 and 9, and midterminal, lateral terminal and lateral terminal accessory spines on segment 11. The spine formula of Z. brightae nov. sp. places it in a position in between Z. submersus and a clade consisting of Z. klepali and Z. floridensis. The new findings on Z. brightae nov. sp. have led us to propose an emended diagnosis for the genus.

  16. Environmental interactions and the SP-100 power system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ferguson, Dale C.

    1993-01-01

    Interactions of the SP-100 power system with its expected ambient environments are defined. SP-100 payloads will float 100 V negative of the low Earth orbit (LEO) plasma. Choice of proper geometries and materials will prevent arcing at conductor-insulator junctions in LEO. Care in selecting surface coatings will prevent dielectric breakdown. Sputtering is a concern for long-duration LEO missions. Atomic oxygen durability of SP-100 materials will be tested in ground and flight tests. Evaluation of SP-100 in lunar and planetary environments has begun. The report of a recent workshop on Chemical and Electrical Interactions on Mars identified many of the primary interactions.

  17. IBM SP high-performance networking with a GRF.

    SciTech Connect

    Navarro, J.P.

    1999-05-27

    Increasing use of highly distributed applications, demand for faster data exchange, and highly parallel applications can push the limits of conventional external networking for IBM SP sites. In technical computing applications we have observed a growing use of a pipeline of hosts and networks collaborating to collect, process, and visualize large amounts of realtime data. The GRF, a high-performance IP switch from Ascend and IBM, is the first backbone network switch to offer a media card that can directly connect to an SP Switch. This enables switch attached hosts in an SP complex to communicate at near SP Switch speeds with other GRF attached hosts and networks.

  18. Auxiliary-assisted palladium-catalyzed arylation and alkylation of sp2 and sp3 carbon-hydrogen bonds.

    PubMed

    Shabashov, Dmitry; Daugulis, Olafs

    2010-03-24

    We have developed a method for auxiliary-directed, palladium-catalyzed beta-arylation and alkylation of sp(3) and sp(2) C-H bonds in carboxylic acid derivatives. The method employs a carboxylic acid 2-methylthioaniline- or 8-aminoquinoline amide substrate, aryl or alkyl iodide coupling partner, palladium acetate catalyst, and an inorganic base. By employing 2-methylthioaniline auxiliary, selective monoarylation of primary sp(3) C-H bonds can be achieved. If arylation of secondary sp(3) C-H bonds is desired, 8-aminoquinoline auxiliary may be used. For alkylation of sp(3) and sp(2) C-H bonds, 8-aminoquinoline auxiliary affords the best results. Some functional group tolerance is observed and amino- and hydroxy-acid derivatives can be functionalized. Preliminary mechanistic studies have been performed. A palladacycle intermediate has been isolated, characterized by X-ray crystallography, and its reactions have been studied.

  19. The marine mites Hyadesia sp. and Copidognathus sp. Associated with the mussel Mytilus galloprovincialis.

    PubMed

    Cáceres-Martínez, J; Vásquez-Yeomans, R; Rentería, Y G; Curiel-Ramírez, S; Valdéz, J A; Rivas, G

    2000-10-01

    Two species of marine mites belonging to the families Hyadesiidae and Halacaridae, Hyadesia sp. and Copidognathus sp., respectively, were found associated with the mussel Mytilus galloprovincialis from Baja California in NW México. The first species was found inside the mussel gut with an intensity ranging from one to six mites per mussel and their prevalence was from 20.0 to 46.7%; this species was also found living free in the sediment at a density of 0.7 mite/100 ml. The second species was found on the mantle and gills of the host with an intensity ranging from one to three mites per host and their prevalence was from 3.3 to 6.7%; this species was abundant (4.5 mites/100 ml) and living free in the sediment around mussel clumps. Hyadesia sp. was found alive and attached in the gut of the mussel. A histological analysis revealed this species in the lumen of intestine surrounded by mucus and attached to the epithelial cells of the intestine, where some disorder of epithelial cells was associated. Moreover, this mite may be encapsulated by hemocytes inside the digestive diverticulum, the reproductive follicle, or the connective tissue surrounding the diverticulum. No damages to branches or gills resulting from the presence of Copidognathus sp. were observed. The results suggest that these mites are occasional invaders of mussels; however, as a result of this infestation, Hyadesia sp. may produce damage in the host's tissues. This is the first record of marine mites inside the gut, reproductive follicles, branches, and mantle of a marine bivalve.

  20. Burkholderia cordobensis sp. nov., from agricultural soils.

    PubMed

    Draghi, Walter O; Peeters, Charlotte; Cnockaert, Margo; Snauwaert, Cindy; Wall, Luis G; Zorreguieta, Angeles; Vandamme, Peter

    2014-06-01

    Two Gram-negative, rod-shaped bacteria were isolated from agricultural soils in Córdoba province in central Argentina. Their 16S rRNA gene sequences demonstrated that they belong to the genus Burkholderia, with Burkholderia zhejiangensis as most closely related formally named species; this relationship was confirmed through comparative gyrB sequence analysis. Whole-cell fatty acid analysis supported their assignment to the genus Burkholderia. Burkholderia sp. strain YI23, for which a whole-genome sequence is available, represents the same taxon, as demonstrated by its highly similar 16S rRNA (100% similarity) and gyrB (99.1-99.7%) gene sequences. The results of DNA-DNA hybridization experiments and physiological and biochemical characterization further substantiated the genotypic and phenotypic distinctiveness of the Argentinian soil isolates, for which the name Burkholderia cordobensis sp. nov. is proposed, with strain MMP81(T) ( = LMG 27620(T) = CCUG 64368(T)) as the type strain.

  1. SP-100 liquid metal test loop design

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fallas, T. Ted; Kruger, Gordon B.; Wiltshire, Frank R.; Jensen, Grant C.; Clay, Harold; Upton, Hugh A.; Gamble, Robert E.; Kjaer-Olsen, Christian; Lee, Keith

    1992-01-01

    The SP-100 Power System Qualification (PSO) program validates the technology readiness of the SP-100 Generic Flight System (GFS). As part of the PSQ, the GFS reactor, heat transport and power generation systems are being validated, by test, in high temperature liquid metal test loops. The liquid metal test loop program consists of two test loops. The first, a natural circulation material test loop (MTL), has been successfully operating for the last year at GE's test facility in San Jose. The second, a forced circulation Component Test Loop (CTL) is in the preliminary design phase. Fabrication of the CTL and modifications to the Test Facility will be completed in FY94 with component testing scheduled to begin in FY95. The CTL is a Nb-1Zr test loop with an Electromagnetic (EM) pump providing forced circulation for the liquid lithium coolant. The CTL test program is comprised of a series of individual component tests. Test components containing thermoelectric cells will have their cold side ducts piped to an existing heat rejection loop external to the CTL vacuum vessel. The test assembly and test components are being designed by GE. The detail design of several loop components is being performed by Westinghouse Atomic Energy Systems (WAES). The CTL will be assembled and the test performed at GE's facilties in San Jose, California.

  2. Microbial transformation of citral by Penicillium sp..

    PubMed

    Esmaeili, Akbar; Tavassoli, Afsaneh

    2010-01-01

    Thymol is present in the essential oils from herbs and spices, such as thyme. It is produced by these plant species as a chemical defense against phytopathogenic microorganisms. Therefore, this compound has attracted great attention in food industry, i.e., it has been used as a natural preservative in foods such as cheese to prevent fungal growth. Previous studies concerning the biotransformation of nerol by Penicillium sp. and microbial transformation of citral by sporulated surface cultures method (SSCM) of Penicillium digitatum have been reported. The objective of this research was to study the pathway involved during biotransformation of citral by Penicillium sp. using two methods. The culture preparation was done using different microbial methods and incubation periods to obtain Penicillium for citral biotransformation. The biotransformation products were identified by gas chromatography (GC) and gas chromatography/mass spectroscopy (GC/MS). A comparison of the two methods showed that SSCM was more effective, its major products were thymol (21.5 %), geranial (18.6 %) and nerol (13.7 %). LM produced only one compound — thymol — with a low efficiency. PMID:20842292

  3. Genetic complexity of the human surfactant-associated proteins SP-A1 and SP-A2

    PubMed Central

    Silveyra, Patricia; Floros, Joanna

    2012-01-01

    Pulmonary surfactant protein A (SP-A) plays a key role in innate lung host defense, in surfactant-related functions, and in parturition. In the course of evolution, the genetic complexity of SP-A has increased, particularly in the regulatory regions (i.e. promoter, untranslated regions). Although most species have a single SP-A gene, two genes encode SP-A in humans and primates (SFTPA1and SFTPA2). This may account for the multiple functions attributed to human SP-A, as well as the regulatory complexity of its expression by a relatively diverse set of protein and non-protein cellular factors. The interplay between enhancer cis-acting DNA sequences and trans-acting proteins that recognize these DNA elements is essential for gene regulation, primarily at the transcription initiation level. Furthermore, regulation at the mRNA level is essential to ensure proper physiological levels of SP-A under different conditions. To date, numerous studies have shown significant complexity of the regulation of SP-A expression at different levels, including transcription, splicing, mRNA decay, and translation. A number of trans-acting factors have also been described to play a role in the control of SP-A expression. The aim of this report is to describe the genetic complexity of the SFTPA1 and SFTPA2 genes, as well as to review regulatory mechanisms that control SP-A expression in humans and other animal species. PMID:23069847

  4. Lung surfactant protein A (SP-A) interactions with model lung surfactant lipids and an SP-B fragment.

    PubMed

    Sarker, Muzaddid; Jackman, Donna; Booth, Valerie

    2011-06-01

    Surfactant protein A (SP-A) is the most abundant protein component of lung surfactant, a complex mixture of proteins and lipids. SP-A performs host defense activities and modulates the biophysical properties of surfactant in concerted action with surfactant protein B (SP-B). Current models of lung surfactant mechanism generally assume SP-A functions in its octadecameric form. However, one of the findings of this study is that when SP-A is bound to detergent and lipid micelles that mimic lung surfactant phospholipids, it exists predominantly as smaller oligomers, in sharp contrast to the much larger forms observed when alone in water. These investigations were carried out in sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS), dodecylphosphocholine (DPC), lysomyristoylphosphatidylcholine (LMPC), lysomyristoylphosphatidylglycerol (LMPG), and mixed LMPC + LMPG micelles, using solution and diffusion nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy. We have also probed SP-A's interaction with Mini-B, a biologically active synthetic fragment of SP-B, in the presence of micelles. Despite variations in Mini-B's own interactions with micelles of different compositions, SP-A is found to interact with Mini-B in all micelle systems and perhaps to undergo a further structural rearrangement upon interacting with Mini-B. The degree of SP-A-Mini-B interaction appears to be dependent on the type of lipid headgroup and is likely mediated through the micelles, rather than direct binding.

  5. [Effects of different years of planting Pennisetum sp. on the plant- and insect diversity in Pennisetum sp. communities].

    PubMed

    Lin, Xing-Sheng; Lin, Zhan-Xi; Lin, Dong-Mei; Lin, Hui; Luo, Hai-Ling; Hu, Ying-Ping; Lin, Chun-Mei; Zhu, Chao-Zhi

    2012-10-01

    This paper studied the effects of 1-, 2- and 3 years of planting Pennisetum sp. on the plant- and insect diversity in the Pennisetum sp. communities, taking the barren mountain land without planting Pennisetum sp. as the control (CK). Compared with CK, the plant species richness in Pennisetum sp. communities with different years of planting was lower, but the coverage was higher. The coverage in the Pennisetum sp. community having been planted for 3 years was the highest, up to 91.6%, and 75.8% higher than the CK. The insect species richness in the Pennisetum sp. communities having been planted for 1, 2 and 3 years was 3.6, 5.3 and 5.6 times of the CK, respectively. The plant- and insect diversity indices, including Simpson index, Shannon index, evenness, Brillouin index, and McIntosh index for the Pennisetum sp. communities with different years of planting were significantly higher than the CK, which indicated that the growth of Pennisetum sp. could affect the plant- and insect diversity. With the increasing year of planting, the plant- and insect diversity in Pennisetum sp. communities tended to be stable.

  6. SP Monitoring of Intermittent Flow Through Covered-Karst Sinkholes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bumpus, P. B.; Kruse, S. E.

    2010-12-01

    A year of continuous SP (self-potential) monitoring was combined with high-resolution 3-D GPR surveys and intermittent water table monitoring over two small covered-karst conduits in Tampa, Florida. SP readings were logged over ~30 electrodes at 2-minute intervals. Positive and negative SP anomalies episodically manifested over conduits, suggesting that conduit flow is dynamic, not static. Three distinct SP flow regimes in the conduits are postulated: fast flow through the conduit to the underlying aquifer, slow flow to the confining layer through the collapse conduit walls, and a conduit plugged high enough to behave like the rest of the confining layer. SP responses after rain events appear to measure the effects of two wetting front curves, one striking the monitoring electrode, one the reference. By comparing curve shapes for all possible pairs of electrodes, it may be possible to establish surficial infiltration and flow patterns. SP is also strongly affected by soil conductivity, rainfall history, and cultural noise. Further concurrent study of moisture content and SP with a suite of reference electrodes placed in various topographic, vegetative, geologic, and climatic settings will help distinguish groundwater flow from other sources affecting SP measurements.

  7. LOCALIZATION OF SP22 ON HUMAN SPERM OF DIFFERING QUALITY

    EPA Science Inventory

    LOCALIZATION OF SP22 ON HUMAN SPERM OF DIFFERING QUALITY. AE Lavers*1, GR Klinefelter2, DW Hamilton1, KP Roberts1, 1University of Minnesota, Minneapolis, MN and 2US EPA, Research Triangle Park, NC.
    SP22 is a sperm membrane protein that has been implicated in sperm function d...

  8. Draft Genome Sequence of Aeromonas sp. Strain EERV15

    PubMed Central

    Ehsani, Elham; Barrantes, Israel; Vandermaesen, Johanna; Geffers, Robert; Jarek, Michael; Boon, Nico; Springael, Dirk; Pieper, Dietmar H.

    2016-01-01

    We report here the draft genome sequence of Aeromonas sp. strain EERV15 isolated from sand filter. The organism most closely related to Aeromonas sp. EERV15 is Aeromonas veronii B565, with an average 83% amino acid sequence similarity of putatively encoded protein open reading frames. PMID:27540061

  9. Draft Genome Sequence of Aeromonas sp. Strain EERV15.

    PubMed

    Ehsani, Elham; Barrantes, Israel; Vandermaesen, Johanna; Geffers, Robert; Jarek, Michael; Boon, Nico; Springael, Dirk; Pieper, Dietmar H; Vilchez-Vargas, Ramiro

    2016-01-01

    We report here the draft genome sequence of Aeromonas sp. strain EERV15 isolated from sand filter. The organism most closely related to Aeromonas sp. EERV15 is Aeromonas veronii B565, with an average 83% amino acid sequence similarity of putatively encoded protein open reading frames. PMID:27540061

  10. Meroterpenes from Penicillium sp found in association with Melia azedarach.

    PubMed

    Geris dos Santos, Regina M; Rodrigues-Fo, Edson

    2002-12-01

    A Penicillium sp was isolated from the root bark of Melia azedarach and cultivated over sterilized rice. After chromatographic procedures, two meroterpenes, named preaustinoid A and B, were obtained in addition to the known alkaloid verruculogen. Their structures were identified by extensive spectroscopic studies, and they exhibited moderate bacteriostatic effects on Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus aureus, Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Bacillus sp. PMID:12453515

  11. Gene structure and regulation of alkane monooxygenases in propane-utilizing Mycobacterium sp. TY-6 and Pseudonocardia sp. TY-7.

    PubMed

    Kotani, Tetsuya; Kawashima, Yui; Yurimoto, Hiroya; Kato, Nobuo; Sakai, Yasuyoshi

    2006-09-01

    Mycobacterium sp. TY-6 and Pseudonocardia sp. TY-7 were isolated from soil samples as propane-utilizing bacteria and were found to be able to utilize various gaseous and liquid n-alkanes as carbon and energy sources. One gene cluster, M-prmABCD, and two gene clusters, P-prm1ABCD and P-prm2ABCD, were cloned from the genomes of Mycobacterium sp. TY-6 and Pseudonocardia sp. TY-7, respectively. These gene clusters are homologous to the gene cluster encoding the multicomponent propane monooxygenase (prmABCD) of Gordonia sp. TY-5. The expression of prm gene clusters in Mycobacterium sp. TY-6 and Pseudonocardia sp. TY-7 was shown to be induced by gaseous n-alkanes (C2-C4) except methane, suggesting that the products of these genes are involved in gaseous n-alkane oxidation. Homologous genes for an alkane hydroxylase system (alk system) involved in liquid n-alkane oxidation were also cloned from the genomic DNA of Mycobacterium sp. TY-6. The alk gene cluster was transcribed in response to liquid n-alkanes (C11-C15). These results indicate that Mycobacterium sp. TY-6 has two distinct gene clusters for multicomponent monooxygenases involved in alkane oxidation. Whole-cell reactions revealed that propane is oxidized to 1-propanol through terminal oxidation in Mycobacterium sp. TY-6 and that propane is oxidized to 1-propanol and 2-propanol through both terminal and subterminal oxidations in Pseudonocardia sp. TY-7. This study reveals the diversity of propane metabolism present in microorganisms. PMID:17046531

  12. Meroterpenoids from a Tropical Dysidea sp. Sponge.

    PubMed

    Kim, Chang-Kwon; Woo, Jung-Kyun; Kim, Seong-Hwan; Cho, Eunji; Lee, Yeon-Ju; Lee, Hyi-Seung; Sim, Chung J; Oh, Dong-Chan; Oh, Ki-Bong; Shin, Jongheon

    2015-11-25

    Six new meroterpenoids (1-6), along with arenarol (7), a known rearranged drimane sesquiterpene hydroquinone, were isolated from a Dysidea sp. sponge collected from the Federated States of Micronesia. On the basis of the results of combined spectroscopic analysis, compound 1 was determined to be the cyclic ether derivative of 7, whereas 2 and 3 were assigned as the corresponding sesquiterpene quinones containing taurine-derived substituents. Compounds 4-6 possess a novel tetracyclic skeleton formed by a direct linkage between the quinone and sesquiterpene moieties. The configurations of these new compounds were assigned on the basis of combined NOESY and ECD analysis. These compounds exhibited cytotoxic and antimicrobial activities and weak inhibition against Na(+)/K(+)-ATPase. PMID:26551342

  13. The Behavior of Heterolepidoderma sp. (Gastrotricha).

    PubMed

    Banchetti, R; Nicola, R

    1998-01-01

    The behavior of Heterolepidoderma sp. was studied with the same approach as those already used for many species of ciliates. The ethogram we drew comprehends both helicoidal swimming (n = 20, r = 52.5 +/-12.2 mum, pitch = 512 +/- 101 mum, v--> = 215 +/- 43 mum/sec), periodically interrupted by irregular patterns changing the direction of the swimming of random angles and creeping on the substrate. The latter behavioral state, very common for the species we studied, occurs along tracks formed by successive elements (circular, C, vs linear segments, S) joined to each other by two kinds of reactions, which change their trajectory. The surprising similarities and the unexpected differences between the behavior of this gastrotrich and those of the ciliates already studied from this point of view are discussed, on the basis of the dimensional ranges and ecological niches shared by these two, definitely unrelated groups of organisms. PMID:18429665

  14. Electron microscope study of Sarcocystis sp

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Zeve, V.H.; Price, D.L.; Herman, C.M.

    1966-01-01

    Sarcocystis sp. obtained from wild populations of grackles, Quiscalus quiscula (Linn.), were examined to clarify the effect of the parasite on the host. Electron micrographs are presented to show areas of muscle destruction adjacent to the parasite which appear to be mechanically produced by the parasite. The microtubules within the villus-like projections of the cyst suggest that their possible function is absorptive and/or conductive with regard to the production of a toxin or the conveyance of nutritive material to the developing cells. The proposed function of submembranous filaments and their relation to the conoid is discussed. Similarities in the ultrastructure to Toxoplasma and other protozoa tend to negate the relegation of Sarcocystis to the fungi and further emphasize its protozoan nature.

  15. Benhamycin, novel alkaloid from terrestrial Streptomyces sp.

    PubMed

    Shaaban, Mohamed; Abdel-Aziz, Mohamed S

    2007-11-01

    During our screening for bioactive natural compounds from microorganisms, a novel alkaloid has been isolated from a terrestrial Streptomyces sp. isolate NR12, and named as benhamycin (1). This was along with the known metabolites, uracil, thymine, p-hydroxybenzoic acid, 2'-deoxyuridin, tryptophol, indolyl-3-carboxylic acid, and indolyl-3-carbaldehyde. Chemical structure of the novel compound was determined by detailed analysis of its spectroscopic data (extensive NMR experiments, 1 & 2D, MS spectroscopy, and MS high resolution). Structurally, Benhamycin (1) is a pentacyclic aromatic compound bearing an acridine moiety lactamized with benzene. Biological studies showed that the strain extract was moderately active against Gram-positive, Gram-negative bacteria and fungi.

  16. Biodegradation of malachite green by Ochrobactrum sp.

    PubMed

    Vijayalakshmidevi, S R; Muthukumar, Karuppan

    2014-02-01

    This study presents the biodegradation of malachite green (MG), a triphenylmethane dye, using a novel microorganism isolated from textile effluent contaminated environment. The organism responsible for degradation was identified as Ochrobactrum sp JN214485 by 16S rRNA analysis. The effect of operating parameters such as temperature, pH, immobilized bead loading, and initial dye concentration on % degradation was studied, and their optimal values were found to be 30 °C, 6, 20 g/L and 100 mg/L, respectively. The analysis showed that the extracellular enzymes were responsible for the degradation. The biodegradation of MG was confirmed by UV-visible spectroscopic and FTIR analysis. The phytotoxicity test concluded that the degradation products were less toxic compared to MG. The kinetics of biodegradation was studied and the activation energy was found to be 10.65 kcal/mol.

  17. Predicting fuel performance for SP-100 conditions

    SciTech Connect

    Baars, R.E.

    1985-01-01

    This paper reports on methods for analyzing fuel designs proposed for the thermionic and thermoelectric concepts for SP-100 application. The proposed fuel design for the thermionic concept consisted of fully-enriched oxide fuel clad in chemical vapor deposition (CVD) tungsten, which also served as the emitter for the thermionic fuel element (TFE). The fuel density was 95% of theoretical with the linear heat rate flattened radially by removing fuel from the center of the fuel pellet. The fuel inner diameter varied from approx.0.45 in. at the core center to zero at the edge of the core. The as-fabricated gap between fuel and emitter was 10 mils radial. The emitter thickness was 80 mils, and the outer diameter was 1.099 in. The LIFE-4 code was used for evaluation of this concept after extensive review of the code and development of a procedure that corrects certain deficiencies noted in analysis of several tests.

  18. The Behavior of Heterolepidoderma sp. (Gastrotricha).

    PubMed

    Banchetti, R; Nicola, R

    1998-01-01

    The behavior of Heterolepidoderma sp. was studied with the same approach as those already used for many species of ciliates. The ethogram we drew comprehends both helicoidal swimming (n = 20, r = 52.5 +/-12.2 mum, pitch = 512 +/- 101 mum, v--> = 215 +/- 43 mum/sec), periodically interrupted by irregular patterns changing the direction of the swimming of random angles and creeping on the substrate. The latter behavioral state, very common for the species we studied, occurs along tracks formed by successive elements (circular, C, vs linear segments, S) joined to each other by two kinds of reactions, which change their trajectory. The surprising similarities and the unexpected differences between the behavior of this gastrotrich and those of the ciliates already studied from this point of view are discussed, on the basis of the dimensional ranges and ecological niches shared by these two, definitely unrelated groups of organisms.

  19. [Cembranoid diterpenes from soft coral Sinularia sp].

    PubMed

    Lv, Fang; Wang, Xianjie; Dai, Rongji; Deng, Yulin

    2010-01-01

    A soft coral Sinularia sp., collected from the South China Sea, was selected to investigate the bioactive and chemical constituents. The EtOAc fraction were isolated by repeatedly silica gel and Sephadex LH-20 column chromatography to obtain lobophytolide A (1), 3-dehydroxylpresinularolide B (2), sarcophine (3), 3 beta-acetoxyisolobophytolide (4), Crassocolide D (5), (3E,7E,11E)-6-acetoxy-3,7,11,15(17)-cembratrien-16,14-olide (6). The structures of compounds 1-6 were determined on the basis of spectroscopic data analysis. All compounds were tested against a small panel of human tumor cell lines. And these compounds were obtained for the first time from this coral.

  20. New records of Porrocaecum sp. and Hysterothylacium sp. (Nematoda: Anisakidae) from fishes of Bay of Bengal.

    PubMed

    Lakshmi, I R; Rao, K H; Shyamasundary, K

    1990-01-01

    The present paper deals with new records of nematoda of the family Anisakidae Railliet et Henry, 1912. During a study of the parasites of marine fishes (shark, ray and marine teleosts) of Bay of Bengal, females of interesting nematode parasites were found in stomach and body cavity of Chiloscyllium indicum (Gmelin), Torpedo panthera (Olfers), Pomadasys masculatus Bloch and Sphyraena obtusata Cuvier from Visakhapatnam, Bheemunipatnam and Yarada (Andhra Pradesh). Most of the characters tally with Porrocaecum galeocerdonis and Hysterothylacium engraulisi, except for minor variations. Because of the non-availability of the male, it is not possible to assign the present specimens to any of the known species of the genera Porrocaecum and Hysterothylacium. Hence these are referred as Porrocaecum sp. and Hysterothylacium sp. Chiloscyllium indicum and Torpedo panthera are new host records. Visakhapatnam, Bheemunipatnam and Yarada are the new locality records. PMID:2152367

  1. Cryptococcus socialis sp. nov. and Cryptococcus consortionis sp. nov., Antarctic basidioblastomycetes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vishniac, H. S.

    1985-01-01

    New yeasts from the Ross Desert (dry valley area) of Antarctica include Cryptococcus socialis sp. nov. and Cryptococcus consortionis sp. nov. Cryptococcus socialis MYSW A801-3aY1 (= ATCC 56685) requires no vitamins, assimilates L-arabinose, cellobiose, D-glucuronate, maltose, melezitose, raffinose, soluble starch, sucrose, and trehalose, and may be distinguished from all other basidioblastomycetes by the combination of amylose production, cellobiose assimilation, and failure to utilize nitrate, D-galactose, myo-inositol, and mannitol. Its guanine-plus-cytosine content is 56 mol%. Cryptococcus consortionis MYSW A801-3aY92 (= ATCC 56686) requires thiamine, assimilates L-arabinose, D-glucuronate, 2-ketogluconate, salicin, succinate, sucrose, trehalose, and D-xylose, and may be distinguished from all other basidioblastomycetes by the combination of amylose production and failure to utilize nitrate, cellobiose, D-galactose, myo-inositol, and mannitol. Its guanine-plus-cytosine content is 56 mol%.

  2. Properties of Polyhydroxyalkanoate Granules and Bioemulsifiers from Pseudomonas sp. and Burkholderia sp. Isolates Growing on Glucose.

    PubMed

    Sacco, Laís Postai; Castellane, Tereza Cristina Luque; Lopes, Erica Mendes; de Macedo Lemos, Eliana Gertrudes; Alves, Lúcia Maria Carareto

    2016-03-01

    A Burkholderia and Pseudomonas species designated as AB4 and AS1, respectively, were isolated from soil containing decomposing straw or sugar cane bagasse collected from Brazil. This study sought to evaluate the capacities of culture media, cell-free medium, and crude lysate preparations (containing PHB inclusion bodies) from bacterial cell cultures to stabilize emulsions with several hydrophobic compounds. Four conditions showed good production of bioemulsifiers (E24 ≥ 50 %), headed by substantially cell-free media from bacterial cell cultures in which bacterial isolates from Burkholderia sp. strain AB4 and Pseudomonas sp. strain AS1 were grown. Our results revealed that the both isolates (AB4 and AS1 strains) exhibited high emulsification indices (indicating usefulness in bioremediation) and good stabilities. PMID:26578147

  3. Paracomesoma minor sp. n. and Microlaimus validus sp. n. (Nematoda) from the coast of Vietnam.

    PubMed

    Gagarin, Vladimir G; Tu, Nguyen Dinh

    2014-01-01

    Two nematode species isolated from sediments of the littoral zone of South China Sea on the coast of Vietnam are described and illustrated. Paracomesoma minor sp. n. is closely related to P. elegans Gagarin & Thanh, 2009 and P. lissum Gagarin & Thanh, 2009. It differs from the former species in the shorter body, longer and more slender tail, longer cephalic setae and shorter spicules, and from the latter species in the shorter body, longer cephalic setae, presence of cervical setae and smaller number of precloacal supplements in males. Microlaimus validus sp. n. is morphologically closest to M. citrus Gerlach, 1959 and M. nanus Blome, 1982 and differs from both species in the longer body, relatively shorter pharynx and relatively shorter and thicker tail.  PMID:25284664

  4. Electronic structures of zigzag silicene nanoribbons with asymmetric sp2-sp3 edges

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ding, Yi; Wang, Yanli

    2013-04-01

    The nanomaterials with peculiar spintronic characteristics, such as half-metals, spin gapless semiconductors [X. L. Wang, Phys. Rev. Lett. 100, 156404 (2008)], and bipolar magnetic semiconductors [Li et al., Nanoscale 4, 5680 (2012)], play the crucial role in nano-electronics and spintronics. Here, we report the zigzag silicene nanoribbons (ZSiNRs) with asymmetric sp2-sp3 edges are bipolar magnetic semiconductors due to the incorporation of Klein and zigzag edge states. With the bipolar feature, these asymmetric ZSiNRs can be altered to half-metals with opposite conductive spin channels by p-type and n-type dopings. Moreover, the semiconducting properties can also be tailored by the strain, which makes the nanoribbons into spin gapless semiconductors or ferromagnetic metals.

  5. Paracomesoma minor sp. n. and Microlaimus validus sp. n. (Nematoda) from the coast of Vietnam.

    PubMed

    Gagarin, Vladimir G; Tu, Nguyen Dinh

    2014-01-01

    Two nematode species isolated from sediments of the littoral zone of South China Sea on the coast of Vietnam are described and illustrated. Paracomesoma minor sp. n. is closely related to P. elegans Gagarin & Thanh, 2009 and P. lissum Gagarin & Thanh, 2009. It differs from the former species in the shorter body, longer and more slender tail, longer cephalic setae and shorter spicules, and from the latter species in the shorter body, longer cephalic setae, presence of cervical setae and smaller number of precloacal supplements in males. Microlaimus validus sp. n. is morphologically closest to M. citrus Gerlach, 1959 and M. nanus Blome, 1982 and differs from both species in the longer body, relatively shorter pharynx and relatively shorter and thicker tail. 

  6. ABSENCE OF THE SP/SP RECEPTOR CIRCUITRY IN THE SP PRECURSOR KNOCKOUT MICE OR SP-RECEPTOR, NEUROKININ (NK1) KNOCKOUT MICE LEADS TO AN INHIBITED CYTOKINE RESPONSE IN GRANULOMAS ASSOCIATED WITH MURINE TAENIA CRASSICEPS INFECTION

    PubMed Central

    Garza, Armandina; Weinstock, Joel; Robinson, Prema

    2008-01-01

    Neurocysticercosis, caused by the cestode Taenia solium, is the most common parasitic infection of the human central nervous system that leads to seizures. Taenia crassiceps cysticercosis in mice is an experimental model for Taenia solium cysticercosis. Similar to the human infection, live parasites cause little or no granulomatous inflammation. Dying parasites initiate a granulomatous reaction. The neuropeptide, Substance P (SP), stimulates Th1 cytokine production. In the current studies, we determined if absence of SP/SP receptor circuitry in the SP precursor, preprotachykinin knockout or SP-receptor, neurokinin (NK1) knockout mice, affected granuloma cytokine production. We hence compared the levels of Th1 cytokines, IL-2 and IFN-γ, and levels of Th2/immunoregulatory cytokines, IL-4 and IL-10, by ELISA in T. crassiceps-induced granulomas derived from infected C57BL/6 wild type (WT) versus SP-Precursor knockout and NK1 knockout mice. We found that mean levels of IL-2, IFN-γ, IL-4, and IL-10 in infected, WT-derived granulomas were significantly higher than those of granulomas derived from infected SP-Precursor knockout or the NK1 receptor knockout mice. Levels of Th2/immunoregulatory cytokines, IL-4 and IL-10, were higher in early stage granulomas (histologically-staged on basis of evidence of parasite remnants) versus late stage granulomas (no parasite-remnants) of both knockouts, whereas the reverse was noted in WT-derived granulomas. These studies established that the absence of an SP/SP receptor circuitry in the SP precursor knockout mice or NK1 receptor knockout led to an inhibited cytokine response. PMID:18576810

  7. Murine fertilized ovum, blastomere and morula cells lacking SP phenotype.

    PubMed

    Xu, YiXin; He, ZhiYing; Zhu, HaiYing; Chen, XueSong; Li, JianXiu; Zhang, HongXia; Pan, XingHua; Hu, YiPing

    2007-12-01

    In the field of stem cell research, SP (side population) phenotype is used to define the property that cells maintain a high efflux capability for some fluorescent dye, such as Hoechst 33342. Recently, many researches proposed that SP phenotype is a phenotype shared by some stem cells and some progenitor cells, and that SP phenotype is regarded as a candidate purification marker for stem cells. In this research, murine fertilized ova (including conjugate and single nucleus fertilized ova), 2-cell stage and 8-cell stage blastomeres, morulas and blastocysts were isolated and directly stained by Hoechst 33342 dye. The results show that fertilized ovum, blastomere and morula cells do not demonstrate any ability to efflux the dye. However, the inner cell mass (ICM) cells of blastocyst exhibit SP phenotype, which is consistent with the result of embryonic stem cells (ESCs) in vitro. These results indicate that the SP phenotype of ICM-derived ESCs is an intrinsic property and independent of the culture condition in vitro, and that SP phenotype is one of the characteristics of at least some pluripotent stem cells, but is not shared by totipotent stem cells. In addition, the result that the SP phenotype of ICM cells disappeared when the inhibitor verapamil was added into medium implies that the SP phenotype is directly associated with ABCG2. These results suggest that not all the stem cells demonstrate SP phenotype, and that SP phenotype might act as a purification marker for partial stem cells such as some pluripotent embryonic stem cells and multipotent adult stem cells, but not for all stem cells exampled by the totipotent stem cells in the very early stage of mouse embryos.

  8. Carbon-binding designer proteins that discriminate between sp2- and sp3-hybridized carbon surfaces.

    PubMed

    Coyle, Brandon L; Rolandi, Marco; Baneyx, François

    2013-04-16

    Robust and simple strategies to directly functionalize graphene- and diamond-based nanostructures with proteins are of considerable interest for biologically-driven manufacturing, biosensing, and bioimaging. Here, we identify a new set of carbon-binding peptides that vary in overall hydrophobicity and charge and engineer two of these sequences (Car9 and Car15) within the framework of E. coli thioredoxin 1 (TrxA). We develop purification schemes to recover the resulting TrxA derivatives in a soluble form and conduct a detailed analysis of the mechanisms that underpin the interaction of the fusion proteins with carbonaceous surfaces. Although equilibrium quartz crystal microbalance measurements show that TrxA::Car9 and TrxA::Car15 have similar affinities for sp(2)-hybridized graphitic carbon (Kd = 50 and 90 nM, respectively), only the latter protein is capable of dispersing carbon nanotubes. Further investigation by surface plasmon resonance and atomic force microscopy reveals that TrxA::Car15 interacts with sp(2)-bonded carbon through a combination of hydrophobic and π-π interactions but that TrxA::Car9 exhibits a cooperative mode of binding that relies on a combination of electrostatics and weaker π stacking. Consequently, we find that TrxA::Car9 binds equally well to sp(2)- and sp(3)-bonded (diamondlike) carbon particles whereas TrxA::Car15 is capable of discriminating between the two carbon allotropes. Our results emphasize the importance of understanding both bulk and molecular recognition events when exploiting the adhesive properties of solid-binding peptides and proteins in technological applications. PMID:23510486

  9. Carbon-Binding Designer Proteins that Discriminate between sp2- and sp3-Hybridized Carbon Surfaces

    PubMed Central

    Coyle, Brandon L.; Rolandi, Marco; Baneyx, François

    2013-01-01

    Robust and simple strategies to directly functionalize graphene- and diamond-based nanostructures with proteins are of considerable interest for biologically driven manufacturing, biosensing and bioimaging. Here, we identify a new set of carbon binding peptides that vary in overall hydrophobicity and charge, and engineer two of these sequences (Car9 and Car15) within the framework of E. coli Thioredoxin 1 (TrxA). We develop purification schemes to recover the resulting TrxA derivatives in a soluble form and conduct a detailed analysis of the mechanisms that underpin the interaction of the fusion proteins with carbonaceous surfaces. Although equilibrium quartz crystal microbalance measurements show that TrxA∷Car9 and TrxA∷Car15 have similar affinity for sp2-hybridized graphitic carbon (Kd = 50 and 90 nM, respectively), only the latter protein is capable of dispersing carbon nanotubes. Further investigation by surface plasmon resonance and atomic force microscopy reveals that TrxA∷Car15 interacts with sp2-bonded carbon through a combination of hydrophobic and π-π interactions but that TrxA∷Car9 exhibits a cooperative mode of binding which relies on a combination of electrostatics and weaker π-stacking. Consequently, we find that TrxA∷Car9 binds equally well to sp2- and sp3-bonded (diamond-like) carbon particles, while TrxA∷Car15 is capable of discriminating between the two carbon allotropes. Our results emphasize the importance of understanding both bulk and molecular recognition events when exploiting the adhesive properties of solid-binding peptides and proteins in technological applications. PMID:23510486

  10. Descriptions of Deladenus albizicus n. sp. and D. processus n. sp. (Nematoda: Hexatylina) from Haryana, India

    PubMed Central

    Tomar, V. V. S.; Somvanshi, Vishal S.; Bajaj, Harish K.

    2015-01-01

    Two different nematodes were isolated from the bark of Albizia lebbeck trees; one from insect infested and another from noninfested, healthy tree. Based on the biological, morphological, and molecular evidences, the nematodes are described as Deladenus albizicus n. sp. and D. processus n. sp. (Nematoda: Hexatylina). Deladenus albizicus n. sp., isolated from insect-infested tree, multiplied on the fungus Nigrospora oryzae. Myceliophagous females of this nematode reproduced by parthenogenesis and spermathecae were indistinct. Infective females, readily produced in the cultures, are dorsally curved. Only one type of males containing small-sized sperms in their genital tracts were produced in the culture. Myceliophagous females: L = 0.75 to 1.71 mm, a = 32.3 to 50.8, b = 9.3 to 11.2, b’ = 5.2 to 7.3, c = 27.2 to 35.6, V = 91.0 to 93.3, c’ = 2.0 to 2.9, stylet = 11 to 12 µm, excretory pore in the region of median pharyngeal bulb, 43 to 47 µm anterior to hemizonid. Deladenus processus n. sp., isolated from bark of healthy A. lebbeck tree, was cultured on Alternaria alternata. Myceliophagous females reproduced by amphimixis and their spermathecae contained rounded sperms. Infective females were never produced, even in old cultures. Myceliophagous females: L = 0.76 to 0.99 mm, a = 34 to 49, b = 13.3 to 17.7, b’ = 3.8 to 5.8, c = 19.6 to 22.8, V = 92.2 to 93.5, c’ = 2.7 to 3.5, stylet = 6 to 7 µm, excretory pore in the proximity of hemizonid, tail conoid, tapering from both sides to a long pointed central process. It is proposed to classify Deladenus species in three groups: durus, siricidicola, and laricis groups based on female and spermatogonia dimorphism, mode of reproduction, and insect parasitism. PMID:25861116

  11. Komagataella populi sp. nov. and Komagataella ulmi sp. nov., two new methanol assimilating yeasts from exudates of deciduous trees.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Two new species of the methanol assimilating ascosporic yeast genus Komagataella are described. Komagataella populi sp. nov. (NRRL YB-455, CBS 12362, type strain) was isolated from an exudate on a cottonwood tree (Populus deltoides), Peoria, Illinois, USA, and Komagataella ulmi sp. nov. (NRRL YB-407...

  12. Enzyme-linked imunoassays for the detection of Listeria sp. and Salmonella sp. in sausage: a comparison with conventional methods.

    PubMed

    Benetti, T M; Monteiro, C L B; Beux, M R; Abrahão, W M

    2013-01-01

    This study was carried out comparing the conventional methods (ISO 11290-1 and BAM method, 2008) and system mini-Vidas® (Biomerieux), for detection of Listeria sp. and Salmonella sp. in cooled sausage. The immunoenzymatic method has shown to be effective for the detection of target pathogens, it has presented itself as an excellent screening method. PMID:24516447

  13. Draft genome sequence of a Sphingomonas sp., an endosymbiotic bacterium isolated from an arctic lichen Umbilicaria sp.

    PubMed

    Lee, Jungeun; Shin, Seung Chul; Kim, Su Jin; Kim, Bum-Keun; Hong, Soon Gyu; Kim, Eun Hye; Park, Hyun; Lee, Hyoungseok

    2012-06-01

    Sphingomonas sp. strain PAMC 26617 has been isolated from an Arctic lichen Umbilicaria sp. on the Svalbard Islands. Here we present the draft genome sequence of this strain, which represents a valuable resource for understanding the symbiotic mechanisms between endosymbiotic bacteria and lichens surviving in extreme environments.

  14. Fusarium euwallaceae sp. nov.—a symbiotic fungus of Euwallacea sp., an invasive ambrosia beetle in Israel and California

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The invasive Asian ambrosia beetle Euwallacea sp. (Coleoptera, Scolytinae, Xyleborini) and a novel Fusarium sp. that it farms in its galleries as a source of nutrition seriously damage over 20 species of live trees and pose a serious threat to avocado production (Persea americana) in Israel and Cali...

  15. Enzyme-linked imunoassays for the detection of Listeria sp. and Salmonella sp. in sausage: a comparison with conventional methods.

    PubMed

    Benetti, T M; Monteiro, C L B; Beux, M R; Abrahão, W M

    2013-01-01

    This study was carried out comparing the conventional methods (ISO 11290-1 and BAM method, 2008) and system mini-Vidas® (Biomerieux), for detection of Listeria sp. and Salmonella sp. in cooled sausage. The immunoenzymatic method has shown to be effective for the detection of target pathogens, it has presented itself as an excellent screening method.

  16. H18 Carbon: A New Metallic Phase with sp2-sp3 Hybridized Bonding Network.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Chun-Xiang; Niu, Chun-Yao; Qin, Zhi-Jie; Ren, Xiao Yan; Wang, Jian-Tao; Cho, Jun-Hyung; Jia, Yu

    2016-01-01

    Design and synthesis of three-dimensional metallic carbons are currently one of the hot issues in contemporary condensed matter physics because of their fascinating properties. Here, based on first-principles calculations, we discover a novel stable metallic carbon allotrope (termed H18 carbon) in () symmetry with a mixed sp(2)-sp(3) hybridized bonding network. The dynamical stability of H18 carbon is verified by phonon mode analysis and molecular dynamics simulations, and its mechanical stability is analyzed by elastic constants, bulk modulus, and shear modulus. By simulating the x-ray diffraction patterns, we propose that H18 carbon would be one of the unidentified carbon phases observed in recent detonation experiments. The analysis of the band structure and density of states reveal that this new carbon phase has a metallic feature mainly due to the C atoms with sp(2) hybridization. This novel 3D metallic carbon phase is anticipated to be useful for practical applications such as electronic and mechanical devices. PMID:26903234

  17. Survey of Anisakis sp. and Hysterothylacium sp. in sardines and anchovies from the North Adriatic Sea.

    PubMed

    Cavallero, S; Magnabosco, C; Civettini, M; Boffo, L; Mingarelli, G; Buratti, P; Giovanardi, O; Fortuna, C M; Arcangeli, G

    2015-05-01

    The occurrence of larval Anisakidae and Raphidascarididae in anchovies and sardines from the North Adriatic Sea has been estimated. Anisakis pegreffii and Hysterothylacium aduncum were reported, with low prevalence values. In brief, a total amount of 7650 fish specimens collected between September 2011 and 2012 were analysed using three different inspection analyses: a visual inspection of the coelomic cavity, an examination of the viscera exploiting the positive hydro-tropism of the larvae (modified Baermann technique) and enzymatic digestion of muscular tissue pools. Low level of infestation was reported for Anisakis sp. in both in anchovies and sardines, while higher values were reported for Hysterothylacium sp. Subsamples of nematodes collected were characterized at species level using the molecular diagnostic key based on ITS nuclear ribosomal region, and A. pegreffii and H. aduncum were identified. The low prevalence of Anisakis sp. in sardines and anchovies from the North Adriatic Sea could be related to the peculiar distribution of cetaceans and carnivorous zooplankton in the investigated region and could be used as a potential tag to define oily fishes from this specific fishing area as at low-risk for anisakiasis.

  18. Ethmolaimus riparius sp. n. and Paramononchus major sp. n. (Nematoda) from Lake Baikal, Russia.

    PubMed

    Gagarin, Vladimir G; Naumova, Tatyana V

    2016-01-01

    Two new nematode species found in Lake Baikal (Russia) are described and illustrated. Ethmolaimus riparius sp. n. is morphologically close to E. pilosus Shoshin, 1998 and E. lanatus Shoshin, 1998. The new species differs from E. pilosus by the longer and thinner body (L = 1228-1501 µm, a = 26-34 vs L = 720-1070 µm, a = 19-23), larger stoma (26-32 µm long vs 19-24 µm long), longer spicules and gubernaculum (45-50 µm long and 21-25 µm long vs accordingly 32-37 µm long and 8 µm long). E. riparius sp. n. differs from E. lanatus by the longer body (L = 1228-1501 µm vs L = 680-1180), shorter cephalic setae (its length is equal 1.1-1.4 labial region diameter vs 1.6-2.1 labial region diameter) and longer spicules and gubernaculum (45-50 µm long and 21-25 µm long vs accordingly 25-30 µm long and 7-8 µm long). Paramononchus major sp. n is close to P. orientalis Gagarin & Naumova, 2012, but differs from it by the longer body (L = 5926-7820 µm vs L = 3081-3778 µm), longer spicules (410-475 µm long vs 208-238 µm long) and larger number of precloacal supplements (52-61 vs 21-24). Keys for the identification of valid species of the genera Ethmolaimus and Paramononchus are given. PMID:27394603

  19. H18 Carbon: A New Metallic Phase with sp2-sp3 Hybridized Bonding Network

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Chun-Xiang; Niu, Chun-Yao; Qin, Zhi-Jie; Ren, Xiao Yan; Wang, Jian-Tao; Cho, Jun-Hyung; Jia, Yu

    2016-01-01

    Design and synthesis of three-dimensional metallic carbons are currently one of the hot issues in contemporary condensed matter physics because of their fascinating properties. Here, based on first-principles calculations, we discover a novel stable metallic carbon allotrope (termed H18 carbon) in () symmetry with a mixed sp2-sp3 hybridized bonding network. The dynamical stability of H18 carbon is verified by phonon mode analysis and molecular dynamics simulations, and its mechanical stability is analyzed by elastic constants, bulk modulus, and shear modulus. By simulating the x-ray diffraction patterns, we propose that H18 carbon would be one of the unidentified carbon phases observed in recent detonation experiments. The analysis of the band structure and density of states reveal that this new carbon phase has a metallic feature mainly due to the C atoms with sp2 hybridization. This novel 3D metallic carbon phase is anticipated to be useful for practical applications such as electronic and mechanical devices. PMID:26903234

  20. Survey of Anisakis sp. and Hysterothylacium sp. in sardines and anchovies from the North Adriatic Sea.

    PubMed

    Cavallero, S; Magnabosco, C; Civettini, M; Boffo, L; Mingarelli, G; Buratti, P; Giovanardi, O; Fortuna, C M; Arcangeli, G

    2015-05-01

    The occurrence of larval Anisakidae and Raphidascarididae in anchovies and sardines from the North Adriatic Sea has been estimated. Anisakis pegreffii and Hysterothylacium aduncum were reported, with low prevalence values. In brief, a total amount of 7650 fish specimens collected between September 2011 and 2012 were analysed using three different inspection analyses: a visual inspection of the coelomic cavity, an examination of the viscera exploiting the positive hydro-tropism of the larvae (modified Baermann technique) and enzymatic digestion of muscular tissue pools. Low level of infestation was reported for Anisakis sp. in both in anchovies and sardines, while higher values were reported for Hysterothylacium sp. Subsamples of nematodes collected were characterized at species level using the molecular diagnostic key based on ITS nuclear ribosomal region, and A. pegreffii and H. aduncum were identified. The low prevalence of Anisakis sp. in sardines and anchovies from the North Adriatic Sea could be related to the peculiar distribution of cetaceans and carnivorous zooplankton in the investigated region and could be used as a potential tag to define oily fishes from this specific fishing area as at low-risk for anisakiasis. PMID:25662709

  1. Identification of a novel clip domain serine proteinase (Sp-cSP) and its roles in innate immune system of mud crab Scylla paramamosain.

    PubMed

    Sun, Wanwei; Li, Zhongzhen; Wang, Shasha; Wan, Weisong; Wang, Shuqi; Wen, Xiaobo; Zheng, Huaiping; Zhang, Yueling; Li, Shengkang

    2015-11-01

    Clip domain serine proteinases and their homologs are involved in the innate immunity of invertebrates. To identify the frontline defense molecules against pathogenic infection, we isolated a novel clip domain serine proteinase (Sp-cSP) from the hemocytes of mud crab Scylla paramamosain. The full-length 1362 bp Sp-cSP contains a 1155 bp open reading frame (ORF) encoding 384 amino acids. Multiple alignment analysis showed that the putative amino acid sequence of Sp-cSP has about 52% and 51% identity with Pt-cSP2 (AFA42360) and Pt-cSP3 (AFA42361) from Portunus trituberculatus, respectively, while the similarity with other cSP sequences was lower than 30%. However, all cSP sequences possess a conserved clip domain at the N-terminal and a Tryp-SPc domain at the C-terminal. The genomic organization of Sp-cSP consists of nine exons and eight introns, with some introns containing one or more tandem repeats. RT-PCR results indicated that Sp-cSP transcripts were predominantly expressed in the subcuticular epidermis, muscle and mid-intestine, but barely detectable in the brain and heart. Further, Sp-cSP transcripts were significantly up-regulated after challenge with lipopolysaccharides (LPS), Vibrio parahaemolyticus, polyinosinic polycytidylic acid (PolyI:C) or white spot syndrome virus (WSSV). Moreover, in vitro, the recombinant Sp-cSP revealed a strong antimicrobial activity against a Gram-positive (Staphylococcus aureus) and four Gram-negative (V. parahaemolyticus, Vibrio alginolyticus, Escherichia coli, Aeromonas hydrophila) bacteria in a dose-dependent manner. Taken together, the acute-phase response to immune challenges and the antimicrobial activity assay indicate that Sp-cSP is a potent immune protector and plays an important role in host defense against pathogen invasion in S. paramamosain.

  2. Identification of a novel clip domain serine proteinase (Sp-cSP) and its roles in innate immune system of mud crab Scylla paramamosain.

    PubMed

    Sun, Wanwei; Li, Zhongzhen; Wang, Shasha; Wan, Weisong; Wang, Shuqi; Wen, Xiaobo; Zheng, Huaiping; Zhang, Yueling; Li, Shengkang

    2015-11-01

    Clip domain serine proteinases and their homologs are involved in the innate immunity of invertebrates. To identify the frontline defense molecules against pathogenic infection, we isolated a novel clip domain serine proteinase (Sp-cSP) from the hemocytes of mud crab Scylla paramamosain. The full-length 1362 bp Sp-cSP contains a 1155 bp open reading frame (ORF) encoding 384 amino acids. Multiple alignment analysis showed that the putative amino acid sequence of Sp-cSP has about 52% and 51% identity with Pt-cSP2 (AFA42360) and Pt-cSP3 (AFA42361) from Portunus trituberculatus, respectively, while the similarity with other cSP sequences was lower than 30%. However, all cSP sequences possess a conserved clip domain at the N-terminal and a Tryp-SPc domain at the C-terminal. The genomic organization of Sp-cSP consists of nine exons and eight introns, with some introns containing one or more tandem repeats. RT-PCR results indicated that Sp-cSP transcripts were predominantly expressed in the subcuticular epidermis, muscle and mid-intestine, but barely detectable in the brain and heart. Further, Sp-cSP transcripts were significantly up-regulated after challenge with lipopolysaccharides (LPS), Vibrio parahaemolyticus, polyinosinic polycytidylic acid (PolyI:C) or white spot syndrome virus (WSSV). Moreover, in vitro, the recombinant Sp-cSP revealed a strong antimicrobial activity against a Gram-positive (Staphylococcus aureus) and four Gram-negative (V. parahaemolyticus, Vibrio alginolyticus, Escherichia coli, Aeromonas hydrophila) bacteria in a dose-dependent manner. Taken together, the acute-phase response to immune challenges and the antimicrobial activity assay indicate that Sp-cSP is a potent immune protector and plays an important role in host defense against pathogen invasion in S. paramamosain. PMID:26272638

  3. Scalability of Parallel Spatial Direct Numerical Simulations on Intel Hypercube and IBM SP1 and SP2

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Joslin, Ronald D.; Hanebutte, Ulf R.; Zubair, Mohammad

    1995-01-01

    The implementation and performance of a parallel spatial direct numerical simulation (PSDNS) approach on the Intel iPSC/860 hypercube and IBM SP1 and SP2 parallel computers is documented. Spatially evolving disturbances associated with the laminar-to-turbulent transition in boundary-layer flows are computed with the PSDNS code. The feasibility of using the PSDNS to perform transition studies on these computers is examined. The results indicate that PSDNS approach can effectively be parallelized on a distributed-memory parallel machine by remapping the distributed data structure during the course of the calculation. Scalability information is provided to estimate computational costs to match the actual costs relative to changes in the number of grid points. By increasing the number of processors, slower than linear speedups are achieved with optimized (machine-dependent library) routines. This slower than linear speedup results because the computational cost is dominated by FFT routine, which yields less than ideal speedups. By using appropriate compile options and optimized library routines on the SP1, the serial code achieves 52-56 M ops on a single node of the SP1 (45 percent of theoretical peak performance). The actual performance of the PSDNS code on the SP1 is evaluated with a "real world" simulation that consists of 1.7 million grid points. One time step of this simulation is calculated on eight nodes of the SP1 in the same time as required by a Cray Y/MP supercomputer. For the same simulation, 32-nodes of the SP1 and SP2 are required to reach the performance of a Cray C-90. A 32 node SP1 (SP2) configuration is 2.9 (4.6) times faster than a Cray Y/MP for this simulation, while the hypercube is roughly 2 times slower than the Y/MP for this application. KEY WORDS: Spatial direct numerical simulations; incompressible viscous flows; spectral methods; finite differences; parallel computing.

  4. SpIES: The Spitzer IRAC Equatorial Survey

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Timlin, John; Ross, Nicholas; Richards, Gordon T.; Lacy, Mark; Bauer, Franz E.; Brandt, W. Niel; Fan, Xiaohui; Haggard, Daryl; Makler, Martin; Myers, Adam D.; Schneider, Donald P.; Strauss, Michael A.; Urry, C. Megan; Zakamska, Nadia L.; SpIES Team

    2016-01-01

    We describe the first data release from the Spitzer-IRAC Equatorial Survey (SpIES); a large-area survey of the Equatorial SDSS Stripe 82 field using Warm Spitzer. SpIES was designed to probe enough volume to perform measurements of the z>3 quasar clustering and luminosity function in order to test various "AGN feedback'' models. Additionally, the wide range of multi-wavelength, multi-epoch ancillary data makes SpIES a prime location to identify both high-redshift (z>6) quasars as well as obscured quasars missed by optical surveys. SpIES maps ~115deg2 of Stripe 82 to depths of 6.3 uJy (21.9 AB Magnitudes) and 5.75 uJy (22.0 AB Magnitudes) at [3.6] and [4.5] microns respectively; depths significantly greater than WISE. Here we define the SpIES survey parameters and describe the image processing, source extraction, and catalog production methods used to analyze the SpIES data. Amongst our preliminary science results, we show high significance detections of spectroscopically confirmed, z~5 quasars in the SpIES data. This work is based [in part] on observations made with the Spitzer Space Telescope, which is operated by the Jet Propulsion Laboratory, California Institute of Technology under a contract with NASA. Support for this work was provided by NASA through an award issued by JPL/Caltech.

  5. Physiological TLR5 expression in the intestine is regulated by differential DNA binding of Sp1/Sp3 through simultaneous Sp1 dephosphorylation and Sp3 phosphorylation by two different PKC isoforms.

    PubMed

    Thakur, Bhupesh Kumar; Dasgupta, Nirmalya; Ta, Atri; Das, Santasabuj

    2016-07-01

    Toll-like receptor 5 (TLR5) expression in the intestinal epithelial cells (IECs) is critical to maintain health, as underscored by multiple intestinal and extra-intestinal diseases in mice genetically engineered for IEC-specific TLR5 knockout. A gradient of expression exists in the colonic epithelial cells from the cecum to the distal colon. Intriguingly, an identical gradient for the dietary metabolite, butyrate also exists in the luminal contents. However, both being critical for intestinal homeostasis and immune response, no studies examined the role of butyrate in the regulation of TLR5 expression. We showed that butyrate transcriptionally upregulates TLR5 in the IECs and augments flagellin-induced immune responses. Both basal and butyrate-induced transcription is regulated by differential binding of Sp-family transcription factors to the GC-box sequences over the TLR5 promoter. Butyrate activates two different protein kinase C isoforms to dephosphorylate/acetylate Sp1 by serine/threonine phosphatases and phosphorylate Sp3 by ERK-MAPK, respectively. This resulted in Sp1 displacement from the promoter and binding of Sp3 to it, leading to p300 recruitment and histone acetylation, activating transcription. This is the first study addressing the mechanisms of physiological TLR5 expression in the intestine. Additionally, a novel insight is gained into Sp1/Sp3-mediated gene regulation that may apply to other genes.

  6. Natural Anti-Infective Pulmonary Proteins: In Vivo Cooperative Action of Surfactant Protein SP-A and the Lung Antimicrobial Peptide SP-BN.

    PubMed

    Coya, Juan Manuel; Akinbi, Henry T; Sáenz, Alejandra; Yang, Li; Weaver, Timothy E; Casals, Cristina

    2015-08-15

    The anionic antimicrobial peptide SP-B(N), derived from the N-terminal saposin-like domain of the surfactant protein (SP)-B proprotein, and SP-A are lung anti-infective proteins. SP-A-deficient mice are more susceptible than wild-type mice to lung infections, and bacterial killing is enhanced in transgenic mice overexpressing SP-B(N). Despite their potential anti-infective action, in vitro studies indicate that several microorganisms are resistant to SP-A and SP-B(N). In this study, we test the hypothesis that these proteins act synergistically or cooperatively to strengthen each other's microbicidal activity. The results indicate that the proteins acted synergistically in vitro against SP-A- and SP-B(N)-resistant capsulated Klebsiella pneumoniae (serotype K2) at neutral pH. SP-A and SP-B(N) were able to interact in solution (Kd = 0.4 μM), which enabled their binding to bacteria with which SP-A or SP-B(N) alone could not interact. In vivo, we found that treatment of K. pneumoniae-infected mice with SP-A and SP-B(N) conferred more protection against K. pneumoniae infection than each protein individually. SP-A/SP-B(N)-treated infected mice showed significant reduction of bacterial burden, enhanced neutrophil recruitment, and ameliorated lung histopathology with respect to untreated infected mice. In addition, the concentrations of inflammatory mediators in lung homogenates increased early in infection in contrast with the weak inflammatory response of untreated K. pneumoniae-infected mice. Finally, we found that therapeutic treatment with SP-A and SP-B(N) 6 or 24 h after bacterial challenge conferred significant protection against K. pneumoniae infection. These studies show novel anti-infective pathways that could drive development of new strategies against pulmonary infections.

  7. SpIES: The Spitzer IRAC Equatorial Survey

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Timlin, John D.; Ross, Nicholas P.; Richards, Gordon T.; Lacy, Mark; Ryan, Erin L.; Stone, Robert B.; Bauer, Franz E.; Brandt, W. N.; Fan, Xiaohui; Glikman, Eilat; Haggard, Daryl; Jiang, Linhua; LaMassa, Stephanie M.; Lin, Yen-Ting; Makler, Martin; McGehee, Peregrine; Myers, Adam D.; Schneider, Donald P.; Urry, C. Megan; Wollack, Edward J.; Zakamska, Nadia L.

    2016-07-01

    We describe the first data release from the Spitzer-IRAC Equatorial Survey (SpIES); a large-area survey of ˜115 deg2 in the Equatorial SDSS Stripe 82 field using Spitzer during its “warm” mission phase. SpIES was designed to probe sufficient volume to perform measurements of quasar clustering and the luminosity function at z ≥slant 3 to test various models for “feedback” from active galactic nuclei (AGNs). Additionally, the wide range of available multi-wavelength, multi-epoch ancillary data enables SpIES to identify both high-redshift (z ≥slant 5) quasars as well as obscured quasars missed by optical surveys. SpIES achieves 5σ depths of 6.13 μJy (21.93 AB magnitude) and 5.75 μJy (22.0 AB magnitude) at 3.6 and 4.5 μm, respectively—depths significantly fainter than the Wide-field Infrared Survey Explorer (WISE). We show that the SpIES survey recovers a much larger fraction of spectroscopically confirmed quasars (˜98%) in Stripe 82 than are recovered by WISE (˜55%). This depth is especially powerful at high-redshift (z ≥slant 3.5), where SpIES recovers 94% of confirmed quasars, whereas WISE only recovers 25%. Here we define the SpIES survey parameters and describe the image processing, source extraction, and catalog production methods used to analyze the SpIES data. In addition to this survey paper, we release 234 images created by the SpIES team and three detection catalogs: a 3.6 μm only detection catalog containing ˜6.1 million sources, a 4.5 μm only detection catalog containing ˜6.5 million sources, and a dual-band detection catalog containing ˜5.4 million sources.

  8. SpIES: The Spitzer IRAC Equatorial Survey

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Timlin, John D.; Ross, Nicholas P.; Richards, Gordon, T.; Lacy, Mark; Ryan, Erin L.; Stone, Robert B.; Bauer, Franz, E.; Brandt, W. N.; Fan, Xiaohui; Glikman, Eilat; Lamassa, Stephanie M.; Urry, C. Megan; Wollack, Edward J.

    2016-01-01

    We describe the first data release from the Spitzer-IRAC Equatorial Survey (SpIES); a large-area survey of approx.115 sq deg in the Equatorial SDSS Stripe 82 field using Spitzer during its "warm" mission phase. SpIES was designed to probe sufficient volume to perform measurements of quasar clustering and the luminosity function at z > or = 3 to test various models for "feedback" from active galactic nuclei (AGNs). Additionally, the wide range of available multi-wavelength, multi-epoch ancillary data enables SpIES to identify both high-redshift (z > or = 5) quasars as well as obscured quasars missed by optical surveys. SpIES achieves 5 sigma depths of 6.13 µJy (21.93 AB magnitude) and 5.75 µJy (22.0 AB magnitude) at 3.6 and 4.5 microns, respectively-depths significantly fainter than the Wide-field Infrared Survey Explorer (WISE). We show that the SpIES survey recovers a much larger fraction of spectroscopically confirmed quasars (approx.98%) in Stripe 82 than are recovered by WISE (55%). This depth is especially powerful at high-redshift (z > or = 3.5), where SpIES recovers 94% of confirmed quasars, whereas WISE only recovers 25%. Here we define the SpIES survey parameters and describe the image processing, source extraction, and catalog production methods used to analyze the SpIES data. In addition to this survey paper, we release 234 images created by the SpIES team and three detection catalogs: a 3.6 microns only detection catalog containing approx. 6.1 million sources, a 4.5 microns only detection catalog containing approx. 6.5 million sources, and a dual-band detection catalog containing approx. 5.4 million sources.

  9. SP-NET: A draft signal processor network protocol

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Burns, David M.

    SP-net, a synchronous high-speed switched network that has been designed for signal processor backplanes, is discussed. The network uses bit-slicing to improve fault tolerance and to allow growth in the width of the data path. In addition, single-bit error detection has been included in the protocol. Although no company at present is building a network to the draft SP-net specifications, SP-net has several similarities to signal processor network designs by major defense contractors.

  10. Decreased lung compliance and air trapping in heterozygous SP-B-deficient mice.

    PubMed

    Clark, J C; Weaver, T E; Iwamoto, H S; Ikegami, M; Jobe, A H; Hull, W M; Whitsett, J A

    1997-01-01

    Genetic ablation of the murine SP-B gene in transgenic mice caused lethal perinatal respiratory distress in homozygous offspring, whereas heterozygous SP-B (+/-) mice survived postnatally. In adult SP-B(+/-) mice, surfactant protein B mRNA and the alveolar lavage SP-B protein were reduced by 50% compared with wild-type littermates, consistent with the inactivation of a single SP-B allele. Expression of SP-A, SP-C, and SP-D proteins was not affected in SP-B(+/-) mice. Heterozygous SP-B(+/-) mice reached maturity in numbers expected by Mendelian inheritance of a recessive gene. Lung morphology and both intracellular and extracellular phospholipid pool size and composition were unaltered in the SP-B(+/-) mice. Despite normal survival, pulmonary function studies demonstrated a consistent decrease in lung compliance in SP-B(+/-) mice. Abnormalities of inflation/deflation curves demonstrated airway collapse at low deflation pressures. Residual volumes were increased in the SP-B(+/-) mice. In summary, SP-B mRNA and SP-B protein were reduced by 50% in SP-B(+/-) mice, resulting in abnormalities of lung compliance and air trapping, suggesting a potential susceptibility to pulmonary dysfunction associated with SP-B deficiency.

  11. Description of Pristina armata n. sp. (Clitellata: Naididae: Pristininae) from a carnivorous plant (Nepenthes sp.) in Borneo, Indonesia.

    PubMed

    Schenková, Jana; Čermák, Václav

    2013-01-01

    A new clitellate species of Pristininae (Naididae), Pristina armata n. sp., found in the pitcher of the carnivorous plant Nepenthes sp., is reported from East Kalimantan, Indonesia. P. armata n. sp. is a very small clitellate, less than 1 mm long in fixed state, and without proboscis on the prostomium. Signs of reproduction by paratomy were observed, but the generic placement remains preliminary because sexually mature individuals were not found. P. armata n. sp. is characterized by giant hook-like dorsal chaetae at IV. The description of P. armata n. sp. was based on six fixed specimens of different size and stage of development. Noteworthy is the habitat of P. armata n. sp. in Nepenthes pitchers, this being the first clitellate species described from such a habitat. P. armata n. sp. may be a member of the nepenthebionts' community, realizing its life cycle inside the digestive fluid of the Nepenthes pitcher, or it belongs to nepenthephiles, species that commonly occur in this habitat but do not specialize on it.

  12. The sea urchin metallothionein system: Comparative evaluation of the SpMTA and SpMTB metal-binding preferences☆

    PubMed Central

    Tomas, Mireia; Domènech, Jordi; Capdevila, Mercè; Bofill, Roger; Atrian, Sílvia

    2013-01-01

    Metallothioneins (MTs) constitute a superfamily of ubiquitous metal-binding proteins of low molecular weight and high Cys content. They are involved in metal homeostasis and detoxification, amongst other proposed biological functions. Two MT isoforms (SpMTA and SpMTB) have been reported in the echinoderm Strongylocentrotus purpuratus (sea urchin), both containing 20 Cys residues and presenting extremely similar sequences, although showing distinct tissular and ontogenic expression patterns. Although exhaustive information is available for the Cd(II)-SpMTA complex, this including the full resolution of its 3D structure, no data has been reported concerning either SpMTA Zn(II) and Cu(I) binding properties, or the characterization of SpMTB at protein level. In this work, both the SpMTA and SpMTB isoforms, as well as their separate α and β domains, have been recombinantly synthesized in the presence of Zn(II), Cd(II) or Cu(II), and the corresponding metal complexes have been analyzed using electrospray mass spectrometry, and CD, ICP-AES and UV–vis spectroscopies. The results clearly show a better performance of isoform A when binding Zn(II) and Cd(II), and of isoform B when coordinating Cu(I). Thus, our results confirm the differential metal binding preference of SpMTA and SpMTB, which, together with the reported induction pattern of the respective genes, highlights how also in Echinodermata the MT polymorphism may be linked to the evolution of different physiological roles. PMID:23847757

  13. Plant growth promoting properties of Halobacillus sp. and Halomonas sp. in presence of salinity and heavy metals.

    PubMed

    Desale, Prithviraj; Patel, Bhargav; Singh, Sukrit; Malhotra, Aakshi; Nawani, Neelu

    2014-08-01

    Salinity and heavy metal stress are challenging problems in agriculture. Here we report the plant growth promoting ability of three moderate halophiles, Halobacillus sp. ADN1, Halomonas sp. MAN5, and Halobacillus sp. MAN6, in presence of both salinity and heavy metal stress. Halobacillus sp. ADN1, Halomonas sp. MAN5, and Halobacillus sp. MAN6 can tolerate 25, 21, and 29% NaCl, respectively and grow in presence of 1 mM cobalt, cadmium, and nickel and 0.04 mM mercury and 0.03 mM silver. Halobacillus sp. ADN1, Halomonas sp. MAN5, and Halobacillus sp. MAN6 produced 152.5, 95.3, and 167.3 µg/ml indole acetic acid (IAA) and could solubilize 61, 53, and 75 parts per million (ppm) phosphate, respectively in the presence of 15% NaCl. The production of IAA and solubilization of phosphate was well retained in the presence of salinity and heavy metals like 1 mM cadmium, 0.7 mM nickel, 0.04 mM mercury, and 0.03 mM silver. Besides, the strains showed amylase and protease activities and could produce hydrogen cyanide and ammonia in presence of salinity and heavy metals. A mixture of three strains enhanced the root growth of Sesuvium portulacastrum under saline and heavy metal stress, where the root length increased nearly 4.5 ± 0.6 times and root dry weight increased 5.4 ± 0.5 times as compared to control. These strains can thus be useful in microbial assisted phytoremediation of polluted saline soils.

  14. Cellulomonas bogoriensis sp. nov., an alkaliphilic cellulomonad.

    PubMed

    Jones, Brian E; Grant, William D; Duckworth, A W; Schumann, Peter; Weiss, Norbert; Stackebrandt, Erko

    2005-07-01

    An alkaliphilic, slightly halotolerant, chemo-organotrophic, Gram-positive, rod-shaped bacterium, strain 69B4(T), was isolated from the sediment of the littoral zone of Lake Bogoria, Kenya. Phylogenetically, it is a member of the genus Cellulomonas, showing less than 97.5 % sequence similarity to the type strains of other Cellulomonas species. The highest level of similarity, albeit moderate, was found with respect to Cellulomonas cellasea DSM 20118(T). Chemotaxonomic properties confirm the 16S rRNA gene-based generic affiliation, i.e. a DNA G+C content of 71.5 mol%, anteiso-C(15:0) and C(16:0) as the major fatty acids, MK-9(H(4)) as the major isoprenoid quinone, a peptidoglycan containing L-ornithine as the diamino acid and D-aspartic acid in the interpeptide bridge and phosphatidylglycerol as the only identified main polar lipid. The strain is aerobic to facultatively anaerobic, being capable of growth under strictly anaerobic conditions. Optimal growth occurs between pH values 9.0 and 10.0. On the basis of its distinct phylogenetic position and metabolic properties, strain 69B4(T) represents a novel species of the genus Cellulomonas, for which the name Cellulomonas bogoriensis sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is 69B4(T) (=DSM 16987(T)=CIP 108683(T)).

  15. Systematic Enumeration of sp(3) Nanothreads.

    PubMed

    Xu, En-shi; Lammert, Paul E; Crespi, Vincent H

    2015-08-12

    Slow decompression of crystalline benzene in large-volume high-pressure cells has recently achieved synthesis of a novel one-dimensional allotrope of sp(3) carbon in which stacked columns of benzene molecules rehybridize into an ordered crystal of nanothreads. The progenitor benzene molecules function as six-valent one-dimensional superatoms with multiple binding sites. Here we enumerate their hexavalent bonding geometries, recognizing that the repeat unit of interatomic connectivity ("topological unit cell") need not coincide with the crystallographic unit cell, and identify the most energetically favorable cases. A topological unit cell of one or two benzene rings with at least two bonds interconnecting each adjacent pair of rings, accommodates 50 topologically distinct nanothreads, 15 of which are within 80 meV/carbon atom of the most stable member. Optimization of aperiodic helicity reveals the most stable structures to be chiral. We generalize Euler's rules for ring counting to cover this new form of very thin one-dimensional carbon, calculated their physical properties, and propose a naming convention that can be generalized to handle nanothreads formed from other progenitor molecules. PMID:26207926

  16. Detection of Plasmodium sp. in capybara.

    PubMed

    dos Santos, Leonilda Correia; Curotto, Sandra Mara Rotter; de Moraes, Wanderlei; Cubas, Zalmir Silvino; Costa-Nascimento, Maria de Jesus; de Barros Filho, Ivan Roque; Biondo, Alexander Welker; Kirchgatter, Karin

    2009-07-01

    In the present study, we have microscopically and molecularly surveyed blood samples from 11 captive capybaras (Hydrochaeris hydrochaeris) from the Sanctuary Zoo for Plasmodium sp. infection. One animal presented positive on blood smear by light microscopy. Polymerase chain reaction was carried out accordingly using a nested genus-specific protocol, which uses oligonucleotides from conserved sequences flanking a variable sequence region in the small subunit ribosomal RNA (ssrRNA) of all Plasmodium organisms. This revealed three positive animals. Products from two samples were purified and sequenced. The results showed less than 1% divergence between the two capybara sequences. When compared with GenBank sequences, a 55% similarity was obtained to Toxoplasma gondii and a higher similarity (73-77.2%) was found to ssrRNAs from Plasmodium species that infect reptile, avian, rodents, and human beings. The most similar Plasmodium sequence was from Plasmodium mexicanum that infects lizards of North America, where around 78% identity was found. This work is the first report of Plasmodium in capybaras, and due to the low similarity with other Plasmodium species, we suggest it is a new species, which, in the future could be denominated "Plasmodium hydrochaeri".

  17. Sphingomonas sanxanigenens sp. nov., isolated from soil.

    PubMed

    Huang, Hai-Dong; Wang, Wei; Ma, Ting; Li, Guo-Qiang; Liang, Feng-Lai; Liu, Ru-Lin

    2009-04-01

    Strain NX02(T), a Gram-negative, non-spore-forming, rod-shaped bacterium, was isolated from soil, and its taxonomic position was investigated using a polyphasic approach. Chemotaxonomic analysis revealed that strain NX02(T) possessed Q-10 as the predominant ubiquinone, sym-homospermidine as the major polyamine and C(18 : 1)omega7c, C(16 : 0) and C(14 : 0) 2-OH as the major fatty acids. The main polar lipids were sphingoglycolipid, phosphatidylcholine, phosphatidylglycerol, diphosphatidylglycerol, phosphatidylethanolamine, phosphatidylmonomethylethanolamine, phosphatidyldimethylethanolamine and an unidentified glycolipid. The DNA G+C content was 66.4 mol%. Phylogenetic analysis based on 16S rRNA gene sequences showed that strain NX02(T) belongs to the alpha-4 subgroup of the Proteobacteria, exhibiting the highest sequence similarity with respect to Sphingomonas azotifigens NBRC 15497(T) (95.9 %), Sphingomonas pituitosa DSM 13101(T) (95.8 %) and Sphingomonas dokdonensis KCTC 12541(T) (95.8 %). On the basis of these results, strain NX02(T) represents a novel species of the genus Sphingomonas sensu stricto, for which the name Sphingomonas sanxanigenens sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is NX02(T) (=DSM 19645(T) =CGMCC 1.6417(T)).

  18. Sphingomonas dokdonensis sp. nov., isolated from soil.

    PubMed

    Yoon, Jung-Hoon; Lee, Mi-Hwa; Kang, So-Jung; Lee, Soo-Young; Oh, Tae-Kwang

    2006-09-01

    A Gram-negative, rod-shaped, Sphingomonas-like bacterial strain, DS-4(T), was isolated from soil of Dokdo, Korea, and its taxonomic position was investigated using a polyphasic approach. Strain DS-4(T) grew optimally on trypticase soy agar medium without NaCl at pH 6.0-6.5 and 25 degrees C. It contained Q-10 as the predominant ubiquinone and C(18 : 1)omega7c, C(16 : 0), C(14 : 0) 2-OH and C(16 : 1)omega7c and/or iso-C(15 : 0) 2-OH as the major fatty acids. Sphingoglycolipid, phosphatidylcholine, phosphatidylglycerol, diphosphatidylglycerol, phosphatidylethanolamine and unidentified phospholipid were the major polar lipids. The DNA G+C content was 66.9 mol%. Phylogenetic analysis based on 16S rRNA gene sequences showed that strain DS-4(T) fell within the evolutionary radiation comprising Sphingomonas species. Levels of 16S rRNA gene sequence similarity between strain DS-4(T) and the type strains of Sphingomonas species ranged from 93.0 to 97.6 %. DNA-DNA relatedness data and differential phenotypic properties, together with the phylogenetic distinctiveness, demonstrated that strain DS-4(T) differs from the recognized Sphingomonas species. On the basis of phenotypic, phylogenetic and genetic data, this strain represents a novel species of the genus Sphingomonas, for which the name Sphingomonas dokdonensis sp. nov. is proposed, with DS-4(T) (=KCTC 12541(T)=CIP 108841(T)) as the type strain.

  19. Clostridium jejuense sp. nov., isolated from soil.

    PubMed

    Jeong, Hyunyoung; Yi, Hana; Sekiguchi, Yuji; Muramatsu, Mizuho; Kamagata, Yoichi; Chun, Jongsik

    2004-09-01

    A strictly anaerobic, mesophilic, endospore-forming bacterium, designated strain HY-35-12T, was isolated from a soil sample in Jeju, Korea. Cells of this isolate were Gram-positive, motile rods that formed oval to spherical terminal spores. Strain HY-35-12T grew optimally at 30 degrees C, pH 7.0 and 0-0.5 % (w/v) NaCl. The isolate produced pyruvate, lactate, acetate, formate and hydrogen as fermentation end products from glucose. The G + C content of DNA of the isolate was 41 mol%. Phylogenetic analysis based on 16S rRNA gene sequences revealed that the organism formed a monophyletic clade with Clostridium xylanovorans and Clostridium aminovalericum in cluster XIVa of the genus Clostridium. The closest phylogenetic neighbour was C. xylanovorans, with 96.65 % 16S rRNA gene sequence similarity. Several physiological and chemotaxonomic properties were identified that enable strain HY-35-12T to be distinguished from phylogenetically related clostridia. On the basis of polyphasic characteristics, it is proposed that strain HY-35-12T (= IMSNU 40003T = KCTC 5026T = DSM 15929T) represents a novel species, Clostridium jejuense sp. nov.

  20. Respiration patterns of resting wasps (Vespula sp.)

    PubMed Central

    Käfer, Helmut; Kovac, Helmut; Stabentheiner, Anton

    2013-01-01

    We investigated the respiration patterns of wasps (Vespula sp.) in their viable temperature range (2.9–42.4 °C) by measuring CO2 production and locomotor and endothermic activity. Wasps showed cycles of an interburst–burst type at low ambient temperatures (Ta < 5 °C) or typical discontinuous gas exchange patterns with closed, flutter and open phases. At high Ta of >31 °C, CO2 emission became cyclic. With rising Ta they enhanced CO2-emission primarily by an exponential increase in respiration frequency, from 2.6 mHz at 4.7 °C to 74 mHz at 39.7 °C. In the same range of Ta CO2 release per cycle decreased from 38.9 to 26.4 μl g−1 cycle−1. A comparison of wasps with other insects showed that they are among the insects with a low respiratory frequency at a given resting metabolic rate (RMR), and a relatively flat increase of respiratory frequency with RMR. CO2 emission was always accompanied by abdominal respiration movements in all open phases and in 71.4% of the flutter phases, often accompanied by body movements. Results suggest that resting wasps gain their highly efficient gas exchange to a considerable extent via the length and type of respiration movements. PMID:23399474

  1. Dokdonia pacifica sp. nov., isolated from seawater.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Zenghu; Gao, Xin; Wang, Long; Zhang, Xiao-Hua

    2015-07-01

    A Gram-stain-negative, aerobic, non-flagellated, non-gliding, oxidase- and catalase-positive, rod-shaped, yellow-pigmented bacterium, designated strain SW230(T), was isolated from a surface seawater sample collected from the South Pacific Gyre. Phylogenetic analysis based on 16S rRNA gene sequences indicated that strain SW230(T) shared highest similarity with members of the genus Dokdonia (95.0-94.5%), exhibiting 95.0% sequence similarity to Dokdonia genika NBRC 100811(T). Optimal growth occurred in the presence of 2-3% (w/v) NaCl, at pH 8.0 and at 28 °C. The DNA G+C content of strain SW230(T) was 36 mol%. The major fatty acids (>10% of the total) were iso-C15:1 G, iso-C15:0, iso-C17:0 3-OH, and C16:1 ω7c and/or C16:1ω6c. The major respiratory quinone was menaquinone-6. The major polar lipids were phosphatidylethanolamine, two unidentified aminolipids and two unidentified lipids. On the basis of data from the present polyphasic study, strain SW230(T) is considered to represent a novel species of the genus Dokdonia, for which the name Dokdonia pacifica sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is SW230(T) ( = CGMCC 1.12184(T) = JCM 18216(T)). PMID:25862384

  2. Sphingobium vermicomposti sp. nov., isolated from vermicompost.

    PubMed

    Vaz-Moreira, Ivone; Faria, Cátia; Lopes, Ana R; Svensson, Liselott; Falsen, Enevold; Moore, Edward R B; Ferreira, António C Silva; Nunes, Olga C; Manaia, Célia M

    2009-12-01

    Strain VC-230(T) was isolated from homemade vermicompost produced from kitchen waste. The isolate was a Gram-negative-staining, catalase- and oxidase-positive, motile rod-shaped bacterium able to grow at 15-37 degrees C and pH 6-8. On the basis of 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis, strain VC-230(T) was determined to belong to the family Sphingomonadaceae by its clustering with type strains of the genus Sphingobium, with Sphingobium chlorophenolicum ATCC 33790(T) (97.7 %) and Sphingobium herbicidovorans DSM 11019(T) (97.4 %) as its closest neighbours. The polar lipid pattern, the presence of spermidine and ubiquinone 10, the predominance of the cellular fatty acids C(18 : 1)omega7c/9t/12t, C(16 : 1)omega7c and C(16 : 0) and the G+C content of the genomic DNA supported the affiliation of this organism to the genus Sphingobium. The phylogenetic, chemotaxonomic, phenotypic and DNA-DNA hybridization analyses verify that strain VC-230(T) represents a novel species, for which the name Sphingobium vermicomposti sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is VC-230(T) (=CCUG 55809(T) =DSM 21299(T)).

  3. Floating assembly of diatom Coscinodiscus sp. microshells.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yu; Pan, Junfeng; Cai, Jun; Zhang, Deyuan

    2012-03-30

    Diatoms have silica frustules with transparent and delicate micro/nano scale structures, two dimensional pore arrays, and large surface areas. Although, the diatom cells of Coscinodiscus sp. live underwater, we found that their valves can float on water and assemble together. Experiments show that the convex shape and the 40 nm sieve pores of the valves allow them to float on water, and that the buoyancy and the micro-range attractive forces cause the valves to assemble together at the highest point of water. As measured by AFM calibrated glass needles fixed in manipulator, the buoyancy force on a single floating valve may reach up to 10 μN in water. Turning the valves over, enlarging the sieve pores, reducing the surface tension of water, or vacuum pumping may cause the floating valves to sink. After the water has evaporated, the floating valves remained in their assembled state and formed a monolayer film. The bonded diatom monolayer may be valuable in studies on diatom based optical devices, biosensors, solar cells, and batteries, to better use the optical and adsorption properties of frustules. The floating assembly phenomenon can also be used as a self-assembly method for fabricating monolayer of circular plates. PMID:22387476

  4. Campylobacter iguaniorum sp. nov., isolated from reptiles.

    PubMed

    Gilbert, Maarten J; Kik, Marja; Miller, William G; Duim, Birgitta; Wagenaar, Jaap A

    2015-03-01

    During sampling of reptiles for members of the class Epsilonproteobacteria, strains representing a member of the genus Campylobacter not belonging to any of the established taxa were isolated from lizards and chelonians. Initial amplified fragment length polymorphism, PCR and 16S rRNA sequence analysis showed that these strains were most closely related to Campylobacter fetus and Campylobacter hyointestinalis. A polyphasic study was undertaken to determine the taxonomic position of five strains. The strains were characterized by 16S rRNA and atpA sequence analysis, matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization time-of-flight (MALDI-TOF) mass spectrometry and conventional phenotypic testing. Whole-genome sequences were determined for strains 1485E(T) and 2463D, and the average nucleotide and amino acid identities were determined for these strains. The strains formed a robust phylogenetic clade, divergent from all other species of the genus Campylobacter. In contrast to most currently known members of the genus Campylobacter, the strains showed growth at ambient temperatures, which might be an adaptation to their reptilian hosts. The results of this study clearly show that these strains isolated from reptiles represent a novel species within the genus Campylobacter, for which the name Campylobacter iguaniorum sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is 1485E(T) ( = LMG 28143(T) = CCUG 66346(T)).

  5. Respiration patterns of resting wasps (Vespula sp.).

    PubMed

    Käfer, Helmut; Kovac, Helmut; Stabentheiner, Anton

    2013-04-01

    We investigated the respiration patterns of wasps (Vespula sp.) in their viable temperature range (2.9-42.4°C) by measuring CO2 production and locomotor and endothermic activity. Wasps showed cycles of an interburst-burst type at low ambient temperatures (Ta<5°C) or typical discontinuous gas exchange patterns with closed, flutter and open phases. At high Ta of >31°C, CO2 emission became cyclic. With rising Ta they enhanced CO2-emission primarily by an exponential increase in respiration frequency, from 2.6 mHz at 4.7°C to 74 mHz at 39.7°C. In the same range of Ta CO2 release per cycle decreased from 38.9 to 26.4 μl g(-1)cycle(-1). A comparison of wasps with other insects showed that they are among the insects with a low respiratory frequency at a given resting metabolic rate (RMR), and a relatively flat increase of respiratory frequency with RMR. CO2 emission was always accompanied by abdominal respiration movements in all open phases and in 71.4% of the flutter phases, often accompanied by body movements. Results suggest that resting wasps gain their highly efficient gas exchange to a considerable extent via the length and type of respiration movements.

  6. Preliminary SP-100/Stirling heat exchanger designs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schmitz, Paul; Tower, Leonard; Dawson, Ronald; Blue, Brian; Dunn, Pat

    1993-01-01

    Analytic modeling of several heat exchanger concepts to couple the SP-100 nuclear reactor primary lithium loop and the Space Stirling Power Convertor (SSPC) was performed. Four 25 kWe SSPC's are used to produce the required 100 kW of electrical power. This design work focused on the interface between a single SSPC and the primary lithium loop. Manifolding to separate and collect the four channel flow was not modeled. This work modeled two separate types of heat exchanger interfaces (conductive coupling and radiative coupling) to explore their relative advantages and disadvantages. The minimum mass design of the conductively coupled concepts was 18 kg or 0.73 kg/kWe for a single 25 kWe convertor. The minimum mass radiatively coupled concept was 41 kg or 1.64 kg/kWe. The direct conduction heat exchanger provides a lighter weight system because of its ability to operate the Stirling convertor evaporator at higher heat fluxes than those attainable by the radiatively coupled systems. Additionally the conductively coupled concepts had relatively small volumes and provide potentially simpler assembly. Their disadvantages were the tight tolerances and material joining problems associated with this refractory to superalloy interface. The advantages of the radiatively coupled designs were the minimal material interface problems.

  7. Citrobacter bitternis sp. nov. isolated from bitterns.

    PubMed

    Ko, Kwan Soo; Choi, Ji-Young; Kim, Joo; Park, Myoung Kyu

    2015-06-01

    In this study, we reported two gram-negative bacteria that were isolated from bitterns, designated as SKKU-TP7(T) and SKKU-TP20, representing a novel species of Citrobacter. Based on the 16S rRNA gene sequences, the two strains were found to be closely related and showed the highest pairwise similarity with Citrobacter farmeri CDC 2992-81(T) (97.1-97.3 %) and other Citrobacter species. Cellular fatty acid analysis revealed that the profiles of strains SKKU-TP7(T) and SKKU-TP20 were similar to those of related species of Citrobacter. The major cellular fatty acids were C16:0 (31.5 %), summed feature 3 (C16:1 ω7c, C16:1 ω6c, 19.7 %), summed feature 8 (C18:1 ω7c, C18:1 ω6c, 11.9 %), C17:0 cyclo (10.7 %), and summed feature 2 (C12:0 aldehyde/unknown 10928, 9.5 %). Although the strains could utilize sucrose and raffinose as a carbon source, they did not produce ornithine decarboxylase and urease. The biochemical and genotypic characteristics indicate that strains SKKU-TP7(T) and SKKU-TP20 represent a novel species of Citrobacter, for which the name Citrobacter bitterns sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is SKKU-TP7(T) (=KCTC 42139(T) = JCM 30009(T)).

  8. Polaromonas glacialis sp. nov. and Polaromonas cryoconiti sp. nov., isolated from alpine glacier cryoconite.

    PubMed

    Margesin, Rosa; Spröer, Cathrin; Zhang, De-Chao; Busse, Hans-Jürgen

    2012-11-01

    The taxonomic positions of two Gram-staining-negative, psychrophilic bacteria, which were isolated from alpine glacier cryoconite and designated strains Cr4-12(T) and Cr4-35(T), were investigated using a polyphasic approach. Both novel strains contained ubiquinone Q-8 as the sole quinone, summed feature 3 (C(16:1)ω7c and/or C(16:1)ω6c) and C(16:0) as the dominant cellular fatty acids, putrescine and 2-hydroxyputrescine as the major polyamines, and diphosphatidylglycerol, phosphatidylglycerol and phosphatidylethanolamine as the major polar lipids. The genomic DNA G+C contents of strains Cr4-12(T) and Cr4-35(T) were 61.3 mol% and 60.7 mol%, respectively. Phylogenetic analysis based on 16S rRNA gene sequences indicated that the two strains belonged to the genus Polaromonas. Although the 16S rRNA gene sequences of strains Cr4-12(T) and Cr4-35(T) were very similar (98.7% sequence similarity), hybridizations indicated a DNA-DNA relatedness value of only 26.9% between the two novel strains. In pairwise comparisons with the type strains of recognized Polaromonas species, strains Cr4-12(T) and Cr4-35(T) showed 16S rRNA gene sequence similarities of 96.4-98.5% and 96.5-98.4%, respectively. Based on the phenotypic and phylogenetic evidence and DNA-DNA relatedness data, strains Cr4-12(T) and Cr4-35(T) represent two novel species within the genus Polaromonas, for which the names Polaromonas glacialis sp. nov. and Polaromonas cryoconiti sp. nov., respectively, are proposed. The type strain of Polaromonas glacialis sp. nov. is Cr4-12(T) (=DSM 24062(T) =LMG 26049(T) =KACC 15089(T)) and that of Polaromonas cryoconiti sp. nov. is Cr4-35(T) (=DSM 24248(T) =LMG 26050(T) =KACC 15090(T)).

  9. An annotated checklist of Acanthocephala from Australian fish.

    PubMed

    Smales, Lesley R; Weaver, Haylee J

    2015-07-13

    Thirty one genera, comprising 58 named species, 15 undetermined species and nine species known only as cystacanths from paratenic fish hosts were found infesting 144 marine, esturine and freshwater species of fish from Australian and Australian Antarctic waters. Host habitats are given and the distribution and records of the acanthocephalans are given. A key to these parasites at the generic level is provided.

  10. An annotated checklist of Acanthocephala from Australian fish.

    PubMed

    Smales, Lesley R; Weaver, Haylee J

    2015-01-01

    Thirty one genera, comprising 58 named species, 15 undetermined species and nine species known only as cystacanths from paratenic fish hosts were found infesting 144 marine, esturine and freshwater species of fish from Australian and Australian Antarctic waters. Host habitats are given and the distribution and records of the acanthocephalans are given. A key to these parasites at the generic level is provided. PMID:26250039

  11. Redescription of Acanthosentis acanthuri Cable et Quick 1954 (Acanthocephala: Quadrigyridae).

    PubMed

    Schmidt, G D

    1975-10-01

    Acanthosentis acanthuri Cable et Quick 1954 is redescribed from the type host, Acanthurus coeruleus, from Tobago, W.I. The sizes of proboscis hooks in the 3 circles is corrected to 66 to 88 mu, 30 to 40 mu, and 30 to 40 mu. PMID:1185426

  12. Maribacter gen. nov., a new member of the family Flavobacteriaceae, isolated from marine habitats, containing the species Maribacter sedimenticola sp. nov., Maribacter aquivivus sp. nov., Maribacter orientalis sp. nov. and Maribacter ulvicola sp. nov.

    PubMed

    Nedashkovskaya, Olga I; Kim, Seung Bum; Han, Suk Kyun; Lysenko, Anatoly M; Rohde, Manfred; Rhee, Moon-Soo; Frolova, Galina M; Falsen, Enevold; Mikhailov, Valery V; Bae, Kyung Sook

    2004-07-01

    Six novel gliding, heterotrophic, Gram-negative, yellow-pigmented, aerobic, oxidase- and catalase-positive bacteria were isolated from the green alga Ulva fenestrata, sea water and a bottom sediment sample collected in the Gulf of Peter the Great, Sea of Japan. 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis revealed that the strains studied were members of the family Flavobacteriaceae. On the basis of their phenotypic, chemotaxonomic, genotypic and phylogenetic characteristics, the novel bacteria have been assigned to the new genus Maribacter gen. nov., as Maribacter sedimenticola sp. nov., Maribacter orientalis sp. nov., Maribacter aquivivus sp. nov. and Maribacter ulvicola sp. nov., with the type strains KMM 3903T (=KCTC 12966T=CCUG 47098T), KMM 3947T (=KCTC 12967T=CCUG 48008T), KMM 3949T (=KCTC 12968T=CCUG 48009T) and KMM 3951T (=KCTC 12969T=DSM 15366T), respectively.

  13. Launch vehicle integration requirements for SP-100. Technical information report

    SciTech Connect

    Shaw, L.T. Jr.; Womack, J.R.

    1984-03-01

    SP-100 is the designation for a nuclear reactor-based power plant being developed for both civil and military missions beginning in the 1990s for such potential space applications as communication satellites, space radar, electric propulsion and space stations. Typically, a system using the SP-100 along with a selected upper stage system would be launched by the National Space Transportation System (NSTS) Space Shuttle System into a near-earth orbit, deployed, and through upper stage propulsion burn(s) be inserted/transferred to its mission orbit. The nature of the advanced design SP-100 payloads using this power plant are physically and functionally compatible with the NSTS and meet the safety requirements thereof. The purpose of this document is to define and present the requirements and interface provisions that, when satisfied, will ensure technical compatibility between SP-100 systems and the NSTS.

  14. Itinerant ferromagnetism in fermionic systems with SP (2 N) symmetry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Wang; Wu, Congjun

    The Ginzburg-Landau free energy of systems with SP (2 N) symmetry describes a second order phase transition on the mean field level, since the Casimir invariants of the SP (2 N) group can be only of even order combinations of the generators of the SP (2 N) group. This is in contrast with systems having the SU (N) symmetry, where the allowance of cubic term generally makes the phase transition into first order. In this work, we consider the Hertz-Millis type itinerant ferromagnetism in an interacting fermionic system with SP (2 N) symmetry, where the ferromagnetic orders are enriched by the multi-component nature of the system. The quantum criticality is discussed near the second order phase transition point.

  15. ERECTING SHOP INTERIOR, WITH UNRESTORED SP 1771, 260 STEAM LOCOMOTVE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    ERECTING SHOP INTERIOR, WITH UNRESTORED SP 1771, 2-6-0 STEAM LOCOMOTVE IN FOREGROUND, LOOKING NORTHEAST. - Southern Pacific, Sacramento Shops, Erecting Shop, 111 I Street, Sacramento, Sacramento County, CA

  16. Users guide for the ANL IBM SP1

    SciTech Connect

    Gropp, W.; Lusk, E.; Pieper, S.C.

    1994-10-01

    This guide presents the features of the IBM SP1 installed in the Mathematics and Computer Science Division at Argonne National Laboratory. The guide describes the available hardware and software, access policies, and hints for using the system productively.

  17. Two new alkaloids from marine sponge Callyspongia sp.

    PubMed

    Yang, Bin; Tao, Huaming; Zhou, Xuefeng; Lin, Xiu-Ping; Liu, Yonghong

    2013-03-01

    Two new alkaloids, callylactam A (1) and callyimine A (4), along with three known ones (2, 3 and 5), were isolated from the marine sponge Callyspongia sp. The structures were determined on the basis of NMR and MS analysis.

  18. Lustromycin, a new antibiotic produced by Streptomyces sp.

    PubMed

    Tomoda, H; Iwata, R; Takahashi, Y; Iwai, Y; Oiwa, R; Omura, S

    1986-09-01

    A new antibiotic, lustromycin, was isolated from the cultured broth of Streptomyces sp. SK-1071. It exhibits selective antibacterial activity against anaerobic bacteria including Clostridium sp. The molecular formula C32H38O13 as determined by high resolution mass spectrometry, and elemental analysis and the NMR spectrum suggest structural resemblance of this antibiotic to luminamicin, an anti-anaerobic antibiotic reported previously. PMID:3781918

  19. SP8 regulates signaling centers during craniofacial development.

    PubMed

    Kasberg, Abigail D; Brunskill, Eric W; Steven Potter, S

    2013-09-15

    Much of the bone, cartilage and smooth muscle of the vertebrate face is derived from neural crest (NC) cells. During craniofacial development, the anterior neural ridge (ANR) and olfactory pit (OP) signaling centers are responsible for driving the outgrowth, survival, and differentiation of NC populated facial prominences, primarily via FGF. While much is known about the functional importance of signaling centers, relatively little is understood of how these signaling centers are made and maintained. In this report we describe a dramatic craniofacial malformation in mice mutant for the zinc finger transcription factor gene Sp8. At E14.5 they show facial prominences that are reduced in size and underdeveloped, giving an almost faceless phenotype. At later times they show severe midline defects, excencephaly, hyperterlorism, cleft palate, and a striking loss of many NC and paraxial mesoderm derived cranial bones. Sp8 expression was primarily restricted to the ANR and OP regions during craniofacial development. Analysis of an extensive series of conditional Sp8 mutants confirmed the critical role of Sp8 in signaling centers, and not directly in the NC and paraxial mesoderm cells. The NC cells of the Sp8 mutants showed increased levels of apoptosis and decreased cell proliferation, thereby explaining the reduced sizes of the facial prominences. Perturbed gene expression in the Sp8 mutants was examined by laser capture microdissection coupled with microarrays, as well as in situ hybridization and immunostaining. The most dramatic differences included striking reductions in Fgf8 and Fgf17 expression in the ANR and OP signaling centers. We were also able to achieve genetic and pharmaceutical partial rescue of the Sp8 mutant phenotype by reducing Sonic Hedgehog (SHH) signaling. These results show that Sp8 primarily functions to promote Fgf expression in the ANR and OP signaling centers that drive the survival, proliferation, and differentiation of the NC and paraxial

  20. SP8 regulates signaling centers during craniofacial development

    PubMed Central

    Kasberg, Abigail D.; Brunskill, Eric W.; Potter, S. Steven

    2014-01-01

    Much of the bone, cartilage and smooth muscle of the vertebrate face is derived from neural crest (NC) cells. During craniofacial development, the anterior neural ridge (ANR) and olfactory pit (OP) signaling centers are responsible for driving the outgrowth, survival, and differentiation of NC populated facial prominences, primarily via FGF. While much is known about the functional importance of signaling centers, relatively little is understood of how these signaling centers are made and maintained. In this report we describe a dramatic craniofacial malformation in mice mutant for the zinc finger transcription factor gene Sp8. At E14.5 they show facial prominences that are reduced in size and underdeveloped, giving an almost faceless phenotype. At later times they show severe midline defects, excencephaly, hyperterlorism, cleft palate, and a striking loss of many NC and paraxial mesoderm derived cranial bones. Sp8 expression was primarily restricted to the ANR and OP regions during craniofacial development. Analysis of an extensive series of conditional Sp8 mutants confirmed the critical role of Sp8 in signaling centers, and not directly in the NC and paraxial mesoderm cells. The NC cells of the Sp8 mutants showed increased levels of apoptosis and decreased cell proliferation, thereby explaining the reduced sizes of the facial prominences. Perturbed gene expression in the Sp8 mutants was examined by laser capture microdissection coupled with microarrays, as well as in situ hybridization and immunostaining. The most dramatic differences included striking reductions in Fgf8 and Fgf17 expression in the ANR and OP signaling centers. We were also able to achieve genetic and pharmaceutical partial rescue of the Sp8 mutant phenotype by reducing Sonic Hedgehog (SHH) signaling. These results show that Sp8 primarily functions to promote Fgf expression in the ANR and OP signaling centers that drive the survival, proliferation, and differentiation of the NC and paraxial

  1. Environmental interactions and the SP-100 power system

    SciTech Connect

    Ferguson, D.C.

    1993-01-01

    The Civil Space Technology Initiative High-Capacity-Power Environmental Interactions Program has made great progress in defining and evaluating the interactions of the SP-100 power system with its expected ambient environments. The NASCAP/LEO and POLAR computer codes demonstrated that local electric fields at the user interface module are high. Therefore, particular attention must be paid to geometries and materials in this region to prevent arcing at conductor-insulator junctions in low Earth orbit. NASCAP/LEO and EPSAT computer models revealed that SP-100 payloads float about 100 V negative of the LEO plasma. In addition, ground tests and modeling done for the Space Station Freedom Electrical Grounding Tiger Team found that dielectric coatings often break down at such voltages in a plasma. Thus, surface coatings for SP-100 payloads should be carefully selected. Sputtering may also be a concern for long-duration missions in LEO at these voltages. Much work has been done on a sputtering model to evaluate surface material loss rates on SP-100 payloads. In ground plasma chamber tests of cables and cable insulators at SP-100 voltages, parasitic power losses due to the plasma current collected from possible pinholes or coating defects were quantified and shown to be small. Modeling revealed that the power loss from currents to other surfaces is also small. The atomic oxygen durability of SP-100 materials and coatings continues to be investigated in ground tests. In the upcoming Evaluation of Oxygen Interaction with Materials (EOIM-3) Shuttle flight experiment, a host of SP-100 materials will be evaluated for atomic oxygen durability in LEO. Finally, an evaluation of the interactions of the SP-100 power system with lunar and planetary environments has started. At a workshop on chemical and electrical interactions on Mars recently held at the NASA Lewis Research Center, many of primary interactions were identified.

  2. Alkylated benzothiophene desulfurization by Rhodococcus sp. strain T09.

    PubMed

    Matsui, T; Onaka, T; Tanaka, Y; Tezuka, T; Suzuki, M; Kurane, R

    2000-03-01

    A benzothiophene desulfurizing bacterium was isolated and identified as Rhodococcus sp. strain T09. Growth assays revealed that this strain assimilated, as the sole sulfur source, various organosulfur compounds that cannot be assimilated by the well-studied dibenzothiophene-desulfurizing Rhodococcus sp. IGTS8. The cellular growth rate of strain T09 for the alkylated benzothiophenes depended on the alkylated position and the length of the alkyl moiety.

  3. Three new Scandinavian species of Culicoides (Culicoides): Culicoides boyi sp. nov., Culicoides selandicus sp. nov. and Culicoides kalix sp. nov. (Diptera: Ceratopogonidae)

    PubMed Central

    Kristensen, Michael; Pape, Thomas

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Background In the context of a major monitoring program of Culicoides in Denmark and Sweden due to the appearance of bluetongue disease in 2007–2008, a large number of specimens were collected by light traps and sorted morphologically, with COI barcodes generated for selected specimens. New information Three species are described as new to science based on both morphological and molecular data: Culicoides (Culicoides) boyi sp. nov. (Denmark: Jutland), C. (C.) selandicus sp. nov. (Denmark: Zealand) and C. (C.) kalix sp. nov. (Sweden: Norrbotten). All are diagnosed morphologically as well as by molecular barcoding. A key to slide-mounted females of all Scandinavian species of Culicoides (Culicoides) is presented. PMID:26696760

  4. A new species of Loxosomatidae (Entoprocta, Solitaria) from the White Sea: Loxosomella unicornis sp. nov.

    PubMed

    Borisanova, Anastasiya O; Krylova, Elena M

    2014-09-15

    A new solitary entoproct, Loxosomella unicornis sp. nov., is described. The species was found on the gymnolaemate bryozoans Cribrilina sp. and Electra sp. in Kandalaksha Bay, White Sea. Loxosomella unicornis sp. nov. is a medium-sized species with a total length up to 650 µm, eight tentacles and a conspicuous horn-shaped appendage on the top part of calyx. 

  5. Evidence for cooperative mineralization of diuron by Arthrobacter sp. BS2 and Achromobacter sp. SP1 isolated from a mixed culture enriched from diuron exposed environments.

    PubMed

    Devers-Lamrani, Marion; Pesce, Stéphane; Rouard, Nadine; Martin-Laurent, Fabrice

    2014-12-01

    Diuron was found to be mineralized in buffer strip soil (BS) and in the sediments (SED) of the Morcille river in the Beaujolais vineyard repeatedly treated with this herbicide. Enrichment cultures from BS and SED samples led to the isolation of three bacterial strains transforming diuron to 3,4-dichloroaniline (3,4-DCA) its aniline derivative. 16S rRNA sequencing revealed that they belonged to the genus Arthrobacter (99% of similarity to Arthrobacter globiformis strain K01-01) and were designated as Arthrobacter sp. BS1, BS2 and SED1. Diuron-degrading potential characterized by sequencing of the puhA gene, characterizing the diuron-degradaing potential, revealed 99% similarity to A. globiformis strain D47 puhA gene isolated a decade ago in the UK. These isolates were also able to use chlorotoluron for their growth. Although able to degrade linuron and monolinuron to related aniline derivatives they were not growing on them. Enrichment cultures led to the isolation of a strain from the sediments entirely degrading 3,4-DCA. 16S rRNA sequence analysis showed that it was affiliated to the genus Achromobacter (99% of similarity to Achromobacter sp. CH1) and was designated as Achromobacter sp. SP1. The dcaQ gene encoding enzyme responsible for the transformation of 3,4-DCA to chlorocatechol was found in SP1 with 99% similarity to that of Comamonas testosteroni WDL7. This isolate also used for its growth a range of anilines (3-chloro-4-methyl-aniline, 4-isopropylaniline, 4-chloroaniline, 3-chloroaniline, 4-bromoaniline). The mixed culture composed of BS2 and SP1 strains entirely mineralizes (14)C-diuron to (14)CO2. Diuron-mineralization observed in the enrichment culture could result from the metabolic cooperation between these two populations. PMID:25061887

  6. Pin1-mediated Sp1 phosphorylation by CDK1 increases Sp1 stability and decreases its DNA-binding activity during mitosis.

    PubMed

    Yang, Hang-Che; Chuang, Jian-Ying; Jeng, Wen-Yih; Liu, Chia-I; Wang, Andrew H-J; Lu, Pei-Jung; Chang, Wen-Chang; Hung, Jan-Jong

    2014-12-16

    We have shown that Sp1 phosphorylation at Thr739 decreases its DNA-binding activity. In this study, we found that phosphorylation of Sp1 at Thr739 alone is necessary, but not sufficient for the inhibition of its DNA-binding activity during mitosis. We demonstrated that Pin1 could be recruited to the Thr739(p)-Pro motif of Sp1 to modulate the interaction between phospho-Sp1 and CDK1, thereby facilitating CDK1-mediated phosphorylation of Sp1 at Ser720, Thr723 and Thr737 during mitosis. Loss of the C-terminal end of Sp1 (amino acids 741-785) significantly increased Sp1 phosphorylation, implying that the C-terminus inhibits CDK1-mediated Sp1 phosphorylation. Binding analysis of Sp1 peptides to Pin1 by isothermal titration calorimetry indicated that Pin1 interacts with Thr739(p)-Sp1 peptide but not with Thr739-Sp1 peptide. X-ray crystallography data showed that the Thr739(p)-Sp1 peptide occupies the active site of Pin1. Increased Sp1 phosphorylation by CDK1 during mitosis not only stabilized Sp1 levels by decreasing interaction with ubiquitin E3-ligase RNF4 but also caused Sp1 to move out of the chromosomes completely by decreasing its DNA-binding activity, thereby facilitating cell cycle progression. Thus, Pin1-mediated conformational changes in the C-terminal region of Sp1 are critical for increased CDK1-mediated Sp1 phosphorylation to facilitate cell cycle progression during mitosis.

  7. Peptoniphilus duerdenii sp. nov. and Peptoniphilus koenoeneniae sp. nov., isolated from human clinical specimens.

    PubMed

    Ulger-Toprak, Nurver; Lawson, Paul A; Summanen, Paula; O'Neal, Lindsey; Finegold, Sydney M

    2012-10-01

    Two previously uncharacterized strains of Gram-reaction-positive, anaerobic, coccus-shaped bacteria, designated strains WAL 18896(T) and WAL 18898(T), were recovered from human wound specimens and characterized using phenotypic, chemotaxonomic and molecular taxonomic methods. Comparative 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis and chemotaxonomic and biochemical characteristics demonstrated that these organisms are genotypically and phenotypically distinct and represent previously unidentified sublines within the order Clostridiales in the phylum Firmicutes. Pairwise sequence analysis demonstrated that the novel organisms had 91.9% sequence similarity to each other and were most closely related to members of the genus Peptoniphilus. The major long-chain fatty acids of both strains were C(16:0,) C(18:0), C(18:1)ω9c and C(18:2)ω6,9c. Based on the phenotypic and phylogenetic findings, strains WAL 18896(T) ( = CCUG 56065(T)  = ATCC BAA-1640(T)) and WAL 18898(T) ( = CCUG 56067(T)  = ATCC BAA-1638(T)  = DSM 22616(T)) represent two novel species, for which the names Peptoniphilus duerdenii sp. nov. and Peptoniphilus koenoeneniae sp. nov. are proposed, respectively. PMID:22140159

  8. Streptococcus orisasini sp. nov. and Streptococcus dentasini sp. nov., isolated from the oral cavity of donkeys.

    PubMed

    Takada, Kazuko; Saito, Masanori; Tsudukibashi, Osamu; Hiroi, Takachika; Hirasawa, Masatomo

    2013-08-01

    Four Gram-positive, catalase-negative, coccoid isolates that were obtained from donkey oral cavities formed two distinct clonal groups when characterized by phenotypic and phylogenetic studies. From the results of biochemical tests, the organisms were tentatively identified as a streptococcal species. Comparative 16S rRNA gene sequencing studies confirmed the organisms to be members of the genus Streptococcus. Two of the isolates were related most closely to Streptococcus ursoris with 95.6 % similarity based on the 16S rRNA gene and to Streptococcus ratti with 92.0 % similarity based on the 60 kDa heat-shock protein gene (groEL). The other two isolates, however, were related to Streptococcus criceti with 95.0 and 89.0 % similarities based on the 16S rRNA and groEL genes, respectively. From both phylogenetic and phenotypic evidence, the four isolates formed two distinct clonal groups and are suggested to represent novel species of the genus Streptococcus. The names proposed for these organisms are Streptococcus orisasini sp. nov. (type strain NUM 1801(T) = JCM 17942(T) = DSM 25193(T)) and Streptococcus dentasini sp. nov. (type strain NUM 1808(T) = JCM 17943(T) = DSM 25137(T)).

  9. Streptococcus loxodontisalivarius sp. nov. and Streptococcus saliviloxodontae sp. nov., isolated from oral cavities of elephants.

    PubMed

    Saito, Masanori; Shinozaki-Kuwahara, Noriko; Hirasawa, Masatomo; Takada, Kazuko

    2014-09-01

    Four Gram-stain-positive, catalase-negative, coccoid-shaped organisms were isolated from elephant oral cavities. The isolates were tentatively identified as streptococcal species based on the results of biochemical tests. Comparative 16S rRNA gene sequencing studies confirmed the organisms to be members of the genus Streptococcus. Two isolates (NUM 6304(T) and NUM 6312) were related most closely to Streptococcus salivarius with 96.8 % and 93.1 % similarity based on the 16S rRNA gene and the RNA polymerase β subunit encoding gene (rpoB), respectively, and to Streptococcus vestibularis with 83.7 % similarity based on the 60 kDa heat-shock protein gene (groEL). The other two isolates (NUM 6306(T) and NUM 6318) were related most closely to S. vestibularis with 97.0 % and 82.9 % similarity based on the 16S rRNA and groEL genes, respectively, and to S. salivarius with 93.5 % similarity based on the rpoB gene. Based on phylogenetic and phenotypic evidence, these isolates are suggested to represent novel species of the genus Streptococcus, for which the names Streptococcus loxodontisalivarius sp. nov. (type strain NUM 6304(T) = JCM 19287(T) = DSM 27382(T)) and Streptococcus saliviloxodontae sp. nov. (type strain NUM 6306(T) = JCM 19288(T) = DSM 27513(T)) are proposed.

  10. Streptococcus moroccensis sp. nov. and Streptococcus rifensis sp. nov., isolated from raw camel milk.

    PubMed

    Kadri, Zaina; Amar, Mohamed; Ouadghiri, Mouna; Cnockaert, Margo; Aerts, Maarten; El Farricha, Omar; Vandamme, Peter

    2014-07-01

    Two catalase- and oxidase-negative Streptococcus-like strains, LMG 27682(T) and LMG 27684(T), were isolated from raw camel milk in Morocco. Comparative 16S rRNA gene sequencing assigned these bacteria to the genus Streptococcus with Streptococcus rupicaprae 2777-2-07(T) as their closest phylogenetic neighbour (95.9% and 95.7% similarity, respectively). 16S rRNA gene sequence similarity between the two strains was 96.7%. Although strains LMG 27682(T) and LMG 27684(T) shared a DNA-DNA hybridization value that corresponded to the threshold level for species delineation (68%), the two strains could be distinguished by multiple biochemical tests, sequence analysis of the phenylalanyl-tRNA synthase (pheS), RNA polymerase (rpoA) and ATP synthase (atpA) genes and by their MALDI-TOF MS profiles. On the basis of these considerable phenotypic and genotypic differences, we propose to classify both strains as novel species of the genus Streptococcus, for which the names Streptococcus moroccensis sp. nov. (type strain, LMG 27682(T)  = CCMM B831(T)) and Streptococcus rifensis sp. nov. (type strain, LMG 27684(T)  = CCMM B833(T)) are proposed.

  11. Cellulomonas soli sp. nov. and Cellulomonas oligotrophica sp. nov., isolated from soil.

    PubMed

    Hatayama, Kouta; Esaki, Kouji; Ide, Teruhiko

    2013-01-01

    Two novel bacterial strains, designated Kc1(T) and Kc5(T), were isolated from soil in Japan. Cells of the novel strains were Gram-reaction-positive, aerobic or facultatively anaerobic, motile rods. Phylogenetic analyses based on 16S rRNA gene sequences indicated that both strains belonged to the genus Cellulomonas. The 16S rRNA gene sequences of strains Kc1(T) and Kc5(T) showed closest similarity to that of Cellulomonas terrae DB5(T) (98.1 % and 98.4 % similarity, respectively), and the 16S rRNA gene similarity between the two novel strains was 97.8 %. In both strains, the major menaquinone was MK-9(H(4)), the predominant polar lipids were diphosphatidylglycerol and phosphatidylinositol mannosides, and the peptidoglycan contained ornithine and glutamic acid. Cell-wall sugars were identified as rhamnose, galactose and mannose in strain Kc1(T) and rhamnose and glucose in strain Kc5(T). The DNA G+C contents of strains Kc1(T) and Kc5(T) were 73.6 mol% and 75.8 mol%, respectively. Based on the chemotaxonomic and physiological data and the results of DNA-DNA hybridizations, the two strains represent two novel species within the genus Cellulomonas, for which the names Cellulomonas soli sp. nov. (type strain Kc1(T) =DSM 24484(T) =JCM 17535(T)) and Cellulomonas oligotrophica sp. nov. (type strain Kc5(T) =DSM 24482(T) =JCM 17534(T)) are proposed.

  12. Microsphaerol and seimatorone: two new compounds isolated from the endophytic fungi, Microsphaeropsis sp. and Seimatosporium sp.

    PubMed

    Hussain, Hidayat; Root, Natalia; Jabeen, Farah; Al-Harrasi, Ahmed; Ahmad, Manzoor; Mabood, Fazal; Hassan, Zahid; Shah, Afzal; Green, Ivan R; Schulz, Barbara; Krohn, Karsten

    2015-02-01

    A new polychlorinated triphenyl diether named microsphaerol (1), has been isolated from the endophtic fungus Microsphaeropsis sp. An intensive phytochemical investigation of the endophytic fungus Seimatosporium sp., led to the isolation of a new naphthalene derivative named seimatorone (2) and eight known compounds, i.e., 1-(2,6-dihydroxyphenyl)-3-hydroxybutan-1-one (3), 1-(2,6-dihydroxyphenyl)butan-1-one (4), 1-(2-hydroxy-6-methoxyphenyl)butan-1-one (5), 5-hydroxy-2-methyl-4H-chromen-4-one (6), 2,3-dihydro-5-hydroxy-2-methyl-4H-chromen-4-one (7), 8-methoxynaphthalen-1-ol (8), nodulisporins A and B (9 and 10, resp.), and daldinol (11). The structures of 1 and 2 were elucidated by detailed spectroscopic analysis including (1) H- and (13) C-NMR, COSY, HMQC, HMBC, and HR-EI-MS, while the structures of the known compounds were deduced from comparison of their spectral data with those in the literature. Preliminary studies revealed that microsphaerol (1) showed good antibacterial activities against B. Megaterium and E. coli, and good antilagal and antifungal activities against C. fusca, M. violaceum, respectively. On the other hand, seimatorone (2) exhibited moderate antibacterial, antialgal, and antifungal activities.

  13. Streptomyces chlorus sp. nov. and Streptomyces viridis sp. nov., isolated from soil.

    PubMed

    Kim, Byung-Yong; Rong, Xiaoying; Zucchi, Tiago D; Huang, Ying; Goodfellow, Michael

    2013-05-01

    Two actinomycete strains, BK125(T) and BK199(T), isolated from a hay meadow soil sample were investigated to determine their taxonomic position using a polyphasic approach. The isolates produced greenish-yellow and light green aerial mycelium on oatmeal agar, respectively. They contained anteiso-C15 : 0, iso-C15 : 0 and C16 : 0 as the major fatty acids, and MK-9 (H6) and MK-9 (H8) as the predominant isoprenoid quinones. Phylogenetic analysis of the 16S rRNA gene sequences showed that the isolates formed distinct phyletic lines towards the periphery of the Streptomyces prasinus subclade. Analysis of DNA-DNA relatedness between the two isolates showed that they belonged to different genomic species. The organisms were also distinguished from one another and from type strains of species classified in the S. prasinus subclade using a combination of genotypic and phenotypic properties. On the basis of these data, it is proposed that the isolates be assigned to the genus Streptomyces as Streptomyces chlorus sp. nov. and Streptomyces viridis sp. nov. with isolates BK125(T) ( = KACC 20902(T) = CGMCC 4.5798(T)) and BK199(T) ( = KACC 21003(T) = CGMCC 4.6824(T)) as the respective type strains. PMID:22922536

  14. Listeria booriae sp. nov. and Listeria newyorkensis sp. nov., from food processing environments in the USA.

    PubMed

    Weller, Daniel; Andrus, Alexis; Wiedmann, Martin; den Bakker, Henk C

    2015-01-01

    Sampling of seafood and dairy processing facilities in the north-eastern USA produced 18 isolates of Listeria spp. that could not be identified at the species-level using traditional phenotypic and genotypic identification methods. Results of phenotypic and genotypic analyses suggested that the isolates represent two novel species with an average nucleotide blast identity of less than 92% with previously described species of the genus Listeria. Phylogenetic analyses based on whole genome sequences, 16S rRNA gene and sigB gene sequences confirmed that the isolates represented by type strain FSL M6-0635(T) and FSL A5-0209 cluster phylogenetically with Listeria cornellensis. Phylogenetic analyses also showed that the isolates represented by type strain FSL A5-0281(T) cluster phylogenetically with Listeria riparia. The name Listeria booriae sp. nov. is proposed for the species represented by type strain FSL A5-0281(T) ( =DSM 28860(T) =LMG 28311(T)), and the name Listeria newyorkensis sp. nov. is proposed for the species represented by type strain FSL M6-0635(T) ( =DSM 28861(T) =LMG 28310(T)). Phenotypic and genotypic analyses suggest that neither species is pathogenic.

  15. Streptomyces erringtonii sp. nov. and Streptomyces kaempferi sp. nov., isolated from a hay meadow soil.

    PubMed

    Santhanam, Rakesh; Rong, Xiaoying; Huang, Ying; Goodfellow, Michael

    2013-01-01

    Two filamentous actinomycetes isolated from a hay meadow soil were provisionally assigned to the genus Streptomyces based on morphological features. The isolates were found to have chemical and morphological properties typical of the genus Streptomyces and formed distinct phyletic lines in the 16S rRNA gene tree. Isolate I36(T) was most closely related to Streptomyces glauciniger NBRC 100913(T) and isolate I37(T) to Streptomyces mirabilis NBRC 13450(T). Low DNA:DNA relatedness values were recorded between each of the isolates and their closest phylogenetic neighbour. The isolates were also distinguished from their nearest phylogenetic neighbour, and from one another, using a combination of phenotypic properties. These data indicate that the isolates should be recognised as new species in the genus Streptomyces. The names proposed for these new taxa are Streptomyces erringtonii sp. nov. and Streptomyces kaempferi sp. nov. with isolate I36(T) (=CGMCC 4.7016(T) = KACC 15424(T)) and isolate I37(T) (=CGMCC 4.7020(T) = KACC 15428(T)) as the respective type strains.

  16. Vibrio hispanicus sp. nov., isolated from Artemia sp. and sea water in Spain.

    PubMed

    Gomez-Gil, B; Thompson, F L; Thompson, C C; Garcia-Gasca, A; Roque, A; Swings, J

    2004-01-01

    Three Gram-negative, small, motile, rod-shaped bacteria were isolated from Artemia sp. and sea water in Barcelona, Spain, during 1990 and 1991. They were fermentative, oxidase-positive, sensitive to vibriostatic agent O/129, arginine dihydrolase-positive, lysine and ornithine decarboxylase-negative and grew in the absence of NaCl. They differed from phenotypically related species by their ability to grow at 4 degrees C and utilize L-rhamnose. Cloning of the 16S rRNA gene of the type strain produced two different 16S rRNA gene sequences, which differed by 15 bases (0.99%); comparison of these sequences with those deposited in GenBank showed close relationships with Vibrio proteolyticus (97.6% similarity), Vibrio diazotrophicus (97.9%), Vibrio campbellii (96.8%) and Vibrio alginolyticus (96.8%), among others. DNA-DNA hybridization levels with the closest phylogenetically related Vibrio species were <26.4%. Sufficient evidence is provided to support the identity of the three strains analysed as members of a novel species of the genus Vibrio, for which the name Vibrio hispanicus sp. nov. is proposed, with the type strain LMG 13240T (=CAIM 525T=VIB 213T).

  17. Trichuris sp. and Strongyloides sp. infections in a free-ranging baboon colony.

    PubMed

    Anderson, J; Upadhayay, R; Sudimack, D; Nair, S; Leland, M; Williams, J T; Anderson, T J C

    2012-02-01

    We conducted cross-sectional surveys of parasites infecting a large free-living colony of baboons at the Southwest National Primate Research Center in San Antonio in October 2003 and April 2004, immediately before, and 6 mo after, treatment with ivermectin. Trichuris sp. was the predominant species present, infecting 79 and 69% of individual animals in the 2 surveys, with fecal egg counts (FEC) of up to 60,200 eggs per g (epg) (mean = 1,235 in October 2003 and 1,256 in April 2004). Prevalence remained fairly stable across age groups, and intensity was highest in animals <1 or >15 yr old, in contrast to patterns observed in humans, where school-age children show the heaviest infections. Strongyloides sp. was also identified, but the species identity remains uncertain. Small subunit ribosomal DNA sequences differed from published sequences of Strongyloides fuelleborni at multiple sites, but resided in a monophyletic group with other Strongyloides species with 92% bootstrap support. This may reflect a recent acquisition from a local host, or that the published sequence of S. fuelleborni is incorrect. Widespread infections with 2 nematode genera in a free-ranging baboon colony that are an important source of morbidity in human populations provide a useful model system for work on the epidemiology, control, pathology, and genetics of these parasites in a host species that is physiologically, immunologically, and genetically similar to humans.

  18. Aminobacter ciceronei sp. nov. and Aminobacter lissarensis sp. nov., isolated from various terrestrial environments

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    McDonald, I.R.; Kampfer, P.; Topp, E.; Warner, K.L.; Cox, M.J.; Connell, Hancock T.L.; Miller, L.G.; Larkin, M.J.; Ducrocq, V.; Coulter, C.; Harper, D.B.; Murrell, J.C.; Oremland, R.S.

    2005-01-01

    The bacterial strains IMB-1T and CC495T, which are capable of growth on methyl chloride (CH3Cl, chloromethane) and methyl bromide (CH3Br, bromomethane), were isolated from agricultural soil in California fumigated with CH3Br, and woodland soil in Northern Ireland, respectively. Two pesticide- /herbicide-degrading bacteria, strains ER2 and C147, were isolated from agricultural soil in Canada. Strain ER2 degrades N-methyl carbamate insecticides, and strain C147 degrades triazine herbicides widely used in agriculture. On the basis of their morphological, physiological and genotypic characteristics, these four strains are considered to represent two novel species of the genus Aminobacter, for which the names Aminobacter ciceronei sp. nov. (type strain IMB-1T=ATCC 202197T=CIP 108660T=CCUG 50580T; strains ER2 and C147) and Aminobacter lissarensis sp. nov. (type strain CC495T=NCIMB 13798T=CIP 108661T=CCUG 50579T) are proposed. ?? 2005 IUMS.

  19. Planotetraspora kaengkrachanensis sp. nov. and Planotetraspora phitsanulokensis sp. nov., isolated from soil.

    PubMed

    Suriyachadkun, Chanwit; Chunhametha, Suwanee; Thawai, Chitti; Tamura, Tomohiko; Potacharoen, Wanchern; Kirtikara, Kanyawim; Sanglier, Jean-Jacques; Kitpreechavanich, Vichien

    2010-09-01

    Two novel bacterial strains were isolated from tropical rain forest soil from Thailand. Strains A-T 0875(T) and A-T 1383(T) stained Gram-positive and were filamentous bacteria that developed cylindrical sporangia containing four oval- to rod-shaped spores at the ends of short sporangiophores on branched aerial mycelium. The cell-wall peptidoglycan contained meso-diaminopimelic acid, glutamic acid and alanine as cell-wall amino acids; whole-cell hydrolysates contained rhamnose, madurose, glucose, galactose and 3-O-methylmannose as whole-cell sugars. The predominant menaquinone was MK-9(H(4)). Mycolic acids were not detected. The diagnostic phospholipid was phosphatidylethanolamine. The predominant cellular fatty acids were iso-C(16 : 0) and 10-methyl-C(17 : 0). For both strains, the G+C content of the genomic DNA was 71 mol%. Phenotypic and chemotaxonomic analyses showed that the characteristics of the two isolates were typical of members of the genus Planotetraspora. Furthermore, 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis also indicated that the strains belonged to the genus Planotetraspora but as representatives of two novel species. Following an evaluation of our phenotypic, chemotaxonomic and genotypic studies, two novel species are proposed, Planotetraspora kaengkrachanensis sp. nov. (type strain A-T 0875(T)=BCC 24832(T)=NBRC 104272(T)) and Planotetraspora phitsanulokensis sp. nov. (type strain A-T 1383(T)=BCC 26045(T)=NBRC 104273(T)).

  20. Streptomyces graminisoli sp. nov. and Streptomyces rhizophilus sp. nov., isolated from bamboo (Sasa borealis) rhizosphere soil.

    PubMed

    Lee, Hyo-Jin; Whang, Kyung-Sook

    2014-05-01

    Four strains of actinomycete, designated strains JR-19T, JR-12, JR-29 and JR-41T were isolated from bamboo (Sasa borealis) rhizosphere soil. Phylogenetic, morphological, chemotaxonomic and phenotypic analysis demonstrated that the four strains belong to the genus Streptomyces. Microscopic observation revealed that the four strains produced spirales spore chains with spiny surfaces. The cell-wall peptidoglycan of the four strains contained ll-diaminopimelic acid, glutamic acid, alanine and glycine. Whole-cell hydrolysates mainly contained glucose and ribose. The predominant menaquinones were MK-9 (H6) and MK-9 (H8). Phylogenetic analysis based on 16S rRNA gene sequence comparisons revealed that these strains and the members of the genus Streptomyces exhibited moderately high 16S rRNA gene sequence similarities of 98.3-99.3%, with the most closely related strains being Streptomyces shenzhenensis 172115T and Streptomyces gramineus JR-43T. Based on the phenotypic and genotypic data, the four strains are considered to represent two novel species of the genus Streptomyces, for which the names Streptomyces graminisoli sp. nov. [to accommodate strains JR-19T (type strain; =KACC 16472T=NBRC 108883T), JR-12 (=KACC 16471) and JR-29 (=KACC 16473)] and Streptomyces rhizophilus sp. nov. [for strain JR-41T (=KACC 16580T=NBRC 108885T)] are proposed. PMID:24478213

  1. Legionella tunisiensis sp. nov. and Legionella massiliensis sp. nov., isolated from environmental water samples.

    PubMed

    Campocasso, Angélique; Boughalmi, Mondher; Fournous, Ghislain; Raoult, Didier; La Scola, Bernard

    2012-12-01

    Two isolates of intra-amoeba-growing bacteria, LegA(T) ( = DSM 24804(T) = CSUR P146(T)) and LegM(T) ( = DSM 24805(T) = CSUR P145(T)), were characterized on the basis of microscopic appearance, staining characteristics, axenic growth at different temperatures and the sequences of the mip, rpoB, 16S rRNA and rnpb genes, as well as the 23S-5S region. Phylogenetic analysis showed that these two isolates lay within the radius of the family Legionellaceae. Furthermore, the analysis of these genes yielded congruent data that indicated that, although strain LegM(T) clusters specifically with Legionella feeleii ATCC 35072(T) and LegA(T) clusters with Legionella nautarum ATCC 49596(T), the divergence observed between these species was greater than that observed between other members of the family. Taken together, these results support the proposal that these two isolates represent novel members of the genus Legionella, and we propose to name them Legionella tunisiensis sp. nov. for LegM(T) ( = DSM 24805(T) = CSUR P145(T)) and Legionella massiliensis sp. nov. for LegA(T) ( = DSM 24804(T) = CSUR P146(T)).

  2. Aquamicrobium ahrensii sp. nov. and Aquamicrobium segne sp. nov., isolated from experimental biofilters.

    PubMed

    Lipski, André; Kämpfer, Peter

    2012-10-01

    Two groups of Gram-negative, aerobic bacterial strains previously isolated from experimental biofilters were investigated to determine their taxonomic position. Based on their 16S rRNA gene sequences, these isolates formed two distinct groups within the genus Aquamicrobium. The gene sequence similarities of the new isolates to the type strains of Aquamicrobium species were below 98.3 %. The presence of ubiquinone-10, C(18 : 1) cis 11 as the predominant fatty acid and a polar lipid pattern with phosphatidylglycerol, phosphatidylcholine, diphosphatidylglycerol and phosphatidylethanolamine was in accordance with the characteristics of this genus. The results of DNA-DNA hybridization, biochemical tests and chemotaxonomic properties allowed genotypic and phenotypic differentiation of the strains from all recognized species of the genus Aquamicrobium. Therefore, the isolates were assigned to two novel species of this genus for which the names Aquamicrobium ahrensii sp. nov. (type strain 905/1(T) = DSM 19730(T) = CCUG 55251(T)) and Aquamicrobium segne sp. nov. (type strain 1006/1(T) = DSM 19714(T) = CCUG 55250(T)) are proposed. An emended description of the genus Aquamicrobium is also presented.

  3. Lactobacillus plajomi sp. nov. and Lactobacillus modestisalitolerans sp. nov., isolated from traditional fermented foods.

    PubMed

    Miyashita, Mika; Yukphan, Pattaraporn; Chaipitakchonlatarn, Winai; Malimas, Taweesak; Sugimoto, Masako; Yoshino, Mayumi; Kamakura, Yuki; Potacharoen, Wanchern; Tanasupawat, Somboon; Tanaka, Naoto; Nakagawa, Yasuyoshi; Suzuki, Ken-ichiro

    2015-08-01

    Three Lactobacillus-like strains, NB53T, NB446T and NB702, were isolated from traditional fermented food in Thailand. Comparative 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis indicated that these strains belong to the Lactobacillus plantarum group. Phylogenetic analysis based on the dnaK, rpoA, pheS and recA gene sequences indicated that these three strains were distantly related to known species present in the L. plantarum group. DNA-DNA hybridization with closely related strains demonstrated that these strains represented two novel species; the novel strains could be differentiated based on chemotaxonomic and phenotypic characteristics. Therefore, two novel species of the genus Lactobacillus, Lactobacillus plajomi sp. nov. (NB53T) and Lactobacillus modestisalitolerans sp. nov. (NB446T and NB702), are proposed with the type strains NB53T ( = NBRC 107333T = BCC 38054T) and NB446T ( = NBRC 107235T = BCC 38191T), respectively.

  4. Lactococcus hircilactis sp. nov. and Lactococcus laudensis sp. nov., isolated from milk.

    PubMed

    Meucci, Aurora; Zago, Miriam; Rossetti, Lia; Fornasari, Maria Emanuela; Bonvini, Barbara; Tidona, Flavio; Povolo, Milena; Contarini, Giovanna; Carminati, Domenico; Giraffa, Giorgio

    2015-07-01

    Two strains of lactic acid bacteria, designated 117(T) and 4195(T), were isolated from goat milk in Valtellina, Italy and from cow milk in Valle Trompia, Italy, respectively, and characterized taxonomically by a polyphasic approach. The strains were Gram-stain-positive, coccoid, non-spore-forming and catalase-negative bacteria. Morphological, physiological and phylogenetic data indicated that these isolates belonged to the genus Lactococcus. Strain 117(T) was closely related to Lactococcus fujiensis, Lactococcus lactis subsp. lactis, L. lactis subsp. cremoris, L. lactis subsp. hordniae, L. lactis subsp. tructae and Lactococcus taiwanensis, showing 93-94% and 82-89% 16S rRNA and rpoB gene sequence similarities, respectively. Strain 4195(T) was closely related to Lactococcus chungangensis, Lactococcus raffinolactis, Lactococcus plantarum and Lactococcus piscium, showing 92-98% and 86-99% 16S rRNA and rpoB gene sequence similarities, respectively. Based on this evidence and the data obtained in the present study, the milk isolates represent two novel species of the genus Lactococcus, for which the names Lactococcushircilactis sp. nov., and Lactococcuslaudensis sp. nov. are proposed. The respective type strains are 117(T) ( = LMG 28352(T) = DSM 28960(T)) and 4195(T )( = LMG 28353(T) = DSM 28961(T)). PMID:25833154

  5. Legionella tunisiensis sp. nov. and Legionella massiliensis sp. nov., isolated from environmental water samples.

    PubMed

    Campocasso, Angélique; Boughalmi, Mondher; Fournous, Ghislain; Raoult, Didier; La Scola, Bernard

    2012-12-01

    Two isolates of intra-amoeba-growing bacteria, LegA(T) ( = DSM 24804(T) = CSUR P146(T)) and LegM(T) ( = DSM 24805(T) = CSUR P145(T)), were characterized on the basis of microscopic appearance, staining characteristics, axenic growth at different temperatures and the sequences of the mip, rpoB, 16S rRNA and rnpb genes, as well as the 23S-5S region. Phylogenetic analysis showed that these two isolates lay within the radius of the family Legionellaceae. Furthermore, the analysis of these genes yielded congruent data that indicated that, although strain LegM(T) clusters specifically with Legionella feeleii ATCC 35072(T) and LegA(T) clusters with Legionella nautarum ATCC 49596(T), the divergence observed between these species was greater than that observed between other members of the family. Taken together, these results support the proposal that these two isolates represent novel members of the genus Legionella, and we propose to name them Legionella tunisiensis sp. nov. for LegM(T) ( = DSM 24805(T) = CSUR P145(T)) and Legionella massiliensis sp. nov. for LegA(T) ( = DSM 24804(T) = CSUR P146(T)). PMID:22307511

  6. Characterization of a Bioflocculant Produced by a Consortium of Halomonas sp. Okoh and Micrococcus sp. Leo

    PubMed Central

    Okaiyeto, Kunle; Nwodo, Uchechukwu U.; Mabinya, Leonard V.; Okoh, Anthony I.

    2013-01-01

    The physicochemical and flocculating properties of a bioflocculant produced by a bacterial consortium composed of Halomonas sp. Okoh and Micrococcus sp. Leo were investigated. The purified bioflocculant was cation and pH dependent, and optimally flocculated kaolin clay suspension at a dosage of 0.1 mg/mL. The flocculating activity of the bioflocculant was stimulated in the presence of Ca2+, Mn2+, Al3+ and had a wide pH range of 2–10, with the highest flocculating activity of 86% at pH 8. The bioflocculant was thermostable and retained more than 70% of its flocculating activity after being heated at 80 °C for 30 min. Thermogravimetric analyses revealed a partial thermal decomposition of the biofloculant at 400 °C. The infrared spectrum showed the presence of hydroxyl, carboxyl and amino moieties as functional groups. The bioflocculant produced by the bacterial consortium appears to hold promising alternative to inorganic and synthetic organic flocculants that are widely used in wastewater treatment. PMID:24135818

  7. Neisseria wadsworthii sp. nov. and Neisseria shayeganii sp. nov., isolated from clinical specimens.

    PubMed

    Wolfgang, William J; Carpenter, Andrea N; Cole, Jocelyn A; Gronow, Sabine; Habura, Andrea; Jose, Sherly; Nazarian, Elizabeth J; Kohlerschmidt, Donna J; Limberger, Ronald; Schoonmaker-Bopp, Dianna; Spröer, Cathrin; Musser, Kimberlee A

    2011-01-01

    An analysis of 16S rRNA gene sequences from archived clinical reference specimens has identified two novel Neisseria species. For each species, two strains from independent sources were identified. Amongst species with validly published names, the closest species to the newly identified organisms were Neisseria canis, N. dentiae, N. zoodegmatis, N. animaloris and N. weaveri. DNA-DNA hybridization studies demonstrated that the newly identified isolates represent species that are distinct from these nearest neighbours. Analysis of partial 23S rRNA gene sequences for the newly identified strains and their nearest neighbours provided additional support for the species designation. Bayesian analysis of 16S rRNA gene sequences suggested that the newly identified isolates belong to distinct but related species of the genus Neisseria, and are members of a clade that includes N. dentiae, N. bacilliformis and N. canis. The predominant cellular fatty acids [16 : 0, summed feature 3 (16 : 1ω7c and/or iso-15 : 0 2-OH) and 18 : 1ω7c], as well as biochemical and morphological analyses further support the designation of Neisseria wadsworthii sp. nov. (type strain 9715(T) =DSM 22247(T) =CIP 109934(T)) and Neisseria shayeganii sp. nov. (type strain 871(T) =DSM 22246(T) =CIP 109933(T)).

  8. Genomic analysis and D-xylose fermentation of three novel Spathaspora species: Spathaspora girioi sp. nov., Spathaspora hagerdaliae f. a., sp. nov. and Spathaspora gorwiae f. a., sp. nov.

    PubMed

    Lopes, Mariana R; Morais, Camila G; Kominek, Jacek; Cadete, Raquel M; Soares, Marco A; Uetanabaro, Ana Paula T; Fonseca, César; Lachance, Marc-André; Hittinger, Chris Todd; Rosa, Carlos A

    2016-06-01

    Three novel D-xylose-fermenting yeast species of Spathaspora clade were recovered from rotting wood in regions of the Atlantic Rainforest ecosystem in Brazil. Differentiation of new species was based on analyses of the gene encoding the D1/D2 sequences of large subunit of rRNA and on 642 conserved, single-copy, orthologous genes from genome sequence assemblies from the newly described species and 15 closely-related Debaryomycetaceae/Metschnikowiaceae species. Spathaspora girioi sp. nov. produced unconjugated asci with a single elongated ascospore with curved ends; ascospore formation was not observed for the other two species. The three novel species ferment D-xylose with different efficiencies. Spathaspora hagerdaliae sp. nov. and Sp. girioi sp. nov. showed xylose reductase (XR) activity strictly dependent on NADPH, whereas Sp. gorwiae sp. nov. had XR activity that used both NADH and NADPH as co-factors. The genes that encode enzymes involved in D-xylose metabolism (XR, xylitol dehydrogenase and xylulokinase) were also identified for these novel species. The type strains are Sp. girioi sp. nov. UFMG-CM-Y302(T) (=CBS 13476), Sp. hagerdaliae f.a., sp. nov. UFMG-CM-Y303(T) (=CBS 13475) and Sp. gorwiae f.a., sp. nov. UFMG-CM-Y312(T) (=CBS 13472). PMID:27188884

  9. Genomic analysis and D-xylose fermentation of three novel Spathaspora species: Spathaspora girioi sp. nov., Spathaspora hagerdaliae f. a., sp. nov. and Spathaspora gorwiae f. a., sp. nov.

    PubMed

    Lopes, Mariana R; Morais, Camila G; Kominek, Jacek; Cadete, Raquel M; Soares, Marco A; Uetanabaro, Ana Paula T; Fonseca, César; Lachance, Marc-André; Hittinger, Chris Todd; Rosa, Carlos A

    2016-06-01

    Three novel D-xylose-fermenting yeast species of Spathaspora clade were recovered from rotting wood in regions of the Atlantic Rainforest ecosystem in Brazil. Differentiation of new species was based on analyses of the gene encoding the D1/D2 sequences of large subunit of rRNA and on 642 conserved, single-copy, orthologous genes from genome sequence assemblies from the newly described species and 15 closely-related Debaryomycetaceae/Metschnikowiaceae species. Spathaspora girioi sp. nov. produced unconjugated asci with a single elongated ascospore with curved ends; ascospore formation was not observed for the other two species. The three novel species ferment D-xylose with different efficiencies. Spathaspora hagerdaliae sp. nov. and Sp. girioi sp. nov. showed xylose reductase (XR) activity strictly dependent on NADPH, whereas Sp. gorwiae sp. nov. had XR activity that used both NADH and NADPH as co-factors. The genes that encode enzymes involved in D-xylose metabolism (XR, xylitol dehydrogenase and xylulokinase) were also identified for these novel species. The type strains are Sp. girioi sp. nov. UFMG-CM-Y302(T) (=CBS 13476), Sp. hagerdaliae f.a., sp. nov. UFMG-CM-Y303(T) (=CBS 13475) and Sp. gorwiae f.a., sp. nov. UFMG-CM-Y312(T) (=CBS 13472).

  10. Magnetospirillum caucaseum sp. nov., Magnetospirillum marisnigri sp. nov. and Magnetospirillum moscoviense sp. nov., freshwater magnetotactic bacteria isolated from three distinct geographical locations in European Russia.

    PubMed

    Dziuba, Marina; Koziaeva, Veronika; Grouzdev, Denis; Burganskaya, Ekaterina; Baslerov, Roman; Kolganova, Tatjana; Chernyadyev, Alexander; Osipov, Georgy; Andrianova, Ekaterina; Gorlenko, Vladimir; Kuznetsov, Boris

    2016-05-01

    Three strains of helical, magnetotactic bacteria, SO-1T, SP-1T and BB-1T, were isolated from freshwater sediments collected from three distinct locations in European Russia. Phylogenetic analysis showed that the strains belong to the genus Magnetospirillum. Strains SO-1T and SP-1T showed the highest 16S rRNA gene sequence similarity to Magnetospirillum magnetotacticum MS-1T (99.3 and 98.1 %, respectively), and strain BB-1T with Magnetospirillum gryphiswaldense MSR-1T (97.3 %). The tree based on concatenated deduced amino acid sequences of the MamA, B, K, M, O, P, Q and T proteins, which are involved in magnetosome formation, was congruent with the tree based on 16S rRNA gene sequences. The genomic DNA G+C contents of strains SO-1T, SP-1T and BB-1T were 65.9, 63.0 and 65.2 mol%, respectively. As major fatty acids, C18 : 1ω9, C16 : 1ω7c, C16 : 0 and C18 : 0 were detected. DNA-DNA hybridization values between the novel strains and their closest relatives in the genus Magnetospirillum were less than 51.7 ± 2.3 %. In contrast to M. magnetotacticum MS-1T, the strains could utilize butyrate and propionate; strains SO-1T and BB-1T could also utilize glycerol. Strain SP-1T showed strictly microaerophilic growth, whereas strains SO-1T and BB-1T were more tolerant of oxygen. The results of DNA-DNA hybridization and physiological tests allowed genotypic and phenotypic differentiation of the strains from each other as well as from the two species of Magnetospirillum with validly published names. Therefore, the strains represent novel species, for which we propose the names Magnetospirillum caucaseum sp. nov. (type strain SO-1T = DSM 28995T = VKM B-2936T), Magnetospirillum marisnigri sp. nov. (type strain SP-1T = DSM 29006T = VKM B-2938T) and Magnetospirillum moscoviense sp. nov. (type strain BB-1T = DSM 29455T = VKM B-2939T). PMID:26921147

  11. Co-infection of the Siberian hamster (Phodopus sungorus) with a novel Helicobacter sp. and Campylobacter sp.

    PubMed

    Nagamine, Claude M; Shen, Zeli; Luong, Richard H; McKeon, Gabriel P; Ruby, Norman F; Fox, James G

    2015-05-01

    We report the isolation of a novel helicobacter isolated from the caecum of the Siberian hamster (Phodopus sungorus). Sequence analysis showed 97% sequence similarity to Helicobacter ganmani. In addition, we report the co-infection of these Siberian hamsters with a Campylobacter sp. and a second Helicobacter sp. with 99% sequence similarity to Helicobacter sp. flexispira taxon 8 (Helicobacter bilis), a species isolated previously from patients with bacteraemia. Gross necropsy and histopathology did not reveal any overt pathological lesions of the liver and gastrointestinal tract that could be attributed to the Helicobacter or Campylobacter spp. infections. This is the first helicobacter to be identified in the Siberian hamster and the first report of co-infection of Helicobacter spp. and Campylobacter sp. in asymptomatic Siberian hamsters. PMID:25752854

  12. Co-infection of the Siberian hamster (Phodopus sungorus) with a novel Helicobacter sp. and Campylobacter sp.

    PubMed Central

    Shen, Zeli; Luong, Richard H.; McKeon, Gabriel P.; Ruby, Norman F.; Fox, James G.

    2015-01-01

    We report the isolation of a novel helicobacter isolated from the caecum of the Siberian hamster (Phodopus sungorus). Sequence analysis showed 97 % sequence similarity to Helicobacter ganmani. In addition, we report the co-infection of these Siberian hamsters with a Campylobacter sp. and a second Helicobacter sp. with 99 % sequence similarity to Helicobacter sp. flexispira taxon 8 (Helicobacter bilis), a species isolated previously from patients with bacteraemia. Gross necropsy and histopathology did not reveal any overt pathological lesions of the liver and gastrointestinal tract that could be attributed to the Helicobacter or Campylobacter spp. infections. This is the first helicobacter to be identified in the Siberian hamster and the first report of co-infection of Helicobacter spp. and Campylobacter sp. in asymptomatic Siberian hamsters. PMID:25752854

  13. Co-infection of the Siberian hamster (Phodopus sungorus) with a novel Helicobacter sp. and Campylobacter sp.

    PubMed

    Nagamine, Claude M; Shen, Zeli; Luong, Richard H; McKeon, Gabriel P; Ruby, Norman F; Fox, James G

    2015-05-01

    We report the isolation of a novel helicobacter isolated from the caecum of the Siberian hamster (Phodopus sungorus). Sequence analysis showed 97% sequence similarity to Helicobacter ganmani. In addition, we report the co-infection of these Siberian hamsters with a Campylobacter sp. and a second Helicobacter sp. with 99% sequence similarity to Helicobacter sp. flexispira taxon 8 (Helicobacter bilis), a species isolated previously from patients with bacteraemia. Gross necropsy and histopathology did not reveal any overt pathological lesions of the liver and gastrointestinal tract that could be attributed to the Helicobacter or Campylobacter spp. infections. This is the first helicobacter to be identified in the Siberian hamster and the first report of co-infection of Helicobacter spp. and Campylobacter sp. in asymptomatic Siberian hamsters.

  14. sp(2)-sp(3) diboranes: astounding structural variability and mild sources of nucleophilic boron for organic synthesis.

    PubMed

    Dewhurst, Rian D; Neeve, Emily C; Braunschweig, Holger; Marder, Todd B

    2015-06-14

    Despite the widespread use of organoborane reagents in organic synthesis and catalysis, a major challenge still remains: very few boron-centered nucleophiles exist for the direct construction of B-C bonds. Perhaps the most promising emerging solution to this problem is the use of sp(2)-sp(3) diboranes, in which one boron atom of a conventional diborane(4) is quaternised by either a neutral or anionic nucleophile. These compounds, either isolated or generated in situ, serve as relatively mild and convenient sources of the boryl anion [BR2](-) for use in organic synthesis and have already proven their efficacy in metal-free as well as metal-catalysed borylation reactions. This Feature article documents the history of sp(2)-sp(3) diborane synthesis, their properties and surprising structural variability, and their burgeoning utility in organic synthesis.

  15. Actinomyces weissii sp. nov., isolated from dogs.

    PubMed

    Hijazin, Muaz; Alber, Jörg; Lämmler, Christoph; Kämpfer, Peter; Glaeser, Stefanie P; Busse, Hans-Jürgen; Kassmannhuber, Johannes; Prenger-Berninghoff, Ellen; Förnges, Thorsten; Hassan, Abdulwahed Ahmed; Abdulmawjood, Amir; Zschöck, Michael

    2012-08-01

    Two Gram-positive, rod-shaped, non-spore-forming bacteria were isolated from the oral cavities of two dogs. On the basis of 16S rRNA gene sequence similarities both strains were shown to belong to the genus Actinomyces and were most closely related to Actinomyces bovis (97.3% and 97.5%, respectively). The polyamine profile of the two isolates and Actinomyces bovis DSM 43014(T) was composed of spermidine and spermine as the major components. Menaquinone MK-9 was the major compound in the quinone system of the two strains and Actinomyces bovis. The polar lipid profiles of strains 2298(T) and 4321 were almost identical, containing diphosphatidylglycerol as the major compound, and moderate to trace amounts of phosphatidylcholine, phosphatidylinositol, phosphatidylinositol-mannoside, phosphatidylglycerol and several unidentified lipids. A highly similar polar lipid profile was detected in Actinomyces bovis DSM 43014(T) supporting the affiliation of strains 2298(T) and 4321 to the genus Actinomyces. The typical major fatty acids were C(16:0), C(18:0) and C(18:1)ω9c. Fatty acids C(14:0) and C(18:2)ω6,9c were found in minor amounts. The results of physiological and biochemical analyses revealed clear differences between both strains and the most closely related species of the genus Actinomyces. Thus, strains 2298(T) and 4321 represent a novel species, for which the name Actinomyces weissii sp. nov., is proposed, with strain 2298(T) ( = CIP 110333(T) = LMG 26472(T) = CCM 7951(T) = CCUG 61299(T)) as the type strain.

  16. Noviherbaspirillum humi sp. nov., isolated from soil.

    PubMed

    Sundararaman, Aravind; Srinivasan, Sathiyaraj; Lee, Sang-Seob

    2016-05-01

    Two novel Gram-stain negative, motile, non-spore forming, facultative aerobic and short rod shaped bacterial strains, designated U15(T) and U32, were isolated from soil obtained from Ukraine. The sequence similarity of the 16S rRNA gene between strains U15(T) and U32 was found to be 99.5 %. Phylogenetic analysis based on 16S rRNA gene sequences confirmed that new bacteria belong to the genus Noviherbaspirillum. The closest member of the genus was found to be Noviherbaspirillum malthae (97.0 %) followed by Noviherbaspirillum suwonensis (96.3 %). The novel isolates was observed to grow optimally at 30 °C and pH 7.0. The major fatty acids present in the two strains were identified as summed feature 3 (C16:1 ω7c/C16:1 ω6c), C16:0, and summed feature 8 (C18:1 ω7c/C18:1 ω6c). Ubiquinone 8 was identified as the respiratory quinone component for both the strains. The polar lipid (L) profile contained phosphatidylethanolamine, phosphatidylglycerol, diphosphatidylglycerol, aminophospholipid, unidentified aminolipid and unidentified Ls, and putrescine and 2-hydroxyputrescine as major polyamines. The G+C content of the DNA for the strain U15(T) was found to be 61.2 mol%. The DNA-DNA relatedness between U15(T) and U32 and closely related species was less than 40 %. Based on the polyphasic taxonomic analysis, a new species, Noviherbaspirillum humi sp. nov., is proposed. The type strain is strain U15(T) = JCM 19873(T) = KEMB 7305-102(T). PMID:26940744

  17. Friedmanniella aerolata sp. nov., isolated from air.

    PubMed

    Kim, Soo-Jin; Hamada, Moriyuki; Ahn, Jae-Hyung; Weon, Hang-Yeon; Suzuki, Ken-Ichiro; Kwon, Soon-Wo

    2016-05-01

    A novel bacterium, strain 7515T-26T, was isolated from an air sample collected in Taean region, Republic of Korea. Cells were aerobic, Gram-stain-positive, non-flagellated cocci, growing in the temperature, pH and NaCl ranges of 10-33 °C, pH 5.0-9.0 and 0-2 % (w/v). It shared high 16S rRNA gene sequence similarity with Friedmanniella lacustris EL-17AT (97.6 %), Friedmanniella lucida FA2T (96.9 %) and Friedmanniella luteola FA1T (96.9 %), showing high sequence similarities of 96.5-97.6 % with members of the genus Friedmanniella. Phylogenetic trees based on 16S rRNA gene sequences showed that strain 7515T-26T and members of the genus Friedmanniella formed a compact cluster separable from other genera. The isolate contained anteiso-C15 : 0, iso-C14 : 0 3-OH and iso-C15 : 0 as the major cellular fatty acids, and MK-9(H4) as the predominant isoprenoid quinone. Polar lipids were diphosphatidylglycerol, phosphatidylglycerol, phosphatidylinositol, two unknown phospholipids and one unknown lipid, and the DNA G+C content was 73.1 mol%. The peptidoglycan type was A3γ. It showed DNA-DNA hybridization values of less than 70 % with F. lacustris EL-17AT. On the basis of the evidence from this polyphasic study, a novel species, Friedmanniella aerolata sp. nov., is proposed. The type strain is 7515T-26T ( = KACC 17306T = DSM 27139T). PMID:26873462

  18. Loktanella tamlensis sp. nov., isolated from seawater.

    PubMed

    Lee, Soon Dong

    2012-03-01

    An aerobic, Gram-reaction-negative, chemo-organotrophic bacterium, designated strain SSW-35(T), was isolated from seawater in Jeju, Republic of Korea. Cells were motile, short rods; colonies were circular, smooth, convex, translucent and beige in colour. No diffusible pigment formed on any of the media tested. The bacterium grew at 4-30 °C and pH 7.1-10.1. Phylogenetic analysis based on 16S rRNA gene sequences showed that the organism was related to members of the genus Loktanella, its closest recognized relatives being Loktanella rosea Fg36(T) (98.1% sequence similarity) and Loktanella maricola DSW-18(T) (97.8%). Levels of 16S rRNA gene similarity between strain SSW-35(T) and other recognized species of the genus Loktanella were all <97%. Polar lipid analysis revealed the presence of diphosphatidylglycerol, phosphatidylcholine, phosphatidylethanolamine, phosphatidylglycerol and an unknown lipid as major components, as well as small amounts of two unknown phospholipids. The predominant ubiquinone was Q-10. The major cellular fatty acid was C(18:1) (summed feature 7), and the 3-hydroxy fatty acids detected were C(12:1) 3-OH and C(10:0) 3-OH. The genomic DNA G+C content was 55.0 mol%. In DNA-DNA hybridization experiments, the relatedness values between strain SSW-35(T) and the type strains of the phylogenetically closest recognized species were all <11%. On the basis of the phenotypic and genotypic characteristics, phylogenetic analysis and DNA-DNA relatedness, a novel species, Loktanella tamlensis sp. nov., is proposed. The type strain is SSW-35(T) (=KCTC 12722(T)=JCM 14020(T)).

  19. Actibacterium ureilyticum sp. nov., isolated from seawater.

    PubMed

    Lin, Shih-Yao; Young, Chiu-Chung; Hameed, Asif; Liu, You-Cheng; Hsu, Yi-Han; Chung, Wei-Ching; Young, Li-Sen

    2016-08-01

    A polyphasic approach was used to characterize a novel marine bacterial strain, designated LS-811T, isolated from seawater of the South China Sea (Taiwan). Cells of strain LS-811Twere Gram-staining negative, aerobic and rod-shaped with polar flagella. The 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis of strain LS-811T showed highest sequence similarity to Actibacterium mucosum (96.5 %) and Actibacterium atlanticum (95.6 %), and lower sequence similarity (<96.0 %) to members of all other related genera. Strain LS-811Twas able to grow at 15-40 °C and pH 5.0-9.0. The quinone system was ubiquinone (Q-10), and the DNA G+C content was 60.1 mol%. The major fatty acids (>5 %) found in strain LS-811T were C18 : 0, C10 : 0 3-OH, C19 : 0 cyclo ω8c and C18 : 1ω7c/C18 : 1ω6c. The major polar lipid profile consisted of glycolipids, phosphatidylglycerol and one unidentified aminolipid. Based on the distinct phylogenetic, phenotypic and chemotaxonomic traits together with results of comparative 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis, strain LS-811T is considered to represent a novel species in the genus Actibacterium, for which the name Actibacterium ureilyticum sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is LS-811T (=BCRC 80823T=JCM 30681T). PMID:27031530

  20. Xenophilus aerolatus sp. nov., isolated from air.

    PubMed

    Kim, Soo-Jin; Kim, Yi-Seul; Weon, Hang-Yeon; Anandham, Rangasamy; Noh, Hyung-Jun; Kwon, Soon-Wo

    2010-02-01

    A novel aerobic, Gram-negative, motile, rod-shaped bacterial strain designated 5516S-2(T) was isolated from an air sample taken in Suwon, Republic of Korea. Colonies were yellow-pigmented and circular with entire margins. 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis showed that strain 5516S-2(T) was closely related to Xylophilus ampelinus DSM 7250(T) (97.6 % sequence similarity), Variovorax soli KACC 11579(T) (97.5 %) and Xenophilus azovorans DSM 13620(T) (97.1 %). However, the phylogenetic tree indicated that strain 5516S-2(T) formed a separate clade from Xenophilus azovorans. Strain 5516S-2(T) displayed 42, 31 and 30 % DNA-DNA relatedness to the type strains of Xenophilus azovorans, Xylophilus ampelinus and V. soli, respectively. The major fatty acids (>10 % of total fatty acids) were C(16 : 0) (33.3 %), C(17 : 0) cyclo (18.8 %), C(18 : 1)omega7c (17.5 %) and summed feature 3 (comprising C(16 : 1)omega7c and/or iso-C(15 : 0) 2-OH; 13.0 %). The DNA G+C content was 69 mol%. The major quinone was ubiquinone Q-8. The predominant polar lipids were diphosphatidylglycerol, phosphatidylethanolamine, phosphatidylglycerol and two unknown aminophospholipids. Genotypic and phenotypic characteristics clearly distinguished strain 5516S-2(T) from closely related species and indicated that it represents a novel species within the genus Xenophilus, for which the name Xenophilus aerolatus sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is 5516S-2(T) (=KACC 12602(T)=DSM 19424(T)).

  1. Tsukamurella soli sp. nov., isolated from soil.

    PubMed

    Weon, Hang-Yeon; Yoo, Seung-Hee; Anandham, Rangasamy; Schumann, Peter; Kroppenstedt, Reiner M; Kwon, Soon-Wo; Stackebrandt, Erko

    2010-07-01

    A Gram-positive, rod-shaped, catalase-positive, oxidase-negative, white-coloured bacterium, designated strain JS18-1(T), was isolated from a soil sample collected from Halla mountain, Jeju island, Korea. 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis revealed that the strain was most closely related to members of the genus Tsukamurella with levels of sequence similarity of 95.4-96.5 %. Strain JS18-1(T) shared highest 16S rRNA gene sequence similarity with Tsukamurella strandjordii DSM 44573(T) (96.5 %), Tsukamurella carboxydivorans Y2(T) (96.4 %) and Tsukamurella tyrosinosolvens DSM 44234(T) (96.4 %). The G+C content of the total DNA of strain JS18-1(T) was 70 mol%. The cell-wall peptidoglycan type was A1gamma and mycolic acids were also detected. The predominant polar lipids were diphosphatidylglycerol, phosphatidylethanolamine and phosphatidylinositol. The major quinone was menaquinone-9 (MK-9) and major cell-wall sugars were arabinose, ribose and glucose. The major fatty acids (>10 % of the total fatty acids) were C(16 : 0), C(18 : 1)omega9c, C(18 : 0) 10-methyl and summed feature 3 (C(16 : 1)omega7c and/or iso-C(15 : 0) 2-OH). Phylogenetic analysis based on 16S rRNA gene sequences and chemotaxonomic, biochemical and physiological characteristics indicate that strain JS18-1(T) represents a novel species of the genus Tsukamurella, for which the name Tsukamurella soli sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is JS18-1(T) (=KACC 20764(T)=DSM 45046(T)).

  2. Shewanella dokdonensis sp. nov., isolated from seawater.

    PubMed

    Sung, Hye-Ri; Yoon, Jung-Hoon; Ghim, Sa-Youl

    2012-07-01

    A novel bacterial strain, designated UDC329(T), was isolated from a sample of seawater collected at Dong-do, on the coast of Dokdo Island, in the East Sea of the Republic of Korea. The Gram-staining-negative, motile, facultatively anaerobic, non-spore-forming rods of the strain developed into dark orange-yellow colonies. The strain grew optimally between 25 and 30 °C, with 1% (w/v) NaCl and at pH 7. It grew in the absence of NaCl, but not with NaCl at >7% (w/v). The predominant menaquinone was MK-7, the predominant ubiquinones were Q-7 and Q-8, and the major fatty acids were iso-C(15:0) (33.52%) and C(17:1)ω8c (11.73%). The genomic DNA G+C content of strain UDC329(T) was 50.2 mol%. In phylogenetic analyses based on 16S rRNA and gyrB gene sequences, strain UDC329(T) was grouped with members of the genus Shewanella and appeared most closely related to Shewanella fodinae JC15(T) (97.9% 16S rRNA gene sequence similarity), Shewanella indica KJW27(T) (95.0%), Shewanella algae ATCC 51192(T) (94.8%), Shewanella haliotis DW01(T) (94.5%) and Shewanella chilikensis JC5(T) (93.9%). The level of DNA-DNA relatedness between strain UDC329(T) and S. fodinae JC15(T) was, however, only 27.4%. On the basis of phenotypic, genotypic and DNA-DNA relatedness data, strain UDC329(T) represents a novel species in the genus Shewanella, for which the name Shewanella dokdonensis sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is UDC329(T) (=KCTC 22898(T)=DSM 23626(T)).

  3. Marinicella pacifica sp. nov., isolated from seawater.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yanan; Liu, Yan; Zhang, Zenghu; Zheng, Yanfen; Zhang, Xiao-Hua

    2016-06-01

    A Gram-stain-negative, strictly aerobic, non-motile, non-gliding, oxidase-positive, catalase-positive, rod-shaped bacterium, designated strain sw153T, was isolated from surface seawater of the South Pacific Gyre (39° 19' S 139° 48' W) during Integrated Ocean Drilling Program Expedition 329. Growth occurred at 10-42 °C (optimum 28 °C), in the presence of 1-8 % (w/v) NaCl (optimum 2 %) and at pH 6.0-10.0 (optimum pH 7.5-8.5). The major fatty acids (>10 %) were iso-C15:0 and summed feature 3 (C16:1ω6c and/or C16:1ω7c). The major polar lipids comprised phosphatidylethanolamine, phosphatidylmonomethylethanolamine, phosphatidylcholine, phosphatidylglycerol, an unidentified polar lipid and an unidentified phospholipid. The major respiratory quinone was ubiquinone-8 (Q-8). The DNA G+C content of strain sw153T was 44.5 mol%. Phylogenetic analysis based on 16S rRNA gene sequences placed strain sw153T within the genus Marinicella, class Gammaproteobacteria. The most closely related species was Marinicella litoralis KMM 3900T (96.6 % 16S rRNA gene sequence similarity). Based on the polyphasic analyses in this study, strain sw153T is considered to represent a novel species of the genus Marinicella, for which the name Marinicella pacifica sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is sw153T (=JCM 18208T=CGMCC 1.12181T).

  4. Listeria fleischmannii sp. nov., isolated from cheese.

    PubMed

    Bertsch, David; Rau, Jörg; Eugster, Marcel R; Haug, Martina C; Lawson, Paul A; Lacroix, Christophe; Meile, Leo

    2013-02-01

    A study was performed on three isolates (LU2006-1(T), LU2006-2 and LU2006-3), which were sampled independently from cheese in western Switzerland in 2006, as well as a fourth isolate (A11-3426), which was detected in 2011, using a polyphasic approach. The isolates could all be assigned to the genus Listeria but not to any known species. Phenotypic and chemotaxonomic data were compatible with the genus Listeria and phylogenetic analysis based on 16S rRNA gene sequences confirmed that the closest relationships were with members of this genus. However, DNA-DNA hybridization demonstrated that the isolates did not belong to any currently described species. Cell-wall-binding domains of Listeria monocytogenes bacteriophage endolysins were able to attach to the isolates, confirming their tight relatedness to the genus Listeria. Although PCR targeting the central portion of the flagellin gene flaA was positive, motility was not observed. The four isolates could not be discriminated by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy or pulsed-field gel electrophoresis. This suggests that they represent a single species, which seems to be adapted to the environment in a cheese-ripening cellar as it was re-isolated from the same type of Swiss cheese after more than 5 years. Conjugation experiments demonstrated that the isolates harbour a transferable resistance to clindamycin. The isolates did not exhibit haemolysis or show any indication of human pathogenicity or virulence. The four isolates are affiliated with the genus Listeria but can be differentiated from all described members of the genus Listeria and therefore they merit being classified as representatives of a novel species, for which we propose the name Listeria fleischmannii sp. nov.; the type strain is LU2006-1(T) ( = DSM 24998(T)  = LMG 26584(T)).

  5. Actinokineospora guangxiensis sp. nov., isolated from soil.

    PubMed

    Wu, Hao; Liu, Bin

    2015-12-01

    A novel actinomycete, designated strain GK-6T, was isolated from a soil sample from Nanning, Guangxi province, PR China. The strain grew at 20-40 °C, pH 6.0-11.0 and with 0-7.0 % NaCl. It formed well-developed aerial and vegetative mycelia. The aerial mycelium was white and the vegetative mycelium was yellow. The long branching aerial mycelia yielded rod-shaped arthrospores, the spores had smooth surfaces and were non-motile. Strain Gk-6T contained meso-diaminopimelic acid as the diagnostic diamino acid, the whole-cell sugars were galactose, glucose and arabinose. Major fatty acids were iso-C16 : 0, iso-C15 : 0 and C17 : 0. MK-9(H4) was the predominant menaquinone. The polar phospholipids were phosphatidylethanolamine, phosphatidylethanolamine-containing hydroxylated fatty acids, diphosphatidylglycerol, ninhydrin-positive glycophospholipid and an unknown phospholipid. The G+C content of the genomic DNA was 73.4 mol%. The 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis indicated that the organism was a member of the genus Actinokineospora and its closest relative among recognized species was Actinokineospora soli JCM 17695T (97.7 % sequence similarity). But the phenotypic characteristics of strain Gk-6T were significantly different from those of A. soli JCM 17695T, and DNA-DNA hybridization showed low relatedness (22.6-28.3 %) between strain Gk-6T and JCM 17695T. On the basis of the phenotypic and phylogenetic data, strain Gk-6T represents a novel species of the genus Actinokineospora, and the name Actinokineospora guangxiensis sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is Gk-6T ( = DSM 46779 T = CGMCC 4.7154T). PMID:26410559

  6. Sinosporangium fuscum sp. nov., isolated from soil.

    PubMed

    Suriyachadkun, Chanwit; Ngaemthao, Wipaporn; Chunhametha, Suwanee; Thawai, Chitti; Sanglier, Jean-Jacques

    2015-06-01

    A novel actinomycete, A-T 8343T was isolated from a moist evergreen forest soil sample collected in the Trat Province, Thailand. Based on 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis, strain A-T 8343T belonged to the genus Sinosporangium and was closely related to Sinosporangium siamense A-T 1946T (98.81 %) and Sinosporangium album 6014T (98.54 %). The DNA-DNA relatedness values were 21.8-27 % with S. siamense A-T 1946T and 31.1-31.9 % with S. album 6014T, which were significantly below 70 %. The result differentiated A-T 8343T from the closest species. The organism developed spherical sporangia containing non-motile spores on aerial mycelia. The cell-wall peptidoglycan contained meso-diaminopimelic acid. The whole-cell sugars contained rhamnose, ribose, madurose and glucose. The predominant menaquinones were MK-9(H2) and MK-9(H4). The diagnostic phospholipids were phosphatidylmethylethanolamine, phosphatidylethanolamine, hydroxyl-phosphatidylethanolamine, diphosphatidylglycerol, lyso-phosphatidylethanolamine, N-acetylglucosamine-containing phospholipids, phosphatidylglycerol, phosphatidylinositol, phosphatidylinositol-mannosides, aminophosphoglycolipid and one unknown phospholipid. The major cellular fatty acids were saturated C16 : 0, iso C16 : 0, unsaturated C16 : 1 and C18 : 1. Following an evaluation of phenotypic, chemotaxonomic and genotypic characteristics, the new isolate is proposed as a representative novel species of the genus Sinosporangium to be named Sinosporangiumfuscum sp. nov. The type strain is A-T 8343T ( = BCC 52770T = NBRC 109516T). PMID:25744582

  7. Planomonospora corallina sp. nov., isolated from soil.

    PubMed

    Suriyachadkun, Chanwit; Ngaemthao, Wipaporn; Chunhametha, Suwanee

    2016-08-01

    A novel actinomycete strain, A-T 11038T, was isolated from bamboo rhizospheric soil collected in Thailand. Based on a polyphasic approach, the novel strain was characterized as a member of the genus Planomonospora, which developed cylindrical to clavate sporangia containing a single motile spore on aerial mycelium. The 16S rRNA gene sequence and phylogenetic analysis indicated that strain A-T 11038T was closely related to Planomonospora sphaerica JCM 9374T (98.82 %), P.lanomonospora parontospora subsp. parontospora NBRC 13880T and P.parontospora subsp. antibiotica JCM 3094T (98.54 %), Planomonospora alba JCM 9373T (98.41 %) and Planomonospora venezuelensis JCM 3167T (97.51 %). The DNA-DNA relatedness values that distinguished strain A-T 11038T from the most closely related species were below 45 %. The novel strain contained meso-diaminopimelic acid in cell-wall hydrolysates, and rhamnose, ribose, madurose and glucose in whole-cell hydrolysates. The predominant menaquinone was MK-9(H2). The diagnostic phospholipids were diphosphatidylglycerol, phosphatidylmethylethanolamine, phosphatidylethanolamine, phosphatidylglycerol, phosphatidylinositol mannosides, phosphatidylinositol and aminophosphoglycolipids. The predominant cellular fatty acids were unsaturated fatty acids C17 : 1 and C16 : 1 and saturated fatty acid C16 : 0. The G+C content of the genomic DNA was 73.5 mol%. Following the evidence obtained using a polyphasic approach, the novel strain is proposed as a representative of a novel species to be named Planomonospora corallina sp. nov. The type strain is A-T 11038T (=BCC 67829T=TBRC 4489T=NBRC 110609T). PMID:27217033

  8. Paenibacillus tianmuensis sp. nov., isolated from soil.

    PubMed

    Wu, Xuechang; Fang, Haihuan; Qian, Chaodong; Wen, Yanping; Shen, Xiaobo; Li, Ou; Gao, Haichun

    2011-05-01

    Two closely related, Gram-stain-negative, rod-shaped, spore-forming strains, B27(T) and F6-B70, were isolated from soil samples of Tianmu Mountain National Natural Reserve in Zhejiang, China. Phylogenetic analysis based on 16S rRNA gene and rpoB sequences indicated that the isolates were members of the genus Paenibacillus. Both isolates were closely related to Paenibacillus ehimensis IFO 15659(T), Paenibacillus elgii SD17(T) and Paenibacillus koreensis YC300(T) (≥ 95.2 % 16S rRNA gene sequence similarity). DNA-DNA relatedness between strain B27(T) and P. ehimensis DSM 11029(T), P. elgii NBRC 100335(T) and P. koreensis KCTC 2393(T) was 21.2, 28.6 and 16.8 %, respectively. The major cellular fatty acids of strains B27(T) and F6-B70 were anteiso-C(15 : 0) and iso-C(15 : 0). The cell wall contained meso-diaminopimelic acid. The two isolates differed from their closest neighbours in terms of phenotypic characteristics and cellular fatty acid profiles (such as variable for oxidase, negative for methyl red test, unable to produce acid from d-fructose and glycogen and relatively higher amounts of iso-C(15 : 0) and lower amounts of C(16 : 0) and iso-C(16 : 0)). Strains B27(T) and F6-B70 represent a novel species of the genus Paenibacillus, for which the name Paenibacillus tianmuensis sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is B27(T) ( = DSM 22342(T)  = CGMCC 1.8946(T)).

  9. Pseudogulbenkiania gefcensis sp. nov., isolated from soil.

    PubMed

    Lee, Dong-Geol; Im, Dong-Moon; Kang, HeeCheol; Yun, Pyeong; Park, Sun-Ki; Hyun, Seung-Su; Hwang, Dong-Youn

    2013-01-01

    A novel strain, yH16, was isolated on nutrient agar from soil samples collected at KyungHee University, Suwon City, Republic of Korea. Cells of strain yH16(T) were short rods, Gram-negative-staining, motile and non-spore-forming, with a polar flagellum. Biochemical and molecular characterization revealed that this strain was most similar to Pseudogulbenkiania subflava BP-5(T). Further 16S rRNA gene sequencing studies revealed that the new strain clustered with Pseudogulbenkiania subflava BP-5(T) (95.9 % similarity), Paludibacterium yongneupense 5YN8-15(T) (95.2 % similarity), Gulbenkiania mobilis E4FC31-5(T) (94.6 % similarity) and Chromobacterium aquaticum CC-SE-YA-1(T) (93.9 % similarity). The isolate was able to grow at 25-40 °C, 0.3-2 % NaCl and pH 5.5-7. The DNA G+C content was 65.9 ± 1.0 mol%. The predominant fatty acids were summed feature 3 (C(16 : 1)ω7c and/or iso-C(15 : 0) 2-OH) and C(16:0). Ubiquinone 8 was the major respiratory quinone. It was evident from the data obtained that the strain should be classified as a novel species of the genus Pseudogulbenkiania. The name proposed for this taxon is Pseudogulbenkiania gefcensis sp. nov., and the type strain is yH16(T) (=KCCM 90100(T) = JCM 17850(T)). PMID:22389280

  10. Marinicella pacifica sp. nov., isolated from seawater.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yanan; Liu, Yan; Zhang, Zenghu; Zheng, Yanfen; Zhang, Xiao-Hua

    2016-06-01

    A Gram-stain-negative, strictly aerobic, non-motile, non-gliding, oxidase-positive, catalase-positive, rod-shaped bacterium, designated strain sw153T, was isolated from surface seawater of the South Pacific Gyre (39° 19' S 139° 48' W) during Integrated Ocean Drilling Program Expedition 329. Growth occurred at 10-42 °C (optimum 28 °C), in the presence of 1-8 % (w/v) NaCl (optimum 2 %) and at pH 6.0-10.0 (optimum pH 7.5-8.5). The major fatty acids (>10 %) were iso-C15:0 and summed feature 3 (C16:1ω6c and/or C16:1ω7c). The major polar lipids comprised phosphatidylethanolamine, phosphatidylmonomethylethanolamine, phosphatidylcholine, phosphatidylglycerol, an unidentified polar lipid and an unidentified phospholipid. The major respiratory quinone was ubiquinone-8 (Q-8). The DNA G+C content of strain sw153T was 44.5 mol%. Phylogenetic analysis based on 16S rRNA gene sequences placed strain sw153T within the genus Marinicella, class Gammaproteobacteria. The most closely related species was Marinicella litoralis KMM 3900T (96.6 % 16S rRNA gene sequence similarity). Based on the polyphasic analyses in this study, strain sw153T is considered to represent a novel species of the genus Marinicella, for which the name Marinicella pacifica sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is sw153T (=JCM 18208T=CGMCC 1.12181T). PMID:26978647

  11. Aquimarina megaterium sp. nov., isolated from seawater.

    PubMed

    Yu, Tong; Zhang, Zenghu; Fan, Xiaoyang; Shi, Xiaochong; Zhang, Xiao-Hua

    2014-01-01

    A novel Gram-stain-negative, rod-shaped, non-flagellated, strictly aerobic strain with gliding motility, designated XH134(T), was isolated from surface seawater of the South Pacific Gyre (45° 58' S 163° 11' W) during the Integrated Ocean Drilling Program Expedition 329. The major respiratory quinone of strain XH134(T) was MK-6. The dominant fatty acids of strain XH134(T) were iso-C15 : 0, iso-C15 : 1 G, C16 : 1ω6c and/or C16 : 1ω7c, iso-C17 : 0 3-OH, iso-C15 : 0 3-OH and 10-methyl C16 : 0 and/or iso-C17 : 1ω9c. The polar lipids of strain XH134(T) comprised phosphatidylethanolamine, one unknown aminolipid and three unknown polar lipids. The DNA G+C content of strain XH134(T) was 32.4 mol%. Phylogenetic analyses based on 16S rRNA gene sequences showed that the novel strain was related most closely to Aquimarina macrocephali JAMB N27(T) with 96.9 % sequence similarity. A number of phenotypic characteristics distinguished strain XH134(T) from described members of the genus Aquimarina. On the basis of combined phenotypic and phylogenetic analyses, strain XH134(T) represents a novel species of the genus Aquimarina, for which the name Aquimarina megaterium sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is XH134(T) ( = CGMCC 1.12186(T) = JCM 18215(T)). PMID:24030690

  12. Pontibacter yuliensis sp. nov., isolated from soil.

    PubMed

    Cao, Hanjun; Nie, Yao; Zeng, Xian-Chun; Xu, Linghua; He, Zancan; Luo, Xuesong; Wu, Rina

    2014-03-01

    A Gram-staining-negative, rod-shaped and pink bacterium was isolated from the soil of a Populus euphratica forest in the Taklamakan desert, Xinjiang, China. It was designated strain H9X(T). A 16S rRNA gene sequence homology search indicated that the isolate was most closely related to the family Cytophagaceae. The 16S rRNA gene of strain H9X(T) displayed 94.2-96.3 % sequence identities to those of type strains of other species of the genus Pontibacter. It only possessed menaquinone-7. The major cellular fatty acids of the novel isolate were iso-C15 : 0, C16 : 1ω5c summed feature 3 (containing C16 : 1ω6c and/or C16 : 1ω7c) and summed feature 4 (comprising anteiso-C17 : 1 B and/or iso-C17 : 1 I). The major polar lipids were phosphatidylethanolamine, one unknown aminophospholipid, one unknown glycophospholipid and several unknown phospholipids. The DNA G+C content of this bacterium was 55.2 mol%. Based on the phenotypic and genotypic data presented, it can be concluded that this isolate represents a novel species of the genus Pontibacter, for which the name Pontibacter yuliensis sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is H9X(T) ( = CCTCC AB 2013047(T) = KCTC 32396(T)).

  13. Deinococcus antarcticus sp. nov., isolated from soil.

    PubMed

    Dong, Ning; Li, Hui-Rong; Yuan, Meng; Zhang, Xiao-Hua; Yu, Yong

    2015-02-01

    A pink-pigmented, non-motile, coccoid bacterial strain, designated G3-6-20(T), was isolated from a soil sample collected in the Grove Mountains, East Antarctica. This strain was resistant to UV irradiation (810 J m(-2)) and slightly more sensitive to desiccation as compared with Deinococcus radiodurans. Phylogenetic analyses based on the 16S rRNA gene sequence of the isolate indicated that the organism belongs to the genus Deinococcus. Highest sequence similarities were with Deinococcus ficus CC-FR2-10(T) (93.5 %), Deinococcus xinjiangensis X-82(T) (92.8 %), Deinococcus indicus Wt/1a(T) (92.5 %), Deinococcus daejeonensis MJ27(T) (92.3 %), Deinococcus wulumuqiensis R-12(T) (92.3 %), Deinococcus aquaticus PB314(T) (92.2 %) and Deinococcus radiodurans DSM 20539(T) (92.2 %). Major fatty acids were C18 : 1ω7c, summed feature 3 (C16 : 1ω7c and/or C16 : 1ω6c), anteiso-C15 : 0 and C16 : 0. The G+C content of the genomic DNA of strain G3-6-20(T) was 63.1 mol%. Menaquinone 8 (MK-8) was the predominant respiratory quinone. Based on its phylogenetic position, and chemotaxonomic and phenotypic characteristics, strain G3-6-20(T) represents a novel species of the genus Deinococcus, for which the name Deinococcus antarcticus sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is G3-6-20(T) ( = DSM 27864(T) = CCTCC AB 2013263(T)).

  14. Loktanella aquimaris sp. nov., Isolated from Seawater.

    PubMed

    Kim, Kunho; Srinivasan, Sathiyaraj; Lee, Sang-Seob

    2016-02-01

    Two novel bacterial strains, designated C5(T) and C9 were isolated from a fish cage at Tongyeong, South Korea and were characterized to determine their taxonomic position. The strains were Gram-negative, non-motile, strictly aerobic and short rod shaped. Growth occurred between 20 and 32 °C (optimum 30 °C) and at pH 6.0-9.0 (optimum pH 8.0) and at 0-10 % NaCl (optimum at 2 % NaCl). Based on the 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis, they were identified as a member of the genus Loktanella that belongs to the phylum Proteobacteria. Strains C5(T) and C9 were analyzed by a polyphasic approach, revealing variations in their phenotypic characters but reciprocal DNA-DNA hybridization values confirmed that they belong to the same species. Phylogenetic analysis of the 16S rRNA gene sequences of closely related species indicated their similarities were below 97 %. The predominant isoprenoid quinone is ubiquinone-10 (Q-10). The major cellular fatty acids were C16:0, and C18:1 ω7c. Major polar lipid contained phosphatidylglycerol (PG), phosphatidycholine (PC), diphosphatidylglycerol (DPG), phosphatidylethanolamine (PE), unidentified amino lipid (AL) and unidentified lipids (L1-3). Based on phylogenetic and phenotypic data, the isolated strains represent a novel species of the genus Loktanella, for which the name Loktanella aquimaris sp. nov. is proposed. The type strains were C5(T) (=KEMB 3-892(T) = JCM 30382(T)), and a second strain is C9 (=KEMB 3-893 = JCM 30383). PMID:26607359

  15. Belliella marina sp. nov., isolated from seawater.

    PubMed

    Song, Lei; Liu, Hongcan; Wang, Jian; Huang, Ying; Dai, Xin; Han, Xiqiu; Zhou, Yuguang

    2015-12-01

    Gram-stain-negative, rod-shaped bacterium, strain SW112T, was isolated from a seawater sample collected from the Indian Ocean. The strain was strictly aerobic and catalase- and oxidase-positive. Strain SW112T grew at 4-42 °C (optimum 30 °C), at pH 5.5-9.5 (optimum pH 7.5) and in the presence of 0-9.0 % (w/v) NaCl (optimum 2.0-3.0 %). The predominant cellular fatty acids were iso-C15 : 0 (29.7 %), iso-C17 : 03-OH (14.3 %) and summed feature 3 (comprising C16 : 1ω7c and/or C16 : 1ω6c, 15.1 %). The major menaquinone was menaquinone-7 and the major polar lipid was phosphatidylethanolamine. The genomic DNA G+C content of strain SW112T was 39 mol%. Phylogenetic analyses based on 16S rRNA gene sequences revealed that strain SW112T was related to members of the genus Belliella, showing the highest similarity with Belliella aquatica TS-T86T and Belliella baltica DSM 15883T (96.5 % and 96.4 %sequence similarity, respectively). On the basis of phylogenetic inference and phenotypic characteristics, it is proposed that strain SW112T represents a novel species of the genus Belliella, for which the name Belliella marina sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is SW112T(=CGMCC 1.15180T=KCTC 33694T). PMID:26346194

  16. Actibacterium ureilyticum sp. nov., isolated from seawater.

    PubMed

    Lin, Shih-Yao; Young, Chiu-Chung; Hameed, Asif; Liu, You-Cheng; Hsu, Yi-Han; Chung, Wei-Ching; Young, Li-Sen

    2016-08-01

    A polyphasic approach was used to characterize a novel marine bacterial strain, designated LS-811T, isolated from seawater of the South China Sea (Taiwan). Cells of strain LS-811Twere Gram-staining negative, aerobic and rod-shaped with polar flagella. The 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis of strain LS-811T showed highest sequence similarity to Actibacterium mucosum (96.5 %) and Actibacterium atlanticum (95.6 %), and lower sequence similarity (<96.0 %) to members of all other related genera. Strain LS-811Twas able to grow at 15-40 °C and pH 5.0-9.0. The quinone system was ubiquinone (Q-10), and the DNA G+C content was 60.1 mol%. The major fatty acids (>5 %) found in strain LS-811T were C18 : 0, C10 : 0 3-OH, C19 : 0 cyclo ω8c and C18 : 1ω7c/C18 : 1ω6c. The major polar lipid profile consisted of glycolipids, phosphatidylglycerol and one unidentified aminolipid. Based on the distinct phylogenetic, phenotypic and chemotaxonomic traits together with results of comparative 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis, strain LS-811T is considered to represent a novel species in the genus Actibacterium, for which the name Actibacterium ureilyticum sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is LS-811T (=BCRC 80823T=JCM 30681T).

  17. Distinct contributions of model MaSp1 and MaSp2 like peptides to the mechanical properties of synthetic major ampullate silk fibers as revealed in silico.

    PubMed

    Brooks, Amanda E; Nelson, Shane R; Jones, Justin A; Koenig, Courtney; Hinman, Michael; Stricker, Shane; Lewis, Randolph V

    2008-08-01

    All characterized major ampullate silks from orb-web weaving spiders are composites of primarily two different proteins: MaSp1 and MaSp2. The conserved association of MaSp1 and MaSp2 in these spider species, the highly conserved amino acid motifs, and variable ratios of MaSp1 to MaSp2 demonstrate the importance of both MaSp1 and MaSp2 to the strength and elasticity of the fiber. Computer simulated mechanical tests predicted differing roles for MaSp1 and MaSp2 in the mechanical properties of the fibers. Recombinant MaSp1 and MaSp2 proteins were blended and spun into fibers mimicking the computer-simulated conditions. Mechanical testing verified the differing roles of MaSp1 and MaSp2. PMID:20657704

  18. Description and phylogeny of Ceratomyxa anko sp. n. and Zschokkella lophii sp. n. from the Japanese anglerfish, Lophius litulon (Jordan).

    PubMed

    Freeman, M A; Yokoyama, H; Ogawa, K

    2008-12-01

    Two new species of myxozoans from the Japanese anglerfish, Lophius litulon, are described using myxospore morphology and small subunit rDNA sequences. Ceratomyxa anko sp. n. is a parasite of the gall bladder and had a prevalence of 57%. Mature spores of C. anko sp. n. are arcuate to crescent shaped with valves tapering to rounded tips. A prominent sutural line runs centrally between the round adjacent polar capsules containing the polar filament coiled two to three times. Spore measurements: length 10.8 (9.7-11.9) microm, width 41.9 (36.9-47.2) microm, polar capsule diameter 4.6 (4.1-5.3) microm. Ceratomyxa anko sp. n. can be distinguished from other Ceratomyxa spp. due to its spore dimensions and shape. Zschokkella lophii sp. n. is a parasite of the urinary bladder and had a prevalence of 70%. Mature spores are ellipsoidal to semicircular with bluntly pointed ends. The sutural line is curved or sinuous and the valves have no discernable surface ornamentation. Two almost spherical polar capsules are located separately in the ends of the spore, opening in almost opposite directions and contain the polar filament with five coils. Spore measurements: length 20.1 (16.8-24.0) microm, width 14.9 (12.7-16.8) microm, polar capsule diameter 5.1 (3.6-5.8) microm. Zschokkella lophii sp. n. can be distinguished from other Zschokkella spp. due to the terminal opening of the polar capsules within the spores and the site of infection within the host fish. In the phylogenetic analyses, C. anko sp. n. grouped with other members of the same genus forming a monophyly. Zschokkella lophii sp. n. forms a discrete clade with another Zschokkella sp. that infects the urinary bladder of marine fish. This grouping forms a sister clade to one containing members of the genus Parvicapsula, all of which are parasites of the urinary system in marine fish. PMID:18803583

  19. Nitrimines as reagents for metal-free formal C(sp(2) )-C(sp(2) ) cross-coupling reactions.

    PubMed

    Angeles-Dunham, Veronica V; Nickerson, David M; Ray, Devin M; Mattson, Anita E

    2014-12-22

    Nitrimines are employed as powerful reagents for metal-free formal C(sp(2) )-C(sp(2) ) cross-coupling reactions. The new chemical process is tolerant of a wide array of nitrimine and heterocyclic coupling partners giving rise to the corresponding di- or trisubstituted alkenes, typically in high yield and with high stereoselectivity. This method is ideal for the metal-free construction of heterocycle-containing drug targets, such as phenprocoumon. PMID:25365926

  20. Draft Genome Sequences of the Antimicrobial Producers Pseudomonas sp. TAA207 and Pseudomonas sp. TAD18 Isolated from Antarctic Sediments

    PubMed Central

    Presta, Luana; Inzucchi, Ilaria; Bosi, Emanuele; Fondi, Marco; Perrin, Elena; Maida, Isabel; Miceli, Elisangela; Tutino, Maria Luisa; Lo Giudice, Angelina; de Pascale, Donatella

    2016-01-01

    We report here the draft genome sequence of the Pseudomonas sp. TAA207 and Pseudomonas sp. TAD18 strains, isolated from Antarctic sediments during a summer campaign near coastal areas of Terra Nova Bay (Antarctica). Genome sequence knowledge allowed the identification of genes associated with the production of bioactive compounds and antibiotic resistance. Furthermore, it will be instrumental for comparative genomics and the fulfillment of both basic and application-oriented investigations. PMID:27469957

  1. Draft Genome Sequences of the Antimicrobial Producers Pseudomonas sp. TAA207 and Pseudomonas sp. TAD18 Isolated from Antarctic Sediments.

    PubMed

    Presta, Luana; Inzucchi, Ilaria; Bosi, Emanuele; Fondi, Marco; Perrin, Elena; Maida, Isabel; Miceli, Elisangela; Tutino, Maria Luisa; Lo Giudice, Angelina; de Pascale, Donatella; Fani, Renato

    2016-01-01

    We report here the draft genome sequence of the Pseudomonas sp. TAA207 and Pseudomonas sp. TAD18 strains, isolated from Antarctic sediments during a summer campaign near coastal areas of Terra Nova Bay (Antarctica). Genome sequence knowledge allowed the identification of genes associated with the production of bioactive compounds and antibiotic resistance. Furthermore, it will be instrumental for comparative genomics and the fulfillment of both basic and application-oriented investigations. PMID:27469957

  2. DNA sequences identical to Pneumocystis carinii f. sp. carinii and Pneumocystis carinii f. sp. hominis in samples of air spora.

    PubMed Central

    Wakefield, A E

    1996-01-01

    Samples of ambient air collected with three different types of spore traps in a rural location were examined for the presence of Pneumocystis carinii by screening for P. carinii-specific DNA sequences by DNA amplification. Eleven spore trap samples were analyzed by nested PCR, using oligonucleotide primers designed for the gene encoding the mitochondrial large subunit rRNA of P. carinii f. sp. carinii and P. carinii f. sp. hominis. The samples were collected over a 3-year period during the months of May to September, with a range of sampling times from 9 to 240 h. One air sample from an animal facility housing P. carinii-infected rats was also examined. P. carinii-specific amplification products were obtained from samples from each of the spore traps. The amplification products from eight air samples were cloned and sequenced. The majority of the recombinants from each of these samples had sequences identical to those of P. carinii f. sp. carinii and P. carinii f. sp. hominis, and a number of clones had single-base differences. These data suggest that sequences identical to those of P. carinii f. sp. carinii and P. carinii f. sp. hominis can be detected in samples of air collected in a rural location and that P. carinii may be a component of the air spora of rural Oxfordshire. PMID:8784583

  3. Candida baotianmanensis sp. nov. and Candida pseudoviswanathii sp. nov., two ascosporic yeast species isolated from the gut of beetles.

    PubMed

    Ren, Yong-Cheng; Xu, Long-Long; Zhang, Lin; Hui, Feng-Li

    2015-10-01

    Four yeast strains were isolated from the gut of beetles collected on Baotianman Mountain and People's Park of Nanyang in Henan Province, China. These strains produced unconjugated asci with one or two ellipsoidal to elongate ascospores in a persistent ascus. Phylogenetic analysis of the D1/D2 domains of the LSU rRNA gene sequences indicated that the isolates represent two novel sexual species in the Candida/Lodderomyces clade. Candida baotianmanensis sp. nov. was located in a statistically well-supported branch together with Candida maltosa. Candida pseudoviswanathii sp. nov. formed a subclade with its closest relative Candida viswanathii supported by a strong bootstrap value. The two novel species were distinguished from their most closely related described species, Candida maltosa and Candida viswanathii, in the D1/D2 LSU rRNA gene and internal transcribed spacer (ITS) sequences and in phenotypic traits. The type strain of Candida baotianmanensis sp. nov. is NYNU 14719T ( = CBS 13915T = CICC 33052T), and the type strain of Candida pseudoviswanathii sp. nov. is NYNU 14772T ( = CBS 13916T = CICC 33053T). The MycoBank numbers for Candida baotianmanensis sp. nov. and Candida pseudoviswanathii sp. nov. are MB 812621 and MB 812622.

  4. Skryjelites auritus gen. et sp. nov. and Quasimolites quasimodo gen. et sp. nov.--two new middle Cambrian hyolithids (?Mollusca) from the Czech Republic.

    PubMed

    Valent, Martin; Fatka, Oldřich; Szabad, Michal; Micka, Václav; Marek, Ladislav

    2015-08-28

    Two new endemic genera and species of extinct group of Hyolitha, Skryjelites auritus gen. et sp. nov. and Quasimolites quasimodo gen. et sp. nov. are described and illustrated from the Buchava Formation of the Barrandian area (Czech Republic).

  5. In Vitro Antimicrobial Potential of the Lichen Parmotrema sp. Extracts against Various Pathogens

    PubMed Central

    Chauhan, Ritika; Abraham, Jayanthi

    2013-01-01

    Objective(s): The ongoing increasing antibiotic resistance is one of the biggest challenges faced by global public health. The perennial need for new antimicrobials against a background of increasing antibiotic resistance in pathogenic and opportunistic microorganisms obliges the scientific community to constantly develop new drugs and antimicrobial agents. Lichens are known prolific sources of natural antimicrobial drugs and biologically active natural products. This study was aimed to explore in vitro antimicrobial activity of lichen Parmotrema sp. Material and Methods: The methanol and aqueous extracts of lichen Parmotrema sp. was extracted using Soxhlet extractor. Antibiotic assessment of methanol and aqueous extracts was done against eight bacterial (Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus aureus, Proteus mirabilis, Salmonella sp., Shigella sp., Enterococci faecalis, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Klebsiella pneumoniae,) clinical pathogens and five plant pathogenic fungal strains (Aspergillus terreus strain JAS1, Scedosporium sp. JAS1, Ganoderma sp. JAS4, Candida tropicalis and Fusarium sp.) by Kirby-Bauer method. Results: The methanol lichen Parmotrema sp. extract inhibited all the test organisms. The highest antibacterial activity was found against Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Staphylococcus aureus. The weakest activity was manifested in Salmonella sp. and Scedosporium sp. JAS1. Strong antifungal effect was found against Ganoderma sp. JAS4 and Fusarium sp. The aqueous lichen Parmotrema sp. extract revealed neither antibacterial nor antifungal activity. Conclusion: The present study shows that tested lichen Parmotrema sp. extracts demonstrated a strong antimicrobial effect. That suggests the active components from methanol extracts of the investigated lichen Parmotrema sp. can be used as natural antimicrobial agent against pathogens. PMID:23997920

  6. On the fourth Diadema species (Diadema-sp) from Japan.

    PubMed

    Chow, Seinen; Kajigaya, Yoshikazu; Kurogi, Hiroaki; Niwa, Kentaro; Shibuno, Takuro; Nanami, Atsushi; Kiyomoto, Setuo

    2014-01-01

    Four long-spined sea urchin species in the genus Diadema are known to occur around the Japanese Archipelago. Three species (D. savignyi, D. setosum, and D. paucispinum) are widely distributed in the Indo-Pacific Ocean. The fourth species was detected by DNA analysis among samples originally collected as D. savignyi or D. setosum in Japan and the Marshall Islands and tentatively designated as Diadema-sp, remaining an undescribed species. We analyzed nucleotide sequences of the cytochrome oxidase I (COI) gene in the "D. savignyi-like" samples, and found all 17 individuals collected in the mainland of Japan (Sagami Bay and Kyushu) to be Diadema-sp, but all nine in the Ryukyu Archipelago (Okinawa and Ishigaki Islands) to be D. savignyi, with large nucleotide sequence difference between them (11.0%±1.7 SE). Diadema-sp and D. savignyi shared Y-shaped blue lines of iridophores along the interambulacrals, but individuals of Diadema-sp typically exhibited a conspicuous white streak at the fork of the Y-shaped blue iridophore lines, while this feature was absent in D. savignyi. Also, the central axis of the Y-shaped blue lines of iridophores was approximately twice as long as the V-component in D. savignyi whereas it was of similar length in Diadema-sp. Two parallel lines were observed to constitute the central axis of the Y-shaped blue lines in both species, but these were considerably narrower in Diadema-sp. Despite marked morphological and genetic differences, it appears that Diadema-sp has been mis-identified as D. savignyi for more than half a century. PMID:25054386

  7. Methylation of halogenated phenols and thiophenols by cell extracts of gram-positive and gram-negative bacteria. [Rhodococcus sp. ; Pseudomonas sp. ; Acinetobacter sp

    SciTech Connect

    Neilson, A.H.; Lindgren, C.; Hynning, P.A.; Remberger, M.

    1988-02-01

    O-methylation of 2,6-dibromophenol was studied in cell extracts prepared from Rhodococcus sp. strain 1395. O-methylation activity was also demonstrated in extracts from two other Rhodococcus sp. strains, an Acinetobacter sp. strain, and a Pseudomonas sp. strain. A diverse range of chloro- and bromophenols, chlorothiophenols, chloro- and bromoguaiacols, and chloro- and bromocatechols were assayed as the substrates by using extracts prepared from strain 1395; all of the compounds were methylated to the corresponding anisoles, veratroles, or guaiacols. The specific activity of the enzyme towards the thiophenols was significantly higher than it was towards all the other substrates-high activity was found with pentafluorothiophenol, although the activity with pentafluorophenol was undetectable with the incubation times used. For the chlorophenols, the position of the substituents was of cardinal importance. The enzyme had higher activity towards the halogenated catechols than towards the corresponding guaiacols, and selective O-methylation of the 3,4,5-trihalogenocatechols yielded predominantly the 3,4,5-trihalogenoguaiacols. Neither 2,4-dinitrophenol, hexachlorophene, nor 5-chloro- or 5-bromovanillin was O-methylated. The results showed conclusively that the methylation reactions were enzymatic and confirmed the conclusion from extensive studies using whole cells that methylation of halogenated phenols may be a significant alternative to biodegradation.

  8. Aquimarina pacifica sp. nov., isolated from seawater.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Zenghu; Yu, Tong; Xu, Tingting; Zhang, Xiao-Hua

    2014-06-01

    A Gram-stain-negative, rod-shaped, non-flagellated, strictly aerobic bacterium with gliding motility, designated strain SW150(T), was isolated from surface seawater of the South Pacific Gyre (39° 19' S 139° 48' W) during the Integrated Ocean Drilling Program Expedition 329. Optimal growth occurred in the presence of 2-4% (w/v) NaCl, at pH 7-8 and at 28-30 °C. The dominant fatty acids were iso-C(15 : 0), iso-C(17 : 0) 3-OH, iso-C(15 : 1) G, C(16 : 1)ω6c and/or C(16 : 1)ω7c and 10-methyl C(16 : 0) and/or iso-C(17 : 1)ω9c. The polar lipids of strain SW150(T) comprised phosphatidylethanolamine, three unknown polar lipids and one unknown aminolipid. The major respiratory quinone was MK-6. The DNA G+C content of strain SW150(T) was 33.8 mol%. Phylogenetic analysis based on 16S rRNA gene sequences showed that the novel strain was related most closely to Aquimarina macrocephali JAMB N27(T) and Aquimarina muelleri KMM 6020(T) with 97.8 and 96.8% sequence similarities, respectively. The estimated DNA-DNA hybridization values were 21.00±2.33% between strain SW150(T) and A. macrocephali JAMB N27(T) and 20.60±2.32% between strain SW150(T) and Aquimarina megaterium XH134(T). On the basis of polyphasic analyses, strain SW150(T) represents a novel species of the genus Aquimarina, for which the name Aquimarina pacifica sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is SW150(T) ( = JCM 18214(T) = CGMCC 1.12180(T)). PMID:24626966

  9. Bacillus luteus sp. nov., isolated from soil.

    PubMed

    Subhash, Y; Sasikala, Ch; Ramana, Ch V

    2014-05-01

    Two bacterial strains (JC167T and JC168) were isolated from a soil sample collected from Mandpam, Tamilnadu, India. Colonies of both strains were orange and cells Gram-stain-positive. Cells were small rods, and formed terminal endospores of ellipsoidal to oval shape. Both strains were positive for catalase, oxidase and hydrolysis of starch/gelatin, and negative for chitin hydrolysis, H2S production, indole production and nitrate reduction activity. Major fatty acids of both strains (>5%) were anteiso-C15:0, iso-C16:0, iso-C15:0, anteiso-C17:0, iso-C14:0 and C16:0 with minor (<5 but >1%) amounts of iso-C17:0, anteiso-C17:0 B/iso-C17:0 I and C16:1ω11c. Diphosphatydilglycerol, phosphatidylethanolamine and phosphatidylglycerol were the major polar lipids of both strains. Cell wall amino acids were L-alanine, D-alanine, D-glutamic acid and meso-diaminopimelic acid. β-Carotene and five unidentified carotenoids were present in both strains. Mean genomic DNA G+C content was 53.4±1 mol% and the two strains were closely related (mean DNA-DNA hybridization>90%). 16S rRNA gene sequence comparisons of both strains indicated that they represent species of the genus Bacillus within the family Bacillaceae of the phylum Firmicutes. Both strains had a sequence similarity of 97.6% with Bacillus saliphilus 6AGT and <96.8% with other members of the genus Bacillus. Sequence similarity between strain JC167T and 168 was 100%. Strain JC167T showed 25.8±1% reassociation (based on DNA-DNA hybridization) with B. saliphilus DSM 15402T (=6AGT). Distinct morphological, physiological and genotypic differences from previously described taxa support the classification of strain JC167T as a representative of a novel species of the genus Bacillus, for which the name Bacillus luteus sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is JC167T (=KCTC 33100T=LMG 27257T). PMID:24478212

  10. Chitinophaga eiseniae sp. nov., isolated from vermicompost.

    PubMed

    Yasir, Muhammad; Chung, Eu Jin; Song, Geun Cheol; Bibi, Fehmida; Jeon, Che Ok; Chung, Young Ryun

    2011-10-01

    A Gram-negative, rod-shaped bacterial strain, YC6729(T), was isolated from vermicompost collected at Masan, Korea, and its taxonomic position was investigated by a polyphasic taxonomic approach. Strain YC6729(T) grew optimally at 30 °C and at pH 6.5-8.5. Phylogenetic analysis based on 16S rRNA gene sequences indicated that strain YC6729(T) belongs to the genus Chitinophaga in the family Chitinophagaceae. It was related most closely to Chitinophaga terrae KP01(T) (96.4 % 16S rRNA gene sequence similarity), Chitinophaga ginsengisegetis Gsoil 040(T) (96.1 %), Chitinophaga arvensicola IAM 12650(T) (96.1 %) and Chitinophaga pinensis DSM 2588(T) (93.3 %). Strain YC6729(T) contained MK-7 as the major menaquinone and homospermidine as the major polyamine. The fatty acids of strain YC6729(T) were iso-C(15 : 0), C(16 : 1)ω5c, iso-C(17 : 0) 3-OH, C(16 : 0), anteiso-C(18 : 0) and/or C(18 : 2)ω6,9c, iso-C(15 : 0) 2-OH and/or C(16 : 1)ω7c, C(14 : 0), iso-C(15 : 0) 3-OH, iso-C(15 : 1) G, C(18 : 1)ω5c, iso-C(15 : 1) I and/or C(13 : 0) 3-OH, C(13 : 0) 2-OH, C(16 : 0) 3-OH and unknown fatty acid ECL 13.565. The polar lipid profile contained phosphatidylethanolamine, unknown aminolipids and unknown lipids. The total DNA G+C content of strain YC6729(T) was 48.9 mol%. The phenotypic, chemotaxonomic and phylogenetic data showed that strain YC6729(T) represents a novel species of the genus Chitinophaga, for which the name Chitinophaga eiseniae sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is YC6729(T) ( = KACC 13774(T)  = DSM 22224(T)).

  11. Metallaphotoredox-catalysed sp3–sp3 cross-coupling of carboxylic acids with alkyl halides

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Johnston, Craig P.; Smith, Russell T.; Allmendinger, Simon; MacMillan, David W. C.

    2016-08-01

    In the past 50 years, cross-coupling reactions mediated by transition metals have changed the way in which complex organic molecules are synthesized. The predictable and chemoselective nature of these transformations has led to their widespread adoption across many areas of chemical research. However, the construction of a bond between two sp3-hybridized carbon atoms, a fundamental unit of organic chemistry, remains an important yet elusive objective for engineering cross-coupling reactions. In comparison to related procedures with sp2-hybridized species, the development of methods for sp3–sp3 bond formation via transition metal catalysis has been hampered historically by deleterious side-reactions, such as β-hydride elimination with palladium catalysis or the reluctance of alkyl halides to undergo oxidative addition. To address this issue, nickel-catalysed cross-coupling processes can be used to form sp3–sp3 bonds that utilize organometallic nucleophiles and alkyl electrophiles. In particular, the coupling of alkyl halides with pre-generated organozinc, Grignard and organoborane species has been used to furnish diverse molecular structures. However, the manipulations required to produce these activated structures is inefficient, leading to poor step- and atom-economies. Moreover, the operational difficulties associated with making and using these reactive coupling partners, and preserving them through a synthetic sequence, has hindered their widespread adoption. A generically useful sp3–sp3 coupling technology that uses bench-stable, native organic functional groups, without the need for pre-functionalization or substrate derivatization, would therefore be valuable. Here we demonstrate that the synergistic merger of photoredox and nickel catalysis enables the direct formation of sp3–sp3 bonds using only simple carboxylic acids and alkyl halides as the nucleophilic and electrophilic coupling partners, respectively. This metallaphotoredox protocol is

  12. Draft Genome Sequence of Methylobacterium sp. ME121, Isolated from Soil as a Mixed Single Colony with Kaistia sp. 32K

    PubMed Central

    Fujinami, Shun; Takeda-Yano, Kiyoko; Onodera, Takefumi; Satoh, Katsuya; Shimizu, Tetsu; Wakabayashi, Yuu; Narumi, Issay; Nakamura, Akira

    2015-01-01

    Methylobacterium sp. ME121 was isolated from soil as a mixed single colony with Kaistia sp. 32K, and its growth was enhanced by coculture. Here, we report the draft genome sequence of Methylobacterium sp. ME121, which may contribute to the study of the molecular mechanisms underlying this phenomenon. PMID:26337893

  13. Enantiospecific sp2-sp3 coupling of secondary and tertiary boronic esters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bonet, Amadeu; Odachowski, Marcin; Leonori, Daniele; Essafi, Stephanie; Aggarwal, Varinder K.

    2014-07-01

    The cross-coupling of boronic acids and related derivatives with sp2 electrophiles (the Suzuki-Miyaura reaction) is one of the most powerful C-C bond formation reactions in synthesis, with applications that span pharmaceuticals, agrochemicals and high-tech materials. Despite the breadth of its utility, the scope of this Nobel prize-winning reaction is rather limited when applied to aliphatic boronic esters. Primary organoboron reagents work well, but secondary and tertiary boronic esters do not (apart from a few specific and isolated examples). Through an alternative strategy, which does not involve using transition metals, we have discovered that enantioenriched secondary and tertiary boronic esters can be coupled to electron-rich aromatics with essentially complete enantiospecificity. As the enantioenriched boronic esters are easily accessible, this reaction should find considerable application, particularly in the pharmaceutical industry where there is growing awareness of the importance of, and greater clinical success in, creating biomolecules with three-dimensional architectures.

  14. Paenibacillus oenotherae sp. nov. and Paenibacillus hemerocallicola sp. nov., isolated from the roots of herbaceous plants.

    PubMed

    Kim, Tae-Su; Han, Ji-Hye; Joung, Yochan; Kim, Seung Bum

    2015-08-01

    Two Gram-staining-positive, aerobic, endospore-forming, motile bacteria, strains DT7-4T and DLE-12T, were isolated from roots of evening primrose (Oenothera biennis) and day lily (Hemerocallis fulva), respectively, and subjected to taxonomic characterization. Analysis of 16S rRNA gene sequences indicated that the two strains fell into two distinct phylogenetic clusters belonging to the genus Paenibacillus. Strain DT7-4T was most closely related to Paenibacillus phyllosphaerae PALXIL04T and Paenibacillus taihuensis THMBG22T, with 96.3% 16S rRNA gene sequence similarity to each, and strain DLE-12T was most closely related to Paenibacillus ginsengarvi Gsoil 139T and Paenibacillus hodogayensis SGT, with 96.6 and 93.3% sequence similarity, respectively. Both isolates contained anteiso-C15 : 0 as the dominant fatty acid, meso-diaminopimelic acid as the diagnostic diamino acid in the cell-wall peptidoglycan and MK-7 as the respiratory menaquinone. The cellular polar lipids were composed of diphosphatidylglycerol, phosphatidylethanolamine, phosphatidylglycerol and unidentified polar lipids. The DNA G+C contents of strains DT7-4T and DLE-12T were 50.1 ± 0.7 and 55.2 ± 0.5 mol%, respectively. The chemotaxonomic properties of both isolates were typical of members of the genus Paenibacillus. However, our biochemical and phylogenetic analyses distinguished each isolate from related species. Based on our polyphasic taxonomic analysis, strains DT7-4T and DLE-12T should be recognized as representatives of novel species of Paenibacillus, for which the names Paenibacillus oenotherae sp. nov. (type strain DT7-4T = KCTC 33186T = JCM 19573T) and Paenibacillus hemerocallicola sp. nov. (type strain DLE-12T = KCTC 33185T = JCM 19572T) are proposed. PMID:25977281

  15. Dietzia schimae sp. nov. and Dietzia cercidiphylli sp. nov., from surface-sterilized plant tissues.

    PubMed

    Li, Jie; Zhao, Guo-Zhen; Zhang, Yu-Qin; Klenk, Hans-Peter; Pukall, Rüdiger; Qin, Sheng; Xu, Li-Hua; Li, Wen-Jun

    2008-11-01

    Two actinobacterial strains, YIM 65001(T) and YIM 65002(T), were isolated from surface-sterilized plant tissues collected from Yunnan Province, south-west China, and their taxonomic positions were determined by using a polyphasic approach. The DNA G+C contents of strains YIM 65001(T) and YIM 65002(T) were 71.9 and 72.6 mol%, respectively. The two strains had chemotaxonomic markers that were consistent with their classification in the genus Dietzia. Phylogenetic analysis based on almost-complete 16S rRNA gene sequences indicated that strain YIM 65001(T) was related most closely to Dietzia maris DSM 43672(T) and that strain YIM 65002(T) was related most closely to Dietzia natronolimnaea CBS 107.95(T). Levels of 16S rRNA gene sequence similarity between strains YIM 65001(T) and YIM 65002(T) and the type strains of other recognized members of the genus Dietzia were 95.8-99.8 %. DNA-DNA hybridization experiments confirmed the separate genomic status of strains YIM 65001(T) and YIM 65002(T). Strains YIM 65001(T) and YIM 65002(T) showed significant phenotypic differences between each other and their closest recognized neighbours. On the basis of their phenotypic and phylogenetic distinctiveness, the two novel isolates were identified as representing two novel species of the genus Dietzia, for which the names Dietzia schimae sp. nov. (type strain YIM 65001(T)=CCTCC AA 207015(T)=DSM 45139(T)) and Dietzia cercidiphylli sp. nov. (type strain YIM 65002(T)=CCTCC AA 207016(T)=DSM 45140(T)) are proposed.

  16. Bradyrhizobium pachyrhizi sp. nov. and Bradyrhizobium jicamae sp. nov., isolated from effective nodules of Pachyrhizus erosus.

    PubMed

    Ramírez-Bahena, Martha Helena; Peix, Alvaro; Rivas, Raúl; Camacho, María; Rodríguez-Navarro, Dulce N; Mateos, Pedro F; Martínez-Molina, Eustoquio; Willems, Anne; Velázquez, Encarna

    2009-08-01

    Several strains isolated from the legume Pachyrhizus erosus were characterized on the basis of diverse genetic, phenotypic and symbiotic approaches. These novel strains formed two groups closely related to Bradyrhizobium elkanii according to their 16S rRNA gene sequences. Strains PAC48T and PAC68T, designated as the type strains of these two groups, presented 99.8 and 99.1% similarity, respectively, in their 16S rRNA gene sequences with respect to B. elkanii USDA 76T. In spite of these high similarity values, the analysis of additional phylogenetic markers such as atpD and glnII genes and the 16S-23S intergenic spacer (ITS) showed that strains PAC48T and PAC68T represented two separate novel species of the genus Bradyrhizobium with B. elkanii as their closest relative. Phenotypic differences among the novel strains isolated from Pachyrhizus and B. elkanii were found regarding the assimilation of carbon sources and antibiotic resistance. All these differences were congruent with DNA-DNA hybridization analysis which revealed 21% genetic relatedness between strains PAC48T and PAC68T and 46% and 25%, respectively, between these strains and B. elkanii LMG 6134T. The nodD and nifH genes of strains PAC48T and PAC68T were phylogenetically divergent from those of bradyrhizobia species that nodulate soybean. Soybean was not nodulated by the novel Pachyrhizus isolates. Based on the genotypic and phenotypic data obtained in this study, the new strains represent two novel species for which the names Bradyrhizobium pachyrhizi sp. nov. (type strain PAC48T=LMG 24246T=CECT 7396T) and Bradyrhizobium jicamae sp. nov. (type strain PAC68T=LMG 24556T=CECT 7395T) are proposed. PMID:19567584

  17. Flavobacterium daejeonense sp. nov. and Flavobacterium suncheonense sp. nov., isolated from greenhouse soils in Korea.

    PubMed

    Kim, Byung-Yong; Weon, Hang-Yeon; Cousin, Sylvie; Yoo, Seung-Hee; Kwon, Soon-Wo; Go, Seung-Joo; Stackebrandt, Erko

    2006-07-01

    Two yellow-pigmented, Gram-negative, rod-shaped bacterial strains, GH1-10(T) and GH29-5(T), were isolated from greenhouse soils in Korea. 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis indicated that these strains were related to members of the genus Flavobacterium. Strain GH1-10(T) was most closely related to Flavobacterium psychrolimnae and Flavobacterium denitrificans, with sequence similarities of 95.9 and 95.2 %, respectively. Strain GH29-5(T) was most closely related to "Flavobacterium saliodium", F. denitrificans and Flavobacterium frigoris, with sequence similarities of 94.3, 92.5 and 92.5 %, respectively. The major cellular fatty acids of GH1-10(T) were iso-C(15 : 0), summed feature 3 (iso-C(15 : 0) 2-OH and/or C(16 : 1)omega7c) and iso-C(17 : 0) 3-OH, and those of GH29-5(T) were iso-C(15 : 0), iso-C(17 : 0) 3-OH, iso-C(15 : 1) G and iso-C(15 : 0) 3-OH. Both strains contained menaquinone with six isoprene units (MK-6) as the sole quinone. The DNA G+C contents of GH1-10(T) and GH29-5(T) were 35 and 39 mol%, respectively. Based on the phylogenetic and phenotypic data presented, it is concluded that the two bacteria represent two separate novel species of the genus Flavobacterium. The names proposed to accommodate these organisms are Flavobacterium daejeonense sp. nov., with type strain GH1-10(T) (=KACC 11422(T)=DSM 17708(T)), and Flavobacterium suncheonense sp. nov., with type strain GH29-5(T) (=KACC 11423(T)=DSM 17707(T)).

  18. Parapedobacter luteus sp. nov. and Parapedobacter composti sp. nov., isolated from cotton waste compost.

    PubMed

    Kim, Soo-Jin; Weon, Hang-Yeon; Kim, Yi-Seul; Yoo, Seung-Hee; Kim, Byung-Yong; Anandham, Rangasamy; Kwon, Soon-Wo

    2010-08-01

    Two aerobic, Gram-reaction-negative, non-spore-forming bacterial strains, 4M29T and 4M40T, were isolated from cotton composts. The two strains grew in the presence of 0-5% (w/v) NaCl (optimum growth in the absence of NaCl), at pH 6.0-8.0 (optimum, pH 7.0) and at 15-45 degrees C (optimum, 30 degrees C). The strains shared 97.1% 16S rRNA gene sequence similarity. Strains 4M29T and 4M40T showed the next highest levels of 16S rRNA gene sequence similarity to Parapedobacter koreensis Jip14T (95.6 and 94.4%, respectively) and Parapedobacter soli DCY14T (95.2 and 93.8%). The level of DNA-DNA relatedness between strains 4M29T and 4M40T was 38%. The two strains contained iso-C15:0, summed feature 3 (comprising iso-C15:0 2-OH and/or C16:1omega7c) and iso-C17:0 3-OH as major fatty acids, MK-7 as the major respiratory quinone, homospermidine as the only polyamine and phosphatidylethanolamine as the major polar lipid. The DNA G+C contents of strains 4M29T and 4M40T were 47.6 and 48.6 mol%, respectively. On the basis of phylogenetic and phenotypic data, strains 4M29T and 4M40T are considered to represent two novel species of the genus Parapedobacter, for which the names Parapedobacter luteus sp. nov. (type strain 4M29T =KACC 10955T =JCM 15977T) and Parapedobacter composti sp. nov. (type strain 4M40T =KACC 10972T =JCM 15978T) are proposed.

  19. Deinococcus aerolatus sp. nov. and Deinococcus aerophilus sp. nov., isolated from air samples.

    PubMed

    Yoo, Seung-Hee; Weon, Hang-Yeon; Kim, Soo-Jin; Kim, Yi-Seul; Kim, Byung-Yong; Kwon, Soon-Wo

    2010-05-01

    Two strains of pink-coloured bacteria, 5516T-9(T) and 5516T-11(T), were isolated from an air sample collected in Korea. The taxonomic status of these novel strains was investigated by means of a polyphasic approach. The novel strains were Gram-positive, aerobic, non-spore-forming and coccus-shaped bacteria. The DNA G+C contents of strains 5516T-9(T) and 5516T-11(T) were 61.0 and 59.3 mol%, respectively. The major isoprenoid quinone for both strains was MK-8. Strain 5516T-9(T) contained summed feature 3 (iso-C(15 : 0) 2-OH and/or C(16 : 1)omega7c), C(16 : 0) and iso-C(17 : 1)omega9c, and strain 5516T-11(T) contained summed feature 3, iso-C(17 : 1)omega9c, C(17 : 1)omega8c and C(15 : 1)omega6c as the major fatty acids (>10 %). The polar lipid patterns of both strains were similar, comprising one phospholipid and one aminophospholipid as the major components. Phylogenetic analyses using 16S rRNA gene sequences showed that both novel strains were affiliated to the genus Deinococcus. Strain 5516T-9(T) exhibited the highest sequence similarity with Deinococcus marmoris DSM 12784(T) (96.8 %) and strain 5516T-11(T) showed the highest sequence similarity with Deinococcus saxicola DSM 15974(T) (94.5 %). The sequence similarity between strains 5516T-9(T) and 5516T-11(T) was 94.7 %. On the basis of the data presented, it is evident that both strains represent separate novel species of the genus Deinococcus for which the names Deinococcus aerolatus sp. nov. (type strain 5516T-9(T)=KACC 12745(T)=JCM 15442(T)) and Deinococcus aerophilus sp. nov. (type strain 5516T-11(T)=KACC 12746(T)=JCM 15443(T)) are proposed.

  20. Massilia jejuensis sp. nov. and Naxibacter suwonensis sp. nov., isolated from air samples.

    PubMed

    Weon, Hang-Yeon; Yoo, Seung-Hee; Kim, Soo-Jin; Kim, Yi-Seul; Anandham, Rangasamy; Kwon, Soon-Wo

    2010-08-01

    Two Gram-negative, motile, rod-shaped bacteria (strains 5317J-18T and 5414S-25T) were isolated from air samples collected in the Jeju Island and Suwon region of Korea, respectively. Phylogenetically, strain 5317J-18T was grouped with the genus Massilia with Massilia brevitalea byr23-80T as the closest relative (98.8% sequence similarity). Strain 5414S-25T was affiliated with the genus Naxibacter with Naxibacter haematophilus CCUG 38318T as the closest relative (98.8% sequence similarity). The mean DNA-DNA relatedness values between strain 5317J-18T and M. brevitalea DSM 18925T and Massilia aurea DSM 18055T were 43 and 36%, respectively. The mean DNA-DNA hybridization values between strain 5414S-25T and N. haematophilus KACC 13771T, M. brevitalea DSM 18925T, Massilia timonae DSM 16850T, Naxibacter varians KACC 13770T, M. aurea DSM 18055T, Massilia lutea DSM 17473T and Massilia albidiflava DSM 17472T ranged from 33 to 42%. Both novel strains had ubiquinone Q-8 as the predominant isoprenoid quinone and summed feature 3 (comprising iso-C15:0 2-OH and/or C16:1 omega7c) and C16:0 as the major fatty acids. Both strains also showed similar polar lipid profiles with phosphatidylethanolamine, phosphatidylglycerol and diphosphatidylglycerol as the major polar lipids. The DNA G+C contents of strains 5317J-18T and 5414S-25T were 66.1 and 67.8%, respectively. On the basis of their phenotypic, chemotaxonomic and genotypic characteristics, the new strains represent novel species in the genera Massilia and Naxibacter. Strain 5317J-18T (=KACC 12634T=DSM 21309T) is proposed as the type strain of Massilia jejuensis sp. nov. and strain 5414S-25T (=KACC 12635T=DSM 21311T) is proposed as the type strain of Naxibacter suwonensis sp. nov.

  1. Methanosalsum natronophilum sp. nov., and Methanocalculus alkaliphilus sp. nov., haloalkaliphilic methanogens from hypersaline soda lakes.

    PubMed

    Sorokin, Dimitry Y; Abbas, Ben; Merkel, Alexander Y; Rijpstra, W Irene C; Damsté, Jaap S Sinninghe; Sukhacheva, Marina V; van Loosdrecht, Mark C M

    2015-10-01

    Two groups of haloalkaliphilic methanogenic archaea were dominating in enrichments from hypersaline soda lake sediments at pH 10. At moderate salt concentrations with formate or H2 as electron donor, methanogens belonging to the genus Methanocalculus were enriched, while at high salt concentrations with methylated substrates, a group related to Methanosalsum zhilinae was dominating. For both groups, several pure cultures were obtained including the type strains AMF2T for the Methanocalculus group and AME2T for the Methanosalsum group. The Methanocalculus group is characterized by lithoheterotrophic growth with either formate (preferable substrate) or H2 at moderate salinity up to 1.5-2 M total Na+ and obligate alkaliphilic growth with an optimum at pH 9.5. According to phylogenetic analysis, the group also includes closely related strains isolated previously from the low-salt alkaline Lonar Lake. The novel Methanosalsum group is characterized by high salt tolerance (up to 3.5 M total Na+) and obligate alkaliphilic growth with an optimum at pH 9.5. It has a typical methylotrophic substrate profile, utilizing methanol, methylamines and dimethyl sulfide (at low concentrations) as methanogenic substrates. On the basis of physiological and phylogenetic data, it is proposed that the two groups of soda lake methanogenic isolates are assigned into two novel species, Methanocalculus alkaliphilus sp. nov. (type strain AMF2T = DSM 24457T = UNIQEM U859T) and Methanosalsum natronophilum sp. nov. (type strain AME2T = DSM 24634T = NBRC 110091T).

  2. Glycomyces fuscus sp. nov. and Glycomyces albus sp. nov., actinomycetes isolated from a hypersaline habitat.

    PubMed

    Han, Xiao-Xue; Luo, Xiao-Xia; Zhang, Li-Li

    2014-07-01

    Two actinomycete strains, designated TRM 49117(T) and TRM 49136(T), were isolated from a hypersaline habitat in Xinjiang Province, north-west China and were characterized taxonomically by using a polyphasic study. Phylogenetic analysis based on 16S rRNA gene sequences revealed that strain TRM 49117(T) had 93.93% similarity with the type strain Glycomyces halotolerans TRM 40137(T) (GenBank accession no. HQ651156) and TRM 49136(T) had 94.32% similarity with G. halotolerans TRM 40137(T). The 16S rRNA gene sequence similarity between the two new isolates was 93%. The isolates contained meso-diaminopimelic acid as the diagnostic diamino acid and anteiso-C15 : 0, iso-C16 : 0 and anteiso-C17 : 0 as major cellular fatty acids. The predominant menaquinones of the isolates were MK-9(H4) and MK-9(H6). The whole-cell sugar patterns of these strains contained xylose and ribose, and strain TRM 49136(T) also contained arabinose. The polar lipid pattern of strain TRM 49117(T) comprised phosphatidylglycerol, diphosphatidylglycerol, phosphatidylinositol mannosides, phosphatidylcholine, phosphatidylinositol and three additional unknown phospholipids. The polar lipid pattern of strain TRM 49136(T) comprised phosphatidylglycerol, phosphatidylethanolamine, diphosphatidylglycerol, phosphatidylinositol, glycolipids and two phosphoglycolipids of unknown composition. Genotypic and phenotypic data confirmed that strains TRM 49117(T) and TRM 49136(T) represent two novel species, clearly different from related species of the genus Glycomyces, for which the names Glycomyces fuscus sp. nov. (type strain TRM 49117(T) = CCTCC AA 2013003(T) = NRRL B-59998(T) = KACC 17682(T)) and Glycomyces albus sp. nov. (type strain TRM 49136(T) = CCTCC AA 2013004(T) = NRRL B-24927(T) = KACC 17681(T)) are proposed. PMID:24776532

  3. Alistipes inops sp. nov. and Coprobacter secundus sp. nov., isolated from human faeces.

    PubMed

    Shkoporov, Andrei N; Chaplin, Andrei V; Khokhlova, Ekaterina V; Shcherbakova, Victoria A; Motuzova, Oksana V; Bozhenko, Vladimir K; Kafarskaia, Lyudmila I; Efimov, Boris A

    2015-12-01

    Culture-based study of the faecal microbiome in two adult female subjects revealed the presence of two obligately anaerobic, non-spore-forming, rod-shaped, non-motile, Gram-negative bacterial strains that represent novel species. The first strain, designated 627T, was a fastidious, slow-growing, indole-positive bacterium with a non-fermentative type of metabolism.The strain was characterized by the production of acetic and succinic acids as metabolic end products, the prevalence of iso-C15 : 0 fatty acid and the presence of menaquinones MK-10 and MK-11. The DNA G+C content was found to be 56.6 mol%. The second strain, designated 177T, was capable of fermenting a rich collection of carbohydrate substrates, producing acetic acid as a terminal product. The strain was indole-negative and resistant to bile. The major cellular fatty acids were iso-C15 : 0 and anteiso-C15 : 0 (in a 1 : 1 ratio) and the predominant menaquinone was MK-11.The DNA G+C content was 37.8 mol%. A phylogenomic analysis of the draft genomes of strains 627T and 177T placed these bacteria in the genera Alistipes(family Rikenellaceae) and Coprobacter (family Porphyromonadaceae), respectively.On the basis of the phenotypic and genotypic properties of strains 627T and 177T, we conclude that these strains from human faeces represent two novel bacterial species, for which the names Alistipes inops sp. nov. (type strain 627T5DSM 28863T5VKM B-2859T) and Coprobacter secundus sp. nov. (type strain 177T=DSM 28864T=VKM B-2857T) are proposed.

  4. Oceanobacillus damuensis sp. nov. and Oceanobacillus rekensis sp. nov., isolated from saline alkali soil samples.

    PubMed

    Long, Xiufeng; Ye, Renyuan; Zhang, Shuai; Liu, Bo; Zhang, Yuqin; Zeng, Zhigang; Tian, Yongqiang

    2015-09-01

    Two moderately halophilic strains, PT-11(T) and PT-20(T), were isolated from saline alkali soil samples collected in Shache County, Xinjiang Province, China. Both strains are aerobic, Gram-positive, motile rods. Strain PT-11(T) grows at 15-40 °C and at pH 6.5-10.0, while PT-20(T) grows at 15-40 °C and at pH 6.5-11.0. The major cellular fatty acids in both strains include anteiso-C15:0, anteiso-C17:0 and iso-C15:0. For both strains, the polar lipids consist of diphosphatidylglycerol, phosphatidylglycerol, phosphatidylethanolamine, an unidentified phospholipid and several unidentified lipids. In addition, strain PT-20(T) also contains phosphatidylcholine. The major isoprenoid quinone for both strains is MK-7. The genomic G+C content is 36.7 % for PT-11(T) and 39.2 % for PT-20(T). Phylogenetic analyses of 16S rRNA gene sequences indicated that these two isolates are members of the genus Oceanobacillus. DNA-DNA hybridization indicated that strains PT-11(T) and PT-20(T) should be considered two distinct species. On the basis of both phylogenetic and chemotaxonomic data analyses, therefore, we conclude that PT-11(T) and PT-20(T) represent two novel species within the genus Oceanobacillus, for which we propose the names Oceanobacillus rekensis sp. nov. and Oceanobacillus damuensis sp. nov., respectively. The type strains are PT-11(T) (=KCTC 33144(T) = DSM 26900(T)) and PT-20(T) (=KCTC 33146(T) = DSM 26901(T)).

  5. Methylobacterium haplocladii sp. nov. and Methylobacterium brachythecii sp. nov., isolated from bryophytes.

    PubMed

    Tani, Akio; Sahin, Nurettin

    2013-09-01

    Pink-pigmented, facultatively methylotrophic bacteria, strains 87e(T) and 99b(T), were isolated from the bryophytes Haplocladium microphyllum and Brachythecium plumosum, respectively. The cells of both strains were Gram-reaction-negative, motile, non-spore-forming rods. On the basis of 16S rRNA gene sequence similarity, strains 87e(T) and 99b(T) were found to be related to Methylobacterium organophilum ATCC 27886(T) (97.1% and 97.7%, respectively). Strains 87e(T) and 99b(T) showed highest 16S rRNA gene similarity to Methylobacterium gnaphalii 23e(T) (98.3 and 99.0%, respectively). The phylogenetic similarities to all other species of the genus Methylobacterium with validly published names were less than 97%. Major cellular fatty acids of both strains were C(18:1)ω7c and C(18:0). The results of DNA-DNA hybridization, phylogenetic analyses based on 16S rRNA and cpn60 gene sequences, fatty acid profiles, whole-cell matrix-assisted, laser-desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF/MS) analysis, and physiological and biochemical tests allowed genotypic and phenotypic differentiation of strains 87e(T) and 99b(T) from their phylogenetically closest relatives. We propose that strains 87e(T) and 99b(T) represent novel species within the genus Methylobacterium, for which the names Methylobacterium haplocladii sp. nov. (type strain 87e(T) =DSM 24195(T) =NBRC 107714(T)) and Methylobacterium brachythecii sp. nov. (type strain 99b(T) =DSM 24105(T) =NBRC 107710(T)) are proposed.

  6. Humibacter ginsengiterrae sp. nov., and Humibacter ginsengisoli sp. nov., isolated from soil of a ginseng field.

    PubMed

    Kim, Eul-Kon; Hoang, Van-An; Kim, Yeon-Ju; Nguyen, Ngoc-Lan; Sukweenadhi, Johan; Kang, Jong-Pyo; Yang, Deok-Chun

    2015-08-01

    Two novel Gram-staining-positive bacteria, designated DCY60T and DCY90T, were isolated from soil of a ginseng field in the Republic of Korea. 16S rRNA gene sequence comparisons showed the two novel strains were closely related to members of the genus Humibacter with greatest similarity to Humibacter antri KCTC 33009T (98.8 and 98.4% for DCY60T and DCY90T, respectively). The predominant menaquinones present were MK-11 and MK-12. The major fatty acids were anteiso-C17 : 0 and summed feature 8 containing C18 : 1ω7c and/or C18 : 1ω6c. The DNA G+C contents of strains DCY60T and DCY90T were 62.8 and 66.8 mol%, respectively. The peptidoglycan of both strains contained the amino acids ornithine, 2,4-diaminobutyric acid, alanine, glutamic acid and glycine. The cell-wall sugars of strain DCY60T comprised glucose, galactose, rhamnose and xylose, while strain DCY90T contained glucose, galactose, rhamnose and ribose. The major polar lipids of both strains were phosphatidylglycerol, an unidentified glycolipid, and an unknown phospholipid. On the basis of the phenotypic analysis strains DCY60T and DCY90T represent novel species of the genus Humibacter, for which names Humibacter ginsengiterrae sp. nov. (type strain DCY60T = KCTC 33520T = JCM 30079T) and Humibacter ginsengisoli sp. nov. (type strain DCY90T = KCTC 33521T = JCM 30080T) are proposed.

  7. Methanobacterium petrolearium sp. nov. and Methanobacterium ferruginis sp. nov., mesophilic methanogens isolated from salty environments.

    PubMed

    Mori, Koji; Harayama, Shigeaki

    2011-01-01

    Two methane-producing archaea, designated Mic5c12(T) and Mic6c05(T), were isolated from sludge deposited in a crude oil storage tank and a tubercle on the interior of a pipe transporting natural gas-containing brine, respectively. The isolates were Gram-staining-variable, non-motile rods and grew only on H(2)/CO(2). Strain Mic6c05(T) produced methane from some alcohols without showing any growth; strain Mic5c12(T) did not utilize alcohols. The optimum growth conditions for strain Mic5c12(T) were 35 °C, pH 6.5 and 0-0.68 M NaCl and for strain Mic6c05(T) were 40 °C, pH 6.0-7.5 and 0.34 M NaCl. Strain Mic5c12(T) was halotolerant and strain Mic6c05(T) was halophilic. Comparative 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis revealed that strains Mic5c12(T) and Mic6c05(T) belonged to the genus Methanobacterium and their closest relative was Methanobacterium subterraneum A8p(T) (97.3 and 97.9 % 16S rRNA gene sequence similarity, respectively). The findings from the 16S rRNA gene sequence analyses were supported by analysis of McrA, the alpha subunit of methyl-coenzyme M reductase. On the basis of phylogenetic analyses and phenotypic characteristics, two novel species are proposed, Methanobacterium petrolearium sp. nov. and Methanobacterium ferruginis sp. nov., with type strains Mic5c12(T) (=NBRC 105198(T) =DSM 22353(T)) and Mic6c05(T) (=NBRC 105197(T) =DSM 21974(T)), respectively.

  8. Serratia myotis sp. nov. and Serratia vespertilionis sp. nov., isolated from bats hibernating in caves.

    PubMed

    García-Fraile, P; Chudíčková, M; Benada, O; Pikula, J; Kolařík, M

    2015-01-01

    During the study of bacteria associated with bats affected by white-nose syndrome hibernating in caves in the Czech Republic, we isolated two facultatively anaerobic, Gram-stain-negative bacteria, designated strains 12(T) and 52(T). Strains 12(T) and 52(T) were motile, rod-like bacteria (0.5-0.6 µm in diameter; 1-1.3 µm long), with optimal growth at 20-35 °C and pH 6-8. On the basis of the almost complete sequence of their 16S rRNA genes they should be classified within the genus Serratia; the closest relatives to strains 12(T) and 52(T) were Serratia quinivorans DSM 4597(T) (99.5 % similarity in 16S rRNA gene sequences) and Serratia ficaria DSM 4569(T) (99.5% similarity in 16S rRNA gene sequences), respectively. DNA-DNA relatedness between strain 12(T) and S. quinivorans DSM 4597(T) was only 37.1% and between strain 52(T) and S. ficaria DSM 4569(T) was only 56.2%. Both values are far below the 70% threshold value for species delineation. In view of these data, we propose the inclusion of the two isolates in the genus Serratia as representatives of Serratia myotis sp. nov. (type strain 12(T) =CECT 8594(T) =DSM 28726(T)) and Serratia vespertilionis sp. nov. (type strain 52(T) =CECT 8595(T) =DSM 28727(T)). PMID:25281728

  9. Glycomyces fuscus sp. nov. and Glycomyces albus sp. nov., actinomycetes isolated from a hypersaline habitat.

    PubMed

    Han, Xiao-Xue; Luo, Xiao-Xia; Zhang, Li-Li

    2014-07-01

    Two actinomycete strains, designated TRM 49117(T) and TRM 49136(T), were isolated from a hypersaline habitat in Xinjiang Province, north-west China and were characterized taxonomically by using a polyphasic study. Phylogenetic analysis based on 16S rRNA gene sequences revealed that strain TRM 49117(T) had 93.93% similarity with the type strain Glycomyces halotolerans TRM 40137(T) (GenBank accession no. HQ651156) and TRM 49136(T) had 94.32% similarity with G. halotolerans TRM 40137(T). The 16S rRNA gene sequence similarity between the two new isolates was 93%. The isolates contained meso-diaminopimelic acid as the diagnostic diamino acid and anteiso-C15 : 0, iso-C16 : 0 and anteiso-C17 : 0 as major cellular fatty acids. The predominant menaquinones of the isolates were MK-9(H4) and MK-9(H6). The whole-cell sugar patterns of these strains contained xylose and ribose, and strain TRM 49136(T) also contained arabinose. The polar lipid pattern of strain TRM 49117(T) comprised phosphatidylglycerol, diphosphatidylglycerol, phosphatidylinositol mannosides, phosphatidylcholine, phosphatidylinositol and three additional unknown phospholipids. The polar lipid pattern of strain TRM 49136(T) comprised phosphatidylglycerol, phosphatidylethanolamine, diphosphatidylglycerol, phosphatidylinositol, glycolipids and two phosphoglycolipids of unknown composition. Genotypic and phenotypic data confirmed that strains TRM 49117(T) and TRM 49136(T) represent two novel species, clearly different from related species of the genus Glycomyces, for which the names Glycomyces fuscus sp. nov. (type strain TRM 49117(T) = CCTCC AA 2013003(T) = NRRL B-59998(T) = KACC 17682(T)) and Glycomyces albus sp. nov. (type strain TRM 49136(T) = CCTCC AA 2013004(T) = NRRL B-24927(T) = KACC 17681(T)) are proposed.

  10. Rhodopirellula lusitana sp. nov. and Rhodopirellula rubra sp. nov., isolated from the surface of macroalgae.

    PubMed

    Bondoso, Joana; Albuquerque, Luciana; Lobo-da-Cunha, Alexandre; da Costa, Milton S; Harder, Jens; Lage, Olga Maria

    2014-05-01

    Twenty two strains of Rhodopirellula were isolated from the epiphytic community of several marine macroalgae and separated into two groups, designated as group B and group C. In this study, we characterized these groups as two novel species belonging to the genus Rhodopirellula. These strains were represented by pleomorphic cells that were arranged in rosettes and formed pink- or red-pigmented colonies. The organisms were chemoorganotrophic and required vitamin B12 for growth. Their optimal temperature for growth was around 25°C. Major fatty acids were C18:1 ω9c, C16:0 and C16:1 ω7c/C16:1 ω6c. Phosphatidylcholine and phosphatidylglycerol were the major polar lipids. Unidentified phospholipids were also present. The 16S rDNA sequence analysis confirmed the affiliation of these organisms to the order Planctomycetales, genus Rhodopirellula, with R. baltica as the closest phylogenetic relative. The analysis of a partial sequence of the gene encoding the β-subunit of RNA polymerase (rpoB) confirmed the phylogenetic separation of the isolates into two different species of the genus Rhodopirellula. The 16S rRNA sequences from strains of group B revealed their widespread occurrence across the world, whereas strains of group C were not observed before. On the basis of physiological, biochemical, chemotaxonomic and genetic characteristics we propose that our isolates represent two new species of Rhodopirellula, Rhodopirellula rubra sp. nov. (type strain is LF2(T)=DSM 25,459=CECT 8075) and Rhodopirellula lusitana sp. nov. (type strain is UC17(T)=DSM 25,457=LMG 27,777). PMID:24631661

  11. Ornithinibacillus gen. nov., with the species Ornithinibacillus bavariensis sp. nov. and Ornithinibacillus californiensis sp. nov.

    PubMed

    Mayr, R; Busse, H-J; Worliczek, H L; Ehling-Schulz, M; Scherer, S

    2006-06-01

    A Gram-positive, aerobic, rod-shaped, motile, endospore-forming bacterium was isolated from pasteurized milk from Bavaria, Germany. 16S rRNA gene sequence similarities indicated that strain WSBC 24001(T) was most closely related to Virgibacillus species (95.3-96.1 %), Oceanobacillus species (95.6-95.7 %), Bacillus firmus IAM 12464(T) (95.5 %) and Bacillus niacini IFO 15566(T) (95.2 %). However, strain WSBC 24001(T) showed the highest level of sequence similarity to an unnamed strain, MB-9(T) (97.6 %), which was isolated from coastal surface sediments in California. Hence, this strain was included in our study. The genomic DNA G + C contents of strains WSBC 24001(T) and MB-9(T) were 36.4 mol and 40.8 mol%, respectively. The major respiratory quinone of both strains was menaquinone MK-7 and the peptidoglycan type was A4beta (L-orn<--D-Asp). The polar lipid profiles of these strains contained a predominance of diphosphatidylglycerol and moderate to minor amounts of phosphatidylglycerol, an unknown phospholipid and an unknown aminophospholipid. However, strain WSBC 24001(T) could be distinguished from strain MB-9(T) by the presence of an unknown lipid. The fatty acid profiles of the two strains comprised mainly iso- and anteiso-branched acids, but showed some significant quantitative differences in the amounts of certain acids. The DNA-DNA relatedness value (15.5 %) clearly demonstrated that strains WSBC 24001(T) and MB-9(T) are representatives of two different species. On the basis of their phylogenetic position and morphological, physiological and chemotaxonomic properties, a novel genus is proposed, Ornithinibacillus gen. nov., with two novel species, the type species Ornithinibacillus bavariensis sp. nov. (type strain WSBC 24001(T) = DSM 15681(T) = CCM 7096(T)) and Ornithinibacillus californiensis sp. nov. (type strain MB-9(T) = DSM 16628(T) = CCM 7237(T)). PMID:16738118

  12. Hymenobacter latericoloratus sp. nov. and Hymenobacter luteus sp. nov., isolated from freshwater sediment.

    PubMed

    Liu, Lan; Zhou, En-Min; Jiao, Jian-Yu; Manikprabhu, Deene; Ming, Hong; Liu, Wei-Hong; Hozzein, Wael N; Shu, Wen-Sheng; Li, Wen-Jun

    2015-01-01

    Two novel Gram-stain negative, non-motile, rod-shaped and aerobic bacterial strains, designated YIM 77920(T) and YIM 77921(T), were isolated from freshwater sediment of Jiuxiang cave, a tourism cave located in Yiliang county, Yunnan province, south-west China. The 16S rRNA gene sequences of strains YIM 77920(T) and YIM 77921(T) exhibited sequence similarities of 96.59 and 96.66 % to Hymenobacter xinjiangensis X2-Y(T), respectively, and indicated that the two isolates belong to the genus Hymenobacter. The major fatty acids present in the two strains were identified as C16:1 ω5c, iso-C15:0 and Summed Feature 4 (C17:1 anteiso B/iso I). MK-7 was identified as the respiratory quinone component for both strains. The polar lipids profile of strain YIM 77920(T) was found to consist of phosphatidylethanolamine, four unidentified polar lipids, three unidentified aminophospholipids, two unidentified phospholipids and two unidentified aminolipids, while that of strain YIM 77921(T) consisted of phosphatidylethanolamine, four unidentified polar lipids, two unidentified aminolipids, one unidentified phospholipid and four unidentified aminophospholipids. The DNA G+C contents of strains YIM 77920(T) and YIM 77921(T) were determined to be 57.5 and 59.6 mol%, respectively. DNA-DNA hybridization between them had a low value (56.55 %). Based on the morphological and physiological properties, and phylogenetic analyses, strains YIM 77920(T) and YIM 77921(T) are considered to represent two novel species of the genus Hymenobacter, for which the names Hymenobacter latericoloratus sp. nov. (type strain YIM 77920(T) = JCM 30327(T) = CCTCC AB 2012949(T)) and Hymenobacter luteus sp. nov. (type strain YIM 77921(T) = JCM 30328(T) = CCTCC AB 2012947(T)) are proposed. PMID:25348876

  13. Phaeodactylibacter luteus sp. nov., isolated from the oleaginous microalga Picochlorum sp.

    PubMed

    Lei, Xueqian; Li, Yi; Wang, Guanghua; Chen, Yao; Lai, Qiliang; Chen, Zhangran; Zhang, Jingyan; Liao, Pingping; Zhu, Hong; Zheng, Wei; Zheng, Tianling

    2015-08-01

    A Gram-staining-negative, orange-pigmented, non-motile, aerobic bacterial strain, designated GYP20T, was isolated from a culture of the alga Picochlorum sp., a promising feedstock for biodiesel production, which was isolated from the India Ocean. Growth was observed at temperatures from 20 to 37 °C, salinities from 0 to 3% and pH from 5 to 9.Mg2+ and Ca2+ ions were required for growth. Phylogenetic analysis based on 16S rRNA gene sequencing revealed that the strain was a member of the genus Phaeodactylibacter, which belongs to the family Saprospiraceae. Strain GYP20T was most closely related to Phaeodactylibacter xiamenensis KD52T (95.5% sequence similarity). The major fatty acids were iso-C15 : 1 G, iso-C15 : 0, iso-C17 : 0 3-OH and summed feature 3. The predominant respiratory quinone was menaquinone-7 (MK-7). The polar lipids of strain GYP20T were found to consist of diphosphatidylglycerol, phosphatidylethanolamine, phosphatidylglycerol, four unidentified glycolipids, two unidentified phospholipids and three unidentified aminolipids. According to its morphology, physiology, fatty acid composition and 16S rRNA sequence data, the novel strain most appropriately belongs to the genus Phaeodactylibacter, but can readily be distinguished from Phaeodactylibacter xiamenensis GYP20T. The name Phaeodactylibacter luteus sp. nov. is proposed with the type strain GYP20T ( = MCCC 1F01222T = KCTC 42180T).

  14. Pulmonary surfactant proteins SP-B and SP-C in spread monolayers at the air-water interface: I. Monolayers of pulmonary surfactant protein SP-B and phospholipids.

    PubMed Central

    Taneva, S; Keough, K M

    1994-01-01

    The effects of pulmonary surfactant protein SP-B on the properties of monolayers of dipalmitoylphosphatidylcholine (DPPC) and dipalmitoylphosphatidylglycerol (DPPG), and a mixture of DPPC:DPPG (7:3, mol:mol) were studied using spread films at the air-water interface. The addition of SP-B to the phospholipid monolayers gave positive deviations from additivity of the mean areas in the films. At low protein concentrations (less than 45% amino acid residues which corresponds to 0.5 mol% or 10 weight% SP-B) monolayers of SP-B/DPPC, SP-B/DPPG and SP-B/(DPPC:DPPG) collapsed at surface pressures of about 70 mN.m-1, comparable to those of the lipids alone. At higher concentrations of SP-B in the protein-lipid monolayers, kink points appeared in the isotherms at about 40-45 mN.m-1, implying possible exclusion of material from the films, hence, changes in the original monolayer compositions. Calculated analyses of the monolayer compositions as a function of surface pressure indicated that nearly pure SP-B, associated with small amounts of phospholipid (2-3 lipid molecules per SP-B dimer), was lost from SP-B/DPPC, SP-B/DPPG, and SP-B/(DPPC:DPPG) films at surface pressures higher than 40-45 mN.m-1. The results are consistent with a low effectiveness of SP-B in removing saturated phospholipids, DPPC or DPPG, from the spread SP-B/phospholipid films. PMID:8038385

  15. Pichia dushanensis sp. nov. and Hyphopichia paragotoi sp. nov., two sexual yeast species associated with insects and rotten wood.

    PubMed

    Ren, Yong-Cheng; Liu, Si-Tong; Li, Ying; Hui, Feng-Li

    2015-09-01

    Seven yeast strains were isolated from the gut of insect larvae and decayed wood, which were collected from three localities near Nanyang, Henan Province, China. These strains were identified as two novel species through comparison of sequences in the D1/D2 domains of the large subunit (LSU) rRNA gene and other taxonomic characteristics. Pichia dushanensis sp. nov. was closely related to species in the Pichia clade and produced one to four spheroid ascospores in a deliquescent ascus. The D1/D2 sequence of P. dushanensis sp. nov. differed from its closest relative, Issatchenkia (Pichia) sp. NRRL Y-12824, by 3.6% sequence divergence (16 substitutions and 4 gaps). The species also differed from its four closest known species, Candida rugopelliculosa, Pichia occidentalis, Pichia exigua and Candida phayaonensis, by 4.1-4.4% sequence divergence (22-24 substitutions and 0-2 gaps) in the D1/D2 sequences. Hyphopichia paragotoi sp. nov. belonged to the Hyphopichia clade, and its nearest phylogenetic neighbours were Candida gotoi, Candida pseudorhagii, Candida rhagii and Hyphopichia heimii with 3.2-4.2% sequence divergence (16-21 substitutions and 1 gap) in the D1/D2 sequences. In comparison with previously established species, H. paragotoi sp. nov. formed one hat-shaped ascospore in a persistent ascus. The type strain of P. dushanensis sp. nov. is NYNU 14658(T) ( = CICC 33049(T) = CBS 13912(T)), and the type strain of H. paragotoi sp. nov. is NYNU 14666(T) ( = CICC 33048(T) = CBS 13913(T)).

  16. Molecular characterization of Sp110 gene in pigs.

    PubMed

    Li, Li-Zu; Wang, Qiu-Shi; Han, Li-Xin; Wang, Jin-Kui; Shao, Si-Yu; Wang, Liang; Liu, Di; Yang, Xiu-Qin

    2016-06-01

    Speckled 110 kDa (Sp110) plays an important role in infectious diseases, as revealed by studies in humans. However, little is known regarding porcine Sp110. To elucidate its potential role in porcine resistance to viral diseases, here, the complete coding sequence of porcine Sp110 gene and its 26 alternatively spliced isoforms were isolated using reverse transcription (RT)-polymerase chain reaction (PCR), and another seven splicing patterns were obtained using a minigene construct. Subcellular distribution of 11 representative isoforms was characterized in PK-15 cells transiently transfected with their respective GFP fusion constructs, and only isoforms (R and V) bearing all functional domains were localized in nucleus, indicating all the other isoforms lose normal functions of Sp110 owing to alternative splicing. Real-time quantitative PCR and competitive RT-PCR showed that both isoforms R and V had similar tissue expression profile, half-life and response to poly(I:C), a synthetic analog of viral double-stranded RNA, while the longer one (isoform R) was transcribed at a higher level. The results indicated that porcine Sp110 has a role in viral infection and that isoform R is the dominant active form. Overall the data provide potential resource for molecular breeding of pig resistant to diseases and contributes to breeding pigs resistant to viral infection. PMID:26995495

  17. Evolution of space food in Nostoc sp. HK-01

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tomita-Yokotani, Kaori; Yamashita, Masamichi; Hashimoto, Hirofumi; Sato, Seigo; Kimura, Yasuko; Katoh, Hiroshi; Arai, Mayumi

    2012-07-01

    Habitation in outer space is one of our challenges. We have been studying future space agriculture to provide food and oxygen for the habitation area in the space environment, on Mars. A cyanobacteria, Nostoc sp. HK-01, has high several outer space environmental tolerance. We have already confirmed that Nostoc sp.HK-01 had an ability to grow for over several years on the Martian regolith simulant in a laboratory experiment. Nostoc sp HK-01 would have high contribution to change the atmosphere in Mars as a photosynthetic creature. In outer environment, all of materials have to circulate for all of creature living in artificial eco-systems on Mars. This material has several functions as the utilization in space agriculture. Here, we are proposing using them as a food after its growing on Mars. We are trying to determine the best conditions and evolution for space food using Nostoc sp.HK-01 and studying the proposal of utilization of cyanobacteria, Nostoc sp HK-01, for the variation of meal as space agriculture.

  18. Surfactant Protein A (SP-A)-mediated Clearance of Staphylococcus aureus Involves Binding of SP-A to the Staphylococcal Adhesin Eap and the Macrophage Receptors SP-A Receptor 210 and Scavenger Receptor Class A*

    PubMed Central

    Sever-Chroneos, Zvjezdana; Krupa, Agnieszka; Davis, Jeremy; Hasan, Misbah; Yang, Ching-Hui; Szeliga, Jacek; Herrmann, Mathias; Hussain, Muzafar; Geisbrecht, Brian V.; Kobzik, Lester; Chroneos, Zissis C.

    2011-01-01

    Staphylococcus aureus causes life-threatening pneumonia in hospitals and deadly superinfection during viral influenza. The current study investigated the role of surfactant protein A (SP-A) in opsonization and clearance of S. aureus. Previous studies showed that SP-A mediates phagocytosis via the SP-A receptor 210 (SP-R210). Here, we show that SP-R210 mediates binding and control of SP-A-opsonized S. aureus by macrophages. We determined that SP-A binds S. aureus through the extracellular adhesin Eap. Consequently, SP-A enhanced macrophage uptake of Eap-expressing (Eap+) but not Eap-deficient (Eap−) S. aureus. In a reciprocal fashion, SP-A failed to enhance uptake of Eap+ S. aureus in peritoneal Raw264.7 macrophages with a dominant negative mutation (SP-R210(DN)) blocking surface expression of SP-R210. Accordingly, WT mice cleared infection with Eap+ but succumbed to sublethal infection with Eap- S. aureus. However, SP-R210(DN) cells compensated by increasing non-opsonic phagocytosis of Eap+ S. aureus via the scavenger receptor scavenger receptor class A (SR-A), while non-opsonic uptake of Eap− S. aureus was impaired. Macrophages express two isoforms: SP-R210L and SP-R210S. The results show that WT alveolar macrophages are distinguished by expression of SP-R210L, whereas SR-A−/− alveolar macrophages are deficient in SP-R210L expressing only SP-R210S. Accordingly, SR-A−/− mice were highly susceptible to both Eap+ and Eap− S. aureus. The lungs of susceptible mice generated abnormal inflammatory responses that were associated with impaired killing and persistence of S. aureus infection in the lung. In conclusion, alveolar macrophage SP-R210L mediates recognition and killing of SP-A-opsonized S. aureus in vivo, coordinating inflammatory responses and resolution of S. aureus pneumonia through interaction with SR-A. PMID:21123169

  19. Role of SP65 in assembly of the Dictyostelium discoideum spore coat.

    PubMed

    Metcalf, Talibah; van der Wel, Hanke; Escalante, Ricardo; Sastre, Leandro; West, Christopher M

    2007-07-01

    Like the cyst walls of other protists, the spore coat of Dictyostelium discoideum is formed de novo to protect the enclosed dormant cell from stress. Spore coat assembly is initiated by exocytosis of protein and polysaccharide precursors at the cell surface, followed by the infusion of nascent cellulose fibrils, resulting in an asymmetrical trilaminar sandwich with cellulose filling the middle layer. A molecular complex consisting of cellulose and two proteins, SP85 and SP65, is associated with the inner and middle layers and is required for proper organization of distinct proteins in the outer layer. Here we show that, unlike SP85 and other protein precursors, which are stored in prespore vesicles, SP65 is, like cellulose, synthesized just in time. By tagging the SP65 locus with green fluorescent protein, we find that SP65 is delivered to the cell surface via largely distinct vesicles, suggesting that separate delivery of components of the cellulose-SP85-SP65 complex regulates its formation at the cell surface. In support of previous in vivo studies, recombinant SP65 and SP85 are shown to interact directly. In addition, truncation of SP65 causes a defect of the outer layer permeability barrier as seen previously for SP85 mutants. These observations suggest that assembly of the cellulose-SP85-SP65 triad at the cell surface is biosynthetically regulated both temporally and spatially and that the complex contributes an essential function to outer layer architecture and function.

  20. Parasites of the African clawed frog, Xenopus laevis, in southern California, U.S.A

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kuperman, Boris I.; Matey, Victoria E.; Fisher, Richard N.; Ervin, Edward L.; Warburton, Manna L.; Bakhireva, Ludmila; Lehman, Cynthia A.

    2004-01-01

    A total of 230 feral African clawed frogs, Xenopus laevis, from 3 localities in southern California were examined for parasites. The following species were found: 3 species of Protozoa, Nyctotherussp., Balantidium xenopodis, Protoopalina xenopodus; 2 species of Monogenea, Protopolystoma xenopodis, Gyrdicotylus gallieni; 1 species of Digenea, Clinostomum sp. (as metacercariae); 1 species of Cestoda, Cephalochlamys namaquensis; 2 species of Nematoda, Contracaecum sp. (as larvae), Eustrongylides sp. (as larvae); and 1 species of Acanthocephala, Acanthocephalus sp. (as cystacanth). Of these, the protozoans P. xenopodus and B. xenopodis, both monogeneans, and the cestode have an African origin. Contracaecum sp., Eustrongylides sp., and Acanthocephalus sp. have not been previously reported from X. laevis.

  1. Acanthocephalans from fishes and amphibians in Vietnam, with descriptions of five new species.

    PubMed

    Amin, Omar Mohamed; Heckmann, Richard Anderson; Van Ha, Nguyen

    2014-01-01

    Eight species of acanthocephalans are reported, and five are new. Specimens of Neoechinorhynchus (Hebesoma) manubrianus Amin, Ha & Ha, 2011 were similar to the original description. Neoechinorhynchus (Hebesoma) spiramuscularis n. sp. (Neoechinorhynchidae), from Xenocypris davidi, has a unique proboscis receptacle wrapped in a spiral muscular layer, and an undulating flask-shaped lemnisci, as well as double para-receptacle structures. Heterosentis mongcai n. sp. (Arhythmacanthidae), from Acreichthys sp., has a small fusiform trunk with an unarmed cone and anterior trunk spines, and a proboscis with two circles of rooted apical hooks and 3-4 circles of rooted posterior spines as well as a para-receptacle-like structure at the posterior end. The poorly known Filisoma indicum Van Cleave, 1928 is fully described and illustrated for the first time. Acanthocephalus parallelcementglandatus n. sp. (Echinorhynchidae), from Clarias batrachus, is distinguished from other species of Acanthocephalus by its small fusiform trunk and parallel tubular cement glands. Pseudoacanthocephalus coniformis n. sp. (Echinorhynchidae), from Hylarana sp., is distinguished from other species by having an anterior trunk collar and staggered prominent filiform cement glands, among other features. Cathayacanthus spinitruncatus n. sp. (Rhadinorhynchidae), from Leiognathus equulus, is distinguished from the only two known species of the genus by having a very long and slender proboscis with more than 50 hooks per row and a totally spined trunk. The generic diagnosis of Cathayacanthus Golvan, 1969 is emended. Rhadinorhynchus johnstoni Golvan, 1969 (Rhadinorhynchidae) perfectly fits the only complete description of that species from the Fiji Islands.

  2. Acanthocephalans from fishes and amphibians in Vietnam, with descriptions of five new species.

    PubMed

    Amin, Omar Mohamed; Heckmann, Richard Anderson; Van Ha, Nguyen

    2014-01-01

    Eight species of acanthocephalans are reported, and five are new. Specimens of Neoechinorhynchus (Hebesoma) manubrianus Amin, Ha & Ha, 2011 were similar to the original description. Neoechinorhynchus (Hebesoma) spiramuscularis n. sp. (Neoechinorhynchidae), from Xenocypris davidi, has a unique proboscis receptacle wrapped in a spiral muscular layer, and an undulating flask-shaped lemnisci, as well as double para-receptacle structures. Heterosentis mongcai n. sp. (Arhythmacanthidae), from Acreichthys sp., has a small fusiform trunk with an unarmed cone and anterior trunk spines, and a proboscis with two circles of rooted apical hooks and 3-4 circles of rooted posterior spines as well as a para-receptacle-like structure at the posterior end. The poorly known Filisoma indicum Van Cleave, 1928 is fully described and illustrated for the first time. Acanthocephalus parallelcementglandatus n. sp. (Echinorhynchidae), from Clarias batrachus, is distinguished from other species of Acanthocephalus by its small fusiform trunk and parallel tubular cement glands. Pseudoacanthocephalus coniformis n. sp. (Echinorhynchidae), from Hylarana sp., is distinguished from other species by having an anterior trunk collar and staggered prominent filiform cement glands, among other features. Cathayacanthus spinitruncatus n. sp. (Rhadinorhynchidae), from Leiognathus equulus, is distinguished from the only two known species of the genus by having a very long and slender proboscis with more than 50 hooks per row and a totally spined trunk. The generic diagnosis of Cathayacanthus Golvan, 1969 is emended. Rhadinorhynchus johnstoni Golvan, 1969 (Rhadinorhynchidae) perfectly fits the only complete description of that species from the Fiji Islands. PMID:25331738

  3. Acanthocephalans from fishes and amphibians in Vietnam, with descriptions of five new species

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Eight species of acanthocephalans are reported, and five are new. Specimens of Neoechinorhynchus (Hebesoma) manubrianus Amin, Ha & Ha, 2011 were similar to the original description. Neoechinorhynchus (Hebesoma) spiramuscularis n. sp. (Neoechinorhynchidae), from Xenocypris davidi, has a unique proboscis receptacle wrapped in a spiral muscular layer, and an undulating flask-shaped lemnisci, as well as double para-receptacle structures. Heterosentis mongcai n. sp. (Arhythmacanthidae), from Acreichthys sp., has a small fusiform trunk with an unarmed cone and anterior trunk spines, and a proboscis with two circles of rooted apical hooks and 3–4 circles of rooted posterior spines as well as a para-receptacle-like structure at the posterior end. The poorly known Filisoma indicum Van Cleave, 1928 is fully described and illustrated for the first time. Acanthocephalus parallelcementglandatus n. sp. (Echinorhynchidae), from Clarias batrachus, is distinguished from other species of Acanthocephalus by its small fusiform trunk and parallel tubular cement glands. Pseudoacanthocephalus coniformis n. sp. (Echinorhynchidae), from Hylarana sp., is distinguished from other species by having an anterior trunk collar and staggered prominent filiform cement glands, among other features. Cathayacanthus spinitruncatus n. sp. (Rhadinorhynchidae), from Leiognathus equulus, is distinguished from the only two known species of the genus by having a very long and slender proboscis with more than 50 hooks per row and a totally spined trunk. The generic diagnosis of Cathayacanthus Golvan, 1969 is emended. Rhadinorhynchus johnstoni Golvan, 1969 (Rhadinorhynchidae) perfectly fits the only complete description of that species from the Fiji Islands. PMID:25331738

  4. SP-R210 (Myo18A) Isoforms as Intrinsic Modulators of Macrophage Priming and Activation

    PubMed Central

    DiAngelo, Susan L.; Silveyra, Patricia; Umstead, Todd M.; Halstead, E. Scott; Davies, Michael L.; Hu, Sanmei; Floros, Joanna; McCormack, Francis X.; Christensen, Neil D.; Chroneos, Zissis C.

    2015-01-01

    The surfactant protein (SP-A) receptor SP-R210 has been shown to increase phagocytosis of SP-A-bound pathogens and to modulate cytokine secretion by immune cells. SP-A plays an important role in pulmonary immunity by enhancing opsonization and clearance of pathogens and by modulating macrophage inflammatory responses. Alternative splicing of the Myo18A gene results in two isoforms: SP-R210S and SP-R210L, with the latter predominantly expressed in alveolar macrophages. In this study we show that SP-A is required for optimal expression of SP-R210L on alveolar macrophages. Interestingly, pre-treatment with SP-A prepared by different methods either enhances or suppresses responsiveness to LPS, possibly due to differential co-isolation of SP-B or other proteins. We also report that dominant negative disruption of SP-R210L augments expression of receptors including SR-A, CD14, and CD36, and enhances macrophages’ inflammatory response to TLR stimulation. Finally, because SP-A is known to modulate CD14, we used a variety of techniques to investigate how SP-R210 mediates the effect of SP-A on CD14. These studies revealed a novel physical association between SP-R210S, CD14, and SR-A leading to an enhanced response to LPS, and found that SP-R210L and SP-R210S regulate internalization of CD14 via distinct macropinocytosis-like mechanisms. Together, our findings support a model in which SP-R210 isoforms differentially regulate trafficking, expression, and activation of innate immune receptors on macrophages. PMID:25965346

  5. SP-R210 (Myo18A) Isoforms as Intrinsic Modulators of Macrophage Priming and Activation.

    PubMed

    Yang, Linlin; Carrillo, Marykate; Wu, Yuchieh M; DiAngelo, Susan L; Silveyra, Patricia; Umstead, Todd M; Halstead, E Scott; Davies, Michael L; Hu, Sanmei; Floros, Joanna; McCormack, Francis X; Christensen, Neil D; Chroneos, Zissis C

    2015-01-01

    The surfactant protein (SP-A) receptor SP-R210 has been shown to increase phagocytosis of SP-A-bound pathogens and to modulate cytokine secretion by immune cells. SP-A plays an important role in pulmonary immunity by enhancing opsonization and clearance of pathogens and by modulating macrophage inflammatory responses. Alternative splicing of the Myo18A gene results in two isoforms: SP-R210S and SP-R210L, with the latter predominantly expressed in alveolar macrophages. In this study we show that SP-A is required for optimal expression of SP-R210L on alveolar macrophages. Interestingly, pre-treatment with SP-A prepared by different methods either enhances or suppresses responsiveness to LPS, possibly due to differential co-isolation of SP-B or other proteins. We also report that dominant negative disruption of SP-R210L augments expression of receptors including SR-A, CD14, and CD36, and enhances macrophages' inflammatory response to TLR stimulation. Finally, because SP-A is known to modulate CD14, we used a variety of techniques to investigate how SP-R210 mediates the effect of SP-A on CD14. These studies revealed a novel physical association between SP-R210S, CD14, and SR-A leading to an enhanced response to LPS, and found that SP-R210L and SP-R210S regulate internalization of CD14 via distinct macropinocytosis-like mechanisms. Together, our findings support a model in which SP-R210 isoforms differentially regulate trafficking, expression, and activation of innate immune receptors on macrophages. PMID:25965346

  6. Vitreoscilla hemoglobin promotes Salecan production by Agrobacterium sp. ZX09*

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Yun-mei; Xu, Hai-yang; Wang, Yang; Zhang, Jian-fa; Wang, Shi-ming

    2014-01-01

    Salecan is a novel exopolysaccharide produced by the strain Agrobacterium sp. ZX09, and it is composed of only glucose monomers. The unique chemical composition and excellent physicochemical properties make Salecan a promising material for applications in coagulation, lubrication, protection against acute liver injury, and alleviating constipation. In this study, we cloned the Vitreoscilla hemoglobin gene into a broad-host-range plasmid pCM158. Without antibiotic selection, there was negligible loss of the plasmid in the host Agrobacterium sp. ZX09 after one passage of cultivation. The expression of Vitreoscilla hemoglobin was demonstrated by carbon monoxide (CO) difference spectrum. The engineered strain Agrobacterium sp. ZX09 increased Salecan yield by 30%. The other physiological changes included its elevated respiration rate and cellular invertase activity. PMID:25367790

  7. Biochemical changes induced by fungicides in nitrogen fixing Nostoc sp.

    PubMed

    Deviram, G V N S; Pant, Gaurav; Prasuna, R Gyana

    2013-01-01

    The present study indicates the effect of fungicides (approved by WHO) and their behavior on nitrogen fixer of rice eco system Nostoc sp. Application of plant protecting chemicals at recommended levels braced up the growth of blue green algae thereby enhancing heterocyst formation and nitrogenase activity. Nostoc sp demoed varying degrees of sensitivity to fungicides. Biomass yield, protein, carbohydrate content reduced after 3pg/mL concentration. Heterocyst damage was observed from 4μg/mL, Proline content increased with increase in fungicide concentration, utmost yellowing of the culture started from 4μg/mL. The decreasing order of the toxicity to Nostoc sp with fungicides was Mancozeb> Ediphenphos> Carbendazim> Hexaconazole. PMID:25464710

  8. Biochemical changes induced by fungicides in nitrogen fixing Nostoc sp.

    PubMed

    Deviram, G V N S; Pant, Gaurav; Prasuna, R Gyana

    2013-01-01

    The present study indicates the effect of fungicides (approved by WHO) and their behavior on nitrogen fixer of rice eco system Nostoc sp. Application of plant protecting chemicals at recommended levels braced up the growth of blue green algae thereby enhancing heterocyst formation and nitrogenase activity. Nostoc sp demoed varying degrees of sensitivity to fungicides. Biomass yield, protein, carbohydrate content reduced after 3pg/mL concentration. Heterocyst damage was observed from 4μg/mL, Proline content increased with increase in fungicide concentration, utmost yellowing of the culture started from 4μg/mL. The decreasing order of the toxicity to Nostoc sp with fungicides was Mancozeb> Ediphenphos> Carbendazim> Hexaconazole. PMID:25508341

  9. SP-100 program users handbook basic configurational tradeoffs

    SciTech Connect

    Manvi, R.; Fujita, T.

    1986-03-15

    This document addresses basic configurational tradeoffs associated with the SP-100 class of nuclear space power systems. In the SP-100 project, the three reference designs, fallback, baseline, and advanced, employ thermoelectric power conversion with different thermoelectric materials. This issue of the document presents results generated for the thermoelectric design as of the end of 1985. Emphasis is placed on showing general trends and the range of possibilities that could result from selection of a particular design. This document, which reflects efforts on 100-kWe reference designs as of the end of 1985, will be extended and updated to reflect progress in the design studies of the follow-on ground engineering phase for which a 300-kWe size has been selected. THere is a considerable flexibility to the SP-100 power system so that it will generally be most advantageous to tailor it to meet user requirements.

  10. Purification of soyasaponin -β-galactosidase from Aspergillus sp.39

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tian, Jing; Zhao, Ping; Xu, Longquan; Fei, Xu; Wang, Yi

    In order to increase physiological activity of soyasaponin, enzyme hydrolysis of soyasaponin was studied. The enzyme which hydrolyzes soyasaponin to lower sugar soyasaponin was obtained from Aspergillus sp.39s. And it was purified by the method of biologic chromatography system. The method of SDS-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis was used to determine the molecular weight of the enzyme produced by Aspergillus sp.39s. The molecular weight was about 50 kDa. The optimum pH and temperature of soyasaponin-β-galactosidase produced from sp.39s was 5.0 and 40°C respectively. Soyasaponin-β-galactosidase was comparatively stable in the pH range from 3.0 to 7.0 and in the temperature range from 20°C to 60°C.

  11. Microbial Succession during Thermophilic Digestion: The Potential of Methanosarcina sp

    PubMed Central

    Illmer, Paul; Reitschuler, Christoph; Wagner, Andreas Otto; Schwarzenauer, Thomas; Lins, Philipp

    2014-01-01

    A distinct succession from a hydrolytic to a hydrogeno- and acetotrophic community was well documented by DGGE (denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis) and dHPLC (denaturing high performance liquid chromatography), and confirmed by qPCR (quantitative PCR) measurements and DNA sequence analyses. We could prove that Methanosarcina thermophila has been the most important key player during the investigated anaerobic digestion process. This organism was able to terminate a stagnation phase, most probable caused by a decreased pH and accumulated acetic acid following an initial hydrolytic stage. The lack in Methanosarcina sp. could not be compensated by high numbers of Methanothermobacter sp. or Methanoculleus sp., which were predominant during the initial or during the stagnation phase of the fermentation, respectively. PMID:24586260

  12. Lymphocytic meningoencephalomyelitis associated with Myxobolus sp. (Bivalvulidae: Myxozoa) infection in the Amazonian fish Eigenmannia sp. (Sternopygidae: Gymnotiformes).

    PubMed

    Sindeaux, José Ledamir; Velasco, Michele; Silva, José Mauro Vianna da; Santos, Patricia de Fátima Saco Dos; Sanches, Osimar; Matos, Patricia; Matos, Edilson

    2016-04-12

    The genus Myxobolus, parasites that infect fishes, which cause myxobolosis, includes spore organisms belonging to the phylum Myxozoa and represents approximately 36% of all species described for the entire phylum. This study describes lymphocytic meningoencephalomyelitis associated with Myxobolus sp. infection in the brain and spinal cord (the central nervous system, CNS) of Eigenmannia sp., from the Amazon estuary region, in the Administrative District of Outeiro (DAOUT), Belém, Pará, Brazil. In May and June 2015, 40 Eigenmannia sp. specimens were captured from this region and examined. The fish were anesthetized, slaughtered and dissected for sexing (gonad evaluation) and studying parasites and cysts; after diagnosing the presence of the myxozoans using a light microscope, small fragments of the brain and spinal cord were removed for histological processing and Hematoxylin-Eosin and Ziehl-Neelsen staining. Histopathological analysis of the brain and spinal cord, based on histological sections stained with Hematoxylin-Eosin, pronounced and diffuse edema in these tissues, and congestion, degeneration, and focal necrosis of the cerebral cortex. The present study describes lymphocytic meningoencephalomyelitis associated with infection by Myxobolus sp. in the central nervous system of Eigenmannia sp. PMID:27096533

  13. Coupling Algorithm for Sp (3 , R) Irreducible Representations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    St Germaine-Fuller, James; McCoy, Anna; Caprio, Mark

    2014-09-01

    The nuclear symplectic model based on Sp (3 , R) - the smallest algebra that contains both the shell model Hamiltonian and the rotor algebra - connects the microscopic shell model to collective rotational behavior and naturally extends the Elliot SU (3) model to multiple shells. However, Sp (3 , R) is only an approximate symmetry of the nucleus, where the symmetry can be broken by spin-orbit interactions, tensor force interactions, and pairing. The Hamiltonians in most physical situations will the break Sp (3 , R) symmetry, causing their eigenstates to become linear combinations of symplectic irreducible representations (irreps). Calculations with those eigenstates will then involve multiple irreps. We report a computer algorithm for coupling symplectic irreps that should assist in performing such multi-irrep calculations and facilitate computing symplectic coupling coefficients. The nuclear symplectic model based on Sp (3 , R) - the smallest algebra that contains both the shell model Hamiltonian and the rotor algebra - connects the microscopic shell model to collective rotational behavior and naturally extends the Elliot SU (3) model to multiple shells. However, Sp (3 , R) is only an approximate symmetry of the nucleus, where the symmetry can be broken by spin-orbit interactions, tensor force interactions, and pairing. The Hamiltonians in most physical situations will the break Sp (3 , R) symmetry, causing their eigenstates to become linear combinations of symplectic irreducible representations (irreps). Calculations with those eigenstates will then involve multiple irreps. We report a computer algorithm for coupling symplectic irreps that should assist in performing such multi-irrep calculations and facilitate computing symplectic coupling coefficients. Supported by the US NSF under Grant NSF-PHY05-52843, the US DOE under Grant DE-FG02-95ER-40934, and the Research Corporation for Science Advancement under a Cottrell Scholar Award.

  14. Polymorphic phases of sp3-hybridized carbon under cold compression.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Rulong; Zeng, Xiao Cheng

    2012-05-01

    It is well established that graphite can be transformed into superhard carbons under cold compression (Mao et al. Science 2003, 302, 425). However, structure of the superhard carbon is yet to be determined experimentally. We have performed an extensive structural search for the high-pressure crystalline phases of carbon using the evolutionary algorithm. Nine low-energy polymorphic structures of sp(3)-hybridized carbon result from the unbiased search. These new polymorphic carbon structures together with previously reported low-energy sp(3)-hybridized carbon structures (e.g., M-carbon, W-carbon, and Cco-C(8) or Z-carbon) can be classified into three groups on the basis of different ways of stacking two (or more) out of five (A-E) types of buckled graphene layers. Such a classification scheme points out a simple way to construct a variety of sp(3)-hybridized carbon allotropes via stacking buckled graphene layers in different combinations of the A-E types by design. Density-functional theory calculations indicate that, among the nine low-energy crystalline structures, seven are energetically more favorable than the previously reported most stable crystalline structure (i.e., Cco-C(8) or Z-carbon) in the pressure range 0-25 GPa. Moreover, several newly predicted polymorphic sp(3)-hybridized carbon structures possess elastic moduli and hardness close to those of the cubic diamond. In particular, Z-carbon-4 possesses the highest hardness (93.4) among all the low-energy sp(3)-hybridized carbon structures predicted today. The calculated electronic structures suggest that most polymorphic carbon structures are optically transparent. The simulated X-ray diffraction (XRD) spectra of a few polymorphic structures are in good agreement with the experimental spectrum, suggesting that samples from the cold-compressed graphite experiments may consist of multiple polymorphic phases of sp(3)-hybridized carbon. PMID:22490007

  15. Interrelationships between Bacillus sp. CHEP5 and Bradyrhizobium sp. SEMIA6144 in the induced systemic resistance against Sclerotium rolfsii and symbiosis on peanut plants.

    PubMed

    Figueredo, Maria Soledad; Tonelli, Maria Laura; Taurian, Tania; Angelini, Jorge; Ibanez, Fernando; Valetti, Lucio; Munoz, Vanina; Anzuay, Maria Soledad; Luduena, Liliana; Fabra, Adriana

    2014-12-01

    Plant-growth-promoting bacteria are often used to enhance crop yield and for biological control of phytopathogens. Bacillus sp. CHEP5 is a biocontrol agent that induces systemic resistance (ISR) in Arachis hypogaea L. (peanut) against Sclerotium rolfsii, the causal agent of root and stem wilt. In this work, the effect of the co-inoculation of Bacillus sp. CHEP5 and the peanut nodulating strain Bradyrhizobium sp. SEMIA 6144 was studied on induction of both systemic resistance and nodulation processes. Bradyrhizobium sp. SEMIA 6144 did not affect the ability of Bacillus sp. CHEP5 to protect peanut plants from S. rolfsii by ISR and the priming in challenged-plants, as evidenced by an increment in phenylalanine ammonia-lyase enzyme activity. Additionally, the capacity of Bradyrhizobium sp. SEMIA 6144 to induce nodule formation in pathogen-challenged plants was improved by the presence of Bacillus sp. CHEP5. PMID:25431416

  16. Induced adaptation of Bacillus sp. to antimicrobial nanosilver.

    PubMed

    Gunawan, Cindy; Teoh, Wey Yang; Marquis, Christopher P; Amal, Rose

    2013-11-11

    The natural ability of Bacillus sp. to adapt to nanosilver cytotoxicity upon prolonged exposure is reported for the first time. The combined adaptive effects of nanosilver resistance and enhanced growth are induced under various intensities of nanosilver-stimulated cellular oxidative stress, ranging from only minimal cellular redox imbalance to the lethal levels of cellular ROS stimulation. An important implication of the present work is that such adaptive effects lead to the ultimate domination of nanosilver-resistant Bacillus sp. in the microbiota, to which nanosilver cytotoxicity is continuously applied.

  17. Aquatic Fern (Azolla Sp.) Assisted Synthesis of Gold Nanoparticles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jha, Anal K.; Prasad, K.

    2016-02-01

    Aquatic pteridophyte (Azolla sp.) was taken to assess its potential to synthesize the metal (Au) nanoparticles. The synthesized particles were characterized using X-ray, UV-visible, scanning and transmission electron microscopy analyses. Nanoparticles almost spherical in shape having the sizes of 5-17nm are found. UV-visible study revealed the surface plasmon resonance at 538nm. Responsible phytochemicals for the transformation were principally phenolics, tannins, anthraquinone glycosides and sugars present abundantly in the plant thereby bestowing it adaptive prodigality. Also, the use of Azolla sp. for the synthesis of gold nanoparticles offers the benefit of eco-friendliness.

  18. Naphthomycins L-N, ansamycin antibiotics from Streptomyces sp. CS.

    PubMed

    Yang, Yin-He; Fu, Xiao-Li; Li, Liang-Qun; Zeng, Ying; Li, Cheng-Yun; He, Yi-Neng; Zhao, Pei-Ji

    2012-07-27

    Previous analyses of the naphthomycin biosynthetic gene cluster and a comparison with known naphthomycin-type products from Streptomyces sp. CS have suggested that new products can be found from this strain. In this study, screening by LC-MS of Streptomyces sp. CS products formed under different culture conditions revealed several unknown peaks in the product spectra of extracts derived from oatmeal medium cultures. Three new naphthomycins, naphthomycins L (1), M (2), and N (3), and the known naphthomycins A (4), E (5), and D (6) were obtained. The structures were elucidated using spectroscopic data from 1D and 2D NMR and HRESIMS experiments. PMID:22742732

  19. Biodegradation and dissolution of polyaromatic hydrocarbons by Stenotrophomonas sp.

    PubMed

    Tiwari, Bhagyashree; Manickam, N; Kumari, Smita; Tiwari, Akhilesh

    2016-09-01

    The aim of this work was to study the biodegradation capabilities of a locally isolated bacterium, Stenotrophomonas sp. strain IITR87 to degrade the polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and also check the preferential biodegradation of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs). From preferential substrate degradation studies, it was found that Stenotrophomonas sp. strain IITR87 first utilized phenanthrene (three membered ring), followed by pyrene (four membered ring), then benzo[α]pyrene (five membered ring). Dissolution study of PAHs with surfactants, rhamnolipid and tritonX-100 showed that the dissolution of PAHs increased in the presence of surfactants. PMID:27342606

  20. Three-Dimensional Carbon Allotropes Comprising Phenyl Rings and Acetylenic Chains in sp+sp(2) Hybrid Networks.

    PubMed

    Wang, Jian-Tao; Chen, Changfeng; Li, Han-Dong; Mizuseki, Hiroshi; Kawazoe, Yoshiyuki

    2016-01-01

    We here identify by ab initio calculations a new type of three-dimensional (3D) carbon allotropes that consist of phenyl rings connected by linear acetylenic chains in sp+sp(2) bonding networks. These structures are constructed by inserting acetylenic or diacetylenic bonds into an all sp(2)-hybridized rhombohedral polybenzene lattice, and the resulting 3D phenylacetylene and phenyldiacetylene nets comprise a 12-atom and 18-atom rhombohedral primitive unit cells in the symmetry, which are characterized as the 3D chiral crystalline modification of 2D graphyne and graphdiyne, respectively. Simulated phonon spectra reveal that these structures are dynamically stable. Electronic band calculations indicate that phenylacetylene is metallic, while phenyldiacetylene is a semiconductor with an indirect band gap of 0.58 eV. The present results establish a new type of carbon phases and offer insights into their outstanding structural and electronic properties.

  1. Three-Dimensional Carbon Allotropes Comprising Phenyl Rings and Acetylenic Chains in sp+sp2 Hybrid Networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Jian-Tao; Chen, Changfeng; Li, Han-Dong; Mizuseki, Hiroshi; Kawazoe, Yoshiyuki

    2016-04-01

    We here identify by ab initio calculations a new type of three-dimensional (3D) carbon allotropes that consist of phenyl rings connected by linear acetylenic chains in sp+sp2 bonding networks. These structures are constructed by inserting acetylenic or diacetylenic bonds into an all sp2-hybridized rhombohedral polybenzene lattice, and the resulting 3D phenylacetylene and phenyldiacetylene nets comprise a 12-atom and 18-atom rhombohedral primitive unit cells in the symmetry, which are characterized as the 3D chiral crystalline modification of 2D graphyne and graphdiyne, respectively. Simulated phonon spectra reveal that these structures are dynamically stable. Electronic band calculations indicate that phenylacetylene is metallic, while phenyldiacetylene is a semiconductor with an indirect band gap of 0.58 eV. The present results establish a new type of carbon phases and offer insights into their outstanding structural and electronic properties.

  2. Three-dimensional carbon allotropes comprising phenyl rings and acetylenic chains in sp+sp2 hybrid networks

    DOE PAGES

    Wang, Jian -Tao; Chen, Changfeng; Li, Han -Dong; Mizuseki, Hiroshi; Kawazoe, Yoshiyuki

    2016-04-18

    Here, we here identify by ab initio calculations a new type of three-dimensional (3D) carbon allotropes that consist of phenyl rings connected by linear acetylenic chains in sp+sp2 bonding networks. These structures are constructed by inserting acetylenic or diacetylenic bonds into an all sp2-hybridized rhombohedral polybenzene lattice, and the resulting 3D phenylacetylene and phenyldiacetylene nets comprise a 12-atom and 18-atom rhombohedral primitive unit cells R-3m symmetry, which are characterized as the 3D chiral crystalline modification of 2D graphyne and graphdiyne, respectively. Simulated phonon spectra reveal that these structures are dynamically stable. Electronic band calculations indicate that phenylacetylene is metallic, whilemore » phenyldiacetylene is a semiconductor with an indirect band gap of 0.58 eV. The present results establish a new type of carbon phases and offer insights into their outstanding structural and electronic properties.« less

  3. Three-Dimensional Carbon Allotropes Comprising Phenyl Rings and Acetylenic Chains in sp+sp2 Hybrid Networks

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Jian-Tao; Chen, Changfeng; Li, Han-Dong; Mizuseki, Hiroshi; Kawazoe, Yoshiyuki

    2016-01-01

    We here identify by ab initio calculations a new type of three-dimensional (3D) carbon allotropes that consist of phenyl rings connected by linear acetylenic chains in sp+sp2 bonding networks. These structures are constructed by inserting acetylenic or diacetylenic bonds into an all sp2-hybridized rhombohedral polybenzene lattice, and the resulting 3D phenylacetylene and phenyldiacetylene nets comprise a 12-atom and 18-atom rhombohedral primitive unit cells in the symmetry, which are characterized as the 3D chiral crystalline modification of 2D graphyne and graphdiyne, respectively. Simulated phonon spectra reveal that these structures are dynamically stable. Electronic band calculations indicate that phenylacetylene is metallic, while phenyldiacetylene is a semiconductor with an indirect band gap of 0.58 eV. The present results establish a new type of carbon phases and offer insights into their outstanding structural and electronic properties. PMID:27087405

  4. Pseudorhodobacter sinensis sp. nov. and Pseudorhodobacter aquaticus sp. nov., isolated from crater lakes.

    PubMed

    Li, Ai-Hua; Liu, Hong-Can; Hou, Wei-Guo; Zhou, Yu-Guang

    2016-08-01

    Three Gram-stain negative, aerobic, non-motile, rod-shaped bacterial strains, Y1R2-4T, Y3R2-3 and DC2N1-10T, isolated from two crater lakes of the Daxinganling Mountains, northern China, were studied to determine their taxonomic position. They grew at 4-30 °C (optimally at 20-25 °C), at pH 6.0-7.5 (optimally at pH 7.0) and in the presence of 0-0.5 % (w/v) NaCl. On the basis of 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis, these strains showed 95.3-96.6 % similarity to members of the genus Pseudorhodobacter, including Pseudorhodobacter ferrugineus DSM 5888T, Pseudorhodobacter wandonensis WT-MW11T, Pseudorhodobacter antarcticus ZS3-33T and Pseudorhodobacter aquimaris HDW-19T. All strains contained Q-10 as the predominant ubiquinone and C18 : 1ω7c as the major fatty acid. The main polar lipids for strains Y1R2-4T and Y3R2-3 were phosphatidylglycerol, phosphatidylcholine, one unidentified aminophospholipid, one unidentified aminolipid, three unidentified phospholipids and two unidentified lipids, and those for strain DC2N1-10T were phosphatidylglycerol, phosphatidylcholine, one unidentified aminophospholipid, one unidentified aminolipid, one unidentified phospholipid and several unidentified lipids. The DNA G+C contents of strains Y1R2-4T, Y3R2-3 and DC2N1-10T were 61.9, 61.0 and 60.0 mol%, respectively. In addition, strain Y1R2-4T shared less than 50 % DNA-DNA relatedness to strain DC2N1-10T. Based on these differences in genetic, physiological and chemotaxonomic properties, strains Y1R2-4T, Y3R2-3 and DC2N1-10T were considered to represent two novel species of the genus Pseudorhodobacter, for which the names Pseudorhodobacter sinensis sp. nov. (type strain Y1R2-4T=CGMCC1.14435T=KCTC 52039T) and Pseudorhodobacter aquaticus sp. nov. (type strain DC2N1-10T=CGMCC1.14433T=KCTC 52040T) are proposed. PMID:27045957

  5. Pseudorhodobacter sinensis sp. nov. and Pseudorhodobacter aquaticus sp. nov., isolated from crater lakes.

    PubMed

    Li, Ai-Hua; Liu, Hong-Can; Hou, Wei-Guo; Zhou, Yu-Guang

    2016-08-01

    Three Gram-stain negative, aerobic, non-motile, rod-shaped bacterial strains, Y1R2-4T, Y3R2-3 and DC2N1-10T, isolated from two crater lakes of the Daxinganling Mountains, northern China, were studied to determine their taxonomic position. They grew at 4-30 °C (optimally at 20-25 °C), at pH 6.0-7.5 (optimally at pH 7.0) and in the presence of 0-0.5 % (w/v) NaCl. On the basis of 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis, these strains showed 95.3-96.6 % similarity to members of the genus Pseudorhodobacter, including Pseudorhodobacter ferrugineus DSM 5888T, Pseudorhodobacter wandonensis WT-MW11T, Pseudorhodobacter antarcticus ZS3-33T and Pseudorhodobacter aquimaris HDW-19T. All strains contained Q-10 as the predominant ubiquinone and C18 : 1ω7c as the major fatty acid. The main polar lipids for strains Y1R2-4T and Y3R2-3 were phosphatidylglycerol, phosphatidylcholine, one unidentified aminophospholipid, one unidentified aminolipid, three unidentified phospholipids and two unidentified lipids, and those for strain DC2N1-10T were phosphatidylglycerol, phosphatidylcholine, one unidentified aminophospholipid, one unidentified aminolipid, one unidentified phospholipid and several unidentified lipids. The DNA G+C contents of strains Y1R2-4T, Y3R2-3 and DC2N1-10T were 61.9, 61.0 and 60.0 mol%, respectively. In addition, strain Y1R2-4T shared less than 50 % DNA-DNA relatedness to strain DC2N1-10T. Based on these differences in genetic, physiological and chemotaxonomic properties, strains Y1R2-4T, Y3R2-3 and DC2N1-10T were considered to represent two novel species of the genus Pseudorhodobacter, for which the names Pseudorhodobacter sinensis sp. nov. (type strain Y1R2-4T=CGMCC1.14435T=KCTC 52039T) and Pseudorhodobacter aquaticus sp. nov. (type strain DC2N1-10T=CGMCC1.14433T=KCTC 52040T) are proposed.

  6. Actinomadura amylolytica sp. nov. and Actinomadura cellulosilytica sp. nov., isolated from geothermally heated soil.

    PubMed

    Jiao, Jian-Yu; Liu, Lan; Zhou, En-Min; Wei, Da-Qiao; Ming, Hong; Xian, Wen-Dong; Yuan, Chang-Guo; Zhong, Jing-Mei; Li, Wen-Jun

    2015-07-01

    Two aerobic, Gram-positive actinomycetes, designated YIM 77502(T) and YIM 77510(T), were isolated from geothermally heated soil of Tengchong county, Yunnan province, south-west China. The taxonomic position of strains YIM 77502(T) and YIM 77510(T) were investigated by a polyphasic approach. Phylogenetic analyses based on 16S rRNA gene sequences showed that strains YIM 77502(T) and YIM 77510(T) belong to the genus Actinomadura. Both strains form extensively-branched substrate and aerial mycelia which differentiated into short spore chains. The cell wall of the two strains contained meso-diaminopimelic acid, while the whole-cell sugars detected were glucose, madurose, mannose and rhamnose. The polar lipid profile of strain YIM 77502(T) was found to consist of diphosphatidylglycerol, phosphatidylinositol mannoside, phosphatidylinositol, two unidentified phospholipids and an unidentified polar lipid, while strain YIM 77510(T) consisted of diphosphatidylglycerol, phosphatidylinositol mannoside and phosphatidylinositol. The respiratory quinones of strains YIM 77502(T) and YIM 77510(T) were MK-9(H6) and MK-9(H8). The major fatty acids (>10 %) of strain YIM 77502(T) were C17:0, iso-C16:0, C17:010-methyl and iso-C18:0, and those of strain YIM 77510(T) were iso-C16:0, C17:010-methyl and iso-C18:0. The G+C contents of strains YIM 77502(T) and YIM 77510(T) were determined to be 71.3 and 70.2 mol%, respectively. The DNA-DNA hybridization values of strains YIM 77502(T), YIM 77510(T) and their closest phylogenetic neighbours Actinomadura echinospora BCRC 12547(T) and Actinomadura umbrina KCTC 9343(T) were less than 70 %. Based on the morphological and physiological properties, and phylogenetic analyses, strains YIM 77502(T) and YIM 77510(T) are considered to represent two novel species of the genus Actinomadura, for which the names Actinomadura amylolytica sp. nov. (type strain YIM 77502(T) = DSM 45822(T) = CCTCC AA 2012024(T)) and Actinomadura cellulosilytica sp. nov. (type

  7. Psychroflexus salis sp. nov. and Psychroflexus planctonicus sp. nov., isolated from a salt lake.

    PubMed

    Zhong, Zhi-Ping; Liu, Ying; Wang, Fang; Zhou, Yu-Guang; Liu, Hong-Can; Liu, Zhi-Pei

    2016-01-01

    Two Gram-stain-negative, catalase- and oxidase-positive, strictly aerobic, non-motile, moderately halophilic bacteria (strains X15M-6T and X15M-8T) were isolated from Lake Xiaochaidan, a salt lake in Qaidam basin, Qinghai Province, China. Cells of X15M-6T were rod-like or coccoid, 0.5-0.9 μm wide and 0.9-1.5 μm long; cells of X15M-8T were rods, 0.3-0.6 μm wide and 1.2-2.2 μm long. Growth was observed in the presence of 0.5-14.0 % (w/v) NaCl (optimum, 3.0 %) and at pH 6.5-10.0 (optimum, pH 7.0-7.5) for both. X15M-6T and X15M-8T grew at 10-35 °C (optimum, 20-25 °C) and 4-35 °C (optimum, 25 °C), respectively. Both contained iso-C15 : 0, anteiso-C15 : 0 and iso-C17 : 0 3-OH as the major fatty acids, phosphatidylethanolamine and an unknown lipid as the major polar lipids, and menaquinone MK-6 as the major respiratory quinone. The DNA G+C contents were 32.8 and 35.0 mol% for X15M-6T and X15M-8T, respectively. Phylogenetic trees based on 16S rRNA gene sequences showed that both strains belonged to the genus Psychroflexus and formed a separate lineage. In addition, strains X15M-6T and X15M-8T shared 96.8 % 16S rRNA gene sequence similarity and showed highest similarities to members of the genus Psychroflexus (92.7-93.5 and 91.8-93.1 %, respectively). Based on the above data, it is concluded that strains X15M-6T and X15M-8T represent two novel species of the genus Psychroflexus, for which the names Psychroflexus salis sp. nov. (type strain X15M-6T = CGMCC 1.12925T = JCM 30615T) and Psychroflexus planctonicus sp. nov. (type strain X15M-8T = CGMCC 1.12931T = JCM 30616T) are proposed. PMID:26475261

  8. Cohnella yongneupensis sp. nov. and Cohnella ginsengisoli sp. nov., isolated from two different soils.

    PubMed

    Kim, Soo-Jin; Weon, Hang-Yeon; Kim, Yi-Seul; Anandham, Rangasamy; Jeon, Young-Ah; Hong, Seung-Beom; Kwon, Soon-Wo

    2010-03-01

    Two aerobic, Gram-positive, rod-shaped bacterial strains, 5YN10-14(T) and GR21-5(T), were isolated from the Yongneup wetland and ginseng soil in Korea, respectively. The two strains formed ellipsoidal or oval spores positioned centrally or paracentrally in swollen sporangia. On the basis of 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis, these strains were related to members of the genus Cohnella. 16S rRNA gene sequence similarity between strains 5YN10-14(T) and GR21-5(T) was 95.9 %. Strains 5YN10-14(T) and GR21-5(T) showed, respectively, 94.3 and 95.2 % 16S rRNA gene sequence similarity to Cohnella thermotolerans CCUG 47242(T), 94.6 and 94.4 % to Cohnella hongkongensis HKU3(T), 94.7 and 94.7 % to Cohnella laeviribosi RI-39(T), and 95.4 and 94.8 % to Cohnella phaseoli GSPC1(T). The major fatty acids of strain 5YN10-14(T) were anteiso-C(15 : 0) (51.1 %), iso-C(16 : 0) (18.5 %) and C(16 : 0) (13.2 %), and the major fatty acids of strain GR21-5(T) were anteiso-C(15 : 0 ) (48.9 %), iso-C(16 : 0) (15.0 %) and iso-C(15 : 0) (12.2 %). The two strains contained menaquinone with seven isoprene units (MK-7) as the predominant quinone, and diphosphatidylglycerol, phosphatidylglycerol and phosphatidylethanolamine as major polar lipids; however, strain 5YN10-14(T) also contained lysylphosphatidylglycerol as a major polar lipid, whereas strain GR21-5(T) had an unknown aminophospholipid as another major polar lipid. The DNA G+C contents of strains 5YN10-14(T) and GR21-5(T) were 58.8 and 61.3 mol%, respectively. Based on the results of the phylogenetic and phenotypic data presented, it was concluded that the two strains represent two novel species of the genus Cohnella , for which the names Cohnella yongneupensis sp. nov. (type strain 5YN10-14(T)=KACC 11768(T)=DSM 18998(T)) and Cohnella ginsengisoli sp. nov. (type strain GR21-5(T)=KACC 11771(T)=DSM 18997(T)) are proposed.

  9. Psychroflexus salis sp. nov. and Psychroflexus planctonicus sp. nov., isolated from a salt lake.

    PubMed

    Zhong, Zhi-Ping; Liu, Ying; Wang, Fang; Zhou, Yu-Guang; Liu, Hong-Can; Liu, Zhi-Pei

    2016-01-01

    Two Gram-stain-negative, catalase- and oxidase-positive, strictly aerobic, non-motile, moderately halophilic bacteria (strains X15M-6T and X15M-8T) were isolated from Lake Xiaochaidan, a salt lake in Qaidam basin, Qinghai Province, China. Cells of X15M-6T were rod-like or coccoid, 0.5-0.9 μm wide and 0.9-1.5 μm long; cells of X15M-8T were rods, 0.3-0.6 μm wide and 1.2-2.2 μm long. Growth was observed in the presence of 0.5-14.0 % (w/v) NaCl (optimum, 3.0 %) and at pH 6.5-10.0 (optimum, pH 7.0-7.5) for both. X15M-6T and X15M-8T grew at 10-35 °C (optimum, 20-25 °C) and 4-35 °C (optimum, 25 °C), respectively. Both contained iso-C15 : 0, anteiso-C15 : 0 and iso-C17 : 0 3-OH as the major fatty acids, phosphatidylethanolamine and an unknown lipid as the major polar lipids, and menaquinone MK-6 as the major respiratory quinone. The DNA G+C contents were 32.8 and 35.0 mol% for X15M-6T and X15M-8T, respectively. Phylogenetic trees based on 16S rRNA gene sequences showed that both strains belonged to the genus Psychroflexus and formed a separate lineage. In addition, strains X15M-6T and X15M-8T shared 96.8 % 16S rRNA gene sequence similarity and showed highest similarities to members of the genus Psychroflexus (92.7-93.5 and 91.8-93.1 %, respectively). Based on the above data, it is concluded that strains X15M-6T and X15M-8T represent two novel species of the genus Psychroflexus, for which the names Psychroflexus salis sp. nov. (type strain X15M-6T = CGMCC 1.12925T = JCM 30615T) and Psychroflexus planctonicus sp. nov. (type strain X15M-8T = CGMCC 1.12931T = JCM 30616T) are proposed.

  10. Marinomonas gallaica sp. nov. and Marinomonas atlantica sp. nov., isolated from reared clams (Ruditapes decussatus).

    PubMed

    Lasa, Aide; Pichon, Phillip; Diéguez, Ana L; Romalde, Jesús L

    2016-08-01

    Three Gram-negative bacterial strains (Cmf 17.2T, Rd 20.33 and Cmf 18.22T) isolated from reared clams in Galicia were subjected to a taxonomic study, based on genetic and phenotypic characterization. Analysis of the 16S rRNA gene allowed the identification of the strains as members of the genus Marinomonas, sharing the highest similarity with Marinomonas aquimarina CECT 5080T (97.8 %-98.5 % 16S rRNA gene sequence similarity). Phylogenetic analysis of the sequences showed that the three isolates formed two different groups distantly related to their closest relative, M. aquimarina. DNA-DNA hybridizations were performed to confirm the taxonomic position and the results were below the recommended threshold for species delimitation, specifically 44.5 % (Cmf 17.2T with M. aquimarina CECT 5080T) and 55 % (Cmf 18.22Twith M. aquimarina CECT 5080T). Furthermore, the average nucleotide identity (ANIb, ANIm and OrthoANI) and in silico estimated DNA-DNA reassociation values among Cmf 17.2T, Cmf 18.22T and M. aquimarina CECT 5080T were in all cases below the respective threshold for species differentiation. The estimated G+C content of the genomic DNA was found to be 45.3 % (Cmf 17.2T) and 44.6 % (Cmf 18.22T). The principal fatty acids of the strains were found to be summed feature 3 (C16 : 1 ω7c/C16 : 1ω6c), summed feature 8 (C18 : 1ω7c/C18 : 1ω6c), C16 : 0, C12 : 0 and C10 : 0 3-OH. The results obtained on the characterization of the clam isolates indicate that they represent two novel species of the genus Marinomonas, for which the names Marinomonas gallaica sp. nov. (type strain Cmf 17.2T=CECT 9049T=LMG 29243T) and Marinomonas atlantica sp. nov. (type strain Cmf 18.22T=CECT 9050T=LMG 29244T) are proposed. PMID:27199280

  11. Actinomadura amylolytica sp. nov. and Actinomadura cellulosilytica sp. nov., isolated from geothermally heated soil.

    PubMed

    Jiao, Jian-Yu; Liu, Lan; Zhou, En-Min; Wei, Da-Qiao; Ming, Hong; Xian, Wen-Dong; Yuan, Chang-Guo; Zhong, Jing-Mei; Li, Wen-Jun

    2015-07-01

    Two aerobic, Gram-positive actinomycetes, designated YIM 77502(T) and YIM 77510(T), were isolated from geothermally heated soil of Tengchong county, Yunnan province, south-west China. The taxonomic position of strains YIM 77502(T) and YIM 77510(T) were investigated by a polyphasic approach. Phylogenetic analyses based on 16S rRNA gene sequences showed that strains YIM 77502(T) and YIM 77510(T) belong to the genus Actinomadura. Both strains form extensively-branched substrate and aerial mycelia which differentiated into short spore chains. The cell wall of the two strains contained meso-diaminopimelic acid, while the whole-cell sugars detected were glucose, madurose, mannose and rhamnose. The polar lipid profile of strain YIM 77502(T) was found to consist of diphosphatidylglycerol, phosphatidylinositol mannoside, phosphatidylinositol, two unidentified phospholipids and an unidentified polar lipid, while strain YIM 77510(T) consisted of diphosphatidylglycerol, phosphatidylinositol mannoside and phosphatidylinositol. The respiratory quinones of strains YIM 77502(T) and YIM 77510(T) were MK-9(H6) and MK-9(H8). The major fatty acids (>10 %) of strain YIM 77502(T) were C17:0, iso-C16:0, C17:010-methyl and iso-C18:0, and those of strain YIM 77510(T) were iso-C16:0, C17:010-methyl and iso-C18:0. The G+C contents of strains YIM 77502(T) and YIM 77510(T) were determined to be 71.3 and 70.2 mol%, respectively. The DNA-DNA hybridization values of strains YIM 77502(T), YIM 77510(T) and their closest phylogenetic neighbours Actinomadura echinospora BCRC 12547(T) and Actinomadura umbrina KCTC 9343(T) were less than 70 %. Based on the morphological and physiological properties, and phylogenetic analyses, strains YIM 77502(T) and YIM 77510(T) are considered to represent two novel species of the genus Actinomadura, for which the names Actinomadura amylolytica sp. nov. (type strain YIM 77502(T) = DSM 45822(T) = CCTCC AA 2012024(T)) and Actinomadura cellulosilytica sp. nov. (type

  12. Fusarium euwallaceae sp. nov.--a symbiotic fungus of Euwallacea sp., an invasive ambrosia beetle in Israel and California.

    PubMed

    Freeman, S; Sharon, M; Maymon, M; Mendel, Z; Protasov, A; Aoki, T; Eskalen, A; O'Donnell, K

    2013-01-01

    The invasive Asian ambrosia beetle Euwallacea sp. (Coleoptera, Scolytinae, Xyleborini) and a novel Fusarium sp. that it farms in its galleries as a source of nutrition causes serious damage to more than 20 species of live trees and pose a serious threat to avocado production (Persea americana) in Israel and California. Adult female beetles are equipped with mandibular mycangia in which its fungal symbiont is transported within and from the natal galleries. Damage caused to the xylem is associated with disease symptoms that include sugar or gum exudates, dieback, wilt and ultimately host tree mortality. In 2012 the beetle was recorded on more than 200 and 20 different urban landscape species in southern California and Israel respectively. Euwallacea sp. and its symbiont are closely related to the tea shot-hole borer (E. fornicatus) and its obligate symbiont, F. ambrosium occurring in Sri Lanka and India. To distinguish these beetles, hereafter the unnamed xyleborine in Israel and California will be referred to as Euwallacea sp. IS/CA. Both fusaria exhibit distinctive ecologies and produce clavate macroconidia, which we think might represent an adaption to the species-specific beetle partner. Both fusaria comprise a genealogically exclusive lineage within Clade 3 of the Fusarium solani species complex (FSSC) that can be differentiated with arbitrarily primed PCR. Currently these fusaria can be distinguished only phenotypically by the abundant production of blue to brownish macroconidia in the symbiont of Euwallacea sp. IS/CA and their rarity or absence in F. ambrosium. We speculate that obligate symbiosis of Euwallacea and Fusarium, might have driven ecological speciation in these mutualists. Thus, the purpose of this paper is to describe and illustrate the novel, economically destructive avocado pathogen as Fusarium euwallaceae sp. nov. S. Freeman et al. PMID:23928415

  13. Natural infection by Giardia sp. and Cryptosporidium sp. in dairy goats, associated with possible risk factors of the studied properties.

    PubMed

    Bomfim, T C B; Huber, F; Gomes, R S; Alves, L L

    2005-11-25

    Visits were made to six farms raising dairy goats located in the mountain region of the state of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, seeking to identify parasitism by Giardia sp. and Cryptosporidium sp. During the visits, fecal samples were collected from approximately 10% of the stock of each property. A questionnaire was given to the keepers on each property to obtain data for epidemiological analysis. A total of 105 fecal samples was collected, 56 from adult animals (over 12 months of age) and 49 from juvenile animals (less than 12 months). The fecal material was processed and subjected to the centrifuge-flotation technique and to staining with safranine-methylene blue. Protozoans of the genus Cryptosporidium were found at two properties, where the hygiene conditions of the installations were considered average and the stalls were made of wood slats raised from the ground. A total of five (4.8%) of the samples was found to be positive for the presence of this protozoan, all from juvenile animals. Cysts of the genus Giardia were found at two properties. Of the 105 samples analyzed, the protozoan was detected in 15 (14.3%), all in juvenile animals, and animals in the age range of 1-3 months had significantly more infections. Age, sanitary condition of the stalls and stalls made of wood slats and raised from the ground, can be pointed out as possible risk factors for infection by Giardia sp. and Cryptosporidium sp. The study reports for the first time the occurrence of Cryptosporidium sp. and Giardia sp. in goats in the state of Rio de Janeiro.

  14. [Study on the Visualization of the Biomass of Chlorella sp., Isochrysis galbana, and Spirulina sp. Based on Hyperspectral Imaging Technique].

    PubMed

    Jiang, Lu-lu; Wet, Xuan; Zhao, Yan-ru; Shao, Yong-ni; Qiu, Zheng-jun; He, Yong

    2016-03-01

    Effective cultivation of the microalgae is the key issue for microalgal bio-energy utilization. In nutrient rich culture conditions, the microalge have a fast growth rate, but they are more susceptible to environmental pollution and influence. So to monitor the the growth process of microalgae is significant during cultivating. Hyperspectral imaging has the advantages of both spectra and image analysis. The spectra contain abundant material quality signal and the image contains abundant spatial information of the material about the chemical distribution. It can achieve the rapid information acquisition and access a large amount of data. In this paper, the authors collected the hyperspectral images of forty-five samples of Chlorella sp., Isochrysis galbana, and Spirulina sp., respectively. The average spectra of the region of interest (ROI) were extracted. After applying successive projection algorithm (SPA), the authors established the multiple linear regression (MLR) model with the spectra and corresponding biomass of 30 samples, 15 samples were used as the prediction set. For Chlorella sp., Isochrysis galbana, and Spirulina sp., the correlation coefficient of prediction (r(pre)) are 0.950, 0.969 and 0.961, the root mean square error of prediction (RMSEP) for 0.010 2, 0.010 7 and 0.007 1, respectively. Finally, the authors used the MLR model to predict biomass for each pixel in the images of prediction set; images displayed in different colors for visualization based on pseudo-color images with the help of a Matlab program. The results show that using hyperspectral imaging technique to predict the biomass of Chlorella sp. and Spirulina sp. were better, but for the Isochrysis galbana visualization needs to be further improved. This research set the basis for rapidly detecting the growth of microalgae and using the microalgae as the bio-energy.

  15. [Study on the Visualization of the Biomass of Chlorella sp., Isochrysis galbana, and Spirulina sp. Based on Hyperspectral Imaging Technique].

    PubMed

    Jiang, Lu-lu; Wet, Xuan; Zhao, Yan-ru; Shao, Yong-ni; Qiu, Zheng-jun; He, Yong

    2016-03-01

    Effective cultivation of the microalgae is the key issue for microalgal bio-energy utilization. In nutrient rich culture conditions, the microalge have a fast growth rate, but they are more susceptible to environmental pollution and influence. So to monitor the the growth process of microalgae is significant during cultivating. Hyperspectral imaging has the advantages of both spectra and image analysis. The spectra contain abundant material quality signal and the image contains abundant spatial information of the material about the chemical distribution. It can achieve the rapid information acquisition and access a large amount of data. In this paper, the authors collected the hyperspectral images of forty-five samples of Chlorella sp., Isochrysis galbana, and Spirulina sp., respectively. The average spectra of the region of interest (ROI) were extracted. After applying successive projection algorithm (SPA), the authors established the multiple linear regression (MLR) model with the spectra and corresponding biomass of 30 samples, 15 samples were used as the prediction set. For Chlorella sp., Isochrysis galbana, and Spirulina sp., the correlation coefficient of prediction (r(pre)) are 0.950, 0.969 and 0.961, the root mean square error of prediction (RMSEP) for 0.010 2, 0.010 7 and 0.007 1, respectively. Finally, the authors used the MLR model to predict biomass for each pixel in the images of prediction set; images displayed in different colors for visualization based on pseudo-color images with the help of a Matlab program. The results show that using hyperspectral imaging technique to predict the biomass of Chlorella sp. and Spirulina sp. were better, but for the Isochrysis galbana visualization needs to be further improved. This research set the basis for rapidly detecting the growth of microalgae and using the microalgae as the bio-energy. PMID:27400526

  16. Fusarium euwallaceae sp. nov.--a symbiotic fungus of Euwallacea sp., an invasive ambrosia beetle in Israel and California.

    PubMed

    Freeman, S; Sharon, M; Maymon, M; Mendel, Z; Protasov, A; Aoki, T; Eskalen, A; O'Donnell, K

    2013-01-01

    The invasive Asian ambrosia beetle Euwallacea sp. (Coleoptera, Scolytinae, Xyleborini) and a novel Fusarium sp. that it farms in its galleries as a source of nutrition causes serious damage to more than 20 species of live trees and pose a serious threat to avocado production (Persea americana) in Israel and California. Adult female beetles are equipped with mandibular mycangia in which its fungal symbiont is transported within and from the natal galleries. Damage caused to the xylem is associated with disease symptoms that include sugar or gum exudates, dieback, wilt and ultimately host tree mortality. In 2012 the beetle was recorded on more than 200 and 20 different urban landscape species in southern California and Israel respectively. Euwallacea sp. and its symbiont are closely related to the tea shot-hole borer (E. fornicatus) and its obligate symbiont, F. ambrosium occurring in Sri Lanka and India. To distinguish these beetles, hereafter the unnamed xyleborine in Israel and California will be referred to as Euwallacea sp. IS/CA. Both fusaria exhibit distinctive ecologies and produce clavate macroconidia, which we think might represent an adaption to the species-specific beetle partner. Both fusaria comprise a genealogically exclusive lineage within Clade 3 of the Fusarium solani species complex (FSSC) that can be differentiated with arbitrarily primed PCR. Currently these fusaria can be distinguished only phenotypically by the abundant production of blue to brownish macroconidia in the symbiont of Euwallacea sp. IS/CA and their rarity or absence in F. ambrosium. We speculate that obligate symbiosis of Euwallacea and Fusarium, might have driven ecological speciation in these mutualists. Thus, the purpose of this paper is to describe and illustrate the novel, economically destructive avocado pathogen as Fusarium euwallaceae sp. nov. S. Freeman et al.

  17. Low SP1 Expression Differentially Affects Intestinal-Type Compared with Diffuse-Type Gastric Adenocarcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Oh, Ensel; Erkin, Özgür Cem; Jung, Hun Soon; Cho, Mi-Hyun; Kwon, Mi Jeong; Chae, Seoung Wan; Kim, Seok-Hyung; Wang, Li-Hui; Park, Min-Jeong; Lee, Su-Yeon; Yang, Ho Bin; Jia, Lina; Choi, Yoon-La; Shin, Young Kee

    2013-01-01

    Specificity protein 1 (SP1) is an essential transcription factor that regulates multiple cancer-related genes. Because aberrant expression of SP1 is related to cancer development and progression, we focused on SP1 expression in gastric carcinoma and its correlation with disease outcomes. Although patient survival decreased as SP1 expression increased (P<0.05) in diffuse-type gastric cancer, the lack of SP1 expression in intestinal-type gastric cancer was significantly correlated with poor survival (P<0.05). The knockdown of SP1 in a high SP1-expressing intestinal-type gastric cell line, MKN28, increased migration and invasion but decreased proliferation. Microarray data in SP1 siRNA-transfected MKN28 revealed that the genes inhibiting migration were downregulated, whereas the genes negatively facilitating proliferation were increased. However, both migration and invasion were decreased by forced SP1 expression in a low SP1-expressing intestinal-type gastric cell line, AGS. Unlike the intestinal-type, in a high SP1-expressing diffuse-type gastric cell line, SNU484, migration and invasion were decreased by SP1 siRNA. In contrast to previous studies that did not identify differences between the 2 histological types, our results reveal that low expression of SP1 is involved in cancer progression and metastasis and differentially affects intestinal-type compared with diffuse-type gastric adenocarcinoma. PMID:23437057

  18. Sp100A promotes chromatin decondensation at a cytomegalovirus-promoter–regulated transcription site

    PubMed Central

    Newhart, Alyshia; Negorev, Dmitri G.; Rafalska-Metcalf, Ilona U.; Yang, Tian; Maul, Gerd G.; Janicki, Susan M.

    2013-01-01

    Promyelocytic leukemia nuclear bodies (PML-NBs)/nuclear domain 10s (ND10s) are nuclear structures that contain many transcriptional and chromatin regulatory factors. One of these, Sp100, is expressed from a single-copy gene and spliced into four isoforms (A, B, C, and HMG), which differentially regulate transcription. Here we evaluate Sp100 function in single cells using an inducible cytomegalovirus-promoter–regulated transgene, visualized as a chromatinized transcription site. Sp100A is the isoform most strongly recruited to the transgene array, and it significantly increases chromatin decondensation. However, Sp100A cannot overcome Daxx- and α-thalassemia mental retardation, X-linked (ATRX)–mediated transcriptional repression, which indicates that PML-NB/ND10 factors function within a regulatory hierarchy. Sp100A increases and Sp100B, which contains a SAND domain, decreases acetyl-lysine regulatory factor levels at activated sites, suggesting that Sp100 isoforms differentially regulate transcription by modulating lysine acetylation. In contrast to Daxx, ATRX, and PML, Sp100 is recruited to activated arrays in cells expressing the herpes simplex virus type 1 E3 ubiquitin ligase, ICP0, which degrades all Sp100 isoforms except unsumoylated Sp100A. The recruitment Sp100A(K297R), which cannot be sumoylated, further suggests that sumoylation plays an important role in regulating Sp100 isoform levels at transcription sites. This study provides insight into the ways in which viruses may modulate Sp100 to promote their replication cycles. PMID:23485562

  19. Re-examination of the genus Acetobacter, with descriptions of Acetobacter cerevisiae sp. nov. and Acetobacter malorum sp. nov.

    PubMed

    Cleenwerck, I; Vandemeulebroecke, K; Janssens, D; Swings, J

    2002-09-01

    Thirty-four Acetobacter strains, representing Acetobacter aceti, Acetobacter pasteurianus, Acetobacter pomorum, Acetobacter peroxydans, Acetobacter lovaniensis, Acetobacter estunensis, Acetobacter orleanensis, Acetobacter indonesiensis and Acetobacter tropicalis, were subjected to a polyphasic study that included DNA-DNA hybridizations, DNA base ratio determinations, 16S rDNA sequence analysis and phenotypic characterization. Two novel species are proposed, Acetobacter cerevisiae sp. nov. and Acetobacter malorum sp. nov. The type strains of these species are respectively LMG 1625T (= DSM 14362T = NCIB 8894T = ATCC 23765T) and LMG 1746T (= DSM 14337T).

  20. Formation of C(sp(3) )-C(sp(3) ) Bonds through Nickel-Catalyzed Decarboxylative Olefin Hydroalkylation Reactions.

    PubMed

    Lu, Xi; Xiao, Bin; Liu, Lei; Fu, Yao

    2016-08-01

    Olefins and carboxylic acids are among the most important feedstock compounds. They are commonly found in natural products and drug molecules. We report a new reaction of nickel-catalyzed decarboxylative olefin hydroalkylation, which provides a novel practical strategy for the construction of C(sp(3) )-C(sp(3) ) bonds. This reaction can tolerate a variety of synthetically relevant functional groups and shows good chemo- and regioselectivity. It enables cross-coupling of complex organic molecules containing olefin groups and carboxylic acid groups in a convergent fashion. PMID:27245257

  1. Structural studies of the polysaccharides from the lipopolysaccharides of Azospirillum brasilense Sp246 and SpBr14.

    PubMed

    Sigida, Elena N; Fedonenko, Yuliya P; Shashkov, Alexander S; Grinev, Vyacheslav S; Zdorovenko, Evelina L; Konnova, Svetlana A; Ignatov, Vladimir V; Knirel, Yuriy A

    2014-10-29

    Lipopolysaccharides from closely related Azospirillum brasilense strains, Sp246 and SpBr14, were obtained by phenol-water extraction. Mild acid hydrolysis of the lipopolysaccharides followed by GPC on Sephadex G-50 resulted in polysaccharide mixtures. On the basis of sugar and methylation analyses, Smith degradation and (1)H and (13)C NMR spectroscopy data, it was concluded that both bacteria possess the same two distinct polysaccharides having structures 1 and 2: [structure: see text]. Structure 1 has been reported earlier for a polysaccharide of A. brasilense 54 [Fedonenko et al., 2011] whereas to our knowledge structure 2 has not been hitherto found in bacterial polysaccharides.

  2. Selective Oxidative Decarbonylative Cleavage of Unstrained C(sp(3))-C(sp(2)) Bond: Synthesis of Substituted Benzoxazinones.

    PubMed

    Verma, Ajay; Kumar, Sangit

    2016-09-01

    A transition metal (TM)-free practical synthesis of biologically relevant benzoxazinones has been established via a selective oxidative decarbonylative cleavage of an unstrained C(sp(3))-C(sp(2)) bond employing iodine, sodium bicarbonate, and (t)butyl hydroperoxide in DMSO at 95 °C. Control experiments and Density Functional Theory (DFT) calculations suggest that the reaction involves a [1,5]H shift and extrusion of CO gas as the key steps. The extrusion of CO has also been established using PMA-PdCl2. PMID:27549986

  3. Phytohabitans flavus sp. nov., Phytohabitans rumicis sp. nov. and Phytohabitans houttuyneae sp. nov., isolated from plant roots, and emended description of the genus Phytohabitans.

    PubMed

    Inahashi, Yuki; Matsumoto, Atsuko; Omura, Satoshi; Takahashi, Yoko

    2012-11-01

    An actinomycete strain, designated K09-0627(T), was isolated from the roots of an orchid collected in Okinawa Prefecture, Japan. Two actinomycete strains K11-0047(T) and K11-0057(T) were isolated from the roots of Rumex acetosa and Houttuynia cordata collected in Kanagawa Prefecture, Japan. 16S rRNA gene sequence analyses indicated that the isolates belonged to the genus Phytohabitans, and that they were closely related to each other and to Phytohabitans suffuscus K07-0523(T). The DNA-DNA relatedness values between the three isolates and Phytohabitans suffuscus were below 70%. On the basis of phylogenetic analysis, DNA-DNA relatedness values and phenotypic characteristics, the strains should be classified as novel species in the genus Phytohabitans, for which the names Phytohabitans flavus sp. nov. (type strain, K09-0627(T)=JCM 17387(T)=NBRC 107702(T)=DSM 45551(T)), Phytohabitans rumicis sp. nov. (type strain, K11-0047(T)=JCM 17829(T)=NBRC 108638(T)=BCC 48146(T)) and Phytohabitans houttuyneae sp. nov. (type strain, K11-0057(T)=JCM 17830(T)=NBRC 108639(T)=BCC 48147(T)) are proposed. PMID:22228668

  4. Rhodotorula psychrophila sp. nov., Rhodotorula psychrophenolica sp. nov. and Rhodotorula glacialis sp. nov., novel psychrophilic basidiomycetous yeast species isolated from alpine environments.

    PubMed

    Margesin, Rosa; Fonteyne, Pierre-Alain; Schinner, Franz; Sampaio, José Paulo

    2007-09-01

    Three novel psychrophilic species of the genus Rhodotorula are described. Rhodotorula psychrophila sp. nov. (type strain PB19(T)=CBS 10440(T)=DSM 18768(T)), Rhodotorula psychrophenolica sp. nov. (type strain AG21(T)=CBS 10438(T)=DSM 18767(T)) and Rhodotorula glacialis sp. nov. (type strain A19(T)=CBS 10436(T)=DSM 18766(T)) were isolated from soil collected from an alpine railway area, from mud in the thawing zone of a glacier foot and from glacier cryoconite, respectively. All three species have been assigned to the genus Rhodotorula on the basis of molecular sequence data and physiological and morphological properties. Rhodotorula psychrophila is not able to grow at temperatures above 15 degrees C. Rhodotorula psychrophenolica and Rhodotorula glacialis degrade high concentrations of phenol (up to 12.5 and 5 mM, respectively) as the sole carbon source at 10 degrees C. Sequence analyses of the 26S rDNA D1/D2 regions indicated that the novel species are phylogenetically related and belong to a clade that includes other psychrophilic yeasts.

  5. Isolation of high-salinity-tolerant bacterial strains, Enterobacter sp., Serratia sp., Yersinia sp., for nitrification and aerobic denitrification under cyanogenic conditions.

    PubMed

    Mpongwana, N; Ntwampe, S K O; Mekuto, L; Akinpelu, E A; Dyantyi, S; Mpentshu, Y

    2016-01-01

    Cyanides (CN(-)) and soluble salts could potentially inhibit biological processes in wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs), such as nitrification and denitrification. Cyanide in wastewater can alter metabolic functions of microbial populations in WWTPs, thus significantly inhibiting nitrifier and denitrifier metabolic processes, rendering the water treatment processes ineffective. In this study, bacterial isolates that are tolerant to high salinity conditions, which are capable of nitrification and aerobic denitrification under cyanogenic conditions, were isolated from a poultry slaughterhouse effluent. Three of the bacterial isolates were found to be able to oxidise NH(4)-N in the presence of 65.91 mg/L of free cyanide (CN(-)) under saline conditions, i.e. 4.5% (w/v) NaCl. The isolates I, H and G, were identified as Enterobacter sp., Yersinia sp. and Serratia sp., respectively. Results showed that 81% (I), 71% (G) and 75% (H) of 400 mg/L NH(4)-N was biodegraded (nitrification) within 72 h, with the rates of biodegradation being suitably described by first order reactions, with rate constants being: 4.19 h(-1) (I), 4.21 h(-1) (H) and 3.79 h(-1) (G), respectively, with correlation coefficients ranging between 0.82 and 0.89. Chemical oxygen demand (COD) removal rates were 38% (I), 42% (H) and 48% (G), over a period of 168 h with COD reduction being highest at near neutral pH. PMID:27148718

  6. Rhodium-catalyzed cascade oxidative annulation leading to substituted naphtho[1,8-bc]pyrans by sequential cleavage of C(sp2)-H/C(sp3)-H and C(sp2)-H/O-H bonds.

    PubMed

    Tan, Xing; Liu, Bingxian; Li, Xiangyu; Li, Bin; Xu, Shansheng; Song, Haibin; Wang, Baiquan

    2012-10-01

    The cascade oxidative annulation reactions of benzoylacetonitrile with internal alkynes proceed efficiently in the presence of a rhodium catalyst and a copper oxidant to give substituted naphtho[1,8-bc]pyrans by sequential cleavage of C(sp(2))-H/C(sp(3))-H and C(sp(2))-H/O-H bonds. These cascade reactions are highly regioselective with unsymmetrical alkynes. Experiments reveal that the first-step reaction proceeds by sequential cleavage of C(sp(2))-H/C(sp(3))-H bonds and annulation with alkynes, leading to 1-naphthols as the intermediate products. Subsequently, 1-naphthols react with alkynes by cleavage of C(sp(2))-H/O-H bonds, affording the 1:2 coupling products. Moreover, some of the naphtho[1,8-bc]pyran products exhibit intense fluorescence in the solid state. PMID:22989331

  7. Isolation of Indole Utilizing Bacteria Arthrobacter sp. and Alcaligenes sp. From Livestock Waste.

    PubMed

    Kim, Minsu; Lee, Jin-Hyung; Kim, Eonmi; Choi, Hyukjae; Kim, Younghoon; Lee, Jintae

    2016-06-01

    Indole is an interspecies and interkingdom signaling molecule widespread in different environmental compartment. Although multifaceted roles of indole in different biological systems have been established, little information is available on the microbial utilization of indole in the context of combating odor emissions from different types of waste. The present study was aimed at identifying novel bacteria capable of utilizing indole as the sole carbon and energy source. From the selective enrichment of swine waste and cattle feces, we identified Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria belonging to the genera Arthrobacter and Alcaligenes. Bacteria belonging to the genus Alcaligenes showed higher rates of indole utilization than Arthrobacter. Indole at 1.0 mM for growth was completely utilized by Alcaligenes sp. in 16 h. Both strains produced two intermediates, anthranilic acid and isatin, during aerobic indole metabolism. These isolates were also able to grow on several indole derivatives. Interestingly, an adaptive response in terms of a decrease in cell size was observed in both strains in the presence of indole. The present study will help to explain the degradation of indole by different bacteria and also the pathways through which it is catabolized. Furthermore, these novel bacterial isolates could be potentially useful for the in situ attenuation of odorant indole and its derivatives emitted from different types of livestock waste. PMID:27570307

  8. Tandem Sp1/Sp3 sites together with an Ets-1 site cooperate to mediate alpha11 integrin chain expression in mesenchymal cells.

    PubMed

    Lu, Ning; Heuchel, Rainer; Barczyk, Malgorzata; Zhang, Wan-Ming; Gullberg, Donald

    2006-03-01

    Alpha11beta1 integrin is a collagen receptor, which is expressed in a highly regulated manner in a specific subset of ectomesenchymally and mesodermally derived cells. We previously established that a 3 kb region upstream of the transcription start site of the ITGA11 gene efficiently induced alpha11 transcription in a cell-type specific manner. Using the human fibrosarcoma cell line HT1080 and human skin fibroblasts, we now report that the majority of the activity in the proximal promoter resides in a region spanning nt +25 to nt -176. Mutation and deletion analyses using luciferase reporter assays showed that tandem low affinity Sp1/Sp3 binding sites, together with an Ets-1-like binding site, were needed for the proximal promoter activity in mesenchymal cells. EMSAs and supershift assays showed that Sp1 and Sp3 both bind to the Sp1/Sp3 binding sites, whereas occupation of the Ets-1 binding site appears to be Sp3-dependent. Chromatin immunoprecipitation assays verified that Sp1, Sp3 and Ets-1 can bind the promoter in vivo. In heterologous Drosophila SL2 cells, Sp1, Sp3 and Ets-1 all transactivated the alpha11 promoter, with Sp1 being the most efficient activator. The lack of any synergistic effect of Sp1/Sp3 and Ets-1 in SL2 cells indicates that an Ets family member other than Ets-1 might be involved in regulating alpha11 transcription in mesenchymal cells. The central role of Sp1 in regulating alpha11 RNA transcription was further verified by the ability of the Sp1 inhibitor mithramycin A to efficiently attenuate alpha11 RNA and protein levels in primary fibroblasts. The proximal promoter itself was able to confer cell-type specific transcription on HT1080 cells and embryonic fibroblasts but not on U2OS and JAR cells. We speculate that the "mesenchymal signature" of alpha11 integrin gene expression is controlled by the activity of Sp1/Sp3, fibroblast-specific combinations of Ets family members and yet unidentified enhancer-binding transcription factors. PMID

  9. Complete genome sequence of Halomonas sp. R5-57.

    PubMed

    Williamson, Adele; De Santi, Concetta; Altermark, Bjørn; Karlsen, Christian; Hjerde, Erik

    2016-01-01

    The marine Arctic isolate Halomonas sp. R5-57 was sequenced as part of a bioprospecting project which aims to discover novel enzymes and organisms from low-temperature environments, with potential uses in biotechnological applications. Phenotypically, Halomonas sp. R5-57 exhibits high salt tolerance over a wide range of temperatures and has extra-cellular hydrolytic activities with several substrates, indicating it secretes enzymes which may function in high salinity conditions. Genome sequencing identified the genes involved in the biosynthesis of the osmoprotectant ectoine, which has applications in food processing and pharmacy, as well as those involved in production of polyhydroxyalkanoates, which can serve as precursors to bioplastics. The percentage identity of these biosynthetic genes from Halomonas sp. R5-57 and current production strains varies between 99 % for some to 69 % for others, thus it is plausible that R5-57 may have a different production capacity to currently used strains, or that in the case of PHAs, the properties of the final product may vary. Here we present the finished genome sequence (LN813019) of Halomonas sp. R5-57 which will facilitate exploitation of this bacterium; either as a whole-cell production host, or by recombinant expression of its individual enzymes. PMID:27610212

  10. Polydactyly in the central pacific gecko, Lepidodactylus sp. (Squamata: Gekkonidae)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bauer, A.M.; Hathaway, S.A.; Fisher, R.N.

    2009-01-01

    We report the first known case of naturally occurring polydactyly in a gekkotan lizard. A single individual from Palmyra Atoll exhibited a triplication of digit III of the m hand. No obvious teratogenic sources are present on the atoll and the causal factors of polydactyly in Lepidodactylus sp. remain unknown.

  11. THE SAGA OF A MALE FERTILITY PROTEIN (SP22)

    EPA Science Inventory

    Toxicologic studies designed to identify chemical-induced alterations in the structure and function of the epididymis, particularly the acquisition of fertility by proximal cauda epididymal sperm, have lead to the discovery of a novel sperm protein (SP22) that is well correlated ...

  12. Biscalitheca suzanneana, N. Sp., from the uppermost Pennsylvanian of Texas

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Mamay, S.H.

    1972-01-01

    Biscalitheca suzanneana, n. sp., is described from specimens found in an uppermost Pennsylvanian deposit in north-central Texas. The genus was identified primarily on the basis of impressions of the unique sporangial annuli. The occurrence establishes for Biscalitheca a stratigraphic range equivalent to nearly the entire Upper Pennsylvanian Series. ?? 1972.

  13. Genome sequencing and annotation of Cellulomonas sp. HZM.

    PubMed

    Chua, Patric; Har, Zi Mei; Austin, Christopher M; Yule, Catherine M; Dykes, Gary A; Lee, Sui Mae

    2015-09-01

    We report the draft genome sequence of Cellulomonas sp. HZM, isolated from a tropical peat swamp forest. The draft genome size is 3,559,280 bp with a G + C content of 73% and contains 3 rRNA sequences (single copies of 5S, 16S and 23S rRNA).

  14. Draft Genome Sequence of Streptomyces sp. F-3

    PubMed Central

    Sun, Xiaomeng; Meng, Jing; Liu, Shijia; Zhang, Huaiqiang

    2016-01-01

    Streptomyces sp. F-3 is a kind of thermophilic Streptomyces strain that can produce cellulolytic enzymes and diverse secondary metabolites. Here, we report the complete genome of this organism, whose genome length is 5,303,958 bp, containing 6,041 protein-coding genes, 69 tRNA operons, and three rRNA operons. PMID:27492002

  15. Expression of Heterologous Cellulases in Thermotoga sp. Strain RQ2

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Hui; Han, Dongmei; Xu, Zhaohui

    2015-01-01

    The ability of Thermotoga spp. to degrade cellulose is limited due to a lack of exoglucanases. To address this deficiency, cellulase genes Csac_1076 (celA) and Csac_1078 (celB) from Caldicellulosiruptor saccharolyticus were cloned into T. sp. strain RQ2 for heterologous overexpression. Coding regions of Csac_1076 and Csac_1078 were fused to the signal peptide of TM1840 (amyA) and TM0070 (xynB), resulting in three chimeric enzymes, namely, TM1840-Csac_1078, TM0070-Csac_1078, and TM0070-Csac_1076, which were carried by Thermotoga-E. coli shuttle vectors pHX02, pHX04, and pHX07, respectively. All three recombinant enzymes were successfully expressed in E. coli DH5α and T. sp. strain RQ2, rendering the hosts with increased endo- and/or exoglucanase activities. In E. coli, the recombinant enzymes were mainly bound to the bacterial cells, whereas in T. sp. strain RQ2, about half of the enzyme activities were observed in the culture supernatants. However, the cellulase activities were lost in T. sp. strain RQ2 after three consecutive transfers. Nevertheless, this is the first time heterologous genes bigger than 1 kb (up to 5.3 kb in this study) have ever been expressed in Thermotoga, demonstrating the feasibility of using engineered Thermotoga spp. for efficient cellulose utilization. PMID:26273605

  16. Civilian and military missions SP-100 preliminary user requirements

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1987-06-29

    This document defines the top level requirements of potential users of a space based nuclear electric power supply. This provides the SP-100 Project and information required to design the modular (10-1000 KWe) space power systems to meet the needs of most potential users.

  17. A pyoverdin from Pseudomonas sp. CFML 95-275.

    PubMed

    Sultana, R; Fuchs, R; Schmickler, H; Schlegel, K; Budzikiewicz, H; Siddiqui, B S; Geoffrey, V; Meyer, J M

    2000-01-01

    From Pseudomonas sp. CFML 95-275 a pyoverdin was isolated with a cyclopeptidic substructure. It could be shown that this pyoverdin is identical with one obtained from Pseudomonas fluorescens BTP 7 for which a lactone structure had been deduced from the interpretation of a FAB spectrum. The elucidation of the correct structure of the pyoverdin is described. PMID:11204185

  18. Telosticta fugispinosa sp. nov. from Sabah (Odonata: Zygoptera: Platystictidae).

    PubMed

    Dow, Rory A; Afendy, Aqilah; Rahman, Homathevi

    2016-01-01

    Telosticta fugispinosa sp. nov. (holotype male, from Borneo, Sabah, West Coast division, Crocker Range National Park, Inobong, Kimamabang waterfall stream system, 21 ix 2012, deposited in RMNH) is described from Kinabalu National Park and Crocker Range National Park in Sabah, Malaysian Borneo. It is distinguished from all other species of Telosticta by the form of the male anal appendages. PMID:27394744

  19. A thermostable cyclodextrin glycosyltransferase from Thermoanaerobacter sp. 5K

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Cyclodextrin glycosyltransferase (CGTase) from the thermophilic anaerobe Thermoanaerobacter sp. 5K was purified and characterized. The enzyme was purified with ammonium sulfate precipitation followed by a-CD-bound, epoxy-activated Sepharose 6B affinity chromatography. Molecular weight of the purifie...

  20. Stimulation of bioluminescence in Noctiluca sp. using controlled temperature changes.

    PubMed

    Han, Jing; Li, GuiJuan; Liu, HuanYing; Hu, HaoHao; Zhang, XueGang

    2013-01-01

    Bioluminescence induced by multifarious stimuli has long been observed and is remains under investigation because of its great complexity. In particular, the exact mechanism underlying bioluminescence is not yet fully understood. This work presents a new experimental method for studying Noctiluca sp. bioluminescence under temperature change stimulation. It is a study of Noctiluca sp. bioluminescence using controlled temperature changes in a tank. A characteristic of this experiment is the large volume of water used (1 m(3) in a tank of 2 × 1 × 1 m). Temperature changes were controlled by two methods. In the first, a flask filled with hot water was introduced into the tank and in the second, a water heater was used in the tank. Temperature changes were recorded using sensors. Noctiluca sp. bioluminescence was recorded using a Canon 5D Mark II and this allowed the characteristics of Noctiluca sp. bioluminescence under temperature change stimulation to be monitored.

  1. 33 CFR 161.19 - Sailing Plan (SP).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Sailing Plan (SP). 161.19 Section 161.19 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) PORTS AND WATERWAYS SAFETY VESSEL TRAFFIC MANAGEMENT Vessel Movement Reporting System § 161.19 Sailing...

  2. 33 CFR 161.19 - Sailing Plan (SP).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Sailing Plan (SP). 161.19 Section 161.19 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) PORTS AND WATERWAYS SAFETY VESSEL TRAFFIC MANAGEMENT Vessel Movement Reporting System § 161.19 Sailing...

  3. 33 CFR 161.19 - Sailing Plan (SP).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Sailing Plan (SP). 161.19 Section 161.19 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) PORTS AND WATERWAYS SAFETY VESSEL TRAFFIC MANAGEMENT Vessel Movement Reporting System § 161.19 Sailing...

  4. 33 CFR 161.19 - Sailing Plan (SP).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Sailing Plan (SP). 161.19 Section 161.19 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) PORTS AND WATERWAYS SAFETY VESSEL TRAFFIC MANAGEMENT Vessel Movement Reporting System § 161.19 Sailing...

  5. 33 CFR 161.19 - Sailing Plan (SP).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Sailing Plan (SP). 161.19 Section 161.19 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) PORTS AND WATERWAYS SAFETY VESSEL TRAFFIC MANAGEMENT Vessel Movement Reporting System § 161.19 Sailing...

  6. Complete Genome Sequence of the Cyanobacterium Anabaena sp. 33047

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    This study presents the complete nucleotide sequence of Anabaena sp. ATCC 33047 (Anabaena CA), a filamentous, nitrogen-fixing marine cyanobacterium, which under salt stress conditions accumulates sucrose internally. The elucidation of the genome will contribute to the understanding of cyanobacterial diversity. PMID:27516507

  7. Novel cytotoxic thiodiketopiperazine derivatives from a Tilachlidium sp.

    PubMed

    Feng, Yunjiang; Blunt, John W; Cole, Anthony L J; Munro, Murray H G

    2004-12-01

    Three novel thiodiketopiperazine derivatives, T988 A, B, and C (1-3), were isolated from a Tilachlidium sp. Their structures were elucidated by spectroscopic analyses using various 1D and 2D NMR techniques. All the compounds showed potent cytotoxicity against cultured P388 leukemia cells.

  8. Acinetobacter sp. HM746599 isolated from leatherback turtle blood.

    PubMed

    Soslau, Gerald; Russell, Jacob A; Spotila, James R; Mathew, Andrew J; Bagsiyao, Pamela

    2011-09-01

    A newly described bacterial isolate, Acinetobacter sp. HM746599, has been obtained from leatherback sea turtle hatchling blood. The implication is that the hatchling was infected during development in the egg, which is substantiated by other studies to be reported by us in the future. The 16S rRNA gene sequence of the bacterium (GenBank accession number: HM746599) showed the greatest similarity to the identified species, Acinetobacter beijerinckii (97.6-99.78%) and Acinetobacter venetianus (99.78%). Acinetobacter sp. HM746599 are gram-negative, rod-shaped coccobacilli and are hemolytic/cytotoxic to human and sea turtle red blood cells (RBCs). Hemolysis is not the result of any detectable soluble toxin. Acinetobacter beijerinckii and A. venetianus hemolyze sheep RBCs while Acinetobacter sp. HM746599 does not, and unlike A. venetianus, the growth of Acinetobacter sp. HM746599 and A. beijerinckii is not supported by l-arginine. Many Acinetobacter species, especially hemolytic ones, are pathogenic to immunologically compromised humans and it is possible that, in addition to sea turtles, this bacterium might also be a danger to susceptible humans who handle infected hatchlings. The bacteria are available from CCUG (Culture Collection, University Gothenburg, Göteborg, Sweden) and from NRRL (Agricultural Research Service Culture Collection, Peoria, IL). PMID:21707734

  9. [Nitrogen removal by Bacillus sp. LY with heterotrophic nitrification ability].

    PubMed

    He, Xia; Zhao, Bin; Lü, Jian; He, Yi-Liang; Jin, Qiang; Zhang, Wen-Ying

    2007-06-01

    Bacillus sp. LY has the ability of nitrogen removal. Under the NH4(+) -N load of 40, 80 and 120 mg/L, after 120 hours culture, the NH4(-) -N removal rate finally was 100%, 85.7%, 73.7%, and the removal rate of TN finally was 76.6%, 53.4%, 64.8%. As the concentration of ammonium improved, the rate of nitrification and the nitrogen removal would decrease under the same concentration of Bacillus sp. LY at the beginning. The concentration of organic material played an important role in the nitrogen removal by Bacillus sp. LY. The low concentration of organic material inhibited the ability of nitrogen removal, and the middle concentration of organic material enhanced its ability of nitrogen removal and reached the optimum nitrogen removal condition, but the high concentration of organic material did not enhance its ability of nitrogen removal again. Organic nitrogen could be transformed to ammonium by Bacillus sp. LY, which was then transformed to N2 through two possible pathways. One pathway was a nitrification process followed by a denitrification process. The other pathway was that ammonium was first oxidized to hydroxylamine, then dehydrogenized to N2 O and finally transformed to N2. All these results may contribute to the establishment of new biology process to remove nitrogen with high efficiency.

  10. Genome sequencing and annotation of Cellulomonas sp. HZM

    PubMed Central

    Chua, Patric; Har, Zi Mei; Austin, Christopher M.; Yule, Catherine M.; Dykes, Gary A.; Lee, Sui Mae

    2015-01-01

    We report the draft genome sequence of Cellulomonas sp. HZM, isolated from a tropical peat swamp forest. The draft genome size is 3,559,280 bp with a G + C content of 73% and contains 3 rRNA sequences (single copies of 5S, 16S and 23S rRNA). PMID:26484221

  11. Description of Nemophora acaciae sp. nov. (Lepidoptera: Adelidae) from Kenya.

    PubMed

    Agassiz, David J L; Kozlov, Mikhail V

    2015-01-01

    Nemophora acaciae sp. nov. is described from Kenya on the basis of a large series bred from flowers of Acacia seyal and A. lahai. The new species differs from all Afrotropical Nemophora species by its dark brown forewing fascia with white medial stripe near the costal margin of forewing. The key to the Afrotropical Nemophora species is provided. PMID:26701526

  12. Increased constituent ratios of Klebsiella sp., Acinetobacter sp., and Streptococcus sp. and a decrease in microflora diversity may be indicators of ventilator-associated pneumonia: a prospective study in the respiratory tracts of neonates.

    PubMed

    Lu, Wei; Yu, Jialin; Ai, Qing; Liu, Dong; Song, Chao; Li, Luquan

    2014-01-01

    Ventilator-associated pneumonia (VAP) is a common complication and cause of death in neonates on mechanical ventilation. However, it is difficult to define the causes of VAP. To understand the causes of VAP, we undertook a prospective study based on the diversity of the microflora in VAP. The experimental group consisted of newborns who suffered from respiratory distress syndrome (RDS) and VAP, while the control group suffered from RDS without VAP. Sputa were collected within 1, 3, and 5 days of ventilation and were divided into six groups. DNA was extracted from the samples, and the 16S rDNA was PCR amplified, separated using denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE), cloned and sequenced. The resulting sequences were compared using BLAST. The DGGE pictures were measured, and the richness, Shannon-Wiener index, and cluster maps were analyzed. No differences were found regarding the constituent ratio of any genus between the Non-VAP and VAP group within 1 day after intubation. After 1 to 3 days, the constituent ratios of Klebsiella sp., Acinetobacter sp., and Streptococcus sp. in the VAP group were higher than those in the Non-VAP group, and the ratios of Serratia sp. and Achromobacter sp. were lower. After 3 to 5 days, the ratios of Klebsiella sp., Acinetobacter sp., Serratia sp., and Achromobacter sp. were lower than those in the Non-VAP group. The richness and Shannon-Wiener index of the Non-VAP group were higher than those of the VAP group from 1 to 3 days after intubation, while no differences were found within 1 day and from 3 to 5 days. We conclude that during the first three days of intubation, the microflora diversity in the lower respiratory tract was reduced due to VAP, and the greater constituent ratios of Klebsiella sp., Acinetobacter sp., and Streptococcus sp. in the sputum may be indicators of VAP.

  13. Biosorption characteristics of copper (II), chromium (III), nickel (II), and lead (II) from aqueous solutions by Chara sp. and Cladophora sp.

    PubMed

    Elmaci, Ayşe; Yonar, Taner; Ozengin, Nihan

    2007-09-01

    The aim of this research was to expose individual removals of copper, chromium, nickel, and lead from aqueous solutions via biosorption using nonliving algae species, Chara sp. and Cladophora sp. Optimum pH values for biosorption of copper (II), chromium (III), nickel (II), and lead (II) from aqueous solutions were determined to be 6, 7, 7, and 3 for Cladophora sp. and 5, 3, 5, and 4 for Chara sp. respectively. Maximum adsorption capacities of Chara sp. [10.54 for chromium (III) and 61.72 for lead (II)] and Cladophora sp. [6.59 for chromium (III) and 16.75 and 23.25 for lead (II)] for chromium (III) and lead (II) are similar. On the other hand, copper (II) and nickel (II) biosorption capacity of Cladophora sp. [14.28 for copper (II) and 16.75 for nickel (II)] is greater than Chara sp. [6.506 for copper (II) and 11.76 for nickel (II)]. Significantly high correlation coefficients indicated for the Langmuir adsorption isotherm models can be used to describe the equilibrium behavior of copper, chromium, nickel, and lead adsorption onto Cladophora sp. and Chara sp.

  14. Characterization of two isoforms of antiliopolysacchride factors (Sp-ALFs) from the mud crab Scylla paramamosain.

    PubMed

    Liu, Hai-peng; Chen, Rong-yuan; Zhang, Qiu-xia; Wang, Qiao-yang; Li, Cong-ru; Peng, Hui; Cai, Ling; Zheng, Chao-qun; Wang, Ke-jian

    2012-07-01

    In the previous study of the mud crab (Scylla paramamosain) hemocyte proteins, which interacted with a bacterium, Vibrio parahaemolyticus, a protein known as antilipopolysaccharide factor (Sp-ALF) was isolated in addition to a serine proteinase homolog (Sp-SPH) protein. In the present study, we further reported the characterization of two isoforms of the mud crab ALF - Sp-ALFs genes (designated as Sp-ALF1 and Sp-ALF2, respectively) based on our previous result. The Sp-ALF1 and Sp-ALF2 cDNA contained 1070 bp and 731 bp, respectively, with 123 deduced amino acid residues. Alignment of deduced amino acid sequences showed that Sp-ALFs possessed high identity with other known ALFs from crustaceans and exhibited an overall similarity of 57.7% to those of ALFs compared. Phylogenetic tree analysis revealed a clear group of each species and also suggested that ALFs from Scylla genus and those from Portunus genus were closely related. Tissue distribution analysis in adult crab implied that both Sp-ALF1 and Sp-ALF2 were mainly expressed in hemocytes. The mRNA transcripts were also found in embryo (I, II, III and V), zoea-I and juvenile crab, but were rarely observed in the megalopa stage. To further identify the biological activity of Sp-ALFs, recombinant proteins (rSp-ALFs: designated as rSp-ALF1 and rSp-ALF2, respectively) were obtained by expression in Pichia pastris, and the synthetic peptide fragments (sSp-ALFs: designated as sSp-ALF1 and sSp-ALF2, respectively) including the putative LPS binding loop were also prepared for antimicrobial test. The results indicated that both rSp-ALFs and sSp-ALFs were highly effective against most of the Gram-positive bacteria and Gram-negative bacteria tested. In contrast to cecropin P1, a membrane integrity assay revealed that Sp-ALFs did not affect the Escherichia coli by disruption of membrane integrity. Additionally, the recombinant Sp-ALFs proteins exhibited strong antiviral activity against an important aquaculture pathogen

  15. Characterization of two isoforms of antiliopolysacchride factors (Sp-ALFs) from the mud crab Scylla paramamosain.

    PubMed

    Liu, Hai-peng; Chen, Rong-yuan; Zhang, Qiu-xia; Wang, Qiao-yang; Li, Cong-ru; Peng, Hui; Cai, Ling; Zheng, Chao-qun; Wang, Ke-jian

    2012-07-01

    In the previous study of the mud crab (Scylla paramamosain) hemocyte proteins, which interacted with a bacterium, Vibrio parahaemolyticus, a protein known as antilipopolysaccharide factor (Sp-ALF) was isolated in addition to a serine proteinase homolog (Sp-SPH) protein. In the present study, we further reported the characterization of two isoforms of the mud crab ALF - Sp-ALFs genes (designated as Sp-ALF1 and Sp-ALF2, respectively) based on our previous result. The Sp-ALF1 and Sp-ALF2 cDNA contained 1070 bp and 731 bp, respectively, with 123 deduced amino acid residues. Alignment of deduced amino acid sequences showed that Sp-ALFs possessed high identity with other known ALFs from crustaceans and exhibited an overall similarity of 57.7% to those of ALFs compared. Phylogenetic tree analysis revealed a clear group of each species and also suggested that ALFs from Scylla genus and those from Portunus genus were closely related. Tissue distribution analysis in adult crab implied that both Sp-ALF1 and Sp-ALF2 were mainly expressed in hemocytes. The mRNA transcripts were also found in embryo (I, II, III and V), zoea-I and juvenile crab, but were rarely observed in the megalopa stage. To further identify the biological activity of Sp-ALFs, recombinant proteins (rSp-ALFs: designated as rSp-ALF1 and rSp-ALF2, respectively) were obtained by expression in Pichia pastris, and the synthetic peptide fragments (sSp-ALFs: designated as sSp-ALF1 and sSp-ALF2, respectively) including the putative LPS binding loop were also prepared for antimicrobial test. The results indicated that both rSp-ALFs and sSp-ALFs were highly effective against most of the Gram-positive bacteria and Gram-negative bacteria tested. In contrast to cecropin P1, a membrane integrity assay revealed that Sp-ALFs did not affect the Escherichia coli by disruption of membrane integrity. Additionally, the recombinant Sp-ALFs proteins exhibited strong antiviral activity against an important aquaculture pathogen

  16. A new species of Loxosomatidae (Entoprocta, Solitaria) from the White Sea: Loxosomella unicornis sp. nov.

    PubMed

    Borisanova, Anastasiya O; Krylova, Elena M

    2014-01-01

    A new solitary entoproct, Loxosomella unicornis sp. nov., is described. The species was found on the gymnolaemate bryozoans Cribrilina sp. and Electra sp. in Kandalaksha Bay, White Sea. Loxosomella unicornis sp. nov. is a medium-sized species with a total length up to 650 µm, eight tentacles and a conspicuous horn-shaped appendage on the top part of calyx.  PMID:25283409

  17. Synthesis of marine polyacetylenes callyberynes A-C by transition-metal-catalyzed cross-coupling reactions to sp centers.

    PubMed

    López, Susana; Fernandez-Trillo, Francisco; Midón, Pilar; Castedo, Luis; Saa, Carlos

    2006-03-31

    Efficient total syntheses of the sponge-derived hydrocarbon polyacetylenes callyberynes A-C have been achieved using metal-catalyzed cross-coupling reactions of highly unsaturated 1,3-diyne fragments as the key steps, namely: Cadiot-Chodkiewicz reaction under Alami's optimized conditions (sp-sp), sequential Sonogashira reaction of a cis,cis-divinyl dihalide (sp2-sp), and Kumada-Corriu reaction of an unactivated alkyl iodide (sp3-sp). This last approach constitutes the first application of a metal-catalyzed sp3-sp Kumada-Corriu cross-coupling reaction to the synthesis of a natural product.

  18. Mixibius parvus sp. nov. and Diphascon (Diphascon) ziliense sp. nov., two new species of Eutardigrada from Sicily.

    PubMed

    Lisi, Oscar; Sabella, Giorgio; Pilato, Giovanni

    2014-05-28

    Two new species, Mixibius parvus sp. nov. and Diphascon (Diphascon) ziliense sp. nov. are described from Sicily. Mixibius parvus sp. nov. has three macroplacoids and a microplacoid and differs from M. tibetanus, the only other known species of the genus with those characteristics, in having a wrinkled cuticle without true small tubercles, a shorter microplacoid, smaller claw pt index values, and in lacking a cuticular bar on the first three pairs of the legs.Diphascon (Diphascon) ziliense sp. nov. lacks eye spots, has a pharyngeal bulb with two macroplacoids and a septulum, and possesses lunules and cuticular bars on the legs. It is similar to D. (D.) ramazzottii and D. (D.) procerum but differs from them in characters of the cuticular ornamentation and, in addition, from D. (D.) ramazzottii in having lunules and slightly longer claws in proportion to the body size and to the buccal tube. The new species differs from D. (D.) procerum in having stouter claws with a wider common portion and with the main branches shorter in proportion to the total length of the respective claws.

  19. Evaluation of Culture Conditions to Obtain Fatty Acids from Saline Microalgae Species: Dunaliella salina, Sinecosyfis sp., and Chroomonas sp.

    PubMed

    Castilla Casadiego, D A; Albis Arrieta, A R; Angulo Mercado, E R; Cervera Cahuana, S J; Baquero Noriega, K S; Suárez Escobar, A F; Morales Avendaño, E D

    2016-01-01

    The use of the saline microalgae, Dunaliella salina, Sinecosyfis sp., and Chroomonas sp., was explored as an alternative source for the production of fatty acids using fertilizer and glycerol as culture media. The nutrient medium used contained "Nutrifoliar," a commercial fertilizer, and/or glycerol, in natural sea water. The microalgae were placed in cultures with different conditions. The parameters that favored the largest production of fatty acids were 24 hours of agitation and illumination, 1620 L/day of air supply, 2.25 L of air/min, and a temperature of 32°C using "Nutrifoliar" as the culture media. Results indicated that, from 3 g of microalgae in wet base of Chroomonas sp., 54.43 mg of oil was produced. The chromatographic characterization of oil obtained revealed the presence of essential fatty acids such as 9,12,15-octadecatrienoic acid (omega-3) and 4,7,10-hexadecatrienoic acid (omega-6) from the species Dunaliella salina. On the other hand, 9,12-octadecadienoic acid (omega-6) and cis-11-eicosenoic acid (omega-9) were identified from the species Chroomonas sp. The temperature variations played an important role in the velocity of growth or the production of the algae biomass, the amount of oil, and the ability to produce fatty acids.

  20. Evaluation of Culture Conditions to Obtain Fatty Acids from Saline Microalgae Species: Dunaliella salina, Sinecosyfis sp., and Chroomonas sp.

    PubMed

    Castilla Casadiego, D A; Albis Arrieta, A R; Angulo Mercado, E R; Cervera Cahuana, S J; Baquero Noriega, K S; Suárez Escobar, A F; Morales Avendaño, E D

    2016-01-01

    The use of the saline microalgae, Dunaliella salina, Sinecosyfis sp., and Chroomonas sp., was explored as an alternative source for the production of fatty acids using fertilizer and glycerol as culture media. The nutrient medium used contained "Nutrifoliar," a commercial fertilizer, and/or glycerol, in natural sea water. The microalgae were placed in cultures with different conditions. The parameters that favored the largest production of fatty acids were 24 hours of agitation and illumination, 1620 L/day of air supply, 2.25 L of air/min, and a temperature of 32°C using "Nutrifoliar" as the culture media. Results indicated that, from 3 g of microalgae in wet base of Chroomonas sp., 54.43 mg of oil was produced. The chromatographic characterization of oil obtained revealed the presence of essential fatty acids such as 9,12,15-octadecatrienoic acid (omega-3) and 4,7,10-hexadecatrienoic acid (omega-6) from the species Dunaliella salina. On the other hand, 9,12-octadecadienoic acid (omega-6) and cis-11-eicosenoic acid (omega-9) were identified from the species Chroomonas sp. The temperature variations played an important role in the velocity of growth or the production of the algae biomass, the amount of oil, and the ability to produce fatty acids. PMID:27376085

  1. Evaluation of Culture Conditions to Obtain Fatty Acids from Saline Microalgae Species: Dunaliella salina, Sinecosyfis sp., and Chroomonas sp.

    PubMed Central

    Castilla Casadiego, D. A.; Albis Arrieta, A. R.; Angulo Mercado, E. R.; Cervera Cahuana, S. J.; Baquero Noriega, K. S.; Suárez Escobar, A. F.; Morales Avendaño, E. D.

    2016-01-01

    The use of the saline microalgae, Dunaliella salina, Sinecosyfis sp., and Chroomonas sp., was explored as an alternative source for the production of fatty acids using fertilizer and glycerol as culture media. The nutrient medium used contained “Nutrifoliar,” a commercial fertilizer, and/or glycerol, in natural sea water. The microalgae were placed in cultures with different conditions. The parameters that favored the largest production of fatty acids were 24 hours of agitation and illumination, 1620 L/day of air supply, 2.25 L of air/min, and a temperature of 32°C using “Nutrifoliar” as the culture media. Results indicated that, from 3 g of microalgae in wet base of Chroomonas sp., 54.43 mg of oil was produced. The chromatographic characterization of oil obtained revealed the presence of essential fatty acids such as 9,12,15-octadecatrienoic acid (omega-3) and 4,7,10-hexadecatrienoic acid (omega-6) from the species Dunaliella salina. On the other hand, 9,12-octadecadienoic acid (omega-6) and cis-11-eicosenoic acid (omega-9) were identified from the species Chroomonas sp. The temperature variations played an important role in the velocity of growth or the production of the algae biomass, the amount of oil, and the ability to produce fatty acids. PMID:27376085

  2. Association analysis of SP-SNPs and Avr genes in Puccinia striiformis f. sp. tritici, the wheat stripe rust pathogen

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Puccinia striiformis f. sp. tritici (Pst) is one of the pathogenic fungi on wheat, caused stripe rust disease which is a great threat for wheat production all over the world. Intensive efforts have been made to study genetics of wheat resistance to this disease, but few on avirulence of the pathogen...

  3. Whole-genome sequence of Enterobacter sp. strain SST3, an endophyte isolated from Jamaican sugarcane (Saccharum sp.) stalk tissue.

    PubMed

    Gan, Han Ming; McGroty, Sean E; Chew, Teong Han; Chan, Kok Gan; Buckley, Larry J; Savka, Michael A; Hudson, André O

    2012-11-01

    Enterobacter sp. strain SST3 is an endophytic bacterium isolated from Saccharum spp. Here we present its annotated draft genome that may shed light on its role as a bacterial endophyte of sugarcane. To our knowledge, this is the first genome announcement of a sugarcane-associated bacterium from the genus Enterobacter.

  4. Mixibius parvus sp. nov. and Diphascon (Diphascon) ziliense sp. nov., two new species of Eutardigrada from Sicily.

    PubMed

    Lisi, Oscar; Sabella, Giorgio; Pilato, Giovanni

    2014-01-01

    Two new species, Mixibius parvus sp. nov. and Diphascon (Diphascon) ziliense sp. nov. are described from Sicily. Mixibius parvus sp. nov. has three macroplacoids and a microplacoid and differs from M. tibetanus, the only other known species of the genus with those characteristics, in having a wrinkled cuticle without true small tubercles, a shorter microplacoid, smaller claw pt index values, and in lacking a cuticular bar on the first three pairs of the legs.Diphascon (Diphascon) ziliense sp. nov. lacks eye spots, has a pharyngeal bulb with two macroplacoids and a septulum, and possesses lunules and cuticular bars on the legs. It is similar to D. (D.) ramazzottii and D. (D.) procerum but differs from them in characters of the cuticular ornamentation and, in addition, from D. (D.) ramazzottii in having lunules and slightly longer claws in proportion to the body size and to the buccal tube. The new species differs from D. (D.) procerum in having stouter claws with a wider common portion and with the main branches shorter in proportion to the total length of the respective claws. PMID:24871024

  5. Sp-1 binds promoter elements regulated by the RB protein and Sp-1-mediated transcription is stimulated by RB coexpression.

    PubMed Central

    Udvadia, A J; Rogers, K T; Higgins, P D; Murata, Y; Martin, K H; Humphrey, P A; Horowitz, J M

    1993-01-01

    The retinoblastoma (RB) protein is implicated in transcriptional regulation of at least five cellular genes, including c-fos, c-myc, and transforming growth factor beta 1. Cotransfection of RB and truncated promoter constructs has defined a discrete element (retinoblastoma control element; RCE) within the promoters of each of these genes as being necessary for RB-mediated transcription control. Previously, we have shown that RCEs form protein-DNA complexes in vitro with three heretofore unidentified nuclear proteins and mutation of their DNA-binding site within the c-fos RCE results in an abrogation of RCE-dependent transcription in vivo. Here, we demonstrate that one of the nuclear proteins that binds the c-fos, c-myc, and transforming growth factor beta 1 RCEs in vitro is Sp-1 and that Sp-1 stimulates RCE-dependent transcription in vivo. Moreover, we show that Sp-1-mediated transcription is stimulated by the transient coexpression of RB protein. We conclude from these observations that RB may regulate transcription in part by virtue of its ability to functionally interact with Sp-1. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 3 PMID:8475068

  6. Subterminal oxidation of n-alkanes in achlorophyllous alga Prototheca sp.

    PubMed

    Sakuradani, Eiji; Natsume, Yusuke; Takimura, Yasushi; Ogawa, Jun; Shimizu, Sakayu

    2013-10-01

    Some Prototheca sp. are known to be involved in n-hexadecane degradation. Two derivatives derived from n-hexadecane in such Prototheca sp. were identified as 5-hexadecanone and 5-hexadecanol. n-Hexadecane was assumed to be converted to 5-hexadecanol and then to 5-hexadecanone through a unique subterminal oxidation pathway in such Prototheca sp. PMID:23651808

  7. Sphyrna gilberti sp. nov., a new hammerhead shark (Carcharhiniformes, Sphyrnidae) from the western Atlantic Ocean.

    PubMed

    Quattro, Joseph M; Driggers, William B; Grady, James M; Ulrich, Glenn F; Roberts, Mark A

    2013-01-01

    Sphyrna gilberti sp. nov. is described based on 54 specimens collected in the coastal waters of South Carolina, U.S.A. Morphologically, S. gilberti sp. nov. is separable from S. lewini (Griffith & Smith 1834) only in the number of precaudal vertebrae. Due to rarity of specimens and the highly migratory behavior of most sphyrnids, the range of S. gilberti sp. nov. is unknown.

  8. IDENTIFICATION AND MOLECULAR CLONING OF XENOPUS LAEVIS SP22, A PROTEIN ASSOCIATED WITH FERTILIZATION IN MAMMALS

    EPA Science Inventory

    ABSTRACT

    SP22 is a protein that has been characterized in rats where it has been related with fertility. SP22 homologues have been studied in mouse and man and a definitive role for the protein has not been assigned yet. By means of a polyclonal IgG to recombinant rat SP22...

  9. Isolation and structure elucidation of a new antifungal and antibacterial antibiotic produced by Streptomyces sp. 201.

    PubMed

    Bordoloi, G N; Kumari, B; Guha, A; Bordoloi, M; Yadav, R N; Roy, M K; Bora, T C

    2001-08-01

    An antibacterial and antifungal antibiotic was isolated from the culture filtrate of Streptomyces sp. 201, and its structure was determined as 2-methyl-heptyl isonicotinate by extensive use of NMR spectroscopy. The compound exhibited marked antimicrobial activity against Bacillus subtilis, Shigella sp., Klebsiella sp., E. coli, Proteus mirabilis, and the pathogenic fungi, Fusarium moniliforme, F. semitectum, F. oxysporum, F. solani and Rhizoctonia solani.

  10. The dynamics of the fungal aerospores Alternaria sp. and Cladosporium sp. in Parisian atmospheric air, in France

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brezoczki, V. M.

    2016-08-01

    The bioallergens occurring naturally in the atmospheric air are microorganisms, pollen grains, plant seeds, leaf and stem scrap, or their protein molecules. The presence of various airborne fungal spores determines a high allergenic potential for public health. This effect is due to the high number of produced spores, which under favourable meteorological conditions (dry weather and wind) reach the surrounding air. This paper traces the dynamics of two types of fungi, Alternaria sp and Cladosporium sp, fungi which can be found outdoors, in the surrounding air, as well as indoors, inside houses (especially the conidia of Cladosporium sp). The effects of these fungal spores on human health are varies, ranging from seasonal allergies (hay fever, rhinitis, sinusitis etc.) to sever afflictions of the respiratory system, onset of asthma, disfunctionalities of the nervous systems, of the immune system, zymoses etc. The monitoring of the dynamics of the aerospores Alternaria sp and Cladosporium sp was carried out between 2010 and 2013, over a period of 42 weeks during one calendar year, from February to the end of September, in the surrounding air in the French capital, Paris. The regional and global climate and meteorological conditions are directly involved in the occurrence and development of fungi colonies, the transportation and dispersion of fungal spores in the atmospheric air, as well as in the creation of the environment required for the interaction of chemical and biological components in the air. Knowledge of the dynamics of the studied fungal aerospores, coupled with climate and meteorological changes, offers a series of information on the magnitude of the allergenic potential these airborne spores can determine. Legal regulations in this domain set the allergen risk threshold for the Alternaria sp aerospores at 3500 ÷ 7000 spores/m3 air/week, and for the Cladosporium sp aerospores at 56,000 spores/m3 air/week. Besides these regulations there exist a series of

  11. Marinobacter salarius sp. nov. and Marinobacter similis sp. nov., isolated from sea water.

    PubMed

    Ng, Hooi Jun; López-Pérez, Mario; Webb, Hayden K; Gomez, Daniela; Sawabe, Tomoo; Ryan, Jason; Vyssotski, Mikhail; Bizet, Chantal; Malherbe, François; Mikhailov, Valery V; Crawford, Russell J; Ivanova, Elena P

    2014-01-01

    Two non-pigmented, motile, Gram-negative marine bacteria designated R9SW1T and A3d10T were isolated from sea water samples collected from Chazhma Bay, Gulf of Peter the Great, Sea of Japan, Pacific Ocean, Russia and St. Kilda Beach, Port Phillip Bay, the Tasman Sea, Pacific Ocean, respectively. Both organisms were found to grow between 4 °C and 40 °C, between pH 6 to 9, and are moderately halophilic, tolerating up to 20% (w/v) NaCl. Both strains were found to be able to degrade Tween 40 and 80, but only strain R9SW1T was found to be able to degrade starch. The major fatty acids were characteristic for the genus Marinobacter including C16:0, C16:1ω7c, C18:1ω9c and C18:1ω7c. The G+C content of the DNA for strains R9SW1T and A3d10T were determined to be 57.1 mol% and 57.6 mol%, respectively. The two new strains share 97.6% of their 16S rRNA gene sequences, with 82.3% similarity in the average nucleotide identity (ANI), 19.8% similarity in the in silico genome-to-genome distance (GGD), 68.1% similarity in the average amino acid identity (AAI) of all conserved protein-coding genes, and 31 of the Karlin's genomic signature dissimilarity. A phylogenetic analysis showed that R9SW1T clusters with M. algicola DG893T sharing 99.40%, and A3d10T clusters with M. sediminum R65T sharing 99.53% of 16S rRNA gene sequence similarities. The results of the genomic and polyphasic taxonomic study, including genomic, genetic, phenotypic, chemotaxonomic and phylogenetic analyses based on the 16S rRNA, gyrB and rpoD gene sequence similarities, the analysis of the protein profiles generated using MALDI-TOF mass spectrometry, and DNA-DNA relatedness data, indicated that strains R9SW1T and A3d10(T) represent two novel species of the genus Marinobacter. The names Marinobacter salarius sp. nov., with the type strain R9SW1(T) ( =  LMG 27497(T)  =  JCM 19399(T)  =  CIP 110588(T)  =  KMM 7502(T)) and Marinobacter similis sp. nov., with the type strain A3d10(T) ( =  JCM

  12. Flavobacterium xueshanense sp. nov. and Flavobacterium urumqiense sp. nov., two psychrophilic bacteria isolated from glacier ice.

    PubMed

    Dong, Kun; Liu, Hongcan; Zhang, Jianli; Zhou, Yuguang; Xin, Yuhua

    2012-05-01

    Two Gram-stain-negative, rod-shaped bacteria, designated strains Sr22(T) and Sr25(T), were isolated from water of melted ice from the China No.1 glacier, Xinjiang Uygur Autonomous Region, China. Cells formed yellow, circular, convex colonies. 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis indicated that strains Sr22(T) and Sr25(T) belong to the genus Flavobacterium, sharing ≤99.1  and ≤99.6 % similarity, respectively, with the type strains of recognized species of the genus. Strain Sr22(T) shared highest 16S rRNA gene sequence similarity with Flavobacterium tiangeerense CGMCC 1.6847(T) (98.6 %), Flavobacterium fryxellicola LMG 22022(T) (98.1 %) and Flavobacterium omnivorum CGMCC 1.2747(T) (99.1 %). Strain Sr25(T) shared highest similarity with Flavobacterium sinopsychrotolerans CGMCC 1.8704(T) (98.5 %), Flavobacterium degerlachei NBRC 102677(T) (98.4 %) and Flavobacterium xinjiangense CGMCC 1.2749(T) (99.5 %). The predominant fatty acids of strain Sr22(T) were iso-C(15 : 1) G (6.01 %), iso-C(15 : 0) (8.93 %), iso-C(16 : 1) H (12.68 %), iso-C(16 : 0) (10.4 %), C(15 : 1)ω6c (8.97 %), C(17 : 1)ω6c (5.96 %), iso-C(16 : 0) 3-OH (11.14 %) and summed feature 3 (comprising C(16 : 1)ω7c and/or C(16 : 1)ω6c, 12.33 %). The major fatty acids of strain Sr25(T) were iso-C(15 : 0) (10.8 %), anteiso-C(15 : 0) (5.23 %), C(15 : 1)ω6c (11.79 %), C(17 : 1)ω6c (5.43 %), iso-C(16 : 0) 3-OH (7.04 %) and summed feature 3 (20.42 %). The genomic DNA G+C contents of strains Sr22(T) and Sr25(T) were 37.2 and 35.1 mol%. On the basis of differential phenotypic and phylogenetic characteristics, these strains are considered to represent two novel species of the genus Flavobacterium, for which the names Flavobacterium xueshanense sp. nov. (type strain Sr22(T)  = CGMCC 1.9227(T)  = NBRC 106479(T)) and Flavobacterium urumqiense sp. nov. (type strain Sr25(T)  = CGMCC 1.9230(T)  = NBRC 106480

  13. Description of Galbitalea soli gen. nov., sp. nov., and Frondihabitans sucicola sp. nov.

    PubMed

    Kim, Soo-Jin; Lim, Jun-Muk; Ahn, Jae-Hyung; Weon, Hang-Yeon; Hamada, Moriyuki; Suzuki, Ken-ichiro; Ahn, Tae-Young; Kwon, Soon-Wo

    2014-02-01

    novel genus and species and that strain GRS42(T) represents a novel species in the family Microbacteriaceae. The genus Galbitalea gen. nov. is proposed, with strain KIS82-1(T) ( = KACC 15520(T) = NBRC 108727(T)) as the type strain of the type species, Galbitalea soli sp. nov. Strain GRS42(T) ( = KACC 15521(T) = NBRC 108728(T)) is proposed as the type strain of Frondihabitans sucicola sp. nov. PMID:24132916

  14. Marinobacter salarius sp. nov. and Marinobacter similis sp. nov., Isolated from Sea Water

    PubMed Central

    Ng, Hooi Jun; López-Pérez, Mario; Webb, Hayden K.; Gomez, Daniela; Sawabe, Tomoo; Ryan, Jason; Vyssotski, Mikhail; Bizet, Chantal; Malherbe, François; Mikhailov, Valery V.; Crawford, Russell J.; Ivanova, Elena P.

    2014-01-01

    Two non-pigmented, motile, Gram-negative marine bacteria designated R9SW1T and A3d10T were isolated from sea water samples collected from Chazhma Bay, Gulf of Peter the Great, Sea of Japan, Pacific Ocean, Russia and St. Kilda Beach, Port Phillip Bay, the Tasman Sea, Pacific Ocean, respectively. Both organisms were found to grow between 4°C and 40°C, between pH 6 to 9, and are moderately halophilic, tolerating up to 20% (w/v) NaCl. Both strains were found to be able to degrade Tween 40 and 80, but only strain R9SW1T was found to be able to degrade starch. The major fatty acids were characteristic for the genus Marinobacter including C16:0, C16:1ω7c, C18:1ω9c and C18:1ω7c. The G+C content of the DNA for strains R9SW1T and A3d10T were determined to be 57.1 mol% and 57.6 mol%, respectively. The two new strains share 97.6% of their 16S rRNA gene sequences, with 82.3% similarity in the average nucleotide identity (ANI), 19.8% similarity in the in silico genome-to-genome distance (GGD), 68.1% similarity in the average amino acid identity (AAI) of all conserved protein-coding genes, and 31 of the Karlin's genomic signature dissimilarity. A phylogenetic analysis showed that R9SW1T clusters with M. algicola DG893T sharing 99.40%, and A3d10T clusters with M. sediminum R65T sharing 99.53% of 16S rRNA gene sequence similarities. The results of the genomic and polyphasic taxonomic study, including genomic, genetic, phenotypic, chemotaxonomic and phylogenetic analyses based on the 16S rRNA, gyrB and rpoD gene sequence similarities, the analysis of the protein profiles generated using MALDI-TOF mass spectrometry, and DNA-DNA relatedness data, indicated that strains R9SW1T and A3d10T represent two novel species of the genus Marinobacter. The names Marinobacter salarius sp. nov., with the type strain R9SW1T ( =  LMG 27497T  =  JCM 19399T  =  CIP 110588T  =  KMM 7502T) and Marinobacter similis sp. nov., with the type strain A3d10T ( =  JCM 19398T  =  CIP

  15. Marinobacter salarius sp. nov. and Marinobacter similis sp. nov., isolated from sea water.

    PubMed

    Ng, Hooi Jun; López-Pérez, Mario; Webb, Hayden K; Gomez, Daniela; Sawabe, Tomoo; Ryan, Jason; Vyssotski, Mikhail; Bizet, Chantal; Malherbe, François; Mikhailov, Valery V; Crawford, Russell J; Ivanova, Elena P

    2014-01-01

    Two non-pigmented, motile, Gram-negative marine bacteria designated R9SW1T and A3d10T were isolated from sea water samples collected from Chazhma Bay, Gulf of Peter the Great, Sea of Japan, Pacific Ocean, Russia and St. Kilda Beach, Port Phillip Bay, the Tasman Sea, Pacific Ocean, respectively. Both organisms were found to grow between 4 °C and 40 °C, between pH 6 to 9, and are moderately halophilic, tolerating up to 20% (w/v) NaCl. Both strains were found to be able to degrade Tween 40 and 80, but only strain R9SW1T was found to be able to degrade starch. The major fatty acids were characteristic for the genus Marinobacter including C16:0, C16:1ω7c, C18:1ω9c and C18:1ω7c. The G+C content of the DNA for strains R9SW1T and A3d10T were determined to be 57.1 mol% and 57.6 mol%, respectively. The two new strains share 97.6% of their 16S rRNA gene sequences, with 82.3% similarity in the average nucleotide identity (ANI), 19.8% similarity in the in silico genome-to-genome distance (GGD), 68.1% similarity in the average amino acid identity (AAI) of all conserved protein-coding genes, and 31 of the Karlin's genomic signature dissimilarity. A phylogenetic analysis showed that R9SW1T clusters with M. algicola DG893T sharing 99.40%, and A3d10T clusters with M. sediminum R65T sharing 99.53% of 16S rRNA gene sequence similarities. The results of the genomic and polyphasic taxonomic study, including genomic, genetic, phenotypic, chemotaxonomic and phylogenetic analyses based on the 16S rRNA, gyrB and rpoD gene sequence similarities, the analysis of the protein profiles generated using MALDI-TOF mass spectrometry, and DNA-DNA relatedness data, indicated that strains R9SW1T and A3d10(T) represent two novel species of the genus Marinobacter. The names Marinobacter salarius sp. nov., with the type strain R9SW1(T) ( =  LMG 27497(T)  =  JCM 19399(T)  =  CIP 110588(T)  =  KMM 7502(T)) and Marinobacter similis sp. nov., with the type strain A3d10(T) ( =  JCM

  16. Direct synthesis of 2-aryl-4-quinolones via transition-metal-free intramolecular oxidative C(sp(3))-H/C(sp(3))-H coupling.

    PubMed

    Hu, Wei; Lin, Jian-Ping; Song, Li-Rui; Long, Ya-Qiu

    2015-03-01

    A novel, metal-free oxidative intramolecular Mannich reaction was developed between secondary amines and unmodified ketones, affording a simple and direct access to a broad range of 2-arylquinolin-4(1H)-ones through C(sp(3))-H activation/C(sp(3))-C(sp(3)) bond formation from readily available N-arylmethyl-2-aminophenylketones, using TEMPO as the oxidant and KO(t)Bu as the base.

  17. Methylation of Adjacent CpG Sites Affects Sp1/Sp3 Binding and Activity in the p21Cip1 Promoter

    PubMed Central

    Zhu, Wei-Guo; Srinivasan, Kanur; Dai, Zunyan; Duan, Wenrui; Druhan, Lawrence J.; Ding, Haiming; Yee, Lisa; Villalona-Calero, Miguel A.; Plass, Christoph; Otterson, Gregory A.

    2003-01-01

    DNA methylation in the promoter of certain genes is associated with transcriptional silencing. Methylation affects gene expression directly by interfering with transcription factor binding and/or indirectly by recruiting histone deacetylases through methyl-DNA-binding proteins. In this study, we demonstrate that the human lung cancer cell line H719 lacks p53-dependent and -independent p21Cip1 expression. p53 response to treatment with gamma irradiation or etoposide is lost due to a mutation at codon 242 of p53 (C→W). Treatment with depsipeptide, an inhibitor of histone deacetylase, was unable to induce p53-independent p21Cip1 expression because the promoter of p21Cip1 in these cells is hypermethylated. By analyzing luciferase activity of transfected p21Cip1 promoter vectors, we demonstrate that depsipeptide functions on Sp1-binding sites to induce p21Cip1 expression. We hypothesize that hypermethylation may interfere with Sp1/Sp3 binding. By using an electrophoretic mobility shift assay, we show that, although methylation within the consensus Sp1-binding site did not reduce Sp1/Sp3 binding, methylation outside of the consensus Sp1 element induced a significant decrease in Sp1/Sp3 binding. Depsipeptide induced p21Cip1 expression was reconstituted when cells were pretreated with 5-aza-2′-deoxycytidine. Our data suggest, for the first time, that hypermethylation around the consensus Sp1-binding sites may directly reduce Sp1/Sp3 binding, therefore leading to a reduced p21Cip1 expression in response to depsipeptide treatment. PMID:12773551

  18. The effect of aspect ratio and sp2/sp3 content on the field emission properties of carbon films grown by Ns-spiked PECVD

    SciTech Connect

    Tong, W.; Felter, T.E.; Pan, L.S.; Anders, S.; Cossy-Facre, A.; Stammler, T.

    1998-04-01

    The authors have deposited carbon films from mixtures of methane and N{sub 2} using Plasma Enhanced Chemical Vapor Deposition. By changing the percentage of N{sub 2} in the feed gas, they were able to produce films that have various aspect ratios and sp{sup 2}/sp{sup 3} contents. The film with the highest field emission contains spears of aspect ratio of 10:1. They also found that in their sp{sup 3}-rich films, higher sp{sup 2} content enhanced field emission. This is ascribed to improved charge transport to the field emission sites.

  19. [A STUDY OF THE ISOLATED BACTERIOPHAGE ΦAB-SP7 ADSORPTION ON THE CELL SURFACE OF THE AZOSPIRILLUM BRASILENSE SP7].

    PubMed

    Guliy, O I; Karavaeva, O A; Velikov, V A; Sokolov, O I; Pavily, S A; Larionova, O S; Burov, A M; Ignatov, O V

    2016-01-01

    The bacteriophage ΦAb-Sp7 was isolated from the cells of the Azospirillum brasilense Sp7. The morphology, size of the gram-negative colonies, and range of lytic activity against other strains and species of the genus Azospirillum was tested. The isolated phage DNA was examined using electrophoretic and restriction analysis, and the size of the genome were established. The electron microscopy. resuIts show that the phage (capsid) has a strand-like form. The electron microscopy study of the bacteriophage ΦAb-Sp7 adsorption on the A. brasilense Sp7 bacterial surface was performed. PMID:27145602

  20. [A STUDY OF THE ISOLATED BACTERIOPHAGE ΦAB-SP7 ADSORPTION ON THE CELL SURFACE OF THE AZOSPIRILLUM BRASILENSE SP7].

    PubMed

    Guliy, O I; Karavaeva, O A; Velikov, V A; Sokolov, O I; Pavily, S A; Larionova, O S; Burov, A M; Ignatov, O V

    2016-01-01

    The bacteriophage ΦAb-Sp7 was isolated from the cells of the Azospirillum brasilense Sp7. The morphology, size of the gram-negative colonies, and range of lytic activity against other strains and species of the genus Azospirillum was tested. The isolated phage DNA was examined using electrophoretic and restriction analysis, and the size of the genome were established. The electron microscopy. resuIts show that the phage (capsid) has a strand-like form. The electron microscopy study of the bacteriophage ΦAb-Sp7 adsorption on the A. brasilense Sp7 bacterial surface was performed.