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Sample records for neonatal hypoglycemia prevalence

  1. Neonatal Hypoglycemia: Risk Factors and Outcomes.

    PubMed

    Stomnaroska, Orhideja; Petkovska, Elizabeta; Jancevska, Snezana; Danilovski, Dragan

    2017-03-01

    Severe neonatal hypoglycemia (HG) leads to neurologic damage, mental retardation, epilepsy, personality disorders, impaired cardiac performance and muscle weakness. We aimed to assess the clinical characteristics of children with hypoglycemia in a random population of newborns. We investigated 84 patients (M:F=35:48) born at the University Clinic for Gynecology and Obstetrics in Skopje (hospitalized in the NICU) who were found to have hypoglycemia. In total 89.25% of the babies were premature. The mean birth weight was 1795.95 +/596.08 grams, the mean birth length was 41.92+/- 4.62 cm, while the mean gestational age was 33.05±3.19 weeks. 32 children (38.08%) were very low birth weight (<1500g), 38 (45.22%) were low birth weight (1500-2500g), while there were 8 children (9.52%) appropriate for age BW and no high BW for age patients (>4000 g). HG duration was 2.42+/-2.41 hours. In the group as a whole, hypoxic-ischemic encephalopathy (HIE) was found in 3 children (3.57%), infections in 22 (26.18%), respiratory distress syndrome (RDS) in 9 patients (10.62%), intracranial haemorrhage in 2 patients (2.38%). There were no inborn errors of metabolism. There were two deaths (2.38%). Neonatal HG is a significant factor in the overall neonatal mortality. HG can also cause severe invalidity. We found that infections, LBW and low gestational age were most commonly associated with neonatal HG. However the Spearman test showed weak direct correlation, without statistical significance. Neonatal HG requires complex and team interaction of prenatal and postnatal approaches to reduce the incidence of seizures, their consequences and the overall mortality. Special consideration is to be taken in measures that avoid neonatal infections, HIE, LBW and low gestational age. Further studies on a larger population are needed to fully understand and prevent the phenomenon of HG in newborns.

  2. Approaches to the definition of neonatal hypoglycemia.

    PubMed

    Sinclair, J C

    1997-04-01

    There is no current agreement on the definition of neonatal hypoglycemia. Three different bases for the definition are presented, with a review of evidence of relevant to each approach. (1) Not commonly encountered; requires evidence of normal distribution of blood glucose concentrations. (2) Increased risk of adverse sequelae; requires evidence of short-term and long-term sequelae of different blood glucose concentrations. (3) Benefits of intervention outweigh risks; requires evidence from randomized trials of intervention. The usual distribution of neonatal blood glucose concentrations varies with birthweight, postnatal age, nutritional intake and other factors. Clinical signs occur in some but not all babies with low blood glucose concentrations, but such signs lack specificity. Abnormality in sensory evoked potentials is associated with variations in blood glucose concentrations; these changes suggest that values less than 2.6 mmol/L have acute effects in areas of the brain with high glucose demand. Among low birthweight babies, case series suggest a high risk of impairment (50%) following symptomatic hypoglycemia, and controlled studies generally confirm an association between very low neonatal blood glucose concentrations and adverse neurodevelopment. However, these studies do not establish a level of blood glucose concentration or duration of hypoglycemia that is critical. There are no reports of randomized trials that have assessed the effect on neurodevelopment of alternative policies of glucose provision in the neonatal period. There is a need for a randomized controlled trial to assess reliably the short- and long-term clinical effects of alternative policies of the clinical management of blood glucose concentration in babies at high risk both of low neonatal blood glucose concentrations and adverse neurodevelopment.

  3. [Persistent hyperinsulinemic hypoglycemia of the neonate].

    PubMed

    Maglajlić, Svjetlana; Jesić, Milos; Necić, Svetislav; Lukac, Marija; Sindjić, Sanja; Jesić, Maja; Vujović, Dragana

    2004-10-01

    Persistent hyperinsulinemic hypoglicemia of the neonate is a rare heterogenous disease (clinically, histologically, metabolically and genetically), which is characterized by inadequatly high insuline rates in the presence of severe hypoglicemia. Hyperinsulinism, rather a syndrome than a disease, of which the main metabolic feature is hypoglicemia and decreased concentration of free fatty acids and ketones in serum (insulin inhibits lypolisis and synthesizes ketonic bodies), presents a major diagnostic and therapeutic chalenge. The disease is often followed by brain atrophy contributed by the attacks of hypoglicemia. It is inherited as an autosomally recessive and autosomally dominant disease. The genetic defects is located on the short arm of the chromosome 11. The authors report a successfully applied conservative treatment in a neonate with persistent hyperinsulinemic hypoglicemia.

  4. Neonatal Hypoglycemia: A Continuing Debate in Definition and Management.

    PubMed

    Stomnaroska-Damcevski, Orhideja; Petkovska, Elizabeta; Jancevska, Snezana; Danilovski, Dragan

    2015-01-01

    Neonatal hypoglycemia (NH) is one of the most common abnormalities encountered in the newborn. Maintaining glucose homeostasis is one of the important physiological events during fetal-to-neonatal transition. Transient low blood glucose concentrations are frequently encountered in the majority of healthy newborns and are the reflections of normal metabolic adaptation processes. Nevertheless, there is a great concern that prolonged or recurrent low blood glucose levels may result in long-term neurological and developmental consequences. Strikingly, it was demonstrated that the incidence and timing of low glucose concentrations in the groups most at risk for asymptomatic neonatal hypoglycemia, did not find association between repetitive low glucose concentrations and poor neurodevelopmental outcomes. On the contrary, NH due to hyperinsulinism is strongly associated with brain injury. Fundamental issue of great professional controversy is concerning the best manner to manage asymptomatic newborns NH. Both, overtreating NH and undertreating NH are poles with significant potential disadvantages. Therefore, NH is one of the most important issues in the day-to-day practice. This article appraises the critical questions of definition (widely accepted blood glucose concentration: < 2.6 mmol/l or 47 mg/dl), follow-up ad management of NH.

  5. Hypoglycemia

    MedlinePlus

    Hypoglycemia means low blood glucose, or blood sugar. Your body needs glucose to have enough energy. After you eat, your blood ... hypoglycemia, and your blood sugar can be dangerously low. Signs include Hunger Shakiness Dizziness Confusion Difficulty speaking ...

  6. Hypoglycemia

    MedlinePlus

    ... double vision confusion seizures or convulsions loss of consciousness Kids who have nocturnal hypoglycemia may have bouts ... such as confusion, drowsiness, seizures, and loss of consciousness — may happen i f the hypoglycemia isn't ...

  7. Hypoglycemias.

    PubMed Central

    Service, F. J.

    1991-01-01

    Low plasma glucose concentrations that may or may not be sufficiently low to result in symptoms can be observed as a concomitant of several diverse diseases. Treatment of the primary underlying disorder usually alleviates the hypoglycemia. For patients whose primary symptom is that of hypoglycemia, it is essential to confirm that the plasma glucose concentration is low during the occurrence of symptoms. Symptoms that occur after meals usually are mild and rarely signify serious disease. With rare exceptions, hypoglycemia resulting in major symptoms occurs in the food-deprived state. Lower concentrations of plasma insulin and C-peptide and a concomitant low plasma glucose are major clues to a correct diagnosis. Images PMID:1877184

  8. Re-evaluating "transitional neonatal hypoglycemia": mechanism and implications for management

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    A Committee of the Pediatric Endocrine Society was recently formed to develop guidelines for evaluation and management of hypoglycemia in neonates, infants, and children. To aid in formulating recommendations for neonates, in this review, we analyzed available data on the brief period of hypoglycemi...

  9. Neonatal hypoglycemia: A wide range of electroclinical manifestations and seizure outcomes.

    PubMed

    Arhan, Ebru; Öztürk, Zeynep; Serdaroğlu, Ayşe; Aydın, Kürşad; Hirfanoğlu, Tuğba; Akbaş, Yılmaz

    2017-09-01

    We examined the various types of epilepsy in children with neonatal hypoglycemia in order to define electroclinical and prognostic features of these patients. We retrospectively reviewed the medical records of patients with a history of symptomatic neonatal hypoglycaemia who have been followed at Gazi University Hospital Pediatric Neurology Department between 2006 and 2015. Patients with perinatal asphyxia were excluded. Details of each patient's perinatal history, neurological outcome, epilepsy details, seizure outcome and EEG and brain MRI findings were reviewed. Fourty five patients (range 6 mo-15 y) with a history of symptomatic neonatal hypoglycaemia were included the study. Epilepsy developed in 36 patients and 23 of them had intractable epilepsy. All patients had occipital brain injury. We observed that most of the patients, either manifesting focal or generalized seizures, further develop intractable epilepsy. This finding establishes neonatal hypoglycemia as a possible cause to be considered in any case of intractable epilepsy. Copyright © 2017 European Paediatric Neurology Society. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Association of hypoglycemia, hypocalcemia and hypomagnesemia in neonates with perinatal asphyxia.

    PubMed

    Saha, D; Ali, M A; Haque, M A; Ahmed, M S; Sutradhar, P K; Latif, T; Sarkar, D; Husain, F

    2015-04-01

    The clinical evidence of neurological menifestations associated with asphyxia is described as hypoxic ischaemic encephalopathy (HIE). A variety of metabolic problems are present in asphyxiated newborns including hypoglycemia, hypocalcemia, hypomagnesemia and others metabolic abnormalities. Some of these biochemical disturbances may trigger seizure or potentiate further brain damage. This cross sectional case-control study was done in Mymensingh Medical College Hospital, to identify the association of hypoglycemia, hypocalcemia, hypomagnesemia in neonates with perinatal asphyxia. Study period was six months. Sample size was 60. Among total sample 30 term asphyxiated newborns of <24 hours age were case and equal number term healthy newborns <24 hours age were control. The main clinical presentations were delayed cry after birth along with respiratory distress, convulsion and absence of cry in asphyxiated newborns. Major physical findings were cyanosis, convulsion and tachypnoea in asphyxiated group. The mean value of serum calcium level was significantly lower in asphyxiated newborns (7.37 ± 0.10mg/dl) than control value (8.04±0.09mg/dl). Hypocalcemia was found among 23.33% babies in case group. On the contrary, hypocalcemia was found in single baby among control group. The mean value of serum magnesium was significantly lower in asphyxiated newborns (1.83 ± 0.04mg/dl) than control value (1.96 ± 0.05mg/dl). Hypomagnesemia was found among 3(10%) newborns but none was found among control group. Hypoglycemia was found in 7(23.33%) cases though the mean value of blood glucose was higher in case group (5.72 ± 0.62mmol/l) than control group (4.87 ± 0.15mmol/l) difference was not statistically significant. Combined hypoglycemia, hypocalcemia and hypomagnesemia were found in 1(3.33%) case; combined hypoglycemia and hypocalcemia were found in 2(6.67%) cases; and combined hypocalcemia and hypomagnesemia were found in 1(3.33%) case. During the study period, 3(10.0%) cases

  11. Reported hypoglycemia in Type 2 diabetes mellitus patients: Prevalence and practices-a hospital-based study

    PubMed Central

    Shriraam, Vanishree; Mahadevan, Shriraam; Anitharani, M.; Jagadeesh, Nalini Sirala; Kurup, Sreelekha Bhaskara; Vidya, T. A.; Seshadri, Krishna G.

    2017-01-01

    Introduction: Hypoglycemia tops the list of hurdles in preventing tight glycemic control in diabetic patients. It is even considered as a cardiovascular risk factor. However, it continues to be a neglected complication with very limited epidemiological data in our country. Aim: To study the self-reported prevalence of hypoglycemia among type 2 diabetic patients and the practices adopted by them during and after the episodes to manage and avert future occurrences. Materials and Methods: It is a questionnaire-based cross-sectional study done using systematic random sampling selecting every 5th patient attending the diabetic Out-Patient (OP) in a tertiary medical college hospital. Results: There were 366 participants with median age of 60 years. Around 96% reported any one symptom of hypoglycemia, but 78% had eaten following the episode and got relieved of the symptoms. Weakness (76.2%) and dizziness (74%) were the most common symptoms reported by the patients. A quarter of them reported having severe attacks requiring somebody's assistance. Most patients resorted to timely meals (85%) to avert future attacks. Patients who took insulin along with oral hypoglycemic agents (OHAs) were at a higher risk (OR = 2.3) for hypoglycemia compared to patients taking only OHAs (P < 0.01). Conclusion: The reported prevalence of hypoglycemia among type 2 diabetes patients is quite high. This finding reiterates the importance of enquiring and educating every diabetic patient about hypoglycemic episodes during every health visit. PMID:28217515

  12. What Happens to Blood Glucose Concentrations After Oral Treatment for Neonatal Hypoglycemia?

    PubMed

    Harris, Deborah L; Gamble, Greg D; Weston, Philip J; Harding, Jane E

    2017-07-11

    To determine the change in blood glucose concentration after oral treatment of infants with hypoglycemia in the first 48 hours after birth. We analyzed data from 227 infants with hypoglycemia (blood glucose <46.8 mg/dL, 2.6 mmol/L) born at a tertiary hospital who experienced 295 episodes of hypoglycemia. Blood glucose concentrations were measured (glucose oxidase) within 90 minutes after randomization to dextrose or placebo gel plus feeding with formula, expressed breast milk, or breast feeding. The overall mean increase in blood glucose concentration was 11.7 mg/dL (95% CI 10.4-12.8). The increase was greater after buccal dextrose gel than after placebo gel (+3.0 mg/dL; 95% CI 0.7-5.3; P = .01) and greater after infant formula than after other feedings (+3.8 mg/dL; 95% CI 0.8-6.7; P = .01). The increase in blood glucose concentration was not affected by breast feeding (+2.0 mg/dL; 95% CI -0.3 to 44.2; P = .09) or expressed breast milk (-1.4 mg/dL; 95% CI -3.7 to 0.9; P = .25). However, breast feeding was associated with reduced requirement for repeat gel treatment (OR = 0.52; 95% CI 0.28-0.94; P = .03). Treatment of infants with hypoglycemia with dextrose gel or formula is associated with increased blood glucose concentration and breast feeding with reduced need for further treatment. Dextrose gel and breast feeding should be considered for first-line oral treatment of infants with hypoglycemia. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Outcome at 2 Years after Dextrose Gel Treatment for Neonatal Hypoglycemia: Follow-Up of a Randomized Trial.

    PubMed

    Harris, Deborah L; Alsweiler, Jane M; Ansell, Judith M; Gamble, Gregory D; Thompson, Benjamin; Wouldes, Trecia A; Yu, Tzu-Ying; Harding, Jane E

    2016-03-01

    To determine neurodevelopmental outcome at 2 years' corrected age in children randomized to treatment with dextrose gel or placebo for hypoglycemia soon after birth (The Sugar Babies Study). This was a follow-up study of 184 children with hypoglycemia (<2.6 mM [47 mg/dL]) in the first 48 hours and randomized to either dextrose (90/118, 76%) or placebo gel (94/119, 79%). Assessments were performed at Kahikatea House, Hamilton, New Zealand, and included neurologic function and general health (pediatrician assessed), cognitive, language, behavior, and motor skills (Bayley Scales of Infant and Toddler Development, Third Edition), executive function (clinical assessment and Behaviour Rating Inventory of Executive Function-Preschool Edition), and vision (clinical examination and global motion perception). Coprimary outcomes were neurosensory impairment (cognitive, language or motor score below -1 SD or cerebral palsy or blind or deaf) and processing difficulty (executive function or global motion perception worse than 1.5 SD from the mean). Statistical tests were two sided with 5% significance level. Mean (± SD) birth weight was 3093 ± 803 g and mean gestation was 37.7 ± 1.6 weeks. Sixty-six children (36%) had neurosensory impairment (1 severe, 6 moderate, 59 mild) with similar rates in both groups (dextrose 38% vs placebo 34%, relative risk 1.11, 95% CI 0.75-1.63). Processing difficulty also was similar between groups (dextrose 10% vs placebo 18%, relative risk 0.52, 95% CI 0.23-1.15). Dextrose gel is safe for the treatment of neonatal hypoglycemia, but neurosensory impairment is common among these children. Australian New Zealand Clinical Trials Registry: ACTRN 12608000623392. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Prevalence, severity, and predictors of symptoms of dumping and hypoglycemia after Roux-en-Y gastric bypass.

    PubMed

    Nielsen, Joan Bach; Pedersen, Ane Matilde; Gribsholt, Sigrid Bjerge; Svensson, Elisabeth; Richelsen, Bjørn

    Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (RYGB) results in pronounced weight loss in morbidly obese patients but may also cause adverse effects like early dumping and hypoglycemia. Prevalence data on these complications and their potential predictors are sparse. To assess the prevalence and possible predictors of early dumping and hypoglycemia in a population-based cohort of RYGB patients. University Hospital, Denmark. A questionnaire survey was performed in the Central Denmark Region including RYGB-operated patients (years 2006-2011, n = 2238) and a nonoperated comparison cohort (n = 89). The Dumping Rating Scale and the Edinburgh Hypoglycemia Scoring System, together with demographic and clinical characteristics, were used, and possible predictors were examined by logistic regression. The response rate was 64% (1429/2238). In total, 9.4% (134/1429) and 6.6% (95/1429) experienced moderate or severe symptoms of early dumping and hypoglycemia, respectively, which were significantly higher than in the comparison cohort. Because 3.4% (95% CI: 2.5-4.4) of the RYGB group experienced both early dumping and hypoglycemia, the total prevalence of 1 or both conditions was 12.6 (95% CI 10.9-14.4). Possible predictors for both conditions were body mass index (BMI)<25 kg/m(2) (odds ratio [OR] 1.70 (95% CI: 0.98-2.95) and OR 1.60 (95% CI: .83-3.06), respectively) compared with patients with BMI 25-30 kg/m(2). Younger age seemed to increase the risk of both conditions (<35 yr: OR 1.75 (95% CI: 1.11-2.75) and OR .59 (95% CI: .93-2.72), respectively) compared with patients>45 years. Symptoms of early dumping and hypoglycemia were rather common with a prevalence of 1 or both conditions of 12.6% after RYGB. Predictors included younger age and a lower BMI. Copyright © 2016 American Society for Bariatric Surgery. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Outcome at two years after dextrose gel treatment for neonatal hypoglycemia; Follow up of a randomized trial

    PubMed Central

    Harris, Deborah L; Alsweiler, Jane M; Ansell, Judith M; Gamble, Greg D; Thompson, Ben; Wouldes, Trecia A; Yu, Tzu-Ying; Harding, Jane E

    2015-01-01

    Objective To determine neurodevelopmental outcome at two years’ corrected age in children randomized to treatment with dextrose gel or placebo for hypoglycemia soon after birth (The Sugar Babies Study). Study design This was a follow-up study of 184 children who had been hypoglycemic (< 2.6mM [45 mg/dL]) in the first 48 hours and randomized to either dextrose (90/118, 76%) or placebo gel (94/119, 79%). Assessments were performed at Kahikatea House, Hamilton, New Zealand, and included neurological function and general health (Pediatrician assessed), cognitive, language, behaviour and motor skills (Bayley-III), executive function (clinical assessment and BRIEF-P), and vision (clinical examination and global motion perception). Co-primary outcomes were neurosensory impairment (cognitive, language or motor score below −1 SD or cerebral palsy or blind or deaf) and processing difficulty (executive function or global motion perception worse than 1.5 SD from the mean). Statistical tests were two sided with 5% significance level. Results Mean (±SD) birth weight was 3093 ± 803 g and mean gestation was 37.7 ±1.6 weeks. Sixty-six children (36%) had neurosensory impairment (1 severe, 6 moderate, 59 mild) with similar rates in both groups (dextrose 38% vs. placebo 34%, RR 1.11, 95% CI 0.75–1.63). Processing difficulty was also similar between groups (dextrose 10% vs. placebo 18%, RR 0.52, 95% CI 0.23–1.15). Conclusions Dextrose gel is safe for treatment of neonatal hypoglycemia, but neurosensory impairment is common amongst these children. PMID:26613985

  16. Accuracy of the StatStrip versus SureStep Flexx glucose meter in neonates at risk of hypoglycemia.

    PubMed

    Kitsommart, Ratchada; Ngerncham, Sopapan; Wongsiridej, Pimol; Kolatat, Tharatip; Jirapaet, Kriang-Sak; Paes, Bosco

    2013-09-01

    The study was performed to evaluate the accuracy of the StatStrip (SS) and SureStep Flexx (SF) glucose meters compared to plasma glucose in infants at risk for neonatal hypoglycemia and to determine the effect of bilirubin and hematocrit on the results. A prospective cross-sectional study was conducted on 172 venous blood glucose samples from infants who had initial low point-of-care (POC) glucose tests measured simultaneously by SS and SF. Plasma glucose levels were compared to both POC instruments, and the effect of bilirubin and hematocrit levels on mean glucose differences were analysed. Mean (SD) plasma glucose was 2.12 (0.45) mmol/L; (range, 1.11-3.06 mmol/L). Mean (1.96SD) glucose differences of the SS versus SF were 0.21 (0.70) mmol/L and -0.04 (0.78) mmol/L, respectively. SS sensitivity was 94.7 % with an 86.1 % negative predictive value (NPV) at 2.8 mmol/L, while the SF had a 100 % sensitivity and NPV at the same cut-off level. No correlations were identified between mean glucose differences and either hematocrit or bilirubin levels in both glucose meters. Both the SS and SF glucose meters have limited use when compared to plasma glucose. Hence, they can only be employed as screening tools in at-risk neonates with an appropriate, predetermined cut-off level. Hematocrit and bilirubin levels did not affect the accuracy of both devices.

  17. Prevalence of Stroke in Neonates Who Admitted With Seizures in Neonatal Intensive Care Unit

    PubMed Central

    FARHADI, Roya; ALAEE, Abdolrasool; ALIPOUR, Zahra; ABBASKHANIAN, Ali; NAKHSHAB, Maryam; DERAKHSHANFAR, Hojjat

    2015-01-01

    Objective Prevalence of neonatal stroke has been reported 1/2300-1/4000 live births and accounts for 12-20% of the cases of neonatal seizures. Although stroke has been introduced as the second cause of the neonatal seizures in literatures, it may remain unclear in diagnostic evaluations of seizure in neonates. This study was performed to assess the prevalence of stroke in neonates with seizure. Materials & Methods In this cross-sectional study, all neonates ≥ 28 weeks of gestation with a diagnosis of seizures admitted to the NICU of Boo-Ali Sina Hospital in Sari, north of Iran, were enrolled. Brain CT scan and a Transcranial Doppler ultrasonography were performed for the all cases. In cases that stroke were reported in one or two above modalities, an MRI was also performed and prevalence of stroke was reported. Putative risk factors of stroke were analyzed with univariate and multivariate statistical methods. Results From 174 newborn infants, 75.3% of neonates were male. Prevalence of stroke was 8%, 2.3% and 3.4% in Doppler ultrasonography, CT scan and MRI reports respectively. Umbilical venous catheterization was the risk factor of stroke in the univariate and multivariate analysis (P= 0.001; OR, 10.39; 95% CI, 2.72- 39.77). The most common form of seizure was focal clonic seizures (78.6%) in neonates with stroke. Conclusion Investigation of stroke as an etiology of neonatal seizures is essential because seizure may be the only symptom of neonatal cerebral infarction. Doppler ultrasonography can be a valuable diagnostic tool at first in critically ill neonates or in situations that MRI is not available primarily. Further studies with notice to outcome assessment of these infants recommended. PMID:26664440

  18. Diabetic Hypoglycemia

    MedlinePlus

    ... hypoglycemia can lead to seizures and loss of consciousness — a medical emergency. Rarely, it can be deadly. ... workers know what to do. If you lose consciousness or can't swallow: You shouldn't be ...

  19. Recommendations from the Pediatric Endocrine Society for evaluation and management of persistent hypoglycemia in neonates, infants, and children

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    During the first 24-48 hours of life, as normal neonates transition from intrauterine to extrauterine life, their plasma glucose (PG) concentrations are typically lower than later in life. Published guidelines for screening at-risk newborns and managing low PG concentrations in neonates focus on the...

  20. Low Blood Glucose (Hypoglycemia)

    MedlinePlus

    ... Dental Problems Diabetes & Sexual & Urologic Problems Low Blood Glucose (Hypoglycemia) What is hypoglycemia? Hypoglycemia, also called low ... actions can also help prevent hypoglycemia: Check blood glucose levels Knowing your blood glucose level can help ...

  1. Clinical signs, profound acidemia, hypoglycemia, and hypernatremia are predictive of mortality in 1,400 critically ill neonatal calves with diarrhea

    PubMed Central

    Lorenz, Ingrid; Lorch, Annette; Constable, Peter D.

    2017-01-01

    Profound acidemia impairs cellular and organ function and consequently should be associated with an increased risk of mortality in critically ill humans and animals. Neonatal diarrhea in calves can result in potentially serious metabolic derangements including profound acidemia due to strong ion (metabolic) acidosis, hyper-D-lactatemia, hyper-L-lactatemia, azotemia, hypoglycemia, hyperkalemia and hyponatremia. The aim of this retrospective study was to assess the prognostic relevance of clinical and laboratory findings in 1,400 critically ill neonatal calves with diarrhea admitted to a veterinary teaching hospital. The mortality rate was 22%. Classification tree analysis indicated that mortality was associated with clinical signs of neurologic disease, abdominal emergencies, cachexia, orthopedic problems such as septic arthritis, and profound acidemia (jugular venous blood pH < 6.85). When exclusively considering laboratory parameters, classification tree analysis identified plasma glucose concentrations < 3.2 mmol/L, plasma sodium concentrations ≥ 151 mmol/L, serum GGT activity < 31 U/L and a thrombocyte count < 535 G/L as predictors of mortality. However, multivariable logistic regression models based on these laboratory parameters did not have a sufficiently high enough sensitivity (59%) and specificity (79%) to reliably predict treatment outcome. The sensitivity and specificity of jugular venous blood pH < 6.85 were 11% and 97%, respectively, for predicting non-survival in this study population. We conclude that laboratory values (except jugular venous blood pH < 6.85) are of limited value for predicting outcome in critically ill neonatal calves with diarrhea. In contrast, the presence of specific clinical abnormalities provides valuable prognostic information. PMID:28817693

  2. Neonatal respiratory distress in a reference neonatal unit in Cameroon: an analysis of prevalence, predictors, etiologies and outcomes.

    PubMed

    Tochie, Joel Noutakdie; Choukem, Simeon-Pierre; Langmia, Regina Ndasi; Barla, Esther; Koki-Ndombo, Paul

    2016-01-01

    Neonatal respiratory distress (NRD) is a main cause of neonatal morbidity and mortality in developing countries. Early detection of its risk factors and early treatment of its etiologies are major challenges. However, few studies in developing countries have provided data needed to tackle it. We aimed to determine the prevalence, predictors, etiologies and outcome of NRD in a tertiary health care centre of Cameroon. We analyzed the hospital files of all newborns admitted to the Neonatal unit of Douala General Hospital from 1(st) January 2011 to 28(th) February 2013. NRD was diagnosed based on the presence of one or more of the following signs: an abnormal respiratory rate, expiratory grunting, nasal flaring, chest wall recessions and thoraco-abdominal asynchrony with or without cyanosis, in their files. Socio-demographic and clinical variables of newborns and their mothers were analyzed using logistic regression analysis. The prevalence of NRD was 47.5% out of the 703 newborns studied. Acute fetal distress, elective caesarean delivery, APGAR score < 7 at the 1(st) minute, prematurity, male gender and macrosomia were independent predictors of NRD. The main etiologies were neonatal infections (31%) and transient tachypnea of the newborn (25%). Its neonatal mortality rate was 24.5%, mainly associated with neonatal sepsis and hyaline membrane disease. NRD is a frequent emergency and causes high morbidity and mortality. Most of its risk factors and etiologies are preventable. Adequate follow-up of pregnancy and labor for timely intervention may improve the neonatal outcomes.

  3. PEPCK-C reexpression in the liver counters neonatal hypoglycemia in Pck1 (del/del) mice, unmasking role in non-gluconeogenic tissues.

    PubMed

    Semakova, Jana; Hyroššová, Petra; Méndez-Lucas, Andrés; Cutz, Ernest; Bermudez, Jordi; Burgess, Shawn; Alcántara, Soledad; Perales, José C

    2017-02-01

    Whole body cytosolic phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase knockout (PEPCK-C KO) mice die early after birth with profound hypoglycemia therefore masking the role of PEPCK-C in adult, non-gluconeogenic tissues where it is expressed. To investigate whether PEPCK-C deletion in the liver was critically responsible for the hypoglycemic phenotype, we reexpress this enzyme in the liver of PEPCK-C KO pups by early postnatal administration of PEPCK-C-expressing adenovirus. This maneuver was sufficient to partially rescue hypoglycemia and allow the pups to survive and identifies the liver as a critical organ, and hypoglycemia as the critical pathomechanism, leading to early postnatal death in the whole-body PEPCK-C knockout mice. Pathology assessment of survivors also suggest a possible role for PEPCK-C in lung maturation and muscle metabolism.

  4. What Is Hypoglycemia?

    MedlinePlus

    ... hypoglycemia are caused when the body releases extra adrenaline (epinephrine), a hormone that raises blood sugar levels, into ... to protect against hypoglycemia. High blood levels of adrenaline can make the skin become pale and sweaty, ...

  5. Hypoglycemia: The neglected complication

    PubMed Central

    Kalra, Sanjay; Mukherjee, Jagat Jyoti; Venkataraman, Subramanium; Bantwal, Ganapathi; Shaikh, Shehla; Saboo, Banshi; Das, Ashok Kumar; Ramachandran, Ambady

    2013-01-01

    Hypoglycemia is an important complication of glucose-lowering therapy in patients with diabetes mellitus. Attempts made at intensive glycemic control invariably increases the risk of hypoglycemia. A six-fold increase in deaths due to diabetes has been attributed to patients experiencing severe hypoglycemia in comparison to those not experiencing severe hypoglycemia Repeated episodes of hypoglycemia can lead to impairment of the counter-regulatory system with the potential for development of hypoglycemia unawareness. The short- and long-term complications of diabetes related hypoglycemia include precipitation of acute cerebrovascular disease, myocardial infarction, neurocognitive dysfunction, retinal cell death and loss of vision in addition to health-related quality of life issues pertaining to sleep, driving, employment, recreational activities involving exercise and travel. There is an urgent need to examine the clinical spectrum and burden of hypoglycemia so that adequate control measures can be implemented against this neglected life-threatening complication. Early recognition of hypoglycemia risk factors, self-monitoring of blood glucose, selection of appropriate treatment regimens with minimal or no risk of hypoglycemia and appropriate educational programs for healthcare professionals and patients with diabetes are the major ways forward to maintain good glycemic control, minimize the risk of hypoglycemia and thereby prevent long-term complications. PMID:24083163

  6. Hypoglycemia education needs.

    PubMed

    Sutton, Leslie; Chapman-Novakofski, Karen

    2011-09-01

    Because more than half of those participating in a community-based diabetes session expressed experience with hypoglycemia, we sought additional information by conducting focus groups before developing programs or materials for educational support. The objectives of these focus groups were to determine how and to what extent hypoglycemia affected people, and what, if any, methods were used to prevent or treat the condition, to better target education in the future. Four focus groups were held using a tiered discussion script with a moderator and comoderator. Discussions were audiotaped, transcribed, and analyzed by content by independent researchers. Five themes emerged from the discussions: friends, family, and neighbors need hypoglycemia education as well as individuals themselves; leaving home is a concern if you experience hypoglycemia; overeating occurs when treating hypoglycemia; routine is important; and hypoglycemia is a limitation. We found that hypoglycemia had a significant impact on the participants' quality of life.

  7. High prevalence of early language delay exists among toddlers with neonatal brachial plexus palsy.

    PubMed

    Chang, Kate Wan-Chu; Yang, Lynda J-S; Driver, Lynn; Nelson, Virginia S

    2014-09-01

    An association of language impairment with neonatal brachial plexus palsy has not been reported in the literature. The current treatment paradigm for neonatal brachial plexus palsy focuses on upper extremity motor recovery with little formal assessment of other aspects of development, such as language. We performed a cross-sectional pilot study to investigate early language delay prevalence in toddlers with neonatal brachial plexus palsy and potential neonatal brachial plexus palsy-related factors involved. Twenty toddlers with neonatal brachial plexus palsy were consecutively recruited (12 males and eight females; mean age, 30 months). Preschool Language Scale Score (4th edition), demographics, and socioeconomic status were collected. Neonatal brachial plexus palsy-related factors such as palsy side, treatment type, Narakas grade, muscle Medical Research Council score, and Raimondi hand score were reported. Student t test, chi-square test, or Fisher exact test were applied. Statistical significance level was established at P < 0.05. Of study participants, 30% had language delay, whereas the prevalence of language delay in the population with normal development in this age range was approximately 5-15%. We observed high language delay prevalence among toddlers with neonatal brachial plexus palsy. Although our subject sample is small, our findings warrant further study of this phenomenon. Early identification and timely intervention based on type of language impairment may be critical for improving communication outcome in this population. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. [Ketotic hypoglycemia in children].

    PubMed

    Matthieu, Jean-Marie; Boulat, Olivier

    2002-12-01

    Idiopathic ketotic hypoglycemia is the most frequent cause of hypoglycemia in children between 1 and 5 years of age. The symptoms and signs of hypoglycemia are often overlooked because they mimic signs of other common diseases like psychiatric disorders, migraine, gastro-enterological dysfunction, or visual disturbances. Glycemia and ketone bodies in the urine should be systematically investigated in such cases. Because hypoglycemia is a life-threatening event and can lead to severe neurological sequelae, intravenous administration of glucose is mandatory. These children respond promptly to glucose. Infants with normal growth and psychomotor development, normal physical examination who present with a first episode of symptomatic fasting hypoglycemia and elevated ketonuria, and who improve quickly after intravenous glucose administration, do not need a comprehensive metabolic and endocrine workup. Recurrence of hypoglycemic attacks can be prevented by supplying frequent snacks containing complex carbohydrates, so called "slow sugars", particularly at bed-time. Other causes of ketotic hypoglycemia are briefly presented.

  9. Natal and neonatal teeth: a systematic review of prevalence and management.

    PubMed

    Kana, A; Markou, L; Arhakis, A; Kotsanos, N

    2013-03-01

    The purpose of this systematic review was to identify and review the literature concerning natal and neonatal teeth. The literature search was conducted using several databases. Specific terms were used in the search, which includes articles from 1950 to 2011, supplementary searching by hand was also used. Relevant studies were selected according to predetermined inclusion criteria. Studies meeting the inclusion criteria were only found with regards to prevalence and management of natal and neonatal teeth. Prevalence ranged from near 0 to 1:10 while extraction or maintenance of teeth comprised the management options. There is significant need for further research, under specific scientific preconditions, to provide an evidence-based treatment for patients and to determine the prevalence of natal and neonatal teeth more precisely.

  10. Outstanding Prevalence of Methicillin Resistant Staphylococcus aureus in Neonatal Omphalitis

    PubMed Central

    Sengupta, Mallika; Banerjee, Pritam; Guchhait, Partha

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Omphalitis is the infection of the umbilical cord stump, which can lead to septicaemia and significant neonatal morbidity and mortality. Very little data is available on the aetiology of neonatal omphalitis in India. Aim To identify the causative agents of omphalitis in neonates and determine the antimicrobial susceptibility patterns of the isolates. Materials and Methods A prospective study was conducted at ESI-PGIMSR and ESIC Medical College, Joka, a tertiary care teaching hospital in Eastern India for a period of four months (from 1st January 2016 to 30th April 2016). Neonates were screened for omphalitis on the basis of presence of pus and redness for inclusion. Clinical examination, Gram stain and culture of umbilical discharge, identification of organisms by biochemical tests and VITEK 2 Compact (bioMereiux Inc., France) was done. Antimicrobial susceptibility by Kirby Bauer disc diffusion method and E-strip agar diffusion method (for vancomycin and teicoplanin) were performed and interpreted according to the Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute (CLSI) guidelines version 2015. Results A total of 623 neonates were screened, among whom 21 (3.37%) were positive for our screening criteria for omphalitis. Cultures from the exudates of those cases yielded growth of Staphylococcus aureus in 19 (90.47%) samples, all of which were found to be methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA). Resistance to erythromycin was seen among 36.82% isolates and inducible clindamycin resistance was seen among 31.57% isolates of Staphylococcus aureus. Conclusion MRSA can be the most common cause of omphalitis. However, this finding needs to be evaluated in larger prospective studies. PMID:27790440

  11. Persistent hyperinsulinemic hypoglycemia of infancy: An overview of current concepts

    PubMed Central

    Goel, Prabudh; Choudhury, Subhasis Roy

    2012-01-01

    Persistent hyperinsulinemic hypoglycemia of infancy (PHHI) is relatively rare but one of the most important causes of severe neonatal hypoglycemia. Recognition of this entity becomes important due to the fact that the hypoglycemia is so severe and frequent that it may lead to severe neurological damage in the infant manifesting as mental or psychomotor retardation or even a life-threatening event if not recognized and treated effectively in time. Near-total pancreatectomy may be required for patients with intractable hypoglycemia despite medical treatment; however, that may result in diabetes mellitus or recurrent postoperative hypoglycemia. This review aims to consolidate the traditional concepts and current information related to the pathogenesis and management of PHHI. PMID:22869973

  12. The prevalence of congenital malaria among neonates with suspected sepsis in Calabar, Nigeria.

    PubMed

    Ekanem, A D; Anah, M U; Udo, J J

    2008-04-01

    We studied the prevalence of congenital malaria among neonates with suspected sepsis and its outcome at the University of Calabar Teaching Hospital, Calabar, Nigeria. All in-born neonates admitted to the newborn unit with clinical features suggestive of sepsis were recruited. They were screened for bacterial sepsis and malaria. The mothers of the neonates that had parasitaemia were further screened for malaria and anaemia. A total of 546 in-born neonates were admitted to the neonatal unit and 202 (37%) presented with clinical signs suggested of sepsis. Of these, 71 babies (35% of 202 or 13% of the total in-born nursery admissions) had congenital malaria and 14 also had sepsis. Sixty-three (88.7%) of the parasitaemic babies were delivered by mothers who received antenatal care at our centre. Eighty-six percent of the mothers of the 71 babies also had the malaria parasite in their blood. The majority (67%) of the 71 mothers were gravidae 2 and below. Thirty (42.3%) of the affected neonates were anaemic and 5 (7%) of them required a blood transfusion. Congenital malarial is not uncommon in Calabar among babies with suspected sepsis. It appears that the antenatal chemoprophylaxis with pyrimethamine (25 mg weekly) currently used for malaria in our centre no longer protects the mother and fetus. An alternative is needed in order to stem maternal, fetal and neonatal morbidity and wastage. Babies with features of sepsis should be routinely screened for malaria.

  13. Prevalence and characterization of neonatal skin disorders in the first 72h of life.

    PubMed

    Reginatto, Flávia Pereira; DeVilla, Damie; Muller, Fernanda M; Peruzzo, Juliano; Peres, Letícia P; Steglich, Raquel B; Cestari, Tania F

    To determine the prevalence of neonatal dermatological findings and analyze whether there is an association between these findings and neonatal and pregnancy characteristics and seasonality. Newborns from three maternity hospitals in a Brazilian capital city were randomly selected to undergo dermatological assessment by dermatologists. 2938 neonates aged up to three days of life were randomly selected, of whom 309 were excluded due to Intensive Care Unit admission. Of the 2530 assessed neonates, 49.6% were Caucasians, 50.5% were males, 57.6% were born by vaginal delivery, and 92.5% of the mothers received prenatal care. Some dermatological finding was observed in 95.8% of neonates; of these, 88.6% had transient neonatal skin conditions, 42.6% had congenital birthmarks, 26.8% had some benign neonatal pustulosis, 2% had lesions secondary to trauma (including scratches), 0.5% had skin malformations, and 0.1% had an infectious disease. The most prevalent dermatological findings were: lanugo, which was observed in 38.9% of the newborns, sebaceous hyperplasia (35%), dermal melanocytosis (24.61%), skin desquamation (23.3%), erythema toxicum neonatorum (23%), salmon patch (20.4%), skin erythema (19%), genital hyperpigmentation (18.4%), eyelid edema (17.4%), milia (17.3%), genital hypertrophy (12%), and skin xerosis (10.9%). Dermatological findings are frequent during the first days of life and some of them characterize the newborn's skin. Mixed-race newborns and those whose mothers had some gestational risk factor had more dermatological findings. The gestational age, newborn's ethnicity, gender, Apgar at the first and fifth minutes of life, type of delivery, and seasonality influenced the presence of specific neonatal dermatological findings. Copyright © 2016 Sociedade Brasileira de Pediatria. Published by Elsevier Editora Ltda. All rights reserved.

  14. Prevalence of sickle cell disease and sickle cell trait in national neonatal screening studies

    PubMed Central

    Lervolino, Luciana Garcia; Baldin, Paulo Eduardo Almeida; Picado, Silvia Miguéis; Calil, Karina Barreto; Viel, Ana Amélia; Campos, Luiz Alexandre Freixo

    2011-01-01

    Sickle cell anemia is the best known hereditary blood disorder; there are serious complications associated with the condition. Diagnosis and early intervention reduce morbidity and mortality. These benefits have resulted in the widespread use of newborn screening education programs. In Brazil, the National Neonatal Screening Program established by decree 822/01 included sickle cell disease in the list of diseases tested in the so called "heel prick test". Since then, national studies of the results of this program have been periodically published. To review the literature in order to assess the prevalence of sickle cell trait and sickle cell anemia from data of national neonatal screening studies on hemoglobin S (Hb S). A bibliographic review was carried out using the key words: sickle cell anemia & hemoglobinopathies & neonatal screening & Brazil in the Bireme and SciELO databases. Original Brazilian studies presenting data on prevalence of the sickle cell trait (Hb AS) and sickle cell anemia (Hb SS) based on neonatal screening for Hb S were analysed. Twelve original national studies were identified with prevalences varying from 1.1% to 9.8% for the sickle cell trait and from 0.8 to 60 per 100,000 live births for sickle cell disease in different Brazilian regions. Conclusion: Neonatal screening for Hb S is a very useful method to assess the prevalence of sickle cell trait (Hb AS) and sickle cell anemia (Hb SS) in Brazil. There is a heterogeneous distribution of this disease with the highest prevalence in the northeastern region and the lowest prevalence in the south. PMID:23284244

  15. [Adrenal carcinoma induced hypoglycemia].

    PubMed

    Soutelo, Jimena; Saban, Melina; Borghi Torzillo, Florencia; Lutfi, Ruben; Leal Reyna, Mariela

    2013-01-01

    Adrenal carcinoma is a rare malignancy of poor prognosis. The most common clinical presentation is secondary to hormone production, while the development of symptomatic hypoglycemia is exceptional. We report the case of a 37 year old-woman admitted to hospital with severe hypoglycemia, hypertension, hypokalemia and amenorrhea. In the laboratory we found hypoglycemia, with low insulin levels, and androgen levels in tumor range. CT of abdomen and pelvis showed a heterogeneous lesion of solid appearance without a cleavage plane relative to liver parenchyma, and intense contrast enhancement. Retroperitoneal mass was removed, and the patient evolved without complications, blood glucose and potassium were normalized, blood pressure stabilized and menstrual cycles recovered.

  16. Technology to Reduce Hypoglycemia.

    PubMed

    Yeoh, Ester; Choudhary, Pratik

    2015-07-01

    Hypoglycemia is a major barrier toward achieving glycemic targets and is associated with significant morbidity (both psychological and physical) and mortality. This article reviews technological strategies, from simple to more advanced technologies, which may help prevent or mitigate exposure to hypoglycemia. More efficient insulin delivery systems, bolus advisor calculators, data downloads providing information on glucose trends, continuous glucose monitoring with alarms warning of hypoglycemia, predictive algorithms, and finally closed loop insulin delivery systems are reviewed. The building blocks to correct use and interpretation of this range of available technology require patient education and appropriate patient selection.

  17. Diabetes, Dementia and Hypoglycemia.

    PubMed

    Meneilly, Graydon S; Tessier, Daniel M

    2016-02-01

    We are experiencing an epidemic of both diabetes and dementia among older adults in this country. The risk for dementia appears to be increased in patients with diabetes, and patients with dementia and diabetes appear to be at greater risk for severe hypoglycemia. In addition, there may be an increased risk for developing dementia by older patients with diabetes who have had episodes of severe hypoglycemia, although this issue is controversial. In this article, we review the factors that contribute to the increased risk for dementia in older adults with diabetes and outline the complex relationships between hypoglycemia and dementia. Copyright © 2015 Canadian Diabetes Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Technology to Reduce Hypoglycemia

    PubMed Central

    Yeoh, Ester; Choudhary, Pratik

    2015-01-01

    Hypoglycemia is a major barrier toward achieving glycemic targets and is associated with significant morbidity (both psychological and physical) and mortality. This article reviews technological strategies, from simple to more advanced technologies, which may help prevent or mitigate exposure to hypoglycemia. More efficient insulin delivery systems, bolus advisor calculators, data downloads providing information on glucose trends, continuous glucose monitoring with alarms warning of hypoglycemia, predictive algorithms, and finally closed loop insulin delivery systems are reviewed. The building blocks to correct use and interpretation of this range of available technology require patient education and appropriate patient selection. PMID:25883167

  19. Prevalence and outcomes of thrombocytopenia in a neonatal intensive care unit.

    PubMed

    Dahmane Ayadi, Imene; Ben Hamida, Emira; Youssef, Asma; Sdiri, Yosra; Marrakchi, Zahra

    2016-04-01

    Background Thrombocytopenia is a common clinical problem in neonatal intensive care units, affecting about 20 to 35% of all admitted neonates. Even most episodes are mild or moderate, severe episodes could be life-threatening or responsible for sequelae. Objectives The aims of this study were to describe the prevalence, clinical diagnoses, and to determine risk factors for poor prognosis of thrombocytopenia in a neonatal intensive care unit. Methods We carried out a retrospective study in the neonatal intensive care unit of Charles Nicolle Hospital of Tunis, a tertiary neonatal care center, over a four years period (January 2010 to December 2013). All Neonates with at least one episode of confirmed thrombocytopenia were included. Poor prognosis was defined as death or intraventricular hemorrhage ≥ grade 2 in survivors. Results Of 808 admitted neonates, one hundred (12.4%) had presented at least one episode of confirmed thrombocytopenia, and 12 had presented two episodes of thrombocytopenia. A total of 112 episodes of thrombocytopenia were collected. Thrombocytopenia occurred in the first 3 days of life in 74.1% of cases. Thrombocytopenia was mild in 22.3%, moderate in 36.7% and severe in 41%. Intrauterine growth restriction was the most common cause of early thrombocytopenia. Nosocomial sepsis was the most common cause of late thrombocytopenia. We found that the outcomes of thrombocytopenic neonates depend on, birth weight, gestational age, platelet count, and the underlying cause. Conclusions Thrombocytopenia in neonates can be life-threatening, appropriate diagnosis, preventive and therapeutic approach is necessary to prevent death or neurological impairment.

  20. HYPOGLYCEMIA INDUCED BY ANTIDIABETIC SULFONYLUREAS.

    PubMed

    Confederat, Luminiţa; Constantin, Sandra; Lupaşcu, Florentina; Pânzariu, Andreea; Hăncianu, Monica; Profire, Lenuţa

    2015-01-01

    Diabetes mellitus is a major health problem due to its increasing prevalence and life-threatening complications. Antidiabetic sulfonylureas represent the first-line drugs in type 2 diabetes even though the most common associated risk is pharmacologically-induced hypoglycemia. In the development of this side effect are involved several factors including the pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic profile of the drug, patient age and behavior, hepatic or renal dysfunctions, or other drugs associated with a high risk of interactions. If all these are controlled, the risk-benefit balance can be equal to other oral antidiabetic drugs.

  1. Prevalence and descriptive analysis of congenital heart disease in parturients: obstetric, neonatal, and anesthetic outcomes.

    PubMed

    Warrick, Christine M; Hart, Jan E; Lynch, Anne M; Hawkins, Joy A; Bucklin, Brenda A

    2015-09-01

    The study objectives are to (1) assess prevalence of congenital heart disease (CHD), (2) describe outcomes of pregnancies in women with CHD, (3) compare outcomes in women with and without CHD, and (4) characterize neonatal outcomes in pregnancies complicated by CHD. This was a retrospective cohort study of women who delivered at the University of Colorado Hospital. Diagnosis of CHD was identified based on history of cardiac disease, pulmonary disease, or subacute bacterial endocarditis prophylaxis during labor and confirmed with echocardiogram when available. Comprehensive retrospective review of anesthetic, obstetric, and neonatal outcomes was performed. University of Colorado Hospital. 18,226 women. Medical record review. Valvular abnormalities, New York Heart Failure Association classification scores, types of CHD, maternal age, race, gravidity, parity, maternal prepregnancy body mass index, cigarette use, type of delivery, type of analgesia used, early initiation of neuraxial analgesia, arrhythmias, need for peripartum diuretics, prolonged maternal hospital stay, preterm birth, small for gestational age, neonatal CHD, neonatal or maternal intensive care unit (ICU) admissions, and maternal or neonatal death. We identified 117 pregnancies in 110 women with CHD. Parturients with CHD were more likely to have operative vaginal delivery (P < .0001), neonatal ICU admissions (P = .003), and had prolonged hospital stays. Occurrence of CHD in neonates was 6%. Moderate-to-severe valvular disease was associated with increased rates of operative vaginal delivery, early initiation of neuraxial labor analgesia, cardiac complications (including arrhythmia and use of diuretics), prolonged hospital stay, and maternal ICU admission. However, most deliveries and births were uncomplicated; and there were one case each of maternal mortality and fetal death after birth. Operative abdominal deliveries and neonatal ICU admissions are more common in women with CHD, but these pregnancies

  2. Trends in Prevalence and Characteristics of Post-Neonatal Cerebral Palsy Cases: A European Registry-Based Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Germany, Laurence; Ehlinger, Virginie; Klapouszczak, Dana; Delobel, Malika; Hollody, Katalin; Sellier, Elodie; De La Cruz, Javier; Alberge, Corine; Genolini, Christophe; Arnaud, Catherine

    2013-01-01

    The present paper aims to analyze trends over time in prevalence of cerebral palsy of post-neonatal origin, to investigate whether changes are similar according to severity and to describe the disability profile by etiology. Post-neonatal cases, birth years 1976 to 1998, were identified from the Surveillance of Cerebral Palsy in Europe…

  3. Trends in Prevalence and Characteristics of Post-Neonatal Cerebral Palsy Cases: A European Registry-Based Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Germany, Laurence; Ehlinger, Virginie; Klapouszczak, Dana; Delobel, Malika; Hollody, Katalin; Sellier, Elodie; De La Cruz, Javier; Alberge, Corine; Genolini, Christophe; Arnaud, Catherine

    2013-01-01

    The present paper aims to analyze trends over time in prevalence of cerebral palsy of post-neonatal origin, to investigate whether changes are similar according to severity and to describe the disability profile by etiology. Post-neonatal cases, birth years 1976 to 1998, were identified from the Surveillance of Cerebral Palsy in Europe…

  4. Antimicrobial usage among hospitalized children in Latvia: a neonatal and pediatric antimicrobial point prevalence survey.

    PubMed

    Sviestina, Inese; Mozgis, Dzintars

    2014-01-01

    The point prevalence survey was conducted as part of the Antibiotic Resistance and Prescribing in European Children (ARPEC) Project. The study aimed at analyzing pediatric and neonatal antimicrobial prescribing patterns in Latvian hospitals, to identify targets for quality improvement. A one day cross-sectional point prevalence survey on antibiotic use in hospitalized children was conducted in November 2012 in 10 Latvian hospitals, using a previously validated and standardized method. The survey included all inpatient pediatric and neonatal beds and identified all children receiving an antimicrobial treatment on the day of survey. Overall 549 patients were included in the study; 167 (39%) patients admitted to pediatric wards and 25 (21%) patients admitted to neonatal wards received at least one antimicrobial. Pediatric top three antibiotic groups were third-generation cephalosporins (55 prescriptions, 28%), extended spectrum penicillins (n=32, 16%) and first-generation cephalosporins (n=26, 13%). Eleven pediatric patients (85%) received surgical prophylaxis more than 1 day; 143 pediatric patients (86%) received antibiotics intravenously. Lower respiratory tract infections were the most common indications for antibiotic use both in pediatric (n=60, 35.9%) and neonatal patients (n=9, 36%). The most used antibiotics for neonatal patients were benzylpenicillin (n=12, 32%), and gentamicin (n=9, 24%). We identified a few problematic areas, which need improvement: the high use of third-generation cephalosporins for pediatric patients, prolonged surgical prophylaxis, predominant use of parenteral antibiotics and an urgent need for local antibiotic guidelines. Copyright © 2014 Lithuanian University of Health Sciences. Production and hosting by Elsevier Urban & Partner Sp. z o.o. All rights reserved.

  5. [Hypoglycemia in the newborns of women with diabetes mellitus].

    PubMed

    Hernández-Herrera, Ricardo; Castillo-Martínez, Norma; Banda-Torres, M Elena; Alcalá-Galván, Gerardo; Tamez-Pérez, Héctor E; Forsbach-Sánchez, Gerardo

    2006-01-01

    Neonatal hypoglycemia is a frequent event in the first hours of life of newborns from mothers with diabetes mellitus. We studied a group of diabetic mothers newborns during the first day of life, taking venous blood samples at < 6 h, 6-12 h and 12-24 h of life for glucose analysis (n = 85), defining hypoglycaemia as a glucose level < 35 mg/dL. Calcium serum levels were also determined in the first venous sample in 19 neonates and 7 mEq/L was the criteria for hypocalcemia. The mothers age (mean +/- standard deviation) was 30.5 +/- 5.5 years (range 16-41 years), 43 (50.6%) of them with gestational diabetes, 40 (47.1%) with type 2 diabetes and 2 (2.4%) with type 1 diabetes. Pregnancies ended by caesarean section in 78 (91.8%) and by partum in seven (8.2%) women. There were 20 (23.5%) preterm newborns. In relation to neonates weight, 27 (31.7%) were macrosomic and 7 (8.2%) were premature, two of them with very low weight. A total of 55 (64.77%) newborns had hypoglycaemia, but only one of them had a convulsive episode, the rest were asymptomatic. In relation to the newborns weight, 18 (66.6%) of the macrosomic, 33 (64.7%) of the normal weight and four (57.1%) of the premature groups had hypoglycaemia. The comparisons between the newborns weight groups showed non significant differences, but the prevalence of neonatal hypoglycaemia was significantly higher in the group of gestational diabetes than in the type 2 diabetes group (p < 0.05). Calcium analysis also disclosed asymptomatic hypocalcemia in five (7.25%) newborns. These results show an elevated prevalence of asymptomatic neonatal hypoglycaemia in the offspring of women with diabetes mellitus in their early hours of life, and stress the importance of systematic glucose monitoring and early treatment in the first hours of life of these neonates.

  6. The prevalence and pattern of pharmaceutical and excipient exposure in a neonatal unit in Slovenia.

    PubMed

    Fister, Petja; Urh, Spela; Karner, Aleksandra; Krzan, Mojca; Paro-Panjan, Darja

    2015-01-01

    Because of the restraints on conducting studies on pharmaceutical use in sick newborns, many drugs are used off-label in this population. Moreover, industrially manufactured pharmaceuticals may contain different excipients, which may be either untested or not licensed for use in neonates. The aim of our study was to determine the prevalence and pattern of pharmaceutical and excipient exposure in newborns hospitalized at the Department of Neonatology, Ljubljana, Slovenia. A longitudinal prospective cross-sectional study was performed during a one-month period and included all hospitalized neonates. Route of administration, site of action, type of manufacture, licensing status, type and concentrations of excipients for all pharmaceuticals given to the neonates were determined. Twenty seven different pharmaceutical preparations were prescribed to a total of 48 hospitalized newborns. In most cases, newborns were prescribed various pharmaceuticals that were not approved for use in this population. Newborns were exposed to 60 different excipients in industrially manufactured pharmaceutical preparations. More than half of the received pharmaceuticals contained potentially harmful and harmful excipients. Two-thirds of pharmaceutical preparations for neonates were used off-label. Newborns receive more auxiliary substances, which may be unsuitable for this age group and may even be toxic to them, via industrially manufactured pharmaceuticals.

  7. Prevalence of anemia in pregnant women and its effect on neonatal outcomes in Northeast India.

    PubMed

    Bora, Reeta; Sable, Corey; Wolfson, Julian; Boro, Kanta; Rao, Raghavendra

    2014-06-01

    To determine the prevalence of anemia in pregnant women and characterize its effect on neonatal outcome in Northeast India. Four hundred and seventy mothers and their newborn infants during a one month period were included. The association between maternal hemoglobin (Hb) at delivery and neonatal outcomes were determined. Anemia (Hb < 110 g/L) was present in 421 (89.6%) mothers with 35 (8.3%) having severe anemia(Hb < 70 g/L). After adjusting for maternal and neonatal variables, each 10 g/L decrease in maternal Hb was associated with 0.18 week decrease in gestational length (p = 0.003) and 21 g decrease in birth weight (p = 0.093). Severe maternal anemia was associated with 0.63 week (95% CI, 0.03-1.23week) shorter gestation, 481 g (95% CI, 305-658 g) lower birth weight and 89% increased risk of small-for-gestation (OR 1.89, 95% CI, 1.25-2.86)in the offspring, compared with those born to mothers without anemia (p < 0.001). Maternal anemia was highly prevalentin this population. Lower gestational age and birth weight, and increased risk of small-for-gestation were associated with maternal anemia, especially when maternal Hb was <80 g/L. Maternal anemia needs urgent attention to improve neonatal outcome in this population.

  8. Recurrent hypoglycemia in a toddler.

    PubMed

    Cohen, Marissa; Zwiebel, Sean; Jeanmonod, Rebecca

    2015-12-01

    Idiopathic ketotic hypoglycemia is the most common cause of hypoglycemia in toddlers. This diagnosis should be considered in any hypoglycemic toddler with no prior history of abnormal growth who is developmentally normal when toxic ingestions and sepsis are inconsistent with the clinical picture. Diagnosis is important in preventing serious long-term sequelae and is made in the setting of hypoglycemia, ketonuria, and ketonemia. Therefore, checking urine and blood ketones is an essential part of the evaluation in any hypoglycemic toddler. We report the case of a 3-year-old girl with recurrent hypoglycemia secondary to idiopathic ketotic hypoglycemia.

  9. Meconium-stained amniotic fluid and hypoglycemia among term newborn infants.

    PubMed

    Maayan-Metzger, Ayala; Leibovitch, Leah; Schushan-Eisen, Irit; Strauss, Tzipora; Kuint, Jacob

    2012-10-01

    To evaluate whether meconium-stained amniotic fluid (MSAF) is a risk factor for neonatal hypoglycemia. Retrospective recording of medical charts of full-term infants born following observation of meconium-stained amniotic fluid to examine glucose levels in the first hours of life. Out of 803 infants of the study group, 68 (8.5%) had glucose levels lower than 47 mg/dl. Most (6.7%) had mild hypoglycemia, and 14 (1.8%) had moderate or severe hypoglycemia (1.4% and 0.4% respectively). No infant developed clinical signs clearly related to hypoglycemia. Low-risk infants born following meconium-stained amniotic fluid are not at increased risk for neonatal hypoglycemia.

  10. Noninvasive biosensor for hypoglycemia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Varadan, Vijay K.; Whitchurch, Ashwin K.; Sarukesi, Karunakaran

    2003-01-01

    Hypoglycemia-abnormal decrease in blood sugar- is a major obstacle in the management of diabetes and prevention of long-term complications, and it may impose serious effects on the brain, including impairment of memory and other cognitive functions. This is especially a concern in early childhood years when the nervous system is still developing. Hypoglycemic unawareness (in which the body"s normal ability to signal low blood sugar doesn"t work and an oncoming low blood sugar episode proceeds undetected) is a particularly frightening problem for many people with diabetes. Researchers have now uncovered evidence that repeated bouts of insulin-induced hypoglycemia can harm the brain over time, causing confusion, abnormal behavior, loss of consciousness, and seizures. Extreme cases have resulted in coma and death. In this paper, a non-invasive biosensor in a wrist watch along with a wireless data downloading system is proposed.

  11. [Hypoglycemia and insulinoma].

    PubMed

    Cazabat, L; Chanson, P

    2009-09-01

    Insulinomas are rare causes of hypoglycemia. After having ruled out non insulinomatous causes of hypoglycemia in a patient in whom Whipple's triad is documented, hyperinsulinism must be demonstrated biochemically, either during a spontaneous hypoglycemic episode or, more often, during a supervised fast which may be prolonged up to 72 h. A mixed-meal test may also help to diagnose the very rare cases of postprandial hypoglycemia related to non insulinoma pancreatogenic hypoglycemic syndrome (NIPHS) or to some rare insulinomas. Only when diagnosis of hypoglycemic hyperinsulinism is made, the tumor localization process may be initiated. This may be difficult due to the small size of insulinomas (generally < 1 cm). Multimodal approach is necessary. The association of endoscopic ultrasound and CT-scan or MRI seems optimal. Octreoscan will be also performed. First results with a very new technique, the GLP-1 receptor imaging, are promising for localizing very small tumors. This localization aims to allow a sparing surgery; enucleation of benign tumors, if possible, allows a pancreatic tissue preservation in patients with quite normal survival.

  12. Hyperinsulinemic Hypoglycemia – The Molecular Mechanisms

    PubMed Central

    Nessa, Azizun; Rahman, Sofia A.; Hussain, Khalid

    2016-01-01

    Under normal physiological conditions, pancreatic β-cells secrete insulin to maintain fasting blood glucose levels in the range 3.5–5.5 mmol/L. In hyperinsulinemic hypoglycemia (HH), this precise regulation of insulin secretion is perturbed so that insulin continues to be secreted in the presence of hypoglycemia. HH may be due to genetic causes (congenital) or secondary to certain risk factors. The molecular mechanisms leading to HH involve defects in the key genes regulating insulin secretion from the β-cells. At this moment, in time genetic abnormalities in nine genes (ABCC8, KCNJ11, GCK, SCHAD, GLUD1, SLC16A1, HNF1A, HNF4A, and UCP2) have been described that lead to the congenital forms of HH. Perinatal stress, intrauterine growth retardation, maternal diabetes mellitus, and a large number of developmental syndromes are also associated with HH in the neonatal period. In older children and adult’s insulinoma, non-insulinoma pancreatogenous hypoglycemia syndrome and post bariatric surgery are recognized causes of HH. This review article will focus mainly on describing the molecular mechanisms that lead to unregulated insulin secretion. PMID:27065949

  13. Functional Hypoglycemia: Facts and Fancies

    PubMed Central

    Nadeau, André

    1984-01-01

    When blood glucose decreases below a given threshold, symptoms of cerebral dysfunction and/or adrenergic hyperactivity appear. If this occurs postprandially in otherwise normal subjects, a diagnosis of reactive or functional hypoglycemia may be proposed. However, these symptoms are not specific, and they should coincide with low blood glucose values and be rapidly relieved by glucose ingestion before a diagnosis of hypoglycemia is confirmed. The oral glucose tolerance test, often used in the evaluation of such patients, also may give misleading results, because many normal subjects have glucose values below the `normal' range during the test. This may explain why functional hypoglycemia has probably been overdiagnosed during the last several years, giving rise to a description of the syndrome of non-hypoglycemia, in which the patient's symptoms are falsely attributed to hypoglycemia, either by himself or by his physician. Nevertheless, functional hypoglycemia exists and can be improved by proper management. PMID:21278943

  14. Prevalence of maternal HIV-1 infection in Thames regions: results from anonymous unlinked neonatal testing.

    PubMed

    Ades, A E; Parker, S; Berry, T; Holland, F J; Davison, C F; Cubitt, D; Hjelm, M; Wilcox, A H; Hudson, C N; Briggs, M

    1991-06-29

    To monitor the spread of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) in the heterosexual population, residues of blood samples collected routinely on absorbent paper for neonatal screening (Guthrie cards) in NE, NW, and SW Thames Regions in England have been tested for antibodies to HIV-1 since June, 1988. 323,369 dried blood spots were analysed to end March, 1991. Prevalence of anti-HIV-1 in newborn babies has remained stable in outer London and non-metropolitan districts whereas prevalence in inner London has increased from 1 in 2000 in the 12 months beginning June, 1988, to 1 in 500 in the first 3 months of 1991. Either exponential or linear growth in the numbers of new seropositives could account for the results. That obstetricians were aware of maternal HIV infection in only 20% of infected pregnancies, indicates the extent to which HIV infection goes unrecognised in the heterosexual community.

  15. Permanent neonatal diabetes mellitus: prevalence and genetic diagnosis in the SEARCH for Diabetes in Youth Study.

    PubMed

    Kanakatti Shankar, Roopa; Pihoker, Catherine; Dolan, Lawrence M; Standiford, Debra; Badaru, Angela; Dabelea, Dana; Rodriguez, Beatriz; Black, Mary Helen; Imperatore, Giuseppina; Hattersley, Andrew; Ellard, Sian; Gilliam, Lisa K

    2013-05-01

    Neonatal diabetes mellitus (NDM) is defined as diabetes with onset before 6 months of age. Nearly half of individuals with NDM are affected by permanent neonatal diabetes mellitus (PNDM). Mutations in KATP channel genes (KCNJ11, ABCC8) and the insulin gene (INS) are the most common causes of PNDM. To estimate the prevalence of PNDM among SEARCH for Diabetes in Youth (SEARCH) study participants (2001-2008) and to identify the genetic mutations causing PNDM. SEARCH is a multicenter population-based study of diabetes in youth <20 yr of age. Participants diagnosed with diabetes before 6 months of age were invited for genetic testing for mutations in the KCNJ11, ABCC8, and INS genes. Of the 15,829 SEARCH participants with diabetes, 39 were diagnosed before 6 months of age. Thirty-five of them had PNDM (0.22% of all diabetes cases in SEARCH), 3 had transient neonatal diabetes that had remitted by 18 months and 1 was unknown. The majority of them (66.7%) had a clinical diagnosis of type1 diabetes by their health care provider. Population prevalence of PNDM in youth <20 yr was estimated at 1 in 252 000. Seven participants underwent genetic testing; mutations causing PNDM were identified in five (71%), (two KCNJ11, three INS). We report the first population-based frequency of PNDM in the US based on the frequency of PNDM in SEARCH. Patients with NDM are often misclassified as having type1 diabetes. Widespread education is essential to encourage appropriate genetic testing and treatment of NDM. © 2012 John Wiley & Sons A/S.

  16. [Hypoglycemia in the elderly with diabetes mellitus].

    PubMed

    Avila-Fematt, Flor M G; Montaña-Alvarez, Mariano

    2010-01-01

    Aging is associated with an increasing prevalence of chronic diseases, including type 2 diabetes mellitus and its chronic and acute complications. With changes observed in diabetes mellitus treatment goals and the lower levels of glycosylated hemoglobin recommended, the prevalence of hypoglycemia especially in patients treated with insulin has increased. Aging and changes in the physiologic reserves generate a decreased perception of symptoms associated with hypoglycemia, increasing the risk of unawareness or severe episodes. Traditionally, age was a risk factor for hypoglycemia, but in the population over 60 years, multiple comorbidities like chronic heart failure, malnutrition and renal failure are associated with increased risk of developing this acute complication. It is necessary to train doctors and nurses from all levels of care to recognize the specific clinical manifestation of low blood glucose that allow early detection and treatment, because this complication is associated with an increased hospital and 1-year after discharge mortality, with falls and cognitive impairment that directly affect the independence and functionality of older persons.

  17. VitaminA, E, and D deficiencies in tunisian very low birth weight neonates: prevalence and risk factors.

    PubMed

    Fares, Samira; Sethom, Mohamed Marouane; Khouaja-Mokrani, Chahnez; Jabnoun, Sami; Feki, Moncef; Kaabachi, Naziha

    2014-06-01

    Preterm neonates are at high risk of vitamin deficiencies, which may expose them to increased morbidity and mortality. This study aimed to determine the prevalence and risk factors for vitamin A, E, and D deficiencies in Tunisian very low birth weight (VLBW) neonates. A total of 607 VLBW and 300 term neonates were included in the study. Plasma vitamins A and E were assessed by high performance liquid chromatography and vitamin D was assessed by radioimmunoassay. Prevalence of vitamin A, E, and D deficiencies were dramatically elevated in VLBW neonates and were significantly higher than term neonates (75.9% vs. 63.3%; 71.3% vs. 55.5%; and 65.2% vs. 40.4%, respectively). In VLBW neonates, the prevalence of vitamin deficiencies was significantly higher in lower classes of gestational age and birth weight. Vitamin E deficiency was associated with pre-eclampsia [odds ratio (OR) (95% confidence interval, 95% CI), 1.56 (1.01-2.44); p < 0.01] and gestational diabetes [4.01 (1.05-17.0); p < 0.01]. Vitamin D deficiency was associated with twin pregnancy [OR (95% CI), 2.66 (1.33-5.35); p < 0.01] and pre-eclampsia [2.89 (1.36-6.40); p < 0.01]. Vitamin A, E, and D deficiencies are very common in Tunisian VLBW neonates and are associated with pre-eclampsia. Improved nutritional and health support for pregnant women and high dose vitamins A, E, and D supplementation in VLBW neonates are strongly required in Tunisia. Copyright © 2013. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  18. Is Low Blood Glucose (Hypoglycemia) Dangerous?

    MedlinePlus

    ... Please leave this field empty Is Low Blood Glucose (Hypoglycemia) Dangerous? Low blood glucose or hypoglycemia is one of the most common ... In general, hypoglycemia is defined as a blood glucose level below 70 mg/dl. Low blood glucose ...

  19. High prevalence of early language delay exists among toddlers with neonatal brachial plexus palsy

    PubMed Central

    Chang, Kate Wan-Chu; Yang, Lynda J-S.; Driver, Lynn; Nelson, Virginia S.

    2016-01-01

    AIM Association of language impairment with neonatal brachial plexus palsy (NBPP) has not been reported in the literature. The current treatment paradigm for NBPP focuses on upper extremity motor recovery with little formal assessment of other aspects of development, such as language. We performed a cross-sectional pilot study to investigate early language delay prevalence in toddlers with NBPP and potential NBPP-related factors involved. METHOD Twenty toddlers with NBPP were consecutively recruited (12 males, 8 females; mean age 30 mos). Preschool Language Scale Score (4th edition), demographics, and socioeconomic status were collected. NBPP-related factors such as palsy side, treatment type, Narakas grade, muscle MRC score, and Raimondi hand score were reported. Student t test, chi-square, or Fisher exact test were applied. Statistical significance level was established at p<0.05. RESULTS Of study participants, 30% were diagnosed with language delay, while the prevalence of language delay in the population with normal development in this age range was approximately 5-15%. INTERPRETATION We observed high language delay prevalence among toddlers with NBPP. Although our subject sample is small, our findings warrant further study of this phenomenon. Early identification and timely intervention based on type of language impairment may be critical for improving communication outcome in this population. PMID:25160543

  20. Prevalence of Escherichia coli adhesion-related genes in neonatal calf diarrhea in Uruguay.

    PubMed

    Umpiérrez, Ana; Acquistapace, Sofía; Fernández, Sofía; Oliver, Martín; Acuña, Patricia; Reolón, Eduardo; Zunino, Pablo

    2016-05-31

    Neonatal calf diarrhea (NCD), one of the most important diseases of neonatal dairy and beef calves in Uruguay, has become relevant in association with intensive systems. This disease generates substantial economic losses every year worldwide as a result of increased morbidity and mortality. Escherichia coli, one of the pathogens associated with NCD, can express several fimbrial and afimbrial adhesins. The objective of this study was to assess the presence of clpG, f5, f17A, f17G(II), and f17G(I) genes that encode three important adhesins expressed in diarrheagenic E. coli: F5, F17 and CS31A, isolated from feces of calves in Uruguay. Feces of 86 (70 diarrheic and 16 healthy) calves, from 15 animal facilities in Uruguay, were collected between 2012 and 2013. Biochemical and molecular identification were performed to finally obtain 298 E. coli isolates. Partial amplification of adhesion-related genes was performed by polymerase chain reaction. The most prevalent gene was f17A (31.2%), followed by f17G(II), clpG, f17G(I) and f5 (25.8%, 17.5%, 3.7% and 0.7%, respectively). All genes were present in diarrheic and healthy animals except f5 and f17G(I); these genes were present only in affected calves, although in low numbers. This is the first report of the presence of F5, F17, and CS31A genes in E. coli strains from NCD cases in Uruguay. Prevalence values of the genes, except f5, were in accordance with regional findings. It is expected that further characterization of locally transmitted strains will contribute to control a problem of regional and international magnitude.

  1. Octreotide-induced hepatitis in a child with persistent hyperinsulinemia hypoglycemia of infancy.

    PubMed

    Ben-Ari, Josef; Greenberg, Meidad; Nemet, Dan; Edelstein, Evgeny; Eliakim, Alon

    2013-01-01

    Persistent hyperinsulinemic hypoglycemia of infancy (PHHI), the most common cause of persistent hypoglycemia in the neonatal period and infancy, is a genetic disorder characterized by abnormal regulation of insulin secretion. Octreotide, a somatostatin analog, is often used as a second-line treatment when diazoxide therapy fails to control hypoglycemia. We report herein a rare development of octreotide-induced hepatitis following prolonged treatment for PHHI in an infant. Octreotide-induced hepatitis may occur mostly when high doses are given, or when dosing is increased. This warrants routine examination of liver function. When hepatitis develops, prompt cessation of octreotide therapy will probably result in subsequent resolution.

  2. High prevalence of cranial asymmetry exists in infants with neonatal brachial plexus palsy.

    PubMed

    Tang, Megan; Gorbutt, Kimberly A; Peethambaran, Ammanath; Yang, Lynda; Nelson, Virginia S; Chang, Kate Wan-Chu

    2016-11-30

    This study aimed to: 1) evaluate the prevalence of cranial asymmetry (positional plagiocephaly) in infants with neonatal brachial plexus palsy (NBPP); 2) examine the association of patient demographics, arm function, and NBPP-related factors to positional plagiocephaly; and 3) determine percentage of spontaneous recovery from positional plagiocephaly and its association with arm function. Infants < 1 year of age with NBPP and no previous exposure to plagiocephaly cranial remolding therapy or surgical intervention were recruited for this prospective cross-sectional study. Positional plagiocephaly (diagonal difference) measurements were captured using a fiberglass circumferential mold of the cranium. Included infants were divided into 2 groups: 1) those with positional plagiocephaly at most recent evaluation (plagio group), including infants with resolved positional plagiocephaly (plagio-resolved subgroup); and 2) those who never had positional plagiocephaly (non-plagio group). Standard statistics were applied. Eighteen of 28 infants (64%) had positional plagiocephaly. Delivery type might be predictive for plagiocephaly. Infants in the non-plagio group exhibited more active range of motion than infants in the plagio group. All other factors had no significant correlations. A high prevalence of positional plagiocephaly exists among the NBPP population examined. Parents and physicians should encourage infants to use their upper extremities to change position and reduce chance of cranial asymmetry.

  3. The Prevalence of Human Papillomavirus between the Neonates and Their Mothers

    PubMed Central

    Skoczyński, Mariusz; Goździcka-Józefiak, Anna; Kwaśniewska, Anna

    2015-01-01

    The impact of human papillomavirus (HPV) infection on pregnancy is a major problem of medicine. The transmission of the virus from mother to fetus is a process yet unresolved. The immune response and changed hormonal status of pregnant women might facilitate infection. A research on the prevalence of HPV infection was conducted at the Clinic of Obstetrics, Medical University of Lublin (Poland). The studied group included 152 randomly selected women. The material was tested for the presence of HPV DNA by means of polymerase chain reaction (PCR). The aim of the research was to assess the relation between HPV infections detected in the buccal smears of the neonates and the incidence of such infections in the cervical/buccal smears of their mothers. In the group of 152 infants HPV was found in 16 (10.53%). Among the cervical/buccal smears, HPV was isolated, respectively, in 24 (15.79%) and in 19 (12.5%) pregnant women. Statistically significant differences in the prevalence of HPV swabs from the newborns and the cervical/buccal smears of their mothers were found (p < 0.001). The identification of mothers in whose buccal smears HPV was detected can help develop a group of children who run a relatively significant risk of being infected. PMID:26713313

  4. The frequency and impact of hypoglycemia among hospitalized patients with diabetes: A population-based study.

    PubMed

    Gómez-Huelgas, Ricardo; Guijarro-Merino, Ricardo; Zapatero, Antonio; Barba, Raquel; Guijarro-Contreras, Ana; Tinahones, Francisco; Bernal-López, Rosa

    2015-01-01

    We aimed to evaluate the frequency of hypoglycemia and its impact on the length of stay and all-cause in-hospital mortality in hospitalized patients with diabetes. We used data from the Basic Minimum Data Set of the Spanish National Health System. Hypoglycemia was defined as having an ICD-9-CM code 250.8, 251.0, 251.1, and 251.2, and categorized as primary if it was the main cause of admission and secondary if it occurred during the hospital stay. The association between hypoglycemia and the study outcomes was evaluated in two cohorts - with and without secondary hypoglycemia - matched by propensity scores and using multivariate models. Among the 5,447,725 discharges with a diagnosis of diabetes recorded from January 1997 to December 2010, there were 92,591 (1.7%) discharges with primary hypoglycemia and 154,510 (2.8%) with secondary hypoglycemia. The prevalence of secondary hypoglycemia increased from 1.1% in 1997 to a peak of 3.8% in 2007, while the prevalence of primary hypoglycemia remained fairly stable. Primary hypoglycemia was associated with reduced in-hospital mortality (Odds ratio [OR] 0.06; 95% Confidence interval [CI], 0.03-0.10) and a significant decrease in time to discharge (Hazard ratio [HR] 2.53; 95% CI, 2.30-2.76), while secondary hypoglycemia was associated with an increased likelihood of in-hospital mortality (OR 1.12; 95% CI, 1.09-1.15) and a significant increase in time to discharge (HR 0.80; 95% CI, 0.79-0.80). In conclusion, the prevalence of secondary hypoglycemia is increasing in patients with diabetes and is associated with an increased likelihood of in-hospital mortality and a longer hospital stay.

  5. Acute psychotic disorder and hypoglycemia.

    PubMed

    Singh, S K; Agrawal, J K; Srivastava, A S; Bhardwaj, V K; Bose, B S

    1994-04-01

    A variable array of neuroglycopenic symptoms are frequently encountered in the hypoglycemic stage, but acute psychotic disorders are quite rare. A fifty five year old female presented with an acute psychosis following oral sulfonylurea induced hypoglycemia without preceding features of adrenomedullary stimulation. This case report suggests that an acute and transient psychotic disorder may be an important neuroglycopenic feature and its early recognition protects the patient from severe hypoglycemic brain damage in a state of hypoglycemia unawareness.

  6. Methadone-induced hypoglycemia.

    PubMed

    Faskowitz, Andrew J; Kramskiy, Vladimir N; Pasternak, Gavril W

    2013-05-01

    To determine if recent observations of hypoglycemia in patients receiving high-dose methadone extended to an animal model, we explored the effects of methadone and other mu-opioids on blood glucose levels in mice. Methadone lowered blood glucose in a dose-dependent manner with 20 mg/kg yielding a nadir in average glucose levels to 55 ± 6 mg/dL from a baseline of 172 ± 7 mg/dL, an effect that was antagonized by naloxone and mu selective antagonists β-funaltrexamine and naloxonazine. The effect was stereoselective and limited to only the l-isomer, while the d-isomer was ineffective. Despite the robust decrease in blood glucose produced by methadone, a series of other mu-opioids, including morphine, fentanyl, levorphanol, oxycodone or morphine-6β-glucuronide failed to lower blood glucose levels. Similar differences among mu-opioid agonists have been observed in other systems, suggesting the possible role of selected splice variants of the mu-opioid receptor gene Oprm1. This mouse model recapitulates our clinical observations and emphasizes the need to carefully monitor glucose levels when using high methadone doses, particularly intravenously, and the need for controlled clinical trials.

  7. Prevalence of anemia and associations between neonatal iron status, hepcidin, and maternal iron status among neonates born to pregnant adolescents.

    PubMed

    Lee, Sunmin; Guillet, Ronnie; Cooper, Elizabeth M; Westerman, Mark; Orlando, Mark; Kent, Tera; Pressman, Eva; O'Brien, Kimberly O

    2016-01-01

    Little is known about anemia and iron status in US newborns because screening for anemia is typically not undertaken until 1 y of age. This study was undertaken to characterize and identify determinants of iron status in newborns born to pregnant adolescents. Pregnant adolescents (≤ 18 y, n = 193) were followed from ≥ 12 wk gestation until delivery. Hemoglobin, ferritin, soluble transferrin receptor, serum iron, hepcidin, erythropoietin (EPO), IL-6, and C-reactive protein were assessed in maternal and cord blood. At birth, 21% of the neonates were anemic (Hb < 13.0 g/dl) and 25% had low iron stores (ferritin < 76 µg/l). Cord serum ferritin concentrations were not significantly associated with gestational age (GA) at birth across the range of 37-42 wk. Neonates born to mothers with ferritin < 12 µg/l had significantly lower ferritin (P = 0.003) compared to their counterparts. Hepcidin and IL-6 were significantly (P < 0.05) higher in neonates born to mothers with longer durations of active labor. Given the importance of the iron stores at birth on maintenance of iron homeostasis over early infancy, additional screening of iron status at birth is warranted among those born to this high risk obstetric population.

  8. [Impaired hypoglycemia awareness in diabetes mellitus].

    PubMed

    Brož, Jan; Piťhová, Pavlína; Janíčková Žďárská, Denisa

    Impaired hypoglycemia awareness is defined at the onset of neuroglycopenia without the appearance of autonomic warning symptoms. Impaired hypoglycemia awareness is disorder which affects aprox. one third of patients with type 1 diabetes mellitus and 8-10 % of patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus who are treated with insulin. The most dangerous consequence is 6 times higher frequency of severe hypoglycemia in patients with Type 1 diabetes mellitus and 17 times higher in Type 2 diabetic patients treated with insulin. Treatment of impaired hypoglycemia awareness is complex, based on a multifactorial intervention of clinical care and structured patient education. diabetes mellitus - hypoglycemia- impaired hypoglycemia awareness.

  9. Prevalence and antibiotic susceptibility of Ureaplasma urealyticum in Malaysian neonates with respiratory distress.

    PubMed

    Tay, S T; Boo, N Y; Khoo, T B; Koay, A S; Rohani, M Y

    1997-12-01

    Ureaplasma urealyticum was isolated from the endotracheal aspirates of 39 (21.4%) of 182 neonates with respiratory distress requiring ventilatory support. Mycoplasma hominis was isolated from one (0.5%) neonate. Bacterial cultures were negative in 123 (67.6%) neonates. Antibiotic susceptibility test carried out on ten isolates of U. urealyticum showed that all the organisms were sensitive to erythromycin but resistant to lincomycin and sulfamethoxazole trimethoprim. All, except one, U. urealyticum were sensitive to tetracycline and minocycline. Two isolates were resistant to ciprofloxacin. This study showed that U.urealyticum was a common organism isolated from the endotracheal aspirates of neonates with respiratory distress.

  10. The prevalence and clinical relevance of hyperkalaemia in calves with neonatal diarrhoea.

    PubMed

    Trefz, Florian M; Lorch, Annette; Feist, Melanie; Sauter-Louis, Carola; Lorenz, Ingrid

    2013-03-01

    One hundred and twenty-four calves with neonatal diarrhoea were investigated in order to assess the prevalence of hyperkalaemia and the associated clinical signs. Hyperkalaemia (potassium concentration >5.8mmol/L) was recognized in 42 (34%) calves and was more closely associated with dehydration than with decreases in base excess or venous blood pH. In 75 calves with normal blood concentrations of D-lactate (i.e. ⩽3.96mmol/L), K concentrations were moderately correlated with base excess values (r=-0.48, P<0.001). In contrast, no significant correlation was observed in 49 calves with elevated D-lactate. Only three hyperkalaemic calves had bradycardia and a weak positive correlation was found between heart rate and K concentrations (r=0.22, P=0.014). Ten of the 124 calves had cardiac arrhythmia and of these seven had hyperkalaemia indicating that cardiac arrhythmia had a low sensitivity (17%) but a high specificity (96%) as a predictor of hyperkalaemia. In a subset of 34 calves with base excess values ⩽-5mmol/L and D-lactate concentrations <5mmol/L (of which 22 had hyperkalaemia), changes in posture/ability to stand could be mainly explained by elevations of K concentrations (P<0.001) and to a lesser extent by increases in L-lactate concentrations (P=0.024). Skeletal muscle weakness due to hyperkalaemia alongside hypovolaemia may produce a clinical picture that is similar to that in calves with marked D-lactic acidosis. However, since reductions in the strength of the palpebral reflex are closely correlated with D-lactate concentrations, a prompt palpebral reflex can assist the clinical prediction of hyperkalaemia in calves presenting with a distinct impairment in their ability to stand (specificity 99%, sensitivity 29%).

  11. The prevalence of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder following neonatal aortic arch repair.

    PubMed

    Sistino, Joseph J; Atz, Andrew M; Simpson, Kit N; Ellis, Charles; Ikonomidis, John S; Bradley, Scott M

    2015-04-01

    We sought to determine the prevalence of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder in a population of children who underwent neonatal heart surgery involving repair of the aortic arch for Norwood Stage I, interrupted aortic arch, and combined repair of aortic coarctation with ventricular septal defect. Children between the ages of 5 and 16 were surveyed using the ADHD-IV and the Child Heath Questionnaire-50. Classification as attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder was defined for this study as either a parent-reported diagnosis of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder or ADHD-IV inattention score of ⩾93 percentile. Of the 134 surveys, 57 (43%) were returned completed. A total of 25 (44%) children either had a diagnosis of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder and/or ADHD-IV inattention score ⩾93 percentile. Eleven of the 13 (85%) children with interrupted aortic arch, 3 of the 7 (42.9%) children with combined coarctation/ventricular septal defect repair, and 9 of the 33 (27.3%) children with hypoplastic left-heart syndrome were classified as having attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder. Only 7 of the 25 (28%) children received medical treatment for this condition. Quality of life indicators in the Child Heath Questionnaire-50 Questionnaire were highly correlated with the ADHD-IV scores. The risks for the development of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder are multifactorial but are significantly increased in this post-surgical population. This study revealed a low treatment rate for attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder, and a significant impact on the quality of life in these children.

  12. Impact of retrospective calibration algorithms on hypoglycemia detection in newborn infants using continuous glucose monitoring.

    PubMed

    Signal, Matthew; Le Compte, Aaron; Harris, Deborah L; Weston, Philip J; Harding, Jane E; Chase, J Geoffrey

    2012-10-01

    Neonatal hypoglycemia is common and may cause serious brain injury. Diagnosis is by blood glucose (BG) measurements, often taken several hours apart. Continuous glucose monitoring (CGM) could improve hypoglycemia detection, while reducing the number of BG measurements. Calibration algorithms convert sensor signals into CGM output. Thus, these algorithms directly affect measures used to quantify hypoglycemia. This study was designed to quantify the effects of recalibration and filtering of CGM data on measures of hypoglycemia (BG <2.6 mmol/L) in neonates. CGM data from 50 infants were recalibrated using an algorithm that explicitly recognized the high-accuracy BG measurements available in this study. CGM data were analyzed as (1) original CGM output, (2) recalibrated CGM output, (3) recalibrated CGM output with postcalibration median filtering, and (4) recalibrated CGM output with precalibration median filtering. Hypoglycemia was classified by number of episodes, duration, severity, and hypoglycemic index. Recalibration increased the number of hypoglycemic events (from 161 to 193), hypoglycemia duration (from 2.2% to 2.6%), and hypoglycemic index (from 4.9 to 7.1 μmol/L). Median filtering postrecalibration reduced hypoglycemic events from 193 to 131, with little change in duration (from 2.6% to 2.5%) and hypoglycemic index (from 7.1 to 6.9 μmol/L). Median filtering prerecalibration resulted in 146 hypoglycemic events, a total duration of hypoglycemia of 2.6%, and a hypoglycemic index of 6.8 μmol/L. Hypoglycemia metrics, especially counting events, are heavily dependent on CGM calibration BG error, and the calibration algorithm. CGM devices tended to read high at lower levels, so when high accuracy calibration measurements are available it may be more appropriate to recalibrate the data.

  13. Approach to the patient with postprandial hypoglycemia.

    PubMed

    Galati, Sandi-Jo; Rayfield, Elliot J

    2014-04-01

    Postprandial hypoglycemia in a nondiabetic patient is a frequent chief complaint across all medical specialties and represents a significant diagnostic challenge. We conducted an electronic and print literature search using PubMed for articles published in the last 40 years using the key words "postprandial hypoglycemia," "reactive hypoglycemia," and "hyperinsulinemic hypoglycemia." All available sources were reviewed, and publications were included based on clinical relevance. Over the last century, the classification, etiologies, diagnosis, and management of hypoglycemia have evolved considerably. In the contemporary literature, the evaluation of hypoglycemia is divided into well-appearing and ill-appearing patients. Symptoms of hypoglycemia in the well-appearing patient may result from insulinoma, noninsulinoma pancreatogenous hypoglycemia syndrome (NIPHS), postbariatric surgery hypoglycemia, dumping syndrome, insulin autoimmunity, or postprandial syndrome. For each of these, the literature is lacking in randomized clinical trials investigating optimal diagnostic and treatment modalities, and this is due to the relatively recent description of some diseases and the rarity of cases. This review provides an overview of postprandial hypoglycemia and summarizes the proposed pathophysiologic mechanisms of postprandial hypoglycemia, with special attention paid to some of the more recently described syndromes, such as NIPHS and postbariatric surgery hypoglycemia. Diagnostic and management strategies are also discussed.

  14. Neonatal adaptation in infants prenatally exposed to antidepressants--clinical monitoring using Neonatal Abstinence Score.

    PubMed

    Forsberg, Lisa; Navér, Lars; Gustafsson, Lars L; Wide, Katarina

    2014-01-01

    Intrauterine exposure to antidepressants may lead to neonatal symptoms from the central nervous system, respiratory system and gastrointestinal system. Finnegan score (Neonatal Abstinence Score, NAS) has routinely been used to assess infants exposed to antidepressants in utero. The purpose was to study neonatal maladaptation syndrome in infants exposed to selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRI) or serotonin-norepinephrine reuptake inhibitors (SNRI) in utero. Retrospective cohort study of women using antidepressants during pregnancy and their infants. Patients were identified from the electronic health record system at Karolinska University Hospital Huddinge containing pre-, peri- and postnatal information. Information was collected on maternal and infant health, social factors and pregnancy. NAS sheets were scrutinized. 220 women with reported 3rd trimester exposure to SSRIs or SNRIs and who gave birth between January 2007 and June 2009 were included. Seventy seven women (35%) used citalopram, 76 used (35%) sertraline, 34 (15%) fluoxetine and 33 (15%) other SSRI/SNRI. Twenty-nine infants (13%) were admitted to the neonatal ward, 19 were born prematurely. NAS was analyzed in 205 patients. Severe abstinence was defined as eight points or higher on at least two occasions (on a scale with maximum 40 points), mild abstinence as 4 points or higher on at least two occasions. Seven infants expressed signs of severe abstinence and 46 (22%) had mild abstinence symptoms. Hypoglycemia (plasma glucose <2.6 mmol/L) was found in 42 infants (19%). Severe abstinence in infants prenatally exposed to antidepressants was found to be rare (3%) in this study population, a slightly lower prevalence than reported in previous studies. Neonatal hypoglycemia in infants prenatally exposed to antidepressant may however be more common than previously described.

  15. Neonatal Adaptation in Infants Prenatally Exposed to Antidepressants- Clinical Monitoring Using Neonatal Abstinence Score

    PubMed Central

    Forsberg, Lisa; Navér, Lars; Gustafsson, Lars L.; Wide, Katarina

    2014-01-01

    Background Intrauterine exposure to antidepressants may lead to neonatal symptoms from the central nervous system, respiratory system and gastrointestinal system. Finnegan score (Neonatal Abstinence Score, NAS) has routinely been used to assess infants exposed to antidepressants in utero. Aim The purpose was to study neonatal maladaptation syndrome in infants exposed to selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRI) or serotonin-norepinephrine reuptake inhibitors (SNRI) in utero. Method Retrospective cohort study of women using antidepressants during pregnancy and their infants. Patients were identified from the electronic health record system at Karolinska University Hospital Huddinge containing pre-, peri- and postnatal information. Information was collected on maternal and infant health, social factors and pregnancy. NAS sheets were scrutinized. Results 220 women with reported 3rd trimester exposure to SSRIs or SNRIs and who gave birth between January 2007 and June 2009 were included. Seventy seven women (35%) used citalopram, 76 used (35%) sertraline, 34 (15%) fluoxetine and 33 (15%) other SSRI/SNRI. Twenty-nine infants (13%) were admitted to the neonatal ward, 19 were born prematurely. NAS was analyzed in 205 patients. Severe abstinence was defined as eight points or higher on at least two occasions (on a scale with maximum 40 points), mild abstinence as 4 points or higher on at least two occasions. Seven infants expressed signs of severe abstinence and 46 (22%) had mild abstinence symptoms. Hypoglycemia (plasma glucose <2.6 mmol/L) was found in 42 infants (19%). Conclusion Severe abstinence in infants prenatally exposed to antidepressants was found to be rare (3%) in this study population, a slightly lower prevalence than reported in previous studies. Neonatal hypoglycemia in infants prenatally exposed to antidepressant may however be more common than previously described. PMID:25365553

  16. A case report of methadone-associated hypoglycemia in an 11-month-old male.

    PubMed

    Toce, Michael S; Stefater, Margaret A; Breault, David T; Burns, Michele M

    2017-06-26

    Methadone is a synthetic μ-opioid receptor agonist that is used in the management of pain, neonatal abstinence withdrawal syndrome, and opioid dependence. Overdose can cause miosis, respiratory depression, and central nervous system depression. Rarely, hypoglycemia has been reported. We present the case of an 11-month-old male who developed hypoketotic, hyperinsulinemic, hypoglycemia after an acute, unintentional methadone exposure. The patient was a previously healthy 11-month-old male who presented in respiratory failure. He was intubated and transferred to a large tertiary care center where his physical exam was notable for miosis. His labs were notable for a blood glucose of 17 mg/dL, an elevated insulin level, and suppressed serum beta-hydroxybutyrate. The patient was given a dextrose bolus with improvement in blood glucose. Administration of IV naloxone improved his miosis and mental status. A quantitative methadone level was sent upon arrival and was 123 ng/mL. Testing for ethanol, salicylates, sulfonylureas, and metabolic causes of hypoglycemia was negative. A fasting study showed euglycemia with suppression of insulin and appropriate ketosis. Case discussion: We present the case of an 11-month-old male who developed hypoketotic, hyperinsulinemic, hypoglycemia after an acute, unintentional methadone exposure. Alternative explanations for hypoketotic hypoglycemia were rule out. Methadone-induced hypoglycemia has been reported in cancer patients receiving methadone for pain, but a mechanism has not been identified. Based on this case, we believe that the patient's hypoglycemia was the result of methadone-induced insulin secretion. This case proposes that hyperinsulinism is the mechanism responsible for methadone-associated hypoglycemia. Methadone exposure should be included in the differential diagnosis of new onset hypoglycemia.

  17. Hypoglycemia, chronic kidney disease, and diabetes mellitus.

    PubMed

    Alsahli, Mazen; Gerich, John E

    2014-11-01

    Hypoglycemia is a major problem associated with substantial morbidity and mortality in patients with diabetes and is often a major barrier to achieving optimal glycemic control. Chronic kidney disease not only is an independent risk factor for hypoglycemia but also augments the risk of hypoglycemia that is already present in people with diabetes. This article summarizes our current knowledge of the epidemiology, pathogenesis, and morbidity of hypoglycemia in patients with diabetes and chronic kidney disease and reviews therapeutic considerations in this situation. PubMed and MEDLINE were searched for literature published in English from January 1989 to May 2014 for diabetes mellitus, hypoglycemia, chronic kidney disease, and chronic renal insufficiency.

  18. Prevalence of hypocalcemia after phototherapy among neonates who underwent phototherapy in Koodakan Hospital in Bandar Abbas in 2013.

    PubMed

    Gheshmi, Abdolmajid Nazemi; Naderi, Salma; Homayrani, Elham; Safari, Batool

    2015-10-01

    Hyperbilirubinemia is one of the most common problems in newborns, and it is reported in about 60% of infants. Phototherapy is used extensively to treat these patients, and hypocalcemia is one important side effect of the phototherapy. The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of hypocalcemia after phototherapy in full-term newborns that underwent phototherapy in Koodakan Hospital in Bandar Abbas in 2013. This cross-sectional study was conducted on 100 neonates admitted to Koodakan Hospital in Bandar Abbas. All of the newborns were full-term, healthy, weighed more than 2,500 g, and were candidates for phototherapy. The newborns were divided into two groups, i.e., 1) those who were more than three days old and 2) those who were less than three days old. Serum bilirubin and calcium levels were measured for each newborn before phototherapy and 48 hours after phototherapy, and the before and after levels were compared. The data were analyzed using IBM SPSS 21.0 statistical software. The Fisher Exact test, the independent samples t-test, and the paired t-test were used to test the research hypothesis. Among the 100 newborns studied, 54% had decreased calcium levels after phototherapy. The prevalence of hypocalcemia was 9% in this study, and the prevalence was not significantly different in the two age groups (P = 0.217). Phototherapy does not increase the risk of hypocalcemia in healthy, full-term neonates. Therefore, prophylactic calcium is not recommended for healthy, full-term neonates who have undergone phototherapy.

  19. Continuous Glucose Monitoring: Impact on Hypoglycemia.

    PubMed

    van Beers, Cornelis A J; DeVries, J Hans

    2016-11-01

    The necessity of strict glycemic control is unquestionable. However, hypoglycemia remains a major limiting factor in achieving satisfactory glucose control, and evidence is mounting to show that hypoglycemia is not benign. Over the past decade, evidence has consistently shown that real-time continuous glucose monitoring improves glycemic control in terms of lowering glycated hemoglobin levels. However, real-time continuous glucose monitoring has not met the expectations of the diabetes community with regard to hypoglycemia prevention. The earlier trials did not demonstrate any effect on either mild or severe hypoglycemia and the effect of real-time continuous glucose monitoring on nocturnal hypoglycemia was often not reported. However, trials specifically designed to reduce hypoglycemia in patients with a high hypoglycemia risk have demonstrated a reduction in hypoglycemia, suggesting that real-time continuous glucose monitoring can prevent hypoglycemia when it is specifically used for that purpose. Moreover, the newest generation of diabetes technology currently available commercially, namely sensor-augmented pump therapy with a (predictive) low glucose suspend feature, has provided more convincing evidence for hypoglycemia prevention. This article provides an overview of the hypoglycemia outcomes of randomized controlled trials that investigate the effect of real-time continuous glucose monitoring alone or sensor-augmented pump therapy with a (predictive) low glucose suspend feature. Furthermore, several possible explanations are provided why trials have not shown a reduction in severe hypoglycemia. In addition, existing evidence is presented of real-time continuous glucose monitoring in patients with impaired awareness of hypoglycemia who have the highest risk of severe hypoglycemia.

  20. Prevalence of glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase deficiency in jaundiced Egyptian neonates.

    PubMed

    M Abo El Fotoh, Wafaa Moustafa; Rizk, Mohammed Soliman

    2016-12-01

    The enzyme, Glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD), deficiency leads to impaired production of reduced glutathione and predisposes the red cells to be damaged by oxidative metabolites, causing hemolysis. Deficient neonates may manifest clinically as hyperbilirubinemia or even kernicterus. This study was carried out to detect erythrocyte G6PD deficiency in neonatal hyperbilirubinemia. To determine the frequency and effect of G6PD deficiency, this study was conducted on 202 neonates with indirect hyperbilirubinemia. All term and preterm babies up to 13 day of age admitted with clinically evident jaundice were taken for the study. G6PD activity is measured by the UV-Kinetic Method using cellular enzyme determination reagents by spectrophotometry according to manufacturer's instructions. A total of 202 babies were enrolled in this study. Male babies outnumbered the female (71.3% versus 28.7%). Mean age of the study newborns was 3.75 ± 2.5 days. Eighteen neonates (8.9%) had G6PD deficiency, all are males. One case had combined G6PD deficiency and RH incompatibility. Mean serum total bilirubin was 17.2 ± 4.4 in G6PD deficient cases. There was significant positive correlation between the time of appearance of jaundice in days and G6PD levels in G6PD deficient cases. Neonatal hyperbilirubinemia is associated with various clinical comorbidities. G6PD deficiency is found to one important cause of neonatal jaundice developing on day 2 onwards.

  1. Hypoglycemia in Prader-Willi syndrome.

    PubMed

    Harrington, Rena A; Weinstein, David A; Miller, Jennifer L

    2014-05-01

    Although mouse models of Prader-Willi syndrome (PWS) suggest that hypoglycemia may be part of this syndrome, review of the literature shows little evidence that it is an issue in humans with PWS. Both adrenal and growth hormone deficiency can be seen in PWS, and both of these hormone deficiencies are associated with increased risk for hypoglycemia. We reviewed medical records for patients with PWS seen at the University of Florida Prader-Willi Program. Children were 2 months to 5 years of age. We recorded the presence, degree, and persistence of hypoglycemia, age of first occurrence, genetic diagnosis, and gestational age. Repeated hypoglycemia was determined if individuals had multiple blood glucose (BG) values <50 mg/dl before 1 month old, or BG levels <50 mg/dl once and additional BG values <70 mg/dl after 1 year of age. Of 95 patient charts reviewed, 12 (12.6%) had recorded hypoglycemia. Six of 12 patients with hypoglycemia had documented BG levels <40 mg/dl. Seven had their first episode of hypoglycemia within the first day of life. Of these seven individuals, five had BG <40 mg/dl. Repeated hypoglycemia was noted in 10 patients (83% of all patients with hypoglycemia). Only two with hypoglycemia had documented adrenal insufficiency. Our study suggests that infants with PWS may be predisposed to hypoglycemia from birth. Additional investigation is necessary to confirm our findings and define the cause of hypoglycemia. If the presence of hypoglycemia is confirmed, early detection and treatment may result in improved neurocognitive outcomes.

  2. Profound Hypoglycemia with Ecstasy Intoxication

    PubMed Central

    Carrera, Perliveh; Iyer, Vivek N.

    2015-01-01

    Background. 3,4-Methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA) or ecstasy is a synthetic drug that is commonly abused for its stimulant and euphoric effects. Adverse MDMA effects include hyperthermia, psychomotor agitation, hemodynamic compromise, renal failure, hyponatremia, and coma. However, endogenous hyperinsulinemia with severe persistent hypoglycemia has not been reported with MDMA use. Case Report. We report the case of a 29-year-old woman who remained severely hypoglycemic requiring continuous intravenous infusion of high-dose dextrose solutions for more than 24 hours after MDMA intoxication. Serum insulin and C-peptide levels confirmed marked endogenous hyperinsulinemia as the cause of the severe hypoglycemia. Why Should an Emergency Physician Be Aware of This? Immediate and frequent monitoring of blood glucose should be instituted in patients presenting with MDMA ingestion particularly if found to be initially hypoglycemic. Early recognition can help prevent the deleterious effects of untreated hypoglycemia that can add to the morbidity from MDMA use. Clinicians need to be aware of this side effect of MDMA so they can carefully monitor and treat it, especially in patients presenting with altered mental status. PMID:25692049

  3. Prevalence of rotavirus (GARV) and coronavirus (BCoV) associated with neonatal diarrhea in calves in western Algeria

    PubMed Central

    Ammar, Selles Sidi Mohammed; Mokhtaria, Kouidri; Tahar, Belhamiti Belkacem; Amar, Ait Amrane; Redha, Benia Ahmed; Yuva, Bellik; Mohamed, Hammoudi Si; Abdellatif, Niar; Laid, Boukrâa

    2014-01-01

    Objective To study the prevalence of bovine group A rotavirus (GARV) and bovine coronavirus (BCoV) in diarrheic feces from calves and the sensitive's parameters such as age group and sex. Methods Feces samples from 82 diarrheic dairy calves from farms around Tiaret (Western Algeria) were collected. These samples were tested by ELISA assay. Results The results showed that the prevalence of rotavirus and coronavirus infection are 14.63% (12.2% alone and 2.43% associated with bovine coronavirus) and 20.73% (18.3% alone and 2.43% associated with GARV), respectively. Conclusions The present study demonstrates that the both BCoV and GARV are involved in the neonatal calves' diarrhea, where the frequency of BCoV is clearly higher than that of GARV. PMID:25183104

  4. Empirical antimicrobial therapy for late-onset sepsis in a neonatal unit with high prevalence of coagulase-negative Staphylococcus.

    PubMed

    Romanelli, Roberta Maia de Castro; Anchieta, Lêni Márcia; Bueno E Silva, Ana Carolina; de Jesus, Lenize Adriana; Rosado, Viviane; Clemente, Wanessa Trindade

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to compare two different empiric treatments for late-onset neonatal sepsis, vancomycin and oxacillin, in a neonatal intensive care unit with a high prevalence of coagulase-negative Staphylococcus. A cross-sectional study was conducted in an neonatal intensive care unit from 2011 to 2014. Data from the medical records of at-risk newborns were collected daily. Infections were defined according to the National Health Surveillance Agency criteria. Data analysis was performed using an internal program. There was a significant reduction in the number of Staphylococcus aureus infections (p=0.008), without endocarditis, meningitis, or lower respiratory tract infection, as well as a reduction in the frequency of deaths related to S. aureus infection. There were no significant changes in the incidence of Gram-negative bacterial or fungal infections. An increase in coagulase-negative Staphylococcus infections was observed (p=0.022). However, there was no measured increase in related morbidity and mortality. There was a reduction in the median number of days of treatment with oxacillin from 11.5 to 6 days (p<0.001) and an increase of one day in the median number of days of treatment with vancomycin (p=0.046). Modification of the empiric treatment regimen for neonatal late-onset sepsis with use of oxacillin showed a significant reduction in S. aureus infections, as well as a reduction in the frequency of infections with major organ system involvement and mortality due to infection with this microorganism. As a result, oxacillin can be considered as an effective treatment for late-onset sepsis, making it possible to avoid broad-spectrum antibiotics. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Editora Ltda.

  5. Diazoxide-responsive hyperinsulinemic hypoglycemia caused by HNF4A gene mutations

    PubMed Central

    Flanagan, S E; Kapoor, R R; Mali, G; Cody, D; Murphy, N; Schwahn, B; Siahanidou, T; Banerjee, I; Akcay, T; Rubio-Cabezas, O; Shield, J P H; Hussain, K; Ellard, S

    2010-01-01

    Objective The phenotype associated with heterozygous HNF4A gene mutations has recently been extended to include diazoxide responsive neonatal hypoglycemia in addition to maturity-onset diabetes of the young (MODY). To date, mutation screening has been limited to patients with a family history consistent with MODY. In this study, we investigated the prevalence of HNF4A mutations in a large cohort of patients with diazoxide responsive hyperinsulinemic hypoglycemia (HH). Subjects and methods We sequenced the ABCC8, KCNJ11, GCK, GLUD1, and/or HNF4A genes in 220 patients with HH responsive to diazoxide. The order of genetic testing was dependent upon the clinical phenotype. Results A genetic diagnosis was possible for 59/220 (27%) patients. KATP channel mutations were most common (15%) followed by GLUD1 mutations causing hyperinsulinism with hyperammonemia (5.9%), and HNF4A mutations (5%). Seven of the 11 probands with a heterozygous HNF4A mutation did not have a parent affected with diabetes, and four de novo mutations were confirmed. These patients were diagnosed with HI within the first week of life (median age 1 day), and they had increased birth weight (median +2.4 SDS). The duration of diazoxide treatment ranged from 3 months to ongoing at 8 years. Conclusions In this large series, HNF4A mutations are the third most common cause of diazoxide responsive HH. We recommend that HNF4A sequencing is considered in all patients with diazoxide responsive HH diagnosed in the first week of life irrespective of a family history of diabetes, once KATP channel mutations have been excluded. PMID:20164212

  6. May maternal lifestyle have an impact on neonatal glucose levels?

    PubMed

    Hoirisch-Clapauch, Silvia; Porto, Maria Amelia S; Nardi, Antonio E

    2016-02-01

    Neonatal glucose levels correlate negatively with umbilical cord levels of C-peptide, a polypeptide secreted with insulin. In other words, neonatal hypoglycemia results from excessive insulin secretion from fetal/neonatal beta cells. Given that insulin causes fat to be stored rather than to be used for energy, one would expect that chronic hyperinsulinemia would result in large-for-gestational-age neonates. The finding that many small-for-gestational-age neonates have hypoglycemia suggests that the stimulus for insulin production occurs close to delivery. We postulated that a potent stimulation of maternal insulin production close to delivery would also provide a potent stimulus for fetal and neonatal insulin production, causing neonatal hypoglycemia. This study has evaluated 155 mothers with markers of excessive insulin production (such as acanthosis or grade III obesity), or with situations characterized by increased insulin requirements (such as an invasive bacterial infection or use of systemic corticosteroid within a week before delivery; or sedentariness or high-carbohydrate intake within 24h before delivery) and their 158 neonates who were screened for glycemic levels at 1, 2 and 4h after birth. The minimum glucose level was correlated to the maternal parameters, and to classical predictors of neonatal hypoglycemia, such as low-birth weight and preterm delivery. The only independent predictors were sedentariness and high-carbohydrate intake within 24h before delivery. The risk of neonatal hypoglycemia increased five-fold with sedentariness, 11-fold with high-carbohydrate intake, and 329-fold with both risk factors. The risk of neonatal hypoglycemia seems to be highly influenced by maternal lifestyle within 24h before delivery. Controlled randomized trials may help determine whether a controlled carbohydrate diet combined with regular physical activity close to delivery can prevent neonatal hypoglycemia and all its severe complications to the newborn

  7. Fear of hypoglycemia and its determinants in insulin-treated patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus

    PubMed Central

    Sakane, Naoki; Kotani, Kazuhiko; Tsuzaki, Kokoro; Nishi, Masami; Takahashi, Kaoru; Murata, Takashi; Yamada, Kazunori; Okazaki, Kentaro; Yanagisawa, Katsuyuki; Yamada, Kenichi; Kuribayashi, Nobuichi; Totsuka, Yasuo; Hiyoshi, Toru; Naka, Motoji; Sugimoto, Masatake; Aoki, Yuji; Waki, Masako; Furuya, Miyuki; Kitaoka, Haruko; Oishi, Mariko; Shimizu, Ikki; Miyaoka, Hiroaki; Okada, Akira; Yamamoto, Toshikazu

    2015-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to investigate the prevalence of fear of hypoglycemia, in association with severe hypoglycemia and social factors, in insulin-treated patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus. A questionnaire survey on hypoglycemia and patient–physician communication was carried out in 355 patients with insulin-treated type 2 diabetes mellitus patients at 16 hospitals and clinics. A fear of hypoglycemia was reported by 27.7% of patients. A stepwise logistic regression analysis found that severe hypoglycemia during the past 1 year was a significant determinant of fear of hypoglycemia (odds ratio 2.16, 95% confidence interval 1.06–4.41; P = 0.034), and age (odds ratio 1.02, 95% confidence interval 1.00–1.05, P = 0.038) and living alone (odds ratio 1.93, 95% confidence interval 1.00–3.73, P < 0.05) were significantly higher in patients with fear of hypoglycemia than in those without it. PMID:26417415

  8. Persistent Hypoglycemia in Patient with Hodgkin's Disease

    PubMed Central

    Lim, Harold Cinco; Munshi, Lubna Bashir; Sharon, David

    2015-01-01

    Hypoglycemia is a rare complication of Hodgkin's disease. Several explanations have been postulated but the exact pathophysiology is not well understood. We are presenting a case of newly diagnosed Stage IV Hodgkin's disease that developed persistent and recurrent hypoglycemia despite giving glucagon, repeated 50% dextrose, and D5 and D10 continuous infusion. Hypoglycemia workup showed the C-peptide level to be low. Patient was suspected of having hypoglycemia related to lymphoma and was given a trial of prednisone which resolved the hypoglycemic episodes and made the patient euglycemic for the rest of his hospital stay. The presence of a substance that mimicked the effects of insulin was highly suspected. Several case reports strengthen the hypothesis of an insulin-like growth factor or antibodies secreted by the cancer cells causing hypoglycemia in Hodgkin's disease but none of them have been confirmed. Further investigation is warranted to more clearly define the pathophysiology of persistent hypoglycemia in patients with Hodgkin's disease. PMID:26839722

  9. [Hyperinsulinemic hypoglycemia: a study of four cases].

    PubMed

    Féliz-De Vargas Pastor, J; García Jiménez, I; Sánchez Miramón, F; García López, P; Uriel Miñana, P; Baldellou Vázquez, A; Rebaje Moise, V

    1993-12-01

    We present a review of four cases of hypoglycemia caused by hyperinsulinemia that were diagnosed at our hospital during the last few years. In all of the cases the disease appeared with neurological symptoms (seizures) for the first months of life, followed by hypoglycemia. We propose a diagnostic algorithm which could be used with hypoglycemia cases. In addition, the diagnostic tests are discussed, as well as the treatment applied and the later evolution of each patient.

  10. Escherichia coli strains from pregnant women and neonates: intraspecies genetic distribution and prevalence of virulence factors.

    PubMed

    Watt, Stéphane; Lanotte, Philippe; Mereghetti, Laurent; Moulin-Schouleur, Maryvonne; Picard, Bertrand; Quentin, Roland

    2003-05-01

    To determine the extent to which the vagina, endocervix, and amniotic fluid screen the Escherichia coli strains responsible for neonatal infections, we studied the genetic relationships among 105 E. coli strains isolated from all of the ecosystems involved in this infectious process. Twenty-four strains were isolated from the intestinal flora, and 25 strains were isolated from the vaginas of pregnant women. Twenty-seven strains were isolated from the amniotic fluid, blood, and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) of infected neonates. The intraspecies genetic characteristics of all of the isolates were determined by random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) analysis, PCR ECOR (E. coli reference) grouping, and PCR virulence genotyping. A correlation was found between the intraspecies distributions of the strains in the A, B1, B2, and D ECOR groups and in the two major RAPD groups (I and II). Nevertheless, the distribution of the E. coli strains in the RAPD groups according to their anatomical origins was more significant than their distribution in the ECOR groups. This may be explained by the existence of an E. coli subpopulation, defined by the RAPD I group, within the ECOR B2 group. This RAPD I group presents a major risk for neonates: 75% of the strains isolated from patients with meningitis and 100% of the strains isolated from patients with bacteremia were in this group. The vagina and the amniotic fluid are two barriers that favor colonization by highly infectious strains. Indeed, only 17% of fecal strains belonged to the RAPD I group, whereas 52% of vaginal strains and 67% of amniotic fluid strains belonged to this subpopulation. The ibeA and iucC genes were significantly associated with CSF strains, whereas the hly and sfa/foc genes were more frequent in blood strains. These findings could serve as a basis for developing tools to recognize vaginal strains, which present a high risk for neonates, for use in prophylaxis programs.

  11. Hypoglycemia

    MedlinePlus

    ... how your body normally regulates blood sugar production, absorption and storage. Blood sugar regulation During digestion, your ... because protein and fat can slow the body's absorption of sugar. Recheck blood sugar levels 15 minutes ...

  12. Hypoglycemia

    MedlinePlus

    ... Looking for Health Lessons? Visit KidsHealth in the Classroom What Other Parents Are Reading Is Your Child ... it could be a sign that the diabetes management plan needs to be changed to help prevent ...

  13. Prevalence and correlates of posttraumatic stress and postpartum depression in parents of infants in the Neonatal Intensive Care Unit (NICU).

    PubMed

    Lefkowitz, Debra S; Baxt, Chiara; Evans, Jacquelyn R

    2010-09-01

    The purpose of this study was to assess the prevalence and correlates of acute stress disorder (ASD) and posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) in mothers and fathers, and postpartum depression (PPD) in mothers, of infants in the Neonatal Intensive Care Unit (NICU). 86 mothers and 41 fathers completed measures of ASD and of parent perception of infant medical severity 3-5 days after the infant's NICU admission (T1), and measures of PTSD and PPD 30 days later (T2). 35% of mothers and 24% of fathers met ASD diagnostic criteria at T1, and 15% of mothers and 8% of fathers met PTSD diagnostic criteria at T2. PTSD symptom severity was correlated with concurrent stressors and family history of anxiety and depression. Rates of ASD/PTSD in parents of hospitalized infants are consistent with rates in other acute illness and injury populations, suggesting relevance of traumatic stress in characterizing parent experience during and after the NICU.

  14. Postoperative surveillance and detection of postprandial hypoglycemia after fundoplasty in children.

    PubMed

    Calabria, Andrew C; Gallagher, Paul R; Simmons, Rebecca; Blinman, Thane; De León, Diva D

    2011-10-01

    To evaluate the prevalence of postprandial hypoglycemia (PPH) after fundoplasty after the initiation of a universal postoperative glucose surveillance plan in the neonatal intensive care unit (NICU). This was a retrospective chart review of children (newborn to 18 years) who underwent fundoplasty at The Children's Hospital of Philadelphia during the 2-year-period after the launch of a surveillance protocol in the NICU and other units. The rate of screening, frequency of PPH (postprandial blood glucose <60 mg/dL [3.3 mmol/L] on 2 occasions), frequency of postprandial hyperglycemia preceding PPH, timing of PPH presentation, and related symptoms were evaluated. A total of 285 children were included (n = 64 in the NICU; n = 221 in other units). Of the children screened in all units, 24.0% showed evidence of PPH, compared with 1.3% of unscreened children. Hyperglycemia preceded PPH in 67.7% (21/31) of all screened children. Within the NICU, most children had PPH within 1 week, but only 53.3% exhibited symptoms of dumping syndrome. This study supports the use of universal postoperative blood glucose surveillance in identifying PPH in children after fundoplasty. Earlier identification of PPH would lead to earlier treatment and minimize the effects of unidentified hypoglycemic events. Copyright © 2011 Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. β1-Adrenergic receptor deficiency in ghrelin-expressing cells causes hypoglycemia in susceptible individuals

    PubMed Central

    Mani, Bharath K.; Osborne-Lawrence, Sherri; Vijayaraghavan, Prasanna; Hepler, Chelsea; Zigman, Jeffrey M.

    2016-01-01

    Ghrelin is an orexigenic gastric peptide hormone secreted when caloric intake is limited. Ghrelin also regulates blood glucose, as emphasized by the hypoglycemia that is induced by caloric restriction in mouse models of deficient ghrelin signaling. Here, we hypothesized that activation of β1-adrenergic receptors (β1ARs) localized to ghrelin cells is required for caloric restriction–associated ghrelin release and the ensuing protective glucoregulatory response. In mice lacking the β1AR specifically in ghrelin-expressing cells, ghrelin secretion was markedly blunted, resulting in profound hypoglycemia and prevalent mortality upon severe caloric restriction. Replacement of ghrelin blocked the effects of caloric restriction in β1AR-deficient mice. We also determined that treating calorically restricted juvenile WT mice with beta blockers led to reduced plasma ghrelin and hypoglycemia, the latter of which is similar to the life-threatening, fasting-induced hypoglycemia observed in infants treated with beta blockers. These findings highlight the critical functions of ghrelin in preventing hypoglycemia and promoting survival during severe caloric restriction and the requirement for ghrelin cell–expressed β1ARs in these processes. Moreover, these results indicate a potential role for ghrelin in mediating beta blocker–associated hypoglycemia in susceptible individuals, such as young children. PMID:27548523

  16. Masked hypoglycemia in the presence of icodextrin for peritoneal dialysis.

    PubMed

    Khouli, Michael M

    2013-02-01

    Handheld glucose meters remain a rapid means of excluding hypoglycemia as a cause of altered mental status in the Emergency Department. However, emergency physicians must be alert for factors that can mask hypoglycemia at the bedside. An 80-year-old man with diabetes mellitus and end-stage renal disease on peritoneal dialysis presents with altered mental status, hypotension, and a bedside handheld glucose meter reading of 99mg/dL. His mental status failed to improve with treatment of hypotension and the patient was intubated for airway protection. Laboratory-measured serum glucose was 29mg/dL. His mental status improved after glucose administration. It was subsequently determined that the patient used icodextrin (Extraneal(®), Baxter Healthcare Corporation, Deerfield, IL) as his peritoneal dialysate. This is partly absorbed into serum and hydrolyzed to oligosaccharides that are falsely detected as glucose by many handheld glucose meters. The peritoneal dialysate icodextrin can produce falsely elevated bedside glucose meter values. As the prevalence of diabetic nephropathy and dialysis increases, emergency physicians must remain vigilant for such cases of unrecognized hypoglycemia. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Social vulnerability and hypoglycemia among patients with diabetes.

    PubMed

    Waitman, Jorge; Caeiro, Gabriela; Romero Gonzalez, Silvana A; Ré, Danila P; Daghero, Andrea; Gonzalez, Claudio D; Umpierrez, Guillermo E

    2017-02-01

    Lower-income populations are hit harder by the diabetes epidemic as regards both prevalence and the risk of complications. Food Insecurity is one of the mechanisms through which poverty may predispose people with low socio-economic status to poorer control and higher complication rates. The United Nations Food and Agriculture Organization defined food security as "the right to have access to sufficient nutritional and culturally acceptable food choices." Adults suffering from diabetes with limited income have a 40% greater chance of having food insecurity and an inadequate blood glucose control. Such patients have a two-fold greater risk of developing severe hypoglycemia. In addition, several studies have shown that social vulnerability resulting from food insecurity, low socioeconomic status, low educational levels, and poor health education is an independent risk factor for hypoglycemia, even after conventional predictors are controlled. This review analyzes the literature available on social vulnerability as a non-conventional risk factor for development of hypoglycemia in diabetic subjects. Copyright © 2017 SEEN. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  18. Prevalence and effect of oxytetracycline on congenital fetlock knuckling in neonatal dairy calves.

    PubMed

    Fazili, Mujeeb R; Bhattacharyya, Hiranya K; Mir, Manzoor u R; Hafiz, Abdul; Tufani, Noore A

    2014-11-12

    Musculoskeletal system deformities were observed in 24 (34.3%) of 70 neonatal dairy calves that presented with different congenital abnormalities. Among them, 19 calves (27.1%), the majority of which were crossbred Jersey calves of either gender with mean (± s.e.) body weight 22.00 kg ± 1.17 kg and aged 7.11 ± 1.16 days, were presented for treatment of congenital knuckling. Five of the knuckling calves had additional concurrent congenital conditions and were excluded from the present study. All of the remaining 14 calves showing moderate, bilateral fetlock knuckling had a wooden or polyvinyl chloride (PVC) splint applied to the palmar or plantar aspect of the affected limbs. All of the animals received a dose of the analgesic tolfenamic acid intramuscularly, and were randomly allocated to two equal groups. Calves of Group I additionally received oxytetracycline (20 mg/kg intravenous daily for 3 days). The condition resolved satisfactorily in 83.3% and 80.0% calves from the two groups, respectively. The left and right fetlock angle (mean ± SE) reduced significantly (p ≤ 0.01) from 50.57° ± 4.20° to 4.00° ± 2.27° and 48.71° ± 2.37° to 5.33° ± 3.03°, respectively in animals of Group I. In Group II calves, the angles showed reduction from 50.86° ± 2.94° to 4.20° ± 2.75° and from 48.71° ± 3.14° to 6.80° ± 3.34°, respectively. From the present study, it was concluded that bilateral moderate fetlock knuckling in the neonatal dairy calves can be managed satisfactorily with early application of splints. Supplementary use of oxytetracycline at repeated doses of low toxicity had only a marginally beneficial effect.

  19. Cerebral blood flow response to hypoglycemia is altered in patients with type 1 diabetes and impaired awareness of hypoglycemia.

    PubMed

    Wiegers, Evita C; Becker, Kirsten M; Rooijackers, Hanne M; von Samson-Himmelstjerna, Federico C; Tack, Cees J; Heerschap, Arend; de Galan, Bastiaan E; van der Graaf, Marinette

    2016-01-01

    It is unclear whether cerebral blood flow responses to hypoglycemia are altered in people with type 1 diabetes and impaired awareness of hypoglycemia. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of hypoglycemia on both global and regional cerebral blood flow in type 1 diabetes patients with impaired awareness of hypoglycemia, type 1 diabetes patients with normal awareness of hypoglycemia and healthy controls ( n = 7 per group). The subjects underwent a hyperinsulinemic euglycemic-hypoglycemic glucose clamp in a 3 T MR system. Global and regional changes in cerebral blood flow were determined by arterial spin labeling magnetic resonance imaging, at the end of both glycemic phases. Hypoglycemia generated typical symptoms in patients with type 1 diabetes and normal awareness of hypoglycemia and healthy controls, but not in patients with impaired awareness of hypoglycemia. Conversely, hypoglycemia increased global cerebral blood flow in patients with impaired awareness of hypoglycemia, which was not observed in the other two groups. Regionally, hypoglycemia caused a redistribution of cerebral blood flow towards the thalamus of both patients with normal awareness of hypoglycemia and healthy controls, consistent with activation of brain regions associated with the autonomic response to hypoglycemia. No such redistribution was found in the patients with impaired awareness of hypoglycemia. An increase in global cerebral blood flow may enhance nutrient supply to the brain, hence suppressing symptomatic awareness of hypoglycemia. Altogether these results suggest that changes in cerebral blood flow during hypoglycemia contribute to impaired awareness of hypoglycemia.

  20. Derivation and validation model for hospital hypoglycemia.

    PubMed

    Ena, Javier; Gaviria, Antonio Zapatero; Romero-Sánchez, Marta; Carretero-Gómez, Juana; Carrasco-Sánchez, Francisco Javier; Segura-Heras, José Vicente; Porto-Perez, Ana Belkis; Vázquez-Rodriguez, Patricia; González-Becerra, Concepción; Gómez-Huelgas, Ricardo

    2017-09-04

    An objective and simple prognostic model for hospitalized patients with hypoglycemia could be helpful in guiding initial intensity of treatment. We carried out a derivation rule for hypoglycemia using data from a nationwide retrospective cohort study of patients with diabetes or hyperglycemia carried out in 2014 (n=839 patients). The rule for hypoglycemia was validated using a second data set from a nationwide retrospective cohort study carried out in 2016 (n=561 patients). We derived our prediction rule using logistic regression with hypoglycemia (glucose less than 70mg/dL) as the primary outcome. The incidence of hypoglycemia in the derivation cohort was 10.3%. Patient's characteristics independently associated with hypoglycemia included episodes of hypoglycemia during the previous three months (odds ratio [OR]: 6.29, 95% confidence interval [95%CI]: 3.37-11.79, p<0.001) estimated glomerular filtration rate lower than 30mL/min/1.73m(2) (OR: 2.32, 95%CI: 1.23-4.35, p=0.009), daily insulin dose greater than 0.3units per Kg (OR: 1.74, 95%CI: 1.06-2.85, p=0.028), and days of hospitalization (OR: 1.03, 95%CI: 1.01-1.04, p=0.001). The model showed an area under the curve (AUC): 0.72 (95%CI: 0.66-0.78, p<0.001). The AUC in the validation cohort was: 0.71 (95%CI: 0.63-0.79, p<0.001). The rule showed fair accuracy to predict hypoglycemia. Implementation of the rule into computer systems could be used in guiding initial insulin therapy. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  1. Prevalence of Noncardiac and Genetic Abnormalities in Neonates Undergoing Cardiac Operations: Analysis of The Society of Thoracic Surgeons Congenital Heart Surgery Database.

    PubMed

    Patel, Angira; Costello, John M; Backer, Carl L; Pasquali, Sara K; Hill, Kevin D; Wallace, Amelia S; Jacobs, Jeffrey P; Jacobs, Marshall L

    2016-11-01

    Among patients with congenital heart disease (CHD), the coexistence of noncardiac congenital anatomic abnormalities (NC), genetic abnormalities (GA), and syndromes (S) may influence therapeutic strategies and outcomes. The appreciated prevalence of these abnormalities has risen because increased screening and improved diagnostic precision enable identification of these comorbidities in a larger fraction of neonates with CHD. We examined the contemporary prevalence and distribution of NC/GA/S across diagnostic groups among neonates undergoing cardiac operations using a large nationally representative clinical registry. The Society of Thoracic Surgeons Congenital Heart Surgery Database (STS-CHSD) was queried to identify neonates (≤30 days) who underwent index cardiac operations from 2010 to 2013. The fundamental cardiac diagnosis was used to identify 10 diagnostic groups. The prevalence of NC/GA/S was reported across each group. The cohort included 15,376 index neonatal operations from 112 centers. Overall, 18.8% (2,894 of 15,376) of operations were performed in neonates with NC/GA/S. Patients with atrioventricular septal defect (212 of 357 [59.4%]), interrupted aortic arch (248 of 567 [43.7%]), truncus arteriosus (204 of 554 [36.8%]), and tetralogy of Fallot (417 of 1,383 [30.2%]) had the highest prevalence of NC/GA/S abnormalities, whereas those with transposition of the great arteries (111 of 2,778 [4.0%]) had the lowest prevalence. The most commonly identified NC/GA/S included heterotaxy (597 of 15,376 [3.9%]), DiGeorge syndrome or 22q11 deletion (550 of 15,376 [3.6%]), Down syndrome or trisomy 21 (318 of 15, 376 [2.1%]), intestinal malrotation (220 of 15,376 [1.4%]), and Turner syndrome or 45XO (189 of 15,376 [1.2%]). The prevalence of NC/GA/S varies widely across CHD diagnostic groups. This information may be useful for patient counseling, recommendations for screening for anomalies and genetic disorders, and perioperative management. Copyright © 2016 The

  2. Hypoglycemia during moderate intensity exercise reduces counterregulatory responses to subsequent hypoglycemia.

    PubMed

    Cade, W Todd; Khoury, Nadia; Nelson, Suzanne; Shackleford, Angela; Semenkovich, Katherine; Krauss, Melissa J; Arbeláez, Ana María

    2016-09-01

    Hypoglycemia, which occurs commonly during and following exercise in people with diabetes, is thought to be due to attenuated counterregulation in the setting of therapeutic insulin excess. To better understand the pathophysiology of counterregulation, we aimed to determine if dextrose administration to maintain euglycemia during moderate intensity exercise alters the attenuation of counterregulatory responses to subsequent hypoglycemia in healthy adults : Counterregulatory responses to hypoglycemia were assessed in 18 healthy adults after bed rest and following exercise with (n = 9) and without (n = 9) dextrose infusion. Responses were measured during a stepped euglycemic-hypoglycemic clamp 24 h after either bed rest or two 90-min bouts of exercise at 70% peak oxygen uptake : Hypoglycemia occurred during the second bout of exercise without dextrose infusion. Plasma glucagon and epinephrine responses to stepped hypoglycemia after antecedent exercise without dextrose infusion were significantly lower at the 45 mg/dL glycemic level compared to after bed rest. However, no attenuation of the counterregulatory responses to hypoglycemia was evident after antecedent exercise when dextrose was infused. This study suggests that the attenuation of the counterregulatory responses during hypoglycemia after exercise is likely due to the hypoglycemia that occurs during moderate prolonged exercise and not solely due to exercise or its intensity.

  3. Hypoglycemia in type 2 diabetes: Standpoint of an experts’ committee (India hypoglycemia study group)

    PubMed Central

    Viswanathan, Mohan; Joshi, Shashank R.; Bhansali, Anil

    2012-01-01

    The epidemic of type 2 diabetes and the recognition that achieving specific glycemic goals can substantially reduce morbidity have made the effective treatment of hyperglycemia a top priority. Despite compelling evidence that tight glycemic control is crucial for delaying disease progression, increased risk of hypoglycemia associated with such control underscore the complexity of diabetes management. In most cases, hypoglycemia results from an excess of insulin, either absolute or relative to the available glucose substrate and the factors perhaps exacerbating the risk are pharmacokinetic imperfections, behavioral, co-morbidities etc. Additionally, many patients remain undiagnosed, and many diagnosed patients are not treated appropriately. In this article, the challenges of hypoglycemia, confronting health care providers and their patients with diabetes, are discussed for making treatment decisions that will help minimize risk of hypoglycemia and eventually overcome formidable barriers to optimal diabetes management. Strategies to treat and minimize the frequency and severity of hypoglycemia without compromising on glycemic goals are also presented. PMID:23226632

  4. Surgical aspects of hyperinsulinemic hypoglycemia.

    PubMed

    Grant, C S

    1999-09-01

    To make a diagnosis of insulinoma, one must consider it. Neuroglycopenic symptoms are the most prominent and convincing, and the combination of hypoglycemia and endogenous hyperinsulinemia are diagnostic of insulinoma. A glucose level of approximately 40 mg/dL with a concomitant insulin level of 6 microU/mL, a C-peptide level exceeding 200 pmol/L, and a negative screening for sulfonylurea must be documented to confirm the diagnosis. Although in the author's experience, preoperative ultrasound is the best and often the only test performed in the patient undergoing a first-time operation, arteriography is perhaps the single most effective localization test performed on a nationwide basis. Expertly performed intraoperative ultrasonography assists in tumor localization and in delineating important related anatomy and has become virtually routine in the author's surgical practice. Insulinomas are typically benign, single, and small, and are generally firmer than surrounding normal pancreas. Extensive surgical exposure may be required to identify and safely remove the tumor. Enucleation is preferred by the author, but distal pancreatectomy for tumors in the body or tail is an excellent method as well. Tumors in the head of the pancreas are usually enucleated, and pancreatoduodenectomy is rarely performed. The most troublesome complication is a pancreatic leakage causing pseudocyst, abscess, or fistula. Except in MEN 1 syndrome, in which a more extensive resection is usually indicated, excision of a single benign insulinoma leads to long-term cure of the disease. The successful excision of an insulinoma will profoundly affect a patient's life.

  5. High prevalence of severe circulatory complications with diazoxide in premature infants.

    PubMed

    Yoshida, Kayo; Kawai, Masahiko; Marumo, Chieko; Kanazawa, Hoshinori; Matsukura, Takashi; Kusuda, Satoshi; Yorifuji, Tohru; Heike, Toshio

    2014-01-01

    Since diazoxide was approved for clinical use in Japan in 2008, its prescription for the treatment of infants with hyperinsulinemic hypoglycemia (HIH) has rapidly expanded. Concomitantly, reports of complications associated with diazoxide are increasing. To clarify the trends and problems associated with the treatment of infants with HIH, we planned a nationwide surveillance in Japan. Questionnaires were sent to 255 institutions belonging to the Japanese Neonatologist Association inquiring about neonatal cases of HIH from 2009 to 2011. One hundred nineteen cases of neonates with transient HIH (THIH) related to perinatal problems and 15 cases with permanent HIH (PHIH; hypoglycemia persisting beyond a year) or genetic HIH were reported. Sixty-four infants (53.8%) with THIH were administered diazoxide, and the administration was completed within 3 months in 46 infants (71.9%). Fourteen of the PHIH or genetic cases were treated with diazoxide and 7 of them (50%) had hypoglycemia persisting beyond a year. Circulatory complications were reported in 15 infants, i.e. 10 with THIH and 5 with PHIH. Multiple regression analysis revealed that a younger gestational age at birth and higher maximum doses of diazoxide were significant risk factors for circulatory complications. Diazoxide is widely prescribed for infants with HIH as a first-line medicine in Japan, but prophylactic diuretics are uncommon. Under these circumstances, a high prevalence of severe circulatory complications in very-low-birth-weight infants was reported. © 2014 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  6. Changes in the prevalence of breast feeding in preterm infants discharged from neonatal units: a register study over 10 years

    PubMed Central

    Flacking, Renée; Hellström-Westas, Lena

    2016-01-01

    Objective There are indications that the prevalence of exclusively breastfed preterm infants is decreasing in Sweden. The objective was to investigate trends in exclusive breast feeding at discharge from Swedish neonatal units and associated factors in preterm infants. Design, setting and participants This is a register study with data from the Swedish Neonatal Quality Register. Data from 29 445 preterm infants (gestational age (GA) <37 weeks) who were born during the period 2004–2013 were retrieved. Data included maternal, perinatal and neonatal characteristics. Data were analysed for the whole population as well as for 3 GA groups. Results From 2004 to 2013, the prevalence of exclusive breast feeding decreased, in extremely preterm (GA 22–27 weeks) from 55% to 16%, in very preterm (GA 28–31 weeks) from 41% to 34% and in moderately preterm infants (GA 32–36 weeks) from 64% to 49%. The decline was statistically significant (p<0.001) in all 3 GA groups. This decline remained significant when adjustments were made for factors negatively associated with exclusive breast feeding and which became more prevalent during the study period, that is, small for GA (all groups) and maternal mental illness (very preterm and moderately preterm infants). Conclusions In the past 10 years, Sweden has experienced a lower rate of exclusive breast feeding in preterm infants, especially in extremely preterm infants. The factors analysed in this study explain only a small proportion of this decline. The decline in exclusive breast feeding at discharge from neonatal units raises concern and present challenges to the units to support and promote breast feeding. PMID:27965252

  7. Neural conduction impairment in the auditory brainstem and the prevalence in term babies in neonatal intensive care unit.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Ze D

    2015-07-01

    To detect neural conduction abnormality in the auditory brainstem in term babies in the neonatal intensive care unit (NICU), determine prevalence of the abnormality, and assess if maximum length sequence (MLS) technique improves early detection of the abnormality. One hundred and six term babies were recruited, and studied by recording and analysing MLS brainstem auditory evoked response (BAER). Interpeak intervals were analysed in detail, which were then compared with those in normal term babies. Wave V latency and I-V and III-V intervals in MLS BAER were increased in the NICU term babies at all click rates 91-910/s, particularly at 455 and 910/s (p<0.05-0.001). No major abnormalities were found in wave I and III latencies and I-III interval. The abnormal increase in I-V and III-V intervals were seen in significantly more cases at 455 and 910/s in MLS BAER than at 21/s in conventional BAER (X(2)=10.92-13.88, all p<0.01). As a whole, 38 (35.8%) of the NICU babies had abnormal III-V and/or I-V intervals in MLS BAER, which was significantly more than 13 (12.2%) in conventional BAER (X(2)=16.14, p<0.01). There is neural conduction impairment in the auditory brainstem in NICU term babies, which occurs in one-third of these babies. Term babies in NICU are at risk of neural conduction impairment in the auditory brainstem. High click rates in MLS BAER enhance early detection of the impairment. Copyright © 2014 International Federation of Clinical Neurophysiology. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Obstetric Obesity is Associated with Neonatal Hyperbilirubinemia with High Prevalence in Native Hawaiians and Pacific Island Women

    PubMed Central

    Rougée, Luc RA; Miyagi, Shogo J

    2016-01-01

    Obesity and pregnancy both place the liver under metabolic stress, but interactions between obstetric obesity and bilirubin metabolism have not been studied. We determined associations between obesity, maternal/neonatal bilirubin levels, and uridine 5′diphosphate-glucuronosyltransferase 1A1 (UGT1A1) enzyme that eliminates bilirubin. Adult livers were analyzed for UGT1A1 expression, activity, and bilirubin clearance by pharmacokinetic modeling. Then, matched maternal and neonatal sera (N = 450) were assayed for total and unconjugated bilirubin. Associations between obesity, UGT1A1, maternal and neonatal hyperbilirubinemia were determined statistically through correlation analysis (Pearson's test) as well as binned categories (one-way ANOVA). Morbid obesity decreased hepatic UGT1A1 protein levels, activity, and bilirubin clearance (P < .001). Increasing obesity corresponded to elevated maternal unconjugated bilirubin (P < .05). Maternal obesity was also significantly positively correlated with elevated neonatal bilirubin levels (P < .01, N = 450) and this was strongest in Native Hawaiians and Pacific Islander (NHPI) women (P < .01, n = 150). Obstetric obesity is associated with maternal and neonatal hyperbilirubinemia, likely through inhibition of hepatic UGT1A1. The NHPI cohort was the most obese and had the highest levels of maternal and neonatal unconjugated bilirubin. Neonates from obese mothers may be more susceptible to jaundice and side effects from parenteral nutrition. PMID:27980881

  9. Prevalence of HFE gene C282Y and H63D mutations in a French-Canadian population of neonates and in referred patients.

    PubMed

    Girouard, Joël; Giguère, Yves; Delage, Robert; Rousseau, François

    2002-01-15

    Hereditary hemochromatosis is a genetic disease characterized by exaggerated absorption of intestinal iron leading to its accumulation in some organs over the years. Its prevalence is estimated to be 3-5/1000 in Caucasians. A single mutation, C282Y in the HFE gene explains 80-90% of all diagnosed cases in populations of northwestern European ancestry. The importance of another frequent mutation in this gene, H63D, as well as of C282Y/H63D compound heterozygotes, is still a matter of debate. We estimated the prevalence of these mutations in newborns from a genetically well defined French-Canadian population, in Quebec City. We compared genotype and allele frequencies between neonates and referred patients for HFE molecular analysis. We genotyped anonymous-unlinked cord blood samples for C282Y (n = 881) and H63D (n = 870) mutations from neonates. Referred patients (n = 1084) were genotyped in two different laboratories and pooled after verifying the similarity of both groups. No C282Y homozygote was found in neonates (allele frequency = 0.043). However, we identified 163 C282Y homozygotes (15%) among 1084 referred patients leading to a, not surprising, 97-fold enrichment of this genotype. We found a similar proportion of genotypes homozygous for H63D in both groups suggesting a weak association with the disease. However, we found a 5-fold enrichment of compound heterozygotes in the referred group. Fewer C282Y homozygotes were observed in the French-Canadian population than in northwest Europe populations. However, the strong enrichment of homozygotes between the neonates and the referred patients is an argument in favour of screening for this lethal disease.

  10. Glucose Levels in Newborns with Special Reference to Hypoglycemia: A Study from Rural India

    PubMed Central

    Dias, Edwin; Gada, Sandeep

    2014-01-01

    Hypoglycemia is one of the common metabolic problems in neonatal medicine. There is association between blood glucose levels and neurological development. The study involved 100 mothers and neonates blood glucose levels were measured using a standard glucometer in mother delivering babies within half an hour of delivery and in newborns at 0, 3, 6, 12, 24 h of life. Blood glucose levels were low at 0th and 6th h and maximum at 24th h. Neonates born to mothers with high maternal blood glucose levels were hypoglycemic showing a negative correlation. The mean blood glucose levels were low in pre-term and post-term compared with term babies and range of blood glucose levels were wide in preterm and post term babies. PMID:24741538

  11. Development of a New Fear of Hypoglycemia Scale: FH-15

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anarte Ortiz, Maria Teresa; Caballero, Francisco Felix; Ruiz de Adana, Maria Soledad; Rondan, Rosa Maria; Carreira, Monica; Dominguez-Lopez, Marta; Machado, Alberto; Gonzalo-Marin, Montserrat; Tapia, Maria Jose; Valdes, Sergio; Gonzalez-Romero, Stella; Soriguer, Federico C.

    2011-01-01

    Hypoglycemia is the most common adverse event associated with insulin treatment in diabetes. The consequences of hypoglycemia can be quite aversive and potentially life threatening. The physical sequelae provide ample reason for patients to fear hypoglycemia and avoid episodes. For these reasons, our purpose in this study was to develop a new…

  12. Development of a New Fear of Hypoglycemia Scale: FH-15

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anarte Ortiz, Maria Teresa; Caballero, Francisco Felix; Ruiz de Adana, Maria Soledad; Rondan, Rosa Maria; Carreira, Monica; Dominguez-Lopez, Marta; Machado, Alberto; Gonzalo-Marin, Montserrat; Tapia, Maria Jose; Valdes, Sergio; Gonzalez-Romero, Stella; Soriguer, Federico C.

    2011-01-01

    Hypoglycemia is the most common adverse event associated with insulin treatment in diabetes. The consequences of hypoglycemia can be quite aversive and potentially life threatening. The physical sequelae provide ample reason for patients to fear hypoglycemia and avoid episodes. For these reasons, our purpose in this study was to develop a new…

  13. Importance of insulin immunoassays in the diagnosis of factitious hypoglycemia.

    PubMed

    Nalbantoğlu Elmas, Özlem; Demir, Korcan; Soylu, Nusret; Çelik, Nilüfer; Özkan, Behzat

    2014-12-01

    We report two cases emphasizing the importance of insulin assays for evaluation of hypoglycemia in diabetic patients. Case 1 was a 96/12-year-old female patient with type 1 diabetes mellitus and case 2 was a 1010/12-year-old male patient with DIDMOAD. Both patients were on a basal-bolus insulin regimen. Both were admitted because of persistent hypoglycemia. Analyses of serum samples obtained at the time of hypoglycemia initially showed low insulin and C-peptide levels. Recurrent episodes of unexplained hypoglycemia necessitated measurement of insulin levels by using different insulin assays, which revealed hyperinsulinemic hypoglycemia with low C-peptide levels, findings which confirmed a diagnosis of factitious hypoglycemia. Surreptitious administration of insulin should not be excluded in diabetic patients with hypoglycemia without taking into account the rate of cross-reactivity of insulin analogues with the insulin assay used.

  14. [Pathogenesis of ketotic hypoglycemia (author's transl)].

    PubMed

    Ploier, R; Tulzer, W; Sommer, R

    1979-01-01

    4 children with ketotic hypoglycemia (KH) showed during a fasting period over 24 hours significant higher decreases of serum alanine levels than normal controls. Insulin induced hypoglycemia was followed by only minimal increase of urine epinephrine secretion, while all controls showed more than 6 times higher increases. 2-desoxy-glucose-tests were pathological in all cases with KH. One can speculate, that there is a connection between the reduced availability of alanine and the adrenal medullary hyporesponsiveness. Epinephrine stimulates glycogenolysis in muscle cells. Lack of epinephrine reduces pyruvate production and subsequently alanine synthesis. Alanine however is essential for gluconeogenesis in liver cells especially during starvation. After some days administration of diazoxide the 2-desoxy-glucose-test was normalised in all patients. This observation could probably be of some interest in therapy of KH.

  15. Hypoalaninemia and ketotic hypoglycemia: cause or consequence?

    PubMed

    Wolfsdorf, J I; Sadeghi-Nejad, A; Senior, B

    1982-02-01

    A shortage of alanine for gluconeogenesis is believed responsible for various forms of hypoglycemia and in particular ketotic hypoglycemia (KH). We examined the glucose-alanine relationship in two groups of fasting children, 18 with KH and 44 controls. Glucose levels declined in both groups but significantly more in KH; to 1.98 +/- 0.20 versus 3.26 +/-0.13 mM (mean +/- SEM; P less than 0.001). Alanine also fell in both groups, the concentrations correlating significantly with the concomitant glucose levels (KH: r = 0.64, P less than 0.001, and controls: r = 0.50, P less than 0.001). The relationship of alanine to glucose gave virtually identical regression equations, y = 0.054x + 0.063 for KH and y = 0.054x + 0.050 for controls. The differences in alanine levels between the two groups were too small to account for the greater decline in glucose in KH. The results indicate that hypoalaninemia rather than causing hypoglycemia results from it.

  16. Prevalence and predictors of vitamin D deficiency based on maternal mid-gestation and neonatal cord bloods: The Generation R Study.

    PubMed

    Vinkhuyzen, Anna A E; Eyles, Darryl W; Burne, Thomas H; Blanken, Laura M E; Kruithof, Claudia J; Verhulst, Frank; Jaddoe, Vincent W; Tiemeier, Henning; McGrath, John J

    2016-11-01

    Population-based studies have confirmed that the prevalence of vitamin D deficiency is substantial in many societies, and is of particular concern in pregnant women. Vitamin D deficiency during pregnancy is associated with a wide range of adverse maternal and offspring health outcomes. To date, studies of vitamin D deficiency during pregnancy have focused on measurements at one or two time points in isolation. We examined both midgestation and cord blood 25 hydroxyvitamin D (25OHD) concentration and explored the prevalence and correlates of vitamin D deficiency in a large ethnically diverse cohort of pregnant women and their infants in the Netherlands. This study was embedded in the Generation R Study, a population-based prospective cohort from fetal life onwards in Rotterdam, The Netherlands. Using a highly sensitive tandem mass spectroscopy-based assay, we measured 25OHD in 7256 midgestation samples (mean gestation 20.6 weeks) and 5023 neonatal cord blood samples (mean gestation 40.0 weeks). Using a conservative threshold of less than 25nmol/L to define vitamin D deficiency, we examined the prevalence and socio-demographic correlates of vitamin D deficiency in mothers and infants. We also derived a measure of vitamin D deficiency based on the two time points in order to explore persistent vitamin D deficiency in mother-infant pairs. The prevalence of vitamin D deficiency at midgestation was 26%, while in neonates 46% were deficient. 21% of the mother-infant pairs had persistent vitamin D deficiency (i.e., deficient in maternal and cord samples) and an additional 29% were vitamin D deficient in one of the two samples only. Persistent vitamin D deficiency was strongly associated with non-European ancestry and spring birth. A sizeable proportion of women and their neonatal offspring in the Generation R cohort were vitamin D deficient. In light of the large body of evidence linking vitamin D deficiency with adverse health outcomes for pregnant women and their

  17. Hypoalaninemia: a concomitant of ketotic hypoglycemia.

    PubMed

    Pagliara, A S; Kari, I E; De Vivo, D C; Feigin, R D; Kipnis, D M

    1972-06-01

    The cause of of ketotic hypoglycemia, the commonest form of hypoglycemia in childhood, is not known. The present study was undertaken to determine whether the primary defect in this condition is a deficiency of gluconeogenic precursor(s) or an abnormality in the hepatic gluconeogenic enzyme system. Plasma glucose, alanine, and insulin and blood beta-hydroxybutyrate (beta-OHB), pyruvate, and lactate levels were determined in eight ketotic hypoglycemic children and seven agematched controls maintained on a normal diet and after being fed a provocative hypocaloric low-carbohydrate diet (1200 kcal/1.73 m(2), 15% carbohydrate, 17% protein, and 68% fat). On a normal diet, overnight fasting plasma alanine (211+/-10 muM) and glucose (68+/-4 mg/100 ml) were significantly lower and blood beta-OHB (1.22+/-0.37 mM) significantly higher in ketotic hypoglycemic children than in controls (alanine, 315+/-15 muM; glucose, 81+/-3 mg/100 ml; beta-OHB, 0.18+/-0.08 mM). All ketotic hypoglycemic children developed symptomatic hypoglycemia (33+/-3 mg/100 ml) and ketosis (beta-OHB, 3.70+/-0.32 mM) 8-16 hr after starting the provocative diet and these changes were associated with a further decline in plasma alanine (155+/-17 muM). Normal children, even after 36 hr on this diet, maintained higher plasma glucose (48+/-2 mg/100 ml) and alanine (225+/-5 muM) and lower beta-OHB levels (2.56+/-0.44 mM). Intravenous infusions of alanine (250 mg/kg) uniformly restored the hypoglycemic plasma glucose levels of ketotic hypoglycemic children to normal. Cortisone acetate (300 mg/m(2)), given orally in three divided doses during feeding of the provocative diet, produced a 3- to 4-fold increase in plasma alanine within 4-6 hr after beginning steroid therapy and completely prevented the development of hypoglycemia and ketosis. Quantitative amino acid profiles were performed and demonstrated that alanine was the only gluconeogenic amino acid which differed significantly between the two groups. Plasma

  18. The effects of systematic management on maternal and neonatal complications in gestational diabetes subjects.

    PubMed

    Panpitpat, Pitvara; Thipaporn, Tharavanij; Somprasit, Charintip; Tanprasertkul, Chamnan; Suwannarurk, Komsun

    2015-05-01

    To compare maternal and neonatal complications ofgestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) between conservative and systematic management. This retrospective cohort study was conducted at Thammasat University Hospital, Thailand. GDM subjects who were diagnosed and treated from October 2004 to March 2007 were classified as the conservative management group (CMG). The participants who were diagnosed and treated from April 2007 to September 2009 were classified as the systematic management group (SMG). SMG was ambulatory-managed per standard protocol by a multidisciplinary team (physician, diabetes nurse case manager nutritionist and pharmacologist). There were 87 and 118 subjects in CMG and SMG, respectively. Mean age and body mass index before pregnancy in CMG and SMG were not statistical different. Oral glucose tolerance tests (50 and 100 gram) were similar in both groups. The prevalence of GDM A2 was 57.5 and 55.1% in CMG and SMG, respectively. Mean gestational age at DM clinic consultation and number of hospital admission of SMG was less than CMG (p < 0.001). Neonatal hypoglycemic episode in SMG was less than CMG (1.7 vs. 10.3; p = 0.007). Postpartum 75-gram glucose tolerance test appointments and percentages of underwent in SMG were more than CMG (p < 0.001). Other composite maternal and neonatal outcomes were not different in either group. Systematic management by a multidisciplinary team conducted according to a practical guideline has the benefit of neonatal hypoglycemia reduction and hospital admission included postpartum DM surveillance increments.

  19. Maternal and neonatal outcomes of macrosomic pregnancies

    PubMed Central

    Weissmann-Brenner, Alina; Simchen, Michal J.; Zilberberg, Eran; Kalter, Anat; Weisz, Boaz; Achiron, Reuven; Dulitzky, Mordechai

    2012-01-01

    Summary Background To compare maternal and neonatal outcomes of term macrosomic and adequate for gestational age (AGA) pregnancies. Material/Methods A retrospective analysis was performed on all term singleton macrosomic (birth weight ≥4000 g) and AGA (birth weight >10th percentile and <4000 g) pregnancies delivered at our hospital between 2004 and 2008. Data collected included maternal age, gestational age at delivery, mode of delivery, birth weight, fetal gender, maternal and neonatal complications. Comparisons were made between macrosomic and AGA pregnancies and between different severities of macrosomia (4000–4250 g, 4250–4500 g and ≥4500 g). Results The study population comprised of 34,685 pregnancies. 2077 neonates had birth weight ≥4000 g. Maternal age and gestational age at delivery were significantly higher for macrosomic neonates. Significantly more macrosomic neonates were born by cesarean section, and were complicated with shoulder dystocia, neonatal hypoglycemia, and had longer hospitalization period (both in vaginal and cesarean deliveries). Specifically, the odds ratio (OR) relative to AGA pregnancies for each macrosomic category (4000–4250 g, 4250–4500 g and ≥4500 g) of shoulder dystocia was 2.37, 2.24, 7.61, respectively, and for neonatal hypoglycemia 4.24, 4.41, 4.15, respectively. The risk of post partum hemorrhage was statistically increased when birth weight was >4500 g (OR=5.23) but not for birth weight between 4000–4500 g. No differences were found in the rates of extensive perineal lacerations between AGA and the different macrosomic groups. Conclusions Macrosomia is associated with increased rate of cesarean section, shoulder dystocia, neonatal hypoglycemia, and longer hospitalization, but not associated with excessive perineal tears. Increased risk of PPH was found in the >4500g group. PMID:22936200

  20. Glucokinase mutation–a rare cause of recurrent hypoglycemia in adults: a case report and literature review

    PubMed Central

    Ajala, Oluremi N.; Huffman, David M.; Ghobrial, Ibrahim I.

    2016-01-01

    Background Hypoglycemia occurs frequently in patients both in the inpatient and outpatient settings. While most hypoglycemia unrelated to diabetes treatment results from excessive endogenous insulin action, rare cases involve functional and congenital mutations in glycolytic enzymes of insulin regulation. Case A 21-year-old obese woman presented to the emergency department with complaints of repeated episodes of lethargy, syncope, dizziness, and sweating. She was referred from an outside facility on suspicion of insulinoma, with severe hypoglycemia unresponsive to repeated dextrose infusions. Her plasma glucose was 20 mg/dl at presentation, 44 mg/dl on arrival at our facility, and remained low in spite of multiple dextrose infusions. The patient had been treated for persistent hyperinsulinemic hypoglycemia of infancy at our neonatal facility and 4 years ago was diagnosed as having an activating glucokinase (GCK) mutation. She was then treated with octreotide and diazoxide with improvement in symptoms and blood glucose levels. Conclusion Improved diagnostication and management of uncommon genetic mutations as typified in this patient with an activating mutation of the GCK gene has expanded the spectrum of disease in adult medicine. This calls for improved patient information dissemination across different levels and aspects of the health care delivery system to ensure cost-effective and timely health care. PMID:27802864

  1. Restoration of the Hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal Response to Hypoglycemia in Type 2 Diabetes by Avoiding Chronic Hypoglycemia

    PubMed Central

    Tsuda, Shin-ichi; Konishi, Kazunori; Otoda, Toshiki; Nagai, Takako; Takeda-Watanabe, Ai; Kanasaki, Megumi; Kitada, Munehiro; Nakagawa, Atsushi; Nishizawa, Makoto; Kanasaki, Keizo; Koya, Daisuke

    2016-01-01

    An impaired ability to sense and respond to drug-induced hypoglycemia is a common and serious complication in diabetic patients. The hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis activity plays a critical role in the counterregulatory response to hypoglycemia. We herein report a case that experienced restoration of a blunted HPA axis by avoiding hypoglycemia with the use of the DPP-4 inhibitor sitagliptin. PMID:27904111

  2. Parieto-occipital encephalomalacia in neonatal hyperammonemia with ornithine transcarbamylase deficiency: A case report.

    PubMed

    Okanishi, Tohru; Ito, Tetsuya; Nakajima, Yoko; Ito, Koichi; Kakita, Hiroki; Yamada, Yasumasa; Kobayashi, Satoru; Ando, Naoki; Togari, Hajime

    2010-08-01

    Urea cycle disorders are congenital metabolic disorders that often cause episodic hyperammonemia. Neuroimaging in episodic hyperammonemia demonstrates several patterns of brain injuries, including focal lesions in the lentiform nucleus, insula, cingulate gyrus, and perirolandic fissure, as well as diffuse cerebral edema. In cases with neonatal onset of hyperammonemia, similar lesions have also been reported. We herein report a boy with severe neonatal hyperammonemia caused by ornithine transcarbamylase deficiency. He presented with parieto-occipital encephalomalacia, which resembles severe neonatal hypoglycemia on magnetic resonance imaging. This radiological finding may indicate parieto-occipital vulnerability not only to hypoglycemia but also to hyperammonemia.

  3. Hydrothermally modified slow release corn starch: a potential new therapeutic option for treating hypoglycemia in autoimmune hypoglycemia (Hirata's disease).

    PubMed

    Lechner, K; Aulinger, B; Brand, S; Waldmann, E; Parhofer, K G

    2015-12-01

    We report the successful treatment of autoimmune hypoglycemia in an 82-year-old non-diabetic Caucasian male with hydrothermally modified slow release corn starch, a product which is used in other conditions associated with hypoglycemia, most typically glycogen storage disease type I. An 82-year-old-Caucasian male presented with recurrent spontaneous hypoglycemia as low as 30 mg/dl following in-patient treatment for community acquired pneumonia. During a fasting-test, symptomatic hypoglycemia occurred. Plasma concentrations of c-peptide and insulin were considerably elevated. Autoimmune hypoglycemia was confirmed by the presence of insulin autoantibodies. While dietary restriction alone did not result in sufficient glucose control in this patient with autoimmune hypoglycemia, treatment with hydrothermally modified slow release corn starch led to stable euglycemia. This easy, well tolerated and non-invasive treatment may constitute a new therapeutic option for hypoglycemia in patients with autoimmune hypoglycemia who do not achieve sufficient control of hypoglycemia by dietary restriction alone.

  4. Prevalence of Pilus Antigens, Enterotoxin Types, and Enteropathogenicity Among K88-Negative Enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli from Neonatal Pigs

    PubMed Central

    Moon, H. W.; Kohler, E. M.; Schneider, R. A.; Whipp, S. C.

    1980-01-01

    Enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli (ETEC) that were isolated from neonatal pigs and that did not react in preliminary tests for pilus antigen K88 were subjected to additional tests for K88 and for pilus antigens K99 and 987P. Four such isolates produced K88, 9 isolates produced K99, 55 isolates produced 987P, and the remaining 43 isolates produced none of the three pilus antigens (3P−). Immunofluorescence tests of ileal sections from pigs were more sensitive for 987P detection than was serum agglutination of bacteria grown from the ileum. Most ETEC that produced K88, K99, or 987P were enteropathogenic (adhered to ileal villi, colonized intensively, and caused profuse diarrhea) when given to neonatal pigs. In contrast, only 3 of the 43 ETEC that produced none of the pilus antigens were enteropathogenic. The isolates were also tested for the type of enterotoxin produced. The K88+ isolates all produced heat-labile enterotoxin (LT) detectable in cultured adrenal cells (i.e., were LT+). None of the 987P+, K99+, or enterpathogenic 3P− isolates produced LT. However (except for a single K99+ isolate), they all produced heat-stable enterotoxin detectable in infant mice (STa+). Sixteen isolates produced neither LT nor STa but did produce enterotoxin detectable in ligated intestinal loops of pigs (STb). Most of these LT− STa− STb+ isolates were also K88−, K99−, and 987P− and non-enteropathogenic. One of them was K99+ and enteropathogenic. Our conclusions are as follows. (i) Most enteropathogenic ETEC from neonatal pigs produce either K88, 987P, or K99; however, there are some that produce none of the three antigens. (ii) Immunofluorescence tests for pilus antigens produced in vivo are recommended for the diagnosis of ETEC infections. (iii) Reports of LT− STa− STb+ swine ETEC are confirmed; furthermore, such isolates can be enteropathogenic. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 3 Fig. 4 PMID:6102079

  5. Prevalence of antibiotic resistance in multi-drug resistant coagulase-negative staphylococci isolated from invasive infection in very low birth weight neonates in two Polish NICUs

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Multi-drug resistant coagulaso-negative staphylococci (CNS) have become an increasing problem in nosocomial infections connected with the presence of medical devices. The paper aimed to analyze the prevalence of antibiotic resistance in CNS isolated from invasive infection in very low birth weight (VLBW) neonates. Methods Continuous prospective target surveillance of infections was conducted in 2009 at two Polish NICUs that participated in the Polish Neonatology Surveillance Network (PNSN). The study covered 386 neonates with VLBW (≤1500 g), among which 262 cases of invasive infection were detected with predominance of CNS (123; 47%). Altogether, 100 CNS strains were analyzed. The resistance phenotypes were determined according to EUCAST. Resistance genes: mecA, ermA, ermB, ermC, msrA, aac(6')/aph(2''), ant(4')-Ia and aph(3')-IIIa were detected using multiplex PCR. Results The most common species was S. epidermidis (63%), then S. haemolyticus (28%) and other CNS (9%). Among S. epidermidis, 98% of isolates were resistant to methicillin, 90% to erythromycin, 39% to clindamycin, 95% to gentamicin, 60% to amikacin, 36% to ofloxacin, 2% to tigecycline, 3% to linezolid and 13% to teicoplanin. Among S. haemolyticus isolates, 100% were resistant to methicillin, erythromycin and gentamicin, 18% to clindamycin, 50% to amikacin, 86% to ofloxacin, 14% to tigecycline and 4% to teicoplanin. No resistance to linezolid was detected for S. haemolyticus isolates. Moreover, all isolates of S. epidermidis and S. haemolyticus were susceptible to vancomycin. The mecA gene was detected in 98% of S. epidermidis isolates and all of S. haemolyticus ones. Among macrolide resistance isolates, the ermC was most common in S. epidermidis (60%) while msrA was prevalent in S. haemolyticus (93%). The ermC gene was indicated in all isolates with cMLSB, whereas mrsA was found in isolates with MSB phenotype. Of the aminoglycoside resistance genes, aac(6')/aph(2'') were present alone in

  6. Prevalence of antibiotic resistance in multi-drug resistant coagulase-negative staphylococci isolated from invasive infection in very low birth weight neonates in two Polish NICUs.

    PubMed

    Brzychczy-Wloch, Monika; Borszewska-Kornacka, Maria; Gulczynska, Ewa; Wojkowska-Mach, Jadwiga; Sulik, Malgorzata; Grzebyk, Monika; Luchter, Malgorzata; Heczko, Piotr B; Bulanda, Malgorzata

    2013-12-20

    Multi-drug resistant coagulaso-negative staphylococci (CNS) have become an increasing problem in nosocomial infections connected with the presence of medical devices. The paper aimed to analyze the prevalence of antibiotic resistance in CNS isolated from invasive infection in very low birth weight (VLBW) neonates. Continuous prospective target surveillance of infections was conducted in 2009 at two Polish NICUs that participated in the Polish Neonatology Surveillance Network (PNSN). The study covered 386 neonates with VLBW (≤1500 g), among which 262 cases of invasive infection were detected with predominance of CNS (123; 47%). Altogether, 100 CNS strains were analyzed. The resistance phenotypes were determined according to EUCAST. Resistance genes: mecA, ermA, ermB, ermC, msrA, aac(6')/aph(2''), ant(4')-Ia and aph(3')-IIIa were detected using multiplex PCR. The most common species was S. epidermidis (63%), then S. haemolyticus (28%) and other CNS (9%). Among S. epidermidis, 98% of isolates were resistant to methicillin, 90% to erythromycin, 39% to clindamycin, 95% to gentamicin, 60% to amikacin, 36% to ofloxacin, 2% to tigecycline, 3% to linezolid and 13% to teicoplanin. Among S. haemolyticus isolates, 100% were resistant to methicillin, erythromycin and gentamicin, 18% to clindamycin, 50% to amikacin, 86% to ofloxacin, 14% to tigecycline and 4% to teicoplanin. No resistance to linezolid was detected for S. haemolyticus isolates. Moreover, all isolates of S. epidermidis and S. haemolyticus were susceptible to vancomycin. The mecA gene was detected in 98% of S. epidermidis isolates and all of S. haemolyticus ones. Among macrolide resistance isolates, the ermC was most common in S. epidermidis (60%) while msrA was prevalent in S. haemolyticus (93%). The ermC gene was indicated in all isolates with cMLSB, whereas mrsA was found in isolates with MSB phenotype. Of the aminoglycoside resistance genes, aac(6')/aph(2'') were present alone in 83% of S. epidermidis

  7. Profound postanesthetic hypoglycemia attributable to glucocorticoid deficiency in 2 dogs.

    PubMed Central

    Lane, I F; Matwichuk, C L; Carpenter, L G; Behrend, E N

    1999-01-01

    Glucocorticoid deficiency was diagnosed as the cause of severe postanesthetic hypoglycemia in 2 dogs. Prior signs of systemic illness were not described in either dog; however, preoperative hematologic findings were consistent with glucocorticoid deficiency. Fasting hypoglycemia is a possible complication of chronic adrenal insufficiency primarily because of impaired gluconeogenesis. PMID:10416071

  8. An Overview of Hypoglycemia in the Critically Ill

    PubMed Central

    Lacherade, Jean-Claude; Jacqueminet, Sophie; Preiser, Jean-Charles

    2009-01-01

    Hypoglycemia is a common and serious problem among patients with diabetes mellitus. It is also perceived as the most important obstacle to tight glucose control using intensive insulin therapy in critically ill patients. Because glucose is an obligatory metabolic fuel for the brain, hypoglycemia always represents an emergency that signals the inability of the brain to meet its energy needs. When left untreated, hypoglycemia can result in permanent brain damage and ultimately, death. In the context of critical illness that limits endogenous glucose production and increases glucose utilization, inadequate nutrition, or insufficient provision of glucose, intensive insulin therapy is the most frequent cause of hypoglycemia. Neurogenic and neuroglycopenic symptoms of hypoglycemia can remain unknown because of the underlying critical illness and sedation. Thus, close and reliable monitoring of the glycemic level is crucial in detecting hypoglycemia. In prospective randomized controlled studies comparing the effects of two glucose regimens, intensive insulin therapy aimed to reach strict glucose control (<110 mg/dl) but increased the incidence of severe hypoglycemia (<40 mg/dl) by four- to sixfold. Severe hypoglycemia is statistically associated with adverse outcomes in intensive care unit patients, although a direct causal relationship has not been demonstrated. PMID:20144377

  9. Hypoglycemia associated with clonidine testing for growth hormone deficiency.

    PubMed

    Huang, C; Banerjee, K; Sochett, E; Perlman, K; Wherrett, D; Daneman, D

    2001-08-01

    We have observed 4 cases of hypoglycemia associated with clonidine stimulation of growth hormone secretion; only one patient had growth hormone deficiency. Significant drowsiness after administration of clonidine may prolong the period of fasting in these children and mask early signs and symptoms, leading to severe hypoglycemia.

  10. Hypoglycemia in noncritically ill patients receiving total parenteral nutrition: a multicenter study. (Study group on the problem of hyperglycemia in parenteral nutrition; Nutrition area of the Spanish Society of Endocrinology and Nutrition).

    PubMed

    Olveira, Gabriel; Tapia, María José; Ocón, Julia; Cabrejas-Gómez, Carmen; Ballesteros-Pomar, María D; Vidal-Casariego, Alfonso; Arraiza-Irigoyen, Carmen; Olivares, Josefina; Conde-García, Maria Carmen; García-Manzanares, Álvaro; Botella-Romero, Francisco; Quílez-Toboso, Rosa P; Matía, Pilar; Rubio, Miguel Ángel; Chicharro, Luisa; Burgos, Rosa; Pujante, Pedro; Ferrer, Mercedes; Zugasti, Ana; Petrina, Estrella; Manjón, Laura; Diéguez, Marta; Carrera, Ma José; Vila-Bundo, Anna; Urgelés, Juan Ramón; Aragón-Valera, Carmen; Sánchez-Vilar, Olga; Bretón, Irene; García-Peris, Pilar; Muñoz-Garach, Araceli; Márquez, Efren; Del Olmo, Dolores; Pereira, José Luis; Tous, María C

    2015-01-01

    Hypoglycemia is a common problem among hospitalized patients. Treatment of hyperglycemia with insulin is potentially associated with an increased risk for hypoglycemia. The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence and predictors of hypoglycemia (capillary blood glucose <70 mg/dL) in hospitalized patients receiving total parenteral nutrition (TPN). This prospective multicenter study involved 19 Spanish hospitals. Noncritically ill adults who were prescribed TPN were included, thus enabling us to collect data on capillary blood glucose and insulin dosage. The study included 605 patients of whom 6.8% (n = 41) had at least one capillary blood glucose <70 mg/dL and 2.6% (n = 16) had symptomatic hypoglycemia. The total number of hypoglycemic episodes per 100 d of TPN was 0.82. In univariate analysis, hypoglycemia was significantly associated with the presence of diabetes, a lower body mass index (BMI), and treatment with intravenous (IV) insulin. Patients with hypoglycemia also had a significantly longer hospital length of stay, PN duration, higher blood glucose variability, and a higher insulin dose. Multiple logistic regression analysis showed that a lower BMI, high blood glucose variability, and TPN duration were risk factors for hypoglycemia. Use of IV insulin and blood glucose variability were predictors of symptomatic hypoglycemia. The occurrence of hypoglycemia in noncritically ill patients receiving PN is low. A lower BMI and a greater blood glucose variability and TPN duration are factors associated with the risk for hypoglycemia. IV insulin and glucose variability were predictors of symptomatic hypoglycemia. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Neonatal Glycemia and Neurodevelopmental Outcomes at 2 Years.

    PubMed

    McKinlay, Christopher J D; Alsweiler, Jane M; Ansell, Judith M; Anstice, Nicola S; Chase, J Geoffrey; Gamble, Gregory D; Harris, Deborah L; Jacobs, Robert J; Jiang, Yannan; Paudel, Nabin; Signal, Matthew; Thompson, Benjamin; Wouldes, Trecia A; Yu, Tzu-Ying; Harding, Jane E

    2015-10-15

    Neonatal hypoglycemia is common and can cause neurologic impairment, but evidence supporting thresholds for intervention is limited. We performed a prospective cohort study involving 528 neonates with a gestational age of at least 35 weeks who were considered to be at risk for hypoglycemia; all were treated to maintain a blood glucose concentration of at least 47 mg per deciliter (2.6 mmol per liter). We intermittently measured blood glucose for up to 7 days. We continuously monitored interstitial glucose concentrations, which were masked to clinical staff. Assessment at 2 years included Bayley Scales of Infant Development III and tests of executive and visual function. Of 614 children, 528 were eligible, and 404 (77% of eligible children) were assessed; 216 children (53%) had neonatal hypoglycemia (blood glucose concentration, <47 mg per deciliter). Hypoglycemia, when treated to maintain a blood glucose concentration of at least 47 mg per deciliter, was not associated with an increased risk of the primary outcomes of neurosensory impairment (risk ratio, 0.95; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.75 to 1.20; P=0.67) and processing difficulty, defined as an executive-function score or motion coherence threshold that was more than 1.5 SD from the mean (risk ratio, 0.92; 95% CI, 0.56 to 1.51; P=0.74). Risks were not increased among children with unrecognized hypoglycemia (a low interstitial glucose concentration only). The lowest blood glucose concentration, number of hypoglycemic episodes and events, and negative interstitial increment (area above the interstitial glucose concentration curve and below 47 mg per deciliter) also did not predict the outcome. In this cohort, neonatal hypoglycemia was not associated with an adverse neurologic outcome when treatment was provided to maintain a blood glucose concentration of at least 47 mg per deciliter. (Funded by the Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child Health and Human Development and others.).

  12. Intensive Treatment and Severe Hypoglycemia Among Adults With Type 2 Diabetes

    PubMed Central

    McCoy, Rozalina G.; Lipska, Kasia J.; Yao, Xiaoxi; Ross, Joseph S.; Montori, Victor M.; Shah, Nilay D.

    2017-01-01

    Importance Intensive glucose-lowering treatment among patients with non–insulin-requiring type 2 diabetes may increase the risk of hypoglycemia. Objectives To estimate the prevalence of intensive treatment and the association between intensive treatment, clinical complexity, and incidence of severe hypoglycemia among adults with type 2 diabetes who are not using insulin. Design, Setting, and Participants Retrospective analysis of administrative, pharmacy, and laboratory data from the OptumLabs Data Warehouse from January 1, 2001, through December 31, 2013. The study included nonpregnant adults 18 years or older with type 2 diabetes who achieved and maintained a hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c) level less than 7.0% without use of insulin and had no episodes of severe hypoglycemia or hyperglycemia in the prior 12 months. Main Outcomes and Measures Risk-adjusted probability of intensive treatment and incident severe hypoglycemia, stratified by patient clinical complexity. Intensive treatment was defined as use of more glucose-lowering medications than recommended by practice guidelines at specific index HbA1c levels. Severe hypoglycemia was ascertained by ambulatory, emergency department, and hospital claims for hypoglycemia during the 2 years after the index HbA1c test. Patients were categorized as having high vs low clinical complexity if they were 75 years or older, had dementia or end-stage renal disease, or had 3 or more serious chronic conditions. Results Of 31 542 eligible patients (median age, 58 years; interquartile range, 51–65 years; 15 483 women [49.1%]; 18 188 white [57.7%]), 3910 (12.4%) had clinical complexity. The risk-adjusted probability of intensive treatment was 25.7% (95% CI, 25.1%–26.2%) in patients with low clinical complexity and 20.8% (95% CI, 19.4%–22.2%) in patients with high clinical complexity. In patients with low clinical complexity, the risk-adjusted probability of severe hypoglycemia during the subsequent 2 years was 1.02% (95% CI, 0

  13. The unexpected truth about dates and hypoglycemia

    PubMed Central

    Yasawy, Mohammed I.

    2016-01-01

    Background: Dates are a concentrated source of essential nutrients, vitamins, minerals, and carbohydrates (CHOs), which are necessary for the maintenance of optimum health. Most of the CHOs in dates come from sugars including glucose and fructose. Dates are commonly consumed in Saudi Arabia, particularly at the time of breaking the fast to provide instant energy and maintain blood sugar level. However, dates may cause hypoglycemia in a rare condition named as heredity fructose intolerance (HFI), and a few families have been to see us with a history of that nature. This is to report the preliminary results of an on-going study of a group of patients who get symptoms of hypoglycemia following the ingestion of dates and have suffered for years without an accurate diagnosis. Methodology: This report is based on three patients, from the same family, living in a date growing region of the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia (KSA). The patients had been to several medical centers without getting any definite answers or diagnosis until they were referred to the Gastroenterology Clinic of King Fahd Hospital of the University, Al-Khobar, KSA. The data were obtained by careful history and laboratory investigations, and a final diagnosis of HFI made on fructose intolerance test (FIT). Results: The patients reported that they had avoided eating dates because of various symptoms, such as bloating, nausea, and even hypoglycemia when larger amounts were consumed. Their other symptoms included sleepiness, sweating, and shivering. After full examinations and necessary laboratory tests based on the above symptoms, FIT was performed and the patients were diagnosed with HFI. They were referred to a dietitian who advised a fructose-free diet. They felt well and were free of symptoms. Conclusion: HFI may remain undiagnosed until adulthood and may lead to disastrous complications and even death. The diagnosis can only be suspected after a careful dietary history is taken supported by FIT. This can

  14. [Metabolic control in the critically ill patient an update: hyperglycemia, glucose variability hypoglycemia and relative hypoglycemia].

    PubMed

    Pérez-Calatayud, Ángel Augusto; Guillén-Vidaña, Ariadna; Fraire-Félix, Irving Santiago; Anica-Malagón, Eduardo Daniel; Briones Garduño, Jesús Carlos; Carrillo-Esper, Raúl

    Metabolic changes of glucose in critically ill patients increase morbidity and mortality. The appropriate level of blood glucose has not been established so far and should be adjusted for different populations. However concepts such as glucose variability and relative hypoglycemia of critically ill patients are concepts that are changing management methods and achieving closer monitoring. The purpose of this review is to present new data about the management and metabolic control of patients in critical areas. Currently glucose can no longer be regarded as an innocent element in critical patients; both hyperglycemia and hypoglycemia increase morbidity and mortality of patients. Protocols and better instruments for continuous measurement are necessary to achieve the metabolic control of our patients. Copyright © 2016 Academia Mexicana de Cirugía A.C. Publicado por Masson Doyma México S.A. All rights reserved.

  15. Optimal management of type 2 diabetes in patients with increased risk of hypoglycemia

    PubMed Central

    Anderson, Morgan; Powell, Jason; Campbell, Kendall M; Taylor, James R

    2014-01-01

    With the number of individuals diagnosed with type 2 diabetes on the rise, it has become more important to ensure these patients are effectively treated. The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention estimated that 8.3% of all Americans were diagnosed with diabetes in 2011 and this number will likely continue to rise. With lifestyle interventions, such as proper diet and exercise, continuing to be an essential component of diabetes treatment, more patients are requiring medication therapy to help them reach their therapeutic goals. It is important for the clinician, when determining the treatment strategy for these individuals, to find a balance between reaching treatment goals and limiting the adverse effects of the treatments themselves. Of all the adverse events associated with treatment of diabetes, the risk of hypoglycemia is one that most therapies have in common. This risk is often a limiting factor when attempting to aggressively treat diabetic patients. This manuscript will review how hypoglycemia is defined and categorized, as well as discuss the prevalence of hypoglycemia among the many different treatment options. PMID:24623984

  16. Baroreflex Sensitivity Impairment During Hypoglycemia: Implications for Cardiovascular Control.

    PubMed

    Rao, Ajay D; Bonyhay, Istvan; Dankwa, Joel; Baimas-George, Maria; Kneen, Lindsay; Ballatori, Sarah; Freeman, Roy; Adler, Gail K

    2016-01-01

    Studies have shown associations between exposure to hypoglycemia and increased mortality, raising the possibility that hypoglycemia has adverse cardiovascular effects. In this study, we determined the acute effects of hypoglycemia on cardiovascular autonomic control. Seventeen healthy volunteers were exposed to experimental hypoglycemia (2.8 mmol/L) for 120 min. Cardiac vagal baroreflex function was assessed using the modified Oxford method before the initiation of the hypoglycemic-hyperinsulinemic clamp protocol and during the last 30 min of hypoglycemia. During hypoglycemia, compared with baseline euglycemic conditions, 1) baroreflex sensitivity decreases significantly (19.2 ± 7.5 vs. 32.9 ± 16.6 ms/mmHg, P < 0.005), 2) the systolic blood pressure threshold for baroreflex activation increases significantly (the baroreflex function shifts to the right; 120 ± 14 vs. 112 ± 12 mmHg, P < 0.005), and 3) the maximum R-R interval response (1,088 ± 132 vs. 1,496 ± 194 ms, P < 0.001) and maximal range of the R-R interval response (414 ± 128 vs. 817 ± 183 ms, P < 0.001) decrease significantly. These findings indicate reduced vagal control and impaired cardiovascular homeostasis during hypoglycemia.

  17. Clinical Features and Causes of Endogenous Hyperinsulinemic Hypoglycemia in Korea

    PubMed Central

    Woo, Chang-Yun; Jeong, Ji Yun; Jang, Jung Eun; Leem, Jaechan; Jung, Chang Hee; Koh, Eun Hee; Lee, Woo Je; Kim, Min-Seon; Park, Joong-Yeol; Lee, Jung Bok

    2015-01-01

    Background Endogenous hyperinsulinemic hypoglycemia (EHH) is characterized by an inappropriately high plasma insulin level, despite a low plasma glucose level. Most of the EHH cases are caused by insulinoma, whereas nesidioblastosis and insulin autoimmune syndrome (IAS) are relatively rare. Methods To evaluate the relative frequencies of various causes of EHH in Korea, we retrospectively analyzed 84 patients who were diagnosed with EHH from 1998 to 2012 in a university hospital. Results Among the 84 EHH patients, 74 patients (88%), five (6%), and five (6%) were diagnosed with insulinoma, nesidioblastosis or IAS, respectively. The most common clinical manifestation of EHH was neuroglycopenic symptoms. Symptom duration before diagnosis was 14.5 months (range, 1 to 120 months) for insulinoma, 1.0 months (range, 6 days to 7 months) for nesidioblastosis, and 2.0 months (range, 1 to 12 months) for IAS. One patient, who was diagnosed with nesidioblastosis in 2006, underwent distal pancreatectomy but was later determined to be positive for insulin autoantibodies. Except for one patient who was diagnosed in 2007, the remaining three patients with nesidioblastosis demonstrated severe hyperinsulinemia (157 to 2,719 µIU/mL), which suggests that these patients might have had IAS, rather than nesidioblastosis. Conclusion The results of this study suggest that the prevalence of IAS may be higher in Korea than previously thought. Therefore, measurement of insulin autoantibody levels is warranted for EHH patients, especially in patients with very high plasma insulin levels. PMID:25922806

  18. Monitoring neonates for ototoxicity.

    PubMed

    Garinis, Angela C; Kemph, Alison; Tharpe, Anne Marie; Weitkamp, Joern-Hendrik; McEvoy, Cynthia; Steyger, Peter S

    2017-06-22

    Neonates admitted to the neonatal intensive care unit (NICU) are at greater risk of permanent hearing loss compared to infants in well mother and baby units. Several factors have been associated with this increased prevalence of hearing loss, including congenital infections (e.g. cytomegalovirus or syphilis), ototoxic drugs (such as aminoglycoside or glycopeptide antibiotics), low birth weight, hypoxia and length of stay. The aetiology of this increased prevalence of hearing loss remains poorly understood. Here we review current practice and discuss the feasibility of designing improved ototoxicity screening and monitoring protocols to better identify acquired, drug-induced hearing loss in NICU neonates. A review of published literature. We conclude that current audiological screening or monitoring protocols for neonates are not designed to adequately detect early onset of ototoxicity. This paper offers a detailed review of evidence-based research, and offers recommendations for developing and implementing an ototoxicity monitoring protocol for young infants, before and after discharge from the hospital.

  19. Prevalence of anti-rubella, anti-measles and anti-mumps IgG antibodies in neonates and pregnant women in Catalonia (Spain) in 2013: susceptibility to measles increased from 2003 to 2013.

    PubMed

    Plans, P; de Ory, F; Campins, M; Álvarez, E; Payà, T; Guisasola, E; Compte, C; Vellbé, K; Sánchez, C; Lozano, M J; Aran, I; Bonmatí, A; Carreras, R; Jané, M; Cabero, L

    2015-06-01

    Non-immune neonates and non-immune pregnant women are at risk of developing rubella, measles and mumps infections, including congenital rubella syndrome. We describe the seroepidemiology of measles, mumps and rubella (MMR) in neonates and pregnant women in Catalonia (Spain). Anti-rubella, anti-measles and anti-mumps serum IgG titres were assessed using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) tests in 353 cord blood samples from neonates of a representative sample of pregnant women obtained in 2013. The prevalence of protective antibody titres in neonates was 96 % for rubella IgG (≥8 IU/ml), 90 % for measles IgG (>300 IU/ml) and 84 % for mumps IgG (>460 EU/ml). Slightly lower prevalences of protective IgG titres, as estimated from the cord blood titres, were found in pregnant women: 95 % for rubella IgG, 89 % for measles IgG and 81 % for mumps IgG. The anti-measles and anti-mumps IgG titres and the prevalences of protective IgG titres against measles and mumps increased significantly (p < 0.001) with maternal age. The prevalence of protective anti-measles IgG titres decreased by 7 % [odds ratio (OR) = 0.15, p < 0.001), the prevalence of protective anti-rubella IgG titres increased by 3 % (OR = 1.80, p < 0.05) and the MMR vaccination coverage (during childhood) in pregnant women increased by 54 % (OR = 2.09, p < 0.001) from 2003 to 2013. We recommend to develop an MMR prevention programme in women of childbearing age based on mass MMR vaccination or MMR screening and vaccination of susceptible women to increase immunity levels against MMR.

  20. Hypoglycemia After Antimicrobial Drug Prescription for Older Patients Using Sulfonylureas

    PubMed Central

    Parekh, Trisha M.; Raji, Mukaila; Lin, Yu-Li; Tan, Alai; Kuo, Yong-Fang; Goodwin, James S.

    2016-01-01

    IMPORTANCE Certain antimicrobial drugs interact with sulfonylureas to increase the risk of hypoglycemia. OBJECTIVE To determine the risk of hypoglycemia and associated costs in older patients prescribed glipizide or glyburide who fill a prescription for an antimicrobial drug. DESIGN, SETTING, AND PARTICIPANTS This was a retrospective cohort study of Texas Medicare claims from 2006 to 2009 for patients 66 years or older who were prescribed glipizide or glyburide and who also filled a prescription for 1 of the 16 antimicrobials most commonly prescribed for this population. METHODS We assessed hypoglycemia events and associated Medicare costs in patients prescribed 1 of 7 antimicrobial agents thought to interact with sulfonylureas, using noninteracting antimicrobials as a comparison. We used a repeated measure logistic regression, controlling for age, sex, ethnicity, Medicaid eligibility, comorbidity, prior emergency department visits for hypoglycemia, prior hospitalizations for any cause, nursing home residence, and indication for the antimicrobial. We estimated odds of hypoglycemia, number needed to harm, deaths during hospitalization for hypoglycemia, and Medicare costs for hypoglycemia treatment. MAIN OUTCOMES AND MEASURES Any hospitalization or emergency department visit owing to hypoglycemia within 14 days of antimicrobial exposure. RESULTS In multivariable analyses controlling for patient characteristics and indication for antimicrobial drug use, clarithromycin (odds ratio [OR], 3.96 [95% CI, 2.42–6.49]), levofloxacin (OR, 2.60 [95% CI, 2.18–3.10]), sulfamethoxazole-trimethoprim (OR, 2.56 [95% CI, 2.12–3.10]), metronidazole (OR, 2.11 [95% CI, 1.28–3.47]), and ciprofloxacin (OR, 1.62 [95% CI, 1.33–1.97]) were associated with higher rates of hypoglycemia compared with a panel of noninteracting antimicrobials. The number needed to harm ranged from 71 for clarithromycin to 334 for ciprofloxacin. Patient factors associated with hypoglycemia included older

  1. Hypoglycemia-Induced Hemiparesis in a Diabetic Woman after Childbirth

    PubMed Central

    Kukaj, Vera; Jashari, Fisnik; Boshnjaku, Dren; Istrefi, Enis; Ibrahimi, Pranvera

    2015-01-01

    A 24-year-old female with type 1 diabetes mellitus presented with hemiparesis induced by hypoglycemia. She was hospitalized because she has noticed a weakness of her right hand and leg three days after childbirth. On physical examination she had an expressive dysphasia and right side hemiparesis with facial drop. Hypoglycemia is rarely associated with hemiparesis and it is often overlooked, especially when it happens in patients at higher risk of other diseases frequently associated with hemiparesis. Although sporadical cases of hypoglycemia-induced hemiparesis were reported, the clear pathophysiology behind this is not well determined. However, any individual case is important in order to increase the awareness of hypoglycemia as an important etiology of this condition. PMID:25984373

  2. Insulinoma or non-insulinoma pancreatogenous hypoglycemia? A diagnostic dilemma

    PubMed Central

    Anderson, Blaire; Nostedt, Jordan; Girgis, Safwat; Dixon, Tara; Agrawal, Veena; Wiebe, Edward; Senior, Peter A.; Shapiro, A.M. James

    2016-01-01

    Insulinoma is the most common cause of endogenous hyperinsulinemic hypoglycemia in adults. An alternate etiology, non-insulinoma pancreatogenous hypoglycemia (NIPH), is rare. Clinically, NIPH is characterized by postprandial hyperinsulinemic hypoglycemia, negative 72-h fasts, negative preoperative localization studies for insulinoma and positive selective arterial calcium infusion tests. Histologically, diffuse islet hyperplasia with increased number and size of islet cells is present and confirms the diagnosis. Differentiating NIPH from occult insulinoma preoperatively is challenging. Partial pancreatectomy is the procedure of choice; however, recurrence of symptoms, although less debilitating, occurs commonly. Medical management with diazoxide, verapamil and octreotide can be used for persistent symptoms. Ultimately, near-total or total pancreatectomy may be necessary. We report a case of a 67-year-old male with hypoglycemia in whom preoperative workup, including computerized tomography abdomen, suggested insulinoma, but whose final diagnosis on pathology was NIPH instead. PMID:27887024

  3. Refractory hypoglycemia in a patient with functional adrenal cortical carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Marchetti, Katia Regina; Pereira, Maria Adelaide Albergaria; Lichtenstein, Arnaldo

    2016-01-01

    Summary Adrenacarcinomas are rare, and hypoglycemic syndrome resulting from the secretion of insulin-like growth factor II (IGF-II) by these tumors have been described infrequently. This study describes the case of a young woman with severe persistent hypoglycemia and a large adrenal tumor and discusses the physiopathological mechanisms involved in hypoglycemia. The case is described as a 21-year-old woman who presented with 8 months of general symptoms and, in the preceding 3 months, with episodes of mental confusion and visual blurring secondary to hypoglycemia. A functional assessment of the adrenal cortex revealed ACTH-independent hypercortisolism and hyperandrogenism. Hypoglycemia, hypoinsulinemia, low C-peptide and no ketones were also detected. An evaluation of the GH–IGF axis revealed GH blockade (0.03; reference: up to 4.4 ng/mL), greatly reduced IGF-I levels (9.0 ng/mL; reference: 180–780 ng/mL), slightly reduced IGF-II levels (197 ng/mL; reference: 267–616 ng/mL) and an elevated IGF-II/IGF-I ratio (21.9; reference: ~3). CT scan revealed a large expansive mass in the right adrenal gland and pulmonary and liver metastases. During hospitalization, the patient experienced frequent difficult-to-control hypoglycemia and hypokalemia episodes. Octreotide was ineffective in controlling hypoglycemia. Due to unresectability, chemotherapy was tried, but after 3 months, the patient’s condition worsened and progressed to death. In conclusion, our patient presented with a functional adrenal cortical carcinoma, with hyperandrogenism associated with hypoinsulinemic hypoglycemia and blockage of the GH–IGF-I axis. Patient’s data suggested a diagnosis of hypoglycemia induced by an IGF-II or a large IGF-II-producing tumor (low levels of GH, greatly decreased IGF-I, slightly decreased IGF-II and an elevated IGF-II/IGF-I ratio). Learning points: Hypoglycemyndrome resulting from the secretion of insulin-like growth factor II (IGF-II) by adrenal tumors is a

  4. Low prevalence of hearing impairment among very low birthweight infants as detected by universal neonatal hearing screening

    PubMed Central

    Roth, D Ari‐Even; Hildesheimer, M; Maayan‐Metzger, A; Muchnik, C; Hamburger, A; Mazkeret, R; Kuint, J

    2006-01-01

    Objectives To (a) study the prevalence of hearing impairment in a cohort of very low birthweight (VLBW) infants and (b) evaluate the effectiveness of transient evoked otoacoustic emissions (TEOAE) as a first stage in‐hospital hearing screening tool in this population. Study design The study group was a cohort of 346 VLBW infants born in 1998–2000 at The Sheba Medical Center. The prevalence of hearing impairment in the study group was compared with that of all other newborn infants participating in a universal newborn hearing screening programme during the same period. To evaluate the effectiveness of TEOAE, a control group of 1205 healthy newborns who had no known risk factors for hearing impairment was selected. The results and follow up of hearing screening for these infants were examined retrospectively. Results Only one VLBW infant (0.3%) was diagnosed with bilateral sensory‐neural hearing loss. In addition, nine infants (2.7%) were diagnosed with conductive hearing loss. Bronchopulmonary dysplasia and low Apgar score were the most significant factors for predicting the occurrence of conductive hearing loss. The percentage of VLBW infants who successfully passed the in‐hospital TEOAE screening was 87.2, compared with 92.2% in the full term control group. No false negative cases were detected on follow up. Conclusions The study shows a low incidence of sensory‐neural hearing loss in a cohort of VLBW infants and a relatively high incidence of conductive hearing loss. TEOAE screening was found to be an effective first stage in‐hospital hearing screening tool in this population. PMID:16531449

  5. Low ambient temperature and neuroendocrine response to hypoglycemia in men.

    PubMed

    Jezová, D; Juránková, E; Kvetnanský, R; Kaciuba-Uscilko, H; Nazar, K; Vigas, M

    1995-12-01

    Nutritional factors, such as an excess or a deficiency of glucose, play an important role in neuroendocrine regulations. Hormonal and metabolic responses to hypoglycemia were examined in healthy non-obese volunteers under conditions of low ambient temperature. Hypoglycemia was induced by intravenous injection of insulin in two randomized trials performed at room temperature and at 4 degrees C. At room temperature, the typical neuroendocrine response to hypoglycemia was established. The increases of ACTH, beta-endorphin, growth hormone and cortisol in response to insulin hypoglycemia failed to be modified by low ambient temperature. Acute cold exposure significantly reduced epinephrine and totally inhibited prolactin response to insulin-induced hypoglycemia. In spite of significant changes in epinephrine response to hypoglycemia at low ambient temperature, no striking differences in plasma glucose levels compared to those measured at room temperature were observed. However, under conditions of low temperature the reestablishment of normoglycemia was delayed. No changes in free fatty acids were found under our experimental conditions. The presented data show that low ambient temperature exerts selective effects on some neuroendocrine and metabolic parameters.

  6. How to prevent and treat pharmacological hypoglycemias.

    PubMed

    Reyes García, R; Mezquita Raya, P

    2014-05-01

    A 58 year-old woman with type 2 diabetes diagnosed 3 years before came to our clinic. Her treatment was metformin 850 mg every 12 hours and glimepiride 4 mg every 24 hours. After the initiation of glimepiride 9 months before her weight has increased 5 kg, and she suffers frequent hypoglycemias which have affected her while driving. Her BMI is 35.5 kg/m². She has a normal eye fund exam. She has hypertension treated with telmisartán and hidroclorotiazide with adequate control, and also hypercholesterolemia treated with atorvastatine 40 mg every 24 hours. Her blood test shows an HbA1c of 7.0%, normal values of microalbuminuria, total cholesterol 149 mg/dl, HDL cholesterol 52 mg/dl, LDL cholesterol 98 mg/dl and triglycerides 123 mg/dl. Her blood pressure is 129/81 mmHg, there was no orthostatic hypotension, and her peripheral neurological examination shows normal results. In summary, our case is a young woman with type 2 diabetes and obesity, without chronic complications and which has frequent hypoglycaemia. How must this woman be evaluated and treated?

  7. Presentations for hypoglycemia associated with diabetes mellitus to emergency departments in a Canadian province: A database and epidemiological analysis.

    PubMed

    Alexiu, Chris J; Chuck, Anderson; Jelinski, Susan E; Rowe, Brian H

    2017-08-01

    The prevalence of diabetes mellitus was reportedly 9% in 2014, making it one of the most common global chronic conditions. Hypoglycemia is an important complication of diabetes treatment. The objective of this study was to quantify and characterize hypoglycemia presentations associated with type 1 or 2 diabetes made to emergency departments (EDs) by adults in a Canadian province. A retrospective cohort study was conducted using reliable administrative data from Alberta for a five-year period (2010/11-2014/15). Records of interest were those with an ICD-10-CA diagnosis of diabetes-associated hypoglycemia (e.g., E10.63). A descriptive analysis was conducted. Data extraction yielded 7835 presentations by 5884 patients. The majority (56.2%) of presentations were made by males, median patient age was 62, and 60.5% had type 2 diabetes. These episodes constituted 0.08% of presentations to Alberta EDs. The annual rate of presentations decreased by 11.8% during the five-year period. Most presentations (63.4%) involved transportation to ED via ambulance. Median length-of-stay was four hours. For 27.5% of presentations, an X-ray was obtained. Most hypoglycemic episodes (65.2%) were considered to be moderate, while 34.3% were considered to be severe. Diabetes-associated hypoglycemia presentations to Alberta EDs are more commonly made by patients with type 2 diabetes, who are more likely to be transported via ambulance and also admitted. Each year, approximately one percent of Albertans with diabetes presented with a hypoglycemia episode; however, knowledge of the variation across regions can guide a strategy for improved care. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Severe hypoglycemia-induced lethal cardiac arrhythmias are mediated by sympathoadrenal activation.

    PubMed

    Reno, Candace M; Daphna-Iken, Dorit; Chen, Y Stefanie; VanderWeele, Jennifer; Jethi, Krishan; Fisher, Simon J

    2013-10-01

    For people with insulin-treated diabetes, severe hypoglycemia can be lethal, though potential mechanisms involved are poorly understood. To investigate how severe hypoglycemia can be fatal, hyperinsulinemic, severe hypoglycemic (10-15 mg/dL) clamps were performed in Sprague-Dawley rats with simultaneous electrocardiogram monitoring. With goals of reducing hypoglycemia-induced mortality, the hypotheses tested were that: 1) antecedent glycemic control impacts mortality associated with severe hypoglycemia; 2) with limitation of hypokalemia, potassium supplementation could limit hypoglycemia-associated deaths; 3) with prevention of central neuroglycopenia, brain glucose infusion could prevent hypoglycemia-associated arrhythmias and deaths; and 4) with limitation of sympathoadrenal activation, adrenergic blockers could prevent hypoglycemia-induced arrhythmic deaths. Severe hypoglycemia-induced mortality was noted to be worsened by diabetes, but recurrent antecedent hypoglycemia markedly improved the ability to survive an episode of severe hypoglycemia. Potassium supplementation tended to reduce mortality. Severe hypoglycemia caused numerous cardiac arrhythmias including premature ventricular contractions, tachycardia, and high-degree heart block. Intracerebroventricular glucose infusion reduced severe hypoglycemia-induced arrhythmias and overall mortality. β-Adrenergic blockade markedly reduced cardiac arrhythmias and completely abrogated deaths due to severe hypoglycemia. Under conditions studied, sudden deaths caused by insulin-induced severe hypoglycemia were mediated by lethal cardiac arrhythmias triggered by brain neuroglycopenia and the marked sympathoadrenal response.

  9. Hypoglycemia Detection and Carbohydrate Suggestion in an Artificial Pancreas.

    PubMed

    Turksoy, Kamuran; Kilkus, Jennifer; Hajizadeh, Iman; Samadi, Sediqeh; Feng, Jianyuan; Sevil, Mert; Lazaro, Caterina; Frantz, Nicole; Littlejohn, Elizabeth; Cinar, Ali

    2016-11-01

    Fear of hypoglycemia is a major concern for many patients with type 1 diabetes and affects patient decisions for use of an artificial pancreas system. We propose an alternative way for prevention of hypoglycemia by issuing predictive hypoglycemia alarms and encouraging patients to consume carbohydrates in a timely manner. The algorithm has been tested on 6 subjects (3 males and 3 females, age 24.2 ± 4.5 years, weight 79.2 ± 16.2 kg, height 172.7 ± 9.4 cm, HbA1C 7.3 ± 0.48%, duration of diabetes 209.2 ± 87.9 months) over 3-day closed-loop clinical experiments as part of a multivariable artificial pancreas control system. Over 6 three-day clinical experiments, there were only 5 real hypoglycemia episodes, of which only 1 hypoglycemia episode occurred due to being missed by the proposed algorithm. The average hypoglycemia alarms per day and per subject was 3. Average glucose value when the first alarms were triggered was recorded to be 117 ± 30.6 mg/dl. Average carbohydrate consumption per alarm was 14 ± 7.8 grams. Our results have shown that most low glucose concentrations can be predicted in advance and the glucose levels can be raised back to the desired levels by consuming an appropriate amount of carbohydrate. The proposed algorithm is able to prevent most hypoglycemic events by suggesting appropriate levels of carbohydrate consumption before the actual occurrence of hypoglycemia.

  10. Hypoglycemia-Associated Electroencephalogram and Electrocardiogram Changes Appear Simultaneously

    PubMed Central

    Larsen, Anine; Højlund, Kurt; Kjær Poulsen, Mikael; Madsen, Rasmus Elsborg; Juhl, Claus B.

    2013-01-01

    Background Tight glycemic control in type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM) may be accomplished only if severe hypoglycemia can be prevented. Biosensor alarms based on the body’s reactions to hypoglycemia have been suggested. In the present study, we analyzed three lead electrocardiogram (ECG) and single-channel electroencephalogram (EEG) in T1DM patients during hypoglycemia. Methods Electrocardiogram and EEG recordings during insulin-induced hypoglycemia in nine patients were used to assess the presence of ECG changes by heart rate, and estimates of QT interval (QTc) and time from top of T wave to end of T wave corrected for heartbeat interval and EEG changes by extraction of the power of the signal in the delta, theta, and alpha bands. These six features were assessed continuously to determine the time between changes and severe hypoglycemia. Results QT interval changes and EEG theta power changes were detected in six and eight out of nine subjects, respectively. Rate of false positive calculations was one out of nine subjects for QTc and none for EEG theta power. Detection time medians (i.e., time from significant changes to termination of experiments) was 13 and 8 min for the EEG theta power and QTc feature, respectively, with no significant difference (p = .25). Conclusions Severe hypoglycemia is preceded by changes in both ECG and EEG features in most cases. Electroencephalogram theta power may be superior with respect to timing, sensitivity, and specificity of severe hypoglycemia detection. A multiparameter algorithm that combines data from different biosensors might be considered. PMID:23439164

  11. Risk of hospitalization for hypoglycemia among older Korean people with diabetes mellitus: Interactions between treatment modalities and comorbidities.

    PubMed

    Kim, Hyun Min; Seong, Jong-Mi; Kim, Jaetaek

    2016-10-01

    The objective of this study was to carry out a large population-based study to understand the factors associated with hypoglycemia-related hospitalizations among older Korean adults with diabetes mellitus.This study analyzed data from a subset of the 2013 Health Insurance and Review and Assessment service-Adult Patient Sample. A total of 307,170 subjects, comprising 41.7% men and 58.3% women, had diabetes mellitus. Hypertension (80.8%) was the most common comorbidity, and dyslipidemia (59.0%) and ischemic heart disease (21.3%) were also prevalent. Approximately half of the patients with diabetes had >2 comorbidities, and two-thirds of the patients had >3 comorbidities. The proportion of patients taking insulin or sulfonylureas was 54.9%, and 23.2% of the patients were taking other medications. About 21.9% of the patients were treated nonpharmacologically. A total of 2867 hypoglycemia-related admission occurred, the incident rate was 9.33 per 1000 person. The risk was higher among female patients and older patients with several comorbidities, including cardiovascular disease, cerebrovascular disease, chronic liver disease, chronic kidney disease, dementia, and malignancies. Treatment modalities, including insulin and sulfonylureas, were associated with a high risk of hypoglycemia. After adjustments for age, sex, the different comorbidities, and the treatment modalities, we determined that chronic kidney disease and dementia were associated with a high risk of hypoglycemia-related hospitalization (odds ratio [OR] = 2.52 and OR = 1.93, respectively). Furthermore, patients with chronic kidney disease or dementia who were treated with sulfonylureas and insulin had very high risks of hypoglycemia, and the incident rate was 66.6 and 63.75 per 1000 person, respectively.In conclusion, the presence of comorbidities, especially chronic kidney disease and dementia, increased the risk of hypoglycemia-associated hospitalization within this population of older patients

  12. A novel extreme learning machine for hypoglycemia detection.

    PubMed

    San, Phyo Phyo; Ling, Sai Ho; Soe, Ni Ni; Nguyen, Hung T

    2014-01-01

    Hypoglycemia is a common side-effect of insulin therapy for patients with type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM) and is the major limiting factor to maintain tight glycemic control. The deficiency in glucose counter-regulation may even lead to severe hypoglycaemia. It is always threatening to the well-being of patients with T1DM since more severe hypoglycemia leads to seizures or loss of consciousness and the possible development of permanent brain dysfunction under certain circumstances. Thus, an accurate early detection on hypoglycemia is an important research topic. With the use of new emerging technology, an extreme learning machine (ELM) based hypoglycemia detection system is developed to recognize the presence of hypoglycemic episodes. From a clinical study of 16 children with T1DM, natural occurrence of nocturnal hypoglycemic episodes are associated with increased heart rates (p <; 0.06) and increased corrected QT intervals (p <; 0.001). The overall data were organized into a training set with 8 patients (320 data points) and a testing set with 8 patients (269 data points). By using the ELM trained feed-forward neural network (ELM-FFNN), the testing sensitivity (true positive) and specificity (true negative) for detection of hypoglycemia is 78 and 60% respectability.

  13. Cross-cultural variation in symptom perception of hypoglycemia

    PubMed Central

    Kalra, Sanjay; Balhara, Yatan Pal Singh; Mithal, Ambrish

    2013-01-01

    Background: Cross-cultural differences in attitudes and practices related to diabetes are well-known. Similar differences in symptom reporting of endocrine conditions such as menopause are well documented. Minimal literature is available on the cross-cultural variation in reporting of hypoglycemic symptoms. Aims: This cross-sectional study aimed to assess the symptoms of hypoglycemia encountered by diabetologists who deal with patients from different language groups from various states of North and West India and Nepal. Materials and Methods: Eighty three doctors from six Indian states and Nepal, attending a continuing medical education program were requested to fill a detailed, pre-tested, Likert scale based questionnaire which assessed the frequency and symptoms with which patients presented with hypoglycemia in their clinical practice. Data were analyzed based on geographic location of the diabetologists and language spoken by their patients (Hindi vs. Gujarati). Results: Gujarati-speaking patients tended to report to their doctors, a greater inability to work under pressure and a higher frequency of intense hunger during hypoglycemia. They were less likely to report specific adrenergic (inward trembling), neuroglycopenic (feeling down over nothing), and nocturnal (crumpled bedsheets upon waking up) symptoms. Conclusion: Significant cross-cultural differences related to the symptomatology of hypoglycemia are noted. Indian diabetologists should be aware of the varying presentation of hypoglycemia based on language and ethnic background. PMID:24672191

  14. SEVERE HYPOGLYCEMIA IN USERS OF SULFONYLUREA ANTIDIABETIC AGENTS AND ANTIHYPERLIPIDEMICS

    PubMed Central

    Leonard, Charles E.; Bilker, Warren B.; Brensinger, Colleen M.; Han, Xu; Flory, James H.; Flockhart, David A.; Gagne, Joshua J.; Cardillo, Serena; Hennessy, Sean

    2015-01-01

    Background Drug-drug interactions causing severe hypoglycemia due to antidiabetic drugs is a major clinical and public health problem. We assessed whether sulfonylurea use with a statin or fibrate was associated with severe hypoglycemia. Methods We conducted cohort studies of users of glyburide, glipizide, and glimepiride plus a statin or fibrate within a Medicaid population. The outcome was a validated, diagnosis-based algorithm for severe hypoglycemia. Results Among 592,872 persons newly-exposed to a sulfonylurea+antihyperlipidemic, the incidence of severe hypoglycemia was 5.8/100 person-years. Adjusted hazard ratios (HRs) for sulfonylurea+statins were consistent with no association. Most overall HRs for sulfonylurea+fibrate were elevated, with sulfonylurea-specific adjusted HRs as large as 1.50 (95% confidence interval (CI): 1.24–1.81) for glyburide+gemfibrozil, 1.37 (95% CI: 1.11–1.69) for glipizide+gemfibrozil, and 1.63 (95% CI: 1.29–2.06) for glimepiride+fenofibrate. Conclusions Concomitant therapy with a sulfonylurea and fibrate is associated with an often delayed increased rate of severe hypoglycemia. PMID:26566262

  15. Severe hypoglycemia in users of sulfonylurea antidiabetic agents and antihyperlipidemics.

    PubMed

    Leonard, C E; Bilker, W B; Brensinger, C M; Han, X; Flory, J H; Flockhart, D A; Gagne, J J; Cardillo, S; Hennessy, S

    2016-05-01

    Drug-drug interactions causing severe hypoglycemia due to antidiabetic drugs is a major clinical and public health problem. We assessed whether sulfonylurea use with a statin or fibrate was associated with severe hypoglycemia. We conducted cohort studies of users of glyburide, glipizide, and glimepiride plus a statin or fibrate within a Medicaid population. The outcome was a validated, diagnosis-based algorithm for severe hypoglycemia. Among 592,872 persons newly exposed to a sulfonylurea+antihyperlipidemic, the incidence of severe hypoglycemia was 5.8/100 person-years. Adjusted hazard ratios (HRs) for sulfonylurea+statins were consistent with no association. Most overall HRs for sulfonylurea+fibrate were elevated, with sulfonylurea-specific adjusted HRs as large as 1.50 (95% confidence interval (CI): 1.24-1.81) for glyburide+gemfibrozil, 1.37 (95% CI: 1.11-1.69) for glipizide+gemfibrozil, and 1.63 (95% CI: 1.29-2.06) for glimepiride+fenofibrate. Concomitant therapy with a sulfonylurea and fibrate is associated with an often delayed increased rate of severe hypoglycemia.

  16. Golden hour of neonatal life: Need of the hour.

    PubMed

    Sharma, Deepak

    2017-01-01

    "Golden Hour" of neonatal life is defined as the first hour of post-natal life in both preterm and term neonates. This concept in neonatology has been adopted from adult trauma where the initial first hour of trauma management is considered as golden hour. The "Golden hour" concept includes practicing all the evidence based intervention for term and preterm neonates, in the initial sixty minutes of postnatal life for better long-term outcome. Although the current evidence supports the concept of golden hour in preterm and still there is no evidence seeking the benefit of golden hour approach in term neonates, but neonatologist around the globe feel the importance of golden hour concept equally in both preterm and term neonates. Initial first hour of neonatal life includes neonatal resuscitation, post-resuscitation care, transportation of sick newborn to neonatal intensive care unit, respiratory and cardiovascular support and initial course in nursery. The studies that evaluated the concept of golden hour in preterm neonates showed marked reduction in hypothermia, hypoglycemia, intraventricular hemorrhage (IVH), bronchopulmonary dysplasia (BPD), and retinopathy of prematurity (ROP). In this review article, we will discuss various components of neonatal care that are included in "Golden hour" of preterm and term neonatal care.

  17. Neonatal sepsis.

    PubMed

    Stefanovic, Iva Mihatov

    2011-01-01

    Neonatal sepsis is the most common cause of neonatal deaths with high mortality despite treatment. Neonatal sepsis can be classified into two subtypes depending upon onset of symptoms. There are many factors that make neonates more susceptable to infection. Signs of sepsis in neonates are often non-specific and high degree of suspicion is needed for early diagnosis. Some laboratory parameters can be helpful for screening of neonates with neonatal sepsis, but none of it is specific and sensitive enough to be used singly. Diagnostic approach mostly focuses on history and review of non specific signs and symptoms. Antibiotic treatment is the mainstay of treatment and supportive care is equally important. The aim of this review is to give an overview of neonatal sepsis, including incidence, etiology, clinical picture, diagnostics and therapy.

  18. Hypoglycemia associated with refeeding syndrome in a cat.

    PubMed

    DeAvilla, Marisa D; Leech, Elizabeth B

    2016-11-01

    To describe the clinical presentation and biochemical abnormalities occurring during the successful treatment of refeeding syndrome in a cat. A 2-year-old neutered male domestic shorthair cat presented after having been missing for 12 weeks. The cat had clinical signs of severe starvation. Common complications developed during refeeding (eg, hypophosphatemia, hypokalemia, and hemolytic anemia). The cat also developed hypoglycemia, a complication common in people but not previously reported in a cat. Hypoglycemia and electrolyte deficiencies were managed with intravenous supplementation. The cat was successfully treated and was discharged alive 7 days after presentation. Hypoglycemia has not been reported previously as a complication of refeeding in a cat. Frequent monitoring of electrolyte, mineral, and blood glucose concentrations is essential to successful management of refeeding syndrome. The ideal refeeding strategy is unknown at this time. Evidence suggests that a diet low in carbohydrate decreases the likelihood of metabolic derangements commonly associated with refeeding. © Veterinary Emergency and Critical Care Society 2016.

  19. Hypoglycemia and Accidental Hypothermia in an Alcoholic Population

    PubMed Central

    Fitzgerald, Faith T.

    1980-01-01

    Hypoglycemia is but one of a number of causes of hypothermia, but is important to keep in mind as a possible precipitating or concurrent event even in those cases in which there are other obvious explanations for decreased body temperature (exposure, alcoholism, starvation, sepsis or hypothyroidism). Hypoglycemia may occur in as many as 40 percent of very cold patients, and be clinically unrecognized because symptoms are masked by the hypothermia itself. Although serum glucose levels are depressed, a cold-induced renal tubular glycosuria may occur. Glucose in the urine, therefore, cannot be used as assurance of hyperglycemia in a hypothermic patient. And, although cold protects against serious end organ damage from hypoglycemia by decreasing tissue metabolic need for glucose, a serum specimen should be drawn for glucose determination in all hypothermic patients and a 50 percent glucose solution immediately given intravenously. If this is not done, serum glucose levels may plummet as the patient is rewarmed and begins to shiver. PMID:7233890

  20. [Prevalence of hyperechoic renal pyramid syndrome in neonates and infants with congenital heart disease--ultrasound study of the abdominal cavity in the years 1996-2000].

    PubMed

    Czarniak, Piotr; Kosiak, Wojciech; Chojnicki, Maciej; Maternik, Michał; Zurowska, Aleksandra; Ereciński, Jan

    2005-01-01

    The normal medullary pyramids both in children and in adults are non-echoic on ultrasound evaluation when compared with renal cortex. Hyperechoic pyramids are associated with abnormal function of renal tubules. This sonographic finding has been described in various diseases including transient renal insufficiency in neonates and hypercalciuria induced by long-term furosemide therapy. The aim of this study was to evaluate the occurrence of hyperechoic pyramids in neonates and infants with congenital heart diseases. The examined population consisted of 350 neonates and infants (187 male - 53%, 163 female - 47%), mean age 54,9 +/- 75,7 days (range 1 - 349 days) with new recognized congenital heart disease. All renal sonographic evaluations were performed from January 1st 1996 to December 31st 2000. A total of 19 (5.5%) neonates had increased echogenicity of the renal medullary pyramids. Almost 2/3 of cases were diagnosed in neonates with cyanotic congenital heart diseases. In infants with congenital heart disease hyperechoic pyramids were found in 5 (1.4%) cases. 1. In our study was shown, that the main reason of hyperechoic pyramids syndrome was neonatal asphyxia in association with cyanotic congenital heart disease. 2. Further nephrological evaluation is necessary in all case of hyperechoic pyramids syndrome. 3. Ultrasound examination of urinary tract should be an integral part of a complex evaluation of a patient with congenital heart disease.

  1. [Hypoglycemia in patients treated with an external insulin pump].

    PubMed

    Laurent, Jean-Christophe; Waeber, Gerard; Ruiz, Juan; Carron, Pierre-Nicolas

    2011-01-19

    Hypoglycemia is a potentially serious complication of insulin therapy. Some insulin-dependent diabetic patients can benefit from continuous subcutaneous insulin infusion therapy (an "insulin pump"), which in most case improves glycemia control and decreases the occurrence of hypoglycemic episodes. However, such events may occur, particularly during initial treatment phases or pregnancy. Severe hypoglycemia is mainly managed by stopping the insulin pump and insuring an adequate carbohydrate intake. Patients with insulin pumps and their entourage should receive specific instruction in the adjustment of pump flow in the presence of dysglycemia-inducing circumstances (illness, physical exertion), as well as in anticipation of high-risk situations, such as motor-vehicle driving.

  2. Neonatal renal vein thrombosis.

    PubMed

    Brandão, Leonardo R; Simpson, Ewurabena A; Lau, Keith K

    2011-12-01

    Neonatal renal vein thrombosis (RVT) continues to pose significant challenges for pediatric hematologists and nephrologists. The precise mechanism for the onset and propagation of renal thrombosis within the neonatal population is unclear, but there is suggestion that acquired and/or inherited thrombophilia traits may increase the risk for renal thromboembolic disease during the newborn period. This review summarizes the most recent studies of neonatal RVT, examining its most common features, the prevalence of acquired and inherited prothrombotic risk factors among these patients, and evaluates their short and long term renal and thrombotic outcomes as they may relate to these risk factors. Although there is some consensus regarding the management of neonatal RVT, the most recent antithrombotic therapy guidelines for the management of childhood thrombosis do not provide a risk-based algorithm for the acute management of RVT among newborns with hereditary prothrombotic disorders. Whereas neonatal RVT is not a condition associated with a high mortality rate, it is associated with significant morbidity due to renal impairment. Recent evidence to evaluate the effects of heparin-based anticoagulation and thrombolytic therapy on the long term renal function of these patients has yielded conflicting results. Long term cohort studies and randomized trials may be helpful to clarify the impact of acute versus prolonged antithrombotic therapy for reducing the morbidity that is associated with neonatal RVT. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Intermittent hypoglycemia in a horse with anaplastic carcinoma of the kidney.

    PubMed

    Baker, J L; Aleman, M; Madigan, J

    2001-01-15

    Clinically apparent hypoglycemia is rare in adult horses. Hypoglycemia is a well-recognized paraneoplastic syndrome in humans and dogs with non-insulin-secreting tumors and may occur in horses as well. Hypoglycemia associated with non-insulin-secreting tumors is believed to result from production of an abnormal form of insulin-like growth factor II. Neoplasia should be considered in the differential diagnosis for adult horses with hypoglycemia.

  4. Predictors of hypoglycemia in insulin-treated patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus in Basrah

    PubMed Central

    Nassar, Dhuha Tarik; Habib, Omran S; Mansour, Abbas Ali

    2016-01-01

    AIM To measure the incidence and determinants (predictors) of hypoglycemia among patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) who were on insulin treatment for at least one year. METHODS The present study is an out-patients based inquiry about the risk and predictors of hypoglycemia among patients with T2DM seeking care at the Al-Faiha Specialized Diabetes, Endocrine, and Metabolism Center, in Basrah over a period of 7 mo (from 15th of April, 2013 to 15th of October, 2013). The data used in the study were based on all detailed interview and selected laboratory investigations. A total of 336 patients could be included in the study. RESULTS The incidence of overall hypoglycemia among the studied patients was 75.3% within the last 3 mo preceding the interview. The incidence of hypoglycemia subtypes were 10.2% for severe hypoglycemia requiring medical assistance in the hospital, 44.36% for severe hypoglycemia treated at home by family; this includes both confirmed severe hypoglycemia with an incidence rate of 14.6% and unconfirmed severe hypoglycemia for which incidence rate was 29.76%. Regarding mild self-treated hypoglycemia, the incidence of confirmed mild hypoglycemia was 21.42%, for unconfirmed mild hypoglycemia the incidence rate was 50.0% and for total mild hypoglycemia, the incidence rate was 71.42%. The most important predictors of hypoglycemia were a peripheral residence, increasing knowledge of hypoglycemia symptoms, in availability and increasing frequency of self-monitoring blood glucose, the presence of peripheral neuropathy, higher diastolic blood pressure, and lower Hemoglobin A1c. CONCLUSION Hypoglycemia is very common among insulin-treated patients with T2DM in Basrah. It was possible to identify some important predictors of hypoglycemia. PMID:27795821

  5. Hypothalamic-Pituitary-Adrenal Axis Programming after Recurrent Hypoglycemia during Development.

    PubMed

    Rao, Raghavendra

    2015-08-28

    Permanent brain injury is a complication of recurrent hypoglycemia during development. Recurrent hypoglycemia also has adverse consequences on the neuroendocrine system. Hypoglycemia-associated autonomic failure, characterized by ineffective glucose counterregulation during hypoglycemia, is well described in children and adults on insulin therapy for diabetes mellitus. Whether recurrent hypoglycemia also has a programming effect on the hypothalamus-pituitary-adrenal cortex (HPA) axis has not been well studied. Hypoglycemia is a potent stress that leads to increased glucocorticoid secretion in all age groups, including the perinatal period. Other conditions associated with exposure to excess glucocorticoid in the perinatal period have a programming effect on the HPA axis activity. Limited animal data suggest the possibility of similar programming effect after recurrent hypoglycemia in the postnatal period. The age at exposure to hypoglycemia likely determines the HPA axis response in adulthood. Recurrent hypoglycemia in the early postnatal period likely leads to a hyperresponsive HPA axis, whereas recurrent hypoglycemia in the late postnatal period lead to a hyporesponsive HPA axis in adulthood. The age-specific programming effects may determine the neuroendocrine response during hypoglycemia and other stressful events in individuals with history of recurrent hypoglycemia during development.

  6. [Effect of cyclic somatostatin on ethanol-induced hypoglycemia].

    PubMed

    Piccardo, M G; Marchetti, A M; Breda, E

    1979-06-30

    The authors examined the activity of the cyclic Somatostatin on Ethanol hypoglycemia. While the peptide is capable of increasing the plasma glucose levels of hypoglicemia starved rats, it does not increase the levels of plasma glucose in normal rats under the action of ethanol perfusion.

  7. BAD Modulates Counterregulatory Responses to Hypoglycemia and Protective Glucoprivic Feeding

    PubMed Central

    Osundiji, Mayowa A.; Godes, Marina L.; Evans, Mark L.; Danial, Nika N.

    2011-01-01

    Hypoglycemia or glucoprivation triggers protective hormonal counterregulatory and feeding responses to aid the restoration of normoglycemia. Increasing evidence suggests pertinent roles for the brain in sensing glucoprivation and mediating counterregulation, however, the precise nature of the metabolic signals and molecular mediators linking central glucose sensing to effector functions are not fully understood. Here, we demonstrate that protective hormonal and feeding responses to hypoglycemia are regulated by BAD, a BCL-2 family protein with dual functions in apoptosis and metabolism. BAD-deficient mice display impaired glycemic and hormonal counterregulatory responses to systemic glucoprivation induced by 2-deoxy-D-glucose. BAD is also required for proper counterregulatory responses to insulin-induced hypoglycemia as evident from significantly higher glucose infusion rates and lower plasma epinephrine levels during hyperinsulinemic hypoglycemic clamps. Importantly, RNA interference-mediated acute knockdown of Bad in the brain provided independent genetic evidence for its relevance in central glucose sensing and proper neurohumoral responses to glucoprivation. Moreover, BAD deficiency is associated with impaired glucoprivic feeding, suggesting that its role in adaptive responses to hypoglycemia extends beyond hormonal responses to regulation of feeding behavior. Together, these data indicate a previously unappreciated role for BAD in the control of central glucose sensing. PMID:22162752

  8. Hypoglycemia associated with oleander toxicity in a dog.

    PubMed

    Page, C; Murtaugh, R J

    2015-03-01

    Oleander poisoning typically results in cardiac arrhythmias, hyperkalemia, and gastrointestinal irritation, and can be fatal. Oleander extracts have also been studied experimentally as hypoglycemic agents. Here, we describe a dog with confirmed oleander toxicosis presenting with classical symptoms and also hypoglycemia. After excluding other likely causes of hypoglycemia, the finding was attributed to oleander toxicosis, which has not been previously reported in dogs. A 7-year-old female spayed Maltese was presented to the emergency service after ingesting oleander leaves. Toxicosis was confirmed by measurement of digoxin using a competitive binding immunoassay, patient level 0.7 ng/mL (0.9 nmol/L) 24-h post-ingestion. Clinical symptoms included vomiting, cardiac arrhythmia, mild hyperkalemia, and hypoglycemia. Treatment was successful with aggressive supportive care, and the dog was discharged from the hospital after 48 h and made a full recovery. This case reviews the presentation and treatment of oleander toxicity but also highlights possible effects of oleander on blood sugar in dogs. Hypoglycemia in this dog, attributed to oleander poisoning, is interesting as it supports experimental research into hypoglycemic properties of oleander extracts.

  9. PREVALENCE OF GESTATIONAL DIABETES IN THE SOUTHERN PART OF BOSNIA AND HERZEGOVINA

    PubMed Central

    Tomic, Vajdana; Misic, Marinko; Simic, Ana Dugandzic; Boskovic, Ana; Kresic, Tanja; Peric, Olivera; Orlovic, Martina; Blagojevic, Ivana Culjak

    2016-01-01

    Background: The prevalence of gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM), as a complex problem in pregnancy, is increasing all over the world, but most noticeable in developing countries. Aims: To estimate GDM prevalence and associated pregnancy features in the southern part of Bosnia and Herzegovina. Methods: A cross-sectional observational study was conducted from October 2010 through March 2011. A total of 285 pregnant women with singleton pregnancies participated and were asigned to the study in the order they came for their usual ante-natal clinic examination. They underwent an oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) with 75 g of glucose. Information on OGTT results, maternal characteristics and pregnancy outcomes were collected from database and medical records. Results: Prevalence of GDM was 10.9% according to 1999 World Health Organisation (WHO) diagnostic criteria. Prenatal cigarette smoking, previous GDM, cesarean delivery rate and neonatal hypoglycemia were significantly more frequent in the GDM group compared to the group of pregnancies with normal glucose tolerance (p = 0.015, p < 0.001, p = 0.015, p = 0.002). Conclusion: This study presents a relatively high prevalence of GDM in Bosnia and Herzegovina. There is a need for large well-designed study on GDM prevalence and its other features. PMID:27999478

  10. Orexin signaling is necessary for hypoglycemia-induced prevention of conditioned place preference.

    PubMed

    Otlivanchik, Oleg; Sanders, Nicole M; Dunn-Meynell, Ambrose; Levin, Barry E

    2016-01-01

    While the neural control of glucoregulatory responses to insulin-induced hypoglycemia is beginning to be elucidated, brain sites responsible for behavioral responses to hypoglycemia are relatively poorly understood. To help elucidate central control mechanisms associated with hypoglycemia unawareness, we first evaluated the effect of recurrent hypoglycemia on a simple behavioral measure, the robust feeding response to hypoglycemia, in rats. First, food intake was significantly, and similarly, increased above baseline saline-induced intake (1.1 ± 0.2 g; n = 8) in rats experiencing a first (4.4 ± 0.3; n = 8) or third daily episode of recurrent insulin-induced hypoglycemia (IIH, 3.7 ± 0.3 g; n = 9; P < 0.05). Because food intake was not impaired as a result of prior IIH, we next developed an alternative animal model of hypoglycemia-induced behavioral arousal using a conditioned place preference (CPP) model. We found that hypoglycemia severely blunted previously acquired CPP in rats and that recurrent hypoglycemia prevented this blunting. Pretreatment with a brain penetrant, selective orexin receptor-1 antagonist, SB-334867A, blocked hypoglycemia-induced blunting of CPP. Recurrently hypoglycemic rats also showed decreased preproorexin expression in the perifornical hypothalamus (50%) but not in the adjacent lateral hypothalamus. Pretreatment with sertraline, previously shown to prevent hypoglycemia-associated glucoregulatory failure, did not prevent blunting of hypoglycemia-induced CPP prevention by recurrent hypoglycemia. This work describes the first behavioral model of hypoglycemia unawareness and suggests a role for orexin neurons in mediating behavioral responses to hypoglycemia.

  11. Neonatal Endocrine Labomas - Pitfalls and Challenges in Reporting Neonatal Hormonal Reports.

    PubMed

    Chittawar, Sachin; Dutta, Deep; Khandelwal, Deepak; Singla, Rajiv

    2017-09-15

    This review highlights pitfalls and challenges in interpreting neonatal hormone reports. Pre-analytical errors contribute to nearly 50% of all errors. Modern chemiluminescence assay are more accurate, have lower risk of Hook's effect, but continue to have problems of assay interference. Liquid chromatography mass spectroscopy is gold standard for most hormone assays. Neonatal hypoglycemia diagnostic cut-offs are lower than adults. Random growth hormone testing is of value in diagnosing growth hormone deficiency in neonates. 17-hydroxy-progesterone testing in first three days of life for congenital adrenal hyperplasia (CAH) remains a challenge due to cross-reactivity with maternal circulating steroids, prematurity and lack of adrenal maturation. Both T4 and TSH testing is encouraged after 48 hours of delivery for diagnosing neonatal hypothyroidism; repeat testing should be done immediately for confirmation of diagnosis. There is an urgent need to develop age- sex- and ethnicity-based normative data for different hormone parameters in neonates. Laboratory should develop their own neonatal references and avoid using ranges from manufacturers. In neonatal endocrinopathies, the clinical scenario should primarily dictate the treatment formulation with hormonal assay to supplement treatment.

  12. Acute Hypoglycemia Induces Retinal Cell Death in Mouse

    PubMed Central

    Emery, Martine; Schorderet, Daniel F.; Roduit, Raphaël

    2011-01-01

    Background Glucose is the most important metabolic substrate of the retina and maintenance of normoglycemia is an essential challenge for diabetic patients. Glycemic excursions could lead to cardiovascular disease, nephropathy, neuropathy and retinopathy. A vast body of literature exists on hyperglycemia namely in the field of diabetic retinopathy, but very little is known about the deleterious effect of hypoglycemia. Therefore, we decided to study the role of acute hypoglycemia in mouse retina. Methodology/Principal Findings To test effects of hypoglycemia, we performed a 5-hour hyperinsulinemic/hypoglycemic clamp; to exclude an effect of insulin, we made a hyperinsulinemic/euglycemic clamp as control. We then isolated retinas from each group at different time-points after the clamp to analyze cells apoptosis and genes regulation. In parallel, we used 661W photoreceptor cells to confirm in vivo results. We showed herein that hypoglycemia induced retinal cell death in mouse via caspase 3 activation. We then tested the mRNA expression of glutathione transferase omega 1 (Gsto1) and glutathione peroxidase 3 (Gpx3), two genes involved in glutathione (GSH) homeostasis. The expression of both genes was up-regulated by low glucose, leading to a decrease of reduced glutathione (GSH). In vitro experiments confirmed the low-glucose induction of 661W cell death via superoxide production and activation of caspase 3, which was concomitant with a decrease of GSH content. Moreover, decrease of GSH content by inhibition with buthionine sulphoximine (BSO) at high glucose induced apoptosis, while complementation with extracellular glutathione ethyl ester (GSHee) at low glucose restored GSH level and reduced apoptosis. Conclusions/Significance We showed, for the first time, that acute insulin-induced hypoglycemia leads to caspase 3-dependant retinal cell death with a predominant role of GSH content. PMID:21738719

  13. Acute hypoglycemia decreases central retinal function in the human eye.

    PubMed

    Khan, Mukhtar I; Barlow, Robert B; Weinstock, Ruth S

    2011-07-15

    The goal of this pilot study was to assess the effects of acute hypoglycemia on retinal function and contrast sensitivity in individuals with and without diabetes. Hyperinsulinemic hypoglycemic and euglycemic clamp procedures were performed in subjects without diabetes (n=7) and with controlled type 1 diabetes (n=5). Mean age was 28 years, and none had retinal disease. During euglycemia (glucose 95-110 mg/dl) and acute hypoglycemia (glucose 50-55 mg/dl), contrast sensitivity was measured and spatial retinal responses were recorded with multifocal electroretinograms (mfERG), a rapid technique for mapping sensitivity from the foveal, macular and peripheral areas of the retina. During hypoglycemia, retinal responses (mfERG P1 wave) were decreased in both type 1 diabetes subjects and subjects without diabetes. The dominant effect was in the amplitude of the responses in the central macular retina, not in their temporal properties. Responses from the central region, central 10(0), were on average 1.8-fold lower than those from the periphery for both groups. All diabetes subjects and 3/7 without diabetes reported central scotoma. Decreases in mfERG amplitude were accompanied by decreases in contrast sensitivity. These changes were immediately reversed with the restoration of euglycemia. Overall, this study demonstrates that the acute effects of hypoglycemia in the human eye predominantly involve central vision, and these visual effects originate, at least in part, in the retina. The association between low blood glucose levels and impaired central vision underscores the importance of avoiding when possible and promptly treating hypoglycemia, particularly in individuals with diabetes. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  14. Comparison of oral glucose tolerance tests and mixed meals in patients with apparent idiopathic postabsorptive hypoglycemia: absence of hypoglycemia after meals.

    PubMed

    Charles, M A; Hofeldt, F; Shackelford, A; Waldeck, N; Dodson, L E; Bunker, D; Coggins, J T; Eichner, H

    1981-06-01

    The relationship between symptoms of idiopathic postabsorptive hypoglycemia and glucose homeostasis was evaluated by giving oral glucose tolerance tests (OGTT) and mixed meals to 18 patients and 16 controls. Chemical hypoglycemia after OGTT occurred as often in patients referred because of possible hypoglycemia symptoms, 18 out of 80 (23%), as in controls, 4 out of 16 (25%). After glucose, patients showed both clinical and chemical hypoglycemia (mean +/- SE plasma glucose, 48 +/- 3 mg/dl), but insulin, glucagon, and growth hormone responses were similar to controls. After mixed meals, no chemical hypoglycemia occurred in patients (mean plasma glucose, 79 +/- 3 mg/dl), yet 14 out of 18 (78%) had symptoms and/or signs consistent with hypoglycemia. No abnormality of glucose homeostasis was observed after meals that could account for symptoms or signs experienced by patients with idiopathic postabsorptive hypoglycemia. Since factors other than hypoglycemia appear to be involved, the disorder should be termed the idiopathic postprandial syndrome to avoid the connotation of chemical hypoglycemia.

  15. Postoperative Hypoglycemia Is Associated With Worse Outcomes After Cardiac Operations.

    PubMed

    Johnston, Lily E; Kirby, Jennifer L; Downs, Emily A; LaPar, Damien J; Ghanta, Ravi K; Ailawadi, Gorav; Kozower, Benjamin D; Kron, Irving L; McCall, Anthony L; Isbell, James M

    2017-02-01

    Hypoglycemia is a known risk of intensive postoperative glucose control in patients undergoing cardiac operations. However, neither the consequences of hypoglycemia relative to hyperglycemia, nor the possible interaction effects, have been well described. We examined the effects of postoperative hypoglycemia, hyperglycemia, and their interaction on short-term morbidity and mortality. Single-institution Society of Thoracic Surgeons (STS) database patient records from 2010 to 2014 were merged with clinical data, including blood glucose values measured in the intensive care unit (ICU). Exclusion criteria included fewer than three glucose measurements and absence of an STS predicted risk of morbidity or mortality score. Primary outcomes were operative mortality and composite major morbidity (permanent stroke, renal failure, prolonged ventilation, pneumonia, or myocardial infarction). Secondary outcomes included ICU and postoperative length of stay. Hypoglycemia was defined as below 70 mg/dL, and hyperglycemia as above 180 mg/dL. Simple and multivariable regression models were used to evaluate the outcomes. A total of 2,285 patient records met the selection criteria for analysis. The mean postoperative glucose level was 140.8 ± 18.8 mg/dL. Overall, 21.4% of patients experienced a hypoglycemic episode (n = 488), and 1.05% (n = 24) had a severe hypoglycemic episode (<40 mg/dL). The unadjusted odds ratio (UOR) for operative mortality for patients with any hypoglycemic episode compared with those without was 5.47 (95% confidence interval [CI] 3.14 to 9.54), and the UOR for major morbidity was 4.66 (95% CI 3.55 to 6.11). After adjustment for predicted risk of morbidity or mortality and other significant covariates, the adjusted odds (AOR) of operative mortality were significant for patients with any hypoglycemia (AOR 4.88, 95% CI 2.67 to 8.92) and patients with both events (AOR 8.29, 95% CI 1.83 to 37.5) but not hyperglycemia alone (AOR 1.62, 95% CI 0.56 to 4.69). The

  16. Neonatal jaundice.

    PubMed

    McKiernan, Pat

    2012-06-01

    Neonatal jaundice lasting greater than 2 weeks should be investigated. Pale stools and dark or yellow urine are evidence of liver disease, which should be urgently investigated. The neonatal hepatitis syndrome has many causes, and a structured approach to investigation is mandatory. It should be possible to confirm or exclude biliary atresia within one week, so that definitive surgery is not delayed unnecessarily. Babies with the neonatal hepatitis syndrome should have vigorous fat-soluble vitamin supplementation, including parenteral vitamin K if coagulation is abnormal. The prognosis for infants with idiopathic neonatal hepatitis and multifactorial cholestasis is excellent.

  17. Neonatal anemia.

    PubMed

    Aher, Sanjay; Malwatkar, Kedar; Kadam, Sandeep

    2008-08-01

    Neonatal anemia and the need for red blood cell (RBC) transfusions are very common in neonatal intensive care units. Neonatal anemia can be due to blood loss, decreased RBC production, or increased destruction of erythrocytes. Physiologic anemia of the newborn and anemia of prematurity are the two most common causes of anemia in neonates. Phlebotomy losses result in much of the anemia seen in extremely low birthweight infants (ELBW). Accepting a lower threshold level for transfusion in ELBW infants can prevent these infants being exposed to multiple donors.

  18. Temporal changes in frequency of severe hypoglycemia treated by emergency medical services in types 1 and 2 diabetes: a population-based data-linkage cohort study.

    PubMed

    Wang, Huan; Donnan, Peter T; Leese, Callum J; Duncan, Edward; Fitzpatrick, David; Frier, Brian M; Leese, Graham P

    2017-01-01

    declined by a third in type 1 diabetes and by two thirds in insulin-treated type 2 diabetes, because the prevalence of diabetes was higher (2.7 fold), the number of severe hypoglycemia events requiring emergency medical treatment was greater.

  19. Evidence-Informed Clinical Practice Recommendations for Treatment of Type 1 Diabetes Complicated by Problematic Hypoglycemia

    PubMed Central

    Choudhary, Pratik; Rickels, Michael R.; Senior, Peter A.; Vantyghem, Marie-Christine; Maffi, Paola; Kay, Thomas W.; Keymeulen, Bart; Inagaki, Nobuya; Saudek, Frantisek; Lehmann, Roger

    2015-01-01

    Problematic hypoglycemia, defined as two or more episodes per year of severe hypoglycemia or as one episode associated with impaired awareness of hypoglycemia, extreme glycemic lability, or major fear and maladaptive behavior, is a challenge, especially for patients with long-standing type 1 diabetes. Individualized therapy for such patients should include a composite target: optimal glucose control without problematic hypoglycemia. Therefore, we propose a tiered, four-stage algorithm based on evidence of efficacy given the limitations of educational, technological, and transplant interventions. All patients with problematic hypoglycemia should undergo structured or hypoglycemia-specific education programs (stage 1). Glycemic and hypoglycemia treatment targets should be individualized and reassessed every 3–6 months. If targets are not met, one diabetes technology—continuous subcutaneous insulin infusion or continuous glucose monitoring—should be added (stage 2). For patients with continued problematic hypoglycemia despite education (stage 1) and one diabetes technology (stage 2), sensor-augmented insulin pumps preferably with an automated low-glucose suspend feature and/or very frequent contact with a specialized hypoglycemia service can reduce hypoglycemia (stage 3). For patients whose problematic hypoglycemia persists, islet or pancreas transplant should be considered (stage 4). This algorithm provides an evidence-informed approach to resolving problematic hypoglycemia; it should be used as a guide, with individual patient circumstances directing suitability and acceptability to ensure the prudent use of technology and scarce transplant resources. Standardized reporting of hypoglycemia outcomes and inclusion of patients with problematic hypoglycemia in studies of new interventions may help to guide future therapeutic strategies. PMID:25998294

  20. The Economic Burden of Insulin-Related Hypoglycemia in Spain.

    PubMed

    Parekh, Witesh; Hoskins, Nicki; Baker-Knight, James; Ramirez de Arellano, Antonio; Mezquita Raya, Pedro

    2017-08-01

    An analysis was conducted to estimate the economic burden of insulin-related hypoglycemia in adults in Spain, derived from a novel concept developed for the UK known as the Local Impact of Hypoglycemia Tool. Costs per severe and non-severe hypoglycemic episode were calculated for patients with type 1 diabetes (T1DM) and type 2 diabetes (T2DM). The costs per episode were applied to the population of adults with T1DM and T2DM using insulin in Spain according to the number of severe and non-severe episodes experienced per year. Costs were calculated using Spanish-specific resource costs and published values for resource utilization, including ambulance, accident and emergency (A&E) department, hospitalization, healthcare professional visits, and extra self-monitoring of blood glucose (SMBG) tests used in the week following the episode. A one-way sensitivity analysis on all model inputs was then performed. The cost of insulin-related hypoglycemia in Spain is estimated as €662.0 m per year, €292.6 m of which is due to severe episodes and €369.4 m to non-severe episodes. The cost per episode varies from €1.25 for patients with T1DM and €1.48 for patients with T2DM for a non-severe episode where extra SMBG testing after the episode is the only action taken, to €4378.22 for T1DM and €3005.74 for T2DM for a severe episode that was treated in hospital and requires an ambulance, A&E visit, hospitalization, and a diabetes specialist visit. A reduction in severe and non-severe hypoglycemia rates of just 20% could lead to considerable cost savings of €284,925 per 100,000 general population. This analysis highlights the substantial economic burden of hypoglycemia in Spain, and gives budget holders the ability to assess the costs of new treatments or patient education programs in relation to the potential cost savings due to lower hypoglycemia rates.

  1. Insulin Autoimmune Syndrome: a rare cause of postprandial hypoglycemia

    PubMed Central

    Sahni, Pooja; Trivedi, Nitin

    2016-01-01

    Summary A 65-year-old obese Caucasian woman presented with symptomatic postprandial hypoglycemic episodes, resolution of symptoms with carbohydrate intake and significantly elevated anti-insulin antibody levels. She did not have any evidence for the use of oral antidiabetic medications, insulin, herbal substances, performing strenuous exercise or history of bariatric surgery. Fingerstick blood glucose readings revealed blood sugar of 35 mg/dL and 48 mg/dL, when she had these symptoms. Her medical history was significant for morbid obesity, hypothyroidism and gastro esophageal reflux disease. Her home medications included levothyroxine, propranolol and omeprazole. A blood sample obtained during the symptoms revealed the following: fingerstick blood sugar 38 mg/dL, venous blood glucose 60 mg/dL (normal (n): 70–99 mg/dL), serum insulin 202 IU/mL (n: <21), proinsulin 31.3 pmol/L (n: <28.9), C-peptide 8 ng/mL (n: 0.9–7), beta-hydroxybutyrate 0.12 mmol/L (n: 0.02–0.27) anti-insulin antibody >45.4 U/mL (n: <0.4). The result obtained while screening for serum sulfonylurea and meglitinides was negative. The repeated episodes of postprandial hypoglycemia associated with significantly elevated anti-insulin antibodies led to a diagnosis of insulin antibody syndrome (IAS). Significant improvement of hypoglycemic symptoms and lower anti-insulin antibody levels (33 U/mL) was noted on nutritional management during the following 6 months. Based on a report of pantoprazole-related IAS cases, her omeprazole was switched to a H2 receptor blocker. She reported only two episodes of hypoglycemia, and anti-insulin antibody levels were significantly lower at 10 U/mL after the following 12-month follow-up. Learning points: Initial assessment of the Whipple criteria is critical to establish the clinical diagnosis of hypoglycemia accurately. Blood sugar monitoring with fingerstick blood glucose method can provide important information during hypoglycemia workup

  2. A retrospective study on epidemiology of hypoglycemia in Emergency Department

    PubMed Central

    Kumar, Juvva Gowtham; Abhilash, K. P. P.; Saya, Rama Prakasha; Tadipaneni, Neeha; Bose, J. Maheedhar

    2017-01-01

    Background: Hypoglycemia is one among the leading causes for Emergency Department (ED) visits and is the most common and easily preventable endocrine emergency. This study is aimed at assessing the incidence and elucidating the underlying causes of hypoglycemia. Materials and Methods: A retrospective, observational study which included patients registering in ED with a finger prick blood glucose ≤60 mg/dl at the time of arrival. All patients aged above 15 years with the above inclusion criteria during the period of August 2010 to July 2013 were selected. The study group was categorized based on diabetic status into diabetic and nondiabetic groups. Results: A total of 1196 hypoglycemic episodes encountered at the ED during the study period were included, and of which 772 with complete data were analyzed. Underlying causes for hypoglycemia in the diabetic group (535) mainly included medication related 320 (59.81%), infections 108 (20.19%), and chronic kidney disease 61 (11.40%). Common underlying causes of hypoglycemia in nondiabetic group (237, 30.69%) included infections 107 (45.15%), acute/chronic liver disease 42 (17.72%), and malignancies 22 (9.28%). Among diabetic subjects on antidiabetic medications (n = 320), distribution over 24 h duration clearly reported two peaks at 8th and 21st h. The incidence of hypoglycemia and death per 1000 ED visits were 16.41 and 0.73 in 2011, 16.19 and 0.78 in 2012, 17.20 and 1.22 in 2013 with an average of 16.51 and 0.91, respectively. Conclusion: Bimodal distribution with peaks in incidences of hypoglycemic attacks at 8th and 21st h based on hourly distribution in a day can be correlated with the times just before next meal. None of the patients should leave ED without proper evaluation of the etiology of hypoglycemia and the problem should be addressed at each individual level. Increasing incidence of death over the years is alarming, and further studies are needed to conclude the root cause. PMID:28217510

  3. Carnitine-acylcarnitine translocase deficiency with severe hypoglycemia and auriculo ventricular block. Translocase assay in permeabilized fibroblasts.

    PubMed Central

    Pande, S V; Brivet, M; Slama, A; Demaugre, F; Aufrant, C; Saudubray, J M

    1993-01-01

    Deficiency of the enzymes of mitochondrial fatty acid oxidation and related carnitine dependent steps have been shown to be one of the causes of the fasting-induced hypoketotic hypoglycemia. We describe here carnitine-acylcarnitine translocase deficiency in a neonate who died eight days after birth. The proband showed severe fasting-induced hypoketotic hypoglycemia, high plasma creatine kinase, heartbeat disorder, hypothermia, and hyperammonemia. The plasma-free carnitine on day three was only 3 microM, and 92% of the total carnitine (37 microM) was present as acylcarnitine. Treatments with intravenous glucose, carnitine, and medium-chain triglycerides had been tried without improvements. Measurements in fibroblasts confirmed deficient oxidation of palmitate and showed normal activities of the carnitine palmitoyltransferases I and II and of the three acyl-CoA dehydrogenases. A total deficiency of the carnitine-acyl-carnitine translocase was found in fibroblasts using the carnitine acetylation assay (1986. Biochem. J. 236:143-148). This assay has been further simplified by seeking conditions permitting application to permeabilized fibroblasts and lymphocytes. Images PMID:8450053

  4. Neonatal teeth.

    PubMed

    Kovac, J; Kovac, D

    2011-01-01

    Teeth that are present at birth are called natal teeth, and teeth that emerge through the gingiva during the first 4 weeks of life are called neonatal teeth. The incidence of the appearance of natal and neonatal teeth has been reported to be between once every 800 and once every 6000 births. Natal and neonatal teeth may be uncomfortable for a nursing mother and present a risk of aspiration and swallowing by the infant if they are loose. Also, they may cause irritation and trauma to the infant's soft tissues. Under these circumstances, natal and neonatal teeth need to be extracted. In this article, a case report of two neonatal teeth in a five week old girl is presented. The teeth were present in the mandibular incisor region and were excessively mobile and caused discomfort for the nursing mother. They were extracted because of the fear of aspiration (Fig. 4, Ref. 10).

  5. Hypocaloric Enteral Nutrition Protects Against Hypoglycemia Associated with Intensive Insulin Therapy Better Than Intravenous Dextrose

    PubMed Central

    Kauffmann, Rondi M.; Hayes, Rachel M.; Vanlaeken, Amanda H.; Norris, Patrick R.; Diaz, Jose J.; May, Addison K.; Collier, Bryan R.

    2015-01-01

    Intensive insulin therapy treats hyperglycemia but increases the risk of hypoglycemia. Typically, intravenous dextrose is given to prevent hypoglycemia; however, enteral nutrition is preferred. We hypothesized that the provision of hypocaloric enteral nutrition would protect against hypoglycemia. A retrospective analysis was performed evaluating patients treated with intensive insulin therapy comparing the use of enteral nutrition versus a dextrose-only intravenous solution. Nutrition in the 2 hours before each blood glucose test was assessed, and the association with hypoglycemia (50 mg/dL or less) evaluated. Risk of hypoglycemia as a function of nutrition type and rate was estimated by multivariable regression. A total of 26,140 blood glucose tests were collected on 1289 patients. Hypoglycemia occurred in 6.4 per cent of patients. In regression models, enteral nutrition was the strongest protective factor against hypoglycemia (P < 0.001) with the largest risk reduction (steepest portion of the curve) occurring at 60 per cent goal. Hypocaloric enteral nutrition showed a greater risk reduction than a peripheral dextrose-only intravenous solution alone. In the setting of intensive insulin therapy, the provision of enteral nutrition, even if hypocaloric, is sufficient to protect against hypoglycemia. Future prospective studies should evaluate the efficacy of enteral nutrition in reducing the risk of hypoglycemia and whether lower rates of hypoglycemia correspond to improved outcomes. PMID:25347500

  6. Avoiding or coping with severe hypoglycemia in patients with type 2 diabetes

    PubMed Central

    Yun, Jae-Seung

    2015-01-01

    Hypoglycemia is a major barrier to achieving the glycemic goal in patients with type 2 diabetes. In particular, severe hypoglycemia, which is defined as an event that requires the assistance of another person to actively administer carbohydrates, glucagon, or take other corrective actions, is a serious clinical concern in patients with diabetes. If severe hypoglycemia is not managed promptly, it can be life threatening. Hypoglycemia-associated autonomic failure (HAAF) is the main pathogenic mechanism behind severe hypoglycemia. Defective glucose counter-regulation (altered insulin secretion, glucagon secretion, and an attenuated increase in epinephrine during hypoglycemia) and a lack of awareness regarding hypoglycemia (attenuated sympathoadrenal activity) are common components of HAAF in patients with diabetes. There is considerable evidence that hypoglycemia is an independent risk factor for cardiovascular disease. In addition, hypoglycemia has a significant influence on the quality of life of patients with diabetes. To prevent hypoglycemic events, the setting of glycemic goals should be individualized, particularly in elderly individuals or patients with complicated or advanced type 2 diabetes. Patients at high-risk for the future development of severe hypoglycemia should be selected carefully, and intensive education with reinforcement should be implemented. PMID:25589828

  7. Glycogen Supercompensation in the Rat Brain After Acute Hypoglycemia is Independent of Glucose Levels During Recovery.

    PubMed

    Duarte, João M N; Morgenthaler, Florence D; Gruetter, Rolf

    2017-01-12

    Patients with diabetes display a progressive decay in the physiological counter-regulatory response to hypoglycemia, resulting in hypoglycemia unawareness. The mechanism through which the brain adapts to hypoglycemia may involve brain glycogen. We tested the hypothesis that brain glycogen supercompensation following hypoglycemia depends on blood glucose levels during recovery. Conscious rats were submitted to hypoglycemia of 2 mmol/L for 90 min and allowed to recover at different glycemia, controlled by means of i.v. glucose infusion. Brain glycogen concentration was elevated above control levels after 24 h of recovery in the cortex, hippocampus and striatum. This glycogen supercompensation was independent of blood glucose levels in the post-hypoglycemia period. In the absence of a preceding hypoglycemia insult, brain glycogen concentrations were unaltered after 24 h under hyperglycemia. In the hypothalamus, which controls peripheral glucose homeostasis, glycogen levels were unaltered. Overall, we conclude that post-hypoglycemia glycogen supercompensation occurs in several brain areas and its magnitude is independent of plasma glucose levels. By supporting brain metabolism during recurrent hypoglycemia periods, glycogen may have a role in the development of hypoglycemia unawareness.

  8. Hypocaloric enteral nutrition protects against hypoglycemia associated with intensive insulin therapy better than intravenous dextrose.

    PubMed

    Kauffmann, Rondi M; Hayes, Rachel M; VanLaeken, Amanda H; Norris, Patrick R; Diaz, Jose J; May, Addison K; Collier, Bryan R

    2014-11-01

    Intensive insulin therapy treats hyperglycemia but increases the risk of hypoglycemia. Typically, intravenous dextrose is given to prevent hypoglycemia; however, enteral nutrition is preferred. We hypothesized that the provision of hypocaloric enteral nutrition would protect against hypoglycemia. A retrospective analysis was performed evaluating patients treated with intensive insulin therapy comparing the use of enteral nutrition versus a dextrose-only intravenous solution. Nutrition in the 2 hours before each blood glucose test was assessed, and the association with hypoglycemia (50 mg/dL or less) evaluated. Risk of hypoglycemia as a function of nutrition type and rate was estimated by multivariable regression. A total of 26,140 blood glucose tests were collected on 1289 patients. Hypoglycemia occurred in 6.4 per cent of patients. In regression models, enteral nutrition was the strongest protective factor against hypoglycemia (P < 0.001) with the largest risk reduction (steepest portion of the curve) occurring at 60 per cent goal. Hypocaloric enteral nutrition showed a greater risk reduction than a peripheral dextrose-only intravenous solution alone. In the setting of intensive insulin therapy, the provision of enteral nutrition, even if hypocaloric, is sufficient to protect against hypoglycemia. Future prospective studies should evaluate the efficacy of enteral nutrition in reducing the risk of hypoglycemia and whether lower rates of hypoglycemia correspond to improved outcomes.

  9. Prevalence of Hypoalbuminemia and Elevated Bilirubin/Albumin Ratios in a Large Cohort of Infants in the Neonatal Intensive Care Unit.

    PubMed

    Watchko, Jon F; Spitzer, Alan R; Clark, Reese H

    2017-09-01

    To provide descriptive data on serum albumin levels and the bilirubin to albumin (B/A) ratio in neonates admitted to the neonatal intensive care unit, assess the effect of gestational and chronological age on serum albumin and the B/A ratio, and evaluate the association between extreme values and mortality. Using a retrospective cohort design, we queried the Pediatrix clinical data warehouse for all infants born between 23 and 41 weeks of gestation from 1997 to 2014 who had a report of both a serum albumin and total serum bilirubin (TSB) level on the same day between birth and 14 days of life. There were 382 190 paired albumin and bilirubin levels across 164 401 neonates (15% of the 1 072 682 infants in the clinical data warehouse). Both gestational age and postnatal age were independent factors that influenced the values for serum albumin, TSB, and B/A ratio (ANOVA; P < .0001). TSB and B/A ratios values above birth weight-specific thresholds for exchange transfusions were uncommon (<6% of infants). Hypoalbuminemia (<2.5 mg/dL) was common (29% of infants). Neonates with serum albumin levels <2.5 g/dL or with B/A ratio levels exceeding exchange thresholds were at higher risk of death compared with infants who did not exceed these levels. This association was independent of other risk factors (estimated gestational age, birth weight, sex, and the presence of a major anomaly). Both gestational age and postnatal age influence TSB, albumin, and B/A ratios; hypoalbuminemia and extreme B/A ratios are associated with an increased risk of death. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Is hypoglycemia fear independently associated with health-related quality of life?

    PubMed

    Shi, Lizheng; Shao, Hui; Zhao, Yingnan; Thomas, Nina A

    2014-11-30

    Patients may fear the symptoms and consequences associated with hypoglycemia. We tested whether fear of hypoglycemia is independently associated with poorer health-related quality of life (HRQOL). Data were collected using direct-mail survey and enrollment information from adult commercial health plan enrollees with type 2 diabetes during a 12-month period (12/01/2008 to 11/30/2009). HRQOL was evaluated by the EuroQol (EQ)-5D index and 12-item Short Form Health Survey Mental Component Summary (SF-12 MCS) and Physical Component Summary (SF-12 PCS). Fear of hypoglycemia was assessed using the Hypoglycemia Fear Survey (HFS). Two ordinary least-squares (OLS) models of HRQOL controlling for demographics and illness characteristics were specified, and OLS regression coefficients and statistical inferences were compared. Model 1 included 1 variable of hypoglycemia symptoms; Model 2 included both hypoglycemia symptoms and HFS score. Of 3999 patients contacted, 813 responded to the survey. Model 1: hypoglycemia symptoms alone were associated with worse HRQOL (SF-12 MCS and SF-12 PCS scores and EQ-5D utility score; all P < 0.05). Model 2: hypoglycemia symptoms were significantly associated only with SF-12 MCS score. HFS total score was significantly associated with all 3 HRQOL scores. Hypoglycemia symptoms, Hispanic ethnicity, and longer diabetes duration were associated with greater hypoglycemia fear. Higher income, white race, and treatment without sulfonylurea or insulin were associated with less hypoglycemia fear (all P < 0.05). In addition to the effect of symptomatic hypoglycemia on HRQOL, fear of hypoglycemia was independently associated with lower overall health status and mental and physical health.

  11. A Link Between Hypoglycemia and Progression of Atherosclerosis in the Veterans Affairs Diabetes Trial (VADT).

    PubMed

    Saremi, Aramesh; Bahn, Gideon D; Reaven, Peter D

    2016-03-01

    To determine whether a link exists between serious hypoglycemia and progression of atherosclerosis in a substudy of the Veterans Affairs Diabetes Trial (VADT) and to examine whether glycemic control during the VADT modified the association between serious hypoglycemia and coronary artery calcium (CAC) progression. Serious hypoglycemia was defined as severe episodes with loss of consciousness or requiring assistance or documented glucose <50 mg/dL. Progression of CAC was determined in 197 participants with baseline and follow-up computed tomography scans. During an average follow-up of 4.5 years between scans, 97 participants reported severe hypoglycemia (n = 23) or glucose <50 mg/dL (n = 74). Serious hypoglycemia occurred more frequently in the intensive therapy group than in the standard treatment group (74% vs. 21%, P < 0.01). Serious hypoglycemia was not associated with progression of CAC in the entire cohort, but the interaction between serious hypoglycemia and treatment was significant (P < 0.01). Participants with serious hypoglycemia in the standard therapy group, but not in the intensive therapy group, had ∼50% greater progression of CAC than those without serious hypoglycemia (median 11.15 vs. 5.4 mm(3), P = 0.02). Adjustment for all baseline differences, including CAC, or time-varying risk factors during the trial, did not change the results. Examining the effect of serious hypoglycemia by on-trial HbA1c levels (cutoff 7.5%) yielded similar results. In addition, a dose-response relationship was found between serious hypoglycemia and CAC progression in the standard therapy group only. Despite a higher frequency of serious hypoglycemia in the intensive therapy group, serious hypoglycemia was associated with progression of CAC in only the standard therapy group. © 2016 by the American Diabetes Association. Readers may use this article as long as the work is properly cited, the use is educational and not for profit, and the work is not altered.

  12. Starvation of cancer via induced ketogenesis and severe hypoglycemia.

    PubMed

    Kapelner, Adam; Vorsanger, Matthew

    2015-03-01

    Neoplasms are highly dependent on glucose as their substrate for energy production and are generally not able to catabolize other fuel sources such as ketones and fatty acids. Thus, removing access to glucose has the potential to starve cancer cells and induce apoptosis. Unfortunately, other body tissues are also dependent on glucose for energy under normal conditions. However, in human starvation (or in the setting of diet-induced ketogenesis), the body "keto-adapts" and glucose requirements of most tissues drop to almost nil. Exceptions include the central nervous system (CNS) and various other tissues which have a small but obligatory requirement of glucose. Our hypothesized treatment takes keto-adaptation as a prerequisite. We then propose the induction of severe hypoglycemia by depressing gluconeogenesis while administering glucose to the brain. Although severe hypoglycemia normally produces adverse effects such as seizure and coma, it is relatively safe following keto-adaptation. We hypothesize that our therapeutic hypoglycemia treatment has potential to rapidly induce tumor cell necrosis. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Neonatal medications.

    PubMed

    Ward, Robert M; Stiers, Justin; Buchi, Karen

    2015-04-01

    Neonatal abstinence syndrome (NAS) is reaching epidemic proportions related to perinatal use of opioids. There are many approaches to assess and manage NAS, including one we have outlined. A standardized approach is likely to reduce length of stay and variability in practice. Circumcision is a frequent, painful procedure performed in the neonatal period. The rationale for providing analgesia is presented as well as a review of methods. Pharmacogenomics and pharmacogenetics have expanded our understanding of diseases and their drug therapy. Some applications of pharmacogenomics to the neonatal period are presented, along with pediatric challenges of developmental expression of drug-metabolizing enzymes.

  14. Intensive Care Unit Hypoglycemia Predicts Depression during Early Recovery from Acute Lung Injury

    PubMed Central

    Dowdy, David W.; Dinglas, Victoriano; Mendez-Tellez, Pedro A.; Bienvenu, O. Joseph; Sevransky, Jonathan; Dennison, Cheryl R.; Shanholtz, Carl; Needham, Dale M.

    2008-01-01

    Objective To evaluate the association between intensive care unit (ICU) blood glucose levels and depression following acute lung injury (ALI) Design Prospective cohort study Setting Twelve ICUs in 4 hospitals in Baltimore, MD Patients Consecutive ALI survivors (n = 104) monitored during 1,717 ICU patient-days and screened for depression at three months after ALI Interventions None Measurements and Main Results The prevalence of a positive screening test for depression (Hospital Anxiety and Depression [HAD] depression sub-scale score ≥8) at follow-up was 28%. After adjustment for confounders, patients with a mean daily minimum ICU glucose <100 mg/dL had significant increases in mean depression score [2.1 points, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.6 – 3.7] and in the likelihood of a positive depression screening test [relative risk (RR) 2.6, 95% CI 1.2 – 4.2]. Patients with documented hypoglycemia <60 mg/dL during their ICU stay also had greater symptoms of depression (2.0 points, 95% CI 0.5 – 3.5; RR 3.6, 95% CI 1.8 – 5.1). Other factors independently associated with a positive depression screening test included body mass index >40 kg/m2 (RR 3.3, 95% CI 1.2 – 4.2), baseline depression/anxiety (RR 3.9, 95% CI 1.5 – 6.5), and mean daily ICU benzodiazepine dose >100mg of midazolam-equivalent (RR 2.4, 95% CI 1.1 – 3.8). Conclusions Hypoglycemia in the ICU is associated with an increased risk of positive screening for depression during early recovery from ALI. Baseline depressive symptoms, morbid obesity, and ICU benzodiazepine dose were also associated with post-ALI depressive symptoms. These findings warrant increased glucose monitoring for ICU patients at risk for hypoglycemia and further research on how patient and ICU management factors may contribute to post-ICU depression. PMID:18766087

  15. Effects of maternal hypoglycemia on fetal eye and skeleton development in rats.

    PubMed

    Kuwata, Chiharu; Saeki, Naoko; Honda, Kumi; Matsuoka, Toshiki; Tsuchiya, Yoshimi; Shimomura, Kazuhiro

    2017-08-01

    The relationship between insulin-induced maternal hypoglycemia and teratogenicity was investigated in detail. We injected 4 different forms of insulin (insulin human, aspart, glargine, and detemir) subcutaneously at 1 or 2 dose levels to Sprague-Dawley rats from Days 6 to 11 of pregnancy, measured blood glucose levels, and conducted fetal examination. In the insulin human and aspart (low dose) groups, while severe hypoglycemia (approximately 50mg/dL) was seen, it lasted only 6h and no fetal anomalies were observed. Fetal axial skeleton anomalies were observed in the aspart (high dose) group, which exhibited intermediate-duration of severe hypoglycemia (9h). Eye and axial skeleton anomalies were observed in the glargine and detemir groups, which exhibited continuous severe hypoglycemia (≥9h). These results revealed that insulin-induced maternal hypoglycemia caused fetal eye and skeleton anomalies and the causative key factors were duration of maternal severe hypoglycemia. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. The burden of severe hypoglycemia in type 2 diabetes.

    PubMed

    Liu, Jieruo; Wang, Rosa; Ganz, Michael L; Paprocki, Yurek; Schneider, Doron; Weatherall, James

    2017-10-11

    More than 29 million people in the United States have type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM), a chronic metabolic disorder characterised by a progressive deterioration of glucose control, which eventually requires insulin. Abnormally low levels of blood glucose, a feared side effect of insulin treatment, may cause severe hypoglycemia (SHO), leading to emergency department (ED) admission, hospitalization, and long-term complications; these, in turn, drive up the costs of T2DM. This study's objective was to estimate the prevalence and costs of SHO-related hospitalizations and their additional longer-term impact on patients with T2DM using insulin. Using Truven MarketScan claims, we identified adult T2DM patients using basal and basal-bolus insulin regimens who were hospitalized for SHO (inpatient SHO patients) during 2010-2015. We defined two comparison groups: those with outpatient SHO-related encounters only, including ED visits without hospitalization (outpatient SHO patients) and those with no SHO- or acute hyperglycemia-related events (comparison patients). We estimated lengths of stay (LOS) and SHO-related hospitalization costs, and used propensity score and inverse probability weighting methods to adjust for baseline differences across the groups to evaluate longer-term impacts. We identified 66,179 patients using basal and 81,876 patients using basal-bolus insulin, of which, about 1.1% (basal) to 3.2% (basal-bolus) experienced at least one SHO-related hospitalization. Among those who experienced SHO (i.e., those in the inpatient and outpatient SHO groups), 27% (basal) and 40% (basal-bolus) experienced at least one SHO-related hospitalization. One-third of basal and about one-quarter of basal-bolus patients were admitted directly to the hospital; the remainder were first assessed or treated in the ED. Inpatient SHO patients using basal insulin stayed in the hospital, including time in the ED, for 2.8 days and incurred $6,896 in costs; patients using basal

  17. Neonatal conjunctivitis

    MedlinePlus

    Newborn conjunctivitis; Conjunctivitis of the newborn; Ophthalmia neonatorum; Eye infection - neonatal conjunctivitis ... diseases spread through sexual contact to prevent newborn conjunctivitis caused by these infections. Putting eye drops into ...

  18. Hypoglycemia evaluation and reporting in diabetes: Importance for the development of new therapies.

    PubMed

    Klonoff, David C; Alexander Fleming, G; Muchmore, Douglas B; Frier, Brian M

    2017-07-01

    Hypoglycemia complicating diabetes therapy is well recognized to be an ever-present threat to patients, their families, providers, payers, and regulators. Despite this being widely acknowledged, the regulatory stance on hypoglycemia as an endpoint in clinical trials to support new product registration has not evolved in any meaningful way since the publication of a position paper by an American Diabetes Association (ADA) Workgroup in 2005. As the impact of hypoglycemia on persons affected by diabetes is of major importance when assessing new treatments, the historical position of regulatory agencies on hypoglycemia is reviewed with respect to product approvals. The purpose of this article is to present proposals for facilitating development of therapies that reduce hypoglycemia risk through (1) development of composite measures of benefit for regulatory endpoints and (2) facilitation of the fulfillment of an unmet clinical need for reducing hypoglycemia. In view of greater comprehension of the effects of hypoglycemia, coupled with improved methodology to assess its frequency, the authors recommend: (1) a numerical cut point of <54 mg/dl (<3.0 mmol/L) as a clinically relevant level with which to define meaningful hypoglycemia for trials of diabetes therapies; (2) utilization in clinical trials of mature glucose monitoring technologies for purposes of regulatory evaluation and clinical decision-making; and (3) development of primary efficacy endpoint composites that include hypoglycemia rates and glycemic control. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  19. Risk of cardiac arrhythmias during hypoglycemia in patients with type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular risk.

    PubMed

    Chow, Elaine; Bernjak, Alan; Williams, Scott; Fawdry, Robert A; Hibbert, Steve; Freeman, Jenny; Sheridan, Paul J; Heller, Simon R

    2014-05-01

    Recent trials of intensive glycemic control suggest a possible link between hypoglycemia and excess cardiovascular mortality in patients with type 2 diabetes. Hypoglycemia might cause arrhythmias through effects on cardiac repolarization and changes in cardiac autonomic activity. Our aim was to study the risk of arrhythmias during spontaneous hypoglycemia in type 2 diabetic patients with cardiovascular risk. Twenty-five insulin-treated patients with type 2 diabetes and a history of cardiovascular disease or two or more risk factors underwent simultaneous continuous interstitial glucose and ambulatory electrocardiogram monitoring. Frequency of arrhythmias, heart rate variability, and markers of cardiac repolarization were compared between hypoglycemia and euglycemia and between hyperglycemia and euglycemia matched for time of day. There were 134 h of recording at hypoglycemia, 65 h at hyperglycemia, and 1,258 h at euglycemia. Bradycardia and atrial and ventricular ectopic counts were significantly higher during nocturnal hypoglycemia compared with euglycemia. Arrhythmias were more frequent during nocturnal versus daytime hypoglycemia. Excessive compensatory vagal activation after the counterregulatory phase may account for bradycardia and associated arrhythmias. QT intervals, corrected for heart rate, >500 ms and abnormal T-wave morphology were observed during hypoglycemia in some participants. Hypoglycemia, frequently asymptomatic and prolonged, may increase the risk of arrhythmias in patients with type 2 diabetes and high cardiovascular risk. This is a plausible mechanism that could contribute to increased cardiovascular mortality during intensive glycemic therapy.

  20. Severe hypoglycemia in a nondiabetic patient leading to acute respiratory failure.

    PubMed Central

    Baig, Muhammad Ahsan; Ali, Shaukat; Rasheed, Javeria; Bergman, Michael; Privman, Vladimir

    2006-01-01

    This report describes a unique case of prolonged hypoglycemia in a nondiabetic patient with end-stage renal disease and chronic liver disease. Following a less-than-24-hour period of being NPO (nothing per oral), the patient developed hypercapnic respiratory failure. Severe hypoglycemia in such a patient leading to respiratory failure provides major challenges in identification and management of his illness. To our knowledge, this is the first ever reported case of severe hypoglycemia leading to hypercapnic respiratory failure. We believe that the pathogenic basis for this patient's severe hypoglycemia is failure of contribution by the kidneys and liver to glucose production. PMID:16916139

  1. Prolactin and growth hormone responses to hypoglycemia in patients with systemic sclerosis and psoriatic arthritis.

    PubMed

    Rovensky, Jozef; Raffayova, Helena; Imrich, Richard; Radikova, Zofia; Penesova, Adela; Macho, Ladislav; Lukac, Jozef; Matucci-Cerinic, Marco; Vigas, Milan

    2006-06-01

    This study compared prolactin (PRL) and growth hormone (GH) responses to hypoglycemia in premenopausal females with systemic sclerosis (SSc) and psoriatic arthritis (PsA) with those in matched healthy controls. No differences were found in glucose and GH responses to hypoglycemia in both groups of patients compared to controls. SSc patients had lower PRL response (P < 0.05) to hypoglycemia compared to controls. PRL response tended to be lower also in PsA patients, however the difference did not reach level of statistical significance (P = 0.11). The present study showed decreased PRL response to hypoglycemia in premenopausal females with SSc.

  2. Neonatal magnetocardiography.

    PubMed

    Anastasiadis, P G; Anninos, P; Kotini, A; Koutlaki, N; Garas, A; Galazios, G

    2001-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to test the validity of magnetocardiography (MCG) in the estimation of neonatal cardiac rhythm using a single channel superconductive quantum interference device (SQUID). Our study population consisted of 50 neonates who were delivered normally between 37-41 weeks of gestation from clinically uncomplicated pregnancies. There was also a neonate included in the study in which the diagnosis of "hypoplastic left heart syndrome" was demonstrated by U/S Doppler examination. Maternal age ranged from 18 to 39 years (mean=29.15, SD=6.13). Our study results revealed 44 neonates with normal cardiac rhythm, four with ventricular tachycardia (VT), one with ventricular tachycardia (VT) and extrasystolic beats and one with bradycardia. The neonate with the hypoplastic left heart syndrome presented frequent episodes of ventricular bigeminy in the magnetocardiographic trace. M-mode echocardiography confirmed the diagnosis of the seven cases of arrhythmia in our study group. Results gained from the study lead us to believe that MCG could provide clinical practice with a non-invasive, rapid and easy to perform method, which could be used as an adjunct to conventional methods for the evaluation of neonatal cardiac rhythm.

  3. "Big IGF-II"-induced hypoglycemia secondary to gastric adenocarcinoma.

    PubMed

    Morbois-Trabut, L; Maillot, F; De Widerspach-Thor, A; Lamisse, F; Couet, C

    2004-06-01

    Non-islet cell tumor-related hypoglycemia is a rare phenomenon. We report the case of a 63 Year-old man admitted for hemiparesia and a capillary blood glucose of 20 mg/dL. The presence of an immature form of IGF-II that can mimic the effect of insulin, namely "big IGF-II", explained this patient's hypoglycaemia. A moderately differentiated adenocarcinoma of the cardia with metastatic extension to the stomach and the liver was demonstrated. Octreotide failed to control the hypoglycaemia, therefore prednisolone (2 mg/kg per day) and enteral feeding prevented new episodes of severe hypoglycaemia.

  4. Regulation of serum potassium during insulin-induced hypoglycemia.

    PubMed

    Petersen, K G; Schlüter, K J; Kerp, L

    1982-07-01

    Counterregulatory secretion of epinephrine occurs during severe insulin-induced hypoglycemia. Under these conditions (minimal plasma glucose 27.4 +/- 1 mg/dl) the decrease of serum potassium concentration (0.9 mVal/L) is mediated by two mechanisms: insulin-induced (0.48 mVal/L) and epinephrine-induced (0.42 mVal/L) cellular uptake of potassium. Epinephrine-induced serum potassium uptake appears to be more sensitive to beta-adrenoceptor blockade than glucose production. The intensification of insulin-induced hypokalemia by epinephrine is of clinical significance.

  5. Hypoglycaemia and hypocalcaemia as determinants of admission birth weight criteria for term stable low risk macrosomic neonates.

    PubMed

    Bandika, Victor L; Were, Fred N; Simiyu, Eseli D; Oyatsi, Donald P

    2014-09-01

    Large for gestational age (LGA) accounts for about 6.3% of admissions in kenyatta national hospital, newborn unit. As a policy all IGA's, defined by birth weight of 4000 g and above are admitted for 24 hours to monitor blood glucose levels. The rational for this policy is questionable and contributes to unnecessary burden on resources needed for new born care. To study birth weight related incidence of hypoglycemia and hypocalcaemia in stable low risk lgas in knh and use it to establish a new admission weight based criteria. prospective cohort study done in new born-unit, post natal and labour wards of knh. Term lga neonates (birth weight = 4000 g) were recruited as subjects and controlled against term appropriate weight (aga) neonates. the incidence of hypoglycemia and hypocalcaemia in lgas was 21% and 9% respectively. Hypoglycemia was rarely encountered after 12 hours of life in lgas. Hypoglycemia and hypocalcaemia showed a direct upward relationship with weight beyond 4250 g. No significant difference in incidence of hypoglycemia and hypocalcaemia between controls and 4000-4249 g category to justify their routine admission to newborn unit. the study identified 4275 g as new admission birth weight criteria for stable term low risk IGA's admission.

  6. Acute Hypoglycemia Impairs Executive Cognitive Function in Adults With and Without Type 1 Diabetes

    PubMed Central

    Graveling, Alex J.; Deary, Ian J.; Frier, Brian M.

    2013-01-01

    OBJECTIVE Acute hypoglycemia impairs cognitive function in several domains. Executive cognitive function governs organization of thoughts, prioritization of tasks, and time management. This study examined the effect of acute hypoglycemia on executive function in adults with and without diabetes. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS Thirty-two adults with and without type 1 diabetes with no vascular complications or impaired awareness of hypoglycemia were studied. Two hyperinsulinemic glucose clamps were performed at least 2 weeks apart in a single-blind, counterbalanced order, maintaining blood glucose at 4.5 mmol/L (euglycemia) or 2.5 mmol/L (hypoglycemia). Executive functions were assessed with a validated test suite (Delis-Kaplan Executive Function). A general linear model (repeated-measures ANOVA) was used. Glycemic condition (euglycemia or hypoglycemia) was the within-participant factor. Between-participant factors were order of session (euglycemia-hypoglycemia or hypoglycemia-euglycemia), test battery used, and diabetes status (with or without diabetes). RESULTS Compared with euglycemia, executive functions (with one exception) were significantly impaired during hypoglycemia; lower test scores were recorded with more time required for completion. Large Cohen d values (>0.8) suggest that hypoglycemia induces decrements in aspects of executive function with large effect sizes. In some tests, the performance of participants with diabetes was more impaired than those without diabetes. CONCLUSIONS Executive cognitive function, which is necessary to carry out many everyday activities, is impaired during hypoglycemia in adults with and without type 1 diabetes. This important aspect of cognition has not received previous systematic study with respect to hypoglycemia. The effect size is large in terms of both accuracy and speed. PMID:23780950

  7. Hypothalamic S-Nitrosylation Contributes to the Counter-Regulatory Response Impairment following Recurrent Hypoglycemia

    PubMed Central

    Deshpande, Srinidhi; Carneiro, Lionel; Zhou, Chunxue; Sayed, Nazish; Orban, Branly; Berlin, Joshua R.; Pénicaud, Luc; Leloup, Corinne; Beuve, Annie; Routh, Vanessa H.

    2013-01-01

    Aims Hypoglycemia is a severe side effect of intensive insulin therapy. Recurrent hypoglycemia (RH) impairs the counter-regulatory response (CRR) which restores euglycemia. During hypoglycemia, ventromedial hypothalamus (VMH) production of nitric oxide (NO) and activation of its receptor soluble guanylyl cyclase (sGC) are critical for the CRR. Hypoglycemia also increases brain reactive oxygen species (ROS) production. NO production in the presence of ROS causes protein S-nitrosylation. S-nitrosylation of sGC impairs its function and induces desensitization to NO. We hypothesized that during hypoglycemia, the interaction between NO and ROS increases VMH sGC S-nitrosylation levels and impairs the CRR to subsequent episodes of hypoglycemia. VMH ROS production and S-nitrosylation were quantified following three consecutive daily episodes of insulin-hypoglycemia (RH model). The CRR was evaluated in rats in response to acute insulin-induced hypoglycemia or via hypoglycemic-hyperinsulinemic clamps. Pretreatment with the anti-oxidant N-acetyl-cysteine (NAC) was used to prevent increased VMH S-nitrosylation. Results Acute insulin-hypoglycemia increased VMH ROS levels by 49±6.3%. RH increased VMH sGC S-nitrosylation. Increasing VMH S-nitrosylation with intracerebroventricular injection of the nitrosylating agent S-nitroso-L-cysteine (CSNO) was associated with decreased glucagon secretion during hypoglycemic clamp. Finally, in RH rats pre-treated with NAC (0.5% in drinking water for 9 days) hypoglycemia-induced VMH ROS production was prevented and glucagon and epinephrine production was not blunted in response to subsequent insulin-hypoglycemia. Conclusion These data suggest that NAC may be clinically useful in preventing impaired CRR in patients undergoing intensive-insulin therapy. PMID:23894333

  8. Treatment and risk factor analysis of hypoglycemia in diabetic rhesus monkeys.

    PubMed

    He, Sirong; Chen, Younan; Wei, Lingling; Jin, Xi; Zeng, Li; Ren, Yan; Zhang, Jie; Wang, Li; Li, Hongxia; Lu, Yanrong; Cheng, Jingqiu

    2011-02-01

    In order to anticipate and promptly treat hypoglycemia in diabetic monkeys treated with insulin or other glucose-lowering drugs, the relationships between the incidence and symptoms of hypoglycemia in these animals, and many factors involved in model development and sustainment were analyzed. Different procedures were performed on 22 monkeys for the induction of diabetes. The monkey models were evaluated by blood glucose, insulin, C-peptide levels and intravenous glucose tolerance tests. A glucose treatment program for the diabetic monkeys was administered and laboratory tests were regularly performed. A standard procedure of hypoglycemia treatment was established and the risk factors of hypoglycemia were analyzed by a logistic regression model. Furthermore, the relationships between the four methods of diabetes induction, renal function, glycemic control and hypoglycemia were studied using one-way analysis of variance and t-test. We found that the hypoglycemic conditions of diabetic monkeys were improved rapidly by our treatment. The statistical analysis suggested that the modeling methods, renal function and glycemic control were related to the incidence of hypoglycemia. In detail, the progress of diabetes, effects of glycemic control and, particularly, the severity of the hypoglycemia differed according to the induction strategy used. The models induced by partial pancreatectomy with low-dose streptozotocin were not prone to hypoglycemia and their glycemic controls were stable. However, the models induced by total pancreatectomy were more vulnerable to severe hypoglycemia and their glycemic controls were the most unstable. Moreover, the levels of blood creatinine and triglyceride increased after the development of diabetes, which was related to the occurrence of hypoglycemia. In conclusion, we suggested that total pancreatectomy and renal impairment are two important risk factors for hypoglycemia in diabetic monkeys. More attention should be paid to daily care

  9. Neonatal pain

    PubMed Central

    Walker, Suellen M

    2014-01-01

    Effective management of procedural and postoperative pain in neonates is required to minimize acute physiological and behavioral distress and may also improve acute and long-term outcomes. Painful stimuli activate nociceptive pathways, from the periphery to the cortex, in neonates and behavioral responses form the basis for validated pain assessment tools. However, there is an increasing awareness of the need to not only reduce acute behavioral responses to pain in neonates, but also to protect the developing nervous system from persistent sensitization of pain pathways and potential damaging effects of altered neural activity on central nervous system development. Analgesic requirements are influenced by age-related changes in both pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic response, and increasing data are available to guide safe and effective dosing with opioids and paracetamol. Regional analgesic techniques provide effective perioperative analgesia, but higher complication rates in neonates emphasize the importance of monitoring and choice of the most appropriate drug and dose. There have been significant improvements in the understanding and management of neonatal pain, but additional research evidence will further reduce the need to extrapolate data from older age groups. Translation into improved clinical care will continue to depend on an integrated approach to implementation that encompasses assessment and titration against individual response, education and training, and audit and feedback. PMID:24330444

  10. Neonatal pain.

    PubMed

    Walker, Suellen M

    2014-01-01

    Effective management of procedural and postoperative pain in neonates is required to minimize acute physiological and behavioral distress and may also improve acute and long-term outcomes. Painful stimuli activate nociceptive pathways, from the periphery to the cortex, in neonates and behavioral responses form the basis for validated pain assessment tools. However, there is an increasing awareness of the need to not only reduce acute behavioral responses to pain in neonates, but also to protect the developing nervous system from persistent sensitization of pain pathways and potential damaging effects of altered neural activity on central nervous system development. Analgesic requirements are influenced by age-related changes in both pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic response, and increasing data are available to guide safe and effective dosing with opioids and paracetamol. Regional analgesic techniques provide effective perioperative analgesia, but higher complication rates in neonates emphasize the importance of monitoring and choice of the most appropriate drug and dose. There have been significant improvements in the understanding and management of neonatal pain, but additional research evidence will further reduce the need to extrapolate data from older age groups. Translation into improved clinical care will continue to depend on an integrated approach to implementation that encompasses assessment and titration against individual response, education and training, and audit and feedback.

  11. Generalized Anxiety Disorder and Hypoglycemia Symptoms Improved with Diet Modification

    PubMed Central

    Bhardwaj, Sukriti

    2016-01-01

    Observational evidence suggests that a relationship may exist between high glycemic index diets and the development of anxiety and depression symptoms; however, as no interventional studies assessing this relationship in a psychiatric population have been completed, the possibility of a causal link is unclear. AB is a 15-year-old female who presented with concerns of generalized anxiety disorder and hypoglycemia symptoms. Her diet consisted primarily of refined carbohydrates. The addition of protein, fat, and fiber to her diet resulted in a substantial decrease in anxiety symptoms as well as a decrease in the frequency and severity of hypoglycemia symptoms. A brief return to her previous diet caused a return of her anxiety symptoms, followed by improvement when she restarted the prescribed diet. This case strengthens the hypothesis that dietary glycemic index may play a role in the pathogenesis or progression of mental illnesses such as generalized anxiety disorder and subsequently that dietary modification as a therapeutic intervention in the treatment of mental illness warrants further study. PMID:27493821

  12. Episodic hypoglycemia with psi-hydroxy fatty acid excretion.

    PubMed

    Colle, E; Mamer, O A; Montgomery, J A; Miller, J D

    1983-02-01

    We present case histories of two young children with episodes of hypoglycemia, elevation of SGOT, low insulin levels, increased urinary excretion of psi-hydroxy fatty acids (5-hydroxyhexanoic, 7-hydroxyoctanoic and 9-hydroxydecanoic), traces of the corresponding psi-ketoacids and elevations of urinary adipic, suberic, and sebacic acids. The ratio of psi-hydroxy fatty acids to 3-hydroxybutyric in the urine of these patients is higher than in patients of similar ages with similar illnesses. These acids persisted while the patients were well. Increased urinary psi-hydroxy fatty acids could be reproduced by a load of medium chain triglycerides without precipitating other clinical symptoms. Three children with hypoglycemia were found not to excrete measurable amounts of these unusual acids while ill. A medium chain triglyceride load in one of these children after recovery failed to elicit psi-hydroxy acid excretion. Small amounts of urinary 5-hydroxyhexanoic acid only were found in two patients with acute Reye's syndrome and in three of five severely ill children with starvation ketonuria. In this last group, no urinary psi-hydroxyacids could be detected after recovery. Normal children do not excrete measurable amounts (less than 1 mg/g creatinine) of these psi-hydroxyacids.

  13. Current Status of Childhood Hyperinsulinemic Hypoglycemia in Turkey

    PubMed Central

    Şıklar, Zeynep; Berberoğlu, Merih

    2016-01-01

    Congenital hyperinsulinism (CHI) is a rare disease characterized by dysregulated insulin secretion from pancreatic β-cells. Recurrent hypoglycemia can lead to neurological insult and permanent brain injury. Recently, there are important advances in understanding the genetic mechanisms, histological characteristics, imaging, and surgical techniques of congenital hyperinsulinemic hypoglycemia that could reflect to improvement in the clinical care of infants with this disorder. In Turkey, there is a high rate of consanguinity, thus, the incidence of CHI is expected to be high. Until now, there are no nationwide data regarding the disorder, and some individual case reports or case series had been published. Determining the characteristics of Turkish patients with CHI can help develop a different perspective on this rare disease. In this review, we evaluated the clinical and molecular characteristics of Turkish patients with CHI based on reports published in the literature. The most frequently seen mutations were ABCC8 gene mutations (n=37), followed by HADH (n=11) and KCNJ11 gene (n=7) mutations. A total of 141 Turkish patients with CHI were reported until now. Among them, 115 patients had been genetically analyzed, and 56 of them had one of the mutation leading to hyperinsulinism. PMID:27181376

  14. Neonatal Cholestasis

    PubMed Central

    Feldman, Amy G.; Sokol, Ronald J.

    2013-01-01

    Cholestatic jaundice is a common presenting feature of neonatal hepatobiliary and metabolic dysfunction. Any infant who remains jaundiced beyond age 2 to 3 weeks should have the serum bilirubin level fractionated into a conjugated (direct) and unconjugated (indirect) portion. Conjugated hyperbilirubinemia is never physiologic or normal. The differential diagnosis of cholestasis is extensive, and a step-wise approach based on the initial history and physical examination is useful to rapidly identify the underlying etiology. Early recognition of neonatal cholestasis is essential to ensure timely treatment and optimal prognosis. Even when specific treatment is not available, infants who have cholestasis benefit from early medical management and optimization of nutrition. Future studies are necessary to determine the most reliable and cost-effective method of universal screening for neonatal cholestasis. PMID:24244109

  15. Seasonal variations of severe hypoglycemia in patients with type 1 diabetes mellitus, type 2 diabetes mellitus, and non-diabetes mellitus: clinical analysis of 578 hypoglycemia cases.

    PubMed

    Tsujimoto, Tetsuro; Yamamoto-Honda, Ritsuko; Kajio, Hiroshi; Kishimoto, Miyako; Noto, Hiroshi; Hachiya, Remi; Kimura, Akio; Kakei, Masafumi; Noda, Mitsuhiko

    2014-11-01

    Blood glucose control in patients with diabetes mellitus (DM) is reportedly influenced by the seasons, with hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c) levels decreasing in the summer or warm season and increasing in the winter or cold season. In addition, several studies have shown that sepsis is also associated with the seasons. Although both blood glucose control and sepsis can strongly affect the occurrence of severe hypoglycemia, few studies have examined the seasonal variation of severe hypoglycemia. The aim of the present study is to examine the association between severe hypoglycemia and the seasons in patients with type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM), type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM), and non-diabetes mellitus (non-DM). We retrospectively reviewed all the patients with severe hypoglycemia at a national center in Japan between April 1, 2006 and March 31, 2012. A total of 57,132 consecutive cases that had visited the emergency room by ambulance were screened, and 578 eligible cases of severe hypoglycemia were enrolled in this study. The primary outcome was to assess the seasonality of severe hypoglycemia. In the T1DM group (n  =  88), severe hypoglycemia occurred significantly more often in the summer than in the winter (35.2% in summer vs 18.2% in winter, P  =  0.01), and the HbA1c levels were highest in the winter and lowest in the summer (9.1% [7.6%-10.1%] in winter vs 7.7% [7.1%-8.3%] in summer, P  =  0.13). In the non-DM group (n  =  173), severe hypoglycemia occurred significantly more often in the winter than in the summer (30.6% in winter vs 19.6% in summer, P  =  0.01), and sepsis as a complication occurred significantly more often in winter than in summer (24.5% in winter vs 5.9% in summer, P  =  0.02). In the T2DM group (n  =  317), the occurrence of severe hypoglycemia and the HbA1c levels did not differ significantly among the seasons. The occurrence of severe hypoglycemia might be seasonal and might fluctuate with temperature changes

  16. Comparative risk of severe hypoglycemia among concomitant users of thiazolidinedione antidiabetic agents and antihyperlipidemics

    PubMed Central

    Leonard, Charles E.; Han, Xu; Bilker, Warren B.; Flory, James H.; Brensinger, Colleen M.; Flockhart, David A.; Gagne, Joshua J.; Cardillo, Serena; Hennessy, Sean

    2016-01-01

    We conducted high dimensional propensity score-adjusted cohort studies to examine whether thiazolidinedione use with a statin or fibrate was associated with an increased risk of severe hypoglycemia. We found that concomitant therapy with a thiazolidinedione + fibrate was associated with a generally delayed increased risk of severe hypoglycemia. PMID:27242124

  17. Naltrexone for treatment of impaired awareness of hypoglycemia in type 1 diabetes: A randomized clinical trial

    PubMed Central

    Moheet, Amir; Mangia, Silvia; Kumar, Anjali; Tesfaye, Nolawit; Eberly, Lynn E; Bai, Yun; Kubisiak, Kristine; Seaquist, Elizabeth R

    2016-01-01

    Aims Impaired awareness of hypoglycemia (IAH) is a limiting factor in the treatment of type 1 diabetes (T1D) and is a challenging condition to reverse. The objective of this study was to test the hypothesis that naltrexone therapy in subjects with T1D and IAH will improve counterregulatory hormone response and recognition of hypoglycemia symptoms during hypoglycemia. Methods We performed a pilot randomized double blind trial of 4 weeks of naltrexone therapy (n=10) or placebo (n=12) given orally in subjects with T1D and IAH. Outcome measures included hypoglycemia symptom scores, counterregulatory hormone levels and thalamic activation as measured by cerebral blood flow using MRI during experimental hypoglycemia in all subjects before and after 4 weeks of intervention. Results After 4 weeks of therapy with naltrexone or placebo, no significant differences in response to hypoglycemia were seen in any outcomes of interest within each group. Conclusions In this small study, short-term treatment with naltrexone did not improve recognition of hypoglycemia symptoms or counterregulatory hormone response during experimental hypoglycemia in subjects with T1D and IAH. Whether this lack of effect is related to the small sample size or due to the dose, the advanced stage of study population or the drug itself should be the subject of future investigation. PMID:26345338

  18. BOLD Response to Semantic and Syntactic Processing during Hypoglycemia Is Load-Dependent

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schafer, Robin J.; Page, Kathleen A.; Arora, Jagriti; Sherwin, Robert; Constable, R. Todd

    2012-01-01

    This study investigates how syntactic and semantic load factors impact sentence comprehension and BOLD signal under moderate hypoglycemia. A dual session, whole brain fMRI study was conducted on 16 healthy participants using the glucose clamp technique. In one session, they experienced insulin-induced hypoglycemia (plasma glucose at [image…

  19. Analyzing EEG signals under insulin-induced hypoglycemia in type 1 diabetes patients.

    PubMed

    Nguyen, Lien B; Nguyen, Anh V; Ling, Sai Ho; Nguyen, Hung T

    2013-01-01

    Hypoglycemia is dangerous and considered as a limiting factor of the glycemic control therapy for patients with type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM). Nocturnal hypoglycemia is especially feared because early warning symptoms are unclear during sleep so an episode of hypoglycemia may lead to a fatal effect on patients. The main objective of this paper is to explore the correlation between hypoglycemia and electroencephalography (EEG) signals. To do this, the EEG of five T1DM adolescents from an overnight insulin-induced study is analyzed by spectral analysis to extract four different parameters. We aim to explore the response of these parameters during the clamp study which includes three main phases of normal, hypoglycemia and recovery. We also look at data at the blood glucose level (BGL) of 3.3-3.9 mmol/l to find a threshold to distinguish between non-hypoglycemia and hypoglycemia states. The results show that extracted EEG parameters are highly correlated with patients' conditions during the study. It is also shown that at the BGL of 3.3 mmol/l, responses to hypoglycemia in EEG signals start to significantly occur.

  20. BOLD Response to Semantic and Syntactic Processing during Hypoglycemia Is Load-Dependent

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schafer, Robin J.; Page, Kathleen A.; Arora, Jagriti; Sherwin, Robert; Constable, R. Todd

    2012-01-01

    This study investigates how syntactic and semantic load factors impact sentence comprehension and BOLD signal under moderate hypoglycemia. A dual session, whole brain fMRI study was conducted on 16 healthy participants using the glucose clamp technique. In one session, they experienced insulin-induced hypoglycemia (plasma glucose at [image…

  1. Body position and the neuroendocrine response to insulin-induced hypoglycemia in healthy subjects.

    PubMed

    Radikova, Z; Penesova, A; Jezova, D; Kvetnansky, R; Vigas, M; Macho, L; Koska, J

    2003-10-01

    Changes in body fluid distribution are known to influence neuroendocrine function. The aim of the present study was to test the hypothesis that changes in plasma volume affect the counterregulatory neuroendocrine response to hypoglycemia. The tests were performed in 12 subjects in two situations: 'head-up' (+60 degrees head-up tilt standing for 30 min and hypoglycemia in sitting position afterwards) and 'leg-up' (leg-up position for 30 min and hypoglycemia in leg-up position afterwards) in a random order. Insulin-induced hypoglycemia was adjusted to 2.7 mmol/l for 15 min by glucose infusion. Plasma volume was greater by 2.2% (p < 0.001) in leg-up and lower by 9.6% (p < 0.001) in head-up position compared to the basal value in sitting position. Head-up position was associated with increases in ACTH, aldosterone, norepinephrine levels and plasma renin activity (p < 0.01). Leg-up position resulted in decreases in plasma growth hormone and epinephrine concentrations (p < 0.05). Except epinephrine, the neuroendocrine response to hypoglycemia, if any, was mild. Hypoglycemia failed to activate ACTH release after head-up position. Body fluid redistribution did not modify hormonal changes during insulin hypoglycemia. In conclusion, we suggest that body position and accompanying plasma volume changes do not appear to affect neuroendocrine and counterregulatory responses to moderate, short duration hypoglycemia in healthy subjects.

  2. Roles of interleukin-1 and tumor necrosis factor in lipopolysaccharide-induced hypoglycemia.

    PubMed Central

    Vogel, S N; Henricson, B E; Neta, R

    1991-01-01

    In this study, hypoglycemia induced by injection of lipopolysaccharide (LPS) or the recombinant cytokine interleukin-1 alpha or tumor necrosis factor alpha (administered alone or in combination) was compared. LPS-induced hypoglycemia was reversed significantly by recombinant interleukin-1 receptor antagonist. PMID:1828792

  3. Type 1 diabetic drivers with and without a history of recurrent hypoglycemia-related driving mishaps: physiological and performance differences during euglycemia and the induction of hypoglycemia.

    PubMed

    Cox, Daniel J; Kovatchev, Boris P; Anderson, Stacey M; Clarke, William L; Gonder-Frederick, Linda A

    2010-11-01

    Collisions are more common among drivers with type 1 diabetes than among their nondiabetic spouses. This increased risk appears to be attributable to a subgroup of drivers with type 1 diabetes. The hypothesis tested is that this vulnerable subgroup is more at risk for hypoglycemia and its disruptive effects on driving. Thirty-eight drivers with type 1 diabetes, 16 with (+history) and 22 without (-history) a recent history of recurrent hypoglycemia-related driving mishaps, drove a virtual reality driving simulator and watched a videotape of someone driving a simulator for 30-min periods. Driving and video testing occurred in a double-blind, randomized, crossover manner during euglycemia (5.5 mmol/l) and progressive hypoglycemia (3.9-2.5 mmol/l). Examiners were blind to which subjects were +/-history, whereas subjects were blind to their blood glucose levels and targets. During euglycemia, +history participants reported more autonomic and neuroglycopenic symptoms (P≤0.01) and tended to require more dextrose infusion to maintain euglycemia with the same insulin infusion (P<0.09). During progressive hypoglycemia, these subjects demonstrated less epinephrine release (P=0.02) and greater driving impairments (P=0.03). Findings support the speculation that there is a subgroup of type 1 diabetic drivers more vulnerable to experiencing hypoglycemia-related driving mishaps. This increased vulnerability may be due to more symptom "noise" (more symptoms during euglycemia), making it harder to detect hypoglycemia while driving; possibly greater carbohydrate utilization, rendering them more vulnerable to experiencing hypoglycemia; less hormonal counterregulation, leading to more profound hypoglycemia; and more neuroglycopenia, rendering them more vulnerable to impaired driving.

  4. Mechanisms of tumor-induced hypoglycemia with intraabdominal hemangiopericytoma.

    PubMed

    Chung, J; Henry, R R

    1996-03-01

    The association of hypoglycemia with nonislet cell tumors is well recognized and in nearly all instances has been related to the production of hormones with insulin-like activity. To determine the mechanism of such tumor-induced hypoglycemia and the response to pharmacological intervention, we studied a 54-yr-old man with refractory hypoglycemia and a large intraabdominal hemangiopericytoma. During a supervised fast, plasma glucose decreased to 2.2 mmol/L. Circulating insulin (< 7 pmol/L), C peptide (< 0.04 nmol/L), and GH levels (< 0.6 microgram/L) were all undetectable, insulin-like growth factor I (IGF-I; 5 nmol/L) was low, IGF-II was in the normal range (87 nmol/L), and free IGF-II and big IGF-II (E1-21 fragment) were elevated at 18 and 142 nmol/L, respectively. On another day, after maintaining euglycemia overnight with a 20% dextrose infusion, a euglycemic (5.0-5.5 mmol/L) glucose clamp study using [3-3H]glucose tracer infusion combined with arteriovenous leg catheterization was performed in the postabsorptive basal state and during 3 h of crystalline somatostatin infusion (0.08-0.24 pmol/kg min). In the postabsorptive state at euglycemia, free IGF-II and big IGF-II remained elevated at 16 and 162 nmol/L, respectively. Whole body glucose disposal was elevated at 21.1 mumol/kg.min, whereas the rate of glucose infusion was 12.1 mumol/kg.min, and depatic glucose output was 7.8 mumol/kg.min. The leg arterio-venous plasma glucose difference was increased at 0.6 mmol/L, as was leg glucose uptake at 203.9 mumol/min. After 3 h of somatostatin infusion, both free and big IGF-II decreased by 35-40% to 10 and 102 nmol/L, respectively. Whole body glucose disposal also decreased to near normal (12.8 mumol/kg.min), whereas leg arterio-venous plasma glucose difference and leg glucose uptake became negligible. The plasma glucose level remained at 5.0-5.5 mmol/L despite a marked fall in hepatic glucose output to 2.9 mumol/kg.min and a decrease in glucose infusion rate to 8

  5. Impact of introduction of 20-week ultrasound scan on prevalence and fetal and neonatal outcomes in cases of selected severe congenital heart defects in The Netherlands.

    PubMed

    Baardman, M E; du Marchie Sarvaas, G J; de Walle, H E K; Fleurke-Rozema, H; Snijders, R; Ebels, T; Bergman, J E H; Bilardo, C M; Berger, R M F; Bakker, M K

    2014-07-01

    To evaluate in a population-based cohort the effect of the introduction of the 20-week ultrasound scan in 2007 on the time of diagnosis, pregnancy outcome and total prevalence and liveborn prevalence of cases with selected congenital heart defects (CHDs) in The Netherlands. We included children and fetuses diagnosed with selected severe CHD, born in the 11-year period from 2001 to 2011. Two groups of CHD were defined: those associated with an abnormal four-chamber view at ultrasound (Group 1), and those associated with a normal four-chamber view at ultrasound (Group 2). The time of diagnosis, pregnancy outcome and total liveborn prevalence were compared for both groups over two 5-year periods, before and after the introduction of the 20-week ultrasound scan. Trends in total and liveborn prevalence were examined over 2001 to 2011. Information was collected on 269 children and fetuses. After the introduction of the 20-week ultrasound scan, the prenatal detection rate of CHDs increased in both groups (Group 1, 34.6% in 2001-2005 vs 84.8% in 2007-2011 (P < 0.001); Group 2, 14.3% in 2001-2005 vs 29.6% in 2007-2011 (P = 0.037)). The rate of termination of pregnancy (TOP) increased significantly only for Group 1 (15.4% vs 51.5% (P < 0.001)). The total prevalence of CHD in Group 1 increased over time from 2.9 per 10 000 births in 2001 to 6.4 per 10 000 births in 2011 (P = 0.016). The liveborn prevalence did not show a trend over time. For Group 2, no trends in total or liveborn prevalence could be detected over time. Since the implementation of the routine 20-week ultrasound scan in The Netherlands, prenatal detection rate of selected severe CHDs increased significantly. Improved prenatal detection was accompanied by a more than three-fold increase in TOP, although only in those CHDs with an abnormal four-chamber view at prenatal ultrasound. Copyright © 2013 ISUOG. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  6. Hypoglycemia in Older People - A Less Well Recognized Risk Factor for Frailty

    PubMed Central

    Abdelhafiz, Ahmed H; Rodríguez-Mañas, Leocadio; Morley, John E.; Sinclair, Alan J

    2015-01-01

    Recurrent hypoglycemia is common in older people with diabetes and is likely to be less recognized and under reported by patients and health care professionals. Hypoglycemia in this age group is associated with significant morbidities leading to both physical and cognitive dysfunction. Repeated hospital admissions due to frequent hypoglycemia are also associated with further deterioration in patients’ general health. This negative impact of hypoglycemia is likely to eventually lead to frailty, disability and poor outcomes. It appears that the relationship between hypoglycemia and frailty is bidirectional and mediated through a series of influences including under nutrition. Therefore, attention should be paid to the management of under nutrition in the general elderly population by improving energy intake and maintaining muscle mass. Increasing physical activity and having a more conservative approach to glycemic targets in frail older people with diabetes may be worthwhile. PMID:25821643

  7. [Competences on hypoglycemia management among healthcare professionals in a clinical hospital].

    PubMed

    Rojas, Luis; Achurra, Pablo; Pino, Felipe; Ramírez, Pedro; Lopetegui, Marcelo; Sanhueza A, Luis Manuel; Villarroel, Luis; Aizman, Andrés

    2011-07-01

    A tight glycemic control of hospitalized patients increases the risk of hypoglycemia, whose management is not always optimal. To assess the hypoglycemia management competences of a multidisciplinary team in a clinical hospital. An anonymous questionnaire about hypoglycemia management was answered by 11 staff physicians, 42 residents and 28 nurses of the department of medicine and critical care unit ofa university hospital. Respondents had a mean of 60% of correct answers, without significant differences between groups. The capillary blood glucose level that defines hypoglycemia was known by most of the respondents, but the value that defines severe episodes was known only by 60%. The initial management and follow up was well known only for severe episodes. Less than 50%o knew the blood glucose value that required continuing with treatment. Although most professionals are able to recognize hypoglycemia, the knowledge about is management if insufficient.

  8. Non-invasive hypoglycemia monitoring system using extreme learning machine for Type 1 diabetes.

    PubMed

    Ling, Sai Ho; San, Phyo Phyo; Nguyen, Hung T

    2016-09-01

    Hypoglycemia is a very common in type 1 diabetic persons and can occur at any age. It is always threatening to the well-being of patients with Type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM) since hypoglycemia leads to seizures or loss of consciousness and the possible development of permanent brain dysfunction under certain circumstances. Because of that, an accurate continuing hypoglycemia monitoring system is a very important medical device for diabetic patients. In this paper, we proposed a non-invasive hypoglycemia monitoring system using the physiological parameters of electrocardiography (ECG) signal. To enhance the detection accuracy, extreme learning machine (ELM) is developed to recognize the presence of hypoglycemia. A clinical study of 16 children with T1DM is given to illustrate the good performance of ELM.

  9. Hypoglycemia and its effects on the brain in children with type 1 diabetes mellitus.

    PubMed

    Böber, Ece; Büyükgebiz, Atilla

    2005-03-01

    The incidence studies on hypoglycemia in Type 1 Diabetes have revealed that the younger the child the more frequent and severe are the hypoglycemic episodes. The brain does not store glycogen and perform gluconeogenesis, it relies on a continuous supply of glucose from blood. There are several studies demonstrating the brain's ability to use lactate, alanine and ketone as alternative fuels yet there is no evidence showing that this mechanism works in diabetic individuals. During hypoglycemia, cerebral blood flow increases very little in children. It is unlikely that this mechanism alone explains the maintenance of glucose utilization. Up regulation of GLUT transporters may be an additional or alternative protective mechanism. Severe hypoglycemic episodes experienced particularly in early childhood can cause deterioration in neurocognitive functions. There are significant individual differences in terms of vulnerability to hypoglycemia. Adaptive responses to hypoglycemia might vary according to both the degree and frequency of prior hypoglycemia and the presence of structural brain changes induced by chronic hyperglycemia.

  10. Prevalence and risk factors of early fecal carriage of Enterococcus faecalis and Staphylococcus spp and their antimicrobial resistant patterns among healthy neonates born in a hospital setting in central Saudi Arabia

    PubMed Central

    El-Kersh, Talat A.; Marie, Mohammed A.; Al-Sheikh, Yazeed A.; Al-Agamy, Mohamed H.; Al-Bloushy, Ahmad A.

    2016-01-01

    Objectives: To investigate the prevalence, antibiotic resistant profiles, and risk factors of early fecal carriage of Enterococcus faecalis (E. faecalis) and staphylococci among 150 healthy Saudi neonates born in a hospital setting in central Saudi Arabia. Methods: This prospective study was conducted in Al-Bukayriyah General Hospital, Qassim, Saudi Arabia, between June 2012 and January 2013. The E. faecalis and Staphylococcus spp. isolates were identified manually, and Vitek2 system was used for identity confirmation at the species level and minimum inhibitory concentration-susceptibility testing. Results: Enterococcus faecalis (n=73) and Staphylococcus spp. (n=18) were recovered. Unlike staphylococci, E. faecalis colonization did not significantly vary from day one up to 7 days of life, regardless of the type of feeding, but it was relatively higher among vaginally versus cesarean delivery. Both Staphylococcus epidermidis (S. epidermidis) and Staphylococcus aureus carriage increase as the body weight increases, and this difference was significant (p=0.025) for S. epidermidis. High-level resistance in Gentamycin among E. faecalis isolates was 25% and 11% to Streptomycin. Thirty percent of S. epidermidis were resistant to oxacillin and exhibited multidrug-resistant (MDR) patterns of 5 resistant markers, which were also observed among 2/5 (40%) of Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus isolates. Conclusion: Enterococcus faecalis did not significantly vary in relation to type of delivery, age up to 7 days, and type of feeding. The neonatal fecal carriage of MDR isolates should be considered as a crucial reservoir to the further spread of antimicrobial resistance genes among hospitals, cross infections, and the community. PMID:26905350

  11. Changes in human brain glutamate concentration during hypoglycemia: insights into cerebral adaptations in hypoglycemia-associated autonomic failure in type 1 diabetes.

    PubMed

    Terpstra, Melissa; Moheet, Amir; Kumar, Anjali; Eberly, Lynn E; Seaquist, Elizabeth; Öz, Gülin

    2014-05-01

    Hypoglycemia-associated autonomic failure (HAAF) is a condition in which patients with type 1 diabetes (T1D) who experience frequent hypoglycemia develop defective glucose counter-regulation and become unable to sense hypoglycemia. Brain glutamate may be involved in the mechanism of HAAF. The goal of this study was to follow the human brain glutamate concentration during experimentally induced hypoglycemia in subjects with and without HAAF. (1)H magnetic resonance spectroscopy was used to track the occipital cortex glutamate concentration throughout a euglycemic clamp followed immediately by a hypoglycemic clamp. T1D patients with HAAF were studied in comparison to two control groups, i.e., T1D patients without HAAF and healthy controls (n=5 per group). Human brain glutamate concentration decreased (P ≤ 0.01) after the initiation of hypoglycemia in the two control groups, but a smaller trend toward a decrease in patients with HAAF did not reach significance (P>0.05). These findings are consistent with a metabolic adaptation in HAAF to provide higher glucose and/or alternative fuel to the brain, eliminating the need to oxidize glutamate. In an exploratory analysis, we detected additional metabolite changes in response to hypoglycemia in the T1D patient without HAAF control group, namely, increased aspartate and decreased lactate.

  12. The selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor sertraline enhances counterregulatory responses to hypoglycemia

    PubMed Central

    Sanders, Nicole M.; Wilkinson, Charles W.; Taborsky, Gerald J.; Al-Noori, Salwa; Daumen, Wendi; Zavosh, Aryana; Figlewicz, Dianne P.

    2008-01-01

    Selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs) are widely prescribed for patients with comorbid diabetes and depression. Clinical case studies in diabetic patients, however, suggest that SSRI therapy may exacerbate hypoglycemia. We hypothesized that SSRIs might increase the risk of hypoglycemia by impairing hormonal counterregulatory responses (CRR). We evaluated the effect of the SSRI sertraline on hormonal CRR to single or recurrent hypoglycemia in nondiabetic rats. Since there are time-dependent effects of SSRIs on serotonin neurotransmission that correspond with therapeutic action, we evaluated the effect of 6- or 20-day sertraline treatment on hypoglycemia CRR. We found that 6-day sertraline (SERT) treatment specifically enhanced the epinephrine response to a single bout of hypoglycemia vs. vehicle (VEH)-treated rats (t = 120: VEH, 2,573 ± 448 vs. SERT, 4,202 ± 545 pg/ml, P < 0.05). In response to recurrent hypoglycemia, VEH-treated rats exhibited the expected impairment in epinephrine secretion (t = 60: 678 ± 73 pg/ml) vs. VEH-treated rats experiencing first-time hypoglycemia (t = 60: 2,081 ± 436 pg/ml, P < 0.01). SERT treatment prevented the impaired epinephrine response in recurrent hypoglycemic rats (t = 60: 1,794 ± 276 pgl/ml). In 20-day SERT-treated rats, epinephrine, norepinephrine, and glucagon CRR were all significantly elevated above VEH-treated controls in response to hypoglycemia. Similarly to 6-day SERT treatment, 20-day SERT treatment rescued the impaired epinephrine response in recurrent hypoglycemic rats. Our data demonstrate that neither 6- nor 20-day sertraline treatment impaired hormonal CRR to hypoglycemia in nondiabetic rats. Instead, sertraline treatment resulted in an enhancement of hypoglycemia CRR and prevented the impaired adrenomedullary response normally observed in recurrent hypoglycemic rats. PMID:18334609

  13. Reliability of Trained Dogs to Alert to Hypoglycemia in Patients With Type 1 Diabetes

    PubMed Central

    Los, Evan A.; Ramsey, Katrina L.; Guttmann-Bauman, Ines; Ahmann, Andrew J.

    2016-01-01

    Background: We examined the reliability of trained dogs to alert to hypoglycemia in individuals with type 1 diabetes. Methods: Patients with type 1 diabetes who currently used diabetes alert dogs participated in this exploratory study. Subjects reported satisfaction, perceived dog glucose sensing ability and reasons for obtaining a trained dog. Reliability of dog alerts was assessed using capillary blood glucose (CBG) and blinded continuous glucose monitoring (CGM) as comparators in 8 subjects (age 4-48). Hypoglycemia was defined as CBG or CGM <70 mg/dL. Results: Dog users were very satisfied (8.9/10 on a Likert-type scale) and largely confident (7.9/10) in their dog’s ability to detect hypoglycemia. Detection of hypoglycemia was the primary reason for obtaining a trained dog. During hypoglycemia, spontaneous dog alerts occurred at a rate 3.2 (2.0-5.2, 95% CI) times higher than during euglycemia (70-179 mg/dL). Dogs provided timely alerts in 36% (sensitivity) of all hypoglycemia events (n = 45). Due to inappropriate alerts, the PPV of a dog alert for hypoglycemia was 12%. When there was concurrence of a hypoglycemic event between the dog alert and CGM (n = 30), CGM would have alerted prior to the dog in 73% of events (median 22-minute difference). Conclusions: This is the first study evaluating reliability of trained dogs to alert to hypoglycemia under real-life conditions. Trained dogs often alert a human companion to otherwise unknown hypoglycemia; however due to high false-positive rate, a dog alert alone is unlikely to be helpful in differentiating hypo-/hyper-/euglycemia. CGM often detects hypoglycemia before a trained dog by a clinically significant margin. PMID:27573791

  14. The selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor sertraline enhances counterregulatory responses to hypoglycemia.

    PubMed

    Sanders, Nicole M; Wilkinson, Charles W; Taborsky, Gerald J; Al-Noori, Salwa; Daumen, Wendi; Zavosh, Aryana; Figlewicz, Dianne P

    2008-05-01

    Selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs) are widely prescribed for patients with comorbid diabetes and depression. Clinical case studies in diabetic patients, however, suggest that SSRI therapy may exacerbate hypoglycemia. We hypothesized that SSRIs might increase the risk of hypoglycemia by impairing hormonal counterregulatory responses (CRR). We evaluated the effect of the SSRI sertraline on hormonal CRR to single or recurrent hypoglycemia in nondiabetic rats. Since there are time-dependent effects of SSRIs on serotonin neurotransmission that correspond with therapeutic action, we evaluated the effect of 6- or 20-day sertraline treatment on hypoglycemia CRR. We found that 6-day sertraline (SERT) treatment specifically enhanced the epinephrine response to a single bout of hypoglycemia vs. vehicle (VEH)-treated rats (t = 120: VEH, 2,573 +/- 448 vs. SERT, 4,202 +/- 545 pg/ml, P < 0.05). In response to recurrent hypoglycemia, VEH-treated rats exhibited the expected impairment in epinephrine secretion (t = 60: 678 +/- 73 pg/ml) vs. VEH-treated rats experiencing first-time hypoglycemia (t = 60: 2,081 +/- 436 pg/ml, P < 0.01). SERT treatment prevented the impaired epinephrine response in recurrent hypoglycemic rats (t = 60: 1,794 +/- 276 pgl/ml). In 20-day SERT-treated rats, epinephrine, norepinephrine, and glucagon CRR were all significantly elevated above VEH-treated controls in response to hypoglycemia. Similarly to 6-day SERT treatment, 20-day SERT treatment rescued the impaired epinephrine response in recurrent hypoglycemic rats. Our data demonstrate that neither 6- nor 20-day sertraline treatment impaired hormonal CRR to hypoglycemia in nondiabetic rats. Instead, sertraline treatment resulted in an enhancement of hypoglycemia CRR and prevented the impaired adrenomedullary response normally observed in recurrent hypoglycemic rats.

  15. Association of Hypoglycemia With Subsequent Dementia in Older Patients With Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus.

    PubMed

    Mehta, Hemalkumar B; Mehta, Vinay; Goodwin, James S

    2017-08-01

    Studies have found conflicting evidence regarding the association of hypoglycemia with dementia. We evaluated an association of hypoglycemia with subsequent dementia in patients with type 2 diabetes. This retrospective longitudinal cohort study used the Clinical Practice Research Datalink, an electronic medical records data from the United Kingdom, from 2003 to 2012. We included patients aged >65 years diagnosed with type 2 diabetes, with no prior diagnosis of dementia. Dementia was defined using diagnosis codes from medical records. All patients were followed from the date of initial diabetes diagnosis. To account for competing risk of death, we used Fine and Gray's competing risk model to determine the association of hypoglycemia with dementia while adjusting for potential confounders. Hypoglycemia was modeled as a time-dependent covariate. Of 53,055 patients, 5.7% (n = 3,018) had at least one hypoglycemia episodes. The overall incidence rate of dementia was 12.7 per 1,000 person-years. In the fully adjusted model that controlled for all confounders, the occurrence of at least one hypoglycemia episode was associated with 27% higher odds of subsequent dementia (hazard ratio = 1.27; 95% confidence interval = 1.06-1.51). The risk increased with the number of hypoglycemia episodes: one episode (hazard ratio = 1.26; 95% confidence interval = 1.03-1.54); two or more episodes (hazard ratio = 1.50; 95% confidence interval = 1.09-2.08). Hypoglycemia is associated with a higher risk of dementia and may be responsible in part for the higher risk of dementia in patients with diabetes. Alternatively, hypoglycemia may be a marker for undiagnosed cognitive impairment, and we cannot rule out the possibility of reverse causation between hypoglycemia and dementia.

  16. [Severe hypoglycemia in children and adolescents suffering from type 1 diabetes mellitus].

    PubMed

    Cosmescu, Adriana; Felea, Doina; Mătăsaru, Silvia

    2008-01-01

    Hypoglycemia is the main fear of diabetic children and their parents. Severe hypoglycemia and diabetes ketoacidosis are medical emergencies that concern a patient's life prognosis. To determine the rate of occurrence of severe hypoglycemia and identification of the latter's causes. The study was carried out on a group of 84 children and adolescents suffering from type 1 diabetes, whom were investigated to determine the rate of occurrence of severe hypoglycemia episodes in the last 12 months, to identify their risk factors and to try to establish a relation between the onset of hypoglycemia and certain parameters like age, duration of disease, insulin therapy, metabolic control. 23 of the 84 patients reported at least one severe hypoglycemia in the last 12 months. 47% of the cases of hypoglycemia were caused by the patient's failure to observe the meal timetable, which led to delays in the carbohydrates intake, 19% were due to a high physical effort and 14% by excessive insulin administration. Most of the patients with severe hypoglycemia, that is 20 if 23, were on a multiple insulin injection treatment. As concerns the blood sugar balance, the mean Hb A1c values were between 6.4% and 9.1%, the severe hypoglycemia episodes occurred both in patients with very good metabolic control and in those with poor blood sugar balance. Severe hypoglycemia occurred in 27.3% of the children and adolescents suffering from type 1 diabetes, the most frequent cause revealed by this study being the delay in the carbohydrates intake. The prevention of this acute metabolic complication by a continuous medical education of diabetic patients is essential.

  17. Neonatal sepsis

    PubMed Central

    Shah, Birju A; Padbury, James F

    2014-01-01

    Neonatal sepsis continues to be a common and significant health care burden, especially in very-low-birth-weight infants (VLBW <1500 g). Though intrapartum antibiotic prophylaxis has decreased the incidence of early-onset group B streptococcal infection dramatically, it still remains a major cause of neonatal sepsis. Moreover, some studies among VLBW preterm infants have shown an increase in early-onset sepsis caused by Escherichia coli. As the signs and symptoms of neonatal sepsis are nonspecific, early diagnosis and prompt treatment remains a challenge. There have been a myriad of studies on various diagnostic markers like hematological indices, acute phase reactants, C-reactive protein, procalcitonin, cytokines, and cell surface markers among others. Nonetheless, further research is needed to identify a biomarker with high diagnostic accuracy and validity. Some of the newer markers like inter α inhibitor proteins have shown promising results thereby potentially aiding in early detection of neonates with sepsis. In order to decrease the widespread, prolonged use of unnecessary antibiotics and improve the outcome of the infants with sepsis, reliable identification of sepsis at an earlier stage is paramount. PMID:24185532

  18. Neonatal sepsis

    MedlinePlus

    ... better the outcome. Possible Complications Complications may include: Disability Death When to Contact a Medical Professional Seek medical help right away for an infant that shows symptoms of neonatal sepsis. Prevention Pregnant women may need preventive antibiotics if they have: Chorioamnionitis ...

  19. Neonatal hematology.

    PubMed

    Diaz-Miron, Jose; Miller, Jacob; Vogel, Adam M

    2013-11-01

    Neonatal hematology is a complex and dynamic process in the pediatric population. Surgeons frequently encounter hematologic issues regarding hemostasis, inflammation, and wound healing. This publication provides a surgeon-directed review of hematopoiesis in the newborn, as well as an overview of the current understanding of their hemostatic profile under normal and pathologic conditions. © 2013 Published by Elsevier Inc.

  20. Neonatal Infectious Diseases: Evaluation of Neonatal Sepsis

    PubMed Central

    Spearman, Paul W.; Stoll, Barbara J.

    2015-01-01

    Synopsis Neonatal sepsis remains a feared cause of morbidity and mortality in the neonatal period. Maternal, neonatal and environmental factors are associated with risk of infection, and a combination of prevention strategies, judicious neonatal evaluation and early initiation of therapy are required to prevent adverse outcomes. The following chapter reviews recent trends in epidemiology, and provides an update on risk factors, diagnostic methods and management of neonatal sepsis. PMID:23481106

  1. Neonatal infectious diseases: evaluation of neonatal sepsis.

    PubMed

    Camacho-Gonzalez, Andres; Spearman, Paul W; Stoll, Barbara J

    2013-04-01

    Neonatal sepsis remains a feared cause of morbidity and mortality in the neonatal period. Maternal, neonatal, and environmental factors are associated with risk of infection, and a combination of prevention strategies, judicious neonatal evaluation, and early initiation of therapy are required to prevent adverse outcomes. This article reviews recent trends in epidemiology and provides an update on risk factors, diagnostic methods, and management of neonatal sepsis. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Hypoglycemia-activated K+ channels in hippocampal neurons.

    PubMed

    Tromba, C; Salvaggio, A; Racagni, G; Volterra, A

    1992-08-31

    Channels linking the electrical and metabolic activities of cells (KATP channels) have been described in various tissues, including some brain areas (hypothalamus, cerebral cortex and substantia nigra). Here we report the existence in hippocampal neurons of K+ permeant channels whose activity is regulated by extracellular glucose. They are open at the cell resting potential and respond to transient hypoglycemia with a reversible increase in activity. The one type so far characterized has a conductance of approximately 100 pS in isotonic K+, is inhibited by the sulphonylurea glibenclamide (1 microM), and is activated by the potassium channel opener lemakalim (0.1-1 microM). These data provide a direct demonstration of the presence, in hippocampal neurons, of glucose-sensitive channels that could belong to the KATP family.

  3. Toward defining a cutoff score for elevated fear of hypoglycemia on the hypoglycemia fear survey worry subscale in patients with type 2 diabetes.

    PubMed

    Hajós, Tibor R S; Polonsky, William H; Pouwer, Frans; Gonder-Frederick, Linda; Snoek, Frank J

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE To determine a cutoff score for clinically meaningful fear of hypoglycemia (FoH) on the Hypoglycemia Fear Survey Worry subscale (HFS-W). RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS Data on the HFS-W, history of hypoglycemia, emotional well-being (World Health Organization-5 well-being index), and distress about diabetes symptoms (Diabetes Symptom Checklist-Revised) were available from Dutch patients with type 2 diabetes who were treated with oral medication or insulin (n = 1,530). Four criteria were applied to define a threshold for clinically meaningful FoH: 1) modal score distribution (MD criterion), 2) scores 2 SDs above the mean (SD criterion), 3) concurrent validity with severe hypoglycemia and suboptimal well-being (CV criterion), and 4) an elevated score (≥3) on more than one HFS-W item (elevated item endorsement [EI criterion]). Associations between the outcomes of these approaches and a history of severe hypoglycemia and suboptimal well-being were studied. RESULTS Of the 1,530 patients, 19% had a HFS-W score of 0 (MD criterion), and 5% reported elevated FoH (HFS-W ≥ mean + 2 SD; SD criterion). Patients with severe hypoglycemia reported higher HFS-W scores than those without (25 ± 20 vs. 15 ± 17; P < 0.001). Patients with suboptimal well-being reported higher HFS-W scores than those with satisfactory well-being (20 ± 18 vs. 13 ± 15; P < 0.001, CV criterion). Elevated FoH (defined by the EI criterion) was seen in 26% of patients. The SD and EI criteria were the strongest associated with history of severe hypoglycemia. The EI criterion was the strongest associated with suboptimal well-being. CONCLUSIONS Although no definite cutoff score has been determined, the EI criterion may be most indicative of clinically relevant FoH in this exploratory study. Further testing of the clinical relevance of this criterion is needed.

  4. Canine responses to hypoglycemia in patients with type 1 diabetes.

    PubMed

    Wells, Deborah L; Lawson, Shaun W; Siriwardena, A Niroshan

    2008-12-01

    Anecdotal evidence suggests that domestic dogs may be able to detect hypoglycemia in their human caregivers; scientific investigation of this phenomenon, however, is sorely lacking. This study thus aimed to investigate how pet dogs respond to the hypoglycemic episodes of their owners with type 1 diabetes. Two hundred and twelve dog owners (64.2% female) with medically diagnosed type 1 diabetes participated in the study. All participants owned at least 1 dog. Each person completed a purpose-designed questionnaire developed to collect information on their dogs' responses (if any) to their hypoglycemic episodes. One hundred and thirty-eight (65.1%) respondents indicated that their dog had shown a behavioral reaction to at least one of their hypoglycemic episodes, with 31.9% of animals reacting to 11 or more events. Canine sex, age, breed status, and length of pet ownership were unrelated to hypoglycemia-response likelihood. Thirty-six percent of the sample believed that their dogs reacted most of the times they went "low"; 33.6% indicated that their pets reacted before they themselves were aware they were hypoglycemic. Dogs' behavioral responses to their owners' hypoglycemic episodes varied. Most animals behaved in a manner suggestive of attracting their owners' attention, for example, vocalizing (61.5%), licking them (49.2%), nuzzling them (40.6%), jumping on top of them (30.4%), and/or staring intently at their faces (41.3%). A smaller proportion showed behavioral responses suggestive of fear, including trembling (7.2%), running away from the owner (5.1%), and/or hyperventilating (2.2%). The findings suggest that behavioral reactions to hypoglycemic episodes in pet owners with type 1 diabetes commonly occur in untrained dogs. Further research is now needed to elucidate the mechanism(s) that dogs use to perform this feat.

  5. Spontaneous Hypoglycemia After Islet Transplantation: The Case For Using Non-Hepatic Sites.

    PubMed

    Robertson, R Paul

    2016-10-01

    This Perspective provides a brief history of intrahepatic alloislet and autoislet transplantation in humans and an update of the recent success rates. It also examines the important role that hypoglycemia plays in clinical outcomes. On the one hand, recurrent serious hypoglycemic episodes related to insulin therapy are a major criterion for alloislet transplantation. On the other hand, spontaneous clinical hypoglycemia, perhaps related to the accompanying Roux-en-Y procedure for total pancreatectomy, is a complication of autoislet transplantation. Complex alterations in glucagon secretion compromise counter-regulation of hypoglycemia in both situations. The glucagon response to hypoglycemia is intrinsically defective in type 1 diabetes before transplant because of the absence of physiological regulation of α-cell secretion by neighboring β-cells. Glucagon secretion from intrahepatic islets during systemic hypoglycemia is also defective, although β-cells in the graft are normally regulated by glucose and arginine. My personal perspective is that the latter is caused by intrahepatic glycogenolysis stimulated by systemic hypoglycemia with consequent increases in intrahepatic glucose flux, which incorrectly signals intrahepatic α-cells to be quiescent. This defect is liver-specific, which strongly suggests modifying the current approach to islet transplantation by placing a portion of allo- and autoislets in nonhepatic sites in addition to hepatic sites to ensure physiological glucagon secretion as a strategy to ameliorate post-transplant hypoglycemia.

  6. Evaluation and management of diabetic and non-diabetic hypoglycemia in end-stage renal disease.

    PubMed

    Gosmanov, Aidar R; Gosmanova, Elvira O; Kovesdy, Csaba P

    2016-01-01

    Patients with end-stage renal disease (ESRD) regardless of diabetes status are at increased risk of hypoglycemia with a resultant array of adverse clinical outcomes. Therefore, hypoglycemia should be thoroughly evaluated in ESRD patients. In diabetic dialysis patients, hypoglycemic agents and nutritional alterations can trigger hypoglycemia in the background of diminished gluconeogenesis, reduced insulin clearance by the kidney and improved insulin sensitivity following initiation of renal replacement therapy. Detailed evaluation of antidiabetic regimen and nutritional patterns, patient education on self-monitoring of blood glucose and/or referral to a diabetes specialist may reduce risk of subsequent hypoglycemia. In certain situations, it is important to recognize the possibility of non-diabetic causes of hypoglycemia in patients with diabetes and to avoid treating pseudo-hyperglycemia caused by glucose- non-specific glucometers in patients utilizing icodextrin-based solutions for peritoneal dialysis. Adrenal insufficiency, certain medications, malnutrition and/or infection are among the most common causes of hypoglycemia in non-diabetic ESRD patients, and they should be suspected after exclusion of inadvertent use of hypoglycemic agents. The goal of this review article is to summarize approaches and recommendations for the work up and treatment of hypoglycemia in ESRD. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of ERA-EDTA. All rights reserved.

  7. Glycemic goals in diabetes: trade-off between glycemic control and iatrogenic hypoglycemia.

    PubMed

    Cryer, Philip E

    2014-07-01

    The selection of a glycemic goal in a person with diabetes is a compromise between the documented upside of glycemic control-the partial prevention or delay of microvascular complications-and the documented downside of glycemic control-the recurrent morbidity and potential mortality of iatrogenic hypoglycemia. The latter is not an issue if glycemic control is accomplished with drugs that do not cause hypoglycemia or with substantial weight loss. However, hypoglycemia becomes an issue if glycemic control is accomplished with a sulfonylurea, a glinide, or insulin, particularly in the setting of absolute endogenous insulin deficiency with loss of the normal decrease in circulating insulin and increase in glucagon secretion and attenuation of the sympathoadrenal response as plasma glucose concentrations fall. Then the selection of a glycemic goal should be linked to the risk of hypoglycemia. A reasonable individualized glycemic goal is the lowest A1C that does not cause severe hypoglycemia and preserves awareness of hypoglycemia, preferably with little or no symptomatic or even asymptomatic hypoglycemia, at a given stage in the evolution of the individual's diabetes.

  8. Hypoglycemia following intravenous insulin plus glucose for hyperkalemia in patients with impaired renal function

    PubMed Central

    Valencia, Ana Lucia; Bustamante, Jesus; Mendiluce, Alicia; Floege, Jürgen

    2017-01-01

    Background Hypoglycemia is a serious complication following the administration of insulin for hyperkalemia. We determined the incidence of hypoglycemia and severe hypoglycemia (blood glucose <70 or ≤40 mg/dl, respectively) in a cohort of AKI and non-dialysis dependent CKD patients who received an intravenous infusion of insulin plus glucose to treat hyperkalemia. Methods We retrospectively reviewed charts of all AKI and non-dialysis dependent CKD patients who received 10 U of insulin plus 50 g glucose to treat hyperkalemia from December 1, 2013 to May 31, 2015 at our Department. Results One hundred sixty four episodes of hyperkalemia were treated with insulin plus glucose and were eligible for analysis. Serum potassium levels dropped by 1.18 ± 1.01 mmol/l. Eleven treatments (6.1%) resulted in hypoglycemia and two (1.2%) in severe hypoglycemia. A lower pretreatment blood glucose tended to associate with a higher subsequent risk of hypoglycemia. Age, sex, renal function, an established diagnosis of diabetes or previous treatment were not associated with the development of this complication. We did not register any significant adverse events. Conclusion Our intravenous regimen combining an infusion of insulin plus glucose effectively reduced serum potassium levels compared to previous studies and associated a low risk of symptomatic hypoglycemia and other complications. PMID:28245289

  9. Hypoglycemia following intravenous insulin plus glucose for hyperkalemia in patients with impaired renal function.

    PubMed

    Coca, Armando; Valencia, Ana Lucia; Bustamante, Jesus; Mendiluce, Alicia; Floege, Jürgen

    2017-01-01

    Hypoglycemia is a serious complication following the administration of insulin for hyperkalemia. We determined the incidence of hypoglycemia and severe hypoglycemia (blood glucose <70 or ≤40 mg/dl, respectively) in a cohort of AKI and non-dialysis dependent CKD patients who received an intravenous infusion of insulin plus glucose to treat hyperkalemia. We retrospectively reviewed charts of all AKI and non-dialysis dependent CKD patients who received 10 U of insulin plus 50 g glucose to treat hyperkalemia from December 1, 2013 to May 31, 2015 at our Department. One hundred sixty four episodes of hyperkalemia were treated with insulin plus glucose and were eligible for analysis. Serum potassium levels dropped by 1.18 ± 1.01 mmol/l. Eleven treatments (6.1%) resulted in hypoglycemia and two (1.2%) in severe hypoglycemia. A lower pretreatment blood glucose tended to associate with a higher subsequent risk of hypoglycemia. Age, sex, renal function, an established diagnosis of diabetes or previous treatment were not associated with the development of this complication. We did not register any significant adverse events. Our intravenous regimen combining an infusion of insulin plus glucose effectively reduced serum potassium levels compared to previous studies and associated a low risk of symptomatic hypoglycemia and other complications.

  10. NOCTURNAL HYPOGLYCEMIA--THE MAIN INDICATION FOR INSULIN PUMP THERAPY IN ADULTHOOD.

    PubMed

    Baretić, Maja; Kraljević, Ivana; Renar, Ivana Pavlić

    2016-03-01

    The aim was to determine which adult type 1 diabetic patient receiving multiple daily injection therapy is the most appropriate candidate for insulin pump therapy, while taking into consideration limited insulin pump affordability in Croatia. A total of 145 type 1 diabetic patients (52% diagnosed in adult age) were monitored at the Department of Endocrinology, Clinical Department of Internal Medicine, Zagreb University Hospital Center from 2009 to 2014. Twenty-one patients started insulin pump therapy in adulthood (seven men and 14 women, median age 27). Five patients had chronic complications (retinopathy in two, polyneuropathy in one, and both nephropathy and retinopathy in two patients). The median HbA1c at the initiation of pump therapy was 6.95% versus 6.5% after 1 year of pump therapy. Patients were stratified according to indications for insulin pump therapy (frequent and/or severe hypoglycemia, specific lifestyle, having not reached glycemic goals despite adherence/labile diabetes, and preconception). Patients could meet more than one criterion. Initially, the occurrence of hypoglycemia was analyzed by 6-day continuous glucose monitoring, while re-evaluation was done after collecting history data at 1 year ± 3 months. Initially, all patients had a median of 5 hypoglycemias/6 days (30% nocturnal) versus 1 hypoglycemia/6 days (without nocturnal) after 1 year. The Wilcoxon signed-rank test yielded a statistically significant difference in hypoglycemic events, nocturnal hypoglycemia and HbA1c. Patients commencing insulin pump therapy due to hypoglycemia initially had median HbA1c of 6.7% with 7 hypoglycemia/6 days (50% nocturnal). After one year, median HbA1c was 6% with 1 hypoglycemia/6 days (without nocturnal). In conclusion, the main indication for insulin pump therapy in adults is the frequency of hypoglycemia, especially nocturnal ones.

  11. Interdisciplinary approach to compensation of hypoglycemia in diabetic patients with chronic heart failure.

    PubMed

    Anfinogenova, Yana; Grakova, Elena V; Shvedova, Maria; Kopieva, Kristina V; Teplyakov, Alexander T; Popov, Sergey V

    2017-08-29

    Diabetes mellitus is a chronic disease requiring lifelong control with hypoglycemic agents that must demonstrate excellent efficacy and safety profiles. In patients taking glucose-lowering drugs, hypoglycemia is a common cause of death associated with arrhythmias, increased thrombus formation, and specific effects of catecholamines due to sympathoadrenal activation. Focus is now shifting from merely glycemic control to multifactorial approach. In the context of individual drugs and classes, this article reviews interdisciplinary strategies evaluating metabolic effects of drugs for treatment of chronic heart failure (CHF) which can mask characteristic hypoglycemia symptoms. Hypoglycemia unawareness and cardiac autonomic neuropathy are discussed. Data suggesting that hypoglycemia modulates immune response are reviewed. The potential role of gut microbiota in improving health of patients with diabetes and CHF is emphasized. Reports stating that nondiabetic CHF patients can have life-threatening hypoglycemia associated with imbalance of thyroid hormones are discussed. Regular glycemic control based on HbA1c measurements and adequate pharmacotherapy remain the priorities in diabetes management. New antihyperglycemic drugs with safer profiles should be preferred in vulnerable CHF patients. Multidrug interactions must be considered. Emerging therapies with reduced hypoglycemia risk, telemedicine, sensor technologies, and genetic testing predicting hypoglycemia risk may help solving the challenges of hypoglycemia in CHF patients with diabetes. Interdisciplinary work may involve cardiologists, diabetologists/endocrinologists, immunologists, gastroenterologists, microbiologists, nutritionists, imaging specialists, geneticists, telemedicine experts, and other relevant specialists. This review emphasizes that systematic knowledge on pathophysiology of hypoglycemia in diabetic patients with CHF is largely lacking and the gaps in our understanding require further discoveries.

  12. The impact of early hypoglycemia and blood glucose variability on outcome in critical illness

    PubMed Central

    Bagshaw, Sean M; Bellomo, Rinaldo; Jacka, Michael J; Egi, Moritoki; Hart, Graeme K; George, Carol

    2009-01-01

    Introduction In critical illness, the association of hypoglycemia, blood glucose (BG) variability and outcome are not well understood. We describe the incidence, clinical factors and outcomes associated with an early hypoglycemia and BG variability in critically ill patients. Methods Retrospective interrogation of prospectively collected data from the Australia New Zealand Intensive Care Society Adult Patient Database on 66184 adult admissions to 24 intensive care units (ICUs) from 1 January 2000 to 31 December 2005. Primary exposure was hypoglycemia (BG < 4.5 mmol/L) and BG variability (BG < 4.5 and ≥ 12.0 mmol/L) within 24 hours of admission. Primary outcome was all-cause mortality. Results The cumulative incidence of hypoglycemia and BG variability were 13.8% (95% confidence interval (CI) = 13.5 to 14.0; n = 9122) and 2.9% (95%CI = 2.8 to 3.0, n = 1913), respectively. Several clinical factors were associated with both hypoglycemia and BG variability including: co-morbid disease (P < 0.001), non-elective admissions (P < 0.001), higher illness severity (P < 0.001), and primary septic diagnosis (P < 0.001). Hypoglycemia was associated with greater odds of adjusted ICU (odds ratio (OR) = 1.41, 95% CI = 1.31 to 1.54) and hospital death (OR = 1.36, 95% CI = 1.27 to 1.46). Hypoglycemia severity was associated with 'dose-response' increases in mortality. BG variability was associated with greater odds of adjusted ICU (1.5, 95% CI = 1.4 to 1.6) and hospital (1.4, 95% CI = 1.3 to 1.5) mortality, when compared with either hypoglycemia only or neither. Conclusions In critically ill patients, both early hypoglycemia and early variability in BG are relatively common, and independently portend an increased risk for mortality. PMID:19534781

  13. Neonatal short-term outcomes in infants with intrauterine growth restriction

    PubMed Central

    Hasmasanu, Monica G.; Bolboaca, Sorana D.; Baizat, Melinda I.; Drugan, Tudor C.; Zaharie, Gabriela C.

    2015-01-01

    Objectives: To assess the neonatal outcomes in newborns with intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR) in a Romanian population in a 3 level maternity unit. Methods: A matched case-control design, with one control for each patient was used. The case group comprised neonates with birth weight and birth length below the 10th percentile for the gestational age. Individual matching by gender and age of gestation was used to identify the control group. Both cases and controls were selected from the infants admitted to and discharged from the Neonatal Ward, at the First Gynecology Clinic, of the County Emergency Hospital Cluj-Napoca, Cluj-Napoca, Romania, between January 2012 and June 2014. Results: One hundred and forty-two subjects were included in each group. The cesarean delivery was significantly more frequent in the IUGR group (66.9%) compared with controls (46.5%; p=0.0006). The Apgar score at one minute was ≥7 for most infants in both groups (77.9% IUGR group versus 77.5% control group), with no significant differences between the groups. A significantly higher percentage of infants in the IUGR group had hypoglycemia or intraventricular hemorrhage compared with the controls (p<0.05). Hypoglycemia proved a significant factor for IUGR (odds ratio = 4.763, 95% confidence interval: 1.711-13.255). Conclusion: Hypoglycemia and intraventricular hemorrhage characterized the IUGR newborns. PMID:26219445

  14. Neonatal hemochromatosis.

    PubMed

    Feldman, Amy G; Whitington, Peter F

    2013-12-01

    Neonatal hemochromatosis is a clinical condition in which severe liver disease in the newborn is accompanied by extrahepatic siderosis. Gestational alloimmune liver disease (GALD) has been established as the cause of fetal liver injury resulting in nearly all cases of NH. In GALD, a women is exposed to a fetal antigen that she does not recognize as "self" and subsequently begins to produce IgG antibodies that are directed against fetal hepatocytes. These antibodies bind to fetal liver antigen and activate the terminal complement cascade resulting in hepatocyte injury and death. GALD can cause congenital cirrhosis or acute liver failure with and without iron overload and siderosis. Practitioners should consider GALD in cases of fetal demise, stillbirth, and neonatal acute liver failure. Identification of infants with GALD is important as treatment is available and effective for subsequent pregnancies.

  15. [Neonatal intussusception].

    PubMed

    Cuervo, J L

    2015-01-13

    Intussusception in infants and young children is a relatively common entity with a well defined clinical picture and a favorable outcome in most cases.The neonatal intussusceptions is extremely rare and does not have a well-defined clinical picture since its clinical manifestations vary according to the gestational time it occurs, the response of the injured intestine and the gestational age of the child concerned. Two new cases of neonatal intussusceptions are presented and a review of the world literature is performed. Given the stage of intussusceptions (pre- or postnatal) occurs and gestational age of the affected infant (preterm or term), there are three entities with clinical characteristics, topography and evolution rather different: prenatal or intrauterine intussusception, postnatal intussusception in the preterm and postnatal intussusception in the term infant.

  16. Impact of intrapartum antimicrobial prophylaxis upon the intestinal microbiota and the prevalence of antibiotic resistance genes in vaginally delivered full-term neonates.

    PubMed

    Nogacka, Alicja; Salazar, Nuria; Suárez, Marta; Milani, Christian; Arboleya, Silvia; Solís, Gonzalo; Fernández, Nuria; Alaez, Lidia; Hernández-Barranco, Ana M; de Los Reyes-Gavilán, Clara G; Ventura, Marco; Gueimonde, Miguel

    2017-08-08

    -induced host homeostasis. Understanding the impact of IAP in the gut microbiota development is essential for developing treatments to minimize it, favoring a proper gut microbiota development in IAP-exposed neonates.

  17. Leptin acts in the brain to influence hypoglycemic counterregulation: disparate effects of acute and recurrent hypoglycemia on glucagon release

    PubMed Central

    Reno, Candace M.; Ding, Yuyan

    2015-01-01

    Leptin has been shown to diminish hyperglycemia via reduced glucagon secretion, although it can also enhance sympathoadrenal responses. However, whether leptin can also inhibit glucagon secretion during insulin-induced hypoglycemia or increase epinephrine during acute or recurrent hypoglycemia has not been examined. To test whether leptin acts in the brain to influence counterregulation, hyperinsulinemic hypoglycemic (∼45 mg/dl) clamps were performed on rats exposed to or not exposed to recurrent hypoglycemia (3 days, ∼40 mg/dl). Intracerebroventricular artificial cerebral spinal fluid or leptin was infused during the clamp. During acute hypoglycemia, leptin decreased glucagon responses by 51% but increased epinephrine and norepinephrine by 24 and 48%, respectively. After recurrent hypoglycemia, basal plasma leptin levels were undetectable. Subsequent brain leptin infusion during hypoglycemia paradoxically increased glucagon by 45% as well as epinephrine by 19%. In conclusion, leptin acts within the brain to diminish glucagon secretion during acute hypoglycemia but increases epinephrine, potentially limiting its detrimental effects during hypoglycemia. Exposure to recurrent hypoglycemia markedly suppresses plasma leptin, whereas exogenous brain leptin delivery enhances both glucagon and epinephrine release to subsequent hypoglycemia. These data suggest that recurrent hypoglycemia may diminish counterregulatory responses in part by reducing brain leptin action. PMID:26506851

  18. Leptin acts in the brain to influence hypoglycemic counterregulation: disparate effects of acute and recurrent hypoglycemia on glucagon release.

    PubMed

    Reno, Candace M; Ding, Yuyan; Sherwin, Robert

    2015-12-15

    Leptin has been shown to diminish hyperglycemia via reduced glucagon secretion, although it can also enhance sympathoadrenal responses. However, whether leptin can also inhibit glucagon secretion during insulin-induced hypoglycemia or increase epinephrine during acute or recurrent hypoglycemia has not been examined. To test whether leptin acts in the brain to influence counterregulation, hyperinsulinemic hypoglycemic (∼45 mg/dl) clamps were performed on rats exposed to or not exposed to recurrent hypoglycemia (3 days, ∼40 mg/dl). Intracerebroventricular artificial cerebral spinal fluid or leptin was infused during the clamp. During acute hypoglycemia, leptin decreased glucagon responses by 51% but increased epinephrine and norepinephrine by 24 and 48%, respectively. After recurrent hypoglycemia, basal plasma leptin levels were undetectable. Subsequent brain leptin infusion during hypoglycemia paradoxically increased glucagon by 45% as well as epinephrine by 19%. In conclusion, leptin acts within the brain to diminish glucagon secretion during acute hypoglycemia but increases epinephrine, potentially limiting its detrimental effects during hypoglycemia. Exposure to recurrent hypoglycemia markedly suppresses plasma leptin, whereas exogenous brain leptin delivery enhances both glucagon and epinephrine release to subsequent hypoglycemia. These data suggest that recurrent hypoglycemia may diminish counterregulatory responses in part by reducing brain leptin action.

  19. Fear of Hypoglycemia in Children and Adolescents and Their Parents with Type 1 Diabetes.

    PubMed

    Driscoll, Kimberly A; Raymond, Jennifer; Naranjo, Diana; Patton, Susana R

    2016-08-01

    Hypoglycemia is a frequent occurrence in children and adolescents with type 1 diabetes. A variety of efforts have been made to standardize the definition of hypoglycemia and to define one of its most significant psychosocial consequences-fear of hypoglycemia (FOH). In addition to documenting the experience of FOH in children and adolescents type 1 diabetes and their parents, studies have investigated the relations between FOH and glycemic control and diabetes technology use. This review provides a summary of the recent FOH literature as it applies to pediatric type 1 diabetes.

  20. Teledyne Sleep Sentry: evaluation in pediatric patients for detection of nocturnal hypoglycemia.

    PubMed

    Hansen, K A; Duck, S C

    1983-01-01

    Twenty-four insulin-dependent diabetic pediatric subjects were studied for 1444 nights for detection of nocturnal hypoglycemia with the Teledyne Sleep Sentry (Teledyne Avionics, Charlottesville, Virginia): a wristwatch-like unit that measures absolute changes in skin temperature and decreases in galvanic skin resistance, indicators of hypoglycemia. The device detected 42 of 46 recognized hypoglycemic episodes. One hundred fifty alarms were sounded without evidence of hypoglycemia, probably due to night sweating. Twenty-five percent of the subjects experienced unacceptable cutaneous reactions, presumably due to metallic iontophoresis.

  1. Full Neurological Recovery after Extreme Hypoglycemia during Intensive Insulin Therapy: A Case Report

    PubMed Central

    Piot, Veerle M.; Verrijcken, Anton; Vanhoof, Marc; Mertens, Ilse; Soetens, Filiep

    2012-01-01

    Since 2000, there has been an ongoing debate regarding tightness of glycemic control in critically ill patients. An increased risk of hypoglycemia is observed in patients treated with an intensive insulin protocol targeting “normoglycemia,” probably accounting for a reduction of the overall benefit. Hypoglycemia is associated with neurological side effects and is found to be an independent predictor of mortality in most trials; however, long-term sequelae are rare if glucose is administered early. We describe a case of prolonged, extreme hypoglycemia in a critically ill patient treated according to an intensive insulin protocol who recovered without any neurological deficit at discharge. PMID:22920826

  2. Nonislet Cell Tumor Hypoglycemia in a Patient with Adrenal Cortical Carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Seung-Eun; Oh, Young Lyun; Kim, Seokhwi; Park, Sun Hee

    2016-01-01

    Nonislet cell tumor hypoglycemia (NICTH) is a rare but serious paraneoplastic syndrome in which a tumor secretes incompletely processed precursors of insulin-like growth factor-II (IGF-II), causing hypoglycemia. Here, we report an exceptional case of NICTH caused by nonfunctioning adrenocortical carcinoma in a 39-year-old male with recurrent hypoglycemia. The patient's serum IGF-II/IGF-I ratio had increased to 27.8. The serum level of the IGF-II/IGF-I ratio was normalized after removal of the tumor, and the hypoglycemic attacks no longer occurred after the operation. PMID:27957352

  3. Engineering a glucose-responsive human insulin-secreting cell line from islets of Langerhans isolated from a patient with persistent hyperinsulinemic hypoglycemia of infancy.

    PubMed

    MacFarlane, W M; Chapman, J C; Shepherd, R M; Hashmi, M N; Kamimura, N; Cosgrove, K E; O'Brien, R E; Barnes, P D; Hart, A W; Docherty, H M; Lindley, K J; Aynsley-Green, A; James, R F; Docherty, K; Dunne, M J

    1999-11-26

    Persistent hyperinsulinemic hypoglycemia of infancy (PHHI) is a neonatal disease characterized by dysregulation of insulin secretion accompanied by profound hypoglycemia. We have discovered that islet cells, isolated from the pancreas of a PHHI patient, proliferate in culture while maintaining a beta cell-like phenotype. The PHHI-derived cell line (NES2Y) exhibits insulin secretory characteristics typical of islet cells derived from these patients, i.e. they have no K(ATP) channel activity and as a consequence secrete insulin at constitutively high levels in the absence of glucose. In addition, they exhibit impaired expression of the homeodomain transcription factor PDX1, which is a key component of the signaling pathway linking nutrient metabolism to the regulation of insulin gene expression. To repair these defects NES2Y cells were triple-transfected with cDNAs encoding the two components of the K(ATP) channel (SUR1 and Kir6.2) and PDX1. One selected clonal cell line (NISK9) had normal K(ATP) channel activity, and as a result of changes in intracellular Ca(2+) homeostasis ([Ca(2+)](i)) secreted insulin within the physiological range of glucose concentrations. This approach to engineering PHHI-derived islet cells may be of use in gene therapy for PHHI and in cell engineering techniques for administering insulin for the treatment of diabetes mellitus.

  4. Octreotide-Treated Diabetes Accompanied by Endogenous Hyperinsulinemic Hypoglycemia and Protein-Losing Gastroenteropathy

    PubMed Central

    Takahashi, Nobuhiko; Nagamine, Miho; Fukuda, Mitsuko; Motomura, Wataru; Abiko, Atsuko; Haneda, Masakazu; Fujiya, Mikihiro; Ieko, Masahiro; Kohgo, Yutaka

    2011-01-01

    Occurrence of hypoglycemia in diabetes patients is very rare. We report here a case of frequent hypoglycemic attacks caused by inappropriate endogenous hyperinsulinemia in a female patient with poorly controlled diabetes and protein-losing gastroenteropathy. The blood glucose profiles of the patient were unstable. Results of the fasting test performed to investigate the cause of hypoglycemia suggested endogenous hyperinsulinism. Repeated selective arterial calcium injection tests suggested that hyperinsulinemia might be extrapancreatic in origin. However, efforts to detect a responsible lesion such as insulinoma were unsuccessful. Octreotide was used for the treatment of hypoglycemia and protein-losing gastroenteropathy. After treatment, although her leg edema caused by hypoalbuminemia persisted, hypoglycemia almost disappeared. PMID:21826148

  5. Growth hormone response to hypoglycemia under gamma-hydroxybutyrate narco-analgesia in the rat.

    PubMed

    Bluet-Pajot, M T; Schaub, C; Nassiet, J

    1978-01-01

    Plasma immuno-reactive growth-hormone (RIA-GH) concentrations were investigated under in vivo continuous blood glucose (BG) monitoring after administration of gamma-hydroxybutyrate (GHB) as well as during spontaneous or insulin-induced hypoglycemia. During the narco-analgesia by GHB a marked secretory episode is consistently observed. This secretion peak is not accurately time related with GHB administration and seems to fade off in aging animals. Strictly controlled hypoglycemia elicits a consistent and specific GH release. In contrast deep hypoglycemic levels resulting in a state of metabolic stress inhibit GH secretion. Our results suggest that previous data on the GH regulation pattern during hypoglycemia may depend upon the anesthetic used and/or nonspecific stress responses following deep hypoglycemia. The above mentioned experimental conditions indicate that GH metabolic regulation is not fundamentally different in rodents and primates.

  6. An information and communication technology system to detect hypoglycemia in people with type 1 diabetes.

    PubMed

    Jensen, Morten Hasselstrøm; Christensen, Toke Folke; Tarnow, Lise; Johansen, Mette Dencker; Hejlesen, Ole Kristian

    2013-01-01

    Continuous glucose monitoring (CGM) is a new technology with the potential to detect hypoglycemia in people with Type 1 diabetes. However, the inaccuracy of the device in the hypoglycemic range is unfortunately too large. The aim of this study was to develop an information and communication technology system for improving hypoglycemia detection in CGM. The system was developed as an Android application with a build-in pattern classification algorithm. The algorithm processes features from CGM and typed in data from the patient, then warns the patient about incoming hypoglycemia. The system improved the detection of hypoglycemic events by 29%, with only one 1 false alert compared to CGM alone. Furthermore, the algorithm increased the average lead-time by 14 minutes. These findings indicate that it is possible to improve the hypoglycemia detection with an information and communication technology system, but that the system must be validated on a larger dataset.

  7. Partial blockade of nicotinic acetylcholine receptors improves the counterregulatory response to hypoglycemia in recurrently hypoglycemic rats

    PubMed Central

    LaGamma, Edmund F.; Kirtok, Necla; Chan, Owen

    2014-01-01

    Recurrent exposure to hypoglycemia can impair the normal counterregulatory hormonal responses that guard against hypoglycemia, leading to hypoglycemia unawareness. This pathological condition known as hypoglycemia-associated autonomic failure (HAAF) is the main adverse consequence that prevents individuals with type 1 diabetes mellitus from attaining the long-term health benefits of tight glycemic control. The underlying molecular mechanisms responsible for the progressive loss of the epinephrine response to subsequent bouts of hypoglycemia, a hallmark sign of HAAF, are largely unknown. Normally, hypoglycemia triggers both the release and biosynthesis of epinephrine through activation of nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChR) on the adrenal glands. We hypothesize that excessive cholinergic stimulation may contribute to impaired counterregulation. Here, we tested whether administration of the nAChR partial agonist cytisine to reduce postganglionic synaptic activity can preserve the counterregulatory hormone responses in an animal model of HAAF. Compared with nicotine, cytisine has limited efficacy to activate nAChRs and stimulate epinephrine release and synthesis. We evaluated adrenal catecholamine production and secretion in nondiabetic rats subjected to two daily episodes of hypoglycemia for 3 days, followed by a hyperinsulinemic hypoglycemic clamp on day 4. Recurrent hypoglycemia decreased epinephrine responses, and this was associated with suppressed TH mRNA induction (a measure of adrenal catecholamine synthetic capacity). Treatment with cytisine improved glucagon responses as well as epinephrine release and production in recurrently hypoglycemic animals. These data suggest that pharmacological manipulation of ganglionic nAChRs may be promising as a translational adjunctive therapy to avoid HAAF in type 1 diabetes mellitus. PMID:25117409

  8. Central but not systemic lipid infusion augments the counterregulatory response to hypoglycemia

    PubMed Central

    Haywood, Samuel C.; Bree, Adam J.; Puente, Erwin C.; Daphna-Iken, Dorit; Fisher, Simon J.

    2009-01-01

    This study tests the hypothesis that lipids could act as an alternative fuel source in the brain during insulin-induced hypoglycemia. Male Sprague-Dawley rats were subjected to hyperinsulinemic (5 mU·kg−1·min−1) hypoglycemic (∼50 mg/dl) clamps. In protocol 1, intralipid (IL), a fat emulsion, was infused intravenously to prevent the fall in free fatty acid levels that occurs in response to hyperinsulinemic hypoglycemia. Intravenous lipid infusion did not alter the counterregulatory responses to hypoglycemia. To test whether IL could have central effects in mediating the counterregulatory response to hypoglycemia, in protocol 2 the brains of precannulated rats were intracerebroventricularly (icv) infused with IL or artificial cerebrospinal fluid (aCSF) as control. Unexpectedly, the epinephrine and glucagon response to hypoglycemia was significantly augmented with icv IL infusion. To determine whether central IL infusion could restore defective counterregulation, in protocol 3 rats were made recurrently hypoglycemic (RH) for 3 days and on the 4th day underwent hyperinsulinemic hypoglycemic clamps with icv IL or aCSF infusion. RH rats had the expected impaired epinephrine response to hypoglycemia, and icv IL infusion again significantly augmented the epinephrine response in RH rats to normal. With regard to our experimental model of hypoglycemic counterregulation, we conclude that 1) systemic lipid infusion did not alter the counterregulatory response to hypoglycemia, 2) the icv infusion of lipids markedly increased CSF FFA levels and paradoxically augmented the epinephrine and glucagon responses, and 3) the blunted sympathoadrenal response in recurrently hypoglycemic rats was completely normalized with the icv lipid infusion. It is concluded that, in the setting of insulin-induced hypoglycemia, increased brain lipids can enhance the sympathoadrenal response. PMID:19417126

  9. Does orthostatic stress influence the neuroendocrine response to subsequent hypoglycemia in humans?

    PubMed

    Radikova, Z; Penesova, A; Koska, J; Kvetnansky, R; Jezova, D; Huckova, M; Vigas, M; Macho, L

    2004-06-01

    Neuroendocrine response to stress stimuli is influenced by previous stimuli of different nature. The aim of the study was to test whether antecedent orthostatic stress may affect the neuroendocrine response to subsequent hypoglycemia. A group of 12 (6 men, 6 women) nonobese, healthy volunteers aged 19 to 27 y (mean 24 +/- 0.8) participated in the study in two sessions: controlled insulin-induced hypoglycemia to 2.7 mmol/L for 15 min either with or without antecedent orthostatic stress (30 min of 60 degrees head-up tilt before insulin administration). Orthostatic stress caused a significant decrease in plasma volume (-9.6%; P < 0.001) and a significant increase in plasma renin activity, aldosterone, norepinephrine (P < 0.01), and adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) concentrations (P < 0.05) in all subjects. Growth hormone response to hypoglycemia was diminished in women (P < 0.01). The epinephrine response to hypoglycemia was diminished in women in comparison to men (P < 0.001), but was unaffected by antecedent orthostatic stress. Hypoglycemia failed to induce the ACTH release after its elevation during orthostatic stress. ACTH response to moderate hypoglycemia without previous orthostatic stress was evident only in men in comparison to women (P < 0.05). We conclude that the epinephrine, growth hormone, and ACTH responses to hypoglycemia were diminished in women. Except ACTH, the neuroendocrine response to mild hypoglycemia was not affected by previous orthostatic stress in healthy subjects. In the case of ACTH, the first stress stimulus is consequential for the subsequent response of this hormone, probably due to short-loop negative feedback effects.

  10. Self-reported frequency, severity of, and awareness of hypoglycemia in type 2 diabetes patients in Turkey

    PubMed Central

    Arda Sürücü, Hamdiye; Koşar, Cansu

    2016-01-01

    Objectives Hypoglycemia is a common side effect of insulin therapy in type 1 and type 2 diabetes. Limited data exist on the frequency of hypoglycemic events in type 2 diabetic patients in Turkey. Our study investigated self-reported hypoglycemic events and awareness of hypoglycemia in Turkish patients with type 2 diabetes. Methods People with type 2 diabetes older than 18 years of age were recruited from the two university hospital diabetes clinics. The frequency and severity of hypoglycemia and awareness of hypoglycemia during the preceding year were determinated using questionnaires by the face-to-face interview method. Results In this study of 187 patients with type 2 diabetes, 83.4% had impaired awareness of their hypoglycemia, and 62% reported that they had missed some of the symptoms of hypoglycemia. Of the patients reporting hypoglycemic symptoms and severity level, 84.1% experienced mild hypoglycemia, 60% moderate, and 15.5% severe hypoglycemia in the past year. No significant association was made between hypoglycemia awareness and age, body-mass index (BMI), years of diabetes, dose of insulin, duration of insulin use, number of meals, or amount of snacking. A significant correlation was found between A1c levels and hypoglycemia awareness and severity of hypoglycemia. A significant correlation was found between dose of insulin, amount of snacking, and severity of hypoglycemia. No significant association was made between severity of hypoglycemia and age, BMI, years of diabetes, duration of insulin use, or the number of meals. However, the group with severe hypoglycemia had diabetes longer, and the average daily dose of insulin use was higher than in other groups. Conclusions According to the study results, the percentage of patients with impaired awareness of hypoglycemia is high, and 62% of patients reported that they had missed some of the symptoms of hypoglycemia in type 2 diabetes. In addition, the percentage of severe hypoglycemic events is not low

  11. Permanent neonatal diabetes mellitus: epidemiology, mode of presentation, pathogenesis and growth.

    PubMed

    Soliman, A T; elZalabany, M M; Bappal, B; alSalmi, I; de Silva, V; Asfour, M

    1999-01-01

    Permanent neonatal diabetes mellitus (PNIDDM) is a rare form of IDDM with unclear etiology and pathogenesis. We determined the incidence and prevalence rates and studied the clinical and biochemical features of PNIDDM in the Sultanate of Oman. The mean incidence rate during the study period from January 1989 to December 1994 was 1.788 +/- 0.82 per 100,000 live births per year. At the end of December 1994 the prevalence rate was 2.4 per 100,000 children below the age of 5 years. They constituted 41.6% of all cases of IDDM in this age group. Diarrhoea, fever, lethargy, poor feeding and failure to thrive were the most common presenting symptoms. Dehydration and tachypnoea were the most common signs. All patients who developed IDDM during the neonatal period had intrauterine growth retardation and 4.5 presented with diabetic ketoacidosis (plasma glucose 37 +/- 9 mmol/L, pH 7.12 +/- 0.1). Hypertriglyceridemia was a constant feature (19.4 +/- 4.8 mmol/L). They were products of consanguineous marriage with significantly high prevalence of IDDM and NIDDM in their family members. None of the infants had clinical or immunological evidence of congenital viral infection. Three of the five children had HLA-DR2, the diabetes resistance alleles. C-peptide secretion was absent during and after metabolic control of hyperglycemia in all the studied infants and none had circulating islet cell antibody at presentation or during the first year after diagnosis. Despite marked growth retardation at birth, there was a significant improvement of growth after initiating insulin therapy. Four of the 5 patients had normal developmental milestones, one had mild developmental delay following a severe and prolonged attack of hypoglycemia. None of the patients had exocrine pancreatic deficiency. In summary, the very high rate of parental consanguinity, occurrence in both sexes and in two siblings in the same family, absence of islet cell antibodies and the presence of HLA-DR2 loci in 3/5 of

  12. Maternal obesity, mode of delivery, and neonatal outcome.

    PubMed

    Blomberg, Marie

    2013-07-01

    To evaluate whether adverse neonatal outcome, defined as birth injuries or severe illnesses in the newborn, was associated with maternal body mass index (BMI) in singleton pregnancies overall and depending on mode of delivery. This was a cohort study including 1,024,471 women. Data were collected from the Swedish Medical Birth Registry. Women were categorized into six classes of BMI. Obese women were compared with normal weight women regarding adverse neonatal outcome after suitable adjustments. Four modes of delivery were evaluated: vaginal delivery; instrumental vaginal delivery; elective cesarean delivery; and emergency cesarean delivery. Compared with neonates born to women of normal weight, neonates born to women with BMIs of 40 or more (morbidly obese) were at increased risk of birth injury to the peripheral nervous system (odds ratio [OR] 3.80, 95% confidence interval [CI] 2.83-5.12; 0.2% compared with 0.6%), birth injury to the skeleton (OR 2.59, 95% CI 2.10-3.21; 0.5% compared with 1.1%), respiratory distress syndrome (OR 2.08, 95% CI 1.88-2.30; 2.9 compared with 5.8%), bacterial sepsis (OR 2.90, 95% CI 2.43-3.46; 0.6% compared with 1.7%), convulsions (OR 3.43, 95% CI 2.63-4.47; 0.2% compared with 0.8%), and hypoglycemia (OR 3.48, 95% CI 3.20-3.78; 2.4% compared with 7.9%). For morbidly obese women, elective cesarean delivery and vaginal delivery were associated with twice the increased risk of adverse neonatal outcomes when compared with women of normal weight. Neonates born to morbidly obese women are at markedly increased risk of adverse neonatal outcome regardless of mode of delivery. Obstetricians should not disregard the neonatal problems associated with elective cesarean delivery for morbidly obese women. II.

  13. Reversible Adrenal Insufficiency in Three Patients With Post-Roux-en-Y Gastric Bypass Noninsulinoma Pancreatogenous Hypoglycemia Syndrome.

    PubMed

    Mathur, Shelly; Boparai, Jasmine; Mediwala, Sanjay N; Garcia, Jose M; Cunningham, Glenn R; Marcelli, Marco; Vasudevan, Madhuri M

    2014-01-01

    Objective. Noninsulinoma pancreatogenous hypoglycemia syndrome (NIPHS) is a disorder of endogenous hyperinsulinemia that is clinically distinguishable from insulinoma, with a greater preponderance after Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (RYBG). Hyperinsulinemic hypoglycemia can predispose to attenuation of counterregulatory hormone responses to hypoglycemia, and consequent suppression of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis. This case series describes 3 individuals who were diagnosed with adrenal insufficiency (AI) after undergoing RYGB, complicated by NIPHS. Methods. A retrospective chart review was performed for each individual. Chart review applied particular attention to the onset of hyperinsulinemic hypoglycemia following bariatric surgery and the dynamic testing leading to the diagnoses of NIPHS and AI. Results. In each case, reactive hypoglycemia ensued within months to years after RYGB. Cosyntropin stimulation testing confirmed the diagnosis of AI. Hydrocortisone therapy reduced the frequency and severity of hypoglycemia and was continued until successful medical and/or surgical management of hyperinsulinism occurred. Follow-up testing of the HPA axis demonstrated resolution of AI. In all cases, hydrocortisone therapy was finally discontinued without incident. Conclusion. We speculate that transient AI is a potential complication in patients who experience recurrent hyperinsulinemic hypoglycemia after RYGB. The putative mechanism for this observation may be attenuation of the HPA axis after prolonged exposure to severe, recurrent hypoglycemia. We conclude that biochemical screening for AI should be considered in individuals who develop post-RYGB hyperinsulinemic hypoglycemia. If AI is diagnosed, supportive treatment should be maintained until hyperinsulinemic hypoglycemia has been managed effectively.

  14. The Impact of Hypoglycemia on the Cardiovascular System: Physiology and Pathophysiology.

    PubMed

    Yang, Shi-Wei; Park, Kyoung-Ha; Zhou, Yu-Jie

    2016-10-01

    Intensive glycemic control may increase cardiovascular (CV) risk and mortality due to hypoglycemia. The pathophysiology of glucose counter-regulation in patients with type 1 or type 2 diabetes for over 15 years is characterized by impairment of the defense mechanisms against hypoglycemia. Hypoglycemia causes pronounced physiological and pathophysiological effects on the CV system as consequences of autonomic system activation and counter regulatory hormones release. These effects provoke a series of hemodynamic changes that include an increase in heart rate and peripheral systolic blood pressure, a decrease in central blood pressure, reduced peripheral arterial resistance, and increased myocardial contractility and cardiac output. Cardiac electrophysiological changes including flattening or inversion of T waves, QT prolongation, and ST segment depression were observed in both insulin-induced and spontaneous hypoglycemia. Sympathoadrenal activation is the main cause of these changes through mechanisms that involve, but are not limited to, catecholamine-mediated hypokalemia. Hypoglycemia is also involved in platelet activation. There is growing concern about the long-term effects of hypoglycemia, especially as related to inflammation and atherogenesis.

  15. A Systematic Approach for the Prevention and Reduction of Hypoglycemia in Hospitalized Patients.

    PubMed

    Cruz, Paulina; Blackburn, Mary Clare; Tobin, Garry S

    2017-10-05

    Hypoglycemia and severe hypoglycemia (SH) in the inpatient setting are associated with poor outcomes. This review is designed to highlight approaches to predict and prevent inpatient hypoglycemia that has been successfully implemented focusing on developing overlapping policies and procedures that allow safe glycemic management to occur at all levels of the institution. Standardizing point-of-care (POC) testing, nursing protocols, meal delivery, and formulary restriction are useful tools to prevent hypoglycemia. Informatics and real-time alert processes are highly effective tools to reduce hypoglycemia but require a significant investment in time and infrastructure as well as clear policies on how alerts are acted upon. Computerized dosing support technology and continuous glucose monitoring (CGM) technology are an emerging area of investigation showing promising results. Inpatient hypoglycemia is often predictable and preventable and requires institutional support to deliver targeted and safe diabetes care. This requires each institution to do periodic reassessment of policies and technologies. Future research needs to focus on the cost/benefits of interventions including studies of automated dosing algorithms as well as CGM in higher-risk patient populations.

  16. Hyperinsulinemic hypoglycemia associated with insulin antibodies caused by exogenous insulin analog

    PubMed Central

    Su, Chih-Ting

    2016-01-01

    Summary Insulin antibodies (IA) associated with exogenous insulin administration seldom caused hypoglycemia and had different characteristics from insulin autoantibodies (IAA) found in insulin autoimmune syndrome (IAS), which was first described by Dr Hirata in 1970. The characteristic of IAS is the presence of insulin-binding autoantibodies and related fasting or late postprandial hypoglycemia. Here, we report a patient with type 1 diabetes mellitus under insulin glargine and insulin aspart treatment who developed recurrent spontaneous post-absorptive hyperinsulinemic hypoglycemia with the cause probably being insulin antibodies induced by exogenous injected insulin. Examinations of serial sera disclosed a high titre of insulin antibodies (33%, normal <5%), high insulin concentration (111.9 IU/mL) and undetectable C-peptide when hypoglycemia occurred. An oral glucose tolerance test revealed persistent high serum levels of total insulin and undetectable C-peptide. Image studies of the pancreas were unremarkable, which excluded the diagnosis of insulinoma. The patient does not take any of the medications containing sulfhydryl compounds, which had been reported to cause IAS. After administering oral prednisolone for 3 weeks, hypoglycemic episodes markedly improved, and he was discharged smoothly. Learning points: Insulin autoimmune syndrome (IAS) or IAS-like situation should be one of the differential diagnosis in patients with hyperinsulinemic hypoglycemia. Although less reported, insulin antibodies (IA) caused by exogenous insulin analog should be considered as the cause of hypoglycemia. Patients with suspected insulin autoimmune syndrome (IAS) should be screened for drugs related to autoimmunity to endogenous insulin. PMID:27933175

  17. Impaired Overnight Counterregulatory Hormone Responses to Spontaneous Hypoglycemia in Children with Type 1 Diabetes

    PubMed Central

    2007-01-01

    To assess the changes in counterregulatory hormones overnight after an afternoon of structured exercise or sedentary activity in children with Type 1 Diabetes Mellitus (T1DM), the Diabetes Research in Children Network (DirecNet) studied 50 children (10-<18y) with T1DM in 5 clinical research centers on two separate days (with and without an afternoon exercise session) using a crossover design. Glucose, epinephrine, norepinephrine, cortisol, growth hormone (GH) and glucagon concentrations were measured hourly overnight. Nocturnal hypoglycemia (plasma glucose concentrations ≤70 mg/dL [3.9 mmol/L]) occurred more frequently on the nights following exercise (56% vs. 36%; p=0.008). Mean hourly concentrations of most hormones did not differ between sedentary or exercise nights or between nights with or without hypoglycemia. Spontaneous nocturnal hypoglycemia only stimulated small increases in plasma epinephrine and growth hormone concentrations and failed to cause a rise in norepinephrine, cortisol or glucagon levels in comparison to values during the hour before or after hypoglycemia or other times during those same nights. Counterregulatory hormone responses to spontaneous nocturnal hypoglycemia were markedly decreased regardless of whether there was antecedent afternoon exercise in children with T1DM. Sleep-induced impairments in counterregulatory hormone responses likely contribute to the increased risk of hypoglycemia during the entire overnight period in youth with T1DM. PMID:17659061

  18. Antecedent glycemic control reduces severe hypoglycemia-induced neuronal damage in diabetic rats.

    PubMed

    Reno, Candace M; Tanoli, Tariq; Bree, Adam; Daphna-Iken, Dorit; Cui, Chen; Maloney, Susan E; Wozniak, David F; Fisher, Simon J

    2013-06-15

    Brain damage due to severe hypoglycemia occurs in insulin-treated people with diabetes. This study tests the hypothesis that chronic insulin therapy that normalizes elevated blood glucose in diabetic rats would be neuroprotective against brain damage induced by an acute episode of severe hypoglycemia. Male Sprague-Dawley rats were split into three groups: 1) control, non-diabetic; 2) STZ-diabetic; and 3) insulin-treated STZ-diabetic. After 3 wk of chronic treatment, unrestrained awake rats underwent acute hyperinsulinemic severe hypoglycemic (10-15 mg/dl) clamps for 1 h. Rats were subsequently analyzed for brain damage and cognitive function. Severe hypoglycemia induced 15-fold more neuronal damage in STZ-diabetic rats compared with nondiabetic rats. Chronic insulin treatment of diabetic rats, which nearly normalized glucose levels, markedly reduced neuronal damage induced by severe hypoglycemia. Fortunately, no cognitive defects associated with the hypoglycemia-induced brain damage were observed in any group. In conclusion, antecedent blood glucose control represents a major modifiable therapeutic intervention that can afford diabetic subjects neuroprotection against severe hypoglycemia-induced brain damage.

  19. Hypoglycemia prediction using machine learning models for patients with type 2 diabetes.

    PubMed

    Sudharsan, Bharath; Peeples, Malinda; Shomali, Mansur

    2015-01-01

    Minimizing the occurrence of hypoglycemia in patients with type 2 diabetes is a challenging task since these patients typically check only 1 to 2 self-monitored blood glucose (SMBG) readings per day. We trained a probabilistic model using machine learning algorithms and SMBG values from real patients. Hypoglycemia was defined as a SMBG value < 70 mg/dL. We validated our model using multiple data sets. In addition, we trained a second model, which used patient SMBG values and information about patient medication administration. The optimal number of SMBG values needed by the model was approximately 10 per week. The sensitivity of the model for predicting a hypoglycemia event in the next 24 hours was 92% and the specificity was 70%. In the model that incorporated medication information, the prediction window was for the hour of hypoglycemia, and the specificity improved to 90%. Our machine learning models can predict hypoglycemia events with a high degree of sensitivity and specificity. These models-which have been validated retrospectively and if implemented in real time-could be useful tools for reducing hypoglycemia in vulnerable patients.

  20. Factors associated with nocturnal hypoglycemia in at-risk adolescents and young adults with type 1 diabetes.

    PubMed

    Wilson, Darrell M; Calhoun, Peter M; Maahs, David M; Chase, H Peter; Messer, Laurel; Buckingham, Bruce A; Aye, Tandy; Clinton, Paula K; Hramiak, Irene; Kollman, Craig; Beck, Roy W

    2015-06-01

    Hypoglycemia remains an impediment to good glycemic control, with nocturnal hypoglycemia being particularly dangerous. Information on major contributors to nocturnal hypoglycemia remains critical for understanding and mitigating risk. Continuous glucose monitoring (CGM) data for 855 nights were studied, generated by 45 subjects 15-45 years of age with hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c) levels of ≤8.0% who participated in a larger randomized study. Factors assessed for potential association with nocturnal hypoglycemia (CGM measurement of <60 mg/dL for ≥30 min) included bedtime blood glucose (BG), exercise intensity, bedtime snack, insulin on board, day of the week, previous daytime hypoglycemia, age, gender, HbA1c level, diabetes duration, daily basal insulin, and daily insulin dose. Hypoglycemia occurred during 221 of 885 (25%) nights and was more frequent with younger age (P<0.001), lower HbA1c levels (P=0.006), medium/high-intensity exercise during the preceding day (P=0.003), and the occurrence of antecedent daytime hypoglycemia (P=0.001). There was a trend for lower bedtime BG levels to be associated with more frequent nocturnal hypoglycemia (P=0.10). Bedtime snack, before bedtime insulin bolus, weekend versus weekday, gender, and daily basal and bolus insulin were not associated with nocturnal hypoglycemia. Awareness that HbA1c level, exercise, bedtime BG level, and daytime hypoglycemia are all modifiable factors associated with nocturnal hypoglycemia may help patients and providers decrease the risk of hypoglycemia at night. Risk for nocturnal hypoglycemia increased in a linear fashion across the range of variables, with no clear-cut thresholds to guide clinicians or patients for any particular night.

  1. A Novel Homozygous Mutation in the KCNJ11 Gene of a Neonate with Congenital Hyperinsulinism and Successful Management with Sirolimus

    PubMed Central

    Ünal, Sevim; Gönülal, Deniz; Uçaktürk, Ahmet; Siyah Bilgin, Betül; Flanagan, Sarah E.; Gürbüz, Fatih; Tayfun, Meltem; Elmaoğulları, Selin; Araslı, Aslıhan; Demirel, Fatma; Ellard, Sian; Hussain, Khalid

    2016-01-01

    Congenital hyperinsulinism (CHI) is the most common cause of neonatal persistent hypoglycemia caused by mutations in nine known genes. Early diagnosis and treatment are important to prevent brain injury. The clinical presentation and response to pharmacological therapy may vary depending on the underlying pathology. Genetic analysis is important in the diagnosis, treatment, patient follow-up, and prediction of recurrence risk within families. Our patient had severe hypoglycemia and seizure following birth. His diagnostic evaluations including genetic testing confirmed CHI. He was treated with a high-glucose infusion, high-dose diazoxide, nifedipine, and glucagon infusion. A novel homozygous mutation (p.F315I) in the KCNJ11 gene, leading to diazoxide-unresponsive CHI, was identified. Both parents were heterozygous for this mutation. Our patient’s clinical course was complicated by severe refractory hypoglycemia; he was successfully managed with sirolimus and surgical intervention was not required. Diazoxide, nifedipine, and glucagon were discontinued gradually following sirolimus therapy. The patient was discharged at 2 months of age on low-dose octreotide and sirolimus. His outpatient clinical follow-up continues with no episodes of hypoglycemia. We present a novel homozygous p.F315I mutation in the KCNJ11 gene leading to diazoxide-unresponsive CHI in a neonate. This case illustrates the challenges associated with the diagnosis and management of CHI, as well as the successful therapy with sirolimus. PMID:27181099

  2. Non-invasive biosensor and wilreless interrogating system for hypoglycemia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Varadan, Vijay K.; Whitchurch, Ashwin K.; Saukesi, K.

    2002-11-01

    Hypoglycemia - abnormal decrease in blood sugar - is a major obstacle in the management of diabetes and prevention of long-term complications, and it may impose serious effects on the brain, including impairment of memory and other cognitive functions. This paper presents the development of a non-invasive sensor with miniaturized telemetry device in a wrist-watch for monitoring glucose concentration in blood. The sensor concept is based on optical chiralit of glucose level in the interstitial fluid. The wrist watch consists of a laser power source of the wavelength compatible with the glucose. A nanofilm with specific chirality is placed at the bottom of the watch. The light then passes through the film and illuminates a small area on the skin.It has been documented that there is certain concentration of sugar level is taken by the intertitial fluid from the blood stream and deposit a portion of it at the dead skin. The wrist-watch when in contact with the outer skin of the human will thus monitor the glucose concentration. A wireless monitoring system in the watch then downloads the data from the watch to a Palm or laptop computer.

  3. Mechanisms of hypoglycemia unawareness and implications in diabetic patients

    PubMed Central

    Martín-Timón, Iciar; del Cañizo-Gómez, Francisco Javier

    2015-01-01

    Hypoglycemia unawareness (HU) is defined at the onset of neuroglycopenia before the appearance of autonomic warning symptoms. It is a major limitation to achieving tight diabetes and reduced quality of life. HU occurs in approximately 40% of people with type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM) and with less frequency in T2DM. Though the aetiology of HU is multifactorial, possible mechanisms include chronic exposure to low blood glucose, antecedent hypoglycaemia, recurrent severe hypoglycaemia and the failure of counter-regulatory hormones. Clinically it manifests as the inability to recognise impeding hypoglycaemia by symptoms, but the mechanisms and mediators remain largely unknown. Prevention and management of HU is complex, and can only be achieved by a multifactorial intervention of clinical care and structured patient education by the diabetes team. Less know regarding the impact of medications on the development or recognition of this condition in patients with diabetes. Several medications are thought to worsen or promote HU, whereas others may have an attenuating effect on the problem. This article reviews recent advances in how the brain senses and responds to hypoglycaemia, novel mechanisms by which people with insulin-treated diabetes develop HU and impaired counter-regulatory responses. The consequences that HU has on the person with diabetes and their family are also described. Finally, it examines the evidence for prevention and treatment of HU, and summarizes the effects of medications that may influence it. PMID:26185599

  4. Diabetes Management and Hypoglycemia in Safety Sensitive Jobs

    PubMed Central

    Koh, David; Chui, Winnie KL; Sum, Chee-Fang

    2011-01-01

    The majority of people diagnosed with diabetes mellitus are in the working age group in developing countries. The interrelationship of diabetes and work, that is, diabetes affecting work and work affecting diabetes, becomes an important issue for these people. Therapeutic options for the diabetic worker have been developed, and currently include various insulins, insulin sensitizers and secretagogues, incretin mimetics and enhancers, and alpha glucosidase inhibitors. Hypoglycemia and hypoglycaemic unawareness are important and unwanted treatment side effects. The risk they pose with respect to cognitive impairment can have safety implications. The understanding of the therapeutic options in the management of diabetic workers, blood glucose awareness training, and self-monitoring blood glucose will help to mitigate this risk. Employment decisions must also take into account the extent to which the jobs performed by the worker are safety sensitive. A risk assessment matrix, based on the extent to which a job is considered safety sensitive and based on the severity of the hypoglycaemia, may assist in determining one's fitness to work. Support at the workplace, such as a provision of healthy food options and arrangements for affected workers will be helpful for such workers. Arrangements include permission to carry and consume emergency sugar, flexible meal times, self-monitoring blood glucose when required, storage/disposal facilities for medicine such as insulin and needles, time off for medical appointments, and structured self-help programs. PMID:22953182

  5. Hypoxia and Hypoglycemia Synergistically Regulate mRNA Stability.

    PubMed

    Carraway, Kristen R; Johnson, Ellen M; Kauffmann, Travis C; Fry, Nate J; Mansfield, Kyle D

    2017-03-31

    Ischemic events, common in many diseases, result from decreased blood flow and impaired delivery of oxygen and glucose to tissues of the body. While much is known about the cellular transcriptional response to ischemia, much less is known about the posttranscriptional response to oxygen and glucose deprivation. The goal of this project was to investigate one such posttranscriptional response, the regulation of mRNA stability. To that end, we have identified a number of novel ischemia-related mRNAs that are synergistically stabilized by oxygen and glucose deprivation including VEGF, MYC, MDM2, and CYR61. This increase in mRNA half-life requires the synergistic effects of both low oxygen (1%) as well as low glucose (≤1 g/L) conditions. Oxygen or glucose deprivation alone fails to initiate the response, as exposure to either high glucose (4 g/L) or normoxic conditions inhibits the response. Furthermore, in response to hypoxia/hypoglycemia, the identified mRNAs are released from the RNA binding protein KHSRP which likely contributes to their stabilization.

  6. [Natal and neonatal teeth].

    PubMed

    Baumgart, Manuela; Lussi, Adrian

    2006-01-01

    Natal teeth have been defined as teeth which are present at birth, while neonatal teeth erupt during the first 30 days. Their occurrence is rare, the prevalence ranges from 1:2000 to 1:3000 with a higher frequency in the lip and palate clefts and syndroms. In about 85% natal or neonatal teeth are lower central incisors (60% in pairs), rare are upper teeth, molars and multiple teeth. In almost 90% they are part of the deciduous dentition. A lot of possible causes of early eruption are discussed, but only the relation to hereditary factors seems to be evident. An autosomal dominant trait is often described. The appearance of these teeth is dependent on the degree of maturity, but most of the time it is loose, small, discoloured and hypoplastic. Histologically, enamel hypoplasia with normal prism structure is apparent. No significant disturbances of the dentin structures are observed, only cervically dentin becomes atubular with spaces and enclosed cells. A large vascular pulp and failure of root formation are further investigations. Our microhardness measurements showed values from 24.3-32.4 KHN for enamel and 48.3-62.2 KHN for dentin, while normal deciduous teeth have an enamel hardness of 322.0 +/- 17.5 KHN. The thickness of enamel was never more than 280 microm compared to up to 1200 microm in normal teeth. This shows the retarded development of natal and neonatal teeth, because mineralization has not finished at the time of birth. In accordance with developmental age tooth structure and appearence are normal. In consideration of complications as Riga-Fede-disease, feeding problems, possibility of infection and hypermobility most of the time extraction is the treatment of choice, but in the interest of protecting the child this decision should be made carefully.

  7. Risk factors of severe hypoglycemia requiring medical assistance and neurological sequelae in patients with diabetes

    PubMed Central

    Jeon, Ja Young; Kim, Se Ran; Kim, Hae Jin; Kim, Dae Jung; Lee, Kwan-Woo; Lee, Jung-Dong; Han, Seung Jin

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Hypoglycemia commonly occurs in patients who are being treated for diabetes. In some cases, these patients suffer from severe hypoglycemia that requires medical assistance and which can unfortunately result in long-term disabilities. Therefore, we investigated risk factors associated with severe hypoglycemia requiring medical assistance (HMA) and the resulting neurological sequelae in patients with diabetes. This investigation was a case–control study that assessed 129 patients with diabetes and documented hypoglycemia from a single tertiary hospital between February 2013 and May 2015. They were treated with oral hypoglycemic agents alone (54%) or with insulin with/without oral hypoglycemic agents (46%). If a patient with diabetes visited the emergency department due to hypoglycemia, this was defined as HMA. The control group was composed of patients with documented, nonsevere hypoglycemia who visited the outpatient clinic during the same period. The degree of neurological disability in the HMA patients was measured using the modified Rankin Scale. A multivariate analysis revealed that independent risk factors of HMA were associated with a lack of the self-monitoring of blood glucose (SMBG) and previous episodes of severe hypoglycemia. In the HMA group, 15 patients (22%) had neurological sequelae at the time of discharge. Patients with neurological sequelae were older than those without sequelae (74.3 years vs 65.8 years, P = 0.006) and had increased psychological evidence of disorders such as insomnia, dementia, and depression (40% vs 11%, P = 0.017). Patients with sequelae were also more likely to live in rural areas (47% vs 19%, P = 0.04) and to have a longer time from last seen normal till glucose administration (5.2 hours vs 1.6 hours, P = 0.027). In the present study, absence of SMBG and previous severe hypoglycemic episodes were independent risk factors of HMA and patients with an older age, a psychological disorder, a rural

  8. Value of continuous glucose monitoring for minimizing severe hypoglycemia during tight glycemic control.

    PubMed

    Steil, Garry M; Langer, Monica; Jaeger, Karen; Alexander, Jamin; Gaies, Michael; Agus, Michael S D

    2011-11-01

    Tight glycemic control can potentially reduce morbidity and mortality in the intensive care unit but increases the risk of hypoglycemia. The most effective means to avoid hypoglycemia is to obtain frequent blood glucose samples, but this increases the burden to nursing staff. The objective of this study was to assess the ability of a real-time continuous glucose monitor to reduce hypoglycemia (blood glucose <60 mg/dL [3.3 mmol/L]) during standard care or tight glycemic control effected with a proportional integral derivative insulin titration algorithm. Real-time continuous glucose monitor profiles obtained from an ongoing prospective randomized trial of tight glycemic control were retrospectively analyzed to determine whether the continuous glucose measure had prevented instances of hypoglycemia. Cardiac intensive care unit. Children 3 yrs of age or younger undergoing cardiac surgery were studied. Intravenous insulin infusion and rescue glucose guided by the real-time continuous glucose monitor and the proportional integral derivative algorithm in the tight glycemic control arm (n = 155; target glucose 80-110 mg/dL [4.4-6.1 mmol/L]) and the real-time continuous glucose monitor in the standard care arm (n = 156). No reduction in hypoglycemia was observed with real-time continuous glucose monitor alarms set at 60 mg/dL (3.3 mmol/L) (zero of 19 occurrences of blood glucose <60 mg/dL [3.3 mmol/L] detected); 18 of 40 subsequent incidences of hypoglycemia were detected after the alarm threshold was increased to 70 mg/dL (3.9 mmol/L). In the tight glycemic control arm, eight incidences were reduced in duration and an additional eight events were prevented with intravenous glucose. In the standard care arm, three of nine occurrences of hypoglycemia were detected with the duration reduced in all cases. On average, one to two false hypoglycemia alarms were observed in each patient. The real-time continuous glucose monitor in combination with proportional integral derivative

  9. Outcome following neonatal seizures.

    PubMed

    Uria-Avellanal, Cristina; Marlow, Neil; Rennie, Janet M

    2013-08-01

    Neonatal seizures are the most common manifestation of neurological disorders in the newborn period and an important determinant of outcome. Overall, for babies born at full term, mortality following seizures has improved in the last decade, typical current mortality rates being 10% (range: 7-16%), down from 33% in reports from the 1990s. By contrast, the prevalence of adverse neurodevelopmental sequelae remains relatively stable, typically 46% (range: 27-55%). The strongest predictors of outcome are the underlying cause, together with the background electroencephalographic activity. In preterm babies, for whom the outlook tends to be worse as background mortality and disability are high, seizures are frequently associated with serious underlying brain injury and therefore subsequent impairments. When attempting to define the prognosis for a baby with neonatal seizures, we propose a pathway involving history, examination, and careful consideration of all available results (ideally including brain magnetic resonance imaging) and the response to treatment before synthesizing the best estimate of risk to be conveyed to the family. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. A neonate with the Pelger-Huët anomaly, cleft lip and palate, and agenesis of the corpus callosum, with a chromosomal microdeletion involving 1q41 to 1q42.12.

    PubMed

    Christensen, R D; Yaish, H M

    2012-03-01

    We observed a neonate with cleft lip and palate, 13 sets of ribs, agenesis of the corpus callosum, slightly small penis, hypoglycemia, and what initially appeared to be a marked leukocyte 'left shift' on complete blood count, but which was actually a Pelger-Huët anomaly. A chromosomal microdeletion was identified at1q41-42.12.

  11. Unilateral neonatal cerebral infarction in full term infants

    PubMed Central

    Estan, J.; Hope, P.

    1997-01-01

    AIMS—To determine the prevalence of unilateral neonatal cerebral infarction in infants born at 32 weeks gestation and above; to describe the clinical course, imaging results, and outcome of neonatal cerebral infarction; and to investigate possible aetiology.
METHODS—Twelve cases of unilateral neonatal cerebral infarction were identified from neonatal unit records for the years 1987-93. Each case was matched with two controls.
RESULTS—All cases of neonatal cerebral infarction occurred in full term infants. The prevalence was around 1 in 4000, and neonatal cerebral infarction was found in 12% of infants presenting with neonatal seizures. Cerebral ultrasound scans failed to demonstrate lesions seen by computed tomography in nine of 12 cases. Cases were more likely than controls to require assisted ventilation for resuscitation at birth (OR 7.0, 95% confidence interval 1.04-53.5), but Apgar scores at 5 minutes were no different. One infant with neonatal cerebral infarction developed a hemiparesis, the other 11 had normal motor development when assessed at 11-60 (median 33) months. None had overt cognitive deficits or persisting seizure disorder.
CONCLUSIONS—Neonatal cerebral infarction is a relatively common cause of neonatal seizures, but the aetiology remains unclear. Parents need to be made aware of possible neurological sequelae, but most cases in this series had a normal outcome.

 Keywords: cerebral infarction; seizures; neurodevelopmental outcome; stroke; hemiplegia. PMID:9135286

  12. Assessing fear of hypoglycemia in a population-based study among parents of children with type 1 diabetes - psychometric properties of the hypoglycemia fear survey - parent version.

    PubMed

    Haugstvedt, Anne; Wentzel-Larsen, Tore; Aarflot, Morten; Rokne, Berit; Graue, Marit

    2015-01-19

    In the treatment of childhood type 1 diabetes, being aware of the parents' fear of hypoglycemia is important, since the parents' fear may influence the management of treatment and the children's blood glucose regulation. The availability of proper instruments to assess the parents' fear of hypoglycemia is essential. Thus, the aim of this study was to examine the psychometric properties of the Hypoglycemia Fear Survey - Parent version (HFS-P). In a Norwegian population-based sample, 176 parents representing 102 children with type 1 diabetes (6-15 years old) completed the HFS-P, comprising a 15-item worry subscale and a 10-item behavior subscale. We performed exploratory and confirmatory factor analysis and further analysis of the scales' construct validity, content validity and reliability. The Norwegian version of the HFS-P had an acceptable factor structure and internal consistency for the worry subscale, whereas the structure and internal consistency of the behavior subscale was more questionable. The HFS-P subscales were significantly correlated (from moderately to weakly) with symptoms of emotional distress, as measured by the Hopkins Symptom Checklist - 25 items. The mothers scored higher than fathers on both HFS-P subscales, but the difference was not statistically significant for the worry subscale. The HFS-P worry subscale seems to be a valid scale for measuring anxiety-provoking aspects of hypoglycemia, and the validity of the HFS-P behavior subscale needs to be investigated further.

  13. Neonatal resuscitation: Current issues

    PubMed Central

    Chadha, Indu A

    2010-01-01

    The following guidelines are intended for practitioners responsible for resuscitating neonates. They apply primarily to neonates undergoing transition from intrauterine to extrauterine life. The updated guidelines on Neonatal Resuscitation have assimilated the latest evidence in neonatal resuscitation. Important changes with regard to the old guidelines and recommendations for daily practice are provided. Current controversial issues concerning neonatal resuscitation are reviewed and argued in the context of the ILCOR 2005 consensus. PMID:21189881

  14. [Neonatal lupus syndrome].

    PubMed

    Iwamoto, Masahiro

    2005-02-01

    Neonatal lupus syndrome is a passively acquired autoimmune syndrome in which pathogenic autoantibodies (anti-SSA/Ro, anti-SSB/La, and both, or rarely anti-U(1)RNP antibodies) are transmitted from a mother to her fetus through the placenta. The major clinical manifestations in the infants are cardiac (congenital heart block), dermatologic (skin lesion), hepatic (elevated hepatic enzymes), and hematologic (cytopenia). Congenital complete heart block (CCHB) is irreversible, while noncardiac manifestations are transient, resolving by one-year-old of age without specific treatments. Two prospective studies show that the prevalence of CCHB in children from a woman previously known to have anti-SSA/Ro antibodies is approximately 2%. However, when the previous pregnancy is complicated by CCHB and skin lesion, the recurrence rates of these symptoms go much higher to 10.5% and 26%, respectively, in the subsequent pregnancy.

  15. Neonatal lupus.

    PubMed

    Robles, David T; Jaramillo, Lorena; Hornung, Robin L

    2006-12-10

    An otherwise healthy 5-week-old infant with erythematous plaques predominantly on the face and scalp presented to our dermatology clinic. The mother had been diagnosed with lupus erythematosus 2 years earlier but her disease was quiescent. Neonatal lupus is a rare condition associated with transplacental transfer of IgG anti-SSA/Ro and anti-SSB/La antibodies from the mother to the fetus. Active connective tissue disease in the mother does not have to be present and in fact is often absent. Although the cutaneous, hematologic and hepatic manifestations are transient, the potential for permanent heart block makes it necessary for this to be carefully ruled out. As in this case, the dermatologist may be the one to make the diagnosis and should be aware of the clinical presentation, work-up, and management of this important disease.

  16. Moderate recurrent hypoglycemia during early development leads to persistent changes in affective behavior in the rat.

    PubMed

    Moore, Holly; Craft, Tara K S; Grimaldi, Lisa M; Babic, Bruna; Brunelli, Susan A; Vannucci, Susan J

    2010-07-01

    Recurrent hypoglycemia is a common problem among infants and children that is associated with several metabolic disorders and insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus. Although studies have reported a relationship between a history of juvenile hypoglycemia and psychological health problems, the direct effects of recurrent moderate hypoglycemia have not been fully determined. Thus, in this study, we used an animal model to examine the effects of recurrent hypoglycemia during the juvenile period on affective, social, and motor function (assessed under euglycemic conditions) across development. To model recurrent hypoglycemia, rats were administered 5 U/kg of insulin or saline twice per day from postnatal day (P)10 to P19. Body weight gain was retarded in insulin-treated rats during the treatment period, but recovered by the end of treatment. However, insulin-treated rats displayed increases in affective reactivity that emerged early during treatment and persisted after treatment into early adulthood. Specifically, insulin-treated pups showed increased maternal separation-induced vocalizations as infants, and an exaggerated acoustic startle reflex as juveniles and young adults. Moreover, young adult rats with a history of recurrent juvenile hypoglycemia exhibited increased fear-potentiated startle and increases in behavioral and hormonal responses to restraint stress. Some of these effects were sex-dependent. The changes in affective behavior in insulin-exposed pups were accompanied by decreases in adolescent social play behavior. These results provide evidence that recurrent, transient hypoglycemia during juvenile development can lead to increases in fear-related behavior and stress reactivity. Importantly, these phenotypes are not reversed with normalization of blood glucose and may persist into adulthood.

  17. Severe hypoglycemia while on intensive insulin therapy is not an independent predictor of death after trauma.

    PubMed

    Mowery, Nathan T; Guillamondegui, Oscar D; Gunter, Oliver L; Diaz, Jose J; Collier, Bryan R; Dossett, Lesly A; Dortch, Marcus J; May, Addison K

    2010-02-01

    Fear of the adverse effects of hypoglycemia has limited the widespread application of intensive insulin therapy (goal, 80-110 mg/dL) in the trauma population. We hypothesized that severe hypoglycemia (SH; hypoglycemia and death. : Fifty-seven thousand two hundred eighty-four data entries (1,824 patients) from the euglycemia protocol were analyzed (mortality = 16.0%). Median glucose was 119 mg/dL, with 43% of values between 80 mg/dL and 110 mg/dL, 81% between 80 mg/dL and 150 mg/dL, and 0.3% <40 mg/dL. There were 126 severe hypoglycemic episodes in 111 patients (6.1% of the patients). Multivariate logistic regression revealed that SH was not independently associated with death after adjusting for other known risk factors (odds ratio, 1.244; 95% confidence interval, 0.853-1.816; p = 0.257). Hypoglycemia may be an unavoidable byproduct of tight glucose control with 6.1% of the patients experiencing a severe hypoglycemic event (<40 mg/dL). Hypoglycemia is not an independent predictor of death. Hypoglycemia is a statistical probability of time spent on protocol rather than an event leading to death. These data suggest that lower glucose ranges should be targeted in the trauma population without fear of hypoglycemia's adverse effect on mortality.

  18. Effects of Antecedent GABAA Activation With Alprazolam on Counterregulatory Responses to Hypoglycemia in Healthy Humans

    PubMed Central

    Hedrington, Maka S.; Farmerie, Stephnie; Ertl, Andrew C.; Wang, Zhihui; Tate, Donna B.; Davis, Stephen N.

    2010-01-01

    OBJECTIVE To date, there are no data investigating the effects of GABAA activation on counterregulatory responses during repeated hypoglycemia in humans. The aim of this study was to determine the effects of prior GABAA activation using the benzodiazepine alprazolam on the neuroendocrine and autonomic nervous system (ANS) and metabolic counterregulatory responses during next-day hypoglycemia in healthy humans. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS Twenty-eight healthy individuals (14 male and 14 female, age 27 ± 6 years, BMI 24 ± 3 kg/m2, and A1C 5.2 ± 0.1%) participated in four randomized, double-blind, 2-day studies. Day 1 consisted of either morning and afternoon 2-h hyperinsulinemic euglycemia or 2-h hyperinsulinemic hypoglycemia (2.9 mmol/l) with either 1 mg alprazolam or placebo administered 30 min before the start of each clamp. Day 2 consisted of a single-step hyperinsulinemic-hypoglycemic clamp of 2.9 mmol/l. RESULTS Despite similar hypoglycemia (2.9 ± 1 mmol/l) and insulinemia (672 ± 108 pmol/l) during day 2 studies, GABAA activation with alprazolam during day 1 euglycemia resulted in significant blunting (P < 0.05) of ANS (epinephrine, norepinephrine, muscle sympathetic nerve activity, and pancreatic polypeptide), neuroendocrine (glucagon and growth hormone), and metabolic (glucose kinetics, lipolysis, and glycogenolysis) counterregulatory responses. GABAA activation with alprazolam during prior hypoglycemia caused further significant (P < 0.05) decrements in subsequent glucagon, growth hormone, pancreatic polypeptide, and muscle sympathetic nerve activity counterregulatory responses. CONCLUSIONS Alprazolam activation of GABAA pathways during day 1 hypoglycemia can play an important role in regulating a spectrum of key physiologic responses during subsequent (day 2) hypoglycemia in healthy man. PMID:20086227

  19. Somatotropic, lactotropic and adrenocortical responses to insulin-induced hypoglycemia in patients with rheumatoid arthritis.

    PubMed

    Rovensky, Jozef; Bakosová, Jana; Koska, Juraj; Ksinantová, Lucia; Jezová, Daniela; Vigas, Milan

    2002-06-01

    Neuroendocrine mechanisms have been suggested to play an important role in the onset and progression of rheumatoid arthritis (RA). The aim of this study was to evaluate hypothalamic-pituitary functions in RA patients by measurement of hormone responses to insulin-induced hypoglycemia. Insulin-hypoglycemia (Actrapid HM 0.1 IU/kg, i.v. as a bolus) was induced in 17 male patients and in 11 age-, gender-, and weight-matched healthy subjects. Concentrations of growth hormone (GH), prolactin (PRL) and cortisol were analyzed in plasma. PRL release after thyreoliberin stimulation (TRH, 200 g, i.v.) was determined in 21 patients with active forms of RA and in 12 control subjects to evaluate pituitary lactotropic response. In RA patients, basal concentrations of glucose, GH, PRL, and cortisol were in the normal range and they were comparable to those in the control group. Stress of hypoglycemia induced significant elevation of GH, PRL, and cortisol concentrations in all groups. Cortisol responses to hypoglycemia were comparable in patients and in control subjects. GH release during hypoglycemia was increased (p < 0.05) and PRL response was attenuated (p < 0.05) in RA patients versus control subjects. After TRH administration, PRL response was the same in patients as in healthy subjects. In conclusion, the present study revealed an altered hypothalamic-pituitary function in patients with RA, namely, an enhanced somatotropic and reduced lactotropic activation in response to insulin-induced hypoglycemia. Basal hormone levels and cortisol release during hypoglycemia were similar to those in healthy subjects.

  20. A randomized trial of a home system to reduce nocturnal hypoglycemia in type 1 diabetes.

    PubMed

    Maahs, David M; Calhoun, Peter; Buckingham, Bruce A; Chase, H Peter; Hramiak, Irene; Lum, John; Cameron, Fraser; Bequette, B Wayne; Aye, Tandy; Paul, Terri; Slover, Robert; Wadwa, R Paul; Wilson, Darrell M; Kollman, Craig; Beck, Roy W

    2014-07-01

    Overnight hypoglycemia occurs frequently in individuals with type 1 diabetes and can result in loss of consciousness, seizure, or even death. We conducted an in-home randomized trial to determine whether nocturnal hypoglycemia could be safely reduced by temporarily suspending pump insulin delivery when hypoglycemia was predicted by an algorithm based on continuous glucose monitoring (CGM) glucose levels. Following an initial run-in phase, a 42-night trial was conducted in 45 individuals aged 15-45 years with type 1 diabetes in which each night was assigned randomly to either having the predictive low-glucose suspend system active (intervention night) or inactive (control night). The primary outcome was the proportion of nights in which ≥1 CGM glucose values ≤60 mg/dL occurred. Overnight hypoglycemia with at least one CGM value ≤60 mg/dL occurred on 196 of 942 (21%) intervention nights versus 322 of 970 (33%) control nights (odds ratio 0.52 [95% CI 0.43-0.64]; P < 0.001). Median hypoglycemia area under the curve was reduced by 81%, and hypoglycemia lasting >2 h was reduced by 74%. Overnight sensor glucose was >180 mg/dL during 57% of control nights and 59% of intervention nights (P = 0.17), while morning blood glucose was >180 mg/dL following 21% and 27% of nights, respectively (P < 0.001), and >250 mg/dL following 6% and 6%, respectively. Morning ketosis was present <1% of the time in each arm. Use of a nocturnal low-glucose suspend system can substantially reduce overnight hypoglycemia without an increase in morning ketosis. © 2014 by the American Diabetes Association.

  1. Severe hypoglycemia following acute aluminum phosphide (rice tablet) poisoning; a case report and review of the literature.

    PubMed

    Mehrpour, Omid; Aghabiklooei, Abbas; Abdollahi, Mohammad; Singh, Surjit

    2012-01-01

    Aluminum phosphide (AlP) as 3 g tablet is widely used in Iran to protect stored food grains from pests. Hyperglycemia following its ingestion has been already reported in the recent years but severe hypoglycemia is uncommon. Here, we report a 19 year old male who attempted suicide with one tablet of AlP and demonstrated severe hypoglycemia. Despite restoration of blood glucose concentration to normal, he failed to respond to supportive treatment and died. The possible mechanisms leading to severe hypoglycemia are discussed. Though severe hypoglycemia is rare following AlP poisoning, physicians managing such patients should be aware of it.

  2. How Low Can You Go? Reducing Rates of Hypoglycemia in the Non-critical Care Hospital Setting.

    PubMed

    Kulasa, Kristen; Juang, Patricia

    2017-09-01

    The purpose of this review is to discuss strategies to reduce rates of hypoglycemia in the non-critical care setting. Strategies to reduce hypoglycemia rates should focus on the most common causes of iatrogenic hypoglycemia. Creating a standardized insulin order set with built-in clinical decision support can help reduce rates of hypoglycemia. Coordination of blood glucose monitoring, meal tray delivery, and insulin administration is an important and challenging task. Protocols and processes should be in place to deal with interruptions in nutrition to minimize risk of hypoglycemia. A glucose management page that has all the pertinent information summarized in one page allows for active surveillance and quick identification of patients who may be at risk of hypoglycemia. Finally, education of prescribers, nurses, food and nutrition services, and patients is important so that every member of the healthcare team can work together to prevent hypoglycemia. By implementing strategies to reduce hypoglycemia, we hope to lower rates of adverse events and improve quality of care while also reducing hospital costs. Future research should focus on the impact of an overall reduction in hypoglycemia to determine whether the expected benefits are achieved.

  3. The obstetric and neonatal implications of a low value on the 50-g glucose screening test.

    PubMed

    Ma, Kimberly K; Mele, Lisa; Landon, Mark B; Spong, Catherine Y; Ramin, Susan M; Casey, Brian; Wapner, Ronald J; Varner, Michael W; Rouse, Dwight J; Thorp, John M; Sciscione, Anthony; Catalano, Patrick; Harper, Margaret; Saade, George; Caritis, Steve N; Sorokin, Yoram; Peaceman, Alan M

    2013-10-01

    To assess the relationship between a low 50-g 1-hour glucose loading test (GLT) and maternal and neonatal outcomes in women without diabetes. This was a secondary analysis of a multicenter observational cohort from a randomized trial of treatment for mild gestational diabetes. Maternal and neonatal outcomes were compared between women with GLT values < 90 mg/dL and those with results 90 to 119 mg/dL. Of 436 enrolled women, 297 (68.1%) had a GLT result of 90 to 119 mg/dL and 139 (31.9%) had a result of < 90 mg/dL. There was a lower incidence of neonatal hypoglycemia in those with a GLT < 90 mg/dL (5.7% versus 16.5%, p = 0.006). Other outcomes were not associated with test results. A GLT result < 90 mg/dL compared with 90 to 119 mg/dL is associated with a lower risk of neonatal hypoglycemia, but no other significant findings. Thieme Medical Publishers 333 Seventh Avenue, New York, NY 10001, USA.

  4. Protein Malnutrition Modifies Innate Immunity and Gene Expression by Intestinal Epithelial Cells and Human Rotavirus Infection in Neonatal Gnotobiotic Pigs.

    PubMed

    Vlasova, Anastasia N; Paim, Francine C; Kandasamy, Sukumar; Alhamo, Moyasar A; Fischer, David D; Langel, Stephanie N; Deblais, Loic; Kumar, Anand; Chepngeno, Juliet; Shao, Lulu; Huang, Huang-Chi; Candelero-Rueda, Rosario A; Rajashekara, Gireesh; Saif, Linda J

    2017-01-01

    Malnutrition affects millions of children in developing countries, compromising immunity and contributing to increased rates of death from infectious diseases. Rotavirus is a major etiological agent of childhood diarrhea in developing countries, where malnutrition is prevalent. However, the interactions between the two and their combined effects on immune and intestinal functions are poorly understood. In this study, we used neonatal gnotobiotic (Gn) pigs transplanted with the fecal microbiota of a healthy 2-month-old infant (HIFM) and fed protein-deficient or -sufficient bovine milk diets. Protein deficiency induced hypoproteinemia, hypoalbuminemia, hypoglycemia, stunting, and generalized edema in Gn pigs, as observed in protein-malnourished children. Irrespective of the diet, human rotavirus (HRV) infection early, at HIFM posttransplantation day 3 (PTD3), resulted in adverse health effects and higher mortality rates (45 to 75%) than later HRV infection (PTD10). Protein malnutrition exacerbated HRV infection and affected the morphology and function of the small intestinal epithelial barrier. In pigs infected with HRV at PTD10, there was a uniform decrease in the function and/or frequencies of natural killer cells, plasmacytoid dendritic cells, and CD103(+) and apoptotic mononuclear cells and altered gene expression profiles of intestinal epithelial cells (chromogranin A, mucin 2, proliferating cell nuclear antigen, SRY-Box 9, and villin). Thus, we have established the first HIFM-transplanted neonatal pig model that recapitulates major aspects of protein malnutrition in children and can be used to evaluate physiologically relevant interventions. Our findings provide an explanation of why nutrient-rich diets alone may lack efficacy in malnourished children. IMPORTANCE Malnutrition and rotavirus infection, prevalent in developing countries, individually and in combination, affect the health of millions of children, compromising their immunity and increasing the rates

  5. Protein Malnutrition Modifies Innate Immunity and Gene Expression by Intestinal Epithelial Cells and Human Rotavirus Infection in Neonatal Gnotobiotic Pigs

    PubMed Central

    Paim, Francine C.; Kandasamy, Sukumar; Alhamo, Moyasar A.; Fischer, David D.; Langel, Stephanie N.; Deblais, Loic; Kumar, Anand; Chepngeno, Juliet; Shao, Lulu; Huang, Huang-Chi; Candelero-Rueda, Rosario A.; Rajashekara, Gireesh

    2017-01-01

    ABSTRACT Malnutrition affects millions of children in developing countries, compromising immunity and contributing to increased rates of death from infectious diseases. Rotavirus is a major etiological agent of childhood diarrhea in developing countries, where malnutrition is prevalent. However, the interactions between the two and their combined effects on immune and intestinal functions are poorly understood. In this study, we used neonatal gnotobiotic (Gn) pigs transplanted with the fecal microbiota of a healthy 2-month-old infant (HIFM) and fed protein-deficient or -sufficient bovine milk diets. Protein deficiency induced hypoproteinemia, hypoalbuminemia, hypoglycemia, stunting, and generalized edema in Gn pigs, as observed in protein-malnourished children. Irrespective of the diet, human rotavirus (HRV) infection early, at HIFM posttransplantation day 3 (PTD3), resulted in adverse health effects and higher mortality rates (45 to 75%) than later HRV infection (PTD10). Protein malnutrition exacerbated HRV infection and affected the morphology and function of the small intestinal epithelial barrier. In pigs infected with HRV at PTD10, there was a uniform decrease in the function and/or frequencies of natural killer cells, plasmacytoid dendritic cells, and CD103+ and apoptotic mononuclear cells and altered gene expression profiles of intestinal epithelial cells (chromogranin A, mucin 2, proliferating cell nuclear antigen, SRY-Box 9, and villin). Thus, we have established the first HIFM-transplanted neonatal pig model that recapitulates major aspects of protein malnutrition in children and can be used to evaluate physiologically relevant interventions. Our findings provide an explanation of why nutrient-rich diets alone may lack efficacy in malnourished children. IMPORTANCE Malnutrition and rotavirus infection, prevalent in developing countries, individually and in combination, affect the health of millions of children, compromising their immunity and increasing

  6. Insulin-induced hypoglycemia suppresses plasma parathyroid hormone levels in patients with adrenal insufficiency.

    PubMed

    Suliman, Abdulwahab M; Freaney, Rosemarie; McBrinn, Yvonne; Gibney, James; Murray, Barbara; Smith, Thomas P; McKenna, T Joseph

    2004-10-01

    Hypoglycemia has been reported to cause suppression of parathyroid hormone (PTH) levels in serum in normal subjects. It is possible that increasing cortisol levels in response to hypoglycemia was responsible. To examine this possibility the acute PTH response to insulin administration and resulting hypoglycemia was examined in patients with adrenal insufficiency. The possible acute impact of insulin-induced hypoglycemia on bone formation and bone resorption in the absence of an endogenous cortisol response was also examined. A prospective open study was undertaken to examine the acute effects of insulin and resulting hypoglycemia on PTH levels, on bone formation as indicated by serum levels of aminoterminal propeptide of type 1 procollagen (PINP), and on bone resorption as indicated by serum levels of beta carboxy terminal telopeptide of type 1 collagen (beta-CTx). Seven patients with adrenal insufficiency participated. These patients were studied on 3 occasions under different conditions: (1) when insulin was administered to induce hypoglycemia while the patients received their routine glucocorticoid replacement; (2) when the patients received their routine glucocorticoid replacement, but were not rendered hypoglycemic; and (3) when they did not receive glucocorticoid replacement and were not rendered hypoglycemic, ie, untreated. This facilitated isolation of the PTH response to insulin and hypoglycemia from the effects of the normal increase in endogenous cortisol levels in response to hypoglycemia. Blood samples were taken at baseline and after 3 hours while the subjects continued fasting for measurement of plasma glucose, serum ionized calcium (Cai), magnesium, phosphate, PINP, PTH, and beta-CTx. Insulin 0.075 IU/kg body weight was given intravenously after the first blood sample. The usual morning glucocorticoid replacement dose was given 20 minutes after the baseline blood sample was obtained. After the administration of insulin, plasma glucose decreased from

  7. Dumping syndrome: an unusual cause of severe hyperinsulinemic hypoglycemia in neurologically impaired children with gastrostomy.

    PubMed

    Bizzarri, C; Cervoni, M; Crea, F; Cutrera, R; Schiavino, A; Schiaffini, R; Cappa, M

    2011-02-01

    This paper describes severe hyperinsulinemic hypoglycemia during bolus enteral feeding in two neurologically impaired children. Both children were affected by dysphagia with swallowing difficulties; caloric intake was inadequate. For these reasons, percutaneous endoscopic gastrostomy had been positioned during the first months of life. In one patient due to persisting vomiting, after a few months, a gastrojejunal tube (PEG-J) was inserted. Hypoglycemia was revealed by routine blood tests, without evidence of specific symptoms. Continuous subcutaneous glucose monitoring showed wide glucose excursions, ranging from hypoglycemia to hyperglycemia. Extremely high levels of insulin were detected at the time of hypoglycemia. A diagnosis of dumping syndrome (DS) was suspected in both children. In the child with PEG, the tip of the gastrostomy catheter was found to be lying in the bulbus duodeni. Once this had been pulled back, hypoglycemic episodes disappeared. The child with PEG-J needed continuous enteral feeding to reach a normal glucose balance. DS is a relatively common complication in children with gastrostomy, but extremely irregular glucose levels, ranging from hypoglycemia to hyperglycemia, and increased insulin secretion had not been previously demonstrated. The incidence of DS is probably underestimated in children receiving enteral feeding for neurological impairment. In these patients intensive monitoring of blood glucose levels should be performed to calibrate meals. Repeated underestimated hypoglycemic episodes could worsen neurological damage and cause a deterioration in clinical conditions.

  8. Glycogen storage disease type IX and growth hormone deficiency presenting as severe ketotic hypoglycemia.

    PubMed

    Hodax, Juanita K; Uysal, Serife; Quintos, Jose Bernardo; Phornphutkul, Chanika

    2017-02-01

    Glycogen storage disease (GSD) type IX and growth hormone (GH) deficiency cause ketotic hypoglycemia via different mechanisms and are not known to be associated. We describe a patient presenting with severe ketotic hypoglycemia found to have both GSD IX and isolated GH deficiency. A 3-year-and-11-month-old boy with a history of prematurity, autism, developmental delay, seizures, and feeding difficulty was admitted for poor weight gain and symptomatic hypoglycemia. He was nondysmorphic, with a height of 93.8 cm (2%, -1.97 SDS), and has no hepatomegaly. He developed symptomatic hypoglycemia, with a serum glucose level of 37 mg/dL after 14 h of fasting challenge. Critical sample showed a GH of 0.24 ng/mL. GH provocative stimulation testing was done with a peak GH of 2.8 ng/mL. Brain magnetic resonance imaging showed a hypoplastic pituitary gland. Given the clinical symptoms, suspicion for mitochondrial disease was high. Dual Genome Panel by Massively Parallel Sequencing revealed a hemizygous variant c.721A>G (p1241V) in the X-linked PHKA2 gene, a causative gene for GSD IX. Red blood cell PhK enzyme activity testing was low, supporting the diagnosis. Given the patient's developmental delays that were not explained by GH deficiency alone, further investigation showed two unrelated conditions resulting in deranged metabolic adaptation to fasting leading to severe hypoglycemia.

  9. Experimental hypoglycemia is a human model of stress-induced hyperalgesia.

    PubMed

    Gibbons, Christopher H; Adler, Gail K; Bonyhay, Istvan; Freeman, Roy

    2012-11-01

    Hypoglycemia is a physiological stress that leads to the release of stress hormones, such as catecholamines and glucocorticoids, and proinflammatory cytokines. These factors, in euglycemic animal models, are associated with stress-induced hyperalgesia. The primary aim of this study was to determine whether experimental hypoglycemia in humans would lead to a hyperalgesic state. In 2 separate 3-day admissions separated by 1 to 3 months, healthy study participants were exposed to two 2-hour euglycemic hyperinsulinemic clamps or two 2-hour hypoglycemic hyperinsulinemic clamps. Thermal quantitative sensory testing and thermal pain assessments were measured the day before and the day after euglycemia or hypoglycemia. In contrast to prior euglycemia exposure, prior hypoglycemia exposure resulted in enhanced pain sensitivity to hot and cold stimuli as well as enhanced temporal summation to repeated heat-pain stimuli. These findings suggest that prior exposure to hypoglycemia causes a state of enhanced pain sensitivity that is consistent with stress-induced hyperalgesia. This human model may provide a framework for hypothesis testing and targeted, mechanism-based pharmacological interventions to delineate the molecular basis of hyperalgesia and pain susceptibility.

  10. Identification of risk factors for suffering fear of hypoglycemia in type 1 Diabetes Mellitus patients.

    PubMed

    Anarte, María Teresa; Carreira, Mónica; Machado, Alberto; Domínguez, Marta; Tapia, María José; Valdés, Sergio; Ruiz de Adana, María Soledad; Soriguer, Federico

    2014-12-01

    Hypoglycemia is one of the main burdens for type I Diabetes Mellitus (DM I) patients. The consequences of hypoglycemia can be quite unpleasant due to the variety of disagreeable physical and psychological symptoms it triggers. The patient's previous experience with hypoglycemia episodes will condition his psychological reaction to future episodes, promoting behavioral modifications that associate with poor glycemic control and worse prognosis, and even with developing psychological disorders, leading to fear of hypoglycemia (FH). To be able to provide tailored prevention and treatment of patients with FH it is necessary to identify the risk factors in DM I patients. We developed and validated the FH-15 scale, a novel instrument to assess FH, which showed good concurrent and predictive validity in DM I patients. In this work we aim to identify the risk factors for suffering FH by detecting DM I patients with FH using the FH-15 scale and then analyzing the association of clinical and sociodemographic variables. We found that age, needing help to resolve an episode of hypoglycemia, and a perceived lack of social support are risk factors for suffering FH. © 2014 Scandinavian Psychological Associations and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  11. Understanding the construct of fear of hypoglycemia in pediatric type 1 diabetes.

    PubMed

    Shepard, Jaclyn A; Vajda, Karen; Nyer, Maren; Clarke, William; Gonder-Frederick, Linda

    2014-01-01

    Fear of hypoglycemia (FoH) can be a significant barrier to glycemic control in pediatric type 1 diabetes (T1D). This study aimed to explore underlying constructs of the Hypoglycemia Fear Survey (HFS) for parents (PHFS) and children (CHFS). Data were aggregated from five studies of 259 youth with T1D and 250 parents. Exploratory Factor Analysis was used to determine the underlying factors of the CHFS and PHFS. Similar four-factor solutions were found for the CHFS and PHFS. Both subscales consisted of two factors: Behavior Subscale (1) behaviors used to keep blood glucose (BG) high to prevent hypoglycemia (Maintain High BG) and (2) other actions to avoid hypoglycemia (Avoidance); Worry Subscale (1) concerns about helplessness (Helplessness) and (2) negative social consequences associated with hypoglycemia (Social Consequences).  These constructs provide a more comprehensive understanding of pediatric FoH and have implications for interventions aimed at reducing FoH in this population. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society of Pediatric Psychology. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  12. Sensor-Augmented Insulin Pumps and Hypoglycemia Prevention in Type 1 Diabetes.

    PubMed

    Steineck, Isabelle; Ranjan, Ajenthen; Nørgaard, Kirsten; Schmidt, Signe

    2017-01-01

    Hypoglycemia can lead to seizures, unconsciousness, or death. Insulin pump treatment reduces the frequency of severe hypoglycemia compared with multiple daily injections treatment. The addition of a continuous glucose monitor, so-called sensor-augmented pump (SAP) treatment, has the potential to further limit the duration and severity of hypoglycemia as the system can detect and in some systems act on impending and prevailing low blood glucose levels. In this narrative review we summarize the available knowledge on SAPs with and without automated insulin suspension, in relation to hypoglycemia prevention. We present evidence from randomized trials, observational studies, and meta-analyses including nonpregnant individuals with type 1 diabetes mellitus. We also outline concerns regarding SAPs with and without automated insulin suspension. There is evidence that SAP treatment reduces episodes of moderate and severe hypoglycemia compared with multiple daily injections plus self-monitoring of blood glucose. There is some evidence that SAPs both with and without automated suspension reduces the frequency of severe hypoglycemic events compared with insulin pumps without continuous glucose monitoring.

  13. Biological Characterization of Gene Response to Insulin-Induced Hypoglycemia in Mouse Retina

    PubMed Central

    Emery, Martine; Nanchen, Natacha; Preitner, Frédéric; Ibberson, Mark; Roduit, Raphaël

    2016-01-01

    Glucose is the most important metabolic substrate of the retina and maintenance of normoglycemia is an essential challenge for diabetic patients. Chronic, exaggerated, glycemic excursions could lead to cardiovascular diseases, nephropathy, neuropathy and retinopathy. We recently showed that hypoglycemia induced retinal cell death in mouse via caspase 3 activation and glutathione (GSH) decrease. Ex vivo experiments in 661W photoreceptor cells confirmed the low-glucose induction of death via superoxide production and activation of caspase 3, which was concomitant with a decrease of GSH content. We evaluate herein retinal gene expression 4 h and 48 h after insulin-induced hypoglycemia. Microarray analysis demonstrated clusters of genes whose expression was modified by hypoglycemia and we discuss the potential implication of those genes in retinal cell death. In addition, we identify by gene set enrichment analysis, three important pathways, including lysosomal function, GSH metabolism and apoptotic pathways. Then we tested the effect of recurrent hypoglycemia (three successive 4h periods of hypoglycemia spaced by 48 h recovery) on retinal cell death. Interestingly, exposure to multiple hypoglycemic events prevented GSH decrease and retinal cell death, or adapted the retina to external stress by restoring GSH level comparable to control situation. We hypothesize that scavenger GSH is a key compound in this apoptotic process, and maintaining “normal” GSH level, as well as a strict glycemic control, represents a therapeutic challenge in order to avoid side effects of diabetes, especially diabetic retinopathy. PMID:26918849

  14. Using miglitol at 30 min before meal is effective in hyperinsulinemic hypoglycemia after a total gastrectomy.

    PubMed

    Shirakawa, Jun; Murohashi, Yuko; Okazaki, Noriko; Yamazaki, Shunsuke; Tamura, Tetsuya; Okuyama, Tomoko; Togashi, Yu; Terauchi, Yasuo

    2014-01-01

    A 45-year-old woman who had undergone total gastrectomy for gastric cancer presented with a history of postprandial hypoglycemic episodes with loss of consciousness after meals. Laboratory findings revealed marked hyperinsulinemia and hypoglycemia after a meal. We first treated the patient with octreotide; however, she was unable to continue the treatment because of adverse effects of the drug, such as nausea and headache. Diazoxide was used next for preventing hyperinsulinemia; however, this was not effective for suppressing the postprandial insulin secretion. Since hypoglycemia following gastrectomy is thought to be caused by rapid delivery of nutrients into the duodenum, we performed a meal tolerance test while varying the timing of administration of miglitol in relation to the meal. Miglitol was administered 30 min before, just before, or both 30 min and just before a meal. In the case of administration just before a meal, insulin secretion was suppressed, although hypoglycemia was not prevented. Administration of the drug 30 min before a meal prevented postprandial hypoglycemia by slowing the increase of the blood glucose and serum insulin levels following the meal to a greater degree than administration just before a meal. Miglitol administration both 30 min and just before a meal caused an even smoother increase in blood glucose and serum insulin levels following the meal. In this report, we propose a new therapeutic approach for reactive hypoglycemia after gastrectomy, namely, administration of miglitol 30 min before meals.

  15. Evolution and resolution of human brain perfusion responses to the stress of induced hypoglycemia.

    PubMed

    Teh, Ming Ming; Dunn, Joel T; Choudhary, Pratik; Samarasinghe, Yohan; Macdonald, Ian; O'Doherty, Michael; Marsden, Paul; Reed, Laurence J; Amiel, Stephanie A

    2010-11-01

    The relationship between the human brain response to acute stress and subjective, behavioural and physiological responses is poorly understood. We have examined the human cerebral response to the intense interoceptive stressor of hypoglycemia, controlling plasma glucose at either normal fasting concentrations (5 mmol/l, n=7) or at hypoglycemia (2.7 mmol/l, n=10) for 1 h in healthy volunteers. Hypoglycemia was associated with symptomatic responses, counterregulatory neuroendocrine responses and a sequential pattern of brain regional engagement, mapped as changes in relative cerebral perfusion using [(15)O]-H(2)O water positron emission tomography. The early cerebral response comprised activation bilaterally in anterior cingulate cortex (ACC) and thalamic pulvinar, with deactivation in posterior parahippocampal gyrus. Later responses (>20 min) engaged bilateral anterior insula, ventral striatum and pituitary. Following resolution of hypoglycemia, the majority of responses returned to baseline, save persistent engagement of the ACC and sustained elevation of growth hormone and cortisol. Catecholamine responses correlated with increased perfusion in pulvinar and medial thalamus, ACC and pituitary, while growth hormone and cortisol responses showed no correlation with thalamic activation but did show additional correlation with the hypothalamus and ventral striatum bilaterally. These data demonstrate complex dynamic responses to the stressor of hypoglycemia that would be expected to drive physiological and behavioural changes to remedy the state. Further, these data show that sustained stress and its aftermath engage distinct sets of brain regions, providing a neural substrate for adaptive or 'allostasic' responses to stressors.

  16. Mitochondrial GTP Insensitivity Contributes to Hypoglycemia in Hyperinsulinemia Hyperammonemia by Inhibiting Glucagon Release

    PubMed Central

    Choi, Cheol Soo; Lee, Hui-Young; Cabrera, Over; Pongratz, Rebecca L.; Zhao, Xiaojian; Birkenfeld, Andreas L.; Li, Changhong; Berggren, Per-Olof; Stanley, Charles; Shulman, Gerald I.

    2014-01-01

    Mitochondrial GTP (mtGTP)-insensitive mutations in glutamate dehydrogenase (GDHH454Y) result in fasting and amino acid–induced hypoglycemia in hyperinsulinemia hyperammonemia (HI/HA). Surprisingly, hypoglycemia may occur in this disorder despite appropriately suppressed insulin. To better understand the islet-specific contribution, transgenic mice expressing the human activating mutation in β-cells (H454Y mice) were characterized in vivo. As in the humans with HI/HA, H454Y mice had fasting hypoglycemia, but plasma insulin concentrations were similar to the controls. Paradoxically, both glucose- and glutamine-stimulated insulin secretion were severely impaired in H454Y mice. Instead, lack of a glucagon response during hypoglycemic clamps identified impaired counterregulation. Moreover, both insulin and glucagon secretion were impaired in perifused islets. Acute pharmacologic inhibition of GDH restored both insulin and glucagon secretion and normalized glucose tolerance in vivo. These studies support the presence of an mtGTP-dependent signal generated via β-cell GDH that inhibits α-cells. As such, in children with activating GDH mutations of HI/HA, this insulin-independent glucagon suppression may contribute importantly to symptomatic hypoglycemia. The identification of a human mutation causing congenital hypoglucagonemic hypoglycemia highlights a central role of the mtGTP–GDH–glucagon axis in glucose homeostasis. PMID:25024374

  17. Understanding the Construct of Fear of Hypoglycemia in Pediatric Type 1 Diabetes

    PubMed Central

    Shepard, Jaclyn A.; Vajda, Karen; Nyer, Maren; Clarke, William

    2014-01-01

    Objective Fear of hypoglycemia (FoH) can be a significant barrier to glycemic control in pediatric type 1 diabetes (T1D). This study aimed to explore underlying constructs of the Hypoglycemia Fear Survey (HFS) for parents (PHFS) and children (CHFS). Methods Data were aggregated from five studies of 259 youth with T1D and 250 parents. Exploratory Factor Analysis was used to determine the underlying factors of the CHFS and PHFS. Results Similar four-factor solutions were found for the CHFS and PHFS. Both subscales consisted of two factors: Behavior Subscale (1) behaviors used to keep blood glucose (BG) high to prevent hypoglycemia (Maintain High BG) and (2) other actions to avoid hypoglycemia (Avoidance); Worry Subscale (1) concerns about helplessness (Helplessness) and (2) negative social consequences associated with hypoglycemia (Social Consequences). Conclusions These constructs provide a more comprehensive understanding of pediatric FoH and have implications for interventions aimed at reducing FoH in this population. PMID:25214644

  18. Management of Hypoglycemia in Nondiabetic Palliative Care Patients: A Prognosis-Based Approach

    PubMed Central

    Kok, Victor C.; Lee, Ping-Hsueh

    2016-01-01

    Hypoglycemia due to underlying terminal illness in nondiabetic end-of-life patients receiving palliative care has not been fully studied. For example, we do not have adequate information on the frequency of spontaneous hypoglycemia in patients as occurs during the different stages of palliative care. Depending on the case-mix nature of the palliative care ward, at least 2% of palliative care patients may develop hypoglycemia near the end of life when the remaining life expectancy counts down in days. As many as 25%–60% of these patients will neither have autonomic response nor have neuroglycopenic symptoms during a hypoglycemic episode. Although it is not difficult to diagnose and confirm a true hypoglycemia when it is suspected clinically, an episode of hypoglycemic attack may go unnoticed in some patients in a hospice setting. Current trends in palliative care focus on providing treatments based on a prognosis-based framework, involving shared decision-making between the patient and caregivers, after considering the prognosis, professional recommendations, patient’s autonomy, family expectations, and the current methods for treating the patient’s physical symptoms and existential suffering. This paper provides professional care teams with both moral and literature support for providing care to nondiabetic patients presenting with hypoglycemia. PMID:27920549

  19. The Impact of Parents’ Sleep Quality and Hypoglycemia Worry on Diabetes Self-Efficacy

    PubMed Central

    Herbert, Linda Jones; Monaghan, Maureen; Cogen, Fran; Streisand, Randi

    2014-01-01

    Parents of young children with type 1 diabetes (T1D) may experience poor sleep quality possibly impacting their confidence in T1D management. This study investigated sleep characteristics among parents of children with T1D and relationships amongst parents’ sleep quality, hypoglycemia worry, and diabetes self-efficacy. As part of baseline assessment for a randomized clinical trial (RCT) to promote parental management of T1D, 134 parents of children ≤ age 6 reported on demographics, parent sleep characteristics, hypoglycemia worry, and diabetes self-efficacy. Parents reported they slept less time than recommended by the National Sleep Foundation and endorsed greater global sleep problems than standardized norms of healthy adults; 1/3 of parents reported their overall sleep quality was “fairly bad” or “very bad.” Hypoglycemia worry and parents’ sleep quality were both significantly related to diabetes self-efficacy, but parents’ sleep quality did not mediate the relationship of hypoglycemia worry and diabetes self-efficacy. Many parents experience disrupted sleep that impacts their perceived ability to perform T1D management. Interventions designed to improve parental T1D self-efficacy should consider sleep and concerns about children’s hypoglycemia. PMID:24738994

  20. Lethal acute lung injury and hypoglycemia after subcutaneous administration of monochloroacetic acid.

    PubMed

    Kato, Junko; Dote, Tomotaro; Shimizu, Hiroyasu; Shimbo, Yukari; Fujihara, Michiko; Kono, Koichi

    2006-06-01

    Hypoglycemia is suspected in the acute lethal toxicity induced by cutaneous exposure to monochloroacetic acid (MCA). Although it has been shown that hepato-renal dysfunction is involved, the mechanism and the target organs that directly affect mortality remain to be determined. We suspected respiratory failure as a main cause of death in some reported cases. We investigated dose-response effects, hypoglycemia, and lung injury in rats exposed to MCA. Serum glucose, blood gases, and parameters of alveolar injury in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) were analysed 2 and 4 h after subcutaneous administration of MCA (108, 135 or 163 mg/kg). Apparent pulmonary injury and hypoglycemia were not identified 2 h after administration, but lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) and total cells in BALF were dose-dependently increased; and severe hypoglycemia was identified 4 h after administration. Blood gas analysis showed remarkable alveolar gas dysfunction as exchange in the 163 mg/kg group. Thus, hypoglycemia and lung injury appear to cause death in response to MCA exposure.

  1. Brain Glycogen Decreases During Intense Exercise Without Hypoglycemia: The Possible Involvement of Serotonin.

    PubMed

    Matsui, Takashi; Soya, Shingo; Kawanaka, Kentaro; Soya, Hideaki

    2015-07-01

    Brain glycogen stored in astrocytes, a source of lactate as a neuronal energy source, decreases during prolonged exercise with hypoglycemia. However, brain glycogen dynamics during exercise without hypoglycemia remain unknown. Since intense exercise increases brain noradrenaline and serotonin as known inducers for brain glycogenolysis, we hypothesized that brain glycogen decreases with intense exercise not accompanied by hypoglycemia. To test this hypothesis, we employed a well-established acute intense exercise model of swimming in rats. Rats swam for fourteen 20 s bouts with a weight equal to 8 % of their body mass and were sacrificed using high-power (10 kW) microwave irradiation to inactivate brain enzymes for accurate detection of brain glycogen and monoamines. Intense exercise did not alter blood glucose, but did increase blood lactate levels. Immediately after exercise, brain glycogen decreased and brain lactate increased in the hippocampus, cerebellum, cortex, and brainstem. Simultaneously, serotonin turnover in the hippocampus and brainstem mutually increased and were associated with decreased brain glycogen. Intense swimming exercise that does not induce hypoglycemia decreases brain glycogen associated with increased brain lactate, implying an importance of glycogen in brain energetics during intense exercise even without hypoglycemia. Activated serotonergic regulation is a possible underlying mechanism for intense exercise-induced glycogenolysis at least in the hippocampus and brainstem.

  2. beta. -Receptor-mediated increase in cerebral blood flow during hypoglycemia

    SciTech Connect

    Hollinger, B.R.; Bryan, R.M. )

    1987-10-01

    The authors tested the hypothesis that {beta}-adrenergic receptor stimulation is involved with the increase in regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF) during hypoglycemia. Rats were surgically prepared with the use of halothane-nitrous oxide anesthesia. A plaster restraining cast was placed around the hindquarters, and anesthesia was discontinued. Hypoglycemia was produced by an intravenous injection of insulin; normoglycemic control rates were given saline. Propranolol was administered to some control and some hypoglycemic rats to block the {beta}-adrenergic receptors. Regional CBF was measured using 4-(N-methyl-{sup 14}C)iodoantipyrine. Regional CBF increased during hypoglycemia in rats that were not treated with propranolol. The increase varied from {approximately}60 to 200% depending on the brain region. During hypoglycemia, propranolol abolished the increase in rCBF in the hypothalamus, cerebellum, and pyramidal tract. In other regions the increase in rCBF was only 33-65% of the increase in hypoglycemic rats that were not treated with propranolol. They conclude that {beta}-receptor stimulation plays a major role in the increase in rCBF during hypoglycemia.

  3. Ketotic hypoglycemia of childhood--a clinical trial of several unifying etiological hypotheses.

    PubMed

    Dahlquist, G; Gentz, J; Hagenfeldt, L; Larsson, A; Löw, H; Persson, B; Zetterström, R

    1979-09-01

    We have studied 15 children referred to St. Göran's Children's Hospital because of suspected ketotic hypoglycemia. The patients were investigated according to a program designed to test several hypotheses--old and new--postulated to explain the etiology of ketotic hypoglycemia. We have used the classical ketogenic provocation with a low calorie, high fat diet and measured the blood levels of several substrates and hormones as well as the urinary excretion of certain metabolites and hormones. Out of the 15 children, 6 will fill the criteria of ketotic hypoglycemia at the time of study. The most remarkable finding in these 6 children in contrast to the other children studied was that they did not decrease their peripheral glucose utilization (measured as Kg) during starvation. These 6 children seemed to be more "advanced" in their adaptation to ketogenic diet in all other parameters studied. The children with ketotic hypoglycemia did not differ from the other children in plasma level of cortisol or urinary excretion of nitrogen, urea, 3-methylstidine and catecholamines. We favour the concept that the children with ketotic hypoglycemia represent the tail of the gaussian curve in the normal age-dependent development of the adaptation to starvation.

  4. Haemophilus influenzae: a forgotten cause of neonatal sepsis?

    PubMed

    Dobbelaere, A; Jeannin, P; Bovyn, T; Ide, L

    2015-06-01

    Due to the introduction of the conjugate vaccine against serotype b, neonatal sepsis caused by Haemophilus influenzae became very rare. There is little data in Belgium concerning the prevalence of H. influenzae early onset neonatal sepsis and articles about neonatal sepsis and H. influenzae published in the last decade are scarce. We report two invasive infections with a non-typeable H. influenzae. These cases show that neonatal sepsis caused by non-typeable H. influenzae may be underestimated and we believe that there is need for a better registration of this kind of infection.

  5. Vitamin D Deficiency Increases the Risk of Adverse Neonatal Outcomes in Gestational Diabetes

    PubMed Central

    Weinert, Letícia Schwerz; Reichelt, Angela Jacob; Schmitt, Leonardo Rauber; Boff, Roberta; Oppermann, Maria Lucia Rocha; Camargo, Joiza Lins; Silveiro, Sandra Pinho

    2016-01-01

    Background Gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) and vitamin D deficiency have been associated with increased risk of adverse perinatal outcomes but the consequences of both conditions simultaneously present in pregnancy have not yet been evaluated. Our objective was to study the influence of vitamin D deficiency in neonatal outcomes of pregnancies with GDM. Methods 184 pregnant women with GDM referred to specialized prenatal monitoring were included in this cohort and had blood sampled for 25-hydroxyvitamin D measurement. Vitamin D was measured by chemiluminescence and deficiency was defined as < 20 ng/mL. Participants were followed until puerperium and adverse neonatal outcomes were evaluated. Results Newborns of women with vitamin D deficiency had higher incidences of hospitalization in intensive care units (ICU) (32 vs 19%, P = 0.048), of hypoglycemia (any, 17.3 vs 7.1%, P = 0.039requiring ICU, 15.3 vs 3.6%, P = 0.008), and were more frequently small for gestational age (SGA) (17.3 vs 5.9%, P = 0.017). After adjustment, relative risk (RR) for hypoglycemia requiring ICU was 3.63 (95%CI 1.09–12.11) and for SGA was 4.32 (95%CI 1.75–10.66). The incidence of prematurity, jaundice and shoulder dystocia was no statistically different between groups. Conclusions In this cohort of pregnant women with GDM, vitamin D deficiency was associated with a major increase in the incidence of adverse neonatal outcomes such as SGA newborns and neonatal hypoglycemia. PMID:27764194

  6. Epidemiology and outcomes of hypoglycemia in patients with advanced diabetic kidney disease on dialysis: A national cohort study

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Jhi-Joung; Weng, Shih-Feng; Lin, Chih-Ching; Chien, Chih-Chiang

    2017-01-01

    Background Patients with advanced diabetic kidney disease (DKD) behave differently to diabetic patients without kidney disease. We aimed to investigate the associations of hypoglycemia and outcomes after initiation of dialysis in patients with advanced DKD on dialysis. Methods Using National Health Insurance Research Database, 20,845 advanced DKD patients beginning long-term dialysis between 2002 and 2006 were enrolled. We investigated the incidence of severe hypoglycemia episodes before initiation of dialysis. Patients were followed from date of first dialysis to death, end of dialysis, or 2008. Main outcomes measured were all-cause mortality, myocardial infarction (MI), and subsequent severe hypoglycemic episodes after dialysis. Results 19.18% patients had at least one hypoglycemia episode during 1-year period before initiation of dialysis. Advanced DKD patients with higher adapted Diabetes Complications Severity Index (aDCSI) scores were associated with more frequent hypoglycemia (P for trend < 0.001). Mortality and subsequent severe hypoglycemia after dialysis both increased with number of hypoglycemic episodes. Compared to those who had no hypoglycemic episodes, those who had one had a 15% higher risk of death and a 2.3-fold higher risk of subsequent severe hypoglycemia. Those with two or more episodes had a 19% higher risk of death and a 3.9-fold higher risk of subsequent severe hypoglycemia. However, previous severe hypoglycemia was not correlated with risk of MI after dialysis. Conclusions The rate of severe hypoglycemia was high in advanced DKD patients. Patients with higher aDCSI scores tended to have more hypoglycemic episodes. Hypoglycemic episodes were associated with subsequent hypoglycemia and mortality after initiation of dialysis. We studied the associations and further study is needed to establish cause. In addition, more attention is needed for hypoglycemia prevention in advanced DKD patients, especially for those at risk patients. PMID:28355264

  7. Predictive Risk Factors for Fear of Hypoglycemia and Anxiety-Related Emotional Disorders among Adolescents with Type 1 Diabetes.

    PubMed

    Al Hayek, Ayman A; Robert, Asirvatham A; Braham, Rim B; Issa, Besher A; Al Sabaan, Fahad S

    2015-01-01

    To explore the fear of hypoglycemia (FOH) and anxiety-related emotional disorders and their risk factors among adolescents with type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM). A cross-sectional study was conducted among 187 adolescents (aged 13-18 years; 92 males, 95 females) with T1DM at the Diabetes Treatment Center, Prince Sultan Military Medical City, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia, from June 2013 to February 2014. The participants were interviewed using FOH and Screen for Child Anxiety-Related Disorders (SCARED) scales. Females had significantly higher scores on all FOH and SCARED subscales compared to males. The mean scores for many subscales of FOH and SCARED were higher in the older age group (16-18 years), in those under multiple-dose injection (MDI) treatment (compared with the insulin pump treatment), and in those with a longer duration of T1DM. Similarly, significant differences were observed in those with high frequencies of hypoglycemia, passing out, hypoglycemia while asleep and awake, and hypoglycemia in front of friends and at school. Regression analysis revealed that higher age, female gender, MDI treatment, longer duration of T1DM, higher frequencies of hypoglycemia, passing out, hypoglycemia while asleep and awake, and hypoglycemia in front of friends and at school were the risk factors associated with the majority of the FOH and SCARED subscales. The behavior of the FOH subscale correlated with all the subscales of SCARED except the subscale of generalized anxiety disorder. Similarly, the FOH subscale of worry significantly correlated with all the subscales of SCARED. The strongest determinants of higher risk for the majority of the FOH and SCARED subscales were higher age, female gender, MDI treatment, longer duration of T1DM, higher frequency of hypoglycemia, passing out due to hypoglycemia, hypoglycemia while asleep and awake, and hypoglycemia in front of friends and at school.

  8. Neonatal euthanasia.

    PubMed

    Kon, Alexander A

    2009-12-01

    Despite advances in the care of infants, there remain many newborns whose medical conditions are incompatible with sustained life. At times, healthcare providers and parents may agree that prolonging life is not an appropriate goal of care, and they may redirect treatment to alleviate suffering. While pediatric palliative treatment protocols are gaining greater acceptance, there remain some children whose suffering is unrelenting despite maximal efforts. Due to the realization that some infants suffer unbearably (ie, the burdens of suffering outweigh the benefits of life), the Dutch have developed a protocol for euthanizing these newborns. In this review, I examine the ethical aspects of 6 forms of end of life care, explain the ethical arguments in support of euthanasia, review the history and verbiage of the United States regulations governing limiting and withdrawing life-prolonging interventions in infants, describe the 3 categories of neonates for whom the Dutch provide euthanasia, review the published analyses of the Dutch protocol, and finally present some practical considerations should some form of euthanasia ever be deemed appropriate.

  9. [Neonatal resuscitation].

    PubMed

    Burón Martínez, E; Aguayo Maldonado, J

    2006-11-01

    At birth approximately 10 % of term or near-term neonates require initial stabilization maneuvers to establish a cry or regular breathing, maintain a heart rate greater than 100 beats per minute (bpm), and good color and muscular tone. About 1 % requires ventilation and very few infants receive chest compressions or medication. However, birth asphyxia is a worldwide problem and can lead to death or serious sequelae. Recently, the European Resuscitation Council (ERC) and the International Liaison Committee on Resuscitation (ILCOR) published new guidelines on resuscitation at birth. These guidelines review specific questions such as the use of air or 100 % oxygen in the delivery room, dose and routes of adrenaline delivery, the peripartum management of meconium-stained amniotic fluid, and temperature control. Assisted ventilation in preterm infants is briefly described. New devices to improve the care of newborn infants, such as the laryngeal mask airway or CO2 detectors to confirm tracheal tube placement, are also discussed. Significant changes have occurred in some practices and are included in this document.

  10. Recurrent infantile hypoglycemia due to combined fructose-1,6-diphosphatase deficiency and growth hormone deficiency.

    PubMed

    Takagi, Dania; Ben-Ari, Josef; Nemet, Dan; Zeharia, Avraham; Eliakim, Alon

    2013-01-01

    A 14-month-old female infant presented with recurrent episodes of acute gastroenteritis accompanied by severe metabolic acidosis and hypoglycemia. Physical examination showed hepatomegaly. Laboratory evaluation revealed elevated hepatic enzymes, prolonged prothrombin time, hyperuricemia, and extremely elevated lactate and alanine levels. Glucagon injection during hypoglycemia resulted in a further decrease of blood glucose. She was treated with glucose-containing intravenous fluids, with rapid improvement and normalization of her blood pH and glucose levels. Hormonal assessment during two episodes of hypoglycemia indicated growth hormone (GH) deficiency. However, as isolated GH deficiency could not explain all other concomitant features, such as severe lactic acidosis, hepatomegaly, impaired liver function, and hyperuricemia, the possibility of a combined defect was suggested. Further lymphocytic enzymatic investigation revealed fructose-1,6-diphosphatase deficiency and molecular genetic analysis demonstrated frame shift mutation in the FBP1 gene. This enzyme deficiency causes a rare metabolic disorder not previously described in combination with GH deficiency.

  11. Fear of hypoglycemia in women and men with type 1 diabetes.

    PubMed

    Gjerløw, Ellen; Bjørgaas, Marit R; Nielsen, Erik W; Olsen, Sandra E; Asvold, Bjørn O

    2014-01-01

    Severe hypoglycemia is a serious complication of type1 diabetes feared by many who have the disease. The aim of this study was to investigate specific fears related to hypoglycemia in adults with type 1 diabetes and to investigate how aspects of fear of hypoglycemia may differ between genders. A cross-sectional study with questionnaires sent to 636 patients with type 1 diabetes, aged 18-75 years, who attended the outpatient clinic at St. Olavs Hospital, Trondheim, Norway. Fears related to hypoglycemia were assessed using the Hypoglycemia Fear Survey II Worry subscale (HFS-II-Worry). The response rate was 70% (N = 445, 216 women and 229 men). The mean HFS-II-Worry score was higher in women than in men (2.46 [SD = 0.80] vs. 2.22 [SD = 0.74], respectively; p < .001). Women scored higher than men in all items in the HFS-II-Worry, and women's average scores were statistically significantly higher in 5 of the 18 items after correction for multiple comparisons. The largest gender differences in mean scores occurred in the items "low blood glucose interfering with important things," "becoming upset and difficult," "difficulty thinking clearly," and "feeling lightheaded or dizzy." In both women and men, the highest mean scores appeared in the worry items "become hypoglycemic while sleeping" and "not having food available." In this sample of Norwegian adults with type 1 diabetes, women expressed more concerns about hypoglycemia than men. The highest HFS-II-Worry scores occurred in the same items in women and men, but the largest gender differences in mean scores appeared across a variety of other items, some of which were related to social esteem.

  12. The impact of accelerometer use in exercise-associated hypoglycemia prevention in type 1 diabetes.

    PubMed

    Stenerson, Matthew; Cameron, Fraser; Payne, Shelby R; Payne, Sydney L; Ly, Trang T; Wilson, Darrell M; Buckingham, Bruce A

    2015-01-01

    Exercise-associated hypoglycemia is a common adverse event in people with type 1 diabetes. Previous in silico testing by our group demonstrated superior exercise-associated hypoglycemia mitigation when a predictive low glucose suspend (PLGS) algorithm was augmented to incorporate activity data. The current study investigates the effectiveness of an accelerometer-augmented PLGS algorithm in an outpatient exercise protocol. Subjects with type 1 diabetes on insulin pump therapy participated in two structured soccer sessions, one utilizing the algorithm and the other using the subject's regular basal insulin rate. Each subject wore their own insulin pump and a Dexcom G4™ Platinum continuous glucose monitor (CGM); subjects on-algorithm also wore a Zephyr BioHarness™ 3 accelerometer. The algorithm utilized a Kalman filter with a 30-minute prediction horizon. Activity and CGM readings were manually entered into a spreadsheet and at five-minute intervals, the algorithm indicated whether the basal insulin infusion should be on or suspended; any changes were then implemented by study staff. The rate of hypoglycemia during and after exercise (until the following morning) was compared between groups. Eighteen subjects (mean age 13.4 ± 3.7 years) participated in two separate sessions 7-22 days apart. The difference in meter blood glucose levels between groups at each rest period did not achieve statistical significance at any time point. Hypoglycemia during the session was recorded in three on-algorithm subjects, compared to six off-algorithm subjects. In the postexercise monitoring period, hypoglycemia occurred in two subjects who were on-algorithm during the session and four subjects who were off-algorithm. The accelerometer-augmented algorithm failed to prevent exercise-associated hypoglycemia compared to subjects on their usual basal rates. A larger sample size may have achieved statistical significance. Further research involving an automated system, a larger sample

  13. Hypoglycemia perception: Cross-cultural differences in Punjabi and Hindi speaking postmenopausal women.

    PubMed

    Bhutani, Jaikrit; Kalra, Sanjay; Bhutani, Sukriti; Kalra, Bharti

    2013-10-01

    The cross cultural differences in perception of menopausal symptoms are well known and these differences in perception of hypoglycemic symptoms in Russian-speaking and Caucasian postmenopausal women have been reported. This study assessed cross - linguistic and cross - cultural differences in symptomatology of self reported hypoglycemia, between Punjabi and Hindi speaking diabetic post menopausal women. Thirty Punjabi speaking and 20 Hindi speaking diabetic postmenopausal women aged over 50 years, were recruited for this study. Each subject was asked, what happens to you when you have low sugar? in the language of her choice, and spontaneous answers were recorded verbatim. The data so obtained was analyzed by paper and pen method to obtain an understanding of the frequency of self reporting of various symptoms and then analyzed using Statistical Package for Social Science ver.19.0. Symptoms of hollowness, cold sweats and headache correlated significantly (P < 0.0001, P = 0.0001 and P = 0.03 respectively). One difference was noted in women from rural vs. urban background: Inability to concentrate was more frequent in urban women (4/23) vs rural women (0/27) (P < 0.0001). To our knowledge, this is the first exploratory work highlighting the differences in self reported hypoglycemia symptomatology, based on linguistic background. In India and other countries with multi ethnic, multi linguistic societies, linguistic competence in hypoglycemia history taking is important. Incidence of hypoglycemia in the subjects enrolled was not assessed. Many of the subjects in the Punjabi speaking cohort were bilingual. Some symptoms of hypoglycemia may have been missed or over-reported by participants. Diabetes care professionals should be aware that persons with diabetes from varying linguistic backgrounds may report symptoms of hypoglycemia differently.

  14. Inhaled Formoterol Diminishes Insulin-Induced Hypoglycemia in Type 1 Diabetes

    PubMed Central

    Belfort-DeAguiar, Renata D.; Naik, Sarita; Hwang, Janice; Szepietowska, Barbara

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVE Hypoglycemia is one of the major factors limiting implementation of tight glycemic control in patients with type 1 diabetes and is associated with increased morbidity and mortality during intensive insulin treatment. β-2 Adrenergic receptor (AR) agonists have been reported to diminish nocturnal hypoglycemia; however, whether long-acting inhaled β-2 AR agonists could potentially be used to treat or prevent hypoglycemia has not been established. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS Seven patients with type 1 diabetes and seven healthy control subjects received inhaled formoterol (48 μg), a highly specific β-2 AR agonist, or a placebo during a hyperinsulinemic-hypoglycemic clamp study to evaluate its capacity to antagonize the effect of insulin. In a second set of studies, five subjects with type 1 diabetes received inhaled formoterol to assess its effect as a preventive therapy for insulin-induced hypoglycemia. RESULTS During a hyperinsulinemic-hypoglycemic clamp, compared with placebo, inhaled formoterol decreased the glucose infusion rate required to maintain plasma glucose at a target level by 45–50% (P < 0.05). There was no significant effect on glucagon, epinephrine, cortisol, or growth hormone release (P = NS). Furthermore, in volunteers with type 1 diabetes 1 h after increasing basal insulin delivery twofold, glucose levels dropped to 58 ± 5 mg/dL, whereas hypoglycemia was prevented by inhaled formoterol (P < 0.001). CONCLUSIONS Inhalation of the β-2 AR–specific agonist formoterol may be useful in the prevention or treatment of acute hypoglycemia and thus may help patients with type 1 diabetes achieve optimal glucose control more safely. PMID:26153273

  15. Acute management and outcomes of patients with diabetes mellitus presenting to Canadian emergency departments with hypoglycemia.

    PubMed

    Rowe, Brian H; Singh, Mira; Villa-Roel, Cristina; Leiter, Lawrence A; Hramiak, Irene; Edmonds, Marcia L; Lang, Eddy; Sivilotti, Marco; Scheuermeyer, Frank; Worster, Andrew; Riley, Jennifer; Afilalo, Marc; Stiell, Ian; Yale, Jean-Francois; Woo, Vincent C; Campbell, Samuel

    2015-02-01

    This retrospective chart audit examined the demographics, investigations, management and outcomes of adult patients with diabetes mellitus presenting to Canadian emergency departments (EDs). All sites conducted a search of their electronic medical records using International Classification of Diseases, Tenth Revision, codes to identify ED visits for hypoglycemia between 2008 and 2010. Patient characteristics, demographics, ED management, ED resources and outcome are reported. A total of 1039 patients over the age of 17 years were included in the study; 347 (33.4%) were classified as type 1 diabetes and 692 (66.6%) were classified as type 2 diabetes. Type 2 diabetes patients were significantly older (73 vs. 49 years; p<0.0001) and had more chronic conditions recorded on their chart (all p<0.001). Most subjects arrived by ambulance, and triage scores revealed severe presentations in 39% of cases. Treatments for hypoglycemia were common (75.7%) during prehospital transport; 38.5% received intravenous glucose and 40.1% received glucagon. Hypoglycemia treatments in the ED included oral (76.8%), intravenous (29.6%) and continuous infusion (27.7%) of glucose. Diagnostic testing (81.9%) commonly included electrocardiograms (51.9%), chest radiography (37.5%) and head computed tomography scans (14.5%). Most patients (73.5%) were discharged; however, more subjects with type 2 diabetes required admission (30.3 vs. 8.8%). Discharge instructions were documented in only 55.5% of patients, and referral to diabetes services occurred in fewer than 20% of cases. Considerable variation existed in the management of hypoglycemia across EDs. Patients with diabetes presenting to an ED with hypoglycemia consume considerable healthcare resources, and practice variation exists. Emergency departments should develop protocols for the management of hypoglycemia, with attention to discharge planning to reduce recurrence. Copyright © 2015 Canadian Diabetes Association. Published by Elsevier Inc

  16. Fear of hypoglycemia in adults with type 1 diabetes: impact of therapeutic advances and strategies for prevention - a review.

    PubMed

    Martyn-Nemeth, Pamela; Schwarz Farabi, Sarah; Mihailescu, Dan; Nemeth, Jeffrey; Quinn, Laurie

    2016-01-01

    This review summarizes the current state of the science related to fear of hypoglycemia (FOH) in adults with type 1 diabetes. Fear of hypoglycemia is a critical deterrent to diabetes self-management, psychological well-being, and quality of life. We examine the influence of contemporary treatment regimens, technology, and interventions to identify gaps in knowledge and opportunities for research and practice. A literature search was conducted of MEDLINE, PsycINFO, and EMBASE. Fifty-three studies that examined fear of hypoglycemia were included. Fear of hypoglycemia influences diabetes management and quality of life. Gender and age differences exist in experiences and responses. Responses vary from increased vigilance to potentially immobilizing distress. Fear of hypoglycemia is greater at night and may contribute to poor sleep quality. Strategies to reduce fear of hypoglycemia have had varying success. Newer technologies hold promise but require further examination. Fear of hypoglycemia remains a problem, despite advances in technology, insulin analogs, and evidence-based diabetes management. Clinical care should consistently include assessment for its influence on diabetes self-management and psychological health. Further research is needed regarding the influence of newer technologies and individualized strategies to reduce fear of hypoglycemia while maintaining optimal glucose control. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Postnatal Age Influences Hypoglycemia-induced Poly(ADP-ribose) Polymerase-1 Activation in the Brain Regions of Rats

    PubMed Central

    Rao, Raghavendra; Sperr, Dustin; Ennis, Kathleen; Tran, Phu

    2009-01-01

    Poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase-1 (PARP-1) overactivation plays a significant role in hypoglycemia-induced brain injury in adult rats. To determine the influence of postnatal age on PARP-1 activation, developing and adult male rats were subjected to acute hypoglycemia of equivalent severity and duration. The expression of PARP-1 and its downstream effectors, apoptosis inducing factor (Aifm1), caspase 3 (Casp3), NF-κB (Nfkb1) and bcl-2 (Bcl2), and cellular poly(ADP-ribose) (PAR) polymer expression was assessed in the cerebral cortex, hippocampus, striatum and hypothalamus at 0 h and 24 h post-hypoglycemia. Compared with the control group, PARP-1 expression increased in the cerebral cortex of adult rats 24 h post-hypoglycemia, but not at 0 h, and was accompanied by increased number of PAR-positive cells. The expression was not altered in other brain regions. Aifm1, Nfkb1, Casp3, and Bcl2 expression also increased in the cerebral cortex of adult rats 24 h post-hypoglycemia. Conversely, hypoglycemia did not alter PARP-1 expression and its downstream effectors in any brain region in developing rats. These data parallel the previously demonstrated pattern of hypoglycemia-induced brain injury and suggest that PARP-1 overactivation may determine age- and region-specific vulnerability during hypoglycemia. PMID:19687776

  18. Neonatal tuberculosis.

    PubMed

    Obringer, Emily; Heald-Sargent, Taylor; Hageman, Joseph R

    2015-05-01

    Tuberculosis remains a prevalent disease worldwide, with approximately 9 million cases diagnosed annually. The emergence of multidrug-resistant tuberculosis has proven to be a challenging international public health issue. In the United States, however, the incidence of tuberculosis has been decreasing since 1992. There were just over 9,500 reported cases in 2013, and almost 500 of those were in children younger than age 15 years. Foreign-born persons are a high-risk group and account for 65% of new cases annually. Other high-risk groups include ethnic minorities, HIV-infected patients, and people living in low-socioeconomic urban areas. Copyright 2015, SLACK Incorporated.

  19. Idiopathic Neonatal Colonic Perforation

    PubMed Central

    Tuncer, Oğuz; Melek, Mehmet; Kaba, Sultan; Bulan, Keziban; Peker, Erdal

    2014-01-01

    Though the perforation of the colon in neonates is rare, it is associated with more than 50% mortality in high-risk patients. We report a case of idiopathic neonatal perforation of the sigmoid colon in an 8-day-old, healthy, male neonate without any demonstrable cause. PMID:26023477

  20. Neonatal Acute Kidney Injury.

    PubMed

    Selewski, David T; Charlton, Jennifer R; Jetton, Jennifer G; Guillet, Ronnie; Mhanna, Maroun J; Askenazi, David J; Kent, Alison L

    2015-08-01

    In recent years, there have been significant advancements in our understanding of acute kidney injury (AKI) and its impact on outcomes across medicine. Research based on single-center cohorts suggests that neonatal AKI is very common and associated with poor outcomes. In this state-of-the-art review on neonatal AKI, we highlight the unique aspects of neonatal renal physiology, definition, risk factors, epidemiology, outcomes, evaluation, and management of AKI in neonates. The changes in renal function with gestational and chronologic age are described. We put forth and describe the neonatal modified Kidney Diseases: Improving Global Outcomes AKI criteria and provide the rationale for its use as the standardized definition of neonatal AKI. We discuss risk factors for neonatal AKI and suggest which patient populations may warrant closer surveillance, including neonates <1500 g, infants who experience perinatal asphyxia, near term/ term infants with low Apgar scores, those treated with extracorporeal membrane oxygenation, and those requiring cardiac surgery. We provide recommendations for the evaluation and treatment of these patients, including medications and renal replacement therapies. We discuss the need for long-term follow-up of neonates with AKI to identify those children who will go on to develop chronic kidney disease. This review highlights the deficits in our understanding of neonatal AKI that require further investigation. In an effort to begin to address these needs, the Neonatal Kidney Collaborative was formed in 2014 with the goal of better understanding neonatal AKI, beginning to answer critical questions, and improving outcomes in these vulnerable populations.

  1. Recurrent hypoglycemia does not impair the cortisol response to adrenocorticotropin infusion in healthy humans.

    PubMed

    Welt, C K; Kinsley, B T; Simonson, D C

    1998-10-01

    Previous studies have shown that hypoglycemia may reduce counterregulatory responses to subsequent hypoglycemia in healthy subjects and in patients with diabetes. The effect of hypoglycemia on the hormonal response to a nonhypoglycemic stimulus is uncertain. To test the hypothesis that the cortisol response to corticotropin (ACTH) infusion is independent of antecedent hypoglycemia, 10 healthy subjects received a standard ACTH infusion (0.25 mg Cosyntropin [Organon, West Orange, NJ] intravenously over 240 minutes) at 8:00 AM on day 1 and day 3 and a hypoglycemic insulin clamp study (1 mU/kg/min) at 8:00 AM on day 2. During the hypoglycemic clamp, plasma glucose decreased from 5.0 mmol/L to 2.8 mmol/L for two periods of 120 minutes (mean glucose, 2.9 +/- 0.03 and 2.8 +/- 0.02 mmol/L, respectively) separated by a 60-minute interval of euglycemia (mean glucose, 4.7 +/- 0.01 mmol/L). Seven subjects also had paired control studies in random order during which a 330-minute euglycemic clamp (mean glucose, 5.0 +/- 0.11 mmol/L) instead of a hypoglycemic clamp was performed on day 2. Basal ACTH (4.6 +/- 0.7 v 2.6 +/- 0.4 pmol/L, P < .02) and basal cortisol (435 +/- 46 v 317 +/- 40 nmol/L, P < .02) both decreased from day 1 to day 3 following intervening hypoglycemia. In contrast, with intervening euglycemia, neither basal ACTH (5.9 +/- 1.5 v 4.5 +/- 1.0 pmol/L) nor basal cortisol (340 +/- 38 v 318 +/- 60 nmol/L) were reduced significantly on day 3 compared with day 1. Following interval hypoglycemia, the area under the curve (AUC) for the cortisol response to successive ACTH infusions was increased (4,734 +/- 428 nmol/L over 240 minutes [day 3] v 3,526 +/- 434 nmol/L over 240 minutes [day 1], P < .01). The maximum incremental cortisol response was also significantly increased (805 +/- 63 nmol/L (day 3) v 583 +/- 58 nmol/L (day 1), P < .05). In contrast, the AUC for the cortisol response to successive ACTH infusions with interval euglycemia (3,402 +/- 345 nmol/L over 240

  2. Effects of Acute Hypoglycemia on Working Memory and Language Processing in Adults With and Without Type 1 Diabetes

    PubMed Central

    Allen, Kate V.; Pickering, Martin J.; Zammitt, Nicola N.; Hartsuiker, Robert J.; Traxler, Matthew J.; Frier, Brian M.

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVE To examine the effects of hypoglycemia on language processing in adults with and without type 1 diabetes. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS Forty adults were studied (20 with type 1 diabetes and 20 healthy volunteers) using a hyperinsulinemic glucose clamp to lower blood glucose to 2.5 mmol/L (45 mg/dL) (hypoglycemia) for 60 min, or to maintain blood glucose at 4.5 mmol/L (81 mg/dL) (euglycemia), on separate occasions. Language tests were applied to assess the effects of hypoglycemia on the relationship between working memory and language (reading span), grammatical decoding (self-paced reading), and grammatical encoding (subject-verb agreement). RESULTS Hypoglycemia caused a significant deterioration in reading span (P < 0.001; η2 = 0.37; Cohen d = 0.65) and a fall in correct responses (P = 0.005; η2 = 0.19; Cohen d = 0.41). On the self-paced reading test, the reading time for the first sentence fragment increased during hypoglycemia (P = 0.039; η2 = 0.11; Cohen d = 0.25). For the reading of the next fragment, hypoglycemia affected the healthy volunteer group more than the adults with type 1 diabetes (P = 0.03; η2 = 0.12; Cohen d = 0.25). However, hypoglycemia did not significantly affect the number of errors in sentence comprehension or the time taken to answer questions. Hypoglycemia caused a deterioration of subject-verb agreement (correct responses: P = 0.011; η2 = 0.159; Cohen d = 0.31). CONCLUSIONS Hypoglycemia caused a significant deterioration in reading span and in the accuracy of subject-verb agreement, both of which are practical aspects of language involved in its everyday use. Language processing is therefore impaired during moderate hypoglycemia. PMID:25758768

  3. What's Tramadol Got to Do with It? A Case Report of Rebound Hypoglycemia, a Reappraisal and Review of Potential Mechanisms.

    PubMed

    Odonkor, Charles A; Chhatre, Akhil

    2016-01-01

    Tramadol has gained traction as an analgesic of choice among pain practicing physicians. However some concerns regarding a previously unlabeled adverse reaction - hypoglycemia - have cast it in a dim light. Prior reports have noted an associated risk of hospitalization for hypoglycemia after tramadol use, but whether tramadol is the main causal agent is poorly understood and the underlying mechanisms are not well delineated. We present a unique case of rebound hypoglycemia as a variation of the theme of tramadol's adverse effect profile in a patient with type 1 diabetes mellitus, and reappraise potential mechanisms underlying this underappreciated phenomenon. A 71-year-old woman presented with right buttock pain and right lateral leg discomfort of 9-month duration. Her physical exam suggested sacroiliac joint (SIJ) etiology, confirmed by magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). She was scheduled for an SIJ-diagnostic and therapeutic block and started on tramadol 50 mg 3 times daily on as needed basis. The patient subsequently developed severe hypoglycemia initially resistant to euglycemia restorative interventions with a rebound episode. Hypoglycemia resolved with oral ingestion of high levels of glucose and the patient was taken off tramadol. Fortunately, she did not require hospitalization. The clinical scenario described is a case of rebound hypoglycemia after tramadol use in a patient with type-1 diabetes naïve to opioid analgesics. The episodes of hypoglycemia aligned perfectly with the anticipated pharmacodynamic and pharmacokinetic properties of tramadol. The specificity and temporality of events after tramadol use in this patient fulfilled causality criteria. Tramadol may cause rebound hypoglycemia in patients via interference of the intrinsic euglycemia-restoration pathways and a blunted autonomic counter-regulatory response to antecedent hypoglycemia. Its use must be tempered by this underappreciated adverse effect profile.Key words: Tramadol, hypoglycemia

  4. The Impact of Nocturnal Hypoglycemia on Clinical and Cost-Related Issues in Patients With Type 1 and Type 2 Diabetes.

    PubMed

    Edelman, Steven V; Blose, Jamie S

    2014-05-01

    This article provides an overview of the clinical and economic issues associated with hypoglycemia in patients with type 1 and type 2 diabetes mellitus. Current research regarding hypoglycemia is comprehensively reviewed, with special emphasis on nocturnal hypoglycemia, as almost 50% of all severe hypoglycemic episodes occur at nighttime during sleep. Current findings on the economic and human burden of hypoglycemia are presented. Poor diabetes self-management leads to an increased risk for hypoglycemia and the development of long-term complications associated with poor glycemic control. Hypoglycemia is also associated with increased health care costs and resources required to treat hypoglycemic events, as well as personal financial costs and loss of productivity at school or work. In addition, fear, anxiety, and worry about hypoglycemic episodes are shown to interfere with patients' quality of life. Nocturnal hypoglycemia can cause a number of immediate clinical consequences, including convulsions, coma, and even death. Repeated long-term exposure to nocturnal hypoglycemia can blunt counterregulatory mechanisms that maintain glucose levels, leading to reduced cognitive function, impaired awareness of hypoglycemia, and hypoglycemia-associated autonomic failure. Clinicians must be aware of the impact of hypoglycemia, particularly nocturnal hypoglycemia, so that they can prescribe appropriate glucose-lowering therapy and educate patients about the prevention and management of hypoglycemic events to reduce anxiety and improve quality of life. © 2014 The Author(s).

  5. Neonatal Herpes Simplex Virus Infection.

    PubMed

    James, Scott H; Kimberlin, David W

    2015-09-01

    Herpes simplex virus (HSV) 1 and HSV-2 infections are highly prevalent worldwide and are characterized by establishing lifelong infection with periods of latency interspersed with periodic episodes of reactivation. Acquisition of HSV by an infant during the peripartum or postpartum period results in neonatal HSV disease, a rare but significant infection that can be associated with severe morbidity and mortality, especially if there is dissemination or central nervous system involvement. Diagnostic and therapeutic advances have led to improvements in mortality and, to a lesser extent, neurodevelopmental outcomes, but room exists for further improvement.

  6. Neonatal Venous Thromboembolism.

    PubMed

    Haley, Kristina M

    2017-01-01

    Neonates are the pediatric population at highest risk for development of venous thromboembolism (VTE), and the incidence of VTE in the neonatal population is increasing. This is especially true in the critically ill population. Several large studies indicate that the incidence of neonatal VTE is up almost threefold in the last two decades. Central lines, fluid fluctuations, sepsis, liver dysfunction, and inflammation contribute to the risk profile for VTE development in ill neonates. In addition, the neonatal hemostatic system is different from that of older children and adults. Platelet function, pro- and anticoagulant proteins concentrations, and fibrinolytic pathway protein concentrations are developmentally regulated and generate a hemostatic homeostasis that is unique to the neonatal time period. The clinical picture of a critically ill neonate combined with the physiologically distinct neonatal hemostatic system easily fulfills the criteria for Virchow's triad with venous stasis, hypercoagulability, and endothelial injury and puts the neonatal patient at risk for VTE development. The presentation of a VTE in a neonate is similar to that of older children or adults and is dependent upon location of the VTE. Ultrasound is the most common diagnostic tool employed in identifying neonatal VTE, but relatively small vessels of the neonate as well as frequent low pulse pressure can make ultrasound less reliable. The diagnosis of a thrombophilic disorder in the neonatal population is unlikely to change management or outcome, and the role of thrombophilia testing in this population requires further study. Treatment of neonatal VTE is aimed at reducing VTE-associated morbidity and mortality. Recommendations for treating, though, cannot be extrapolated from guidelines for older children or adults. Neonates are at risk for bleeding complications, particularly younger neonates with more fragile intracranial vessels. Developmental alterations in the coagulation proteins as

  7. Neonatal and Perinatal Infections.

    PubMed

    Khan, Amira M; Morris, Shaun K; Bhutta, Zulfiqar A

    2017-08-01

    Lack of success in achieving considerable reductions in neonatal mortality is a contributory factor in failing to achieve Millennium Development Goal 4.2.6 million neonates still die each year, with preterm birth and infections the two leading causes. Maternal infections and environmental and infant factors influence acquisition of viral and bacterial infections in the perinatal and neonatal period. Scaling up evidence-based interventions addressing maternal risk factors and underlying causes could reduce neonatal infections by 84%. The emergence of new infections and increasing antimicrobial resistance present public health challenges that must be addressed to achieve substantial reductions in neonatal mortality. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. An Outpatient Methadone Weaning Program by a Neonatal Intensive Care Unit for Neonatal Abstinence Syndrome.

    PubMed

    Lai, Andrew; Philpot, Patrick; Boucher, Jenny; Meyer, Andrew

    2017-04-21

    Through retrospective chart review, this study described characteristics and length of stay for a cohort of newborns discharged on methadone following an inpatient weaning for neonatal abstinence syndrome (NAS). Data were assessed for all term infants born between January 1, 2010, and December 31, 2014, admitted to the hospital with a co-diagnosis of NAS at discharge, for gestational age, length of stay, days on treatment protocol before discharge, time to once-daily interval methadone dosing, and hospital charges, as well as for categorical characteristics. The 53 patients were predominantly male (58%), white (71%), and covered by Medicaid insurance (72%). Mean gestational age was 39.5 ± 1.1 weeks; length of hospital stay was 11.8 ± 5 days. Common co-diagnoses were newborn feeding problems (26%) and neonatal hypoglycemia (23%). In conclusion, use of the study site's methadone weaning protocol, which can be easily replicated, resulted in a relatively short length of stay and low readmission rates for these patients.

  9. [Neonatal morbidity in early-term newborns].

    PubMed

    Martínez-Nadal, S; Demestre, X; Raspall, F; Alvarez, J A; Elizari, M J; Vila, C; Sala, P

    2014-07-01

    In the last decades has increased significantly The birth of children from 37 to 38 weeks of gestation, a period called early term, has significantly increased in the past twenty years or so, parallel to the increase in induced deliveries and the cesarean rate. Retrospective cohorts population study, which included those babies born between 37 and 41 weeks of gestation in the period 1992-2011 (n=35.539). This population was divided into two cohorts, early term newborn (RNTP) of 37-38 weeks (n=11,318), and full term newborn (RNTC), of 39-41 weeks of gestation (n=24,221). The rates of cesarean section, neonatal unit admission, respiratory morbidity, apnea and need for assisted ventilation, hyperbilirubinemia requiring phototherapy, hypoglycemia, seizures, hypoxic-ischemia encephalopathy, need for parenteral nutrition and early sepsis were all reviewed. There was a progressive increase in the number of caesarean sections throughout the period studied (from 30.9% to 40.3%). The cesarean section rate was higher in RNTP than in the RNTC (38.3% vs 31.3%, P<.0001). On comparing the two groups, significant differences were found in the rate of admission to neonatal unit, 9.1% vs 3.5% (P<.0001); respiratory morbidity (hyaline membrane 0.14% vs 0.007% [P<.0001], transient tachypnea 1.71% vs 0.45% [P<.0001], mechanical ventilation 0.2% vs 0.07% [P<.009], continuous positive airway pressure 0.11% vs 0.01% [P<.0001]), phototherapy 0.29% vs 0.07% (P<.0001), hypoglycemia 0.54% vs 0.11% (P<.0001), parenteral nutrition 0.16% vs 0.04% (P<.0001). There were no significant differences in the rate of early sepsis, pneumothorax, aspiration syndromes, seizures and hypoxic-ischemic encephalopathy. In our environment, there is a significant number of RNTP, which have a significantly higher morbidity than newborns RNTC registered. After individualizing each case, it is essential not end a pregnancy before 39 weeks of gestation, except for maternal, placental or fetal conditions indicating

  10. Germline activating AKT3 mutation associated with megalencephaly, polymicrogyria, epilepsy and hypoglycemia.

    PubMed

    Nellist, Mark; Schot, Rachel; Hoogeveen-Westerveld, Marianne; Neuteboom, Rinze F; van der Louw, Elles J T M; Lequin, Maarten H; Bindels-de Heus, Karen; Sibbles, Barbara J; de Coo, René; Brooks, Alice; Mancini, Grazia M S

    2015-03-01

    Activating germ-line and somatic mutations in AKT3 (OMIM 611223) are associated with megalencephaly-polymicrogyria-polydactyly-hydrocephalus syndrome (MPPH; OMIM # 615937) and megalencephaly-capillary malformation (MCAP; OMIM # 602501). Here we report an individual with megalencephaly, polymicrogyria, refractory epilepsy, hypoglycemia and a germline AKT3 mutation. At birth, head circumference was 43 cm (5 standard deviations above the mean). No organomegaly was present, but there was generalized hypotonia, joint and skin laxity, developmental delay and failure to thrive. At 6 months of age the patient developed infantile spasms that were resistant to antiepileptic polytherapy. Recurrent hypoglycemia was noted during treatment with adrenocorticotropic hormone but stabilized upon introduction of continuous, enriched feeding. The infantile spasms responded to the introduction of a ketogenic diet, but the hypoglycemia recurred until the diet was adjusted for increased resting energy expenditure. A novel, de novo AKT3 missense variant (exon 5; c.548T>A, p.(V183D)) was identified and shown to activate AKT3 by in vitro functional testing. We hypothesize that the sustained hypoglycemia in this patient is caused by increased glucose utilization due to activation of AKT3 signaling. This might explain the efficacy of the ketogenic diet in this individual.

  11. Minimizing morbidity of hypoglycemia in diabetes: A review of mini-dose glucagon

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Type 1 diabetes is a common chronic disease of childhood and one of the most difficult conditions to manage. Advances in insulin formulations and insulin delivery devices have markedly improved the ability to achieve normal glucose homeostasis. However, hypoglycemia remains the primary limiting fact...

  12. Minireview: Glucagon in the Pathogenesis of Hypoglycemia and Hyperglycemia in Diabetes

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Pancreatic islet α-cell glucagon secretion is critically dependent on pancreatic islet β-cell insulin secretion. Normally, a decrease in the plasma glucose concentration causes a decrease in β-cell insulin secretion that signals an increase in α-cell glucagon secretion during hypoglycemia. In contrast, an increase in the plasma glucose concentration, among other stimuli, causes an increase in β-cell insulin secretion that signals a decrease, or at least no change, in α-cell glucagon secretion after a meal. In absolute endogenous insulin deficiency (i.e. in type 1 diabetes and in advanced type 2 diabetes), however, β-cell failure results in no decrease in β-cell insulin secretion and thus no increase in α-cell glucagon secretion during hypoglycemia and no increase in β-cell insulin secretion and thus an increase in α-cell glucagon secretion after a meal. In type 1 diabetes and advanced type 2 diabetes, the absence of an increment in glucagon secretion, in the setting of an absent decrement in insulin secretion and an attenuated increment in sympathoadrenal activity, in response to falling plasma glucose concentrations plays a key role in the pathogenesis of iatrogenic hypoglycemia. In addition, there is increasing evidence that, in the aggregate, suggests that relative hyperglucagonemia, in the setting of deficient insulin secretion, plays a role in the pathogenesis of hyperglycemia in diabetes. If so, abnormal glucagon secretion is involved in the pathogenesis of both hypoglycemia and hyperglycemia in diabetes. PMID:22166985

  13. Analysis of alternatives for insulinizing patients to achieve glycemic control and avoid accompanying risks of hypoglycemia.

    PubMed

    Gao, Jialin; Xiong, Qianyin; Miao, Jun; Zhang, Yao; Xia, Libing; Lu, Meiqin; Zhang, Binhua; Chen, Yueping; Zhang, Ansu; Yu, Cui; Wang, Li-Zhuo

    2015-05-01

    The aims of the present study were to explore the efficacy of glycemic control and the risks of hypoglycemia with different methods of insulin therapy, and to provide reference data for the clinical treatment of diabetes. In this retrospective study, hospitalized patients diagnosed with type 2 diabetes between March and December 2014, in the Department of Endocrinology in the First Affiliated Hospital of Wannan Medical College, were divided into three groups, including an intensive insulin analogue therapy group, a premixed insulin analogue treatment group and a premixed human insulin therapy group. The efficacy of glycemic control and the incidence of hypoglycemia were determined in each of the insulin treatment groups. Compared with the other treatment groups, the intensive insulin analogue therapy group was associated with superior blood glucose control, shorter time to reach standard insulin regimen, shorter hospitalization time, fewer fluctuations in blood glucose levels and lower insulin dosage on discharge from hospital. However, this treatment was also associated with a high risk of hypoglycemia. In conclusion, when combined with the effective prevention of hypoglycemia and appropriate nursing care (especially in hospital care), intensive insulin analogue therapy may provide the greatest benefit to patients.

  14. Leptin-inhibited PBN neurons enhance responses to hypoglycemia in negative energy balance.

    PubMed

    Flak, Jonathan N; Patterson, Christa M; Garfield, Alastair S; D'Agostino, Giuseppe; Goforth, Paulette B; Sutton, Amy K; Malec, Paige A; Wong, Jenny-Marie T; Germani, Mark; Jones, Justin C; Rajala, Michael; Satin, Leslie; Rhodes, Christopher J; Olson, David P; Kennedy, Robert T; Heisler, Lora K; Myers, Martin G

    2014-12-01

    Hypoglycemia initiates the counter-regulatory response (CRR), in which the sympathetic nervous system, glucagon and glucocorticoids restore glucose to appropriate concentrations. During starvation, low leptin levels restrain energy utilization, enhancing long-term survival. To ensure short-term survival during hypoglycemia in fasted animals, the CRR must overcome this energy-sparing program and nutrient depletion. Here we identify in mice a previously unrecognized role for leptin and a population of leptin-regulated neurons that modulate the CRR to meet these challenges. Hypoglycemia activates neurons of the parabrachial nucleus (PBN) that coexpress leptin receptor (LepRb) and cholecystokinin (CCK) (PBN LepRb(CCK) neurons), which project to the ventromedial hypothalamic nucleus. Leptin inhibits these cells, and Cck(cre)-mediated ablation of LepRb enhances the CRR. Inhibition of PBN LepRb cells blunts the CRR, whereas their activation mimics the CRR in a CCK-dependent manner. PBN LepRb(CCK) neurons are a crucial component of the CRR system and may be a therapeutic target in hypoglycemia.

  15. Hypoglycemia in the hospital: systems-based approach to recognition, treatment, and prevention.

    PubMed

    Varlamov, Elena V; Kulaga, Mark E; Khosla, Akhil; Prime, Danille L; Rennert, Nancy J

    2014-10-01

    Hypoglycemia causes immediate adverse reactions and is associated with unfavorable clinical outcomes and increased health care costs. It is also one of the barriers to optimization of inpatient glycemic control. Prioritizing quality improvement efforts to address hypoglycemia in hospitalized patients with diabetes is of critical importance. Acute illness, hospital routine, and gaps in quality care predispose patients to hypoglycemia. Many of these factors can be minimized when approached from a systems-based perspective. This requires creation of a multidisciplinary team to develop strategies to prevent hypoglycemic events by targeting many factors, such as systemic analysis of blood glucometrics, policies and protocols, coordination of nutrition and insulin administration, transitions of care, staff and patient education, and communication. This article reviews recommendations of the American Diabetes Association, the Endocrine Society, and the Society of Hospital Medicine, and highlights our institution's approach in each of these areas. Despite a multitude of challenges, we believe that it is feasible to improve the safety and quality of inpatient diabetes care and avoid hypoglycemia without requiring significant additional hospital resources. Physician leaders play a major role in guiding this process and encouraging participation of interdisciplinary members of the hospital team.

  16. [Severe hypoglycemia following tramadol intake in a 79 year old non-diabetic patient].

    PubMed

    Kürten, Cornelius; Tzvetkov, Mladen; Ellenrieder, Volker; Schwörer, Harald

    2016-09-01

    History and clinical findings | We report about a 79 year old non-diabetic patient who was admitted to the emergency room with severe hypoglycemia (blood glucose level: 36 mg / dl and Glasgow Coma Scale Score: 3). After the infusion of G40 % her blood glucose level stabilised. The patient reported to have taken 50 mg of Tramadol during the night to treat her headache. Investigations and diagnosis | No other differential diagnosis for hypoglycemia (i.e. diabetes, insulinoma, severe liver or kidney disease) could be established. Therefore, we suspected a tramadol induced hypoglycemia. The mechanisms and the risk factors for this potential side effect remain unclear. The patient showed no abnormality in metabolism (CYP2D6) or membrane transport (OCT1) of tramadol. Treatment and course | No further treatment for hypoglycemic episodes was needed. The patient was discharged after the differential diagnosis and pharmacogenetic testing was completed. Conclusions | Hypoglycemia is a little known adverse effect after tramadol intake, which has only been published in few cases. Tramadol, a weak opioid analgesic classified as step 2 of the WHO cancer pain ladder, is used in moderate pain. Given the continuous rise in tramadol prescription due to better management of chronic pain, further investigation of this issue seems needed as well as an increased awareness amongst physicians. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  17. Effectiveness of a Nurse-Managed Protocol to Prevent Hypoglycemia in Hospitalized Patients with Diabetes

    PubMed Central

    Marelli, Giuseppe; Avanzini, Fausto; Iacuitti, Giuseppe; Planca, Enrico; Frigerio, Ilaria; Busi, Giovanna; Carlino, Liliana; Cortesi, Laura; Roncaglioni, Maria Carla; Riva, Emma

    2015-01-01

    Background. Hypoglycemia due to inadequate carbohydrate intake is a frequent complication of insulin treatment of diabetic in-patients. Objective. To assess the effectiveness of a nurse-managed protocol to prevent hypoglycemia during subcutaneous insulin treatment. Design. Prospective pre-post-intervention study. Methods. In 350 consecutive diabetic in-patients the incidence of hypoglycemia (blood glucose < 70 mg/dL) during subcutaneous insulin treatment was assessed before (phase A) and after (phase B) the protocol was adopted to permit (1) the patient to opt for substitutive food to integrate incomplete carbohydrate intake in the meal; (2) in case of lack of appetite or repeatedly partial intake of the planned food, prandial insulin administered at the end of the meal to be related to the actual amount of carbohydrates eaten; (3) intravenous infusion of glucose during prolonged fasting. Results. Eighty-four patients in phase A and 266 in phase B received subcutaneous insulin for median periods of, respectively, 7 (Q1–Q3 6–12) and 6 days (Q1–Q3 4–9). Hypoglycemic events declined significantly from 0.34 ± 0.33 per day in phase A to 0.19 ± 0.30 in phase B (P > 0.001). Conclusions. A nurse-managed protocol focusing on carbohydrate intake reduced the incidence of hypoglycemia in patients with diabetes receiving subcutaneous insulin in hospital. PMID:25961051

  18. Comparison of Pulse Rate Variability and Heart Rate Variability for Hypoglycemia Syndrome.

    PubMed

    Okkesim, Şükrü; Çelik, Gamze; Yıldırım, Mustafa S; İlhan, Mahmut M; Karaman, Özcan; Taşan, Ertuğrul; Kara, Sadık

    2016-05-17

    Heart rate variability (HRV) is a signal obtained from RR intervals of electrocardiography (ECG) signals to evaluate the balance between the sympathetic nervous system and the parasympathetic nervous system; not only HRV but also pulse rate variability (PRV) extracted from finger pulse plethysmography (PPG) can reflect irregularities that may occur in heart rate and control procedures. The purpose of this study is to compare the HRV and PRV during hypoglycemia in order to evaluate the features that computed from PRV that can be used in detection of hypoglycemia. To this end, PRV and HRV of 10 patients who required testing with insulin-induced hypoglycemia (IIHT) in Clinics of Endocrinology and Metabolism Diseases of Bezm-i Alem University (Istanbul, Turkey), were obtained. The recordings were done at three stages: prior to IIHT, during the IIHT, and after the IIHT. We used Bland-Altman analysis for comparing the parameters and to evaluate the correlation between HRV and PRV if exists. Significant correlation (r > 0.90, p < 0.05) and close agreement were found between HRV and PRV for mean intervals, the root-mean square of the difference of successive intervals, standard deviation of successive intervals and the ratio of the low-to-high frequency power. In conclusion, all the features computed from PRV and HRV have close agreement and correlation according to Bland-Altman analyses' results and features computed from PRV can be used in detection of hypoglycemia.

  19. Preventing Post-Exercise Nocturnal Hypoglycemia in Children with Type 1 Diabetes

    PubMed Central

    Taplin, Craig E.; Cobry, Erin; Messer, Laurel; McFann, Kim; Chase, H. Peter; Fiallo-Scharer, Rosanna

    2010-01-01

    Objective To determine the effects of reducing overnight basal insulin or a bedtime dose of terbutaline on nocturnal blood glucose (BG) nadir and hypoglycemia following exercise in children with type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM). Study design Sixteen youth (mean age 13.3 yrs) on insulin pumps were studied overnight on three occasions after a 60 minute exercise session with BG measurements every 30 minutes. Admissions were randomized to bedtime treatment with 2.5 mg oral terbutaline, 20% basal rate insulin reduction for six hours, or no treatment. Results Mean overnight nadir BG was 188 mg/dL after terbutaline and 172 mg/dL with basal rate reduction compared with 127 mg/dL on the control night (p = 0.002 and 0.042, respectively). Terbutaline eliminated nocturnal hypoglycemia but resulted in significantly more hyperglycemia (≥ 250 mg/dL) when compared with the control visit (p < 0.0001). The basal rate reduction resulted in fewer BG readings < 80 and < 70 mg/dL but more readings ≥ 250 mg/dL when compared with the control visit. Conclusions A basal insulin rate reduction was safe and effective in raising post-exercise nocturnal BG nadir and in reducing hypoglycemia in children with T1DM. Although effective at preventing hypoglycemia, a 2.5 mg terbutaline dose was associated with hyperglycemia. PMID:20650471

  20. Adrenomedullary response to hypoglycemia in first-degree relatives of patients with rheumatoid arthritis.

    PubMed

    Rovensky, J; Imrich, R; Penesova, A; Radikova, Z; Scipova, A; Vlcek, M; Vigas, M

    2008-12-01

    Our recent studies showed blunted adrenomedullary responses to insulin-induced hypoglycemia in premenopausal females with rheumatoid arthritis (RA) and systemic sclerosis, suggesting dysregulation of the adrenomedullary hormonal system (AMHS). Since no relationship has been found between degree of AMHS dysfunction and clinical or inflammatory parameters in those patients, we hypothesize the presence of an inherited perturbation of the AMHS. To test this hypothesis, we evaluated adrenomedullary responses to insulin-induced hypoglycemia (0.1 IU/kg) in premenopausal female subjects: 17 glucocorticoid-naïve RA patients, 15 healthy first-degree family members (FDR), and 18 age- and body mass index-matched healthy controls. Our results demonstrate that when compared to controls, RA patients had lower baseline epinephrine levels (P= 0.01) and lower area under response curve (AUC) levels of norepinephrine (P < 0.001) and epinephrine (P < 0.003). In contrast, FDR had lower (P= 0.001) AUC levels of norepinephrine compared to controls and higher (P= 0.033) AUC levels of epinephrine compared to RA patients. There were no significant differences in epinephrine response between FDR and controls. Although we found lower norepinephrine responses to hypoglycemia in FDR of RA patients, adrenomedullary responses to hypoglycemia does not appear to be altered to the degree found in RA patients.

  1. Immune Responses in Neonates

    PubMed Central

    Basha, Saleem; Surendran, Naveen; Pichichero, Michael

    2015-01-01

    Neonates have little immunological memory and a developing immune system, which increases their vulnerability to infectious agents. Recent advances in understanding of neonatal immunity indicate that both innate and adaptive responses are dependent on precursor frequency of lymphocytes, antigenic dose and mode of exposure. Studies in neonatal mouse models and human umbilical cord blood cells demonstrate the capability of neonatal immune cells to produce immune responses similar to adults in some aspects but not others. This review focuses mainly on the developmental and functional mechanisms of the human neonatal immune system. In particular, the mechanism of innate and adaptive immunity and the role of neutrophils, antigen presenting cells, differences in subclasses of T lymphocytes (Th1, Th2, Tregs) and B cells are discussed. In addition, we have included the recent developments in neonatal mouse immune system. Understanding neonatal immunity is essential to development of therapeutic vaccines to combat newly emerging infectious agents. PMID:25088080

  2. Neonatal opioid withdrawal and antenatal opioid prescribing.

    PubMed

    Turner, Suzanne D; Gomes, Tara; Camacho, Ximena; Yao, Zhan; Guttmann, Astrid; Mamdani, Muhammad M; Juurlink, David N; Dhalla, Irfan A

    2015-01-01

    The incidence of neonatal opioid withdrawal is increasing in both Canada and the United States. However, the degree to which the treatment of pain with opioids, rather than the misuse of prescription opioids or heroin, contributes to the prevalence of neonatal opioid withdrawal remains unknown. We conducted a retrospective, population-based, cross-sectional study between 1992 and 2011 in Ontario with 2 objectives. First, we determined the annual incidence of neonatal abstinence syndrome. Second, using data from a subset of women eligible for publicly funded prescription drugs, we determined what proportion of women who deliver an infant with neonatal abstinence syndrome were given a prescription for an opioid before and during pregnancy. The incidence of neonatal abstinence syndrome in Ontario increased 15-fold during the study period, from 0.28 per 1000 live births in 1992 to 4.29 per 1000 live births in 2011. During the final 5 years of the study, we identified 927 deliveries of infants with neonatal abstinence syndrome to mothers who were public drug plan beneficiaries. Of these mothers, 67% had received an opioid prescription in the 100 days preceding delivery, including 53.3% who received methadone, an increase from 28.6% in the interval spanning 1 to 2 years before delivery (p < 0.001). Prescription for nonmethadone opioids decreased from 38% to 17% (p < 0.001). The incidence of neonatal opioid withdrawal in Ontario has increased substantially over the last 20 years. Most of the women in this cohort who delivered an infant with neonatal abstinence syndrome had received a prescription for an opioid both before and during their pregnancy.

  3. Neonatal opioid withdrawal and antenatal opioid prescribing

    PubMed Central

    Gomes, Tara; Camacho, Ximena; Yao, Zhan; Guttmann, Astrid; Mamdani, Muhammad M.; Juurlink, David N.; Dhalla, Irfan A.

    2015-01-01

    Background The incidence of neonatal opioid withdrawal is increasing in both Canada and the United States. However, the degree to which the treatment of pain with opioids, rather than the misuse of prescription opioids or heroin, contributes to the prevalence of neonatal opioid withdrawal remains unknown. Methods We conducted a retrospective, population-based, cross-sectional study between 1992 and 2011 in Ontario with 2 objectives. First, we determined the annual incidence of neonatal abstinence syndrome. Second, using data from a subset of women eligible for publicly funded prescription drugs, we determined what proportion of women who deliver an infant with neonatal abstinence syndrome were given a prescription for an opioid before and during pregnancy. Results The incidence of neonatal abstinence syndrome in Ontario increased 15-fold during the study period, from 0.28 per 1000 live births in 1992 to 4.29 per 1000 live births in 2011. During the final 5 years of the study, we identified 927 deliveries of infants with neonatal abstinence syndrome to mothers who were public drug plan beneficiaries. Of these mothers, 67% had received an opioid prescription in the 100 days preceding delivery, including 53.3% who received methadone, an increase from 28.6% in the interval spanning 1 to 2 years before delivery (p < 0.001). Prescription for nonmethadone opioids decreased from 38% to 17% (p < 0.001). Interpretation The incidence of neonatal opioid withdrawal in Ontario has increased substantially over the last 20 years. Most of the women in this cohort who delivered an infant with neonatal abstinence syndrome had received a prescription for an opioid both before and during their pregnancy. PMID:25844370

  4. Hypoglycemia at admission is associated with inhospital mortality in Ugandan patients with severe sepsis.

    PubMed

    Ssekitoleko, Richard; Jacob, Shevin T; Banura, Patrick; Pinkerton, Relana; Meya, David B; Reynolds, Steven J; Kenya-Mugisha, Nathan; Mayanja-Kizza, Harriet; Muhindo, Rose; Bhagani, Sanjay; Scheld, W Michael; Moore, Christopher C

    2011-10-01

    Dysglycemia during sepsis is associated with poor outcomes in resource-rich settings. In resource-limited settings, hypoglycemia is often diagnosed clinically without the benefit of laboratory support. We studied the utility of point-of-care glucose monitoring to predict mortality in severely septic patients in Uganda. Prospective observational study. One national and two regional referral hospitals in Uganda. We enrolled 532 patients with sepsis at three hospitals in Uganda. The analysis included 418 patients from the three sites with inhospital mortality data, a documented admission blood glucose concentration, and evidence of organ dysfunction at admission (systolic blood pressure≤100 mm Hg, lactate>4 mmol/L, platelet number<100,000/μL, or altered mental status). None. We evaluated the association between admission point-of-care blood glucose concentration and inhospital mortality. We also assessed the accuracy of altered mental status as a predictor of hypoglycemia. Euglycemia occurred in 33.5% (140 of 418) of patients, whereas 16.3% (68 of 418) of patients were hypoglycemic and 50.2% (210 of 418) were hyperglycemic. Univariate Cox regression analyses comparing in-hospital mortality among hypoglycemic (35.3% [24 of 68], hazard ratio 2.0, 95% confidence interval 1.2-3.6, p=.013) and hyperglycemic (29.5% [62 of 210], hazard ratio 1.5, 95% confidence interval 0.96-2.4, p=.08) patients to euglycemic (19.3% [27 of 140]) patients showed statistically significantly higher rates of inhospital mortality for patients with hypoglycemia. Hypoglycemia (adjusted hazard ratio 1.9, 95% confidence interval 1.1-3.3, p=.03) remained significantly and independently associated with inhospital mortality in the multivariate model. The sensitivity and specificity of altered mental status for hypoglycemia were 25% and 86%, respectively. Hypoglycemia is an independent risk factor for inhospital mortality in patients with severe sepsis and cannot be adequately assessed by clinical

  5. Exaggerated glucagon responses to hypoglycemia in women with polycystic ovary syndrome.

    PubMed

    Sam, Susan; Vellanki, Priyathama; Yalamanchi, Sudha K; Bergman, Richard N; Dunaif, Andrea

    2017-06-01

    Premenopausal women have blunted counter-regulatory hormone responses (CRR) to hypoglycemia compared to men. Postmenopausal women have CRR similar to men; the premenopausal pattern can be restored by estrogen. However, glucagon and pancreatic polypeptide (PP) responses remain lower in postmenopausal women than in men. Since hyperandrogenemia contributes to the metabolic phenotype of polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS), we hypothesize that CRR to hypoglycemia especially of glucagon and PP is exaggerated in premenopausal women with PCOS compared to premenopausal control women. Ten obese women with PCOS and 9 control women of similar ethnicity, age and BMI underwent determination of CRR in response to hypoglycemia during 180-min 60mU/m(2)/min insulin dose hypoglycemic clamp with isotopic assessment of endogenous glucose production (EGP). To assess CRR to hypoglycemia, glucagon, cortisol, growth hormone (GH), epinephrine, norepinephrine, PP, lactate, free fatty acid (FFA), β-hydroxybutyrate, and glycerol levels were sampled at 15-min intervals throughout the clamp. Incremental glucagon levels were ~3-fold higher during hypoglycemia (P=0.03) in PCOS. Postabsorptive, steady-state and incremental GH, cortisol, epinephrine, norepinephrine, PP, FFA, glycerol and β-hydroxybutyrate did not differ. At target glucose levels of ~52mg/dL, insulin mediated glucose disposal (IMGD) was decreased by ~40% (P=0.02) in PCOS, compared to control women, despite ~20% higher steady-state insulin levels (P=0.03). Neither postabsorptive nor steady-state EGP differed. However, postabsorptive lactate levels were ~50% higher (P=0.02). PCOS status (P=0.04) and IMGD (P=0.02) predicted the differential glucagon response to hypoglycemia in separate regression models, however, neither parameter remained an independent predictor in a combined model. Glucagon responses were increased in PCOS, whereas other CRR did not differ. Women with PCOS were insulin resistant under hypoglycemic conditions and

  6. [Psychometric analysis of the Spanish and Catalan versions of a questionnaire for hypoglycemia awareness].

    PubMed

    Jansa, Marga; Quirós, Carmen; Giménez, Marga; Vidal, Merce; Galindo, Mercedes; Conget, Ignacio

    2015-05-21

    Intensive insulin therapy with multiple insulin doses in subjects with type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1D) is associated with a higher risk of hypoglycaemic episodes. Repeated hypoglycemia results in a reduced ability/failure to recognize hypoglycemia symptoms and predisposes to severe episodes. In this context is crucial to work with specific questionnaires to diagnose and address this burden. Our study aimed to perform the psychometric analysis of Spanish and Catalan versions of Clarke et al. questionnaire for hypoglycemia awareness. Psychometric analysis in patients with T1D of Spanish and Catalan versions of Clarke et al. questionnaire in 3 phases: 1) translation, back-translation and cultural adaptation of the English version; 2) analysis of internal, external and test-retest validity, and 3) assessing sensitivity to change in hypoglycemia perception. One-hundred and forty-four subjects with T1D answered the Clarke et al. questionnaire (mean age [SD] 36 [18] years, 46% men). We observed a Cronbach α coefficient for internal validity of 0.75, a correlation coefficient for test-retest reliability of r=0.81 and a correlation of the questionnaire score with the frequency of severe and no severe hypoglycemia events of r=0.47 and r=0.77, respectively. The analysis of 20 patients with T1D 24 months after the initiation of continuous subcutaneous insulin infusion showed a decrease in the frequency of non-severe hypoglycemia/week (from 5.40 [2.09] to 2.75 [1.74]) and in the number of severe hypoglycemic episodes/year (1.25 [0.44] to 0.05 [0.22]). This was associated with a decrease in scores of the translated versions of Clarke et al. questionnaire (from 5.45 [1.19] to 1.60 [2.03]). Spanish and Catalan versions of Clarke et al. questionnaire display good psychometric properties and both could be considered a useful tool for evaluating hypoglycemia awareness in patients with T1D from our area. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  7. Hypoglycemia at admission is associated with inhospital mortality in Ugandan patients with severe sepsis

    PubMed Central

    Ssekitoleko, Richard; Jacob, Shevin T.; Banura, Patrick; Pinkerton, Relana; Meya, David B.; Reynolds, Steven J.; Kenya-Mugisha, Nathan; Mayanja-Kizza, Harriet; Muhindo, Rose; Bhagani, Sanjay; Scheld, W. Michael; Moore, Christopher C.

    2013-01-01

    Objective Dysglycemia during sepsis is associated with poor outcomes in resource-rich settings. In resource-limited settings, hypoglycemia is often diagnosed clinically without the benefit of laboratory support. We studied the utility of point-of-care glucose monitoring to predict mortality in severely septic patients in Uganda. Design Prospective observational study. Setting One national and two regional referral hospitals in Uganda. Patients We enrolled 532 patients with sepsis at three hospitals in Uganda. The analysis included 418 patients from the three sites with inhospital mortality data, a documented admission blood glucose concentration, and evidence of organ dysfunction at admission (systolic blood pressure ≤100 mm Hg, lactate > 4 mmol/L, platelet number <100,000/µL, or altered mental status). Interventions None. Measurements and Main Results We evaluated the association between admission point-of-care blood glucose concentration and inhospital mortality. We also assessed the accuracy of altered mental status as a predictor of hypoglycemia. Euglycemia occurred in 33.5% (140 of 418) of patients, whereas 16.3% (68 of 418) of patients were hypoglycemic and 50.2% (210 of 418) were hyperglycemic. Univariate Cox regression analyses comparing inhospital mortality among hypoglycemic (35.3% [24 of 68], hazard ratio 2.0, 95% confidence interval 1.2–3.6, p = .013) and hyperglycemic (29.5% [62 of 210], hazard ratio 1.5, 95% confidence interval 0.96–2.4, p = .08) patients to euglycemic (19.3% [27 of 140]) patients showed statistically significantly higher rates of inhospital mortality for patients with hypoglycemia. Hypoglycemia (adjusted hazard ratio 1.9, 95% confidence interval 1.1–3.3, p = .03) remained significantly and independently associated with inhospital mortality in the multivariate model. The sensitivity and specificity of altered mental status for hypoglycemia were 25% and 86%, respectively. Conclusion Hypoglycemia is an independent risk factor

  8. Is screening for renal anomalies warranted in neonates with isolated single umbilical artery?

    PubMed

    de Boom, M L; Kist-van Holthe, J E; Sramek, A; Lardenoye, S W J; Walther, F J; Lopriore, E

    2010-01-01

    To determine the prevalence of renal anomalies in patients with an isolated single umbilical artery (SUA). We performed a retrospective study of all renal ultrasound examinations assessed at our centre between January 1998 and December 2008 in neonates with SUA with or without associated anomalies. Renal ultrasound examination was performed in 65 neonates with SUA (57 neonates with isolated SUA and 8 neonates with nonisolated SUA). The prevalence of renal anomalies in the group with and without isolated SUA was 2% (1/57) and 38% (3/8), respectively. Only one patient with isolated SUA had a mild renal abnormality without clinical consequences. The prevalence of renal anomalies in neonates with isolated SUA is low. We suggest that routine ultrasound screening for renal anomalies is not warranted in neonates with isolated SUA. Copyright 2009 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  9. Magnesium sulfate attenuates increased blood-brain barrier permeability during insulin-induced hypoglycemia in rats.

    PubMed

    Kaya, M; Küçük, M; Kalayci, R B; Cimen, V; Gürses, C; Elmas, I; Arican, N

    2001-09-01

    Magnesium probably protects brain tissue against the effects of cerebral ischemia, brain injury and stroke through its actions as a calcium antagonist and inhibitor of excitatory amino acids. The effects of magnesium sulfate on cerebrovascular permeability to a dye, Evans blue, were studied during insulin-induced hypoglycemia with hypothermia in rats. Hypoglycemia was induced by an intramuscular injection of insulin. After giving insulin, each animal received MgSO4 (270 mg/kg) ip, followed by a 27 mg/kg dose every 20 min for 2.5 h. Plasma glucose and Mg2+ levels of animals were measured. Magnesium concentrations increased in the serum following MgSO4 administration (6.05+/-0.57 vs. 2.58+/-0.14 mg/dL in the Mg2+ group, and 7.14+/-0.42 vs. 2.78+/-0.06 mg/dL in the insulin + Mg2+ group, P < 0.01). Plasma glucose levels decreased following hypoglycemia (4+/-0.66 vs. 118+/-2.23 mg/dL in the insulin group, and 7+/-1.59 vs. 118+/-4.84 mg/dL in the insulin + Mg2+ group, P < 0.01). Blood-brain barrier permeability to Evans blue considerably increased in hypoglycemic rats (P < 0.01). In contrast, blood-brain barrier permeability to Evans blue was significantly reduced in treatment of hypoglycemic rats with MgSO4 (P < 0.01). These results indicate that Mg2+ greatly reduced the passage of exogenous vascular tracer bound to albumin into the brain during hypoglycemia with hypothermia. Mg2+ could have protective effects on blood-brain barrier permeability against insulin-induced hypoglycemia.

  10. Hypoglycemia prediction with subject-specific recursive time-series models.

    PubMed

    Eren-Oruklu, Meriyan; Cinar, Ali; Quinn, Lauretta

    2010-01-01

    Avoiding hypoglycemia while keeping glucose within the narrow normoglycemic range (70-120 mg/dl) is a major challenge for patients with type 1 diabetes. Continuous glucose monitors can provide hypoglycemic alarms when the measured glucose decreases below a threshold. However, a better approach is to provide an early alarm that predicts a hypoglycemic episode before it occurs, allowing enough time for the patient to take the necessary precaution to avoid hypoglycemia. We have previously proposed subject-specific recursive models for the prediction of future glucose concentrations and evaluated their prediction performance. In this work, our objective was to evaluate this algorithm further to predict hypoglycemia and provide early hypoglycemic alarms. Three different methods were proposed for alarm decision, where (A) absolute predicted glucose values, (B) cumulative-sum (CUSUM) control chart, and (C) exponentially weighted moving-average (EWMA) control chart were used. Each method was validated using data from the Diabetes Research in Children Network, which consist of measurements from a continuous glucose sensor during an insulin-induced hypoglycemia. Reference serum glucose measurements were used to determine the sensitivity to predict hypoglycemia and the false alarm rate. With the hypoglycemic threshold set to 60 mg/dl, sensitivity of 89, 87.5, and 89% and specificity of 67, 74, and 78% were reported for methods A, B, and C, respectively. Mean values for time to detection were 30 +/- 5.51 (A), 25.8 +/- 6.46 (B), and 27.7 +/- 5.32 (C) minutes. Compared to the absolute value method, both CUSUM and EWMA methods behaved more conservatively before raising an alarm (reduced time to detection), which significantly decreased the false alarm rate and increased the specificity. 2010 Diabetes Technology Society.

  11. Dipyrone in association with atropine inhibits the effect on gastric emptying induced by hypoglycemia in rats

    PubMed Central

    Collares, E.F.; Vinagre, A.M.; Collares-Buzato, C.B.

    2017-01-01

    Atropine (AT) and dipyrone (Dp) induce a delay of gastric emptying (GE) of liquids in rats by inhibiting muscarinic receptors and activating β2-adrenergic receptors, respectively. The objective of the present study was to determine the effects of pretreatment with AT and Dp, given alone or in combination, on the effect of hypoglycemia in the liquid GE in rats. Male Wistar adult rats (280-310 g) were pretreated intravenously with AT, Dp, AT plus Dp or their vehicle and then treated 30 min later with iv insulin or its vehicle (n=8-10 animals/group). Thirty min after treatment, GE was evaluated by determining, in awake rats, the percent gastric retention (%GR) of a saline meal labeled with phenol red administered by gavage. The results indicated that insulin induced hypoglycemia in a dose-dependent manner resulting in a significant reduction in %GR of liquid only at the highest dose tested (1 U/kg). Pretreatment with AT significantly increased %GR in the rats treated with 1 U/kg insulin. Surprisingly, after pretreatment with AT, the group treated with the lowest dose of insulin (0.25 U/kg) displayed significantly lower %GR compared to its control (vehicle-treated group), which was not seen in the non-pretreated animals. Pretreatment with Dp alone at the dose of 40 mg/kg induced an increase in %GR in both vehicle and 0.25 U/kg-treated rats. A higher dose of Dp alone (80 mg/kg) significantly reduced the effect of a marked hypoglycemia induced by 1 U/kg of insulin on GE while in combination with AT the effect was completely abolished. The results with AT suggest that moderate hypoglycemia may render the inhibitory mechanisms of GE ineffective while Dp alone and in combination with AT significantly overcame the effect of hypoglycemia on GE. PMID:28876363

  12. Dipyrone in association with atropine inhibits the effect on gastric emptying induced by hypoglycemia in rats.

    PubMed

    Collares, E F; Vinagre, A M; Collares-Buzato, C B

    2017-08-31

    Atropine (AT) and dipyrone (Dp) induce a delay of gastric emptying (GE) of liquids in rats by inhibiting muscarinic receptors and activating β2-adrenergic receptors, respectively. The objective of the present study was to determine the effects of pretreatment with AT and Dp, given alone or in combination, on the effect of hypoglycemia in the liquid GE in rats. Male Wistar adult rats (280-310 g) were pretreated intravenously with AT, Dp, AT plus Dp or their vehicle and then treated 30 min later with iv insulin or its vehicle (n=8-10 animals/group). Thirty min after treatment, GE was evaluated by determining, in awake rats, the percent gastric retention (%GR) of a saline meal labeled with phenol red administered by gavage. The results indicated that insulin induced hypoglycemia in a dose-dependent manner resulting in a significant reduction in %GR of liquid only at the highest dose tested (1 U/kg). Pretreatment with AT significantly increased %GR in the rats treated with 1 U/kg insulin. Surprisingly, after pretreatment with AT, the group treated with the lowest dose of insulin (0.25 U/kg) displayed significantly lower %GR compared to its control (vehicle-treated group), which was not seen in the non-pretreated animals. Pretreatment with Dp alone at the dose of 40 mg/kg induced an increase in %GR in both vehicle and 0.25 U/kg-treated rats. A higher dose of Dp alone (80 mg/kg) significantly reduced the effect of a marked hypoglycemia induced by 1 U/kg of insulin on GE while in combination with AT the effect was completely abolished. The results with AT suggest that moderate hypoglycemia may render the inhibitory mechanisms of GE ineffective while Dp alone and in combination with AT significantly overcame the effect of hypoglycemia on GE.

  13. GLP1 and glucagon co-secreting pancreatic neuroendocrine tumor presenting as hypoglycemia after gastric bypass

    PubMed Central

    Guimarães, Marta; Rodrigues, Pedro; Pereira, Sofia S; Nora, Mário; Gonçalves, Gil; Albrechtsen, Nicolai Wewer; Hartmann, Bolette; Holst, Jens Juul

    2015-01-01

    Summary Post-prandial hypoglycemia is frequently found after bariatric surgery. Although rare, pancreatic neuroendocrine tumors (pNET), which occasionally are mixed hormone secreting, can lead to atypical clinical manifestations, including reactive hypoglycemia. Two years after gastric bypass surgery for the treatment of severe obesity, a 54-year-old female with previous type 2 diabetes, developed post-prandial sweating, fainting and hypoglycemic episodes, which eventually led to the finding by ultrasound of a 1.8-cm solid mass in the pancreatic head. The 72-h fast test and the plasma chromogranin A levels were normal but octreotide scintigraphy showed a single focus of abnormal radiotracer uptake at the site of the nodule. There were no other clinical signs of hormone secreting pNET and gastrointestinal hormone measurements were not performed. The patient underwent surgical enucleation with complete remission of the hypoglycemic episodes. Histopathology revealed a well-differentiated neuroendocrine carcinoma with low-grade malignancy with positive chromogranin A and glucagon immunostaining. An extract of the resected tumor contained a high concentration of glucagon (26.707 pmol/g tissue), in addition to traces of GLP1 (471 pmol/g), insulin (139 pmol/g) and somatostatin (23 pmol/g). This is the first report of a GLP1 and glucagon co-secreting pNET presenting as hypoglycemia after gastric bypass surgery. Although pNET are rare, they should be considered in the differential diagnosis of the clinical approach to the post-bariatric surgery hypoglycemia patient. Learning points pNETs can be multihormonal-secreting, leading to atypical clinical manifestations.Reactive hypoglycemic episodes are frequent after gastric bypass.pNETs should be considered in the differential diagnosis of hypoglycemia after bariatric surgery. PMID:26266036

  14. Risk of hypoglycemia during hemodialysis in diabetic patients is related to lower pre-dialysis glycemia.

    PubMed

    Burmeister, Jayme Eduardo; Miltersteiner, Diego da Rosa; Burmeister, Bruna Ortega; Campos, Juliana Fernandes

    2015-04-01

    To compare the occurrence of hypoglycemia during hemodialysis in chronic kidney disease diabetic patients who present different levels of pre-dialysis glycemia both when using dialysis solutions with and without glucose. Twenty type 2 diabetic patients in maintenance hemodialysis were submitted to three dialysis sessions (at a 7-day interval each) with dialysis solutions without glucose, with glucose at 55 mg/dL, and at 90 mg/dL subsequently. Blood glucose levels were measured immediately pre-dialysis and at 4 moments during the session, and values under 70 mg/dL were considered as hypoglycemia. Average pre-dialysis glycemia was lower in those who presented intra-dialytic hypoglycemia than in those who did not, both in glucose-free (140.4 ± 50.7 vs. 277.7 ± 91.0 mg/dL; p = 0.005; 95%CI: 46.4 to 228.1) and in glucose 55 mg/dL (89.5 ± 10.6 vs. 229.7 ± 105.0 mg/dL; p < 0.05; 95%CI: 9.8 to 270.5). In patients with pre-dialysis glycemia under 140 mg/dL, average intradialytic glycemia was significantly lower than pre-dialysis glycemia only when using glucose-free dialysate (p < 0.0001; 95%CI: 29.9 to 56.0 - t-test). Hypoglycemia during dialysis was observed only when using glucose-free or glucose-poor dialysis solutions. The use of glucose-free or glucose-poor dialysis solution presents a high risk of intradialytic hypoglycemia in diabetic renal patients, especially in those with presumed better glycemic control.

  15. Activation of Hindbrain Neurons Is Mediated by Portal-Mesenteric Vein Glucosensors During Slow-Onset Hypoglycemia

    PubMed Central

    Bohland, MaryAnn; Matveyenko, Aleksey V.; Saberi, Maziyar; Khan, Arshad M.; Watts, Alan G.

    2014-01-01

    Hypoglycemic detection at the portal-mesenteric vein (PMV) appears mediated by spinal afferents and is critical for the counter-regulatory response (CRR) to slow-onset, but not rapid-onset, hypoglycemia. Since rapid-onset hypoglycemia induces Fos protein expression in discrete brain regions, we hypothesized that denervation of the PMV or lesioning spinal afferents would suppress Fos expression in the dorsal medulla during slow-onset hypoglycemia, revealing a central nervous system reliance on PMV glucosensors. Rats undergoing PMV deafferentation via capsaicin, celiac-superior mesenteric ganglionectomy (CSMG), or total subdiaphragmatic vagotomy (TSV) were exposed to hyperinsulinemic–hypoglycemic clamps where glycemia was lowered slowly over 60–75 min. In response to hypoglycemia, control animals demonstrated a robust CRR along with marked Fos expression in the area postrema, nucleus of the solitary tract, and dorsal motor nucleus of the vagus. Fos expression was suppressed by 65–92% in capsaicin-treated animals, as was epinephrine (74%), norepinephrine (33%), and glucagon (47%). CSMG also suppressed Fos expression and CRR during slow-onset hypoglycemia, whereas TSV failed to impact either. In contrast, CSMG failed to impact upon Fos expression or the CRR during rapid-onset hypoglycemia. Peripheral glucosensory input from the PMV is therefore required for activation of hindbrain neurons and the full CRR during slow-onset hypoglycemia. PMID:24727435

  16. Hypoglycemic neuronal death and cognitive impairment are prevented by poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase inhibitors administered after hypoglycemia.

    PubMed

    Suh, Sang Won; Aoyama, Koji; Chen, Yongmei; Garnier, Philippe; Matsumori, Yasuhiko; Gum, Elizabeth; Liu, Jialing; Swanson, Raymond A

    2003-11-19

    Severe hypoglycemia causes neuronal death and cognitive impairment. Evidence suggests that hypoglycemic neuronal death involves excitotoxicity and DNA damage. Poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase-1 (PARP-1) normally functions in DNA repair, but promotes cell death when extensively activated by DNA damage. Cortical neuron cultures were subjected to glucose deprivation to assess the role of PARP-1 in hypoglycemic neuronal death. PARP-1-/- neurons and wild-type, PARP-1+/+ neurons treated with the PARP inhibitor 3,4-dihydro-5-[4-(1-piperidinyl)butoxy]-1(2H)-isoquinolinone both showed increased resistance to glucose deprivation. A rat model of insulin-induced hypoglycemia was used to assess the therapeutic potential of PARP inhibitors after hypoglycemia. Rats subjected to severe hypoglycemia (30 min EEG isoelectricity) accumulated both nitrotyrosine and the PARP-1 product, poly(ADP-ribose), in vulnerable neurons. Treatment with PARP inhibitors immediately after hypoglycemia blocked production of poly(ADP-ribose) and reduced neuronal death by >80% in most brain regions examined. Increased neuronal survival was also achieved when PARP inhibitors were administered up to 2 hr after blood glucose correction. Behavioral and histological assessments performed 6 weeks after hypoglycemia confirmed a sustained salutary effect of PARP inhibition. These results suggest that PARP-1 activation is a major factor mediating hypoglycemic neuronal death and that PARP-1 inhibitors can rescue neurons that would otherwise die after severe hypoglycemia.

  17. Factors associated with an inadequate hypoglycemia in the insulin tolerance test in Japanese patients with suspected or proven hypopituitarism.

    PubMed

    Takahashi, Kiyohiko; Nakamura, Akinobu; Miyoshi, Hideaki; Nomoto, Hiroshi; Kameda, Hiraku; Cho, Kyu Yong; Nagai, So; Shimizu, Chikara; Taguri, Masataka; Terauchi, Yasuo; Atsumi, Tatsuya

    2017-03-03

    We attempted to identify the predictors of an inadequate hypoglycemia in insulin tolerance test (ITT), defined as a blood glucose level higher than 2.8 mmol/L after insulin injection, in Japanese patients with suspected or proven hypopituitarism. A total of 78 patients who had undergone ITT were divided into adequate and inadequate hypoglycemia groups. The relationships between the subjects' clinical parameters and inadequate hypoglycemia in ITT were analyzed. Stepwise logistic regression analysis identified high systolic blood pressure (SBP) and high homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) as being independent factors associated with inadequate hypoglycemia in ITT. Receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve analysis revealed the cutoff value for inadequate hypoglycemia was 109 mmHg for SBP and 1.4 for HOMA-IR. The areas under ROC curve for SBP and HOMA-IR were 0.72 and 0.86, respectively. We confirmed that high values of SBP and HOMA-IR were associated with inadequate hypoglycemia in ITT, regardless of the degree of reduction of pituitary hormone levels. Furthermore, the strongest predictor of inadequate hypoglycemia was obtained by using the cutoff value of HOMA-IR. Our results suggest that HOMA-IR is a useful pre-screening tool for ITT in these populations.

  18. Bacteriological study of neonatal sepsis and antibiotic susceptibility pattern of isolates in Kathmandu, Nepal.

    PubMed

    Shrestha, R K; Rai, S K; Khanal, L K; Manda, P K

    2013-03-01

    Bloodstream infections in neonates are life-threatening emergencies. Identification of the common bacteria causing such infections and their susceptibility patterns will provide necessary information for timely intervention. This study was done to determine the prevalence of neonatal septicaemia, identify the bacterial isolates and study their antimicrobial susceptibility pattern in neonates admitted to the neonatal intensive care unit of Nepal Medical College Teaching Hospital (NMCTH), Kathmandu, Nepal. This descriptive-analytical study was conducted in NMCTH from July 2011 to January 2012. Blood culture of all neonates who were suspected for neonatal sepsis was performed. Bacterial isolation, identification and antimicrobial susceptibility testing were done by standard microbiological method. Out of 120 neonates suspected of having neonatal sepsis, 30.8% (37/120) were blood culture positive (i.e. prevalence = 30.8%). The most common causative agents of neonatal sepsis was Staphylococcus aureus (56.8%; 21/37) followed by Klebsiella pneumoniae (21.7%; 8/37), Pseudomonas aeruginosa (13.4%; 5/37) and others. Neonatal sepsis was more frequent in male neonates (32.5%) while (26.5%) in female neonates in the ratio of 1.2:1 (p > 0.05). Neonatal sepsis was significantly higher (58.3%) in low birth weight (LBW) (< 2.5kg) neonates compared with good birth weight (GBW) (23.9%) (< 0.05). Prevalence was higher in preterm neonates (57.8%; 11/19) as compared with term-babies (25.7%) (P = 0.05). Generally, all of the isolates were sensitive to most of the antibiotics used as the first line drugs like amikacin, gentamicin, cefotaxime and ampicillin except Acinetobacter baumannii. This organisms was only sensitive towards cotrimoxazole, azithromicin, cefotaxime and ceftazidime.

  19. A cross-sectional survey among patients and prescribers on insulin dosing irregularities and impact of mild (self-treated) hypoglycemia episodes in Spanish patients with type 2 diabetes as compared to other European patients.

    PubMed

    Ampudia-Blasco, Francisco J; Galán, Manuel; Brod, Meryl

    2014-10-01

    In Spain, data suggest that 13.8% of adults have diabetes. Two important aspects in diabetes management are mild hypoglycemic episodes and poor treatment adherence. This study assesses the impact of missed insulin doses and prevalence of mistimed and reduced insulin doses and mild hypoglycemia in patients with type 2 diabetes treated with basal insulin analogues in Spain, and compares the data collected to pooled data from 8 other European countries (OECs). GAPP2 was an international, online, cross-sectional study of diabetic patients aged ≥40 years treated with long-acting insulin analogues and their healthcare professionals. Patients and healthcare professionals were recruited from online research panels. Data reported in Spain are compared to pooled data from 8 OECs. In Spain, 1-3% of patients reported they had reduced, missed, or mistimed at least one insulin does in the previous month. Significantly more OEC patients reported dosing irregularities (15-23%; all P<0.01). In Spain, 77% of patients were worried and 59% felt guilty for missing a dose of basal insulin, while 24% reported that they were very worried about nocturnal hypoglycemia. Significantly fewer OEC patients reported worrying (47%; P<0.01) and feeling guilty (37%; P<0.01) about missing an insulin dose, or worry about nocturnal hypoglycemia (12%; P<0.01). In Spain, patients with type 2 diabetes report fewer dosing irregularities and hypoglycemic episodes as compared to patients from OECs. However, Spanish patients appear to have a reduced quality of life related to hypoglycemia as well as worry and guilt related to insulin dosing irregularities. Copyright © 2014 SEEN. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  20. Neonatal Klebsiella Septicaemia in Ibadan: Implications for Neonatal Care in Developing Countries.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Omokhodion, S. I.; And Others

    1993-01-01

    The antecedent events, clinical features, prevalence, and complications of neonatal Klebsiella septicaemia in 73 infants admitted to a special care baby unit in Nigeria are retrospectively reviewed and compared with those of 72 infants who had no risk factors for sepsis admitted to the same unit during the same period. A nosocomial acquisition of…

  1. Neonatal Klebsiella Septicaemia in Ibadan: Implications for Neonatal Care in Developing Countries.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Omokhodion, S. I.; And Others

    1993-01-01

    The antecedent events, clinical features, prevalence, and complications of neonatal Klebsiella septicaemia in 73 infants admitted to a special care baby unit in Nigeria are retrospectively reviewed and compared with those of 72 infants who had no risk factors for sepsis admitted to the same unit during the same period. A nosocomial acquisition of…

  2. Predictors of mortality in neonatal septicemia in an underresourced setting.

    PubMed

    Ogunlesi, Tinuade A; Ogunfowora, Olusoga B

    2010-10-01

    To determine the predictors of mortality in neonatal septicemia. The records of babies with culture-proven septicemia managed in a Nigerian newborn unit between 2006 and 2008 were studied using bivariate and multivariate analysis. Out of 174 babies with septicemia, 56 (32.2%) died. Outborn babies, babies with estimated gestational age (EGA) less than 32 weeks, weight less than 1.5 kg, temperature less than 38 degrees C, respiratory distress, abdominal distension, poor skin color, hypoglycemia, and infection with gram-negative pathogens were significantly associated with death by bivariate analysis. Multivariate analysis of these risk factors confirmed that EGA less than 32 weeks (odds ratio [OR], 5.5), respiratory distress (OR, 3.4), abdominal distension (OR, 2.7), poor skin color (OR, 3.3), and hypoglycemia (OR, 5.2) had significant independent contributions to the occurrence of death among babies with culture-proven septicemia. Most of the identified predictors of mortality are modifiable and can be used to draw up a screening tool to determine the clinical severity among septic babies.

  3. Phenobarbitone versus phenytoin for treatment of neonatal seizures: an open-label randomized controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Pathak, Garima; Upadhyay, Amit; Pathak, Umesh; Chawla, Deepak; Goel, Sneh P

    2013-08-01

    To compare the efficacy of phenobarbitone and phenytoin for treatment of neonatal seizures in term and near-term neonates. Open labeled randomized controlled trial. Neonatal intensive care unit of a level II unit from India, from November 2008 to September 2009. All term and late pre-term neonates admitted with clinically apparent seizures and not having any transient metabolic disorders (hypoglycemia or hypocalcemia) were randomly assigned. Phenobarbitone (n=54) or phenytoin (n=55) intravenously 20 mg/kg/dose over 20-30 min. Neonates whose seizures were not controlled by the assigned drug were then crossed over to be treated with other drug in same dose. Clinical control of seizures (seizure free period of 24 hours after giving anticonvulsant). Baseline characteristics including mean birthweight, gestation age and sex were comparable in both groups. Seizures were controlled in 8 of the 55 (14.5%) neonates who received phenytoin, as compared to 39 of 54 (72.2%) neonates who received phenobarbitone (P <0.001). In babies not responding to assigned drugs, after cross-over to the other drug, seizure control was achieved in 44/55 (80%) of the neonates assigned to receive phenytoin first as compared to 49/54 (91%) of those assigned to receive phenobarbitone first (P=0.014). After maximum dose of phenobarbitone seizures were controlled in 49/55(89%) in phenytoin group and 52/54 (96%) in phenobarbitone group (P<0.05). Phenobarbitone is more efficacious than phenytoin in control of clinical seizures in term or near-term neonates, irrespective of etiology. To evaluate serum vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) levels in children with acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) during the induction phase of chemotherapy.

  4. Maternal ethanol ingestion: effect on maternal and neonatal glucose balance

    SciTech Connect

    Witek-Janusek, L.

    1986-08-01

    Liver glycogen availability in the newborn is of major importance for the maintenance of postnatal blood glucose levels. This study examined the effect of maternal ethanol ingestion on maternal and neonatal glucose balance in the rate. Female rats were placed on 1) the Lieber-DeCarli liquid ethanol diet, 2) an isocaloric liquid pair-diet, or 3) an ad libitum rat chow diet at 3 wk before mating and throughout gestation. Blood and livers were obtained from dams and rat pups on gestational days 21 and 22. The pups were studied up to 6 h in the fasted state and up to 24 h in the fed state. Maternal ethanol ingestion significantly decreased litter size, birth weight, and growth. A significantly higher mortality during the early postnatal period was seen in the prenatal ethanol exposed pups. Ethanol significantly decreased fed maternal liver glycogen stores but not maternal plasma glucose levels. The newborn rats from ethanol ingesting dams also had significantly decreased liver glycogen stores. Despite mobilizing their available glycogen, these prenatal ethanol exposed pups became hypoglycemic by 6 h postnatal. This was more marked in the fasted pups. Ethanol did not affect maternal nor neonatal plasma insulin levels. Thus maternal ethanol ingestion reduces maternal and neonatal liver glycogen stores and leads to postnatal hypoglycemia in the newborn rat.

  5. Neonatal Thrombocytopenia as a Consequence of Maternal Preeclampsia

    PubMed Central

    Kalagiri, Ram R.; Choudhury, Saiara; Carder, Timothy; Govande, Vinayak; Beeram, Madhava R.; Uddin, M Nasir

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Preeclampsia (preE) is pregnancy-induced hypertension affecting a significant proportion of pregnant women worldwide and can cause detrimental effects in the mother and newborn. Some of the effects in the newborn include neonatal thrombocytopenia. Pertaining specifically to neonatal thrombocytopenia, several questions remain unanswered. Discussion According to the current literature, neonatal thrombocytopenia due to maternal preE is highly prevalent in the general population and the incidence is reported to be around 30% worldwide. This review gives an insight into the syndrome and summarizes the possible pathological mechanisms, the diagnostic approach, complications, and therapeutic interventions of neonatal thrombocytopenia. It also identifies the involvement of other cell lines, apart from platelets in the newborns. Furthermore, we suggest a future prospective study to investigate the pathogenesis of preE and plan a study involving animal models to come up with a possible therapeutic intervention to prevent preE and its various consequences in neonates. PMID:26929869

  6. Associations between recent severe hypoglycemia, retinal vessel diameters, and cognition in adults with type 1 diabetes.

    PubMed

    Ryan, Christopher M; Klein, Barbara E K; Lee, Kristine E; Cruickshanks, Karen J; Klein, Ronald

    Mild cognitive dysfunction has been identified in children and adults with type 1 diabetes, but most studies have failed to find a relationship between severe hypoglycemia and cognition, despite reports of such associations in older adults with type 2 diabetes. Focusing on older adults with type 1 diabetes, we examined the associations between cognitive performance and recent episodes of severe hypoglycemia, retinal vessel diameters and the presence of micro- and macrovascular complications. Cognitive functioning was assessed in 244 participants enrolled in the Wisconsin Epidemiologic Study of Diabetic Retinopathy. The mean (SD; range) age at assessment in 2012-14 was 55.2 (8.3; 37-82) years and the mean (SD) duration of diabetes was 41.1 (5.6) years. Three cognitive domains were assessed in this cross-sectional study: mental efficiency and executive function, nonverbal memory, and verbal memory. Multivariate modeling demonstrated that although age and/or education are most strongly associated with performance on measures of mental efficiency, three diabetes-related variables were also associated with poorer test scores: an episode of severe hypoglycemia in the past year (β=-0.360 [95% CI, -0.672, -0.047]), retinal arteriolar and venular diameters (β=0.140 [95% CI, 0.062, 0.219]; β=-0.127 [95% CI -0.207, -0.047]), and carotid artery plaque (β=-0.372 [95% CI -0.741, -0.003]). In addition, recent severe hypoglycemia was associated with poorer nonverbal memory (β=-0.522 [95% CI, -0.849, -0.194]). For middle-aged and older adults with long-duration type 1 diabetes, poorer cognition was associated with a recent episode of severe hypoglycemia as well as with the presence of micro- and/or macrovascular conditions. Given the increasing numbers of aging adults with type 1 diabetes, future longitudinal studies are needed to identify causality and to determine whether diabetes management techniques that reduce the onset or severity of vascular complications and

  7. Saxagliptin versus glipizide as add-on therapy to metformin: assessment of hypoglycemia.

    PubMed

    Mintz, Matthew L; Minervini, Gianmaria

    2014-05-01

    To compare characteristics of hypoglycemic episodes in patients with type 2 diabetes receiving saxagliptin or glipizide add-on therapy to metformin. This was a post hoc analysis of an international, randomized, parallel-group, double-blind, active-controlled, phase 3 trial. The 52-week trial and 52-week extension were conducted from December 2007 to August 2010. Patients aged ≥18 years with glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c) >6.5% to 10.0% receiving stable metformin doses (≥1500 mg/d) were randomized 1:1 to add-on therapy with saxagliptin 5 mg/d or glipizide 5 to 20 mg/d (titrated to optimal effect or highest tolerable dose during the initial 18 weeks). Hypoglycemic episodes were recorded in patient diaries. Confirmed hypoglycemic events were defined as fingerstick glucose ≤50 mg/dL (≤2.8 mmol/L) with associated symptoms. Of 858 patients randomized, 428 received saxagliptin + metformin, and 430 received glipizide + metformin. Saxagliptin was noninferior to glipizide in lowering HbA1c. Hypoglycemia with saxagliptin + metformin and glipizide + metformin was reported by 15 (24 events) and 165 (896 events) patients, respectively, through week 104. The mean (SD) number of hypoglycemic events per patient reporting hypoglycemia was lower with saxagliptin + metformin versus glipizide + metformin through weeks 52 (1.5 [SD 0.88] vs 4.8 [SD 4.9], respectively) and 104 (1.6 [SD 0.99] vs 5.4 [SD 5.8]). Most patients receiving glipizide + metformin with hypoglycemia had multiple events (124/165 patients [75%]). Confirmed hypoglycemia, major events, and severe events occurred only with glipizide + metformin. Time to first hypoglycemic event was shorter with glipizide versus saxagliptin. Limitations of this analysis include its post hoc nature, a high rate of study discontinuation, and exclusion of patients with serious comorbidities and complications. Saxagliptin + metformin was associated with fewer patients reporting hypoglycemia

  8. Blockade of Glucagon-like Peptide 1 Receptor Corrects Post-prandial Hypoglycemia After Gastric Bypass

    PubMed Central

    Salehi, Marzieh; Gastaldelli, Amalia; D'Alessio, David A.

    2014-01-01

    Background & Aims Post-prandial glycemia excursions increase after gastric bypass surgery; this effect is even greater among individuals with recurrent hypoglycemia (blood glucose levels <50 mg/dL). These patients also have increased post-prandial levels of insulin and glucagon-like peptide 1 (GLP1). We performed a clinical trial to determine the role of GLP1 in post-prandial glycemia in patients with hyperinsulinemic hypoglycemia syndrome after gastric bypass. Methods Nine patients with recurrent hypoglycemia after gastric bypass (H-GB), 7 asymptomatic individuals with previous gastric bypass (A-GB), and 8 non-diabetic subjects who did not receive surgery (controls) were studied with a mixed-meal tolerance test (350 kcal) using a dual glucose tracer method on 2 days. On 1 day they received continuous infusion of GLP-1 receptor (GLP1R) antagonist, exendin-(9–39) (Ex-9), and on the other day, a saline control. Glucose kinetics and islet and gut hormone responses were measured before and after the meal. Results Infusion of Ex9 corrected hypoglycemia in all H-GB individuals. The reduction of post-prandial insulin secretion by Ex9 was greater in the H-GB group than other groups (H-GB, 50%±8%; A-GB, 13%±10%; and controls, 14%±10%) (P<.05). Meal-derived glucose (RaOral) was significantly greater among subjects who had undergone gastric bypass than controls, and in H-GB patients compared with A-GB subjects. Ex9 shortened the time to peak RaOral in all groups without any significant effect on the overall glucose flux. Post-prandial glucagon levels were higher among patients who had undergone gastric bypass than controls, and increased with Ex9 administration. Conclusions Hypoglycemia following gastric bypass can be corrected by administration of a GLP1R antagonist, which might be used to treat this disorder. These findings are consistent with reports that increased GLP1 activity contributes to hypoglycemia following gastric bypass. ClinicalTrials.gov number, NCT

  9. Neonatal septic arthritis.

    PubMed

    Halder, D; Seng, Q B; Malik, A S; Choo, K E

    1996-09-01

    Neonatal septic arthritis has always been considered as separate from its counterpart in older children. The condition is uncommon but serious. Affected neonates usually survive, but with permanent skeletal deformities. Ten cases of neonatal septic arthritis were diagnosed between January 1989 and December 1993 in the neonatal intensive care units of two referral hospitals in the state of Kelantan, Malaysia. All except one neonate was born prematurely. The mean age of presentation was 15.6 days. Joint swelling (10/10), increased warmth (7/10) and erythema of the overlying skin (7/10) were the common presenting signs. Vague constitutional symptoms preceded the definitive signs of septic arthritis in all cases. The total white cell counts were raised with shift to the left. The knee (60%) was not commonly affected, followed by the hip (13%) and ankle (13%). Three neonates had multiple joint involvement. Coexistence of arthritis with osteomyelitis was observed in seven neonates. The commonest organism isolated was methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus (9/10). Needle aspiration was performed in nine neonates and one had incision with drainage. Follow up data was available for five neonates and two of these had skeletal morbidity. Early diagnosis by frequent examination of the joints, prompt treatment and control of nosocomial infection are important for management.

  10. Programming of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis by neonatal intermittent hypoxia: effects on adult male ACTH and corticosterone responses are stress specific.

    PubMed

    Chintamaneni, Kathan; Bruder, Eric D; Raff, Hershel

    2014-05-01

    Intermittent hypoxia (IH) is an animal model of apnea-induced hypoxia, a common stressor in the premature neonate. Neonatal stressors may have long-term programming effects in the adult. We hypothesized that neonatal exposure to IH leads to significant changes in basal and stress-induced hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis function in the adult male rat. Rat pups were exposed to normoxia (control) or 6 approximately 30-second cycles of IH (5% or 10% inspired O₂) daily on postnatal days 2-6. At approximately 100 days of age, we assessed the diurnal rhythm of plasma corticosterone and stress-induced plasma ACTH and corticosterone responses, as well as mRNA expression of pertinent genes within the HPA axis. Basal diurnal rhythm of plasma corticosterone concentrations in the adult rat were not affected by prior exposure to neonatal IH. Adults exposed to 10% IH as neonates exhibited an augmented peak ACTH response and a prolonged corticosterone response to restraint stress; however, HPA axis responses to insulin-induced hypoglycemia were not augmented in adults exposed to neonatal IH. Pituitary Pomc, Crhr1, Nr3c1, Nr3c2, Avpr1b, and Hif1a mRNA expression was decreased in adults exposed to neonatal 10% IH. Expression of pertinent hypothalamic and adrenal mRNAs was not affected by neonatal IH. We conclude that exposure to neonatal 10% IH programs the adult HPA axis to hyperrespond to acute stimuli in a stressor-specific manner.

  11. Predictors of positive blood culture and deaths among neonates with suspected neonatal sepsis in a tertiary hospital, Mwanza-Tanzania.

    PubMed

    Kayange, Neema; Kamugisha, Erasmus; Mwizamholya, Damas L; Jeremiah, Seni; Mshana, Stephen E

    2010-06-04

    Neonatal sepsis is a significant cause of morbidity and mortality in neonates. Appropriate clinical diagnosis and empirical treatment in a given setting is crucial as pathogens of bacterial sepsis and antibiotic sensitivity pattern can considerably vary in different settings. This study was conducted at Bugando Medical Centre (BMC), Tanzania to determine the prevalence of neonatal sepsis, predictors of positive blood culture, deaths and antimicrobial susceptibility, thus providing essential information to formulate a policy for management of neonatal sepsis. This was a prospective cross sectional study involving 300 neonates admitted at BMC neonatal unit between March and November 2009. Standard data collection form was used to collect all demographic data and clinical characteristics of neonates. Blood culture was done on Brain Heart Infusion broth followed by identification of isolates using conventional methods and testing for their susceptibility to antimicrobial agents using the disc diffusion method. Among 770 neonates admitted during the study period; 300 (38.9%) neonates were diagnosed to have neonatal sepsis by WHO criteria. Of 300 neonates with clinical neonatal sepsis 121(40%) and 179(60%) had early and late onset sepsis respectively. Positive blood culture was found in 57 (47.1%) and 92 (51.4%) among neonates with early and late onset neonatal sepsis respectively (p = 0.466). Predictors of positive blood culture in both early and late onset neonatal sepsis were inability to feed, lethargy, cyanosis, meconium stained liquor, premature rupture of the membrane and convulsion. About 49% of gram negatives isolates were resistant to third generation cephalosporins and 28% of Staphylococcus aureus were found to be Methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA). Deaths occurred in 57 (19%) of neonates. Factors that predicted deaths were positive blood culture (p = 0.0001), gram negative sepsis (p = 0.0001) and infection with ESBL (p = 0.008) or MRSA (p = 0

  12. Predictors of positive blood culture and deaths among neonates with suspected neonatal sepsis in a tertiary hospital, Mwanza- Tanzania

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Neonatal sepsis is a significant cause of morbidity and mortality in neonates. Appropriate clinical diagnosis and empirical treatment in a given setting is crucial as pathogens of bacterial sepsis and antibiotic sensitivity pattern can considerably vary in different settings. This study was conducted at Bugando Medical Centre (BMC), Tanzania to determine the prevalence of neonatal sepsis, predictors of positive blood culture, deaths and antimicrobial susceptibility, thus providing essential information to formulate a policy for management of neonatal sepsis. Methods This was a prospective cross sectional study involving 300 neonates admitted at BMC neonatal unit between March and November 2009. Standard data collection form was used to collect all demographic data and clinical characteristics of neonates. Blood culture was done on Brain Heart Infusion broth followed by identification of isolates using conventional methods and testing for their susceptibility to antimicrobial agents using the disc diffusion method. Results Among 770 neonates admitted during the study period; 300 (38.9%) neonates were diagnosed to have neonatal sepsis by WHO criteria. Of 300 neonates with clinical neonatal sepsis 121(40%) and 179(60%) had early and late onset sepsis respectively. Positive blood culture was found in 57 (47.1%) and 92 (51.4%) among neonates with early and late onset neonatal sepsis respectively (p = 0.466). Predictors of positive blood culture in both early and late onset neonatal sepsis were inability to feed, lethargy, cyanosis, meconium stained liquor, premature rupture of the membrane and convulsion. About 49% of gram negatives isolates were resistant to third generation cephalosporins and 28% of Staphylococcus aureus were found to be Methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA). Deaths occurred in 57 (19%) of neonates. Factors that predicted deaths were positive blood culture (p = 0.0001), gram negative sepsis (p = 0.0001) and infection with ESBL

  13. Medical Nutrition Therapy Is Effective in the Management of Hypoglycemia Caused by Insulin Antibodies: A Case Report and Literature Review.

    PubMed

    Li, Rongrong; Mao, Jiangfeng; Yu, Kang; Wang, Lilin; Hu, Mingming; Xu, Lingling

    2016-01-01

    Autoimmune antibodies, induced by exogenous insulin preparations, may result in labile glucose control and frequent hypoglycemia in some rare cases. In addition to insulin cessation, immune suppressants and/or plasmapheresis have been used as the primary remedies for these patients. Some previous studies also indicate that the condition tends to remit spontaneously after discontinuation of insulin exposure. Because of this, the clinical importance of nutritional interventions and behavioral approaches, which may play a role in ameliorating the symptoms, should also be emphasized. Herein, we report on a 64-year-old man with hypoglycemia induced by insulin antibodies (IAs), whose hypoglycemic symptoms significantly improved after the implementation of nutrition therapy. This rare case expands our knowledge of the management of hypoglycemia, and for the first time highlights the significance of nutritional and lifestyle intervention in treatment of IA-induced hypoglycemia.

  14. Combining genetic algorithm and Levenberg-Marquardt algorithm in training neural network for hypoglycemia detection using EEG signals.

    PubMed

    Nguyen, Lien B; Nguyen, Anh V; Ling, Sai Ho; Nguyen, Hung T

    2013-01-01

    Hypoglycemia is the most common but highly feared complication induced by the intensive insulin therapy in patients with type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM). Nocturnal hypoglycemia is dangerous because sleep obscures early symptoms and potentially leads to severe episodes which can cause seizure, coma, or even death. It is shown that the hypoglycemia onset induces early changes in electroencephalography (EEG) signals which can be detected non-invasively. In our research, EEG signals from five T1DM patients during an overnight clamp study were measured and analyzed. By applying a method of feature extraction using Fast Fourier Transform (FFT) and classification using neural networks, we establish that hypoglycemia can be detected efficiently using EEG signals from only two channels. This paper demonstrates that by implementing a training process of combining genetic algorithm and Levenberg-Marquardt algorithm, the classification results are improved markedly up to 75% sensitivity and 60% specificity on a separate testing set.

  15. Use of octreotide to treat prolonged sulfonylurea-induced hypoglycemia in a patient with chronic renal failure.

    PubMed

    Nzerue, C M; Thomas, J; Volcy, J; Edeki, T

    2003-01-01

    A diabetic patient with chronic renal failure who developed recurrent and prolonged episodes of hypoglycemia associated with use of sulfonylurea agent is presented here. This patient was hospitalized with neuroglycopenic symptoms of hypoglycemia that persisted in spite of large doses of parenteral glucose replacement. On administration of somatostatin analogue octreotide, hypoglycemia resolved and, blood glucose levels were maintained even after cessation of parenteral glucose. The patient received 2 subcutaneous doses of octreotide 12 hours apart, and made a complete recovery. Our experience suggests that use of octerotide to treat refractory or prolonged sulfonylurea-included hypoglycemia in renal failure patients is safe and effective; large prospective studies would be needed to validate these findings.

  16. Effect of adrenergic receptor blockade on cortisol and GH response to insulin-induced hypoglycemia in man.

    PubMed

    Jezová-Repceková, D; Klimes, I; Jurcovicová, J; Vigas, M

    1979-02-01

    The effect of several drugs presumably influencing central catecholaminergic receptors on plasma cortisol and GH response to insulin-induced hypoglycemia was studied in healthy adult males. The intravenous infusion of alpha-adrenergic blocking agents tolazoline or phentolamine supressed plasma cortisol and GH response to insulin-induced hypoglycemia. After an infusion of beta-adrenergic antagonist propranolol both hypoglycemia and rise in plasma cortisol and GH were prolonged. Finally, the administration of dopaminergic blocker pimozide failed to affect the plasma cortisol response, but slightly suppressed the enhancement of GH release during hypoglycemia. Caution is recommended before making suggestions about neuroendocrine regulations from the data obtained after systemic administration of drugs. Nevertheless, it may be concluded that the hypothesis on the inhibitory role of the central alpha-adrenergic system on ACTH secretion suggested in rats and dogs was not confirmed by our results obtained in man.

  17. Effect of Naloxon on Counter Insulin Hormone Secretion in Insulin-Induced Hypoglycemia

    PubMed Central

    Ju, Yeong Shil; Kim, Sung Woon; Yang, In Myung; Kim, Jin Woo; Kim, Young Seol; Choi, Young Kil

    1987-01-01

    To investigate the normal physiologic role of endogenous opiates in glucose homeostasis and as a preliminary study for clarifying the association of endogenous opites with pathophysilogy of NIDDM, we obseved the changes in the secretion of counter-insulin hormones in response to insulin-induced hypoglycemia with or without naloxone. The results were as follows: Blood glucose was decreased significantly more rapidly with naloxone infusion than after insulin alone, which seems to play a role in the early responses of ACTH and GH.Not only was the more rapid response of ACTH and GH, but also the prolonged secretion of ACTH and Cortisol were observed after administration of insulin and naloxone. We concluded that endogenous opiates may be involved in the feedback regulation of secretion of ACTH and GH during hypoglycemia either at hypophysis or hypothalamus, and involved in glucose homeostasis via a certain direct mechanism other than regulation of counter hormone secretion. PMID:2856480

  18. Severe hypoglycemia and hypokalemia in association with liver metastases of gastric cancer.

    PubMed

    Kato, Akihiko; Bando, Etsuro; Shinozaki, Shingo; Yonemura, Yutaka; Aiba, Motohiko; Fukuda, Izumi; Hizuka, Naomi; Kameya, Toru

    2004-09-01

    We report an 80-year-old man who presented with non-islet cell tumor hypoglycemia (NICTH) in association with hepatic recurrence of gastric cancer. His serum potassium was reduced from 3.9 to 3.1 mmol/l 5 weeks after gastrectomy, and he subsequently developed hypoglycemic coma. He was diagnosed as having NICTH because of the presence of serum big IGF-II and positive staining for IGF-II in gastric cancer cells obtained at surgery. A computed tomography showed multiple liver metastases. His hypoglycemia was refractory to steroid therapy. This case suggested that NICTH could develop in association with hepatic metastases of gastric cancer. Unexpected hypokalemia may be a manifestation of occult NICTH.

  19. Intentional hypoglycemia to control bingeing in a patient with type 1 diabetes and bulimia nervosa.

    PubMed

    Moosavi, Mandana; Kreisman, Stuart; Hall, Lacresha

    2015-02-01

    Most cases of eating disorders associated with type 1 diabetes mellitus are categorized as diabulimia, a disorder of withholding insulin treatment to lose weight through sustained hyperglycemia. In this paper, we report a unique case of a patient with both type 1 diabetes and bulimia nervosa who has an atypical way of controlling her bingeing by keeping her blood sugars low. This pattern of intentionally sustained hypoglycemia has not been previously described in the literature to the best of our knowledge. Knowing various presentations of eating disorders in patients with type 1 diabetes can provide healthcare workers with enhanced ability in recognizing and educating at-risk patients, in the hope of preventing serious hypoglycemia or complications. Furthermore, a patient's awareness of complications associated with suboptimal control of diabetes, whether by overdosing or underdosing their insulin regimen, might lead to avoidance of disordered eating behaviours.

  20. Adaptive System Identification for Estimating Future Glucose Concentrations and Hypoglycemia Alarms.

    PubMed

    Eren-Oruklu, Meriyan; Cinar, Ali; Rollins, Derrick K; Quinn, Lauretta

    2012-08-01

    Many patients with diabetes experience high variability in glucose concentrations that includes prolonged hyperglycemia or hypoglycemia. Models predicting a subject's future glucose concentrations can be used for preventing such conditions by providing early alarms. This paper presents a time-series model that captures dynamical changes in the glucose metabolism. Adaptive system identification is proposed to estimate model parameters which enable the adaptation of the model to inter-/intra-subject variation and glycemic disturbances. It consists of online parameter identification using the weighted recursive least squares method and a change detection strategy that monitors variation in model parameters. Univariate models developed from a subject's continuous glucose measurements are compared to multivariate models that are enhanced with continuous metabolic, physical activity and lifestyle information from a multi-sensor body monitor. A real life application for the proposed algorithm is demonstrated on early (30 min in advance) hypoglycemia detection.

  1. Profound hypoglycemia-ınduced by vaccinium corymbosum juice and laurocerasus fruit.

    PubMed

    Aktan, Ahmet Hamdi; Ozcelik, Abdullah; Cure, Erkan; Cure, Medine Cumhur; Yuce, Suleyman

    2014-01-01

    An emergency intervention was performed in a 75-year-old male patient with hypoglycemic attack and blackout. Although he was diagnosed with prediabetes before 2 years, he did not take any anti-diabetic drug or follow dietary advice. He drank Vaccinium corymbosum L (VC) juice daily with a belief that it increases sexual potency. Before the development of hypoglycemia, the patient had consumed about 500 ml VC juice in addition to eating 200-300 gram of Laurocerasus officinalis (LO) fruit. The measured plasma glucose (PG) level during loss of consciousness was 30 mg/dl. The profound hypoglycemia may be an unexpected side effect of an interaction between the chemical compositions of the two plants, occurred as a result of LO fruit intake that may have a strong PG-lowering effect or related to excessive intake of VC juice. Both plants may be considered in the alternative treatment of diabetes.

  2. Major Increases between Pre- and Post-breakfast Glucose Levels May Predict Nocturnal Hypoglycemia in Type 2 Diabetes.

    PubMed

    Takeishi, Soichi; Mori, Akihiro; Kawai, Miyuka; Yoshida, Yohei; Hachiya, Hiroki; Yumura, Takayuki; Ito, Shun; Shibuya, Takashi; Fushimi, Nobutoshi; Ohashi, Noritsugu; Kawai, Hiromi

    Objective The aim of this study was to determine whether nocturnal hypoglycemia may be predicted according to morning glucose levels. Methods We retrospectively evaluated 106 patients with type 2 diabetes who underwent continuous glucose monitoring during admission. The pre-breakfast glucose level (Pre-breakfast level), highest postprandial glucose level within 3 hours after breakfast (Highest level), time from the start of breakfast to the highest postprandial glucose level (Highest time), difference between the pre-breakfast and highest postprandial breakfast glucose levels (Increase), area under the glucose curve (≥180 mg/dL) within 3 hours after breakfast (Morning AUC), post-breakfast glucose gradient (Gradient), and the increase-to-pre-breakfast ratio (Increase/Pre-breakfast) were calculated. The subjects were divided into hypoglycemic and non-hypoglycemic patients and compared for the above parameters using the t-test. A receiver operating characteristic analysis was used to determine the optimal cut-off values to predict nocturnal hypoglycemia (Hypoglycemia). Results Twenty-eight patients (26.4%) had hypoglycemia. The Pre-breakfast levels were significantly lower in patients with hypoglycemia than those without (p=0.03). The Increases were significantly higher in patients with hypoglycemia than those without (p=0.047). The Increase/Pre-breakfast ratio were significantly larger in patients with hypoglycemia than those without (p=0.0002). Their cut-off values were as follows (level, sensitivity, specificity, and area under the curve): 123 mg/dL, 0.89, 0.55, and 0.78 (p<0.0001); 90.5 mg/dL, 0.75, 0.64, and 0.76 (p<0.0001); and 90.2%, 0.75, 0.76, and 0.78 (p<0.0001), respectively. Conclusion Major increases between the pre- and post-breakfast glucose levels may predict nocturnal hypoglycemia in patients with type 2 diabetes.

  3. Major Increases between Pre- and Post-breakfast Glucose Levels May Predict Nocturnal Hypoglycemia in Type 2 Diabetes

    PubMed Central

    Takeishi, Soichi; Mori, Akihiro; Kawai, Miyuka; Yoshida, Yohei; Hachiya, Hiroki; Yumura, Takayuki; Ito, Shun; Shibuya, Takashi; Fushimi, Nobutoshi; Ohashi, Noritsugu; Kawai, Hiromi

    2016-01-01

    Objective The aim of this study was to determine whether nocturnal hypoglycemia may be predicted according to morning glucose levels. Methods We retrospectively evaluated 106 patients with type 2 diabetes who underwent continuous glucose monitoring during admission. The pre-breakfast glucose level (Pre-breakfast level), highest postprandial glucose level within 3 hours after breakfast (Highest level), time from the start of breakfast to the highest postprandial glucose level (Highest time), difference between the pre-breakfast and highest postprandial breakfast glucose levels (Increase), area under the glucose curve (≥180 mg/dL) within 3 hours after breakfast (Morning AUC), post-breakfast glucose gradient (Gradient), and the increase-to-pre-breakfast ratio (Increase/Pre-breakfast) were calculated. The subjects were divided into hypoglycemic and non-hypoglycemic patients and compared for the above parameters using the t-test. A receiver operating characteristic analysis was used to determine the optimal cut-off values to predict nocturnal hypoglycemia (Hypoglycemia). Results Twenty-eight patients (26.4%) had hypoglycemia. The Pre-breakfast levels were significantly lower in patients with hypoglycemia than those without (p=0.03). The Increases were significantly higher in patients with hypoglycemia than those without (p=0.047). The Increase/Pre-breakfast ratio were significantly larger in patients with hypoglycemia than those without (p=0.0002). Their cut-off values were as follows (level, sensitivity, specificity, and area under the curve): 123 mg/dL, 0.89, 0.55, and 0.78 (p<0.0001); 90.5 mg/dL, 0.75, 0.64, and 0.76 (p<0.0001); and 90.2%, 0.75, 0.76, and 0.78 (p<0.0001), respectively. Conclusion Major increases between the pre- and post-breakfast glucose levels may predict nocturnal hypoglycemia in patients with type 2 diabetes. PMID:27746428

  4. Association of Preoperative Anemia With Postoperative Mortality in Neonates.

    PubMed

    Goobie, Susan M; Faraoni, David; Zurakowski, David; DiNardo, James A

    2016-09-01

    . Multivariable regression analysis demonstrated that preoperative anemia is an independent risk factor for mortality (OR, 2.62; 95% CI, 1.51-4.57) in neonates. The prevalence of postoperative in-hospital mortality was significantly higher in neonates with a preoperative hematocrit level less than 40%; being 7.5% (95% CI, 1%-10%) vs 1.4% (95% CI, 0%-4%) for preoperative hematocrit levels 40%, or greater. The relationship between anemia and in-hospital mortality was confirmed in our validation cohort (National Surgical Quality Improvement Program 2014). To our knowledge, this is the first study to define the incidence of preoperative anemia in neonates, the incidence of postoperative in-hospital mortality in neonates, and the association between preoperative anemia and postoperative mortality in US hospitals. Timely diagnosis, prevention, and appropriate treatment of preoperative anemia in neonates might improve survival.

  5. Long-Term Prediction of Severe Hypoglycemia in Type 1 Diabetes: Is It Really Possible?

    PubMed

    Henriksen, Marie Moth; Færch, Louise; Thorsteinsson, Birger; Pedersen-Bjergaard, Ulrik

    2016-11-01

    Prediction of risk of severe hypoglycemia (SH) in patients with type 1 diabetes is important to prevent future episodes, but it is unknown if it is possible to predict the long-term risk of SH. The aim of the study is to assess if long-term prediction of SH is possible in type 1 diabetes. A follow-up study was performed with 98 patients with type 1 diabetes. At baseline and at follow-up, the patients filled in a questionnaire about diabetes history and complications, number of SH in the preceding year and state of awareness, and HbA1c and C-peptide levels were measured. During the 12 years of follow-up, there was a decrease in HbA1c, C-peptide levels, and incidence of SH (1.1 to 0.4 episodes per patient-year; P < .001). At baseline, the relative rate of SH was 3.6 (P = .001) and 10.9 (P < .0001) in patients with impaired awareness and unawareness of hypoglycemia, respectively, as compared to patients with normal awareness. At follow-up, patients with unawareness at baseline tended to have maintained an increased rate of SH (RR = 3.1; P = .07). Impaired awareness, HbA1c and C-peptide determined at baseline did not correspond with an increased rate of SH at follow-up. Long-term prediction of severe hypoglycemia in type 1 diabetes was not possible, although baseline hypoglycemia unawareness tended to remain a predictor for risk of SH at follow-up. Therefore, it is important repeatedly to assess the different risk factors of SH to determine the actual risk. © 2016 Diabetes Technology Society.

  6. Constitutive Activation of AKT2 in Humans Leads to Hypoglycemia Without Fatty Liver or Metabolic Dyslipidemia.

    PubMed

    Minic, Marina; Rocha, Nuno; Harris, Julie; Groeneveld, Matthijs P; Leiter, Sarah; Wareham, Nicholas; Sleigh, Alison; De Lonlay, Pascale; Hussain, Khalid; O'Rahilly, Stephen; Semple, Robert K

    2017-08-01

    The activating p.Glu17Lys mutation in AKT2, a kinase mediating many of insulin's metabolic actions, causes hypoinsulinemic hypoglycemia and left-sided hemihypertrophy. The wider metabolic profile and longer-term natural history of the condition has not yet been reported. To characterize the metabolic and cellular consequences of the AKT2 p.Glu17Lys mutation in two previously reported males at the age of 17 years. Body composition analysis using dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry, overnight profiling of plasma glucose, insulin, and fatty acids, oral glucose tolerance testing, and magnetic resonance spectroscopy to determine hepatic triglyceride content was undertaken. Hepatic de novo lipogenesis was quantified using deuterium incorporation into palmitate. Signaling in dermal fibroblasts was studied ex vivo. Both patients had 37% adiposity. One developed hypoglycemia after 2 hours of overnight fasting with concomitant suppression of plasma fatty acids and ketones, whereas the other maintained euglycemia with an increase in free fatty acids. Blood glucose excursions after oral glucose were normal in both patients, albeit with low plasma insulin concentrations. In both patients, plasma triglyceride concentration, hepatic triglyceride content, and fasting hepatic de novo lipogenesis were normal. Dermal fibroblasts of one proband showed low-level constitutive phosphorylation of AKT and some downstream substrates, but no increased cell proliferation rate. The p.Glu17Lys mutation of AKT2 confers low-level constitutive activity upon the kinase and produces hypoglycemia with suppressed fatty acid release from adipose tissue, but not fatty liver, hypertriglyceridemia, or elevated hepatic de novo lipogenesis. Hypoglycemia may spontaneously remit.

  7. Experiences, views, and support needs of family members of people with hypoglycemia unawareness: interview study.

    PubMed

    Lawton, Julia; Rankin, David; Elliott, Jackie; Heller, Simon R; Rogers, Helen A; De Zoysa, Nicole; Amiel, Stephanie

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE Hypoglycemia unawareness (HU) affects ~25% of people with type 1 diabetes. People with HU are often reliant on family to detect hypoglycemia and treat severe episodes. We explored the impact of HU on family members' lives, their involvement in preventing and managing hypoglycemia, and their information and support needs. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS This study employed an exploratory, qualitative design comprising in-depth interviews with 24 adult family members of persons with type 1 diabetes and HU. RESULTS Family members described restricting their lives so that they could help the person with HU detect and treat hypoglycemia. Some described being very physically afraid of their partner/relative when they had a hypoglycemic episode due to their aggressive and argumentative behavior and personality changes; this could also make treatment administration difficult. Family members also reported feeling anxious and worried about the safety of the person with HU, particularly when they were left unsupervised. These concerns were often precipitated by traumatic events, such as discovering the person with HU in a coma. Family members could neglect their own health and well-being to care for the person with HU and resentment could build up over time. Family members highlighted extensive, unmet needs for information and emotional support; however, some struggled to recognize and accept their own need for help. CONCLUSIONS Our findings reveal a caregiver group currently "in the shadow of the patient" and in urgent need of information and emotional support. Raising awareness among health care professionals is essential, and developing proactive support for family should be considered.

  8. Sensitivity of the Predictive Hypoglycemia Minimizer System to the Algorithm Aggressiveness Factor

    PubMed Central

    Finan, Daniel A.; Dassau, Eyal; Breton, Marc D.; Patek, Stephen D.; McCann, Thomas W.; Kovatchev, Boris P.; Doyle, Francis J.; Levy, Brian L.; Venugopalan, Ramakrishna

    2015-01-01

    Background: The Predictive Hypoglycemia Minimizer System (“Hypo Minimizer”), consisting of a zone model predictive controller (the “controller”) and a safety supervision module (the “safety module”), aims to mitigate hypoglycemia by preemptively modulating insulin delivery based on continuous glucose monitor (CGM) measurements. The “aggressiveness factor,” a pivotal variable in the system, governs the speed and magnitude of the controller’s insulin dosing characteristics in response to changes in CGM levels. Methods: Twelve adults with type 1 diabetes were studied in closed-loop in a clinical research center for approximately 24 hours. This analysis focused primarily on the effect of the aggressiveness factor on the automated insulin-delivery characteristics of the controller, and secondarily on the glucose control results. Results: As aggressiveness increased from “conservative” to “medium” to “aggressive,” the controller recommended less insulin (–3.3% vs –14.4% vs –19.5% relative to basal) with a higher frequency (5.3% vs 14.4% vs 20.3%) during the critical times when the CGM was reading 90-120 mg/dl and decreasing. Blood glucose analyses indicated that the most aggressive setting resulted in the most desirable combination of the least time spent <70 mg/dl and the most time spent 70-180 mg/dl, particularly in the overnight period. Hyperglycemia, diabetic ketoacidosis, or severe hypoglycemia did not occur with any of the aggressiveness values. Conclusion: The Hypo Minimizer’s controller took preemptive action to prevent hypoglycemia based on predicted changes in CGM glucose levels. The most aggressive setting was quickest to take action to reduce insulin delivery below basal and achieved the best glucose metrics. PMID:26134834

  9. The effectiveness of glucose, sucrose, and fructose in treating hypoglycemia in children with type 1 diabetes.

    PubMed

    Husband, Allison C; Crawford, Susan; McCoy, Lesley A; Pacaud, Danièle

    2010-05-01

    There is a lack of evidence regarding the most effective treatment option for managing naturally occurring hypoglycemia in children with type 1 diabetes. The objectives of this study were (i) to determine if sucrose and fructose are equally effective as glucose in the treatment of spontaneous hypoglycemia in children with type 1 diabetes; and (ii) to determine prestudy and poststudy hypoglycemia treatment preferences. Thirty-three subjects [aged 5.4-15.5 yr and average duration of type 1 diabetes of 3.1 yr (SD = 2.3)] participated in a randomized, crossover design. The main outcome was the effectiveness of treatment as defined by a blood glucose meter reading that was > or = 4.0 mmol/L 15 min after treatment. Each subject treated five hypoglycemic events with each treatment type: glucose (BD Glucose Tablets), sucrose (Skittles), and fructose (Fruit to Go). There was a significant difference between the effectiveness of the three treatments [Wilk's Lambda F(2,28) = 8.64, p = 0.001]. No significant difference between treatment with glucose and treatment with sucrose was noted, but the treatment effectiveness for fructose was significantly lower than sucrose [F (1,29) = 16.09, p < 0.001] and glucose [F (1,29) = 15.64, p < 0.001]. The preferred treatment choices before the study were as follows: 36% glucose, 18% sucrose, and 33% fructose sources. Poststudy, 52% of children preferred the same treatment, which was effective (glucose or sucrose), followed by 35% who changed their preference to an effective treatment. Skittles are as effective in treating hypoglycemia as more expensive BD Glucose Tablets in children with type 1 diabetes.

  10. Hypoglycemia and risk of seizures: a retrospective cross-sectional study.

    PubMed

    Imad, Halawa; Johan, Zelano; Eva, Kumlien

    2015-02-01

    Few studies have been dedicated to assess neurological symptoms in relations to hypoglycemia. In this study we investigated the association between different levels of hypoglycemia and the occurrence of epileptic seizures in patients without a prior diagnosis of epilepsy. A retrospective cross-sectional study. We identified 388 individuals from a laboratory database in Swedish regional hospital who had been found to have a glucose value of ≤3.5 mM between January and December 2009. Medical records were reviewed. Hypoglycemia was defined at three different categories: 0-2 mM (40 patients), 2.1-3 mM (154 patients) and 3.1-3.5 mM (194 patients). 14 patients had disturbance of consciousness including 3 with seizures. The majority of cases had coma, a generalized tonic-clonic seizure was seen only when s-glucose dropped below 2.0 mM. Two cases with focal seizure were noted, one at s-glucose 2.0 mM, and one at s-glucose 3.3 mM. The absolute risks (95% confidence interval) for having major neurological symptoms at glucose levels of ≤2.0 mM were 0.25 (0.13-0.41), 0.02 (0-0.06) at 2.1-3.0 mM and 0.01 (0-0.03) at 3.1-3.5 mM. Coma is the most common neurological symptom related to hypoglycemia. Epileptic seizures are rare and not as common as previously assumed. Copyright © 2014 British Epilepsy Association. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Psychometric Properties of the Hypoglycemia Fear Survey-II for Adults With Type 1 Diabetes

    PubMed Central

    Gonder-Frederick, Linda A.; Schmidt, Karen M.; Vajda, Karen A.; Greear, Megan L.; Singh, Harsimran; Shepard, Jaclyn A.; Cox, Daniel J.

    2011-01-01

    OBJECTIVE To perform the first comprehensive psychometric evaluation of the Hypoglycemia Fear Survey-II (HFS-II), a measure of the behavioral and affective dimensions of fear of hypoglycemia, using modern test-theory methods, including item-response theory (IRT). RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS Surveys completed in four previous studies by 777 adults with type 1 diabetes were aggregated for analysis, with 289 subjects completing both subscales of the HFS-II and 488 subjects completing only the Worry subscale. The aggregated sample (53.3% female, 44.4% using insulin pumps) had a mean age of 41.9 years, diabetes duration of 23.8 years, HbA1c value of 7.7%, and 1.4 severe hypoglycemic episodes in the past year. Data analysis included exploratory factor analysis using polychoric correlations and IRT. Factors were analyzed for fit, trait-level locations, point-measure correlations, and separation values. RESULTS Internal and test-retest reliability was good, as well as convergent validity, as demonstrated by significant correlations with other measures of psychological distress. Scores were significantly higher in subjects who had experienced severe hypoglycemia in the past year. Factor analyses validated the two subscales of the HFS-II. Item analyses showed that 12 of 15 items on the Behavior subscale, and all of the items on the Worry subscale had good-fit statistics. CONCLUSIONS The HFS-II is a reliable and valid measure of the fear of hypoglycemia in adults with type 1 diabetes, and factor analyses and IRT support the two separate subscales of the survey. PMID:21346182

  12. A Case of Solitary Fibrous Pleura Tumor Associated with Severe Hypoglycemia: Doege-Potter Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Jang, Jong Geol; Hong, Kyung Soo; Ahn, June Hong; Lee, Jae Young; Jo, Jae Ho; Lee, Dong Won; Shin, Kyeong Cheol; Lee, Kwan Ho; Kim, Mi Jin; Lee, Jung Cheul; Lee, Jang Hoon; Lee, Jae Kyo

    2015-01-01

    Solitary fibrous tumor of the pleura (SFTP) is a rare primary intrathoracic tumor that arises from mesenchymal tissue underlying the mesothelial layer of the pleura. It usually has an indolent clinical course. The hypoglycemia that accompanies SFTP was first described by Doege and Potter independently in 1930, hence the eponym Doege-Potter syndrome (DPS). The incidence of DPS is reported to be ~4%. In this report, we present a typical case of DPS that was cured through complete surgical resection. PMID:25861346

  13. Symptoms of hypoglycemia--a comparison between porcine and human insulin.

    PubMed

    Jakober, B; Lingenfelser, T; Glück, H; Maassen, T; Overkamp, D; Renn, W; Eggstein, M

    1990-05-04

    For more than 2 years now it has been controversially debated whether awareness of hypoglycemia is reduced when type I diabetic patients are switched from porcine to human insulin. In order to address this question, we studied nine C-peptide negative diabetics (age 27.6 years, Broca index 106%, duration of diabetes 5.7 years, HbA1, 8.8%) in comparison with eight healthy volunteers (age 22.4 years, Broca index 104%). Following euglycemic monitoring overnight, a controlled hypoglycemia was induced by altering the algorithms of the Biostator. This was done in a double-blind, cross-over fashion using porcine or human insulin on 2 nonconsecutive days. There were no differences between the results obtained with respect to the time course of the study, blood glucose, amount of insulin infused, and concentration of venous free insulin achieved. Of the nine diabetics, eight were aware of hypoglycemia at a higher blood glucose level under porcine insulin. The first symptom of hypoglycemia was perceived at a mean blood glucose level of 61.1 +/- 5.4 mg/dl under porcine insulin and of 44.4 +/- 5.3 mg/dl under human insulin (P less than or equal to 0.05). Thirty symptoms were noted under porcine insulin exclusively or preferentially as opposed to only eight which were observed exclusively or preferentially under human insulin. The healthy volunteers evidenced fewer symptoms at lower blood glucose concentrations than the diabetics. The clear difference between human and porcine insulin could not unequivocally be reproduced in this group.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  14. Management of Neonatal Candidiasis

    PubMed Central

    Cohen-Wolkowiez, Michael; Benjamin, Daniel K; Smith, P Brian

    2009-01-01

    Invasive candidiasis (IC) is common and often fatal in extremely premature neonates. In the last decade, the therapeutic armamentarium for IC has markedly expanded; however, the pharmacokinetics, safety and efficacy of most antifungal agents in premature neonates are unknown. We will review the major systemic antifungal agents in clinical use. PMID:9849983

  15. Suppression of CRTC2-mediated hepatic gluconeogenesis by TRAF6 contributes to hypoglycemia in septic shock

    PubMed Central

    Lv, Sihan; Qiu, Xinchen; Li, Jian; Li, Weida; Zhang, Chao; Zhang, Zhen-Ning; Luan, Bing

    2016-01-01

    Although hypoglycemia has been documented as a major cause of high mortality in the setting of septic shock, the mechanism of hypoglycemia in infection has not been clearly determined. Hepatic gluconeogenesis serves as an important mechanism to maintain glucose levels under physiological conditions and CREB coactivator CRTC2 plays an important role in regulating gluconeogenic gene expression. Here, we show that triggering of the Toll-like receptor 4 pathway in response to endotoxin lipopolysaccharide (LPS) inhibits gluconeogenic gene expression and hepatic glucose output by blocking CRTC2 activation. Interleukin-1β (IL-1β) is found to disrupt gluconeogenic gene expression via the activation of the E3 ubiquitin ligase TRAF6, a key component of the Toll-like receptor 4 signaling pathway that associates with and ubiquitinates CRTC2. TRAF6 promotes the K63-linked ubiquitination of CRTC2, a modification that blocks binding of calcineurin at an adjacent calcineurin-binding site, thereby disrupting CRTC2 dephosphorylation in response to glucagon signals. Mutation of TRAF6-binding sites or ubiquitination site in CRTC2 rescues hepatic gluconeogenesis in LPS-challenged mice. These results suggest that pro-inflammatory signals intersect with the CRTC2 pathway in liver, thus contributing to hypoglycemia caused by infection. PMID:27990298

  16. Histopathological nerve and skeletal muscle changes in rats subjected to persistent insulin-induced hypoglycemia

    PubMed Central

    Jensen, Vivi Flou Hjorth; Mølck, Anne-Marie; Heydenreich, Annette; Jensen, Karin Juul; Bertelsen, Line Olrik; Alifrangis, Lene; Andersen, Lene; Søeborg, Henrik; Chapman, Melissa; Lykkesfeldt, Jens; Bøgh, Ingrid Brück

    2015-01-01

    New insulin analogues with a longer duration of action and a flatter pharmacodynamic profile are developed to improve convenience and safety for diabetic patients. During the nonclinical development of such analogues, safety studies must be conducted in nondiabetic rats, which consequently are rendered chronically hypoglycemic. A rat comparator model using human insulin would be valuable, as it would enable differentiation between effects related to either persistent insulin-induced hypoglycemia (IIH) or a new analogue per se. Such a model could alleviate the need for an in-study-comparator and thereby reduce the number of animals used during development. Thus, the aims of the present study were i) to develop a preclinical animal model of persistent hypoglycemia in rats using human insulin infusion for four weeks and ii) to investigate histopathological changes in sciatic nerves and quadriceps femoris muscle tissue, as little is known about the response to persistent hypoglycemia in these tissues. Histopathologic changes in insulin-infused animals included axonal degeneration and myofibre degeneration. To our knowledge, this is the first study to show that persistent IIH provokes peripheral nerve and skeletal myofiber degeneration within the same animals. This suggests that the model can serve as a nonclinical comparator model during development of long-acting insulin analogues. PMID:26989298

  17. Exhaustion of Food Budgets at Month's End and Hospital Admissions for Hypoglycemia

    PubMed Central

    Seligman, Hilary K.; Bolger, Ann F.; Guzman, David; López, Andrea; Bibbins-Domingo, Kirsten

    2014-01-01

    One in seven US households cannot reliably afford food. Food budgets are more frequently exhausted at the end of a month than at other points in time. We postulated that this monthly pattern influenced health outcomes, such as risk for hypoglycemia among people with diabetes. Using administrative data on inpatient admissions in California for 2000–08, we found that admissions for hypoglycemia were more common in the low-income than the high-income population (270 versus 210 admissions per 1,000,000). Risk for hypoglycemia admission increased 27 percent in the last week of the month compared to the first week in the low-income population, but we observed no similar temporal variation in the high-income population. These findings suggest that exhaustion of food budgets might be an important driver of health inequities. Policy solutions to improve stable access to nutrition in low-income populations and raise awareness of the health risks of food insecurity might be warranted. PMID:24395943

  18. Insulin-like growth factor II-producing metastatic colon cancer with recurrent hypoglycemia.

    PubMed

    Teramae, Satoshi; Miyamoto, Hiroshi; Muguruma, Naoki; Okada, Yasuyuki; Goji, Takahiro; Kitamura, Shinji; Kimura, Tetsuo; Kimura, Masako; Bando, Yoshimi; Takayama, Tetsuji

    2015-02-01

    A 45-year-old man was referred to our hospital and found to have a tubular adenocarcinoma of the descending colon with multiple liver metastases. During hospitalization, the patient suffered recurrent hypoglycemic attacks that required intravenous 50% glucose infusion. He was diagnosed with non-islet cell tumor hypoglycemia (NICTH) because the colon cancer tissue obtained by biopsy was strongly stained for insulin-like growth factor-II (IGF-II) by immunohistochemistry. He received chemotherapy with oxaliplatin, 5-FU and leucovorin (FOLFOX) plus bevacizumab (Bmab), and showed a partial response. As the metastatic lesions decreased in size, the hypoglycemic attacks gradually disappeared. Subsequently, he received outpatient chemotherapy and maintained a high quality of life for about 10 months. Western blot analysis of IGF-II in serum at the time of admission showed a high-molecular-weight form of IGF-II, which was considered to have caused hypoglycemia. This patient presents a very rare case of colorectal cancer associated with NICTH syndrome due to production of high-molecular-weight IGF-II by cancer cells. It is important to investigate IGF-II expression in cancer tissues for establishing the diagnosis of NICTH in cases with intractable hypoglycemia complicated by advanced cancer.

  19. Synaptic glutamate release by ventromedial hypothalamic neurons is part of the neurocircuitry that prevents hypoglycemia.

    PubMed

    Tong, Qingchun; Ye, ChianPing; McCrimmon, Rory J; Dhillon, Harveen; Choi, Brian; Kramer, Melissa D; Yu, Jia; Yang, Zongfang; Christiansen, Lauryn M; Lee, Charlotte E; Choi, Cheol Soo; Zigman, Jeffrey M; Shulman, Gerald I; Sherwin, Robert S; Elmquist, Joel K; Lowell, Bradford B

    2007-05-01

    The importance of neuropeptides in the hypothalamus has been experimentally established. Due to difficulties in assessing function in vivo, the roles of the fast-acting neurotransmitters glutamate and GABA are largely unknown. Synaptic vesicular transporters (VGLUTs for glutamate and VGAT for GABA) are required for vesicular uptake and, consequently, synaptic release of neurotransmitters. Ventromedial hypothalamic (VMH) neurons are predominantly glutamatergic and express VGLUT2. To evaluate the role of glutamate release from VMH neurons, we generated mice lacking VGLUT2 selectively in SF1 neurons (a major subset of VMH neurons). These mice have hypoglycemia during fasting secondary to impaired fasting-induced increases in the glucose-raising pancreatic hormone glucagon and impaired induction in liver of mRNAs encoding PGC-1alpha and the gluconeogenic enzymes PEPCK and G6Pase. Similarly, these mice have defective counterregulatory responses to insulin-induced hypoglycemia and 2-deoxyglucose (an antimetabolite). Thus, glutamate release from VMH neurons is an important component of the neurocircuitry that functions to prevent hypoglycemia.

  20. Magnetic Resonance Imaging Characteristics of Persistent Vegetative State Due to Prolonged Hypoglycemia

    PubMed Central

    Kumral, Emre; Sirin, Tuba Cerrahoglu; Sirin, Hadiye; Kitis, Omer

    2015-01-01

    Hypoglycemia is the sudden decrease in serum glucose level <50mg/dL. Neurological manifestations complicating profound and prolonged hypoglycemia range from reversible focal deficits and transient encephalopathy to irreversible coma. Here, we report magnetic resonance imaging characteristics of a patient with prolonged hypoglylicemia. A 47-year-old woman with a history of insulin dependent diabetes mellitus has been brought to the emergency room by her relatives. She used mistakenly overdose insulin injection and probably stayed 11 hours with low level blood glucose. The initial blood sugar level was 39.6 mg/dL at the emergency department visit, which was recovered urgently by 50% dextrose. MR imaging revealed high intensities at the bilateral posterior parietal cortices, corona radiata and hippocampus, but not in the basal ganglia. Seventy-two hour after admission, confluent lesions in the posterior parietal, temporal, frontal cortices and splenium of corpus callosum were more prominent on DWI and FLAIR, and did not match typical arterial territories. None of the lesions were enhanced on contrast-enhanced T1-weighted images. The prognosis or neurologic sequelae of hypoglycemic encephalopathy may depend on the severity and duration of hypoglycemia and persistent, diffuse involvement of the cerebral cortex, basal ganglia, or hippocampus on the following MR imaging. MR imaging findings in hypoglycemic vegetative state can be helpful in the differential diagnosis distinguishing from other neurologic conditions. PMID:25738058

  1. Islet cell hormonal responses to hypoglycemia after human islet transplantation for type 1 diabetes.

    PubMed

    Rickels, Michael R; Schutta, Mark H; Mueller, Rebecca; Markmann, James F; Barker, Clyde F; Naji, Ali; Teff, Karen L

    2005-11-01

    Islet transplantation can eliminate severe hypoglycemic episodes in patients with type 1 diabetes; however, whether intrahepatic islets respond appropriately to hypoglycemia after transplantation has not been fully studied. We evaluated six islet transplant recipients, six type 1 diabetic subjects, and seven nondiabetic control subjects using a stepped hyperinsulinemic-hypoglycemic clamp. Also, three islet transplant recipients and the seven control subjects underwent a paired hyperinsulinemic-euglycemic clamp. In response to hypoglycemia, C-peptide was similarly suppressed in islet transplant recipients and control subjects and was not detectable in type 1 diabetic subjects. Glucagon was significantly more suppressed in type 1 diabetic subjects than in islet transplant recipients (P < 0.01), although the glucagon in islet transplant recipients failed to activate as in the control subjects (P < 0.01). Pancreatic polypeptide failed to activate in both type 1 diabetic subjects and islet transplant recipients compared with control subjects (P < 0.01). In islet transplant recipients, glucagon was suppressed normally by hyperinsulinemia during the euglycemic clamp and was significantly greater during the paired hypoglycemic clamp (P < 0.01). These results suggest that after islet transplantation and in response to insulin-induced hypoglycemia, endogenous insulin secretion is appropriately suppressed and glucagon secretion may be partially restored.

  2. Glucose Variability: Timing, Risk Analysis, and Relationship to Hypoglycemia in Diabetes

    PubMed Central

    Kovatchev, Boris

    2016-01-01

    Glucose control, glucose variability (GV), and risk for hypoglycemia are intimately related, and it is now evident that GV is important in both the physiology and pathophysiology of diabetes. However, its quantitative assessment is complex because blood glucose (BG) fluctuations are characterized by both amplitude and timing. Additional numerical complications arise from the asymmetry of the BG scale. In this Perspective, we focus on the acute manifestations of GV, particularly on hypoglycemia, and review measures assessing the amplitude of GV from routine self-monitored BG data, as well as its timing from continuous glucose monitoring (CGM) data. With availability of CGM, the latter is not only possible but also a requirement—we can now assess rapid glucose fluctuations in real time and relate their speed and magnitude to clinically relevant outcomes. Our primary message is that diabetes control is all about optimization and balance between two key markers—frequency of hypoglycemia and HbA1c reflecting average BG and primarily driven by the extent of hyperglycemia. GV is a primary barrier to this optimization, including to automated technologies such as the “artificial pancreas.” Thus, it is time to standardize GV measurement and thereby streamline the assessment of its two most important components—amplitude and timing. PMID:27208366

  3. Insulin Pump Therapy With Automated Insulin Suspension in Response to Hypoglycemia

    PubMed Central

    Choudhary, Pratik; Shin, John; Wang, Yongyin; Evans, Mark L.; Hammond, Peter J.; Kerr, David; Shaw, James A.M.; Pickup, John C.; Amiel, Stephanie A.

    2011-01-01

    OBJECTIVE To evaluate a sensor-augmented insulin pump with a low glucose suspend (LGS) feature that automatically suspends basal insulin delivery for up to 2 h in response to sensor-detected hypoglycemia. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS The LGS feature of the Paradigm Veo insulin pump (Medtronic, Inc., Northridge, CA) was tested for 3 weeks in 31 adults with type 1 diabetes. RESULTS There were 166 episodes of LGS: 66% of daytime LGS episodes were terminated within 10 min, and 20 episodes lasted the maximum 2 h. LGS use was associated with reduced nocturnal duration ≤2.2 mmol/L in those in the highest quartile of nocturnal hypoglycemia at baseline (median 46.2 vs. 1.8 min/day, P = 0.02 [LGS-OFF vs. LGS-ON]). Median sensor glucose was 3.9 mmol/L after 2-h LGS and 8.2 mmol/L at 2 h after basal restart. CONCLUSIONS Use of an insulin pump with LGS was associated with reduced nocturnal hypoglycemia in those at greatest risk and was well accepted by patients. PMID:21868778

  4. Effect of simulated microgravity on endocrine response to insulin-induced hypoglycemia in physically fit men.

    PubMed

    Ksinantova, L; Koska, J; Kvetnansky, R; Marko, M; Hamar, D; Vigas, M

    2002-03-01

    Adaptation to microgravity is associated with alteration in some endocrine functions. In the present longitudinal study, the counterregulatory hormonal response to insulin-induced hypoglycemia (ITT, 0.1 IU/kg short acting insulin i. v.) was evaluated under simulated microgravity conditions in 15 physically fit subjects. ITT was performed at the beginning of the investigation, and again after completion of 6 weeks of endurance training and after a subsequent period of 4 days of head-down bed rest at a backward tilt of 6 degrees from the horizontal. Endurance training showed a significant increase in maximal aerobic capacity in previously well-trained subjects (increase by 12 %), as well as on attenuation of counterregulatory response of epinephrine to hypoglycemia. After 4 days of bed rest, basal concentrations of plasma norepinephrine was diminished (p < 0.002) and plasma renin activity was enhanced (p < 0.02). After bed rest, decreased responses of the two catecholamines (norepinephrine, p < 0.001; epinephrine, p < 0.001), growth hormone (p < 0.001), and cortisol (p < 0.05) were observed. Response of plasma renin activity after bed rest was increased (p < 0.01). This longitudinal study indicated that 4 days of bed rest in endurance-trained subjects induced increased response of PRA to hypoglycemia and attenuation of other counterregulatory neuroendocrine responses.

  5. [Intermittent branched--chain ketoacidurie in ketotic hypoglycemia: investigations to localize the biochemical defect (author's transl)].

    PubMed

    Held, K R; Sternowsky, H J; Singh, S; Plettner, C; Grüttner, R

    1976-02-01

    We are reporting a girl aged eight years with ketotic hypoglycemia, mental deficiency and retarded motor and somatic development. Investigation of plasma amino acid concentrations during a spontaneous hypoglycemia revealed an increase in the branched-chain amino acids valine (4.1), leucine (7.8) and isoleucine (1.7 mg/100 ml), while alanine was decreased (1.2 mg/100 ml) and ketonuria was present. The determination of the branched-chain ketoacid decarboxylase in leukocytes showed a decrease of approximately 50% of normal for alpha-ketoisocaproic acid (KIC) as substrate, whereas values for alpha-ketoisovaleric acid (KIVA) and alpha-keto-beta-methylvaleric acid (MEVA) were normal. In fibroblasts activities for all three substrates were in the normal range. Intermittend maple-syrup-urine disease was excluded by oral loading tests with the branched-chain amino acids and with an isocaloric, high-protein diet. Impairment of oxydative decarboxylation of leucine, valine, and isoleucine secondary to increased ketogenesis may play an etiologic role in ketotic hypoglycemia, since we observed, by gaschromatographic analysis, an increase in the urinary excretion of KIVA (5.5 mumol/h), KIC (29.4), and MEVA (47.9) after a provocative test with an isocaloric ketogenic diet for 36 hrs. The significance of branched-chain hyperaminoacidemia and branched chain alpha-ketoaciduria is discussed in this context.

  6. Complications in neonatal surgery.

    PubMed

    Escobar, Mauricio A; Caty, Michael G

    2016-12-01

    Neonatal surgery is recognized as an independent discipline in general surgery, requiring the expertise of pediatric surgeons to optimize outcomes in infants with surgical conditions. Survival following neonatal surgery has improved dramatically in the past 60 years. Improvements in pediatric surgical outcomes are in part attributable to improved understanding of neonatal physiology, specialized pediatric anesthesia, neonatal critical care including sophisticated cardiopulmonary support, utilization of parenteral nutrition and adjustments in fluid management, refinement of surgical technique, and advances in surgical technology including minimally invasive options. Nevertheless, short and long-term complications following neonatal surgery continue to have profound and sometimes lasting effects on individual patients, families, and society. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. What neonatal complications should the pediatrician be aware of in case of maternal gestational diabetes?

    PubMed Central

    Mitanchez, Delphine; Yzydorczyk, Catherine; Simeoni, Umberto

    2015-01-01

    In the epidemiologic context of maternal obesity and type 2 diabetes (T2D), the incidence of gestational diabetes has significantly increased in the last decades. Infants of diabetic mothers are prone to various neonatal adverse outcomes, including metabolic and hematologic disorders, respiratory distress, cardiac disorders and neurologic impairment due to perinatal asphyxia and birth traumas, among others. Macrosomia is the most constant consequence of diabetes and its severity is mainly influenced by maternal blood glucose level. Neonatal hypoglycemia is the main metabolic disorder that should be prevented as soon as possible after birth. The severity of macrosomia and the maternal health condition have a strong impact on the frequency and the severity of adverse neonatal outcomes. Pregestational T2D and maternal obesity significantly increase the risk of perinatal death and birth defects. The high incidence of maternal hyperglycemia in developing countries, associated with the scarcity of maternal and neonatal care, seriously increase the burden of neonatal complications in these countries. PMID:26069722

  8. Pain management in neonates.

    PubMed

    Carbajal, Ricardo; Gall, Olivier; Annequin, Daniel

    2004-05-01

    Multiple lines of evidence suggest an increased sensitivity to pain in neonates. Repeated and prolonged pain exposure may affect the subsequent development of pain systems, as well as potentially contribute to alterations in long-term development and behavior. Despite impressive gains in the knowledge of neonatal pain mechanisms and strategies to treat neonatal pain acquired during the last 15 years, a large gap still exists between routine clinical practice and research results. Accurate assessment of pain is crucial for effective pain management in neonates. Neonatal pain management should rely on current scientific evidence more than the attitudes and beliefs of care-givers. Parents should be informed of pain relief strategies and their participation in the health care plan to alleviate pain should be encouraged. The need for systemic analgesia for both moderate and severe pain, in conjunction with behavioral/environmental approaches to pain management, is emphasized. A main sources of pain in the neonate is procedural pain which should always be prevented and treated. Nonpharmacological approaches constitute important treatment options for managing procedural pain. Nonpharmacological interventions (environmental and preventive measures, non-nutritive sucking, sweet solutions, skin-skin contact, and breastfeeding analgesia) can reduce neonatal pain indirectly by reducing the total amount of noxious stimuli to which infants are exposed, and directly, by blocking nociceptive transduction or transmission or by activation of descending inhibitory pathways or by activating attention and arousal systems that modulate pain. Opioids are the mainstay of pharmacological pain treatment but there are other useful medications and techniques that may be used for pain relief. National guidelines are necessary to improve neonatal pain management at the institutional level, individual neonatal intensive care units need to develop specific practice guidelines regarding pain

  9. Golden 60 minutes of newborn's life: Part 2: Term neonate.

    PubMed

    Sharma, Deepak; Sharma, Pradeep; Shastri, Sweta

    2017-11-01

    The concept of "Golden 60 minutes" or "Golden Hour" has been derived from adult trauma. It has been defined as the first 60 min of postnatal life. It has been seen that care received by any newborn in the initial first hour has implications in the future life, showing the importance of golden hour. The major cause of neonatal mortality term newborn is asphyxia, which can be reduced with effective resuscitation. In golden hour approach for term newborn, the importance is given to effective and evidence based resuscitation, post-resuscitation care, delayed cord clamping, prevention of hypothermia, immediate breast feeding, prevention of hypoglycemia, and starting of therapeutic hypothermia in case of moderate to severe asphyxia. In this part of review, we will cover all the golden hour interventions in term neonate with current evidence.

  10. Neonatal lupus syndromes.

    PubMed

    Buyon, J P

    1994-09-01

    Neonatal lupus continues to generate considerable interest despite its rarity; more than 15 original contributions were made to the literature in the past year. Diverse aspects of this "syndrome" of passively acquired autoimmunity have been covered. Experiments using a rabbit model provided insights into the pathogenicity of maternal anti-Ro/SS-A and anti-La/SS-B antibodies. Perfusion of rabbit hearts with anti-Ro/SS-A and anti-La/SS-B sera resulted in conduction abnormalities in whole adult rabbit hearts and induced a reduction in the peak slow inward current in patch-clamp experiments of isolated rabbit ventricular myocytes, suggesting involvement of calcium channels. Clinical investigations are moving away from case reports, and recent studies now include substantial entries. Assuming that patients reported from the United States, Finland, and England are all separate, sera from at least 100 different mothers of infants with congenital heart block have been studied. Although there is apparently no serologic profile that is unique to mothers of affected children, compared with mothers of healthy children, anti-Ro/SS-A antibodies (anti-52-kD antibodies are more prevalent by immunoblot in congenital heart block, although all these sera are likely to have anti-60-kD antibodies by immunoprecipitation) are usually of high titer and associated with anti-La/SS-B antibodies. To date, the only maternal autoantibodies that have been associated with congenital heart block recognize Ro/SS-A or La/SS-B antigens. Mothers of affected infants are often asymptomatic, and when symptomatic, the clinical features are frequently characteristic of Sjögren's syndrome. Although treatment of affected fetuses with dexamethasone has successfully diminished associated effusions, there has been no report of reversal of established third-degree heart block.

  11. Hypoglycemia Event Rates: A Comparison Between Real-World Data and Randomized Controlled Trial Populations in Insulin-Treated Diabetes.

    PubMed

    Elliott, Lisa; Fidler, Carrie; Ditchfield, Andrea; Stissing, Trine

    2016-03-01

    Hypoglycemia is the most common adverse effect of diabetes therapy, particularly insulin treatment. Hypoglycemia is associated with considerable clinical and economic burden, and may be under-reported. The aim of this study was to com pare the frequency of hypoglycemic events reported in real-world settings with those reported in clinical trials. We conducted a structured literature review in PubMed to identify hypoglycemic event rates in patients with type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM) and insulin-treated type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) from real-world data (RWD) and randomized controlled trials (RCTs). The search was restricted to English language, full-text publications from 2010 onwards, reporting on treatment of T1DM or T2DM with basal only, basal-bolus, or premix insulin. The final dataset included 30 studies (11 RWD studies and 19 RCTs). Six studies (RWD, n = 2; RCT, n = 4) reported hypoglycemia event rates in people with T1DM. For all reported categories of hypoglycemia (severe, non-severe, and nocturnal), rates were consistently higher in RWD studies compared with RCTs. Twenty-five studies (RWD, n = 10; RCT, n = 15) reported hypoglycemia event rates in people with insulin-treated T2DM. For T2DM basal-oral therapy; the highest rates were observed in RWD studies, although there was an overlap with RCT rates. For basal-bolus therapy, there was considerable between-study variability but higher rates of severe and non-severe hypoglycemia were generally observed in RWD studies. For T2DM premix insulin, reported rates of hypoglycemia in RWD studies and RCTs were similar. We found that higher rates of hypoglycemia are observed in real-world settings compared with clinical trial settings, although there is a large degree of overlap. Due to the inherent constraints of RCTs, they are likely to underestimate the burden of hypoglycemia in clinical practice. Further, high-quality RWD are needed to determine a more accurate incidence of hypoglycemia in clinical

  12. Kangaroo Mother Care and Neonatal Outcomes: A Meta-analysis

    PubMed Central

    Dastjerdi, Roya; Spiegelman, Donna; Fawzi, Wafaie W.; Missmer, Stacey A.; Lieberman, Ellice; Kajeepeta, Sandhya; Wall, Stephen; Chan, Grace J.

    2016-01-01

    CONTEXT: Kangaroo mother care (KMC) is an intervention aimed at improving outcomes among preterm and low birth weight newborns. OBJECTIVE: Conduct a systematic review and meta-analysis estimating the association between KMC and neonatal outcomes. DATA SOURCES: PubMed, Embase, Web of Science, Scopus, African Index Medicus (AIM), Latin American and Caribbean Health Sciences Information System (LILACS), Index Medicus for the Eastern Mediterranean Region (IMEMR), Index Medicus for the South-East Asian Region (IMSEAR), and Western Pacific Region Index Medicus (WPRIM). STUDY SELECTION: We included randomized trials and observational studies through April 2014 examining the relationship between KMC and neonatal outcomes among infants of any birth weight or gestational age. Studies with <10 participants, lack of a comparison group without KMC, and those not reporting a quantitative association were excluded. DATA EXTRACTION: Two reviewers extracted data on study design, risk of bias, KMC intervention, neonatal outcomes, relative risk (RR) or mean difference measures. RESULTS: 1035 studies were screened; 124 met inclusion criteria. Among LBW newborns, KMC compared to conventional care was associated with 36% lower mortality(RR 0.64; 95% [CI] 0.46, 0.89). KMC decreased risk of neonatal sepsis (RR 0.53, 95% CI 0.34, 0.83), hypothermia (RR 0.22; 95% CI 0.12, 0.41), hypoglycemia (RR 0.12; 95% CI 0.05, 0.32), and hospital readmission (RR 0.42; 95% CI 0.23, 0.76) and increased exclusive breastfeeding (RR 1.50; 95% CI 1.26, 1.78). Newborns receiving KMC had lower mean respiratory rate and pain measures, and higher oxygen saturation, temperature, and head circumference growth. LIMITATIONS: Lack of data on KMC limited the ability to assess dose-response. CONCLUSIONS: Interventions to scale up KMC implementation are warranted. PMID:26702029

  13. Neonatal Brain Tumors: A Review

    PubMed Central

    Bodeliwala, Shaam; Kumar, Vikas; Singh, Daljit

    2017-01-01

    Brain tumors in neonatal age group is uncommon comparing with older children and adults. In older children brain tumors are commonly infratentorial, where as in neonates, they are supratentorial. Though extracranial tumors are commoner in neonates, brain tumors cause 5-20% deaths approximately. We are presenting a review on brain tumors in neonates. PMID:28770127

  14. Disruption of Slc52a3 gene causes neonatal lethality with riboflavin deficiency in mice.

    PubMed

    Yoshimatsu, Hiroki; Yonezawa, Atsushi; Yamanishi, Kaori; Yao, Yoshiaki; Sugano, Kumiko; Nakagawa, Shunsaku; Imai, Satoshi; Omura, Tomohiro; Nakagawa, Takayuki; Yano, Ikuko; Masuda, Satohiro; Inui, Ken-Ichi; Matsubara, Kazuo

    2016-06-08

    Homeostasis of riboflavin should be maintained by transporters. Previous in vitro studies have elucidated basic information about riboflavin transporter RFVT3 encoded by SLC52A3 gene. However, the contribution of RFVT3 to the maintenance of riboflavin homeostasis and the significance in vivo remain unclear. Here, we investigated the physiological role of RFVT3 using Slc52a3 knockout (Slc52a3-/-) mice. Most Slc52a3-/- mice died with hyperlipidemia and hypoglycemia within 48 hr after birth. The plasma and tissue riboflavin concentrations in Slc52a3-/- mice at postnatal day 0 were dramatically lower than those in wild-type (WT) littermates. Slc52a3-/- fetuses showed a lower capacity of placental riboflavin transport compared with WT fetuses. Riboflavin supplement during pregnancy and after birth reduced neonatal death and metabolic disorders. To our knowledge, this is the first report to indicate that Rfvt3 contributes to placental riboflavin transport, and that disruption of Slc52a3 gene caused neonatal mortality with hyperlipidemia and hypoglycemia owing to riboflavin deficiency.

  15. Disruption of Slc52a3 gene causes neonatal lethality with riboflavin deficiency in mice

    PubMed Central

    Yoshimatsu, Hiroki; Yonezawa, Atsushi; Yamanishi, Kaori; Yao, Yoshiaki; Sugano, Kumiko; Nakagawa, Shunsaku; Imai, Satoshi; Omura, Tomohiro; Nakagawa, Takayuki; Yano, Ikuko; Masuda, Satohiro; Inui, Ken-ichi; Matsubara, Kazuo

    2016-01-01

    Homeostasis of riboflavin should be maintained by transporters. Previous in vitro studies have elucidated basic information about riboflavin transporter RFVT3 encoded by SLC52A3 gene. However, the contribution of RFVT3 to the maintenance of riboflavin homeostasis and the significance in vivo remain unclear. Here, we investigated the physiological role of RFVT3 using Slc52a3 knockout (Slc52a3−/−) mice. Most Slc52a3−/− mice died with hyperlipidemia and hypoglycemia within 48 hr after birth. The plasma and tissue riboflavin concentrations in Slc52a3−/− mice at postnatal day 0 were dramatically lower than those in wild-type (WT) littermates. Slc52a3−/− fetuses showed a lower capacity of placental riboflavin transport compared with WT fetuses. Riboflavin supplement during pregnancy and after birth reduced neonatal death and metabolic disorders. To our knowledge, this is the first report to indicate that Rfvt3 contributes to placental riboflavin transport, and that disruption of Slc52a3 gene caused neonatal mortality with hyperlipidemia and hypoglycemia owing to riboflavin deficiency. PMID:27272163

  16. Neonatal abstinence syndrome.

    PubMed

    Serane, V Tiroumourougane; Kurian, Ommen

    2008-09-01

    To study the substance misuse in pregnant mothers and its impact on their newborns. Case note review of the study population was undertaken. Infants of mothers who had taken substance of misuse were monitored regularly using Finnegan's score and treatment initiated based on a pre-existing protocol. The parameters that were studied included maternal drug habits, antenatal problems, and neonatal epidemiology with particular reference to growth, neonatal abstinence syndrome (NAS), its severity and management. Out of 32 neonates, 28 had developed neonatal withdrawal requiring treatment. The earliest presentation of NAS was at six hours and the average time of presentation of NAS was 26 hours. The dose of methadone taken by the mother related well with the likelihood of development of NAS. The most common symptoms noted at the time of diagnosis were irritable cry, increased tone, tachypnea, sleeplessness and tremor. Majority of neonates born to mothers on methadone exhibit neonatal abstinence syndrome and require pharmacological treatment. Neonates who had not exhibited symptoms of drug withdrawal within the first 3 days of life are unlikely to present with NAS requiring treatment.

  17. Neonatal outreach simulation.

    PubMed

    Byrne, Bobbi J; Manhas, Deepak

    2016-11-01

    Numerous factors contribute to neonatal morbidity and mortality, and inexperienced providers managing crisis situations is one major cause. Simulation-based medical education is an excellent modality to employ in community hospitals to help refine and refresh resuscitation skills of providers who infrequently encounter neonatal emergencies. Mounting evidence suggests that simulation-based education improves patient outcomes. Academic health centers have the potential to improve neonatal outcomes through collaborations with community hospital providers, sharing expertise in neonatal resuscitation and simulation. Community outreach programs using simulation have been successfully initiated in North America. Two examples of programs are described here, including the models for curricular development, required resources, limitations, and benefits. Considerations for initiating outreach simulation programs are discussed. In the future, research demonstrating improved neonatal outcomes using outreach simulation will be important for personnel conducting outreach programs. Neonatal outreach simulation is a promising educational endeavor that may ultimately prove important in decreasing neonatal morbidity and mortality. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Review of neonatal EEG.

    PubMed

    Husain, Aatif M

    2005-03-01

    Neonatal electroencephalography (EEG) presents some of the most difficult challenges in EEG interpretation. It differs significantly in many ways from EEG of older children and adults. Technologically, acquisition of a neonatal EEG is significantly more difficult and different than an adult EEG. There are numerous features that are age-specific and change almost week-to-week in the preterm infant. Some features may be normal at one age and abnormal if they persist for several weeks. Many of these features also have different implications in neonates as compared to older individuals. These issues mandate a different approach to neonatal EEG interpretation. In this article an overview of neonatal EEG is presented. After a brief discussion of relevant technical issues, various normal EEG features encountered in neonates are discussed. This is followed by a discussion of the ontogeny of EEG, starting from the age of viability to the first few months of life. A description of various abnormalities follows. Finally, an approach to analysis of a neonatal EEG is presented.

  19. Natal and neonatal teeth in relation to environmental toxicants.

    PubMed

    Alaluusua, Satu; Kiviranta, Hannu; Leppäniemi, Anu; Hölttä, Päivi; Lukinmaa, Pirjo-Liisa; Lope, Leena; Järvenpää, Anna-Liisa; Renlund, Martin; Toppari, Jorma; Virtanen, Helena; Kaleva, Marko; Vartiainen, Terttu

    2002-11-01

    Infants born to mothers heavily exposed to polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and dibenzofurans (PCDFs) have earlier been reported to have increased prevalences of natal and neonatal teeth. Some tendency toward higher prevalence figures of natal and neonatal teeth can be seen in the literature in normal child populations during the last 40 y. We therefore decided to determine the present prevalence of these teeth in a Finnish population and to evaluate whether infants with natal and neonatal teeth are more exposed to PCBs, PCDFs, and polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDDs) than infants on average. A total of 34,457 infants born in 1997-2000 in four hospitals in southern Finland were examined for natal and neonatal teeth. The exposure of the infant to PCBs and PCDD/Fs was evaluated by measuring the levels of 17 most toxic PCDD/F and 36 PCB congeners in his or her mother's milk sample when the child was 4-8 wk old. A total of 34 infants had one or two natal (29 infants) or neonatal teeth (five infants). The milk analyses showed that the median level of PCDD/Fs as toxic equivalent (World Health Organization-recommended 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin equivalent quantity for PCDD/Fs in fat) was 11.9 pg/g in fat, and that of PCBs (World Health Organization-recommended 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin equivalent quantity for PCBs) was 7.24 pg/g in fat. These levels corresponded to the prevailing levels. The results showed that the prevalence of natal and neonatal teeth was 1:1000. No association was found between pollutant levels and occurrence of natal and neonatal teeth, indicating that the prevailing levels of PCDD/Fs and PCBs are likely to be below the threshold to cause perinatal eruption of teeth.

  20. Worldwide Endemicity of a Multidrug-Resistant Staphylococcus capitis Clone Involved in Neonatal Sepsis.

    PubMed

    Butin, Marine; Martins-Simões, Patricia; Rasigade, Jean-Philippe; Picaud, Jean-Charles; Laurent, Frédéric

    2017-03-01

    A multidrug-resistant Staphylococcus capitis clone, NRCS-A, has been isolated from neonatal intensive care units in 17 countries throughout the world. S. capitis NRCS-A prevalence is high in some neonatal intensive care units in France. These data highlight the worldwide endemicity and epidemiologic relevance of this multidrug-resistant, coagulase-negative staphylococci clone.

  1. Worldwide Endemicity of a Multidrug-Resistant Staphylococcus capitis Clone Involved in Neonatal Sepsis

    PubMed Central

    Martins-Simões, Patricia; Rasigade, Jean-Philippe; Picaud, Jean-Charles; Laurent, Frédéric

    2017-01-01

    A multidrug-resistant Staphylococcus capitis clone, NRCS-A, has been isolated from neonatal intensive care units in 17 countries throughout the world. S. capitis NRCS-A prevalence is high in some neonatal intensive care units in France. These data highlight the worldwide endemicity and epidemiologic relevance of this multidrug-resistant, coagulase-negative staphylococci clone. PMID:28221122

  2. Oral Lesions in Neonates

    PubMed Central

    Rao, Roopa S; Majumdar, Barnali; Jafer, Mohammed; Maralingannavar, Mahesh; Sukumaran, Anil

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Oral lesions in neonates represent a wide range of diseases often creating apprehension and anxiety among parents. Early examination and prompt diagnosis can aid in prudent management and serve as baseline against the future course of the disease. The present review aims to enlist and describe the diagnostic features of commonly encountered oral lesions in neonates. How to cite this article: Patil S, Rao RS, Majumdar B, Jafer M, Maralingannavar M, Sukumaran A. Oral Lesions in Neonates. Int J Clin Pediatr Dent 2016;9(2):131-138. PMID:27365934

  3. Whole genome expression profiling associates activation of unfolded protein response with impaired production and release of epinephrine after recurrent hypoglycemia

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Juhye Lena; La Gamma, Edmund F.; Estabrook, Todd; Kudrick, Necla

    2017-01-01

    Recurrent hypoglycemia can occur as a major complication of insulin replacement therapy, limiting the long-term health benefits of intense glycemic control in type 1 and advanced type 2 diabetic patients. It impairs the normal counter-regulatory hormonal and behavioral responses to glucose deprivation, a phenomenon known as hypoglycemia associated autonomic failure (HAAF). The molecular mechanisms leading to defective counter-regulation are not completely understood. We hypothesized that both neuronal (excessive cholinergic signaling between the splanchnic nerve fibers and the adrenal medulla) and humoral factors contribute to the impaired epinephrine production and release in HAAF. To gain further insight into the molecular mechanism(s) mediating the blunted epinephrine responses following recurrent hypoglycemia, we utilized a global gene expression profiling approach. We characterized the transcriptomes during recurrent (defective counter-regulation model) and acute hypoglycemia (normal counter-regulation group) in the adrenal medulla of normal Sprague-Dawley rats. Based on comparison analysis of differentially expressed genes, a set of unique genes that are activated only at specific time points after recurrent hypoglycemia were revealed. A complementary bioinformatics analysis of the functional category, pathway, and integrated network indicated activation of the unfolded protein response. Furthermore, at least three additional pathways/interaction networks altered in the adrenal medulla following recurrent hypoglycemia were identified, which may contribute to the impaired epinephrine secretion in HAAF: greatly increased neuropeptide signaling (proenkephalin, neuropeptide Y, galanin); altered ion homeostasis (Na+, K+, Ca2+) and downregulation of genes involved in Ca2+-dependent exocytosis of secretory vesicles. Given the pleiotropic effects of the unfolded protein response in different organs, involved in maintaining glucose homeostasis, these findings uncover

  4. Related factors and adverse neonatal outcomes in women with preterm premature rupture of membranes complicated by histologic chorioamnionitis.

    PubMed

    Xie, Ailan; Zhang, Wenwen; Chen, Miaomiao; Wang, Yuhuan; Wang, Ying; Zhou, Qingfeng; Zhu, Xueqiong

    2015-02-03

    The aim of this study was to identify factors predicting histologic chorioamnionitis (HCA) in women with preterm premature rupture of membranes (PPROM). We retrospectively enrolled 371 women diagnosed with PPROM at less than 34 weeks of gestation at the Second Affiliated Hospital of Wenzhou Medical University between January 2008 and December 2012. HCA was diagnosed by placental histopathology in 70% of participants. Binary logistic regression was used to identify factors associated with HCA and neonatal outcomes. Patient age, rate of parity, tocolysis, cesarean section, serum C reactive protein (CRP) level at admission, white blood cell count, and latency duration did not significantly differ between the 2 groups. Binary logistic regression revealed that oligohydramnios at admission, gestational age at PPROM, and serum CRP >8 mg/L before delivery were significantly associated with HCA. Gestational age at delivery and birth weight were significantly lower in HCA patients than control patients. The rate of 1-min Apgar score <7, abnormal neonatal intracranial ultrasound findings, neonatal pneumonia, bronchopulmonary dysplasia, early-onset neonatal sepsis, and mortality were higher in HCA patients, but no significant difference was observed in the incidence of neonatal respiratory distress syndrome, necrotizing enterocolitis, hyperbilirubinemia, or hypoglycemia. Younger gestational age at time of PPROM, higher CRP level before delivery, and oligohydramnios at admission in women with PPROM are associated with HCA, and HCA is associated with some adverse neonatal outcomes.

  5. Philip E. Cryer, MD: Seminal Contributions to the Understanding of Hypoglycemia and Glucose Counterregulation and the Discovery of HAAF (Cryer Syndrome)

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Optimized glycemic control prevents and slows the progression of long-term complications in patients with type 1 and type 2 diabetes. In healthy individuals, a decrease in plasma glucose below the physiological range triggers defensive counterregulatory responses that restore euglycemia. Many individuals with diabetes harbor defects in their defenses against hypoglycemia, making iatrogenic hypoglycemia the Achilles heel of glycemic control. This Profile in Progress focuses on the seminal contributions of Philip E. Cryer, MD, to our understanding of hypoglycemia and glucose counterregulation, particularly his discovery of the syndrome of hypoglycemia-associated autonomic failure (HAAF). PMID:26604275

  6. Neonatal hepatitis syndrome.

    PubMed

    Roberts, Eve A

    2003-10-01

    Conjugated hyperbilirubinaemia in an infant indicates neonatal liver disease. This neonatal hepatitis syndrome has numerous possible causes, classified as infective, anatomic/structural, metabolic, genetic, neoplastic, vascular, toxic, immune and idiopathic. Any infant who is jaundiced at 2-4 weeks old needs to have the serum conjugated bilirubin measured, even if he/she looks otherwise well. If conjugated hyperbilirubinaemia is present, a methodical and comprehensive diagnostic investigation should be performed. Early diagnosis is critical for the best outcome. In particular, palliative surgery for extrahepatic biliary atresia has the best chance of success if performed before the infant is 8 weeks old. Definitive treatments available for many causes of neonatal hepatitis syndrome should be started as soon as possible. Alternatively, liver transplantation may be life saving. Supportive care, especially with attention to nutritional needs, is important for all infants with neonatal hepatitis syndrome.

  7. Maternal and neonatal tetanus

    PubMed Central

    Thwaites, C Louise; Beeching, Nicholas J; Newton, Charles R

    2017-01-01

    Maternal and neonatal tetanus is still a substantial but preventable cause of mortality in many developing countries. Case fatality from these diseases remains high and treatment is limited by scarcity of resources and effective drug treatments. The Maternal and Neonatal Tetanus Elimination Initiative, launched by WHO and its partners, has made substantial progress in eliminating maternal and neonatal tetanus. Sustained emphasis on improvement of vaccination coverage, birth hygiene, and surveillance, with specific approaches in high-risk areas, has meant that the incidence of the disease continues to fall. Despite this progress, an estimated 58 000 neonates and an unknown number of mothers die every year from tetanus. As of June, 2014, 24 countries are still to eliminate the disease. Maintenance of elimination needs ongoing vaccination programmes and improved public health infrastructure. PMID:25149223

  8. Neonatal mortality in Utah.

    PubMed

    Woolley, F R; Schuman, K L; Lyon, J L

    1982-09-01

    A cohort study of neonatal mortality (N = 106) in white singleton births (N = 14,486) in Utah for January-June 1975 was conducted. Using membership and activity in the Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints (LDS or Mormon) as a proxy for parental health practices, i.e., tobacco and alcohol abstinence, differential neonatal mortality rates were calculated. The influence of potential confounding factors was evaluated. Low activity LDS members were found to have an excess risk of neonatal death five times greater than high activity LDS, with an upper bound of a two-sided 95% confidence interval of 7.9. The data consistently indicate a lower neonatal mortality rate for active LDS members. Non-LDS were found to have a lower rate than either medium or low activity LDS.

  9. Neonatal abstinence syndrome

    MedlinePlus

    NAS; Neonatal abstinence symptoms ... may contribute to the severity of a baby's NAS symptoms. ... symptoms of withdrawal. Even after medical treatment for NAS is over and babies leave the hospital, they ...

  10. [Neonatal lupus erythematosus].

    PubMed

    Mayet, W J; Hermann, E; Bachmann, M; Poralla, T; Meyer zum Büschenfelde, K H

    1989-01-01

    The neonatal lupus erythematosus syndrome, first described by McCuistion and Schoch in 1954, is associated with characteristic skin lesions and congenital heart block in the new-born, and the presence of Ro-(SSA), La-(SSB), or RNP antibodies in mothers and infants. A transplacental transference of maternal autoantibodies is discussed as possible pathophysiologic mechanism in neonatal lupus. The symptoms, the onset, and recently published pathogenetic concepts are reviewed.

  11. The neonatal acoustic reflex.

    PubMed

    Weatherby, L A; Bennett, M J

    1980-01-01

    Probe tones from 220 Hz to 2 000 Hz were used to measure the static and dynamic acoustic impedance of 44 neonates. Acoustic reflex thresholds to broad band noise were obtained from every neonate tested when employing the higher frequency probe tones. The reflex threshold levels measured are similar to those of adults. The static impedance values are discussed to give a possible explanation of why reflex thresholds cannot be detected using conventional 220 Hz impedance bridges.

  12. Erythropoietin and Neonatal Neuroprotection

    PubMed Central

    Juul, Sandra E.; Pet, Gillian C.

    2015-01-01

    Certain groups of neonates are at high risk of developing long-term neurodevelopmental impairment (NDI) and might be considered candidates for neuroprotective interventions. This chapter will explore some of these high-risk groups, relevant mechanisms of brain injury, and specific mechanisms of cellular injury and death. The potential of erythropoietin (Epo) to act as a neuroprotective agent for neonatal brain injury will be discussed. Clinical trials of Epo neuroprotection in preterm and term infants are updated. PMID:26250911

  13. Enhanced 911/global position system wizard: a telemedicine application for the prevention of severe hypoglycemia--monitor, alert, and locate.

    PubMed

    Dassau, Eyal; Jovanovic, Lois; Doyle, Francis J; Zisser, Howard C

    2009-11-01

    Intensive insulin therapy has an inherent risk of hypoglycemia that can lead to loss of consciousness, cardiac arrhythmia, seizure, and death ("dead-in-bed syndrome"). This risk of hypoglycemia is a major concern for patients, families, and physicians. The need for an automated system that can alert in the event of severe hypoglycemia is evident. In engineering systems, where there is a risk of malfunction of the primary control system, alert and safety mechanisms are implemented in layers of protection. This concept has been adopted in the proposed system that integrates a hypoglycemia prediction algorithm with a global position system (GPS) locator and short message service such that the current glucose value with the rate of change (ROC) and the location of the subject can be communicated to a predefined list. Furthermore, if the system is linked to the insulin pump, it can suspend the pump or decrease the basal insulin infusion rate to prevent the pending event. The system was evaluated on clinical datasets of glucose tracings from the DexCom Seven system. Glucose tracings were analyzed for hypoglycemia events and then a text message was broadcast to a predefined list of people who were notified with the glucose value, ROC, GPS coordinates, and a Google map of the location. In addition to providing a safety layer to a future artificial pancreas, this system also can be easily implemented in current continuous glucose monitors to help provide information and alerts to people with diabetes.

  14. Nocturnal Hypoglycemia Identified by a Continuous Glucose Monitoring System in Patients with Primary Adrenal Insufficiency (Addison's Disease)

    PubMed Central

    Hackemann, Annika; Reusch, Juergen; Badenhoop, Klaus

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Background Hypoglycemia can be a symptom in patients with Addison's disease. The common regimen of replacement therapy with oral glucocorticoids results in unphysiological low cortisol levels in the early morning, the time of highest insulin sensitivity. Therefore patients with Addison's disease are at risk for unrecognized and potentially severe nocturnal hypoglycemia also because of a disturbed counterregulatory function. Use of a continuous glucose monitoring system (CGMS) could help to adjust hydrocortisone treatment and to avoid nocturnal hypoglycemia in these patients. Methods Thirteen patients with Addison's disease were screened for hypoglycemia wearing a CGMS for 3–5 days. Results In one patient we identified a hypoglycemic episode at 3:45 a.m. with a blood glucose level of 46 mg/dL, clearly beneath the 95% tolerance interval of minimal glucose levels between 2 and 4 a.m. (53.84 mg/dL). After the hydrocortisone replacement scheme was changed, the minimum blood glucose level between 2 and 4 a.m. normalized to 87 mg/dL. Conclusions Continuous glucose monitoring can detect nocturnal hypoglycemia in patients with primary adrenal insufficiency and hence prevent in these patients an impaired quality of life and even serious adverse effects. PMID:22242902

  15. Nocturnal hypoglycemia identified by a continuous glucose monitoring system in patients with primary adrenal insufficiency (Addison's Disease).

    PubMed

    Meyer, Gesine; Hackemann, Annika; Reusch, Juergen; Badenhoop, Klaus

    2012-05-01

    Hypoglycemia can be a symptom in patients with Addison's disease. The common regimen of replacement therapy with oral glucocorticoids results in unphysiological low cortisol levels in the early morning, the time of highest insulin sensitivity. Therefore patients with Addison's disease are at risk for unrecognized and potentially severe nocturnal hypoglycemia also because of a disturbed counterregulatory function. Use of a continuous glucose monitoring system (CGMS) could help to adjust hydrocortisone treatment and to avoid nocturnal hypoglycemia in these patients. Thirteen patients with Addison's disease were screened for hypoglycemia wearing a CGMS for 3-5 days. In one patient we identified a hypoglycemic episode at 3:45 a.m. with a blood glucose level of 46 mg/dL, clearly beneath the 95% tolerance interval of minimal glucose levels between 2 and 4 a.m. (53.84 mg/dL). After the hydrocortisone replacement scheme was changed, the minimum blood glucose level between 2 and 4 a.m. normalized to 87 mg/dL. Continuous glucose monitoring can detect nocturnal hypoglycemia in patients with primary adrenal insufficiency and hence prevent in these patients an impaired quality of life and even serious adverse effects.

  16. A physiological increase in insulin suppresses gluconeogenic gene activation in fetal sheep with sustained hypoglycemia.

    PubMed

    Thorn, Stephanie R; Sekar, Satya M; Lavezzi, Jinny R; O'Meara, Meghan C; Brown, Laura D; Hay, William W; Rozance, Paul J

    2012-10-15

    Reduced maternal glucose supply to the fetus and resulting fetal hypoglycemia and hypoinsulinemia activate fetal glucose production as a means to maintain cellular glucose uptake. However, this early activation of fetal glucose production may be accompanied by hepatic insulin resistance. We tested the capacity of a physiological increase in insulin to suppress fetal hepatic gluconeogenic gene activation following sustained hypoglycemia to determine whether hepatic insulin sensitivity is maintained. Control fetuses (CON), hypoglycemic fetuses induced by maternal insulin infusion for 8 wk (HG), and 8 wk HG fetuses that received an isoglycemic insulin infusion for the final 7 days (HG+INS) were studied. Glucose and insulin concentrations were 60% lower in HG compared with CON fetuses. Insulin was 50% higher in HG+INS compared with CON and four-fold higher compared with HG fetuses. Expression of the hepatic gluconeogenic genes, PCK1, G6PC, FBP1, GLUT2, and PGC1A was increased in the HG and reduced in the HG+INS liver. Expression of the insulin-regulated glycolytic and lipogenic genes, PFKL and FAS, was increased in the HG+INS liver. Total FOXO1 protein expression, a gluconeogenic activator, was 60% higher in the HG liver. Despite low glucose, insulin, and IGF1 concentrations, phosphorylation of AKT and ERK was higher in the HG liver. Thus, a physiological increase in fetal insulin is sufficient for suppression of gluconeogenic genes and activation of glycolytic and lipogenic genes in the HG fetal liver. These results demonstrate that fetuses exposed to sustained hypoglycemia have maintained hepatic insulin action in contrast to fetuses exposed to placental insufficiency.

  17. Severe hypoglycemia associated with an illegal sexual enhancement product adulterated with glibenclamide: MR imaging findings.

    PubMed

    Lim, C C Tchoyoson; Gan, Robert; Chan, Cheng Leng; Tan, Alvin W K; Khoo, Joan J C; Chia, Su-Ynn; Kao, Shih Ling; Abisheganaden, John; Sitoh, Yih Yian

    2009-01-01

    To describe the magnetic resonance (MR) imaging findings associated with severe hypoglycemia after consumption of an illegal sexual enhancement product (Power 1 Walnut) adulterated with glibenclamide, an oral hypoglycemic agent used to treat diabetes mellitus. Institutional review board approval was obtained for this retrospective study. Records in eight male patients with severe hypoglycemia of unknown cause, without prior treatment for diabetes, and with positive blood toxicology results for glibenclamide were reviewed. MR imaging included diffusion-weighted imaging and, in some patients, MR angiography, dynamic contrast material-enhanced perfusion MR imaging, and MR spectroscopy. In seven patients, there were hyperintense abnormalities on diffusion-weighted and T2-weighted images in the hippocampus and cerebral cortex, sparing the subcortical white matter and cerebellum. Three patients had abnormalities of the splenium of the corpus callosum, and one had widespread involvement, including the caudate nucleus, basal ganglia, and internal capsule bilaterally. In three patients, unilateral cortical involvement, which did not conform to the typical cerebral arterial territories, was noted. In one patient, perfusion MR imaging showed slightly increased relative cerebral blood volume, and MR spectroscopy revealed no evidence of abnormal lactate in the affected cerebral cortex. Diffusion-weighted MR imaging findings in patients with severe hypoglycemia showed typical lesions in the hippocampus and cerebral cortex, but the caudate nucleus and basal ganglia were involved in only the most severely affected patient. The splenium of the corpus callosum and internal capsule were also abnormal in three patients, and unilateral cortical lesions could be distinguished from acute ischemic stroke by the pattern of involvement and MR angiographic, perfusion, and spectroscopic findings. (c) RSNA, 2008.

  18. Effects of Relative Hypoglycemia on LTP and NADH Imaging in Rat Hippocampal Slices

    PubMed Central

    Sadgrove, Matthew P.; Beaver, Christopher J.; Turner, Dennis A.

    2007-01-01

    Cognitive and neuronal impairment in diabetes may be associated with iatrogenic hypoglycemia, particularly at low serum glucose levels (< 3 mM). To evaluate cellular impairment, we assessed acute hippocampal slice functioning during decreased ambient glucose, by monitoring evoked field excitatory post-synaptic potentials (fEPSP), and slice nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NADH) fluorescence. The effects of lowered glucose levels (60 min) were analyzed by examining the induction and maintenance of long-term potentiation (LTP), and NADH metabolic imaging in the CA1 region. The basal fEPSP response was reduced by lowered ambient glucose, an effect that was reversible in 2.5 mM glucose, partially reversible in 1.25 mM glucose and irreversible in 0 mM glucose, after 25 min recovery. LTP induction and maintenance declined during glucose restriction, demonstrating reversibly failed maintenance in 5 mM and 2.5 mM ambient glucose, and absent induction in 1.25 mM glucose. Peak NADH levels observed during train-induced biphasic transients were significantly reduced during 1.25 mM and 2.5 mM glucose. Significant functional compromise in our slice model occurred at 2.5 mM ambient glucose, equivalent to <1mM tissue glucose in the slice center, due to diffusion limitations and active glucose utilization. This tissue glucose level correlates with human observations of a serum threshold of <3mM for cognitive impairment, since brain tissue glucose is approximately one third of serum levels. The physiological effects of hypoglycemia in our slice model, assessed through fEPSP, LTP, and NADH responses, replicate closely the in vivo situation, confirming the usefulness of this model in assessing consequences of relative hypoglycemia. PMID:17651706

  19. Evaluation of intravascular microdialysis for continuous blood glucose monitoring in hypoglycemia: an animal model.

    PubMed

    Schierenbeck, Fanny; Wallin, Mats; Franco-Cereceda, Anders; Liska, Jan

    2014-07-01

    We have previously shown that intravascular microdialysis in a central vein is an accurate method for continuous glucose monitoring in patients undergoing cardiac surgery. However, no hypoglycemia occurred in our earlier studies, prompting further evaluation of the accuracy of intravascular microdialysis in the hypoglycemic range. Thus, this animal study was performed. A porcine model was developed; hypoglycemia was induced using insulin injections. The pigs were monitored with intravascular microdialysis integrated in a triple-lumen central venous catheter. As reference, venous blood gas samples were taken every 5 minutes and analyzed in a blood gas analyzer. Ethical permission for the animal experiments was obtained from the Stockholm Regional Ethical Committee, reference no N397/09. A total of 213 paired samples were obtained for analysis, and 126 (59.2%) of these were in the hypoglycemic range (<74 mg/dl). Using Clarke error grid analysis, 100% of the paired samples were in region AB and 99% in region A. The ISO standard (ISO15197) was met. Bland-Altman analysis showed bias (mean difference) ± limits of agreement was -0.18 ± 16.2 mg/dl. No influence from glucose infusions was seen. The microdialysis monitoring system was found to be very responsive in rapid changes in blood glucose concentration. This study shows that intravascular microdialysis in a central vein is an accurate method for continuous glucose monitoring in hypoglycemia in a porcine experimental model. Furthermore, the system was not influenced by glucose administration and was found to be responsive in rapid blood glucose fluctuations.

  20. Fasting adaptation in idiopathic ketotic hypoglycemia: a mismatch between glucose production and demand.

    PubMed

    Huidekoper, Hidde H; Duran, Marinus; Turkenburg, Marjolein; Ackermans, Mariëtte T; Sauerwein, Hans P; Wijburg, Frits A

    2008-08-01

    In order to study the pathophysiology of hypoglycemia in idiopathic ketotic hypoglycemia (KH), glucose kinetics during fasting in patients with KH were determined. A fasting test was performed in 12 children with previously documented KH. Besides determination of glucoregulatory hormones, plasma ketones, FFA and alanine, the rates of endogenous glucose production (EGP), glucose uptake, gluconeogenesis (GNG) and glycogenolysis (GGL) were quantified using the [6,6-(2)H(2)] glucose isotope dilution method and the deuterated water method. The five youngest subjects (age 2.5-3.9 years) became hypoglycemic (glucose <3.0 mmol/l) during the test. Mean differences in glucose kinetics between overnight fasting and the end of the test in the hypoglycemic vs. the normoglycemic subjects were: EGP: -31.9% vs. -17.9% (p = 0.007), GGL: -66.2% vs. -50.8% (p = 0.465) and GNG 6.8% vs. 19.5% (p = 0.465). Plasma alanine levels were significantly lower (p = 0.028) at the end of the test in the hypoglycemic subjects. Plasma ketones and FFA levels were in the normal range for fasting duration in all subjects. We conclude that hypoglycemia in KH is caused by the inability to sustain an adequate EGP during fasting in view of the higher glucose requirement in young children. The decrease in GGL is not accompanied by a significant increase in GNG, possibly because of a limitation in the supply of alanine. Our results support the hypothesis that KH represents the lower tail of the Gaussian distribution of fasting tolerance in children.

  1. Mechanisms of insulin resistance after insulin-induced hypoglycemia in humans: the role of lipolysis.

    PubMed

    Lucidi, Paola; Rossetti, Paolo; Porcellati, Francesca; Pampanelli, Simone; Candeloro, Paola; Andreoli, Anna Marinelli; Perriello, Gabriele; Bolli, Geremia B; Fanelli, Carmine G

    2010-06-01

    Changes in glucose metabolism occurring during counterregulation are, in part, mediated by increased plasma free fatty acids (FFAs), as a result of hypoglycemia-activated lipolysis. However, it is not known whether FFA plays a role in the development of posthypoglycemic insulin resistance as well. We conducted a series of studies in eight healthy volunteers using acipimox, an inhibitor of lipolysis. Insulin action was measured during a 2-h hyperinsulinemic-euglycemic clamp (plasma glucose [PG] 5.1 mmo/l) from 5:00 p.m. to 7:00 p.m. or after a 3-h morning hyperinsulinemic-glucose clamp (from 10 a.m. to 1:00 p.m.), either euglycemic (study 1) or hypoglycemic (PG 3.2 mmol/l, studies 2-4), during which FFA levels were allowed to increase (study 2), were suppressed by acipimox (study 3), or were replaced by infusing lipids (study 4). [6,6-(2)H(2)]-Glucose was infused to measure glucose fluxes. Plasma adrenaline, norepinephrine, growth hormone, and cortisol levels were unchanged (P > 0.2). Glucose infusion rates (GIRs) during the euglycemic clamp were reduced by morning hypoglycemia in study 2 versus study 1 (16.8 +/- 2.3 vs. 34.1 +/- 2.2 micromol/kg/min, respectively, P < 0.001). The effect was largely removed by blockade of lipolysis during hypoglycemia in study 3 (28.9 +/- 2.6 micromol/kg/min, P > 0.2 vs. study 1) and largely reproduced by replacement of FFA in study 4 (22.3 +/- 2.8 micromol/kg/min, P < 0.03 vs. study 1). Compared with study 2, blockade of lipolysis in study 3 decreased endogenous glucose production (2 +/- 0.3 vs. 0.85 +/- 0.1 micromol/kg/min, P < 0.05) and increased glucose utilization (16.9 +/- 1.85 vs. 28.5 +/- 2.7 micromol/kg/min, P < 0.05). In study 4, GIR fell by approximately 23% (22.3 +/- 2.8 micromol/kg/min, vs. study 3, P = 0.058), indicating a role of acipimox per se on insulin action. Lipolysis induced by hypoglycemia counterregulation largely mediates posthypoglycemic insulin resistance in healthy subjects, with an estimated overall

  2. Mechanisms of Insulin Resistance After Insulin-Induced Hypoglycemia in Humans: The Role of Lipolysis

    PubMed Central

    Lucidi, Paola; Rossetti, Paolo; Porcellati, Francesca; Pampanelli, Simone; Candeloro, Paola; Andreoli, Anna Marinelli; Perriello, Gabriele; Bolli, Geremia B.; Fanelli, Carmine G.