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Sample records for neon flying squid

  1. [Trace elements in the statoliths of neon flying squid, Ommastrephes bartramii in the Northwest Pacific Ocean].

    PubMed

    Lu, Hua-Jie; Chen, Xin-Jun; Ma, Jin

    2014-08-01

    Statolith is one of the most important hard tissues of cephalopods which is widely used in the research of fisheries ecology including population structure, life history reconstruction and so on. Trace elements of 18 statoliths of neon flying squid Ommastrephes bartramii collected in the Northwest Pacific Ocean in 2007 by Chinese jigging fishing fleets were analyzed by laser ablation inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (LA-ICP-MS). The results indicated that the statoliths of O. bartramii mainly contained 55 elements, and calcium (Ca), strontium (Sr), sodium (Na), phosphorus (P), potassium (K), silicon (Si), magnesium (Mg), boron (B), iron (Fe), barium (Ba) were the 10 most abundant elements. The analysis of variance showed that there was no significant difference in each element distribution between different sexual squid except for P, Si and B. Significant differences existed in the contents of Sr and Na but no significant difference was found in the contents of Ca, P, K, Si, Mg, B, Fe and Ba between different hatching populations. There were significant differences in the contents of Ca, Sr, Na, P, Mg and Ba, but no significant difference was found in the contents of K, Fe, B and Si in the statoliths among different growth zones. This study presented Sr and Na could be the best two trace elements used in the research on the population structure and life history reconstruction for O. bartramii. PMID:25509097

  2. [Trace elements in the statoliths of neon flying squid, Ommastrephes bartramii in the Northwest Pacific Ocean].

    PubMed

    Lu, Hua-Jie; Chen, Xin-Jun; Ma, Jin

    2014-08-01

    Statolith is one of the most important hard tissues of cephalopods which is widely used in the research of fisheries ecology including population structure, life history reconstruction and so on. Trace elements of 18 statoliths of neon flying squid Ommastrephes bartramii collected in the Northwest Pacific Ocean in 2007 by Chinese jigging fishing fleets were analyzed by laser ablation inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (LA-ICP-MS). The results indicated that the statoliths of O. bartramii mainly contained 55 elements, and calcium (Ca), strontium (Sr), sodium (Na), phosphorus (P), potassium (K), silicon (Si), magnesium (Mg), boron (B), iron (Fe), barium (Ba) were the 10 most abundant elements. The analysis of variance showed that there was no significant difference in each element distribution between different sexual squid except for P, Si and B. Significant differences existed in the contents of Sr and Na but no significant difference was found in the contents of Ca, P, K, Si, Mg, B, Fe and Ba between different hatching populations. There were significant differences in the contents of Ca, Sr, Na, P, Mg and Ba, but no significant difference was found in the contents of K, Fe, B and Si in the statoliths among different growth zones. This study presented Sr and Na could be the best two trace elements used in the research on the population structure and life history reconstruction for O. bartramii.

  3. Identifying Pelagic Habitat Hotspots of Neon Flying Squid in the Temperate Waters of the Central North Pacific.

    PubMed

    Alabia, Irene D; Saitoh, Sei-Ichi; Mugo, Robinson; Igarashi, Hiromichi; Ishikawa, Yoichi; Usui, Norihisa; Kamachi, Masafumi; Awaji, Toshiyuki; Seito, Masaki

    2015-01-01

    We identified the pelagic habitat hotspots of the neon flying squid (Ommastrephes bartramii) in the central North Pacific from May to July and characterized the spatial patterns of squid aggregations in relation to oceanographic features such as mesoscale oceanic eddies and the Transition Zone Chlorophyll-a Front (TZCF). The data used for the habitat model construction and analyses were squid fishery information, remotely-sensed and numerical model-derived environmental data from May to July 1999-2010. Squid habitat hotspots were deduced from the monthly Maximum Entropy (MaxEnt) models and were identified as regions of persistent high suitable habitat across the 12-year period. The distribution of predicted squid habitat hotspots in central North Pacific revealed interesting spatial and temporal patterns likely linked with the presence and dynamics of oceanographic features in squid's putative foraging grounds from late spring to summer. From May to June, the inferred patches of squid habitat hotspots developed within the Kuroshio-Oyashio transition zone (KOTZ; 37-40°N) and further expanded north towards the subarctic frontal zone (SAFZ; 40-44°N) in July. The squid habitat hotspots within the KOTZ and areas west of the dateline (160°W-180°) were likely influenced and associated with the highly dynamic and transient oceanic eddies and could possibly account for lower squid suitable habitat persistence obtained from these regions. However, predicted squid habitat hotspots located in regions east of the dateline (180°-160°W) from June to July, showed predominantly higher squid habitat persistence presumably due to their proximity to the mean position of the seasonally-shifting TZCF and consequent utilization of the highly productive waters of the SAFZ.

  4. Identifying Pelagic Habitat Hotspots of Neon Flying Squid in the Temperate Waters of the Central North Pacific.

    PubMed

    Alabia, Irene D; Saitoh, Sei-Ichi; Mugo, Robinson; Igarashi, Hiromichi; Ishikawa, Yoichi; Usui, Norihisa; Kamachi, Masafumi; Awaji, Toshiyuki; Seito, Masaki

    2015-01-01

    We identified the pelagic habitat hotspots of the neon flying squid (Ommastrephes bartramii) in the central North Pacific from May to July and characterized the spatial patterns of squid aggregations in relation to oceanographic features such as mesoscale oceanic eddies and the Transition Zone Chlorophyll-a Front (TZCF). The data used for the habitat model construction and analyses were squid fishery information, remotely-sensed and numerical model-derived environmental data from May to July 1999-2010. Squid habitat hotspots were deduced from the monthly Maximum Entropy (MaxEnt) models and were identified as regions of persistent high suitable habitat across the 12-year period. The distribution of predicted squid habitat hotspots in central North Pacific revealed interesting spatial and temporal patterns likely linked with the presence and dynamics of oceanographic features in squid's putative foraging grounds from late spring to summer. From May to June, the inferred patches of squid habitat hotspots developed within the Kuroshio-Oyashio transition zone (KOTZ; 37-40°N) and further expanded north towards the subarctic frontal zone (SAFZ; 40-44°N) in July. The squid habitat hotspots within the KOTZ and areas west of the dateline (160°W-180°) were likely influenced and associated with the highly dynamic and transient oceanic eddies and could possibly account for lower squid suitable habitat persistence obtained from these regions. However, predicted squid habitat hotspots located in regions east of the dateline (180°-160°W) from June to July, showed predominantly higher squid habitat persistence presumably due to their proximity to the mean position of the seasonally-shifting TZCF and consequent utilization of the highly productive waters of the SAFZ. PMID:26571118

  5. Identifying Pelagic Habitat Hotspots of Neon Flying Squid in the Temperate Waters of the Central North Pacific

    PubMed Central

    Alabia, Irene D.; Saitoh, Sei-Ichi; Mugo, Robinson; Igarashi, Hiromichi; Ishikawa, Yoichi; Usui, Norihisa; Kamachi, Masafumi; Awaji, Toshiyuki; Seito, Masaki

    2015-01-01

    We identified the pelagic habitat hotspots of the neon flying squid (Ommastrephes bartramii) in the central North Pacific from May to July and characterized the spatial patterns of squid aggregations in relation to oceanographic features such as mesoscale oceanic eddies and the Transition Zone Chlorophyll-a Front (TZCF). The data used for the habitat model construction and analyses were squid fishery information, remotely-sensed and numerical model-derived environmental data from May to July 1999–2010. Squid habitat hotspots were deduced from the monthly Maximum Entropy (MaxEnt) models and were identified as regions of persistent high suitable habitat across the 12-year period. The distribution of predicted squid habitat hotspots in central North Pacific revealed interesting spatial and temporal patterns likely linked with the presence and dynamics of oceanographic features in squid’s putative foraging grounds from late spring to summer. From May to June, the inferred patches of squid habitat hotspots developed within the Kuroshio-Oyashio transition zone (KOTZ; 37–40°N) and further expanded north towards the subarctic frontal zone (SAFZ; 40–44°N) in July. The squid habitat hotspots within the KOTZ and areas west of the dateline (160°W-180°) were likely influenced and associated with the highly dynamic and transient oceanic eddies and could possibly account for lower squid suitable habitat persistence obtained from these regions. However, predicted squid habitat hotspots located in regions east of the dateline (180°-160°W) from June to July, showed predominantly higher squid habitat persistence presumably due to their proximity to the mean position of the seasonally-shifting TZCF and consequent utilization of the highly productive waters of the SAFZ. PMID:26571118

  6. Characteristic of lipids and fatty acid compositions of the neon flying squid, Ommastrephes bartramii.

    PubMed

    Saito, Hiroaki; Ishikawa, Satoru

    2012-01-01

    The lipids and fatty acids of the neon flying squid (Ommastrephes bartramii) were an-alyzed to clarify its lipid physiology and health benefit as marine food. Triacylglycerols were the only major component in the digestive gland (liver). In all other organs (mantle, arm, integument, and ovary), sterols and phospholipids were the major components with noticeable levels of ceramide aminoethyl phosphonate and sphingomyelin. The significant levels of sphingolipids suggest the O. bartramii lipids is a useful source for cosmetics. Although the lipid content between the liver and all other tissues markedly differed from each other, the same nine dominant fatty acids in the triacylglycerols were found in all organs; 14:0, 16:0, 18:0, 18:1n-9, 20:1n-9, 20:1n-11, 22:1n-11, 20:5n-3 (icosapentaenoic acid, EPA), and 22:6n-3 (docosahexaenoic acid, DHA). Unusually high 20:1n-11 levels in the O. bartramii triacylglycerols were probably characteristic for western Pacific animal depot lipids, compared with non-detectable levels of 20:1n-11 reported in other marine animals. O. bartramii concurrently has high levels of DHA in their triacylglycerols. The major fatty acids in the phospholipids were 16:0, 18:0, 20:1n-9, EPA, and DHA without 20:1n-11. Markedly high levels of both EPA and DHA were observed in phosphatidylethanolamine, while only DHA was found as the major one in phosphatidylcholine. In particular, high levels of DHA were found both in its depot triacylglycerols and tissue phospholipids in all organs of O. bartramii, similar to that in highly migratory fishes. The high DHA levels in all its organs suggest that O. bartramii lipids is a healthy marine source for DHA supplements.

  7. Characteristic of lipids and fatty acid compositions of the neon flying squid, Ommastrephes bartramii.

    PubMed

    Saito, Hiroaki; Ishikawa, Satoru

    2012-01-01

    The lipids and fatty acids of the neon flying squid (Ommastrephes bartramii) were an-alyzed to clarify its lipid physiology and health benefit as marine food. Triacylglycerols were the only major component in the digestive gland (liver). In all other organs (mantle, arm, integument, and ovary), sterols and phospholipids were the major components with noticeable levels of ceramide aminoethyl phosphonate and sphingomyelin. The significant levels of sphingolipids suggest the O. bartramii lipids is a useful source for cosmetics. Although the lipid content between the liver and all other tissues markedly differed from each other, the same nine dominant fatty acids in the triacylglycerols were found in all organs; 14:0, 16:0, 18:0, 18:1n-9, 20:1n-9, 20:1n-11, 22:1n-11, 20:5n-3 (icosapentaenoic acid, EPA), and 22:6n-3 (docosahexaenoic acid, DHA). Unusually high 20:1n-11 levels in the O. bartramii triacylglycerols were probably characteristic for western Pacific animal depot lipids, compared with non-detectable levels of 20:1n-11 reported in other marine animals. O. bartramii concurrently has high levels of DHA in their triacylglycerols. The major fatty acids in the phospholipids were 16:0, 18:0, 20:1n-9, EPA, and DHA without 20:1n-11. Markedly high levels of both EPA and DHA were observed in phosphatidylethanolamine, while only DHA was found as the major one in phosphatidylcholine. In particular, high levels of DHA were found both in its depot triacylglycerols and tissue phospholipids in all organs of O. bartramii, similar to that in highly migratory fishes. The high DHA levels in all its organs suggest that O. bartramii lipids is a healthy marine source for DHA supplements. PMID:23018852

  8. Detection of spatial hot spots and variation for the neon flying squid Ommastrephes bartramii resources in the northwest Pacific Ocean

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Feng, Yongjiu; Chen, Xinjun; Liu, Yan

    2016-08-01

    With the increasing effects of global climate change and fishing activities, the spatial distribution of the neon flying squid (Ommastrephes bartramii) is changing in the traditional fishing ground of 150°-160°E and 38°-45°N in the northwest Pacific Ocean. This research aims to identify the spatial hot and cold spots (i.e. spatial clusters) of O. bartramii to reveal its spatial structure using commercial fishery data from 2007 to 2010 collected by Chinese mainland squid-jigging fleets. A relatively strongly-clustered distribution for O. bartramii was observed using an exploratory spatial data analysis (ESDA) method. The results show two hot spots and one cold spot in 2007 while only one hot and one cold spots were identified each year from 2008 to 2010. The hot and cold spots in 2007 occupied 8.2% and 5.6% of the study area, respectively; these percentages for hot and cold spot areas were 5.8% and 3.1% in 2008, 10.2% and 2.9% in 2009, and 16.4% and 11.9% in 2010, respectively. Nearly half (>45%) of the squid from 2007 to 2009 reported by Chinese fleets were caught in hot spot areas while this percentage reached its peak at 68.8% in 2010, indicating that the hot spot areas are central fishing grounds. A further change analysis shows the area centered at 156°E/43.5°N was persistent as a hot spot over the whole period from 2007 to 2010. Furthermore, the hot spots were mainly identified in areas with sea surface temperature (SST) in the range of 15-20°C around warm Kuroshio Currents as well as with the chlorophyll-a (chl-a) concentration above 0.3 mg/m3. The outcome of this research improves our understanding of spatiotemporal hotspots and its variation for O. bartramii and is useful for sustainable exploitation, assessment, and management of this squid.

  9. A review of interaction between neon flying squid ( Ommastrephes bartramii) and oceanographic variability in the North Pacific Ocean

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yu, Wei; Chen, Xinjun; Yi, Qian; Tian, Siquan

    2015-08-01

    The neon flying squid ( Ommastrephes bartramii) is a short-lived opportunistic species widely distributed in subtropical and temperate waters in the North Pacific Ocean. The life cycle of O. bartramii from planktonic eggs to nektonic adults is closely linked to oceanographic conditions. The fluctuations in O. bartramii abundance and distribution tend to increase and widen continuously due to the heavy influences of ocean-climate events on various spatio-temporal scales. In this study, we reviewed the interaction between O. bartramii and oceanography variability in the North Pacific with respect to large-scale climatic-oceanic phenomena including El Niño, La Niña, Kuroshio, Oyashio and Pacific Decadal Oscillation (PDO), as well as regional environmental variables such as sea surface temperature (SST), sea surface height (SSH), sea surface salinity (SSS), chlorophyll-a (Chl- a) concentration, and plankton density. The population dynamics of O. bartramii is mediated mainly by meso- and large-scale climatic-oceanic events ( e.g., Kuroshio and Oyashio Currents) rather than other local environmental conditions ( e.g., SST and Chl- a concentration), because all of the oceanographic influences are imposed on the context of large-scale climate changes ( e.g., PDO). An unstructured-grid finite-volume coastal ocean model coupled with an individual-based model is proposed to simulate relevant physical-biological oceanographic processes for identifying ocean-climate influence and predicting O. bartramii distribution and abundance in the North Pacific. Future research needs to be focused on improving the knowledge about early life history of O. bartramii and evaluating the relationship between marine physical environment and two separate passive drifting life stages of O. bartramii including free-floating eggs and planktonic paralarvae.

  10. Interannual and seasonal variability of winter-spring cohort of neon flying squid abundance in the Northwest Pacific Ocean during 1995-2011

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yu, Wei; Chen, Xinjun; Yi, Qian

    2016-06-01

    The neon flying squid, Ommastrephes bartramii, is a species of economically important cephalopod in the Northwest Pacific Ocean. Its short lifespan increases the susceptibility of the distribution and abundance to the direct impact of the environmental conditions. Based on the generalized linear model (GLM) and generalized additive model (GAM), the commercial fishery data from the Chinese squid-jigging fleets during 1995 to 2011 were used to examine the interannual and seasonal variability in the abundance of O. bartramii, and to evaluate the influences of variables on the abundance (catch per unit effort, CPUE). The results from GLM suggested that year, month, latitude, sea surface temperature (SST), mixed layer depth (MLD), and the interaction term ( SST×MLD) were significant factors. The optimal model based on GAM included all the six significant variables and could explain 42.43% of the variance in nominal CPUE. The importance of the six variables was ranked by decreasing magnitude: year, month, latitude, SST, MLD and SST×MLD. The squid was mainly distributed in the waters between 40°N and 44°N in the Northwest Pacific Ocean. The optimal ranges of SST and MLD were from 14 to 20°C and from 10 to 30 m, respectively. The squid abundance greatly fluctuated from 1995 to 2011. The CPUE was low during 1995-2002 and high during 2003-2008. Furthermore, the squid abundance was typically high in August. The interannual and seasonal variabilities in the squid abundance were associated with the variations of marine environmental conditions and the life history characteristics of squid.

  11. Variability of Suitable Habitat of Western Winter-Spring Cohort for Neon Flying Squid in the Northwest Pacific under Anomalous Environments

    PubMed Central

    Yu, Wei; Chen, Xinjun; Yi, Qian; Chen, Yong; Zhang, Yang

    2015-01-01

    We developed a habitat suitability index (HSI) model to evaluate the variability of suitable habitat for neon flying squid (Ommastrephes bartramii) under anomalous environments in the Northwest Pacific Ocean. Commercial fisheries data from the Chinese squid-jigging vessels on the traditional fishing ground bounded by 35°-45°N and 150°-175°E from July to November during 1998-2009 were used for analyses, as well as the environmental variables including sea surface temperature (SST), chlorophyll-a (Chl-a) concentration, sea surface height anomaly (SSHA) and sea surface salinity (SSS). Two empirical HSI models (arithmetic mean model, AMM; geometric mean model, GMM) were established according to the frequency distribution of fishing efforts. The AMM model was found to perform better than the GMM model. The AMM-based HSI model was further validated by the fishery and environmental data in 2010. The predicted HSI values in 1998 (high catch), 2008 (average catch) and 2009 (low catch) indicated that the squid habitat quality was strongly associated with the ENSO-induced variability in the oceanic conditions on the fishing ground. The La Niña events in 1998 tended to yield warm SST and favorable range of Chl-a concentration and SSHA, resulting in high-quality habitats for O. bartramii. While the fishing ground in the El Niño year of 2009 experienced anomalous cool waters and unfavorable range of Chl-a concentration and SSHA, leading to relatively low-quality squid habitats. Our findings suggest that the La Niña event in 1998 tended to result in more favorable habitats for O. bartramii in the Northwest Pacific with the gravity centers of fishing efforts falling within the defined suitable habitat and yielding high squid catch; whereas the El Niño event in 2009 yielded less favorable habitat areas with the fishing effort distribution mismatching the suitable habitat and a dramatic decline of the catch of O. bartramii. This study might provide some potentially valuable

  12. Variability of Suitable Habitat of Western Winter-Spring Cohort for Neon Flying Squid in the Northwest Pacific under Anomalous Environments.

    PubMed

    Yu, Wei; Chen, Xinjun; Yi, Qian; Chen, Yong; Zhang, Yang

    2015-01-01

    We developed a habitat suitability index (HSI) model to evaluate the variability of suitable habitat for neon flying squid (Ommastrephes bartramii) under anomalous environments in the Northwest Pacific Ocean. Commercial fisheries data from the Chinese squid-jigging vessels on the traditional fishing ground bounded by 35°-45°N and 150°-175°E from July to November during 1998-2009 were used for analyses, as well as the environmental variables including sea surface temperature (SST), chlorophyll-a (Chl-a) concentration, sea surface height anomaly (SSHA) and sea surface salinity (SSS). Two empirical HSI models (arithmetic mean model, AMM; geometric mean model, GMM) were established according to the frequency distribution of fishing efforts. The AMM model was found to perform better than the GMM model. The AMM-based HSI model was further validated by the fishery and environmental data in 2010. The predicted HSI values in 1998 (high catch), 2008 (average catch) and 2009 (low catch) indicated that the squid habitat quality was strongly associated with the ENSO-induced variability in the oceanic conditions on the fishing ground. The La Niña events in 1998 tended to yield warm SST and favorable range of Chl-a concentration and SSHA, resulting in high-quality habitats for O. bartramii. While the fishing ground in the El Niño year of 2009 experienced anomalous cool waters and unfavorable range of Chl-a concentration and SSHA, leading to relatively low-quality squid habitats. Our findings suggest that the La Niña event in 1998 tended to result in more favorable habitats for O. bartramii in the Northwest Pacific with the gravity centers of fishing efforts falling within the defined suitable habitat and yielding high squid catch; whereas the El Niño event in 2009 yielded less favorable habitat areas with the fishing effort distribution mismatching the suitable habitat and a dramatic decline of the catch of O. bartramii. This study might provide some potentially valuable

  13. Variability of Suitable Habitat of Western Winter-Spring Cohort for Neon Flying Squid in the Northwest Pacific under Anomalous Environments.

    PubMed

    Yu, Wei; Chen, Xinjun; Yi, Qian; Chen, Yong; Zhang, Yang

    2015-01-01

    We developed a habitat suitability index (HSI) model to evaluate the variability of suitable habitat for neon flying squid (Ommastrephes bartramii) under anomalous environments in the Northwest Pacific Ocean. Commercial fisheries data from the Chinese squid-jigging vessels on the traditional fishing ground bounded by 35°-45°N and 150°-175°E from July to November during 1998-2009 were used for analyses, as well as the environmental variables including sea surface temperature (SST), chlorophyll-a (Chl-a) concentration, sea surface height anomaly (SSHA) and sea surface salinity (SSS). Two empirical HSI models (arithmetic mean model, AMM; geometric mean model, GMM) were established according to the frequency distribution of fishing efforts. The AMM model was found to perform better than the GMM model. The AMM-based HSI model was further validated by the fishery and environmental data in 2010. The predicted HSI values in 1998 (high catch), 2008 (average catch) and 2009 (low catch) indicated that the squid habitat quality was strongly associated with the ENSO-induced variability in the oceanic conditions on the fishing ground. The La Niña events in 1998 tended to yield warm SST and favorable range of Chl-a concentration and SSHA, resulting in high-quality habitats for O. bartramii. While the fishing ground in the El Niño year of 2009 experienced anomalous cool waters and unfavorable range of Chl-a concentration and SSHA, leading to relatively low-quality squid habitats. Our findings suggest that the La Niña event in 1998 tended to result in more favorable habitats for O. bartramii in the Northwest Pacific with the gravity centers of fishing efforts falling within the defined suitable habitat and yielding high squid catch; whereas the El Niño event in 2009 yielded less favorable habitat areas with the fishing effort distribution mismatching the suitable habitat and a dramatic decline of the catch of O. bartramii. This study might provide some potentially valuable

  14. Isolation and characterization of microsatellite loci in the purpleback flying squid (Sthenoteuthis oualaniensi).

    PubMed

    Lin, L; Li, P; Chen, Z Z; Xiao, Y Y; Xu, S N; Liu, Y; Li, C H

    2015-07-13

    The purpleback flying squid (Sthenoteuthis oualaniensis) is a pelagic squid with tremendous potential for commercial exploitation. We isolated and characterized 21 polymorphic microsatellite loci for S. oualaniensis using a (GT)13-enriched genomic library. The number of alleles per locus varied from 6 to 32. The observed and expected heterozygosities ranged from 0.188 to 0.890, and 0.537 to 0.968, respectively. No significant linkage disequilibrium was detected at these loci. Five loci significantly deviated from the Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium, and four loci may have exhibited null alleles. These microsatellite markers will facilitate further studies in population genetics and the sustainable utilization of S. oualaniensis.

  15. Fishery biology of jumbo flying squid Dosidicus gigas off Costa Rica Dome

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Xinjun; Li, Jianghua; Liu, Bilin; Li, Gang; Lu, Huajie

    2014-06-01

    The jumbo flying squid ( Dosidicus gigas) population was surveyed with the help of Chinese squid jigging vessels off the Costa Rica Dome (4°-11°N, 90°-100°W) in 2009 and 2010. The daily catch of D. gigas in the two survey cruises ranged from 0 to 5.5 t and was mostly obtained from the areas bounded by 6°-9°N and 91°-94°W and by 6°30'-7°30'N and 96°-97°W. The sea surface temperature in the areas yielding the most catch ranged from 27.5 to 29°C. The sex ratio of the total catch was 3.75:1 (female: male). The mantle length of the squid ranged from 211 to 355 mm (male) and from 204 to 429 mm (female) with an average of 297.9 and 306.7 mm, respectively. In the relationship of the mantle length (mm) and body weight (g) of the squid, there was no significant difference between sexes. The female and male were at a similar maturity, and most individuals are maturing or have matured with a few females being spent. The size (mantle length) and age at the first sexual maturity were 297 mm and 195 d in females, and less than 211 mm and 130 d in males, respectively. Most of the sampled stomachs (70.6%) had no food remains. The major preys of the squids were fish, cephalopods and crustaceans, with the most abundant Myctophum orientale and D. gigas. The preys in more than 65% of the non-empty sampled stomachs evidenced the cannibalism of D. gigas. The results improved current understanding of the fishery biology of D. gigas off the Costa Rica Dome, which may facilitate the assessment and management of relative fishery resources.

  16. Natural mortality estimation and rational exploitation of purpleback flying squid Sthenoteuthis oualaniensis in the southern South China Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Xuehui; Qiu, Yongsong; Zhang, Peng; Du, Feiyan

    2016-09-01

    Based on the biological data of purpleback flying squid (Sthenoteuthis oualaniensis) collected by light falling-net in the southern South China Sea (SCS) during September to October 2012 and March to April 2013, growth and mortality of `Medium' and `Dwarf' forms of squid are derived using the Powell-Wetherall, ELEFAN methods and length-converted catch curves (FiSAT package). Given a lack of commercial exploitation, we assume total mortality to be due entirely to natural mortality. We estimate these squid have fast growth, with growth coefficients (k) ranging from 1.42 to 2.39, and high natural mortality (M), with estimates ranging from 1.61 to 2.92. To sustainably exploit these squid stocks, yield per recruitment based on growth and natural mortality was determined using the Beverton-Holt dynamic pool model. We demonstrate squid stocks could sustain high fishing mortality and low ages at first capture, with an optimal fishing mortality >3.0, with the optimal age at first capture increased to 0.4-0.6 years when fishing mortality approached optimal levels. On the basis of our analyses and estimates of stock biomass, we believe considerable potential exists to expand the squid fishery into the open SCS, relieving fishing pressure on coastal waters.

  17. A comparison of fishery biology of jumbo flying squid, Dosidicus gigas outside three Exclusive Economic Zones in the Eastern Pacific Ocean

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Bilin; Chen, Xinjun; Yi, Qian

    2013-05-01

    Although many studies on the fishery biology of jumbo flying squid, Dosidicus gigas, have been conducted in the coastal areas within Exclusive Economic Zones (EEZs) of various countries due to its commercial and ecological importance, limited biological information is available from waters outside these EEZs. In this paper, we examined D. gigas fishery biology from waters outside Chilean, Peruvian and Costa Rican EEZs, based on the fishery data collected by Chinese jigging vessels during 2006 to 2010. The dominant mantle lengths of D. gigas were 350-450 mm, 250-400 mm and 250-350 mm outside Chilean, Peruvian and Costa Rican EEZs, respectively. Size structure analysis show that a medium-sized group existed mostly in the waters outside the Chilean and Peruvian EEZs, whereas a small-sized group occurred mainly in the waters outside the Costa Rican EEZ. The longevity of the squid outside the Costa Rican EEZ was less than 10 months, while most of those outside Chilean and Peruvian EEZs were about 1-1.5 years and very few large individuals were 1.5-2 years old. A higher percentage of mature individuals existed outside Costa Rican EEZ implying the region as a potential spawning ground, while lower proportions of mature squid outside the Peruvian and Chilean EEZs indicated that spawning may be occurring outside our study area. Spatial differences in sizes at maturity of the squid are thought to be result from different environmental factors especially different temperature and nutrition among the three areas. Stomach-content analysis showed that cannibalism was important in the diet of D. gigas. Stress generated by jigging may increase the incidence of cannibalism.

  18. A Comparative Study of Clam and Squid. Biting Flies of the Coastal Region. Diatoms: Nature's Aquatic Gems. Learning Experiences for Coastal and Oceanic Awareness Studies, Nos. 227, 231, 232. [Project COAST].

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Delaware Univ., Newark. Coll. of Education.

    Included are three units related to coastal and oceanic awareness. The units are: (1) A Comparative Study of Clam and Squid; (2) Biting Flies of the Coastal Region; and (3) Diatoms: Nature's Aquatic Gems. All three units were designed for secondary school students. Each unit contains teacher background materials, student activity materials,…

  19. First SQUIDs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Silver, Arnold

    2014-03-01

    The Superconducting QUantum Interference Device (SQUID) is the most sensitive magnetic flux sensor and the most widely applied superconductor electronic device, whose applications range from magnetocardiography to picovoltmeters, from digital logic to quantum computing, and from non-destructive testing to Gravity Probe B, a spaceborne test of Einstein's theory of gravity. In this presentation, I describe the initial experiments and device modeling at the Ford Scientific Laboratory that produced the early versions of the SQUID during the 1960's. That history originated in an anomalous observation during microwave ENDOR experiments and led to the first report of macroscopic quantum interference in superconductors in 1964 [Phys. Rev. Letters 12 (1964)]. The SQUID is based on London's electrodynamic theory of multiply-connected superconductors [Superfluids Wiley, New York (1950)], the magnetic flux quantum (h/2e=2.07E-15 Wb), and Josephson's theory of weakly-connected superconductors [Phys. Lett. 1 (1962)]. Physically, it incorporates Josephson tunnel junctions in a low inductance, superconducting ring. Two distinct types of SQUIDs were demonstrated: first the ``dc SQUID'' and then the ``rf SQUID.'' The former has two Josephson junctions and produces a dc frequency response; the latter has only one junction and responds only at rf and microwave frequencies. The first phase, conducted by Lambe, Jaklevic, Mercereau, and Silver, used type I thin film superconductors and Josephson tunnel junctions. The second phase, conducted by Silver and Zimmerman, used bulk niobium structures with ``cat whisker'' junction technology [Phys.Rev. 157 (1967)].

  20. The Squid Challenge.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Guillaume, Andrea M.

    1997-01-01

    Describes an approach to the study of squid that helps students of all ages develop richer ideas about the structure of living things, how living things are adapted to their habitats, and how they interact with other organisms. Highlights include the external and internal features of the squid, squid statements and statistics, and writing…

  1. Positron excitation of neon

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Parcell, L. A.; Mceachran, R. P.; Stauffer, A. D.

    1990-01-01

    The differential and total cross section for the excitation of the 3s1P10 and 3p1P1 states of neon by positron impact were calculated using a distorted-wave approximation. The results agree well with experimental conclusions.

  2. Subranging scheme for SQUID sensors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Penanen, Konstantin I. (Inventor)

    2008-01-01

    A readout scheme for measuring the output from a SQUID-based sensor-array using an improved subranging architecture that includes multiple resolution channels (such as a coarse resolution channel and a fine resolution channel). The scheme employs a flux sensing circuit with a sensing coil connected in series to multiple input coils, each input coil being coupled to a corresponding SQUID detection circuit having a high-resolution SQUID device with independent linearizing feedback. A two-resolution configuration (course and fine) is illustrated with a primary SQUID detection circuit for generating a fine readout, and a secondary SQUID detection circuit for generating a course readout, both having feedback current coupled to the respective SQUID devices via feedback/modulation coils. The primary and secondary SQUID detection circuits function and derive independent feedback. Thus, the SQUID devices may be monitored independently of each other (and read simultaneously) to dramatically increase slew rates and dynamic range.

  3. Lowering effect of firefly squid powder on triacylglycerol content and glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase activity in rat liver.

    PubMed

    Takeuchi, Hiroyuki; Morita, Ritsuko; Shirai, Yoko; Nakagawa, Yoshihisa; Terashima, Teruya; Ushikubo, Shun; Matsuo, Tatsuhiro

    2014-01-01

    Effects of dietary firefly squid on serum and liver lipid levels were investigated. Male Wistar rats were fed a diet containing 5% freeze-dried firefly squid or Japanese flying squid for 2 weeks. There was no significant difference in the liver triacylglycerol level between the control and Japanese flying squid groups, but the rats fed the firefly squid diet had a significantly lower liver triacylglycerol content than those fed the control diet. No significant difference was observed in serum triacylglycerol levels between the control and firefly squid groups. The rats fed the firefly squid had a significantly lower activity of liver glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase compared to the rats fed the control diet. There was no significant difference in liver fatty acid synthetase activity among the three groups. Hepatic gene expression and lipogenic enzyme activity were investigated; a DNA microarray showed that the significantly enriched gene ontology category of down-regulated genes in the firefly squid group was "lipid metabolic process". The firefly squid group had lower mRNA level of glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase compared to the controls. These results suggest that an intake of firefly squid decreases hepatic triacylglycerol in rats, and the reduction of mRNA level and enzyme activity of glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase might be related to the mechanisms.

  4. High pressure neon arc lamp

    DOEpatents

    Sze, Robert C.; Bigio, Irving J.

    2003-07-15

    A high pressure neon arc lamp and method of using the same for photodynamic therapies is provided. The high pressure neon arc lamp includes a housing that encloses a quantity of neon gas pressurized to about 500 Torr to about 22,000 Torr. At each end of the housing the lamp is connected by electrodes and wires to a pulse generator. The pulse generator generates an initial pulse voltage to breakdown the impedance of the neon gas. Then the pulse generator delivers a current through the neon gas to create an electrical arc that emits light having wavelengths from about 620 nanometers to about 645 nanometers. A method for activating a photosensitizer is provided. Initially, a photosensitizer is administered to a patient and allowed time to be absorbed into target cells. Then the high pressure neon arc lamp is used to illuminate the target cells with red light having wavelengths from about 620 nanometers to about 645 nanometers. The red light activates the photosensitizers to start a chain reaction that may involve oxygen free radicals to destroy the target cells. In this manner, a high pressure neon arc lamp that is inexpensive and efficiently generates red light useful in photodynamic therapy is provided.

  5. Dispersive nanoSQUID magnetometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Levenson-Falk, E. M.; Antler, N.; Siddiqi, I.

    2016-11-01

    We describe the theory and implementation of a dispersive magnetometer based on an aluminum nanoSQUID. The nanoSQUID consists of a superconducting loop interrupted by two variable-thickness weak-link nanobridge Josephson junctions. When the nanoSQUID is placed in parallel with a lumped-element capacitor, it acts as the inductive element in a resonant tank circuit. By performing microwave reflectometry on the circuit, the SQUID inductance can be measured, providing a sensitive meter of the flux threading the SQUID loop. In this review we provide the theoretical basis for the device, describe design and operation considerations, and present characterization results on several devices.

  6. Optical fiber feedback SQUID magnetometer

    SciTech Connect

    Naito, S.; Sampei, Y.; Takahashi, T. )

    1989-04-01

    This paper describes an optical fiber feedback superconducting quantum interference device (SQUID) magnetometer which was developed to improve electromagnetic interference characteristics. The SQUID consists of an RF SQUID probe, an RF amplifier, two multimode fibers, and a SQUID control unit. Phase-locked pulse width modulation (PWM) was used to construct a flux locked loop (FLL) circuit in the SQUID control unit. The operation of the optical fiber feedback SQUID is stable when a common mode voltage of ac 100 V/50 Hz is applied. It has an energy resolution of 1 x 10/sup -28/ J/Hz. This paper also describes the measurement of an auditory evoked field from the human brain in a magnetically shielded room using the fiber feedback SQUID with a gradiometer type pickup coil.

  7. Low-noise SQUID

    DOEpatents

    Dantsker, Eugene; Clarke, John

    2000-01-01

    The present invention comprises a high-transition-temperature superconducting device having low-magnitude low-frequency noise-characteristics in magnetic fields comprising superconducting films wherein the films have a width that is less than or equal to a critical width, w.sub.C, which depends on an ambient magnetic field. For operation in the Earth's magnetic field, the critical width is about 6 micrometers (.mu.m). When made with film widths of about 4 .mu.m an inventive high transition-temperature, superconducting quantum interference device (SQUID) excluded magnetic flux vortices up to a threshold ambient magnetic field of about 100 microTesla (.mu.T). SQUIDs were fabricated having several different film strip patterns. When the film strip width was kept at about 4 .mu.m, the SQUIDs exhibited essentially no increase in low-frequency noise, even when cooled in static magnetic fields of magnitude up to 100 .mu.T. Furthermore, the mutual inductance between the inventive devices and a seven-turn spiral coil was at least 85% of that for inductive coupling to a conventional SQUID.

  8. SQUIDs: Then and Now

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Clarke, John

    2014-03-01

    In 1964, Jaklevic, Lambe, Silver and Mercereau demonstrated quantum interference in a superconducting ring containing two Josephson tunnel junctions. This observation marked the birth of the SQUID--Superconducting QUantum Interference Device. The following year saw the appearance of the SLUG (Superconducting Low-inductance Undulatory Galvanometer)--a blob of solder frozen around a length of niobium wire--that was used as a voltmeter with femtovolt resolution. Although extremely primitive by today's standards, the SLUG was used successfully in a number of ultrasensitive experiments. Today, the square washer dc SQUID, fabricated on a wafer-scale from thin films with an integrated input coil, finds a wide range of applications. One example is the use of a SQUID amplifier to read out ADMX--Axion Dark Matter eXperiment--at the University of Washington, Seattle. This experiment, which involves a cooled microwave cavity surrounded by a superconducting magnet, searches for the axion, a candidate for cold dark matter. In the presence of a magnetic field the axion is predicted to decay into a photon, which is detected by the SQUID. In another example, the combination of a SQUID with prepolarized proton spins enables one to perform magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) in magnetic fields of the order of 0.1 mT, four orders of magnitude lower than in conventional MRI systems. In vivo images of the human brain acquired at these ultralow fields are able distinguish brain tissue, blood, cerebrospinal fluid and scalp fat using a combination of inversion recovery and multiple echo sequences. Potential clinical applications are briefly discussed.

  9. Dissect Your Squid and Eat It Too!

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McGinnis, Patricia

    2001-01-01

    Introduces a science lab activity in which students dissect fresh squids in groups of four and observe the anatomy. Parent volunteers cook the squid mantle for kids to taste. Includes directions for squid dissection. (YDS)

  10. SQUID With Integral Flux Concentrator

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Peters, Palmer N.; Sisk, Robert C.

    1989-01-01

    In improved superconducting quantum interference device (SQUID), change in size and shape of superconducting ring improves coupling to external signal coil and eases coil-positioning tolerances. More rugged and easier to manufacture than conventional SQUID's with comparable electrical characteristics. Thin-film superconducting flux concentrator utilizes Meissner effect to deflect magnetic field of signal coil into central hole of SQUID. Used in magnetometers, ammeters, analog-to-digital converters, and related electronic applications in which high signal-to-noise ratios required.

  11. SQUIDs: microscopes and nondestructive evaluation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mück, Michael

    2005-03-01

    SQUIDs (Superconducting Quantum Interference Devices) are magnetic field sensores with unsurpassed sensitivity. They are amazingly versatile, being able to measure all physical quantities which can be converted to magnetic flux. They are routinely fabricated in thin film technology from two classes of superconducting materials: high-temperature superconductors (HTS) which are usually cooled to 77 K, and low-temperature superconductors (LTS), which have to be cooled to 4.2 K. SQUIDs have many applications, two of which shall be discussed in this paper. In SQUID microscopy, a SQUID scans a sample, which preferrably is at room temperature, and measures the two-dimensional magnetic field distribution at the surface of the sample. In order to achieve a relatively high spatial resolution, the stand-off distance between the sample and the SQUID is made as small as possible. SQUIDs show also promising results in the field of nondestructive testing of various materials. For example, ferromagnetic impurities in stainless steel formed by aging processes in the material can be detected with high probability, and cracks in conducting materials, for example aircraft parts, can be located using eddy current methods. Especially for the case of thick, highly conductive, or ferromagnetic materials, as well as sintered materials, it can be shown that a SQUID-based NDE system exhibits a much higher sensitivity compared to conventional eddy current NDE and ultrasonic testing.

  12. An integrated dc SQUID cascade

    SciTech Connect

    Davidson, A.

    1983-05-01

    An integrated tunnel junction dc SQUID cascade has been built and some of its operating characteristics measured. It is shown for the first time that good modulation can be achieved with a remote termination for the tunnel junction shunts. Response time of one of the SQUID's in the cascade was measured to be better than 5 nanoseconds. Maintenance of this high speed is an advantage of the cascade arrangement over other schemes for matching and reading-out dc tunnel junction SQUID's. True cascade operation was not obtained, due to coupling of Josephson oscillations from the first stage of the cascade to the second.

  13. Occupational allergy to squid (Loligo vulgaris).

    PubMed

    Wiszniewska, M; Tymoszuk, D; Pas-Wyroślak, A; Nowakowska-Świrta, E; Chomiczewska-Skóra, D; Pałczyński, C; Walusiak-Skorupa, J

    2013-06-01

    Occupational allergy from exposure to squid has been rarely described, mainly as contact dermatitis or urticaria. Our report presents the first case of occupational asthma, rhinitis, conjunctivitis and contact urticaria to squid in a 33-year-old seafood production worker, with documented increased eosinophilia in the nasal and tear fluids after specific inhalation challenge test (SICT) with squid. IgE-mediated sensitization to squid was confirmed by positive skin prick test and opened skin test with squid extract. SICT demonstrated a direct and significant link between the exposure to squid and the allergic response from the respiratory system and conjunctiva.

  14. Paleomagnetic Analysis Using SQUID Microscopy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Weiss, Benjamin P.; Lima, Eduardo A.; Fong, Luis E.; Baudenbacher, Franz J.

    2007-01-01

    Superconducting quantum interference device (SQUID) microscopes are a new generation of instruments that map magnetic fields with unprecedented spatial resolution and moment sensitivity. Unlike standard rock magnetometers, SQUID microscopes map magnetic fields rather than measuring magnetic moments such that the sample magnetization pattern must be retrieved from source model fits to the measured field data. In this paper, we presented the first direct comparison between paleomagnetic analyses on natural samples using joint measurements from SQUID microscopy and moment magnetometry. We demonstrated that in combination with apriori geologic and petrographic data, SQUID microscopy can accurately characterize the magnetization of lunar glass spherules and Hawaiian basalt. The bulk moment magnitude and direction of these samples inferred from inversions of SQUID microscopy data match direct measurements on the same samples using moment magnetometry. In addition, these inversions provide unique constraints on the magnetization distribution within the sample. These measurements are among the most sensitive and highest resolution quantitative paleomagnetic studies of natural remanent magnetization to date. We expect that this technique will be able to extend many other standard paleomagnetic techniques to previously inaccessible microscale samples.

  15. SQUID holder with high magnetic shielding

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rigby, K. W.; Marek, D.; Chui, T. C. P.

    1990-01-01

    A SQUID holder designed for high magnetic shielding is discussed. It is shown how to estimate the attenuation of the magnetic field from the normal magnetic modes for an approximate geometry. The estimate agrees satisfactorily with the attenuation measured with a commercial RF SQUID installed in the holder. The holder attenuates external magnetic fields by more than 10 to the 9th at the SQUID input. With the SQUID input shorted, the response to external fields is 0.00001 Phi(0)/G.

  16. Demonstrating Fluorescence with Neon Paper and Plastic

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Birriel, Jennifer J.; Roe, Clarissa

    2015-01-01

    Several papers in this journal have dealt with the fluorescence in orange neon plastic, olive oil, and soda. In each case, the fluorescent emission was excited by either green or violet-blue laser light. In this paper, we examine the fluorescent emission spectra of so-called neon colored papers and plastic clipboards available in department and…

  17. Tracking Electromagnetic Energy With SQUIDs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2005-01-01

    A superconducting quantum interference device (SQUID) is a gadget used to measure extremely weak signals, specifically magnetic flux. It can detect subtle changes in energy, up to 100 billion times weaker than the electromagnetic energy required to move a compass needle. SQUIDs are used for a variety of testing procedures where extreme sensitivity is required and where the test instrument need not come into direct contact with the test subject. NASA uses SQUIDs for remote, noncontact sensing in a variety of venues, including monitoring the Earth s magnetic field and tracking brain activity of pilots. Scientists at NASA s Goddard Space Flight Center have been making extensive use of this technology, from astrophysical research, to tracking the navigational paths of bees in flight to determine if they are using internal compasses. These very sensitive measurement devices have a wide variety of uses within NASA and even more uses within the commercial realm.

  18. 21 CFR 868.1670 - Neon gas analyzer.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Neon gas analyzer. 868.1670 Section 868.1670 Food... DEVICES ANESTHESIOLOGY DEVICES Diagnostic Devices § 868.1670 Neon gas analyzer. (a) Identification. A neon gas analyzer is a device intended to measure the concentration of neon in a gas mixture exhaled by...

  19. 21 CFR 868.1670 - Neon gas analyzer.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Neon gas analyzer. 868.1670 Section 868.1670 Food... DEVICES ANESTHESIOLOGY DEVICES Diagnostic Devices § 868.1670 Neon gas analyzer. (a) Identification. A neon gas analyzer is a device intended to measure the concentration of neon in a gas mixture exhaled by...

  20. 21 CFR 868.1670 - Neon gas analyzer.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Neon gas analyzer. 868.1670 Section 868.1670 Food... DEVICES ANESTHESIOLOGY DEVICES Diagnostic Devices § 868.1670 Neon gas analyzer. (a) Identification. A neon gas analyzer is a device intended to measure the concentration of neon in a gas mixture exhaled by...

  1. 21 CFR 868.1670 - Neon gas analyzer.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Neon gas analyzer. 868.1670 Section 868.1670 Food... DEVICES ANESTHESIOLOGY DEVICES Diagnostic Devices § 868.1670 Neon gas analyzer. (a) Identification. A neon gas analyzer is a device intended to measure the concentration of neon in a gas mixture exhaled by...

  2. Small scale demand type neon liquefaction plant

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dube, W. P.; Slifka, A. J.; Bitsy, R. M.; Sparks, L. L.; Johnson, K. B.

    1990-01-01

    Low-temperature measurement of the thermal conductivity of insulating materials is generally made using a boil-off calorimetry technique involving liquid hydrogen (LH2). Liquid neon (LNe) has nearly the same normal boiling point as LH2, but has a much larger heat of vaporization, allowing extended run times. The main drawback of using LNe has been its excessive cost; $170.00 versus $1.50/l for LH2 (1989 prices). A neon liquefaction plant has been designed and constructed to capture, purify, and refrigerate the neon boil-off from calorimetry experiments. Recycling the neon reduces operating costs to approximately $20/l. The system consists of a purification section, a heat exchanger, LNe and LH2 storage dewars, and a fully automated control system. After purification, neon is liquified in the heat exchanger by LH2 flowing countercurrently through stainless steel cooling coils. Hydrogen flow is automatically adjusted to keep the neon at its normal saturation temperature, 27 K. The liquid neon is then stored in a dewar placed directly below the heat exchanger.

  3. Biomagnetic Measurements Using SQUID Instrumentation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rassi, D.; Zhuravlev, Y.

    2000-09-01

    Biomagnetic measurements involve the detection of the magnetic fields generated by physiological activity in living organisms. Because magnetic fields are sensed remotely, no physical contact with the subject is required, making the technique totally non-invasive Furthermore, only the magnetic fields originating within the body are measured. No external field is applied and it can therefore be confidently stated that the technique is completely safe. These characteristics make biomagnetometry an ideal tool for the investigation of physiological processes. The only magnetic field detector capable of measuring these extremely weak biomagnetic signals is the Superconducting Quantum Interference Device (SQUID). In the last thirty years SQUID-based ultrasensitive magnetometers have been widely used in the investigation of physiologically produced magnetic fields for diagnostic purposes. Owing to the numerous sources of noise and interference typical of an urban environment, it has until recently been considered almost impossible to operate a SQUID magnetometer in such a location without magnetic shielding. We have overcome these technical problems and have successfully used our specially developed unshielded SQUID systems in laboratory and hospital environments. This instrumentation is suitable for recording the biomagnetic fields in adults, neonates and fetuses, and has been applied in a number of clinical studies including fetal magnetocardiography.

  4. How the SQUID was born

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Silver, Arnold H.

    2006-05-01

    I was asked to speak about the discovery and invention of the SQUID at the International Superconducting Electronics Conference (ISEC) 2005 banquet. This narrative is based on my personal recollections of the sequence of events and the motivations. I have edited the text and added figures for clarity. Although it is an old story, it may contain some useful lessons.

  5. Cold SQUIDs and hot samples

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, T.S.C. |

    1997-05-01

    Low transition temperature (low-{Tc}) and high-{Tc} Superconducting QUantum Interference Devices (SQUIDs) have been used to perform high-resolution magnetic measurements on samples whose temperatures are much higher than the operating temperatures of the devices. Part 1 of this work focuses on measurements of the rigidity of flux vortices in high-{Tc} superconductors using two low-{Tc} SQUIDs, one on either side of a thermally-insulated sample. The correlation between the signals of the SQUIDs is a direct measure of the extent of correlation between the movements of opposite ends of vortices. These measurements were conducted under the previously-unexplored experimental conditions of nominally-zero applied magnetic field, such that vortex-vortex interactions were unimportant, and with zero external current. At specific temperatures, the authors observed highly-correlated noise sources, suggesting that the vortices moved as rigid rods. At other temperatures, the noise was mostly uncorrelated, suggesting that the relevant vortices were pinned at more than one point along their length. Part 2 describes the design, construction, performance, and applications of a scanning high-{Tc} SQUID microscope optimized for imaging room-temperature objects with very high spatial resolution and magnetic source sensitivity.

  6. Demonstrating Fluorescence with Neon Paper and Plastic

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Birriel, Jennifer J.; Roe, Clarissa

    2015-09-01

    Several papers in this journal have dealt with the fluorescence in orange neon plastic, olive oil, and soda. In each case, the fluorescent emission was excited by either green or violet-blue laser light. In this paper, we examine the fluorescent emission spectra of so-called neon colored papers and plastic clipboards available in department and office supply stores. We also employ violet-blue and green laser pointers as excitation sources. We conclude with a brief discussion of neon pigments in terms of the "day glow" or "daylight fluorescence" phenomenon.

  7. NEON Citizen Science: Planning and Prototyping

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Newman, S. J.; Henderson, S.; Gardiner, L. S.; Ward, D.; Gram, W.

    2011-12-01

    The National Ecological Observatory Network (NEON) will be a national resource for ecological research and education. NEON citizen science projects are being designed to increase awareness and educate citizen scientists about the impacts of climate change, land-use change, and invasive species on continental-scale ecological processes as well as expand NEON data collection capacity by enabling laypersons to collect geographically distributed data. The citizen science area of the NEON web portal will enable citizen scientists to collect, contribute, interpret, and visualize scientific data, as well as access training modules, collection protocols and targeted learning experiences related to citizen science project topics. For NEON, citizen science projects are a means for interested people to interact with and contribute to NEON science. Investigations at vast spatial and temporal scales often require rapid acquisition of large amounts of data from a geographically distributed population of "human sensors." As a continental-scale ecological observatory, NEON is uniquely positioned to develop strategies to effectively integrate data collected by non-scientists into scientific databases. Ultimately, we plan to work collaboratively to transform the practice of science to include "citizens" or non-scientists in the process. Doing science is not limited to scientists, and breaking down the barriers between scientists and citizens will help people better understand the power of using science in their own decision making. In preparation for fully developing the NEON citizen science program, we are partnering with Project BudBurst (PBB), a citizen science project focused on monitoring plant phenology. The educational goals of PBB are to: (1) increase awareness of climate change, (2) educate citizen scientists about the impacts of climate change on plants and the environment, and (3) increase science literacy by engaging participants in the scientific process. Phenology was

  8. Improved Sensing Coils for SQUIDs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Penanen, Konstantin; Hahn, Inseob; Eom, Byeong Ho

    2007-01-01

    An improvement in the design and fabrication of sensing coils of superconducting quantum interference device (SQUID) magnetometers has been proposed to increase sensitivity. It has been estimated that, in some cases, it would be possible to increase sensitivity by about half or to reduce measurement time correspondingly. The pertinent aspects of the problems of design and fabrication can be summarized as follows: In general, to increase the sensitivity of a SQUID magnetometer, it is necessary to maximize the magnetic flux enclosed by the sensing coil while minimizing the self-inductance of this coil. It is often beneficial to fabricate the coil from a thicker wire to reduce its self-inductance. Moreover, to optimize the design of the coil with respect to sensitivity, it may be necessary to shape the wire to other than a commonly available circular or square cross-section. On the other hand, it is not practical to use thicker superconducting wire for the entire superconducting circuit, especially if the design of a specific device requires a persistent-current loop enclosing a remotely placed SQUID sensor. It may be possible to bond a thicker sensing-coil wire to thinner superconducting wires leading to a SQUID sensor, but it could be difficult to ensure reliable superconducting connections, especially if the bonded wires are made of different materials. The main idea is to mold the sensing coil in place, to more nearly optimum cross sectional shape, instead of making the coil by winding standard pre-fabricated wire. For this purpose, a thin superconducting wire loop that is an essential part of the SQUID magnetometer would be encapsulated in a form that would serve as a mold. A low-melting-temperature superconducting metal (e.g., indium, tin, or a lead/tin alloy) would be melted into the form, which would be sized and shaped to impart the required cross section to the coil thus formed.

  9. Solar helium and neon in the Earth

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Honda, M.; Mcdougall, I.; Patterson, D. B.

    1994-01-01

    Neon isotopic compositions in mantle-derived samples commonly are enriched in (20)Ne and (21)Ne relative to (22)Ne compared with atmospheric neon ((20)Ne/(22)Ne and (21)Ne/(22)Ne ratios in atmospheric neon are 9.8 and 0.029, respectively), together with significant primordial (3)He. Such results have been obtained on MORB's, intraplate plume-related oceanic island basalts, backarc basin basalts, mantle xenoliths, ancient diamonds and CO2 well gases (e.g., 1 - 8). The highest (20)Ne/(22)Ne ratio observed in MORB glasses (= 13.6 plus or minus 1.3 is close to the solar value (= 13.6, as observed in solar wind). In order to explain the enrichment of (20)Ne and (21)Ne relative to atmospheric neon for samples derived from the mantle, it is necessary to postulate the presence of at least two distinct non-atmospheric components. The two most likely candidates are solar and nucleogenic ((20)Ne/(22)Ne solar = 13.6 (21)Ne/(22)Ne solar = 0.032, (20)Ne/(22)Ne nucleogenic = 2.5 and (21)Ne/(22)Ne nucleogenic = 32). This is because solar neon is the only known component with a (20)Ne/(22)Ne ratio greater than both the atmospheric value and that observed in samples derived from the mantle. Nucleogenic neon is well known to elevate (21)Ne/(22)Ne ratios. Neon isotopic signatures observed in mantle-derived samples can be accounted for by mixing of the three neon end members: solar, nucleogenic and atmospheric.

  10. Capturing neon - the first experimental structure of neon trapped within a metal-organic environment.

    PubMed

    Wood, Peter A; Sarjeant, Amy A; Yakovenko, Andrey A; Ward, Suzanna C; Groom, Colin R

    2016-08-21

    Despite being the fifth most abundant element in the atmosphere, neon has never been observed in an organic or metal-organic environment. This study shows the adsorption of this highly unreactive element within such an environment and reveals the first crystallographic observation of an interaction between neon and a transition metal. PMID:27452474

  11. Capturing neon - the first experimental structure of neon trapped within a metal-organic environment.

    PubMed

    Wood, Peter A; Sarjeant, Amy A; Yakovenko, Andrey A; Ward, Suzanna C; Groom, Colin R

    2016-08-21

    Despite being the fifth most abundant element in the atmosphere, neon has never been observed in an organic or metal-organic environment. This study shows the adsorption of this highly unreactive element within such an environment and reveals the first crystallographic observation of an interaction between neon and a transition metal.

  12. Paleomagnetism with the SQUID Microscope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weiss, B. P.; Baudenbacher, F. J.; Wikswo, J. P.; Kirschvink, J. L.

    2002-05-01

    Rocks should preserve stable remanent magnetizations with useful directional and intensity information at levels down to ~10-15 Am2, about 1000 times below that of the noise level on today's best superconducting moment magnetometers. As a result, a more sensitive magnetometer could dramatically expand the range and variety of rock types amenable to paleomagnetic analysis. Just such an instrument is now on the horizon: the superconducting quantum interference device (SQUID) Microscope, designed by F. Baudenbacher and J. Wikswo of Vanderbilt University. The SQUID Microscope makes a map of the vertical component of the magnetic field above the surface of a sample held at room temperature and pressure. It achieves this with a spatial resolution of 250 μ m and a moment sensitivity 10,000 times that of the most recent 2G Enterprises Superconducting Rock Magnetometer (2G SRM). It can therefore provide data with a resolution comparable with that of other common petrographic techniques such as optical and electron microscopy. A major reason that the SQUID Microscope has such high sensitivity and resolution compared to the 2G SRM is that it has a much smaller pickup coil. Smaller coils are more sensitive to dipoles because they encompass less of the sample's fringing fields oriented in the opposite sense to its magnetization. Smaller coils also encompass a smaller area above the sample and so also provide higher spatial resolution. Our initial collaborative work on 30-μ m thin sections of Martian meteorite ALH84001 has already demonstrated that SQUID Microscopy will enable a whole a new class of paleomagnetic analyses. Conglomerate, baked contact, and fold tests can be performed on extremely small spatial scales, vastly expanding the utility of these critical geological field tests of magnetic stability. A suite of rock-magnetic and paleomagnetic experiments can be done on individual grains in standard petrographic thin sections at very high rates, allowing the observed

  13. Helium and Neon in Comets

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jewitt, David

    1996-01-01

    Two comets were observed with EUVE in late 1994. Both comet Mueller and comet Borrelly are short-period comets having well established orbital elements and accurate ephemerides. Spectra of 40 ksec were taken of each. No evidence for emission lines from either Helium or Neon was detected. We calculated limits on the production rates of these atoms (relative to solar) assuming a standard isotropic outflow model, with a gas streaming speed of 1 km/s. The 3-sigma (99.7% confidence) limits (1/100,000 for He, 0.8 for Ne) are based on a conservative estimate of the noise in the EUVE spectra. They are also weakly dependent on the precise pointing and tracking of the EUVE field of view relative to the comet during the integrations. These limits are consistent with ice formation temperatures T greater than or equal to 30 K, as judged from the gas trapping experiments of Bar-Nun. For comparison, the solar abundances of these elements are He/O = 110, Ne/O = 1/16. Neither limit was as constraining as we had initially hoped, mainly because comets Mueller and Borrelly were intrinsically less active than anticipated.

  14. Flying wings / flying fuselages

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wood, Richard M.; Bauer, Steven X. S.

    2001-01-01

    The present paper has documented the historical relationships between various classes of all lifting vehicles, which includes the flying wing, all wing, tailless, lifting body, and lifting fuselage. The diversity in vehicle focus was to ensure that all vehicle types that map have contributed to or been influenced by the development of the classical flying wing concept was investigated. The paper has provided context and perspective for present and future aircraft design studies that may employ the all lifting vehicle concept. The paper also demonstrated the benefit of developing an understanding of the past in order to obtain the required knowledge to create future concepts with significantly improved aerodynamic performance.

  15. Colored neon flanks and line gap enhancement.

    PubMed

    Redies, C; Spillmann, L; Kunz, K

    1984-01-01

    When a colored line connects two black (or differently colored) lines across a gap, colored neon flanks are seen on either side of it. These flanks extend over gap sizes of 50 min arc foveally and are not explained by Bezold-type assimilation. They may be elicited by black lines as short as 6 min arc adjoining the colored line at each end. To maximize these flanks, the black and colored lines must appear linearly continuous. Nonaligned junctions weaken the effect and an angular tilt of more than 40 dog destroys it. In this and other respects, (local) neon flanks are similar to van Tuijl's (global) neon color spreading (1975). Both phenomena have analogs in brightness perception. We propose that neon spreading is a lateral extension of neon flanks across the empty space between them, and discuss similarities of these effects with other brightness illusions (Schumann, Prandtl, Ehrenstein). For this group of illusions the term "line gap enhancement" is introduced to imply perceptual enhancement of changes in brightness and/or color along lines. Correspondences between the psychophysical properties and structural prerequisites for line gap enhancement on one hand and neuronal response properties of end-zone inhibited (hypercomplex) cortical cells on the other are discussed.

  16. Analytical derivation of DC SQUID response

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Soloviev, I. I.; Klenov, N. V.; Schegolev, A. E.; Bakurskiy, S. V.; Kupriyanov, M. Yu

    2016-09-01

    We consider voltage and current response formation in DC superconducting quantum interference device (SQUID) with overdamped Josephson junctions in resistive and superconducting state in the context of a resistively shunted junction (RSJ) model. For simplicity we neglect the junction capacitance and the noise effect. Explicit expressions for the responses in resistive state were obtained for a SQUID which is symmetrical with respect to bias current injection point. Normalized SQUID inductance l=2{{eI}}{{c}}L/{\\hslash } (where I c is the critical current of Josephson junction, L is the SQUID inductance, e is the electron charge and ℏ is the Planck constant) was assumed to be within the range l ≤ 1, subsequently expanded up to l≈ 7 using two fitting parameters. SQUID current response in the superconducting state was considered for arbitrary value of the inductance. The impact of small technological spread of parameters relevant to low-temperature superconductor (LTS) technology was studied, using a generalization of the developed analytical approach, for the case of a small difference of critical currents and shunt resistances of the Josephson junctions, and inequality of SQUID inductive shoulders for both resistive and superconducting states. Comparison with numerical calculation results shows that developed analytical expressions can be used in practical LTS SQUIDs and SQUID-based circuits design, e.g. large serial SQIF, drastically decreasing the time of simulation.

  17. Biofunctional Properties of Enzymatic Squid Meat Hydrolysate

    PubMed Central

    Choi, Joon Hyuk; Kim, Kyung-Tae; Kim, Sang Moo

    2015-01-01

    Squid is one of the most important commercial fishes in the world and is mainly utilized or consumed as sliced raw fish or as processed products. The biofunctional activities of enzymatic squid meat hydrolysate were determined to develop value-added products. Enzymatic squid hydrolysate manufactured by Alcalase effectively quenched 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl radical, hydroxyl radical, and hydrogen peroxide radical with IC50 values of 311, 3,410, and 111.5 μg/mL, respectively. Angiotensin I-converting enzyme inhibitory activity of squid hydrolysate was strong with an IC50 value of 145.1 μg/mL, while tyrosinase inhibitory activity with an IC50 value of 4.72 mg/mL was moderately low. Overall, squid meat hydrolysate can be used in food or cosmetic industries as a bioactive ingredient and possibly be used in the manufacture of seasoning, bread, noodle, or cosmetics. PMID:25866752

  18. SQUID Multiplexers for Cryogenic Detector Arrays

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Irwin, Kent; Beall, James; Deiker, Steve; Doriese, Randy; Duncan, William; Hilton, Gene; Moseley, S. Harvey; Reintsema, Carl; Stahle, Caroline; Ullom, Joel; Vale, Leila

    2004-01-01

    SQUID multiplexers make it possible to build arrays of thousands of cryogenic detectors with a manageable number of readout channels. We are developing time-division SQUID multiplexers based on Nb trilayer SQUIDs to read arrays of superconducting transition-edge sensors. Our first-generation, 8-channel SQUID multiplexer was used in FIBRE, a one-dimensional TES array for submillimeter astronomy. Our second-generation 32-pixel multiplexer, based on an improved architecture, has been developed for instruments including Constellation-X, SCUBA-2, and solar x-ray astronomy missions. SCUBA-2, which is being developed for the James Clerk Maxwell Telescope, will have more than 10,000 pixels. We are now developing a third-generation architecture based on superconducting hot-electron switches. The use of SQUID multiplexers in instruments operating at above 2 K will also be discussed.

  19. The First NEON School in La Silla

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dennefeld, M.; Melo, C.; Selman, F.

    2016-06-01

    The NEON Observing Schools have long provided PhD students with practical experience in the preparation, execution and reduction of astronomical observations, primarily at northern observatories. The NEON School was held in Chile for the first time, with observations being conducted at La Silla. The school was attended by 20 students, all from South America, and observations were performed with two telescopes, including the New Technology Telescope. A brief description of the school is presented and the observing projects and their results are described.

  20. Low field electron paramagnetic resonance imaging with SQUID detection

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hahn, Inseob (Inventor); Day, Peter K. (Inventor); Penanen, Konstantin I. (Inventor); Eom, Byeong H. (Inventor); Cohen, Mark S. (Inventor)

    2012-01-01

    In one embodiment, a flux transformer with a gradiometer pickup coil is magnetically coupled to a SQUID, and a SQUID array amplifier comprising a plurality of SQUIDs, connected in series, is magnetically coupled to the output of the SQUID. Other embodiments are described and claimed.

  1. Aperture effects in squid jet propulsion.

    PubMed

    Staaf, Danna J; Gilly, William F; Denny, Mark W

    2014-05-01

    Squid are the largest jet propellers in nature as adults, but as paralarvae they are some of the smallest, faced with the inherent inefficiency of jet propulsion at a low Reynolds number. In this study we describe the behavior and kinematics of locomotion in 1 mm paralarvae of Dosidicus gigas, the smallest squid yet studied. They swim with hop-and-sink behavior and can engage in fast jets by reducing the size of the mantle aperture during the contraction phase of a jetting cycle. We go on to explore the general effects of a variable mantle and funnel aperture in a theoretical model of jet propulsion scaled from the smallest (1 mm mantle length) to the largest (3 m) squid. Aperture reduction during mantle contraction increases propulsive efficiency at all squid sizes, although 1 mm squid still suffer from low efficiency (20%) because of a limited speed of contraction. Efficiency increases to a peak of 40% for 1 cm squid, then slowly declines. Squid larger than 6 cm must either reduce contraction speed or increase aperture size to maintain stress within maximal muscle tolerance. Ecological pressure to maintain maximum velocity may lead them to increase aperture size, which reduces efficiency. This effect might be ameliorated by nonaxial flow during the refill phase of the cycle. Our model's predictions highlight areas for future empirical work, and emphasize the existence of complex behavioral options for maximizing efficiency at both very small and large sizes.

  2. Genetic identification of a rare record of Ommastrephes Bartramii (Cephalopoda: Ommastrephidae) from the Eastern Adriatic Sea.

    PubMed

    Franjević, Damjan; Skaramuca, Daria; Katavić, Vedran; Rajević, Nives; Skaramuca, Boško

    2015-01-01

    The neon flying squid Ommastrephes bartramii Lesueur, 1821 belongs to the Ommastrephidae, Cephalopoda family. The family Ommastrephidae (Mollusca: Cephalopoda) includes many commercially important species, dispersed around the world. The Ommastrephidae family is conventionally divided into three subfamilies (Illicinae, Todarodinae, and Ommastrephinae). We report a specimen of neon flying squid caught in the winter 2013 at Luka Šipanska, Island of Šipan, Croatia and identified at the genetic level using the standard mitochondrial COI barcode region. This record represents the first genetic identification of a neon flying squid from the Adriatic Sea.

  3. Genetic identification of a rare record of Ommastrephes Bartramii (Cephalopoda: Ommastrephidae) from the Eastern Adriatic Sea.

    PubMed

    Franjević, Damjan; Skaramuca, Daria; Katavić, Vedran; Rajević, Nives; Skaramuca, Boško

    2015-01-01

    The neon flying squid Ommastrephes bartramii Lesueur, 1821 belongs to the Ommastrephidae, Cephalopoda family. The family Ommastrephidae (Mollusca: Cephalopoda) includes many commercially important species, dispersed around the world. The Ommastrephidae family is conventionally divided into three subfamilies (Illicinae, Todarodinae, and Ommastrephinae). We report a specimen of neon flying squid caught in the winter 2013 at Luka Šipanska, Island of Šipan, Croatia and identified at the genetic level using the standard mitochondrial COI barcode region. This record represents the first genetic identification of a neon flying squid from the Adriatic Sea. PMID:26103681

  4. Rogue Mantle Helium and Neon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Albarede, F.

    2007-12-01

    mid- ocean ridges, the characteristic times of melt extraction in each of these two environments are 10,000 y and 1 My, respectively, and the maximum thickness of refractory layers contributing their He to the magmas are 10 m and 100 m, respectively. The difference in 3He/4He ratios of ocean-island and mid-ocean ridge basalts and the preservation of solar neon are ascribed to the reservoirs rocks being stretched to a different extent during melting. Old fragments of oceanic lithosphere, and possibly cumulates from the magma ocean, rather than primordial mantle 'nuggets', should host most of the primordial He and Ne presently observed in oceanic basalts. Helium with high 3He/4He ratios may contain a component of primordial origin, but not necessarily reflect the reservoir in which it has been residing for most of the Earth's history.

  5. Measurement of a SQUID metamaterial

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Daimeng; Trepanier, Melissa; Anlage, Steven

    2013-03-01

    We report experimental results on a new type of superconducting metamaterial consisting of arrays of RF SQUIDs operating in the microwave frequency range with tunable properties (S parameters, effective permeability, effective permittivity, etc.). DC magnetic field is applied to bias the sample and to vary the Josephson inductance, thus tuning the resonant frequency over a multi-GHz range. The experiment is done in a magnetic-shielded cryostat where we examine the temperature, RF-field, and DC-field dependence of S parameters of this superconducting metamaterial. We also perform a cryogenic calibration to eliminate the effects of transmission lines on our results. From the calibrated S-matrix of this metamaterial, we are able to extract the effective permeability and its response to various stimuli. This work is supported by the NSF-GOALI program through grant # ECCS-1158644, and CNAM.

  6. DC SQUID Phase Qubit with LC Filter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kwon, Hyeokshin; Przybysz, A. J.; Paik, Hanhee; Lewis, R. M.; Palomaki, T. A.; Dutta, S. K.; Cooper, B. K.; Anderson, J. R.; Lobb, C. J.; Wellstood, F. C.

    2008-03-01

    We investigate the use of an inductor-capacitor (LC) network to increase the isolation of a dc SQUID phase qubit from its current bias leads and thereby increase the dissipation time T1 and coherence time T2. One junction in the SQUID acts as an ideal phase qubit while the second junction and the SQUID loop inductance act as a broadband filter to isolate the first junction from the current bias leads. The LC-isolation network provides an additional isolation factor and allows flexibility in the choice of SQUID parameters. In addition to increasing the isolation from the leads, our design minimizes the effects of dielectric loss and two-level systems by using a relatively small Josephson junction, building the devices from Al/Al2O3/Al on sapphire, and only using insulating layers (SiNx) in external capacitors for the phase qubit junction and LC network. *Funding provided by JQI, CNAM and the DOD.

  7. ASA's Chandra Neon Discovery Solves Solar Paradox

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2005-07-01

    NASA's Chandra X-ray Observatory survey of nearby sun-like stars suggests there is nearly three times more neon in the sun and local universe than previously believed. If true, this would solve a critical problem with understanding how the sun works. "We use the sun to test how well we understand stars and, to some extent, the rest of the universe," said Jeremy Drake of the Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics in Cambridge, Mass. "But in order to understand the sun, we need to know exactly what it is made of," he added. It is not well known how much neon the sun contains. This is critical information for creating theoretical models of the sun. Neon atoms, along with carbon, oxygen and nitrogen, play an important role in how quickly energy flows from nuclear reactions in the sun's core to its edge, where it then radiates into space. Chandra X-ray Spectrum of II Pegasi Chandra X-ray Spectrum of II Pegasi The rate of this energy flow determines the location and size of a crucial stellar region called the convection zone. The zone extends from near the sun's surface inward approximately 125,000 miles. The zone is where the gas undergoes a rolling, convective motion much like the unstable air in a thunderstorm. "This turbulent gas has an extremely important job, because nearly all of the energy emitted at the surface of the sun is transported there by convection," Drake said. The accepted amount of neon in the sun has led to a paradox. The predicted location and size of the solar convection zone disagree with those deduced from solar oscillations. Solar oscillations is a technique astronomers previously relied on to probe the sun's interior. Several scientists have noted the problem could be fixed if the abundance of neon is in fact about three times larger than currently accepted. Attempts to measure the precise amount of neon in the Sun have been frustrated by a quirk of nature; neon atoms in the Sun give off no signatures in visible light. However, in a gas

  8. The NEON Soil Archive - A community resource

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ayres, E.

    2013-12-01

    The National Ecological Observatory Network (NEON) is a 30-year National Science Foundation-funded facility for understanding and forecasting the impacts of climate change, land use change, and invasive species on aspects of continental-scale ecology such as biodiversity, biogeochemistry, infectious diseases, and ecohydrology. NEON will measure a wide range of properties at 60 terrestrial and 36 aquatic sites throughout the US using in situ sensors, sample collection/lab analysis, and remote sensing, and all data will be made freely available. The Observatory is currently under construction and will be fully operational by 2017, however, limited data collection and release will begin in 2013. In addition, NEON is archiving large numbers of samples, including surface soils (top ~30 cm) collected from locations across each site, and soils collected by horizon to 2 m deep from a single soil pit at each site. Here I present information about the latter, focusing on sampling and processing, metadata, and currently available samples. At each terrestrial site the soil pit is dug in the locally dominant soil type and soil is collected by horizon, mixed, and ~4-8 liters soil is sent for processing. Soil samples are air-dried and sieved (mineral soil) or air-dried (organic soil) and 1.2 kg is split between 4 glass jars for archiving (protocol available upon request). To date 15 soil pits have been sampled, representing 7 soil orders, and soils from 110 horizons have been archived or are being processed. Metadata associated with each archive sample include a soil profile description, photos, and soil properties (total C, N, S, Al, Ca, Fe, K, Mg, Mn, Na, P, Si, Sr, Ti, Zr, bulk density, pH, and texture). The procedure for requesting samples from the archive is under development and I encourage scientists to use the archive in their future research. Collecting and processing samples for the NEON Soil Archive

  9. Muon transfer from hot muonic hydrogen atoms to neon

    SciTech Connect

    Jacot-Guillarmod, R. . Inst. de Physique); Bailey, J.M. ); Beer, G.A.; Knowles, P.E.; Mason, G.R.; Olin, A. ); Beveridge, J.L.; Marshall, G.M.; Brewer, J.H.; Forster, B.M. ); Huber, T.M. ); Kammel, P.; Zmeskal, J.

    1992-01-01

    A negative muon beam has been directed on adjacent solid layers of hydrogen and neon. Three targets differing by their deuterium concentration were investigated. Muonic hydrogen atoms can drift to the neon layer where the muon is immediately transferred. The time structure of the muonic neon X-rays follows the exponential law with a disappearance rate corresponding to the one of [mu][sup [minus]p] atoms in each target. The rates [lambda][sub pp[mu

  10. Binary collision model for neon Auger spectra from neon ion bombardment of the aluminum surface

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pepper, Stephen V.

    1986-04-01

    A model is developed to account for the angle-resolved Auger spectra from neon ion bombardment of the aluminum surface recently obtained by Pepper and Aron. The neon is assumed to be excited in a single asymmetric neon-aluminum collision and scattered back into the vacuum where it emits an Auger electron. The velocity of the Auger electron acquires a Doppler shift by virtue of the emission from a moving source. The dependence of the Auger peak shape and energy on the incident ion energy, angle of incidence and on the angle of Auger electron emission with respect to the surface is presented. Satisfactory agreement with the angle resolved experimental observations is obtained. The dependence of the angle-integrated Auger yield on the incident ion energy and angle of incidence is also obtained and shown to be in satisfactory agreement with available experimental evidence.

  11. Binary collision model for neon Auger spectra from neon ion bombardment of the aluminum surface

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pepper, S. V.

    1986-01-01

    A model is developed to account for the angle-resolved Auger spectra from neon ion bombardment of the aluminum surface recently obtained by Pepper and Aron. The neon is assumed to be excited in a single asymmetric neon-aluminum-collision and scattered back into the vacuum where it emits an Auger electron. The velocity of the Auger electron acquires a Doppler shift by virtue of the emission from a moving source. The dependence of the Auger peak shape and energy on the incident ion energy, angle of incidence and on the angle of Auger electron emission with respect to the surface is presented. Satisfactory agreement with the angle resolved experimental observations is obtained. The dependence of the angle-integrated Auger yield on the incident ion energy and angle of incidence is also obtained and shown to be in satisfactory agreement with available experimental evidence.

  12. Structural and magnetic properties of zinc ferrite thin films irradiated by 90 keV neon ions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gafton, E. V.; Bulai, G.; Caltun, O. F.; Cervera, S.; Macé, S.; Trassinelli, M.; Steydli, S.; Vernhet, D.

    2016-08-01

    The effects of 90 keV neon beam irradiation on the structure and magnetic properties of zinc ferrite thin films have been investigated through several methods, namely, X-ray diffraction technique, Vibrating Sample and SQUID magnetometers. Beforehand, the pristine have also been characterized using profilometry and microscopy techniques. In particular single-phase formation of the thin films deposited on monocrystalline Si (111) substrate by pulsed laser deposition technique was confirmed. Crystal lattice, coercivity, saturation magnetization have been studied for the first time, as a function of ion penetration depth and irradiation fluence. The chemical composition and the crystallinity of the films are not affected with the ion impact acting as a mechanical stress relief. On the contrary, both magnetization and coercivity are sensitive to Neq+ ion irradiation and exhibit different behaviours depending on the ion fluence range.

  13. Visually guided eye growth in the squid.

    PubMed

    Turnbull, Philip R K; Backhouse, Simon; Phillips, John R

    2015-09-21

    Eyes with refractive error have reduced visual acuity and are rarely found in the wild. Vertebrate eyes possess a visually guided emmetropisation process within the retina which detects the sign of defocus, and regulates eye growth to align the retina at the focal plane of the eye's optical components to avoid the development of refractive error, such as myopia, an increasing problem in humans. However, the vertebrate retina is complex, and it is not known which of the many classes of retinal neurons are involved. We investigated whether the camera-type eye of an invertebrate, the squid, displays visually guided emmetropisation, despite squid eyes having a simple photoreceptor-only retina. We exploited inherent longitudinal chromatic aberration (LCA) to create disparate focal lengths within squid eyes. We found that squid raised under orange light had proportionately longer eyes and more myopic refractions than those raised under blue light, and when switched between wavelengths, eye size and refractive status changed appropriately within a few days. This demonstrates that squid eye growth is visually guided, and suggests that the complex retina seen in vertebrates may not be required for emmetropisation.

  14. Squid – a simple bioinformatics grid

    PubMed Central

    Carvalho, Paulo C; Glória, Rafael V; de Miranda, Antonio B; Degrave, Wim M

    2005-01-01

    Background BLAST is a widely used genetic research tool for analysis of similarity between nucleotide and protein sequences. This paper presents a software application entitled "Squid" that makes use of grid technology. The current version, as an example, is configured for BLAST applications, but adaptation for other computing intensive repetitive tasks can be easily accomplished in the open source version. This enables the allocation of remote resources to perform distributed computing, making large BLAST queries viable without the need of high-end computers. Results Most distributed computing / grid solutions have complex installation procedures requiring a computer specialist, or have limitations regarding operating systems. Squid is a multi-platform, open-source program designed to "keep things simple" while offering high-end computing power for large scale applications. Squid also has an efficient fault tolerance and crash recovery system against data loss, being able to re-route jobs upon node failure and recover even if the master machine fails. Our results show that a Squid application, working with N nodes and proper network resources, can process BLAST queries almost N times faster than if working with only one computer. Conclusion Squid offers high-end computing, even for the non-specialist, and is freely available at the project web site. Its open-source and binary Windows distributions contain detailed instructions and a "plug-n-play" instalation containing a pre-configured example. PMID:16078998

  15. Microstrip SQUID amplifiers for quantum information science

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Defeo, M. P.; Plourde, B. L. T.

    2012-02-01

    Recent progress in SQUID amplifiers suggests that these devices might approach quantum-limited sensitivity in the microwave range, thus making them a viable option for measurement of superconducting quantum systems. In the microstrip SQUID amplifier configuration, gains of around 20dB are possible at frequencies of several hundred MHz, and the gain is limited by the maximum voltage modulation available from the SQUID. One route for increasing the voltage modulation involves using larger resistive shunts, however maintaining non-hysteretic device operation requires smaller junction capacitances than is possible with conventional photolithographically patterned junctions. Operating at higher frequencies requires a shorter input coil which reduces mutual inductance between the coil and washer and therefore gain. We have fabricated microstrip SQUID amplifiers using submicron Al-AlOx-Al junctions and large shunts. The input coil and SQUID washer are optimized for producing high gain at frequencies in the gigahertz range. Recent measurements of gain and noise temperature will be discussed as well as demonstrations of these devices as a first stage of amplification for a superconducting system

  16. Flux modulation scheme for direct current SQUID readout revisited

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hong, Tao; Wang, Hai; Zhang, Yi; Krause, Hans-Joachim; Braginski, Alex I.; Xie, Xiaoming; Offenhäusser, Andreas; Jiang, Mianheng

    2016-02-01

    The flux modulation scheme (FMS) is the standard readout technique of dc SQUIDs, where a step-up transformer links the SQUID to the preamplifier. The transformer's primary winding shunts the SQUID via a large capacitor while the secondary winding connects it to the preamplifier. A modulation flux having a frequency of typically 100 kHz generates an ac voltage across the SQUID, stepped up by the transformer. The SQUID with FMS is customarily operated in the current bias mode, because a constant dc bias current flows only through the SQUID due to the capacitor isolation. With FMS, however, the transformer ac shunts the SQUID so that in reality the operating mode is neither purely current-biased nor voltage-biased but rather nominal current-biased or "mixed biased." Our objective is to experimentally investigate the consequences of ac shunting of the dc SQUID in FMS and the transformer's transfer characteristics. For different shunt values we measure the change in the SQUID bias current due to the ac shunt using another SQUID in the two-stage readout scheme, and simultaneously monitor the SQUID output voltage signal. We then explain our measurements by a simplified graphic analysis of SQUID intrinsic current-voltage (I-V) characteristics. Since the total current flowing through the SQUID is not constant due to the shunting effect of the transformer, the amplitude of SQUID flux-to-voltage characteristics V(Φ) is less as compared to the direct readout scheme (DRS). Furthermore, we analyze and compare V(Φ) obtained by DRS and FMS. We show that in FMS, the transfer characteristics of the SQUID circuit also depend on the isolation capacitance and the dynamic resistance of the SQUID.

  17. Comparative expression and tissue distribution analyses of astacin-like squid metalloprotease in squid and cuttlefish.

    PubMed

    Kanzawa, Nobuyuki; Ogawa, Takuya; Asakura, Masanori; Okiyama, Keisuke; Honda, Michiyo; Tsuchiya, Takahide

    2008-01-01

    Astacin-like squid metalloprotease (ALSM) is a member of the astacin family of metalloproteases. In the present study, we investigated the expression and tissue distribution of ALSM in bigfin reef squid (Sepioteuthis lessoniana) and golden cuttlefish (Sepia esculenta). Myosin heavy chain hydrolysis tests showed ALSM-I-like activity in both species. We isolated partial cDNA clones showing high sequence similarity to ALSM-I and -III, suggesting that ALSM is common to squid and cuttlefish. Phylogenetic analysis showed that ALSMs are classified into two clades: ALSM-I forms one clade, and ALSM-II and -III form the other. ALSM was expressed in several tissues in bigfin reef squid, though expression was confined to the liver in cuttlefish. ALSMs are distributed in digestive organs but not in mantle muscle of squid and cuttlefish. Immunofluorescence analysis further showed that cellular localization of ALSM is evident not only in hepatic cells but also in pancreatic cells of bigfin reef squid. Thus, ALSM is commonly expressed in squid and cuttlefish, but its expression levels and distribution are distinct.

  18. THE RHODOPSIN SYSTEM OF THE SQUID

    PubMed Central

    Hubbard, Ruth; St. George, Robert C. C.

    1958-01-01

    Squid rhodopsin (λmax 493 mµ)—like vertebrate rhodopsins—contains a retinene chromophore linked to a protein, opsin. Light transforms rhodopsin to lumi- and metarhodopsin. However, whereas vertebrate metarhodopsin at physiological temperatures decomposes into retinene and opsin, squid metarhodopsin is stable. Light also converts squid metarhodopsin to rhodopsin. Rhodopsin is therefore regenerated from metarhodopsin in the light. Irradiation of rhodopsin or metarhodopsin produces a steady state by promoting the reactions, See PDF for Equation Squid rhodopsin contains neo-b (11-cis) retinene; metarhodopsin all-trans retinene. The interconversion of rhodopsin and metarhodopsin involves only the stereoisomerization of their chromophores. Squid metarhodopsin is a pH indicator, red (λmax 500 mµ) near neutrality, yellow (λmax 380 mµ) in alkaline solution. The two forms—acid and alkaline metarhodopsin—are interconverted according to the equation, Alkaline metarhodopsin + H+ ⇌acid metarhodopsin, with pK 7.7. In both forms, retinene is attached to opsin at the same site as in rhodopsin. However, metarhodopsin decomposes more readily than rhodopsin into retinene and opsin. The opsins apparently fit the shape of the neo-b chromophore. When light isomerizes the chromophore to the all-trans configuration, squid opsin accepts the all-trans chromophore, while vertebrate opsins do not and hence release all-trans retinene. Light triggers vision by affecting directly the shape of the retinene chromophore. This changes its relationship with opsin, so initiating a train of chemical reactions. PMID:13491819

  19. 21 CFR 868.1670 - Neon gas analyzer.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Neon gas analyzer. 868.1670 Section 868.1670 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES ANESTHESIOLOGY DEVICES Diagnostic Devices § 868.1670 Neon gas analyzer. (a) Identification. A...

  20. Dietary protein source and level alters growth in neon tetras.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Nutritional studies for aquarium fish like the neon tetra are sparse in comparison with those for food fish. To determine the optimum dietary protein level and source for growth of neon tetras, diets were formulated to contain 25, 35, 45 and 55% dietary protein from either marine animal protein or ...

  1. Perceptual transparency in neon color spreading displays.

    PubMed

    Ekroll, Vebjørn; Faul, Franz

    2002-08-01

    In neon color spreading displays, both a color illusion and perceptual transparency can be seen. In this study, we investigated the color conditions for the perception of transparency in such displays. It was found that the data are very well accounted for by a generalization of Metelli's (1970) episcotister model of balanced perceptual transparency to tristimulus values. This additive model correctly predicted which combinations of colors would lead to optimal impressions of transparency. Color combinations deviating slightly from the additive model also looked transparent, but less convincingly so.

  2. Scattering of electrons from neon atoms

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dasgupta, A.; Bhatia, A. K.

    1984-01-01

    Scattering of electrons from neon atoms is investigated by the polarized-orbital method. The perturbed orbitals calculated with use of the Sternheimer approximation lead to the polarizability 2.803 a(0)-cube in fairly good agreement with the experimental value 2.66 a(0)-cube. Phase shifts for various partial waves are calculated in the exchange, exchange-adiabatic, and polarized-orbital approximations. They are compared with the previous results. The calculated elastic differential, total, and momentum-transfer cross sections are compared with the experimental results. The polarized-orbital approximation yields results which show general improvement over the exchange-adiabatic approximation.

  3. Neon reduction program on Cymer ArF light sources

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kanawade, Dinesh; Roman, Yzzer; Cacouris, Ted; Thornes, Josh; O'Brien, Kevin

    2016-03-01

    In response to significant neon supply constraints, Cymer has responded with a multi-part plan to support its customers. Cymer's primary objective is to ensure that reliable system performance is maintained while minimizing gas consumption. Gas algorithms were optimized to ensure stable performance across all operating conditions. The Cymer neon support plan contains four elements: 1. Gas reduction program to reduce neon by >50% while maintaining existing performance levels and availability; 2. short-term containment solutions for immediate relief. 3. qualification of additional gas suppliers; and 4. long-term recycling/reclaim opportunity. The Cymer neon reduction program has shown excellent results as demonstrated through the comparison on standard gas use versus the new >50% reduced neon performance for ArF immersion light sources. Testing included stressful conditions such as repetition rate, duty cycle and energy target changes. No performance degradation has been observed over typical gas lives.

  4. Flying Cars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Crow, Steven

    1996-01-01

    Flying cars have nearly mythical appeal to nonpilots, a group that includes almost the whole human race. The appeal resides in the perceived utility of flying cars, vehicles that offer portal-to-portal transportation, yet break the bonds of road and traffic and travel freely through the sky at the drivers will. Part of the appeal is an assumption that flying cars can be as easy to fly as to drive. Flying cars have been part of the dream of aviation since the dawn of powered flight. Glenn Curtiss built, displayed, and maybe even flew a flying car in 1917, the Curtiss Autoplane. Many roadable airplanes were built in the 1930's, like the Waterman Arrowbile and the Fulton Airphibian. Two flying cars came close to production in the early 1950's. Ted Hall built a series of flying cars culminating in the Convaircar, sponsored by Consolidated Vultee, General Motors, and Hertz. Molt Taylor built and certified his Aerocar, and Ford came close to producing them. Three Aerocars are still flyable, two in museums in Seattle and Oshkosh, and the third owned and flown by Ed Sweeny. Flying cars do have problems, which so far have prevented commercial success. An obvious problem is complexity of the vehicle, the infrastructure, or both. Another is the difficulty of matching low power for normal driving with high power in flight. An automobile uses only about 20 hp at traffic speeds, while a personal airplane needs about 160 hp at speeds typical of flight. Many automobile engines can deliver 160 hp, but not for very long. A more subtle issue involves the drag of automobiles and airplanes. A good personal airplane can fly 30 miles per gallon of fuel at 200 mph. A good sports car would need 660 hp at the same speed and would travel only 3 miles per gallon. The difference is drag area, about 4.5 sq ft for the automobile and 1.4 sq ft for the airplane. A flying car better have the drag area of the airplane, not the car!

  5. Drag force and jet propulsion investigation of a swimming squid

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tabatabaei, Mahdi; Bahadır Olcay, Ali; Gokçen, Gökhan; Heperkan, Hasan A.

    2015-05-01

    In this study, CAD model of a squid was obtained by taking computer tomography images of a real squid. The model later placed into a computational domain to calculate drag force and performance of jet propulsion. The drag study was performed on the CAD model so that drag force subjected to real squid was revealed at squid's different swimming speeds and comparison has been made with other underwater creatures (e.g., a dolphin, sea lion and penguin). The drag coefficient (referenced to total wetted surface area) of squid is 0.0042 at Reynolds number 1.6x106 that is a %4.5 difference from Gentoo penguin. Besides, jet flow of squid was simulated to observe the flow region generated in the 2D domain utilizing dynamic mesh method to mimic the movement of squid's mantle cavity.

  6. Diffusion of neon in white dwarf stars.

    PubMed

    Hughto, J; Schneider, A S; Horowitz, C J; Berry, D K

    2010-12-01

    Sedimentation of the neutron rich isotope 22Ne may be an important source of gravitational energy during the cooling of white dwarf stars. This depends on the diffusion constant for 22Ne in strongly coupled plasma mixtures. We calculate self-diffusion constants D(i) from molecular dynamics simulations of carbon, oxygen, and neon mixtures. We find that D(i) in a mixture does not differ greatly from earlier one component plasma results. For strong coupling (coulomb parameter Γ> few), D(i) has a modest dependence on the charge Z(i) of the ion species, D(i)∝Z(i)(-2/3). However, D(i) depends more strongly on Z(i) for weak coupling (smaller Γ). We conclude that the self-diffusion constant D(Ne) for 22Ne in carbon, oxygen, and neon plasma mixtures is accurately known so that uncertainties in D(Ne) should be unimportant for simulations of white dwarf cooling. PMID:21230741

  7. Damage accumulation in neon implanted silicon

    SciTech Connect

    Oliviero, E.; Peripolli, S.; Amaral, L.; Fichtner, P. F. P.; Beaufort, M. F.; Barbot, J. F.; Donnelly, S. E.

    2006-08-15

    Damage accumulation in neon-implanted silicon with fluences ranging from 5x10{sup 14} to 5x10{sup 16} Ne cm{sup -2} has been studied in detail. As-implanted and annealed samples were investigated by Rutherford backscattering spectrometry under channeling conditions and by transmission electron microscopy in order to quantify and characterize the lattice damage. Wavelength dispersive spectrometry was used to obtain the relative neon content stored in the matrix. Implantation at room temperature leads to the amorphization of the silicon while a high density of nanosized bubbles is observed all along the ion distribution, forming a uniform and continuous layer for implantation temperatures higher than 250 deg.C. Clusters of interstitial defects are also present in the deeper part of the layer corresponding to the end of range of ions. After annealing, the samples implanted at temperatures below 250 deg.C present a polycrystalline structure with blisters at the surface while in the other samples coarsening of bubbles occurs and nanocavities are formed together with extended defects identified as (311) defects. The results are discussed in comparison to the case of helium-implanted silicon and in the light of radiation-enhanced diffusion.

  8. Diffusion of neon in white dwarf stars.

    PubMed

    Hughto, J; Schneider, A S; Horowitz, C J; Berry, D K

    2010-12-01

    Sedimentation of the neutron rich isotope 22Ne may be an important source of gravitational energy during the cooling of white dwarf stars. This depends on the diffusion constant for 22Ne in strongly coupled plasma mixtures. We calculate self-diffusion constants D(i) from molecular dynamics simulations of carbon, oxygen, and neon mixtures. We find that D(i) in a mixture does not differ greatly from earlier one component plasma results. For strong coupling (coulomb parameter Γ> few), D(i) has a modest dependence on the charge Z(i) of the ion species, D(i)∝Z(i)(-2/3). However, D(i) depends more strongly on Z(i) for weak coupling (smaller Γ). We conclude that the self-diffusion constant D(Ne) for 22Ne in carbon, oxygen, and neon plasma mixtures is accurately known so that uncertainties in D(Ne) should be unimportant for simulations of white dwarf cooling.

  9. Coherence parameter measurements for neon and hydrogen

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wright, Robert; Hargreaves, Leigh; Khakoo, Murtadha; Zatsarinny, Oleg; Bartschat, Klaus; Stauffer, Al

    2015-09-01

    We present recent coherence parameter measurements for excitation of neon and hydrogen by 50 eV electrons. The measurements were made using a crossed electron/gas beam spectrometer, featuring a hemispherically selected electron energy analyzer for detecting scattered electrons and double-reflection VUV polarization analyzer to register fluorescence photons. Time-coincidence counting methods on the electron and photon signals were employed to determine Stokes Parameters at each scattering angle, with data measured at angles between 20 - 115 degrees. The data are compared with calculated results using the B-Spline R-Matrix (BSR) and Relativistic Distorted Wave (RDW) approaches. Measurements were made of both the linear (Plin and γ) and circular (Lperp) parameters for the lowest lying excited states in these two targets. We particularly focus on results in the Lperp parameter, which shows unusual behavior in these particular targets, including strong sign changes implying reversal of the angular momentum transfer. In the case of neon, the unusual behavior is well captured by the BSR, but not by other models.

  10. One Period of Exploration with the Squid.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bradley, James V.; Ng, Andrew

    1997-01-01

    Presents a lab that can be offered after students have learned the basic anatomy and physiology of the various phyla, the primary objective of which is to explore and apply their acquired knowledge to a new situation. Involves exploring the anatomy and life-style of the squid. (JRH)

  11. Squid Dissection: From Pen to Ink.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, Cindy; Kisiel, Jim

    2003-01-01

    Introduces students to dissection, which is an important part of scientific discovery. Students not only gain an understanding of the anatomy of a squid, but also develop a sense of responsibility and respect for the animal that they are using as a learning tool. (Author/SOE)

  12. Multichannel SQUID systems for brain research

    SciTech Connect

    Ahonen, A.I.; Hamalainen, M.S.; Kajola, M.J.; Knuutila, J.E.F.; Lounasmaa, O.V.; Simola, J.T.; Vilkman, V.A. . Low Temperature Lab.); Tesche, C.D. . Thomas J. Watson Research Center)

    1991-03-01

    This paper reviews basis principles of magnetoencephalography (MEG) and neuromagnetic instrumentation. The authors' 24-channel system, based on planar gradiometer coils and dc-SQUIDs, is then described. Finally, recent MEG-experiments on human somatotopy and focal epilepsy, carried out in the authors' laboratory, are presented.

  13. High Resolution LTS-SQUID Microscopes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baudenbacher, Franz; Peters, Nicholas; Wikswo, John

    2000-03-01

    We have developed a scanning superconducting quantum interference device (SQUID) microscope for imaging magnetic fields of room-temperature samples with sub-millimeter resolution. In our design, hand wound niobium pickup coils were coupled to commercially available low-temperature SQUID sensors. The SQUID sensor and the pickup coil are in the vacuum space of the cryostat separated typically less than 50μm by a thin sapphire window from the room-temperature sample. A computerized non-magnetic scanning stage with sub-micron resolution in combination with a tripod leveling system allows samples to be scanned within 10μm of the sapphire window. For a 20-turn 500μm diameter pickup coil, we achieved a field sensitivity of 350fT\\cdotHz-1/2 for frequencies above 1 Hz, and 1pT\\cdotHz-1/2 for a 10-turn 250mm coil. The SQUID microscope was used to image the distribution of time-dependent stimulus and action currents in anisotropic cardiac tissue, the remanent magnetization of the Martian meteorite ALH84001 during thermal demagnetisation, and the magnetic susceptibility of biogenic magnetite in the beak of homing pigeons.

  14. Chromogenic behaviors of the Humboldt squid (Dosidicus gigas) studied in situ with an animal-borne video package.

    PubMed

    Rosen, Hannah; Gilly, William; Bell, Lauren; Abernathy, Kyler; Marshall, Greg

    2015-01-15

    Dosidicus gigas (Humboldt or jumbo flying squid) is an economically and ecologically influential species, yet little is known about its natural behaviors because of difficulties in studying this active predator in its oceanic environment. By using an animal-borne video package, National Geographic's Crittercam, we were able to observe natural behaviors in free-swimming D. gigas in the Gulf of California with a focus on color-generating (chromogenic) behaviors. We documented two dynamic displays without artificial lighting at depths of up to 70 m. One dynamic pattern, termed 'flashing' is characterized by a global oscillation (2-4 Hz) of body color between white and red. Flashing was almost always observed when other squid were visible in the video frame, and this behavior presumably represents intraspecific signaling. Amplitude and frequency of flashing can be modulated, and the phase relationship with another squid can also be rapidly altered. Another dynamic display termed 'flickering' was observed whenever flashing was not occurring. This behavior is characterized by irregular wave-like activity in neighboring patches of chromatophores, and the resulting patterns mimic reflections of down-welled light in the water column, suggesting that this behavior may provide a dynamic type of camouflage. Rapid and global pauses in flickering, often before a flashing episode, indicate that flickering is under inhibitory neural control. Although flashing and flickering have not been described in other squid, functional similarities are evident with other species.

  15. Superconducting Nanobridge SQUID Magnetometers for Spin Sensing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Antler, Natania

    As the cutting edge of science and technology pushes towards smaller length scales, sensing technologies with nanoscale precision become increasingly important. In this thesis I will discuss the optimization and application of a 3D nanobridge SQUID magnetometer for studying solid state spin systems, in particular for sensing impurity spins in diamond. Solid state spins have proposed applications in memory and computation for both classical and quantum computing. Isolated spins typically have longer coherence times, making them attractive qubit candidates, but necessitating the development of very sensitive detectors for readout. This 3D nanobridge SQUID combines the exquisite spatial sensitivity of a traditional nanoSQUID with a large non-linearity on par with a tunnel junction SQUID. This allows us to build a highly sensitive magnetometer which can act as both an efficient flux transducer as well as a nearly quantum limited lumped Josephson Parametric Amplifier. We show that the device has a minimum flux noise of 17 +/- 0.9 nphi0/Hz1/2 with only a factor of ˜2.5 increase in flux noise up to 61 mT. A second generation device with a smaller capacitor achieves field tolerance up to 75 mT. The maximal bandwidth values range from 25-40 MHz in the parametric amplification regime to 70 MHz in the linear regime. This combination of large bandwidth, low flux noise, large flux coupling and field tolerance make this sensor a promising candidate for near-single-spin dynamics measurements. In the last part of this thesis we begin to demonstrate the utility of a nanobridge SQUID magnetometer for characterizing spin systems in the solid state. We use the magnetometer to measure the decay characteristics of P1 centers in diamond. We find that the spin-lattice relaxation time varies with temperature, with an order of magnitude decrease in the decay time between 25 mK and 370 mK.

  16. 50 CFR 648.23 - Mackerel, squid, and butterfish gear restrictions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 12 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Mackerel, squid, and butterfish gear... Management Measures for the Atlantic Mackerel, Squid, and Butterfish Fisheries § 648.23 Mackerel, squid, and...) Longfin squid fishery. Owners or operators of otter trawl vessels possessing longfin squid harvested in...

  17. 50 CFR 648.23 - Mackerel, squid, and butterfish gear restrictions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 12 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Mackerel, squid, and butterfish gear... Management Measures for the Atlantic Mackerel, Squid, and Butterfish Fisheries § 648.23 Mackerel, squid, and...) Longfin squid fishery. Owners or operators of otter trawl vessels possessing longfin squid harvested in...

  18. 50 CFR 648.23 - Mackerel, squid, and butterfish gear restrictions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 12 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Mackerel, squid, and butterfish gear... Management Measures for the Atlantic Mackerel, Squid, and Butterfish Fisheries § 648.23 Mackerel, squid, and...) Longfin squid fishery. Owners or operators of otter trawl vessels possessing longfin squid harvested in...

  19. Muon transfer from hot muonic hydrogen atoms to neon

    SciTech Connect

    Jacot-Guillarmod, R.; Bailey, J.M.; Beer, G.A.; Knowles, P.E.; Mason, G.R.; Olin, A.; Beveridge, J.L.; Marshall, G.M.; Brewer, J.H.; Forster, B.M.; Huber, T.M.; Kammel, P.; Zmeskal, J.; Kunselman, A.R.; Petitjean, C.

    1992-12-31

    A negative muon beam has been directed on adjacent solid layers of hydrogen and neon. Three targets differing by their deuterium concentration were investigated. Muonic hydrogen atoms can drift to the neon layer where the muon is immediately transferred. The time structure of the muonic neon X-rays follows the exponential law with a disappearance rate corresponding to the one of {mu}{sup {minus}p} atoms in each target. The rates {lambda}{sub pp{mu}} and {lambda}{sub pd} can be extracted.

  20. The prospects of a subnanometer focused neon ion beam.

    PubMed

    Rahman, F H M; McVey, Shawn; Farkas, Louis; Notte, John A; Tan, Shida; Livengood, Richard H

    2012-01-01

    The success of the helium ion microscope has encouraged extensions of this technology to produce beams of other ion species. A review of the various candidate ion beams and their technical prospects suggest that a neon beam might be the most readily achieved. Such a neon beam would provide a sputtering yield that exceeds helium by an order of magnitude while still offering a theoretical probe size less than 1-nm. This article outlines the motivation for a neon gas field ion source, the expected performance through simulations, and provides an update of our experimental progress. PMID:21796647

  1. The prospects of a subnanometer focused neon ion beam.

    PubMed

    Rahman, F H M; McVey, Shawn; Farkas, Louis; Notte, John A; Tan, Shida; Livengood, Richard H

    2012-01-01

    The success of the helium ion microscope has encouraged extensions of this technology to produce beams of other ion species. A review of the various candidate ion beams and their technical prospects suggest that a neon beam might be the most readily achieved. Such a neon beam would provide a sputtering yield that exceeds helium by an order of magnitude while still offering a theoretical probe size less than 1-nm. This article outlines the motivation for a neon gas field ion source, the expected performance through simulations, and provides an update of our experimental progress.

  2. Comprehensive Testing of a Neon Cryogenic Capillary Pumped Loop

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kobel, Mark C.; Ku, Jentung; Obenschain, Arthur F. (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    This paper describes a comprehensive test program of a cryogenic capillary pumped loop (CCPL) using neon as the working fluid in the temperature range between 30 K and 40 K. The test article was originally designed to be used with nitrogen in the 70 K to 100 K temperature range, and was refurbished for testing with neon. Tests performed included start up from a supercritical state, power cycle, sink temperature cycle, heat transport limit, low power limit, reservoir set point change and long duration operation. The neon CCPL has demonstrated excellent performance under various conditions.

  3. Jet flow in steadily swimming adult squid.

    PubMed

    Anderson, Erik J; Grosenbaugh, Mark A

    2005-03-01

    Although various hydrodynamic models have been used in past analyses of squid jet propulsion, no previous investigations have definitively determined the fluid structure of the jets of steadily swimming squid. In addition, few accurate measurements of jet velocity and other jet parameters in squid have been reported. We used digital particle imaging velocimetry (DPIV) to visualize the jet flow of adult long-finned squid Loligo pealei (mantle length, L(m)=27.1+/-3.0 cm, mean +/-S.D.) swimming in a flume over a wide range of speeds (10.1-59.3 cm s(-1), i.e. 0.33-2.06 L(m) s(-1)). Qualitatively, squid jets were periodic, steady, and prolonged emissions of fluid that exhibited an elongated core of high speed flow. The development of a leading vortex ring common to jets emitted from pipes into still water often appeared to be diminished and delayed. We were able to mimic this effect in jets produced by a piston and pipe arrangement aligned with a uniform background flow. As in continuous jets, squid jets showed evidence of the growth of instability waves in the jet shear layer followed by the breakup of the jet into packets of vorticity of varying degrees of coherence. These ranged from apparent chains of short-lived vortex rings to turbulent plumes. There was some evidence of the complete roll-up of a handful of shorter jets into single vortex rings, but steady propulsion by individual vortex ring puffs was never observed. Quantitatively, the length of the jet structure in the visualized field of view, L(j), was observed to be 7.2-25.6 cm, and jet plug lengths, L, were estimated to be 4.4-49.4 cm using average jet velocity and jet period. These lengths and an average jet orifice diameter, D, of 0.8 cm were used to calculate the ratios L(j)/D and L/D, which ranged from 9.0 to 32.0 and 5.5 to 61.8, respectively. Jets emitted from pipes in the presence of a background flow suggested that the ratio between the background flow velocity and the jet velocity was more

  4. Scanning SQUID microscopy with single electron spin sensitivity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vasyukov, Denis

    2014-03-01

    Superconducting interference devices (SQUIDs) have been traditionally used for studying fundamental properties of magnetic materials and superconductors. Although widely used in scanning magnetic microscopy, their progress towards detection of small magnetic moments was stagnating of late due to limitations imposed by conventional designs of planar SQUIDs and contemporary lithography techniques, restricting sample-to-sensor distance smaller than ~ 0.5 micron and SQUIDs diameters smaller than ~ 200 nm. These limitations were overcome by the invention of a SQUID-on-tip device, subsequent realization of a SQUID-on-tip microscope, and by creation of an ultra-small sensor with spatial resolution of 20 nm and sensitivity to a single electron spin per 1 Hz bandwidth. In this talk I will describe the principles of scanning SQUID magnetometry, its applications to study superconductors and its potential for magnetic nano-scale imaging of novel materials.

  5. A method for simulating a flux-locked DC SQUID

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gutt, G. M.; Kasdin, N. J.; Condron, M. R., II; Muhlfelder, B.; Lockhart, J. M.; Cromar, M. W.

    1993-01-01

    The authors describe a computationally efficient and accurate method for simulating a dc SQUID's V-Phi (voltage-flux) and I-V characteristics which has proven valuable in evaluating and improving various SQUID readout methods. The simulation of the SQUID is based on fitting of previously acquired data from either a real or a modeled device using the Fourier transform of the V-Phi curve. This method does not predict SQUID behavior, but rather is a way of replicating a known behavior efficiently with portability into various simulation programs such as SPICE. The authors discuss the methods used to simulate the SQUID and the flux-locking control electronics, and present specific examples of this approach. Results include an estimate of the slew rate and linearity of a simple flux-locked loop using a characterized dc SQUID.

  6. Coupled Serial and Parallel Non-uniform SQUIDs

    SciTech Connect

    Longhini, Patrick; In, Visarath; Berggren, Susan; Palacios, Antonio; Leese de Escobar, Anna

    2011-04-19

    In this work we numerical model series and parallel non-uniform superconducting quantum interference device (SQUID) array. Previous work has shown that series SQUID array constructed with a random distribution of loop sizes, (i.e. different areas for each SQUID loop) there exists a unique 'anti-peak' at the zero magnetic field for the voltage versus applied magnetic field (V-B). Similar results extend to a parallel SQUID array where the difference lies in the arrangement of the Josephson junctions. Other system parameter such as bias current, the number of loops, and mutual inductances are varied to demonstrate the change in dynamic range and linearity of the V-B response. Application of the SQUID array as a low noise amplifier (LNA) would increase link margins and affect the entire communication system. For unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs), size, weight and power are limited, the SQUID array would allow use of practical 'electrically small' antennas that provide acceptable gain.

  7. A sensor configuration for a 304 SQUID vector magnetometer.

    PubMed

    Schnabel, A; Burghoff, M; Hartwig, S; Petsche, F; Steinhoff, U; Drung, D; Koch, H

    2004-01-01

    A novel SQUID vector magnetometer system is introduced which has been specially designed for the use inside the strongly magnetically shielded room BMSR-2 of PTB. The system is housed in a dewar with a flat bottom and an inner diameter of Ø 250 mm. The SQUIDs are arranged so that in addition to the usually measured Z-component of the field the horizontal magnetic fields are measured too. A total of 304 DC-SQUID magnetometers are divided up into 19 identical modules. The 16 low-Tc SQUIDs of each module are located in such a way that an estimation of the magnetic field in all three dimensions is possible at three points inside the module. The 57 SQUIDs of the lowest Z plane of all modules form a hexagonal grid with a base length of 29 mm. The design criteria and the physical principle behind the complex SQUID arrangement are explained. PMID:16012698

  8. 8. DETAIL OF NORTHEAST ELEVATION SHOWING NEON TWA SIGN AND ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    8. DETAIL OF NORTHEAST ELEVATION SHOWING NEON TWA SIGN AND ROOF MASTS. LOOKING SOUTHWEST. - TWA Maintenance Hangar, South side of Tinicum Island Road, Philadelphia International Airport, Philadelphia, Philadelphia County, PA

  9. Low Temperature SQUID for NDE Applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wincheski, Buzz (Technical Monitor); Selim, Raouf

    2003-01-01

    We have developed a low temperature SuperConducting Quantum Interference Device - SQUID measurement system for detection of defects deep under the surface of aluminum structures using eddy current techniques. The system uses a two dimensional planar inducer with two different excitation frequencies to induce a current in the sample. We have developed a data analysis software program that enabled us to distinguish between round defects (holes), straight defects (slots) and slots close to holes simulating cracks starting from rivets in aluminum structures. We were able to detect defects that are 8mm below the surface. We have also measured the change in phase of the detected signal as a function of depth of the defect. This relationship can be used to determine the depth of hidden flaws. Using this analysis software with the high temperature SQUID system at NASA Langley we were able to detect slots close to holes in layered aluminum sample.

  10. Supersensitive SQUID/magnetostrictor detecting system

    SciTech Connect

    Golovashkin, Aleksander I; Zherikhina, L N; Tskhovrebov, Andrei M; Izmailov, G N

    2012-12-31

    It is shown that using the state-of-the-art quantum interferometer (SQUID) with the resolution 10{sup -6} {Phi}{sub 0} Hz{sup -1/2} = 2.07 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup -21} Wb Hz{sup -1/2}, coupled to a magnetostrictor, playing the role of tensomagnetic transducer, it is possible to construct a system for detecting pressure variations with the ultimate sensitivity of 10{sup -13} Pa Hz{sup -1/2} and for measuring specific elongation with the sensitivity of 10{sup -24} Hz{sup -1/2}. The analysis of physical grounds of the inverse magnetostriction effect demonstrates concrete ways to essentially higher efficiency of tensomagnetic conversion. The estimates performed demonstrate the possibility of using the SQUID/magnetostrictor system as a detector of gravitational waves. Other possibilities of using this system for solving both fundamental and applied problems are also considered. (experimental techniques)

  11. Practical SQUID Instrument for Nondestructive Testing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tralshawala, N.; Claycomb, J. R.; Miller, John H., Jr.

    1997-01-01

    We report on the development of a scanning eddy-current imaging system designed to detect deep subsurface flaws in conducting materials. A high transition temperature (high-T c) superconducting quantum interference device (SQUID) magnetometer is employed to provide the required sensitivity at low frequencies, while a combination of small cylindrical high-Tc superconducting and A-metal shields enable the instrument to be scanned in a magnetically noisy environment, rather than the object under test. The shields are arranged to prevent unwanted excitation and ambient noise fields from reaching the SQUID, and to enhance spatial resolution and minimize undesirable edge effects. Thus far, the instrument has successfully detected cracks and pits through 10 layers of aluminum, with a combined thickness of 5 cm at room temperature.

  12. Practical SQUID instrument for nondestructive testing

    SciTech Connect

    Tralshawala, N.; Claycomb, J.R.; Miller, J.H. Jr.

    1997-09-01

    We report on the development of a scanning eddy-current imaging system designed to detect deep subsurface flaws in conducting materials. A high transition temperature (high-T{sub c}) superconducting quantum interference device (SQUID) magnetometer is employed to provide the required sensitivity at low frequencies, while a combination of small cylindrical high-T{sub c} superconducting and {mu}-metal shields enable the instrument to be scanned in a magnetically noisy environment, rather than the object under test. The shields are arranged to prevent unwanted excitation and ambient noise fields from reaching the SQUID, and to enhance spatial resolution and minimize undesirable edge effects. Thus far, the instrument has successfully detected cracks and pits through 10 layers of aluminum, with a combined thickness of 5 cm at room temperature. {copyright} {ital 1997 American Institute of Physics.}

  13. Investigation of noise sources in SQUID electronics

    SciTech Connect

    Clem, T.R.; Goldstein, M.J.; Purpura, J.W.; Allen, L.H.; Claassen, J.H.; Gubser, D.U.; Wolf, S.A.

    1989-03-01

    The performance of SQUID-based electronics outside a laboratory-controlled environment may be degraded from that found in laboratory operation. Investigations on superconducting tubes, wires, and sheets have been conducted to identify contributions to such noise. Results have been obtained for bulk and thin film samples utilizing both the conventional low temperature materials, as well as the new high temperature oxide materials. Experiments have been conducted to quantify flux redistribution and flux motion in superconducting samples subjected to temperature changes, temperature gradients, and magnetic field gradients. These investigations have been conducted at magnetic fields typical of many SQUID applications, with field intensities much smaller than the critical values H/sub cl/. Penetration depth effects, flux pinning effects, and flux motion effects have been observed. The various types of experiments conducted along with specific results are described.

  14. Digital filter design approach for SQUID gradiometers

    SciTech Connect

    Bruno, A.C.; Ribeiro, P.C.

    1988-04-15

    A review of the traditional method for designing gradiometers is made. A nonrecursive digital filter model for the gradiometer is presented, giving a new set of parameters for the gradiometer identification. Some designs are analyzed using the proposed set. As an example, a true differentiator is designed to be used as the SQUID input coil. It is shown that the differentiator has the same noise rejection as the conventional gradiometer but provides more signal sensitivity.

  15. Ceramic HTSC SQUID-based galvanometer

    SciTech Connect

    Uchaikin, S.V.; Hiep, L.H. )

    1992-06-01

    A highly sensitive galvanometer operating at liquid-nitrogen temperature for direct and low-frequency current measurements was developed on the basis of a HTSC SQUID. The direct-current sensitivity of the galvanometer is approximately 0.5 nA at an internal resistance of about 20 ohms. Its energy resolution in the white noise region is 2 x 10 exp 21 J/Hz. 11 refs.

  16. Low Field Squid MRI Devices, Components and Methods

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Penanen, Konstantin I. (Inventor); Eom, Byeong H. (Inventor); Hahn, Inseob (Inventor)

    2014-01-01

    Low field SQUID MRI devices, components and methods are disclosed. They include a portable low field (SQUID)-based MRI instrument and a portable low field SQUID-based MRI system to be operated under a bed where a subject is adapted to be located. Also disclosed is a method of distributing wires on an image encoding coil system adapted to be used with an NMR or MRI device for analyzing a sample or subject and a second order superconducting gradiometer adapted to be used with a low field SQUID-based MRI device as a sensing component for an MRI signal related to a subject or sample.

  17. Low field SQUID MRI devices, components and methods

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Penanen, Konstantin I. (Inventor); Eom, Byeong H (Inventor); Hahn, Inseob (Inventor)

    2010-01-01

    Low field SQUID MRI devices, components and methods are disclosed. They include a portable low field (SQUID)-based MRI instrument and a portable low field SQUID-based MRI system to be operated under a bed where a subject is adapted to be located. Also disclosed is a method of distributing wires on an image encoding coil system adapted to be used with an NMR or MRI device for analyzing a sample or subject and a second order superconducting gradiometer adapted to be used with a low field SQUID-based MRI device as a sensing component for an MRI signal related to a subject or sample.

  18. A nanoscale SQUID operating at high magnetic fields

    SciTech Connect

    Lam, Simon K. H.; Clem, John R.; Yang, Wenrong

    2011-10-13

    A washer-free Nb nanoSQUID has been developed for measuring magnetization changes from nanoscale objects. The SQUID loop is etched into a 250 nm wide Au/Nb bilayer track and the diameter of the SQUID hole is ~ 70 nm. In the presence of a magnetic field perpendicular to the plane of the SQUID, vortex penetration into the 250 nm wide track can be observed via the critical current–applied field characteristic and the value at which vortex first penetrates is consistent with the theoretical prediction. Upon removing the applied field, the penetrated vortices escape the track and the critical current at zero field is restored.

  19. A nanoscale SQUID operating at high magnetic fields

    SciTech Connect

    Lam, Simon K. H.; Clem, John R.; Yang, Wenrong

    2011-10-13

    A washer-free Nb nanoSQUID has been developed for measuring magnetization changes from nanoscale objects. The SQUID loop is etched into a 250 nm wide Au/Nb bilayer track and the diameter of the SQUID hole is {approx} 70 nm. In the presence of a magnetic field perpendicular to the plane of the SQUID, vortex penetration into the 250 nm wide track can be observed via the critical current-applied field characteristic and the value at which vortex first penetrates is consistent with the theoretical prediction. Upon removing the applied field, the penetrated vortices escape the track and the critical current at zero field is restored.

  20. Low Field Squid MRI Devices, Components and Methods

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Penanen, Konstantin I. (Inventor); Eom, Byeong H. (Inventor); Hahn, Inseob (Inventor)

    2013-01-01

    Low field SQUID MRI devices, components and methods are disclosed. They include a portable low field (SQUID)-based MRI instrument and a portable low field SQUID-based MRI system to be operated under a bed where a subject is adapted to be located. Also disclosed is a method of distributing wires on an image encoding coil system adapted to be used with an NMR or MRI device for analyzing a sample or subject and a second order superconducting gradiometer adapted to be used with a low field SQUID-based MRI device as a sensing component for an MRI signal related to a subject or sample.

  1. Low field SQUID MRI devices, components and methods

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Penanen, Konstantin I. (Inventor); Eom, Byeong H. (Inventor); Hahn, Inseob (Inventor)

    2011-01-01

    Low field SQUID MRI devices, components and methods are disclosed. They include a portable low field (SQUID)-based MRI instrument and a portable low field SQUID-based MRI system to be operated under a bed where a subject is adapted to be located. Also disclosed is a method of distributing wires on an image encoding coil system adapted to be used with an NMR or MRI device for analyzing a sample or subject and a second order superconducting gradiometer adapted to be used with a low field SQUID-based MRI device as a sensing component for an MRI signal related to a subject or sample.

  2. Allometry indicates giant eyes of giant squid are not exceptional

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background The eyes of giant and colossal squid are among the largest eyes in the history of life. It was recently proposed that sperm whale predation is the main driver of eye size evolution in giant squid, on the basis of an optical model that suggested optimal performance in detecting large luminous visual targets such as whales in the deep sea. However, it is poorly understood how the eye size of giant and colossal squid compares to that of other aquatic organisms when scaling effects are considered. Results We performed a large-scale comparative study that included 87 squid species and 237 species of acanthomorph fish. While squid have larger eyes than most acanthomorphs, a comparison of relative eye size among squid suggests that giant and colossal squid do not have unusually large eyes. After revising constants used in a previous model we found that large eyes perform equally well in detecting point targets and large luminous targets in the deep sea. Conclusions The eyes of giant and colossal squid do not appear exceptionally large when allometric effects are considered. It is probable that the giant eyes of giant squid result from a phylogenetically conserved developmental pattern manifested in very large animals. Whatever the cause of large eyes, they appear to have several advantages for vision in the reduced light of the deep mesopelagic zone. PMID:23418818

  3. Compartment-Specific Phosphorylation of Squid Neurofilaments.

    PubMed

    Grant, Philip; Pant, Harish C

    2016-01-01

    Studies of the giant axon and synapse of third-order neurons in the squid stellate ganglion have provided a vast literature on neuronal physiology and axon transport. Large neuronal size also lends itself to comparative biochemical studies of cell body versus axon. These have focused on the regulation of synthesis, assembly, posttranslational modification and function of neuronal cytoskeletal proteins (microtubules (MTs) and neurofilaments (NFs)), the predominant proteins in axoplasm. These contribute to axonal organization, stability, transport, and impulse transmission responsible for rapid contractions of mantle muscles underlying jet propulsion. Studies of vertebrate NFs have established an extensive literature on NF structure, organization, and function; studies of squid NFs, however, have made it possible to compare compartment-specific regulation of NF synthesis, assembly, and function in soma versus axoplasm. Since NFs contain over 100 eligible sites for phosphorylation by protein kinases, the compartment-specific patterns of phosphorylation have been a primary focus of biochemical studies. We have learned that NF phosphorylation is tightly compartmentalized; extensive phosphorylation occurs only in the axonal compartment in squid and in vertebrate neurons. This extensive phosphorylation plays a key role in organizing NFs, in association with microtubules (MTs), into a stable, dynamic functional lattice that supports axon growth, diameter, impulse transmission, and synaptic activity. To understand how cytoskeletal phosphorylation is topographically regulated, the kinases and phosphatases, bound to NFs isolated from cell bodies and axoplasm, have also been studied.

  4. Transparency and Coherence in rf SQUID Metamaterials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anlage, Steven; Trepanier, Melissa; Zhang, Daimeng

    We have developed active metamaterials capable of quickly tuning their electrical and magnetic responses over a wide frequency range. These metamaterials are based on superconducting elements to form low loss, physically and electrically small, highly tunable structures for fundamental studies of extraordinarily nonlinear media. The meta-atoms are rf superconducting quantum interference devices (SQUIDs) that incorporate the Josephson effect. RF SQUIDs have an inductance which is strongly tunable with dc and rf magnetic fields and currents. The rf SQUID metamaterial is a richly nonlinear effective medium introducing qualitatively new macroscopic quantum phenomena into the metamaterials community, namely magnetic flux quantization and the Josephson effect. The coherent oscillation of the meta-atoms is strongly sensitive to the environment and measurement conditions, and we have developed several strategies to improve the coherence experimentally by exploiting ideas from nonlinear dynamics. The metamaterials also display a unique form of transparency whose development can be manipulated through multiple parametric dependences. We discuss these qualitatively new metamaterial phenomena. This work is supported by the NSF-GOALI and OISE Programs through Grant No. ECCS-1158644 and the Center for Nanophysics and Advanced Materials (CNAM).

  5. Light-curve Analysis of Neon Novae

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hachisu, Izumi; Kato, Mariko

    2016-01-01

    We analyzed light curves of five neon novae, QU Vul, V351 Pup, V382 Vel, V693 CrA, and V1974 Cyg, and determined their white dwarf (WD) masses and distance moduli on the basis of theoretical light curves composed of free-free and photospheric emission. For QU Vul, we obtained a distance of d ˜ 2.4 kpc, reddening of E(B - V) ˜ 0.55, and WD mass of MWD = 0.82-0.96 {M}⊙ . This suggests that an oxygen-neon WD lost a mass of more than ˜ 0.1 {M}⊙ since its birth. For V351 Pup, we obtained d˜ 5.5 {{kpc}}, E(B-V)˜ 0.45, and {M}{{WD}}=0.98-1.1 {M}⊙ . For V382 Vel, we obtained d˜ 1.6 {{kpc}}, E(B-V)˜ 0.15, and {M}{{WD}}=1.13-1.28 {M}⊙ . For V693 CrA, we obtained d˜ 7.1 {{kpc}}, E(B-V)˜ 0.05, and {M}{{WD}}=1.15-1.25 {M}⊙ . For V1974 Cyg, we obtained d˜ 1.8 {{kpc}}, E(B-V)˜ 0.30, and {M}{{WD}}=0.95-1.1 {M}⊙ . For comparison, we added the carbon-oxygen nova V1668 Cyg to our analysis and obtained d˜ 5.4 {{kpc}}, E(B-V)˜ 0.30, and {M}{{WD}}=0.98-1.1 {M}⊙ . In QU Vul, photospheric emission contributes 0.4-0.8 mag at most to the optical light curve compared with free-free emission only. In V351 Pup and V1974 Cyg, photospheric emission contributes very little (0.2-0.4 mag at most) to the optical light curve. In V382 Vel and V693 CrA, free-free emission dominates the continuum spectra, and photospheric emission does not contribute to the optical magnitudes. We also discuss the maximum magnitude versus rate of decline relation for these novae based on the universal decline law.

  6. Laying the groundwork for NEON's continental-scale ecological research

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dethloff, G.; Denslow, M.

    2013-12-01

    The National Ecological Observatory Network (NEON) is designed to examine a suite of ecological issues. Field-collected data from 96 terrestrial and aquatic sites across the U.S. will be combined with remotely sensed data and existing continental-scale data sets. Field collections will include a range of physical and biological types, including soil, sediment, surface water, groundwater, precipitation, plants, animals, insects, and microbes as well as biological sub-samples such as leaf material, blood and tissue samples, and DNA extracts. Initial data analyses and identifications of approximately 175,000 samples per year will occur at numerous external laboratories when all sites are fully staffed in 2017. Additionally, NEON will archive biotic and abiotic specimens at collections facilities where they will be curated and available for additional analyses by the scientific community. The number of archived specimens is currently estimated to exceed 130,000 per year by 2017. We will detail how NEON is addressing the complexities and challenges around this set of analyses and specimens and how the resulting high-quality data can impact ecological understanding. The raw data returned from external laboratories that is quality checked and served by NEON will be the foundation for many NEON data products. For example, sequence-quality nucleic acids extracted from surface waters, benthic biofilms, and soil samples will be building blocks for data products on microbial diversity. The raw sequence data will also be available for uses such as evolutionary investigations, and the extracts will be archived so others can acquire them for additional research. Currently, NEON is establishing contracts for the analysis and archiving of field-collected samples through 2017. During this period, NEON will gather information on the progress and success of this large-scale effort in order to determine the most effective course to pursue with external facilities. Two areas that NEON

  7. Graphene engineering by neon ion beams

    DOE PAGES

    Iberi, Vighter; Ievlev, Anton V.; Vlassiouk, Ivan; Jesse, Stephen; Kalinin, Sergei V.; Joy, David C.; Rondinone, Adam J.; Belianinov, Alex; Ovchinnikova, Olga S.

    2016-02-18

    Achieving the ultimate limits of materials and device performance necessitates the engineering of matter with atomic, molecular, and mesoscale fidelity. While common for organic and macromolecular chemistry, these capabilities are virtually absent for 2D materials. In contrast to the undesired effect of ion implantation from focused ion beam (FIB) lithography with gallium ions, and proximity effects in standard e-beam lithography techniques, the shorter mean free path and interaction volumes of helium and neon ions offer a new route for clean, resist free nanofabrication. Furthermore, with the advent of scanning helium ion microscopy, maskless He+ and Ne+ beam lithography of graphenemore » based nanoelectronics is coming to the forefront. Here, we will discuss the use of energetic Ne ions in engineering graphene devices and explore the mechanical, electromechanical and chemical properties of the ion-milled devices using scanning probe microscopy (SPM). By using SPM-based techniques such as band excitation (BE) force modulation microscopy, Kelvin probe force microscopy (KPFM) and Raman spectroscopy, we demonstrate that the mechanical, electrical and optical properties of the exact same devices can be quantitatively extracted. Additionally, the effect of defects inherent in ion beam direct-write lithography, on the overall performance of the fabricated devices is elucidated.« less

  8. Multistage Zeeman deceleration of metastable neon

    SciTech Connect

    Wiederkehr, Alex W.; Motsch, Michael; Hogan, Stephen D.; Andrist, Markus; Schmutz, Hansjuerg; Lambillotte, Bruno; Agner, Josef A.; Merkt, Frederic

    2011-12-07

    A supersonic beam of metastable neon atoms has been decelerated by exploiting the interaction between the magnetic moment of the atoms and time-dependent inhomogeneous magnetic fields in a multistage Zeeman decelerator. Using 91 deceleration solenoids, the atoms were decelerated from an initial velocity of 580 m/s to final velocities as low as 105 m/s, corresponding to a removal of more than 95% of their initial kinetic energy. The phase-space distribution of the cold, decelerated atoms was characterized by time-of-flight and imaging measurements, from which a temperature of 10 mK was obtained in the moving frame of the decelerated sample. In combination with particle-trajectory simulations, these measurements allowed the phase-space acceptance of the decelerator to be quantified. The degree of isotope separation that can be achieved by multistage Zeeman deceleration was also studied by performing experiments with pulse sequences generated for {sup 20}Ne and {sup 22}Ne.

  9. Peripheral injury alters schooling behavior in squid, Doryteuthis pealeii.

    PubMed

    Oshima, Megumi; di Pauli von Treuheim, Theodor; Carroll, Julia; Hanlon, Roger T; Walters, Edgar T; Crook, Robyn J

    2016-07-01

    Animals with detectable injuries are at escalated threat of predation. The anti-predation tactic of schooling reduces individual predation risk overall, but it is not known how schooling behavior affects injured animals, or whether risks are reduced equally for injured animals versus other school members. In this laboratory study we examined the effects of minor fin injury on schooling decisions made by squid. Schooling behavior of groups of squid, in which one member was injured, was monitored over 24h. Injured squid were more likely to be members of a school shortly after injury (0.5-2h), but there were no differences compared with sham-injured squid at longer time points (6-24h). Overall, the presence of an injured conspecific increased the probability that a school would form, irrespective of whether the injured squid was a member of the school. When groups containing one injured squid were exposed to a predator cue, injured squid were more likely to join the school, but their position depended on whether the threat was a proximate visual cue or olfactory cue. We found no evidence that injured squid oriented themselves to conceal their injury from salient threats. Overall we conclude that nociceptive sensitization after injury changes grouping behaviors in ways that are likely to be adaptive. PMID:27108689

  10. Read-out electronics for DC squid magnetic measurements

    DOEpatents

    Ganther, Jr., Kenneth R.; Snapp, Lowell D.

    2002-01-01

    Read-out electronics for DC SQUID sensor systems, the read-out electronics incorporating low Johnson noise radio-frequency flux-locked loop circuitry and digital signal processing algorithms in order to improve upon the prior art by a factor of at least ten, thereby alleviating problems caused by magnetic interference when operating DC SQUID sensor systems in magnetically unshielded environments.

  11. SQUID magnetometry from nanometer to centimeter length scales

    SciTech Connect

    Hatridge, Michael J.

    2010-06-01

    The development of Superconducting QUantum Interference Device (SQUID)-based magnetometer for two applications, in vivo prepolarized, ultra-low field MRI of humans and dispersive readout of SQUIDs for micro- and nano-scale magnetometery, are the focus of this thesis.

  12. Planar thin film SQUID with integral flux concentrator

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Peters, Palmer N. (Inventor); Sisk, Robert C. (Inventor)

    1988-01-01

    A thin film SQUID is disclosed having improved flux concentration combined with simplicity of design and fabrication. The SQUID starts with a wafer like substrate having simple planar geometry. A large area of superconducting film is coated on the substrate, with a small open or uncoated area remaining at its center to define a SQUID loop, and a gap in the film formed, beginning at the outer circumferential edge of the substrate and extending radially inward to the open area. A Josephson junction is formed across the gap near the open area to interrupt the electrical continuity of the SQUID loop. A coil is attached to the surface of the substrate, electrically insulated from the superconducting film, and is energized to induce flux within the SQUID which is concentrated within the open area.

  13. SQUID detection of magnetically-tagged microorganisms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grossman, Helene L.

    2001-03-01

    A fast and versatile technique has been developed for detecting small quantities of specific microorganisms or molecules. The target analytes are bound to a substrate and placed in the measurement cell of a ``microscope'' based on a high-transition temperature Superconducting QUantum Interference Device (SQUID). A solution containing nanometer-size magnetite particles, coated with antibodies specific to the target, is added. The particles, which bind to the target via the antibody-antigen interaction, are superparamagnetic with a Néel relaxation time of ~ 1 s. A pulsed magnetic field aligns the dipole moments, and the SQUID measures the magnetic relaxation signal when the field is turned off. Unbound magnetic particles relax rapidly ( ~ 15 μs) by Brownian rotation and are not detected. On the other hand, particles bound to targets cannot rotate and instead relax slowly by the Néel mechanism. As a result, only bound particles contribute to the signal, allowing for quantification of the number of targets present without the need for a wash step. The current system can reproducibly detect as few as 5×10^4 magnetic particles - a sensitivity greater than that of the commonly used Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay (ELISA). A new SQUID microscope has been designed and built, which may improve the sensitivity by up to two orders of magnitude. This technique could be used to detect a wide range of bacteria, viruses, and molecules, with potential applications in the food industry, clinical settings, or research laboratories. Supported by U.S. DOE Contract DE-AC03-76SF00098

  14. The Ubiquitous SQUID: From Axions to Cancer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Clarke, John

    2011-03-01

    I briefly review the principles, practical implementation and applications of the dc SQUID (Superconducting QUantum Interference Device), an ultrasensitive detector of magnetic flux. Cosmological observations show that a major constituent of the universe is cold dark matter (CDM). A candidate particle for CDM is the axion which, in the presence of a magnetic field, is predicted to decay into a photon with energy given by the axion mass, ranging from 0.001 to 1 meV. The axion detector constructed at LLNL consists of a cooled, tunable cavity surrounded by a 7-T superconducting magnet. Photons from the axion decay would be detected by a cooled semiconductor amplifier. To search for the axion over an octave of frequency, however, would take two centuries. Now at the University of Washington, Seattle the axion detector will be upgraded by cooling it to 50 mK and installing a near-quantum limited SQUID amplifier. The scan time will be reduced by three orders of magnitude to a few months. In medical physics, we use an ultralow-field magnetic resonance imaging (ULFMRI) system with SQUID detection to obtain images in a magnetic field of 0.132 mT, four orders of magnitude lower than in conventional MRI. An advantage of low fields is that different types of tissue exhibit much greater contrast in the relaxation time T1 than in high fields. We have measured T1 in ex vivo specimens of surgically removed healthy and malignant prostate tissue. The percentage of tumor in each specimen is determined with pathology. The MRI contrast between two specimens from a given patient scales with the difference in the percentage of tumor; in healthy tissue T1 is typically 50 percent higher than in a tumor. These results suggest that ULFMRI with T1-weighted contrast may have clinical applications to imaging prostate cancer and potentially other types of cancer. Supported by DOE BES and HEP, and NIH

  15. Neon color spreading in dynamic displays: temporal factors.

    PubMed

    Cicchini, Marco; Spillmann, Lothar

    2013-01-01

    When a red star is placed in the middle of an Ehrenstein figure so as to be collinear with the surrounding black rays, a reddish veil is perceived to fill the white center. This is called neon color spreading. To better understand the processes that give rise to this phenomenon, we studied the temporal properties of the effect. Specifically, we presented a "sustained" black Ehrenstein figure (rays) for 600 ms and a "transient" red star for 48 ms, or the converse pattern, at various stimulus onset asynchronies (-100-700 ms) and asked subjects to compare the strength of the neon color in the test stimulus to that of a reference pattern in which the transient star had an onset asynchrony of 300 ms. Additional exposure durations of 24 and 96 ms were used for each transient stimulus in order to study the effect of temporal integration. Simultaneity of the on- and off-transients of the star and the Ehrenstein rays were found to optimize neon color spreading, especially when both stimuli terminated together. Longer exposure durations of the transient stimulus up to 96 ms further improved the effect. Neon color spreading was much reduced when the transient stimulus was presented soon after the beginning of the sustained stimulus, with a gradual build-up towards the end. These results emphasize the importance of stimulus onset asynchrony (SOA) and stimulus termination asynchrony (STA) for the perception of neon color spreading. PMID:24097045

  16. Neon color spreading in dynamic displays: temporal factors.

    PubMed

    Cicchini, Marco; Spillmann, Lothar

    2013-10-04

    When a red star is placed in the middle of an Ehrenstein figure so as to be collinear with the surrounding black rays, a reddish veil is perceived to fill the white center. This is called neon color spreading. To better understand the processes that give rise to this phenomenon, we studied the temporal properties of the effect. Specifically, we presented a "sustained" black Ehrenstein figure (rays) for 600 ms and a "transient" red star for 48 ms, or the converse pattern, at various stimulus onset asynchronies (-100-700 ms) and asked subjects to compare the strength of the neon color in the test stimulus to that of a reference pattern in which the transient star had an onset asynchrony of 300 ms. Additional exposure durations of 24 and 96 ms were used for each transient stimulus in order to study the effect of temporal integration. Simultaneity of the on- and off-transients of the star and the Ehrenstein rays were found to optimize neon color spreading, especially when both stimuli terminated together. Longer exposure durations of the transient stimulus up to 96 ms further improved the effect. Neon color spreading was much reduced when the transient stimulus was presented soon after the beginning of the sustained stimulus, with a gradual build-up towards the end. These results emphasize the importance of stimulus onset asynchrony (SOA) and stimulus termination asynchrony (STA) for the perception of neon color spreading.

  17. NEON INSIGHTS FROM OLD SOLAR X-RAYS: A PLASMA TEMPERATURE DEPENDENCE OF THE CORONAL NEON CONTENT

    SciTech Connect

    Drake, Jeremy J.

    2011-12-10

    An analysis using modern atomic data of fluxes culled from the literature for O VIII and Ne IX lines observed in solar active regions by the P78 and Solar Maximum Mission satellites confirms that the coronal Ne/O abundance ratio varies by a factor of two or more, and finds an increase in Ne/O with increasing active region plasma temperature. The latter is reminiscent of evidence for increasing Ne/O with stellar activity in low-activity coronae that reaches a 'neon saturation' in moderately active stars at approximately twice the historically accepted solar value of about 0.15 by number. We argue that neon saturation represents the underlying stellar photospheric compositions, and that low-activity coronae, including that of the Sun, are generally depleted in neon. The implication would be that the solar Ne/O abundance ratio should be revised upward by a factor of about two to n(Ne)/n(O) {approx} 0.3. Diverse observations of neon in the local cosmos provide some support for such a revision. Neon would still be of some relevance for reconciling helioseismology with solar models computed using recently advocated chemical mixtures with lower metal content.

  18. Purification and Liquefacttion of Neon Using a Helium Refrigeration Cycle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boeck, S.

    2010-04-01

    The cryogenic plant developed by Linde Kryotechnik is used to extract neon out of a crude gas flow coming from an air separation plant. The crude gas is cooled down by a two stage helium refrigeration process using the Linde Kryotechnik dynamic gas bearing turbines. After the first cooling stage, nitrogen is liquefied and separated from the crude gas. The Cryogenic adsorbers located at a temperature level below 80 K clean the crude gas from remaining nitrogen traces before the neon-helium mixture enters the final cooling stage. In the second cooling stage neon is liquefied and separated from the helium. The final product quality will be achieved within a rectification column at low pressure level.

  19. Experimental study on neon refrigeration system using commercial helium compressor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ko, Junseok; Kim, Hyobong; Hong, Yong-Ju; Yeom, Hankil; Koh, Deuk-Yong; Park, Seong-Je

    2012-06-01

    In this study, we developed neon refrigeration system using commercial helium compressor which was originally designed for GM cryocooler. We performed this research as precedent study before developing neon refrigeration system for small-scale hydrogen liquefaction system. The developed system is based on precooled Linde-Hampson system with liquid nitrogen as precoolant. Design parameters of heat exchangers are determined from thermodynamic cycle analysis with operating pressure of 2 MPa and 0.4 MPa. Heat exchangers have concentric-tube heat exchanger configuration and orifice is used as Joule- Thomson expansion device. In experiments, pressure, temperature, mass flow rate and compressor input power are measured as charging pressure. With experimental results, the characteristics of heat exchanger, Joule-Thomson expansion and refrigeration effect are discussed. The developed neon refrigeration system shows the lowest temperature of 43.9 K.

  20. Helium and neon isotopes in deep Pacific Ocean sediments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nier, A. O.; Schlutter, D. J.; Brownlee, D. E.

    1990-01-01

    Helium and neon concentration measurements, along with isotope ratio determinations, have been made for particles collected in the deep Pacific with a magnetic sled, and they are believed to be of extraterrestrial origin. Analyses were made for samples consisting of composites of many extremely fine particles and for several individual particles large enough to contain sufficient gas for analysis but small enough to escape melting in their passage through the atmosphere. Step-heating was employed to extract the gas. Cosmic-ray spallation products or solar-wind helium and neon, if present, were not abundant enough to account for the isotopic compositions measured. In the case of the samples of magnetic fines, the low temperature extractions provided elemental and isotopic ratios in the general range found for the primordial gas in carbonaceous chondrites and gas-rich meteorites. The isotopic ratios found in the high temperature extractions suggest the presence of solar-flare helium and neon.

  1. Monte Carlo simulations of nanoscale focused neon ion beam sputtering.

    PubMed

    Timilsina, Rajendra; Rack, Philip D

    2013-12-13

    A Monte Carlo simulation is developed to model the physical sputtering of aluminum and tungsten emulating nanoscale focused helium and neon ion beam etching from the gas field ion microscope. Neon beams with different beam energies (0.5-30 keV) and a constant beam diameter (Gaussian with full-width-at-half-maximum of 1 nm) were simulated to elucidate the nanostructure evolution during the physical sputtering of nanoscale high aspect ratio features. The aspect ratio and sputter yield vary with the ion species and beam energy for a constant beam diameter and are related to the distribution of the nuclear energy loss. Neon ions have a larger sputter yield than the helium ions due to their larger mass and consequently larger nuclear energy loss relative to helium. Quantitative information such as the sputtering yields, the energy-dependent aspect ratios and resolution-limiting effects are discussed.

  2. Enhancements to a Superconducting Quantum Interference Device (SQUID) Multiplexer Readout and Control System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Forgione, J.; Benford, D. J.; Buchanan, E. D.; Moseley, S. H.; Rebar, J.; Shafer, R. A.

    2004-01-01

    Far-infrared detector arrays such as the 16x32 superconducting bolometer array for the SAFIRE instrument (flying on the SOFIA airborne observatory) require systems of readout and control electronics to provide translation between a user-driven, digital PC and the cold, analog world of the cryogenic detector. In 2001, the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) developed their Mark III electronics for purposes of control and readout of their 1x32 SQUID Multiplexer chips. We at NASA s Goddard Space Flight Center acquired a Mark 111 system and subsequently designed upgrades to suit our and our collaborators purposes. We developed an arbitrary, programmable multiplexing system that allows the user to cycle through rows in a SQUID array in an infinite number of combinations. We provided hooks in the Mark III system to allow readout of signals from outside the Mark 111 system, such as telescope status information. Finally, we augmented the heart of the system with a new feedback algorithm implementation, flexible diagnostic tools, and informative telemetry.

  3. The curvy photonics of squid camouflage

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sweeney, Alison; Holt, Amanda; Daniel, Morse; Stramski, Dariusz

    2013-03-01

    Cephalopods (squids and octopuses) ubiquitously possess reflective structures in their skin composed of ``reflectin'' proteins. Although a few simple laminar, Bragg-stack type optical structures have been known in a handful of common squid species for some time, our extensive survey of optically active tissues of exotic deep-sea species has revealed complex, extended curvatures and topologies in dermal reflectors of these rarely-studied animals. Molecular deep-sequencing has revealed these structures also to be composed of reflectin-like proteins. Here we show a survey of some of these deep-sea reflector structures, and present evidence that each novel structure may be a transform of the radiance in the optical niche in the ocean where each of these species live, such that light reflecting off the sides of these animals in their specific ocean habitat resembles the light that would be transmitted through the animals if they were transparent, from many different viewing angles and possible ocean depths.

  4. Bicrystal YBCO dc squids with low noise

    SciTech Connect

    Miklich, A.H.; Koelle, D.; Dantsker, E.; Nemeth, D.T.; Kingston, J.J.; Kromann, R.F.; Clarke, J.

    1992-08-01

    We have fabricated 12 dc SQUIDs by laser depositing YBa{sub 2}Cu{sub 3}O{sub 7-x} on a SrTiO{sub 3} bicrystal substrate with a misorientation angle of 24*. At 77K all twelve devices had acceptable values of critical current, resistance and voltage modulation produced by an external magnetic field. The white noise energy of one device with an estimated inductance of 41 pH was 1.8 {times} 10{sup {minus}30} JHz{sup {minus}1}. The noise power scaled as 1/f at frequencies below about 1kHz, however, by using a bias current reversal scheme we were able to reduce this noise by two orders of magnitude at 1 Hz, to a value of about 1.5 {times} 10{sup {minus}29} JHz{sup {minus}1}. We made a magnetometer by coupling the SQUID to a flux transformer with a 5-turn input coil. The measured magnetic field gain was 60, and the white noise 36fT Hz{sup {minus}{1/2}}. However, the transformer produced relatively large levels of 1/f flux noise, not reduced by the bias reversal scheme, that limited the noise at 1 Hz to 1.7 pT Hz{sup {minus}{1/2}}. A single-layer magnetometer with a single-turn pick up loop is briefly described.

  5. Bicrystal YBCO dc squids with low noise

    SciTech Connect

    Miklich, A.H.; Koelle, D.; Dantsker, E.; Nemeth, D.T.; Kingston, J.J.; Kromann, R.F.; Clarke, J.

    1992-08-01

    We have fabricated 12 dc SQUIDs by laser depositing YBa[sub 2]Cu[sub 3]O[sub 7-x] on a SrTiO[sub 3] bicrystal substrate with a misorientation angle of 24*. At 77K all twelve devices had acceptable values of critical current, resistance and voltage modulation produced by an external magnetic field. The white noise energy of one device with an estimated inductance of 41 pH was 1.8 [times] 10[sup [minus]30] JHz[sup [minus]1]. The noise power scaled as 1/f at frequencies below about 1kHz, however, by using a bias current reversal scheme we were able to reduce this noise by two orders of magnitude at 1 Hz, to a value of about 1.5 [times] 10[sup [minus]29] JHz[sup [minus]1]. We made a magnetometer by coupling the SQUID to a flux transformer with a 5-turn input coil. The measured magnetic field gain was 60, and the white noise 36fT Hz[sup [minus][1/2

  6. Ribosomes in the squid giant axon.

    PubMed

    Bleher, R; Martin, R

    2001-01-01

    Ribosome clusters, referred to as endoaxoplasmic plaques, were documented and quantitatively analyzed in the squid giant axon at the light and electron microscopic levels. The methods included nonspecific high affinity fluorescence staining of RNA by YOYO-1, specific immunofluorescence labeling of ribosomal RNA, electron energy loss spectroscopic mapping of ribosomal phosphorus, and conventional transmission electron microscopy. The endoaxoplasmic plaques were sharply defined, oval in shape, and less than 2 microm in diameter. While they were very numerous in the postsynaptic axonal area of the giant synapse, the frequency of occurrence was much lower in the peripheral giant axon, with a density of about 1 plaque/1000 microm3. Their distribution was random within axoplasm, with no preferential localization near the membrane. The several thousand ribosomes in a plaque usually were not membrane bound, but vesicular structures were observed in or near plaques; plaques were often surrounded by mitochondria. We conclude that ribosomes, a requisite machinery for protein synthesis, are present in the squid giant axon in discrete configurations.

  7. Sodium Extrusion by Internally Dialyzed Squid Axons

    PubMed Central

    Brinley, F. J.; Mullins, L. J.

    1967-01-01

    A method has been developed which allows a length of electrically excitable squid axon to be internally dialyzed against a continuously flowing solution of defined composition. Tests showed that diffusional exchange of small molecules in the axoplasm surrounding the dialysis tube occurred with a half-time of 2–5 min, and that protein does not cross the wall of the dialysis tube. The composition of the dialysis medium was (mM): K isethionate 151, K aspartate 151, taurine 275, MgCI2 4–10, NaCl 80, KCN 2, EDTA 0.1, ATP 5–10, and phosphoarginine 0–10. The following measurements were made: resting Na influx 57 pmole/cm2sec (n = 8); resting potassium efflux 59 pmole/ cm2sec (n = 4); stimulated Na efflux 3.1 pmole/cm2imp (n = 9); stimulated K efflux 2.9 pmole/cm2imp (n = 3); resting Na efflux 48 pmole/cm2sec (n = 18); Q10 Na efflux 2.2 (n = 5). Removal of ATP and phosphoarginine from the dialysis medium (n = 4) or external application of strophanthidin (n = 1) reversibly reduced Na efflux to 10–13 pmole/cm2sec. A general conclusion from the study is that dialyzed squid axons have relatively normal passive permeability properties and that a substantial fraction of the Na efflux is under metabolic control although the Na extrusion mechanism may not be working perfectly. PMID:6063685

  8. Base distance optimization for SQUID gradiometers

    SciTech Connect

    Garachtchenko, A.; Matlashov, A.; Kraus, R.

    1998-12-31

    The measurement of magnetic fields generated by weak nearby biomagnetic sources is affected by ambient noise generated by distant sources both internal and external to the subject under study. External ambient noise results from sources with numerous origins, many of which are unpredictable in nature. Internal noise sources are biomagnetic in nature and result from muscle activity (such as the heart, eye blinks, respiration, etc.), pulsation associated with blood flow, surgical implants, etc. Any magnetic noise will interfere with measurements of magnetic sources of interest, such as magnetoencephalography (MEG), in various ways. One of the most effective methods of reducing the magnetic noise measured by the SQUID sensor is to use properly designed superconducting gradiometers. Here, the authors optimized the baseline length of SQUID-based symmetric axial gradiometers using computer simulation. The signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) was used as the optimization criteria. They found that in most cases the optimal baseline is not equal to the depth of the primary source, rather it has a more complex dependence on the gradiometer balance and the ambient magnetic noise. They studied both first and second order gradiometers in simulated shielded environments and only second order gradiometers in a simulated unshielded environment. The noise source was simulated as a distant dipolar source for the shielded cases. They present optimal gradiometer baseline lengths for the various simulated situations below.

  9. Broadband Tunable Transparency in rf SQUID Metamaterial

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Daimeng; Trepanier, Melissa; Mukhanov, Oleg; Jung, Philipp; Butz, Susanne; Ustinov, Alexey; Anlage, Steven

    2015-03-01

    We demonstrate a metamaterial with broadband tunable transparency in microwave electromagnetic fields. This metamaterial is made of Radio Frequency Superconducting QUantum Interference Devices (rf SQUIDs). We show both experimentally and theoretically that the resonance of this metamaterial totally disappears when illuminated with electromagnetic waves of certain power ranges, so that waves can propagate through the metamaterial with little dissipation in a wide frequency spectrum. Unlike traditional electromagnetically induced transparency, high transmission through this metamaterial is due to the intrinsic nonlinearity of the rf SQUID. Transparency occurs when the metamaterial enters its bistability regime. We can control the metamaterial to be transparent or opaque by switching between the two states depending on the initial conditions and signal scanning directions. We also show that the degree of transparency can be tuned by temperature, power of the incident wave, and dc magnetic field and discuss analytical and numerical models that reveal how to systematically control the transparency regime. The metamaterial has potential application in fast tunable digital filter, power limiter and auto-cloaking. This work is supported by the NSF-GOALI and OISE programs through grant # ECCS-1158644, and CNAM.

  10. Extremely nonlinear and switchable SQUID metamaterial

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Daimeng; Trepanier, Melissa; Mukhanov, Oleg; Jung, Philipp; Butz, Susanne; Ustinov, Alexey; Anlage, Steven

    2014-03-01

    We present experimental results on a superconducting metamaterial with remarkably nonlinear and switchable properties in the microwave range. The meta-atoms are RF Superconducting Quantum Interference Devices (SQUIDs), a superconducting loop interrupted by a single Josephson Junction. RF SQUIDs are similar to split-ring resonators except that the inductance is tunable due to the nonlinear Josephson inductance. This metamaterial has high tunability via DC magnetic field, temperature and applied RF power. Here we focus on the nonlinearity in our metamaterial due to the Josephson effect. The intermodulation measurements show a highly nonlinear response from the metamaterial. In an RF power dependence experiment we observed hysteretic behavior in transmission which indicates the metamaterial is a nonlinear multi-state system. As a result, we can control the transmission by switching between metastable states via manipulating the applied RF power. We also observe a unique self-induced transparency of meta-atoms in a certain applied RF power range. This extremely nonlinear metamaterial has potential application for next-generation digital RF receiver systems. This work is supported by the NSF-GOALI and OISE programs through grant # ECCS-1158644, and CNAM.

  11. Stark Widths of Spectral Lines of Neutral Neon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dimitrijević, Milan S.; Simić, Zoran; Kovačević, Andjelka; Valjarević, Aleksandar; Sahal-Bréchot, Sylvie

    2015-12-01

    In order to complete Stark broadening data for Ne I spectral lines which are needed for analysis of stellar atmospheres, collisional widths and shifts (the so-called Stark broadening parameters) of 29 isolated spectral lines of neutral neon have been determined within the impact semiclassical perturbation method. Calculations have been performed for the broadening by collisions with electrons, protons and ionized helium for astrophysical applications, and for collisions with ionized neon and argon for laboratory plasma diagnostics. The shifts have been compared with existing experimental values. The obtained data will be included in the STARK-B database, which is a part of the Virtual Atomic and Molecular Data Center - VAMDC.

  12. Cascade units for neon isotope production by rectification

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bondarenko, V. L.; Simonenko, Yu. M.; Diachenko, O. V.; Matveyev, E. V.

    2013-05-01

    The basics of neon isotope separation by the distillation method at T = 28 K are discussed. The required numbers of transfer units at the top and bottom column sections are calculated for different loads. The experimental characteristics of packed rectification columns are presented and examples of the cascade are discussed. A configuration for a cryogenic circuit based on a high-pressure throttle neon cycle with intermediate nitrogen cooling is presented. The necessity for and the technical feasibility of creating a driver pressure difference between the columns for different stages are demonstrated.

  13. Fast Imaging of Intact and Shattered Cryogenic Neon Pellets

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, Zhehui; Combs, Stephen Kirk; Baylor, Larry R; Foust, Charles R; Lyttle, Mark S; Meitner, Steven J; Rasmussen, David A

    2014-01-01

    Compact condensed-matter injection technologies are increasingly used in magnetic fusion. One recent application is in disruption mitigation. An imaging system with less-than-100- m- and sub- s-resolution is described and used to characterize intact and shattered cryogenic neon pellets. Shattered pellets contain fine particles ranging from tens of m to about 7 mm. Time-of-flight analyses indicate that pellets could slow down if hitting the wall of the guide tube. Fast high-resolution imaging systems are thus useful to neon and other condensed-matter injector development.

  14. Fast imaging of intact and shattered cryogenic neon pellets

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, Zhehui; Combs, S. K.; Baylor, L. R.; Foust, C. R.; Lyttle, M. S.; Meitner, S. J.; Rasmussen, D. A.

    2014-11-15

    Compact condensed-matter injection technologies are increasingly used in magnetic fusion. One recent application is in disruption mitigation. An imaging system with less-than-100-µm- and sub-µs-resolution is described and used to characterize intact and shattered cryogenic neon pellets. Shattered pellets contain fine particles ranging from tens of µm to about 7 mm. Time-of-flight analyses indicate that pellets could slow down if hitting the wall of the guide tube. Fast high-resolution imaging systems are thus useful to neon and other condensed-matter injector development.

  15. Fast imaging of intact and shattered cryogenic neon pellets.

    PubMed

    Wang, Zhehui; Combs, S K; Baylor, L R; Foust, C R; Lyttle, M S; Meitner, S J; Rasmussen, D A

    2014-11-01

    Compact condensed-matter injection technologies are increasingly used in magnetic fusion. One recent application is in disruption mitigation. An imaging system with less-than-100-µm- and sub-µs-resolution is described and used to characterize intact and shattered cryogenic neon pellets. Shattered pellets contain fine particles ranging from tens of µm to about 7 mm. Time-of-flight analyses indicate that pellets could slow down if hitting the wall of the guide tube. Fast high-resolution imaging systems are thus useful to neon and other condensed-matter injector development. PMID:25430370

  16. Neon adsorption on oxidized single-walled carbon nanohorns

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krungleviciute, Vaiva; Migone, Aldo; Yudasaka, Masako; Iijima, Sumio

    2012-02-01

    We will present the results of a study of neon adsorption on oxidized single-walled carbon nanohorns. Our adsorption isotherm measurements were conducted at temperatures below 24.5 K, the triple point for Ne. Results for the effective specific surface area and for the effective pore volume of the nanohorn aggregates will be presented. We will also report on the sorbent-loading dependence of the isosteric heat of neon on the nanohorns, and on the binding energy. Our results for this system will be compared with those obtained for Ne on a sample of dahlia-like nanohorns annealed at 520 K.

  17. Comparison of the incremental and hierarchical methods for crystalline neon.

    PubMed

    Nolan, S J; Bygrave, P J; Allan, N L; Manby, F R

    2010-02-24

    We present a critical comparison of the incremental and hierarchical methods for the evaluation of the static cohesive energy of crystalline neon. Both of these schemes make it possible to apply the methods of molecular electronic structure theory to crystalline solids, offering a systematically improvable alternative to density functional theory. Results from both methods are compared with previous theoretical and experimental studies of solid neon and potential sources of error are discussed. We explore the similarities of the two methods and demonstrate how they may be used in tandem to study crystalline solids.

  18. The isotopic composition of solar flare accelerated neon

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mewaldt, R. A.; Spalding, J. D.; Stone, E. C.; Vogt, R. E.

    1979-01-01

    The individual isotopes of neon in energetic solar-flare particles have been clearly resolved with a rms mass resolution of 0.20 amu. The ratios found are Ne-20/Ne-22 = 7.6 (+2.0, -1.8) and Ne-21/Ne-22 of no more than about 0.11 in the 11-26 MeV per nucleon interval. This isotopic composition is essentially the same as that of meteoritic planetary neon-A and is significantly different from that of the solar wind.

  19. Fast imaging of intact and shattered cryogenic neon pellets.

    PubMed

    Wang, Zhehui; Combs, S K; Baylor, L R; Foust, C R; Lyttle, M S; Meitner, S J; Rasmussen, D A

    2014-11-01

    Compact condensed-matter injection technologies are increasingly used in magnetic fusion. One recent application is in disruption mitigation. An imaging system with less-than-100-µm- and sub-µs-resolution is described and used to characterize intact and shattered cryogenic neon pellets. Shattered pellets contain fine particles ranging from tens of µm to about 7 mm. Time-of-flight analyses indicate that pellets could slow down if hitting the wall of the guide tube. Fast high-resolution imaging systems are thus useful to neon and other condensed-matter injector development.

  20. Boiling incipience and convective boiling of neon and nitrogen

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Papell, S. S.; Hendricks, R. C.

    1977-01-01

    Forced convection and subcooled boiling heat transfer data for liquid nitrogen and liquid neon were obtained in support of a design study for a 30 tesla cryomagnet cooled by forced convection of liquid neon. The cryogen data obtained over a range of system pressures, fluid flow rates, and applied heat fluxes were used to develop correlations for predicting boiling incipience and convective boiling heat transfer coefficients in uniformly heated flow channels. The accuracy of the correlating equations was then evaluated. A technique was also developed to calculate the position of boiling incipience in a uniformly heated flow channel. Comparisons made with the experimental data showed a prediction accuracy of + or - 15 percent.

  1. Recent Results of a New Microwave SQUID Multiplexer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hahn, Inseob; Limketkai, B.; Bumble, B.; LeDuc, H. G.

    2007-01-01

    We are developing a proof-of-concept microwave SQUID multiplexer containing four SQUIDs coupled to GHz frequency resonant circuits and fed with a single microwave readout line. The resonators are half-wave coplanar waveguide sections and are similar to the structures used for the microwave kinetic inductance detectors developed in our group. Optimal values for the interdigital gap capacitors were determined to maximize the sensitivity of the transmitted and reflected microwave signal with respect to changes in the dynamic resistance of the SQUID. The dc current-bias line for the SQUID has an in-line inductive high frequency filter to minimize coupling between the bias line and resonator. A high frequency modulation scheme is proposed to eliminate the need for individual flux biasing of the SQUIDs, which extends the dynamic range of the readout. In this scheme a common modulation signal is imposed on each SQUID and the received signal is demodulated at one and two times the modulation frequency to maintain sensitivity at any flux state. We present the recent results of the microwave SQUID multiplexer system operating at a readout frequency range of 10 - 11GHz.

  2. Whole-head SQUID system in a superconducting magnetic shield.

    PubMed

    Ohta, H; Matsui, T; Uchikawa, Y

    2004-01-01

    We have constructed a mobile whole-head SQUID system in a superconducting magnetic shield - a cylinder of high Tc superconductor BSCCO of 65 cm in diameter and 160 cm in length. We compared the noise spectra of several SQUID sensors of SNS Josephson junctions in the superconducting magnetic shield with those of the same SQUID sensors in a magnetically shielded room of Permalloy. The SQUID sensors in the superconducting magnetic shield are more than 100 times more sensitive than those in a magnetically shielded room of Permalloy below 1 Hz. We tested the whole-head SQUID system in the superconducting magnetic shield observing somatosensory signals evoked by stimulating the median nerve in the right wrist of patients by current pulses. We present data of 64 and 128 traces versus the common time axis for comparison. Most sensory responses of human brains phase out near 250 ms. However monotonic rhythms still remain even at longer latencies than 250 ms. The nodes of these rhythm are very narrow even at these longer latencies just indicating low noise characteristics of the SQUID system at low-frequencies. The current dipoles at the secondary somatosensory area SII are evoked at longer latencies than 250 ms contributing to a higher-level brain function. The SQUID system in a superconducting magnetic shield will also have advantages when it is used as a DC MEG to study very slow activities and function of the brain. PMID:16012595

  3. Complex inductance, excess noise, and surface magnetism in dc SQUIDs.

    PubMed

    Sendelbach, S; Hover, D; Mück, M; McDermott, R

    2009-09-11

    We have characterized the complex inductance of dc SQUIDs cooled to millikelvin temperatures. The SQUID inductance displays a rich, history-dependent structure as a function of temperature, with fluctuations of order 1 fH. At a fixed temperature, the SQUID inductance fluctuates with a 1/f power spectrum; the inductance noise is highly correlated with the conventional 1/f flux noise. The data are interpreted in terms of the reconfiguration of clusters of surface spins, with correlated fluctuations of effective magnetic moments and relaxation times.

  4. Dynamics of a SQUID with topologically nontrivial barriers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rahmonov, I. R.; Shukrinov, Yu. M.; Dawood, R.

    2016-03-01

    The phase dynamics of a SQUID consisting of Josephson junctions with topologically nontrivial barriers has been studied. Its comparative analysis with the dynamics of a conventional SQUID has been performed. The current-voltage characteristics have been calculated. The dependence of the return current on the magnetic field has been found. It has been shown that the branch of the current-voltage characteristic corresponding to the resonance frequency in the case of the SQUID with nontrivial barriers is displaced by √ 2 over voltage. This effect can be used for the detection of Majorana fermions.

  5. Two junction effects in dc SQUID phase qubit

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cooper, B. K.; Kwon, H.; Przybysz, A. J.; Budoyo, R.; Anderson, J. R.; Lobb, C. J.; Wellstood, F. C.

    2011-03-01

    The dc SQUID phase qubit was designed to allow one isolation junction to filter bias current noise from a second junction operating as a single junction phase qubit. As junctions shrink to minimize dielectric loss, the Josephson inductances of each junction approach the coupling loop inductance and this single junction picture appears inadequate. We consider a two-junction model of the dc SQUID phase qubit, where the qubit now corresponds to one of the normal oscillatory modes of the full SQUID. We discuss applications of this model to sweet spots in various control parameters and unusual behavior in the tunneling state measurement. Funded by DOD, CNAM and JQI.

  6. A Wsbnd Ne interatomic potential for simulation of neon implantation in tungsten

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Backman, Marie; Juslin, Niklas; Huang, Guiyang; Wirth, Brian D.

    2016-08-01

    An interatomic pair potential for Wsbnd Ne is developed for atomistic molecular dynamics simulations of neon implantation in tungsten. The new potential predicts point defect energies and binding energies of small clusters that are in good agreement with electronic structure calculations. Molecular dynamics simulations of small neon clusters in tungsten show that trap mutation, in which an interstitial neon cluster displaces a tungsten atom from its lattice site, occurs for clusters of three or more neon atoms. However, near a free surface, trap mutation can occur at smaller sizes, including even a single neon interstitial in close proximity to a (100) or (110) surface.

  7. Martian paleomagnetism with the SQUID microscope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weiss, Benjamin Paul

    Rocks should preserve natural remanent magnetizations with stable directional and intensity information at levels ˜1000 times below that of the noise level on today's best moment magnetometers. The superconducting quantum interference device (SQUID) Microscope is a new, high-resolution magnetometer that can now detect such weak signals. It maps the magnetic fields above samples with a spatial resolution of <100 mum and a moment sensitivity of <10 -15 Am2. It therefore provides data with a resolution directly comparable with that of other common petrographic techniques. This thesis describes applications of SQUID microscopy to a variety of problems in the planetary sciences. A SQUID microscope paleomagnetic conglomerate test demonstrates that ALH84001 has been cooler than ˜40°C since before its ejection from the surface of Mars at 15 Ma. Because this temperature cannot sterilize most bacteria or eukarya, these data support the hypothesis that meteorites could transfer life between planets in the solar system. These and other data on panspermia demand a re-evaluation of the long-held assumption that terrestrial life evolved in isolation on Earth. Subsequent magnetic and textural studies of the meteorite show that 4 Ga ALH84001 carbonates containing magnetite and pyrrhotite carry a stable natural remanent magnetization. 40Ar/39Ar thermochronology demonstrates that this magnetization originated at 3.9--4.1 Ga on Mars. This magnetization is the oldest known for a planetary rock, and its strong intensity suggests that Mars had generated a geodynamo at or before 4 Ga. The intensity of the field that magnetized ALH84001 was roughly within an order of magnitude of that at the surface of the present-day Earth, sufficient for magnetotaxis by the bacteria whose magnetofossils have been reported in ALH84001 and possibly for the production of the strong crustal anomalies. 40Ar/39Ar thermochronology calculations also provide an explanation for why ALH84001 contains a sample of

  8. Glycine fluxes in squid giant axons.

    PubMed

    Caldwell, P C; Lea, T J

    1978-05-01

    1. The influx of a number of amino acids into squid giant axons has been studied. Particular emphasis has been placed on glycine and to a lesser extent glutamate. 2. To facilitate the study of the uptake of 14C-labelled amino acids a technique was devised in which the 14C taken up was measured directly in the intact axon with a glass scintillator fibre. This technique gave results similar to the usual technique in which the axoplasm was extruded for the assay of radioactivity. 3. The changes in glycine influx with extracellular glycine concentration suggests that two saturating components are present, one with high affinity and one with low affinity. 4. The glycine influx does not seem normally to be sensitive to the removal of extracellular sodium by replacement with choline. A Na-sensitive component appeared, however, after a period of immersion in artificial sea water. There was also some depression of glycine influx if Na were replaced by Li. 5. Glutamate uptake was greatly reduced by removal of extracellular Na in confirmation of work by Baker & Potashner (1973). Orthophosphate uptake was also greatly reduced by removal of extracellular Na. 6. CN reversibly inhibited glycine uptake after a delay, indicating that part of the uptake mechanism may require ATP. 7. 14C-labelled glycine injected into squid axons was found not to exchange to any serious extent with other compounds over periods of a few hours. The glycine efflux could therefore be studied. This was found to be markedly increased by extracellular glycine and by certain other neutral amino acids applied extracellularly in the artificial sea water. 8. The enhanced glycine efflux in extracellular glycine was not affected by ouabain and CN. 9. It is suggested that glycine uptake in squid axons involves two components. One is sensitive to CN and ouabain and probably derives energy from ATP break-down. The other is probably an ATP independent exchange diffusion system in which other amino acids as well as

  9. RF-SQUID to DC-SQUID upgrade of a 28-channel magnetoencephalography (MEG) system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Diekmann, V.; Jürgens, R.; Becker, W.; Elias, H.; Ludwig, W.; Vodel, W.

    1996-05-01

    A Dornier 28-channel magnetoencephalography (MEG) system equipped with RF-SQUIDs and control electronics made by CTF (Port Coquitlam, BC, Canada) was upgraded by replacing the RF-SQUIDs with DC-SQUIDs developed at the University of Jena, Germany. New preamplifiers were designed that emulate the function of the system's original RF amplifiers. This allowed the continuing use of the system's control electronics without any modification. Retaining these control devices was instrumental for preserving the system's unique ability to derive software-defined gradiometer measurements from its magnetometer signals, and also saved a considerable investment of control software tailored to the characteristics of these devices. The performance of the upgraded system compares favourably to that of other multichannel instruments; its software gradiometer channels typically attain an overall sensitivity of 0957-0233/7/5/017/img7 (an improvement by a factor of three over the original RF system) and suppress residual noise inside the shielded room by 40 to 60 dB. Also described are the procedures used to calibrate the system, to eliminate crosstalk between neighbouring channels, and to determine the coefficients for optimum suppression of ambient noise by the software gradiometer.

  10. Self-assembled heterogeneous argon/neon core-shell clusters studied by photoelectron spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Lundwall, M; Pokapanich, W; Bergersen, H; Lindblad, A; Rander, T; Ohrwall, G; Tchaplyguine, M; Barth, S; Hergenhahn, U; Svensson, S; Björneholm, O

    2007-06-01

    Clusters formed by a coexpansion process of argon and neon have been studied using synchrotron radiation. Electrons from interatomic Coulombic decay as well as ultraviolet and x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy were used to determine the heterogeneous nature of the clusters and the cluster structure. Binary clusters of argon and neon produced by coexpansion are shown to exhibit a core-shell structure placing argon in the core and neon in the outer shells. Furthermore, the authors show that 2 ML of neon on the argon core is sufficient for neon valence band formation resembling the neon solid. For 1 ML of neon the authors observe a bandwidth narrowing to about half of the bulk value.

  11. A Closed Neon Liquefier System for Testing Superconducting Devices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bianchetti, M.; Al-Mosawi, M. K.; Yang, Y.; Beduz, C.; Giunchi, G.

    2006-04-01

    A Neon liquefier system has been developed by Southampton University (UK) and EDISON (Italy) with the aim to provide a facility for testing HTS superconducting devices using Magnesium Diboride materials, in the range 25-30K. The system consists of a liquid Neon cryostat coupled to a two stages cryocooler and a recovery system. The first stage of the cryocooler is connected to the thermal shield of the cryostat and a copper station positioned at mid point along the access neck to the liquid Neon bath to reduce heat leak and to provide pre-cooling of samples. The second stage, capable of 20W cooling power at 22K, is used to provide the cooling power for liquefaction and to refrigerate the liquid Neon bath and the superconducting device/sample during the steady state operation. The recovery system has been designed to automatically compress excess boil-off generated by a quench or a transient heating into a storage gas container. Transport measurement up to 900A can be carried out in the Ne cryostat using purposely build hybrid current leads. These leads have a copper upper section cooled by liquid Nitrogen and a superconducting lower section of Ag/AuBi2223 tapes. In this paper we report on the performance of the system and the initial measurement of superconducting samples.

  12. Molecular Iodine Fluorescence Using a Green Helium-Neon Laser

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Williamson, J. Charles

    2011-01-01

    Excitation of molecular iodine vapor with a green (543.4 nm) helium-neon laser produces a fluorescence spectrum that is well suited for the upper-level undergraduate physical chemistry laboratory. Application of standard evaluation techniques to the spectrum yields ground electronic-state molecular parameters in good agreement with literature…

  13. Neon and CO2 adsorption on open carbon nanohorns.

    PubMed

    Krungleviciute, Vaiva; Ziegler, Carl A; Banjara, Shree R; Yudasaka, Masako; Iijima, S; Migone, Aldo D

    2013-07-30

    We present the results of a thermodynamics and kinetics study of the adsorption of neon and carbon dioxide on aggregates of chemically opened carbon nanohorns. Both the equilibrium adsorption characteristics, as well as the dependence of the kinetic behavior on sorbent loading, are different for these two adsorbates. For neon the adsorption isotherms display two steps before reaching the saturated vapor pressure, corresponding to adsorption on strong and on weak binding sites; the isosteric heat of adsorption is a decreasing function of sorbent loading (this quantity varies by about a factor of 2 on the range of loadings studied), and the speed of the adsorption kinetics increases with increasing loading. By contrast, for carbon dioxide there are no substeps in the adsorption isotherms; the isosteric heat is a nonmonotonic function of loading, the value of the isosteric heat never differs from the bulk heat of sublimation by more than 15%, and the kinetic behavior is opposite to that of neon, with equilibration times increasing for higher sorbent loadings. We explain the difference in the equilibrium properties observed for neon and carbon dioxide in terms of differences in the relative strengths of adsorbate-adsorbate to adsorbate-sorbent interaction for these species. PMID:23802764

  14. Cosmogenic neon from precompaction irradiation of Kapoeta and Murchison

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Caffee, M. W.; Hohenberg, C. M.; Swindle, T. D.; Goswami, J. N.

    1983-01-01

    Neon from hand-picked Murchison and Kapoeta grains, selected on the basis of the presence or absence of solar flare particle tracks, was analyzed in order to delineate the precompaction history of this material. The irradiated grains showed large enrichments of cosmogenic neon relative to the unirradiated grains. Galactic cosmic ray (GCR) exposure ages for the unirradiated grains yield the nominal values reported for the recent exposure history of these meteorites. Apparent minimum precompaction galactic exposure ages of 28 m.y. and 56 m.y. would have been obtained for Murchison and Kapoeta, respectively, if the cosmogenic effects in the irradiated grains were due to GCR irradiation. Since this seems unreasonably long, the cosmogenic neon in the irradiated grains may be due to spallation by solar cosmic rays. This, however, would require a more active early sun. The isotopic composition of the cosmogenic neon in these grains suggests a harder energy spectrum than is characteristic of present solar flares. Lack of apparent solar wind effects may require some kind of shielding, such as nebular gas.

  15. Neon and CO2 adsorption on open carbon nanohorns.

    PubMed

    Krungleviciute, Vaiva; Ziegler, Carl A; Banjara, Shree R; Yudasaka, Masako; Iijima, S; Migone, Aldo D

    2013-07-30

    We present the results of a thermodynamics and kinetics study of the adsorption of neon and carbon dioxide on aggregates of chemically opened carbon nanohorns. Both the equilibrium adsorption characteristics, as well as the dependence of the kinetic behavior on sorbent loading, are different for these two adsorbates. For neon the adsorption isotherms display two steps before reaching the saturated vapor pressure, corresponding to adsorption on strong and on weak binding sites; the isosteric heat of adsorption is a decreasing function of sorbent loading (this quantity varies by about a factor of 2 on the range of loadings studied), and the speed of the adsorption kinetics increases with increasing loading. By contrast, for carbon dioxide there are no substeps in the adsorption isotherms; the isosteric heat is a nonmonotonic function of loading, the value of the isosteric heat never differs from the bulk heat of sublimation by more than 15%, and the kinetic behavior is opposite to that of neon, with equilibration times increasing for higher sorbent loadings. We explain the difference in the equilibrium properties observed for neon and carbon dioxide in terms of differences in the relative strengths of adsorbate-adsorbate to adsorbate-sorbent interaction for these species.

  16. Elemental abundances of flaring solar plasma - Enhanced neon and sulfur

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schmelz, J. T.

    1993-01-01

    Elemental abundances of two flares observed with the SMM Flat Crystal Spectrometer are compared and contrasted. The first had a gradual rise and a slow decay, while the second was much more impulsive. Simultaneous spectra of seven bright soft X-ray resonance lines provide information over a broad temperature range and are available throughout both flares, making these events unique in the SMM data base. For the first flare, the plasma seemed to be characterized by coronal abundances but, for the second, the plasma composition could not be coronal, photospheric, or a linear combination of both. A good differential emission measure fit required enhanced neon such that Ne/O = 0.32 +/- 0.02, a value which is inconsistent with the current models of coronal abundances based on the elemental first-ionization potential. Similar values of enhanced neon are found for flaring plasma observed by the SMM gamma-ray spectrometer, in (He-3)-rich solar energetic particle events, and in the decay phase of several long duration soft X-ray events. Sulfur is also enhanced in the impulsive flare, but not as dramatically as neon. These events are compared with two models which attempt to explain the enhanced values of neon and sulfur.

  17. Infrared absorption spectra of methylidene radicals in solid neon.

    PubMed

    Lu, Hsiao-Chi; Lo, Jen-Iu; Lin, Meng-Yeh; Peng, Yu-Chain; Chou, Sheng-Lung; Cheng, Bing-Ming; Ogilvie, J F

    2014-07-28

    Infrared absorption lines of methylidene--(12)C(1)H, (13)C(1)H, and (12)C(2)H--dispersed in solid neon at 3 K, recorded after photolysis of methane precursors with vacuum-ultraviolet light at 121.6 nm, serve as signatures of these trapped radicals.

  18. Realizing and optimizing an atomtronic SQUID

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mathey, Amy C.; Mathey, L.

    2016-05-01

    We demonstrate how a toroidal Bose-Einstein condensate with a movable barrier can be used to realize an atomtronic SQUID. The magnitude of the barrier height, which creates the analogue of an SNS junction, is of crucial importance, as well as its ramp-up and -down protocol. For too low of a barrier, the relaxation of the system is dynamically suppressed, due to the small rate of phase slips at the barrier. For a higher barrier, the phase coherence across the barrier is suppressed due to thermal fluctuations, which are included in our Truncated Wigner approach. Furthermore, we show that the ramp-up protocol of the barrier can be improved by ramping up its height first, and its velocity after that. This protocol can be further improved by optimizing the ramp-up and ramp-down time scales, which is of direct practical relevance for on-going experimental realizations.

  19. Realizing and optimizing an atomtronic SQUID

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mathey, Amy C.; Mathey, L.

    2016-05-01

    We demonstrate how a toroidal Bose–Einstein condensate with a movable barrier can be used to realize an atomtronic SQUID. The magnitude of the barrier height, which creates the analogue of an SNS junction, is of crucial importance, as well as its ramp-up and -down protocol. For too low of a barrier, the relaxation of the system is dynamically suppressed, due to the small rate of phase slips at the barrier. For a higher barrier, the phase coherence across the barrier is suppressed due to thermal fluctuations, which are included in our Truncated Wigner approach. Furthermore, we show that the ramp-up protocol of the barrier can be improved by ramping up its height first, and its velocity after that. This protocol can be further improved by optimizing the ramp-up and ramp-down time scales, which is of direct practical relevance for on-going experimental realizations.

  20. The NEON Aquatic Network: Expanding the Availability of Biogeochemical Data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vance, J. M.; Bohall, C.; Fitzgerald, M.; Utz, R.; Parker, S. M.; Roehm, C. L.; Goodman, K. J.; McLaughlin, B.

    2013-12-01

    Aquatic ecosystems are facing unprecedented pressure from climate change and land-use practices. Invasive species, whether plant, animal, insect or microbe present additional threat to aquatic ecosystem services. There are significant scientific challenges to understanding how these forces will interact to affect aquatic ecosystems, as the flow of energy and materials in the environment is driven by multivariate and non-linear biogeochemical cycles. The National Ecological Observatory Network (NEON) will collect and provide observational data across multiple scales. Sites were selected to maximize representation of major North American ecosystems using a multivariate geographic clustering method that partitioned the continental US, AK, HI, and Puerto Rico into 20 eco-climatic domains. The NEON data collection systems and methods are designed to yield standardized, near real-time data subjected to rigorous quality controls prior to public dissemination through an online data portal. NEON will collect data for 30 years to facilitate spatial-temporal analysis of environmental responses and drivers of ecosystem change, ranging from local through continental scales. Here we present the NEON Aquatic Network, a multi-parameter network consisting of a combination of in situ sensor and observational data. This network will provide data to examine biogeochemical, biological, hydrologic and geomorphic metrics at 36 sites, which are a combination of small 1st/2nd order wadeable streams, large rivers and lakes. A typical NEON Aquatic site will host up to two in-stream sensor sets designed to collect near-continuous water quality data (e.g. pH/ORP, temperature, conductivity, dissolved oxygen, CDOM) along with up to 8 shallow groundwater monitoring wells (level, temp., cond.), and a local meteorological station (e.g. 2D wind speed, PAR, barometric pressure, temperature, net radiation). These coupled sensor suites will be complemented by observational data (e.g. water

  1. Magnetoencephalography using a Multilayer hightc DC SQUID Magnetometer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Faley, M. I.; Poppe, U.; Borkowski, R. E. Dunin; Schiek, M.; Boers, F.; Chocholacs, H.; Dammers, J.; Eich, E.; Shah, N. J.; Ermakov, A. B.; Slobodchikov, V. Yu.; Maslennikov, Yu. V.; Koshelets, V. P.

    We describe tests of the use of a multilayer highTc DC SQUID magnetometer for magnetoencephalography (MEG) and compare our measurements with results obtained using a lowTc SQUID sensor. The integration of bias reversal readout electronics for highTc DC SQUID magnetometry into a commercial MEG data acquisition system is demonstrated. Results of measurements performed on a salinefilled head phantom are shown and the detection of an auditory evoked magnetic response of the human cortex elicited by a stimulus is illustrated. Future modifications of highTc DC SQUID sensors for applications in MEG, in order to reach a resolution of 1 fT/√Hz at 77.5 K over a wide frequency band, are outlined.

  2. Development of a colorimetric sensor array for squid spoilage assessment.

    PubMed

    Zaragozá, Patricia; Fuentes, Ana; Ruiz-Rico, María; Vivancos, José-Luis; Fernández-Segovia, Isabel; Ros-Lis, José V; Barat, José M; Martínez-Máñez, Ramón

    2015-05-15

    The aim of this work was to develop and evaluate a rapid, easy-to-use optoelectronic system for the shelf-life assessment of squid in cold storage. For this purpose, an optoelectronic nose was designed, which consisted of an array containing six sensing materials prepared by combining different dyes and two inorganic supports (aluminium oxide and silica gel). Samples were packaged with the colorimetric array and kept in cold storage for 12 days. Squid spoilage was monitored simultaneously by the colorimetric array and by the physico-chemical and microbial analyses during storage. Samples exceeded the acceptability limits for microbial counts on the third day. PCA analysis carried out with CIELab showed that the colorimetric array was able to discriminate between fresh squid fit for consumption and spoiled squid. The statistical models obtained by PLS, with the optoelectronic nose, successfully predicted CO2 and O2 content in the headspace as well as microbial growth.

  3. Brooding in a gonatid squid off northern Japan.

    PubMed

    Bower, John R; Seki, Katsunori; Kubodera, Tsunemi; Yamamoto, Jun; Nobetsu, Takahiro

    2012-12-01

    Brooding of egg masses by a squid in Japan is described. Brooding females were photographed in situ, and the females, their eggs, and their hatchlings were collected. The squid had all undergone gelatinous degeneration and swam slowly and continuously by undulating the fins and expelling water sporadically through the funnel. Eggs were held together by a dark, viscous material that formed a single-layer, sheet-like mass, from which hatchlings were seen to emerge. The annual appearance of brooding females in surface waters during spring suggests that they transport their egg masses from deep water to the surface before the eggs hatch. Genetic analyses identified the squid as Gonatus madokai (family Gonatidae), now the second gonatid and third squid known to brood.

  4. Chimera states and synchronization in magnetically driven SQUID metamaterials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hizanidis, J.; Lazarides, N.; Neofotistos, G.; Tsironis, G. P.

    2016-09-01

    One-dimensional arrays of Superconducting QUantum Interference Devices (SQUIDs) form magnetic metamaterials exhibiting extraordinary properties, including tunability, dynamic multistability, negative magnetic permeability, and broadband transparency. The SQUIDs in a metamaterial interact through non-local, magnetic dipole-dipole forces, that makes it possible for multiheaded chimera states and coexisting patterns, including solitary states, to appear. The spontaneous emergence of chimera states and the role of multistability is demonstrated numerically for a SQUID metamaterial driven by an alternating magnetic field. The spatial synchronization and temporal complexity are discussed and the parameter space for the global synchronization reveals the areas of coherence-incoherence transition. Given that both one- and two-dimensional SQUID metamaterials have been already fabricated and investigated in the lab, the presence of a chimera state could in principle be detected with presently available experimental set-ups.

  5. Squid as nutrient vectors linking Southwest Atlantic marine ecosystems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arkhipkin, Alexander I.

    2013-10-01

    Long-term investigations of three abundant nektonic squid species from the Southwest Atlantic, Illex argentinus, Doryteuthis gahi and Onykia ingens, permitted to estimate important population parameters including individual growth rates, duration of ontogenetic phases and mortalities. Using production model, the productivity of squid populations at different phases of their life cycle was assessed and the amount of biomass they convey between marine ecosystems as a result of their ontogenetic migrations was quantified. It was found that squid are major nutrient vectors and play a key role as transient 'biological pumps' linking spatially distinct marine ecosystems. I. argentinus has the largest impact in all three ecosystems it encounters due to its high abundance and productivity. The variable nature of squid populations increases the vulnerability of these biological conveyers to overfishing and environmental change. Failure of these critical biological pathways may induce irreversible long-term consequences for biodiversity, resource abundance and spatial availability in the world ocean.

  6. Weld quality evaluation using a high temperature SQUID array

    SciTech Connect

    Clark, D. D.; Espy, M. A.; Kraus, Robert H., Jr.; Matlachov, A. N.; Lamb, J. S.

    2002-01-01

    This paper presents preliminary data for evaluating weld quality using high temperature SQUIDS. The SQUIDS are integrated into an instrument known as the SQUID Array Microscope, or SAMi. The array consists of ll SQUIDs evenly distributed over an 8.25 mm baseline. Welds are detected using SAMi by using an on board coil to induce eddy currents in a conducting sample and measuring the resulting magnetic fields. The concept is that the induced magnetic fields will differ in parts of varying weld quality. The data presented here was collected from three stainless steel parts using SAMi. Each part was either solid, included a good weld, or included a bad weld. The induced magnetic field's magnitude and phase relative to the induction signal were measured. For each sample considered, both the magnitude and phase data were measurably different than the other two samples. These results indicate that it is possible to use SAMi to evaluate weld quality.

  7. Neon isotopes show that Earth was accreted from irradiated material

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moreira, M. A.

    2015-12-01

    Since the 1980s, the notion that the Earth's mantle has a "solar" isotopic signature for neon has been favoured. Indeed, the 20Ne/22Ne ratio is above 12.5 in the mantle sources of OIB and MORB, close to the solar composition (13.4 for the Sun or 13.8 for the solar wind) and different from both atmospheric and chondritic compositions (Phase Q, Neon A). The most well accepted process invoked to explain this observed solar composition in the mantle is dissolution into a magma ocean of solar gases captured by gravity around the proto-Earth. However, Earth was accreted after gas from the proto-planetary disk had evaporated, suggesting that Earth itself could not have captured such a solar primordial atmosphere. Only planetary embryos were formed when the gas was still present in the disk. However, these planetary embryos with the mass of Mars are not massive enough to capture a solar dense atmosphere able to incorporate enough neon into the mantle. New estimates of the neon isotopic compositions of both the Earth's mantle and of the implanted solar wind into grains suggest that the origin of the neon on Earth is related to solar wind irradiation on μm grains before planetary accretion started and not dissolution. Although incorporation of solar ions by this process is only significant for very volatiles (depleted) elements, the irradiation by x-rays has important consequences for the bulk chemistry of irradiated grains as it has been demonstrated that it produces depletion in Mg and Si, relatively to O (e.g Bradley et al., 1994), a pattern also observed for the Bulk silicate Earth. References Bradley, J. (1994). "Chemically Anomalous, Preaccretionally irradiated Grains in Interplanetary fust from Comets." Science 265: 925-929.

  8. SQUID magnetometry applied as non-invasive electroanalytic chemical technique

    SciTech Connect

    Jette, B.D.; MacVicar, M.L.A. )

    1991-03-01

    This paper reports on a SQUID magnetometer, employed as a highly sensitive ammeter, used to perform standard electroanalytic chemical measurements non- invasively. Specifically, the magnetic fields generated by the net ionic movement in the solution of a driven electrochemical system is detected by the gradiometer coils. The SQUID signal can then be compared to conventional current measurements. One such standard measurement investigated is Cyclic Voltametry (CV) which determines the I-V characteristics of an electrochemical system yielding critical kinetic parameters.

  9. High transition-temperature SQUID magnetometers and practical applications

    SciTech Connect

    Dantsker, E

    1997-05-01

    The design, fabrication and performance of SQUID magnetometers based on thin films of the high-transition temperature superconductor YBa{sub 2}Cu{sub 3}O{sub 7{minus}x} (YBCO) are described. Essential to the achieving high magnetic field resolution at low frequencies is the elimination of 1/f flux noise due to thermally activated hopping of flux vortices between pinning sites in the superconducting films. Through improvements in processing, 1/f noise in single layer YBCO thin films and YBCO-SrTiO{sub 3}-YBCO trilayers was systematically reduced to allow fabrication of sensitive SQUID magnetometers. Both single-layer directly coupled SQUID magnetometers and multilayer magnetometers were fabricated, based on the dc SQUID with bicrystal grain boundary Josephson junctions. Multilayer magnetometers had a lower magnetic field noise for a given physical size due to greater effective sensing areas. A magnetometer consisting of a SQUID inductively coupled to the multiturn input coil of a flux transformer in a flip-chip arrangement had a field noise of 27 fT Hz{sup {minus}1/2} at 1 Hz and 8.5 fT Hz{sup {minus}1/2} at 1 kHz. A multiloop multilayer SQUID magnetometer had a field noise of 37 fT Hz{sup {minus}1/2} at 1 Hz and 18 fT Hz{sup {minus}1/2} at 1 kHz. A three-axis SQUID magnetometer for geophysical applications was constructed and operated in the field in the presence of 60 Hz and radiofrequency noise. Clinical quality magnetocardiograms were measured using multilayer SQUID magnetometers in a magnetically shielded room.

  10. Design and optimization of HTC DC SQUIDs for magnetometric applications

    SciTech Connect

    Testa, G.; Monaco, A. |; Camerlingo, C.; Russo, M.; Sarnelli, E.

    1999-04-20

    In order to optimize the magnetic field sensitivity, the authors have followed two different approaches. In the former they have analyzed the influence of the quality of YBCO films on the superconducting properties and noise characteristics of bicrystal grain boundary junctions and dc-SQUIDs. For this purpose they have studied and compared three different YBCO deposition processes. In the latter they have reported the different criteria for the design of SQUID magnetometers usable for applications in shielded and unshielded environment.

  11. High-T(c) squid application in medicine and geophysics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Polushkin, V. N.; Uchaikin, S. V.; Vasiliev, B. V.

    1991-01-01

    In our laboratory of high-T(sub c), a one-hole squid was built from Y1Ba2Cu3O(7-x) ceramics obtained by a standard procedure of solid state reaction. The ceramics with critical current density J(sub c) is greater than 100 A/sq cm was selected. In the middle of a 10 x 10 x 2 mm ceramics pellet, a 0.8 mm hole was drilled in which the superconducting loop of the squid was located. Between the hole and the edge of the pellet, a cut was mechanically filed out with a bridge inside it connecting the superconducting ring. A scheme of the magnetometer is presented. The resonant frequency shift of the tank circuit, the connection of the squid with this circuit, and the squid inductance are evaluated. One of the most interesting fields of the squid-based magnetometer application is biomagnetism, particularly, the human heart magnetocardiogram measuring. The low-temperature squids were used in this area and many interesting and important scientific results have been obtained. The observations have shown that the main noise contribution was not due to the squid but to the Earth's magnetic field variations, industrial inductions, and mainly to the vibrations caused by liquid nitrogen boiling and by vibrations of the box. Further attempts are needed to reduce the magnetic noise inductions. Nevertheless, the estimations promise the maximum signal/noise relation of the high-T(sub c) squid-magnetocardiometer to be not less than 10:1 in a bandwidth of 60 Hz. Apparently, such resolution would be enough not only for steady cardiogram reading but even for thin structure investigation at average technique application.

  12. [Biochemistry and functional characterization of squid mantle meat (Dosidicus gigas)].

    PubMed

    Abugoch, L; Guarda, A; María Pérez, L; Isabel Donghi, M

    2000-12-01

    A study for the characterization of frozen giant squid mantle (meat) protein stored at -25 degrees C for 8 month was started. In the present research, the following functional properties were investigate: emulsifying, water holding and gel forming capacities. Optimal conditions for the separation and differentiation of miofibrillar and sarcoplasmatic proteins were also studied. It was found that the unfrozen giant squid mantle meat es capable of emulifying 2.817,4 g of oil/g of protein and holding capacity was 3.64 g of water/g of protein. Related to the gel forming capacity, it was not obtain, probably due to excessive storage of the meat. With regard to miofibrilar protein obtention of the squid mantle meat, it was found that two low ionic strength washings (I = 0.05), the sarcoplasmic proteins were practically eliminated from the protein matrix. The differentiation of miofibrilar and sarcoplasmatic proteins was obtained by PAGE-SDS of the squid mantle meat extracted at two different ionic strength (I = 0.05 and I = 0.5). This work demonstrates that the giant squid mantle protein has a high emulsifying and water holding capacity, and it can be used, as a raw material, for the improvement of sausage products. About the gelling products, more studies will be necessary with fresh squid mantle meat to conclude about this functional property.

  13. High-{Tc} DC SQUID and flux transformer development

    SciTech Connect

    Fife, A.A.; Angus, V.; Betts, K.

    1994-12-31

    A description is presented of the fabrication and properties of high {Tc} DC SQUIDS and flux transformers fabricated by dry processing of pulsed laser ablated YBa{sub 2}Cu{sub 3}O{sub 7{minus}x} (YBCO) thin films. SQUIDs have been fabricated with either bicrystal substrate or step edge junctions. For all devices fabricated thus far, measurements indicate a similar character to the flux noise spectra with a significant 1/f noise component below 100--500 Hz. The transfer function and energy sensitivities as a function of SQUID inductances in the range 60--200 pH have been measured for bicrystal DC SQUIDs and compared with estimates. Various techniques have been employed to improve the magnetic field sensitivity of the uncoupled DC SQUID toward more practical levels including the use of large area washers, single layer magnetometers and 3-level flux transformers fabricated from trilayers of YBCO/SrTiO{sub 3}/YBCO. The properties of open input coils are presented as well as the performance of closed loop transformers coupled via flip chip geometry to the SQUID washer. A white magnetic noise level of {approx} 130 fT rms/{radical}Hz above 200 Hz has been reached with a flux transformer with a 15 turn input coil and pick-up loop area of 13 mm{sup 2}.

  14. Development of 1.3GHz HTc rf SQUID

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Xin-Yuan; Xie, Fei-Xiang; Meng, Shu-Chao; Dai, Yuan-Dong; Li, Zhuang-Zhi; Ma, Ping; Yang, Tao; Nie, Rui-Juan; Wang, Fu-Ren

    2004-01-01

    A new HTc rf SQUID working at around 1.3GHz has been developed to avoid electromagnetic interference such as growing mobile communication jamming. This new system works in a frequency range from 1.23 to 1.42GHz (centred at 1.3GHz), which is not occupied by commercial communication. The sensor used in the 1.3GHz rf SQUID is made of a HTc coplanar superconducting resonator and a large-area HTc superconducting film concentrator. We have achieved in the 1.3GHz HTc rf SQUID system a minimal flux noise of 2.5×10-5Phi0/(Hz)1/2 and a magnetic field sensitivity of 38fT/(Hz)1/2 in white noise range, respectively. The effective area of the concentrator fabricated on a 15×15mm2 substrate is 1.35mm2. It is shown that the 1.3GHz rf SQUID system has a high field sensitivity. Design and implementation of 1.3GHz HTc rf SQUID offers a promising direction of rf SQUID development for higher working frequency ranges.

  15. Estimating Orientation of Flying Fruit Flies.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Xi En; Wang, Shuo Hong; Qian, Zhi-Ming; Chen, Yan Qiu

    2015-01-01

    The recently growing interest in studying flight behaviours of fruit flies, Drosophila melanogaster, has highlighted the need for developing tools that acquire quantitative motion data. Despite recent advance of video tracking systems, acquiring a flying fly's orientation remains a challenge for these tools. In this paper, we present a novel method for estimating individual flying fly's orientation using image cues. Thanks to the line reconstruction algorithm in computer vision field, this work can thereby focus on the practical detail of implementation and evaluation of the orientation estimation algorithm. The orientation estimation algorithm can be incorporated into tracking algorithms. We rigorously evaluated the effectiveness and accuracy of the proposed algorithm by running experiments both on simulation data and on real-world data. This work complements methods for studying the fruit fly's flight behaviours in a three-dimensional environment.

  16. Fractionation of terrestrial neon by hydrodynamic hydrogen escape from ancient steam atmospheres

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zahnle, K.

    1991-01-01

    Atmospheric neon is isotopically heavier than mantle neon. By contrast, nonradiogenic mantle Ar, Kr, and Xe are not known to differ from the atmosphere. These observations are most easily explained by selective neon loss to space; however, neon is much too massive to escape from the modern atmosphere. Steam atmospheres are a likely, if intermittent, feature of the accreting Earth. They occur because, on average, the energy liberated during accretion places Earth above the runaway greenhouse threshold, so that liquid water is not stable at the surface. It is found that steam atmospheres should have lasted some ten to fifty million years. Hydrogen escape would have been vigorous, but abundant heavy constituents would have been retained. There is no lack of plausible candidates; CO2, N2, or CO could all suffice. Neon can escape because it is less massive than any of the likely pollutants. Neon fractionation would have been a natural byproduct. Assuming that the initial Ne-20/Ne-22 ratio was solar, it was found that it would have taken some ten million years to effect the observed neon fractionation in a 30 bar steam atmosphere fouled with 10 bars of CO. Thicker atmospheres would have taken longer; less CO, shorter. This mechanism for fractionating neon has about the right level of efficiency. Because the lighter isotope escapes much more readily, total neon loss is pretty minimal; less than half of the initial neon endowment escapes.

  17. The energy dependence of the neon-22 excess in the cosmic radiation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Herrstroem, N. Y.; Lund, N.

    1985-01-01

    It has been recognized now for some time that the heavy neon isotope, neon-22, is overabundant by a factor of 3 to 4 with respect to neon-22 in the cosmic ray source compared to the ratio of these isotopes in the Solar System. In view of the otherwise remarkable similarity of the chemical composition of the cosmic ray source and the composition of the Solar Energetic Particles, the anomaly regarding the neon isotopes is so much more striking. The observed excess of neon-22 is too large to be explained as a result of the chemical evolution of the Galaxy since the formation of the Solar System. Further information on the origin of the neon-22 excess may come from a comparison of the energy spectra of the two neon isotopes. If the cosmic radiation in the solar neighborhood is a mixture of material from several sources, one of which has an excess of neon-22, then the source energy spectra of neon-20 and neon-22 may differ significantly.

  18. Retrapping Current in Bridge-Type Nano-SQUIDs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hazra, D.; Kirtley, J. R.; Hasselbach, K.

    2015-08-01

    It is a challenge to fabricate bridge-type nano-superconducting quantum interference devices (bridge-type nano-SQUIDs) that operate without hysteresis over a broad temperature range. Hysteresis—defined by the difference between switching and retrapping current—is one of the foremost constraints to operating nano-SQUIDs with low noise. The quantum behavior of the switching current has been explored in bridge-type nano-SQUIDs, but studies exploring the parameters ruling the retrapping current are rare. Here, we study the temperature and magnetic-field dependence of the retrapping current in two different kinds of bridge-type nano-SQUID: trilayer aluminum-niobium-tungsten bridge-type nano-SQUIDs and suspended-bridge nano-SQUIDs. Our study confirms previous works showing that the retrapping current decreases as the bath temperature increases and is insensitive to the magnetic field. Using a thermal model originally proposed by Skocpol, Beasley, and Tinkham [J. Appl. Phys. 45, 4054 (1974)], we account for, and suggest a simple formula which describes, the temperature dependence of the retrapping current. Our calculations show that the magnitude of the retrapping current is mainly dependent on the superconducting transition temperature and the effective resistance of the weak link and that the temperature dependence of the retrapping current is ruled by the temperature dependence of the thermal conductivity in the normal and superconducting state. Finally, we apply our calculation to newly fabricated shunted bridge-type nano-SQUIDs, which show nonhysteretic current-voltage characteristics down to at least 250 mK and display systematic voltage modulations as a function of externally applied magnetic fields.

  19. Nuclear magnetic resonance experiments with dc SQUID amplifiers

    SciTech Connect

    Heaney, M.B. . Dept. of Physics Lawrence Berkeley Lab., CA )

    1990-11-01

    The development and fabrication of dc SQUIDs (Superconducting QUantum Interference Devices) with Nb/Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}/Nb Josephson junctions is described. A theory of the dc SQUID as a radio-frequency amplifier is presented, with an optimization strategy that accounts for the loading and noise contributions of the postamplifier and maximizes the signal-to-noise ratio of the total system. The high sensitivity of the dc SQUID is extended to high field NMR. A dc SQUID is used as a tuned radio-frequency amplifier to detect pulsed nuclear magnetic resonance at 32 MHz from a metal film in a 3.5 Tesla static field. A total system noise temperature of 11 K has been achieved, at a bath temperature of 4.2 K. The minimum number of nuclear Bohr magnetons observable from a free precession signal after a single pulse is about 2 {times} 10{sup 17} in a bandwidth of 25 kHz. In a separate experiment, a dc SQUID is used as a rf amplifier in a NQR experiment to observe a new resonance response mechanism. The net electric polarization of a NaClO{sub 3} crystal due to the precessing electric quadrupole moments of the Cl nuclei is detected at 30 MHz. The sensitivity of NMR and NQR spectrometers using dc SQUID amplifiers is compared to the sensitivity of spectrometers using conventional rf amplifiers. A SQUID-based spectrometer has a voltage sensitivity which is comparable to the best achieved by a FET-based spectrometer, at these temperatures and operating frequencies.

  20. Discovery of solar wind neon in the Allende meteorite

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Heymann, D.; Palma, R. L.

    1986-01-01

    Insert gases have been measured in seven sieve fractions of a disaggregated sample of the Allende meteorite. The disaggregation was done by ultrasonic treatment in water and by freeze-thawing. This sample consititutes the first gas-rich portion known to occur in the Allende meteorite. The composition of the trapped neon is solar, i.e., Neon-B, and the gas-rich samples contain more trapped Ne-20 than Ar-36. The set of sieve fractions show an anticorrelation of Ne-20 content and grain size. Gas-richness seems to be quite common among the CV3 meteorites with Allende added to the earlier known cases of Mokoia, Vigarano, and Efremovka.

  1. Boiling incipience and convective boiling of neon and nitrogen

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Papell, S. S.; Hendricks, R. C.

    1977-01-01

    Forced convection and subcooled boiling heat transfer data for liquid nitrogen and liquid neon were obtained in support of a design study for a 30 tesla cryomagnet cooled by forced convection of liquid neon. This design precludes nucleate boiling in the flow channels as they are too small to handle vapor flow. Consequently, it was necessary to determine boiling incipience under the operating conditions of the magnet system. The cryogen data obtained over a range of system pressures, fluid flow rates, and applied heat fluxes were used to develop correlations for predicting boiling incipience and convective boiling heat transfer coefficients in uniformly heated flow channels. The accuracy of the correlating equations was then evaluated. A technique was also developed to calculate the position of boiling incipience in a uniformly heated flow channel. Comparisons made with the experimental data showed a prediction accuracy of plus or minus 15 percent

  2. [Neon-colored plastics for orthodontic appliances. Biocompatibility studies].

    PubMed

    Schendel, K U; Erdinger, L; Komposch, G; Sonntag, H G

    1995-01-01

    Public concern and issues of liability have made product safety a major concern throughout the medical field including orthodontics. The purpose of this study was to test the biocompatibility of the new neon colored plastic materials to be used for removable orthodontic appliances before they reach the market and are used in patient treatment. In addition, eight modifications of this synthetic material, which has been used in appliances for many years, were examined without neon color. The procedures established tested for: 1. mutagenicity, 2. toxicity, and 3. irritation of the mucous membrane. As alternatives to using animals the Ames Test, the Agar Overlay Assay, and the HET-CAM Test were employed to test for these properties. The tests revealed that, when the manufacturer's instructions are followed, neither the polymerized materials as used in patient appliances nor the shavings resulting from the orthodontist or the technician grinding the appliance exhibit mutagenic, toxic, or irritating properties.

  3. Perception of neon color spreading in 3-6-month-old infants.

    PubMed

    Yang, Jiale; Kanazawa, So; Yamaguchi, Masami K

    2009-12-01

    Although lots of studies about neon color spreading have been reported, few of these studies have focused on the perceptual development of it in human infants. Therefore, this study explores the perceptual development of neon color spreading in infants. In experiment 1, we examined 3-6-month-olds' perception of neon color spreading in static conditions. In experiment 2, we examined 3-6-month-olds' perception of neon color spreading in moving conditions. Our results suggest that while only 5-6-month-old infants show a preference for neon color spreading in the static condition, 3-4-month-old infants also prefer neon color spreading if motion information is available.

  4. Charge radii of neon isotopes across the sd neutron shell

    SciTech Connect

    Marinova, K.; Geithner, W.; Kappertz, S.; Kloos, S.; Kotrotsios, G.; Neugart, R.; Wilbert, S.; Kowalska, M.; Keim, M.; Blaum, K.; Lievens, P.; Simon, H.

    2011-09-15

    We report on the changes in mean square charge radii of unstable neon nuclei relative to the stable {sup 20}Ne, based on the measurement of optical isotope shifts. The studies were carried out using collinear laser spectroscopy on a fast beam of neutral neon atoms. High sensitivity on short-lived isotopes was achieved thanks to nonoptical detection based on optical pumping and state-selective collisional ionization, which was complemented by an accurate determination of the beam kinetic energy. The new results provide information on the structural changes in the sequence of neon isotopes all across the neutron sd shell, ranging from the proton drip line nucleus and halo candidate {sup 17}Ne up to the neutron-rich {sup 28}Ne in the vicinity of the ''island of inversion.'' Within this range the charge radius is smallest for {sup 24}Ne with N=14 corresponding to the closure of the neutron d{sub 5/2} shell, while it increases toward both neutron shell closures, N=8 and N=20. The general trend of the charge radii correlates well with the deformation effects which are known to be large for several neon isotopes. In the neutron-deficient isotopes, structural changes arise from the onset of proton-halo formation for {sup 17}Ne, shell closure in {sup 18}Ne, and clustering effects in {sup 20,21}Ne. On the neutron-rich side the transition to the island of inversion plays an important role, with the radii in the upper part of the sd shell confirming the weakening of the N=20 magic number. The results add new information to the radii systematics of light nuclei where data are scarce because of the small contribution of nuclear-size effects to the isotope shifts which are dominated by the finite-mass effect.

  5. Helium-neon laser improves skin repair in rabbits.

    PubMed

    Peccin, Maria Stella; Renno, Ana Claudia Muniz; de Oliveira, Flavia; Giusti, Paulo Ricardo; Ribeiro, Daniel Araki

    2012-12-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the influence of helium-neon laser on skin injury in rabbits. For this purpose, 15 New Zealand rabbits underwent bilateral skin damage in leg. Helium-neon laser light, at a fluence of 6 J∕cm2 and wavelength of 632.8 nm, was applied on the left legs (laser group). The right leg lesions (control group) served as negative control. All sections were histopathologically analyzed using HE sections. The results showed little infiltration of inflammatory cells, with proliferation of fibroblasts forming a few fibrous connective tissue after 1 week post-injury. The lesion on the 3rd week was characterized by granulation tissue, which formed from proliferated fibrous connective tissue, congested blood vessels and mild mononuclear cell infiltration. On the 5th week, it was observed that debris material surrounded by a thick layer of connective tissue and dense collage, fibroblasts cells present in the dermis covered by a thick epidermal layer represented by keratinized epithelium. Taken together, our results suggest that helium-neon laser is able to improve skin repair in rabbits at early phases of recovery. PMID:23057697

  6. Nova LMC 1990 no. 1: The first extragalactic neon nova

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sonneborn, George; Shore, Steven N.; Starrfield, Sumner G.

    1990-01-01

    International Ultraviolet Explorer (IUE) observations of nova LMC (Large Magellanic Cloud) 1990 No. 1, the first neon (or ONeMg) nova observed outside the Galaxy are presented. The observations were obtained from 17 Jan. to Mar. 1990, with especially dense coverage during the first 25 days of the outburst. (The neon nova categorization is based on the detection of forbidden Ne 3-4 lines in optical spectra; the ultraviolet neon lines were not detected.) During the first 30 days of the outburst, the radiative losses were dominated by the N 5 delta 1240 and C 4 delta 1550 lines. The maximum ejection velocity was approximately 8000 km/s, based on the blue absorption edge of the C 4 P-Cygni profile. Early in the outburst of Nova LMC 1990 No. 1 the UV luminosity alone was approximately 3 times 10 to the 38th power erg/sec, implying that the bolometric luminosity was well in excess of the Eddington luminosity for a one solar mass object.

  7. Helium-neon laser improves skin repair in rabbits.

    PubMed

    Peccin, Maria Stella; Renno, Ana Claudia Muniz; de Oliveira, Flavia; Giusti, Paulo Ricardo; Ribeiro, Daniel Araki

    2012-12-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the influence of helium-neon laser on skin injury in rabbits. For this purpose, 15 New Zealand rabbits underwent bilateral skin damage in leg. Helium-neon laser light, at a fluence of 6 J∕cm2 and wavelength of 632.8 nm, was applied on the left legs (laser group). The right leg lesions (control group) served as negative control. All sections were histopathologically analyzed using HE sections. The results showed little infiltration of inflammatory cells, with proliferation of fibroblasts forming a few fibrous connective tissue after 1 week post-injury. The lesion on the 3rd week was characterized by granulation tissue, which formed from proliferated fibrous connective tissue, congested blood vessels and mild mononuclear cell infiltration. On the 5th week, it was observed that debris material surrounded by a thick layer of connective tissue and dense collage, fibroblasts cells present in the dermis covered by a thick epidermal layer represented by keratinized epithelium. Taken together, our results suggest that helium-neon laser is able to improve skin repair in rabbits at early phases of recovery.

  8. Calibration of SQUID vector magnetometers in full tensor gradiometry systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schiffler, M.; Queitsch, M.; Stolz, R.; Chwala, A.; Krech, W.; Meyer, H.-G.; Kukowski, N.

    2014-08-01

    Measurement of magnetic vector or tensor quantities, namely of field or field gradient, delivers more details of the underlying geological setting in geomagnetic prospection than a scalar measurement of a single component or of the scalar total magnetic intensity. Currently, highest measurement resolutions are achievable with superconducting quantum interference device (SQUID)-based systems. Due to technological limitations, it is necessary to suppress the parasitic magnetic field response from the SQUID gradiometer signals, which are a superposition of one tensor component and all three orthogonal magnetic field components. This in turn requires an accurate estimation of the local magnetic field. Such a measurement can itself be achieved via three additional orthogonal SQUID reference magnetometers. It is the calibration of such a SQUID reference vector magnetometer system that is the subject of this paper. A number of vector magnetometer calibration methods are described in the literature. We present two methods that we have implemented and compared, for their suitability of rapid data processing and integration into a full tensor magnetic gradiometry, SQUID-based, system. We conclude that the calibration routines must necessarily model fabrication misalignments, field offset and scale factors, and include comparison with a reference magnetic field. In order to enable fast processing on site, the software must be able to function as a stand-alone toolbox.

  9. High-sensitivity SQUIDs with dispersive readout for scanning microscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mol, J. M.; Foroughi, F.; Arps, J.; Kammerloher, E.; Bethke, P.; Gibson, G. W., Jr.; Fung, Y. K. K.; Klopfer, B.; Nowack, K.; Kratz, P. A.; Huber, M. E.; Moler, K. A.; Kirtley, J. R.; Bluhm, H.

    2014-03-01

    In a scanning SQUID microscope, the high magnetic flux sensitivity is utilized to image magnetic properties of sample surfaces. As an alternative to the widely used DC SQUIDs, we present Nb SQUIDs for scanning with dispersive microwave readout, featuring significantly higher bandwidth and sensitivity. An on-chip shunt capacitor in parallel with the junction and flux pickup loops forms an LC resonator whose resonance depends on the flux in the SQUID. The readout utilizes a phase-sensitive detection of the reflected drive signal at the SQUID's resonance frequency. Highest sensitivities are achieved by making use of the inherent nonlinearity of the device at high excitation powers. We present a study of the characteristics and noise measurements of our sensors at 4 K. Extrapolations from our results to 300 mK indicate that flux sensitivities as low as 50 nΦ0Hz- 1 / 2 could be possible. Using high-resolution lithography, our sensors promise sub-micron spatial resolution. Integrated into a scanning microscope, they will provide a powerful tool for the study of weak magnetic effects and quantum coherent phenomena. This work was supported by NSF IMR-MIP grant No. 0957616 and the Alfried Krupp von Bohlen und Halbach - Foundation.

  10. Transport and dissociation of neon dimer cations in neon gas: a joint dynamical and Monte Carlo modeling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Benhenni, Malika; Stachoň, Martin; Gadéa, Florent Xavier; Yousfi, Mohammed; Kalus, René

    2016-09-01

    A hybrid dynamical method based on the classical treatment of nuclei and the quantum treatment of electrons was used to calculate momentum transfer and dissociation cross-sections for collisions of neon dimer cations with neon atoms. For the inclusion of nuclear quantum effects, a semi-empirical factor was introduced to correct the hybrid momentum transfer cross-sections at low collision energies. Both uncorrected and quantum corrected hybrid cross-sections were used to calculate the {{Ne}}2+ mobility, and longitudinal and transverse characteristic diffusion energies over a wide range of the reduced electric field. Furthermore, the {{Ne}}2+ dissociation rate constant was calculated and compared to measured data. In addition, an approximate inverse method based on an effective isotropic interaction potential was also used to calculate the momentum transfer cross-sections and related transport data.

  11. On the mechanism of populating 3p levels of neon under pumping by a hard ioniser

    SciTech Connect

    Khasenov, M U

    2011-03-31

    The effect of quenching additives on the luminescence properties of helium - neon mixtures under pumping by {alpha} particles emitted from {sup 210}Po atoms is considered. It is concluded that, under excitation by a heavy charged particle, the population of the 3p'[1/2]{sub 0} level of neon is not related to the dissociative recombination of molecular ions. It is suggested that the most likely channels for populating the 3p level are the excitation transfer from metastable helium atoms to neon atoms and direct excitation of neon by nuclear particles and secondary electrons. (lasers and active media)

  12. 50 CFR 648.26 - Mackerel, squid, and butterfish possession restrictions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 12 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Mackerel, squid, and butterfish... UNITED STATES Management Measures for the Atlantic Mackerel, Squid, and Butterfish Fisheries § 648.26 Mackerel, squid, and butterfish possession restrictions. (a) Atlantic mackerel. (1) A vessel must be...

  13. 50 CFR 648.26 - Mackerel, squid, and butterfish possession restrictions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 12 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Mackerel, squid, and butterfish... UNITED STATES Management Measures for the Atlantic Mackerel, Squid, and Butterfish Fisheries § 648.26 Mackerel, squid, and butterfish possession restrictions. (a) Atlantic mackerel. (1) A vessel must be...

  14. 50 CFR 648.25 - Atlantic Mackerel, squid, and butterfish framework adjustments to management measures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 12 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Atlantic Mackerel, squid, and butterfish... OF THE NORTHEASTERN UNITED STATES Management Measures for the Atlantic Mackerel, Squid, and Butterfish Fisheries § 648.25 Atlantic Mackerel, squid, and butterfish framework adjustments to...

  15. 50 CFR 648.22 - Atlantic mackerel, squid, and butterfish specifications.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 12 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Atlantic mackerel, squid, and butterfish... Management Measures for the Atlantic Mackerel, Squid, and Butterfish Fisheries § 648.22 Atlantic mackerel, squid, and butterfish specifications. (a) Initial recommended annual specifications. The...

  16. 50 CFR 648.25 - Atlantic Mackerel, squid, and butterfish framework adjustments to management measures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 12 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Atlantic Mackerel, squid, and butterfish... OF THE NORTHEASTERN UNITED STATES Management Measures for the Atlantic Mackerel, Squid, and Butterfish Fisheries § 648.25 Atlantic Mackerel, squid, and butterfish framework adjustments to...

  17. 50 CFR 648.26 - Mackerel, squid, and butterfish possession restrictions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 12 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Mackerel, squid, and butterfish... UNITED STATES Management Measures for the Atlantic Mackerel, Squid, and Butterfish Fisheries § 648.26 Mackerel, squid, and butterfish possession restrictions. (a) Atlantic mackerel. (1) A vessel must be...

  18. 50 CFR 648.22 - Atlantic mackerel, squid, and butterfish specifications.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 12 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Atlantic mackerel, squid, and butterfish... Management Measures for the Atlantic Mackerel, Squid, and Butterfish Fisheries § 648.22 Atlantic mackerel, squid, and butterfish specifications. (a) Initial recommended annual specifications. The...

  19. 50 CFR 648.25 - Atlantic Mackerel, squid, and butterfish framework adjustments to management measures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 12 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Atlantic Mackerel, squid, and butterfish... OF THE NORTHEASTERN UNITED STATES Management Measures for the Atlantic Mackerel, Squid, and Butterfish Fisheries § 648.25 Atlantic Mackerel, squid, and butterfish framework adjustments to...

  20. 50 CFR 648.22 - Atlantic mackerel, squid, and butterfish specifications.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 12 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Atlantic mackerel, squid, and butterfish... Management Measures for the Atlantic Mackerel, Squid, and Butterfish Fisheries § 648.22 Atlantic mackerel, squid, and butterfish specifications. (a) Initial recommended annual specifications. The...

  1. Application of SQUIDs for registration of biomagnetic signals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Voitovych, I. D.; Primin, M. A.; Sosnytskyy, V. N.

    2012-04-01

    Supersensitive magnetometric systems based on low-temperature SQUIDs have been designed to conduct research in cardiology (magnetocardiography) and to examine distribution of magnetic nanoparticles in biologic objects. Such SQUID magnetometric systems are distinguished by their noise immunity enabling research in nonscreened rooms. High repeatability of research outcomes has been confirmed. The use of magnetocardiographic systems has permitted a new screening information technology to be developed to diagnose heart diseases at early stages. Magnetic imaging of heart's action currents is an ideal way to test local electrical heterogeneity of myocardium. It is shown that magnetocardiography has a significant potential for both basic science of analysis of heart's biosignals and clinical cardiologic practice. A SQUID magnetometric system measuring magnetic signals radiated by the organs of laboratory animals is described. Information technology for automatic recording and transforming magnetometric data has been developed; the measurement of signals over rats' livers while injecting intravenously the nanoparticles of iron oxides and lead solutions are presented.

  2. Signal detection in l/f noise of SQUID magnetometers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cabrera, B.; Anderson, J. T.

    1978-01-01

    It is shown that the variance on the SQUID power spectrum in the l/f low frequency region is well behaved, i.e., any small frequency band may be treated as white noise in standard power spectrum estimation theory. Specifically a calibration signal is examined at 0.017 Hz with an equivalent energy referred to the SQUID input coil of 1 times 10 to the -30th J and a digitally recorded and analyzed record of 140 hr duration obtained an optimum S/N better than 400. The results are in good agreement with theory. In addition no deviation from the l/f dependence of the noise energy spectrum is seen down to frequencies below 10 to the -5th Hz. A commercially available SQUID and electronics system were used.

  3. Single sodium channels from the squid giant axon.

    PubMed Central

    Bezanilla, F

    1987-01-01

    Since the work of A. L. Hodgkin and A. F. Huxley (1952. J. Physiol. [Lond.].117:500-544) the squid giant axon has been considered the classical preparation for the study of voltage-dependent sodium and potassium channels. In this preparation much data have been gathered on macroscopic and gating currents but no single sodium channel data have been available. This paper reports patch clamp recording of single sodium channel events from the cut-open squid axon. It is shown that the single channel conductance in the absence of external divalent ions is approximately 14 pS, similar to sodium channels recorded from other preparations, and that their kinetic properties are consistent with previous results on gating and macroscopic currents obtained from the perfused squid axon preparation. PMID:2447971

  4. Active polysomes in the axoplasm of the squid giant axon.

    PubMed

    Giuditta, A; Menichini, E; Perrone Capano, C; Langella, M; Martin, R; Castigli, E; Kaplan, B B

    1991-01-01

    Axons and axon terminals are widely believed to lack the capacity to synthesize proteins, relying instead on the delivery of proteins made in the perikaryon. In agreement with this view, axoplasmic proteins synthesized by the isolated giant axon of the squid are believed to derive entirely from periaxonal glial cells. However, squid axoplasm is known to contain the requisite components of an extra-mitochondrial protein synthetic system, including protein factors, tRNAs, rRNAs, and a heterogeneous family of mRNAs. Hence, the giant axon could, in principle, maintain an endogenous protein synthetic capacity. Here, we report that the squid giant axon also contains active polysomes and mRNA, which hybridizes to a riboprobe encoding murine neurofilament protein. Taken together, these findings provide direct evidence that proteins (including the putative neuron-specific neurofilament protein) are also synthesized de novo in the axonal compartment.

  5. NMR/MRI with hyperpolarized gas and high Tc SQUID

    DOEpatents

    Schlenga, Klaus; de Souza, Ricardo E.; Wong-Foy, Annjoe; Clarke, John; Pines, Alexander

    2000-01-01

    A method and apparatus for the detection of nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) signals and production of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) from samples combines the use of hyperpolarized inert gases to enhance the NMR signals from target nuclei in a sample and a high critical temperature (Tc) superconducting quantum interference device (SQUID) to detect the NMR signals. The system operates in static magnetic fields of 3 mT or less (down to 0.1 mT), and at temperatures from liquid nitrogen (77K) to room temperature. Sample size is limited only by the size of the magnetic field coils and not by the detector. The detector is a high Tc SQUID magnetometer designed so that the SQUID detector can be very close to the sample, which can be at room temperature.

  6. Robust chimera states in SQUID metamaterials with local interactions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hizanidis, J.; Lazarides, N.; Tsironis, G. P.

    2016-09-01

    We report on the emergence of robust multiclustered chimera states in a dissipative-driven system of symmetrically and locally coupled identical superconducting quantum interference device (SQUID) oscillators. The "snakelike" resonance curve of the single SQUID is the key to the formation of the chimera states and is responsible for the extreme multistability exhibited by the coupled system that leads to attractor crowding at the geometrical resonance (inductive-capacitive) frequency. Until now, chimera states were mostly believed to exist for nonlocal coupling. Our findings provide theoretical evidence that nearest-neighbor interactions are indeed capable of supporting such states in a wide parameter range. SQUID metamaterials are the subject of intense experimental investigations, and we are highly confident that the complex dynamics demonstrated in this paper can be confirmed in the laboratory.

  7. Bio-application of high-Tc SQUID magnetic sensor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tanaka, Saburo; Aspanut, Zarina; Kurita, Hirofumi; Toriyabe, Chika; Hatuskade, Yoshimi; Katsura, Shinji

    2006-05-01

    We propose medical applications using ultra-small magnetic particles and a SQUID magnetic sensor. A high-Tc SQUID system for biological molecules (DNA) detection is one of that. This system is based on a hybridization process. Two strands in a DNA molecule are held together by hydrogen bonds between base pairs like a ladder. The two strands are referred to as being complementary to each other. One strand (sample DNA) was labeled with Fe 3O 4 ultra-small magnetic particles and the other (probe DNA) was anchored on a glass slide. Then they were hybridized each other on the slide. After washing the excess sample DNA, the hybridized DNA was evaluated in the presence of excitation AC field by high-Tc SQUID. The signal was initially proportional to the concentration of the sample DNA and then saturated. It means that the hybridization occurred successfully between the sample DNA and the probe DNA.

  8. Improved Readout Scheme for SQUID-Based Thermometry

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Penanen, Konstantin

    2007-01-01

    An improved readout scheme has been proposed for high-resolution thermometers, (HRTs) based on the use of superconducting quantum interference devices (SQUIDs) to measure temperature- dependent magnetic susceptibilities. The proposed scheme would eliminate counting ambiguities that arise in the conventional scheme, while maintaining the superior magnetic-flux sensitivity of the conventional scheme. The proposed scheme is expected to be especially beneficial for HRT-based temperature control of multiplexed SQUIDbased bolometer sensor arrays. SQUID-based HRTs have become standard for measuring and controlling temperatures in the sub-nano-Kelvin temperature range in a broad range of low-temperature scientific and engineering applications. A typical SQUIDbased HRT that utilizes the conventional scheme includes a coil wound on a core made of a material that has temperature- dependent magnetic susceptibility in the temperature range of interest. The core and the coil are placed in a DC magnetic field provided either by a permanent magnet or as magnetic flux inside a superconducting outer wall. The aforementioned coil is connected to an input coil of a SQUID. Changes in temperature lead to changes in the susceptibility of the core and to changes in the magnetic flux detected by the SQUID. The SQUID readout instrumentation is capable of measuring magnetic-flux changes that correspond to temperature changes down to a noise limit .0.1 nK/Hz1/2. When the flux exceeds a few fundamental flux units, which typically corresponds to a temperature of .100 nK, the SQUID is reset. The temperature range can be greatly expanded if the reset events are carefully tracked and counted, either by a computer running appropriate software or by a dedicated piece of hardware.

  9. Patch voltage clamp of squid axon membrane.

    PubMed

    Fishman, H M

    1975-12-01

    A small area (patch) of the external surface of a squid axon can be "isolated" electrically from the surrounding bath by means of a pair of concentric glass pipettes. The seawater-filled inner pipette makes contact with the axon and constitutes the external access to the patch. The outer pipette is used to direct flowing sucrose solution over the area surrounding the patch of membrane underlying the inner pipette. Typically, sucrose isolated patches remain in good condition (spike amplitude greater than 90 mV) for periods of approximately one half hour. Patches of axon membrane which had previously been exposed to sucrose solution were often excitable. Membrane survival of sucrose treatment apparently arises from an outflow of ions from the axon and perhaps satellite cells into the interstitial cell space surrounding the exolemma. Estimate of the total access resistance (electrode plus series resistance) to the patch is about 100 komega (7 omega cm2). Patch capacitance ranges from 10-100 pF, which suggests areas of 10(-4) to 10(-5) cm2 and resting patch resistances of 10-100 Momega. Shunt resistance through the interstitial space exposed to sucrose solution, which isolates the patch, is typically 1-2 Momega. These parameters indicate that good potential control and response times can be achieved on a patch. Furthermore, spatial uniformity is demonstrated by measurement of an exoplasmic isopotential during voltage clamp of an axon patch. The method may be useful for other preparations in which limited membrane area is available or in special instances such as in the measurement of membrane conduction noise. PMID:1214276

  10. Excitability of the squid giant axon revisited.

    PubMed

    Clay, J R

    1998-08-01

    The electrical properties of the giant axon from the common squid Loligo pealei have been reexamined. The primary motivation for this work was the observation that the refractoriness of the axon was significantly greater than the predictions of the standard model of nerve excitability. In particular, the axon fired only once in response to a sustained, suprathreshold stimulus. Similarly, only a single action potential was observed in response to the first pulse of a train of 1-ms duration current pulses, when the pulses were separated in time by approximately 10 ms. The axon was refractory to all subsequent pulses in the train. The underlying mechanisms for these results concern both the sodium and potassium ion currents INa and IK. Specifically, Na+ channel activation has long been known to be coupled to inactivation during a depolarizing voltage-clamp step. This feature appears to be required to simulate the pulse train results in a revised model of nerve excitability. Moreover, the activation curve for IK has a significantly steeper voltage dependence, especially near its threshold (approximately -60 mV), than in the standard model, which contributes to reduced excitability, and the fully activated current-voltage relation for IK has a nonlinear, rather than a linear, dependence on driving force. An additional aspect of the revised model is accumulation/depeletion of K+ in the space between the axon and the glial cells surrounding the axon, which is significant even during a single action potential and which can account for the 15-20 mV difference between the potassium equilibrium potential EK and the maximum afterhyperpolarization of the action potential. The modifications in IK can also account for the shape of voltage changes near the foot of the action potential.

  11. SQUID detected NMR and MRI at ultralow fields

    SciTech Connect

    Clarke, John; McDermott, Robert; Pines, Alexander; Trabesinger, Andreas Heinz

    2006-10-03

    Nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) signals are detected in microtesla fields. Prepolarization in millitesla fields is followed by detection with an untuned dc superconducting quantum interference device (SQUID) magnetometer. Because the sensitivity of the SQUID is frequency independent, both signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) and spectral resolution are enhanced by detecting the NMR signal in extremely low magnetic fields, where the NMR lines become very narrow even for grossly inhomogeneous measurement fields. MRI in ultralow magnetic field is based on the NMR at ultralow fields. Gradient magnetic fields are applied, and images are constructed from the detected NMR signals.

  12. Squid detected NMR and MRI at ultralow fields

    DOEpatents

    Clarke, John; McDermott, Robert; Pines, Alexander; Trabesinger, Andreas Heinz

    2006-05-30

    Nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) signals are detected in microtesla fields. Prepolarization in millitesla fields is followed by detection with an untuned dc superconducting quantum interference device (SQUID) magnetometer. Because the sensitivity of the SQUID is frequency independent, both signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) and spectral resolution are enhanced by detecting the NMR signal in extremely low magnetic fields, where the NMR lines become very narrow even for grossly inhomogeneous measurement fields. MRI in ultralow magnetic field is based on the NMR at ultralow fields. Gradient magnetic fields are applied, and images are constructed from the detected NMR signals.

  13. Squid detected NMR and MRI at ultralow fields

    DOEpatents

    Clarke, John; McDermott, Robert; Pines, Alexander; Trabesinger, Andreas Heinz

    2007-05-15

    Nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) signals are detected in microtesla fields. Prepolarization in millitesla fields is followed by detection with an untuned dc superconducting quantum interference device (SQUID) magnetometer. Because the sensitivity of the SQUID is frequency independent, both signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) and spectral resolution are enhanced by detecting the NMR signal in extremely low magnetic fields, where the NMR lines become very narrow even for grossly inhomogeneous measurement fields. MRI in ultralow magnetic field is based on the NMR at ultralow fields. Gradient magnetic fields are applied, and images are constructed from the detected NMR signals.

  14. Squid detected NMR and MRI at ultralow fields

    SciTech Connect

    Clarke, John; Pines, Alexander; McDermott, Robert F.; Trabesinger, Andreas H.

    2008-12-16

    Nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) signals are detected in microtesla fields. Prepolarization in millitesla fields is followed by detection with an untuned dc superconducting quantum interference device (SQUID) magnetometer. Because the sensitivity of the SQUID is frequency independent, both signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) and spectral resolution are enhanced by detecting the NMR signal in extremely low magnetic fields, where the NMR lines become very narrow even for grossly inhomogeneous measurement fields. MRI in ultralow magnetic field is based on the NMR at ultralow fields. Gradient magnetic fields are applied, and images are constructed from the detected NMR signals.

  15. Possible physical mechanisms of stochastic oscillations in RF SQUID's

    SciTech Connect

    Dmitrenko, I.M.; Konotop, D.A.; Tsoi, G.M.; Shnyrkov, V.I.

    1985-03-01

    The processes of giant noise generation in RF SQUID's are studied experimentally. It is shown that the appearance of stochastic oscillations is due to different retardation mechanisms in a dynamic system, depending on the characteristics of the Josephson junctions and the external excitation. The retardation times in the SQUID's studied were determined by the recharging of the Josephson-junction capacitance (tau/sub R//sub C/), by quasiparticle relaxation processes (tau/sub epsilon-c/), and by the relaxation time of thermal processes in the junction (tau/sub T/).

  16. Development of a Two-Dimensional Micro-SQUID Array for Investigation of Magnetization Spatial Distribution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sakuma, Daisuke; Shinozaki, Tomoya; Nago, Yusuke; Ishiguro, Ryosuke; Kashiwaya, Satoshi; Nomura, Shintaro; Kono, Kimitoshi; Takayanagi, Hideaki

    2016-05-01

    We developed a two-dimensional array of superconducting quantum interference devices (SQUIDs) for investigation of fine spatial distribution of magnetization in superconducting Sr2RuO4. Micrometer-sized SQUIDs based on homogeneously formed Al/AlOx/Al tunnel-type Josephson junctions were fabricated using shadow evaporation technique. Unnecessary electrodes formed by the shadow evaporation were removed by inductively coupled plasma reactive ion etching, in order to realize a dense array of SQUIDs. We measured the magnetic modulation of the maximum Josephson current of each SQUID in the array and evaluated the interaction among the SQUIDs.

  17. Observations on the spawning behavior, egg masses and paralarval development of the ommastrephid squid Todarodes pacificus in a laboratory mesocosm.

    PubMed

    Puneeta, Pandey; Vijai, Dharmamony; Yoo, Hae-Kyun; Matsui, Hajime; Sakurai, Yasunori

    2015-12-01

    The spawning behavior of ommastrephid squids has never been observed under natural conditions. Previous laboratory observations of Japanese flying squid (Todarodes pacificus) suggest that pre-spawning females might rest on the continental shelf or slope before they ascend above the pycnocline to spawn, and that the egg masses might settle in the pycnocline. Here, two mesocosm experiments were conducted in a 300 m(3) tank that was 6 m deep to investigate this hypothesis. In the first experiment, a thermocline (2.5-3.5 m) was established in the tank by creating a thermally stratified (17-22°C) water column. In the second experiment, the temperature was uniform (22°C) at all depths. Prior to spawning, females did not rest on the tank floor. In the stratified water column, egg masses remained suspended in the thermocline, but in an unstratified water column, they settled on the tank bottom, collapsed and were infested by microbes, resulting in abnormal or nonviable embryos. Eleven females spawned a total of 18 egg masses (17-80 cm in diameter), indicating that females can spawn more than once when under stress. Paralarvae hatched at stage 30/31 and survived for up to 10 days, allowing us to observe the most advanced stage of paralarvae in captivity. Paralarvae survived after consumption of the inner yolk, suggesting they might have fed in the tank.

  18. Observations on the spawning behavior, egg masses and paralarval development of the ommastrephid squid Todarodes pacificus in a laboratory mesocosm.

    PubMed

    Puneeta, Pandey; Vijai, Dharmamony; Yoo, Hae-Kyun; Matsui, Hajime; Sakurai, Yasunori

    2015-12-01

    The spawning behavior of ommastrephid squids has never been observed under natural conditions. Previous laboratory observations of Japanese flying squid (Todarodes pacificus) suggest that pre-spawning females might rest on the continental shelf or slope before they ascend above the pycnocline to spawn, and that the egg masses might settle in the pycnocline. Here, two mesocosm experiments were conducted in a 300 m(3) tank that was 6 m deep to investigate this hypothesis. In the first experiment, a thermocline (2.5-3.5 m) was established in the tank by creating a thermally stratified (17-22°C) water column. In the second experiment, the temperature was uniform (22°C) at all depths. Prior to spawning, females did not rest on the tank floor. In the stratified water column, egg masses remained suspended in the thermocline, but in an unstratified water column, they settled on the tank bottom, collapsed and were infested by microbes, resulting in abnormal or nonviable embryos. Eleven females spawned a total of 18 egg masses (17-80 cm in diameter), indicating that females can spawn more than once when under stress. Paralarvae hatched at stage 30/31 and survived for up to 10 days, allowing us to observe the most advanced stage of paralarvae in captivity. Paralarvae survived after consumption of the inner yolk, suggesting they might have fed in the tank. PMID:26632456

  19. Application of a pulse-discharge helium detector to the determination of neon in air and water.

    PubMed

    Lasa, J; Mochalski, P; Lokas, E; Kedzior, L

    2002-08-30

    A pulse-discharge helium detector (Valco, PD-D2-I) is used to measure neon concentrations in air and water. The detection level is 0.5 x 10(-8) g/cm3 (0.2 ppm). Discharge gas doped with neon results in a linear response to the neon mass up to 10(-6) g. For measuring the neon concentration in water, a simple enrichment system is used.

  20. Fly ash carbon passivation

    DOEpatents

    La Count, Robert B; Baltrus, John P; Kern, Douglas G

    2013-05-14

    A thermal method to passivate the carbon and/or other components in fly ash significantly decreases adsorption. The passivated carbon remains in the fly ash. Heating the fly ash to about 500 and 800 degrees C. under inert gas conditions sharply decreases the amount of surfactant adsorbed by the fly ash recovered after thermal treatment despite the fact that the carbon content remains in the fly ash. Using oxygen and inert gas mixtures, the present invention shows that a thermal treatment to about 500 degrees C. also sharply decreases the surfactant adsorption of the recovered fly ash even though most of the carbon remains intact. Also, thermal treatment to about 800 degrees C. under these same oxidative conditions shows a sharp decrease in surfactant adsorption of the recovered fly ash due to the fact that the carbon has been removed. This experiment simulates the various "carbon burnout" methods and is not a claim in this method. The present invention provides a thermal method of deactivating high carbon fly ash toward adsorption of AEAs while retaining the fly ash carbon. The fly ash can be used, for example, as a partial Portland cement replacement in air-entrained concrete, in conductive and other concretes, and for other applications.

  1. Using NEON to Measure Adaptation of Vegetation to Changes in Environmental Forcing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martin, P. H.; Kao, R.; Gibson, C.

    2009-12-01

    The National Ecological Observatory Network (NEON) is a national-scale research platform for documenting and analyzing the impacts of climate change, land-use change, and invasive species on ecology. NEON features sensor networks and experiments linked by cyberinfrastructure to record and archive ecological data for at least 30 years. NEON partitions the United States into 20 ecoclimatic domains. Each domain hosts one fully instrumented core site in a wildland area and two re-locatable sites, which aims to capture ecologically significant gradients (e.g. landuse). Using standardized protocols and an open data policy, NEON data will be gathered from the level of the gene and organism to populations and communities, with extrapolations to the continental scale. In conjunction with environmental data, NEON will conduct field observations and analyses of biological specimens to track biodiversity, population dynamics, productivity, phenology, infectious disease, biogeochemistry and ecohydrology. Here we present a few examples of the type of research NEON will enable using this data. The NEON network will measure and scale many environmental factors that affect vegetation, e.g. temperature, precipitation, and nutrient availability. Direct monitoring of vegetation will enable the study of acclimatory and adaptive changes in vegetation properties over different time scales. Such data will improve the representation of vegetation responses to environmental change in models. The vision behind NEON aims to advance our ability to quantitatively predict ecological change.

  2. The NEON Science Commissioning Plan: Strategies for Confirming System Operation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wirth, G. D.; Thorpe, A.; Buur, H.

    2015-12-01

    A transformation is underway in the field of ecological monitoring as compelling science questions motivate us to build ever-larger networks aiming to acquire uniform datasets over wide geographical ranges and long timescales. The National Ecological Observatory Network (NEON), currently under construction across the U.S., represents the most ambitious such effort to characterize ecology at the continental scale. When completed in 2017, NEON will begin a 30-year program to monitor the state of North American ecosystems at scores of independent sites by employing a combination of terrestrial and aquatic sensors, organismal, biogeochemical, and hydrological sampling conducted by field staff, and airborne remote-sensing imaging and spectroscopy. Simply building and bringing such complex, long-term monitoring networks online is, however, insufficient to produce a useful result: the science team must also confirm that the system fulfills its essential mission to generate accurate and uniform data from all sites over time. This is the role of Science Commissioning, the process which completes the construction stage by confirming that the system operates as designed before entering full operations. Ideally, Science Commissioning involves simply testing the completed system against all applicable science requirements. In the real world of large, complex networks, planners of Science Commissioning must grapple with several key questions: How can we verify that the measurements from a given subsystem reflect "truth"? How can we ensure that similar subsystems at different sites return equivalent results? How can we confirm that data from the same site remain comparable over long periods of time? How can we conduct meaningful tests on a large system in a reasonable amount of time and effort? We describe the specific strategies NEON is developing to meet these challenges and the implications for other large ecological monitoring networks.

  3. Nuclear quantum effects on the stability of cationic neon clusters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Calvo, F.; Naumkin, F. Y.; Wales, D. J.

    2012-11-01

    The stable structures of cationic neon clusters containing up to 57 atoms have been located using a diatomic-in-molecules potential energy surface and basin-hopping hierarchical optimization. The effects of vibrational delocalization were included either in the harmonic approximation, or by performing Langevin molecular dynamics simulations coupled to a quantum thermal bath at T=0. For most clusters, zero-point motion is sufficiently high to blur the picture of a single well-defined structure. However, structural diversity of the ground state wavefunction is found to be lower at sizes 14, 21, and 56, which correspond to special stabilities in experimental mass spectra.

  4. Cutaneous Ossifying Fibroma in a Neon Tetra (Paracheirodon innesi).

    PubMed

    Murphy, B; Imai, D M

    2016-01-01

    A cutaneous proliferative mass was identified arising from the caudal peduncle of a captive neon tetra fish (Paracheirodon innesi). The lesion was histologically consistent with an ossifying fibroma (OF), a fibro-osseous proliferative lesion typically identified in the jaws or tooth-associated supportive tissues of mammals. Although it has been previously reported, there is no recent report of this lesion occurring in a fish. This is the first report of a cutaneous ossifying fibroma in a characin fish. The authors speculate on the pathogenesis of this lesion, which may have arisen from the scale-associated mesenchymal tissues. PMID:27476108

  5. The abundances of neon, sulfur, and argon in planetary nebulae

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Beck, S. C.; Lacy, J. H.; Townes, C. H.; Aller, L. H.; Geballe, T. R.; Baas, F.

    1981-01-01

    New infrared observations of Ne II, Ar III, and S IV are used in optical observations of other ionization states of the considered elements to evaluate the abundances of neon, argon, and sulfur in 18 planetary nebulae. Attention is also given to one or more of the infrared lines in 18 other nebulae. It is pointed out that S IV was detected in approximately 90% of the observed objects, while Ar III was found in about 80%, and Ne II in roughly one-third. It is noted that optical observations typically include only a limited region of the nebula, while the infrared measurements frequently involve integration over the entire nebular image.

  6. Noble gases in diamonds - Occurrences of solarlike helium and neon

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Honda, M.; Reynolds, J. H.; Roedder, E.; Epstein, S.

    1987-01-01

    Seventeen diamond samples from diverse locations were analyzed for the contents of He, Ar, Kr, and Xe, and of their isotopes, using a Reynolds (1956) type glass mass spectrometer. The results disclosed a large spread in the He-3/He-4 ratios, ranging from values below atmospheric to close to the solar ratio. In particular, solarlike He-3/He-4 ratios were seen for an Australian colorless diamond composite and an Arkansas diamond, which also displayed solarlike neon isotopic ratios. Wide variation was also observed in the He-4/Ar-40 ratios, suggesting a complex history for the source regions and the diamond crystallization processes.

  7. Cutaneous Ossifying Fibroma in a Neon Tetra (Paracheirodon innesi).

    PubMed

    Murphy, B; Imai, D M

    2016-01-01

    A cutaneous proliferative mass was identified arising from the caudal peduncle of a captive neon tetra fish (Paracheirodon innesi). The lesion was histologically consistent with an ossifying fibroma (OF), a fibro-osseous proliferative lesion typically identified in the jaws or tooth-associated supportive tissues of mammals. Although it has been previously reported, there is no recent report of this lesion occurring in a fish. This is the first report of a cutaneous ossifying fibroma in a characin fish. The authors speculate on the pathogenesis of this lesion, which may have arisen from the scale-associated mesenchymal tissues.

  8. Expected intensities of solar neon-like ions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bhatia, A. K.; Kastner, S. O.

    1985-01-01

    A study of the expected intensities of the stronger solar neon-like ion emission lines, some not yet observed, is carried out to compare with the observational situation. The potential usefulness of the 2p5 3s(3P2) - 2p6 forbidden line as a density diagnostic is discussed, and new electric quadrupole lines in the soft X-ray range are noted. 'Observability diagrams' are presented as a convenient overview of the known and unobserved lines. The S VII resonance lines appear to have anomalous intensities.

  9. Optimizing Sampling Efficiency for Biomass Estimation Across NEON Domains

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abercrombie, H. H.; Meier, C. L.; Spencer, J. J.

    2013-12-01

    Over the course of 30 years, the National Ecological Observatory Network (NEON) will measure plant biomass and productivity across the U.S. to enable an understanding of terrestrial carbon cycle responses to ecosystem change drivers. Over the next several years, prior to operational sampling at a site, NEON will complete construction and characterization phases during which a limited amount of sampling will be done at each site to inform sampling designs, and guide standardization of data collection across all sites. Sampling biomass in 60+ sites distributed among 20 different eco-climatic domains poses major logistical and budgetary challenges. Traditional biomass sampling methods such as clip harvesting and direct measurements of Leaf Area Index (LAI) involve collecting and processing plant samples, and are time and labor intensive. Possible alternatives include using indirect sampling methods for estimating LAI such as digital hemispherical photography (DHP) or using a LI-COR 2200 Plant Canopy Analyzer. These LAI estimations can then be used as a proxy for biomass. The biomass estimates calculated can then inform the clip harvest sampling design during NEON operations, optimizing both sample size and number so that standardized uncertainty limits can be achieved with a minimum amount of sampling effort. In 2011, LAI and clip harvest data were collected from co-located sampling points at the Central Plains Experimental Range located in northern Colorado, a short grass steppe ecosystem that is the NEON Domain 10 core site. LAI was measured with a LI-COR 2200 Plant Canopy Analyzer. The layout of the sampling design included four, 300 meter transects, with clip harvests plots spaced every 50m, and LAI sub-transects spaced every 10m. LAI was measured at four points along 6m sub-transects running perpendicular to the 300m transect. Clip harvest plots were co-located 4m from corresponding LAI transects, and had dimensions of 0.1m by 2m. We conducted regression analyses

  10. Vampire squid: detritivores in the oxygen minimum zone.

    PubMed

    Hoving, Hendrik J T; Robison, Bruce H

    2012-11-22

    Vampire squid (Vampyroteuthis infernalis) are considered phylogenetic relics with cephalopod features of both octopods and squids. They lack feeding tentacles, but in addition to their eight arms, they have two retractile filaments, the exact functions of which have puzzled scientists for years. We present the results of investigations on the feeding ecology and behaviour of Vampyroteuthis, which include extensive in situ, deep-sea video recordings from MBARI's remotely operated vehicles (ROVs), laboratory feeding experiments, diet studies and morphological examinations of the retractile filaments, the arm suckers and cirri. Vampire squid were found to feed on detrital matter of various sizes, from small particles to larger marine aggregates. Ingested items included the remains of gelatinous zooplankton, discarded larvacean houses, crustacean remains, diatoms and faecal pellets. Both ROV observations and laboratory experiments led to the conclusion that vampire squid use their retractile filaments for the capture of food, supporting the hypothesis that the filaments are homologous to cephalopod arms. Vampyroteuthis' feeding behaviour is unlike any other cephalopod, and reveals a unique adaptation that allows these animals to spend most of their life at depths where oxygen concentrations are very low, but where predators are few and typical cephalopod food is scarce.

  11. Scanning SQUID-on-tip microscopy of vortex matter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anahory, Yonathan; Embon, Lior; Vasyukov, Denis; Cuppens, Jo; Lachman, Ella; Halbertal, Dorri; Yaakobi, Elad; Uri, Aviram; Myasoedov, Yuri; Rappaport, Michael L.; Huber, Martin E.; Zeldov, Eli; Weizmann Institute of Science Team; University of Colorado at Denver Team

    2014-03-01

    We present a scanning nanoSQUID microscope with record spatial resolution, spin sensitivity, and operating magnetic fields for the study of vortex matter. The key element of the microscope is the SQUID-on-tip (SOT) device, which is fabricated by pulling a quartz tube into a sharp pipette, followed by three steps of thermal evaporation of a thin superconducting film onto the sides and the apex of the pipette. The devices operate at 4.2 K in applied fields of up to 1T and can be made with diameters down to 50 nm. The SQUIDs-on-tip display an extremely low flux noise of Φn = 50 nΦ0/Hz1/2 and corresponding spin sensitivity of better than 1 μB/Hz1/2, which is about two orders of magnitude improvement over any previous SQUID. Using this new tool we have investigated static and dynamic behavior of vortices in superconducting Pb films. By driving ac and dc transport current we can study vortex displacement and the vortex potential landscape with sub-atomic precision. Azrieli and Minerva Foundation, FQRNT(Quebec), ERC (Europe)

  12. A 128 Multiplexing Factor Time-Domain SQUID Multiplexer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Prêle, D.; Voisin, F.; Piat, M.; Decourcelle, T.; Perbost, C.; Chapron, C.; Rambaud, D.; Maestre, S.; Marty, W.; Montier, L.

    2016-07-01

    A cryogenic 128:1 Time-Domain Multiplexer (TDM) has been developed for the readout of kilo-pixel Transition Edge Sensor (TES) arrays dedicated to the Q&U Bolometric Interferometer for Cosmology (QUBIC) instrument which aims to measure the B-mode polarization of the Cosmic Microwave Background. Superconducting QUantum Interference Devices (SQUIDs) are usually used to read out TESs. Moreover, SQUIDs are used to build TDM by biasing sequentially the SQUIDs connected together—one for each TES. In addition to this common technique which allows a typical 32 multiplexing factor, a cryogenic integrated circuit provides a 4:1 second multiplexing stage. This cryogenic integrated circuit is one of the original part of our TDM achieving an unprecedented 128 multiplexing factor. We present these two dimension TDM stages: topology of the SQUID multiplexer, operation of the cryogenic integrated circuit, and integration of the full system to read out a TES array dedicated to the QUBIC instrument. Flux-locked loop operation in multiplexed mode is also discussed.

  13. A YBCO RF-SQUID magnetometer and its applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Luwei, Zhou; Jingwu, Qiu; Xienfeng, Zhang; Zhiming, Tank; Yongjia, Qian

    1990-01-01

    An applicable RF-superconducting quantum interference detector (SQUID) magnetometer was made using a bulk sintered yttrium barium copper oxide (YBCO). The temperature range of the magnetometer is 77 to 300 K and the field range 0 to 0.1T. At 77 K, the equivalent flux noise of the SQUID is 5 x 10 to minus 4 power theta sub o/square root of Hz at the frequency range of 20 to 200 Hz. The experiments show that the SQUID noise at low-frequency end is mainly from 1/f noise. A coil test shows that the magnetic moment sensitivity delta m is 10 to the minus 6th power emu. The RF-SQUID is shielded in a YBCO cylinder with a shielding ability B sub in/B sub ex of about 10 to the minus 6th power when external dc magnetic field is about a few Oe. The magnetometer is successfully used in characterizing superconducting thin films.

  14. Quorum sensing in the squid-Vibrio symbiosis.

    PubMed

    Verma, Subhash C; Miyashiro, Tim

    2013-08-07

    Quorum sensing is an intercellular form of communication that bacteria use to coordinate group behaviors such as biofilm formation and the production of antibiotics and virulence factors. The term quorum sensing was originally coined to describe the mechanism underlying the onset of luminescence production in cultures of the marine bacterium Vibrio fischeri. Luminescence and, more generally, quorum sensing are important for V. fischeri to form a mutualistic symbiosis with the Hawaiian bobtail squid, Euprymna scolopes. The symbiosis is established when V. fischeri cells migrate via flagella-based motility from the surrounding seawater into a specialized structure injuvenile squid called the light organ. The cells grow to high cell densities within the light organ where the infection persists over the lifetime of the animal. A hallmark of a successful symbiosis is the luminescence produced by V. fischeri that camouflages the squid at night by eliminating its shadow within the water column. While the regulatory networks governing quorum sensing are critical for properly regulating V. fischeri luminescence within the squid light organ, they also regulate luminescence-independent processes during symbiosis. In this review, we discuss the quorum-sensing network of V. fischeri and highlight its impact at various stages during host colonization.

  15. Scanning SQUID susceptometers with sub-micron spatial resolution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kirtley, John R.; Paulius, Lisa; Rosenberg, Aaron J.; Palmstrom, Johanna C.; Holland, Connor M.; Spanton, Eric M.; Schiessl, Daniel; Jermain, Colin L.; Gibbons, Jonathan; Fung, Y.-K.-K.; Huber, Martin E.; Ralph, Daniel C.; Ketchen, Mark B.; Gibson, Gerald W.; Moler, Kathryn A.

    2016-09-01

    Superconducting QUantum Interference Device (SQUID) microscopy has excellent magnetic field sensitivity, but suffers from modest spatial resolution when compared with other scanning probes. This spatial resolution is determined by both the size of the field sensitive area and the spacing between this area and the sample surface. In this paper we describe scanning SQUID susceptometers that achieve sub-micron spatial resolution while retaining a white noise floor flux sensitivity of ≈2μΦ0/Hz1/2. This high spatial resolution is accomplished by deep sub-micron feature sizes, well shielded pickup loops fabricated using a planarized process, and a deep etch step that minimizes the spacing between the sample surface and the SQUID pickup loop. We describe the design, modeling, fabrication, and testing of these sensors. Although sub-micron spatial resolution has been achieved previously in scanning SQUID sensors, our sensors not only achieve high spatial resolution but also have integrated modulation coils for flux feedback, integrated field coils for susceptibility measurements, and batch processing. They are therefore a generally applicable tool for imaging sample magnetization, currents, and susceptibilities with higher spatial resolution than previous susceptometers.

  16. A unique advantage for giant eyes in giant squid.

    PubMed

    Nilsson, Dan-Eric; Warrant, Eric J; Johnsen, Sönke; Hanlon, Roger; Shashar, Nadav

    2012-04-24

    Giant and colossal deep-sea squid (Architeuthis and Mesonychoteuthis) have the largest eyes in the animal kingdom [1, 2], but there is no explanation for why they would need eyes that are nearly three times the diameter of those of any other extant animal. Here we develop a theory for visual detection in pelagic habitats, which predicts that such giant eyes are unlikely to evolve for detecting mates or prey at long distance but are instead uniquely suited for detecting very large predators, such as sperm whales. We also provide photographic documentation of an eyeball of about 27 cm with a 9 cm pupil in a giant squid, and we predict that, below 600 m depth, it would allow detection of sperm whales at distances exceeding 120 m. With this long range of vision, giant squid get an early warning of approaching sperm whales. Because the sonar range of sperm whales exceeds 120 m [3-5], we hypothesize that a well-prepared and powerful evasive response to hunting sperm whales may have driven the evolution of huge dimensions in both eyes and bodies of giant and colossal squid. Our theory also provides insights into the vision of Mesozoic ichthyosaurs with unusually large eyes.

  17. High-Resolution Displacement Sensor Using a SQUID Array Amplifier

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chui, Talso; Penanen, Konstantin; Barmatz, M.; Paik, Ho Jung

    2004-01-01

    Improvement in the measurement of displacement has profound implications for both exploration technologies and fundamental physics. For planetary exploration, the new SQUID-based capacitive displacement sensor will enable a more sensitive gravity gradiometer for mapping the interior of planets and moons. A new concept of a superfluid clock to be reported by Penanen and Chui at this workshop is also based on a high-resolution displacement sensor. Examples of high-impact physics projects that can benefit from a better displacement sensor are: detection of gravitational waves, test of the equivalence principle, search for the postulated "axion" particle, and test of the inverse square law of gravity. We describe the concept of a new displacement sensor that makes use of a recent development in the Superconducting Quantum Interference Device (SQUID) technology. The SQUID array amplifier, invented by Welty and Martinis (IEEE Trans. Appl. Superconductivity 3, 2605, 1993), has about the same noise as a conventional SQUID; however, it can work at a much higher frequency of up to 5 MHz. We explain how the higher bandwidth can be translated into higher resolution using a bridge-balancing scheme that can simultaneously balance out both the carrier signal at the bridge output and the electrostatic force acting on the test mass.

  18. Crystallographic Study of the LUMI Intermediate of Squid Rhodopsin.

    PubMed

    Murakami, Midori; Kouyama, Tsutomu

    2015-01-01

    Upon absorption of light, the retinal chromophore in rhodopsin isomerizes from the 11-cis to the trans configuration, initiating a photoreaction cycle. The primary photoreaction state, bathorhodopsin (BATHO), relaxes thermally through lumirhodopsin (LUMI) into a photoactive state, metarhodopsin (META), which stimulates the conjugated G-protein. Previous crystallographic studies of squid and bovine rhodopsins have shown that the structural change in the primary photoreaction of squid rhodopsin is considerably different from that observed in bovine rhodopsin. It would be expected that there is a fundamental difference in the subsequent thermal relaxation process between vertebrate and invertebrate rhodopsins. In this work, we performed crystallographic analyses of the LUMI state of squid rhodopsin using the P62 crystal. When the crystal was illuminated at 100 K with blue light, a half fraction of the protein was converted into BATHO. This reaction state relaxed into LUMI when the illuminated crystal was warmed in the dark to 170 K. It was found that, whereas trans retinal is largely twisted in BATHO, it takes on a more planar configuration in LUMI. This relaxation of retinal is accompanied by reorientation of the Schiff base NH bond, the hydrogen-bonding partner of which is switched to Asn185 in LUMI. Unlike bovine rhodopsin, the BATHO-to-LUMI transition in squid rhodopsin was accompanied by no significant change in the position/orientation of the beta-ionone ring of retinal.

  19. Vampire squid: detritivores in the oxygen minimum zone

    PubMed Central

    Hoving, Hendrik J. T.; Robison, Bruce H.

    2012-01-01

    Vampire squid (Vampyroteuthis infernalis) are considered phylogenetic relics with cephalopod features of both octopods and squids. They lack feeding tentacles, but in addition to their eight arms, they have two retractile filaments, the exact functions of which have puzzled scientists for years. We present the results of investigations on the feeding ecology and behaviour of Vampyroteuthis, which include extensive in situ, deep-sea video recordings from MBARI's remotely operated vehicles (ROVs), laboratory feeding experiments, diet studies and morphological examinations of the retractile filaments, the arm suckers and cirri. Vampire squid were found to feed on detrital matter of various sizes, from small particles to larger marine aggregates. Ingested items included the remains of gelatinous zooplankton, discarded larvacean houses, crustacean remains, diatoms and faecal pellets. Both ROV observations and laboratory experiments led to the conclusion that vampire squid use their retractile filaments for the capture of food, supporting the hypothesis that the filaments are homologous to cephalopod arms. Vampyroteuthis' feeding behaviour is unlike any other cephalopod, and reveals a unique adaptation that allows these animals to spend most of their life at depths where oxygen concentrations are very low, but where predators are few and typical cephalopod food is scarce. PMID:23015627

  20. Vampire squid: detritivores in the oxygen minimum zone.

    PubMed

    Hoving, Hendrik J T; Robison, Bruce H

    2012-11-22

    Vampire squid (Vampyroteuthis infernalis) are considered phylogenetic relics with cephalopod features of both octopods and squids. They lack feeding tentacles, but in addition to their eight arms, they have two retractile filaments, the exact functions of which have puzzled scientists for years. We present the results of investigations on the feeding ecology and behaviour of Vampyroteuthis, which include extensive in situ, deep-sea video recordings from MBARI's remotely operated vehicles (ROVs), laboratory feeding experiments, diet studies and morphological examinations of the retractile filaments, the arm suckers and cirri. Vampire squid were found to feed on detrital matter of various sizes, from small particles to larger marine aggregates. Ingested items included the remains of gelatinous zooplankton, discarded larvacean houses, crustacean remains, diatoms and faecal pellets. Both ROV observations and laboratory experiments led to the conclusion that vampire squid use their retractile filaments for the capture of food, supporting the hypothesis that the filaments are homologous to cephalopod arms. Vampyroteuthis' feeding behaviour is unlike any other cephalopod, and reveals a unique adaptation that allows these animals to spend most of their life at depths where oxygen concentrations are very low, but where predators are few and typical cephalopod food is scarce. PMID:23015627

  1. Quorum Sensing in the Squid-Vibrio Symbiosis

    PubMed Central

    Verma, Subhash C.; Miyashiro, Tim

    2013-01-01

    Quorum sensing is an intercellular form of communication that bacteria use to coordinate group behaviors such as biofilm formation and the production of antibiotics and virulence factors. The term quorum sensing was originally coined to describe the mechanism underlying the onset of luminescence production in cultures of the marine bacterium Vibrio fischeri. Luminescence and, more generally, quorum sensing are important for V. fischeri to form a mutualistic symbiosis with the Hawaiian bobtail squid, Euprymna scolopes. The symbiosis is established when V. fischeri cells migrate via flagella-based motility from the surrounding seawater into a specialized structure injuvenile squid called the light organ. The cells grow to high cell densities within the light organ where the infection persists over the lifetime of the animal. A hallmark of a successful symbiosis is the luminescence produced by V. fischeri that camouflages the squid at night by eliminating its shadow within the water column. While the regulatory networks governing quorum sensing are critical for properly regulating V. fischeri luminescence within the squid light organ, they also regulate luminescence-independent processes during symbiosis. In this review, we discuss the quorum-sensing network of V. fischeri and highlight its impact at various stages during host colonization. PMID:23965960

  2. Neon Isotope Fractionation in Ice Cores at Close-Off Depth

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liang, C.; Severinghaus, J. P.

    2015-12-01

    Analyzing trapped air bubbles in glacial ice is a well-established and useful method to reconstruct past atmospheric gas concentrations. However, trapped gas composition can be affected by fractionation during the closure of the air bubbles, complicating the reconstruction. Gases such as dioxygen (O2) and dihydrogen (H2) are known to leak out of the bubbles by permeation through the ice lattice at the close-off depth,where firn turns into ice. This process also can cause isotope fractionation, which obscures the past atmospheric isotope ratios in air bubbles in glacial ice. In order to establish the most accurate measurements of past atmospheric content, we need very detailed understanding of the permeation leakage mechanism in order to establish possible corrections. In this study, we propose the use of neon stable isotopes (neon-22 and neon-20) to place constraints on the mechanism of permeation leakage. Neon isotopes are an ideal system to explore because neon has a constant atmospheric isotope ratio, and thus only is affected by close-off fractionation. Neon permeation occurs via velocity-dependent hopping between sites within the ice lattice, because the neon atom is smaller than the critical size (3.6 Å) of the opening in the lattice. Theory predicts that neon isotope fractionation will occur due to the lower velocity of the heavier isotope, but this has never been experimentally verified and the theory is unable to quantitatively predict the magnitude of the fractionation. We will present the first results of high-precision neon isotope (22Ne/20Ne) measurements made in air pumped from the firm-to-ice transition in the Greenland Ice Sheet, where actively closing air bubbles drive permeation leakage. By measuring this natural neon isotope fractionation, we hope to learn about the mass dependence of the leakage mechanism and develop a more quantitative theory that is generalizable to biogeochemically- and climatically-active gases.

  3. Paleointensity of the Martian field from SQUID Microscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weiss, B. P.; Fong, L. E.; Lima, E. A.; Baudenbacher, F. J.; Vali, H.

    2005-12-01

    Crustal magnetic anomalies in the southern Martian hemisphere have intensities an order of magnitude larger than typical crustal anomalies on Earth. Two possible explanations for this difference are that compared to the present-day Earth, Mars has either (i) larger amounts of crustal ferromagnetic minerals or (ii) the crust was magnetized by a larger paleofield. ALH84001, the only pre-Amazonian Martian meteorite, possesses a stable magnetization dating to 4 Ga or earlier. Previous paleomagnetic studies with SQUID moment magnetometers on bulk ALH84001 grains have estimated that the paleointensity of the field which magnetized the meteorite was between 0.1-1 times that of the Earth's present field. However, these estimates may be lower limits on the true paleointensity because the orientation of the magnetization in ALH84001 is spatially heterogeneous on the submillimeter scale. This complication could have profound implications for hypothesis (ii) above. Here we first demonstrate that superconducting quantum interference device (SQUID) microscopy can recover the same magnetization intensity and direction of a well characterized modern-day terrestrial basalt as that measured with a 2G Enterprises SQUID moment magnetometer. A SQUID microscope paleointensity analysis of this basalt gives the expected present day field intensity of a few tens of microtesla. We further show that our new high resolution SQUID microscopy study of ALH84001, which has mapped its heterogeneous magnetization with the highest resolution yet (0.1 mm), favors the upper range of previous paleointensity estimates for the 4 Ga Martian paleofield (e.g., within a factor of several of that of the present-day Earth). However, this field, were it dynamo in origin, is still too weak to easily explain the intensity of the Martian magnetic anomalies.

  4. Sound radiation around a flying fly

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sueur, Jérôme; Tuck, Elizabeth J.; Robert, Daniel

    2005-07-01

    Many insects produce sounds during flight. These acoustic emissions result from the oscillation of the wings in air. To date, most studies have measured the frequency characteristics of flight sounds, leaving other acoustic characteristics-and their possible biological functions-unexplored. Here, using close-range acoustic recording, we describe both the directional radiation pattern and the detailed frequency composition of the sound produced by a tethered flying (Lucilia sericata). The flapping wings produce a sound wave consisting of a series of harmonics, the first harmonic occurring around 190 Hz. In the horizontal plane of the fly, the first harmonic shows a dipolelike amplitude distribution whereas the second harmonic shows a monopolelike radiation pattern. The first frequency component is dominant in front of the fly while the second harmonic is dominant at the sides. Sound with a broad frequency content, typical of that produced by wind, is also recorded at the back of the fly. This sound qualifies as pseudo-sound and results from the vortices generated during wing kinematics. Frequency and amplitude features may be used by flies in different behavioral contexts such as sexual communication, competitive communication, or navigation within the environment.

  5. Infrared spectra of small molecular ions trapped in solid neon

    SciTech Connect

    Jacox, Marilyn E.

    2015-01-22

    The infrared spectrum of a molecular ion provides a unique signature for that species, gives information on its structure, and is amenable to remote sensing. It also serves as a comparison standard for refining ab initio calculations. Experiments in this laboratory trap molecular ions in dilute solid solution in neon at 4.2 K in sufficient concentration for observation of their infrared spectra between 450 and 4000 cm{sup !1}. Discharge-excited neon atoms produce cations by photoionization and/or Penning ionization of the parent molecule. The resulting electrons are captured by other molecules, yielding anions which provide for overall charge neutrality of the deposit. Recent observations of ions produced from C{sub 2}H{sub 4} and BF{sub 3} will be discussed. Because of their relatively large possibility of having low-lying excited electronic states, small, symmetric molecular cations are especially vulnerable to breakdown of the Born-Oppenheimer approximation. Some phenomena which can result from this breakdown will be discussed. Ion-molecule reaction rates are sufficiently high that in some systems absorptions of dimer cations and anions are also observed. When H{sub 2} is introduced into the system, the initially-formed ion may react with it. Among the species resulting from such ion-molecule reactions that have recently been studied are O{sub 4}{sup +}, NH{sub 4}{sup +}, HOCO{sup +}, and HCO{sub 2}{sup !}.

  6. Study of adsorption of Neon on open Carbon nanohorns aggregates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ziegler, Carl Andrew

    Adsorption isotherms can be used to determine surface area of a substrate and the heat released when adsorption occurs. Our measurements are done determining the equilibrium pressures corresponding to a given amount of gas adsorbed on a substrate at constant temperature. The adsorption studies were done on aggregates of open dahlia-like carbon nanohorns. The nanohorns were oxidized for 9 hours at 550 °C to open them up and render their interior space accessible for adsorption. Volumetric adsorption measurements of Ne were performed at twelve different temperatures between 19 K and 48 K. The isotherms showed two substeps. The first substep corresponds to adsorption on the high energy binding sites in the interior of the nanohorns, near the tip. The second substep corresponds to low energy binding sites both on the outside of the nanotubes and inside the nanotube away from the tip. The isosteric heat measurements obtained from the isotherm data also shows these two distinct substeps. The effective surface area of the open nanotubes was determined from the isotherms using the point-B method. The isosteric heat and surface area data for neon on open nanohorns were compared to two similar experiments of neon adsorbed on aggregates of closed nanohorns.

  7. Opacity test using a neon-seeded theta pinch

    SciTech Connect

    Thomson, D.B.

    1980-02-01

    Vacuum ultraviolet (VUV) emission from a neon-seeded high-density theta-pinch has been observed for comparison with theoretical radiation emission calculations. The plasma was created in a 25-cm-long theta-coil with 90-kG field having a 3.0-..mu..s quarter period. A gas fill of 1 torr of helium + 2% neon was used. Observation of the HeII 4686 line/continuum ratio gave an electron temperature of 25 +- 4 eV. Shadowgraphs of the plasma radius, taken with a ruby laser, gave an electron density of 0.9 +- 0.09 x 10/sup 18/ cm/sup -3/. The VUV emission was observed in radial view and with time resolution with a 2.2-m grazing-incidence monochromator equipped with a photomultiplier and p-terphenyl scintillator. Thin foils of carbon and aluminum were used as filters to absorb stray light and pass emission in the 44- to 100-A region.

  8. Production rates of neon xenon isotopes by energetic neutrons

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Leich, D. A.; Borg, R. J.; Lanier, V. B.

    1986-01-01

    As a first step in an experimental program to study the behavior of noble gases produced in situ in minerals, a suite of minerals and pure chemicals were irradiated with 14.5 MeV neutrons at LLNL's Rotating Target Neutron Source (RTNS-II) and production rates for noble gases were determined. While neutron effects in meteorites and lunar samples are dominated by low-energy neutron capture, more energetic cosmic-ray secondary neutrons can provide significant depth-dependent contributions to production of cosmogenic nuclides through endothermic reactions such as (n,2n), (n,np), (n,d) and (n,alpha). Production rates for nuclides produced by cosmic-ray secondary neutrons are therefore useful in interpreting shielding histories from the relative abundances of cosmogenic nuclides. Absolute production cross sections were calculated from isotope dilution analyses of NaCl, Mg, CsCl, and Ba(NO3)2 samples, assuming purity, stoichiometry, and quantitative noble gas retention and extraction. Relative production cross sections determined from neon isotopic ratios in the mineral samples were also considered in evaluating the neon production cross sections. Results are presented.

  9. NEON, Establishing a Standardized Network for Groundwater Observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fitzgerald, M.; Schroeter, N.; Goodman, K. J.; Roehm, C. L.

    2013-12-01

    The National Ecological Observatory Network (NEON) is establishing a standardized set of data collection systems comprised of in-situ sensors and observational sampling to obtain data fundamental to the analysis of environmental change at a continental scale. NEON will be collecting aquatic, terrestrial, and atmospheric data using Observatory-wide standardized designs and methods via a systems engineering approach. This approach ensures a wealth of high quality data, data algorithms, and models that will be freely accessible to all communities such as academic researchers, policy makers, and the general public. The project is established to provide 30 years of data which will enable prediction and forecasting of drivers and responses of ecological change at scales ranging from localized responses through regional gradients and up to the continental scale. The Observatory is a distributed system of sites spread across the United States, including Alaska, Hawaii, and Puerto Rico, which is subdivided into 20 statistically unique domains, based on a set of 18 ecologically important parameters. Each domain contains at least one core aquatic and terrestrial site which are located in unmanaged lands, and up to 2 additional sites selected to study domain specific questions such as nitrogen deposition gradients and responses of land use change activities on the ecosystem. Here, we present the development of NEON's groundwater observation well network design and the timing strategy for sampling groundwater chemistry. Shallow well networks, up to 100 feet in depth, will be installed at NEON aquatic sites and will allow for observation of localized ecohydrologic site conditions, by providing basic spatio-temporal near-real time data on groundwater parameters (level, temperature, conductivity) collected from in situ high-resolution instrumentation positioned in each well; and biannual sampling of geochemical and nutrient (N and P) concentrations in a subset of wells for each

  10. NEON: Transforming Environmental Data into Free, Open Information

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wee, B.

    2010-12-01

    The National Ecological Observatory Network (NEON) will collect data across the United States on the impacts of climate change, land use change and invasive species on natural resources and biodiversity. NEON is a project of the U.S. National Science Foundation (NSF), with many other U.S. agencies and NGOs cooperating. The Observatory’s construction plans call for 60 sites distributed across 20 ecoclimatic Domains. Data will be collected from strategically selected sites within each Domain and synthesized into information products that can be used to describe changes in the nation’s ecosystem through space and time. Sites are arrayed across different land-use types in order to understand large-scale environmental drivers affect biodiversity, ecohydrology, biogeochemistry, and disease ecology across the US continent. NEON is an instrument that listens to the pulse of the US continental ecosystem: infrastructure deployed at these sites will collect an average of over 500 primary measurements at each site, including annual high-resolution airborne LiDAR and hyperspectral data. These primary measurements will be transformed by a state-of-the-art cyberinfrastruture into over 100 higher-order data products. All measurements, data products, algorithms used to compute the data products, and protocols used to collect the primary measurements will be freely available to the public and assessable over the internet. The information products, including selected socio-economic datasets from cooperating Federal agencies, will be served in standard formats, grid-sizes, and geographical projections. This type of information is anticipated to have a wide range of uses, including ecological forecasting, education, public engagement, socio-economic analyses, decision support for climate-change adaptation and mitigation, resource management, and environmental risk management. Open data, interoperability, an open and integrated observation infrastructure, public engagement, and a

  11. Estimating Orientation of Flying Fruit Flies

    PubMed Central

    Cheng, Xi En; Wang, Shuo Hong; Qian, Zhi-Ming; Chen, Yan Qiu

    2015-01-01

    The recently growing interest in studying flight behaviours of fruit flies, Drosophila melanogaster, has highlighted the need for developing tools that acquire quantitative motion data. Despite recent advance of video tracking systems, acquiring a flying fly’s orientation remains a challenge for these tools. In this paper, we present a novel method for estimating individual flying fly’s orientation using image cues. Thanks to the line reconstruction algorithm in computer vision field, this work can thereby focus on the practical detail of implementation and evaluation of the orientation estimation algorithm. The orientation estimation algorithm can be incorporated into tracking algorithms. We rigorously evaluated the effectiveness and accuracy of the proposed algorithm by running experiments both on simulation data and on real-world data. This work complements methods for studying the fruit fly’s flight behaviours in a three-dimensional environment. PMID:26173128

  12. A Flying Summer Camp

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mercurio, Frank X.

    1975-01-01

    Describes a five-day summer camp which provided 12 children, ages 9-14, with a complete flying experience. The training consisted of ground school and one hour actual flying time, including the basics of aircraft control and a flight prepared and executed by the students. (MLH)

  13. Activation of fly ash

    DOEpatents

    Corbin, D.R.; Velenyi, L.J.; Pepera, M.A.; Dolhyj, S.R.

    1986-08-19

    Fly ash is activated by heating a screened magnetic fraction of the ash in a steam atmosphere and then reducing, oxidizing and again reducing the hydrothermally treated fraction. The activated fly ash can be used as a carbon monoxide disproportionating catalyst useful in the production of hydrogen and methane.

  14. Activation of fly ash

    DOEpatents

    Corbin, David R.; Velenyi, Louis J.; Pepera, Marc A.; Dolhyj, Serge R.

    1986-01-01

    Fly ash is activated by heating a screened magnetic fraction of the ash in a steam atmosphere and then reducing, oxidizing and again reducing the hydrothermally treated fraction. The activated fly ash can be used as a carbon monoxide disproportionating catalyst useful in the production of hydrogen and methane.

  15. Ever Fly a Tetrahedron?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    King, Kenneth

    2004-01-01

    Few things capture the spirit of spring like flying a kite. Watching a kite dance and sail across a cloud spotted sky is not only a visually appealing experience it also provides a foundation for studies in science and mathematics. Put simply, a kite is an airfoil surface that flies when the forces of lift and thrust are greater than the forces of…

  16. Predicting helium and neon adsorption and separation on carbon nanotubes by Monte Carlo simulation.

    PubMed

    Bolboli Nojini, Zabiollah; Abbas Rafati, Amir; Majid Hashemianzadeh, Seyed; Samiee, Sepideh

    2011-04-01

    The adsorption of helium and neon mixtures on single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWCNTs) was investigated at various temperatures (subcritical and supercritical) and pressures using canonical Monte Carlo (CMC) simulation. Adsorption isotherms were obtained at different temperatures (4, 40, 77 and 130 K) and pressures ranging from 1 to 16 MPa. Separation factors and isosteric enthalpies of adsorption were also calculated. Moreover, the adsorption isotherms were obtained at constant specific temperatures (4 and 40 K) and pressures (0.2 and 1.0 MPa) as a function of the amount adsorbed. All of the adsorption isotherms for an equimolar mixture of helium and neon have a Langmuir shape, indicating that no capillary condensation occurs. Both the helium and the neon adsorption isotherms exhibit similar behavior, and slightly more of the helium and neon mixture is adsorbed on the inner surfaces of the SWCNTs than on their outer surfaces. More neon is adsorbed than helium within the specified pressure range. The data obtained show that the isosteric enthalpies for the adsorption of neon are higher than those for helium under the same conditions, which means that adsorption of neon preferentially occurs by (15, 15) SWCNTs. Furthermore, the isosteric enthalpies of adsorption of both gases decrease with increasing temperature.

  17. Mechanism of the tunable structural color of neon tetra

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yoshioka, Shinya

    2010-03-01

    Many examples of the structural color can be found in butterfly wings, beetle's elytra and bird feathers. Since the color-producing microstructures of these examples mainly consist of stable materials, for example, dried cuticles in insects and keratin and melanin granules in bird feathers, it is impossible to actively change the microstructure. On the other hand, some fish have the tunability in their structural colors. For example, a small tropical fish, neon tetra, has a longitudinal stripe that looks blue-green in the day time, while it changes into deep violet at night. This fact clearly indicates the variability in the microstructure. It is known that the iridophore of the stripe part of neon tetra contains two stacks of thin light-reflecting platelets that are made of guanine crystal. Since the arrangement of the platelets is observed periodic, the stack is thought to cause the structural color through the multilayer thin-film interference. Consequently, the variability in the color is thought to originate from the variation in the distance between the platelets. Two explanations have been proposed so far for the distance variation. Lythoge and Shand considered that the distance is controlled by osmotic pressure that induces the inflow of the water into the iridophore[1]. On the other hand, Nagaishi et al. proposed a different model, called Venetian blind model, in which the inclination angle of the platelets is varied, resulting in the change in the distance[2]. Recently, we have performed detailed optical measurements on the iridophore of neon tetra. We have paid particular attention to the direction of the reflected light, since the Venetian blind model expects that the direction varies with the color change owing to the tilt of the platelets. We present the experimental results and quantitatively discuss the validity of the Venetian blind model. [4pt] [1] J. N. Lythgoe, and J. Shand, J Physiol. 325, 23-34 (1982). [0pt] [2] H. Nagaishi, N. Oshima, and R

  18. SQUIDs in biomagnetism: a roadmap towards improved healthcare

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Körber, Rainer; Storm, Jan-Hendrik; Seton, Hugh; Mäkelä, Jyrki P.; Paetau, Ritva; Parkkonen, Lauri; Pfeiffer, Christoph; Riaz, Bushra; Schneiderman, Justin F.; Dong, Hui; Hwang, Seong-min; You, Lixing; Inglis, Ben; Clarke, John; Espy, Michelle A.; Ilmoniemi, Risto J.; Magnelind, Per E.; Matlashov, Andrei N.; Nieminen, Jaakko O.; Volegov, Petr L.; Zevenhoven, Koos C. J.; Höfner, Nora; Burghoff, Martin; Enpuku, Keiji; Yang, S. Y.; Chieh, Jen-Jei; Knuutila, Jukka; Laine, Petteri; Nenonen, Jukka

    2016-11-01

    Globally, the demand for improved health care delivery while managing escalating costs is a major challenge. Measuring the biomagnetic fields that emanate from the human brain already impacts the treatment of epilepsy, brain tumours and other brain disorders. This roadmap explores how superconducting technologies are poised to impact health care. Biomagnetism is the study of magnetic fields of biological origin. Biomagnetic fields are typically very weak, often in the femtotesla range, making their measurement challenging. The earliest in vivo human measurements were made with room-temperature coils. In 1963, Baule and McFee (1963 Am. Heart J. 55 95‑6) reported the magnetic field produced by electric currents in the heart (‘magnetocardiography’), and in 1968, Cohen (1968 Science 161 784‑6) described the magnetic field generated by alpha-rhythm currents in the brain (‘magnetoencephalography’). Subsequently, in 1970, Cohen et al (1970 Appl. Phys. Lett. 16 278–80) reported the recording of a magnetocardiogram using a Superconducting QUantum Interference Device (SQUID). Just two years later, in 1972, Cohen (1972 Science 175 664–6) described the use of a SQUID in magnetoencephalography. These last two papers set the scene for applications of SQUIDs in biomagnetism, the subject of this roadmap. The SQUID is a combination of two fundamental properties of superconductors. The first is flux quantization—the fact that the magnetic flux Φ in a closed superconducting loop is quantized in units of the magnetic flux quantum, Φ0 ≡ h/2e, ≈ 2.07 × 10‑15 Tm2 (Deaver and Fairbank 1961 Phys. Rev. Lett. 7 43–6, Doll R and Näbauer M 1961 Phys. Rev. Lett. 7 51–2). Here, h is the Planck constant and e the elementary charge. The second property is the Josephson effect, predicted in 1962 by Josephson (1962 Phys. Lett. 1 251–3) and observed by Anderson and Rowell (1963 Phys. Rev. Lett. 10 230–2) in 1963. The Josephson junction consists of two weakly

  19. Meta-Atom Interactions and Coherent Response in RF SQUID Metamaterials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Trepanier, Melissa; Zhang, Daimeng; Mukhanov, Oleg; Jung, Philipp; Butz, Susanne; Ustinov, Alexey; Anlage, Steven

    2014-03-01

    We have designed, fabricated, and measured RF SQUID (radio frequency superconducting quantum interference devices) metamaterials and demonstrated their extreme tunability with temperature, DC magnetic field, and rf current. The SQUID metamaterial can be modelled as an array of weakly coupled oscillators with tunable resonant frequencies. An array of identical SQUIDs under identical conditions will have a coherent collective response regardless of the strength of the interactions between them. In the presence of disorder (nonuniform magnetic flux for instance) the individual SQUIDs in the array may or may not tune coherently. Since we are interested in metamaterial applications, the coherent response is desirable. In this talk we examine the conditions required for the SQUIDs to tune coherently, and compare to experimental data on tuning and nonlinearity in a variety of RF SQUID metamaterials. This work is supported by the NSF-GOALI program through grant # ECCS-1158644, and CNAM.

  20. Two-stage SQUID systems and transducers development for MiniGRAIL

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gottardi, L.; Podt, M.; Bassan, M.; Flokstra, J.; Karbalai-Sadegh, A.; Minenkov, Y.; Reinke, W.; Shumack, A.; Srinivas, S.; de Waard, A.; Frossati, G.

    2004-03-01

    We present measurements on a two-stage SQUID system based on a dc-SQUID as a sensor and a DROS as an amplifier. We measured the intrinsic noise of the dc-SQUID at 4.2 K. A new dc-SQUID has been fabricated. It was specially designed to be used with MiniGRAIL transducers. Cooling fins have been added in order to improve the cooling of the SQUID and the design is optimized to achieve the quantum limit of the sensor SQUID at temperatures above 100 mK. In this paper we also report the effect of the deposition of a Nb film on the quality factor of a small mass Al5056 resonator. Finally, the results of Q-factor measurements on a capacitive transducer for the current MiniGRAIL run are presented.

  1. nanoSQUID operation using kinetic rather than magnetic induction.

    PubMed

    McCaughan, Adam N; Zhao, Qingyuan; Berggren, Karl K

    2016-01-01

    We report on a method of nanoSQUID modulation which uses kinetic inductance rather than magnetic inductance to manip-ulate the internal fluxoid state. We produced modulation using injected current rather than an applied magnetic field. Using this injected current, we were able to observe the triangle-wave shaped modulation of the device critical current which was periodic according to the London fluxoid quantization condition. The measurement results also confirmed that the fluxoid state inside a superconducting loop can be manipulated using primarily kinetic inductance. By using primarily kinetic inductance rather than magnetic inductance, the size of the coupling inductor was reduced by a factor of 10. As a result, this approach may provide a means to reduce the size of SQUID-based superconducting electronics. Additionally, this method provides a convenient way to perform kinetic inductance characterizations of superconducting thin films. PMID:27296586

  2. TES Detector Noise Limited Readout Using SQUID Multiplexers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Staguhn, J. G.; Benford, D. J.; Chervenak, J. A.; Khan, S. A.; Moseley, S. H.; Shafer, R. A.; Deiker, S.; Grossman, E. N.; Hilton, G. C.; Irwin, K. D.

    2004-01-01

    The availability of superconducting Transition Edge Sensors (TES) with large numbers of individual detector pixels requires multiplexers for efficient readout. The use of multiplexers reduces the number of wires needed between the cryogenic electronics and the room temperature electronics and cuts the number of required cryogenic amplifiers. We are using an 8 channel SQUID multiplexer to read out one-dimensional TES arrays which are used for submillimeter astronomical observations. We present results from test measurements which show that the low noise level of the SQUID multiplexers allows accurate measurements of the TES Johnson noise, and that in operation, the readout noise is dominated by the detector noise. Multiplexers for large number of channels require a large bandwidth for the multiplexed readout signal. We discuss the resulting implications for the noise performance of these multiplexers which will be used for the readout of two dimensional TES arrays in next generation instruments.

  3. nanoSQUID operation using kinetic rather than magnetic induction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McCaughan, Adam N.; Zhao, Qingyuan; Berggren, Karl K.

    2016-06-01

    We report on a method of nanoSQUID modulation which uses kinetic inductance rather than magnetic inductance to manip-ulate the internal fluxoid state. We produced modulation using injected current rather than an applied magnetic field. Using this injected current, we were able to observe the triangle-wave shaped modulation of the device critical current which was periodic according to the London fluxoid quantization condition. The measurement results also confirmed that the fluxoid state inside a superconducting loop can be manipulated using primarily kinetic inductance. By using primarily kinetic inductance rather than magnetic inductance, the size of the coupling inductor was reduced by a factor of 10. As a result, this approach may provide a means to reduce the size of SQUID-based superconducting electronics. Additionally, this method provides a convenient way to perform kinetic inductance characterizations of superconducting thin films.

  4. nSQUID arrays as conveyers of quantum information

    SciTech Connect

    Deng, Qiang; Averin, D. V.

    2014-12-15

    We have considered the quantum dynamics of an array of nSQUIDs—two-junction SQUIDs with negative mutual inductance between their two arms. Effective dual-rail structure of the array creates additional internal degree of freedom for the fluxons in the array, which can be used to encode and transport quantum information. Physically, this degree of freedom is represented by electromagnetic excitations localized on the fluxon. We have calculated the spatial profile and frequency spectrum of these excitations. Their dynamics can be reduced to two quantum states, so that each fluxon moving through the array carries with it a qubit of information. Coherence properties of such a propagating qubit in the nSQUID array are characterized by the dynamic suppression of the low-frequency decoherence due to the motion-induced spreading of the noise spectral density to a larger frequency interval.

  5. A three-axis SQUID-based absolute vector magnetometer

    SciTech Connect

    Schönau, T.; Schmelz, M.; Stolz, R.; Anders, S.; Linzen, S.; Meyer, H.-G.; Zakosarenko, V.; Meyer, M.

    2015-10-15

    We report on the development of a three-axis absolute vector magnetometer suited for mobile operation in the Earth’s magnetic field. It is based on low critical temperature dc superconducting quantum interference devices (LTS dc SQUIDs) with sub-micrometer sized cross-type Josephson junctions and exhibits a white noise level of about 10 fT/Hz{sup 1/2}. The width of superconducting strip lines is restricted to less than 6 μm in order to avoid flux trapping during cool-down in magnetically unshielded environment. The long-term stability of the flux-to-voltage transfer coefficients of the SQUID electronics is investigated in detail and a method is presented to significantly increase their reproducibility. We further demonstrate the long-term operation of the setup in a magnetic field varying by about 200 μT amplitude without the need for recalibration.

  6. nanoSQUID operation using kinetic rather than magnetic induction.

    PubMed

    McCaughan, Adam N; Zhao, Qingyuan; Berggren, Karl K

    2016-06-14

    We report on a method of nanoSQUID modulation which uses kinetic inductance rather than magnetic inductance to manip-ulate the internal fluxoid state. We produced modulation using injected current rather than an applied magnetic field. Using this injected current, we were able to observe the triangle-wave shaped modulation of the device critical current which was periodic according to the London fluxoid quantization condition. The measurement results also confirmed that the fluxoid state inside a superconducting loop can be manipulated using primarily kinetic inductance. By using primarily kinetic inductance rather than magnetic inductance, the size of the coupling inductor was reduced by a factor of 10. As a result, this approach may provide a means to reduce the size of SQUID-based superconducting electronics. Additionally, this method provides a convenient way to perform kinetic inductance characterizations of superconducting thin films.

  7. nanoSQUID operation using kinetic rather than magnetic induction

    PubMed Central

    McCaughan, Adam N.; Zhao, Qingyuan; Berggren, Karl K.

    2016-01-01

    We report on a method of nanoSQUID modulation which uses kinetic inductance rather than magnetic inductance to manip-ulate the internal fluxoid state. We produced modulation using injected current rather than an applied magnetic field. Using this injected current, we were able to observe the triangle-wave shaped modulation of the device critical current which was periodic according to the London fluxoid quantization condition. The measurement results also confirmed that the fluxoid state inside a superconducting loop can be manipulated using primarily kinetic inductance. By using primarily kinetic inductance rather than magnetic inductance, the size of the coupling inductor was reduced by a factor of 10. As a result, this approach may provide a means to reduce the size of SQUID-based superconducting electronics. Additionally, this method provides a convenient way to perform kinetic inductance characterizations of superconducting thin films. PMID:27296586

  8. Transport of cytoskeletal elements in the squid giant axon.

    PubMed Central

    Terasaki, M; Schmidek, A; Galbraith, J A; Gallant, P E; Reese, T S

    1995-01-01

    In order to explore how cytoskeletal proteins are moved by axonal transport, we injected fluorescent microtubules and actin filaments as well as exogenous particulates into squid giant axons and observed their movements by confocal microscopy. The squid giant axon is large enough to allow even cytoskeletal assemblies to be injected without damaging the axon or its transport mechanisms. Negatively charged, 10- to 500-nm beads and large dextrans moved down the axon, whereas small (70 kDa) dextrans diffused in all directions and 1000-nm beads did not move. Only particles with negative charge were transported. Microtubules and actin filaments, which have net negative charges, made saltatory movements down the axon, resulting in a net rate approximating that previously shown for slow transport of cytoskeletal elements. The present observations suggest that particle size and charge determine which materials are transported down the axon. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 3 PMID:8524791

  9. Transport of cytoskeletal elements in the squid giant axon.

    PubMed

    Terasaki, M; Schmidek, A; Galbraith, J A; Gallant, P E; Reese, T S

    1995-12-01

    In order to explore how cytoskeletal proteins are moved by axonal transport, we injected fluorescent microtubules and actin filaments as well as exogenous particulates into squid giant axons and observed their movements by confocal microscopy. The squid giant axon is large enough to allow even cytoskeletal assemblies to be injected without damaging the axon or its transport mechanisms. Negatively charged, 10- to 500-nm beads and large dextrans moved down the axon, whereas small (70 kDa) dextrans diffused in all directions and 1000-nm beads did not move. Only particles with negative charge were transported. Microtubules and actin filaments, which have net negative charges, made saltatory movements down the axon, resulting in a net rate approximating that previously shown for slow transport of cytoskeletal elements. The present observations suggest that particle size and charge determine which materials are transported down the axon.

  10. Excitability of the Clay model for squid giant axon.

    PubMed

    Pakdaman, K; Kauffmann, Audrey; Mestivier, Denis

    2003-09-01

    The squid giant axon is the canonical experimental membrane prototype for the study of action potential generation. This work is concerned with Clay's model for this preparation, which implements the nonlinear dependence of sodium and potassium currents on voltage, a multicompartmental description of sodium channel kinetics that takes into account the dependence between activation and inactivation, revised potassium activation function, and potassium accumulation in the axoplasm and its uptake by glial cells. This model accounts better than the standard Hodgkin-Huxley (HH) model for the response of squid giant axons to various stimuli. We systematically compare the responses of the Clay model and the standard HH model to pulse-like and constant current stimuli. We also analyze hybrid models that combine features from both models. These studies reveal that the differences between the sodium currents account for the main difference between the two models, namely the lower excitability of the Clay model.

  11. Medical applications of SQUIDs in neuro- and cardiomagnetism

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lounasmaa, Olli V.

    1996-01-01

    Magnetoencephalography (MEG) and magnetocardiography (MCG) are two completely non-invasive imaging techniques, suitable for basic and clinical studies of human subjects. Large SQUID arrays, operating at liquid helium temperatures, are employed for detecting and localizing magnetically the active regions, modelled by current dipoles, in the working brain or heart. The measurements must be performed in magnetically shielded rooms. Time resolution of both methods is 0.5 ms and spatial accuracy 5-6mm. Commercial multi-SQUID instruments are now available from several manufacturers. An adequate account of the theory and practice of both techniques is given. Three examples of brain studies and two investigations of the heart are described. The advantages and drawbacks of modern imaging techniques, including MRI and PET, are compared and the future of MEG and MCG is discussed.

  12. Energetics of an rf SQUID Coupled to Two Thermal Reservoirs

    PubMed Central

    Gardas, B.; Łuczka, J.; Ptok, A.; Dajka, J.

    2015-01-01

    We study energetics of a Josephson tunnel junction connecting a superconducting loop pierced by an external magnetic flux (an rf SQUID) and coupled to two independent thermal reservoirs of different temperature. In the framework of the theory of quantum dissipative systems, we analyze energy currents in stationary states. The stationary energy flow can be periodically modulated by the external magnetic flux exemplifying the rf SQUID as a quantum heat interferometer. We also consider the transient regime and identify three distinct regimes: monotonic decay, damped oscillations and pulse-type behavior of energy currents. The first two regimes can be controlled by the external magnetic flux while the last regime is robust against its variation. PMID:26641890

  13. Energetics of an rf SQUID Coupled to Two Thermal Reservoirs

    SciTech Connect

    Gardas, B.; Łuczka, J.; Ptok, A.; Dajka, J.

    2015-12-07

    We study energetics of a Josephson tunnel junction connecting a superconducting loop pierced by an external magnetic flux (an rf SQUID) and coupled to two independent thermal reservoirs of different temperature. In the framework of the theory of quantum dissipative systems, we analyze energy currents in stationary states. The stationary energy flow can be periodically modulated by the external magnetic flux exemplifying the rf SQUID as a quantum heat interferometer. Additionally, we consider the transient regime and identify three distinct regimes: monotonic decay, damped oscillations and pulse-type behavior of energy currents. Furthermore, the first two regimes can be controlled by the external magnetic flux while the last regime is robust against its variation.

  14. Energetics of an rf SQUID Coupled to Two Thermal Reservoirs

    DOE PAGES

    Gardas, B.; Łuczka, J.; Ptok, A.; Dajka, J.

    2015-12-07

    We study energetics of a Josephson tunnel junction connecting a superconducting loop pierced by an external magnetic flux (an rf SQUID) and coupled to two independent thermal reservoirs of different temperature. In the framework of the theory of quantum dissipative systems, we analyze energy currents in stationary states. The stationary energy flow can be periodically modulated by the external magnetic flux exemplifying the rf SQUID as a quantum heat interferometer. Additionally, we consider the transient regime and identify three distinct regimes: monotonic decay, damped oscillations and pulse-type behavior of energy currents. Furthermore, the first two regimes can be controlled bymore » the external magnetic flux while the last regime is robust against its variation.« less

  15. A three-axis SQUID-based absolute vector magnetometer.

    PubMed

    Schönau, T; Zakosarenko, V; Schmelz, M; Stolz, R; Anders, S; Linzen, S; Meyer, M; Meyer, H-G

    2015-10-01

    We report on the development of a three-axis absolute vector magnetometer suited for mobile operation in the Earth's magnetic field. It is based on low critical temperature dc superconducting quantum interference devices (LTS dc SQUIDs) with sub-micrometer sized cross-type Josephson junctions and exhibits a white noise level of about 10 fT/Hz(1/2). The width of superconducting strip lines is restricted to less than 6 μm in order to avoid flux trapping during cool-down in magnetically unshielded environment. The long-term stability of the flux-to-voltage transfer coefficients of the SQUID electronics is investigated in detail and a method is presented to significantly increase their reproducibility. We further demonstrate the long-term operation of the setup in a magnetic field varying by about 200 μT amplitude without the need for recalibration.

  16. Scanning SQUID microscopy in a cryogen-free refrigerator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schaefer, Brian T.; Low, David; Prawiroatmodjo, Guenevere E. D. K.; Nangoi, J. Kevin; Kim, Jihoon; Nowack, Katja C.

    With helium prices rising and supply becoming increasingly uncertain, it has become attractive to use dry cryostats with cryocoolers rather than liquid helium to reach low temperatures. However, a cryocooler introduces vibrations at the sample stage, making scanning probe experiments more challenging. Here, we report our progress on a superconducting quantum interference device (SQUID) microscope implemented for the first time in a compact, cryogen-free 5 K system. Our microscope is designed to reach submicron spatial resolution and a flux sensitivity of approximately 1 μΦ0 /√{ Hz} , where Φ0 is the magnetic flux quantum. To enable height feedback while approaching and scanning samples, we mount the SQUID on a quartz tuning fork. Our system promises to meet the capabilities of similar systems implemented in helium cryostats.

  17. Multi-tone response of Nonlinear rf-SQUID metamaterials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Daimeng; Trepanier, Melissa; Mukhanov, Oleg; Antonsen, Thomas; Ott, Edward; Anlage, Steven

    We study the multi-tone response over a broad microwave frequency range of a nonlinear superconducting meta-atom and a metamaterial composed of Radio Frequency Superconducting QUantum Interference Devices (rf-SQUIDs). Nonlinearity in the SQUID metamaterial gives rise to large-range tunable resonance via dc/rf magnetic field and temperature, it also results in signal mixing through intermodulation distortion (IMD). Our metamaterial responds to multi-frequency signals and generates strong higher order intermodulation signals in a certain range of applied rf power. However, our meta-atom and metamaterial show a reduced third-order IMD generation around the resonance, which is unusual for typical nonlinear systems. The numerical simulation predicts the same IMD gap feature as in experiment. A comprehensive analytical model is applied to explain the phenomena, and methods to enhance, or reduce, intermodulation levels are explored. This work is supported by the NSF-GOALI and OISE programs through Grant # ECCS-1158644, and CNAM.

  18. Apparatus for detecting a magnetic anomaly contiguous to remote location by SQUID gradiometer and magnetometer systems

    SciTech Connect

    Overton, W.C. Jr.; Steyert, W.A. Jr.

    1984-03-13

    A superconducting quantum interference device (SQUID) magnetic detection apparatus detects magnetic fields, signals, and anomalies at remote locations. Two remotely rotatable SQUID gradiometers may be housed in a cryogenic environment to search for and locate unambiguously magnetic anomalies. The SQUID magnetic detection apparatus can be used to determine the azimuth of a hydrofracture by first flooding the hydrofracture with a ferrofluid to create an artificial magnetic anomaly therein.

  19. Apparatus for detecting a magnetic anomaly contiguous to remote location by squid gradiometer and magnetometer systems

    DOEpatents

    Overton, Jr., William C.; Steyert, Jr., William A.

    1984-01-01

    A superconducting quantum interference device (SQUID) magnetic detection apparatus detects magnetic fields, signals, and anomalies at remote locations. Two remotely rotatable SQUID gradiometers may be housed in a cryogenic environment to search for and locate unambiguously magnetic anomalies. The SQUID magnetic detection apparatus can be used to determine the azimuth of a hydrofracture by first flooding the hydrofracture with a ferrofluid to create an artificial magnetic anomaly therein.

  20. Comprehensive X-Ray Absorption Models for Oxygen and Neon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gorczyca, Thomas

    2013-09-01

    We propose to perform state-of-the-art R-matrix calculations for the oxygen and neon photoabsorption cross sections to improve upon earlier, incomplete data. Several important higher-order effects will be addressed: orbital relaxation, Auger line broadening, two-electron shake, and elimination of pseudoresonances. The computed atomic cross sections will first be fit by a recently-developed analytical fitting formula, and then benchmarked further to experimental and Chandra observed absorption lines. The resulting data will be uploaded into the AtomDB, XSPEC, and ISIS databases for spectral modeling use. These definitive cross sections will resolve an outstanding discrepancy between XSTAR and SPEX spectral modeling predictions of molecular (dust and/or ice) abundances in the ISM.

  1. NEON's Mobile Deployment Platform: A Resource for Community Research

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sanclements, M.

    2015-12-01

    Here we provide an update on construction and validation of the NEON Mobile Deployment Platforms (MDPs) as well as a description of the infrastructure and sensors available to researchers in the future. The MDPs will provide the means to observe stochastic or spatially important events, gradients, or quantities that cannot be reliably observed using fixed location sampling (e.g. fires and floods). Due to the transient temporal and spatial nature of such events, the MDPs will be designed to accommodate rapid deployment for time periods up to ~ 1 year. Broadly, the MDPs will be comprised of infrastructure and instrumentation capable of functioning individually or in conjunction with one another to support observations of ecological change, as well as education, training and outreach.

  2. Helium and neon abundances and compositions in cometary matter.

    PubMed

    Marty, Bernard; Palma, Russell L; Pepin, Robert O; Zimmermann, Laurent; Schlutter, Dennis J; Burnard, Peter G; Westphal, Andrew J; Snead, Christopher J; Bajt, Sasa; Becker, Richard H; Simones, Jacob E

    2008-01-01

    Materials trapped and preserved in comets date from the earliest history of the solar system. Particles captured by the Stardust spacecraft from comet 81P/Wild 2 are indisputable cometary matter available for laboratory study. Here we report measurements of noble gases in Stardust material. Neon isotope ratios are within the range observed in "phase Q," a ubiquitous, primitive organic carrier of noble gases in meteorites. Helium displays 3He/4He ratios twice those in phase Q and in Jupiter's atmosphere. Abundances per gram are surprisingly large, suggesting implantation by ion irradiation. The gases are probably carried in high-temperature igneous grains similar to particles found in other Stardust studies. Collectively, the evidence points to gas acquisition in a hot, high ion-flux nebular environment close to the young Sun.

  3. Helium and Neon Abundances and Compositions in Cometary Matter

    SciTech Connect

    Marty, B; Palma, R L; Pepin, R O; Zimmmermann, L; Schlutter, D J; Burnard, P G; Westphal, A J; Snead, C J; Bajt, S; Becker, R H; Simones, J E

    2007-10-15

    Materials trapped and preserved in comets date from the earliest history of the solar system. Particles captured by the Stardust spacecraft from comet Wild 2 are indisputable cometary matter available for laboratory study. Here they report measurements of noble gases in Stardust material. neon isotope ratios are within the range observed in 'phase Q', a ubiquitous, primitive organic carrier of noble gases in meteorites. Helium displays {sup 3}He/{sup 4}He ratios twice those in phase Q and in Jupiter's atmosphere. Abundances per gram are surprisingly large, suggesting implantation by ion irradiation. The gases are carried in high temperature igneous grains similar to particles found in other Stardust studies. Collectively the evidence points to gas acquisition in a hot, high ion flux nebular environment close to the young Sun.

  4. Water depth measurement using an airborne pulsed neon laser system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hoge, F. E.; Swift, R. N.; Frederick, E. B.

    1980-01-01

    The paper presents the water depth measurement using an airborne pulsed neon laser system. The results of initial base-line field test results of NASA airborne oceanographic lidar in the bathymetry mode are given, with water-truth measurements of depth and beam attenuation coefficients by boat taken at the same time as overflights to aid in determining the system's operational performance. The nadir-angle tests and field-of-view data are presented; this laser bathymetry system is an improvement over prior models in that (1) the surface-to-bottom pulse waveform is digitally recorded on magnetic tape, and (2) wide-swath mapping data may be routinely acquired using a 30 deg full-angle conical scanner.

  5. Collisional properties of cold spin-polarized metastable neon atoms.

    PubMed

    Spoden, P; Zinner, M; Herschbach, N; van Drunen, W J; Ertmer, W; Birkl, G

    2005-06-10

    We measure the rates of elastic and inelastic two-body collisions of cold spin-polarized neon atoms in the metastable 3P2 state for 20Ne and 22Ne in a magnetic trap. From particle loss, we determine the loss parameter of inelastic collisions beta=6.5(18) x 10(-12) cm(3) s(-1) for 20Ne and beta=1.2(3) x 10(-11) cm(3) s(-1) for 22Ne. These losses are caused by ionizing (i.e., Penning) collisions and occur less frequently than for unpolarized atoms. This proves the suppression of Penning ionization due to spin polarization. From cross-dimensional relaxation measurements, we obtain elastic scattering lengths of a=-180(40)a(0) for 20Ne and a = +150(+80)(-50)a(0) for 22Ne, where a(0)=0.0529 nm.

  6. Attainable superheat of argon-helium, argon-neon solutions.

    PubMed

    Baidakov, Vladimir G; Kaverin, Aleksey M; Andbaeva, Valentina N

    2008-10-16

    The method of lifetime measurement has been used to investigate the kinetics of spontaneous boiling-up of superheated argon-helium and argon-neon solutions. Experiments were made at a pressure of p = 1.5 MPa and concentrations up to 0.33 mol% in the range of nucleation rates from 10 (4) to 10 (8) s (-1) m (-3). The homogeneous nucleation regime has been distinguished. With good agreement between experimental data and homogeneous nucleation theory in temperature and concentration dependences of the nucleation rate, a systematic underestimation by 0.25-0.34 K has been revealed in superheat temperatures over the saturated line attained by experiment as compared with theoretical values calculated in a macroscopic approximation. The revealed disagreement between theory and experiment is connected with the dependence of the properties of new-phase nuclei on their size.

  7. A Comparison of Detailed Level and Superconfiguration Models of Neon

    SciTech Connect

    Hansen, S B; Fournier, K B; Bauche-Arnoult, C; Bauche, J; Peyrusse, O

    2005-01-03

    The superconfiguration (SC) approach to collisional-radiative modeling can significantly decrease the computational demands of finding non-LTE level populations in complex systems. However, it has not yet been fully determined whether the statistical averaging of SC models leads to a significant loss of accuracy. The present work compares results from two independent models: a detailed-level accounting (DLA) model based on HULLAC data and the SC model MOST. The relatively simple level structures of the K- and L-shell ions of the neon test system ensure a tractable number of levels in the DLA model but challenge the statistical assumptions of the SC approach. Nonetheless, we find fair agreement between the two models for average ion charges, SC populations, and various effective temperatures.

  8. Reversible electrical breakdown of squid giant axon membrane.

    PubMed

    Benz, R; Conti, F

    1981-07-01

    Charge pulse relaxation experiments were performed on squid giant axon. In the low voltage range, the initial voltage across squid axon membrane was a linear function of the injected charge. For voltages of the order of 1 V this relationship between injected charge and voltage across the membrane changes abruptly. Because of a high conductance state caused by these large electric fields the voltage across the membrane cannot be made large enough to exceed a critical value, Vc, defined as the breakdown voltage, Vc has for squid axon membrane a value of 1.1 V at 12 degrees C. During breakdown the specific membrane conductance exceeds 1 S. cm-2. Electrical breakdown produced by charge pulses of few microseconds duration have no influence on the excitability of the squid axon membrane. The resealing process of the membrane is so fast that a depolarizing breakdown is followed by the falling phase of a normal action potential. Thus, membrane voltages close to Vc open the sodium channels in few microseconds, but do not produce a decrease of the time constant of potassium activation large enough to cause the opening of a significant percentage of channels in a time of about 10 mus. It is probable that the reversible electrical breakdown is mainly caused by mechanical instability produced by electrostriction of the membrane (electrochemical model), but the decrease in the Born energy for ion injection into the membrane, accompanying the decrease in membrane thickness, may play also an important role. Because of the high conductance of the membrane during breakdown it seems very likely that this results in pore formation.

  9. Absolute calibration and beam background of the Squid Polarimeter

    SciTech Connect

    Blaskiewicz, M.M.; Cameron, P.R.; Shea, T.J.

    1996-12-31

    The problem of beam background in Squid Polarimetry is not without residual benefits. The authors may deliberately generate beam background by gently kicking the beam at the spin tune frequency. This signal may be used to accomplish a simple and accurate absolute calibration of the polarimeter. The authors present details of beam background calculations and their application to polarimeter calibration, and suggest a simple proof-of-principle accelerator experiment.

  10. Characterization of large two-dimensional YBa2Cu3O7-δ SQUID arrays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Taylor, B. J.; Berggren, S. A. E.; O'Brien, M. C.; deAndrade, M. C.; Higa, B. A.; Leese de Escobar, A. M.

    2016-08-01

    Large two-dimensional SQUID arrays were made using the step-edge Josephson junction process. The performance of the arrays is analyzed with respect to determining the conditions under which the optimal performance is achieved. We find that optimization of the field-voltage transfer function V B is reached at a specific temperature and device current bias point, and arrive at an empirical expression describing the dependence of V B on the critical current and dynamic resistance of the SQUID array and as a function of temperature. The empirical expression for V B of the SQUID arrays is similar to that given by well known theoretical models for a single SQUID.

  11. Isolation and characteristics of trypsin inhibitor from the hepatopancreas of a squid (Todarodes pacificus).

    PubMed

    Kishimura, H; Saeki, H; Hayashi, K

    2001-08-01

    Trypsin inhibitor was purified from the hepatopancreas of squid (Todarodes pacificus). The final inhibitor preparation was nearly homogeneous by SDS-PAGE with an estimated molecular weight of approximately 6300. The squid trypsin inhibitor was acid- and heat-stable, and active against trypsins from the pyloric ceca of starfish (Asterias amurensis) and saury (Cololabis saira) and porcine pancreatic trypsin. Amino acid composition of the squid trypsin inhibitor was compared with other invertebrate trypsin inhibitors. The squid trypsin inhibitor inhibited the autolysis of walleye pollock (Theragra chalcogramma) myofibrillar proteins. PMID:11470450

  12. An integrated system of SQUIDs for the study of macroscopic quantum coherence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cosmelli, C.; Castellano, M. G.; Leoni, R.; Torrioli, R.; Carelli, P.; Chiarello, F.

    2001-12-01

    The observation and study of macroscopic quantum coherence (MQC), i.e. the coherent superposition and evolution of macroscopically distinct quantum states, is of great importance for both our understanding of nature and for quantum engineering, for example in quantum computing. Recently a first indication of MQC in a system of SQUIDs has been indirectly observed by means of spectroscopic techniques. Applications like quantum computing, however, require the manipulation and the observation of the time evolution of the MQC states. We have realized a system of SQUIDs for the study of MQC. Our system, based on trilayer Nb/AlOx/Nb technology, consists of a double rf-SQUID, source of the MQC state, inductively coupled to a non-hysteretic dc-SQUID magnetometer and to a hysteretic dc-SQUID threshold detector, used for the read-out of the magnetic flux state. The magnetometer is used to test and monitor the rf-SQUID behaviour, while the hysteretic dc-SQUID is used to perform fast measurements with a reduced back action on the rf-SQUID. We present measurements performed at 4.2 K and at 20 mK to characterize the single devices and their overall behaviour, and a scheme for the use of a set of SQUIDs as a qubit system.

  13. Trophic niche of squids: Insights from isotopic data in marine systems worldwide

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Navarro, Joan; Coll, Marta; Somes, Christoper J.; Olson, Robert J.

    2013-10-01

    Cephalopods are an important prey resource for fishes, seabirds, and marine mammals, and are also voracious predators on crustaceans, fishes, squid and zooplankton. Because of their high feeding rates and abundance, squids have the potential to exert control on the recruitment of commercially important fishes. In this review, we synthesize the available information for two intrinsic markers (δ15N and δ13C isotopic values) in squids for all oceans and several types of ecosystems to obtain a global view of the trophic niches of squids in marine ecosystems. In particular, we aimed to examine whether the trophic positions and trophic widths of squid species vary among oceans and ecosystem types. To correctly compare across systems, we adjusted squid δ15N values for the isotopic variability of phytoplankton at the base of the food web provided by an ocean circulation-biogeochemistry-isotope model. Studies that focused on the trophic ecology of squids using isotopic techniques were few, and most of the information on squids was from studies on their predators. Our results showed that squids occupy a large range of trophic positions and exploit a large range of trophic resources, reflecting the versatility of their feeding behavior and confirming conclusions from food-web models. Clear differences in both trophic position and trophic width were found among oceans and ecosystem types. The study also reinforces the importance of considering the natural variation in isotopic values when comparing the isotopic values of consumers inhabiting different ecosystems.

  14. Telegraph-like noise in Y-Ba-Cu oxide thin-film dc SQUID's

    SciTech Connect

    Matsuda, M.; Kuriki, S.

    1988-08-15

    We have observed a telegraph-like noise in dc superconducting quantum interference devices (SQUID's) made of low-temperature synthesized superconducting Y-Ba-Cu oxide thin films. The voltage of the SQUID jumps among two to four discrete levels randomly with time, and exhibits a Lorentzian type frequency dependence in the power spectrum. Periodic modulations of the voltage with magnetic flux are observed in a SQUID having narrow bridges of submicrometer width. The flux noise of the SQUID is dominated by the telegraph-like noise at low frequencies.

  15. [The dream of flying].

    PubMed

    Goddemeier, Christof

    2005-01-01

    More than a 100 years ago the Wright brothers succeeded in performing the first motor flight in the history of mankind. But irrespective of its technical realisation man has always dealt with flying. So myths, rites and fairy-tales as well reflect the different ideas of flying as these conceptions come to light again and again in dreams and visions. Whether ascension, expression of desire and yearning or sexual metaphor -- the idea of flying seems to be a universal magic figure of thinking.

  16. Hierarchical, Self-Similar Structure in Native Squid Pen

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Fei-Chi; Peters, Robert; Dies, Hannah; Rheinstadter, Maikel

    2014-03-01

    Proteins, chitin and keratin form the elementary building blocks of many biomaterials. How these molecules assemble into larger, macroscopic structures with very different properties is the fundamental question we are trying to answer. Squid pen is a transparent backbone inside the squid, which supports the mantle of the squid. The pens show a hierarchical, self-similar structure under the microscope and the AFM with fibers from 500 μm to 0.2 μm in diameter. The chitin molecules form nano-crystallites of monoclinic lattice symmetry surrounded by a protein layer, resulting in β-chitin nano-fibrils. Signals corresponding to the α-coil protein phase and β-chitin were observed in X-ray experiments in-situ. The molecular structure is highly anisotropic with 90% of the α-coils and β-chitin crystallites oriented along the fiber-axis indicating a strong correlation between the structures on millimeters down to the molecular scale. This research was funded by NSERC, NRC, CFI, and the Ontario Ministry of Economic Development and Innovation.

  17. Cosmological flux noise and measured noise power spectra in SQUIDs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beck, Christian

    2016-06-01

    The understanding of the origin of 1/f magnetic flux noise commonly observed in superconducting devices such as SQUIDs and qubits is still a major unsolved puzzle. Here we discuss the possibility that a significant part of the observed low-frequency flux noise measured in these devices is ultimately seeded by cosmological fluctuations. We consider a theory where a primordial flux noise field left over in unchanged form from an early inflationary or quantum gravity epoch of the universe intrinsically influences the phase difference in SQUIDs and qubits. The perturbation seeds generated by this field can explain in a quantitatively correct way the form and amplitude of measured low-frequency flux noise spectra in SQUID devices if one takes as a source of fluctuations the primordial power spectrum of curvature fluctuations as measured by the Planck collaboration. Our theoretical predictions are in excellent agreement with recent low-frequency flux noise measurements of various experimental groups. Magnetic flux noise, so far mainly considered as a nuisance for electronic devices, may thus contain valuable information about fluctuation spectra in the very early universe.

  18. Fabrication and characterization of shunted μ-SQUID

    SciTech Connect

    Kumar, Nikhil; Fournier, T.; Courtois, H.; Gupta, Anjan K.

    2014-04-24

    In order to eliminate hysteresis, we have fabricated and characterized niobium based shunted micron size superconducting quantum interference devices (μ-SQUIDs). We find a wide temperature range where these μ-SQUIDs are non-hysteretic in nature and show a very good I{sub c} vs. B oscillations in hysteretic regime and V vs. B oscillations in non-hysteretic regime. Here we report the characteristics of a shunted- μ-SQUID (Wf38LS72D5). In this device we have achieved a large voltage modulation, in non-hysteretic regime, at various temperatures including such as 1.1 mV at 6.62 K with a transfer function V{sub Φ} = 7.2mV/Φ{sub 0}. The figures within the original article PDF file, as supplied to AIP Publishing, were affected by a PDF-processing error. Consequently, the article re-flowed and pagination increased from 3 to 4 pages. This article was updated on 14 May 2014 to correct the PDF-processing error, with the scientific content remaining unchanged. Readers are advised that the replacement article PDF file contains an additional blank page to preserve the original pagination.

  19. Fabrication and characterization of shunted μ-SQUID

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kumar, Nikhil; Fournier, T.; Courtois, H.; Gupta, Anjan K.

    2014-04-01

    In order to eliminate hysteresis, we have fabricated and characterized niobium based shunted micron size superconducting quantum interference devices (μ-SQUIDs). We find a wide temperature range where these μ-SQUIDs are non-hysteretic in nature and show a very good Ic vs. B oscillations in hysteretic regime and V vs. B oscillations in non-hysteretic regime. Here we report the characteristics of a shunted- μ-SQUID (Wf38LS72D5). In this device we have achieved a large voltage modulation, in non-hysteretic regime, at various temperatures including such as 1.1 mV at 6.62 K with a transfer function VΦ = 7.2mV/Φ0. The figures within the original article PDF file, as supplied to AIP Publishing, were affected by a PDF-processing error. Consequently, the article re-flowed and pagination increased from 3 to 4 pages. This article was updated on 14 May 2014 to correct the PDF-processing error, with the scientific content remaining unchanged. Readers are advised that the replacement article PDF file contains an additional blank page to preserve the original pagination.

  20. Low-frequency nuclear quadrupole resonance with a dc SQUID

    SciTech Connect

    Chang, J.W.

    1991-07-01

    Conventional pure nuclear quadrupole resonance (NQR) is a technique well suited for the study of very large quadrupolar interactions. Numerous nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) techniques have been developed for the study of smaller quadrupolar interactions. However, there are many nuclei which have quadrupolar interactions of intermediate strength. Quadrupolar interactions in this region have traditionally been difficult or unfeasible to detect. This work describes the development and application of a SQUID NQR technique which is capable of measuring intermediate strength quadrupolar interactions, in the range of a few hundred kilohertz to several megahertz. In this technique, a dc SQUID (Superconducting QUantum Interference Device) is used to monitor the longitudinal sample magnetization, as opposed to the transverse magnetization, as a rf field is swept in frequency. This allows the detection of low-frequency nuclear quadrupole resonances over a very wide frequency range with high sensitivity. The theory of this NQR technique is discussed and a description of the dc SQUID system is given. In the following chapters, the spectrometer is discussed along with its application to the study of samples containing half-odd-integer spin quadrupolar nuclei, in particular boron-11 and aluminum-27. The feasibility of applying this NQR technique in the study of samples containing integer spin nuclei is discussed in the last chapter. 140 refs., 46 figs., 6 tabs.

  1. Cosmological flux noise and measured noise power spectra in SQUIDs.

    PubMed

    Beck, Christian

    2016-06-20

    The understanding of the origin of 1/f magnetic flux noise commonly observed in superconducting devices such as SQUIDs and qubits is still a major unsolved puzzle. Here we discuss the possibility that a significant part of the observed low-frequency flux noise measured in these devices is ultimately seeded by cosmological fluctuations. We consider a theory where a primordial flux noise field left over in unchanged form from an early inflationary or quantum gravity epoch of the universe intrinsically influences the phase difference in SQUIDs and qubits. The perturbation seeds generated by this field can explain in a quantitatively correct way the form and amplitude of measured low-frequency flux noise spectra in SQUID devices if one takes as a source of fluctuations the primordial power spectrum of curvature fluctuations as measured by the Planck collaboration. Our theoretical predictions are in excellent agreement with recent low-frequency flux noise measurements of various experimental groups. Magnetic flux noise, so far mainly considered as a nuisance for electronic devices, may thus contain valuable information about fluctuation spectra in the very early universe.

  2. Tunable Anomalous Supercurrent in a topological tri-junction SQUID

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kurter, C.; Finck, A. D. K.; Ghaemi, P.; Hor, Y. S.; van Harlingen, D. J.

    2014-03-01

    There has been intense interest in realizing Majorana fermions (MFs) in solid-state systems. Circuits of Josephson junctions (JJs) made of closely spaced s-wave superconductors on 3D topological insulators have been proposed to host zero energy Andreev bound states (ABSs) that act like MFs. Here, we present signatures of an anomalous supercurrent carried by topologically non-trivial low energy ABSs in a Nb/Bi2Se3/Nb tri-junction SQUID where two of the three superconducting leads are connected by a loop. An electrostatic top gate allows strong modulation of the supercurrent despite a high bulk contribution to the normal state conductance. In response to a magnetic field threading flux within the superconducting loop, we find unconventional SQUID oscillations enclosed by an envelope associated with a clear diffraction pattern, indicating spatially uniform and symmetric JJs. At a critical gate voltage, when the trivial 2DEG at the surface is nearly depleted, we observe a sharp drop in the critical current, signaling a topological phase transition in which the nature of the supercurrent-carrying states is transformed. This transition is accompanied by qualitative changes in the SQUID oscillations, magnetic diffraction pattern, and temperature dependence of the critical current. We acknowledge funding from Microsoft Station-Q.

  3. Cosmological flux noise and measured noise power spectra in SQUIDs.

    PubMed

    Beck, Christian

    2016-01-01

    The understanding of the origin of 1/f magnetic flux noise commonly observed in superconducting devices such as SQUIDs and qubits is still a major unsolved puzzle. Here we discuss the possibility that a significant part of the observed low-frequency flux noise measured in these devices is ultimately seeded by cosmological fluctuations. We consider a theory where a primordial flux noise field left over in unchanged form from an early inflationary or quantum gravity epoch of the universe intrinsically influences the phase difference in SQUIDs and qubits. The perturbation seeds generated by this field can explain in a quantitatively correct way the form and amplitude of measured low-frequency flux noise spectra in SQUID devices if one takes as a source of fluctuations the primordial power spectrum of curvature fluctuations as measured by the Planck collaboration. Our theoretical predictions are in excellent agreement with recent low-frequency flux noise measurements of various experimental groups. Magnetic flux noise, so far mainly considered as a nuisance for electronic devices, may thus contain valuable information about fluctuation spectra in the very early universe. PMID:27320418

  4. Cosmological flux noise and measured noise power spectra in SQUIDs

    PubMed Central

    Beck, Christian

    2016-01-01

    The understanding of the origin of 1/f magnetic flux noise commonly observed in superconducting devices such as SQUIDs and qubits is still a major unsolved puzzle. Here we discuss the possibility that a significant part of the observed low-frequency flux noise measured in these devices is ultimately seeded by cosmological fluctuations. We consider a theory where a primordial flux noise field left over in unchanged form from an early inflationary or quantum gravity epoch of the universe intrinsically influences the phase difference in SQUIDs and qubits. The perturbation seeds generated by this field can explain in a quantitatively correct way the form and amplitude of measured low-frequency flux noise spectra in SQUID devices if one takes as a source of fluctuations the primordial power spectrum of curvature fluctuations as measured by the Planck collaboration. Our theoretical predictions are in excellent agreement with recent low-frequency flux noise measurements of various experimental groups. Magnetic flux noise, so far mainly considered as a nuisance for electronic devices, may thus contain valuable information about fluctuation spectra in the very early universe. PMID:27320418

  5. Transparency and coherence in rf SQUID metamaterials (Presentation Recording)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anlage, Steven M.

    2015-09-01

    We have developed active metamaterials based on macroscopic quantum effects capable of quickly tuning their electrical and magnetic responses over a wide frequency range. These metamaterials are based on superconducting elements to form low insertion loss, physically and electrically small, highly tunable structures for the next generation rf electronics. The meta-atoms are rf superconducting quantum interference devices (SQUIDs) that incorporate the Josephson effect. RF SQUIDs have an inductance which includes a contribution from the Josephson inductance of the junction. This inductance is strongly tunable with dc and rf magnetic fields and currents. The rf SQUID metamaterial is a richly nonlinear effective medium introducing qualitatively new macroscopic quantum phenomena into the metamaterials community, namely magnetic flux quantization and the Josephson effect. The coherence of the metamaterials is strongly sensitive to the environment and measurement conditions. The metamaterials also display a unique form of transparency whose development can be manipulated through multiple parametric dependences. Further features such as breathers, superradiance, and self-induced transparency, along with entry into the fully quantum limit, will yield qualitatively new metamaterial phenomena. This work is supported by the NSF-GOALI and OISE Programs through Grant No. ECCS-1158644 and the Center for Nanophysics and Advanced Materials (CNAM).

  6. Neon as a Buffer Gas for a Mercury-Ion Clock

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Prestage, John; Chung, Sang

    2008-01-01

    A developmental miniature mercury-ion clock has stability comparable to that of a hydrogen-maser clock. The ion-handling components are housed in a sealed vacuum tube, wherein a getter pump is used to maintain the partial vacuum, and the evacuated tube is backfilled with mercury vapor in a buffer gas. Neon was determined to be the best choice for the buffer gas: The pressure-induced frequency pulling by neon was found to be only about two-fifths of that of helium. Furthermore, because neon diffuses through solids much more slowly than does helium, the operational lifetime of a tube backfilled with neon could be considerably longer than that of a tube backfilled with helium.

  7. Equation of state of dense neon and krypton plasmas in the partial ionization regime

    SciTech Connect

    Chen, Q. F. Zheng, J.; Gu, Y. J.; Li, Z. G.

    2015-12-15

    The compression behaviors of dense neon and krypton plasmas over a wide pressure-temperature range are investigated by self-consistent fluid variational theory. The ionization degree and equation of state of dense neon and krypton are calculated in the density-temperature range of 0.01–10 g/cm{sup 3} and 4–50 kK. A region of thermodynamic instability is found which is related to the plasma phase transition. The calculated shock adiabat and principal Hugoniot of liquid krypton are in good agreement with available experimental data. The predicted results of shock-compressed liquid neon are presented, which provide a guide for dynamical experiments or numerical first-principle calculations aimed at studying the compression properties of liquid neon in the partial ionization regime.

  8. Autonomous Martian flying rover

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1990-01-01

    A remotely programmable, autonomous flying rover is proposed to extensively survey the Martian surface environment. A Mach .3, solar powered, modified flying wing could cover roughly a 2000 mile range during Martian daylight hours. Multiple craft launched from an orbiting mother ship could provide near-global coverage. Each craft is envisioned to fly at about 1 km above the surface and measure atmospheric composition, pressure and temperature, map surface topography, and remotely penetrate the near subsurface looking for water (ice) and perhaps evidence of life. Data collected are relayed to Earth via the orbiting mother ship. Near surface guidance and control capability is an adaptation of current cruise missile technology. A solar powered aircraft designed to fly in the low temperature, low density, carbon dioxide Martian atmosphere near the surface appears feasible.

  9. Quantum dynamical structure factor of liquid neon via a quasiclassical symmetrized method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Monteferrante, Michele; Bonella, Sara; Ciccotti, Giovanni

    2013-02-01

    We apply the phase integration method for quasiclassical quantum time correlation functions [M. Monteferrante, S. Bonella, and G. Ciccotti, Mol. Phys. 109, 3015 (2011), 10.1080/00268976.2011.619506] to compute the dynamic structure factor of liquid neon. So far the method had been tested only on model systems. By comparing our results for neon with experiments and previous calculations, we demonstrate that the scheme is accurate and efficient also for a realistic model of a condensed phase system showing quantum behavior.

  10. Method and apparatus for cooling high temperature superconductors with neon-nitrogen mixtures

    DOEpatents

    Laverman, Royce J.; Lai, Ban-Yen

    1993-01-01

    Apparatus and methods for cooling high temperature superconducting materials (HTSC) to superconductive temperatures within the range of 27.degree. K. to 77.degree. K. using a mixed refrigerant consisting of liquefied neon and nitrogen containing up to about ten mole percent neon by contacting and surrounding the HTSC material with the mixed refrigerant so that free convection or forced flow convection heat transfer can be effected.

  11. Emission anomalous optical magnetic resonances in a mixture of even neon isotopes

    SciTech Connect

    Saprykin, E. G.; Sorokin, V. A. Shalagin, A. M.

    2013-04-15

    Unusual resonances have been detected in the dependence of the discharge glow in neon on the longitudinal magnetic field. The resonances appear in fairly high magnetic fields and are observed only at low gas pressures and exclusively in a mixture of {sup 20}Ne and {sup 22}Ne isotopes. This phenomenon is an evidence of collective resonant radiation processes involving atoms of different neon isotopes.

  12. [The effect of helium-neon laser radiation on the energy metabolic indices of the myocardium].

    PubMed

    Chizhov, G K; Koval'skaia, N I; Kozlov, V I

    1991-03-01

    It was shown in experiments on white rats, that intravenous and direct myocardium helium-neon laser irradiation leads to the some activation of lactate, glucose-6-phosphate, succinate and reduced NAD degydrogenases. During direct myocardium irradiation these changes are in a less degree. It is suggested that helium-neon laser irradiation displays some active influence on the energy metabolism enzymes of the myocardium, and the mechanisms of this action are discussed. PMID:2054512

  13. Laser optogalvanic wavelength calibration with a commercial hollow cathode iron - neon discharge lamp

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zhu, Xinming; Nur, Abdullahi H.; Misra, Prabhakar

    1994-01-01

    351 optogalvanic transitions have been observed in the 337 - 598 nm wavelength region using an iron - neon hollow cathode discharge lamp and a pulsed tunable dye laser. 223 of these have been identified as transitions associated with neon energy levels. These optogalvanic transitions have allowed, in conjunction with interference fringes recorded concomitantly with an etalon, the calibration of the dye laser wavelength with 0.3/cm accuracy.

  14. Quantum dynamical structure factor of liquid neon via a quasiclassical symmetrized method.

    PubMed

    Monteferrante, Michele; Bonella, Sara; Ciccotti, Giovanni

    2013-02-01

    We apply the phase integration method for quasiclassical quantum time correlation functions [M. Monteferrante, S. Bonella, and G. Ciccotti, Mol. Phys. 109, 3015 (2011)] to compute the dynamic structure factor of liquid neon. So far the method had been tested only on model systems. By comparing our results for neon with experiments and previous calculations, we demonstrate that the scheme is accurate and efficient also for a realistic model of a condensed phase system showing quantum behavior.

  15. The neon color effect in the Ehrenstein pattern. Dependence on wavelength and illuminance.

    PubMed

    Ejima, Y; Redies, C; Takahashi, S; Akita, M

    1984-01-01

    The neon color effect can be described as an illusory spread of color surrounding colored lines embedded in certain line gaps. The effect is seen in the Ehrenstein pattern if colored crosses are added to the central gaps so as to connect the inner tips of the pattern. Experiments were conducted to explore the dependence of this neon color effect on the wavelength and retinal illuminance of the inducing lines. The following results were obtained: neon color effects are strong when the wavelength of the crosses is in the short- (less than 480 nm) or long-wave part of the spectrum (greater than 620 nm) and the wavelength of the Ehrenstein pattern is in the middle-wave part (500-580 nm). Effects are weak or absent when the crosses and the pattern have similar wavelengths. The neon color effect is just detectable when the ratio between the retinal illuminances of the Ehrenstein pattern and the crosses ranges from 0.1 to 0.8. The neon color effect is maximal at illuminance ratios ranging from 0.8 to 8. The strength of the neon color effect is independent of the illuminance level of the crosses if the illuminance ratio to the Ehrenstein pattern is maintained.

  16. A comparison of neon versus helium ion beam induced deposition via Monte Carlo simulations.

    PubMed

    Timilsina, Rajendra; Smith, Daryl A; Rack, Philip D

    2013-03-22

    The ion beam induced nanoscale synthesis of PtCx (where x ∼ 5) using the trimethyl (methylcyclopentadienyl)platinum(IV) (MeCpPt(IV)Me3) precursor is investigated by performing Monte Carlo simulations of helium and neon ions. The helium beam leads to more lateral growth relative to the neon beam because of its larger interaction volume. The lateral growth of the nanopillars is dominated by molecules deposited via secondary electrons in both the simulations. Notably, the helium pillars are dominated by SE-I electrons whereas the neon pillars are dominated by SE-II electrons. Using a low precursor residence time of 70 μs, resulting in an equilibrium coverage of ∼4%, the neon simulation has a lower deposition efficiency (3.5%) compared to that of the helium simulation (6.5%). At larger residence time (10 ms) and consequently larger equilibrium coverage (85%) the deposition efficiencies of helium and neon increased to 49% and 21%, respectively; which is dominated by increased lateral growth rates leading to broader pillars. The nanoscale growth is further studied by varying the ion beam diameter at 10 ms precursor residence time. The study shows that total SE yield decreases with increasing beam diameters for both the ion types. However, helium has the larger SE yield as compared to that of neon in both the low and high precursor residence time, and thus pillars are wider in all the simulations studied.

  17. Understanding tsetse flies.

    PubMed

    Langley, P A

    1994-12-01

    The discovery that tsetse flies are the vectors of African trypanosomosis, causing sleeping sickness in man and nagana in cattle, occurred at the start of a rapidly expanding colonialism in sub-Saharan Africa. Hence, the first research on the fly was largely taxonomic, coupled with a painstaking ecological approach to determine the identities and distribution limits of the different species. This was followed by closer attention to the physiology of the fly, both from the academic standpoint as related to its survival and reproduction in the field, and from the standpoint of its vectorial capacity. There are still conflicting hypotheses concerning the maturation of trypanosomes within the fly. Increasing concern for the environment led to a ban in the developed nations on the use of DDT as an insecticide which had been used successfully for tsetse control in Africa. This was followed by a ban on the use of organochlorine insecticides in general, and no doubt the next restrictions will be on the use of organophosphates and upon synthetic pyrethroids which have already been banned in the UK for the control of houseflies. Fortunately, research on the role of olfactory and visual stimuli of the tsetse, in the location of potential hosts, led to an improvement in methods for monitoring fly populations by means of traps and targets upon which the flies alight. So successful are such devices that, when treated with an insecticide, they can be used to sustain an increase in natural mortality in fly populations to such an extent that these populations decline to manageable levels.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  18. 76 FR 51272 - Fisheries of the Northeastern United States; Atlantic Mackerel, Squid, and Butterfish Fisheries...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-08-18

    ... Loligo was set at 3,384 mt (76 FR 8306, February 14, 2011). Due to an under harvest of the Trimester 1... Northeastern United States; Atlantic Mackerel, Squid, and Butterfish Fisheries; Closure of the 2011 Trimester 2 Directed Loligo Squid Fishery AGENCY: National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS), National Oceanic...

  19. 77 FR 22678 - Fisheries of the Northeastern United States; Atlantic Mackerel, Squid, and Butterfish Fisheries...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-04-17

    ... percent of the quota (8,888 mt) (77 FR 16472, March 21, 2012). The regulations also require the... Northeastern United States; Atlantic Mackerel, Squid, and Butterfish Fisheries; Closure of the Trimester 1 Longfin Squid Fishery AGENCY: National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS), National Oceanic and...

  20. 77 FR 67305 - Fisheries of the Northeastern United States; Atlantic Mackerel, Squid, and Butterfish Fisheries...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-11-09

    ... specifications (77 FR 16472; March 21, 2012). The total allowable level of foreign fishing (TALFF) for butterfish... United States; Atlantic Mackerel, Squid, and Butterfish Fisheries; Specifications and Management Measures... butterfish fishery, which is managed as part of the Atlantic Mackerel, Squid, and Butterfish...

  1. 75 FR 37739 - Fisheries of the Northeastern United States; Atlantic Mackerel, Squid, and Butterfish Fisheries...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-06-30

    ... Butterfish Fisheries in the Federal Register on February 3, 2010 (75 FR 5537). The final rule modified... United States; Atlantic Mackerel, Squid, and Butterfish Fisheries; Adjustment to the Loligo Trimester 2... Fishing Year (FY) Trimester 2 and 3 Loligo squid quotas. This action complies with the 2010...

  2. Production of valued materials from squid viscera by subcritical water hydrolysis.

    PubMed

    Uddin, M Salim; Ahn, Hyang-Min; Kishimura, Hideki; Chun, Byung-Soo

    2010-09-01

    Subcritical water hydrolysis was carried out to produce valued materials from squid viscera, the waste product of fish processing industries. The reaction temperatures for hydrolysis of rawand deoiled squid viscera were maintained from 180 to 280 degrees C for5 min. The ratio of material to water forhydrolysis was 1:50. Most of the proteins from deoiled squid viscera were recovered at high temperature. The protein yield in raw squid viscera hydrolyzate decreased with the rise of temperature. The reducing sugar yield was higher at high temperature in subcritical water hydrolysis of both raw and deoiled squid viscera. The highest yield of amino acids in raw and deoiled squid viscera hydrolyzates were 233.25 +/- 3.25 and 533.78 +/- 4.13 mg g(-1) at 180 and 280 degrees C, respectively. Most amino acids attained highest yield at the reaction temperature range of 180-220 degrees C and 260-280 degrees C for raw and deoiled samples, respectively. The recovery of amino acids from deoiled squid viscera was about 1.5 times higher than that of raw squid viscera.

  3. 75 FR 1024 - Fisheries of the Northeastern United States; Atlantic Mackerel, Squid, and Butterfish Fisheries...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-01-08

    ..., 2003 (68 FR 27516), NMFS published, at the request of the Council, an ANPR indicating that the Council... United States; Atlantic Mackerel, Squid, and Butterfish Fisheries; Control Date for Loligo and Illex Squid AGENCY: National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS), National Oceanic and Atmospheric...

  4. 76 FR 39313 - Fisheries of the Northeastern United States; Atlantic Mackerel, Squid, and Butterfish Fisheries...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-07-06

    ... butterfish is 495 mt (76 FR 8306, February 14, 2011). Section 648.22 requires NMFS to close the directed... Northeastern United States; Atlantic Mackerel, Squid, and Butterfish Fisheries; Closure of the Directed... under the Atlantic Mackerel, Squid, and Butterfish Fishery Management Plan (FMP). The procedures...

  5. 76 FR 74724 - Fisheries of the Northeastern United States; Atlantic Mackerel, Squid, and Butterfish Fisheries...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-12-01

    ... November 7, 2011 (76 FR 68642). Details regarding the measures in Amendment 11 are in the final rule and... United States; Atlantic Mackerel, Squid, and Butterfish Fisheries; Amendment 11 AGENCY: National Marine... implementing Amendment 11 to the Atlantic Mackerel, Squid, and Butterfish (MSB) Fishery Management Plan...

  6. 77 FR 40527 - Fisheries of the Northeastern United States; Atlantic Mackerel, Squid, and Butterfish Fisheries...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-07-10

    ... percent of the quota (8,888 mt) (77 FR 16472, March 21, 2012). Due to an underharvest of quota in... Northeastern United States; Atlantic Mackerel, Squid, and Butterfish Fisheries; Closure of the 2012 Trimester 2 Directed Longfin Squid Fishery AGENCY: National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS), National Oceanic...

  7. A YBCO RF-squid variable temperature susceptometer and its applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zhou, Luwei; Qiu, Jinwu; Zhang, Xianfeng; Tang, Zhimin; Cai, Yimin; Qian, Yongjia

    1991-01-01

    The Superconducting QUantum Interference Device (SQUID) susceptibility using a high-temperature radio-frequency (rf) SQUID and a normal metal pick-up coil is employed in testing weak magnetization of the sample. The magnetic moment resolution of the device is 1 x 10(exp -6) emu, and that of the susceptibility is 5 x 10(exp -6) emu/cu cm.

  8. 75 FR 51683 - Fisheries of the Northeastern United States; Atlantic Mackerel, Squid, and Butterfish Fisheries...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-08-23

    ... FR 5537, February 3, 2010). Section 648.22 requires NMFS to close the directed butterfish fishery in... United States; Atlantic Mackerel, Squid, and Butterfish Fisheries; Closure of the Directed Butterfish..., Squid, and Butterfish Fishery Management Plan (FMP). The procedures for setting the annual...

  9. 75 FR 32745 - Fisheries of the Northeastern United States; Atlantic Mackerel, Squid, and Butterfish Fisheries...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-06-09

    ... meeting dates in a separate Federal Register notice published on May 27, 2010 (75 FR 29725). If the...; Atlantic Mackerel, Squid, and Butterfish Fisheries; Scoping Process AGENCY: National Marine Fisheries...) for Atlantic Mackerel, Squid, and Butterfish (MSB) and to prepare an EIS to analyze the impacts of...

  10. 77 FR 23635 - Fisheries of the Northeastern United States; Atlantic Mackerel, Squid, and Butterfish Fisheries...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-04-20

    ..., 2011 (77 FR 16472). This action established catch levels for the 2012 fishing year for mackerel and... United States; Atlantic Mackerel, Squid, and Butterfish Fisheries; Specifications and Management Measures... regulatory text in the final rule for 2012 Specifications for the Atlantic Mackerel, Squid, and...

  11. Multi-terminal multi-junction dc SQUID for nanoscale magnetometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meltzer, Alexander Y.; Uri, Aviram; Zeldov, Eli

    2016-11-01

    Miniaturization of superconducting quantum interference devices (SQUIDs) is of major importance for the development of sensitive scanning nanoscale magnetometry tools. The high sensitivity of nanoSQUIDs is restricted, however, to only particular periodic values of the applied magnetic field, making accurate measurements at intermediate values of the field impossible. We present a theoretical investigation of a multi-terminal, multi-junction SQUID (mSQUID) that lifts this limitation by providing electrical means for a continuous shift of the quantum interference pattern with respect to the applied field. Analysis of 4-terminal, 4-junction and 3-terminal, 3-junction mSQUIDs shows that operation at maximum sensitivity can be obtained at any value of the magnetic field by applying control current to the extra terminals. The model describes the variation and the shift of the interference pattern as a function of the control currents, junction asymmetries, and the mSQUID inductance. The mSQUID is also shown to provide a direct measurement of the current-phase relations of superconducting junctions. The derived model provides a quantitative description of the recently developed multi-terminal nanoSQUID-on-tip.

  12. Ordinary SQUID interferometers and superfluid helium matter wave interferometers: The role of quantum fluctuations

    SciTech Connect

    Golovashkin, A. I.; Zherikhina, L. N. Tskhovrebov, A. M.; Izmailov, G. N.; Ozolin, V. V.

    2010-08-15

    When comparing the operation of a superfluid helium matter wave quantum interferometer (He SQUID) with that of an ordinary direct-current quantum interferometer (dc SQUID), we estimate their resolution limitation that correspond to quantum fluctuations. An alternative mode of operation of the interferometer as a unified macroquantum system is considered.

  13. Metallic Magnetic Calorimeters with On-Chip dc-SQUID Readout

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kempf, S.; Ferring, A.; Fleischmann, A.; Wegner, M.; Enss, C.

    2016-07-01

    Metallic magnetic calorimeters (MMCs) are low-temperature particle detectors that are typically read out by using superconducting quantum interference devices (SQUIDs). But since MMCs are sensitive to the input circuitry and the noise performance of the SQUID, the energy resolution of MMCs have not yet reached their fundamental limit. A possible solution to overcome present limits is to maximize the flux coupling by minimizing parasitic inductance in the input circuit. To show the suitability of this approach, we realized a 64 pixel MMC detector array with integrated dc-SQUID readout, i.e., detector and SQUID are on the same chip. We observed an influence of the power dissipation of the SQUID on the detector temperature. We achieved a baseline energy resolution of Δ E_mathrm {FWHM} = 25 mathrm {eV} and Δ E_mathrm {FWHM} = 30 mathrm {eV} for X-rays with energies up to 6 mathrm {keV}.

  14. Technical and commerical challenges in high Tc SQUIDs and their industrial applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lu, D. F.

    1995-01-01

    A SQUID is the most sensitive device for measuring changes in magnetic flux. Since its discovery in the sixties, scientists have made consistent efforts to apply SQUID's to various applications. Instruments that are the most sensitive in their respective categories have been built, such as SQUID DC susceptometer that is now manufactured by Quantum Design, pico-voltmeter which could measure 10(exp -14) volts, and gravitational wave detectors. One of the most successful applications of SQUID's is in magnetoencephalography, a non-invasive technique for investigating neuronal activity in the living human brain. This technique employs a multi-channel SQUID magnetometer that maps the weak magnetic field generated by small current when information is processed in brain, and its performance is marvelous.

  15. The fabrication and characterization of nano-SQUIDs based on Nb thin films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Xixi; Liu, Xiaoyu; Wang, Hao; Chen, Lei; Wang, Zhen

    2015-08-01

    SQUIDs with nano-junctions (or nano-SQUIDs) are able to be miniaturized into nanoscale to measure a single Bohr magneton. Here, we reported the development of a fabrication process for Nb (niobium) nano-SQUIDs using the thin film deposition and the electron-beam lithography technology. The developed process started from a high-quality superconducting thin film so that it is compatible with a variety of film growing techniques. The as-fabricated nano-SQUIDs exhibited functional flux modulation depth up to 10.3% at 4.6 K, in agreement with the numerical simulation based on the Ginzburg-Landau equation. By further comparing the results from both experiments and simulations, we found that a small critical current below ∼50 μA played a leading role in order to obtain a decent flux-modulation depth for Nb nano-SQUIDs.

  16. SQUID magnetometry from nanometer to centimeter length scales

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hatridge, Michael Jonathan

    Information stored in magnetic fields plays an important role in everyday life. This information exists over a remarkably wide range of sizes, so that magnetometry at a variety of length scales can extract useful information. Examples at centimeter to millimeter length scales include measurement of spatial and temporal character of fields generated in the human brain and heart, and active manipulation of spins in the human body for non-invasive magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). At micron length scales, magnetometry can be used to measure magnetic objects such as flux qubits; at nanometer length scales it can be used to study individual magnetic domains, and even individual spins. The development of Superconducting QUantum Interference Device (SQUID) based magnetometer for two such applications, in vivo prepolarized, ultra-low field MRI of humans and dispersive readout of SQUIDs for micro- and nanoscale magnetometry, are the focus of this thesis. Conventional MRI has developed into a powerful clinical tool for imaging the human body. This technique is based on nuclear magnetic resonance of protons with the addition application of three-dimensional magnetic field gradients to encode spatial information. Most clinical MRI systems involve magnetic fields generated by superconducting magnets, and the current trend is to higher magnetic fields than the widely used 1.5-T systems. Nonetheless, there is ongoing interest in the development of less expensive imagers operating at lower fields. The prepolarized, SQUID detected ultra-low field MRI (ULF MRI) developed by the Clarke group allows imaging in very weak fields (typically 132 muT, corresponding to a resonant frequency of 5.6 kHz). At these low field strengths, there is enhanced contrast in the longitudinal relaxation time of various tissue types, enabling imaging of objects which are not visible to conventional MRI, for instance prostate cancer. We are currently investigating the contrast between normal and cancerous

  17. Multiplexing of Hot-Electron Nanobolometers Using Microwave SQUIDs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Karasik, Boris S.; Day, Peter K.; Kawamura, Jonathan H.; Bumble, Bruce; LeDuc, Henry G.

    2009-01-01

    We have obtained the first data on the multiplexed operation of titanium hot-electron bolometers (HEB). Because of their low thermal conductance and small electron heat capacity nanobolometers are particularly interesting as sensors for far-infrared spectroscopy and mid- and near-IR calorimetry. However, the short time constant of these devices (approximately microseconds at 300-400 mK) makes time domain or audio-frequency domain multiplexing impractical. The Microwave SQUID (MSQUID) approach pursued in this work uses dc SQUIDs coupled to X-band microresonators which are, in turn, coupled to a transmission line. We used a 4-element array of Ti HEBs operated at 415 mK in a He3 dewar with an optical fiber access. The microwave signal exhibited 10-MHz wide resonances at individual MSQUD frequencies between 9 GHz and 10 GHz. The resonance depth is modulated by the current through the bolometer via a change of the SQUID flux state. The transmitted signal was amplified by a cryogenic amplifier and downconverted to baseband using an IQ mixer. A 1-dB per ??/2 responsivity was sufficient for keeping the system noise at the level of 2 pA/Hz1/2. This is more than an order of magnitude smaller than phonon noise in the HEB. The devices were able to detect single near- IR photons (1550 nm) with a time constant of 3.5 ?s. Follow-on work will scale the array to larger size and will address the microwave frequency signal generation and processing using a digital transceiver.

  18. Axoplasmic RNA species synthesized in the isolated squid giant axon.

    PubMed

    Rapallino, M V; Cupello, A; Giuditta, A

    1988-07-01

    Isolated squid stellate nerves and giant fiber lobes were incubated for 8 hr in Millipore filtered sea water containing [3H]uridine. The electrophoretic patterns of radioactive RNA purified from the axoplasm of the giant axon and from the giant fiber lobe (cell bodies of the giant axon) demonstrated the presence of RNA species with mobilities corresponding to tRNA and rRNA. The presence of labeled rRNAs was confirmed by the behavior of the large rRNA component (31S) which, in the squid, readily dissociates into its two constituent moyeties (17S and 20S). Comparable results were obtained with the axonal sheath and the stellate nerve. In all the electrophoretic patterns, additional species of radioactive RNA migrated between the 4S and the 20S markers, i.e. with mobilities corresponding to presumptive mRNAs. Chromatographic analysis of the purified RNAs on oligo(dT)cellulose indicated the presence of labeled poly(A)+ RNA in all tissue samples. Radioactive poly(A)+ RNA represented approximately 1% of the total labeled RNA in the axoplasm, axonal sheath and stellate nerve, but more than 2% in the giant fiber lobe. The labeled poly(A)+ RNAs of the giant fibre lobe showed a prevalence of larger species in comparison to the axonal sheath and stellate nerve. In conclusion, the axoplasmic RNAs synthesized by the isolated squid giant axon appear to include all the major classes of axoplasmic RNAs, that is rRNA, tRNA and mRNA.

  19. Optimum ion channel properties in the squid giant axon.

    PubMed

    Adair, Robert K

    2004-04-01

    Evolutionary pressures are presumed to act so as to maximize the efficiency of biological systems. However, the utility of that premise is marred by the difficulties in defining and evaluating both the efficiency of systems and the character of the available variation space. Following Hodgkin and Adrian, we examine the character of voltage gated ion channels in the nonmyelinated giant axons of the squid and find that both the channel densities and channel transition rates have values that nearly optimize signal sensitivity as well as signal velocity.

  20. Optimum ion channel properties in the squid giant axon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Adair, Robert K.

    2004-04-01

    Evolutionary pressures are presumed to act so as to maximize the efficiency of biological systems. However, the utility of that premise is marred by the difficulties in defining and evaluating both the efficiency of systems and the character of the available variation space. Following Hodgkin and Adrian, we examine the character of voltage gated ion channels in the nonmyelinated giant axons of the squid and find that both the channel densities and channel transition rates have values that nearly optimize signal sensitivity as well as signal velocity.

  1. Assessing the trophic position and ecological role of squids in marine ecosystems by means of food-web models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Coll, Marta; Navarro, Joan; Olson, Robert J.; Christensen, Villy

    2013-10-01

    We synthesized available information from ecological models at local and regional scales to obtain a global picture of the trophic position and ecological role of squids in marine ecosystems. First, static food-web models were used to analyze basic ecological parameters and indicators of squids: biomass, production, consumption, trophic level, omnivory index, predation mortality diet, and the ecological role. In addition, we developed various dynamic temporal simulations using two food-web models that included squids in their parameterization, and we investigated potential impacts of fishing pressure and environmental conditions for squid populations and, consequently, for marine food webs. Our results showed that squids occupy a large range of trophic levels in marine food webs and show a large trophic width, reflecting the versatility in their feeding behaviors and dietary habits. Models illustrated that squids are abundant organisms in marine ecosystems, and have high growth and consumption rates, but these parameters are highly variable because squids are adapted to a large variety of environmental conditions. Results also show that squids can have a large trophic impact on other elements of the food web, and top-down control from squids to their prey can be high. In addition, some squid species are important prey of apical predators and may be keystone species in marine food webs. In fact, we found strong interrelationships between neritic squids and the populations of their prey and predators in coastal and shelf areas, while the role of squids in open ocean and upwelling ecosystems appeared more constrained to a bottom-up impact on their predators. Therefore, large removals of squids will likely have large-scale effects on marine ecosystems. In addition, simulations confirm that squids are able to benefit from a general increase in fishing pressure, mainly due to predation release, and quickly respond to changes triggered by the environment. Squids may thus

  2. Strange particle production in neutrino-neon charged current interactions

    SciTech Connect

    Plano, R.; Baker, N.J.; Connolly, P.L.; Kahn, S.A.; Murtagh, M.J.; Palmer, R.B.; Samios, N.P.; Tanaka, M.; Baltay, C.; Bregman, M.

    1986-01-01

    Neutral strange particle production in charged-current muon-neutrino interactions have been studied in the Fermilab 15-foot neon bubble chamber. Associated production is expected to be the major source of strange particles in charged-current neutrino interactions. sigma-neutral and xi-minus production by neutrinos was observed. The dependence on various leptonic and hadronic variables is investigated. A fit to single and associated production of s, s/anti-s, and c quarks is described based on the number of single and double strange particle production events. Inclusive neutral strange particle decays (V/sup 0/) production rates as a fraction of all charged-current events are measured and are tabulated. The lambda/K ratio is found to be 0.39 +- 0.04 and the fraction of lambda coming from sigma-neutral is (16 +- 5)%. The single- and double V/sup 0/ production was used to determine the associated s anti-s production rate and single s-quark production rate. 13 refs., 7 figs., 3 tabs. (LEW)

  3. Effect of helium-neon laser on musculoskeletal trigger points

    SciTech Connect

    Snyder-Mackler, L.; Bork, C.; Bourbon, B.; Trumbore, D.

    1986-07-01

    Cold lasers have been proposed recently as a therapeutic tool for treating a wide variety of pathological conditions, including wounds, arthritis, orthopedic problems, and pain. These proposed therapeutic effects largely have been unsubstantiated by research. A randomized, double blind study was undertaken to ascertain the effect of a helium-neon (He-Ne) laser on the resistance of areas of skin overlying musculoskeletal trigger points. These areas usually demonstrate decreased skin resistance when compared with the surrounding tissue. Thirty patients with musculoskeletal trigger points were assigned randomly to either an experimental or a placebo group. In addition to standard physical therapy, each patient received three 15-second applications of a He-Ne laser or placebo stimulation from an identical unit that did not emit a laser. The results of a two-way analysis of covariance with one repeated measure showed a statistically significant increase (p less than .007) in skin resistance. This increase in an abnormal skin resistance pattern may accompany the resolution of pathological conditions.

  4. Investigation of X-ray Amplification in Neon Clusters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mocek, T.; Park, J. J.; Kim, C. M.; Kim, H. T.; Lee, D. G.; Hong, K. H.; Nam, C. H.

    2002-11-01

    We have experimentally investigated the feasibility of X-ray lasing in Li-like Ne ions produced by the interaction of intense, 28-fs laser pulses with gaseous clusters of neon. The idea of the proposed recombination (n=3-4) X-ray laser is based on adiabatic cooling of fast expanding small-sized Ne clusters. The driving laser beam was focused into a cryogenically cooled gas jet of Ne, and time-integrated spectra were simultaneously measured in transverse and longitudinal direction with respect to the laser axis. The transverse spectrum from Ne at the temperature of about -137 degC showed dominant emission from highly placed levels (n=4) in Ne7- ions whilst the resonance lines (n=2-3) at 8.8, 9.8, and 10.3 nm remained very weak suggesting enhanced recombination from Ne8-. In the longitudinal spectrum, the lasing line candidate corresponding to the 3d-4f transition of Ne7+ at 29.24 nm has been observed as a distinct, but not dominant.

  5. Helium and neon in lunar ilmenites of different antiquities

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nier, A. O.; Schlutter, D. J.

    1994-01-01

    Helium and neon were extracted from individual lunar ilmenite grains, approximately 100 micrometers in diameter, using a pulsed step-heating technique. Grains from lunar samples 71501 and 79035, believed to have been exposed to solar corpuscular radiation at greatly different times, were studied. The results found were consistent with the hypothesis that in addition to solar-wind-implanted gas, a second more deeply implanted component was present in both species of grains. Average isotopic ratios were determined giving equal weight to each of the particles. As found in depth studies employing chemical etching, both the He-3/He-4 and Ne-20/Ne-22 ratios were lower in the more deeply implanted gas than in the solar wind component. The He-3/He-4 ratio in the solar wind component of the more ancient grains was lower than that in the more recently exposed ones, whereas no difference was found for the more deeply embedded He. In the deeply embedded component of the ancient grains, the He-4/Ne-20 ratio was approx. 2x that found in the more recently exposed grains. In the shallowly implanted component, the ratio varied greatly from grain to grain, preventing comparison with the solar wind elemental composition.

  6. Interstellar oxygen, nitrogen and neon in the heliosphere

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Geiss, J.; Gloeckler, G.; Mall, U.; Von Steiger, R.; Galvin, A. B.; Ogilvie, K. W.

    1994-01-01

    Oxygen, nitrogen and neon pick-up ions of interstellar origin were detected for the first time with the Solar Wind Ion Spectrometer (SWICS) on board Ulysses. The interstellar origin of these ions is established by the following criteria: (a) they are singly charged, (b) they have the broad velocity distributions characteristic of pick-up ions, with an upper limit of twice the solar wind speed, (c) their relative abundance as a function of distance from the sun corresponds to the theoretical expectation, and (d) there is no relation to a planetary or cometary source. The interstellar abundance ratios He(+)/O(+), N(+)/O(+), Ne(+)/O(+) were investigated. At approximately 5.25 AU in the outermost part of Ulysses' trajectory He(+)/O(+) = 175(sup +70 sub -50) N(+)/O(+) = 0.13(sup +0.05 sub -0.05) and Ne(+)/O(+) = 0.18(sup +0.10 sub -0.07) were determined. For the interstellar gas passing through the termination region and entering the heliosphere (He/O)(sub 0) = 290(sup +190 sub -100), (N/O)(sub 0) = 0.13(sup +0.06 sub -0.06) and (Ne/O)(sub 0) = 0.20(sup +0.12 sub -0.09) were obtained from the pick-up ion measurements. Upper limits for the relative abundances of C(+) and C were also determined.

  7. Isotopes of cosmic ray elements from neon to nickel

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Waddington, C. J.; Freier, P. S.; Fickle, R. K.; Brewster, N. R.

    1981-01-01

    Results obtained from a balloon exposure of a cosmic ray detector flown in 1977 are reported. The charge resolution ranged from 0.19 to 0.21 charge units between neon and nickel and the mass resolution for nuclei stopped in the emulsions ranged from 0.40 to 0.70 amu for A between 20 and 60 amu. This was enough to correctly identify almost all nuclei, but not to uniquely resolve neighboring mass peaks. Both Ne and Mg show evidence for neutron enrichment relative to the solar system abundance. Si and S are consistent with solar abundances, while Ar has no significant source abundances. P, Cl and K have essentially no primary component and the isotopic distribution observed is quite consistent with that expected from propagation. An excess of Ca-44 at the source is shown, indicating high metallicity in the source. The abundance of Fe-58 is nine percent or less, and Ni shows a one-to-one ratio for Ni-58 to 60, implying intermediate metallicity.

  8. The isotopes of neon in the galactic cosmic rays

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Garcia-Munoz, M.; Simpson, J. A.; Wefel, J. P.

    1979-01-01

    The paper examines the results obtained by the University of Chicago instrument on board the IMP 7 satellite used to measure the abundances of Ne-20 and Ne-22 in the galactic cosmic rays during 1973-1977, over the general energy range of 60-230 MeV per nucleon. It is reported that the instrument shows a mass resolution of 0.7 amu(sigma) which was confirmed by calibrating a backup instrument at the LBL Bevalac with separated beams of neon isotopes. Through the use of standard solar modulation and cosmic-ray propagation models, the cosmic-ray source ratio inferred is Ne-22/Ne-20 = 0.38 = or -0.07 which is significantly greater than the present solar system ratio. It is concluded that propagation effects or cross-section uncertainties cannot account for such a large abundance of Ne-22, and thus this measurement provides evidence that the cosmic rays come from a source region where the Ne-22 abundance is substantially greater than in solar system material.

  9. Neon turbo-Brayton cycle refrigerator for HTS power machines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hirai, Hirokazu; Hirokawa, M.; Yoshida, Shigeru; Nara, N.; Ozaki, S.; Hayashi, H.; Okamoto, H.; Shiohara, Y.

    2012-06-01

    We developed a prototype turbo-Brayton refrigerator whose working fluid is neon gas. The refrigerator is designed for a HTS (High Temperature Superconducting) power transformer and its cooling power is more than 2 kW at 65 K. The refrigerator has a turboexpander and a turbo-compressor, which utilize magnetic bearings. These rotational machines have no rubbing parts and no oil-components. Those make a long maintenance interval of the refrigerator. The refrigerator is very compact because our newly developed turbo-compressor is volumetrically smaller than a displacement type compressor in same operating specification. Another feature of the refrigerator is a wide range operation capability for various heat-loads. Cooling power is controlled by the input-power of the turbo-compressor instead of the conventional method of using an electric heater. The rotational speed of the compressor motor is adjusted by an inverter. This system is expected to be more efficient. We show design details, specification and cooling test results of the new refrigerator in this paper.

  10. Autonomous Flying Controls Testbed

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Motter, Mark A.

    2005-01-01

    The Flying Controls Testbed (FLiC) is a relatively small and inexpensive unmanned aerial vehicle developed specifically to test highly experimental flight control approaches. The most recent version of the FLiC is configured with 16 independent aileron segments, supports the implementation of C-coded experimental controllers, and is capable of fully autonomous flight from takeoff roll to landing, including flight test maneuvers. The test vehicle is basically a modified Army target drone, AN/FQM-117B, developed as part of a collaboration between the Aviation Applied Technology Directorate (AATD) at Fort Eustis,Virginia and NASA Langley Research Center. Several vehicles have been constructed and collectively have flown over 600 successful test flights.

  11. Flies and the mouth.

    PubMed

    Hassona, Yazan; Scully, Crispian; Aguida, Miranda; de Almeida, Oslei Paes

    2014-05-01

    Oral infections caused by flies are rarely encountered in clinical practice, and consequently, there is a paucity of information in the medical and dental literature about these conditions. In the present article, we present a concise review on oral myiasis or fly-blown disease. A variety of fly species can infest the oral tissues and produce an exotic clinical picture. Oral myiasis is mainly encountered in the tropics and subtropics, but can also be encountered in the western part of the world due to the increase of globalization, immigration, and global warming. Commonly-reported symptoms of oral myiasis include pain, swelling, itchy sensation, and feeling of something moving in the mouth. The surgical debridement of infected tissue with the removal of maggots is the treatment of choice in most cases of oral myiasis.

  12. Complexity and Fly Swarms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cates, Grant; Murray, Joelle

    Complexity is the study of phenomena that emerge from a collection of interacting objects and arises in many systems throughout physics, biology, finance, economics and more. Certain kinds of complex systems can be described by self-organized criticality (SOC). An SOC system is one that is internally driven towards some critical state. Recent experimental work suggests scaling behavior of fly swarms-one of the hallmarks of an SOC system. Our goal is to look for SOC behavior in computational models of fly swarms.

  13. National Ecological Observatory Network's (NEON) future role in US carbon cycling and budgets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Loescher, H. W.

    2015-12-01

    The US National Ecological Observatory Network (NEON) is a National Science Foundation investment designed to observe the impacts of large-scale environment changes on the nation's ecosystems for 30 years with rigorous consistency. NEON does this through the construction (and operations) of new physical infrastructure and data infrastructure distributed across the North American Continent. This includes 47 terrestrial and 32 aquatic sites. Key to its design is its ability to provide ecosystem-scale carbon measurements of carbon stores, fluxes, processes—and the means to scale them from the local-to regional scales via remote sensed aircraft. NEON design NEON will be collecting these carbon data as a facility and providing openly providing them. NEON will not preform any high-level synthesis, rather the carbon data is an open resource for research, private and public communities, alike. Overall, these data are also harmonized with other international carbon-based infrastructures to facilitate cross-continental understanding and global carbon syntheses. Products, engagement and harmonization of data to facilitate syntheses will be discussed.

  14. A strategy to sample nutrient dynamics across the terrestrial-aquatic interface at NEON sites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hinckley, E. S.; Goodman, K. J.; Roehm, C. L.; Meier, C. L.; Luo, H.; Ayres, E.; Parnell, J.; Krause, K.; Fox, A. M.; SanClements, M.; Fitzgerald, M.; Barnett, D.; Loescher, H. W.; Schimel, D.

    2012-12-01

    The construction of the National Ecological Observatory Network (NEON) across the U.S. creates the opportunity for researchers to investigate biogeochemical transformations and transfers across ecosystems at local-to-continental scales. Here, we examine a subset of NEON sites where atmospheric, terrestrial, and aquatic observations will be collected for 30 years. These sites are located across a range of hydrological regimes, including flashy rain-driven, shallow sub-surface (perched, pipe-flow, etc), and deep groundwater, which likely affect the chemical forms and quantities of reactive elements that are retained and/or mobilized across landscapes. We present a novel spatial and temporal sampling design that enables researchers to evaluate long-term trends in carbon, nitrogen, and phosphorus biogeochemical cycles under these different hydrological regimes. This design focuses on inputs to the terrestrial system (atmospheric deposition, bulk precipitation), transfers (soil-water and groundwater sources/chemistry), and outputs (surface water, and evapotranspiration). We discuss both data that will be collected as part of the current NEON design, as well as how the research community can supplement the NEON design through collaborative efforts, such as providing additional datasets, including soil biogeochemical processes and trace gas emissions, and developing collaborative research networks. Current engagement with the research community working at the terrestrial-aquatic interface is critical to NEON's success as we begin construction, to ensure that high-quality, standardized and useful data are not only made available, but inspire further, cutting-edge research.

  15. SQUID-detected ultra-low field MRI

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Espy, Michelle; Matlashov, Andrei; Volegov, Petr

    2013-04-01

    MRI remains the premier method for non-invasive imaging of soft-tissue. Since the first demonstration of ULF MRI the trend has been towards ever higher magnetic fields. This is because the signal, and efficiency of Faraday detectors, increases with ever higher magnetic fields and corresponding Larmor frequencies. Nevertheless, there are many compelling reasons to continue to explore MRI at much weaker magnetic fields, the so-called ultra-low field or (ULF) regime. In the past decade many excellent proof-of-concept demonstrations of ULF MRI have been made. These include combined MRI and magnetoencephalography, imaging in the presence of metal, unique tissue contrast, and implementation in situations where a high magnetic field is simply impractical. These demonstrations have routinely used pulsed pre-polarization (at magnetic fields from ∼10 to 100 mT) followed by read-out in a much weaker (1-100 μT) magnetic fields using the ultra-sensitive Superconducting Quantum Interference Device (SQUID) sensor. Even with pre-polarization and SQUID detection, ULF MRI suffers from many challenges associated with lower magnetization (i.e. signal) and inherently long acquisition times compared to conventional >1 T MRI. These are fundamental limitations imposed by the low measurement and gradient fields used. In this review article we discuss some of the techniques, potential applications, and inherent challenges of ULF MRI.

  16. An analysis of conductance changes in squid axon.

    PubMed

    MULLINS, L J

    1959-05-20

    The membrane of the squid axon is considered on the basis of a pore model in which the distribution of the pore sizes strongly favors K(+) transfer when there is no potential. Electrical asymmetry causes non-penetrating ions on the membrane capacitor to exert a mechanical force on both membrane surfaces and this force results in a deformation of the membrane pore system such that it assumes a distribution of sizes favoring the ions exerting mechanical force. The ions involved appear to be Ca(++) on the outside of the membrane and isethionate(-), (i(-)) on the inside; as Ca(++) is equivalent in size to Na(+), the charged membrane is potentially able to transfer Na(+), when the ions deforming the membrane pore distribution are removed. A depolarization of the membrane leads to an opening of pores that will allow Na(+) penetration and a release of the membrane from deformation. The pores revert to the zero-potential pore size distribution hence the Na permeability change is a transient. Calculation shows that the potassium conductance vs. displacement of membrane potential curve for the squid axon and the "inactivation" function, h, can be obtained directly from the assumed membrane distortion without the introduction of arbitrary parameters. The sodium conductance, because it is a transient, requires assumptions about the time constants with which ions unblock pores at the outside and the inside of the membrane.

  17. Structural health monitoring of materials by high critical temperature SQUID

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Valentino, M.; Ruosi, A.; Peluso, G.; Pepe, G. P.

    2002-08-01

    Nowadays, tailoring the material properties is essential for advanced product design in engineering systems. The need to provide key information about micro- and macro-structural behaviour of materials, without destructively sectioning the sample, has spurred the development of nondestructive evaluation methodologies. These techniques are required during material production, quality testing of components during manufacturing, and in-service inspection of structural integrity. To ensure the highest possible operational safety along with an economic efficiency, it is necessary to carry out inspections with a high sensitivity and a proven reliability. Due to its unparalleled magnetic field sensitivity over a wide frequency range and large dynamic range, SQUID-based nondestructive evaluation has unique advantages for materials and structures characterization. We will present an overview of eddy-current nondestructive analysis utilizing high Tc SQUIDs with an emphasis on examples relevant to the aeronautical industry. These include the detection of deep-lying defects in multi-layer structures of Al-Ti alloys and damage of extremely lightweight graphite/epoxy composites. Both of these can be successfully treated by this approach where conventional electromagnetic probes often fail. In addition some results based on the volume integral formulation, successfully developed to simulate the response of the system to different type of flaws in Al-alloy planar structures and to solve the inverse electromagnetic problem, will be shown.

  18. Anion conductances of the giant axon of squid Sepioteuthis.

    PubMed Central

    Inoue, I

    1988-01-01

    Anion conductances of giant axons of squid, Sepioteuthis, were measured. The axons were internally perfused with a 100-mM tetraethylammonium-phosphate solution and immersed in a 100-mM Ca-salt solution (or Mg-salt solution) containing 0.3 microns tetrodotoxin. The external anion composition was changed. The membrane currents had a large amount of outward rectification due to anion influx across Cl- channels of the membrane (Inoue, 1985). The amount of outward rectification depended on the species of anion used and was strongly influenced by temperature and internal pH. In contrast to the anion conductances themselves, the conductance relative to Cl- (gA/gCl) was found to be quite stable against changes in the membrane potential, temperature, and pH. It is therefore suggested that each gA/gCl is an intrinsic quantity of the Cl- channel of the squid axon membrane. The sequence and values of gA/gCl obtained in this study were NO3- (1.80) greater than I- (1.40) greater than Br- (1.07) greater than Cl- (1.00) greater than MeSO3- (0.46) greater than H2PO2- (0.33) greater than CH3COO- (0.29) greater than SO4(2-) (0.06). PMID:3207836

  19. rf-SQUID qubit readout using a fast flux pulse

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bennett, Douglas A.; Longobardi, Luigi; Patel, Vijay; Chen, Wei; Lukens, James E.

    2007-11-01

    We report on development of a set-up for measuring intrawell dynamics in a Nb-based rf-SQUID qubit described by a double well potential, by rapidly tilting the potential, allowing escape to the adjacent well with high probability for an excited state but low probability for the ground state. The rapid tilt of the double well potential is accomplished via a readout flux pulse inductively coupled to the qubit from a microstrip transmission line on a separate chip suspended above the qubit chip. The readout pulse is analogous to the current bias pulse used to readout phase qubits and hysteretic dc-SQUID magnetometers. The coupling between the transmission line and the qubit is carefully controlled via a window in the ground plane between the signal conductor of the microstrip and the qubit loop. Since the high frequency transmission lines are on a separate chip, they can be independently characterized and reused for different qubit samples. Clean flux pulses as short as 5 ns with rise times of 0.5 ns have been coupled to the qubit to measure escape rates higher than 108 s-1, the lifetime of the excited state, and coherent oscillations between the ground and excited states within the same well.

  20. Impact of SQUIDs on functional imaging in neuroscience

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Della Penna, Stefania; Pizzella, Vittorio; Romani, Gian Luca

    2014-04-01

    This paper provides an overview on the basic principles and applications of magnetoencephalography (MEG), a technique that requires the use of many SQUIDs and thus represents one of the most important applications of superconducting electronics. Since the development of the first SQUID magnetometers, it was clear that these devices could be used to measure the ultra-low magnetic signals associated with the bioelectric activity of the neurons of the human brain. Forty years on from the first measurement of magnetic alpha rhythm by David Cohen, MEG has become a fundamental tool for the investigation of brain functions. The simple localization of cerebral sources activated by sensory stimulation performed in the early years has been successively expanded to the identification of the sequence of neuronal pool activations, thus decrypting information of the hierarchy underlying cerebral processing. This goal has been achieved thanks to the development of complex instrumentation, namely whole head MEG systems, allowing simultaneous measurement of magnetic fields all over the scalp with an exquisite time resolution. The latest trends in MEG, such as the study of brain networks, i.e. how the brain organizes itself in a coherent and stable way, are discussed. These sound applications together with the latest technological developments aimed at implementing systems able to record MEG signals and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of the head with the same set-up pave the way to high performance systems for brain functional investigation in the healthy and the sick population.

  1. Scanning SQUID microscopy of local superconductivity in inhomogeneous combinatorial ceramics.

    PubMed

    Iranmanesh, Mitra; Stir, Manuela; Kirtley, John R; Hulliger, Jürg

    2014-11-24

    Although combinatorial solid-state chemistry promises to be an efficient way to search for new superconducting compounds, the problem of determining which compositions are strongly diamagnetic in a mixed-phase sample is challenging. By means of reactions in a system of randomly mixed starting components (Ca, Sr, Ba, La, Y, Pb, Bi, Tl, and Cu oxides), samples were produced that showed an onset of diamagnetic response above 115 K in bulk measurements. Imaging of this diamagnetic response in ceramic samples by scanning SQUID microscopy (SSM) revealed local superconducting areas with sizes down to as small as the spatial resolution of a few micrometers. In addition, locally formed superconducting matter was extracted from mixed-phase samples by magnetic separation. The analysis of single grains (d<80 μm) by X-ray diffraction, elemental analysis, and bulk SQUID measurements allowed Tl2Ca3Ba2Cu4O12, TlCaBaSrCu2O(7-δ), BaPb(0.5)Bi(0.25)Tl(0.25)O(3-δ), TlBa2Ca2Cu3O9, Tl2Ba2CaCu2O8, and YBa2Cu3O7 phases to be identified. SSM, in combination with other diagnostic techniques, is therefore shown to be a useful instrument to analyze inhomogeneous reaction products in the solid-state chemistry of materials showing magnetic properties.

  2. SQUID-Detected In Vivo MRI at Microtesla Magnetic Fields

    SciTech Connect

    Moble, Michael; Myers, Whittier R; Lee, SeungKyun; Kelso, Nathan; Hatridge, Michael; Pines, Alexander; Clarke, John

    2005-06-01

    We use a low transition temperature (T{sub c}) Super-conducting Quantum Interference Device (SQUID) to perform in vivo magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) at magnetic fields around 100 microtesla, corresponding to proton Larmor frequencies of about 5 kHz. In such low fields, broadening of the nuclear magnetic resonance lines due to inhomogeneous magnetic fields and susceptibility variations of the sample are minimized, enabling us to obtain high quality images. To reduce environmental noise the signal is detected by a second-order gradiometer, coupled to the SQUID, and the experiment is surrounded by a 3-mm thick Al shield. To increase the signal-to-noise ratio (SNR), we prepolarize the samples in a field up to 100 mT. Three-dimensional images are acquired in less than 6 minutes with a standard spin-echo phase-encoding sequence. Using encoding gradients of {approx}100 {micro}T/m we obtain three-dimensional images of bell peppers with a resolution of 2 x 2 x 8 mm{sup 3}. Our system is ideally suited to acquiring images of small, peripheral parts of the human body such as hands and arms. In vivo images of an arm, acquired at 132 {micro}T, show 24-mm sections of the forearm with a resolution of 3 x 3 mm{sup 2} and a SNR of 10. We discuss possible applications of MRI at these low magnetic fields.

  3. Go Fly a Kite

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Klopack, Ken

    2009-01-01

    This article describes an "art kite" activity. The idea is to construct and decorate a non-flying kite that they could display for an art exhibit. Through the activity, students learn to give and take suggestions from one another, improve the quality of their work and set a wonderful atmosphere of collaboration. (Contains 1 online resource.)

  4. Flying Boat Construction

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1946-01-01

    Technicians are pictured installing flaps and wiring on a flying-boat model, circa 1944 (page 47). Photograph published in Winds of Change, 75th Anniversary NASA publication, by James Schultz. Photograph also published in Engineer in Charge: A History of the Langley Aeronautical Laboratory, 1917-1958 by James R. Hansen (page 209).

  5. Learning to Fly.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weil, Patricia E.

    1983-01-01

    Presents information on where to learn to fly, which aircraft is best for this purpose, and approximate costs. Includes additional information on certificates, licenses, and ratings, and a description of the two phases of the General Aviation Manufacturers Association flight training program. (JN)

  6. Fly on the Wall

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Berry, Dave; Korpan, Cynthia

    2009-01-01

    This paper describes the implementation of a peer observation program at the University of Victoria called the Lecture Club. The observers are not interactive during the class--they are the proverbial flies on the wall. The paper identifies the program as self-developmental, discussing the attributes of this learning-to-teach and peer-sharing…

  7. Flying High with Spring.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harrington, Carolyn Lang

    2000-01-01

    Presents an art activity for first grade that uses multicolor scratch paper. Explains that students make scratch-drawings of bird nests, then, as a class, discuss types of birds and bird positions (such as sitting or flying), and finally each creates a bird to add to the nest. (CMK)

  8. Progress toward observation of quantum interference of currents in an Atom SQUID

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ryu, Changhyun; Samson, E. Carlo; Boshier, Malcolm

    2016-05-01

    Quantum interference of currents was first observed in a superconducting loop with two Josephson junctions, leading to the name ``SQUID'' for this device. This interference effect has been used to develop extremely sensitive magnetometers. The Atom SQUID, an analogous device based on ultracold atoms, has been developed recently to study SQUID physics in a device offering a better understanding of the underlying microscopic dynamics. Although many exciting experiments have been done with Atom SQUIDs, the quantum interference of currents has not yet been observed. In analogy with the SQUID magnetometer, it should be possible to use the quantum interference effect in an Atom SQUID to measure rotation, which may lead to the development of a sensitive gyroscope. In a previous experiment, we showed Josephson effects with an atom SQUID by observing the change from the dc Josephson regime to the ac Josephson regime by measurement of the critical atom number for this transition. Quantum interference should cause this critical atom number to vary with rotation rate. We have simulated this system with the Gross-Pitaevski Equation and found the expected oscillatory change of the critical atom number. We will present this simulation result and report the current status of our experiment to

  9. Development of an image processing system in splendid squid quality classification

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Masunee, Niyada; Chaiprapat, Supapan; Waiyagan, Kriangkrai

    2013-07-01

    Agricultural products typically exhibit high variance in quality characteristics. To assure customer satisfaction and control manufacturing productivity, quality classification is necessary to screen off defective items and to grade the products. This article presents an application of image processing techniques on squid grading and defect discrimination. A preliminary study indicated that surface color was an efficient determinant to justify quality of splendid squids. In this study, a computer vision system (CVS) was developed to examine the characteristics of splendid squids. Using image processing techniques, squids could be classified into three different quality grades as in accordance with an industry standard. The developed system first sifted through squid images to reject ones with black marks. Qualified squids were graded on a proportion of white, pink, and red regions appearing on their bodies by using fuzzy logic. The system was evaluated on 100 images of squids at different quality levels. It was found that accuracy obtained by the proposed technique was 95% compared with sensory evaluation of an expert.

  10. Influence of Squid Liver Powder on Accumulation of Cadmium in Serum, Kidney and Liver of Mice

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Byoung-Mok; Lee, Soo-Young; Jeong, In-Hak

    2013-01-01

    In this study, the effect of squid liver powder intake on accumulation of cadmium in mice was investigated. Subjects were divided into 4 groups including the control group (CON), squid liver powder group with lipids not removed (SLP100), and squid liver powder groups with lipids removed (LFSLP50 and LFSLP100). Feed intake and food efficiency ratio of squid liver powder groups was significantly higher than the CON. As a result of investigating cadmium content in hair, serum, liver, and kidney during intake of squid liver powder, all groups showed increase in cadmium accumulation through consistent, long-term intake. Especially, cadmium content in liver and kidney of LFSLP100 was significantly higher than the content of SLP100 and CON. As a result of pathological observation on liver and kidney tissues according to squid liver powder diet, LFSLP100 showed most serious pathological symptoms. In case of kidney tissues, degeneration was significantly more severe in LFSLP100 compared to other groups. Such results suggest that cadmium concentration in human body can be increased by ingestion of whole squid including internal organs and that tissues can be damaged by increased cadmium concentration. More specific and systematic studies are deemed necessary. PMID:24471103

  11. Influence of squid liver powder on accumulation of cadmium in serum, kidney and liver of mice.

    PubMed

    Kim, Byoung-Mok; Lee, Soo-Young; Jeong, In-Hak

    2013-03-01

    In this study, the effect of squid liver powder intake on accumulation of cadmium in mice was investigated. Subjects were divided into 4 groups including the control group (CON), squid liver powder group with lipids not removed (SLP100), and squid liver powder groups with lipids removed (LFSLP50 and LFSLP100). Feed intake and food efficiency ratio of squid liver powder groups was significantly higher than the CON. As a result of investigating cadmium content in hair, serum, liver, and kidney during intake of squid liver powder, all groups showed increase in cadmium accumulation through consistent, long-term intake. Especially, cadmium content in liver and kidney of LFSLP100 was significantly higher than the content of SLP100 and CON. As a result of pathological observation on liver and kidney tissues according to squid liver powder diet, LFSLP100 showed most serious pathological symptoms. In case of kidney tissues, degeneration was significantly more severe in LFSLP100 compared to other groups. Such results suggest that cadmium concentration in human body can be increased by ingestion of whole squid including internal organs and that tissues can be damaged by increased cadmium concentration. More specific and systematic studies are deemed necessary.

  12. Statistical characterization of voltage-biased SQUIDs with weakly damped junctions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Chao; Zhang, Yi; Mück, Michael; Zhang, Shulin; Krause, Hans-Joachim; Braginski, Alex I.; Zhang, Guofeng; Wang, Yongliang; Kong, Xiangyan; Xie, Xiaoming; Offenhäusser, Andreas; Jiang, Mianheng

    2013-06-01

    Recently, it has been shown that voltage-biased readout of SQUIDs with weakly damped junctions (large Stewart-McCumber parameter βc, due to high shunt resistance) is useful for suppression of preamplifier noise. We experimentally studied the characteristics of 53 planar niobium-SQUID magnetometers with junction shunt resistors RJ nominally of 30 Ω fabricated on 5 × 5 mm2 chips. The field-to-flux transfer coefficient ∂B/∂Φ of the magnetometers was 1.5 nT/Φ0, with a SQUID loop inductance Ls of about 350 pH. The distributions of important SQUID parameters, such as the current swing Iswing, the dynamic resistance Rd, and the flux-to-voltage transfer coefficient ∂V/∂Φ, are given. Nearly all the SQUIDs could be stably operated in the voltage bias mode and their ∂V/∂Φ reached a large mean value of 380 μV/Φ0. In this case, the SQUIDs can be read out directly by a commercial operational amplifier without any additional means to suppress preamplifier noise. The mean flux noise of the SQUIDs was found to be 4.5 μΦ0 Hz-1/2, corresponding to a field resolution of 7 fT Hz-1/2. To demonstrate the applicability of these SQUIDs in the direct readout scheme, a simple four-channel SQUID gradiometer system was set up to perform magnetocardiography and magnetoencephalography measurements in a magnetically shielded room.

  13. Aminoglycoside-induced damage in the statocyst of the longfin inshore squid, Doryteuthis pealeii.

    PubMed

    Scharr, Alexandra L; Mooney, T Aran; Schweizer, Felix E; Ketten, Darlene R

    2014-08-01

    Squid are a significant component of the marine biomass and are a long-established model organism in experimental neurophysiology. The squid statocyst senses linear and angular acceleration and is the best candidate for mediating squid auditory responses, but its physiology and morphology are rarely studied. The statocyst contains mechano-sensitive hair cells that resemble hair cells in the vestibular and auditory systems of other animals. We examined whether squid statocyst hair cells are sensitive to aminoglycosides, a group of antibiotics that are ototoxic in fish, birds, and mammals. To assess aminoglycoside-induced damage, we used immunofluorescent methods to image the major cell types in the statocyst of longfin squid (Doryteuthis pealeii). Statocysts of live, anesthetized squid were injected with either a buffered saline solution or neomycin at concentrations ranging from 0.05 to 3.0 mmol l(-1). The statocyst hair cells of the macula statica princeps were examined 5 h post-treatment. Anti-acetylated tubulin staining showed no morphological differences between the hair cells of saline-injected and non-injected statocysts. The hair cell bundles of the macula statica princeps in aminoglycoside-injected statocysts were either missing or damaged, with the amount of damage being dose-dependent. The proportion of missing hair cells did not increase at the same rate as damaged cells, suggesting that neomycin treatment affects hair cells in a nonlethal manner. These experiments provide a reliable method for imaging squid hair cells. Further, aminoglycosides can be used to induce hair cell damage in a primary sensory area of the statocyst of squid. Such results support further studies on loss of hearing and balance in squid.

  14. Solar wind neon from Genesis: implications for the lunar noble gas record.

    PubMed

    Grimberg, Ansgar; Baur, Heinrich; Bochsler, Peter; Bühler, Fritz; Burnett, Donald S; Hays, Charles C; Heber, Veronika S; Jurewicz, Amy J G; Wieler, Rainer

    2006-11-17

    Lunar soils have been thought to contain two solar noble gas components with distinct isotopic composition. One has been identified as implanted solar wind, the other as higher-energy solar particles. The latter was puzzling because its relative amounts were much too large compared with present-day fluxes, suggesting periodic, very high solar activity in the past. Here we show that the depth-dependent isotopic composition of neon in a metallic glass exposed on NASA's Genesis mission agrees with the expected depth profile for solar wind neon with uniform isotopic composition. Our results strongly indicate that no extra high-energy component is required and that the solar neon isotope composition of lunar samples can be explained as implantation-fractionated solar wind.

  15. Photochemistry of the ozone-water complex in cryogenic neon, argon, and krypton matrixes.

    PubMed

    Tsuge, Masashi; Tsuji, Kazuhide; Kawai, Akio; Shibuya, Kazuhiko

    2013-12-12

    The photochemistry of ozone-water complexes and the wavelength dependence of the reactions were studied by matrix isolation FTIR spectrometry in neon, argon, and krypton matrixes. Hydrogen peroxide was formed upon the irradiation of UV light below 355 nm. Quantitative analyses of the reactant and product were performed to evaluate the matrix cage effect of the photoreaction. In argon and krypton matrixes, a bimolecular O((1)D) + H2O → H2O2 reaction was found to occur to form hydrogen peroxide, where the O((1)D) atom generated by the photolysis of ozone diffused in the cryogenic solids to encounter water. In a neon matrix, hydrogen peroxide was generated through intracage photoreaction of the ozone-water complex, indicating that a neon matrix medium is most appropriate to study the photochemistry of the ozone-water complex.

  16. A stochastic, local mode study of neon-liquid surface collision dynamics.

    PubMed

    Packwood, Daniel M; Phillips, Leon F

    2011-01-14

    Equations of motion for a fast, light rare gas atom passing over a liquid surface are derived and used to infer the dynamics of neon collisions with squalane and perfluorinated polyether surfaces from experimental data. The equations incorporate the local mode model of a liquid surface via a stochastic process and explicitly account for impulsive collisional energy loss to the surface. The equations predict angular distributions for scattering of neon that are in good quantitative agreement with experimental data. Our key dynamical conclusions are that experimental angular distributions derive mainly from local mode surface topography rather than from structural features of individual surface molecules, and that the available data for these systems can be accounted for almost exclusively by single collisions between neon atoms and the liquid surface.

  17. An annotated checklist of the horse flies, deer flies, and yellow flies (Diptera: Tabanidae) of Florida

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The family Tabanidae includes the horse flies, deer flies, and yellow flies and is considered a significant pest of livestock throughout the United States, including Florida. Tabanids can easily become a major pest of man, especially salt marsh species which are known to readily feed on humans and o...

  18. A SQUID-based microwave cavity search for dark-matter axions

    SciTech Connect

    Asztalos, S J; Carosi, G; Hagmann, C; Kinion, D; van Bibber, K; Hotz, M; Rosenberg, L; Rybka, G; Hoskins, J; Hwang, J; Sikivie, P; Tanner, D B; Bradley, R; Clarke, J

    2009-10-21

    Axions in the {mu}eV mass range are a plausible cold dark matter candidate and may be detected by their conversion into microwave photons in a resonant cavity immersed in a static magnetic field. The first result from such an axion search using a superconducting first-stage amplifier (SQUID) is reported. The SQUID amplifier, replacing a conventional GaAs field-effect transistor amplifier, successfully reached axion-photon coupling sensitivity in the band set by present axion models and sets the stage for a definitive axion search utilizing near quantum-limited SQUID amplifiers.

  19. Magnetic calorimeter with a SQUID for detecting weak radiations and recording the ultralow energy release

    SciTech Connect

    Golovashkin, Aleksander I; Zherikhina, L N; Kuleshova, G V; Tskhovrebov, A M; Izmailov, G N

    2006-12-31

    The scheme of a magnetic calorimeter for recording extremely low energy releases is developed. The calorimeter is activated by the method of adiabatic demagnetisation and its response to the energy release is measured with a superconducting quantum interference device (SQUID). The estimate of the ultimate sensitivity of the calorimeter with the SQUID demonstrates the possibilities of its application for detecting ultralow radiation intensity, recording single X-ray quanta in the proportional regime and other events with ultralow energy releases. The scheme of the calorimeter with the SQUID on matter waves in superfluid {sup 4}He is proposed. (radiation detectors)

  20. A SQUID readout system for a superconducting gyroscope. [superconducting quantum interference device

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hendricks, J. B.

    1975-01-01

    A design of a read out system for a superconducting gyroscope to be used in an orbiting gyroscope relativity experiment is discussed. The 'London Moment' of the superconducting rotor, which lies along the spin axis of the rotor, will be measured with a SQUID-type magnetometer. The SQUID will be built around the gyro rotor, with a very close spacing to give an inductance between 10 millionths and 1 millionth Hy. A SQUID of this design should resolve 2.07 times 10 to the minus 19th weber. The angular resolution of the gyroscope will then be 0.0035 arc-second, which is sufficient for the intended experiment.

  1. Protein synthesis in a solitary benthic cephalopod, the Southern dumpling squid (Euprymna tasmanica).

    PubMed

    Carter, Chris G; Lynch, Kerri A; Moltschaniwskyj, Natalie A

    2009-06-01

    Rates of protein synthesis were measured in the whole body and tissues of southern dumpling squid Euprymna tasmanica to validate the use of a flooding-dose of (3)H phenylalanine for the measurement of protein synthesis with different size squid and to make a preliminary investigation into the effects of feeding regime. In smaller (2.8+/-0.5 g, mean+/-SE) and larger (14.8+/-2.2 g) squid whole body fractional rates of protein synthesis were 9.45+/-1.21 and 1.49+/-0.29% d(-1), respectively. Differences in total whole body protein content meant there was no difference in absolute rates of whole body protein synthesis between the larger and smaller squid. In larger squid, fractional rates of protein synthesis were significantly higher in the digestive gland (9.24+/-1.63% d(-1)) than in the arm tissue (1.43+/-0.31% d(-1)), which were significantly higher than in the anterior (0.56+/-0.13% d(-1)) and posterior (0.36+/-0.04% d(-1)) mantle. In smaller squid there were no differences in protein synthesis between tissues and high individual variation, due to differences in feeding, was a likely cause. Consequently, the effect of feeding regime on protein synthesis was compared between two groups of individually held squid: daily-feeding and minimal-feeding squid. The daily-feeding squid had significantly higher feed intake, gained mass and had a significantly higher growth rate than the minimal-feeding squid which lost mass. Whole body protein synthesis was significantly higher in the daily-feeding squid as was the protein content of the digestive gland, anterior and posterior mantle. There were few other differences in indices of protein metabolism. Individual squid showed differences in growth and protein metabolism, and there were significant relationships between growth rate and both rates of protein synthesis and protein degradation. Thus, higher individual growth was a consequence of increased protein synthesis, decreased protein degradation and, therefore, increased

  2. NEON: Developing a Platform for Regional to Continental Scale Biological Inquiry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goldman, J.

    2004-05-01

    Climate variation, introductions of alien species, and patterns of land use are some of the important interacting drivers of biological change that are affecting our nation's ecosystems. Many of these drivers operate over large spatial and temporal scales, and our understanding of how these phenomena interact to drive biological change is limited by our inability to link traditionally local and short-term ecological approaches to larger and longer scales. Similarly, our ability to forecast such changes and respond to their consequences is constrained. The National Ecological Observatory Network (NEON) is a proposed shared-use research and education platform intended to improve our capacity to understand and predict biological phenomena operating from regional to continental scales. NEON is envisioned as a system of field and laboratory-based facilities distributed across the United States, which will provide the physical infrastructure and human capabilities necessary to coordinate and integrate research and education campaigns on the following types of issues: (1) biodiversity, species composition, and ecosystem functioning; (2) ecological aspects of biogeochemical cycles; (3) ecological implications of climate change; (4) ecology and evolution of infectious disease; (5) invasive species; and (6) land use and habitat alteration. Themes such as data sharing, multidisciplinary collaboration, and the development of technologies for sensing, forecasting, and visualizing biological information are central to the NEON concept. Development of the NEON science plan and the design of the network itself are proceeding through a variety of workshops and community planning meetings. A national project office is expected to form toward the end of 2004 to lead the development and creation of NEON. Ultimately, the project office will reside within an independent national organization devoted to the coordinated operation of NEON for the scientific community.

  3. Big Data and Ecological Forecasting: Integrating NEON Observational and Sensor Data from Reach to Continent

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vance, J. M.; Goodman, K. J.; Lunch, C. K.; Fitzgerald, M.

    2015-12-01

    The ability to forecast the response of varied ecosystems to changes in climate and land use will be crucial for the management of resources and ecosystem services. Ecological forecasting presents many significant challenges within each of the aspects of data capture, assimilation, and modeling. High space-time resolution sampling is required to address the challenges of scaling from the site level to the continent. Determining the uncertainty of data used for model input and parameterization is critical for constraining the model for accurate representation. The National Ecological Observatory Network (NEON) is poised to greatly expand the scale and availability of biogeochemical and aquatic ecological data. NEON is a continental-scale facility designed to collect and disseminate data that addresses the impacts of climate change, land-use, and invasive species on ecosystem structure and function. Using a combination of standardized observational sampling and sensor measurements, NEON will provide a rich source of biogeochemical and biophysical data from 34 aquatic and 47 terrestrial sites spatially distributed across the US, including Alaska, Hawaii and Puerto Rico for 30 years. Sites were selected to be representative of major ecosystems and maximize scalability. In addition to standardizing measurements, NEON is determining the quantitative uncertainty of each data product making them well suited to constrain models. NEON aquatic data will not only serve to baseline aquatic ecology in major ecosystems but also presents opportunities to bolster Hydrologic Models as well as incorporate aquatic biogeochemical cycling into Land Surface Models. Here we present examples of published and provisional data currently available from deployed aquatic sites, as well as an overview of the full scope and release schedule of the open source ecological data to be published on the NEON web portal. Several use cases, such as whole stream metabolism, groundwater exchange, high

  4. Liquid neon heat transfer as applied to a 30 tesla cryomagnet

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Papell, S. S.; Hendricks, R. C.

    1975-01-01

    A 30-tesla magnet design is studied which calls for forced convection liquid neon heat transfer in small coolant channels. The design also requires suppressing boiling by subjecting the fluid to high pressures through use of magnet coils enclosed in a pressure vessel which is maintained at the critical pressure of liquid neon. This high pressure reduces the possibility of the system flow instabilities which may occur at low pressures. The forced convection heat transfer data presented were obtained by using a blowdown technique to force the fluid to flow vertically through a resistance heated, instrumented tube.

  5. A cost-effective approach to microporate mammalian cells with the Neon Transfection System.

    PubMed

    Brees, Chantal; Fransen, Marc

    2014-12-01

    Electroporation is one of the most efficient nonviral methods for transferring exogenous DNA into mammalian cells. However, the relatively high costs of electroporation kits and reagents temper the routine use of this fast and easy to perform technique in many laboratories. Several years ago, a new flexible and easy to operate electroporation device was launched under the name Neon Transfection System. This device uses specialized pipette tips containing gold-plated electrodes as electroporation chamber. Here we report a protocol to regenerate these expensive tips as well as some other Neon kit accessories, thereby reducing the cost of electroporation at least 10-fold. PMID:25172131

  6. A cost-effective approach to microporate mammalian cells with the Neon Transfection System.

    PubMed

    Brees, Chantal; Fransen, Marc

    2014-12-01

    Electroporation is one of the most efficient nonviral methods for transferring exogenous DNA into mammalian cells. However, the relatively high costs of electroporation kits and reagents temper the routine use of this fast and easy to perform technique in many laboratories. Several years ago, a new flexible and easy to operate electroporation device was launched under the name Neon Transfection System. This device uses specialized pipette tips containing gold-plated electrodes as electroporation chamber. Here we report a protocol to regenerate these expensive tips as well as some other Neon kit accessories, thereby reducing the cost of electroporation at least 10-fold.

  7. Boundary conditions on the early Sun from ancient cosmogenic neon in meteorites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hohenberg, C. M.; Caffee, M. W.; Swindle, T. D.; Goswami, J.

    1986-01-01

    Isotopic analysis of neon from individual grains of the meteorites Murchison (CM) and Kapoeta (howardite) shows large enrichments of cosmogenic neon in grains with solar flare tracks. The quantity of this component is incompatible with galactic cosmic ray or solar cosmic ray irradiation under present conditions and is attributed to irradiation by energetic flares from an early active Sun. Handpicked grains from each meteorite were grouped according to the presence or absence of solar flare heavy ion tracks, and these four samples were analyzed with an ion counting noble gas mass spectrometer.

  8. Fully differential single-photon double ionization of neon and argon.

    PubMed

    Yip, F L; Rescigno, T N; McCurdy, C W; Martín, F

    2013-04-26

    Triply differential cross sections are calculated for one-photon double ionization of neon and argon at various photon energies and electron energy sharings by using a frozen-core treatment to represent the remaining electrons of the residual ion. Angular distributions agree well with all existing experimental data, showing that in spite of its simplicity the method can treat the double ionization of complex targets reliably. A comparison of the cross sections for helium, neon, and argon into the same final state symmetry at the same relative excess energies reveals a distinctive signature of the role of electron correlation in each target.

  9. Test What You Fly?

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Margolies, Don

    2002-01-01

    It was the first time on any NASA project I know of that all the instruments on an observatory came off for rework or calibration after the full range of environmental tests, and then were reintegrated at the launch center without the benefit of an observatory environmental retest. Perhaps you've heard the expression, 'Test what you fly, fly what you test'? In theory, it's hard to argue with that. In this case, I was willing to take the risk of not testing what I flew. As the project manager for the Advanced Composition Explorer (ACE) mission, I was the one who ultimately decided what risks to take, just as it was my responsibility to get buy-in from the stakeholders.

  10. Fly-scan ptychography

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Xiaojing; Lauer, Kenneth; Clark, Jesse N.; Xu, Weihe; Nazaretski, Evgeny; Harder, Ross; Robinson, Ian K.; Chu, Yong S.

    2015-01-01

    We report an experimental ptychography measurement performed in fly-scan mode. With a visible-light laser source, we demonstrate a 5-fold reduction of data acquisition time. By including multiple mutually incoherent modes into the incident illumination, high quality images were successfully reconstructed from blurry diffraction patterns. This approach significantly increases the throughput of ptychography, especially for three-dimensional applications and the visualization of dynamic systems. PMID:25766519

  11. Fly-scan ptychography

    DOE PAGES

    Huang, Xiaojing; Lauer, Kenneth; Clark, Jesse N.; Xu, Weihe; Nazaretski, Evgeny; Harder, Ross; Robinson, Ian K.; Chu, Yong S.

    2015-03-13

    We report an experimental ptychography measurement performed in fly-scan mode. With a visible-light laser source, we demonstrate a 5-fold reduction of data acquisition time. By including multiple mutually incoherent modes into the incident illumination, high quality images were successfully reconstructed from blurry diffraction patterns. This approach significantly increases the throughput of ptychography, especially for three-dimensional applications and the visualization of dynamic systems.

  12. Flying Saucer? Aliens?

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1961-01-01

    No, it's not a flying saucer, it is the domed top to a 70 foot long vacuum tank at the Lewis Research Center's Electric Propulsion Laboratory, Cleveland, Ohio. The three technicians shown here in protective clothing had just emerged from within the tank where they had been cleaning in the toxic mercury atmosphere, left after ion engine testing in the tank. Lewis has since been renamed the John H. Glenn Research Center.

  13. Synchronization of networked Jahn-Teller systems in SQUIDs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gül, Yusuf

    2016-06-01

    We consider the nonlinear effects in a Jahn-Teller (JT) system of two coupled resonators interacting simultaneously with a flux qubit using coupled SQUIDs. A two-frequency description of JT system that inherits the networked structure of both nonlinear Josephson junctions and harmonic oscillators is employed to describe the synchronous structures in a multifrequency scheme. Eigenvalue spectrum is used to show the switch between the effective single mode and two mode configuration in terms of frequency difference. The Rabi supersplitting is investigated by the spectral response of JT systems in different coupling regimes. Second-order coherence functions are employed to investigate antibunching effects in resonator mode. Synchronous structure between correlations of privileged mode and qubit is obtained in localization-delocalization and photon blockade regime controlled by the population imbalance.

  14. Multichannel DC SQUID sensor array for biomagnetic applications

    SciTech Connect

    Hoenig, H.E.; Daalmans, G.M.; Bar, L.; Bommel, F.; Paulus, A.; Uhl, D.; Weisse, H.J. ); Schneider, S.; Seifert, H.; Reichenberger, H.; Abraham-Fuchs, K. )

    1991-03-01

    This paper reports on a biomagnetic multichannel system for medical diagnosis of brain and heart KRENIKON has been developed. 37 axial 2st order gradiometers - manufactured as flexible superconducting printed circuits - are arranged in a circular flat array of 19 cm diameter. Additionally, 3 orthogonal magnetometers are provided. The DC SQUIDs are fabricated in all-Nb technology, ten on a chip. The sensor system is operated in a shielded room with two layers of soft magnetic material and one layer of Al. The every day noise level is 10 fT/Hz{sup 1/2} at frequencies above 10 Hz. Within 2 years of operation in a normal urban surrounding, useful clinical applications have been demonstrated (e.g. for epilepsy and heart arrhythmias).

  15. Multimodal transition and stochastic antiresonance in squid giant axons.

    PubMed

    Borkowski, L S

    2010-10-01

    The experimental data of Takahashi [Physica D 43, 318 (1990)], on the response of squid giant axons stimulated by periodic sequence of short current pulses is interpreted within the Hodgkin-Huxley model. The minimum of the firing rate as a function of the stimulus amplitude I0 in the high-frequency regime is due to the multimodal transition. Below this singular point only odd multiples of the driving period remain and the system is sensitive to noise. The coefficient of variation has a maximum and the firing rate has a minimum as a function of the noise intensity, which is an indication of the stochastic coherence antiresonance. The model calculations reproduce the frequency of occurrence of the most common modes in the vicinity of the transition. A linear relation of output frequency vs I0 above the transition is also confirmed.

  16. Optimization of the leak conductance in the squid giant axon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Seely, Jeffrey; Crotty, Patrick

    2010-08-01

    We report on a theoretical study showing that the leak conductance density, GL , in the squid giant axon appears to be optimal for the action potential firing frequency. More precisely, the standard assumption that the leak current is composed of chloride ions leads to the result that the experimental value for GL is very close to the optimal value in the Hodgkin-Huxley model, which minimizes the absolute refractory period of the action potential, thereby maximizing the maximum firing frequency under stimulation by sharp, brief input current spikes to one end of the axon. The measured value of GL also appears to be close to optimal for the frequency of repetitive firing caused by a constant current input to one end of the axon, especially when temperature variations are taken into account. If, by contrast, the leak current is assumed to be composed of separate voltage-independent sodium and potassium currents, then these optimizations are not observed.

  17. Multimodal transition and stochastic antiresonance in squid giant axons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Borkowski, L. S.

    2010-10-01

    The experimental data of Takahashi [Physica D 43, 318 (1990)]10.1016/0167-2789(90)90140-K, on the response of squid giant axons stimulated by periodic sequence of short current pulses is interpreted within the Hodgkin-Huxley model. The minimum of the firing rate as a function of the stimulus amplitude I0 in the high-frequency regime is due to the multimodal transition. Below this singular point only odd multiples of the driving period remain and the system is sensitive to noise. The coefficient of variation has a maximum and the firing rate has a minimum as a function of the noise intensity, which is an indication of the stochastic coherence antiresonance. The model calculations reproduce the frequency of occurrence of the most common modes in the vicinity of the transition. A linear relation of output frequency vs I0 above the transition is also confirmed.

  18. A presynaptic complex in the giant synapse of the squid.

    PubMed

    Martin, R; Miledi, R

    1975-04-01

    A presynaptic complex consisting of thin lamellae associated with vesicles was found frequently in presynaptic terminals of the squid giant synapse. The lamellae, made of osmiophilic material, had an average length and width of about 10 mum and a thickness of 30 nm; they were of rectangular shape. While most frequent in the axoplasm of the most distal, and largest, terminal of the presynaptic giant axon, the lamellae were found also in smaller terminal branches of this fibre; They have not been observed in the proximal parts of the presynaptic or postsynaptic giant axons. Vesicles the size of synaptic vesicles surrounded the sides of the lamellae. The presynaptic complex resembles the synaptic ribbons in sensory cells.

  19. Examination of a Digital FLL System Design for SQUIDs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oyama, Daisuke; Kobayashi, Koichiro; Simizu, Takayuki; Yoshizawa, Masahito; Uchikawa, Yoshinori

    Biomagnetic field measurements in unshielded environment require both large dynamic range and high slew rate. Noise amplitudes at 50Hz and under 10 Hz of significantly more than 1μT are not at all exotic in an industrial or a hospital environment. A digital FLL (D-FLL) system for a SQUID magnetometer has high resolution and large dynamic range of magnetic field. Slew rate of a D-FLL system by using a double-counter is limited by its digital feedback loop. It can increase the slew rate that optimum feedback loop gain is divided into an analog preamplifier and a digital amplifier on a microcontroller. We show design method of their amplifiers. The slew rate of a D-FLL system with optimum amplifiers is 483 Φ0/s , and its noise level is about 50.0fT√Hz@120Hz.

  20. SQUID-Detected Microtesla MRI in the presence of Metal

    SciTech Connect

    Moessle, Michael; Han, Song-I.; Myers, Whittier; Lee, Seung-Kyun; Kelso, Nathan; Hatridge, Michael; Pines, Alexander; Clarke, John

    2006-09-06

    In magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) performed at fields of 1 T and above, the presence of a metal insert can distort the image because of susceptibility differences within the sample and modification of the radiofrequency fields by screening currents. Furthermore, it is not feasible to perform nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy or acquire a magnetic resonance image if the sample is enclosed in a metal container. Both problems can be overcome by substantially lowering the NMR frequency. Using a microtesla imaging system operating at 2.8 kHz, with a superconducting quantum interference device (SQUID) as the signal detector, we have obtained distortion-free images of a phantom containing a titanium bar and three-dimensional images of an object enclosed in an aluminum can; in both cases high-field images are inaccessible.

  1. Features governing symbiont persistence in the squid-vibrio association.

    PubMed

    Koch, Eric J; Miyashiro, Tim; McFall-Ngai, Margaret J; Ruby, Edward G

    2014-03-01

    Experimental studies of the interaction between host and symbiont in a maturing symbiotic organ have presented a challenge for most animal-bacterial associations. Advances in the rearing of the host squid Euprymna scolopes have enabled us to explore the relationship between a defect in symbiont light production and late-stage development (e.g. symbiont persistence and tissue morphogenesis) by experimental colonization with specific strains of the symbiont Vibrio fischeri. During the first 4 weeks postinoculation of juvenile squid, the population of wild-type V. fischeri increased 100-fold; in contrast, a strain defective in light production (Δlux) colonized normally the first day, but exhibited an exponential decline to undetectable levels over subsequent weeks. Co-colonization of organs by both strains affected neither the trajectory of colonization by wild type nor the decline of Δlux levels. Uninfected animals retained the ability to be colonized for at least 2 weeks posthatch. However, once colonized by the wild-type strain for 5 days, a subsequent experimentally induced loss of the symbionts could not be followed by a successful recolonization, indicating the host's entry into a refractory state. However, animals colonized by the Δlux before the loss of their symbionts were receptive to recolonization. Analyses of animals colonized with either a wild-type or a Δlux strain revealed slight, if any, differences in the developmental regression of the ciliated light-organ tissues that facilitate the colonization process. Thus, some other feature(s) of the Δlux strain's defect also may be responsible for its inability to persist, and its failure to induce a refractory state in the host.

  2. The Form and Dimensions of the Giant Synapse of Squids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martin, R.; Miledi, R.

    1986-03-01

    A study was made of the distal giant synapse, and of proximal synapses, in the stellate ganglion of the squid, Loligo vulgaris. For this purpose we injected iontophoretically dyes or cobalt ions into the pre- or postsynaptic axon. The intra-axonal movement of visible dyes was measured. Both presynaptic fibres, the main second order giant axon and the largest accessory axon, branched to make multiple synaptic contacts on the giant motor axons from near the perikarya down to near the exit of the stellar nerves from the ganglion. There were considerable individual variations in the branching patterns of the presynaptic giant axon and in the course and number of the postsynaptic giant axons. More than one accessory axon made contact with the largest motor axon. Fine structural details of the synapse are presented. The size of the contact area made by the main presynaptic axon on the last postsynaptic axon of a medium-sized animal was estimated from low power electron micrographs. We measured and counted synaptic contacts, synaptic vesicles and mitochondria. The fine structure of proximal synapses was found to be very similar to that of the distal synapse. Cobalt- or dye-injected ganglia showed that the perikarya of the axons which fuse to form the postsynaptic giant axons are located in diffuse and overlapping areas of the giant fibre lobe. In freshly hatched larvae the giant synapse was well differentiated; a gradient of differentiation from brain to periphery was detectable. The distal giant synapses of the oegopsid squid Todarodes sagittatus and of Sepia officinalis differed from the Loligo synapse. In Todarodes and Sepia collaterals and processes from both the presynaptic and the postsynaptic giant fibres are shown to meet in numerous contacts in the enlarged sheath surrounding the third order axon. In several respects the Loligo giant fibre system appears to represent in phylogenetical order the more evolved neuronal network.

  3. Ionic conductances of squid giant fiber lobe neurons

    PubMed Central

    1986-01-01

    The cell bodies of the neurons in the giant fiber lobe (GFL) of the squid stellate ganglion give rise to axons that fuse and thereby form the third-order giant axon, whose initial portion functions as the postsynaptic element of the squid giant synapse. We have developed a preparation of dissociated, cultured cells from this lobe and have studied the voltage-dependent conductances using patch-clamp techniques. This system offers a unique opportunity for comparing the properties and regional differentiation of ionic channels in somatic and axonal membranes within the same cell. Some of these cells contain a small inward Na current which resembles that found in axon with respect to tetrodotoxin sensitivity, voltage dependence, and inactivation. More prominent is a macroscopic inward current, carried by Ca2+, which is likely to be the result of at least two kinetically distinct types of channels. These Ca channels differ in their closing kinetics, voltage range and time course of activation, and the extent to which their conductance inactivates. The dominant current in these GFL neurons is outward and is carried by K+. It can be accounted for by a single type of voltage-dependent channel. This conductance resembles the K conductance of the axon, except that it partially inactivates during relatively short depolarizations. Ensemble fluctuation analysis of K currents obtained from excised outside-out patches is consistent with a single type of K channel and yields estimates for the single channel conductance of approximately 13 pS, independently of membrane potential. A preliminary analysis of single channel data supports the conclusion that there is a single type of voltage-dependent, inactivating K channel in the GFL neurons. PMID:2431097

  4. On the persistent sodium current in squid giant axons.

    PubMed

    Clay, John R

    2003-01-01

    R. F. Rakowski, D. C. Gadsby, and P. DeWeer have reported a persistent, tetrodotoxin-sensitive sodium ion current (I(NaP)) in squid giant axons having a low threshold (-90 mV) and a maximal inward amplitude of -4 microA/cm(2) at -50 mV. This report makes the case that most of I(NaP) is attributable to an ion channel mechanism distinct from the classical rapidly activating and inactivating sodium ion current, I(Na), which is also tetrodotoxin sensitive. The analysis of the contribution of I(Na) to I(NaP) is critically dependent on slow inactivation of I(Na). The results of this gating process reported here demonstrate that inactivation of I(Na) is complete in the steady-state for V > -40 mV, thereby making it unlikely that I(NaP) in this potential range is attributable to I(Na). Moreover, -90 mV is well below I(Na) threshold, as demonstrated by the C. A. Vandenberg and F. Bezanilla model of I(Na) gating in squid giant axons. Their model predicts a persistent current having a threshold of -60 mV and a peak amplitude of -25 microA/cm(2) at -20 mV. Modulation of this component by the slow inactivation process predicts a persistent current that is finite in the -60- to -40-mV range having a peak amplitude of -1 microA/cm(-2) at -50 mV. Subtraction of this current from the I(NaP) measurements yields the portion of I(NaP) that appears to be attributable to an ion channel mechanism distinct from I(Na).

  5. Features governing symbiont persistence in the squid-vibrio association

    PubMed Central

    Koch, Eric J.; Miyashiro, Tim; McFall-Ngai, Margaret J.; Ruby, Edward G.

    2013-01-01

    Experimental studies of the interaction between host and symbiont in a maturing symbiotic organ have presented a challenge for most animal-bacterial associations. Advances in the rearing of the host squid Euprymna scolopes have enabled us to explore the relationship between a defect in symbiont light production and late-stage development (e.g., symbiont persistence and tissue morphogenesis) by experimental colonization with specific strains of the symbiont Vibrio fischeri. During the first four weeks post-inoculation of juvenile squid, the population of wild-type V. fischeri increased 100-fold; in contrast, a strain defective in light production (Δlux) colonized normally the first day, but exhibited an exponential decline to undetectable levels over subsequent weeks. Co-colonization of organs by both strains affected neither the trajectory of colonization by wild type, nor the decline of Δlux levels. Uninfected animals retained the ability to be colonized for at least two weeks post-hatch. However, once colonized by the wild-type strain for 5 days, a subsequent experimentally induced loss of the symbionts could not be followed by a successful recolonization, indicating the host’s entry into a refractory state. However, animals colonized by the Δlux before the loss of their symbionts were receptive to recolonization. Analyses of animals colonized with either a wild-type or a Δlux strain revealed slight, if any, differences in the developmental regression of the ciliated light-organ tissues that facilitate the colonization process. Thus, some other feature(s) of the Δlux strain’s defect also may be responsible for its inability to persist, and its failure to induce a refractory state in the host. PMID:24118200

  6. Squid giant axons. A model for the neuron soma?

    PubMed

    Ramón, F; Moore, J W; Joyner, R W; Westerfield, M

    1976-08-01

    Insertion of electrically floating wires along the axis of a squid giant axon produces an apparent increase in diameter in the region where the wire surface has been treated to give it a low resistance. The shape of action potentials propagating into this region depend upon the surface resistance (and the length) of the wire. As this segment's internal resistance is lowered by reducing the wire's surface resistance, the following characteristic sequence of changes in the action potential is seen at the transition region: (a) the duration increases; (b) two peaks develop, the first one generated in the normal axon region and the second one generated later in the axial wire region, and; (c) blockage occurs (for a very low resistance wire). Action potentials recorded at the membrane region near the tip of the axial wire in (b) resemble those recorded at the initial segment of neurons upon antidromic invasions. Squid axon action potentials propagated from a normal region into that containing the low resistance wire also resemble antidromic invasions recorded in neuron somas. Hyperpolarizing current pulses applied through the wire act as if the wire surface resistance was momentarily reduced. For example, the two components of the action potential recorded at the axial wire membrane region noted in (b) can be sequentially blocked by the application of increasing hyperpolarizing current through the wire. Similar effects are seen when hyperpolarizing currents are injected into motoneuron somas. It is concluded that the geometrical properties of the junction of a neuron axon with its soma may be in themselves sufficient to determine the shape of the action potentials usually recorded by microelectrodes.

  7. Ionic conductances of squid giant fiber lobe neurons.

    PubMed

    Llano, I; Bookman, R J

    1986-10-01

    The cell bodies of the neurons in the giant fiber lobe (GFL) of the squid stellate ganglion give rise to axons that fuse and thereby form the third-order giant axon, whose initial portion functions as the postsynaptic element of the squid giant synapse. We have developed a preparation of dissociated, cultured cells from this lobe and have studied the voltage-dependent conductances using patch-clamp techniques. This system offers a unique opportunity for comparing the properties and regional differentiation of ionic channels in somatic and axonal membranes within the same cell. Some of these cells contain a small inward Na current which resembles that found in axon with respect to tetrodotoxin sensitivity, voltage dependence, and inactivation. More prominent is a macroscopic inward current, carried by Ca2+, which is likely to be the result of at least two kinetically distinct types of channels. These Ca channels differ in their closing kinetics, voltage range and time course of activation, and the extent to which their conductance inactivates. The dominant current in these GFL neurons is outward and is carried by K+. It can be accounted for by a single type of voltage-dependent channel. This conductance resembles the K conductance of the axon, except that it partially inactivates during relatively short depolarizations. Ensemble fluctuation analysis of K currents obtained from excised outside-out patches is consistent with a single type of K channel and yields estimates for the single channel conductance of approximately 13 pS, independently of membrane potential. A preliminary analysis of single channel data supports the conclusion that there is a single type of voltage-dependent, inactivating K channel in the GFL neurons.

  8. Taming the SQUID: How a nuclear physics education (mostly) helped my career in applied physics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Espy, Michelle

    2013-10-01

    My degree is in experimental nuclear physics, specifically studying the interaction of pions with nuclei. But after graduation I accepted a post-doctoral research position with a team based on applications of the Superconducting Quantum Interference Device (SQUID) to the study of the human brain. Despite knowing nothing about the brain or SQUIDs to start with, I have gone on to enjoy a career in applications of the SQUID and other sensors to the detection of weak magnetic fields in a variety of problems from brain studies (magnetoencephalography) to ultra-low field nuclear magnetic resonance for detection of explosives and illicit material. In this talk I will present some background on SQUIDs and their application to the detection of ultra-weak magnetic fields of biological and non-biological origin. I will also provide a little insight into what it has been like to use a nuclear physics background to pursue other types of science.

  9. 78 FR 3346 - Fisheries of the Northeastern United States; Atlantic Mackerel, Squid, and Butterfish Fisheries...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-01-16

    ... rule for 2013 MSB specifications and management measures was published on November 19, 2012 (77 FR... United States; Atlantic Mackerel, Squid, and Butterfish Fisheries; Specifications and Management Measures... measures for Atlantic mackerel, and 2013 specifications for butterfish. Specifications for longfin...

  10. Impact of high hydrostatic pressure on non-volatile and volatile compounds of squid muscles.

    PubMed

    Yue, Jin; Zhang, Yifeng; Jin, Yafang; Deng, Yun; Zhao, Yanyun

    2016-03-01

    The effects of high hydrostatic pressure processing (HHP at 200, 400 or 600MPa) on non-volatile and volatile compounds of squid muscles during 10-day storage at 4°C were investigated. HHP increased the concentrations of Cl(-) and volatile compounds, reduced the level of PO4(3-), but did not affect the contents of 5'-uridine monophosphate (UMP), 5'-guanosine monophosphate (GMP), 5'-inosine monophosphate (IMP), Na(+) and Ca(2+) in squids on Day 0. At 600MPa, squids had the highest levels of 5'-adenosine monophosphate, Cl(-) and lactic acid, but the lowest contents of CMP and volatile compounds on Day 10. Essential free amino acids and succinic acids were lower on Day 0 than on Day 10. HHP at 200MPa caused higher equivalent umami concentration (EUC) on Day 0, and the EUC decreased with increasing pressure on Day 10. Generally, HHP at 200MPa was beneficial for improving EUC and volatile compounds of squids.

  11. A shot in the dark: same-sex sexual behaviour in a deep-sea squid.

    PubMed

    Hoving, Hendrik J T; Bush, Stephanie L; Robison, Bruce H

    2012-04-23

    Little is known about the reproductive habits of deep-living squids. Using remotely operated vehicles in the deep waters of the Monterey Submarine Canyon, we have found evidence of mating, i.e. implanted sperm packages, on similar body locations in males and females of the rarely seen mesopelagic squid Octopoteuthis deletron. Equivalent numbers of both sexes were found to have mated, indicating that male squid routinely and indiscriminately mate with both males and females. Most squid species are short-lived, semelparous (i.e. with a single, brief reproductive period) and promiscuous. In the deep, dark habitat where O. deletron lives, potential mates are few and far between. We suggest that same-sex mating behaviour by O. deletron is part of a reproductive strategy that maximizes success by inducing males to indiscriminately and swiftly inseminate every conspecific that they encounter. PMID:21937492

  12. Osmometrically determined characteristics of the cell membrane of squid and lobster giant axons.

    PubMed

    Freeman, A R; Reuben, J P; Brandt, P W; Grundfest, H

    1966-11-01

    Lobster and squid giant nerve fibers respond differently when subjected to osmotic challenges. The axons proper, as distinct from the total (fiber) complex formed by the axon and connective sheath, both behave as "fast" osmometers for changes in the concentration of NaCl, but the maximum degree of swelling in hyposmotic media is by about 60% in lobster and only by 20% in squid. The relative volume intercepts of the van't Hoff relation are about 0.2 for lobster and 0.4 for squid. The sheaths of both axons undergo only small, apparently passive changes in volume. Lobster axons are permeable to Cl, but squid axons are impermeable to this anion. Lobster axons are also permeable to glycerol. The implications of the data as to the nature of volume regulation of cells are discussed.

  13. Imaging of current density distributions with a Nb weak-link scanning nano-SQUID microscope

    PubMed Central

    Shibata, Yusuke; Nomura, Shintaro; Kashiwaya, Hiromi; Kashiwaya, Satoshi; Ishiguro, Ryosuke; Takayanagi, Hideaki

    2015-01-01

    Superconducting quantum interference devices (SQUIDs) are accepted as one of the highest magnetic field sensitive probes. There are increasing demands to image local magnetic fields to explore spin properties and current density distributions in a two-dimensional layer of semiconductors or superconductors. Nano-SQUIDs have recently attracting much interest for high spatial resolution measurements in nanometer-scale samples. Whereas weak-link Dayem Josephson junction nano-SQUIDs are suitable to miniaturization, hysteresis in current-voltage (I-V) characteristics that is often observed in Dayem Josephson junction is not desirable for a scanning microscope. Here we report on our development of a weak-link nano-SQUIDs scanning microscope with small hysteresis in I-V curve and on reconstructions of two-dimensional current density vector in two-dimensional electron gas from measured magnetic field. PMID:26459874

  14. SQUID-Detected Magnetic Resonance Imaging in MicroteslaFields

    SciTech Connect

    Moessle, Michael; Hatridge, Michael; Clarke, John

    2006-08-14

    in MRI using laser polarized noble gases such as {sup 3}He or {sup 129}Xe (10-12). Hyperpolarized gases were used successfully to image the human lung in fields on the order of several mT (13-15). To overcome the sensitivity loss of Faraday detection at low frequencies, ultrasensitive magnetometers based on the Superconducting QUantum Interference Device (SQUID) (16) are used to detect NMR and MRI signals (17-24). Recently, SQUID-based MRI systems capable of acquiring in vivo images have appeared. For example, in the 10-mT system of Seton et al. (18) signals are coupled to a SQUID via a superconducting tuned circuit, while Clarke and coworkers (22, 25, 26) developed a system at 132 {micro}T with an untuned input circuit coupled to a SQUID. In a quite different approach, atomic magnetometers have been used recently to detect the magnetization (27) and NMR signal (28) of hyperpolarized gases. This technique could potentially be used for low-field MRI in the future. The goal of this review is to summarize the current state-of-the-art of MRI in microtesla fields detected with SQUIDs. The principles of SQUIDs and NMR are briefly reviewed. We show that very narrow NMR linewidths can be achieved in low magnetic fields that are quite inhomogeneous, with illustrative examples from spectroscopy. After describing our ultralow-field MRI system, we present a variety of images. We demonstrate that in microtesla fields the longitudinal relaxation T{sub 1} is much more material dependent than is the case in high fields; this results in a substantial improvement in 'T{sub 1}-weighted contrast imaging'. After outlining the first attempts to combine microtesla NMR with magnetoencephalography (MEG) (29), we conclude with a discussion of future directions.

  15. Gradiometer Using Middle Loops as Sensing Elements in a Low-Field SQUID MRI System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Penanen, Konstantin; Hahn, Inseob; Ho Eom, Byeong

    2009-01-01

    A new gradiometer scheme uses middle loops as sensing elements in lowfield superconducting quantum interference device (SQUID) magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). This design of a second order gradiometer increases its sensitivity and makes it more uniform, compared to the conventional side loop sensing scheme with a comparable matching SQUID. The space between the two middle loops becomes the imaging volume with the enclosing cryostat built accordingly.

  16. Noise characterization of highly sensitive SQUID magnetometer systems in unshielded environments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chwala, A.; Kingman, J.; Stolz, R.; Schmelz, M.; Zakosarenko, V.; Linzen, S.; Bauer, F.; Starkloff, M.; Meyer, M.; Meyer, H.-G.

    2013-03-01

    To measure the noise performance of highly sensitive SQUID magnetometer systems directly is nearly impossible due to superimposed external noise. In magnetically unshielded environments in particular one needs sophisticated methods in order to get an estimate of the intrinsic noise. We compare different approaches to estimate the noise of our latest SQUID magnetometer systems in the Earth’s magnetic field and compare the results with measurements in magnetic (and superconductive) shielding.

  17. Characterization of the bacterial diversity in Indo-West Pacific loliginid and sepiolid squid light organs.

    PubMed

    Guerrero-Ferreira, Ricardo; Gorman, Clayton; Chavez, Alba A; Willie, Shantell; Nishiguchi, Michele K

    2013-01-01

    Loliginid and sepiolid squid light organs are known to host a variety of bacterial species from the family Vibrionaceae, yet little is known about the species diversity and characteristics among different host squids. Here we present a broad-ranging molecular and physiological analysis of the bacteria colonizing light organs in loliginid and sepiolid squids from various field locations of the Indo-West Pacific (Australia and Thailand). Our PCR-RFLP analysis, physiological characterization, carbon utilization profiling, and electron microscopy data indicate that loliginid squid in the Indo-West Pacific carry a consortium of bacterial species from the families Vibrionaceae and Photobacteriaceae. This research also confirms our previous report of the presence of Vibrio harveyi as a member of the bacterial population colonizing light organs in loliginid squid. pyrH sequence data were used to confirm isolate identity, and indicates that Vibrio and Photobacterium comprise most of the light organ colonizers of squids from Australia, confirming previous reports for Australian loliginid and sepiolid squids. In addition, combined phylogenetic analysis of PCR-RFLP and 16S rDNA data from Australian and Thai isolates associated both Photobacterium and Vibrio clades with both loliginid and sepiolid strains, providing support that geographical origin does not correlate with their relatedness. These results indicate that both loliginid and sepiolid squids demonstrate symbiont specificity (Vibrionaceae), but their distribution is more likely due to environmental factors that are present during the infection process. This study adds significantly to the growing evidence for complex and dynamic associations in nature and highlights the importance of exploring symbiotic relationships in which non-virulent strains of pathogenic Vibrio species could establish associations with marine invertebrates. PMID:22885637

  18. Molecular identification of anisakid nematodes third stage larvae isolated from common squid ( Todarodes pacificus) in Korea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Setyobudi, Eko; Jeon, Chan-Hyeok; Choi, Kwangho; Lee, Sung Il; Lee, Chung Il; Kim, Jeong-Ho

    2013-06-01

    The occurrence of Genus Anisakis nematode larvae in marine fishes and cephalopods is epidemiologically important because Anisakis simplex larval stage can cause a clinical disease in humans when infected hosts are consumed raw. Common squid ( Todarodes pacificus) from Korean waters were investigated for anisakid nematodes infection during 2009˜2011. In total, 1,556 larvae were collected from 615 common squids and 732 of them were subsequently identified by PCR-RFLP analysis of ITS rDNA. Depending on the sampling locations, the nematode larvae from common squid showed different prevalence, intensity and species distribution. A high prevalence (P) and mean intensity (MI) of infection were observed in the Yellow Sea (n = 250, P = 86.0%, MI = 5.99 larvae/host) and the southern sea of Korea (n = 126, P = 57.1%, MI = 3.36 larvae/host). Anisakis pegreffii was dominantly found in common squid from the southern sea (127/ 140, 90.7%) and the Yellow Sea (561/565, 98.9%). In contrast, the P and MI of infection were relatively low in the East Sea (n = 239, P = 8.37%, MI = 1.25 larvae/host). A. pegreffii was not found from the East Sea and 52.0% (13/25) of the nematodes were identified as A. simplex. Most of them were found in the body cavity or digestive tract of common squid, which are rarely consumed raw by humans. Considering the differenences in anisakid nematode species distribution and their microhabitat in common squid, it remains unclear whether common squid plays an important role in the epidemiology of human anisakis infection in Korea. Further extensive identification of anisakid nematodes in common squid, with geographical and seasonal information will be necessary.

  19. Foraging ecology and movement patterns of jumbo squid (Dosidicus gigas) in the California Current System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Field, John C.; Elliger, Carl; Baltz, Ken; Gillespie, Graham E.; Gilly, William F.; Ruiz-Cooley, R. I.; Pearse, Devon; Stewart, Julia S.; Matsubu, William; Walker, William A.

    2013-10-01

    From 2002 to 2010, the jumbo squid (Dosidicus gigas) has been regularly encountered in large numbers throughout the California Current System (CCS). This species, usually found in subtropical waters, could affect coastal pelagic ecosystems and fisheries as both predator and prey. Neither the abundance of jumbo squid nor the optimal ocean conditions in which they flourish are well known. To understand better the potential impacts of this species on both commercial fisheries and on food-web structure we collected nearly 900 specimens from waters of the CCS, covering over 20° of latitude, over a range of depths and seasons. We used demographic information (size, sex, and maturity state) and analyzed stomach contents using morphological and molecular methods to best understand the foraging ecology of this species in different habitats of the CCS. Squid were found to consume a broad array of prey. Prey in offshore waters generally reflected the forage base reported in previous studies (mainly mesopelagic fishes and squids), whereas in more coastal waters (shelf, shelf break and slope habitats) squid foraged on a much broader mix that included substantial numbers of coastal pelagic fishes (Pacific herring and northern anchovy, as well as osmerids and salmonids in northern waters) and groundfish (Pacific hake, several species of rockfish and flatfish). We propose a seasonal movement pattern, based on size and maturity distributions along with qualitative patterns of presence or absence, and discuss the relevance of both the movement and distribution of jumbo squid over space and time. We find that jumbo squid are a generalist predator, which feeds primarily on small, pelagic or mesopelagic micronekton but also on larger fishes when they are available. We also conclude that interactions with and potential impacts on ecosystems likely vary over space and time, in response to both seasonal movement patterns and highly variable year-to-year abundance of the squid themselves.

  20. A SQUID biomagnetometer system for measurement of spinal cord evoked magnetic fields

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Adachi, Y.; Uehara, G.; Kawai, J.; Kawabata, S.; Okubo, H.; Komori, H.; Kado, H.

    2001-12-01

    We developed a 24-channel superconducting quantum interference devices (SQUIDs) biomagnetometer system for the measurement of the evoked magnetic field from stimulated spinal cords. The system uses composite LTc SQUID gradiometers and can observe the three-dimensional components of the magnetic field. With the system, we could successfully record the evoked magnetic fields corresponding to neuronal signals transmitting in the spinal cord of a cat.

  1. Detection of Fatigue Damage Prior to Crack Initiation withScanning SQUID Microscopy

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, Tae-Kyu; Morris Jr., J.W.; Lee, Seungkyun; Clarke, John

    2005-11-07

    The remanence fields of fatigued ferritic steel specimens were measured using a scanning microscope based on a high transition temperature Superconducting Quantum Interference Device (SQUID). The results show an overall increase of remanence until dislocation density saturates and an additional local remanence increase after saturation during cyclic loading. Because of the combined magnetic and spatial resolution of the SQUID microscope, these local changes of dislocation structures can be detected before a crack actually initiates, and identify the sites where crack nucleation will occur.

  2. High-T(sub c) squid application in medicine and geophysics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Polushkin, V. N.; Uchaikin, S. V.; Vasiliev, B. V.

    1990-01-01

    In the Laboratory a high-T(sub c) one-hole squid was built from Y1Ba2Cu3O(7-x) ceramics obtained by a standard procedure of solid state reaction. The ceramics with critical current density J(sub c) is greater than 100 A/sq cm was selected. In the middle of 10 x 10 x 2 mm ceramics pellet a 0.8 mm hole was drilled in which superconducting loop of the squid was located. Between the hole and the edge of the pellet a cut was mechanically filed out with a bridge inside it connecting the superconducting ring. A scheme of the magnetometer is presented. The resonant frequency shift of the tank circuit, the connection of the squid with this circuit, and the squid inductance are evaluated. One of the most interesting fields of the squid-based magnetometer application is biomagnetism, particularly, the human heart magnetocardiogram measuring. The low-temperature squids were used in this area and many interesting and important scientific results have been obtained. The observations have shown that the main noise contribution was not due to the squid but to the Earth's magnetic field variations, industrial inductions, and mainly to the vibrations caused by liquid nitrogen boiling and by vibrations of the box. Further attempts are needed to reduce the magnetic noise inductions. Nevertheless, the estimations promise the maximum signal/noise relation of the high-T(sub c) squid-magnetocardiometer to be not less than 10:1 in a bandwidth of 60 Hz. Apparently, such resolution would be enough not only for steady cardiogram reading but even for thin structure investigation at average technique application.

  3. A HTS dc SQUID-NMR: fabrication of the SQUID and application to low-field NMR for fruit quality detection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Isingizwe Nturambirwe, J. Frédéric; Perold, Willem J.; Opara, Linus U.

    2014-06-01

    Superconducting Quantum Interference Devices (SQUIDs) have made the detection of low-field (LF) and ultra-low field nuclear magnetic resonance (ULF-NMR) a reality. The latter has been proven to be a potential tool for non-destructive quality testing of horticultural products, amongst many other applications. High-Temperature Superconductor (HTS) dc SQUIDS are likely to allow for the development of not only low-cost NMR systems but also prototypes that are mobile and easily maintainable. A HTS dc SQUID was manufactured on an YBCO thin film, using a novel laser based lithography method. The lithography was implemented by a new laser system developed in-house, as a model of low-cost lithography systems. The junctions of the dc SQUID were tested and displayed normal I-V characteristics in the acceptable range for the application. In order to determine the viability of low-field NMR for non-destructive quality measurement of horticultural products, a commercial HTS dc SQUID-NMR system was used to measure quality parameters of banana during ripening. The trend of color change and sugar increase of the banana during ripening were the most highly correlated attributes to the SQUID-NMR measured parameter, average T1 (spin-lattice relaxation time). Further studies were done, that involved processing of the NMR signal into relaxation time resolved spectra. A spectral signature of banana was obtained, where each peak is a T1 value corresponding to a proton pool, and is reported here. These results will potentially lead to deeper understanding of the quality of the samples under study.

  4. Biodiversity among luminescent symbionts from squid of the genera Uroteuthis, Loliolus and Euprymna (Mollusca: Cephalopoda).

    PubMed

    Guerrero-Ferreira, R C; Nishiguchi, M K

    2007-10-01

    Luminescent bacteria in the family Vibrionaceae (Bacteria: γ-Proteobacteria) are commonly found in complex, bilobed light organs of sepiolid and loliginid squids. Although morphology of these organs in both families of squid is similar, the species of bacteria that inhabit each host has yet to be verified. We utilized sequences of 16S ribosomal RNA, luciferase α-subunit (luxA) and the glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase (gapA) genes to determine phylogenetic relationships between 63 strains of Vibrio bacteria, which included representatives from different environments as well as unidentified luminescent isolates from loliginid and sepiolid squid from Thailand. A combined phylogenetic analysis was used including biochemical data such as carbon use, growth and luminescence. Results demonstrated that certain symbiotic Thai isolates found in the same geographic area were included in a clade containing bacterial species phenotypically suitable to colonize light organs. Moreover, multiple strains isolated from a single squid host were identified as more than one bacteria species in our phylogeny. This research presents evidence of species of luminescent bacteria that have not been previously described as symbiotic strains colonizing light organs of Indo-West Pacific loliginid and sepiolid squids, and supports the hypothesis of a non-species-specific association between certain sepiolid and loliginid squids and marine luminescent bacteria. PMID:22707847

  5. A Numerical Treatment of the Rf SQUID: I. General Properties andNoise Energy

    SciTech Connect

    Kleiner, Reinhold; Koelle, Dieter; Clarke, John

    2007-01-15

    We investigate the characteristics and noise performance of rf Superconducting Quantum Interference Devices (SQUIDs) by solving the corresponding Langevin equations numerically and optimizing the model parameters with respect to noise energy. After introducing the basic concepts of the numerical simulations, we give a detailed discussion of the performance of the SQUID as a function of all relevant parameters. The best performance is obtained in the crossover region between the dispersive and dissipative regimes, characterized by an inductance parameter {beta}{prime}{sub L} {triple_bond} 2{pi}LI{sub 0}/{Phi}{sub 0} {approx} 1; L is the loop inductance, I{sub 0} the critical current of the Josephson junction, and {phi}{sub 0} the flux quantum. In this regime, which is not well explored by previous analytical approaches, the lowest (intrinsic) values of noise energy are a factor of about 2 above previous estimates based on analytical approaches. However, several other analytical predictions, such as the inverse proportionality of the noise energy on the tank circuit quality factor and the square of the coupling coefficient between the tank circuit and the SQUID loop, could not be well reproduced. The optimized intrinsic noise energy of the rf SQUID is superior to that of the dc SQUID at all temperatures. Although for technologically achievable parameters this advantage shrinks, particularly at low thermal fluctuation levels, we give an example for realistic parameters that leads to a noise energy comparable to that of the dc SQUID even in this regime.

  6. Structural elements of the signal propagation pathway in squid rhodopsin and bovine rhodopsin.

    PubMed

    Sugihara, Minoru; Fujibuchi, Wataru; Suwa, Makiko

    2011-05-19

    Squid and bovine rhodopsins are G-protein coupled receptors (GPCRs) that activate Gq- and Gt-type G-proteins, respectively. To understand the structural elements of the signal propagation pathway, we performed molecular dynamics (MD) simulations of squid and bovine rhodopsins plus a detailed sequence analysis of class A GPCRs. The computations indicate that although the geometry of the retinal is similar in bovine and squid rhodopsins, the important interhelical hydrogen bond networks are different. In squid rhodopsin, an extended hydrogen bond network that spans ∼13 Å to Tyr315 on the cytoplasmic site is present regardless of the protonation state of Asp80. In contrast, the extended hydrogen bond network is interrupted at Tyr306 in bovine rhodopsin. Those differences in the hydrogen bond network may play significant functional roles in the signal propagation from the retinal binding site to the cytoplasmic site, including transmembrane helix (TM) 6 to which the G-protein binds. The MD calculations demonstrate that the elongated conformation of TM6 in squid rhodopsin is stabilized by salt bridges formed with helix (H) 9. Together with the interhelical hydrogen bonds, the salt bridges between TM6 and H9 stabilize the protein conformation of squid rhodopsin and may hinder the occurrence of large conformational changes that are observed upon activation of bovine rhodopsin.

  7. Identification of four squid species by quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction.

    PubMed

    Ye, Jian; Feng, Junli; Liu, Shasha; Zhang, Yanping; Jiang, Xiaona; Dai, Zhiyuan

    2016-02-01

    Squids are distributed worldwide, including many species of commercial importance, and they are often made into varieties of flavor foods. The rapid identification methods for squid species especially their processed products, however, have not been well developed. In this study, quantitative real-time PCR (qPCR) systems based on specific primers and TaqMan probes have been established for rapid and accurate identification of four common squid species (Ommastrephes bartramii, Dosidicus gigas, Illex argentinus, Todarodes pacificus) in Chinese domestic market. After analyzing mitochondrial genes reported in GenBank, the mitochondrial cytochrome b (Cytb) gene was selected for O. bartramii detection, cytochrome c oxidase subunit I (COI) gene for D. gigas and T. Pacificus detection, ATPase subunit 6 (ATPase 6) gene for I. Argentinus detection, and 12S ribosomal RNA (12S rDNA) gene for designing Ommastrephidae-specific primers and probe. As a result, all the TaqMan systems are of good performance, and efficiency of each reaction was calculated by making standard curves. This method could detect target species either in single or mixed squid specimen, and it was applied to identify 12 squid processed products successfully. Thus, it would play an important role in fulfilling labeling regulations and squid fishery control.

  8. Squid-derived chitin oligosaccharides are a chemotactic signal during colonization by Vibrio fischeri.

    PubMed

    Mandel, Mark J; Schaefer, Amy L; Brennan, Caitlin A; Heath-Heckman, Elizabeth A C; Deloney-Marino, Cindy R; McFall-Ngai, Margaret J; Ruby, Edward G

    2012-07-01

    Chitin, a polymer of N-acetylglucosamine (GlcNAc), is noted as the second most abundant biopolymer in nature. Chitin serves many functions for marine bacteria in the family Vibrionaceae ("vibrios"), in some instances providing a physical attachment site, inducing natural genetic competence, and serving as an attractant for chemotaxis. The marine luminous bacterium Vibrio fischeri is the specific symbiont in the light-emitting organ of the Hawaiian bobtail squid, Euprymna scolopes. The bacterium provides the squid with luminescence that the animal uses in an antipredatory defense, while the squid supports the symbiont's nutritional requirements. V. fischeri cells are harvested from seawater during each host generation, and V. fischeri is the only species that can complete this process in nature. Furthermore, chitin is located in squid hemocytes and plays a nutritional role in the symbiosis. We demonstrate here that chitin oligosaccharides produced by the squid host serve as a chemotactic signal for colonizing bacteria. V. fischeri uses the gradient of host chitin to enter the squid light organ duct and colonize the animal. We provide evidence that chitin serves a novel function in an animal-bacterial mutualism, as an animal-produced bacterium-attracting synomone.

  9. Material properties of Pacific hake, Humboldt squid, and two species of myctophids in the California Current.

    PubMed

    Becker, Kaylyn N; Warren, Joseph D

    2015-05-01

    Material properties of the flesh from three fish species (Merluccius productus, Symbolophorus californiensis, and Diaphus theta), and several body parts of the Humboldt squid (Dosidicus gigas) collected from the California Current ecosystem were measured. The density contrast relative to seawater varied within and among taxa for fish flesh (0.9919-1.036), squid soft body parts (mantle, arms, tentacle, braincase, eyes; 1.009-1.057), and squid hard body parts (beak and pen; 1.085-1.459). Effects of animal length and environmental conditions on nekton density contrast were investigated. The sound speed contrast relative to seawater varied within and among taxa for fish flesh (0.986-1.027) and Humboldt squid mantle and braincase (0.937-1.028). Material properties in this study are similar to values from previous studies on species with similar life histories. In general, the sound speed and density of soft body parts of fish and squid were 1%-3% and 1%-6%, respectively, greater than the surrounding seawater. Hard parts of the squid were significantly more dense (6%-46%) than seawater. The material properties reported here can be used to improve target strength estimates from acoustic scattering models, which could increase the accuracy of biomass estimates from acoustic surveys for these nekton.

  10. Development of a Low-Noise SQUID-Based Microtesla MRI System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Myers, Whittier; Mößle, Michael; Lee, Seungkyun; Keslo, Nathan; Pines, Alexander; Clarke, John

    2004-03-01

    It has been recently demonstrated that ultra-low field magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) using an untuned Superconducting QUantum Intereference Device (SQUID) detector can produce 1-mm resolution images. The protons in the sample were prepolarized in a 0.3 T field, manipulated by ˜100 μT/m gradient fields for image encoding, and detected by the SQUID in the 130 μT measurement field. To reduce the effect of environmental noise, the input coil of the SQUID was connected to a superconducting second order gradiometer; both SQUID and gradiometer were contained in a low noise dewar. A 3-mm thick aluminum box enclosing the experiment further attenuated external noise. A superconducting weak link in series with the gradiometer protected the SQUID by limiting the current induced during polarizing pulses. Progressive improvements have reduced the system noise to below the 1.5 fT Hz-1/2 SQUID noise. A typical phase-encoded two-dimensional image taken in a 300 Hz imaging band has a signal to noise ratio of 15 and takes 100 s to acquire. Supported by USDOE.

  11. SQUID magnetometers for studying corrosion and corrosion protection in aircraft aluminum

    SciTech Connect

    Wikswo, J.P. Jr.

    1997-12-01

    Studies at Vanderbilt and elsewhere have demonstrated that superconducting quantum interference (SQUID) magnetometers can be utilized for quantitative measurements of both corrosion activity and material loss in aircraft aluminum alloys. SQUIDs provide sufficient spatial resolution the distribution of hidden corrosion currents can be mapped. The sensitivity of SQUIDs operating at 4 K in liquid helium is such that corrosion can be detected for salt concentrations as low as 1 part per million, and corrosion in 4% NaCl can be detected through 1.4 cm of aluminum. While measurements of the magnetic field from galvanic currents is straightforward in the laboratory, where ferromagnetic fasteners can be eliminated and low frequency noise and the earth`s magnetic field can be shielded, this technique has yet to be demonstrated on aircraft on the flight line. Advanced, low-frequency SQUID eddy current measurements utilizing sheet inducers and phase-sensitive detection offers a depth-selective technique to image material loss deep in aluminum structures. The size of the signal makes this approach highly suitable for implementation with 77 K, liquid- nitrogen cooled SQUIDs. Thus SQUIDs may be useful both for quantitative, laboratory assessment of the rate of hidden corrosion in aircraft samples, and for imaging the extent of second- and third-layer corrosion damage in aircraft. 56 refs.

  12. Development of yellow pigmentation in squid (Loligo peali) as a result of lipid oxidation.

    PubMed

    Thanonkaew, Amonrat; Benjakul, Soottawat; Visessanguan, Wonnop; Decker, Eric A

    2006-02-01

    The impact of lipid oxidation on yellow pigment formation in squid lipids and proteins was studied. When the squid microsomes were oxidized with iron and ascorbate, thiobarbituric acid reactive substance were observed to increase simultaneously with b values (yellowness) and pyrrole compounds concomitantly with a decrease in free amines. Oxidized microsomes were not able to change the solubility, sulfhydryl content, or color of salt-soluble squid myofibrillar proteins. Aldehydic lipid oxidation products were able to decrease solubility and sulfhydryl content of salt-soluble squid myofibrillar proteins but had no impact on color. Aldehydic lipid oxidation products increased b values (yellowness) and pyrrole compounds and decreased free amines in both squid phospholipid and egg yolk lecithin liposomes. The ability of aldehydic lipid oxidation products to change the physical and chemical properties of egg yolk lecithin liposomes increased with increasing level of unsaturation and when the carbon number was increased from 6 to 7. These data suggest that off-color formation in squid muscle could be due to nonenzymatic browning reactions occurring between aldehydic lipid oxidation products and the amines on phospholipids headgroups. PMID:16448208

  13. Identification of Ige-binding proteins of raw and cooked extracts of Loligo edulis (white squid).

    PubMed

    Yadzir, Zailatul Hani Mohamad; Misnan, Rosmilah; Abdullah, Noormalin; Bakhtiar, Faizal; Arip, Masita; Murad, Shahnaz

    2010-05-01

    Allergy to different classes of mollusks, including squid, which are members of the class Cephalopods has been reported. Tropomyosin, a major muscle protein, is the only well-recognized allergen in squid. The aim of this study was to characterize IgE-binding proteins of local Loligo edulis (white squid) consumed in Malaysia. Protein profiles and IgE-binding proteins were detected by sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel-electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE) and immunoblotting using sera from 23 patients with positive skin prick test to raw squid extract. SDS-PAGE of the raw extract exhibited 21 protein bands (10-170 kDa) but those ranging from 19 to 29 kDa and 41 to 94 kDa were not found in the cooked extract. Immunoblotting of raw extract demonstrated 16 IgE-binding bands, ranging from 13 to 170 kDa. A heat-resistant 36 kDa protein, corresponding to squid tropomyosin, was identified as the major allergen of both extracts. In addition, a 50 kDa heat-sensitive protein was shown to be a major allergen of the raw extract. Our findings indicate that the allergen extract used for diagnosis of squid allergy should contain both the 36 kDa and 50 kDa proteins.

  14. Continental-Scale Stable Isotope Measurements at NEON to Address Ecological Processes Across Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Luo, H.; Goodman, K. J.; Hinckley, E. S.; West, J. B.; Williams, D. G.; Bowen, G. J.

    2013-12-01

    The National Ecological Observatory Network (NEON) is a national-scale research platform. The overarching goal of NEON is to enable understanding and forecasting of the impacts of climate change, land use change, and invasive species on aspects of continental-scale ecology (such as biodiversity, biogeochemistry, infectious diseases, ecohydrology, etc.). NEON focuses explicitly on questions that relate to grand challenges in environmental science, are relevant to large regions, and would otherwise be very difficult to address with traditional ecological approaches. The use of stable isotope approaches in ecological research has grown steadily during the last two decades. Stable isotopes at natural abundances in the environment trace and integrate the interaction between abiotic and biotic components across temporal and spatial scales. In this poster, we will present the NEON data products that incorporate stable isotope measurements in atmospheric, terrestrial, and aquatic ecosystems in North America. We further outline current questions in the natural sciences community and how these data products can be used to address continental-scale ecological questions, such as the ecological impacts of climate change, terrestrial-aquatic system linkages, land-atmosphere exchange, landscape ecohydrological processes, and linking biogeochemical cycles across systems. Specifically, we focus on the use of stable isotopes to evaluate water availability and residence times in terrestrial systems, as well as nutrient sources to terrestrial systems, and cycling across ecosystem boundaries.

  15. Neon Lights up a Controversy: The Solar Ne/O Abundance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schmelz, J. T.; Nasraoui, K.; Roames, J. K.; Lippner, L. A.; Garst, J. W.

    2005-12-01

    The standard solar model was so reliable that it could predict the existence of the massive neutrino. Helioseismology measurements were so precise that they could determine the depth of the convection zone. This agreement between theory and observation was the envy of all astrophysics-until recently, when sophisticated three-dimensional hydrodynamic calculations of the solar atmosphere reduced the metal content by a factor of almost 2. Antia & Basu suggested that a higher value of the solar neon abundance, ANe/AO=0.52, would resolve this controversy. Drake & Testa presented evidence in favor of this idea from a sample of 21 Chandra stars with enhanced values of the neon abundance, ANe/AO=0.41. In this Letter, we have analyzed solar active region spectra from the archive of the Flat Crystal Spectrometer on the Solar Maximum Mission, a NASA mission from the 1980s, as well as full-Sun spectra from the pioneering days of X-ray astronomy in the 1960s. These data are consistent with the standard neon-to-oxygen abundance value, ANe/AO=0.15 (Grevesse & Sauval). We conclude, therefore, that the enhanced-neon hypothesis will not resolve the current controversy.

  16. Neon: the UK Met office electro-optic tactical decision aid-current and future capability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fox, S.; Wilson, D.; Lewis, W.

    2010-10-01

    The thermal contrast between two surfaces can vary dramatically with the atmospheric conditions. "Neon" is an application to predict the thermal contrast between different surfaces and their backgrounds, and the apparent contrast, given atmospheric conditions, when a target surface and background are viewed through a remotely situated infra-red camera. It is typically used in military assessments of how visible a target will be at a particular range. Recent research work to Neon has concentrated on the conversion of these apparent temperatures to more user-relevant descriptions of the detectability of the target. Accordingly, a development version of Neon now outputs "Detect", "Recognize" and "Identify" guidance. This paper briefly outlines the Neon concepts and then explores the methods behind the calculation of these detectability ranges and probabilities, and their comparison with a simple target acquisition range based only on the apparent contrast of the target and background. It finally explores how variations in the atmosphere impact upon the detectability of a target, and how the atmospheric impact will change with future improvements in sensor technology.

  17. Linear Zeff scaling of the anomalous inward drift and enhanced proportionality factor during neon inflow

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Becker, G.

    1996-12-01

    The origin of density profile peaking due to impurity puffing and the anomalous particle pinch are explored by computer simulations with special versions of the 1.5-D BALDUR predictive transport code. Transport analysis of high density H mode plasmas with strong neon puffing and density profile peaking yields a new scaling law for the anomalous inward drift velocity, upsilon in(x)=Cupsilon 2xD(x)/( rho wxs2), with C upsilon =FZeff(x), where D is the diffusion coefficient. This scaling implies that upsilon in/D varies as Zeff and results in upsilon in varies as Zeff since D is found to be independent of this parameter. The strong density profile peaking is caused by the increase in Zeff and by an enhanced factor F discovered during neon puffing. The time evolution of F correlates with the neon influx rate, but not with the neon content and the power losses due to line radiation and ionization. The factor F rises with growing influx rate and depends non-locally on the region where inelastic collisions prevail. One plausible mechanism for the enhancement of F is that inelastic collisions between fluctuating electrons and impurity ions change the dissipative part of the fluctuating electron distribution

  18. Cellular and molecular effects for mutation induction in normal human cells irradiated with accelerated neon ions.

    PubMed

    Suzuki, Masao; Tsuruoka, Chizuru; Kanai, Tatsuaki; Kato, Takeshi; Yatagai, Fumio; Watanabe, Masami

    2006-02-22

    We investigated the linear energy transfer (LET) dependence of mutation induction on the hypoxanthine-guanine phosphoribosyl transferase (HPRT) locus in normal human fibroblast-like cells irradiated with accelerated neon-ion beams. The cells were irradiated with neon-ion beams at various LETs ranging from 63 to 335 keV/microm. Neon-ion beams were accelerated by the Riken Ring Cyclotron at the Institute of Physical and Chemical Research in Japan. Mutation induction at the HPRT locus was detected to measure 6-thioguanine-resistant clones. The mutation spectrum of the deletion pattern of exons of mutants was analyzed using the multiplex polymerase chain reaction (PCR). The dose-response curves increased steeply up to 0.5 Gy and leveled off or decreased between 0.5 and 1.0 Gy, compared to the response to (137)Cs gamma-rays. The mutation frequency increased up to 105 keV/microm and then there was a downward trend with increasing LET values. The deletion pattern of exons was non-specific. About 75-100% of the mutants produced using LETs ranging from 63 to 335 keV/mum showed all or partial deletions of exons, while among gamma-ray-induced mutants 30% showed no deletions, 30% partial deletions and 40% complete deletions. These results suggested that the dose-response curves of neon-ion-induced mutations were dependent upon LET values, but the deletion pattern of DNA was not.

  19. Pest Control on the "Fly"

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    FlyCracker(R), a non-toxic and environmentally safe pesticide, can be used to treat and control fly problems in closed environments such as milking sheds, cattle barns and hutches, equine stables, swine pens, poultry plants, food-packing plants, and even restaurants, as well as in some outdoor animal husbandry environments. The product can be applied safely in the presence of animals and humans, and was recently permitted for use on organic farms as livestock production aids. FlyCracker's carbohydrate technology kills fly larvae within 24 hours. By killing larvae before they reach the adult stages, FlyCracker eradicates another potential breeding population. Because the process is physical-not chemical-flies and other insects never develop resistance to the treatment, giving way to unlimited use of product, while still keeping the same powerful effect.

  20. Retinal degeneration in the fly.

    PubMed

    Colley, Nansi Jo

    2012-01-01

    Many genes are functionally equivalent between flies and humans. In addition, the same, or similar, mutations cause disease in both species. In fact, nearly three-fourths of all human disease genes have related sequences in Drosophila. The fly has a relatively small genome, made up of about 13,600 genes in four pairs of chromosomes. However, despite the dramatic differences in size and apparent complexity between humans and flies--we have less than twice as many genes as a fly--our genome is estimated to be made up of only 20,000-25,000 genes contained in 23 pairs of chromosomes. Therefore, despite the fly's perceived simplicity, or our perceived complexity, our genetic makeup may not be all that different. Its versatility for genetic manipulation and convenience for unraveling fundamental biological processes continue to guarantee the fly a place in the spotlight for unraveling the basis of and therapeutic treatments for human eye diseases.

  1. Development of Magnetization Measurement Devices Using Micro-dc-SQUIDs and a Sr_2RuO_4 Microplate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nago, Y.; Shinozaki, T.; Tsuchiya, S.; Ishiguro, R.; Kashiwaya, H.; Kashiwaya, S.; Nomura, S.; Kono, K.; Takayanagi, H.; Maeno, Y.

    2016-05-01

    We developed high-sensitivity magnetization measurement devices composed of micro-dc-SQUIDs and a superconducting Sr_2RuO_4 microplate, aiming to investigate novel magnetic properties related to a spin-triplet chiral p-wave superconductor with a mesoscopic size. Micron-sized dc-SQUID was fabricated by thin Al electrodes, and the SQUID structure was improved to prevent magnetic fluxes from intruding into SQUID electrodes. A Sr_2RuO_4 superconducting microplate was fabricated into the size as small as the SQUID loop using a focused ion beam and directly mounted on the SQUID with precise positioning for high-sensitivity magnetization measurements. In the preliminary magnetization measurements of this device, we observed vortices trapped into the plate and thus the lower critical field. The improved magnetization measurement device developed to exclude undesirable flux intrusion successfully enabled high-sensitivity detection of quantized vortex.

  2. NEON Collaborative Data Collection Campaign at Pacific South West Site in California

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kampe, T. U.; Leisso, N.; Krause, K.; Musinsky, J.; Petroy, S. B.; Wasser, L. A.; Cawse-Nicholson, K.; van Aardt, J. A.; Schaaf, C.; Strahler, A. H.; Serbin, S. P.

    2013-12-01

    The National Ecological Observatory Network (NEON) is a continental-scale observatory that will collect biological, chemical and geophysical data over the continental United States in order to study biodiversity, landcover change, climate change and invasive species. In June 2013, a large-scale data collection took place over NEON's Pacific South West (PSW) site 17 in CA, USA. Data were collected in the San Joaquin Experimental Range and the Sierra National Forest. NEON's AOP (Airborne Observation Platform) acquired high spatial resolution hyperspectral data (~1m pixels), waveform lidar, discrete lidar, and RGB imagery over all three sites. A field team simultaneously collected atmospheric and vegetation inventory data, including tree locations, height, diameter-at-breast-height (DBH), species, and spectral data. The NEON collect was centered within a collaboration of multiple research entities, including NASA, Rochester Institute of Technology (RIT), University of Massachusetts (Boston; UMB, and Lowell; UML), Boston University (BU), and the University of Wisconsin, Madison (UWM). NASA's AVIRIS and MASTER sensors were flown over a wider area encompassing the NEON sites, with AVIRIS acquiring hyperspectral data (224 bands) at approximately 30m spatial resolution, and MASTER acquiring multispectral thermal data (50 bands) at approximately 50m spatial resolution. These data will be downscaled to approximate theoretical HyspIRI data (60m spatial resolution) as part of a large collection of preparatory research. Concurrently, a variety of university teams were active in the field: RIT collected ground-based lidar, leaf area index (LAI), herbaceous biomass measurements, wide-angle photographs, and spectral measurements. Data were collected over 20 80x80m sites, centered on existing 20x20m NEON sites. This data set will be used to inform synthetic scene design and to study the impact of sub-pixel structural variation on pixel-level spectral response; The BU, UMB, and UML

  3. Belowground Biomass Sampling to Estimate Fine Root Mass across NEON Sites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Spencer, J. J.; Meier, C. L.; Abercrombie, H.; Everhart, J. C.

    2013-12-01

    Production of belowground biomass is an important and relatively uncharacterized component of the net primary productivity (NPP) of ecosystems. Fine root productivity makes up a significant portion of total belowground production because fine roots turn over rapidly, and therefore contribute disproportionately to annual estimates of belowground net primary productivity (BNPP). One of the major goals of the National Ecological Observatory Network (NEON) is to quantify above- and below-ground NPP at 60 sites within 20 different eco-climactic regions. NEON's Terrestrial Observation System will carry out belowground biomass sampling throughout the life of the observatory to estimate fine root production. However, belowground biomass sampling during NEON operations will be constrained to a maximum depth of 50cm. This limited depth range leaves the question of what proportion of total fine root mass is being collected and how to optimally characterize belowground biomass given sampling depth limitations. During the construction period, NEON is characterizing fine root biomass distribution at depth down to 2m at each site, as well as physical and chemical properties in each soil horizon. Each sampling unit is a pit (2m deep and approximately 1.5m wide), dug in the site's dominant vegetation type where fine root biomass sampling will also occur during Operations. To sample fine root biomass in each pit, soil samples of a known volume are taken from three vertical profiles down the face of the pit. Samples are then wet sieved to extract fine root mass, and roots are dried at 65°C for 48 hours and then weighed. The soil pit data are used to estimate the proportion of total fine root biomass from each site as a function of depth. Non-linear curves are fitted to the data to calculate total fine root mass at depth and to provide estimates of the proportion of the total fine root mass that is sampled at each site during NEON's 30 year operational sampling. The belowground

  4. Helium-neon laser irradiation stimulates migration and proliferation in melanocytes and induces repigmentation in segmental-type vitiligo.

    PubMed

    Yu, Hsin-Su; Wu, Chieh-Shan; Yu, Chia-Li; Kao, Ying-Hsien; Chiou, Min-Hsi

    2003-01-01

    Low-energy helium-neon lasers (632.8 nm) have been employed in a variety of clinical treatments including vitiligo management. Light-mediated reaction to low-energy laser irradiation is referred to as biostimulation rather than a thermal effect. This study sought to determine the theoretical basis and clinical evidence for the effectiveness of helium-neon lasers in treating vitiligo. Cultured keratinocytes and fibroblasts were irradiated with 0.5-1.5 J per cm2 helium-neon laser radiation. The effects of the helium-neon laser on melanocyte growth and proliferation were investigated. The results of this in vitro study revealed a significant increase in basic fibroblast growth factor release from both keratinocytes and fibroblasts and a significant increase in nerve growth factor release from keratinocytes. Medium from helium-neon laser irradiated keratinocytes stimulated [3H]thymidine uptake and proliferation of cultured melanocytes. Furthermore, melanocyte migration was enhanced either directly by helium-neon laser irradiation or indirectly by the medium derived from helium-neon laser treated keratinocytes. Thirty patients with segmental-type vitiligo on the head and/or neck were enrolled in this study. Helium-neon laser light was administered locally at 3.0 J per cm2 with point stimulation once or twice weekly. The percentage of repigmented area was used for clinical evaluation of effectiveness. After an average of 16 treatment sessions, initial repigmentation was noticed. Marked repigmentation (>50%) was observed in 60% of patients with successive treatments. Basic fibroblast growth factor is a putative melanocyte growth factor, whereas nerve growth factor is a paracrine factor for melanocyte survival in the skin. Both nerve growth factor and basic fibroblast growth factor stimulate melanocyte migration. It is reasonable to propose that helium-neon laser irradiation clearly stimulates melanocyte migration and proliferation and mitogen release for melanocyte growth

  5. Blood feeding behavior of the stable fly

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Stable fly is a fly that looks similar to a house fly but both sexes are blood feeders. Blood is required for successful fertilization and development of eggs. Bites are painful but there is usually no pain after the fly stops feeding. The stable fly is a persistent feeder and will continue trying t...

  6. Ameliorative effect of fly ashes

    SciTech Connect

    Bhumbla, D.K.

    1991-01-01

    Agronomic effectiveness and environmental impact of fly ashes used to reclaim pyritic acid mine spoils were investigated in the laboratory and field. Mine spoils at two abandoned sites were amended with three rates of fly ash, three rates of rock phosphate, and seeded with alfalfa and wheat. Application of fly ash decreased bulk density and increased moisture retention capacity of spoils. Fly ash application reduced cation exchange capacity, acidity, toxic levels of Al, Fe, and Mn in soils by buffering soil pH at 6.5, and retarded pyrite oxidation. The reduction in cation exchange capacity was compensated by release of plant nutrients through diffusion and dissolution of plerospheres in fly ash. Improvement of spoil physical, chemical and microbial properties resulted in higher yield, more nitrogen fixation, and utilization of P from rock phosphate by alfalfa. Laboratory investigations demonstrated that neutralization potential and the amounts of amorphous oxides of iron were more important for classifying fly ashes than the total elemental analysis presently used in a taxonomic classification system. Contamination of the food chain through plant removal of Mo and As in fly ash treated mine spoils was observed only for Mo and only for the first year of cropping. Plant available As and Mo decreased with time. Laboratory leaching and adsorption studies and a field experiment showed that trace metals do not leach from fly ashes at near neutral pH and more oxyanions will leach from fly ashes with low neutralization potential and low amounts of amorphous oxides of iron.

  7. Apparatus and method for detecting a magnetic anomaly contiguous to remote location by SQUID gradiometer and magnetometer systems

    DOEpatents

    Overton, W.C. Jr.; Steyert, W.A. Jr.

    1981-05-22

    A superconducting quantum interference device (SQUID) magnetic detection apparatus detects magnetic fields, signals, and anomalies at remote locations. Two remotely rotatable SQUID gradiometers may be housed in a cryogenic environment to search for and locate unambiguously magnetic anomalies. The SQUID magnetic detection apparatus can be used to determine the azimuth of a hydrofracture by first flooding the hydrofracture with a ferrofluid to create an artificial magnetic anomaly therein.

  8. A digital flux-locked loop for high temperature SQUID magnetometer and gradiometer systems with field cancellation

    SciTech Connect

    Kraus, R.H. Jr.; Bracht, R.; Flynn, E.R.

    1996-12-01

    The SQUID sensor is typically operated in a null detector mode where an analogue flux-locked-loop, FLL, provides a negative feedback to maintain linear operation. The modulated SQUID signal is amplified, filtered, demodulated, and integrated in the FLL. The resulting analog signal is a measure of the magnetic field and noise at the SQUID and is also fed back to the modulation and feedback (M & F) coil to null the flux at the SQUID to maintain the linear operating point. Thus, the FLL output signal is proportional to the change in magnetic field at the SQUID pickup coil, provided the slew rate and dynamic range of the SQUID and FLL system are not exceeded. The goal of the work is to advance technologies needed for a practical fieldable SQUID biomagnetic sensor. We used HTC SQUIDs to realize the benefits noted above. We also implemented the FLL algorithm on a digital-signal-processor (DSP) to realize a number of benefits including (1) software control of noise filtering and background rejection to enable unshielded use of SQUID sensors, (2) flux quanta countin and resetting SQUID operating point to increase system slew rate and dynamic range, (3) programmable FLL adaptable to numerous specific applications, (4) digital signal output (up to 32-bit precision), and (5) reduced FLL package cost. This paper presents results of external signal rejection for a sensor system using HTC SQUIDs, preamplifier circuit, and DSP FLL designed and built at our laboratory. We also note a companion paper in these proceedings and other references to the use of DSP in SQUID applications.

  9. NEON: High Frequency Monitoring Network for Watershed-Scale Processes and Aquatic Ecology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vance, J. M.; Fitzgerald, M.; Parker, S. M.; Roehm, C. L.; Goodman, K. J.; Bohall, C.; Utz, R.

    2014-12-01

    Networked high frequency hydrologic and water quality measurements needed to investigate physical and biogeochemical processes at the watershed scale and create robust models are limited and lacking standardization. Determining the drivers and mechanisms of ecological changes in aquatic systems in response to natural and anthropogenic pressures is challenging due to the large amounts of terrestrial, aquatic, atmospheric, biological, chemical, and physical data it requires at varied spatiotemporal scales. The National Ecological Observatory Network (NEON) is a continental-scale infrastructure project designed to provide data to address the impacts of climate change, land-use, and invasive species on ecosystem structure and function. Using a combination of standardized continuous in situ measurements and observational sampling, the NEON Aquatic array will produce over 200 data products across its spatially-distributed field sites for 30 years to facilitate spatiotemporal analysis of the drivers of ecosystem change. Three NEON sites in Alabama were chosen to address linkages between watershed-scale processes and ecosystem changes along an eco-hydrological gradient within the Tombigbee River Basin. The NEON Aquatic design, once deployed, will include continuous measurements of surface water physical, chemical, and biological parameters, groundwater level, temperature and conductivity and local meteorology. Observational sampling will include bathymetry, water chemistry and isotopes, and a suite of organismal sampling from microbes to macroinvertebrates to vertebrates. NEON deployed a buoy to measure the temperature profile of the Black Warrior River from July - November, 2013 to determine the spatiotemporal variability across the water column from a daily to seasonal scale. In July 2014 a series of water quality profiles were performed to assess the contribution of physical and biogeochemical drivers over a diurnal cycle. Additional river transects were performed

  10. Flying wires at Fermilab

    SciTech Connect

    Gannon, J.; Crawford, C.; Finley, D.; Flora, R.; Groves, T.; MacPherson, M.

    1989-03-01

    Transverse beam profile measurement systems called ''Flying Wires'' have been installed and made operational in the Fermilab Main Ring and Tevatron accelerators. These devices are used routinely to measure the emittance of both protons and antiprotons throughout the fill process, and for emittance growth measurements during stores. In the Tevatron, the individual transverse profiles of six proton and six antiproton bunches are obtained simultaneously, with a single pass of the wire through the beam. Essential features of the hardware, software, and system operation are explained in the rest of the paper. 3 refs., 4 figs.

  11. Flying by Titan

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pelletier, Frederic J.; Antreasian, Peter G.; Ardalan, Shadan M.; Criddle, Kevin E.; Ionasescu, Rodica; Jacobson, Robert A.; Jones, Jeremy B.; Parcher, Daniel W.; Roth, Duane C.; Thompson, Paul F.; Vaughan, Andrew T.

    2008-01-01

    The Cassini spacecraft encounters the massive Titan about once every month. These encounters are essential to the mission as Titan is the only satellite of Saturn that can provide enough gravity assist to shape the orbit tour and allow outstanding science for many years. From a navigation point of view, these encounters provide many challenges, in particular those that fly close enough to the surface for the atmospheric drag to perturb the orbit. This paper discusses the dynamics models developed to successfully navigate Cassini and determine its trajectory. This includes the moon's gravity pull with its second degree zonal harmonics J2, the attitude thrust control perturbations and the acceleration of drag.

  12. Flying over decades

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hoeller, Judith; Issler, Mena; Imamoglu, Atac

    Levy flights haven been extensively used in the past three decades to describe non-Brownian motion of particles. In this presentation I give an overview on how Levy flights have been used across several disciplines, ranging from biology to finance to physics. In our publication we describe how a single electron spin 'flies' when captured in quantum dot using the central spin model. At last I motivate the use of Levy flights for the description of anomalous diffusion in modern experiments, concretely to describe the lifetimes of quasi-particles in Josephson junctions. Finished PhD at ETH in Spring 2015.

  13. Potential enhanced ability of giant squid to detect sperm whales is an exaptation tied to their large body size.

    PubMed

    Schmitz, Lars; Motani, Ryosuke; Oufiero, Christopher E; Martin, Christopher H; McGee, Matthew D; Wainwright, Peter C

    2013-10-15

    It has been hypothesized that sperm whale predation is the driver of eye size evolution in giant squid. Given that the eyes of giant squid have the size expected for a squid this big, it is likely that any enhanced ability of giant squid to detect whales is an exaptation tied to their body size. Future studies should target the mechanism behind the evolution of large body size, not eye size. Reconstructions of the evolutionary history of selective regime, eye size, optical performance, and body size will improve the understanding of the evolution of large eyes in large ocean animals.

  14. Mechanism study of high browning degree of mantle muscle meat from Japanese common squid Todarodes pacificus during air-drying.

    PubMed

    Geng, Jie-Ting; Kaido, Toshiki; Kasukawa, Masaru; Zhong, Chan; Sun, Le-Chang; Okazaki, Emiko; Osako, Kazufumi

    2015-06-01

    Mantle meat from the Japanese common squid (Todarodes pacificus) browns more than other squid meats during air-drying. The factors contributing to the browning of Japanese common squid, long-finned squid (Photololigo edulis) and bigfin reef squid (Sepioteuthis lessoniana) were studied in boiled and raw meat both before and after air-drying. Dried raw meat from the Japanese common squid browned more than dried boiled meat (b(∗) value, from 4.7 to 28.5). The results from SDS-PAGE showed significant degradation of myosin heavy chain (MHC) suggesting that protease activity in raw Japanese common squid meat was higher than in the other two species. The concentration of arginine (1932.0mg/100g) and ribose (28.8μmol/g) in Japanese common squid meat was higher than in the other two species. These results suggest that high protease activity and high concentrations of arginine and ribose increase the browning discoloration of Japanese common squid during air-drying.

  15. Characterization of large two-dimensional YBa2Cu3O7–δ SQUID arrays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Taylor, B. J.; Berggren, S. A. E.; O’Brien, M. C.; deAndrade, M. C.; Higa, B. A.; Leese de Escobar, A. M.

    2016-08-01

    Large two-dimensional SQUID arrays were made using the step-edge Josephson junction process. The performance of the arrays is analyzed with respect to determining the conditions under which the optimal performance is achieved. We find that optimization of the field-voltage transfer function V B is reached at a specific temperature and device current bias point, and arrive at an empirical expression describing the dependence of V B on the critical current and dynamic resistance of the SQUID array and as a function of temperature. The empirical expression for V B of the SQUID arrays is similar to that given by well known theoretical models for a single SQUID.

  16. Potential enhanced ability of giant squid to detect sperm whales is an exaptation tied to their large body size

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    It has been hypothesized that sperm whale predation is the driver of eye size evolution in giant squid. Given that the eyes of giant squid have the size expected for a squid this big, it is likely that any enhanced ability of giant squid to detect whales is an exaptation tied to their body size. Future studies should target the mechanism behind the evolution of large body size, not eye size. Reconstructions of the evolutionary history of selective regime, eye size, optical performance, and body size will improve the understanding of the evolution of large eyes in large ocean animals. PMID:24127991

  17. Flying in, Flying out: Offshore Teaching in Higher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Seah, Wee Tiong; Edwards, Julie

    2006-01-01

    This paper discusses the relatively new phenomenon of university education faculties offering offshore education. The analogy, "flying in, flying out" captures the intensity of such offshore experiences for visiting academics, and contrasts their professional experiences against expatriate academics. This paper reports on case studies of two…

  18. Fly ash quality and utilization

    SciTech Connect

    Barta, L.E.; Lachner, L.; Wenzel, G.B.; Beer, M.J.

    1995-12-01

    The quality of fly ash is of considerable importance to fly ash utilizers. The fly ash puzzolanic activity is one of the most important properties that determines the role of fly ash as a binding agent in the cementing process. The puzzolanic activity, however is a function of fly ash particle size and chemical composition. These parameters are closely related to the process of fly ash formation in pulverized coal fired furnaces. In turn, it is essential to understand the transformation of mineral matter during coal combustion. Due to the particle-to-particle variation of coal properties and the random coalescence of mineral particles, the properties of fly ash particles e.g. size, SiO{sub 2} content, viscosity can change considerably from particle to particle. These variations can be described by the use of the probability theory. Since the mean values of these randomly changing parameters are not sufficient to describe the behavior of individual fly ash particles during the formation of concrete, therefore it is necessary to investigate the distribution of these variables. Examples of these variations were examined by the Computer Controlled Scanning Electron Microscopy (CCSEM) for particle size and chemical composition for Texas lignite and Eagel Butte mineral matter and fly ash. The effect of combustion on the variations of these properties for both the fly ash and mineral matter were studied by using a laminar flow reactor. It is shown in our paper, that there are significant variations (about 40-50% around the mean values) of the above-listed properties for both coal samples. By comparing the particle size and chemical composition distributions of the mineral matter and fly ash, it was possible to conclude that for the Texas lignite mineral matter, the combustion did not effect significantly the distribution of these properties, however, for the Eagel Butte coal the combustion had a major impact on these mineral matter parameters.

  19. Physics of flying

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vetrone, Jim

    2015-05-01

    Column editor's note: As the school year comes to a close, it is important to start thinking about next year. One area that you want to consider is field trips. Many institutions require that teachers plan for a field trip well in advance. Keeping that in mind, I asked Jim Vetrone to write an article about the fantastic field trip he takes his AP Physics students on. I had the awesome opportunity to attend a professional development day that Jim arranged at iFLY in the Chicago suburbs. The experience of "flying" in a wind tunnel was fabulous. Equally fun was watching the other physics teachers come up with experiments to have the professional "flyers" perform in the tube. I could envision my students being similarly excited about the experience and about the development of their own experiments. After I returned to school, I immediately began the process of trying to get this field trip approved for the 2015-16 school year. I suggest that you start your process as well if you hope to try a new field trip next year. The key to getting the approval, in my experience, is submitting a proposal early that includes supporting documentation from sources. Often I use NGSS or state standards as justifications for my field trips. I have also quoted College Board expectations for AP Physics 1 and 2 in my documents when requesting an unusual field trip.

  20. The Flying University

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Friesen, Catherine

    The Flying University is solo theater performance framed as an academic lecture about Marie Curie and her discovery of radium, delivered to a group of women who have gathered in secret to further their education. As the lecture proceeds, the professor brings in her own research based on a study of Esther Horsch (1905-1991) who lived on a farm in central Illinois. She introduces data from Esther's journals, personal memories, and dreams about Esther's life. The professor's investigation of radium plays at the intersections of magical and mundane, decay and the transformation of life, and the place of ambition in these two women's lives. The intention of this piece is to explore these themes, which are full of mystery, through the traces of the daily lives of Mme. Curie and Esther. Their words and photos are used as roots from which to imagine the things that echo beyond their familiar work; elemental and also fantastically radiant. The Flying University was written and performed by Catherine Friesen April 27-29, 2012 in the Center for Performance Experiment at Hamilton College as part of the University of South Carolina MFA Acting Class of 2013 showcase, Pieces of Eight.

  1. Optical parameters of the tunable Bragg reflectors in squid

    PubMed Central

    Ghoshal, Amitabh; DeMartini, Daniel G.; Eck, Elizabeth; Morse, Daniel E.

    2013-01-01

    Cephalopods (e.g. octopus, squid and cuttlefish) dynamically tune the colour and brightness of their skin for camouflage and communication using specialized skin cells called iridocytes. We use high-resolution microspectrophotometry to investigate individual tunable Bragg structures (consisting of alternating reflectin protein-containing, high-refractive index lamellae and low-refractive index inter-lamellar spaces) in live and chemically fixed iridocytes of the California market squid, Doryteuthis opalescens. This subcellular, single-stack microspectrophotometry allows for spectral normalization, permitting use of a transfer-matrix model of Bragg reflectance to calculate all the parameters of the Bragg stack—the refractive indices, dimensions and numbers of the lamellae and inter-lamellar spaces. Results of the fitting analyses show that eight or nine pairs of low- and high-index layers typically contribute to the observed reflectivity in live cells, whereas six or seven pairs of low- and high-index layers typically contribute to the reflectivity in chemically fixed cells. The reflectin-containing, high-index lamellae of live cells have a refractive index proportional to the peak reflectivity, with an average of 1.405 ± 0.012 and a maximum around 1.44, while the reflectin-containing lamellae in fixed tissue have a refractive index of 1.413 ± 0.015 suggesting a slight increase of refractive index in the process of fixation. As expected, incremental changes in refractive index contribute to the greatest incremental changes in reflectivity for those Bragg stacks with the most layers. The excursions in dimensions required to tune the measured reflected wavelength from 675 (red) to 425 nm (blue) are a decrease from ca 150 to 80 nm for the high-index lamellae and from ca 120 to 50 nm for the low-index inter-lamellar spaces. Fixation-induced dimensional changes also are quantified, leading us to suggest that further microspectrophotometric analyses of this iridocyte

  2. Microtransplantation of cellular membranes from squid stellate ganglion reveals ionotropic GABA receptors.

    PubMed

    Conti, Luca; Limon, Agenor; Palma, Eleonora; Miledi, Ricardo

    2013-02-01

    The squid has been the most studied cephalopod, and it has served as a very useful model for investigating the events associated with nerve impulse generation and synaptic transmission. While the physiology of squid giant axons has been extensively studied, very little is known about the distribution and function of the neurotransmitters and receptors that mediate inhibitory transmission at the synapses. In this study we investigated whether γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA) activates neurotransmitter receptors in stellate ganglia membranes. To overcome the low abundance of GABA-like mRNAs in invertebrates and the low expression of GABA in cephalopods, we used a two-electrode voltage clamp technique to determine if Xenopus laevis oocytes injected with cell membranes from squid stellate ganglia responded to GABA. Using this method, membrane patches containing proteins and ion channels from the squid's stellate ganglion were incorporated into the surface of oocytes. We demonstrated that GABA activates membrane receptors in cellular membranes isolated from squid stellate ganglia. Using the same approach, we were able to record native glutamate-evoked currents. The squid's GABA receptors showed an EC(50) of 98 μmol l(-1) to GABA and were inhibited by zinc (IC(50) = 356 μmol l(-1)). Interestingly, GABA receptors from the squid were only partially blocked by bicuculline. These results indicate that the microtransplantation of native cell membranes is useful to identify and characterize scarce membrane proteins. Moreover, our data also support the role of GABA as an ionotropic neurotransmitter in cephalopods, acting through chloride-permeable membrane receptors.

  3. Why flies are good vectors

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    It was around 1900 when house flies were implicated in disease transmission. Flies with white powder on their feet were seen landing on food in US Army chow halls. This white powder was lime that had been sprinkled over the human excrement in open latrines not too far from the eating establishments....

  4. Shattering the myth of the resonantly photo-pumped neon-like titanium laser

    SciTech Connect

    Nilsen, J.; MacGowan, B.J.; Da Silva, L.B.; Moreno, J.C.; Koch, J.A.

    1993-08-01

    Several years ago neon-like titanium (Z = 22) was made to lase at 326 {angstrom} on the 3p {yields} 3s (J = 0 {yields} 1) transition. At the time it was suggested that the lasing may be due to resonantly photo-pumping the neon-like titanium 2p {yields} 4d lines using 3s {yields} 2p and 3d {yields} 2p lines in carbon-like and nitrogen-like titanium which results in lasing on the 3p {yields} 3s transition in neon-like titanium. The strongest argument for this explanation was that adjacent elements (scandium and vanadium) did not lase while titanium was unique in having the above mentioned resonance. In addition a prepulse was required to make the titanium lase, suggestive of the formation of a low density plasma, and the plasma was very overstripped, so the above mentioned pump lines should be quite strong for photo-pumping. We have reinvestigated this laser system and will present results which show lasing on the 3p {yields} 3s (J = 0 {yields} 1) transition in neon-like chromium (Z = 24), iron (Z = 26), and nickel (Z = 28) at 285, 255, and 231 {angstrom} respectively. This destroys the myth of titanium being unique and makes highly unlikely that the previously mentioned photo-pumping mechanism is playing a significant role in the titanium laser. The chromium, iron, and nickel experiments all require a prepulse in order to lase and our calculations suggest that the prepulse is an exciting new way to create a uniform low density plasma when illuminating a thick slab target. This allows the proper conditions for gain and laser propagation for low Z neon-like ions and may also be applicable to other systems such as low Z nickel-like ions. We also will present experiments done on other low-Z materials and offer an explanation as to how the hyperfine effect is destroying the gain of neon-like ions with odd Z.

  5. NEON: Contributing continental-scale long-term environmental data for the benefit of society

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wee, B.; Aulenbach, S.

    2011-12-01

    The National Ecological Observatory Network (NEON) is a NSF funded national investment in physical and information infrastructure. Large-scale environmental changes pose challenges that straddle environmental, economic, and social boundaries. As we develop climate adaptation strategies at the Federal, state, local, and tribal levels, accessible and usable data are essential for implementing actions that are informed by the best available information. NEON's goal is to enable understanding and forecasting of the impacts of climate change, land use change and invasive species on continental-scale ecology by providing physical and information infrastructure. The NEON framework will take standardized, long-term, coordinated measurements of related environmental variables at each of its 62 sites across the nation. These observations, collected by automated instruments, field crews, and airborne instruments, will be processed into more than 700 data products that are provided freely over the web to support research, education, and environmental management. NEON is envisioned to be an integral component of an interoperable ecosystem of credible data and information sources. Other members of this information ecosystem include Federal, commercial, and non-profit entities. NEON is actively involved with the interoperability community via forums like the Foundation for Earth Science Information Partners and the USGS Community for Data Integration in a collective effort to identify the technical standards, best practices, and organizational principles that enable the emergence of such an information ecosystem. These forums have proven to be effective innovation engines for the experimentation of new techniques that evolve into emergent standards. These standards are, for the most part, discipline agnostic. It is becoming increasingly evident that we need to include socio-economic and public health data sources in interoperability initiatives, because the dynamics of coupled

  6. Thermal instabilities in micro-SQUIDs with long leads

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kumar, Nikhil; Fournier, T.; Courtois, H.; Winkelmann, C. B.; Gupta, Anjan K.

    2015-03-01

    We report on Nb film based micron-size superconducting quantum interference devices (μ-SQUIDs) with long leads and with constrictions as weak-links (WLs). The current-voltage characteristics (IVCs) of these devices are hysteretic at low temperatures (T) with two re-trapping currents, Ir1 and Ir2, arising from thermal instabilities, and a critical-current (Ic) . We see oscillations with magnetic flux in Ic, but not in Ir1 and Ir2, in both the hysteretic and non-hysteretic regimes. We describe a one dimensional model for thermal instability in long-leads to understand re-trapping currents and its T-dependence. The critical-current shows a marked change in behaviour at the crossover temperature when it meets the lower re-trapping current and above this temperature the critical current subsists due to proximity superconductivity. The thermal stability with respect to phase-slips evolves with temperature and only above the crossover temperature the weak-link can cope with the heat generated by phase-slips giving a non-hysteretic behaviour. Keeping other device dimensions same the WLs' dimensions give a control on the hysteresis-free T-range. NK acknowledges the financial support from CSIR, India as well as CNRS-Institute Néel, Grenoble, France.

  7. An interchangeable scanning Hall probe/scanning SQUID microscope

    SciTech Connect

    Tang, Chiu-Chun; Lin, Hui-Ting; Wu, Sing-Lin; Chen, Tse-Jun; Wang, M. J.; Ling, D. C.; Chi, C. C.; Chen, Jeng-Chung

    2014-08-15

    We have constructed a scanning probe microscope for magnetic imaging, which can function as a scanning Hall probe microscope (SHPM) and as a scanning SQUID microscope (SSM). The scanning scheme, applicable to SHPM and SSM, consists of a mechanical positioning (sub) micron-XY stage and a flexible direct contact to the sample without a feedback control system for the Z-axis. With the interchangeable capability of operating two distinct scanning modes, our microscope can incorporate the advantageous functionalities of the SHPM and SSM with large scan range up to millimeter, high spatial resolution (⩽4 μm), and high field sensitivity in a wide range of temperature (4.2 K-300 K) and magnetic field (10{sup −7} T-1 T). To demonstrate the capabilities of the system, we present magnetic images scanned with SHPM and SSM, including a RbFeB magnet and a nickel grid pattern at room temperature, surface magnetic domain structures of a La{sub 2/3}Ca{sub 1/3}MnO{sub 3} thin film at 77 K, and superconducting vortices in a striped niobium film at 4.2 K.

  8. EFFECT OF DETERGENT ON ELECTRICAL PROPERTIES OF SQUID AXON MEMBRANE.

    PubMed

    KISHIMOTO, U; ADELMAN, W J

    1964-05-01

    The effects of detergents on squid giant axon action and resting potentials as well as membrane conductances in the voltage clamp have been studied. Anionic detergents (sodium lauryl sulfate, 0.1 to 1.0 mM; dimethyl benzene sulfonate, 1 to 20 mM, pH 7.6) cause a temporary increase and a later decrease of action potential height and the value of the resting potential. Cationic detergent (cetyl trimethyl ammonium chloride, 6 x 10(-5)M or more, pH 7.6) generally brings about immediate and irreversible decreases in the action and resting potentials. Non-ionic detergent (tween 80, 0.1 M, pH 7.6) causes a slight reversible reduction of action potential height without affecting the value of the resting potential. Both anionic and cationic detergents generally decrease the sodium and potassium conductances irreversibly. The effect of non-ionic detergent is to decrease the sodium conductance reversibly, leaving the potassium conductance almost unchanged.

  9. An interchangeable scanning Hall probe/scanning SQUID microscope.

    PubMed

    Tang, Chiu-Chun; Lin, Hui-Ting; Wu, Sing-Lin; Chen, Tse-Jun; Wang, M J; Ling, D C; Chi, C C; Chen, Jeng-Chung

    2014-08-01

    We have constructed a scanning probe microscope for magnetic imaging, which can function as a scanning Hall probe microscope (SHPM) and as a scanning SQUID microscope (SSM). The scanning scheme, applicable to SHPM and SSM, consists of a mechanical positioning (sub) micron-XY stage and a flexible direct contact to the sample without a feedback control system for the Z-axis. With the interchangeable capability of operating two distinct scanning modes, our microscope can incorporate the advantageous functionalities of the SHPM and SSM with large scan range up to millimeter, high spatial resolution (⩽4 μm), and high field sensitivity in a wide range of temperature (4.2 K-300 K) and magnetic field (10(-7) T-1 T). To demonstrate the capabilities of the system, we present magnetic images scanned with SHPM and SSM, including a RbFeB magnet and a nickel grid pattern at room temperature, surface magnetic domain structures of a La(2/3)Ca(1/3)MnO3 thin film at 77 K, and superconducting vortices in a striped niobium film at 4.2 K. PMID:25173276

  10. Optimization of the leak conductance in the squid giant axon.

    PubMed

    Seely, Jeffrey; Crotty, Patrick

    2010-08-01

    We report on a theoretical study showing that the leak conductance density, G{L} , in the squid giant axon appears to be optimal for the action potential firing frequency. More precisely, the standard assumption that the leak current is composed of chloride ions leads to the result that the experimental value for G{L} is very close to the optimal value in the Hodgkin-Huxley model, which minimizes the absolute refractory period of the action potential, thereby maximizing the maximum firing frequency under stimulation by sharp, brief input current spikes to one end of the axon. The measured value of G{L} also appears to be close to optimal for the frequency of repetitive firing caused by a constant current input to one end of the axon, especially when temperature variations are taken into account. If, by contrast, the leak current is assumed to be composed of separate voltage-independent sodium and potassium currents, then these optimizations are not observed.

  11. Six steps in quality intervention development (6SQuID)

    PubMed Central

    Wight, Daniel; Wimbush, Erica; Jepson, Ruth; Doi, Lawrence

    2016-01-01

    Improving the effectiveness of public health interventions relies as much on the attention paid to their design and feasibility as to their evaluation. Yet, compared to the vast literature on how to evaluate interventions, there is little to guide researchers or practitioners on how best to develop such interventions in practical, logical, evidence based ways to maximise likely effectiveness. Existing models for the development of public health interventions tend to have a strong social-psychological, individual behaviour change orientation and some take years to implement. This paper presents a pragmatic guide to six essential Steps for Quality Intervention Development (6SQuID). The focus is on public health interventions but the model should have wider applicability. Once a problem has been identified as needing intervention, the process of designing an intervention can be broken down into six crucial steps: (1) defining and understanding the problem and its causes; (2) identifying which causal or contextual factors are modifiable: which have the greatest scope for change and who would benefit most; (3) deciding on the mechanisms of change; (4) clarifying how these will be delivered; (5) testing and adapting the intervention; and (6) collecting sufficient evidence of effectiveness to proceed to a rigorous evaluation. If each of these steps is carefully addressed, better use will be made of scarce public resources by avoiding the costly evaluation, or implementation, of unpromising interventions. PMID:26573236

  12. Progress towards a metastable RF squid (MRFS) qubit

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kamal, Archana; Kerman, Andrew; Gustavsson, Simon; Jin, Xiaoyue; Yan, Fei; Gudmundsen, Ted; Hover, David; Sears, Adam; Yoder, Jonilyn; Orlando, Terry; Oliver, William

    2014-03-01

    The MRFS qubit [1] consists of an RF squid with a very high loop inductance, and whose two lowest quantum states are very well-defined, equal and opposite persistent supercurrents. These states can be strongly decoupled from each other, such that spontaneous electromagnetic decay processes of the excited state are extremely slow. Also, the large loop inductance suppresses the magnetic flux sensitivity of the design. We have realized these large inductances with NbN nanowires whose kinetic inductance is around 0.5 ?H. We will discuss experimental progress in measuring MRFS qubits fabricated using these inductors, and expected improvements in coherence. Future directions include studying the dynamics of quantum phase slips through these nanowires. [1] A. J. Kerman, PRL 104, 027002(2010). This research was funded in part by the Office of the Director of National Intelligence (ODNI), Intelligence Advanced Research Projects Activity (IARPA); and by the Asst Secretary of Defense for Research & Engineering under Air Force Contract number FA8721-05-C-0002. All statements of fact, opinion or conclusions contained herein are those of the authors and should not be construed as representing the official views or policies of IARPA, ODNI or the US government

  13. Characterization and comparison of lipids in different squid nervous tissues.

    PubMed

    Yamaguchi, H; Tanaka, T; Ichioka, T; Stoskopf, M; Kishimoto, Y; Gould, R

    1987-10-31

    We have studied the lipid composition of brain (optic and cerebral lobes), stellate ganglia and fin nerves of the squid. Cholesterol, phosphatidylethanolamine and phosphatidylcholine were the major lipids in these nervous tissues. Phosphatidylethanolamine contained about 3% of its amount in [corrected] plasmalogen form. Phosphatidylserine and -inositol, sphingomyelin and ceramide 2-aminoethylphosphonate were also present in significant amounts. In addition, cardiolipin and free fatty acids were detected in brain (each 2-3% of total lipids) and stellate ganglia (about 1% each), but not in fin nerves. Phosphatidylethanolamine, phosphatidylserine and phosphatidylinositol from brain contained large amounts of polyunsaturated fatty acids, namely 20:4, 20:5 and 22:6 in the n-3 family. On the other hand, phosphatidylcholine, cardiolipin, and sphingomyelin, and ceramide 2-aminoethylphosphonate contained only saturated or monounsaturated C16-C18 fatty acids. The aldehyde moieties of ethanolamine plasmalogen were also C16-C18 saturated or monounsaturated. These lipid compositions are compared with those in other invertebrate nervous systems.

  14. Squid Pen Chitin Chitooligomers as Food Colorants Absorbers

    PubMed Central

    Liang, Tzu-Wen; Huang, Chih-Ting; Dzung, Nguyen Anh; Wang, San-Lang

    2015-01-01

    One of the most promising applications of chitosanase is the conversion of chitinous biowaste into bioactive chitooligomers (COS). TKU033 chitosanase was induced from squid pen powder (SPP)-containing Bacillus cereus TKU033 medium and purified by ammonium sulfate precipitation and column chromatography. The enzyme was relatively more thermostable in the presence of the substrate and had an activity of 93% at 50 °C in a pH 5 buffer solution for 60 min. Furthermore, the enzyme used for the COS preparation was also studied. The enzyme products revealed various mixtures of COS that with different degrees of polymerization (DP), ranging from three to nine. In the culture medium, the fermented SPP was recovered, and it displayed a better adsorption rate (up to 96%) for the disperse dyes than the water-soluble food colorants, Allura Red AC (R40) and Tartrazne (Y4). Fourier transform-infrared spectroscopic (FT-IR) analysis proved that the adsorption of the dyes onto fermented SPP was a physical adsorption. Results also showed that fermented SPP was a favorable adsorber and could be employed as low-cost alternative for dye removal in wastewater treatment. PMID:25608726

  15. Distribution of rhodopsin and retinochrome in the squid retina

    PubMed Central

    1976-01-01

    The cephalopod retina contains two kinds of photopigments, rhodopsin and retinochrome. For many years retinochrome has been thought to be localized in the inner segments of the visual cells, whereas rhodopsin is in the outer segments. However, it is now clear that retinochrome can be extracted also from fragments of outer segments. In the dark- adapted retina of Loligo pealei retinochrome is distributed half-and- half in the inner and outer segments. Todarodes pacificus contains much more retinochrome than Loligo, and it is more abundant in the outer than in the inner segments. The outer segments of Loligo contain retinochrome and metarhodopsin in addition to rhodopsin, whether squids are kept in the dark or in the light. But there is extremely little metarhodopsin (about 3% of rhodopsin) even in light-adapted eyes. The inner segments contain only retinochrome, and much less in the light than in the dark. On the other hand, retinochrome in the outer segments increases markedly during light adaptation. These facts suggest the possibility that some retinochrome moves forward from the inner to the outer segments during light adaptation and there reacts with metarhodopsin to promote regeneration of rhodopsin. PMID:6620

  16. Squid pen chitin chitooligomers as food colorants absorbers.

    PubMed

    Liang, Tzu-Wen; Huang, Chih-Ting; Dzung, Nguyen Anh; Wang, San-Lang

    2015-01-20

    One of the most promising applications of chitosanase is the conversion of chitinous biowaste into bioactive chitooligomers (COS). TKU033 chitosanase was induced from squid pen powder (SPP)-containing Bacillus cereus TKU033 medium and purified by ammonium sulfate precipitation and column chromatography. The enzyme was relatively more thermostable in the presence of the substrate and had an activity of 93% at 50 °C in a pH 5 buffer solution for 60 min. Furthermore, the enzyme used for the COS preparation was also studied. The enzyme products revealed various mixtures of COS that with different degrees of polymerization (DP), ranging from three to nine. In the culture medium, the fermented SPP was recovered, and it displayed a better adsorption rate (up to 96%) for the disperse dyes than the water-soluble food colorants, Allura Red AC (R40) and Tartrazne (Y4). Fourier transform-infrared spectroscopic (FT-IR) analysis proved that the adsorption of the dyes onto fermented SPP was a physical adsorption. Results also showed that fermented SPP was a favorable adsorber and could be employed as low-cost alternative for dye removal in wastewater treatment.

  17. An interchangeable scanning Hall probe/scanning SQUID microscope.

    PubMed

    Tang, Chiu-Chun; Lin, Hui-Ting; Wu, Sing-Lin; Chen, Tse-Jun; Wang, M J; Ling, D C; Chi, C C; Chen, Jeng-Chung

    2014-08-01

    We have constructed a scanning probe microscope for magnetic imaging, which can function as a scanning Hall probe microscope (SHPM) and as a scanning SQUID microscope (SSM). The scanning scheme, applicable to SHPM and SSM, consists of a mechanical positioning (sub) micron-XY stage and a flexible direct contact to the sample without a feedback control system for the Z-axis. With the interchangeable capability of operating two distinct scanning modes, our microscope can incorporate the advantageous functionalities of the SHPM and SSM with large scan range up to millimeter, high spatial resolution (⩽4 μm), and high field sensitivity in a wide range of temperature (4.2 K-300 K) and magnetic field (10(-7) T-1 T). To demonstrate the capabilities of the system, we present magnetic images scanned with SHPM and SSM, including a RbFeB magnet and a nickel grid pattern at room temperature, surface magnetic domain structures of a La(2/3)Ca(1/3)MnO3 thin film at 77 K, and superconducting vortices in a striped niobium film at 4.2 K.

  18. Atlas of the Spectrum of a Platinum/Neon Hollow-Cathode Lamp in the Region 1130-4330 Å

    National Institute of Standards and Technology Data Gateway

    SRD 112 Atlas of the Spectrum of a Platinum/Neon Hollow-Cathode Lamp in the Region 1130-4330 Å (Web, free access)   Atlas of the Spectrum of a Platinum/Neon Hollow-Cathode Lamp in the Region 1130-4330 Å contains wavelengths and intensities for about 5600 lines in the region 4330 Å. An atlas plot of the spectrum is given, with the spectral lines marked and their intensities, wavelengths, and classifications listed.

  19. Opportunities and Challenges for Education and Outreach at NEON (National Ecological Observatory Network), a new NSF Large Facility

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gram, W.; Henderson, S.; Wasser, L. A.; Goehring, L.

    2015-12-01

    As a new NSF Large Facility, NEON (the National Ecological Observatory Network) collects continental-scale ecological and environmental data to support research and education on large-scale ecological processes. The Observatory provides data, infrastructure and educational resources to scientific, educational and general public audiences. We designed NEON's Education and Outreach (E & O) activities to meet several high-level goals, including (1) facilitating public understanding of ecological science, (2) providing tools to use NEON data, (3) educating the next generation of ecologists, and (4) enhancing diversity within the ecological community. The suite of activities we developed ranges from online resources for using NEON data to a Citizen Science project to traditional undergraduate internship programs and workshops for graduate students/early career scientists. The NEON Construction Project represents one of the first large facilities that included E & O activities as set of deliverables with defined requirements in parallel to other components of construction. This approach proved to be both an opportunity to build a multifaceted E & O program in collaboration with NEON science and engineering, and a challenge as competing priorities sometimes left E & O resource development teams without necessary technical expertise. The result, however, is a robust suite of online educational resources, citizen science opportunities, and in-person training programs. Early evaluation efforts have helped us fine tune our programming to meet the needs of target audiences, including diverse undergraduate students, graduate students, scientists, faculty, edcuators, and citizen scientists. Moving into Operations, we envision an evolving suite of resources and programs that further NEON's mission and engage audiences in "doing science," both by using NEON data in a diversity of contexts and participating in our citizen science opportunities.

  20. Microbial experimental evolution as a novel research approach in the Vibrionaceae and squid-Vibrio symbiosis

    PubMed Central

    Soto, William; Nishiguchi, Michele K.

    2014-01-01

    The Vibrionaceae are a genetically and metabolically diverse family living in aquatic habitats with a great propensity toward developing interactions with eukaryotic microbial and multicellular hosts (as either commensals, pathogens, and mutualists). The Vibrionaceae frequently possess a life history cycle where bacteria are attached to a host in one phase and then another where they are free from their host as either part of the bacterioplankton or adhered to solid substrates such as marine sediment, riverbeds, lakebeds, or floating particulate debris. These two stages in their life history exert quite distinct and separate selection pressures. When bound to solid substrates or to host cells, the Vibrionaceae can also exist as complex biofilms. The association between bioluminescent Vibrio spp. and sepiolid squids (Cephalopoda: Sepiolidae) is an experimentally tractable model to study bacteria and animal host interactions, since the symbionts and squid hosts can be maintained in the laboratory independently of one another. The bacteria can be grown in pure culture and the squid hosts raised gnotobiotically with sterile light organs. The partnership between free-living Vibrio symbionts and axenic squid hatchlings emerging from eggs must be renewed every generation of the cephalopod host. Thus, symbiotic bacteria and animal host can each be studied alone and together in union. Despite virtues provided by the Vibrionaceae and sepiolid squid-Vibrio symbiosis, these assets to evolutionary biology have yet to be fully utilized for microbial experimental evolution. Experimental evolution studies already completed are reviewed, along with exploratory topics for future study. PMID:25538686