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Sample records for neonatal hypoxic-ischemic encephalopathy

  1. Neuroprotective Strategies after Neonatal Hypoxic Ischemic Encephalopathy

    PubMed Central

    Dixon, Brandon J.; Reis, Cesar; Ho, Wing Mann; Tang, Jiping; Zhang, John H.

    2015-01-01

    Neonatal hypoxic ischemic encephalopathy (HIE) is a devastating disease that primarily causes neuronal and white matter injury and is among the leading cause of death among infants. Currently there are no well-established treatments; thus, it is important to understand the pathophysiology of the disease and elucidate complications that are creating a gap between basic science and clinical translation. In the development of neuroprotective strategies and translation of experimental results in HIE, there are many limitations and challenges to master based on an appropriate study design, drug delivery properties, dosage, and use in neonates. We will identify understudied targets after HIE, as well as neuroprotective molecules that bring hope to future treatments such as melatonin, topiramate, xenon, interferon-beta, stem cell transplantation. This review will also discuss some of the most recent trials being conducted in the clinical setting and evaluate what directions are needed in the future. PMID:26389893

  2. Buyanghuanwu Tang therapy for neonatal rats with hypoxic ischemic encephalopathy

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Xiyao; Min, Yue; Gu, Weiwang; Wang, Yujue; Tian, Yuguang

    2015-01-01

    Background: Neonatal hypoxic-ischemic encephalopathy (HIE) is a clinical syndrome manifested by neurological symptoms in the first days of life in term infants. Purpose: To investigate the therapy effect of Buyanghuanwu Tang (BYHWT), a decoction with 7 herbal ingredients, on neonatal rats with hypoxic ischemic encephalopathy (HIE) and its mechanism. Methods: 50 3-week male Sprague-Dawley rats were divided into normal control group, model group, BYHWT 1d group, BYHWT 3d group and BYHWT 7d group, 10 rats in each group. The HIE model of was established in later 4 groups. The later 3 groups were treated with BYHWT for 1, 3 and 7 days, respectively, and the normal control group and model group were treated with PBS. The Morris water maze test and dynamic 18F-FDG-PET/CT imaging were performed. The changes of hippocampal tissue observed by histopathologic examination, and the expressions of JNK1/JNK2 and TNF-α protein were observed western blotting. Results: Compared with model group, the impaired performance on distance and latency parameters was mitigated in BYHWT 1d group, BYHWT 3d group and BYHWT 7d group (P < 0.01), the FDG uptake was decreased in BYHWT 3d group and BYHWT 7d group, the apoptotic cells and inflammatory cells were significantly decreased in BYHWT 3d group and BYHWT 7d group, and the expressions of JNK1/JNK2 and TNF-α protein were significantly decreased in BYHWT 7d group (P < 0.05). Conclusion: BYHWT can delay the HIE onset and preserve the motor function, primarily by regulating inflammation, apoptosis and inhibition by mediating JNK signaling. PMID:26770451

  3. OUTCOMES in CHILDHOOD FOLLOWING THERAPEUTIC HYPOTHERMIA for NEONATAL HYPOXIC-ISCHEMIC ENCEPHALOPATHY (HIE)

    PubMed Central

    Natarajan, Girija; Pappas, Athina; Shankaran, Seetha

    2017-01-01

    In this chapter we review the childhood outcomes of neonates with birth depression and/or hypoxic-ischemic encephalopathy. The outcomes of these children prior to the era of hypothermia for neuroprotection will first be summarized, followed by discussion of results from randomized controlled trials of therapeutic hypothermia for neonatal hypoxic ischemic encephalopathy. The predictors of outcome in childhood following neonatal HIE using clinical and imaging biomarkers following hypothermia therapy will be described. PMID:27863707

  4. Outcomes in childhood following therapeutic hypothermia for neonatal hypoxic-ischemic encephalopathy (HIE).

    PubMed

    Natarajan, Girija; Pappas, Athina; Shankaran, Seetha

    2016-12-01

    In this article, we review the childhood outcomes of neonates with birth depression and/or hypoxic-ischemic encephalopathy. The outcomes of these children prior to the era of hypothermia for neuroprotection will first be summarized, followed by discussion of results from randomized controlled trials of therapeutic hypothermia for neonatal hypoxic-ischemic encephalopathy. The predictors of outcome in childhood following neonatal HIE using clinical and imaging biomarkers following hypothermia therapy will be described. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Hypothermia for neonatal hypoxic-ischemic encephalopathy: NICHD Neonatal Research Network contribution to the field.

    PubMed

    Shankaran, Seetha; Natarajan, Girija; Chalak, Lina; Pappas, Athina; McDonald, Scott A; Laptook, Abbot R

    2016-10-01

    In this article, we summarize the NICHD Neonatal Research Network (NRN) trial of whole-body hypothermia for neonates with hypoxic-ischemic encephalopathy in relation to other randomized controlled trials (RCTs) of hypothermia neuroprotection. We describe the NRN secondary studies that have been published in the past 10 years evaluating clinical, genetic, biochemical, and imaging biomarkers of outcome. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Effect of Temperature on Heart Rate Variability in Neonatal ICU Patients With Hypoxic-Ischemic Encephalopathy.

    PubMed

    Massaro, An N; Campbell, Heather E; Metzler, Marina; Al-Shargabi, Tareq; Wang, Yunfei; du Plessis, Adre; Govindan, Rathinaswamy B

    2017-04-01

    To determine whether measures of heart rate variability are related to changes in temperature during rewarming after therapeutic hypothermia for hypoxic-ischemic encephalopathy. Prospective observational study. Level 4 neonatal ICU in a free-standing academic children's hospital. Forty-four infants with moderate to severe hypoxic-ischemic encephalopathy treated with therapeutic hypothermia. Continuous electrocardiogram data from 2 hours prior to rewarming through 2 hours after completion of rewarming (up to 10 hr) were analyzed. Median beat-to-beat interval and measures of heart rate variability were quantified including beat-to-beat interval SD, low and high frequency relative spectral power, detrended fluctuation analysis short and long α exponents (αS and αL), and root mean square short and long time scales. The relationships between heart rate variability measures and esophageal/axillary temperatures were evaluated. Heart rate variability measures low frequency, αS, and root mean square short and long time scales were negatively associated, whereas αL was positively associated, with temperature (p < 0.01). These findings signify an overall decrease in heart rate variability as temperature increased toward normothermia. Measures of heart rate variability are temperature dependent in the range of therapeutic hypothermia to normothermia. Core body temperature needs to be considered when evaluating heart rate variability metrics as potential physiologic biomarkers of illness severity in hypoxic-ischemic encephalopathy infants undergoing therapeutic hypothermia.

  7. Term Neonate with Atypical Hypoxic-Ischemic Encephalopathy Presentation: A Case Report

    PubMed Central

    Townley, Nick; McNellis, Emily; Sampath, Venkatesh

    2017-01-01

    We describe a case of atypical hypoxic-ischemic encephalopathy (HIE) in a neonate following a normal pregnancy and delivery who was found to have an umbilical vein thrombosis. The infant arrived to our center with continuous bicycling movement of her lower extremities. She had a continuous electroencephalogram that showed burst suppression and magnetic resonance imaging of the brain showed diffusely abnormal cerebral cortical/subcortical diffusion restriction which may be secondary hypoxic-ischemic injury. Interestingly, a pathology report noted a focal umbilical vein thrombosis appearing to have compressed an umbilical artery with associated arterial dissection and hematoma. Our case illustrates how umbilical venous or arterial thrombosis may be associated with HIE and refractory seizures. PMID:28852582

  8. Term Neonate with Atypical Hypoxic-Ischemic Encephalopathy Presentation: A Case Report.

    PubMed

    Townley, Nick; McNellis, Emily; Sampath, Venkatesh

    2017-07-01

    We describe a case of atypical hypoxic-ischemic encephalopathy (HIE) in a neonate following a normal pregnancy and delivery who was found to have an umbilical vein thrombosis. The infant arrived to our center with continuous bicycling movement of her lower extremities. She had a continuous electroencephalogram that showed burst suppression and magnetic resonance imaging of the brain showed diffusely abnormal cerebral cortical/subcortical diffusion restriction which may be secondary hypoxic-ischemic injury. Interestingly, a pathology report noted a focal umbilical vein thrombosis appearing to have compressed an umbilical artery with associated arterial dissection and hematoma. Our case illustrates how umbilical venous or arterial thrombosis may be associated with HIE and refractory seizures.

  9. Prediction of Future Epilepsy in Neonates With Hypoxic-Ischemic Encephalopathy Who Received Selective Head Cooling.

    PubMed

    McDonough, Tiffani L; Paolicchi, Juliann M; Heier, Linda A; Das, Nikkan; Engel, Murray; Perlman, Jeffrey M; Grinspan, Zachary M

    2017-06-01

    Epilepsy outcomes after therapeutic hypothermia for neonates with hypoxic-ischemic encephalopathy are understudied. The authors used multivariable logistic regression to predict epilepsy in neonates after selective head cooling. Sensitivity analyses used magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and electroencephalogram (EEG) interpretations by different clinicians. Fifty neonates had 2-year follow-up. Nine developed epilepsy. Predictors included pH ≤6.8 on day of birth (adjusted odds ratio [OR] 19 [95% confidence interval (CI) 1-371]), burst suppression on EEG on day 4 (8.2 [1.3-59]), and MRI deep gray matter injury (OR 33 [2.4-460]). These factors stratify neonates into low (0-1 factors; 3% [0%-14%] risk), medium (2 factors; 56% [21%-86%] risk), and high-risk groups (3 factors; 100% [29%-100%] risk) for epilepsy. The stratification was robust to varying clinical interpretations of the MRI and EEG. Neonates with hypoxic-ischemic encephalopathy who undergo selective head cooling appear at risk of epilepsy if they have 2 to 3 identified factors. If validated, this rule may help counsel families and identify children for close clinical follow-up.

  10. Serum cytokines in a clinical trial of hypothermia for neonatal hypoxic-ischemic encephalopathy.

    PubMed

    Jenkins, Dorothea D; Rollins, Laura Grace; Perkel, Jessica K; Wagner, Carol L; Katikaneni, Lakshmi P; Bass, W Thomas; Kaufman, David A; Horgan, Michael J; Languani, Sheela; Givelichian, Lawrence; Sankaran, Koravangattu; Yager, Jerome Y; Martin, Renee H

    2012-10-01

    Inflammatory cytokines may mediate hypoxic-ischemic (HI) injury and offer insights into the severity of injury and the timing of recovery. In our randomized, multicenter trial of hypothermia, we analyzed the temporal relationship of serum cytokine levels in neonates with hypoxic-ischemic encephalopathy (HIE) with neurodevelopmental outcome at 12 months. Serum cytokines were measured every 12 hours for 4 days in 28 hypothermic (H) and 22 normothermic (N) neonates with HIE. Monocyte chemotactic protein-1 (MCP-1) and interleukins (IL)-6, IL-8, and IL-10 were significantly higher in the H group. Elevated IL-6 and MCP-1 within 9 hours after birth and low macrophage inflammatory protein 1a (MIP-1a) at 60 to 70 hours of age were associated with death or severely abnormal neurodevelopment at 12 months of age. However, IL-6, IL-8, and MCP-1 showed a biphasic pattern in the H group, with early and delayed peaks. In H neonates with better outcomes, uniform down modulation of IL-6, IL-8, and IL-10 from their peak levels at 24 hours to their nadir at 36 hours was observed. Modulation of serum cytokines after HI injury may be another mechanism of improved outcomes in neonates treated with induced hypothermia.

  11. Early discontinuation of antiseizure medications in neonates with hypoxic-ischemic encephalopathy.

    PubMed

    Fitzgerald, Mark P; Kessler, Sudha Kilaru; Abend, Nicholas S

    2017-06-01

    Neonates with hypoxic-ischemic encephalopathy (HIE) managed with therapeutic hypothermia (TH) often experience acute symptomatic seizures, prompting treatment with antiseizure medications (ASMs). Because the risk of seizure occurrence after hospital discharge is unknown, the optimal ASM treatment duration is unclear. We aimed to determine the risk of seizure occurrence after hospital discharge and the impact of ASM treatment duration on this outcome. We performed a single-center, retrospective study of consecutive neonates with HIE managed with TH who received ASMs for acute symptomatic seizures from June 2010 through December 2014. Neonates were monitored with continuous electroencephalography (EEG) during TH. Follow-up data were available for 59 (82%) of 72 neonates who survived to discharge, with a median follow-up period of 19 months (interquartile range [IQR] 11-25). Acute symptomatic seizures occurred in 35 neonates (59%), including electrographic seizures in 21 neonates (36%). ASMs were continued upon discharge in 17 (49%) of 35 neonates. Seizures occurred in follow-up in four neonates (11%). No patient for whom ASMs were discontinued prior to discharge experienced seizures during the follow-up period. Among neonates with HIE, seizures after hospital discharge were rare in those with acute symptomatic seizures and did not occur in neonates without acute symptomatic seizures. ASM discontinuation prior to discharge did not increase the risk of seizures during the follow-up period, suggesting that ASMs may be discontinued in many neonates prior to discharge. Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2017 International League Against Epilepsy.

  12. Glucocorticoids Protect Neonatal Rat Brain in Model of Hypoxic-Ischemic Encephalopathy (HIE)

    PubMed Central

    Harding, Benjamin; Conception, Katherine; Li, Yong; Zhang, Lubo

    2016-01-01

    Hypoxic-ischemic encephalopathy (HIE) resulting from asphyxia in the peripartum period is the most common cause of neonatal brain damage and can result in significant neurologic sequelae, including cerebral palsy. Currently therapeutic hypothermia is the only accepted treatment in addition to supportive care for infants with HIE, however, many additional neuroprotective therapies have been investigated. Of these, glucocorticoids have previously been shown to have neuroprotective effects. HIE is also frequently compounded by infectious inflammatory processes (sepsis) and as such, the infants may be more amenable to treatment with an anti-inflammatory agent. Thus, the present study investigated dexamethasone and hydrocortisone treatment given after hypoxic-ischemic (HI) insult in neonatal rats via intracerebroventricular (ICV) injection and intranasal administration. In addition, we examined the effects of hydrocortisone treatment in HIE after lipopolysaccharide (LPS) sensitization in a model of HIE and sepsis. We found that dexamethasone significantly reduced rat brain infarction size when given after HI treatment via ICV injection; however it did not demonstrate any neuroprotective effects when given intranasally. Hydrocortisone after HI insult also significantly reduced brain infarction size when given via ICV injection; and the intranasal administration showed to be protective of brain injury in male rats at a dose of 300 µg. LPS sensitization did significantly increase the brain infarction size compared to controls, and hydrocortisone treatment after LPS sensitization showed a significant decrease in brain infarction size when given via ICV injection, as well as intranasal administration in both genders at a dose of 300 µg. To conclude, these results show that glucocorticoids have significant neuroprotective effects when given after HI injury and that these effects may be even more pronounced when given in circumstances of additional inflammatory injury, such

  13. Diffusion pseudonormalization and clinical outcome in term neonates with hypoxic-ischemic encephalopathy.

    PubMed

    Hayakawa, Katsumi; Koshino, Sachiko; Tanda, Koichi; Nishimura, Akira; Sato, Osamu; Morishita, Hiroyuki; Ito, Takaaki

    2018-06-01

    Pseudonormalization of diffusion-weighted magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) can lead to underestimation of brain injury in newborns with hypoxic-ischemic encephalopathy (HIE), posing a significant problem. We have noticed that some neonates show pseudonormalization negativity on diffusion-weighted imaging. To compare pseudonormalization negativity with clinical outcomes. Seventeen term neonates with moderate or severe HIE underwent therapeutic hypothermia. They were examined by MRI twice at mean ages of 3 days and 10 days. We evaluated the presence of restricted diffusion, and also the presence or absence of pseudonormalization, by diffusion-weighted imaging at the time of the second MRI, and correlated the results with clinical outcome. DWI demonstrated no abnormality in seven neonates. Among the 10 neonates with abnormal diffusion-weighted imaging findings, 2 were positive for pseudonormalization and 8 were negative. Among neonates with normal diffusion-weighted imaging findings and with positivity for pseudonormalization, none had major disability. Among the eight neonates with pseudonormalization negativity, all but one, who was lost to follow-up, had major disability. Abnormal diffusion-weighted imaging with pseudonormalization negativity might be predictive of severe brain injury and major disability. The second-week MRI is important for the judgment of pseudonormalization.

  14. Cerebral oxygen metabolism in neonatal hypoxic ischemic encephalopathy during and after therapeutic hypothermia

    PubMed Central

    Dehaes, Mathieu; Aggarwal, Alpna; Lin, Pei-Yi; Rosa Fortuno, C; Fenoglio, Angela; Roche-Labarbe, Nadège; Soul, Janet S; Franceschini, Maria Angela; Grant, P Ellen

    2014-01-01

    Pathophysiologic mechanisms involved in neonatal hypoxic ischemic encephalopathy (HIE) are associated with complex changes of blood flow and metabolism. Therapeutic hypothermia (TH) is effective in reducing the extent of brain injury, but it remains uncertain how TH affects cerebral blood flow (CBF) and metabolism. Ten neonates undergoing TH for HIE and seventeen healthy controls were recruited from the NICU and the well baby nursery, respectively. A combination of frequency domain near infrared spectroscopy (FDNIRS) and diffuse correlation spectroscopy (DCS) systems was used to non-invasively measure cerebral hemodynamic and metabolic variables at the bedside. Results showed that cerebral oxygen metabolism (CMRO2i) and CBF indices (CBFi) in neonates with HIE during TH were significantly lower than post-TH and age-matched control values. Also, cerebral blood volume (CBV) and hemoglobin oxygen saturation (SO2) were significantly higher in neonates with HIE during TH compared with age-matched control neonates. Post-TH CBV was significantly decreased compared with values during TH whereas SO2 remained unchanged after the therapy. Thus, FDNIRS–DCS can provide information complimentary to SO2 and can assess individual cerebral metabolic responses to TH. Combined FDNIRS–DCS parameters improve the understanding of the underlying physiology and have the potential to serve as bedside biomarkers of treatment response and optimization. PMID:24064492

  15. Altered circulating leukocytes and their chemokines in a clinical trial of therapeutic hypothermia for neonatal hypoxic ischemic encephalopathy*.

    PubMed

    Jenkins, Dorothea D; Lee, Timothy; Chiuzan, Cody; Perkel, Jessica K; Rollins, Laura Grace; Wagner, Carol L; Katikaneni, Lakshmi P; Bass, W Thomas; Kaufman, David A; Horgan, Michael J; Laungani, Sheela; Givelichian, Laurence M; Sankaran, Koravangatta; Yager, Jerome Y; Martin, Renee

    2013-10-01

    To determine systemic hypothermia's effect on circulating immune cells and their corresponding chemokines after hypoxic ischemic encephalopathy in neonates. In our randomized, controlled, multicenter trial of systemic hypothermia in neonatal hypoxic ischemic encephalopathy, we measured total and leukocyte subset and serum chemokine levels over time in both hypothermia and normothermia groups, as primary outcomes for safety. Neonatal ICUs participating in a Neurological Disorders and Stroke sponsored clinical trial of therapeutic hypothermia. Sixty-five neonates with moderate to severe hypoxic ischemic encephalopathy within 6 hours after birth. Patients were randomized to normothermia of 37°C or systemic hypothermia of 33°C for 48 hours. Complete and differential leukocyte counts and serum chemokines were measured every 12 hours for 72 hours. The hypothermia group had significantly lower median circulating total WBC and leukocyte subclasses than the normothermia group before rewarming, with a nadir at 36 hours. Only the absolute neutrophil count rebounded after rewarming in the hypothermia group. Chemokines, monocyte chemotactic protein-1 and interleukin-8, which mediate leukocyte chemotaxis as well as bone marrow suppression, were negatively correlated with their target leukocytes in the hypothermia group, suggesting active chemokine and leukocyte modulation by hypothermia. Relative leukopenia at 60-72 hours correlated with an adverse outcome in the hypothermia group. Our data are consistent with chemokine-associated systemic immunosuppression with hypothermia treatment. In hypothermic neonates, persistence of lower leukocyte counts after rewarming is observed in infants with more severe CNS injury.

  16. High glucose variability is associated with poor neurodevelopmental outcomes in neonatal hypoxic ischemic encephalopathy.

    PubMed

    Al Shafouri, N; Narvey, M; Srinivasan, G; Vallance, J; Hansen, G

    2015-01-01

    In neonatal hypoxic ischemic encephalopathy (HIE), hypo- and hyperglycemia have been associated with poor outcomes. However, glucose variability has not been reported in this population. To examine the association between serum glucose variability within the first 24 hours and two-year neurodevelopmental outcomes in neonates cooled for HIE. In this retrospective cohort study, glucose, clinical and demographic data were documented from 23 term newborns treated with whole body therapeutic hypothermia. Severe neurodevelopmental outcomes from planned two-year assessments were defined as the presence of any one of the following: Gross Motor Function Classification System levels 3 to 5, Bayley III Motor Standard Score <70, Bayley III Language Score <70 and Bayley III Cognitive Standard Score <70. The neurodevelopmental outcomes from 8 of 23 patients were considered severe, and this group demonstrated a significant increase of mean absolute glucose (MAG) change (-0.28 to -0.03, 95% CI, p = 0.032). There were no significant differences between outcome groups with regards to number of patients with hyperglycemic means, one or multiple hypo- or hyperglycemic measurement(s). There were also no differences between both groups with mean glucose, although mean glucose standard deviation was approaching significance. Poor neurodevelopmental outcomes in whole body cooled HIE neonates are significantly associated with MAG changes. This information may be relevant for prognostication and potential management strategies.

  17. Population Pharmacokinetics of Darbepoetin Alfa in Conjunction with Hypothermia for the Treatment of Neonatal Hypoxic-Ischemic Encephalopathy.

    PubMed

    Roberts, Jessica K; Stockmann, Chris; Ward, Robert M; Beachy, Joanna; Baserga, Mariana C; Spigarelli, Michael G; Sherwin, Catherine M T

    2015-12-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the population pharmacokinetics of darbepoetin alfa in hypothermic neonates with hypoxic-ischemic encephalopathy treated with hypothermia. Neonates ≥36 weeks gestation and <12 h postpartum with moderate to severe hypoxic-ischemic encephalopathy who were undergoing hypothermia treatment were recruited in this randomized, multicenter, investigational, new drug pharmacokinetic study. Two intravenous darbepoetin alfa treatment groups were evaluated: 2 and 10 µg/kg. Serum erythropoietin concentrations were measured using an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Monolix 4.3.1 was used to estimate darbepoetin alfa clearance and volume of distribution. Covariates tested included: birthweight, gestational age, postnatal age, postmenstrual age, sex, Sarnat score, and study site. Darbepoetin alfa pharmacokinetics were well described by a one-compartment model with exponential error. Clearance and the volume of distribution were scaled by birthweight (centered on the mean) a priori. Additionally, gestational age (also centered on the mean) significantly affected darbepoetin alfa clearance. Clearance and volume of distribution were estimated as 0.0465 L/h (95% confidence interval 0.0392-0.0537) and 1.58 L (95% confidence interval 1.29-1.87), respectively. A one-compartment model successfully described the pharmacokinetics of darbepoetin alfa among hypothermic neonates treated for hypoxic-ischemic encephalopathy. Clearance decreased with increasing gestational age.

  18. Changes in Brain Metabolite Concentrations after Neonatal Hypoxic-ischemic Encephalopathy.

    PubMed

    Shibasaki, Jun; Aida, Noriko; Morisaki, Naho; Tomiyasu, Moyoko; Nishi, Yuri; Toyoshima, Katsuaki

    2018-06-12

    Purpose To investigate the time-course changes and predictive utility of brain metabolite concentrations in neonatal hypoxic-ischemic encephalopathy (HIE). Materials and Methods Sixty-eight neonates (age, 35-41 gestational weeks) with HIE were admitted to a neonatal intensive care unit between September 2009 and March 2016 and examined by using proton MR spectroscopy at 18-96 hours (n = 25) and 7-14 days (n = 64) after birth (35-43 postmenstrual weeks) to estimate metabolite concentrations in the deep gray matter. Adverse outcome was defined as death or neurodevelopmental impairment at 18-22 months of age. Areas under the receiver operating characteristic curves were calculated to evaluate the prognostic values of metabolites. Results At 18-96 hours, N-acetylaspartate and creatine concentrations were lower, whereas lactate, and glutamate and glutamine (Glx) concentrations were higher in neonates with adverse outcomes than in those with favorable outcomes. Metabolite concentrations at 18-96 hours decreased during days 7-14 in neonates with adverse outcomes but did not change in those with favorable outcomes. For N-acetylaspartate, creatine, lactate, and Glx concentrations measured at 18-96 hours to predict adverse outcomes, areas under the receiver operating characteristic curve were 0.98, 0.89, 0.96, and 0.88, respectively, whereas at 7-14 days, the areas under the receiver operating characteristic curve were 0.97, 0.97, 0.59, and 0.36, respectively. Conclusion Time-dependent reductions in N-acetylaspartate and creatine concentrations at both 18-96 hours and 7-14 days accurately predicted adverse outcomes. However, higher lactate and glutamate and glutamine concentrations were often transient. © RSNA, 2018 Online supplemental material is available for this article.

  19. Interrater agreement in the interpretation of neonatal electroencephalography in hypoxic-ischemic encephalopathy.

    PubMed

    Wusthoff, Courtney J; Sullivan, Joseph; Glass, Hannah C; Shellhaas, Renée A; Abend, Nicholas S; Chang, Taeun; Tsuchida, Tammy N

    2017-03-01

    Research using neonatal electroencephalography (EEG) has been limited by a lack of a standardized classification system and interpretation terminology. In 2013, the American Clinical Neurophysiology Society (ACNS) published a guideline for standardized terminology and categorization in the description of continuous EEG in neonates. We sought to assess interrater agreement for this neonatal EEG categorization system as applied by a group of pediatric neurophysiologists. A total of 60 neonatal EEG studies were collected from three institutions. All EEG segments were from term neonates with hypoxic-ischemic encephalopathy. Three pediatric neurophysiologists independently reviewed each record using the ACNS standardized scoring system. Unweighted kappa values were calculated for interrater agreement of categorical data across multiple observers. Interrater agreement was very good for identification of seizures (κ = 0.93, p < 0.001), with perfect agreement in 95% of records (57 of 60). Interrater agreement was moderate for classifying records as normal or having any abnormality (κ = 0.49, p < 0.001), with perfect agreement in 78% of records (47 of 60). Interrater agreement was good in classifying EEG backgrounds on a 5-category scale (normal, excessively discontinuous, burst suppression, status epilepticus, or electrocerebral inactivity) (κ = 0.70, p < 0.001), with perfect agreement in 72% of records (43 of 60). Other specific background features had lower agreement, including voltage (κ = 0.41, p < 0.001), variability (κ = 0.35, p < 0.001), symmetry (κ = 0.18, p = 0.01), presence of abnormal sharp waves (κ < 0.20, p < 0.05), and presence of brief rhythmic discharges (κ < 0.20, p < 0.05). We found good or very good interrater agreement applying the ACNS system for identification of seizures and classification of EEG background. Other specific EEG features showed limited interrater agreement. Of importance to both clinicians and

  20. Clinical Seizures in Neonatal Hypoxic-Ischemic Encephalopathy Have No Independent Impact on Neurodevelopmental Outcome: Secondary Analyses of Data from the Neonatal Research Network Hypothermia Trial

    PubMed Central

    Kwon, Jennifer M.; Guillet, Ronnie; Shankaran, Seetha; Laptook, Abbot R.; McDonald, Scott A.; Ehrenkranz, Richard A.; Tyson, Jon E.; O'Shea, T. Michael; Goldberg, Ronald N.; Donovan, Edward F.; Fanaroff, Avroy A.; Poole, W. Kenneth; Higgins, Rosemary D.; Walsh, Michele C.

    2012-01-01

    It remains controversial as to whether neonatal seizures have additional direct effects on the developing brain separate from the severity of the underlying encephalopathy. Using data collected from infants diagnosed with hypoxic-ischemic encephalopathy, and who were enrolled in an National Institute of Child Health and Human Development trial of hypothermia, we analyzed associations between neonatal clinical seizures and outcomes at 18 months of age. Of the 208 infants enrolled, 102 received whole body hypothermia and 106 were controls. Clinical seizures were generally noted during the first 4 days of life and rarely afterward. When adjustment was made for study treatment and severity of encephalopathy, seizures were not associated with death, or moderate or severe disability, or lower Bayley Mental Development Index scores at 18 months of life. Among infants diagnosed with hypoxic-ischemic encephalopathy, the mortality and morbidity often attributed to neonatal seizures can be better explained by the underlying severity of encephalopathy. PMID:20921569

  1. Hypothermia augments neuroprotective activity of mesenchymal stem cells for neonatal hypoxic-ischemic encephalopathy.

    PubMed

    Park, Won Soon; Sung, Se In; Ahn, So Yoon; Yoo, Hye Soo; Sung, Dong Kyung; Im, Geun Ho; Choi, Soo Jin; Chang, Yun Sil

    2015-01-01

    Though hypothermia is the only clinically available treatment for neonatal hypoxic-ischemic encephalopathy (HIE), it is not completely effective in severe cases. We hypothesized that combined treatment with hypothermia and transplantation of human umbilical cord blood (UCB)-derived mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) would synergistically attenuate severe HIE compared to stand-alone therapy. To induce hypoxia-ischemia (HI), male Sprague-Dawley rats were subjected to 8% oxygen for 120 min after unilateral carotid artery ligation on postnatal day (P) 7. After confirmation of severe HIE involving >50% of the ipsilateral hemisphere volume as determined by diffusion-weighted brain magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) within 2 h after HI, intraventricular MSC transplantation (1 × 105 cells) and/or hypothermia with target temperature at 32°C for 24 h were administered 6 h after induction of HI. Follow-up brain MRI at P12 and P42, sensorimotor function tests at P40-42, evaluation of cytokines in the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) at P42, and histologic analysis of peri-infarct tissues at P42 were performed. Severe HI resulted in progressively increased brain infarction over time as assessed by serial MRI, increased number of cells positive for terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase nick-end labeling, microgliosis and astrocytosis, increased CSF cytokine levels, and impaired function in behavioral tests such as rotarod and cylinder tests. All of the abnormalities observed in severe HIE showed greater improvement after combined treatment with hypothermia and MSC transplantation than with either therapy alone. Overall, these findings suggest that combined treatment with hypothermia and human UCB-derived MSC transplantation might be a novel therapeutic modality to improve the prognosis of severe HIE, an intractable disease that currently has no effective treatment.

  2. Quantification of ante-mortem hypoxic ischemic brain injury by post-mortem cerebral magnetic resonance imaging in neonatal encephalopathy.

    PubMed

    Montaldo, Paolo; Chaban, Badr; Lally, Peter J; Sebire, Neil J; Taylor, Andrew M; Thayyil, Sudhin

    2015-11-01

    Post-mortem (PM) magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is increasingly used as an alternative to conventional autopsy in babies dying from neonatal encephalopathy. However, the confounding effect of post-mortem changes on the detection of ante-mortem ischemic injury is unclear. We examined whether quantitative MR measurements can accurately distinguish ante-mortem ischemic brain injury from artifacts using post-mortem MRI. We compared PM brain MRI (1.5 T Siemens, Avanto) in 7 infants who died with neonatal encephalopathy (NE) of presumed hypoxic-ischemic origin with 7 newborn infants who had sudden unexplained neonatal death (SUND controls) without evidence of hypoxic-ischemic brain injury at autopsy. We measured apparent diffusion coefficients (ADCs), T1-weighted signal intensity ratios (SIRs) compared to vitreous humor and T2 relaxation times from 19 predefined brain areas typically involved in neonatal encephalopathy. There were no differences in mean ADC values, SIRs on T1-weighted images or T2 relaxation times in any of the 19 predefined brain areas between NE and SUND infants. All MRI images showed loss of cortical gray/white matter differentiation, loss of the normal high signal intensity (SI) in the posterior limb of the internal capsule on T1-weighted images, and high white matter SI on T2-weighted images. Normal post-mortem changes may be easily mistaken for ante-mortem ischemic injury, and current PM MRI quantitative assessment cannot reliably distinguish these. These findings may have important implications for appropriate interpretation of PM imaging findings, especially in medico-legal practice. Copyright © 2015 European Paediatric Neurology Society. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Safety and efficacy of topiramate in neonates with hypoxic ischemic encephalopathy treated with hypothermia (NeoNATI)

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Despite progresses in neonatal care, the mortality and the incidence of neuro-motor disability after perinatal asphyxia have failed to show substantial improvements. In countries with a high level of perinatal care, the incidence of asphyxia responsible for moderate or severe encephalopathy is still 2–3 per 1000 term newborns. Recent trials have demonstrated that moderate hypothermia, started within 6 hours after birth and protracted for 72 hours, can significantly improve survival and reduce neurologic impairment in neonates with hypoxic-ischemic encephalopathy. It is not currently known whether neuroprotective drugs can further improve the beneficial effects of hypothermia. Topiramate has been proven to reduce brain injury in animal models of neonatal hypoxic ischemic encephalopathy. However, the association of mild hypothermia and topiramate treatment has never been studied in human newborns. The objective of this research project is to evaluate, through a multicenter randomized controlled trial, whether the efficacy of moderate hypothermia can be increased by concomitant topiramate treatment. Methods/Design Term newborns (gestational age ≥ 36 weeks and birth weight ≥ 1800 g) with precocious metabolic, clinical and electroencephalographic (EEG) signs of hypoxic-ischemic encephalopathy will be randomized, according to their EEG pattern, to receive topiramate added to standard treatment with moderate hypothermia or standard treatment alone. Topiramate will be administered at 10 mg/kg once a day for the first 3 days of life. Topiramate concentrations will be measured on serial dried blood spots. 64 participants will be recruited in the study. To evaluate the safety of topiramate administration, cardiac and respiratory parameters will be continuously monitored. Blood samplings will be performed to check renal, liver and metabolic balance. To evaluate the efficacy of topiramate, the neurologic outcome of enrolled newborns will be evaluated by serial

  4. Effect of Depth and Duration of Cooling on Deaths in the NICU Among Neonates With Hypoxic Ischemic Encephalopathy

    PubMed Central

    Shankaran, Seetha; Laptook, Abbot R.; Pappas, Athina; McDonald, Scott. A.; Das, Abhik; Tyson, Jon E.; Poindexter, Brenda B.; Schibler, Kurt; Bell, Edward F.; Heyne, Roy J.; Pedroza, Claudia; Bara, Rebecca; Van Meurs, Krisa P.; Grisby, Cathy; Petrie Huitema, Carolyn M.; Garg, Meena; Ehrenkranz, Richard A.; Shepherd, Edward G.; Chalak, Lina F.; Hamrick, Shannon E. G.; Khan, Amir M.; Reynolds, Anne Marie; Laughon, Matthew M.; Truog, William E.; Dysart, Kevin C.; Carlo, Waldemar A.; Walsh, Michele C.; Watterberg, Kristi L.; Higgins, Rosemary D.

    2015-01-01

    IMPORTANCE Hypothermia at 33.5°C for 72 hours for neonatal hypoxic ischemic encephalopathy reduces death or disability to 44% to 55%; longer cooling and deeper cooling are neuroprotective in animal models. OBJECTIVE To determine if longer duration cooling (120 hours), deeper cooling (32.0°C), or both are superior to cooling at 33.5°C for 72 hours in neonates who are full-term with moderate or severe hypoxic ischemic encephalopathy. DESIGN, SETTING, AND PARTICIPANTS Arandomized, 2 × 2 factorial design clinical trial performed in 18 US centers in the Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child Health and Human Development (NICHD) Neonatal Research Network between October 2010 and November 2013. INTERVENTIONS Neonates were assigned to 4 hypothermia groups; 33.5°C for 72 hours, 32.0°C for 72 hours, 33.5°C for 120 hours, and 32.0°C for 120 hours. MAIN OUTCOMES AND MEASURES The primary outcome of death or disability at 18 to 22 months is ongoing. The independent data and safety monitoring committee paused the trial to evaluate safety (cardiac arrhythmia, persistent acidosis, major vessel thrombosis and bleeding, and death in the neonatal intensive care unit [NICU]) after the first 50 neonates were enrolled, then after every subsequent 25 neonates. The trial was closed for emerging safety profile and futility analysis after the eighth review with 364 neonates enrolled (of 726 planned). This report focuses on safety and NICU deaths by marginal comparisons of 72 hours’ vs 120 hours’ duration and 33.5°C depth vs 32.0°C depth (predefined secondary outcomes). RESULTS The NICU death rates were 7 of 95 neonates (7%) for the 33.5°C for 72 hours group, 13 of 90 neonates (14%) for the 32.0°C for 72 hours group, 15 of 96 neonates (16%) for the 33.5°C for 120 hours group, and 14 of 83 neonates (17%) for the 32.0°C for 120 hours group. The adjusted risk ratio (RR) for NICU deaths for the 120 hours group vs 72 hours group was 1.37 (95% CI, 0.92–2.04) and for

  5. Changes in cerebral and visceral blood flow velocities in asphyxiated term neonates with hypoxic-ischemic encephalopathy.

    PubMed

    Ilves, Pilvi; Lintrop, Mare; Talvik, Inga; Muug, Külli; Maipuu, Lea

    2009-11-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate changes in the Doppler blood flow velocity (BFV) in the cerebral and visceral arteries in asphyxiated term neonates. The BFV was measured in 47 asphyxiated and 37 healthy term neonates in the anterior cerebral artery, middle cerebral artery, basilar artery, internal carotid artery, celiac artery (CA), superior mesenteric artery (SMA), and renal artery (RA) up to the age of 60 to 149 days. At the age of 12 to 120 hours after asphyxia, the mean BFV had increased, and the resistive index (RI) had decreased (P < .05) in all cerebral arteries in neonates with severe hypoxic-ischemic encephalopathy (HIE) compared with the control group. In neonates with severe HIE, the mean BFV in the RA had significantly decreased at the age of 3 to 240 hours, and the RI had increased at the age of 24 to 240 hours, normalizing by the age of 21 to 59 days compared with the control group (P < .05). In the SMA, a decreased mean BFV was found in neonates with severe HIE compared with those with mild to moderate HIE only at the age of 24 to 36 hours. In neonates with mild to moderate HIE, the mean BFV had increased in the SMA and CA compared with the control group at the age of 2 to 11.9 hours. A severe alteration of the cerebral and visceral BFV takes place during the first days after asphyxia in neonates with different severities of HIE.

  6. Can We Predict Functional Outcome in Neonates with Hypoxic Ischemic Encephalopathy by the Combination of Neuroimaging and Electroencephalography?

    PubMed Central

    Nanavati, Tania; Seemaladinne, Nirupama; Regier, Michael; Yossuck, Panitan; Pergami, Paola

    2015-01-01

    Background Neonatal hypoxic ischemic encephalopathy (HIE) is a major cause of mortality, morbidity, and long-term neurological deficits. Despite the availability of neuroimaging and neurophysiological testing, tools for accurate early diagnosis and prediction of developmental outcome are still lacking. The goal of this study was to determine if combined use of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and electroencephalography (EEG) findings could support outcome prediction. Methods We retrospectively reviewed records of 17 HIE neonates, classified brain MRI and EEG findings based on severity, and assessed clinical outcome up to 48 months. We determined the relation between MRI/EEG findings and clinical outcome. Results We demonstrated a significant relationship between MRI findings and clinical outcome (Fisher’s exact test, p = 0.017). EEG provided no additional information about the outcome beyond that contained in the MRI score. The statistical model for outcome prediction based on random forests suggested that EEG readings at 24 hours and 72 hours could be important variables for outcome prediction, but this needs to be investigated further. Conclusion Caution should be used when discussing prognosis for neonates with mild-to-moderate HIE based on early MR imaging and EEG findings. A robust, quantitative marker of HIE severity that allows for accurate prediction of long-term outcome, particularly for mild-to-moderate cases, is still needed. PMID:25862075

  7. Hypothermia broadens the therapeutic time window of mesenchymal stem cell transplantation for severe neonatal hypoxic ischemic encephalopathy.

    PubMed

    Ahn, So Yoon; Chang, Yun Sil; Sung, Dong Kyung; Sung, Se In; Park, Won Soon

    2018-05-16

    Recently, we have demonstrated that concurrent hypothermia and mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) transplantation synergistically improved severe neonatal hypoxic ischemic encephalopathy (HIE). The current study was designed to determine whether hypothermia could extend the therapeutic time window of MSC transplantation for severe neonatal HIE. To induce HIE, newborn rat pups were exposed to 8% oxygen for 2 h following unilateral carotid artery ligation on postnatal day (P) 7. After approving severe HIE involving >50% of the ipsilateral hemisphere volume, hypothermia (32 °C) for 2 days was started. MSCs were transplanted 2 days after HIE modeling. Follow-up brain MRI, sensorimotor function tests, assessment of inflammatory cytokines in the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF), and histological evaluation of peri-infarction area were performed. HIE induced progressively increasing brain infarction area over time, increased cell death, reactive gliosis and brain inflammation, and impaired sensorimotor function. All these damages observed in severe HIE showed better, robust improvement with a combination treatment of hypothermia and delayed MSC transplantation than with either stand-alone therapy. Hypothermia itself did not significantly reduce brain injury, but broadened the therapeutic time window of MSC transplantation for severe newborn HIE.

  8. Effect of temperature on heart rate variability in neonatal intensive care unit patients with hypoxic ischemic encephalopathy

    PubMed Central

    Massaro, An N.; Campbell, Heather E.; Metzler, Marina; Al-Shargabi, Tareq; Wang, Yunfei; du Plessis, Adre; Govindan, R.B.

    2017-01-01

    Objective To determine whether measures of heart rate variability (HRV) are related to changes in temperature during rewarming after therapeutic hypothermia (TH) for hypoxic ischemic encephalopathy (HIE). Design Prospective observational study. Setting Level 4 neonatal intensive care unit in a free-standing academic children's hospital. Patients Forty-four infants with moderate to severe HIE treated with TH. Interventions Continuous EKG data from 2 hours prior to rewarming through 2 hours after completion of rewarming (up to 10 hours) were analyzed. Measurements and Main Results Median beat-to-beat interval (RRi) and measures of HRV were quantified including RRi standard deviation (SD), low (LF) and high (HF) frequency relative spectral power, detrended fluctuation analysis short- and long- α exponents (αS, αL) and root mean square short- and long- time scales (RMSS, RMSL). The relationships between HRV measures and esophageal/axillary temperatures were evaluated. HRV measures LF, αS, RMSS, and RMSL were negatively associated, while αL was positively associated, with temperature (P<0.01). These findings signify an overall decrease in HRV as temperature increased towards normothermia. Conclusions Measures of HRV are temperature dependent in the range of TH to normothermia. Core body temperature needs to be considered when evaluating HRV metrics as potential physiological biomarkers of illness severity in HIE infants undergoing TH. PMID:28198757

  9. Association of brain injury and neonatal cytokine response during therapeutic hypothermia in newborns with hypoxic-ischemic encephalopathy.

    PubMed

    Orrock, Janet E; Panchapakesan, Karuna; Vezina, Gilbert; Chang, Taeun; Harris, Kari; Wang, Yunfei; Knoblach, Susan; Massaro, An N

    2016-05-01

    Cytokines have been proposed as mediators of neonatal brain injury via neuroinflammatory pathways triggered by hypoxia-ischemia. Limited data are available on cytokine profiles in larger cohorts of newborns with hypoxic-ischemic encephalopathy (HIE) undergoing therapeutic hypothermia (TH). Serum cytokines interleukin (IL)-1β, IL-2, IL-4, IL-6, IL-8, IL-10, IL-13, tumor necrosis factor-α, and interferon-γ were measured in newborns with HIE at 24 and 72 h of TH. Differences between infants with favorable (survivors with mild/no magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) injury) vs. adverse outcome (death or moderate/severe MRI injury) were compared using mixed models to adjust for covariates. Data from 36 term newborns with HIE (favorable outcome: n = 20, adverse outcome: n = 16) were evaluated. Cytokines IL-1β, IL-2, IL-6, IL-8, IL-10, and IL-13 were elevated in the adverse relative to favorable outcome group at 24 h. IL-6 remained significantly elevated in the adverse outcome group at 72 h. IL-6 and IL-10 remained significantly associated with outcome group after controlling for covariates. Inflammatory cytokines are elevated in HIE newborns with brain injury by MRI. In particular, IL-6 and IL-10 were associated with adverse outcomes after controlling for baseline characteristics and severity of presentation. These data suggest that cytokine response may identify infants in need of additional neuroprotective interventions.

  10. Lessons learned during implementation of therapeutic hypothermia for neonatal hypoxic ischemic encephalopathy in a regional transport program in Ontario

    PubMed Central

    Khurshid, Faiza; Lee, Kyong-Soon; McNamara, Patrick J; Whyte, Hilary; Mak, Wendy

    2011-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Therapeutic hypothermia (TH) is the first intervention to consistently show improved neurological outcomes in neonates with hypoxic ischemic encephalopathy (HIE). Since the recent introduction of TH for HIE in many centres, reviews of practices during the implementation of TH in Canada have not been published. OBJECTIVE: To determine if eligible neonates are being offered TH and to identify any barriers to the effective implementation of TH. METHODS: A retrospective review of neonates referred to a regional tertiary centre at a gestational age of 35 weeks or more with HIE was conducted. RESULTS: Among 41 neonates referred, 29 (71%) were eligible for TH; among eligible patients, five were moribund and excluded, and TH was initiated in 16 (67%) of the remaining 24. Reasons for not cooling in eight eligible patients included a delay in referral (n=5, median age at referral was 14 h) and a failure to recognize the severity of HIE (n=3). Among cooled patients, median times were the following: 116 min for age at referral; 80 min for time from referral to transport team arrival; and 358 min for age at initiation of cooling. Seven (44%) patients had cooling initiated after 6 h of age. CONCLUSION: A significant proportion of eligible patients were not offered TH, and in many cooled patients, initiation of cooling was delayed beyond the recommended 6 h. For eligible patients to benefit from TH, it is imperative that all birthing centres be made aware that TH is now widely available as an important treatment option, but also that TH is a time-sensitive therapy requiring rapid identification and referral. In the region studied, for eligible patients, referring hospitals should initiate passive cooling before arrival of the transport team. Referring hospitals should be prepared to provide early, yet safe initiation of passive cooling by having the appropriate equipment, and having staff trained in the use and monitoring of rectal temperatures. PMID:22379379

  11. The temporal characteristics of seizures in neonatal hypoxic ischemic encephalopathy treated with hypothermia.

    PubMed

    Lynch, Niamh E; Stevenson, Nathan J; Livingstone, Vicki; Mathieson, Sean; Murphy, Brendan P; Rennie, Janet M; Boylan, Geraldine B

    2015-12-01

    The characteristics of electrographic seizures in newborns with hypoxic-ischaemic encephalopathy (HIE) treated with therapeutic hypothermia (TH) are poorly described. This retrospective, observational study provides reference data on the characteristics of seizures and their evolution over time in newborns with HIE receiving whole-body TH. The cohort under analysis included 23 infants with HIE and seizures defined by multi-channel EEG recordings. Clinical presentation, details of TH and antiepileptic drugs used were recorded. Time from first to last-recorded electrographic seizure (seizure period) was calculated. Temporal characteristics of seizures - total burden, duration, number, burden in minutes per hour, distribution of burden over time (temporal evolution), time from seizure onset to maximum seizure burden (Tmsb), T1, and time from Tmsb to seizure offset, T2 - were analysed. The median age at electrographic seizure onset was 13.1h (IQR: 11.4 to 22.0). Tmsb was reached at a median age of 19.4 hours (IQR: 12.2 to 29.7). Median seizure period was 16.5h (IQR: 7.0 to 49.7), median number of seizures per hour was 1.9 (IQR: 1.0 to 3.3). The seizure burden was 4.0 min/h (IQR: 2.0 to 7.0). There was no consistent pattern in the temporal evolution of seizures in neonates treated with TH. The skewness was neither positive nor negative (p-value=0.15), there was no difference between the duration of T1 and T2 (p-value=0.09) and no difference in the seizure burden between T1 and T2 (p=0.09). There was an association between Tmsb and Phenobarbital (PB) administration (r=0.76, p-value<0.001). There is no consistent temporal evolution of seizure burden in neonates treated with TH. Seizures are diffuse, and their characteristics are variable. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  12. Can Induced Hypothermia Be Assured During Brain MRI in Neonates with Hypoxic-Ischemic Encephalopathy?

    PubMed Central

    Wintermark, Pia; Labrecque, Michelle; Warfield, Simon. K.; DeHart, Stephanie; Hansen, Anne

    2012-01-01

    Until now, brain magnetic resonance imaging (MRIs) in asphyxiated neonates receiving therapeutic hypothermia have been performed after treatment is complete. However, there is increasing interest in early brain MRI while hypothermia is still being provided, in order to rapidly understand the degree of brain injury and possibly refine neuroprotective strategies. This study was designed to assess whether therapeutic hypothermia can be maintained while performing a brain MRI. Twenty MRI scans were obtained in twelve asphyxiated neonates while they were treated with hypothermia. Median difference between esophageal temperature on NICU departure and return was 0.1°C (range: −0.8 to 0.8°C). In conclusion, therapeutic hypothermia can be safely and reproducibly maintained during a brain MRI. Hypothermia treatment should not prevent obtaining an early brain MRI if clinically indicated. PMID:20737144

  13. Dedifferentiated Fat Cells as a Novel Source for Cell Therapy to Target Neonatal Hypoxic-Ischemic Encephalopathy.

    PubMed

    Mikrogeorgiou, Alkisti; Sato, Yoshiaki; Kondo, Taiki; Hattori, Tetsuo; Sugiyama, Yuichiro; Ito, Miharu; Saito, Akiko; Nakanishi, Keiko; Tsuji, Masahiro; Kazama, Tomohiko; Kano, Koichiro; Matsumoto, Taro; Hayakawa, Masahiro

    2017-01-01

    Neonatal hypoxic-ischemic (HI) encephalopathy (HIE) remains a major cause of mortality and persistent neurological disabilities in affected individuals. At present, hypothermia is considered to be the only applicable treatment option, although growing evidence suggests that cell-based therapy might achieve better outcomes. Dedifferentiated fat (DFAT) cells are derived from mature adipocytes via a dedifferentiation strategy called ceiling culture. Their abundance and ready availability might make them an ideal therapeutic tool for the treatment of HIE. In the present study, we aimed to determine whether the outcome of HIE can be improved by DFAT cell treatment. HI injury was achieved by ligating the left common carotid artery in 7-day-old rat pups, followed by 1-h exposure to 8% O2. Subsequently, the severity of damage was assessed by diffusion-weighted magnetic resonance imaging to assign animals to equivalent groups. 24 h after hypoxia, DFAT cells were injected at 105 cells/pup into the right external jugular vein. To evaluate brain damage in the acute phase, a group of animals was sacrificed 48 h after the insult, and paraffin sections of the brain were stained to assess several acute injury markers. In the chronic phase, the behavioral outcome was measured by performing a series of behavioral tests. From the 24th day of age, the sensorimotor function was examined by evaluating the initial forepaw placement on a cylinder wall and the latency to falling from a rotarod treadmill. The cognitive function was tested with the novel object recognition (NOR) test. In vitro conditioned medium (CM) prepared from cultured DFAT cells was added at various concentrations to neuronal cell cultures, which were then exposed to oxygen-glucose deprivation (OGD). The number of cells that stained positive for the apoptosis marker active caspase-3 decreased by 73 and 52% in the hippocampus and temporal cortex areas of the brain, respectively, in the DFAT-treated pups. Similarly, the

  14. Effect of Depth and Duration of Cooling on Death or Disability at Age 18 Months Among Neonates With Hypoxic-Ischemic Encephalopathy: A Randomized Clinical Trial.

    PubMed

    Shankaran, Seetha; Laptook, Abbot R; Pappas, Athina; McDonald, Scott A; Das, Abhik; Tyson, Jon E; Poindexter, Brenda B; Schibler, Kurt; Bell, Edward F; Heyne, Roy J; Pedroza, Claudia; Bara, Rebecca; Van Meurs, Krisa P; Huitema, Carolyn M Petrie; Grisby, Cathy; Devaskar, Uday; Ehrenkranz, Richard A; Harmon, Heidi M; Chalak, Lina F; DeMauro, Sara B; Garg, Meena; Hartley-McAndrew, Michelle E; Khan, Amir M; Walsh, Michele C; Ambalavanan, Namasivayam; Brumbaugh, Jane E; Watterberg, Kristi L; Shepherd, Edward G; Hamrick, Shannon E G; Barks, John; Cotten, C Michael; Kilbride, Howard W; Higgins, Rosemary D

    2017-07-04

    Hypothermia for 72 hours at 33.5°C for neonatal hypoxic-ischemic encephalopathy reduces death or disability, but rates continue to be high. To determine if cooling for 120 hours or to a temperature of 32.0°C reduces death or disability at age 18 months in infants with hypoxic-ischemic encephalopathy. Randomized 2 × 2 factorial clinical trial in neonates (≥36 weeks' gestation) with hypoxic-ischemic encephalopathy at 18 US centers in the Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child Health and Human Development Neonatal Research Network between October 2010 and January 2016. A total of 364 neonates were randomly assigned to 4 hypothermia groups: 33.5°C for 72 hours (n = 95), 32.0°C for 72 hours (n = 90), 33.5°C for 120 hours (n = 96), or 32.0°C for 120 hours (n = 83). The primary outcome was death or moderate or severe disability at 18 to 22 months of age adjusted for center and level of encephalopathy. Severe disability included any of Bayley Scales of Infant Development III cognitive score less than 70, Gross Motor Function Classification System (GMFCS) level of 3 to 5, or blindness or hearing loss despite amplification. Moderate disability was defined as a cognitive score of 70 to 84 and either GMFCS level 2, active seizures, or hearing with amplification. The trial was stopped for safety and futility in November 2013 after 364 of the planned 726 infants were enrolled. Among 347 infants (95%) with primary outcome data (mean age at follow-up, 20.7 [SD, 3.5] months; 42% female), death or disability occurred in 56 of 176 (31.8%) cooled for 72 hours and 54 of 171 (31.6%) cooled for 120 hours (adjusted risk ratio, 0.92 [95% CI, 0.68-1.25]; adjusted absolute risk difference, -1.0% [95% CI, -10.2% to 8.1%]) and in 59 of 185 (31.9%) cooled to 33.5°C and 51 of 162 (31.5%) cooled to 32.0°C (adjusted risk ratio, 0.92 [95% CI, 0.68-1.26]; adjusted absolute risk difference, -3.1% [95% CI, -12.3% to 6.1%]). A significant interaction between

  15. Effect of Depth and Duration of Cooling on Death or Disability at Age 18 Months Among Neonates With Hypoxic-Ischemic Encephalopathy

    PubMed Central

    Laptook, Abbot R.; Pappas, Athina; McDonald, Scott. A.; Das, Abhik; Tyson, Jon E.; Poindexter, Brenda B.; Schibler, Kurt; Bell, Edward F.; Heyne, Roy J.; Pedroza, Claudia; Bara, Rebecca; Van Meurs, Krisa P.; Huitema, Carolyn M. Petrie; Grisby, Cathy; Devaskar, Uday; Ehrenkranz, Richard A.; Harmon, Heidi M.; Chalak, Lina F.; DeMauro, Sara B.; Garg, Meena; Hartley-McAndrew, Michelle E.; Khan, Amir M.; Walsh, Michele C.; Ambalavanan, Namasivayam; Brumbaugh, Jane E.; Watterberg, Kristi L.; Shepherd, Edward G.; Hamrick, Shannon E. G.; Barks, John; Cotten, C. Michael; Kilbride, Howard W.; Higgins, Rosemary D.

    2017-01-01

    Importance Hypothermia for 72 hours at 33.5°C for neonatal hypoxic-ischemic encephalopathy reduces death or disability, but rates continue to be high. Objective To determine if cooling for 120 hours or to a temperature of 32.0°C reduces death or disability at age 18 months in infants with hypoxic-ischemic encephalopathy. Design, Setting, and Participants Randomized 2 × 2 factorial clinical trial in neonates (≥36 weeks’ gestation) with hypoxic-ischemic encephalopathy at 18 US centers in the Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child Health and Human Development Neonatal Research Network between October 2010 and January 2016. Interventions A total of 364 neonates were randomly assigned to 4 hypothermia groups: 33.5°C for 72 hours (n = 95), 32.0°C for 72 hours (n = 90), 33.5°C for 120 hours (n = 96), or 32.0°C for 120 hours (n = 83). Main Outcomes and Measures The primary outcome was death or moderate or severe disability at 18 to 22 months of age adjusted for center and level of encephalopathy. Severe disability included any of Bayley Scales of Infant Development III cognitive score less than 70, Gross Motor Function Classification System (GMFCS) level of 3 to 5, or blindness or hearing loss despite amplification. Moderate disability was defined as a cognitive score of 70 to 84 and either GMFCS level 2, active seizures, or hearing with amplification. Results The trial was stopped for safety and futility in November 2013 after 364 of the planned 726 infants were enrolled. Among 347 infants (95%) with primary outcome data (mean age at follow-up, 20.7 [SD, 3.5] months; 42% female), death or disability occurred in 56 of 176 (31.8%) cooled for 72 hours and 54 of 171 (31.6%) cooled for 120 hours (adjusted risk ratio, 0.92 [95% CI, 0.68-1.25]; adjusted absolute risk difference, −1.0% [95% CI, −10.2% to 8.1%]) and in 59 of 185 (31.9%) cooled to 33.5°C and 51 of 162 (31.5%) cooled to 32.0°C (adjusted risk ratio, 0.92 [95% CI, 0

  16. Effect of depth and duration of cooling on deaths in the NICU among neonates with hypoxic ischemic encephalopathy: a randomized clinical trial.

    PubMed

    Shankaran, Seetha; Laptook, Abbot R; Pappas, Athina; McDonald, Scott A; Das, Abhik; Tyson, Jon E; Poindexter, Brenda B; Schibler, Kurt; Bell, Edward F; Heyne, Roy J; Pedroza, Claudia; Bara, Rebecca; Van Meurs, Krisa P; Grisby, Cathy; Huitema, Carolyn M Petrie; Garg, Meena; Ehrenkranz, Richard A; Shepherd, Edward G; Chalak, Lina F; Hamrick, Shannon E G; Khan, Amir M; Reynolds, Anne Marie; Laughon, Matthew M; Truog, William E; Dysart, Kevin C; Carlo, Waldemar A; Walsh, Michele C; Watterberg, Kristi L; Higgins, Rosemary D

    Hypothermia at 33.5°C for 72 hours for neonatal hypoxic ischemic encephalopathy reduces death or disability to 44% to 55%; longer cooling and deeper cooling are neuroprotective in animal models. To determine if longer duration cooling (120 hours), deeper cooling (32.0°C), or both are superior to cooling at 33.5°C for 72 hours in neonates who are full-term with moderate or severe hypoxic ischemic encephalopathy. A randomized, 2 × 2 factorial design clinical trial performed in 18 US centers in the Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child Health and Human Development (NICHD) Neonatal Research Network between October 2010 and November 2013. Neonates were assigned to 4 hypothermia groups; 33.5°C for 72 hours, 32.0°C for 72 hours, 33.5°C for 120 hours, and 32.0°C for 120 hours. The primary outcome of death or disability at 18 to 22 months is ongoing. The independent data and safety monitoring committee paused the trial to evaluate safety (cardiac arrhythmia, persistent acidosis, major vessel thrombosis and bleeding, and death in the neonatal intensive care unit [NICU]) after the first 50 neonates were enrolled, then after every subsequent 25 neonates. The trial was closed for emerging safety profile and futility analysis after the eighth review with 364 neonates enrolled (of 726 planned). This report focuses on safety and NICU deaths by marginal comparisons of 72 hours' vs 120 hours' duration and 33.5°C depth vs 32.0°C depth (predefined secondary outcomes). The NICU death rates were 7 of 95 neonates (7%) for the 33.5°C for 72 hours group, 13 of 90 neonates (14%) for the 32.0°C for 72 hours group, 15 of 96 neonates (16%) for the 33.5°C for 120 hours group, and 14 of 83 neonates (17%) for the 32.0°C for 120 hours group. The adjusted risk ratio (RR) for NICU deaths for the 120 hours group vs 72 hours group was 1.37 (95% CI, 0.92-2.04) and for the 32.0°C group vs 33.5°C group was 1.24 (95% CI, 0.69-2.25). Safety outcomes were similar between the

  17. Transfontanellar duplex brain ultrasonography resistive indices as a prognostic tool in neonatal hypoxic-ischemic encephalopathy before and after treatment with therapeutic hypothermia.

    PubMed

    Gerner, G J; Burton, V J; Poretti, A; Bosemani, T; Cristofalo, E; Tekes, A; Seyfert, D; Parkinson, C; Leppert, M; Allen, M; Huisman, T A G M; Northington, F J; Johnston, M V

    2016-03-01

    Prior to therapeutic hypothermia (that is, cooling), transfontanellar duplex brain sonography resistive indices (RI) were studied as a bedside non-invasive measures of cerebral hemodynamics in neonates who suffered from hypoxic-ischemic encephalopathy (HIE). We compared pre- and post-cooling RI values and examined the relationships between RI values and specific long-term neurodevelopmental outcomes. Transfontanellar duplex brain sonography, including RI, were obtained for 28 neonates prior to cooling and for 20 neonates following cooling. All RI values were sampled in the anterior cerebral artery at the beginning of each ultrasound study. Neurodevelopmental assessment was conducted between ages 20-32 months with the Mullen Scale of Early Learning. The relationships between pre- and post-cooling RI and cognitive and motor outcomes were studied. Neonates with RI values <0.60 prior to and following cooling were more likely to die or have severe neurodevelopmental disability by ages 20-32 months than those with RI>0.60. Lower RI values were associated with specific neurodevelopmental deficits in motor skill attainment. Pre- and post-cooling transfontanellar duplex brain sonography RI values may be a useful prognostic tool, in conjunction with other clinical information, for neonates diagnosed with HIE. The results of this study suggest that further study of the prognostic value of RI values for short- and long-term outcomes is warranted.

  18. Hypothermia therapy for newborns with hypoxic ischemic encephalopathy.

    PubMed

    Silveira, Rita C; Procianoy, Renato S

    2015-01-01

    Therapeutic hypothermia reduces cerebral injury and improves the neurological outcome secondary to hypoxic ischemic encephalopathy in newborns. It has been indicated for asphyxiated full-term or near-term newborn infants with clinical signs of hypoxic-ischemic encephalopathy (HIE). A search was performed for articles on therapeutic hypothermia in newborns with perinatal asphyxia in PubMed; the authors chose those considered most significant. There are two therapeutic hypothermia methods: selective head cooling and total body cooling. The target body temperature is 34.5 °C for selective head cooling and 33.5 °C for total body cooling. Temperatures lower than 32 °C are less neuroprotective, and temperatures below 30 °C are very dangerous, with severe complications. Therapeutic hypothermia must start within the first 6h after birth, as studies have shown that this represents the therapeutic window for the hypoxic-ischemic event. Therapy must be maintained for 72 h, with very strict control of the newborn's body temperature. It has been shown that therapeutic hypothermia is effective in reducing neurologic impairment, especially in full-term or near-term newborns with moderate hypoxic-ischemic encephalopathy. Therapeutic hypothermia is a neuroprotective technique indicated for newborn infants with perinatal asphyxia and hypoxic-ischemic encephalopathy. Copyright © 2015 Sociedade Brasileira de Pediatria. Published by Elsevier Editora Ltda. All rights reserved.

  19. White matter apoptosis is increased by delayed hypothermia and rewarming in a neonatal piglet model of hypoxic ischemic encephalopathy.

    PubMed

    Wang, B; Armstrong, J S; Reyes, M; Kulikowicz, E; Lee, J-H; Spicer, D; Bhalala, U; Yang, Z-J; Koehler, R C; Martin, L J; Lee, J K

    2016-03-01

    Therapeutic hypothermia is widely used to treat neonatal hypoxic ischemic (HI) brain injuries. However, potentially deleterious effects of delaying the induction of hypothermia and of rewarming on white matter injury remain unclear. We used a piglet model of HI to assess the effects of delayed hypothermia and rewarming on white matter apoptosis. Piglets underwent HI injury or sham surgery followed by normothermic or hypothermic recovery at 2h. Hypothermic groups were divided into those with no rewarming, slow rewarming at 0.5°C/h, or rapid rewarming at 4°C/h. Apoptotic cells in the subcortical white matter of the motor gyrus, corpus callosum, lateral olfactory tract, and internal capsule at 29h were identified morphologically and counted by hematoxylin & eosin staining. Cell death was verified by terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase (TdT) dUTP nick end labeling (TUNEL) assay. White matter neurons were also counted, and apoptotic cells were immunophenotyped with the oligodendrocyte marker 2',3'-cyclic-nucleotide 3'-phosphodiesterase (CNPase). Hypothermia, slow rewarming, and rapid rewarming increased apoptosis in the subcortical white matter relative to normothermia (p<0.05). The number of white matter neurons was not lower in groups with more apoptosis after hypothermia or rapid rewarming, indicating that the apoptosis occurred among glial cells. Hypothermic piglets had more apoptosis in the lateral olfactory tract than those that were rewarmed (p<0.05). The promotion of apoptosis by hypothermia and rewarming in these regions was independent of HI. In the corpus callosum, HI piglets had more apoptosis than shams after normothermia, slow rewarming, and rapid rewarming (p<0.05). Many apoptotic cells were myelinating oligodendrocytes identified by CNPase positivity. Our results indicate that delaying the induction of hypothermia and rewarming are associated with white matter apoptosis in a piglet model of HI; in some regions these temperature effects are

  20. Bone Morphogenetic Protein (BMP)-3b Gene Depletion Causes High Mortality in a Mouse Model of Neonatal Hypoxic-Ischemic Encephalopathy.

    PubMed

    Ogawa, Yuko; Tsuji, Masahiro; Tanaka, Emi; Miyazato, Mikiya; Hino, Jun

    2018-01-01

    Bone morphogenetic proteins (BMPs) are a group of proteins that induce the formation of bone and the development of the nervous system. BMP-3b, also known as growth and differentiation factor 10, is a member of the BMPs that is highly expressed in the developing and adult brain. BMP-3b is therefore thought to play an important role in the brain even after physiological neurogenesis has completed. BMP-3b is induced in peri-infarct neurons in aged brains and is one of the most highly upregulated genes during the initiation of axonal sprouting. However, little is known about the role of BMP-3b in neonatal brain injury. In the present study, we aimed to describe the effects of BMP-3b gene depletion on neonatal hypoxic-ischemic encephalopathy, which frequently results in death or lifelong neurological disabilities, such as cerebral palsy and mental retardation. BMP-3b knockout and wild type mice were prepared at postnatal day 12. Mice of each genotype were divided into sham-surgery, mild hypoxia-ischemia (HI), and severe HI groups ( n = 12-45). Mice in the HI groups were subjected to left common carotid artery ligation followed by 30 min (mild HI) or 50 min (severe HI) of systemic hypoxic insult. A battery of tests, including behavioral tests, was performed, and the brain was then removed and evaluated at 14 days after insult. Compared with wild type pups, BMP-3b knockout pups demonstrated the following characteristics. (1) The males exposed to severe HI had a strikingly higher mortality rate, and as many as 70% of the knockout pups but none of the wild type pups died; (2) significantly more hyperactive locomotion was observed in males exposed to severe HI; and (3) significantly more hyperactive rearing was observed in both males and females exposed to mild HI. However, BMP-3b gene depletion did not affect other parameters, such as cerebral blood flow, cylinder test and rotarod test performance, body weight gain, brain weight, spleen weight, and neuroanatomical injury

  1. Semi-quantitative Assessment of Brain Maturation by Conventional Magnetic Resonance Imaging in Neonates with Clinically Mild Hypoxic-ischemic Encephalopathy

    PubMed Central

    Gao, Jie; Sun, Qin-Li; Zhang, Yu-Miao; Li, Yan-Yan; Li, Huan; Hou, Xin; Yu, Bo-Lang; Zhou, Xi-Hui; Yang, Jian

    2015-01-01

    Background: Mild hypoxic-ischemic encephalopathy (HIE) injury is becoming the major type in neonatal brain diseases. The aim of this study was to assess brain maturation in mild HIE neonatal brains using total maturation score (TMS) based on conventional magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Methods: Totally, 45 neonates with clinically mild HIE and 45 matched control neonates were enrolled. Gestated age, birth weight, age after birth and postmenstrual age at magnetic resonance (MR) scan were homogenous in the two groups. According to MR findings, mild HIE neonates were divided into three subgroups: Pattern I, neonates with normal MR appearance; Pattern II, preterm neonates with abnormal MR appearance; Pattern III, full-term neonates with abnormal MR appearance. TMS and its parameters, progressive myelination (M), cortical infolding (C), involution of germinal matrix tissue (G), and glial cell migration bands (B), were employed to assess brain maturation and compare difference between HIE and control groups. Results: The mean of TMS was significantly lower in mild HIE group than it in the control group (mean ± standard deviation [SD] 11.62 ± 1.53 vs. 12.36 ± 1.26, P < 0.001). In four parameters of TMS scores, the M and C scores were significantly lower in mild HIE group. Of the three patterns of mild HIE, Pattern I (10 cases) showed no significant difference of TMS compared with control neonates, while Pattern II (22 cases), III (13 cases) all had significantly decreased TMS than control neonates (mean ± SD 10.56 ± 0.93 vs. 11.48 ± 0.55, P < 0.05; 12.59 ± 1.28 vs. 13.25 ± 1.29, P < 0.05). It was M, C, and GM scores that significantly decreased in Pattern II, while for Pattern III, only C score significantly decreased. Conclusions: The TMS system, based on conventional MRI, is an effective method to detect delayed brain maturation in clinically mild HIE. The conventional MRI can reveal the different retardations in subtle structures and development processes

  2. Intranasal Administration of Interferon Beta Attenuates Neuronal Apoptosis via the JAK1/STAT3/BCL-2 Pathway in a Rat Model of Neonatal Hypoxic-Ischemic Encephalopathy

    PubMed Central

    Dixon, Brandon J.; Chen, Di; Zhang, Yang; Flores, Jerry; Malaguit, Jay; Nowrangi, Derek; Zhang, John H.

    2016-01-01

    Neonatal hypoxic-ischemic encephalopathy (HIE) is an injury that often leads to detrimental neurological deficits. Currently, there are no established therapies for HIE and it is critical to develop treatments that provide protection after HIE. The objective of this study was to investigate the ability of interferon beta (IFNβ) to provide neuroprotection and reduce apoptosis after HIE. Postnatal Day 10 rat pups were subjected to unilateral carotid artery ligation followed by 2.5 hr of exposure to hypoxia (8% O2). Intranasal administration of human recombinant IFNβ occurred 2 hr after HIE and infarct volume, body weight, neurobehavioral tests, histology, immunohistochemistry, brain water content, blood–brain barrier permeability, enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, and Western blot were all used to evaluate various parameters. The results showed that both IFNβ and the Type 1 interferon receptor expression decreases after HIE. Intranasal administration of human recombinant IFNβ was able to be detected in the central nervous system and was able to reduce brain infarction volumes and improve neurological behavior tests 24 hr after HIE. Western blot analysis also revealed that human recombinant IFNβ treatment stimulated Stat3 and Bcl-2 expression leading to a decrease in cleaved caspase-3 expression after HIE. Positive Fluoro-Jade C staining also demonstrated that IFNβ treatment was able to decrease neuronal apoptosis. Furthermore, the beneficial effects of IFNβ treatment were reversed when a Stat3 inhibitor was applied. Also an intraperitoneal administration of human recombinant IFNβ into the systemic compartment was unable to confer the same protective effects as intranasal IFNβ treatment. PMID:27683877

  3. Immature rat brain slices exposed to oxygen-glucose deprivation as an in vitro model of neonatal hypoxic-ischemic encephalopathy.

    PubMed

    Fernández-López, David; Martínez-Orgado, José; Casanova, Ignacio; Bonet, Bartolomé; Leza, Juan Carlos; Lorenzo, Pedro; Moro, Maria Angeles; Lizasoain, Ignacio

    2005-06-30

    To analyze whether exposure to oxygen-glucose deprivation (OGD) of immature rat brain slices might reproduce the main pathophysiologic events leading to neuronal death in neonatal hypoxic-ischemic encephalopathy (NHIE), 500 microm-thick brain slices were obtained from 7-day-old Wistar rats, and incubated in oxygenated physiological solution. In OGD group, oxygen and glucose were removed from the medium for 10-30 min (n = 25); then, slices were re-incubated in normal medium. In control group the medium composition remained unchanged (CG, n = 30). Medium samples were obtained every 30 min for 3 h. To analyze neuronal damage, slices were stained with Nissl and CA1 area of hippocampus and cortex were observed under microscopy. In addition, neuronal death was quantified as LDH released to the medium determined by spectrophotometry. Additionally, medium glutamate (Glu) levels were determined by HPLC and those of TNFalpha by ELISA, whereas inducible nitric oxide synthase expression was determined by Western blot performed on slices homogenate. Optimal OGD time was established in 20 min. After OGD, a significant decrease in the number of neurones in hippocampus and cortex was observed. LDH release was maximal at 30 min, when it was five-fold greater than in CG. Furthermore, medium Glu concentrations were 200 times greater than CG levels at the end of OGD period. A linear relationship between Glu and LDH release was demonstrated. Finally, 3 h after OGD a significant induction of iNOS as well as an increase in TNFalpha release were observed. In conclusion, OGD appears as a feasible and reproducible in vitro model, leading to a neuronal damage, which is physiopathologically similar to that found in NHIE.

  4. Endogenous hypothermic response to hypoxia reduces brain injury: Implications for modeling hypoxic-ischemic encephalopathy and therapeutic hypothermia in neonatal mice.

    PubMed

    Reinboth, Barbara S; Köster, Christian; Abberger, Hanna; Prager, Sebastian; Bendix, Ivo; Felderhoff-Müser, Ursula; Herz, Josephine

    2016-09-01

    Hypothermia treatment (HT) is the only formally endorsed treatment recommended for hypoxic-ischemic encephalopathy (HIE). However, its success in protecting against brain injury is limited with a number to treat of 7-8. The identification of the target mechanisms of HIE in combination with HT will help to explain ineffective therapy outcomes but also requires stable experimental models in order to establish further neuroprotective therapies. Despite clinical and experimental indications for an endogenous thermoregulatory response to HIE, the potential effects on HIE-induced brain injury have largely been neglected in pre-clinical studies. In the present study we analyzed gray and white matter injury and neurobehavioral outcome in neonatal mice considering the endogenous thermoregulatory response during HIE combined with HT. HIE was induced in postnatal day (PND) 9 C57BL/6 mice through occlusion of the right common carotid artery followed by one hour of hypoxia. Hypoxia was performed at 8% or 10% oxygen (O2) at two different temperatures based on the nesting body core temperature. Using the model which mimics the clinical situation most closely, i.e. through maintenance of the nesting temperature during hypoxia we compared two mild HT protocols (rectal temperature difference 3°C for 4h), initiated either immediately after HIE or with delay of 2h. Injury was determined by histology, immunohistochemistry and western blot analyses at PND 16 and PND 51. Functional outcome was evaluated by Rota Rod, Elevated Plus Maze, Open Field and Novel Object Recognition testing at PND 30-PND 36 and PND 44-PND 50. We show that HIE modeling in neonatal mice is associated with a significant endogenous drop in body core temperature by 2°C resulting in profound neuroprotection, expressed by reduced neuropathological injury scores, reduced loss of neurons, axonal structures, myelin and decreased astrogliosis. Immediately applied post-hypoxic HT revealed slight advantages over a delayed

  5. The effects of therapeutic hypothermia on cerebral metabolism in neonates with hypoxic-ischemic encephalopathy: An in vivo 1H-MR spectroscopy study.

    PubMed

    Wisnowski, Jessica L; Wu, Tai-Wei; Reitman, Aaron J; McLean, Claire; Friedlich, Philippe; Vanderbilt, Douglas; Ho, Eugenia; Nelson, Marvin D; Panigrahy, Ashok; Blüml, Stefan

    2016-06-01

    Therapeutic hypothermia has emerged as the first empirically supported therapy for neuroprotection in neonates with hypoxic-ischemic encephalopathy (HIE). We used magnetic resonance spectroscopy ((1)H-MRS) to characterize the effects of hypothermia on energy metabolites, neurotransmitters, and antioxidants. Thirty-one neonates with HIE were studied during hypothermia and after rewarming. Metabolite concentrations (mmol/kg) were determined from the thalamus, basal ganglia, cortical grey matter, and cerebral white matter. In the thalamus, phosphocreatine concentrations were increased by 20% during hypothermia when compared to after rewarming (3.49 ± 0.88 vs. 2.90 ± 0.65, p < 0.001) while free creatine concentrations were reduced to a similar degree (3.00 ± 0.50 vs. 3.74 ± 0.85, p < 0.001). Glutamate (5.33 ± 0.82 vs. 6.32 ± 1.12, p < 0.001), aspartate (3.39 ± 0.66 vs. 3.87 ± 1.19, p < 0.05), and GABA (0.92 ± 0.36 vs. 1.19 ± 0.41, p < 0.05) were also reduced, while taurine (1.39 ± 0.52 vs. 0.79 ± 0.61, p < 0.001) and glutathione (2.23 ± 0.41 vs. 2.09 ± 0.33, p < 0.05) were increased. Similar patterns were observed in other brain regions. These findings support that hypothermia improves energy homeostasis by decreasing the availability of excitatory neurotransmitters, and thereby, cellular energy demand. © The Author(s) 2015.

  6. Evaluation of urinary S100B protein level and lactate/creatinine ratio for early diagnosis and prognostic prediction of neonatal hypoxic-ischemic encephalopathy.

    PubMed

    Liu, Li; Zheng, Chong-Xun; Peng, Shu-Feng; Zhou, Hong-Yan; Su, Zu-You; He, Li; Ai, Ting

    2010-01-01

    Early identification and prevention of hypoxic-ischemic encephalopathy (HIE) in newborns may reduce neonatal mortality and neurological dysfunction. To analyze the diagnostic and prognostic values of urinary S100B level and lactate/creatinine ratio in newborns with HIE. Seventy-eight full-term newborns with HIE and 25 normal newborns were enrolled. The Neonatal Behavioral Neurological Assessment (NBNA) and Developmental Screening Test were scored. The concentration of urinary S100B protein was determined using the S100B enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay and the levels of urinary lactate and creatinine were measured with the enzyme colorimetric method. Urinary S100B level on days 1-3 after birth and lactate/creatinine ratio on day 1 were significantly higher in newborns with HIE than those in the control group. Both indexes were positively correlated with the clinical grading of HIE. A cutoff value for the S100B level of 0.47 microg/l on day 3 after birth had a sensitivity of 90% and specificity of 92% for prediction of HIE. A lactate/creatinine ratio of more than 0.55 on day 1 showed the highest sensitivity (92%) and specificity (90%). A combination of both indexes improved the sensitivity and specificity to 99 and 97%, respectively. A negative correlation of both lactate/creatinine ratio on day 1 and S100B level on days 1-3 after birth with the NBNA score was identified on days 3, 7 and 14 after birth. The Developmental Screening Test score of 36 newborns with HIE within 6 months after birth showed that 65% of infants with moderate and high HIE had an abnormal developmental quotient. These data suggest that early measurement of both S100B level and lactate/creatinine ratio in the urine of newborns with HIE is a practical convenient and sensitive way to improve diagnosis on the third day of life and prognostic prediction of HIE. Copyright 2009 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  7. ERα Signaling Is Required for TrkB-Mediated Hippocampal Neuroprotection in Female Neonatal Mice after Hypoxic Ischemic Encephalopathy123

    PubMed Central

    Cikla, Ulas; Chanana, Vishal; Kintner, Douglas B.; Eickhoff, Jens; Marquez, Stephanie; Covert, Lucia; Otles, Arel; Ferrazzano, Peter; Vemuganti, Raghu; Levine, Jon E.

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Male neonate brains are more susceptible to the effects of perinatal asphyxia resulting in hypoxia and ischemia (HI)-related brain injury. The relative resistance of female neonatal brains to adverse consequences of HI suggests that there are sex-specific mechanisms that afford females greater neuroprotection and/or facilitates recovery post-HI. We hypothesized that HI preferentially induces estrogen receptor α (ERα) expression in female neonatal hippocampi and that ERα is coupled to Src family kinase (SFK) activation that in turn augments phosphorylation of the TrkB and thereby results in decreased apoptosis. After inducing the Vannucci’s HI model on P9 (C57BL/6J) mice, female and male ERα wild-type (ERα+/+) or ERα null mutant (ERα−/−) mice received vehicle control or the selective TrkB agonist 7,8-dihydroxyflavone (7,8-DHF). Hippocampi were collected for analysis of mRNA of ERα and BDNF, protein levels of ERα, p-TrkB, p-src, and cleaved caspase 3 (c-caspase-3) post-HI. Our results demonstrate that: (1) HI differentially induces ERα expression in the hippocampus of the female versus male neonate, (2) src and TrkB phosphorylation post-HI is greater in females than in males after 7,8-DHF therapy, (3) src and TrkB phosphorylation post-HI depend on the presence of ERα, and (4) TrkB agonist therapy decreases the c-caspase-3 only in ERα+/+ female mice hippocampus. Together, these observations provide evidence that female-specific induction of ERα expression confers neuroprotection with TrkB agonist therapy via SFK activation and account for improved functional outcomes in female neonates post-HI. PMID:26839918

  8. Acute Perinatal Sentinel Events, Neonatal Brain Injury Pattern and Outcome of Infants Undergoing a Trial of Hypothermia for Neonatal Hypoxic-Ischemic Encephalopathy

    PubMed Central

    Shankaran, Seetha; Laptook, Abbot R.; McDonald, Scott A.; Hintz, Susan R; Barnes, Patrick D.; Das, Abhik; Higgins, Rosemary D.

    2016-01-01

    Infants with perinatal sentinel events in the Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child Health and Human Development Neonatal Research Network Hypothermia for Encephalopathy Trial had more basal ganglia and thalamus lesions on brain magnetic resonance imaging but similar neurodevelopmental outcomes at 18 months of age than infants without perinatal sentinel events. Outcomes correlated with the neonatal magnetic resonance imaging findings. PMID:27776752

  9. Blockade of the swelling-induced chloride current attenuates the mouse neonatal hypoxic-ischemic brain injury in vivo.

    PubMed

    Wong, Raymond; Abussaud, Ahmed; Leung, Joseph Wh; Xu, Bao-Feng; Li, Fei-Ya; Huang, Sammen; Chen, Nai-Hong; Wang, Guan-Lei; Feng, Zhong-Ping; Sun, Hong-Shuo

    2018-05-01

    Activation of swelling-induced Cl - current (I Cl,swell ) during neonatal hypoxia-ischemia (HI) may induce brain damage. Hypoxic-ischemic brain injury causes chronic neurological morbidity in neonates as well as acute mortality. In this study, we investigated the role of I Cl,swell in hypoxic-ischemic brain injury using a selective blocker, 4-(2-butyl-6,7-dichloro-2-cyclopentylindan-1-on-5-yl) oxybutyric acid (DCPIB). In primary cultured cortical neurons perfusion of a 30% hypotonic solution activated I Cl,swell , which was completely blocked by the application of DCPIB (10 μmol/L). The role of I Cl,swell in neonatal hypoxic-ischemic brain injury in vivo was evaluated in a modified neonatal hypoxic-ischemic brain injury model. Before receiving the ischemic insult, the mouse pups were injected with DCPIB (10 mg/kg, ip). We found that pretreatment with DCPIB significantly reduced the brain damage assessed using TTC staining, Nissl staining and whole brain imaging, and improved the sensorimotor and vestibular recovery outcomes evaluated in neurobehavioural tests (i.e. geotaxis reflex, and cliff avoidance reflex). These results show that DCPIB has neuroprotective effects on neonatal hypoxic-ischemic brain injury, and that the I Cl,swell may serve as a therapeutic target for treatment of hypoxic-ischemic encephalopathy.

  10. Neonatal Magnetic Resonance Imaging Pattern of Brain Injury as a Biomarker of Childhood Outcomes following a Trial of Hypothermia for Neonatal Hypoxic-Ischemic Encephalopathy.

    PubMed

    Shankaran, Seetha; McDonald, Scott A; Laptook, Abbot R; Hintz, Susan R; Barnes, Patrick D; Das, Abhik; Pappas, Athina; Higgins, Rosemary D

    2015-11-01

    To examine the ability of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) patterns of neonatal brain injury defined by the National Institute of Child Health and Human Development Neonatal Research Network to predict death or IQ at 6-7 years of age following hypothermia for neonatal encephalopathy. Out of 208 participants, 124 had MRI and primary outcome (death or IQ <70) data. The relationship between injury pattern and outcome was assessed. Death or IQ <70 occurred in 4 of 50 (8%) of children with pattern 0 (normal MRI), 1 of 6 (17%) with 1A (minimal cerebral lesions), 1 of 4 (25%) with 1B (extensive cerebral lesions), 3 of 8 (38%) with 2A (basal ganglia thalamic, anterior or posterior limb of internal capsule, or watershed infarction), 32 of 49 (65%) with 2B (2A with cerebral lesions), and 7 of 7 (100%) with pattern 3 (hemispheric devastation), P < .001; this association was also seen within hypothermia and control subgroups. IQ was 90 ± 13 among the 46 children with a normal MRI and 69 ± 25 among the 50 children with an abnormal MRI. In childhood, for a normal outcome, a normal neonatal MRI had a sensitivity of 61%, specificity of 92%, a positive predictive value of 92%, and a negative predictive value of 59%; for death or IQ <70, the 2B and 3 pattern combined had a sensitivity of 81%, specificity of 78%, positive predictive value of 70%, and a negative predictive value of 87%. The Neonatal Research Network MRI pattern of neonatal brain injury is a biomarker of neurodevelopmental outcome at 6-7 years of age. ClinicalTrials.gov: NCT00005772. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  11. [Assessment of therapeutic passive hypothermia in newborns with hypoxic-ischemic encephalopathy that need interhospital transport].

    PubMed

    Fuentes-Ruiz, José A; Lagares-Franco, Carolina; Rodríguez-Molina, Óscar; Cordero-Cañas, Enrique; Benavente-Fernández, Isabel

    2015-04-01

    Induced hypothermia for the first hours of life in a newborn is an effective treatment to reduce mortality and serious effects in neonates that had suffered a hypoxia episode. This method needs an universal attendance independently of the place of birth being usually necessary a transfer to the reference hospital. To analyze the efficacy of the newborn with hypoxic-ischemic encephalopathy transfer in passive hypothermia. Descriptive study of series of cases with retrospective character of newborn from Cadiz's province that need induced hypothermia. 46 newborn were included in the study: 33 of them (71.74%) needed being transfer by the Critical Patients Transport service (CPT group), the rest (28.26%) were born into the reference hospital. Both groups are similar in age gestational at birth, sex, weight and hypoxic-ischemic encephalopathy degree. It analyzed variables related to hypothermia therapy and in addition in CPT group transfer specific variables. At discharge, it does not exist significant differences between groups in the efficiency-consequence of neuroprotection therapy with hypothermia (p = 0.159). It does not find complications derived from the interhospital move. Neonatal inter-hospital transfer in passive therapeutic hypothermia is effective, safe and necessary for the therapy compliance. It is required reach an agreement between the attendance and the reference service, setting up guides for the support and suitable range of temperature.

  12. Cytokine changes in newborns with therapeutic hypothermia after hypoxic ischemic encephalopathy.

    PubMed

    Moon, C J; Youn, Y A; Yum, S K; Sung, I K

    2016-12-01

    This study aimed to examine changes in cytokines according to therapeutic hypothermia (TH) for newborn hypoxic ischemic encephalopathy (HIE). We studied 20 neonates who were admitted with a diagnosis of HIE in the neonatal intensive care unit. Cytokine concentration assay was carried out for neonates (n=12) who received TH and neonates (n=8) who were not treated with hypothermia by collecting blood sample at 12, 48 and 120 h after birth. At 48 h after birth, interleukin (IL)-6 in the normothermia group was higher than that in the hypothermia group (P=0.010). At 48 h after birth, IL-10 was higher in the hypothermia group than in the normothermia group (P=0.038). This study confirmed that TH performs a role in the prevention of inflammatory process by way of maintaining proinflammatory cytokine IL-6 at low levels and anti-inflammatory cytokines IL-10 at high levels.

  13. Impaired cerebral autoregulation and brain injury in newborns with hypoxic-ischemic encephalopathy treated with hypothermia.

    PubMed

    Massaro, An N; Govindan, R B; Vezina, Gilbert; Chang, Taeun; Andescavage, Nickie N; Wang, Yunfei; Al-Shargabi, Tareq; Metzler, Marina; Harris, Kari; du Plessis, Adre J

    2015-08-01

    Impaired cerebral autoregulation may contribute to secondary injury in newborns with hypoxic-ischemic encephalopathy (HIE). Continuous, noninvasive assessment of cerebral pressure autoregulation can be achieved with bedside near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) and systemic mean arterial blood pressure (MAP) monitoring. This study aimed to evaluate whether impaired cerebral autoregulation measured by NIRS-MAP monitoring during therapeutic hypothermia and rewarming relates to outcome in 36 newborns with HIE. Spectral coherence analysis between NIRS and MAP was used to quantify changes in the duration [pressure passivity index (PPI)] and magnitude (gain) of cerebral autoregulatory impairment. Higher PPI in both cerebral hemispheres and gain in the right hemisphere were associated with neonatal adverse outcomes [death or detectable brain injury by magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), P < 0.001]. NIRS-MAP monitoring of cerebral autoregulation can provide an ongoing physiological biomarker that may help direct care in perinatal brain injury. Copyright © 2015 the American Physiological Society.

  14. Efficacy of passive hypothermia and adverse events during transport of asphyxiated newborns according to the severity of hypoxic-ischemic encephalopathy.

    PubMed

    Carreras, Nuria; Alsina, Miguel; Alarcon, Ana; Arca-Díaz, Gemma; Agut, Thais; García-Alix, Alfredo

    To determine if the efficacy of passive hypothermia and adverse events during transport are related to the severity of neonatal hypoxic-ischemic encephalopathy. This was a retrospective study of 67 infants with hypoxic-ischemic encephalopathy, born between April 2009 and December 2013, who were transferred for therapeutic hypothermia and cooled during transport. Fifty-six newborns (84%) were transferred without external sources of heat and 11 (16%) needed an external heat source. The mean temperature at departure was 34.4±1.4°C and mean transfer time was 3.3±2.0h. Mean age at arrival was 5.6±2.5h. Temperature at arrival was between 33 and 35°C in 41 (61%) infants, between 35°C and 36.5°C in 15 (22%) and <33°C in 11 (16%). Infants with severe hypoxic-ischemic encephalopathy had greater risk of having an admission temperature<33°C (OR: 4.5; 95% CI: 1.1-19.3). The severity of hypoxic-ischemic encephalopathy and the umbilical artery pH were independent risk factors for a low temperature on admission (p<0.05). Adverse events during transfer, mainly hypotension and bleeding from the endotracheal tube, occurred in 14 infants (21%), with no differences between infants with moderate or severe hypoxic-ischemic encephalopathy. The risk of overcooling during transport is greater in newborns with severe hypoxic-ischemic encephalopathy and those with more severe acidosis at birth. The most common adverse events during transport are related to physiological deterioration and bleeding from the endotracheal tube. This observation provides useful information to identify those asphyxiated infants who require closer clinical surveillance during transport. Copyright © 2017 Sociedade Brasileira de Pediatria. Published by Elsevier Editora Ltda. All rights reserved.

  15. Rewarming affects EEG background in term newborns with hypoxic-ischemic encephalopathy undergoing therapeutic hypothermia.

    PubMed

    Birca, Ala; Lortie, Anne; Birca, Veronica; Decarie, Jean-Claude; Veilleux, Annie; Gallagher, Anne; Dehaes, Mathieu; Lodygensky, Gregory A; Carmant, Lionel

    2016-04-01

    To investigate how rewarming impacts the evolution of EEG background in neonates with hypoxic-ischemic encephalopathy (HIE) undergoing therapeutic hypothermia (TH). We recruited a retrospective cohort of 15 consecutive newborns with moderate (9) and severe (6) HIE monitored with a continuous EEG during TH and at least 12h after its end. EEG background was analyzed using conventional visual and quantitative EEG analysis methods including EEG discontinuity, absolute and relative spectral magnitudes. One patient with seizures on rewarming was excluded from analyses. Visual and quantitative analyses demonstrated significant changes in EEG background from pre- to post-rewarming, characterized by an increased EEG discontinuity, more pronounced in newborns with severe compared to moderate HIE. Neonates with moderate HIE also had an increase in the relative magnitude of slower delta and a decrease in higher frequency theta and alpha waves with rewarming. Rewarming affects EEG background in HIE newborns undergoing TH, which may represent a transient adaptive response or reflect an evolving brain injury. EEG background impairment induced by rewarming may represent a biomarker of evolving encephalopathy in HIE newborns undergoing TH and underscores the importance of continuously monitoring the brain health in critically ill neonates. Copyright © 2015 International Federation of Clinical Neurophysiology. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Motor outcome at the age of one after perinatal hypoxic-ischemic encephalopathy.

    PubMed

    van Schie, P E M; Becher, J G; Dallmeijer, A J; Barkhof, F; Weissenbruch, M M; Vermeulen, R J

    2007-04-01

    The aim of this report is to describe the motor outcome in one year-old children who were born at full-term with perinatal hypoxic-ischemic encephalopathy (HIE). Relationships between motor ability tests and neurological examination at one year, and between these tests and neonatal brain magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) were investigated. 32 surviving children, born full-term with perinatal HIE, are included in this report. All children had a neonatal MRI. At one year, motor ability was assessed with the Alberta Infant Motor Scale and the Bayley Scales of Infant Development (2nd version). Neurological examinations included the neurological optimality score (NOS). At one year, 14 children (44%) had normal motor ability, nine (28%) had mildly delayed, and nine had significantly delayed motor ability. The NOS ranged from 14.6-27 points. All children with normal motor ability had (near) optimal NOS, however, not all children with high NOS had normal motor ability. Eleven children (34%) had normal neonatal MRI; at one year, six of them had normal, and five had mildly delayed motor ability. Eight children with normal motor ability showed abnormalities on neonatal MRI. Neonatal brain MRI does not predict motor outcome at one year. Motor ability tests and neurological examinations should be used in a complementary manner to describe outcome after HIE.

  17. Benefits of starting hypothermia treatment within 6 h vs. 6-12 h in newborns with moderate neonatal hypoxic-ischemic encephalopathy.

    PubMed

    Jia, Wen; Lei, Xiaoping; Dong, Wenbin; Li, Qingping

    2018-02-12

    It has been suggested that mild hypothermia treatment of hypoxia-ischemic encephalopathy (HIE) should start within 6 h after HIE, but many children are admitted to the hospital > 6 h, particularly in developing areas. We aimed to determine whether hypothermia treatment could remain effective within 12 h after birth. According to their admission, 152 newborns were enrolled in the < 6 h and 6-12 h after HIE groups. All newborns received conventional treatment combined with mild head hypothermia therapy, according to our routine clinical practice. Some newborns only received conventional treatment (lacking informed consent). All newborns received amplitude-integrated electroencephalography (aEEG) monitoring for 4 h and neuron-specific enolase (NSE) measurement before and after 3 days of therapy. Compared to the conventional treatment, hypothermia significantly improved the aEEG scores and NSE values in all newborns of the < 6-h group. In the 6-12-h group, the aEEG scores (F = 5.67, P < 0.05) and NSE values (F = 4.98, P < 0.05) were only improved in newborns with moderate HIE. Hypothermia treatment seems to have no effect in newborns with severe HIE after 6 h (P > 0.05). Hypothermia improved the rates of neonatal death and 18-month disability (all P < 0.01). In newborns with moderate HIE, starting hypothermia therapy < 6 h and 6-12 h after HIE showed curative effects. In those with severe HIE, only starting hypothermia therapy within 6 h showed curative effects.

  18. Hypoxic-ischemic encephalopathy in preterm infants: antecedent factors, brain imaging, and outcome.

    PubMed

    Logitharajah, Pavithra; Rutherford, Mary A; Cowan, Frances M

    2009-08-01

    Our objectives were to establish antecedent factors and patterns of brain injury and their prognostic value in preterm infants with hypoxic-ischemic encephalopathy (HIE). Essential inclusion criteria were gestation (GA) < or =36 wk, Apgar scores <5/<7 at 1/5 min, major resuscitation at birth, and a brain MRI <6 postnatal wk. At least one additional criterion was required of the following: abnormal intrapartum CTG, sentinel event, meconium, cord pH <7.0, neonatal seizures, and multiorgan failure. Antenatal and perinatal data and > or =2 y neurodevelopmental outcome were documented. Fifty-five infants (GA 26-36; median, 35 wk) were eligible; all had 1-6 (median, 3) additional criteria. Placental abruption was the commonest identifiable antecedent event. Evidence of infection was not prominent. Main sites of injury were basal ganglia (BG, 75%), mostly severe, white matter (WM, 89%), mostly mild, brainstem (44%), and cortex (58%). Brainstem injury was associated with severe BG, WM, and cortical injury. Two-year outcome: death (32%), cerebral palsy (26%, mostly severe quadriplegia), mild impairment (10%), and normal (32%). Significant central gray matter and brainstem injury was found in many preterm infants with HIE. Neonatal MRI findings allowed accurate prediction of neurodevelopmental outcome. Early MRI is feasible and a valuable tool in this poorly reported group of infants.

  19. A new approach to define acute kidney injury in term newborns with hypoxic ischemic encephalopathy

    PubMed Central

    Gupta, Charu; Massaro, An N.

    2016-01-01

    Background Current definitions of acute kidney injury (AKI) are not sufficiently sensitive to identify all newborns with AKI during the first week of life. Methods To determine whether the rate of decline of serum creatinine (SCr) during the first week of life can be used to identify newborns with AKI, we reviewed the medical records of 106 term neonates at risk of AKI who were treated with hypothermia for hypoxic ischemic encephalopathy (HIE). Results Of the newborns enrolled in the study, 69 % showed a normal rate of decline of SCr to ≥50 % and/or reached SCr levels of ≤0.6 mg/dl before the 7th day of life, and therefore had an excellent clinical outcome (control group). Thirteen newborns with HIE (12 %) developed AKI according to an established neonatal definition (AKI–KIDGO group), and an additional 20 newborns (19 %) showed a rate of decline of SCr of <33, <40, and <46 % from birth to days 3, 5, or 7 of life, respectively (delayed rise in estimated SCr clearance group). Compared to the control group, newborns in the other two groups required more days of mechanical ventilation and vasopressor drugs and had higher gentamicin levels, more fluid overload, lower urinary epidermal growth factor levels, and a prolonged length of stay. Conclusions The rate of decline of SCr provides a sensitive approach to identify term newborns with AKI during the first week of life. PMID:26857710

  20. A new approach to define acute kidney injury in term newborns with hypoxic ischemic encephalopathy.

    PubMed

    Gupta, Charu; Massaro, An N; Ray, Patricio E

    2016-07-01

    Current definitions of acute kidney injury (AKI) are not sufficiently sensitive to identify all newborns with AKI during the first week of life. To determine whether the rate of decline of serum creatinine (SCr) during the first week of life can be used to identify newborns with AKI, we reviewed the medical records of 106 term neonates at risk of AKI who were treated with hypothermia for hypoxic ischemic encephalopathy (HIE). Of the newborns enrolled in the study, 69 % showed a normal rate of decline of SCr to ≥50 % and/or reached SCr levels of ≤0.6 mg/dl before the 7th day of life, and therefore had an excellent clinical outcome (control group). Thirteen newborns with HIE (12 %) developed AKI according to an established neonatal definition (AKI-KIDGO group), and an additional 20 newborns (19 %) showed a rate of decline of SCr of <33, <40, and <46 % from birth to days 3, 5, or 7 of life, respectively (delayed rise in estimated SCr clearance group). Compared to the control group, newborns in the other two groups required more days of mechanical ventilation and vasopressor drugs and had higher gentamicin levels, more fluid overload, lower urinary epidermal growth factor levels, and a prolonged length of stay. The rate of decline of SCr provides a sensitive approach to identify term newborns with AKI during the first week of life.

  1. Attenuating Ischemic Disruption of K+ Homeostasis in the Cortex of Hypoxic-Ischemic Neonatal Rats: DOR Activation vs. Acupuncture Treatment.

    PubMed

    Chao, Dongman; Wang, Qinyu; Balboni, Gianfranco; Ding, Guanghong; Xia, Ying

    2016-12-01

    Perinatal hypoxic-ischemic (HI) brain injury results in death or profound long-term neurologic disability in both children and adults. However, there is no effective pharmacological therapy due to a poor understanding of HI events, especially the initial triggers for hypoxic-ischemic injury such as disrupted ionic homeostasis and the lack of effective intervention strategy. In the present study, we showed that neonatal brains undergo a developmental increase in the disruption of K + homeostasis during simulated ischemia, oxygen-glucose deprivation (OGD) and neonatal HI cortex has a triple phasic response (earlier attenuation, later enhancement, and then recovery) of disrupted K + homeostasis to OGD. This response partially involves the activity of the δ-opioid receptor (DOR) since the earlier attenuation of ischemic disruption of K + homeostasis could be blocked by DOR antagonism, while the later enhancement was reversed by DOR activation. Similar to DOR activation, acupuncture, a strategy to promote DOR activity, could partially reverse the later enhanced ischemic disruption of K + homeostasis in the neonatal cortex. Since maintaining cellular K + homeostasis and inhibiting excessive K + fluxes in the early phase of hypoxic-ischemic insults may be of therapeutic benefit in the treatment of ischemic brain injury and related neurodegenerative conditions, and since many neurons and other cells can be rescued during the "window of opportunity" after HI insults, our first findings regarding the role of acupuncture and DOR in attenuating ischemic disruption of K + homeostasis in the neonatal HI brain suggest a potential intervention therapy in the treatment of neonatal brain injury, especially hypoxic-ischemic encephalopathy.

  2. Hypoxic ischemic encephalopathy in a case of intranuclear rod myopathy without any prenatal sentinel event.

    PubMed

    Kawase, Koya; Nishino, Ichizo; Sugimoto, Mari; Kouwaki, Masanori; Koyama, Norihisa; Yokochi, Kenji

    2015-02-01

    Intranuclear rod myopathy (IRM), a variant of nemaline myopathy, is characterized by the presence of nemaline bodies in myonuclei. We report a case of IRM presenting with hypoxic ischemic encephalopathy (HIE). There were no prenatal complications caused by fetal brain injury. Although no nemaline bodies were observed in the cytoplasm, intranuclear rods were observed in some fibers under light and electron microscopy. Molecular analysis identified a heterozygous variant, c.449C>T (p.Thr150Ile), in ACTA1. On magnetic resonance imaging at 9days of age, injuries to the basal ganglia, thalamus, and brainstem consistent with perinatal HIE were seen. Respiratory insufficiency at birth was strongly suspected to be the cause of HIE. Our case highlights that a patient with a congenital neuromuscular disorder who presents with severe respiratory dysfunction requiring substantial resuscitative efforts at birth can be complicated by HIE without any prenatal sentinel event. Prenatal detection of neuromuscular disorders, careful management of delivery, and neonatal resuscitation and adequate respiratory management are important in preventing irreversible brain injury in these patients. Copyright © 2014 The Japanese Society of Child Neurology. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Feasibility of Autologous Cord Blood Cells for Infants with Hypoxic-Ischemic Encephalopathy

    PubMed Central

    Cotten, C. Michael; Murtha, Amy P.; Goldberg, Ronald N.; Grotegut, Chad A.; Smith, P. Brian; Goldstein, Ricki F.; Fisher, Kimberley A.; Gustafson, Kathryn E.; Waters-Pick, Barbara; Swamy, Geeta K.; Rattray, Benjamin; Tan, Siddhartha; Kurtzberg, Joanne

    2014-01-01

    Objective To assess feasibility and safety of providing autologous umbilical cord blood (UCB) cells to neonates with hypoxic-ischemic encephalopathy (HIE). Study design We enrolled infants in the Intensive Care Nursery who were cooled for HIE and had available UCB in an open-label study of non-cyropreserved autologous volume- and red blood cell-reduced UCB cells (up to four doses adjusted for volume and RBC content,1 – 5 × 107cells/dose). We recorded UCB collection and cell infusion characteristics, and pre- and post- infusion vital signs. As exploratory analyses we compared cell recipients’ hospital outcomes (mortality, oral feeds at discharge) and one year survival with Bayley III scores ≥ 85 in 3 domains (cognitive, language, and motor development) with cooled infants who did not have available cells. Results Twenty-three infants were cooled and received cells. Median collection and infusion volumes were 36 and 4.3 milliliters. Vital signs including oxygen saturation were similar before and after infusions in the first 48 postnatal hours. Cell recipients and concurrent cooled infants had similar hospital outcomes. Thirteen of 18 (74%) cell recipients and 19 of 46 (41%) concurrent cooled infants with known 1 year outcomes survived with scores ≥ 85. Conclusions Collection, preparation and infusion of fresh autologous UCB cells for use in infants with HIE is feasible. A randomized double-blind study is needed. PMID:24388332

  4. Tert-butylhydroquinone post-treatment attenuates neonatal hypoxic-ischemic brain damage in rats.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Juan; Tucker, Lorelei Donovan; DongYan; Lu, Yujiao; Yang, Luodan; Wu, Chongyun; Li, Yong; Zhang, Quanguang

    2018-06-01

    Hypoxic-ischemic (HI) encephalopathy is a leading cause of dire mortality and morbidity in neonates. Unfortunately, no effective therapies have been developed as of yet. Oxidative stress plays a critical role in pathogenesis and progression of neonatal HI. Previously, as a Nrf2 activator, tert-butylhydroquinone (TBHQ) has been demonstrated to exert neuroprotection on brain trauma and ischemic stroke models, as well as oxidative stress-induced cytotoxicity in neurons. It is, however, still unknown whether TBHQ administration can protect against oxidative stress in neonatal HI brain injury. This study was undertaken to determine the neuroprotective effects and mechanisms of TBHQ post-treatment on neonatal HI brain damage. Using a neonatal HI rat model, we demonstrated that TBHQ markedly abated oxidative stress compared to the HI group, as evidenced by decreased oxidative stress indexes, enhanced Nrf2 nuclear accumulation and DNA binding activity, and up-regulated expression of Nrf2 downstream antioxidative genes. Administration of TBHQ likewise significantly suppressed reactive gliosis and release of inflammatory cytokines, and inhibited apoptosis and neuronal degeneration in the neonatal rat cerebral cortex. In addition, infarct size and neuronal damage were attenuated distinctly. These beneficial effects were accompanied by improved neurological reflex and motor coordination as well as amelioration of spatial learning and memory deficits. Overall, our results provide the first documentation of the beneficial effects of TBHQ in neonatal HI model, in part conferred by activation of Nrf2 mediated antioxidative signaling pathways. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. [Sensitivity and specificity of the cerebral blood flow reactions to acupuncture in the newborn infants presenting with hypoxic ischemic encephalopathy].

    PubMed

    Filonenko, A V; Vasilenko, A M; Khan, M A

    2015-01-01

    To evaluate the effects of acupuncture integrated into the standard therapy, the condition of cerebral blood flow, and other syndromes associated with cerebral ischemia in the newborn infants. MATERIAL AND METHODS. A total of 131 pairs of puerperae and newborns with hypoxic ischemic encephalopathy were divided into four treatment groups. 34 children of the first group were given standard therapy (control), in the second group comprised of 33 mothers and children the standard treatment was supplemented by acupuncture, the third group included only 32 mothers given the acupuncture treatment alone, and the fourth group contained only 32 newborn infants treated by acupuncture. Each course of acupuncture treatment consisted of five sessions. Sensitivity and specificity of cerebral blood flow reactions were determined based on the results of the ROC-analysis and the area under the curve before and after the treatment. The treatment with the use of acupuncture greatly improved the cerebrospinal hemodynamics (p < 0.05). Other symptoms, viz. sleep disorders, vegetative reactivity and excitability were significantly reduced. The ROC analysis confirmed the effectiveness of acupuncture as a tool for the treatment of the impaired cerebral blood flow in the newborn babies. The high level of sensitivity (84.4-94.8%) associated with good specificity makes it possible to distinguish between the true positive and true negative cases. Acupuncture integrated into the treatment of "mother-baby" pairs presenting with hypoxic ischemic encephalopathy can be used to improve the initially low level of cerebral blood flow in neonates presenting with this condition.

  6. Preferential cephalic redistribution of left ventricular cardiac output during therapeutic hypothermia for perinatal hypoxic-ischemic encephalopathy

    PubMed Central

    Hochwald, Ori; Jabr, Mohammed; Osiovich, Horacio; Miller, Steven P.; McNamara, Patrick J.; Lavoie, Pascal M.

    2015-01-01

    Objective To determine the relationship between left ventricular cardiac output (LVCO), superior vena cava (SVC) flow, and brain injury during whole-body therapeutic hypothermia. Study design Sixteen newborns with moderate or severe hypoxic-ischemic encephalopathy were studied using echocardiography during and immediately after therapeutic hypothermia. Measures were also compared with 12 healthy newborns of similar postnatal age. Newborns undergoing therapeutic hypothermia also had a cerebral magnetic resonance imaging as part of routine clinical care on postnatal day 3–4. Results LVCO was markedly reduced (mean+/−SD: 126+/−38 mL/kg/min) during therapeutic hypothermia, whereas SVC flow was maintained within expected normal values (88+/− 27 mL/kg/min) such that it represented 70% of the LVCO. The reduction in LVCO during therapeutic hypothermia was mainly accounted by a reduction in heart rate (99 +/− 13 BPM versus 123 +/− 17 BPM; p<0.001) compared to immediately post-warming, in the context of myocardial dysfunction. Neonates with documented brain injury on MRI showed higher SVC flow pre-rewarming, compared to newborns without brain injury (p=0.013). Conclusion Newborns with perinatal hypoxic-ischemic encephalopathy showed a preferential systemic-to cerebral redistribution of cardiac blood flow during whole-body therapeutic hypothermia, which may reflect a lack of cerebral vascular adaptation in newborns with more severe brain injury. PMID:24582011

  7. Preferential cephalic redistribution of left ventricular cardiac output during therapeutic hypothermia for perinatal hypoxic-ischemic encephalopathy.

    PubMed

    Hochwald, Ori; Jabr, Mohammad; Osiovich, Horacio; Miller, Steven P; McNamara, Patrick J; Lavoie, Pascal M

    2014-05-01

    To determine the relationship between left ventricular cardiac output (LVCO), superior vena cava (SVC) flow, and brain injury during whole-body therapeutic hypothermia. Sixteen newborns with moderate or severe hypoxic-ischemic encephalopathy were studied using echocardiography during and immediately after therapeutic hypothermia. Measures were also compared with 12 healthy newborns of similar postnatal age. Newborns undergoing therapeutic hypothermia also had cerebral magnetic resonance imaging as part of routine clinical care on postnatal day 3-4. LVCO was markedly reduced (mean ± SD 126 ± 38 mL/kg/min) during therapeutic hypothermia, whereas SVC flow was maintained within expected normal values (88 ± 27 mL/kg/min) such that SVC flow represented 70% of the LVCO. The reduction in LVCO during therapeutic hypothermia was mainly accounted by a reduction in heart rate (99 ± 13 vs 123 ± 17 beats/min; P < .001) compared with immediately postwarming in the context of myocardial dysfunction. Neonates with brain injury on magnetic resonance imaging had higher SVC flow prerewarming, compared with newborns without brain injury (P = .013). Newborns with perinatal hypoxic-ischemic encephalopathy showed a preferential systemic-to-cerebral redistribution of cardiac blood flow during whole-body therapeutic hypothermia, which may reflect a lack of cerebral vascular adaptation in newborns with more severe brain injury. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Insulin-Like Growth Factor-1 Levels in Term Newborns with Hypoxic-Ischemic Encephalopathy.

    PubMed

    Umran, Raid M R; Al-Tahir, Mahir; Jagdish, Desai; Chouthai, Nitin

    2016-06-01

    Objective This study aims to evaluate the correlation of changes in serum insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1) levels with the clinical staging of hypoxic-ischemic encephalopathy (HIE) in term newborns. Study Design A prospective study of 29 newborns with HIE (stage I = 15, stage II + III = 14) and 28 healthy term newborns as the control group was performed in the neonatal intensive care unit. IGF-1 levels were obtained within 6 hours after birth from HIE and control groups and again on day 3 from HIE group. HIE was classified using the Sarnat staging I to III. Results IGF-1 levels were significantly lower in the HIE group than in the control group (p = 0.024). It was lower in the HIE stage II to III group compared with HIE stage I group at birth (p < 0.0001) and on day 3 (p = 0.009). The mean IGF-1 levels were significantly higher on day 3 than on day 1 among stage II to III HIE (p = 0.006) and it was inversely correlated with staging (R =  - 0.475, p = 0.009). There was a significant correlation between IGF-1 levels and Apgar score at 5 (R = 0.39, p = 0.042) and 10 minutes (R = 0.38, p = 0.035). Conclusions IGF-1 was lower in HIE and inversely correlated with clinical staging. It was increased with clinical improvement in the subsequent days. Thieme Medical Publishers 333 Seventh Avenue, New York, NY 10001, USA.

  9. Neuroprotective effects of electro acupuncture on hypoxic-ischemic encephalopathy in newborn rats Ass.

    PubMed

    Xu, Tao; Li, Wenjie; Liang, Yiqun; Yang, Zhonghua; Liu, Jingdong; Wang, Yejun; Su, Nailun

    2014-11-01

    Hypoxic-ischemic encephalopathy (HIE) is a common and potentially devastating condition in the neonate, associated with high mortality and morbidity. Effective treatment options are limited and therefore alternative therapies such as acupuncture are increasingly used. Previous studies have shown that electro acupuncture promoted proliferation of neural progenitor cell and increased expression of neurotrophic factor in HIE. However, effects of electro acupuncture on downstream signaling pathways have been rarely researched. So, in the present study, we aimed to evaluate the neuroprotective effects of electro acupuncture on HIE and to further investigate the role of GDNF family receptor member RET and its key downstream PI3-K/Akt pathway in the process. A rat HIE model was constructed by the left common carotid artery (LCCA) ligation method in combination with hypoxic treatment. Considering that Baihui (GV20), Dazhui (GV14), Quchi (LI11) and Yongquan (KI1) are commonly used in clinics for stroke treatment and are easy to locate, we chose the above four acupoints as the combination for electro acupuncture treatment which was performed once a day for different time periods. Hematoxylin-eosin (HE) staining and transmission electron microscopy results showed that electro acupuncture could ameliorate neurologic damage and alleviate the degenerative changes of ultra structure of cortical neurons in rats subjected to HIE. And the longer acupuncture treatment lasted, the better its therapeutic effect would be. This was accompanied by gradually increased expression of GDNF family receptor RET at the mRNA level and its downstream signaling Akt at the protein level in the ischemic cortex. These findings suggest that electro acupuncture shows neuroprotective effects in HIE, which at least in part is attributed to activation of PI3-K/Akt signaling pathway.

  10. Fetal Stress and Programming of Hypoxic/Ischemic-Sensitive Phenotype in the Neonatal Brain: Mechanisms and Possible Interventions

    PubMed Central

    Li, Yong; Gonzalez, Pablo; Zhang, Lubo

    2012-01-01

    Growing evidence of epidemiological, clinical and experimental studies has clearly shown a close link between adverse in utero environment and the increased risk of neurological, psychological and psychiatric disorders in later life. Fetal stresses, such as hypoxia, malnutrition, and fetal exposure to nicotine, alcohol, cocaine and glucocorticoids may directly or indirectly act at cellular and molecular levels to alter the brain development and result in programming of heightened brain vulnerability to hypoxic-ischemic encephalopathy and the development of neurological diseases in the postnatal life. The underlying mechanisms are not well understood. However, glucocorticoids may play a crucial role in epigenetic programming of neurological disorders of fetal origins. This review summarizes the recent studies about the effects of fetal stress on the abnormal brain development, focusing on the cellular, molecular and epigenetic mechanisms and highlighting the central effects of glucocorticoids on programming of hypoxicischemic-sensitive phenotype in the neonatal brain, which may enhance the understanding of brain pathophysiology resulting from fetal stress and help explore potential targets of timely diagnosis, prevention and intervention in neonatal hypoxic-ischemic encephalopathy and other for brain disorders. PMID:22627492

  11. Molecular hydrogen affords neuroprotection in a translational piglet model of hypoxic-ischemic encephalopathy.

    PubMed

    Nemeth, J; Toth-Szuki, V; Varga, V; Kovacs, V; Remzso, G; Domoki, F

    2016-10-01

    Hypoxic-ischemic encephalopathy (HIE) is the major consequence of perinatal asphyxia (PA) in term neonates. Although the newborn piglet is an accepted large animal PA/HIE model, there is no consensus on PA-induction methodology to produce clinically relevant HIE. We aimed to create and to characterize a novel PA model faithfully reproducing all features of asphyxiation including severe hypercapnia resulting in HIE, and to test whether H 2 is neuroprotective in this model. Piglets were anaesthetised, artificially ventilated, and intensively monitored (electroencephalography, core temperature, O 2 saturation, arterial blood pressure and blood gases). Asphyxia (20 min) was induced by ventilation with a hypoxic-hypercapnic (6%O 2 - 20%CO 2 ) gas mixture. Asphyxia-induced changes in the cortical microcirculation were assessed with laser-speckle contrast imaging and analysis. Asphyxia was followed by reventilation with air or air containing hydrogen (2.1%H 2 , 4 hours). After 24 hours survival, the brains were harvested for neuropathology. Our PA model was characterized by the development of severe hypoxia (pO2 = 27 ± 4 mmHg), and combined acidosis (pH = 6.76 ± 0.04; pCO 2 = 114 ± 11 mmHg; lactate = 12.12 ± 0.83 mmol/L), however, cortical ischemia did not develop during the stress. Severely depressed electroencephalography (EEG), and marked neuronal injury indicated the development of HIE. H 2 was neuroprotective shown both by the enhanced recovery of EEG and by the significant preservation of neurons in the cerebral cortex, hippocampus, basal ganglia, and the thalamus. H2 appeared to reduce oxidative stress shown by attenuation of 8-hydroxy-2'-deoxyguanosine immunostaining. In summary, this new PA piglet model is able to induce moderate/severe HIE, and the efficacy of hydrogen post-treatment to preserve neuronal activity/function in this PA/HIE model suggests the feasibility of this safe and inexpensive approach in the treatment of asphyxiated babies.

  12. Effect of Therapeutic Hypothermia Initiated After 6 Hours of Age on Death or Disability Among Newborns With Hypoxic-Ischemic Encephalopathy: A Randomized Clinical Trial.

    PubMed

    Laptook, Abbot R; Shankaran, Seetha; Tyson, Jon E; Munoz, Breda; Bell, Edward F; Goldberg, Ronald N; Parikh, Nehal A; Ambalavanan, Namasivayam; Pedroza, Claudia; Pappas, Athina; Das, Abhik; Chaudhary, Aasma S; Ehrenkranz, Richard A; Hensman, Angelita M; Van Meurs, Krisa P; Chalak, Lina F; Khan, Amir M; Hamrick, Shannon E G; Sokol, Gregory M; Walsh, Michele C; Poindexter, Brenda B; Faix, Roger G; Watterberg, Kristi L; Frantz, Ivan D; Guillet, Ronnie; Devaskar, Uday; Truog, William E; Chock, Valerie Y; Wyckoff, Myra H; McGowan, Elisabeth C; Carlton, David P; Harmon, Heidi M; Brumbaugh, Jane E; Cotten, C Michael; Sánchez, Pablo J; Hibbs, Anna Maria; Higgins, Rosemary D

    2017-10-24

    Hypothermia initiated at less than 6 hours after birth reduces death or disability for infants with hypoxic-ischemic encephalopathy at 36 weeks' or later gestation. To our knowledge, hypothermia trials have not been performed in infants presenting after 6 hours. To estimate the probability that hypothermia initiated at 6 to 24 hours after birth reduces the risk of death or disability at 18 months among infants with hypoxic-ischemic encephalopathy. A randomized clinical trial was conducted between April 2008 and June 2016 among infants at 36 weeks' or later gestation with moderate or severe hypoxic-ischemic encephalopathy enrolled at 6 to 24 hours after birth. Twenty-one US Neonatal Research Network centers participated. Bayesian analyses were prespecified given the anticipated limited sample size. Targeted esophageal temperature was used in 168 infants. Eighty-three hypothermic infants were maintained at 33.5°C (acceptable range, 33°C-34°C) for 96 hours and then rewarmed. Eighty-five noncooled infants were maintained at 37.0°C (acceptable range, 36.5°C-37.3°C). The composite of death or disability (moderate or severe) at 18 to 22 months adjusted for level of encephalopathy and age at randomization. Hypothermic and noncooled infants were term (mean [SD], 39 [2] and 39 [1] weeks' gestation, respectively), and 47 of 83 (57%) and 55 of 85 (65%) were male, respectively. Both groups were acidemic at birth, predominantly transferred to the treating center with moderate encephalopathy, and were randomized at a mean (SD) of 16 (5) and 15 (5) hours for hypothermic and noncooled groups, respectively. The primary outcome occurred in 19 of 78 hypothermic infants (24.4%) and 22 of 79 noncooled infants (27.9%) (absolute difference, 3.5%; 95% CI, -1% to 17%). Bayesian analysis using a neutral prior indicated a 76% posterior probability of reduced death or disability with hypothermia relative to the noncooled group (adjusted posterior risk ratio, 0.86; 95% credible interval

  13. Reduced fractional anisotropy on diffusion tensor magnetic resonance imaging after hypoxic-ischemic encephalopathy.

    PubMed

    Ward, Phil; Counsell, Serena; Allsop, Joanna; Cowan, Frances; Shen, Yuji; Edwards, David; Rutherford, Mary

    2006-04-01

    Apparent diffusion coefficients (ADC) that are measured by diffusion-weighted imaging are reduced in severe white matter (WM) and in some severe basal ganglia and thalamic (BGT) injury in infants who present with hypoxic-ischemic encephalopathy (HIE). However, ADC values may pseudonormalize or even be high during this time in some less severe but clinically significant injuries. We hypothesized that fractional anisotropy (FA), a measure of the directional diffusivity of water made using diffusion tensor imaging, may be abnormal in these less severe injuries; therefore, the objective of this study was to use diffusion tensor imaging to measure ADC and FA in infants with moderate and severe hypoxic-ischemic brain injury. Twenty infants with HIE and 7 normal control infants were studied. All infants were born at >36 weeks' gestational age, and MRI scans were obtained within 3 weeks of delivery. Data were examined for normality, and comparisons were made using analysis of variance or Kruskal-Wallis as appropriate. During the first week, FA values were decreased with both severe and moderate WM and BGT injury as assessed by conventional imaging, whereas ADC values were reduced only in severe WM injury and some severe BGT injury. Abnormal ADC values pseudonormalized during the second week, whereas FA values continued to decrease. FA is reduced in moderate brain injury after HIE. A low FA may reflect a breakdown in WM organization. Moderate BGT injury may result in atrophy but not overt infarction; it is possible that delayed apoptosis is more marked than immediate necrosis, and this may account for normal early ADC values. The accompanying low FA within some severe and all moderate gray matter lesions, which is associated with significant later impairment, may help to confirm clinically significant abnormality in infants with normal ADC values.

  14. Prediction of Early Childhood Outcome of Term Infants using Apgar Scores at 10 Minutes following Hypoxic-Ischemic Encephalopathy

    PubMed Central

    Laptook, Abbot R.; Shankaran, Seetha; Ambalavanan, Namasivayam; Carlo, Waldemar A.; McDonald, Scott A.; Higgins, Rosemary D.; Das, Abhik

    2010-01-01

    Context Death or severe disability is so common following an Apgar score of 0 at 10 minutes in observational studies that the Neonatal Resuscitation Program suggests considering discontinuation of resuscitation after 10 minutes of effective CPR. Objective To determine if Apgar scores at 10 minutes are associated with death or disability in early childhood following perinatal hypoxic-ischemic encephalopathy (HIE). Design, Setting, and Patients This is a secondary analysis of infants enrolled in the NICHD Neonatal Research Network hypothermia trial. Infants ≥ 36 weeks gestation had clinical and/or biochemical abnormalities at birth, and encephalopathy at < 6 hours. Logistic regression and classification and regression tree (CART) analysis was used to determine associations between Apgar scores at 10 minutes and neurodevelopmental outcome adjusting for covariates. Associations are expressed as odds ratios (OR) and 95% confidence interval (CI). Main Outcome Measure Death or disability (moderate or severe) at 18–22 months of age. Results Twenty of 208 infants were excluded (missing data). More than 90% of infants had Apgar scores of 0–2 at 1 minute and Apgars at 5 and 10 minutes shifted to progressively higher values; at 10 minutes 27% of infants had Apgar scores of 0–2. After adjustment each point decrease in Apgar score at 10 minutes was associated with a 45% increase in the odds of death or disability (OR 1.45, CI 1.22–1.72). Death or disability occurred in 76, 82 and 80% of infants with Apgar scores at 10 minutes of 0, 1 and 2, respectively. CART analysis indicated that Apgar scores at 10 minutes were discriminators of outcome. Conclusion Apgar scores at 10 minutes provide useful prognostic data before other evaluations are available for infants with HIE. Death or moderate/severe disability is common but not uniform with Apgar scores < 3; caution is needed before adopting a specific time interval to guide duration of resuscitation. PMID:19948631

  15. PATTERN OF BRAIN INJURY AND DEPRESSED HEART RATE VARIABILITY IN NEWBORNS WITH HYPOXIC ISCHEMIC ENCEPHALOPATHY

    PubMed Central

    Metzler, Marina; Govindan, Rathinaswamy; Al-Shargabi, Tareq; Vezina, Gilbert; Andescavage, Nickie; Wang, Yunfei; du Plessis, Adre; Massaro, An N

    2017-01-01

    Background Decreased heart rate variability (HRV) is a measure of autonomic dysfunction and brain injury in newborns with hypoxic ischemic encephalopathy (HIE). This study aimed to characterize the relationship between HRV and brain injury pattern by MRI in newborns with HIE undergoing therapeutic hypothermia. Methods HRV metrics were quantified in the time domain (αS, αL, and root mean square at short [RMSS] and long [RMSL] time scales) and frequency domain (relative low-[LF] and high-frequency [HF] power) during the time period 24–27 hours of life. Brain injury pattern by MRI was classified as no injury, pure cortical/white matter injury, mixed watershed/mild basal nuclei injury, predominant basal nuclei or global injury, and died. HRV metrics were compared across brain injury pattern groups using a random effects mixed model. Results Data from 74 infants were analyzed. Brain injury pattern was significantly associated with degree of HRV suppression. Specifically, negative associations were observed between pattern of brain injury and RMSS (estimate −0.224, SE 0.082, p=0.006), RMSL (estimate −0.189, SE 0.082, p=0.021), and LF power (estimate −0.044, SE 0.016, p=0.006). Conclusion Degree of HRV depression is related to pattern of brain injury. HRV monitoring may provide insights into pattern of brain injury at the bedside. PMID:28376079

  16. Pattern of brain injury and depressed heart rate variability in newborns with hypoxic ischemic encephalopathy.

    PubMed

    Metzler, Marina; Govindan, Rathinaswamy; Al-Shargabi, Tareq; Vezina, Gilbert; Andescavage, Nickie; Wang, Yunfei; du Plessis, Adre; Massaro, An N

    2017-09-01

    BackgroundDecreased heart rate variability (HRV) is a measure of autonomic dysfunction and brain injury in newborns with hypoxic ischemic encephalopathy (HIE). This study aimed to characterize the relationship between HRV and brain injury pattern using magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) in newborns with HIE undergoing therapeutic hypothermia.MethodsHRV metrics were quantified in the time domain (α S , α L , and root mean square at short (RMS S ) and long (RMS L ) timescales) and frequency domain (relative low-(LF) and high-frequency (HF) power) over 24-27 h of life. The brain injury pattern shown by MRI was classified as no injury, pure cortical/white matter injury, mixed watershed/mild basal ganglia injury, predominant basal ganglia or global injury, and death. HRV metrics were compared across brain injury pattern groups using a random-effects mixed model.ResultsData from 74 infants were analyzed. Brain injury pattern was significantly associated with the degree of HRV suppression. Specifically, negative associations were observed between the pattern of brain injury and RMS S (estimate -0.224, SE 0.082, P=0.006), RMS L (estimate -0.189, SE 0.082, P=0.021), and LF power (estimate -0.044, SE 0.016, P=0.006).ConclusionDegree of HRV depression is related to the pattern of brain injury. HRV monitoring may provide insights into the pattern of brain injury at the bedside.

  17. Inflammatory cytokine response and reduced heart rate variability in newborns with hypoxic-ischemic encephalopathy.

    PubMed

    Al-Shargabi, T; Govindan, R B; Dave, R; Metzler, M; Wang, Y; du Plessis, A; Massaro, A N

    2017-06-01

    To determine whether systemic inflammation-modulating cytokine expression is related to heart rate variability (HRV) in newborns with hypoxic-ischemic encephalopathy (HIE). The data from 30 newborns with HIE were analyzed. Cytokine levels (IL-2, IL-4, IL-6, IL-8, IL-10, IL-13, IL-1β, TNF-α, IFN-λ) were measured either at 24 h of cooling (n=5), 72 h of cooling (n=4) or at both timepoints (n=21). The following HRV metrics were quantified in the time domain: alpha_S, alpha_L, root mean square (RMS) at short time scales (RMS_S), RMS at long time scales (RMS_L), while low-frequency power (LF) and high-frequency power (HF) were quantified in the frequency domain. The relationships between HRV metrics and cytokines were evaluated using mixed-models. IL-6, IL-8, IL-10, and IL-13 levels were inversely related to selected HRV metrics. Inflammation-modulating cytokines may be important mediators in the autonomic dysfunction observed in newborns with HIE.

  18. Hypoxic ischemic encephalopathy in newborns linked to placental and umbilical cord abnormalities.

    PubMed

    Nasiell, Josefine; Papadogiannakis, Nikos; Löf, Erika; Elofsson, Fanny; Hallberg, Boubou

    2016-03-01

    Birth asphyxia and hypoxic ischemic encephalopathy (HIE) of the newborn remain serious complications. We present a study investigating if placental or umbilical cord abnormalities in newborns at term are associated with HIE. A prospective cohort study of the placenta and umbilical cord of infants treated with hypothermia (HT) due to hypoxic brain injury and follow-up at 12 months of age has been carried out. The study population included 41 infants treated for HT whose placentas were submitted for histopathological analysis. Main outcome measures were infant development at 12 months, classified as normal, cerebral palsy, or death. A healthy group of 100 infants without HIE and normal follow-up at 12 months of age were used as controls. A velamentous or marginal umbilical cord insertion and histological abruption was associated with the risk of severe HIE, OR = 5.63, p = 0.006, respectively, OR = 20.3, p = 0.01 (multiple-logistic regression). Velamentous or marginal umbilical cord insertion was found in 39% among HIE cases compared to 7% in controls. Placental and umbilical cord abnormalities have a profound association with HIE. A prompt examination of the placentas of newborns suffering from asphyxia can provide important information on the pathogenesis behind the incident and contribute to make a better early prognosis.

  19. [Therapeutic effect of early applying hydrotherapy with Chinese drugs on children hypoxic ischemic encephalopathy].

    PubMed

    Ma, Yun-Zhi; Zhai, Hong-Yin; Su, Chun-Ya

    2009-02-01

    To observe the therapeutic effect of hydrotherapy with Chinese drugs (HT-C) in early intervention on children hypoxic ischemic encephalopathy (HIE). HIE children were assigned to the treatment group and the control group, 50 in each, at random depending on the willingness of patients' parents. Both groups received the conventional functional training, according to the "0 -3-year-old early intervention outline", but for the treatment group, HT-C was applied additionally. Indexes for quality of sleep, gross motor function, severity of spasm and intellectual development were observed and compared before and after treatment to assess the therapeutic effects. Therapeutic effect in the treatment group was better than that in the control group in all the indexes observed, showing statistical significance (all P <0.05). Early intervention of HT-C could improve clinical symptom, promote the functional recovery and intellectual development in children HIE, and also could reduce or prevent the sequelae occurrence of the nervous system in them.

  20. Protein S100B in umbilical cord blood as a potential biomarker of hypoxic-ischemic encephalopathy in asphyxiated newborns.

    PubMed

    Zaigham, Mehreen; Lundberg, Fredrik; Olofsson, Per

    2017-09-01

    Neonatal hypoxic ischemic encephalopathy (HIE) is a devastating condition resulting from a sustained lack of oxygen during birth. The interest in identifying a relevant biomarker of HIE has thrown into limelight the role of protein S100B as a clinical diagnostic marker of hypoxic brain damage in neonates. To evaluate the diagnostic value of protein S100B, measured in umbilical cord blood immediately after birth, as a useful biomarker in the diagnosis of HIE Sarnat stages II-III as well as a marker for long-term mortality and morbidity. Protein S100B was analyzed in cord blood sampled at birth from 13 newborns later diagnosed with stage II-III HIE and compared with 21 healthy controls. S100B concentrations were related to cord artery pH, amplitude-integrated electroencephalography (aEEG), stage of HIE, and death/sequelae up to an age of 6years. Both parametric and non-parametric statistics were used with a two-sided P<0.05 considered significant. The difference in S100B concentration was marginally statistically significant between HIE cases and controls (P=0.056). Cord blood acidosis (P=0.046), aEEG pattern severity (P=0.030), HIE severity (P=0.027), and condition at 6-year follow-up (healthy/permanent sequelae/death; P=0.027) were all related to an increase in S100B concentration. Protein S100B in neonates suffering from HIE stages II-III appeared elevated in umbilical cord blood at birth. The S100B concentrations were positively associated to the severity of disease and the risk of suffering from neurodevelopmental sequelae and even death. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  1. Changes in lactate dehydrogenase are associated with central gray matter lesions in newborns with hypoxic-ischemic encephalopathy.

    PubMed

    Yum, Sook Kyung; Moon, Cheong-Jun; Youn, Young-Ah; Sung, In Kyung

    2017-05-01

    Biomarkers may predict neurological prognosis in infants with hypoxic-ischemic encephalopathy (HIE). We evaluated the relationship between serum lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) and brain magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), which predicts neurodevelopmental outcomes, in order to assess whether LDH levels are similarly predictive. Medical records were reviewed for infants with HIE and LDH levels were assessed on the first (LDH 1 ) and third (LDH 3 ) days following birth. Receiver operating characteristic curves were obtained in relation to central gray matter hypoxic-ischemic lesions. Of 92 patients, 52 (56.5%) had hypoxic-ischemic lesions on brain MRI, and 21 of these infants (40.4%) had central gray matter lesions. LDH 1 and LDH 3 did not differ; however, the percentage change (ΔLDH%) was significantly higher in infants with central gray matter lesions (36.9% versus 6.6%, p = 0.006). With cutoffs of 187 (IU/L, ΔLDH) and 19.4 (%, ΔLDH%), the sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value and negative predictive value were 71.4, 69.0, 40.5 and 89.1%, respectively. The relative risk was 5.57 (p = 0.001). Changes in serum LDH may be a useful biomarker for predicting future neurodevelopmental prognosis in infants with HIE.

  2. Induced hypothermia for infants with hypoxic- ischemic encephalopathy using a servo-controlled fan: an exploratory pilot study.

    PubMed

    Horn, Alan; Thompson, Clare; Woods, David; Nel, Alida; Bekker, Adrie; Rhoda, Natasha; Pieper, Clarissa

    2009-06-01

    Several trials suggest that hypothermia is beneficial in selected infants with hypoxic-ischemic encephalopathy. However, the cooling methods used required repeated interventions and were either expensive or reported significant temperature variation. The objective of this pilot study was to describe the use, efficacy, and physiologic impact of an inexpensive servo-controlled cooling fan blowing room-temperature air. A servo-controlled fan was manufactured and used to cool 10 infants with hypoxic-ischemic encephalopathy to a rectal temperature of 33 degrees C to 34 degrees C. The infants were sedated with phenobarbital, but clonidine was administered to some infants if shivering or discomfort occurred. A servo-controlled radiant warmer was used simultaneously with the fan to prevent overcooling. The settings used on the fan and radiant warmer differed slightly between some infants as the technique evolved. A rectal temperature of 34 degrees C was achieved in a median time of 58 minutes. Overcooling did not occur, and the mean temperature during cooling was 33.6 degrees C +/- 0.2 degrees C. Inspired oxygen requirements increased in 6 infants, and 5 infants required inotropic support during cooling, but this was progressively reduced after 1 to 2 days. Dehydration did not occur. Five infants shivered when faster fan speeds were used, but 4 of the 5 infants had hypomagnesemia. Shivering was controlled with clonidine in 4 infants, but 1 infant required morphine. Servo-controlled fan cooling with room-temperature air, combined with servo-controlled radiant warming, was an effective, simple, and safe method of inducing and maintaining rectal temperatures of 33 degrees C to 34 degrees C in sedated infants with hypoxic-ischemic encephalopathy. After induction of hypothermia, a low fan speed facilitated accurate temperature control, and warmer-controlled rewarming at 0.2 degrees C increments every 30 minutes resulted in more appropriate rewarming than when 0.5 degrees C

  3. Prolonged Delirium Secondary to Hypoxic-ischemic Encephalopathy Following Cardiac Arrest

    PubMed Central

    Yogaratnam, Jegan; Jacob, Rajesh; Naik, Sandeep; Magadi, Harish

    2013-01-01

    Hypoxic-ischemic brain injury encompasses a complex constellation of pathophysiological and cellular brain injury induced by hypoxia, ischemia, cytotoxicity, or combinations of these mechanisms and can result in poor outcomes including significant changes in personality and cognitive impairments in memory, cognition, and attention. We report a case of a male patient with normal premorbid functioning who developed prolonged delirium following hypoxic-ischemic brain insults subsequent to cardiac arrest. The case highlights the importance of adopting a multidisciplinary treatment approach involving the coordinated care of medical and nursing teams to optimise management of patients suffering from such a debilitating organic brain syndrome. PMID:23678354

  4. Association between Urinary Lactate to Creatinine Ratio and Neurodevelopmental Outcome in Term Infants with Hypoxic-Ischemic Encephalopathy

    PubMed Central

    Oh, William; Perritt, Rebecca; Shankaran, Seetha; Merritts, Matthew; Donovan, Edward F.; Ehrenkranz, Richard A.; O’Shea, T. Michael; Tyson, Jon E.; Laptook, Abbot R.; Das, Abhik; Higgins, Rosemary D.

    2010-01-01

    Objective To assess the association between urinary lactate to creatinine ratio (ULCR) and neurodevelopmental outcome in term infants with hypoxic ischemic encephalopathy and examine the effect of hypothermia on the change in ULCR. Study design Spot urine samples were collected in 58 term infants (28 hypothermia, 30 control subjects) with hypoxic ischemic encephalopathy. Urinary lactate and creatinine were measured by using 1H nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy and expressed as ULCR. Survivors were examined at 18 months of age. Results The ULCR was significantly higher in infants who died or had moderate/severe neurodevelopmental disability. Logistic regression analysis controlling for hypothermia and severity of encephalopathy confirmed the association (adjusted odds ratio, 5.52; 95% CI, 1.36, 22.42; P < .02). Considerable overlap in ULCR was observed between infants with normal/mild disability and those who died or survived with moderate/severe disability. ULCR fell significantly between 6 and 24 hours and 48 and 72 hours of age for all infants. The magnitude of decline did not differ between hypothermia and control groups. Conclusions High ULCR is associated with death or moderate/severe neurodevelopmental disability. Significant overlap in values between the normal/mild and moderate/severe disability groups limits predictive value of this measure. Whole-body hypothermia did not affect the decline in ULCR. PMID:18534246

  5. The Six-Hour Window: How the Community Hospital Nursery Can Optimize Outcomes of the Infant with Suspected Hypoxic-Ischemic Encephalopathy.

    PubMed

    Ibrani, Dafina; Molacavage, Shanon

    2018-05-01

    Perinatal hypoxia is a devastating event before, during, or immediately after birth that deprives an infant's vital organs of oxygen. This injury at birth often requires a complex resuscitation and increases the newborn's risk of hypoxic-ischemic encephalopathy (HIE). The resuscitation team in a community hospital nursery may have less experience with complex resuscitation and post-resuscitation care of this infant than a NICU. This article provides the neonatal nurse in a Level I or Level II nursery with information about resuscitation and post-resuscitation care of an infant at risk of HIE while awaiting transport to a NICU for therapeutic cooling. The article describes the infant at risk for HIE, discusses pathophysiology and treatment of HIE, and lists essential components of post-resuscitation care while awaiting transport to an NICU, the importance of communication with the receiving NICU, and strategies for supporting the family.

  6. Effect of combined therapy with ephedrine and hyperbaric oxygen on neonatal hypoxic-ischemic brain injury.

    PubMed

    Chen, Siyuan; Xiao, Nong; Zhang, Xiaoping

    2009-11-13

    Perinatal hypoxic-ischemic (HI) is a major cause of brain injury in the newborn, and there is a lack of effective therapies to reduce injury-related disorders. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the effect of a combination of ephedrine and hyperbaric oxygen (HBO) on neonatal hypoxic-ischemic brain injury. 7-day-old Sprague-Dawley rat pups were randomly divided into sham operation, HI, ephedrine, HBO, and combined group. The ephedrine group was intraperitoneally injected with ephedrine, HBO group was treated for 2h at 2.5 absolute atmosphere (ATA) per day, the combined group received both ephedrine and HBO treatments, the sham operation and HI groups were intraperitoneally injected with normal saline. Rat brains at 7 days after HI, were collected to determine histopathological damage and the expression levels of Caspase-3 and Nogo-A. Four weeks after insult, animals were challenged with Morris water maze test. The expressions of Caspase-3 and Nogo-A were reduced in treating groups compared to those in HI group (P<0.01). Compared with the single treatment groups, the expression levels of Caspase-3 and Nogo-A were significantly reduced in the combined group (P<0.01). Compared with the single treatment groups, the average time of escape latency was significantly shorter (P<0.01) and the number of platform location crossing was more (P<0.05) in combined group. These findings indicate that the combination of ephedrine and HBO can enhance the neuroprotective effect in the neonatal rat HI model partially mediated by inhibiting Caspase-3 and Nogo-A pathways.

  7. Effect of Therapeutic Hypothermia Initiated After 6 Hours of Age on Death or Disability Among Newborns With Hypoxic-Ischemic Encephalopathy

    PubMed Central

    Laptook, Abbot R.; Shankaran, Seetha; Tyson, Jon E.; Munoz, Breda; Bell, Edward F.; Goldberg, Ronald N.; Parikh, Nehal A.; Ambalavanan, Namasivayam; Pedroza, Claudia; Pappas, Athina; Das, Abhik; Chaudhary, Aasma S.; Ehrenkranz, Richard A.; Hensman, Angelita M.; Van Meurs, Krisa P.; Chalak, Lina F.; Hamrick, Shannon E. G.; Sokol, Gregory M.; Walsh, Michele C.; Poindexter, Brenda B.; Faix, Roger G.; Watterberg, Kristi L.; Frantz, Ivan D.; Guillet, Ronnie; Devaskar, Uday; Truog, William E.; Chock, Valerie Y.; Wyckoff, Myra H.; McGowan, Elisabeth C.; Carlton, David P.; Harmon, Heidi M.; Brumbaugh, Jane E.; Cotten, C. Michael; Sánchez, Pablo J.; Hibbs, Anna Maria; Higgins, Rosemary D.

    2018-01-01

    IMPORTANCE Hypothermia initiated at less than 6 hours after birth reduces death or disability for infants with hypoxic-ischemic encephalopathy at 36 weeks’ or later gestation. To our knowledge, hypothermia trials have not been performed in infants presenting after 6 hours. OBJECTIVE To estimate the probability that hypothermia initiated at 6 to 24 hours after birth reduces the risk of death or disability at 18 months among infants with hypoxic-ischemic encephalopathy. DESIGN, SETTING, AND PARTICIPANTS A randomized clinical trial was conducted between April 2008 and June 2016 among infants at 36 weeks’ or later gestation with moderate or severe hypoxic-ischemic encephalopathy enrolled at 6 to 24 hours after birth. Twenty-one US Neonatal Research Network centers participated. Bayesian analyses were prespecified given the anticipated limited sample size. INTERVENTIONS Targeted esophageal temperature was used in 168 infants. Eighty-three hypothermic infants were maintained at 33.5°C (acceptable range, 33°C–34°C) for 96 hours and then rewarmed. Eighty-five noncooled infants were maintained at 37.0°C (acceptable range, 36.5°C–37.3°C). MAIN OUTCOMES AND MEASURES The composite of death or disability (moderate or severe) at 18 to 22 months adjusted for level of encephalopathy and age at randomization. RESULTS Hypothermic and noncooled infants were term (mean [SD], 39 [2] and 39 [1] weeks’ gestation, respectively), and 47 of 83 (57%) and 55 of 85 (65%) were male, respectively. Both groups were acidemic at birth, predominantly transferred to the treating center with moderate encephalopathy, and were randomized at a mean (SD) of 16 (5) and 15 (5) hours for hypothermic and noncooled groups, respectively. The primary outcome occurred in 19 of 78 hypothermic infants (24.4%) and 22 of 79 noncooled infants (27.9%) (absolute difference, 3.5%; 95% CI, −1% to 17%). Bayesian analysis using a neutral prior indicated a 76% posterior probability of reduced death or

  8. The efficacy of ozone therapy in neonatal rats with hypoxic ischemic brain injury.

    PubMed

    Resitoglu, B; Celik, Y; Komur, M; Polat, A; Erdogan, S; Arslankoylu, A E; Beydagi, H

    2018-01-01

    This study is aimed to determine the effect of ozone therapy in neonatal rats with experimentally induced hypoxic ischemic brain injury (HIBI). The study included 7-d-old male Wistar rats that were randomized to the sham, control, ozone 1, and ozone 2 groups. All rats except those in the sham group were kept in a hypoxia chamber, and then the rats in the control group were given 0.5 mL of saline. Those in the ozone 1 group were given ozone 1 mg kg-1 intraperitoneally, and those in the ozone 2 group were given ozone 2 mg kg-1 intraperitoneally. There were significantly fewer apoptotic neurons in the right hemispheres of the rats in the ozone 1 and ozone 2 groups than in the control group (p < 0.001 and p < 0.001, respectively). There were significantly fewer apoptotic neurons in the right hemispheres of the rats in the ozone 2 group than in the ozone 1 group (p < 0.001). Morris Water Maze (MWM) test results were similar in the ozone 2 and sham groups. The present study's findings show that ozone therapy reduced neuronal apoptosis and improved cognitive function in neonatal rats with experimentally induced HIBI (Tab. 2, Ref. 30).

  9. Studies on cerebral protection of digoxin against hypoxic-ischemic brain damage in neonatal rats.

    PubMed

    Peng, Kaiwei; Tan, Danfeng; He, Miao; Guo, Dandan; Huang, Juan; Wang, Xia; Liu, Chentao; Zheng, Xiangrong

    2016-08-17

    Hypoxic-ischemic brain damage (HIBD) is a major cause of neonatal acute deaths and chronic nervous system damage. Our present study was designed to investigate the possible neuroprotective effect of digoxin-induced pharmacological preconditioning after hypoxia-ischemia and underlying mechanisms. Neonatal rats were assigned randomly to control, HIBD, or HIBD+digoxin groups. Pharmacological preconditioning was induced by administration of digoxin 72 h before inducing HIBD by carotid occlusion+hypoxia. Behavioral assays, and neuropathological and apoptotic assessments were performed to examine the effects; the expression of Na/K ATPase was also assessed. Rats in the HIBD group showed deficiencies on the T-maze, radial water maze, and postural reflex tests, whereas the HIBD+digoxin group showed significant improvements on all behavioral tests. The rats treated with digoxin showed recovery of pathological conditions, increased number of neural cells and proliferative cells, and decreased number of apoptotic cells. Meanwhile, an increased expression level of Na/K ATPase was observed after digoxin preconditioning treatment. The preconditioning treatment of digoxin contributed toward an improved functional recovery and exerted a marked neuroprotective effect including promotion of cell proliferation and reduction of apoptosis after HIBD, and the neuroprotective action was likely associated with increased expression of Na/K ATPase.

  10. Early Detection of Hypothermic Neuroprotection Using T2-Weighted Magnetic Resonance Imaging in a Mouse Model of Hypoxic Ischemic Encephalopathy

    PubMed Central

    Doman, Sydney E.; Girish, Akanksha; Nemeth, Christina L.; Drummond, Gabrielle T.; Carr, Patrice; Garcia, Maxine S.; Johnston, Michael V.; Kannan, Sujatha; Fatemi, Ali; Zhang, Jiangyang; Wilson, Mary Ann

    2018-01-01

    Perinatal hypoxic-ischemic encephalopathy (HIE) can lead to neurodevelopmental disorders, including cerebral palsy. Standard care for neonatal HIE includes therapeutic hypothermia, which provides partial neuroprotection; magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is often used to assess injury and predict outcome after HIE. Immature rodent models of HIE are used to evaluate mechanisms of injury and to examine the efficacy and mechanisms of neuroprotective interventions such as hypothermia. In this study, we first confirmed that, in the CD1 mouse model of perinatal HIE used for our research, MRI obtained 3 h after hypoxic ischemia (HI) could reliably assess initial brain injury and predict histopathological outcome. Mice were subjected to HI (unilateral carotid ligation followed by exposure to hypoxia) on postnatal day 7 and were imaged with T2-weighted MRI and diffusion-weighted MRI (DWI), 3 h after HI. Clearly defined regions of increased signal were comparable in T2 MRI and DWI, and we found a strong correlation between T2 MRI injury scores 3 h after HI and histopathological brain injury 7 days after HI, validating this method for evaluating initial injury in this model of HIE. The more efficient, higher resolution T2 MRI was used to score initial brain injury in subsequent studies. In mice treated with hypothermia, we found a significant reduction in T2 MRI injury scores 3 h after HI, compared to normothermic littermates. Early hypothermic neuroprotection was maintained 7 days after HI, in both T2 MRI injury scores and histopathology. In the normothermic group, T2 MRI injury scores 3 h after HI were comparable to those obtained 7 days after HI. However, in the hypothermic group, brain injury was significantly less 7 days after HI than at 3 h. Thus, early neuroprotective effects of hypothermia were enhanced by 7 days, which may reflect the additional 3 h of hypothermia after imaging or effects on later mechanisms of injury, such as delayed cell

  11. Early Detection of Hypothermic Neuroprotection Using T2-Weighted Magnetic Resonance Imaging in a Mouse Model of Hypoxic Ischemic Encephalopathy.

    PubMed

    Doman, Sydney E; Girish, Akanksha; Nemeth, Christina L; Drummond, Gabrielle T; Carr, Patrice; Garcia, Maxine S; Johnston, Michael V; Kannan, Sujatha; Fatemi, Ali; Zhang, Jiangyang; Wilson, Mary Ann

    2018-01-01

    Perinatal hypoxic-ischemic encephalopathy (HIE) can lead to neurodevelopmental disorders, including cerebral palsy. Standard care for neonatal HIE includes therapeutic hypothermia, which provides partial neuroprotection; magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is often used to assess injury and predict outcome after HIE. Immature rodent models of HIE are used to evaluate mechanisms of injury and to examine the efficacy and mechanisms of neuroprotective interventions such as hypothermia. In this study, we first confirmed that, in the CD1 mouse model of perinatal HIE used for our research, MRI obtained 3 h after hypoxic ischemia (HI) could reliably assess initial brain injury and predict histopathological outcome. Mice were subjected to HI (unilateral carotid ligation followed by exposure to hypoxia) on postnatal day 7 and were imaged with T2-weighted MRI and diffusion-weighted MRI (DWI), 3 h after HI. Clearly defined regions of increased signal were comparable in T2 MRI and DWI, and we found a strong correlation between T2 MRI injury scores 3 h after HI and histopathological brain injury 7 days after HI, validating this method for evaluating initial injury in this model of HIE. The more efficient, higher resolution T2 MRI was used to score initial brain injury in subsequent studies. In mice treated with hypothermia, we found a significant reduction in T2 MRI injury scores 3 h after HI, compared to normothermic littermates. Early hypothermic neuroprotection was maintained 7 days after HI, in both T2 MRI injury scores and histopathology. In the normothermic group, T2 MRI injury scores 3 h after HI were comparable to those obtained 7 days after HI. However, in the hypothermic group, brain injury was significantly less 7 days after HI than at 3 h. Thus, early neuroprotective effects of hypothermia were enhanced by 7 days, which may reflect the additional 3 h of hypothermia after imaging or effects on later mechanisms of injury, such as delayed cell

  12. Long-term neuropathologic changes associated with cerebral palsy in a nonhuman primate model of hypoxic-ischemic encephalopathy

    PubMed Central

    McAdams, Ryan M.; Fleiss, Bobbi; Traudt, Christopher; Schwendimann, Leslie; Snyder, Jessica M.; Haynes, Robin L.; Natarajan, Niranjana; Gressens, Pierre; Juul, Sandra E.

    2017-01-01

    Background Cerebral palsy (CP) is the most common motor disability in childhood with a worldwide prevalence of ranging between 1.5 to >4 per 1000 live births. Hypoxic ischemic encephalopathy (HIE) contributes to the burden of CP, but the long-term neuropathological findings of this association remain limited. Methodology Thirty-four term Macaca nemestrina were included in this long-term neuropathologic study: 9 control animals delivered by Cesarean section, and 25 animals with perinatal asphyxia who delivered by cesarean section after 15–18 minutes of umbilical cord occlusion (UCO). UCO animals were randomized to saline (n = 11), therapeutic hypothermia (TH) only (n = 6), or TH+erythropoietin (Epo; n = 8). Epo was given on days 1, 2, 3, and 7. Animals had serial developmental assessments and underwent MRI with diffusion tensor imaging at 9 months of age followed by necropsy. Histology and immunohistochemical staining of brain and brainstem sections was performed. Results All UCO animals demonstrated and met standard diagnostic criteria for human neonates with moderate-to-severe HIE. Four animals developed moderate-to-severe CP (3 UCO, 1 UCO+TH), 9 had mild CP (2 UCO, 3 UCO+TH, 3 UCO+TH+Epo, 1 control) and 2 UCO animals died. None of the animals treated with TH+Epo died, had moderate-to-severe CP, or demonstrated signs of long-term neuropathological toxicity. Compared to animals grouped together as non-CP (controls and mild CP only), animals with CP (moderate & severe) demonstrated decreased fractional anisotropy of multiple white matter tracks including corpus callosum and internal capsule on using track based special statistics (TBSS). Animals with CP had decreased staining for cortical neurons, and increased brainstem glial scarring compared to animals without CP. Cerebellar cell density of the internal granular layer and white matter was decreased in CP animals compared to control animals without CP. Conclusions/Significance In this nonhuman primate HIE model

  13. Population pharmacokinetics of phenobarbital in infants with neonatal encephalopathy treated with therapeutic hypothermia.

    PubMed

    Shellhaas, Renée A; Ng, Chee M; Dillon, Christina H; Barks, John D E; Bhatt-Mehta, Varsha

    2013-02-01

    Phenobarbital is the first-line treatment for neonatal seizures. Many neonates with hypoxic ischemic encephalopathy are treated with therapeutic hypothermia, and about 40% have clinical seizures. Little is known about the pharmacokinetics of phenobarbital in infants with hypoxic ischemic encephalopathy who undergo therapeutic hypothermia. The objective of this study was to determine the effect of therapeutic hypothermia on phenobarbital pharmacokinetics, taking into account maturational changes. Level 3 neonatal ICU. Infants with hypoxic ischemic encephalopathy and suspected seizures, all treated with phenobarbital. Some of these infants also received treatment with therapeutic hypothermia. None. A retrospective cohort study of 39 infants with hypoxic ischemic encephalopathy treated with phenobarbital (20 were treated with therapeutic hypothermia and 19 were not). Data on phenobarbital plasma concentrations were collected in 39 subjects with hypoxic ischemic encephalopathy with or without therapeutic hypothermia. Using nonlinear mixed-effects modeling, population pharmacokinetics of phenobarbital were developed with a total of 164 plasma concentrations. A one-compartment model best described the pharmacokinetics. The clearance of phenobarbital was linearly related to body weight and matured with increasing age with a maturation half-life of 22.1 days. Therapeutic hypothermia did not influence the pharmacokinetic parameters of phenobarbital. Therapeutic hypothermia does not influence the clearance of phenobarbital after accounting for weight and age. Standard phenobarbital dosing is appropriate for the initial treatment of seizures in neonates with hypoxic ischemic encephalopathy treated with therapeutic hypothermia.

  14. Isolated cortical visual loss with subtle brain MRI abnormalities in a case of hypoxic-ischemic encephalopathy.

    PubMed

    Margolin, Edward; Gujar, Sachin K; Trobe, Jonathan D

    2007-12-01

    A 16-year-old boy who was briefly asystolic and hypotensive after a motor vehicle accident complained of abnormal vision after recovering consciousness. Visual acuity was normal, but visual fields were severely constricted without clear hemianopic features. The ophthalmic examination was otherwise normal. Brain MRI performed 11 days after the accident showed no pertinent abnormalities. At 6 months after the event, brain MRI demonstrated brain volume loss in the primary visual cortex and no other abnormalities. One year later, visual fields remained severely constricted; neurologic examination, including formal neuropsychometric testing, was normal. This case emphasizes the fact that hypoxic-ischemic encephalopathy (HIE) may cause enduring damage limited to primary visual cortex and that the MRI abnormalities may be subtle. These phenomena should be recognized in the management of patients with HIE.

  15. Treatment of hypoxic-ischemic encephalopathy in mouse by transplantation of embryonic stem cell-derived cells.

    PubMed

    Ma, Jie; Wang, Yu; Yang, Jianhua; Yang, Min; Chang, Keun-A; Zhang, Linhua; Jiang, Feng; Li, Yi; Zhang, Zhonggong; Heo, Chaejeong; Suh, Yoo-Hun

    2007-07-01

    A 7-day-old hypoxic-ischemic encephalopathy (HIE) mouse model was used to study the effect of transplantation of embryonic stem (ES) cell-derived cells on the HIE. After the inducement in vitro, the ES cell-derived cells expressed Nestin and MAP-2, rather than GFAP mRNA. After transplantation, ES cell-derived cells can survive, migrate into the injury site, and specifically differentiate into neurons, showing improvement of the learning ability and memory of the HIE mouse at 8 months post-transplantation. The non-grafted HIE mouse brain showed typical pathological changes in the hippocampus and cerebral cortex, where the number of neurons was reduced, while in the cell graft group, number of the neurons increased in the same regions. Although further study is necessary to elucidate the precise mechanisms responsible for this functional recovery, we believe that ES cells have advantages for use as a donor source in HIE.

  16. Neuroprotective body hypothermia among newborns with hypoxic ischemic encephalopathy: three-year experience in a tertiary university hospital. A retrospective observational study.

    PubMed

    Magalhães, Mauricio; Rodrigues, Francisco Paulo Martins; Chopard, Maria Renata Tollio; Melo, Victoria Catarina de Albuquerque; Melhado, Amanda; Oliveira, Inez; Gallacci, Clery Bernardi; Pachi, Paulo Roberto; Lima Neto, Tabajara Barbosa

    2015-01-01

    Neonatal hypoxic-ischemic encephalopathy is associated with high morbidity and mortality. Studies have shown that therapeutic hypothermia decreases neurological sequelae and death. Our aim was therefore to report on a three-year experience of therapeutic hypothermia among asphyxiated newborns. Retrospective study, conducted in a university hospital. Thirty-five patients with perinatal asphyxia undergoing body cooling between May 2009 and November 2012 were evaluated. Thirty-nine infants fulfilled the hypothermia protocol criteria. Four newborns were removed from study due to refractory septic shock, non-maintenance of temperature and severe coagulopathy. The median Apgar scores at 1 and 5 minutes were 2 and 5. The main complication was infection, diagnosed in seven mothers (20%) and 14 newborns (40%). Convulsions occurred in 15 infants (43%). Thirty-one patients (88.6%) required mechanical ventilation and 14 of them (45%) were extubated within 24 hours. The duration of mechanical ventilation among the others was 7.7 days. The cooling protocol was started 1.8 hours after birth. All patients showed elevated levels of creatine phosphokinase, creatine phosphokinase- MB and lactate dehydrogenase. There was no severe arrhythmia; one newborn (2.9%) presented controlled coagulopathy. Four patients (11.4%) presented controlled hypotension. Twenty-nine patients (82.9%) underwent cerebral ultrasonography and 10 of them (34.5%) presented white matter hyper-echogenicity. Brain magnetic resonance imaging was performed on 33 infants (94.3%) and 11 of them (33.3%) presented hypoxic-ischemic changes. The hospital stay was 23 days. All newborns were discharged. Two patients (5.8%) needed gastrostomy. Hypothermia as therapy for asphyxiated newborns was shown to be safe.

  17. Krebs cycle metabolites and preferential succinate oxidation following neonatal hypoxic-ischemic brain injury in mice.

    PubMed

    Sahni, Prateek V; Zhang, Jimmy; Sosunov, Sergey; Galkin, Alexander; Niatsetskaya, Zoya; Starkov, Anatoly; Brookes, Paul S; Ten, Vadim S

    2018-02-01

    BackgroundReverse electron transport (RET) driven by the oxidation of succinate has been proposed as the mechanism of accelerated production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) in post-ischemic mitochondria. However, it remains unclear whether upon reperfusion, mitochondria preferentially oxidase succinate.MethodsNeonatal mice were subjected to Rice-Vannucci model of hypoxic-ischemic brain injury (HI) followed by assessment of Krebs cycle metabolites, mitochondrial substrate preference, and H 2 O 2 generation rate in the ischemic brain.ResultsWhile brain mitochondria from control mice exhibited a rotenone-sensitive complex-I-dependent respiration, HI-brain mitochondria, at the initiation of reperfusion, demonstrated complex-II-dependent respiration, as rotenone minimally affected, but inhibition of complex-II ceased respiration. This was associated with a 30-fold increase of cerebral succinate concentration and significantly elevated H 2 O 2 emission rate in HI-mice compared to controls. At 60 min of reperfusion, cerebral succinate content and the mitochondrial response to rotenone did not differ from that in controls.ConclusionThese data are the first ex vivo evidence, that at the initiation of reperfusion, brain mitochondria transiently shift their metabolism from complex-I-dependent oxidation of NADH toward complex II-linked oxidation of succinate. Our study provides a critical piece of support for existence of the RET-dependent mechanism of elevated ROS production in reperfusion.

  18. Gender difference in the effect of progesterone on neonatal hypoxic/ischemic brain injury in mouse.

    PubMed

    Dong, Shuyu; Zhang, Qian; Kong, Delian; Zhou, Chao; Zhou, Jie; Han, Jingjing; Zhou, Yan; Jin, Guoliang; Hua, Xiaodong; Wang, Jun; Hua, Fang

    2018-08-01

    This study investigated the effects of progesterone (PROG) on neonatal hypoxic/ischemic (NHI) brain injury, the differences in effects between genders, and the underlying mechanisms. NHI brain injury was established in both male and female neonatal mice induced by occlusion of the left common carotid artery followed by hypoxia. The mice were treated with PROG or vehicle. Fluoro-Jade B staining (F-JB), long term behavior testing, and brain magnetic resonance image (MRI) were applied to evaluate neuronal death, neurological function, and brain damage. The underlying molecular mechanisms were also investigated by Western blots. The results showed that, in the male mice, administration of PROG significantly reduced neuronal death, improved the learning and memory function impaired by cerebral HI, decreased infarct size, and maintained the thickness of the cortex after cerebral HI. PROG treatment, however, did not show significant neuroprotective effects on female mice subjected to HI. In addition, the data demonstrated a gender difference in the expression of tumor necrosis factor receptor 1 (TNFR1), TNF receptor associated factor 6 (TRAF6), Fas associated protein with death domain (FADD), and TIR-domain-containing adapter-inducing interferon-β (TRIF) between males and females. Our results indicated that treatment with PROG had beneficial effects on NHI injured brain in acute stage and improved the long term cognitive function impaired by cerebral HI in male mice. In addition, the activation of TNF and TRIF mediated signaling in response to cerebral HI and the treatment of PROG varied between genders, which highly suggested that gender differences should be emphasized in evaluating neonatal HI brain injury and PROG effects, as well as the underlying mechanisms. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Proinflammatory Cytokines, Enolase and S-100 as Early Biochemical Indicators of Hypoxic-Ischemic Encephalopathy Following Perinatal Asphyxia in Newborns.

    PubMed

    Chaparro-Huerta, Verónica; Flores-Soto, Mario Eduardo; Merin Sigala, Mario Ernesto; Barrera de León, Juan Carlos; Lemus-Varela, María de Lourdes; Torres-Mendoza, Blanca Miriam de Guadalupe; Beas-Zárate, Carlos

    2017-02-01

    Estimation of the neurological prognosis of infants suffering from perinatal asphyxia and signs of hypoxic-ischemic encephalopathy is of great clinical importance; however, it remains difficult to satisfactorily assess these signs with current standard medical practices. Prognoses are typically based on data obtained from clinical examinations and neurological tests, such as electroencephalography (EEG) and neuroimaging, but their sensitivities and specificities are far from optimal, and they do not always reliably predict future neurological sequelae. In an attempt to improve prognostic estimates, neurological research envisaged various biochemical markers detectable in the umbilical cord blood of newborns (NB). Few studies examining these biochemical factors in the whole blood of newborns exist. Thus, the aim of this study was to determine the expression and concentrations of proinflammatory cytokines (TNF-α, IL-1β and IL-6) and specific CNS enzymes (S-100 and enolase) in infants with perinatal asphyxia. These data were compared between the affected infants and controls and were related to the degree of HIE to determine their utilities as biochemical markers for early diagnosis and prognosis. The levels of the proinflammatory cytokines and enzymes were measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) and Reverse Transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). The expression and serum levels of the proinflammatory cytokines, enolase and S-100 were significantly increased in the children with asphyxia compared with the controls. The role of cytokines after hypoxic-ischemic insult has been determined in studies of transgenic mice that support the use of these molecules as candidate biomarkers. Similarly, S-100 and enolase are considered promising candidates because these markers have been correlated with tissue damage in different experimental models. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  20. Tideglusib, a chemical inhibitor of GSK3β, attenuates hypoxic-ischemic brain injury in neonatal mice.

    PubMed

    Wang, Haitao; Huang, Sammen; Yan, Kuipo; Fang, Xiaoyan; Abussaud, Ahmed; Martinez, Ana; Sun, Hong-Shuo; Feng, Zhong-Ping

    2016-10-01

    Hypoxia-ischemia is an important cause of brain injury and neurological morbidity in the newborn infants. The activity of glycogen synthase kinase-3β (GSK-3β) is up-regulated following neonatal stroke. Tideglusib is a GSK-3β inhibitor which has neuroprotective effects against neurodegenerative diseases in clinical trials. However, the effect of tideglusib on hypoxic-ischemic (HI) brain injury in neonates is still unknown. Postnatal day 7 (P7) mouse pups subjected to unilateral common carotid artery ligation followed by 1h of hypoxia or sham surgery was performed. HI animals were administered tideglusib (5mg/kg) or vehicle intraperitoneally 20min prior to the onset of ischemia. The brain infarct volume and whole brain images, were used in conjunction with Nissl staining to evaluate the protective effects of tideglusib. Protein levels of glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP), Notch1, cleaved caspase-3/9, phosphorylated signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (STAT3), GSK-3β and protein kinase B (Akt) were detected to identify potentially involved molecules. Tideglusib significantly reduced cerebral infarct volume at both 24h and 7days after HI injury. Tideglusib also increased phosphorylated GSK-3β(Ser9) and Akt(Ser473), and reduced the expression of GFAP and p-STAT3(Tyr705). In addition, pretreatment with tideglusib also enhanced the protein level of Notch1. Moreover, tideglusib reduced the cleavage of pro-apoptotic signal caspase proteins, including caspase 3 and caspase 9 following HI. These results indicate that tideglusib shows neuroprotection against hypoxic-ischemic brain injury in neonatal mice. Tideglusib is a potential compound for the prevention or treatment of hypoxic-ischemic brain injury in neonates. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Current management of the infant who presents with neonatal encephalopathy.

    PubMed

    Wachtel, Elena V; Hendricks-Muñoz, Karen D

    2011-01-01

    Neonatal encephalopathy after perinatal hypoxic-ischemic insult is a major contributor to global child mortality and morbidity. Brain injury in term infants in response to hypoxic-ischemic insult is a complex process evolving over hours to days, which provides a unique window of opportunity for neuroprotective treatment interventions. Advances in neuroimaging, brain monitoring techniques, and tissue biomarkers have improved the ability to diagnose, monitor, and care for newborn infants with neonatal encephalopathy as well as predict their outcome. However, challenges remain in early identification of infants at risk for neonatal encephalopathy, determination of timing and extent of hypoxic-ischemic brain injury, as well as optimal management and treatment duration. Therapeutic hypothermia is the most promising neuroprotective intervention to date for infants with moderate to severe neonatal encephalopathy after perinatal asphyxia and has currently been incorporated in many neonatal intensive care units in developed countries. However, only 1 in 6 babies with encephalopathy will benefit from hypothermia therapy; many infants still develop significant adverse outcomes. To enhance the outcome, specific diagnostic predictors are needed to identify patients likely to benefit from hypothermia treatment. Studies are needed to determine the efficacy of combined therapeutic strategies with hypothermia therapy to achieve maximal neuroprotective effect. This review focuses on important concepts in the pathophysiology, diagnosis, and management of infants with neonatal encephalopathy due to perinatal asphyxia, including an overview of recently introduced novel therapies. © 2011 Published by Mosby, Inc.

  2. Hypoxic-Ischemic Encephalopathy-Associated Liver Fatty Degeneration and the Effects of Therapeutic Hypothermia in Newborn Piglets.

    PubMed

    Kubo, Hiroyuki; Shimono, Ryuichi; Nakamura, Shinji; Koyano, Kosuke; Jinnai, Wataru; Yamato, Satoshi; Yasuda, Saneyuki; Nakamura, Makoto; Tanaka, Aya; Fujii, Takayuki; Kanenishi, Kenji; Chiba, Yoichi; Miki, Takanori; Kusaka, Takashi; Ueno, Masaki

    2017-01-01

    Although liver can be injured under the hypoxic-ischemic encephalopathy (HIE) condition, there is currently no histopathological evidence. Therapeutic hypothermia is used to protect the brain; however, the therapeutic potential for concomitant liver injury is unknown. This study aimed to histopathologically prove HIE-associated liver injury and to investigate the influence of therapeutic hypothermia in a newborn piglet HIE model. Eighteen newborn piglets were divided into 3 groups: control (n = 4), HIE (n = 8), and therapeutic hypothermia (n = 6) groups. The hypoxic insult was induced by decreasing the fraction of inspiratory oxygen from 21 to 2-4% over 40 min while monitoring cerebral blood volume and cerebral hemoglobin oxygen saturation. For therapeutic hypothermia, whole-body cooling at 33-34°C was administered for 24 h after the hypoxic insult. We hematologically and histopathologically investigated the liver injury in all groups. Alanine transaminase and lactate dehydrogenase levels in the HIE group were significantly elevated compared with those in the control group. Micro-lipid droplet accumulation in the periportal zone, but not in the perivenous zone, was significantly greater in the HIE group than in the control group and significantly smaller in the therapeutic hypothermia group than in the HIE group. We demonstrated that micro-lipid droplet accumulation in the cytoplasm of hepatocytes in the periportal zone occurs under the HIE condition and that this accumulation is suppressed by therapeutic hypothermia. © 2016 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  3. Prevalence, severity and early outcomes of hypoxic ischemic encephalopathy among newborns at a tertiary hospital, in northern Tanzania.

    PubMed

    Simiyu, Irene N; Mchaile, Deborah N; Katsongeri, Kahindo; Philemon, Rune N; Msuya, Sia E

    2017-05-25

    Hypoxic Ischemic Encephalopathy (HIE) remains a problem of great concern worldwide especially in developing countries. The occurrence of a neurological syndrome can be an indicator of insult to the brain. We aimed to determine the prevalence, HIE proportions, neurological signs and early outcomes of newborns that developed birth asphyxia at KCMC Tanzania. A prospective study was conducted at KCMC from November 2014 to April 2015 among newborns with birth asphyxia. Sarnat and Sarnat score was used to assess newborns immediately after birth to classify HIE and were later followed daily for 7 days or until discharge. Of the 1752 deliveries during the study period, 11.5% (n = 201) had birth asphyxia. Of the 201 newborns, 187 had HIE. Of these 187 with HIE; 39.0% had moderate HIE and 10.2% had severe HIE according to the Sarnat and Sarnat classification. Neurological signs that were observed during the study period were; weak/absent reflexes (46.0%), hypotonia (43.3%) and lethargy (42.2%). Mortality was 9.1% among the 187 newborns with HIE. Mortality was higher among newborns with severe HIE 84.2% (16/19) compared to those with moderate HIE 1.4% (1/73). On the 7th day after delivery, 17.1% (32/187) of the newborns did not show any change from the initial score at delivery. Prevalence of birth asphyxia is high in our setting and most of the newborns (49%) end up with moderate/severe HIE. Good obstetric care and immediate resuscitation of newborns are vital in reducing the occurrence of HIE and improving the general outcome of newborns.

  4. Near-infrared spectroscopy versus magnetic resonance imaging to study brain perfusion in newborns with hypoxic-ischemic encephalopathy treated with hypothermia.

    PubMed

    Wintermark, P; Hansen, A; Warfield, S K; Dukhovny, D; Soul, J S

    2014-01-15

    The measurement of brain perfusion may provide valuable information for assessment and treatment of newborns with hypoxic-ischemic encephalopathy (HIE). While arterial spin labeled perfusion (ASL) magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) provides noninvasive and direct measurements of regional cerebral blood flow (CBF) values, it is logistically challenging to obtain. Near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) might be an alternative, as it permits noninvasive and continuous monitoring of cerebral hemodynamics and oxygenation at the bedside. The purpose of this study is to determine the correlation between measurements of brain perfusion by NIRS and by MRI in term newborns with HIE treated with hypothermia. In this prospective cohort study, ASL-MRI and NIRS performed during hypothermia were used to assess brain perfusion in these newborns. Regional cerebral blood flow (CBF) values, measured from 1-2 MRI scans for each patient, were compared to mixed venous saturation values (SctO2) recorded by NIRS just before and after each MRI. Analysis included groupings into moderate versus severe HIE based on their initial background pattern of amplitude-integrated electroencephalogram. Twelve concomitant recordings were obtained of seven neonates. Strong correlation was found between SctO2 and CBF in asphyxiated newborns with severe HIE (r=0.88; p value=0.0085). Moreover, newborns with severe HIE had lower CBF (likely lower oxygen supply) and extracted less oxygen (likely lower oxygen demand or utilization) when comparing SctO2 and CBF to those with moderate HIE. NIRS is an effective bedside tool to monitor and understand brain perfusion changes in term asphyxiated newborns, which in conjunction with precise measurements of CBF obtained by MRI at particular times, may help tailor neuroprotective strategies in term newborns with HIE. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Prognostic value of diffusion-weighted imaging summation scores or apparent diffusion coefficient maps in newborns with hypoxic-ischemic encephalopathy.

    PubMed

    Cavalleri, Francesca; Lugli, Licia; Pugliese, Marisa; D'Amico, Roberto; Todeschini, Alessandra; Della Casa, Elisa; Gallo, Claudio; Frassoldati, Rossella; Ferrari, Fabrizio

    2014-09-01

    The diagnostic and prognostic assessment of newborn infants with hypoxic-ischemic encephalopathy (HIE) comprises, among other tools, diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI) and apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) maps. To compare the ability of DWI and ADC maps in newborns with HIE to predict the neurodevelopmental outcome at 2 years of age. Thirty-four term newborns with HIE admitted to the Neonatal Intensive Care Unit of Modena University Hospital from 2004 to 2008 were consecutively enrolled in the study. All newborns received EEG, conventional MRI and DWI within the first week of life. DWI was analyzed by means of summation (S) score and regional ADC measurements. Neurodevelopmental outcome was assessed with a standard 1-4 scale and the Griffiths Mental Developmental Scales - Revised (GMDS-R). When the outcome was evaluated with a standard 1-4 scale, the DWI S scores showed very high area under the curve (AUC) (0.89) whereas regional ADC measurements in specific subregions had relatively modest predictive value. The lentiform nucleus was the region with the highest AUC (0.78). When GMDS-R were considered, DWI S scores were good to excellent predictors for some GMDS-R subscales. The predictive value of ADC measurements was both region- and subscale-specific. In particular, ADC measurements in some regions (basal ganglia, white matter or rolandic cortex) were excellent predictors for specific GMDS-R with AUCs up to 0.93. DWI S scores showed the highest prognostic value for the neurological outcome at 2 years of age. Regional ADC measurements in specific subregions proved to be highly prognostic for specific neurodevelopmental outcomes.

  6. Near-Infrared Spectroscopy versus Magnetic Resonance Imaging To Study Brain Perfusion in Newborns with Hypoxic-Ischemic Encephalopathy Treated with Hypothermia

    PubMed Central

    Wintermark, P.; Hansen, A.; Warfield, SK.; Dukhovny, D.; Soul, JS.

    2014-01-01

    Background The measurement of brain perfusion may provide valuable information for assessment and treatment of newborns with hypoxic-ischemic encephalopathy (HIE). While arterial spin labeled perfusion (ASL) magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) provides noninvasive and direct measurements of regional cerebral blood flow (CBF) values, it is logistically challenging to obtain. Near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) might be an alternative, as it permits noninvasive and continuous monitoring of cerebral hemodynamics and oxygenation at the bedside. Objective The purpose of this study is to determine the correlation between measurements of brain perfusion by NIRS and by MRI in term newborns with HIE treated with hypothermia. Design/Methods In this prospective cohort study, ASL-MRI and NIRS performed during hypothermia were used to assess brain perfusion in these newborns. Regional cerebral blood flow values (CBF), measured from 1–2 MRI scans for each patient, were compared to mixed venous saturation values (SctO2) recorded by NIRS just before and after each MRI. Analysis included groupings into moderate versus severe HIE based on their initial background pattern of amplitude-integrated electroencephalogram. Results Twelve concomitant recordings were obtained of seven neonates. Strong correlation was found between SctO2 and CBF in asphyxiated newborns with severe HIE (r = 0.88; p value = 0.0085). Moreover, newborns with severe HIE had lower CBF (likely lower oxygen supply) and extracted less oxygen (likely lower oxygen demand or utilization) when comparing SctO2 and CBF to those with moderate HIE. Conclusions NIRS is an effective bedside tool to monitor and understand brain perfusion changes in term asphyxiated newborns, which in conjunction with precise measurements of CBF obtained by MRI at particular times, may help tailor neuroprotective strategies in term newborns with HIE. PMID:23631990

  7. Use of estetrol with other steroids for attenuation of neonatal hypoxic-ischemic brain injury: to combine or not to combine?

    PubMed

    Tskitishvili, Ekaterine; Pequeux, Christel; Munaut, Carine; Viellevoye, Renaud; Nisolle, Michelle; Noël, Agnes; Foidart, Jean-Michel

    2016-06-07

    Estetrol (E4), estradiol (E2) and progesterone (P4) have important antioxidative and neuroprotective effects in neuronal system. We aimed to study the consequence of combined steroid therapy in neonatal hypoxic-ischemic encephalopathy (HIE). In vitro the effect of E4 combined with other steroids on oxidative stress and the cell viability in primary hippocampal cultures was evaluated by lactate dehydrogenase and cell survival assays. In vivo neuroprotective and therapeutic efficacy of E4 combined with other steroids was studied in HIE model of immature rats. The rat pups rectal temperature, body and brain weights were evaluated.The hippocampus and the cortex were investigated by histo/immunohistochemistry: intact cell number counting, expressions of markers for early gray matter lose, neuro- and angiogenesis were studied. Glial fibrillary acidic protein was evaluated by ELISA in blood samples. In vitro E4 and combinations of high doses of E4 with P4 and/or E2 significantly diminished the LDH activity and upregulated the cell survival.In vivopretreatment or treatment by different combinations of E4 with other steroids had unalike effects on body and brain weight, neuro- and angiogenesis, and GFAP expression in blood. The combined use of E4 with other steroids has no benefit over the single use of E4.

  8. Measurement of Lactate Content and Amide Proton Transfer Values in the Basal Ganglia of a Neonatal Piglet Hypoxic-Ischemic Brain Injury Model Using MRI.

    PubMed

    Zheng, Y; Wang, X-M

    2017-04-01

    As amide proton transfer imaging is sensitive to protein content and intracellular pH, it has been widely used in the nervous system, including brain tumors and stroke. This work aimed to measure the lactate content and amide proton transfer values in the basal ganglia of a neonatal piglet hypoxic-ischemic brain injury model by using MR spectroscopy and amide proton transfer imaging. From 58 healthy neonatal piglets (3-5 days after birth; weight, 1-1.5 kg) selected initially, 9 piglets remained in the control group and 43 piglets, in the hypoxic-ischemic brain injury group. Single-section amide proton transfer imaging was performed at the coronal level of the basal ganglia. Amide proton transfer values of the bilateral basal ganglia were measured in all piglets. The ROI of MR spectroscopy imaging was the right basal ganglia, and the postprocessing was completed with LCModel software. After hypoxic-ischemic insult, the amide proton transfer values immediately decreased, and at 0-2 hours, they remained at their lowest level. Thereafter, they gradually increased and finally exceeded those of the control group at 48-72 hours. After hypoxic-ischemic insult, the lactate content increased immediately, was maximal at 2-6 hours, and then gradually decreased to the level of the control group. The amide proton transfer values were negatively correlated with lactate content ( r = -0.79, P < .05). This observation suggests that after hypoxic-ischemic insult, the recovery of pH was faster than that of lactate homeostasis. © 2017 by American Journal of Neuroradiology.

  9. Mitochondrial Optic Atrophy (OPA) 1 Processing Is Altered in Response to Neonatal Hypoxic-Ischemic Brain Injury

    PubMed Central

    Baburamani, Ana A.; Hurling, Chloe; Stolp, Helen; Sobotka, Kristina; Gressens, Pierre; Hagberg, Henrik; Thornton, Claire

    2015-01-01

    Perturbation of mitochondrial function and subsequent induction of cell death pathways are key hallmarks in neonatal hypoxic-ischemic (HI) injury, both in animal models and in term infants. Mitoprotective therapies therefore offer a new avenue for intervention for the babies who suffer life-long disabilities as a result of birth asphyxia. Here we show that after oxygen-glucose deprivation in primary neurons or in a mouse model of HI, mitochondrial protein homeostasis is altered, manifesting as a change in mitochondrial morphology and functional impairment. Furthermore we find that the mitochondrial fusion and cristae regulatory protein, OPA1, is aberrantly cleaved to shorter forms. OPA1 cleavage is normally regulated by a balanced action of the proteases Yme1L and Oma1. However, in primary neurons or after HI in vivo, protein expression of YmelL is also reduced, whereas no change is observed in Oma1 expression. Our data strongly suggest that alterations in mitochondria-shaping proteins are an early event in the pathogenesis of neonatal HI injury. PMID:26393574

  10. Neuroprotective effects of electroacupuncture on hypoxic-ischemic encephalopathy in newborn rats are associated with increased expression of GDNF-RET and protein kinase B.

    PubMed

    Xu, Tao; Xu, Neng-Gui; Yang, Zhong-Hua; Wan, Yan-Zhen; Wu, Qing-Long; Huang, Kang-Bai

    2016-06-01

    To explore the neuroprotective effects of electroacupuncture (EA) on hypoxic-ischemic encephalopathy (HIE) and to further investigate the role of glial cell line-derived neurotrophic factor (GDNF) family receptor member RET (rearranged during transfection) and its key downstream phosphatidylinositol 3 kinase (PI-3K)/protein kinase B (Akt) pathway in the process. A total of 220 seven-day-old SD rats (of either sex, from 22 broods) were randomly divided into two groups, one (30 rats) for sham-surgery group and the other (190 rats) for HIE model group. The HIE model was established using the left common carotid artery ligation method in combination with hypoxic treatment. The successfully established rats were randomly divided into five groups, including control model group, EA group, sham-EA group, antagonist group and antagonist plus electroacupuncture group, with 35 rats in each group. Baihui (GV 20), Dazhui (GV 14), Quchi (LI 11) and Yongquan (KI 1) acupoints were chosen for acupuncture. EA was performed at Baihui and Quchi for 10 min once a day for continuous 1, 3, 7 and 21 days, respectively. The rats were then killed after the operation and injured cerebral cortex was taken for the measurement of neurologic damage by hematoxylin-eosin (HE) staining and the degenerative changes of cortical ultrastructure by transmission electron microscopy. RET mRNA level and Akt protein level were detected by real-time reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) and western blot analysis, respectively. EA could ameliorate neurologic damage of the first somatic sensory area (S1Tr) and alleviate the degenerative changes of ultrastructure of cortical neurons in rats subjected to HIE. And the longer acupuncture treatment lasted, the better its therapeutic effect would be. This was accompanied by gradually increased expression of GDNF family receptor RET at the mRNA level and its downstream signaling Akt at the protein level in the ischemic cortex. EA has

  11. New Wavelet Neurovascular Bundle for Bedside Evaluation of Cerebral Autoregulation and Neurovascular Coupling in Newborns with Hypoxic-Ischemic Encephalopathy.

    PubMed

    Chalak, Lina F; Zhang, Rong

    2017-01-01

    Neonatal encephalopathy (NE) resulting from birth asphyxia constitutes a major global public health burden for millions of infants every year, and despite therapeutic hypothermia, half of these neonates have poor neurological outcomes. As new neuroprotective interventions are being studied in clinical trials, there is a critical need to establish physiological surrogate markers of therapeutic efficacy, to guide patient selection and/or to modify the therapeutic intervention. The challenge in the field of neonatal brain injury has been the difficulty of clinically discerning NE severity within the short therapeutic window after birth or of analyzing the dynamic aspects of the cerebral circulation in sick NE newborns. To address this roadblock, we have recently developed a new "wavelet neurovascular bundle" analytical system that can measure cerebral autoregulation (CA) and neurovascular coupling (NVC) at multiple time scales under dynamic, nonstationary clinical conditions. This wavelet analysis may allow noninvasive quantification at the bedside of (1) CA (combining metrics of blood pressure and cerebral near-infrared spectroscopy, NIRS) and (2) NVC (combining metrics obtained from NIRS and EEG) in newborns with encephalopathy without mathematical assumptions of linear and stationary systems. In this concept paper, we present case examples of NE using the proposed physiological wavelet metrics of CA and NVC. The new approach, once validated in large NE studies, has the potential to optimize the selection of candidates for therapeutic decision-making, and the prediction of neurocognitive outcomes. © 2017 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  12. New Wavelet Neurovascular Bundle for Bedside Evaluation of Cerebral Autoregulation and Neurovascular Coupling in Newborns with Hypoxic Ischemic Encephalopathy

    PubMed Central

    Chalak, Lina F; Zhang, Rong

    2017-01-01

    Neonatal encephalopathy (NE) resulting from birth asphyxia constitutes a major global public health burden for millions of infants every year, and despite therapeutic hypothermia, half of neonates have poor neurologic outcomes. As new neuroprotective interventions are being studied in clinical trials, there is a critical need to establish physiological surrogate markers of therapeutic efficacy, to guide patient selection and/or to modify the therapeutic intervention. The challenge in the field of neonatal brain injury has been the difficulty to clinically discern the NE severity within the short therapeutic window after birth, or to analyze the dynamic aspects of the cerebral circulation in the NE sick newborns. To address this road block, we have recently developed a new “wavelet neurovascular bundle” analytical system that can measure cerebral autoregulation (CA) and neurovascular coupling (NVC) at multiple time scales under dynamic, non-stationary clinical conditions. This wavelet analysis can enable non-invasive quantification at the bedside of 1) CA (combining metrics of blood pressure and cerebral NIRS), and 2) NVC (combining metrics obtained from NIRS and EEG) in newborns with encephalopathy without mathematical assumptions of linear and stationary systems. In this concept paper, we present case examples of NE using the proposed physiological wavelet metrics of CA and NVC. The new approach, once validated in large NE studies has the potential to optimize the selection of candidates for therapeutic decision making, and the prediction of neurocognitive outcomes. PMID:28355608

  13. n-3 Polyunsaturated Fatty Acids Reduce Neonatal Hypoxic/Ischemic Brain Injury by Promoting Phosphatidylserine Formation and Akt Signaling.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Wenting; Liu, Jia; Hu, Xiaoming; Li, Peiying; Leak, Rehana K; Gao, Yanqin; Chen, Jun

    2015-10-01

    Omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (n-3 PUFAs) attenuate neonatal hypoxic/ischemic (H/I) brain damage, but the underlying mechanisms are not fully understood. This study tested the hypothesis that n-3 PUFAs enhance Akt-dependent prosurvival signaling by promoting the biosynthesis of phosphatidylserine in neuronal cell membranes. Dietary n-3 PUFA supplementation was initiated on the second day of pregnancy in dams. H/I was induced in 7-day-old rat pups by ipsilateral common carotid artery occlusion followed by hypoxia (8% oxygen for 2.5 hours). Neurological outcomes, brain tissue loss, cell death, and the activation of signaling events were assessed after H/I. The effects of n-3 PUFAs (docosahexaenoic acid and eicosapentaenoic acid) on oxygen-glucose deprivation-induced cell death and the underlying mechanism of protection were also examined in primary cortical neuron cultures. n-3 PUFAs reduced brain tissue loss at 7 days after H/I and improved neurological outcomes, whereas inhibition of PI3K/Akt signaling by LY294002 partially abrogated this neuroprotective effect. Docosahexaenoic acid/eicosapentaenoic acid also prevented ischemic neuronal death through the Akt prosurvival pathway in vitro. Furthermore, docosahexaenoic acid/eicosapentaenoic acid increased the production of phosphatidylserine, the major membrane-bound phospholipids, after ischemia both in vitro and in vivo. A reduction in membrane phosphatidylserine by shRNA-mediated knockdown of phosphatidylserine synthetase-1 attenuated Akt activation and neuronal survival after docosahexaenoic acid/eicosapentaenoic acid treatment in the oxygen-glucose deprivation model. n-3 PUFAs robustly protect against H/I-induced brain damage in neonates by activating Akt prosurvival pathway in compromised neurons. In addition, n-3 PUFAs promote the formation of membrane phosphatidylserine, thereby promoting Akt activity and improving cellular survival. © 2015 American Heart Association, Inc.

  14. [Effects of quercetin on the learning and memory ability of neonatal rats with hypoxic-ischemic brain damage].

    PubMed

    Huang, Jing-Jing; Liu, Xuan; Wang, Xing-Qi; Yang, Li-Hua; Qi, Da-Shi; Yao, Rui-Qin

    2012-06-01

    To study the effects of quercetin, a flavonoid, on the learning and memory ability of 3-day-old neonatal rats with hypoxic-ischemic brain white matter damage (WMD). Sixty 3-day-old Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly divided into four groups: control, WMD model,and quercetin treatment groups (20 and 40 mg/kg). There were 15 rats in each group. Rats in the WMD model and the two quercetin treatment groups were subjected to right common carotid artery ligation followed by 2 hrs of exposure to 8% O2 to induce periventricular white matter injury. After the operation quercetin was administered daily in the two quercetin treatment groups for 6 weeks. Six weeks later, Morris water maze and open-field tests were carried out to test memory and learning ability as well as behavior and cognition. From the second day of training, escape latency in the Morris water maze test was more prolonged in the WMD model group than in the control group (P<0.01). The escape latency in the two quercetin treatment groups was shortened significantly compared with the WMD model group (P<0.05). The WMD model group crossed the original platform fewer times compared with the control and quercetin treatment groups (P<0.05). The open-field test indicated that the number of rearings increased and time spent in the centre was extended in the WMD model group compared with the control group. Compared with the WMD model group, the number of rearings was significantly reduced (P<0.05) and time spent in the centre was significantly shortened in the quercetin treatment groups (P<0.05). Quercetin treatment can improve memory and learning ability as well as cognitive ability in neonates with WMD, suggesting that quercetin protects against WMD resulting from hypoxia-ischemia.

  15. Atomoxetine, a selective norepinephrine reuptake inhibitor, improves short-term histological outcomes after hypoxic-ischemic brain injury in the neonatal male rat.

    PubMed

    Toshimitsu, Masatake; Kamei, Yoshimasa; Ichinose, Mari; Seyama, Takahiro; Imada, Shinya; Iriyama, Takayuki; Fujii, Tomoyuki

    2018-03-30

    Despite the recent progress of perinatal medicine, perinatal hypoxic-ischemic (HI) insult remains an important cause of brain injury in neonates, and is pathologically characterized by neuronal loss and the presence of microglia. Neurotransmitters, such as norepinephrine (NE) and glutamate, are involved in the pathogenesis of hypoxic-ischemic encephalopathy via the interaction between neurons and microglia. Although it is well known that the monoamine neurotransmitter NE acts as an anti-inflammatory agent in the brain under pathological conditions, its effects on perinatal HI insult remains elusive. Atomoxetine, a selective NE reuptake inhibitor, has been used clinically for the treatment of attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder in children. Here, we investigated whether the enhancement of endogenous NE by administration of atomoxetine could protect neonates against HI insult by using the neonatal male rat model. We also examined the involvement of microglia in this process. Unilateral HI brain injury was induced by the combination of left carotid artery dissection followed by ligation and hypoxia (8% O 2 , 2 h) in postnatal day 7 (P7) male rat pups. The pups were randomized into three groups: the atomoxetine treatment immediately after HI insult, the atomoxetine treatment at 3 h after HI insult, or the vehicle treatment group. The pups were euthanized on P8 and P14, and the brain regions including the cortex, striatum, hippocampus, and thalamus were evaluated by immunohistochemistry. HI insult resulted in severe brain damage in the ipsilateral hemisphere at P14. Atomoxetine treatment immediately after HI insult significantly increased NE levels in the ipsilateral hemisphere at 1 h after HI insult and reduced the neuronal damage via the increased phosphorylation of cAMP response element-binding protein (pCREB) in all brain regions examined. In addition, the number of microglia was maintained under atomoxetine treatment compared with that of the vehicle

  16. Fresh stillborn and severely asphyxiated neonates share a common hypoxic-ischemic pathway.

    PubMed

    Ersdal, Hege L; Eilevstjønn, Joar; Linde, Jørgen E; Yeconia, Anita; Mduma, Estomih R; Kidanto, Hussein; Perlman, Jeffrey

    2018-05-01

    To characterize, among non-breathing flaccid neonates at delivery, immediate heartrate and responses to ventilation in relation to the clinical diagnosis of fresh stillbirth (FSB) or early neonatal death (END) within 24 hours. The present cross-sectional study included all deliveries at Haydom Hospital in rural Tanzania between July 1, 2013, and July 31, 2016. Ventilation parameters and heartrate were recorded by monitors with ventilation and dry-electrocardiography sensors. Perinatal characteristics were recorded on data forms by trained research assistants. Among 12 789 neonates delivered, 915 were ventilated; among ventilated neonates, there were 53 (6%) FSBs and 64 (7%) ENDs. Electrocardiography was used in 46 FSBs and 55 ENDs, and these neonates were included in a subanalysis. Initial heartrate was detected in 27 (59%) of 46 FSBs and 52 (95%) of 55 ENDs, and was lower in FSBs (52 ± 19 vs 76 ± 37 bpm; P=0.003). More ENDs responded to ventilation (53% vs 9%; P<0.001), with heartrate increasing above 100 bpm. Heartrate at ventilation discontinuation was higher among ENDs (115 ± 49 vs 52 ± 33 bpm; P<0.001). Progression to FSB or END after intrapartum hypoxia/anoxia is probably part of the same circulatory end-process. Distinguishing FSB from severely asphyxiated newborns is clinically difficult and probably influences estimated global perinatal mortality rates. © 2017 International Federation of Gynecology and Obstetrics.

  17. Advances in magnetic resonance neuroimaging techniques in the evaluation of neonatal encephalopathy.

    PubMed

    Panigrahy, Ashok; Blüml, Stefan

    2007-02-01

    Magnetic resonance (MR) imaging has become an essential tool in the evaluation of neonatal encephalopathy. Magnetic resonance-compatible neonatal incubators allow sick neonates to be transported to the MR scanner, and neonatal head coils can improve signal-to-noise ratio, critical for advanced MR imaging techniques. Refinement of conventional imaging techniques include the use of PROPELLER techniques for motion correction. Magnetic resonance spectroscopic imaging and diffusion tensor imaging provide quantitative assessment of both brain development and brain injury in the newborn with respect to metabolite abnormalities and hypoxic-ischemic injury. Knowledge of normal developmental changes in MR spectroscopy metabolite concentration and diffusion tensor metrics is essential to interpret pathological cases. Perfusion MR and functional MR can provide additional physiological information. Both MR spectroscopy and diffusion tensor imaging can provide additional information in the differential of neonatal encephalopathy, including perinatal white matter injury, hypoxic-ischemic brain injury, metabolic disease, infection, and birth injury.

  18. EEG Monitoring Technique Influences the Management of Hypoxic-Ischemic Seizures in Neonates Undergoing Therapeutic Hypothermia.

    PubMed

    Jan, Saber; Northington, Frances J; Parkinson, Charlamaine M; Stafstrom, Carl E

    2017-01-01

    Electroencephalogram (EEG) monitoring techniques for neonatal hypoxia-ischemia (HI) are evolving over time, and the specific type of EEG utilized could influence seizure diagnosis and management. We examined whether the type of EEG performed affected seizure treatment decisions (e.g., the choice and number of antiseizure drugs [ASDs]) in therapeutic hypothermia-treated neonates with HI from 2007 to 2015 in the Johns Hopkins Hospital Neonatal Intensive Care Unit. During this period, 3 different EEG monitoring protocols were utilized: Period 1 (2007-2009), single, brief conventional EEG (1 h duration) at a variable time during therapeutic hypothermia treatment, i.e., ordered when a seizure was suspected; Period 2 (2009-2013), single, brief conventional EEG followed by amplitude-integrated EEG for the duration of therapeutic hypothermia treatment and another brief conventional EEG after rewarming; and Period 3 (2014-2015), continuous video-EEG (cEEG) for the duration of therapeutic hypothermia treatment (72 h) plus for an additional 12 h during and after rewarming. One hundred and sixty-two newborns were included in this retrospective cohort study. As a function of the type and duration of EEG monitoring, we assessed the risk (likelihood) of receiving no ASD, at least 1 ASD, or ≥2 ASDs. We found that the risk of a neonate being prescribed an ASD was 46% less during Period 3 (cEEG) than during Period 1 (brief conventional EEG only) (95% CI 6-69%, p = 0.03). After adjusting for initial EEG and MRI results, compared with Period 1, there was a 38% lower risk of receiving an ASD during Period 2 (95% CI: 9-58%, p = 0.02) and a 67% lower risk during Period 3 (95% CI: 23-86%, p = 0.01). The risk ratio of receiving ≥2 ASDs was not significantly different across the 3 periods. In conclusion, in addition to the higher sensitivity and specificity of continuous video-EEG monitoring, fewer infants are prescribed an ASD when undergoing continuous forms of EEG monitoring (aEEG or

  19. Inhibition of Na+/H+ Exchanger Isoform 1 Is Neuroprotective in Neonatal Hypoxic Ischemic Brain Injury

    PubMed Central

    Kleman, Neil; Uluc, Kutluay; Kendigelen, Pinar; Hagemann, Tracy; Akture, Erinc; Messing, Albee; Ferrazzano, Peter; Sun, Dandan

    2011-01-01

    Abstract We investigated the role of Na+/H+ exchanger isoform 1 (NHE-1) in neonatal hypoxia/ischemia (HI). HI was induced by unilateral ligation of the left common carotid artery in postnatal day 9 (P9) mice, and subsequent exposure of animals to 8% O2 for 55 min. A pre/posttreatment group received a selective and potent NHE-1 inhibitor HOE 642 (0.5 mg/kg, intraperitoneally) 5 min before HI, then at 24 and 48 h after HI. A posttreatment group received HOE 642 (0.5 mg/kg) at 10 min, 24 h, and 48 h after HI. Saline injections were used as vehicle controls. The vehicle-control brains at 72 h after HI exhibited neuronal degeneration in the ipsilateral hippocampus, striatum, and thalamus, as identified with Fluoro-Jade C positive staining and loss of microtubule-associated protein 2 (MAP2) expression. NHE-1 protein was upregulated in glial fibrillary acidic protein–positive reactive astrocytes. In HOE 642–treated brains, the morphologic hippocampal structures were better preserved and displayed less neurodegeneration and a higher level of MAP2 expression. Motor-learning deficit was detected at 4 weeks of age after HI in the vehicle control group. Inhibition of NHE-1 in P9 mice not only reduced neurodegeneration during the acute stage of HI but also improved the striatum-dependent motor learning and spatial learning at 8 weeks of age after HI. These findings suggest that NHE-1–mediated disruption of ionic homeostasis contributes to striatal and CA1 pyramidal neuronal injury after neonatal HI. Antioxid. Redox Signal. 14, 1803–1813. PMID:20712402

  20. Adenosine A1 receptors contribute to immune regulation after neonatal hypoxic ischemic brain injury.

    PubMed

    Winerdal, Max; Winerdal, Malin E; Wang, Ying-Qing; Fredholm, Bertil B; Winqvist, Ola; Ådén, Ulrika

    2016-03-01

    Neonatal brain hypoxic ischemia (HI) often results in long-term motor and cognitive impairments. Post-ischemic inflammation greatly effects outcome and adenosine receptor signaling modulates both HI and immune cell function. Here, we investigated the influence of adenosine A1 receptor deficiency (A1R(-/-)) on key immune cell populations in a neonatal brain HI model. Ten-day-old mice were subjected to HI. Functional outcome was assessed by open locomotion and beam walking test and infarction size evaluated. Flow cytometry was performed on brain-infiltrating cells, and semi-automated analysis of flow cytometric data was applied. A1R(-/-) mice displayed larger infarctions (+33%, p < 0.05) and performed worse in beam walking tests (44% more mistakes, p < 0.05) than wild-type (WT) mice. Myeloid cell activation after injury was enhanced in A1R(-/-) versus WT brains. Activated B lymphocytes expressing IL-10 infiltrated the brain after HI in WT, but were less activated and did not increase in relative frequency in A1R(-/-). Also, A1R(-/-) B lymphocytes expressed less IL-10 than their WT counterparts, the A1R antagonist DPCPX decreased IL-10 expression whereas the A1R agonist CPA increased it. CD4(+) T lymphocytes including FoxP3(+) T regulatory cells, were unaffected by genotype, whereas CD8(+) T lymphocyte responses were smaller in A1R(-/-) mice. Using PCA to characterize the immune profile, we could discriminate the A1R(-/-) and WT genotypes as well as sham operated from HI-subjected animals. We conclude that A1R signaling modulates IL-10 expression by immune cells, influences the activation of these cells in vivo, and affects outcome after HI.

  1. Effects of hyperbaric oxygen and nerve growth factor on the long-term neural behavior of neonatal rats with hypoxic ischemic brain damage.

    PubMed

    Wei, Lixia; Ren, Qing; Zhang, Yongjun; Wang, Jiwen

    2017-04-01

    To evaluate the effects of HBO (Hyperbaric oxygen) and NGF (Nerve growth factor) on the long-term neural behavior of neonatal rats with HIBD (Neonatal hypoxic ischemic brain damage). The HIBD model was produced by ligating the right common carotid artery of 7 days old SD (Sprague-Dawley) rats followed by 8% O2 + 92% N2 for 2h. Totally 40 rats were randomly divided into 5 groups including sham-operated group, HIBD control group, HBO treated group, NGF treated group and NGF + HBO treated group. The learning and memory ability of these rats was evaluated by Morris water maze at 30 days after birth, and sensory motor function was assessed by experiments of foot error and limb placement at 42 days after birth. The escape latency of HBO treated group, NGF treated group and NGF + HBO treated group was shorter than that of HIBD control group (p<0.01) and longer than that of sham-operated group. The piercing indexes of 3 treated groups were higher than that of HIBD control group (p<0.01). Hyperbaric oxygen and nerve growth factor treatments may improve learning and memory ability and sensory motor function in neonatal rats after hypoxic ischemic brain damage.

  2. Sex differences in behavioral outcomes following temperature modulation during induced neonatal hypoxic ischemic injury in rats.

    PubMed

    Smith, Amanda L; Garbus, Haley; Rosenkrantz, Ted S; Fitch, Roslyn Holly

    2015-05-22

    Neonatal hypoxia ischemia (HI; reduced oxygen and/or blood flow to the brain) can cause various degrees of tissue damage, as well as subsequent cognitive/behavioral deficits such as motor, learning/memory, and auditory impairments. These outcomes frequently result from cardiovascular and/or respiratory events observed in premature infants. Data suggests that there is a sex difference in HI outcome, with males being more adversely affected relative to comparably injured females. Brain/body temperature may play a role in modulating the severity of an HI insult, with hypothermia during an insult yielding more favorable anatomical and behavioral outcomes. The current study utilized a postnatal day (P) 7 rodent model of HI injury to assess the effect of temperature modulation during injury in each sex. We hypothesized that female P7 rats would benefit more from lowered body temperatures as compared to male P7 rats. We assessed all subjects on rota-rod, auditory discrimination, and spatial/non-spatial maze tasks. Our results revealed a significant benefit of temperature reduction in HI females as measured by most of the employed behavioral tasks. However, HI males benefitted from temperature reduction as measured on auditory and non-spatial tasks. Our data suggest that temperature reduction protects both sexes from the deleterious effects of HI injury, but task and sex specific patterns of relative efficacy are seen.

  3. Krebs cycle metabolites and preferential succinate oxidation following neonatal hypoxic-ischemic brain injury in mice

    PubMed Central

    Sahni, Prateek V.; Zhang, Jimmy; Sosunov, Sergey; Galkin, Alexander; Niatsetskaya, Zoya; Starkov, Anatoly; Brookes, Paul S.; Ten, Vadim S.

    2017-01-01

    Background Reverse electron transport (RET) driven by the oxidation of succinate has been proposed as the mechanism of accelerated production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) in post-ischemic mitochondria. However, it remains unclear whether upon reperfusion, mitochondria preferentially oxidase succinate. Methods Neonatal mice were subjected to Rice-Vannucci model of hypoxicischemic brain injury (HI) followed by assessment of Krebs cycle metabolites, mitochondrial substrate preference, and H2O2 generation rate in the ischemic brain. Results While brain mitochondria from control mice exhibited a rotenonesensitive complex-I-dependent respiration, HI-brain mitochondria, at the initiation of reperfusion, demonstrated complex-II-dependent respiration, as rotenone minimally affected, but inhibition of complex-II ceased respiration. This was associated with a 30-fold increase of cerebral succinate concentration and significantly elevated H2O2 emission rate in HI-mice compared to controls. At sixty minutes of reperfusion, cerebral succinate content and the mitochondrial response to rotenone did not differ from that in controls. Conclusion These data are the first ex-vivo evidence, that at the initiation of reperfusion, brain mitochondria transiently shift their metabolism from complex-I-dependent oxidation of NADH toward complex II-linked oxidation of succinate. Our study provides a critical piece of support for existence of the RET-dependent mechanism of elevated ROS production in reperfusion. PMID:29211056

  4. Treatment with tamoxifen reduces hypoxic-ischemic brain injury in neonatal rats.

    PubMed

    Feng, Yangzheng; Fratkins, Jonathan D; LeBlanc, Michael H

    2004-01-19

    Tamoxifen, an estrogen receptor modulator, is neuroprotective in adult rats. Does tamoxifen reduce brain injury in the rat pup? Seven-day-old rat pups had the right carotid artery permanently ligated followed by 2.5 h of hypoxia (8% oxygen). Tamoxifen (10 mg/kg) or vehicle was given i.p. 5 min prior to hypoxia, or 5 min after reoxygenation, with a second dose given 6 h after the first. Brain damage was evaluated by weight deficit of the right hemisphere 22 days following hypoxia and gross and microscopic morphology. Tamoxifen pre-treatment reduced brain weight loss from 21.5+/-4.0% in vehicle pups (n=27) to 2.6+/-2.5% in the treated pups (n=22, P<0.05). Treatment 5 min after reoxygenation reduced brain weight loss from 27.5+/-4.0% in vehicle pups (n=42) to 12.0+/-3.9% in the treated pups (n=30, P<0.05). Tamoxifen reduces brain injury in the neonatal rat.

  5. Fructose-1,6-Bisphospate does not preserve ATP in hypoxic-ischemic neonatal cerebrocortical slices

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Jia; Hirai, Kiyoshi; Litt, Lawrence

    2008-01-01

    Fructose-1,6-bisphosphate (FBP), an endogenous intracellular metabolite in glycolysis, was found in many preclinical studies to be neuroprotective during hypoxia-ischemia (HI) when administered exogenously. We looked for HI neuroprotection from FBP in a neonatal rat brain slice model, using 14.1 Tesla 1H /31P/13C NMR spectroscopy of perchloric acid slice extracts to ask: 1) if FBP preserves high energy phosphates during HI; and 2) if exogenous [1-13C]FBP enters cells and is glycolytically metabolized to [3-13C]lactate. We also asked: 3) if substantial superoxide production occurs during and after HI, thinking such might be treatable by exogenous FBP's antioxidant effects. Superfused P7 rat cerebrocortical slices (350μm) were treated with 2 mM FBP before and during 30 min of HI, and then given four hours of recovery with an FBP-free oxygenated superfusate. Slices were removed before HI, at the end of HI, and at 1 and 4 hours after HI. FBP did not improve high energy phosphate levels or change 1H metabolite profiles. Large increases in [3-13C]lactate were seen with 13C NMR, but the lactate fractional enrichment was always (1.1±0.5)%, implying that all of lactate's 13C was natural abundance 13C, that none was from metabolism of 13C-FBP. FBP had no effect on the fluorescence of ethidium produced from superoxide oxidation of hydroethidine. Compared to control slices, ethidium fluorescence was 25% higher during HI and 50% higher at the end of recovery. Exogenous FBP did not provide protection or enter glycolysis. Its use as an antioxidant might be worth studying at higher FBP concentrations. PMID:18725216

  6. The Correlation Between a Short-term Conventional Electroencephalography in the First Day of Life and Brain Magnetic Resonance Imaging in Newborns Undergoing Hypothermia for Hypoxic-Ischemic Encephalopathy.

    PubMed

    Obeid, Rawad; Sogawa, Yoshimi; Gedela, Satyanarayana; Naik, Monica; Lee, Vince; Telesco, Richard; Wisnowski, Jessica; Magill, Christine; Painter, Michael J; Panigrahy, Ashok

    2017-02-01

    Electroencephalograph recorded in the first day of life in newborns treated with hypothermia for hypoxic-ischemic encephalopathy could be utilized as a predictive tool for the severity of brain injury on magnetic resonance imaging and mortality. We analyzed newborns who were admitted for therapeutic hypothermia due to hypoxic-ischemic encephalopathy. All enrolled infants underwent encephalography within the first 24 hours of life and underwent brain magnetic resonance imaging after rewarming. All encephalographs were independently reviewed for background amplitude, continuity, and variability. Brain injury determined by magnetic resonance imaging was scored using methods described by Bonifacio et al. Forty-one newborns were included in the study. Each encephalograph variable correlated significantly with the severity of injury on brain magnetic resonance imaging (P < 0.001 for each). The overall encephalograph severity estimated as mild, moderate, and severe also correlated with injury (P < 0.001). Each encephalograph variable correlated with mortality (P < 0.001 for each) and also the overall encephalograph severity (P < 0.001). Severity of electrographic findings on encephalograph in the first day of life during therapeutic hypothermia for hypoxic-ischemic encephalopathy correlated with the extent of injury on brain magnetic resonance imaging. This information may be useful for families and aid guide clinical decision making. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. N-3 Fatty Acid Rich Triglyceride Emulsions Are Neuroprotective after Cerebral Hypoxic-Ischemic Injury in Neonatal Mice

    PubMed Central

    Vannucci, Susan J.; Mastropietro, Christopher; Bazan, Nicolas G.; Ten, Vadim S.; Deckelbaum, Richard J.

    2013-01-01

    We questioned if acute administration of n-3 fatty acids (FA) carried in n-3 rich triglyceride (TG) emulsions provides neuroprotection in neonatal mice subjected to hypoxic-ischemic (H/I) brain injury. We examined specificity of FA, optimal doses, and therapeutic windows for neuroprotection after H/I. H/I insult was induced in C57BL/6J 10-day-old mice by right carotid artery ligation followed by exposure to 8% O2 for 15 minutes at 37°C. Intraperitoneal injection with n-3-rich TG emulsions, n-6 rich TG emulsions or saline for control was administered at different time points before and/or after H/I. In separate experiments, dose responses were determined with TG containing only docosahexaenoic acid (Tri-DHA) or eicosapentaenoic acid (Tri-EPA) with a range of 0.1–0.375 g n-3 TG/kg, administered immediately after H/I insult. Infarct volume and cerebral blood flow (CBF) were measured. Treatment with n-3 TG emulsions both before- and after- H/I significantly reduced total infarct volume by a mean of 43% when administered 90 min prior to H/I and by 47% when administered immediately after H/I. In post-H/I experiments Tri-DHA, but not Tri-EPA exhibited neuroprotective effects with both low and high doses (p<0.05). Moreover, delayed post-H/I treatment with Tri-DHA significantly decreased total infarct volume by a mean of 51% when administered at 0 hr, by 46% at 1 hr, and by 51% at 2 hr after H/I insult. No protective effect occurred with Tri-DHA injection at 4 hr after H/I. There were no n-3 TG related differences in CBF. A significant reduction in brain tissue death was maintained after Tri-DHA injection at 8 wk after the initial brain injury. Thus, n-3 TG, specifically containing DHA, is protective against H/I induced brain infarction when administered up to 2 hr after H/I injury. Acute administration of TG-rich DHA may prove effective for treatment of stroke in humans. PMID:23437099

  8. Goreisan Inhibits Upregulation of Aquaporin 4 and Formation of Cerebral Edema in the Rat Model of Juvenile Hypoxic-Ischemic Encephalopathy

    PubMed Central

    Yano, Hajime; Takahashi, Hisaaki; Yoshimoto, Kouhei; Tsuda, Shinji; Fujiyama, Kenta; Izumo-Shimizu, Yusuke; Motoie, Ryota; Ito, Masanori; Tanaka, Junya; Ishii, Eiichi

    2017-01-01

    Secondary cerebral edema regulation is of prognostic significance in hypoxic-ischemic encephalopathy (HIE), and aquaporin 4 (AQP4) plays an important role in the pathogenesis of cerebral edema. The traditional Japanese herbal medicine Goreisan relieves brain edema in adults; however, its effect and pharmacological mechanism in children are unknown. We investigated the effects of Goreisan on HIE-associated brain edema and AQP4 expression in a juvenile rat model, established by combined occlusion of middle cerebral and common carotid arteries. Magnetic resonance imaging showed that the lesion areas were significantly smaller in the Goreisan- (2 g/kg) treated group than in the nontreated (saline) group at 24 and 48 h postoperatively. AQP4 mRNA levels in the lesion and nonlesion sides were significantly suppressed in the Goreisan group compared with the nontreated group 36 h postoperatively. Western blotting revealed that levels of AQP4 protein were significantly decreased in the Goreisan group compared with the nontreated group in the lesion side 72 h postoperatively, but not at 12 or 36 h. After 14 days, the Goreisan group had a significantly better survival rate. These findings suggest that Goreisan suppresses brain edema in HIE and improves survival in juvenile rats, possibly via regulation of AQP4 expression and function. PMID:29234383

  9. Prediction of neurodevelopmental outcome after hypoxic-ischemic encephalopathy treated with hypothermia by diffusion tensor imaging analyzed using tract-based spatial statistics.

    PubMed

    Tusor, Nora; Wusthoff, Courtney; Smee, Natalie; Merchant, Nazakat; Arichi, Tomoki; Allsop, Joanna M; Cowan, Frances M; Azzopardi, Denis; Edwards, A David; Counsell, Serena J

    2012-07-01

    Objective biomarkers are needed to assess neuroprotective therapies after perinatal hypoxic-ischemic encephalopathy (HIE). We tested the hypothesis that, in infants who underwent therapeutic hypothermia after perinatal HIE, neurodevelopmental performance was predicted by fractional anisotropy (FA) values in the white matter (WM) on early diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) as assessed by means of tract-based spatial statistics (TBSS). We studied 43 term infants with HIE. Developmental assessments were carried out at a median (range) age of 24 (12-28) mo. As compared with infants with favorable outcomes, those with unfavorable outcomes had significantly lower FA values (P < 0.05) in the centrum semiovale, corpus callosum (CC), anterior and posterior limbs of the internal capsule, external capsules, fornix, cingulum, cerebral peduncles, optic radiations, and inferior longitudinal fasciculus. In a second analysis in 32 assessable infants, the Griffiths Mental Development Scales (Revised) (GMDS-R) showed a significant linear correlation (P < 0.05) between FA values and developmental quotient (DQ) and all its component subscale scores. DTI analyzed by TBSS provides a qualified biomarker that can be used to assess the efficacy of additional neuroprotective therapies after HIE.

  10. Expression of Clock genes in the pineal glands of newborn rats with hypoxic-ischemic encephalopathy☆

    PubMed Central

    Sun, Bin; Feng, Xing; Ding, Xin; Bao, Li; Li, Yongfu; He, Jun; Jin, Meifang

    2012-01-01

    Clock genes are involved in circadian rhythm regulation, and surviving newborns with hypoxic-ischemic encephalopathy may present with sleep-wake cycle reversal. This study aimed to determine the expression of the clock genes Clock and Bmal1, in the pineal gland of rats with hypoxic-ischemic brain damage. Results showed that levels of Clock mRNA were not significantly changed within 48 hours after cerebral hypoxia and ischemia. Expression levels of CLOCK and BMAL1 protein were significantly higher after 48 hours. The levels of Bmal1 mRNA reached a peak at 36 hours, but were significantly reduced at 48 hours. Experimental findings indicate that Clock and Bmal1 genes were indeed expressed in the pineal glands of neonatal rats. At the initial stage (within 36 hours) of hypoxic-ischemic brain damage, only slight changes in the expression levels of these two genes were detected, followed by significant changes at 36–48 hours. These changes may be associated with circadian rhythm disorder induced by hypoxic-ischemic brain damage. PMID:25538743

  11. [Long-term effects of early hyperbaric oxygen therapy on neonatal rats with hypoxic-ischemic brain damage].

    PubMed

    Liu, Mei-Na; Zhuang, Si-Qi; Zhang, Hong-Yu; Qin, Zhao-Yuan; Li, Xiao-Yu

    2006-06-01

    The application and therapeutic effect of hyperbaric oxygen (HBO) in hypoxic-ischemic brain damage (HIBD) remains controversial. Previous studies have focused on the early pathological and biochemical outcomes and there is a lack of long-term functional evaluation. This study was designed to evaluate the long-term pathological and behavioral changes of early HBO therapy on neonatal rats with HIBD. Postnatal 7 days (PD7) rat pups were randomly assigned into Control (n=18), HIBD (n=17) and HBO treatment groups (n=17). HIBD was induced by ligating the left common carotid, followed by 2 hrs hypoxia exposure in the HIBD and HBO treatment groups. The Control group was sham-operated and was not subjected to hypoxia exposure. The HBO therapy with 2 atmosphere absolutes began 0.5-1 hr after HIBD in the HIBD treatment group, once daily for 2 days. The spatial learning and memory ability were evaluated by the Morris water maze test at PD37 to PD41. The morphological and histological changes of the brain, including brain weight, survival neurons, AchE positive unit and NOS positive neurons in hippocampal CA1 region, were detected at PD42. The rats in the HIBD group displayed significant morphological and histological deficits, as well as severe spatial learning and memory disability. In the Morris water maze test, the mean escape latency were longer (56.35 +/- 22.37 s vs 23.07 +/- 16.28 s; P < 0.05) and the probe time and probe length were shorter in the HIBD group (29.29 +/- 6.06 s vs 51.21 +/- 4.59 s and 548 +/- 92 cm vs 989 +/- 101 cm; both P < 0.05) compared with the Control group. The left brain weight in the HIBD group was lighter than that in the Control group (0.601 +/- 0.59 g vs 0.984 +/- 0.18 g; P < 0.05). The survival neurons in the hippocampal CA1 region were less (100 +/- 27/mm vs 183 +/- 8/mm; P < 0.05), as well as the AchE-positive unit and NOS-positive neurons (18.50 +/- 2.24% vs 27.50 +/- 2.18% and 19.25 +/- 4.33 vs 33.75 +/- 5.57 respectively; P < 0.05) after

  12. No improvement of neuronal metabolism in the reperfusion phase with melatonin treatment after hypoxic-ischemic brain injury in the neonatal rat.

    PubMed

    Berger, Hester R; Morken, Tora Sund; Vettukattil, Riyas; Brubakk, Ann-Mari; Sonnewald, Ursula; Widerøe, Marius

    2016-01-01

    Mitochondrial impairment is a key feature underlying neonatal hypoxic-ischemic (HI) brain injury and melatonin is potentially neuroprotective through its effects on mitochondria. In this study, we have used (1) H and (13) C NMR spectroscopy after injection of [1-(13) C]glucose and [1,2-(13) C]acetate to examine neuronal and astrocytic metabolism in the early reperfusion phase after unilateral HI brain injury in 7-day-old rat pups, exploring the effects of HI on mitochondrial function and the potential protective effects of melatonin on brain metabolism. One hour after hypoxia-ischemia, astrocytic metabolism was recovered and glycolysis was normalized, whereas mitochondrial metabolism in neurons was clearly impaired. Pyruvate carboxylation was also lower in both hemispheres after HI. The transfer of glutamate from neurons to astrocytes was higher whereas the transfer of glutamine from astrocytes to neurons was lower 1 h after HI in the contralateral hemisphere. Neuronal metabolism was equally affected in pups treated with melatonin (10 mg/kg) immediately after HI as in vehicle treated pups indicating that the given dose of melatonin was not capable of protecting the neuronal mitochondria in this early phase after HI brain injury. However, any beneficial effects of melatonin might have been masked by modulatory effects of the solvent dimethyl sulfoxide on cerebral metabolism. Neuronal and astrocytic metabolism was examined by (13) C and (1) H NMR spectroscopy in the early reperfusion phase after unilateral hypoxic-ischemic brain injury and melatonin treatment in neonatal rats. One hour after hypoxia-ischemia astrocytic mitochondrial metabolism had recovered and glycolysis was normalized, whereas mitochondrial metabolism in neurons was impaired. Melatonin treatment did not show a protective effect on neuronal metabolism. © 2015 International Society for Neurochemistry.

  13. Dexamethasone Protects Neonatal Hypoxic-Ischemic Brain Injury via L-PGDS-Dependent PGD2-DP1-pERK Signaling Pathway

    PubMed Central

    Gonzalez-Rodriguez, Pablo J.; Li, Yong; Martinez, Fabian; Zhang, Lubo

    2014-01-01

    Background and Purpose Glucocorticoids pretreatment confers protection against neonatal hypoxic-ischemic (HI) brain injury. However, the molecular mechanism remains poorly elucidated. We tested the hypothesis that glucocorticoids protect against HI brain injury in neonatal rat by stimulation of lipocalin-type prostaglandin D synthase (L-PGDS)-induced prostaglandin D2 (PGD2)-DP1-pERK mediated signaling pathway. Methods Dexamethasone and inhibitors were administered via intracerebroventricular (i.c.v) injections into 10-day-old rat brains. Levels of L-PGD2, D prostanoid (DP1) receptor, pERK1/2 and PGD2 were determined by Western immunoblotting and ELISA, respectively. Brain injury was evaluated 48 hours after conduction of HI in 10-day-old rat pups. Results Dexamethasone pretreatment significantly upregulated L-PGDS expression and the biosynthesis of PGD2. Dexamethasone also selectively increased isoform pERK-44 level in the neonatal rat brains. Inhibitors of L-PGDS (SeCl4), DP1 (MK-0524) and MAPK (PD98059) abrogated dexamethasone-induced increases in pERK-44 level, respectively. Of importance, these inhibitors also blocked dexamethasone-mediated neuroprotective effects against HI brain injury in neonatal rat brains. Conclusion Interaction of glucocorticoids-GR signaling and L-PGDS-PGD2-DP1-pERK mediated pathway underlies the neuroprotective effects of dexamethasone pretreatment in neonatal HI brain injury. PMID:25474649

  14. Influence of one-year neurologic outcome of treatment on newborns with moderate and severe hypoxic-ischemic encephalopathy by rhuEP0 combined with ganglioside (GM1).

    PubMed

    Zhu, X-Y; Ye, M-Y; Zhang, A-M; Wang, W-D; Zeng, F; Li, J-L; Fang, F

    2015-10-01

    To observe the one-year neurologic prognostic outcome of newborns with moderate and severe hypoxic-ischemic encephalopathy (HIE) who received recombinant human erythropoietin (rhuEPO) combined with exogenous monosialotetrahexosylganglioside (GM1) treatment to provide new guidelines for clinical treatment. Seventy-six newborns with moderate and severe HIE were selected from February 2011 to February 2014 in our hospital. This study received the informed consent of our hospital's Ethics Committee and the newborns' guardians. The newborns were divided to an observation group (n = 34 cases) and a control group (n = 42 cases). All newborns underwent hypothermia and conventional treatment for their conditions. The control group received GMl treatment and observation group received rhuEPO combined with GMl treatment. The curative differences and neural behavior from these two groups were compared. The excellent, efficient proportion and total effective rate of the newborns from the observation group were higher than the control group. The death rate, cerebral palsy and the invalid ratio of the newborns from the observation group were lower than that of the control group. Awareness, muscle tension, primitive reflex and increased intracranial pressure recovery time of the newborns in the observation group were less than those of the control group. The Neonatal Behavior Neurological Assessment (NBNA) score of both groups after the treatment of 7, 14 and 28 days were significantly higher and increased with time (p < 0.05). The MDI, PDI and DQ score of newborns from the two groups all increased after treatment of 3, 6 and 12 months than those of before, which increased with time (p < 0.05). The rhuEPO + GMl treatment in newborns with HIE improves short-term clinical effects and long-term neurological symptoms.

  15. Peptidylarginine deiminases: novel drug targets for prevention of neuronal damage following hypoxic ischemic insult (HI) in neonates.

    PubMed

    Lange, Sigrun; Rocha-Ferreira, Eridan; Thei, Laura; Mawjee, Priyanka; Bennett, Kate; Thompson, Paul R; Subramanian, Venkataraman; Nicholas, Anthony P; Peebles, Donald; Hristova, Mariya; Raivich, Gennadij

    2014-08-01

    Neonatal hypoxic ischaemic (HI) injury frequently causes neural impairment in surviving infants. Our knowledge of the underlying molecular mechanisms is still limited. Protein deimination is a post-translational modification caused by Ca(+2) -regulated peptidylarginine deiminases (PADs), a group of five isozymes that display tissue-specific expression and different preference for target proteins. Protein deimination results in altered protein conformation and function of target proteins, and is associated with neurodegenerative diseases, gene regulation and autoimmunity. In this study, we used the neonatal HI and HI/infection [lipopolysaccharide (LPS) stimulation] murine models to investigate changes in protein deimination. Brains showed increases in deiminated proteins, cell death, activated microglia and neuronal loss in affected brain areas at 48 h after hypoxic ischaemic insult. Upon treatment with the pan-PAD inhibitor Cl-amidine, a significant reduction was seen in microglial activation, cell death and infarct size compared with control saline or LPS-treated animals. Deimination of histone 3, a target protein of the PAD4 isozyme, was increased in hippocampus and cortex specifically upon LPS stimulation and markedly reduced following Cl-amidine treatment. Here, we demonstrate a novel role for PAD enzymes in neural impairment in neonatal HI Encephalopathy, highlighting their role as promising new candidates for drug-directed intervention in neurotrauma. Hypoxic Ischaemic Insult (HI) results in activation of peptidylarginine deiminases (PADs) because of calcium dysregulation. Target proteins undergo irreversible changes of protein bound arginine to citrulline, resulting in protein misfolding. Infection in synergy with HI causes up-regulation of TNFα, nuclear translocation of PAD4 and change in gene regulation as a result of histone deimination. Pharmacological PAD inhibition significantly reduced HI brain damage. © 2014 The Authors. Journal of Neurochemistry

  16. Preconditioning and post-treatment with cobalt chloride in rat model of perinatal hypoxic-ischemic encephalopathy.

    PubMed

    Dai, Ying; Li, Wendi; Zhong, Min; Chen, Jie; Liu, Youxue; Cheng, Qian; Li, Tingyu

    2014-03-01

    Hypoxia-ischemia (HI)-induced perinatal encephalopathy is a major cause of acute mortality and chronic neurologic morbidities such as cerebral palsy, mental retardation, and epilepsy. As the essential transcription factor for the activation of hypoxia-inducible genes, hypoxia-inducible factor 1 alpha (HIF-1α) plays an important role in the pathophysiological response to the stress of HI brain damage. Whether HIF-1α activation promotes neuroprotection in HI tissues is controversial. The left common carotid artery of rats aged 7days was ligated under anesthesia. The pups were then exposed to hypoxia in a normobaric chamber filled with 8% oxygen and 92% nitrogen for 2.5h. In the sham control group, the left common carotid artery was exposed but was not ligated or exposed to hypoxia. To assess the time window for effective treatment, the HIF-1α inducer cobalt chloride (CoCl2) was injected subcutaneously 1day before surgery, immediately or 1day after surgery. The brain tissues were harvested from the pups of each groups at 1, 2 and 7days after insult for HIF-1α protein ant its target genes expression and for investigating the injury. Morris water maze tests were performed at postnatal 7weeks. HIF-1α protein levels and its target genes vascular endothelial growth factor, heme oxygenase-1, and insulin-like growth factor 1 were markedly increased after intraperitoneal injection of CoCl2 (60mg/kg). The target gene inducible nitric oxide synthase exhibited a biphasic time course. HI caused apoptosis and reduced capillary density, which were ameliorated by CoCl2. Both preconditioning with CoCl2 24h before HI and administration of CoCl2 24h after HI improved long-term reference memory compared with that in vehicle-injected littermate controls. Administration of CoCl2 immediately after HI did not improve spatial working memory. CoCl2 activates HIF-1α and protects against brain damage in vivo. The time of administration could be used to manipulate the activity of HIF-1

  17. Endogenous IL-6 of mesenchymal stem cell improves behavioral outcome of hypoxic-ischemic brain damage neonatal rats by supressing apoptosis in astrocyte

    PubMed Central

    Gu, Yan; He, Mulan; Zhou, Xiaoqin; Liu, Jinngjing; Hou, Nali; Bin, Tan; Zhang, Yun; Li, Tingyu; Chen, Jie

    2016-01-01

    Mesenchymal stem cell (MSC) transplantation reduces the neurological impairment caused by hypoxic-ischemic brain damage (HIBD) via immunomodulation. In the current study, we found that MSC transplantation improved learning and memory function and enhanced long-term potentiation in neonatal rats subjected to HIBD and the amount of IL-6 released from MSCs was far greater than that of other cytokines. However, the neuroprotective effect of MSCs infected with siIL-6-transduced recombinant lentivirus (siIL-6 MSCs) was significantly weakened in the behavioural tests and electrophysiological analysis. Meanwhile, the hippocampal IL-6 levels were decreased following siIL-6 MSC transplantation. In vitro, the levels of IL-6 release and the levels of IL-6R and STAT3 expression were increased in both primary neurons and astrocytes subjected to oxygen and glucose deprivation (OGD) following MSCs co-culture. The anti-apoptotic protein Bcl-2 was upregulated and the pro-apoptotic protein Bax was downregulated in OGD-injured astrocytes co-cultured with MSCs. However, the siIL-6 MSCs suppressed ratio of Bcl-2/Bax in the injured astrocytes and induced apoptosis number of the injured astrocytes. Taken together, these data suggest that the neuroprotective effect of MSC transplantation in neonatal HIBD rats is partly mediated by IL-6 to enhance anti-apoptosis of injured astrocytes via the IL-6/STAT3 signaling pathway. PMID:26766745

  18. Endogenous IL-6 of mesenchymal stem cell improves behavioral outcome of hypoxic-ischemic brain damage neonatal rats by supressing apoptosis in astrocyte.

    PubMed

    Gu, Yan; He, Mulan; Zhou, Xiaoqin; Liu, Jinngjing; Hou, Nali; Bin, Tan; Zhang, Yun; Li, Tingyu; Chen, Jie

    2016-01-14

    Mesenchymal stem cell (MSC) transplantation reduces the neurological impairment caused by hypoxic-ischemic brain damage (HIBD) via immunomodulation. In the current study, we found that MSC transplantation improved learning and memory function and enhanced long-term potentiation in neonatal rats subjected to HIBD and the amount of IL-6 released from MSCs was far greater than that of other cytokines. However, the neuroprotective effect of MSCs infected with siIL-6-transduced recombinant lentivirus (siIL-6 MSCs) was significantly weakened in the behavioural tests and electrophysiological analysis. Meanwhile, the hippocampal IL-6 levels were decreased following siIL-6 MSC transplantation. In vitro, the levels of IL-6 release and the levels of IL-6R and STAT3 expression were increased in both primary neurons and astrocytes subjected to oxygen and glucose deprivation (OGD) following MSCs co-culture. The anti-apoptotic protein Bcl-2 was upregulated and the pro-apoptotic protein Bax was downregulated in OGD-injured astrocytes co-cultured with MSCs. However, the siIL-6 MSCs suppressed ratio of Bcl-2/Bax in the injured astrocytes and induced apoptosis number of the injured astrocytes. Taken together, these data suggest that the neuroprotective effect of MSC transplantation in neonatal HIBD rats is partly mediated by IL-6 to enhance anti-apoptosis of injured astrocytes via the IL-6/STAT3 signaling pathway.

  19. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and prognostication in neonatal hypoxic-ischemic injury: a vignette-based study of Canadian specialty physicians.

    PubMed

    Bell, Emily; Rasmussen, Lisa Anne; Mazer, Barbara; Shevell, Michael; Miller, Steven P; Synnes, Anne; Yager, Jerome Y; Majnemer, Annette; Muhajarine, Nazeem; Chouinard, Isabelle; Racine, Eric

    2015-02-01

    Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) could improve prognostication in neonatal brain injury; however, factors beyond technical or scientific refinement may impact its use and interpretation. We surveyed Canadian neonatologists and pediatric neurologists using general and vignette-based questions about the use of MRI for prognostication in neonates with hypoxic-ischemic injury. There was inter- and intra-vignette variability in prognosis and in ratings about the usefulness of MRI. Severity of predicted outcome correlated with certainty about the outcome. A majority of physicians endorsed using MRI results in discussing prognosis with families, and most suggested that MRI results contribute to end-of-life decisions. Participating neonatologists, when compared to participating pediatric neurologists, had significantly less confidence in the interpretation of MRI by colleagues in neurology and radiology. Further investigation is needed to understand the complexity of MRI and of its application. Potential gaps relative to our understanding of the ethical importance of these findings should be addressed. © The Author(s) 2014.

  20. [Effects of electric stimulation at the cerebellar fastigial nucleus on astrocytes in the hippocampus of neonatal rats with hypoxic-ischemic brain damage].

    PubMed

    Li, Xiao-Li; Jia, Tian-Ming; Luan, Bin; Liu, Tao; Yuan, Yan

    2011-04-01

    To study the effects of electric stimulation at the cerebellar fastigial nucleus on astrocytes in the hippocampus of neonatal rats with hypoxic-ischemic brain damage (HIBD) and the possible mechanism. One hundred and eighty 7-day-old neonatal Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly divided into three groups: sham-operation (control group) and HIBD with and without electric stimulation (n=60 each). The HIBD model of neonatal rats was prepared by the Rice-Vennucci method. Electric stimulation at the cerebellar fastigial nucleus was given 24 hrs after the operation in the electric stimulation group once daily and lasted for 30 minutes each time. The other two groups were not subjected to electric stimulation but captured to fix in corresponding periods. Rats were sacrificed 3, 7, 14 and 21 days after stimulations to observe the glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP) expression by immunohistochemisty and the ultrastructural changes of astrocytes in the hippocampus under an electron microscope. Immunohistochemical analysis showed the expression of GFAP in the HIBD groups with and without electric stimulation increased significantly compared with the control group on day 3, reached the peak on day 7, and the increased expression remained till to day 21. The GFAP expression in the electric stimulation group was significantly lower than that in the untreated HIBD group at all time points. Under the electron microscope, the astrocytes in the untreated HIBD group were swollen and the amount of organelles was reduced, while the swelling of astrocytes was alleviated and the organelles remained in integrity in the electric stimulation group. The electric stimulation at the cerebellar fastigial nucleus can inhibit the excessive proliferation of astrocytes and relieve the structural damage of astrocytes in neonatal rats following HIBD.

  1. Sestrin2 Induced by Hypoxia Inducible Factor 1 alpha protects the Blood-Brain Barrier via Inhibiting VEGF after Severe Hypoxic-Ischemic Injury in Neonatal Rats

    PubMed Central

    Shi, Xudan; Doycheva, Desislava Met; Xu, Liang; Tang, Jiping; Yan, Min; Zhang, John H

    2016-01-01

    Objective Hypoxic ischemic (HI) encephalopathy remains the leading cause of perinatal brain injury resulting in long term disabilities. Stabilization of blood brain barrier (BBB) after HI is an important target, therefore, in this study we aim to determine the role of sestrin2, a stress inducible protein which is elevated after various insults, on BBB stabilization after moderate and severe HI injury. Methods Rat pups underwent common carotid artery ligation followed by either 150 min (severe model) or 100 min (moderate model) of hypoxia. 1h post HI, rats were intranasally administered with recombinant human sestrin2 (rh-sestrin2) and sacrificed for infarct area, brain water content, righting reflex and geotaxis reflex. Sestrin2 was silenced using siRNA and an activator/inhibitor of hypoxia inducible factor1α (HIF1α) were used to examine their roles on BBB permeability. Results Rats subjected to severe HI exhibited larger infarct area and higher sestrin2 expression compared to rats in the moderate HI group. rh-sestrin2 attenuated brain infarct and edema, while silencing sestrin2 reversed these protective effects after severe HI. HIF1α induced sestrin2 activation in severe HI but not in moderate HI groups. A HIF1a agonist was shown to increase permeability of the BBB via vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) after moderate HI. However, after severe HI, HIF1α activated both VEGF and sestrin2. But HIF1α dependent sestrin2 activation was the predominant pathway after severe HI which inhibited VEGF and attenuated BBB permeability. Conclusions rh-sestrin2 attenuated BBB permeability via upregulation of endogenous sestrin2 which was induced by HIF1α after severe HI. However, HIF1α’s effects as a prodeath or prosurvival signal were influenced by the severity of HI injury. PMID:27425892

  2. [Expression profiles of miRNA-182 and Clock mRNA in the pineal gland of neonatal rats with hypoxic-ischemic brain damage].

    PubMed

    Han, Xing; Ding, Xin; Xu, Li-Xiao; Liu, Ming-Hua; Feng, Xing

    2016-03-01

    To study the changes of miRNA expression in the pineal gland of neonatal rats with hypoxic-ischemic brain damage (HIBD) and the possible roles of miRNA in the pathogenesis of circadian rhythm disturbance after HIBD. Seven-day-old Sprague-Dawley (SD) rats were randomly divided into 2 groups: HIBD and sham-operated. HIBD was induced according to the Rice-Vannucci method. The pineal glands were obtained 24 hours after the HIBD event. The expression profiles of miRNAs were determined using GeneChip technigue and quantitative real-time PCR (RT-PCR). Then the miRNA which was highly expressed was selected. The expression levels of the chosen miRNA were detected in different tissues (lungs, intestines, stomach, kidneys, cerebral cortex, pineal gland). RT-PCR analysis was performed to measure the expression profiles of the chosen miRNA and the targeted gene Clock mRNA in the pineal gland at 0, 24, 48 and 72 hours after HIBD. miRNA-182 that met the criteria was selected by GeneChip and RT-PCR. miRNA-182 was highly expressed in the pineal gland. Compared with the sham-operated group, the expression of miRNA-182 was significantly up-regulated in the pineal gland at 24 and 48 hours after HIBD (P<0.05). Compared with the sham-operated group, Clock mRNA expression in the HIBD group increased at 0 hour after HIBD, decreased at 48 hours after HIBD and increased at 72 hours after HIBD (P<0.05). miRNA-182 may be involved in the pathogenesis of circadian rhythm disturbance after HIBD.

  3. Neonatal encephalopathy and the association to asphyxia in labor.

    PubMed

    Jonsson, Maria; Ågren, Johan; Nordén-Lindeberg, Solveig; Ohlin, Andreas; Hanson, Ulf

    2014-12-01

    In cases with moderate and severe neonatal encephalopathy, we aimed to determine the proportion that was attributable to asphyxia during labor and to investigate the association between cardiotocographic (CTG) patterns and neonatal outcome. In a study population of 71,189 births from 2 Swedish university hospitals, 80 cases of neonatal encephalopathy were identified. Cases were categorized by admission CTG patterns (normal or abnormal) and by the presence of asphyxia (cord pH, <7.00; base deficit, ≥12 mmol/L). Cases with normal admission CTG patterns and asphyxia at birth were considered to experience asphyxia related to labor. CTG patterns were assessed for the 2 hours preceding delivery. Admission CTG patterns were normal in 51 cases (64%) and abnormal in 29 cases (36%). The rate of cases attributable to asphyxia (ie, hypoxic ischemic encephalopathy) was 48 of 80 cases (60%), most of which evolved during labor (43/80 cases; 54%). Both severe neonatal encephalopathy and neonatal death were more frequent with an abnormal, rather than with a normal, admission CTG pattern (13 [45%] vs 11 [22%]; P = .03), and 6 [21%] vs 3 [6%]; P = .04), respectively. Comparison of cases with an abnormal and a normal admission CTG pattern also revealed more frequently observed decreased variability (12 [60%] and 8 [22%], respectively) and more late decelerations (8 [40%] and 1 [3%], respectively). Moderate and severe encephalopathy is attributable to asphyxia in 60% of cases, most of which evolve during labor. An abnormal admission CTG pattern indicates a poorer neonatal outcome and more often is associated with pathologic CTG patterns preceding delivery. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Umbilical cord blood cells regulate endogenous neural stem cell proliferation via hedgehog signaling in hypoxic ischemic neonatal rats.

    PubMed

    Wang, Xiao-Li; Zhao, Yan-Song; Hu, Ming-Ying; Sun, Ye-Quan; Chen, Yu-Xi; Bi, Xue-Hui

    2013-06-26

    Umbilical cord blood mononuclear cells (UCBMC) transplantation may improve hypoxia-induced brain injury in neonatal rats, but the mechanism is unclear. This study examines whether UCBMC promote neural stem cell (NSC) proliferation via the Sonic hedgehog (Shh) signaling pathway. The rats underwent left carotid ligation followed by hypoxic stress. UCBMC were transplanted 24h after hypoxia ischemia (HI), and immunohistochemistry, immmunoblotting, and morphology analyses were performed at different time points after transplantation. Increased numbers of NSCs were observed in the subventrical zone (SVZ) of the HI+UCBMC group, but these increases were attenuated by cyclopamine treatment. There were significant increases in Shh and Gli1 protein levels after transplantation in the HI group treated with UCBMC compared to HI rats treated with phosphate-buffered solution (PBS). Significantly more Gli1(+)DAPI(+) cells were observed in the SVZ of the HI+UCBMC group compared to the HI+PBS and N+UCBMC groups, but few Gli1(+)DAPI(+) cells were found in the SVZ of the HI+cyclopamine+UCBMC group. The HI+UCBMC group had significantly less neuronal loss in the cortex and CA1 sector of the hippocampus compared to the HI+PBS group, but more neuron loss was observed in the HI+cyclopamine+UCBMC group compared to HI+UCBMC. These results indicate that UCBMC may promote NSC proliferation and alleviate brain injury in HI neonatal rats via Shh signaling. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Temporal Characterization of Microglia/Macrophage Phenotypes in a Mouse Model of Neonatal Hypoxic-Ischemic Brain Injury

    PubMed Central

    Hellström Erkenstam, Nina; Smith, Peter L. P.; Fleiss, Bobbi; Nair, Syam; Svedin, Pernilla; Wang, Wei; Boström, Martina; Gressens, Pierre; Hagberg, Henrik; Brown, Kelly L.; Sävman, Karin; Mallard, Carina

    2016-01-01

    Immune cells display a high degree of phenotypic plasticity, which may facilitate their participation in both the progression and resolution of injury-induced inflammation. The purpose of this study was to investigate the temporal expression of genes associated with classical and alternative polarization phenotypes described for macrophages and to identify related cell populations in the brain following neonatal hypoxia-ischemia (HI). HI was induced in 9-day old mice and brain tissue was collected up to 7 days post-insult to investigate expression of genes associated with macrophage activation. Using cell-markers, CD86 (classic activation) and CD206 (alternative activation), we assessed temporal changes of CD11b+ cell populations in the brain and studied the protein expression of the immunomodulatory factor galectin-3 in these cells. HI induced a rapid regulation (6 h) of genes associated with both classical and alternative polarization phenotypes in the injured hemisphere. FACS analysis showed a marked increase in the number of CD11b+CD86+ cells at 24 h after HI (+3667%), which was coupled with a relative suppression of CD11b+CD206+ cells and cells that did not express neither CD86 nor CD206. The CD11b+CD206+ population was mixed with some cells also expressing CD86. Confocal microscopy confirmed that a subset of cells expressed both CD86 and CD206, particularly in injured gray and white matter. Protein concentration of galectin-3 was markedly increased mainly in the cell population lacking CD86 or CD206 in the injured hemisphere. These cells were predominantly resident microglia as very few galectin-3 positive cells co-localized with infiltrating myeloid cells in Lys-EGFP-ki mice after HI. In summary, HI was characterized by an early mixed gene response, but with a large expansion of mainly the CD86 positive population during the first day. However, the injured hemisphere also contained a subset of cells expressing both CD86 and CD206 and a large population that

  6. Spatial Working Memory Deficits in Male Rats Following Neonatal Hypoxic Ischemic Brain Injury Can Be Attenuated by Task Modifications

    PubMed Central

    Smith, Amanda L.; Hill, Courtney A.; Alexander, Michelle; Szalkowski, Caitlin E.; Chrobak, James J.; Rosenkrantz, Ted S.; Fitch, R. Holly

    2014-01-01

    accommodating memory deficits in children suffering from cognitive impairments following neonatal HI. PMID:24961760

  7. Childhood outcomes after hypothermia for neonatal encephalopathy.

    PubMed

    Shankaran, Seetha; Pappas, Athina; McDonald, Scott A; Vohr, Betty R; Hintz, Susan R; Yolton, Kimberly; Gustafson, Kathryn E; Leach, Theresa M; Green, Charles; Bara, Rebecca; Petrie Huitema, Carolyn M; Ehrenkranz, Richard A; Tyson, Jon E; Das, Abhik; Hammond, Jane; Peralta-Carcelen, Myriam; Evans, Patricia W; Heyne, Roy J; Wilson-Costello, Deanne E; Vaucher, Yvonne E; Bauer, Charles R; Dusick, Anna M; Adams-Chapman, Ira; Goldstein, Ricki F; Guillet, Ronnie; Papile, Lu-Ann; Higgins, Rosemary D

    2012-05-31

    We previously reported early results of a randomized trial of whole-body hypothermia for neonatal hypoxic-ischemic encephalopathy showing a significant reduction in the rate of death or moderate or severe disability at 18 to 22 months of age. Long-term outcomes are now available. In the original trial, we assigned infants with moderate or severe encephalopathy to usual care (the control group) or whole-body cooling to an esophageal temperature of 33.5°C for 72 hours, followed by slow rewarming (the hypothermia group). We evaluated cognitive, attention and executive, and visuospatial function; neurologic outcomes; and physical and psychosocial health among participants at 6 to 7 years of age. The primary outcome of the present analyses was death or an IQ score below 70. Of the 208 trial participants, primary outcome data were available for 190. Of the 97 children in the hypothermia group and the 93 children in the control group, death or an IQ score below 70 occurred in 46 (47%) and 58 (62%), respectively (P=0.06); death occurred in 27 (28%) and 41 (44%) (P=0.04); and death or severe disability occurred in 38 (41%) and 53 (60%) (P=0.03). Other outcome data were available for the 122 surviving children, 70 in the hypothermia group and 52 in the control group. Moderate or severe disability occurred in 24 of 69 children (35%) and 19 of 50 children (38%), respectively (P=0.87). Attention-executive dysfunction occurred in 4% and 13%, respectively, of children receiving hypothermia and those receiving usual care (P=0.19), and visuospatial dysfunction occurred in 4% and 3% (P=0.80). The rate of the combined end point of death or an IQ score of less than 70 at 6 to 7 years of age was lower among children undergoing whole-body hypothermia than among those undergoing usual care, but the differences were not significant. However, hypothermia resulted in lower death rates and did not increase rates of severe disability among survivors. (Funded by the National Institutes of

  8. The effect of whole-body cooling on brain metabolism following perinatal hypoxic-ischemic injury.

    PubMed

    Corbo, Elizabeth T; Bartnik-Olson, Brenda L; Machado, Sandra; Merritt, T Allen; Peverini, Ricardo; Wycliffe, Nathaniel; Ashwal, Stephen

    2012-01-01

    Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and spectroscopy (MRS) have proven valuable in evaluating neonatal hypoxic-ischemic injury (HII). MRI scores in the basal ganglia of HII/HT(+) neonates were significantly lower than HII/HT(-) neonates, indicating less severe injury and were associated with lower discharge encephalopathy severity scores in the HII/HT(+) group (P = 0.01). Lactate (Lac) was detected in the occipital gray matter (OGM) and thalamus (TH) of significantly more HII/HT(-) neonates (31.6 and 35.3%) as compared to the HII/HT(+) group (10.5 and 15.8%). In contrast, the -N-acetylaspartate (NAA)-based ratios in the OGM and TH did not differ between the HII groups. Our data show that the HT was associated with a decrease in the number of HII neonates with detectable cortical and subcortical Lac as well as a decrease in the number of MRI-detectable subcortical lesions. We retrospectively compared the medical and neuroimaging data of 19 HII neonates who received 72 h of whole-body cooling (HII/HT(+)) with those of 19 noncooled HII neonates (HII/HT(-)) to determine whether hypothermia was associated with improved recovery from the injury as measured by MRI and MRS within the first 14 days of life. MRI scores and metabolite ratios of HII/HT(+) and HII/HT(-) neonates were also compared with nine healthy, nonasphyxiated "control" neonates.

  9. Cerebral glucose deficiency versus oxygen deficiency in neonatal encephalopathy.

    PubMed

    Rudolph, A M

    2018-04-24

    Hypoxic-ischemic encephalopathy (HIE) in newborn infants is generally considered to result from decreased arterial oxygen content or cerebral blood flow. Cerebral injury similar to that of HIE has been noted with hypoglycemia. Studies in fetal lambs have shown that ventilation with 3% oxygen did not change cerebral blood flow, but ventilation with 100% oxygen resulted in marked reduction in cerebral blood flow, glucose delivery and glucose consumption. Blood glucose concentration falls markedly after birth; this, associated with the fall in cerebral blood flow, greatly reduces glucose supply to the brain. In preterm infants, blood glucose levels tend to be very low. Also persistent patency of the ductus arteriosus may reduce cerebral flow in diastole, thus exaggerating the decrease in glucose supply. I propose that glycopenic-ischemic encephalopathy is a more appropriate term for the cerebral insult. We should consider more aggressive management of the low blood glucose concentrations in the neonate, and particularly in preterm infants. Administration of high levels of oxygen in inspired air should be avoided to reduce the enhancement of cerebral vasoconstriction and decreased flow that normally occurs after birth.

  10. Argon protects against hypoxic-ischemic brain injury in neonatal rats through activation of nuclear factor (erythroid-derived 2)-like 2

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Hailin; Mitchell, Sian; Ciechanowicz, Sarah; Savage, Sinead; Wang, Tianlong; Ji, Xunming; Ma, Daqing

    2016-01-01

    Perinatal hypoxic ischaemic encephalopathy (HIE) has a high mortality rate with neuropsychological impairment. This study investigated the neuroprotective effects of argon against neonatal hypoxic-ischaemic brain injury. In vitro cortical neuronal cell cultures derived from rat foetuses were subjected to an oxygen and glucose deprivation (OGD) challenge for 90 minutes and then exposed to 70% argon or nitrogen with 5% carbon dioxide and balanced with oxygen for 2 hours. In vivo, seven-day-old rats were subjected to unilateral common carotid artery ligation followed by hypoxic (8% oxygen balanced with nitrogen) insult for 90 minutes. They were exposed to 70% argon or nitrogen balanced with oxygen for 2 hours. In vitro, argon treatment of cortical neuronal cultures resulted in a significant increase of p-mTOR and Nuclear factor (erythroid-derived 2)-like 2(Nrf2) and protection against OGD challenge. Inhibition of m-TOR through Rapamycin or Nrf2 through siRNA abolished argon-mediated cyto-protection. In vivo, argon exposure significantly enhanced Nrf2 and its down-stream effector NAD(P)H Dehydrogenase, Quinone 1(NQO1) and superoxide dismutase 1(SOD1). Oxidative stress, neuroinflammation and neuronal cell death were significantly decreased and brain infarction was markedly reduced. Blocking PI-3K through wortmannin or ERK1/2 through U0126 attenuated argon-mediated neuroprotection. These data provide a new molecular mechanism for the potential application of argon as a neuroprotectant in HIE. PMID:27016422

  11. Using the endocannabinoid system as a neuroprotective strategy in perinatal hypoxic-ischemic brain injury

    PubMed Central

    Lara-Celador, I.; Goñi-de-Cerio, F.; Alvarez, Antonia; Hilario, Enrique

    2013-01-01

    One of the most important causes of brain injury in the neonatal period is a perinatal hypoxic-ischemic event. This devastating condition can lead to long-term neurological deficits or even death. After hypoxic-ischemic brain injury, a variety of specific cellular mechanisms are set in motion, triggering cell damage and finally producing cell death. Effective therapeutic treatments against this phenomenon are still unavailable because of complex molecular mechanisms underlying hypoxic-ischemic brain injury. After a thorough understanding of the mechanism underlying neural plasticity following hypoxic-ischemic brain injury, various neuroprotective therapies have been developed for alleviating brain injury and improving long-term outcomes. Among them, the endocannabinoid system emerges as a natural system of neuroprotection. The endocannabinoid system modulates a wide range of physiological processes in mammals and has demonstrated neuroprotective effects in different paradigms of acute brain injury, acting as a natural neuroprotectant. The aim of this review is to study the use of different therapies to induce long-term therapeutic effects after hypoxic-ischemic brain injury, and analyze the important role of the endocannabinoid system as a new neuroprotective strategy against perinatal hypoxic-ischemic brain injury. PMID:25206720

  12. Early metabolite changes after melatonin treatment in neonatal rats with hypoxic-ischemic brain injury studied by in-vivo 1H MR spectroscopy

    PubMed Central

    Nyman, Axel K. G.; Morken, Tora Sund; Vettukattil, Riyas; Brubakk, Ann-Mari; Widerøe, Marius

    2017-01-01

    Melatonin is a promising neuroprotective agent after perinatal hypoxic-ischemic (HI) brain injury. We used in-vivo 1H magnetic resonance spectroscopy to investigate effects of melatonin treatment on brain metabolism after HI. Postnatal day 7 Sprague-Dawley rats with unilateral HI brain injury were treated with either melatonin 10 mg/kg dissolved in phosphate-buffered saline (PBS) with 5% dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO) or vehicle (5% DMSO and/or PBS) directly and at 6 hours after HI. 1H MR spectra from the thalamus in the ipsilateral and contralateral hemisphere were acquired 1 day after HI. Our results showed that injured animals had a distinct metabolic profile in the ipsilateral thalamus compared to sham with low concentrations of total creatine, choline, N-acetyl aspartate (NAA), and high concentrations of lipids. A majority of the melatonin-treated animals had a metabolic profile characterized by higher total creatine, choline, NAA and lower lipid levels than other HI animals. When comparing absolute concentrations, melatonin treatment resulted in higher glutamine levels and lower lipid concentrations compared to DMSO treatment as well as higher macromolecule levels compared to PBS treatment day 1 after HI. DMSO treated animals had lower concentrations of glucose, creatine, phosphocholine and macromolecules compared to sham animals. In conclusion, the neuroprotective effects of melatonin were reflected in a more favorable metabolic profile including reduced lipid levels that likely represents reduced cell injury. Neuroprotective effects may also be related to the influence of melatonin on glutamate/glutamine metabolism. The modulatory effects of the solvent DMSO on cerebral energy metabolism might have masked additional beneficial effects of melatonin. PMID:28934366

  13. Dietary interventions designed to protect the perinatal brain from hypoxic-ischemic encephalopathy--Creatine prophylaxis and the need for multi-organ protection.

    PubMed

    Ellery, Stacey J; Dickinson, Hayley; McKenzie, Matthew; Walker, David W

    2016-05-01

    Birth asphyxia or hypoxia arises from impaired placental gas exchange during labor and remains one of the leading causes of neonatal morbidity and mortality worldwide. It is a condition that can strike in pregnancies that have been uneventful until these final moments, and leads to fundamental loss of cellular energy reserves in the newborn. The cascade of metabolic changes that occurs in the brain at birth as a result of hypoxia can lead to significant damage that evolves over several hours and days, the severity of which can be ameliorated with therapeutic cerebral hypothermia. However, this treatment is only applied to a subset of newborns that meet strict inclusion criteria and is usually administered only in facilities with a high level of medical surveillance. Hence, a number of neuropharmacological interventions have been suggested as adjunct therapies to improve the efficacy of hypothermia, which alone improves survival of the post-hypoxic infant but does not altogether prevent adverse neurological outcomes. In this review we discuss the prospect of using creatine as a dietary supplement during pregnancy and nutritional intervention that can significantly decrease the risk of brain damage in the event of severe oxygen deprivation at birth. Because brain damage can also arise secondarily to compromise of other fetal organs (e.g., heart, diaphragm, kidney), and that compromise of mitochondrial function under hypoxic conditions may be a common mechanism leading to damage of these tissues, we present data suggesting that dietary creatine supplementation during pregnancy may be an effective prophylaxis that can protect the fetus from the multi-organ consequences of severe hypoxia at birth. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Does Whole-Body Hypothermia in Neonates with Hypoxic-Ischemic Encephalopathy Affect Surfactant Disaturated-Phosphatidylcholine Kinetics?

    PubMed

    Nespeca, Matteo; Giorgetti, Chiara; Nobile, Stefano; Ferrini, Ilaria; Simonato, Manuela; Verlato, Giovanna; Cogo, Paola; Carnielli, Virgilio Paolo

    2016-01-01

    It is unknown whether Whole-Body Hypothermia (WBH) affects pulmonary function. In vitro studies, at relatively low temperatures, suggest that hypothermia may induce significant changes to the surfactant composition. The effect of WBH on surfactant kinetics in newborn infants is unknown. We studied in vivo kinetics of disaturated-phosphatidylcholine (DSPC) in asphyxiated newborns during WBH and in normothermic controls (NTC) with no or mild asphyxia. Both groups presented no clinically apparent lung disease. Twenty-seven term or near term newborns requiring mechanical ventilation were studied (GA 38.6±2.2 wks). Fifteen during WBH and twelve NTC. All infants received an intra-tracheal dose of 13C labelled DSPC and tracheal aspirate were performed. DSPC amount, DSPC half-life (HL) and pool size (PS) were calculated. DSPC amount in tracheal aspirates was 0.42 [0.22-0.54] and 0.36 [0.10-0.58] mg/ml in WBH and NTC respectively (p = 0.578). DSPC HL was 24.9 [15.7-52.5] and 25.3 [15.8-59.3] h (p = 0.733) and DSPC PS was 53.2 [29.4-91.6] and 40.2 [29.8-64.6] mg/kg (p = 0.598) in WBH and NTC respectively. WBH does not alter DSPC HL and PS in newborn infants with no clinical apparent lung disease.

  15. Communication Challenges in Neonatal Encephalopathy.

    PubMed

    Lemmon, Monica E; Donohue, Pamela K; Parkinson, Charlamaine; Northington, Frances J; Boss, Renee D

    2016-09-01

    Families must process complex information related to neonatal encephalopathy and therapeutic hypothermia. In this mixed methods study, semi-structured interviews were performed with parents whose infants were enrolled in an existing longitudinal cohort study of therapeutic hypothermia between 2011 and 2014. Thematic saturation was achieved after 20 interviews. Parental experience of communicating with clinicians was characterized by 3 principle themes. Theme 1 highlighted that a fragmented communication process mirrored the chaotic maternal and neonatal course. Parents often received key information about neonatal encephalopathy and therapeutic hypothermia from maternal clinicians. Infant medical information was often given to 1 family member (60%), who felt burdened by the responsibility to relay that information to others. Families universally valued the role of the bedside nurse, who was perceived as the primary source of communication for most (75%) families. Theme 2 encompassed the challenges of discussing the complex therapy of therapeutic hypothermia: families appreciated clinicians who used lay language and provided written material, and they often felt overwhelmed by technical information that made it hard to understand the "big picture" of their infant's medical course. Theme 3 involved the uncertain prognosis after neonatal encephalopathy. Parents appreciated specific expectations about their infant's long-term development, and experienced long-term distress about prognostic uncertainty. Communicating complex and large volumes of information in the midst of perinatal crisis presents inherent challenges for both clinicians and families. We identified an actionable set of communication challenges that can be addressed with targeted interventions. Copyright © 2016 by the American Academy of Pediatrics.

  16. C-type natriuretic peptide functions as an innate neuroprotectant in neonatal hypoxic-ischemic brain injury in mouse via natriuretic peptide receptor 2.

    PubMed

    Ma, Qingyi; Zhang, Lubo

    2018-06-01

    Neonatal hypoxia-ischemia (HI) is the most common cause of brain injury in neonates, which leads to high neonatal mortality and severe neurological morbidity in later life (Vannucci, 2000; Volpe, 2001). Yet the molecular mechanisms of neuronal death and brain damage induced by neonatal HI remain largely elusive. Herein, using both in vivo and in vitro models, we determine an endogenous neuroprotectant role of c-type natriuretic peptide (CNP) in preserving neuronal survival after HI brain injury in mouse pups. Postnatal day 7 (P7) mouse pups with CNP deficiency (Nppc lbab/lbab ) exhibit increased brain infarct size and worsened long-term locomotor function after neonatal HI compared with wildtype control (Nppc +/+ ). In isolated primary cortical neurons, recombinant CNP dose-dependently protects primary neurons from oxygen-glucose deprivation (OGD) insult. This neuroprotective effect appears to be mediated through its cognate natriuretic peptide receptor 2 (NPR2), in that antagonization of NPR2, but not NPR3, exacerbates neuronal death and counteracts the protective effect of CNP on primary neurons exposed to OGD insult. Immunoblot and confocal microscopy demonstrate the abundant expression of NPR2 in neurons of the neonatal brain and in isolated primary cortical neurons as well. Moreover, similar to CNP deficiency, administration of NPR2 antagonist P19 via intracerebroventricular injection prior to HI results in exacerbated neuronal death and brain injury after HI. Altogether, the present study indicates that CNP and its cognate receptor NPR2 mainly expressed in neurons represent an innate neuroprotective mechanism in neonatal HI brain injury. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Prevalence and etiology of false normal aEEG recordings in neonatal hypoxic-ischaemic encephalopathy

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Amplitude-integrated electroencephalography (aEEG) is a useful tool to determine the severity of neonatal hypoxic-ischemic encephalopathy (HIE). Our aim was to assess the prevalence and study the origin of false normal aEEG recordings based on 85 aEEG recordings registered before six hours of age. Methods Raw EEG recordings were reevaluated retrospectively with Fourier analysis to identify and describe the frequency patterns of the raw EEG signal, in cases with inconsistent aEEG recordings and clinical symptoms. Power spectral density curves, power (P) and median frequency (MF) were determined using the raw EEG. In 7 patients non-depolarizing muscle relaxant (NDMR) exposure was found. The EEG sections were analyzed and compared before and after NDMR administration. Results The reevaluation found that the aEEG was truly normal in 4 neonates. In 3 neonates, high voltage electrocardiographic (ECG) artifacts were found with flat trace on raw EEG. High frequency component (HFC) was found as a cause of normal appearing aEEG in 10 neonates. HFC disappeared while P and MF decreased significantly upon NDMR administration in each observed case. Conclusion Occurrence of false normal aEEG background pattern is relatively high in neonates with HIE and hypothermia. High frequency EEG artifacts suggestive of shivering were found to be the most common cause of false normal aEEG in hypothermic neonates while high voltage ECG artifacts are less common. PMID:24268061

  18. Sex differences in behavioral outcome following neonatal hypoxia ischemia: insights from a clinical meta-analysis and a rodent model of induced hypoxic ischemic brain injury.

    PubMed

    Smith, Amanda L; Alexander, Michelle; Rosenkrantz, Ted S; Sadek, Mona Lisa; Fitch, R Holly

    2014-04-01

    Hypoxia ischemia (HI; reduced oxygen and/or blood flow to the brain) is one of the most common injuries among preterm infants and term infants with birth complications. Both populations show cognitive/behavioral deficits, including impairments in sensory, learning/memory, and attention domains. Clinical data suggests a sex difference in HI outcomes, with males exhibiting more severe cognitive/behavioral deficits relative to matched females. Our laboratory has also reported more severe behavioral deficits among male rats with induced HI relative to females with comparable injury (Hill et al., 2011a,b). The current study initially examined published clinical studies from the past 20years where long-term IQ outcome scores for matched groups of male and female premature infants were reported separately (IQ being the most common outcome measure). A meta-analysis revealed a female "advantage," as indicated by significantly better scores on performance and full scale IQ (but not verbal IQ) for premature females. We then utilized a rodent model of neonatal HI injury to assess sham and postnatal day 7 (P7) HI male and female rats on a battery of behavioral tasks. Results showed expected deficits in HI male rats, but also showed task-dependent sex differences, with HI males having significantly larger deficits than HI females on some tasks but equivalent deficits on other tasks. In contrast to behavioral results, post mortem neuropathology associated with HI was comparable across sex. These findings suggest: 1) neonatal female "protection" in some behavioral domains, as indexed by superior outcome following early injury relative to males; and 2) female protection may entail sex-specific plasticity or compensation, rather than a reduction in gross neuropathology. Further exploration of the mechanisms underlying this sex effect could aid in neuroprotection efforts for at-risk neonates in general, and males in particular. Moreover, our current report of comparable anatomical

  19. Cognitive Outcomes After Neonatal Encephalopathy

    PubMed Central

    Shankaran, Seetha; McDonald, Scott A.; Vohr, Betty R.; Hintz, Susan R.; Ehrenkranz, Richard A.; Tyson, Jon E.; Yolton, Kimberly; Das, Abhik; Bara, Rebecca; Hammond, Jane; Higgins, Rosemary D.

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: To describe the spectrum of cognitive outcomes of children with and without cerebral palsy (CP) after neonatal encephalopathy, evaluate the prognostic value of early developmental testing and report on school services and additional therapies. METHODS: The participants of this study are the school-aged survivors of the National Institute of Child Health and Human Development Neonatal Research Network randomized controlled trial of whole-body hypothermia. Children underwent neurologic examinations and neurodevelopmental and cognitive testing with the Bayley Scales of Infant Development–II at 18 to 22 months and the Wechsler intelligence scales and the Neuropsychological Assessment–Developmental Neuropsychological Assessment at 6 to 7 years. Parents were interviewed about functional status and receipt of school and support services. We explored predictors of cognitive outcome by using multiple regression models. RESULTS: Subnormal IQ scores were identified in more than a quarter of the children: 96% of survivors with CP had an IQ <70, 9% of children without CP had an IQ <70, and 31% had an IQ of 70 to 84. Children with a mental developmental index <70 at 18 months had, on average, an adjusted IQ at 6 to 7 years that was 42 points lower than that of those with a mental developmental index >84 (95% confidence interval, −49.3 to −35.0; P < .001). Twenty percent of children with normal IQ and 28% of those with IQ scores of 70 to 84 received special educational support services or were held back ≥1 grade level. CONCLUSIONS: Cognitive impairment remains an important concern for all children with neonatal encephalopathy. PMID:25713280

  20. Population Pharmacokinetics of Phenobarbital in Infants with Neonatal Encephalopathy treated with Therapeutic Hypothermia

    PubMed Central

    Shellhaas, Renée A.; Ng, Chee M; Dillon, Christina H.; Barks, John D.E.; Bhatt-Mehta, Varsha

    2013-01-01

    Objective Phenobarbital is the first-line treatment for neonatal seizures. Many neonates with hypoxic ischemic encephalopathy (HIE) are treated with therapeutic hypothermia (TH) and about 40% have clinical seizures. Little is known about pharmacokinetics of phenobarbital in infants with HIE who undergo TH. The objective of this study was to determine the effect of TH on phenobarbital pharmacokinetics, taking into account maturational changes. Setting Level 3 neonatal intensive care unit. Patients Infants with HIE and suspected seizures, all treated with phenobarbital. Some of these infant also received treatment with TH. Interventions None. Design A retrospective cohort study of 39 infants with HIE treated with phenobarbital (20 were treated with TH and 19 were not). Measurements and main results Data were collected on phenobarbital plasma concentrations on 39 subjects with HIE with or without TH. Using nonlinear mixed-effects modeling, population pharmacokinetics of phenobarbital were developed with a total of 164 plasma concentrations. A one-compartment model best described the pharmacokinetics. The clearance (CL) of phenobarbital was linearly related to body weight and matured with increasing age with a maturation half-life of 22.1 days. TH did not influence the pharmacokinetic parameters of phenobarbital. Conclusions TH does not influence the CL of phenobarbital after accounting for weight and age. Standard phenobarbital dosing is appropriate for initial treatment of seizures in neonates with HIE treated with TH. PMID:23254984

  1. Easily overlooked sonographic findings in the evaluation of neonatal encephalopathy: lessons learned from magnetic resonance imaging.

    PubMed

    Dinan, David; Daneman, Alan; Guimaraes, Carolina V; Chauvin, Nancy A; Victoria, Teresa; Epelman, Monica

    2014-12-01

    Findings of neonatal encephalopathy (NE) and specifically those of hypoxic-ischemic injury are frequently evident on magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Although MRI has become more widely used and has gained widespread acceptance as the study of choice for the evaluation of NE in recent years, its costs are high and access to MRI is sometimes limited for extremely sick neonates. Therefore, head sonography (US) continues to be the first-line imaging modality for the evaluation of the brain in neonates with NE; furthermore, in many of these infants, the diagnosis of NE may have first been made or suggested using head US. US is noninvasive, inexpensive, and portable, allowing examinations to be performed without moving the infant. However, many of the telltale signs of NE on US are subtle and may be easily overlooked, contributing to diagnostic delay or misdiagnosis. We aim to illustrate the spectrum of US findings in NE, with emphasis on those findings that may be easily overlooked on US. Recognition of these findings could potentially improve detection rates, reduce errors, and improve patient management. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Fifty years of brain imaging in neonatal encephalopathy following perinatal asphyxia.

    PubMed

    Groenendaal, Floris; de Vries, Linda S

    2017-01-01

    In the past brain imaging of term infants with hypoxic-ischemic encephalopathy (HIE) was performed with cranial ultrasound (cUS) and computed tomography (CT). Both techniques have several disadvantages sensitivity and specificity is limited compared with magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and CT makes use of radiation. At present MRI including diffusion weighted MRI during the first week of life, has become the method of choice for imaging infants with HIE. In addition to imaging, blood vessels and blood flow can be visualized using MR angiography, MR venography, and arterial spin labeling. Since the use of these techniques additional lesions in infants with HIE, such as arterial ischemic stroke, sinovenous thrombosis, and subdural hemorrhages can be diagnosed, and the incidence appears to be higher than shown previously. Phosphorus magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS) has led to the concept of secondary energy failure in infants with HIE, but has not been widely used. Proton MRS of the basal ganglia and thalamus is one of the best predictors of neurodevelopmental outcome. cUS should still be used for screening infants admitted to a NICU with neonatal encephalopathy. In the future magnetic resonance techniques will be increasingly used as early biomarkers of neurodevelopmental outcome in trials of neuroprotective strategies.

  3. Maternal or neonatal infection: association with neonatal encephalopathy outcomes.

    PubMed

    Jenster, Meike; Bonifacio, Sonia L; Ruel, Theodore; Rogers, Elizabeth E; Tam, Emily W; Partridge, John Colin; Barkovich, Anthony James; Ferriero, Donna M; Glass, Hannah C

    2014-07-01

    Perinatal infection may potentiate brain injury among children born preterm. The objective of this study was to examine whether maternal and/or neonatal infection are associated with adverse outcomes among term neonates with encephalopathy. This study is a cohort study of 258 term newborns with encephalopathy whose clinical records were examined for signs of maternal infection (chorioamnionitis) and infant infection (sepsis). Multivariate regression was used to assess associations between infection, pattern, and severity of injury on neonatal magnetic resonance imaging, as well as neurodevelopment at 30 mo (neuromotor examination, or Bayley Scales of Infant Development, second edition mental development index <70 or Bayley Scales of Infant Development, third edition cognitive score <85). Chorioamnionitis was associated with lower risk of moderate-severe brain injury (adjusted odds ratio: 0.3; 95% confidence interval: 0.1-0.7; P = 0.004) and adverse cognitive outcome in children when compared with no chorioamnionitis. Children with signs of neonatal sepsis were more likely to exhibit watershed predominant injury than those without (P = 0.007). Among neonates with encephalopathy, chorioamnionitis was associated with a lower risk of brain injury and adverse outcomes, whereas signs of neonatal sepsis carried an elevated risk. The etiology of encephalopathy and timing of infection and its associated inflammatory response may influence whether infection potentiates or mitigates injury in term newborns.

  4. Maternal or neonatal infection: association with neonatal encephalopathy outcomes

    PubMed Central

    Jenster, Meike; Bonifacio, Sonia L.; Ruel, Theodore; Rogers, Elizabeth E.; Tam, Emily W.; Partridge, John Colin; Barkovich, A. James; Ferriero, Donna M.; Glass, Hannah C.

    2014-01-01

    Background Perinatal infection may potentiate brain injury among children born preterm. The objective of this study was to examine whether maternal and/or neonatal infection are associated with adverse outcomes among term neonates with encephalopathy. Methods Cohort study of 258 term newborns with encephalopathy whose clinical records were examined for signs of maternal infection (chorioamnionitis) and infant infection (sepsis). Multivariate regression was used to assess associations between infection, pattern and severity of injury on neonatal MRI, as well as neurodevelopment at 30 months (neuromotor exam, or Bayley Scales of Infant Development II MDI <70 or Bayley III cognitive score <85). Results Chorioamnionitis was associated with lower risk of moderate-severe brain injury (adjusted OR 0.3; 95% CI 0.1–0.7, P=0.004), and adverse cognitive outcome in children when compared to no chorioamnionitis. Children with signs of neonatal sepsis were more likely to exhibit watershed predominant injury than those without (P=0.007). Conclusions Among neonates with encephalopathy, chorioamnionitis was associated with a lower risk of brain injury and adverse outcomes, whereas signs of neonatal sepsis carried an elevated risk. The etiology of encephalopathy and timing of infection and its associated inflammatory response may influence whether infection potentiates or mitigates injury in term newborns. PMID:24713817

  5. [Follow-up of newborns with hypoxic-ischaemic encephalopathy].

    PubMed

    Martínez-Biarge, M; Blanco, D; García-Alix, A; Salas, S

    2014-07-01

    Hypothermia treatment for newborn infants with hypoxic-ischemic encephalopathy reduces the number of neonates who die or have permanent neurological deficits. Although this therapy is now standard of care, neonatal hypoxic-ischaemic encephalopathy still has a significant impact on the child's neurodevelopment and quality of life. Infants with hypoxic-ischaemic encephalopathy should be enrolled in multidisciplinary follow-up programs in order to detect impairments, to initiate early intervention, and to provide counselling and support for families. This article describes the main neurodevelopmental outcomes after term neonatal hypoxic-ischaemic encephalopathy. We offer recommendations for follow-up based on the infant's clinical condition and other prognostic indicators, mainly neonatal neuroimaging. Other aspects, such as palliative care and medico-legal issues, are also briefly discussed. Copyright © 2013 Asociación Española de Pediatría. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  6. Effect of neonatal asphyxia on the impairment of the auditory pathway by recording auditory brainstem responses in newborn piglets: a new experimentation model to study the perinatal hypoxic-ischemic damage on the auditory system.

    PubMed

    Alvarez, Francisco Jose; Revuelta, Miren; Santaolalla, Francisco; Alvarez, Antonia; Lafuente, Hector; Arteaga, Olatz; Alonso-Alconada, Daniel; Sanchez-del-Rey, Ana; Hilario, Enrique; Martinez-Ibargüen, Agustin

    2015-01-01

    Hypoxia-ischemia (HI) is a major perinatal problem that results in severe damage to the brain impairing the normal development of the auditory system. The purpose of the present study is to study the effect of perinatal asphyxia on the auditory pathway by recording auditory brain responses in a novel animal experimentation model in newborn piglets. Hypoxia-ischemia was induced to 1.3 day-old piglets by clamping 30 minutes both carotid arteries by vascular occluders and lowering the fraction of inspired oxygen. We compared the Auditory Brain Responses (ABRs) of newborn piglets exposed to acute hypoxia/ischemia (n = 6) and a control group with no such exposure (n = 10). ABRs were recorded for both ears before the start of the experiment (baseline), after 30 minutes of HI injury, and every 30 minutes during 6 h after the HI injury. Auditory brain responses were altered during the hypoxic-ischemic insult but recovered 30-60 minutes later. Hypoxia/ischemia seemed to induce auditory functional damage by increasing I-V latencies and decreasing wave I, III and V amplitudes, although differences were not significant. The described experimental model of hypoxia-ischemia in newborn piglets may be useful for studying the effect of perinatal asphyxia on the impairment of the auditory pathway.

  7. Biomarkers of multiorgan injury in neonatal encephalopathy.

    PubMed

    Aslam, Saima; Molloy, Eleanor J

    2015-01-01

    Neonatal encephalopathy (NE) is a major contributor to neurodevelopmental deficits including cerebral palsy in term and near-term infants. The long-term neurodevelopmental outcome is difficult to predict with certainty in first few days of life. Multiorgan involvement is common but not part of the diagnostic criteria for NE. The most frequently involved organs are the heart, liver, kidneys and hematological system. Cerebral and organ involvement is associated with the release of organ specific biomarkers in cerebrospinal fluid, urine and blood. These biomarkers may have a role in the assessment of the severity of asphyxia and long-term outcome in neonates with NE.

  8. Impact of Perinatal Systemic Hypoxic–Ischemic Injury on the Brain of Male Offspring Rats: An Improved Model of Neonatal Hypoxic–Ischemic Encephalopathy in Early Preterm Newborns

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Hongwu; Wu, Weizhao; Lai, Xiulan; Ho, Guyu; Ma, Lian; Chen, Yunbin

    2013-01-01

    In this study, we attempted to design a model using Sprague-Dawley rats to better reproduce perinatal systemic hypoxic-ischemic encephalopathy (HIE) in early preterm newborns. On day 21 of gestation, the uterus of pregnant rats were exposed and the blood supply to the fetuses of neonatal HIE groups were thoroughly abscised by hemostatic clamp for 5, 10 or 15 min. Thereafter, fetuses were moved from the uterus and manually stimulated to initiate breathing in an incubator at 37 °C for 1 hr in air. We showed that survival rates of offspring rats were decreased with longer hypoxic time. TUNEL staining showed that apoptotic cells were significant increased in the brains of offspring rats from the 10 min and 15 min HIE groups as compared to the offspring rats in the control group at postnatal day (PND) 1, but there was no statistical difference between the offspring rats in the 5 min HIE and control groups. The perinatal hypoxic treatment resulted in decreased neurons and increased cleaved caspase-3 protein levels in the offspring rats from all HIE groups at PND 1. Platform crossing times and the percentage of the time spent in the target quadrant of Morris Water Maze test were significantly reduced in the offspring rats of all HIE groups at PND 30, which were associated with decreased brain-derived neurotrophic factor levels and neuronal cells in the hippocampus of offspring rats at PND 35. These data demonstrated that perinatal ischemic injury led to the death of neuronal cells and long-lasting impairment of memory. This model reproduced hypoxic ischemic encephalopathy in early preterm newborns and may be appropriate for investigating therapeutic interventions. PMID:24324800

  9. Exploratory Use of Decision Tree Analysis in Classification of Outcome in Hypoxic-Ischemic Brain Injury.

    PubMed

    Phan, Thanh G; Chen, Jian; Singhal, Shaloo; Ma, Henry; Clissold, Benjamin B; Ly, John; Beare, Richard

    2018-01-01

    Prognostication following hypoxic ischemic encephalopathy (brain injury) is important for clinical management. The aim of this exploratory study is to use a decision tree model to find clinical and MRI associates of severe disability and death in this condition. We evaluate clinical model and then the added value of MRI data. The inclusion criteria were as follows: age ≥17 years, cardio-respiratory arrest, and coma on admission (2003-2011). Decision tree analysis was used to find clinical [Glasgow Coma Score (GCS), features about cardiac arrest, therapeutic hypothermia, age, and sex] and MRI (infarct volume) associates of severe disability and death. We used the area under the ROC (auROC) to determine accuracy of model. There were 41 (63.7% males) patients having MRI imaging with the average age 51.5 ± 18.9 years old. The decision trees showed that infarct volume and age were important factors for discrimination between mild to moderate disability and severe disability and death at day 0 and day 2. The auROC for this model was 0.94 (95% CI 0.82-1.00). At day 7, GCS value was the only predictor; the auROC was 0.96 (95% CI 0.86-1.00). Our findings provide proof of concept for further exploration of the role of MR imaging and decision tree analysis in the early prognostication of hypoxic ischemic brain injury.

  10. The Frequency and Severity of Magnetic Resonance Imaging Abnormalities in Infants with Mild Neonatal Encephalopathy.

    PubMed

    Walsh, Brian H; Neil, Jeffrey; Morey, JoAnn; Yang, Edward; Silvera, Michelle V; Inder, Terrie E; Ortinau, Cynthia

    2017-08-01

    To assess and contrast the incidence and severity of abnormalities on cerebral magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) between infants with mild, moderate, and severe neonatal encephalopathy who received therapeutic hypothermia. This retrospective cohort studied infants with mild, moderate, and severe neonatal encephalopathy who received therapeutic hypothermia at a single tertiary neonatal intensive care unit between 2013 and 2015. Two neuroradiologists masked to the clinical condition evaluated brain MRIs for cerebral injury after therapeutic hypothermia using the Barkovich classification system. Additional abnormalities not included in this classification system were also noted. The rate, pattern, and severity of abnormalities/injury were compared across the grades of neonatal encephalopathy. Eighty-nine infants received therapeutic hypothermia and met study criteria, 48 with mild neonatal encephalopathy, 35 with moderate neonatal encephalopathy, and 6 with severe neonatal encephalopathy. Forty-eight infants (54%) had an abnormality on MRI. There was no difference in the rate of overall MRI abnormalities by grade of neonatal encephalopathy (mild neonatal encephalopathy 54%, moderate neonatal encephalopathy 54%, and severe neonatal encephalopathy 50%; P= .89). Basal ganglia/thalamic injury was more common in those with severe neonatal encephalopathy (mild neonatal encephalopathy 4%, moderate neonatal encephalopathy 9%, severe neonatal encephalopathy 34%; P = .03). In contrast, watershed injury did not differ between neonatal encephalopathy grades (mild neonatal encephalopathy 36%, moderate neonatal encephalopathy 32%, severe neonatal encephalopathy 50%; P = .3). Mild neonatal encephalopathy is commonly associated with MRI abnormalities after therapeutic hypothermia. The grade of neonatal encephalopathy during the first hours of life may not discriminate adequately between infants with and without cerebral injury noted on MRI after therapeutic hypothermia

  11. [Disturbed respiratory cycle accompanying hypoxic-ischemic encephalopathy].

    PubMed

    Saito, Yoshiaki; Masuko, Kaori; Kaneko, Kaori; Saito, Kazuyo; Chikumaru, Yuri; Iwamoto, Hiroko; Matsui, Akira; Kimura, Seiji

    2005-09-01

    We report the case of a 2-year-old boy who experienced total asphyxia at 4 months of age, and suffered abnormalities at specific phases of the respiratory cycle. The patient was bedridden due to severe tetraplegia and showed little response to external stimuli. He has been tube-fed since the initial asphyxia and a tracheotomy was performed after recurrent hypoxic episodes as a result of the respiratory dysfunction. Upon examination, his respiratory pattern was characterized by arrest during the inspiratory phase with a possible over-riding secondary inspiration. The respiratory pause at the inspiratory phase was markedly prolonged during an episode of pulmonary infection, resulting in recurrent cyanosis that necessitated artificial ventilation. The "second" inspiration typically occurred during the mid- or late-inspiratory phases, with this pattern often shown to be variable after epileptic seizures. The characteristic breathing of this patient suggested that difficulty in forming a normal respiratory cycle, other than during periods of hypoventilation or apnoea, could be a significant respiratory dysfunction following asphyxiation. Strategies for the management of such patients should be carefully designed after close observation of breathing patterns within the respiratory cycle, and with consideration for the influence of epileptic seizures and other inputs from somatic afferents.

  12. Edaravone attenuates neuronal apoptosis in hypoxic-ischemic brain damage rat model via suppression of TRAIL signaling pathway.

    PubMed

    Li, Chunyi; Mo, Zhihuai; Lei, Junjie; Li, Huiqing; Fu, Ruying; Huang, Yanxia; Luo, Shijian; Zhang, Lei

    2018-06-01

    Edaravone is a new type of oxygen free radical scavenger and able to attenuate various brain damage including hypoxic-ischemic brain damage (HIBD). This study was aimed at investigating the neuroprotective mechanism of edaravone in rat hypoxic-ischemic brain damage model and its correlation with tumor necrosis factor-related apoptosis-inducing ligand (TRAIL) signaling pathway. 75 seven-day-old Sprague-Dawley neonatal rats were equally divided into three groups: sham-operated group (sham), HIBD group and HIBD rats injected with edaravone (HIBD + EDA) group. Neurological severity and space cognitive ability of rats in each group were evaluated using Longa neurological severity score and Morris water maze testing. TUNEL assay and flow cytometry were used to determine brain cell apoptosis. Western blot was used to estimate the expression level of death receptor-5 (DR5), Fas-associated protein with death domain (FADD), caspase 8, B-cell lymphoma-2 (Bcl-2) and Bcl-2 associated X protein (Bax). In addition, immunofluorescence was performed to detect caspase 3. Edaravone reduced neurofunctional damage caused by HIBD and improved the cognitive capability of rats. The above experiment results suggested that edaravone could down-regulate the expression of active caspase 3 protein, thereby relieving neuronal apoptosis. Taken together, edaravone could attenuate neuronal apoptosis in rat hypoxic-ischemic brain damage model via suppression of TRAIL signaling pathway, which also suggested that edaravone might be an effective therapeutic strategy for HIBD clinical treatment. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Ethical issues in neonatal and pediatric clinical trials.

    PubMed

    Laventhal, Naomi; Tarini, Beth A; Lantos, John

    2012-10-01

    Children have been identified as uniquely vulnerable clinical research subjects since the early 1970s. This article reviews the historical underpinnings of this designation, the current regulatory framework for pediatric and neonatal research, and common problems in pediatric research oversight. It also presents 3 areas of pediatric and neonatal research (genomic screening, healthy children donating stem cells, and therapeutic hypothermia for neonates with hypoxic-ischemic encephalopathy) that highlight contemporary challenges in pediatric research ethics, including balancing risk and benefit, informed consent and assent, and clinical equipoise. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Does aetiology of neonatal encephalopathy and hypoxic-ischaemic encephalopathy influence the outcome of treatment?

    PubMed

    Mcintyre, Sarah; Badawi, Nadia; Blair, Eve; Nelson, Karin B

    2015-04-01

    Neonatal encephalopathy, a clinical syndrome affecting term-born and late preterm newborn infants, increases the risk of perinatal death and long-term neurological morbidity, especially cerebral palsy. With the advent of therapeutic hypothermia, a treatment designed for hypoxic or ischaemic injury, associated mortality and morbidity rates have decreased. Unfortunately, only about one in eight neonates (95% confidence interval) who meet eligibility criteria for therapeutic cooling apparently benefit from the treatment. Studies of infants in representative populations indicate that neonatal encephalopathy is a potential result of a variety of antecedents and that asphyxial complications at birth account for only a small percentage of neonatal encephalopathy. In contrast, clinical case series suggest that a large proportion of neonatal encephalopathy is hypoxic or ischaemic, and trials of therapeutic hypothermia are specifically designed to include only infants exposed to hypoxia or ischaemia. This review addresses the differences, definitional and methodological, between infants studied and investigations undertaken, in population studies compared with cooling trials. It raises the question if there may be subgroups of infants with a clinical diagnosis of hypoxic-ischaemic encephalopathy (HIE) in whom the pathobiology of neonatal neurological depression is not fundamentally hypoxic or ischaemic and, therefore, for whom cooling may not be beneficial. In addition, it suggests approaches to future trials of cooling plus adjuvant therapy that may contribute to further improvement of care for these vulnerable neonates. © The Authors. Journal compilation © 2015 Mac Keith Press.

  15. Human umbilical vein endothelial cells protect against hypoxic-ischemic damage in neonatal brain via stromal cell-derived factor 1/C-X-C chemokine receptor type 4.

    PubMed

    Wu, Chia-Ching; Chen, Yi-Chi; Chang, Ying-Chao; Wang, Lan-Wan; Lin, Yung-Chieh; Chiang, Yi-Lun; Ho, Chien-Jung; Huang, Chao-Ching

    2013-05-01

    Agents that protect against neurovascular damage provide a powerful neuroprotective strategy. Human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs) may be used to treat neonates with hypoxic-ischemia (HI) because of its autologous capability. We hypothesized that peripherally injected HUVECs entered the brain after HI, protected against neurovascular damage, and provided protection via stromal cell-derived factor 1/C-X-C chemokine receptor type 4 pathway in neonatal brain. Postpartum day 7 rat pups received intraperitoneal injections of low-passage HUVEC-P4, high-passage HUVEC-P8, or conditioned medium before and immediately after HI. HUVECs were transfected with adenovirus-green fluorescent protein for cell tracing. Oxygen-glucose deprivation was established by coculturing HUVEC-P4 with mouse neuroblastoma neuronal cells (Neuro-2a) and with mouse immortalized cerebral vascular endothelial cells (b.End3). HUVEC-P4-treated group had more blood levels of green fluorescent protein-positive cells than HUVEC-P8-treated group 3 hours postinjection. Intraperitoneally injected HUVEC-P4, but not HUVEC-P8, entered the cortex after HI and positioned closed to the neurons and microvessels. Compared with the condition medium-treated group, the HUVEC-P4-treated but not the HUVEC-P8-treated group showed significantly less neuronal apoptosis and blood-brain barrier damage and more preservation of microvessels in the cortex 24 hours after HI. On postpartum day 14, the HUVEC-P4-treated group showed significant neuroprotection compared with the condition medium-treated group. Stromal cell-derived factor 1 was upregulated in the ipsilateral cortex 3 hours after HI, and inhibiting the stromal cell-derived factor 1/C-X-C chemokine receptor type 4 reduced the protective effect of HUVEC-P4. In vitro transwell coculturing of HUVEC-P4 also significantly protected against oxygen-glucose deprivation cell death in neurons and endothelial cells. Cell therapy using HUVECs may provide a powerful

  16. [The contribution of the clinical examination, electroencephalogram, and brain MRI in assessing the prognosis in term newborns with neonatal encephalopathy. A cohort of 30 newborns before the introduction of treatment with hypothermia].

    PubMed

    Jadas, V; Brasseur-Daudruy, M; Chollat, C; Pellerin, L; Devaux, A M; Marret, S

    2014-02-01

    Perinatal asphyxia complicated by hypoxic ischemic brain injury remains a source of neurological lesions. A major aim of neonatologists is to evaluate the severity of neonatal encephalopathy (NE) and to evaluate prognosis. The purpose of this study was to determine the contribution of brain MRI compared to electroencephalogram (EEG) and clinical data in assessing patients' prognosis. Thirty newborns from the pediatric resuscitation unit at Rouen university hospital were enrolled in a retrospective study between January 2006 and December 2008, prior to introduction of hypothermia treatment. All 30 newborns had at least two anamnestic criteria of perinatal asphyxia, one brain MRI in the first 5 days of life and another after 7 days of life as well as an early EEG in the first 2 days of life. Then, the infants were seen in consultation to assess neurodevelopment. This study showed a relation between NE stage and prognosis. During stage 1, prognosis was good, whereas stage 3 was associated with poor neurodevelopment outcome. Normal clinical examination before the 8th day of life was a good prognostic factor in this study. There was a relationship between severity of EEG after the 5th day of life and poor outcome. During stage 2, EEG patterns varied in severity, and brain MRI provided a better prognosis. Lesions of the basal ganglia and a decreased or absent signal of the posterior limb of the internal capsule were poor prognostic factors during brain MRI. These lesions were underestimated during standard MRI in the first days of life but were visible with diffusion sequences. Cognitive impairment affected 40% of surviving children, justifying extended pediatric follow-up. This study confirms the usefulness of brain MRI as a diagnostic tool in hypoxic ischemic encephalopathy in association with clinical data and EEG tracings. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  17. Advancing Neurologic Care in the Neonatal Intensive Care Unit with a Neonatal Neurologist

    PubMed Central

    Mulkey, Sarah B.; Swearingen, Christopher J.

    2014-01-01

    Neonatal neurology is a growing sub-specialty area. Given the considerable amount of neurologic problems present in the neonatal intensive care unit, a neurologist with expertise in neonates is becoming more important. We sought to evaluate the change in neurologic care in the neonatal intensive care unit at our tertiary care hospital by having a dedicated neonatal neurologist. The period post-neonatal neurologist showed a greater number of neurology consultations (P<0.001), number of neurology encounters per patient (P<0.001), a wider variety of diagnoses seen, and an increase in the use of video-electroencephalography (P=0.022), compared to the pre-neonatal neurologist period. The neonatologists expressed appreciation for having a dedicated neurologist available. Standardized protocols for treating hypoxic-ischemic encephalopathy and neonatal seizures were also developed. Overall, by having a neonatal neurologist, neurology became part of the multi-disciplinary team providing focused neurologic care to newborns. PMID:23271754

  18. Embryonic Stem Cell-Derived Mesenchymal Stem Cells (MSCs) Have a Superior Neuroprotective Capacity Over Fetal MSCs in the Hypoxic-Ischemic Mouse Brain.

    PubMed

    Hawkins, Kate E; Corcelli, Michelangelo; Dowding, Kate; Ranzoni, Anna M; Vlahova, Filipa; Hau, Kwan-Leong; Hunjan, Avina; Peebles, Donald; Gressens, Pierre; Hagberg, Henrik; de Coppi, Paolo; Hristova, Mariya; Guillot, Pascale V

    2018-05-01

    Human mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) have huge potential for regenerative medicine. In particular, the use of pluripotent stem cell-derived mesenchymal stem cells (PSC-MSCs) overcomes the hurdle of replicative senescence associated with the in vitro expansion of primary cells and has increased therapeutic benefits in comparison to the use of various adult sources of MSCs in a wide range of animal disease models. On the other hand, fetal MSCs exhibit faster growth kinetics and possess longer telomeres and a wider differentiation potential than adult MSCs. Here, for the first time, we compare the therapeutic potential of PSC-MSCs (ES-MSCs from embryonic stem cells) to fetal MSCs (AF-MSCs from the amniotic fluid), demonstrating that ES-MSCs have a superior neuroprotective potential over AF-MSCs in the mouse brain following hypoxia-ischemia. Further, we demonstrate that nuclear factor (NF)-κB-stimulated interleukin (IL)-13 production contributes to an increased in vitro anti-inflammatory potential of ES-MSC-conditioned medium (CM) over AF-MSC-CM, thus suggesting a potential mechanism for this observation. Moreover, we show that induced pluripotent stem cell-derived MSCs (iMSCs) exhibit many similarities to ES-MSCs, including enhanced NF-κB signaling and IL-13 production in comparison to AF-MSCs. Future studies should assess whether iMSCs also exhibit similar neuroprotective potential to ES-MSCs, thus presenting a potential strategy to overcome the ethical issues associated with the use of embryonic stem cells and providing a potential source of cells for autologous use against neonatal hypoxic-ischemic encephalopathy in humans. Stem Cells Translational Medicine 2018;7:439-449. © 2018 The Authors Stem Cells Translational Medicine published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of AlphaMed Press.

  19. Neurodiagnostic techniques in neonatal critical care.

    PubMed

    Chang, Taeun; du Plessis, Adre

    2012-04-01

    This article reviews recent advances in the neurodiagnostic tools available to clinicians practicing in neonatal critical care. The advent of induced mild hypothermia for acute neonatal hypoxic-ischemic encephalopathy in 2005 has been responsible for renewed urgency in the development of precise and reliable neonatal neurodiagnostic techniques. Traditional evaluations of bedside head ultrasounds, head computed tomography scans, and routine electroencephalograms (EEGs) have been upgraded in most tertiary pediatric centers to incorporate protocols for MRI, continuous EEG monitoring with remote bedside access, amplitude-integrated EEG, and near-infrared spectroscopy. Meanwhile, recent studies supporting the association between placental pathology and neonatal brain injury highlight the need for closer examination of the placenta in the neurodiagnostic evaluation of the acutely ill newborn. As the pursuit of more effective neuroprotection moves into the "hypothermia plus" era, the identification, evaluation, and treatment of the neurologically affected newborn in the neonatal intensive care unit has increasing significance.

  20. Management and investigation of neonatal encephalopathy: 2017 update

    PubMed Central

    Martinello, Kathryn; Hart, Anthony R; Yap, Sufin; Mitra, Subhabrata

    2017-01-01

    This review discusses an approach to determining the cause of neonatal encephalopathy, as well as current evidence on resuscitation and subsequent management of hypoxic-ischaemic encephalopathy (HIE). Encephalopathy in neonates can be due to varied aetiologies in addition to hypoxic-ischaemia. A combination of careful history, examination and the judicious use of investigations can help determine the cause. Over the last 7 years, infants with moderate to severe HIE have benefited from the introduction of routine therapeutic hypothermia; the number needed to treat for an additional beneficial outcome is 7 (95% CI 5 to 10). More recent research has focused on optimal resuscitation practices for babies with cardiorespiratory depression, such as delayed cord clamping after establishment of ventilation and resuscitation in air. Around a quarter of infants with asystole at 10 min after birth who are subsequently cooled have normal outcomes, suggesting that individualised decision making on stopping resuscitation is needed, based on access to intensive treatment unit and early cooling. The full benefit of cooling appears to have been exploited in our current treatment protocols of 72 hours at 33.5°C; deeper and longer cooling showed adverse outcome. The challenge over the next 5–10 years will be to assess which adjunct therapies are safe and optimise hypothermic brain protection in phase I and phase II trials. Optimal care may require tailoring treatments according to gender, genetic risk, injury severity and inflammatory status. PMID:28389438

  1. Neonatal encephalopathy in New Zealand: Demographics and clinical outcome.

    PubMed

    Battin, M; Sadler, L; Masson, V; Farquhar, C

    2016-06-01

    To establish the incidence of moderate to severe neonatal encephalopathy (NE) in term infants from New Zealand and to document demographic characteristics and neonatal outcomes. Cases were reported monthly via the New Zealand Paediatric Surveillance Unit (NZPSU). Data were collected from paediatricians for neonatal items and lead maternity carers for pregnancy and birth details. Term neonatal deaths in the Perinatal and Maternal Mortality Review Committee dataset that were because of hypoxia and/or neonatal deaths from hypoxic ischaemic encephalopathy were added to the cases identified via the NZPSU, if they had not previously been ascertained. For the period January 2010 to December 2012, there were 227 cases, equivalent to a rate of 1.30/1000 term births (95% CI 1.14-1.48). Rates of NE were high in babies of Pacific and Indian mothers but only reached statistical significance for the comparison between Pacific and NZ European. There was also a significant increase in NE rates with increasing deprivation. Resuscitation at birth was initiated for 209 (92.1%) infants with NE. Mechanical ventilation was required, following neonatal unit admission, in 171 (75.3%) infants. Anticonvulsants were used in 157 (69.2%) infants with phenobarbitone (65.6%), phenytoin (14.5%) and benzodiazapines (21.1%), the most common. Cooling was induced in 168 infants (74%) with 145 (86.3%) reported as commenced within a 6-h window. The rate of NE in New Zealand is consistent with reported international rates. Establishing antecedent factors for NE is an important part of improving care, which may inform strategic efforts to decrease rates of NE. © 2016 Paediatrics and Child Health Division (The Royal Australasian College of Physicians).

  2. Neuroprotection Against Hypoxic/Ischemic Injury: δ-Opioid Receptors and BDNF-TrkB Pathway.

    PubMed

    Sheng, Shiying; Huang, Jingzhong; Ren, Yi; Zhi, Feng; Tian, Xuansong; Wen, Guoqiang; Ding, Guanghong; Xia, Terry C; Hua, Fei; Xia, Ying

    2018-05-11

    The delta-opioid receptor (DOR) is one of three classic opioid receptors in the opioid system. It was traditionally thought to be primarily involved in modulating the transmission of messages along pain signaling pathway. Although there were scattered studies on its other neural functions, inconsistent results and contradicting conclusions were found in past literatures, especially in terms of DOR's role in a hypoxic/ischemic brain. Taking inspiration from the finding that the turtle brain exhibits a higher DOR density and greater tolerance to hypoxic/ischemic insult than the mammalian brain, we clarified DOR's specific role in the brain against hypoxic/ischemic injury and reconciled previous controversies in this aspect. Our serial studies have strongly demonstrated that DOR is a unique neuroprotector against hypoxic/ischemic injury in the brain, which has been well confirmed in current research. Moreover, mechanistic studies have shown that during acute phases of hypoxic/ischemic stress, DOR protects the neurons mainly by the stabilization of ionic homeostasis, inhibition of excitatory transmitter release, and attenuation of disrupted neuronal transmission. During prolonged hypoxia/ischemia, however, DOR neuroprotection involves a variety of signaling pathways. More recently, our data suggest that DOR may display its neuroprotective role via the BDNF-TrkB pathway. This review concisely summarizes the progress in this field. © 2018 The Author(s). Published by S. Karger AG, Basel.

  3. Risk factors for neonatal encephalopathy in Kathmandu, Nepal, a developing country: unmatched case-control study

    PubMed Central

    Ellis, Matthew; Manandhar, Nilu; Manandhar, Dharma S; Costello, Anthony M de L

    2000-01-01

    Objective To determine the risk factors for neonatal encephalopathy among term infants in a developing country. Design Unmatched case-control study. Setting Principal maternity hospital of Kathmandu, Nepal. Subjects All 131 infants with neonatal encephalopathy from a population of 21 609 infants born over an 18 month period, and 635 unmatched infants systematically recruited over 12 months. Main outcome measures Adjusted odds ratio estimates for antepartum and intrapartum risk factors. Results The prevalence of neonatal encephalopathy was 6.1 per 1000 live births of which 63% were infants with moderate or severe encephalopathy. The risk of death from neonatal encephalopathy was 31%. The risk of neonatal encephalopathy increased with increasing maternal age and decreasing maternal height. Antepartum risk factors included primiparity (odds ratio 2.0) and non-attendance for antenatal care (2.1). Multiple births were at greatly increased risk (22). Intrapartum risk factors included non-cephalic presentation (3.4), prolonged rupture of membranes (3.8), and various other complications. Particulate meconium was strongly associated with encephalopathy (18). Induction of labour with oxytocin was associated with encephalopathy in 12 of 41 deliveries (5.7). Overall, 78 affected infants (60%) compared with 36 controls (6%) either had evidence of intrapartum compromise or were born after an intrapartum difficulty likely to result in fetal compromise. A concentration of maternal haemoglobin of less than 8.0 g/dl in the puerperium was significantly associated with encephalopathy (2.5) as was a maternal thyroid stimulating hormone concentration greater than 5 mIU/l (2.1). Conclusions Intrapartum risk factors remain important for neonatal encephalopathy in developing countries. There is some evidence of a protective effect from antenatal care. The use of oxytocin in low income countries where intrapartum monitoring is suboptimal presents a major risk to the fetus. More work is

  4. [Pregnancy and labor associated with encephalopathy in neonates during the early neonatal period].

    PubMed

    Skrablin, S; Drazancić, A; Letica, N; Tadić, V

    1992-01-01

    Pregnancy complications, drugs and surgical interventions during pregnancy, fetal growth, medications and interventions during labor, labor complications as well as fetal heart activity during labor in a group of 114 term infants without malformations, but with signs of central nervous system (CNS) damage throughout early neonatal period are compared with paired group of term healthy infants born in the same presentation and mode of delivery. Among prelabor factors only maternal hypertension (found in 16.7% of encephalopathy children versus 0.8% in a control group) was significantly correlated with CNS damage. Fetal growth retardation and long term ritodrine administration were found more frequent in encephalopathy than in healthy group of infants, although statistical significance between the groups could not be demonstrated. A prolonged second stage of labor, high oxytocin dosage, too frequent uterine contractions and vacuum extractions were found significantly correlated with neonatal encephalopathy. CTG pattern during labor was normal in only 28.9% of children, with encepalopathy prepathologic in 46.4% and pathologic in 24.7%. The respective percentages for healthy newborns were: 82.5%, 16.25% and 1.2%. All differences between the groups were statistically significant. Mean duration of prepathologic CTG score in the group of infants with encephalopathy (78.8 minutes) as well as of pathologic score (51.7 minutes) was significantly longer than in healthy infants (23.7 minutes prepathologic and 7 minutes pathologic).(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  5. The "Bermuda triangle" of neonatal neurology: cerebral palsy, neonatal encephalopathy, and intrapartum asphyxia.

    PubMed

    Shevell, Michael I

    2004-03-01

    The terms "cerebral palsy," "neonatal encephalopathy," and "intrapartum asphyxia" are frequently used in pediatric neurology. This article presents concise, verifiable definitions for each of these entities based on our current understanding and formulates the nature of the interrelationships between them. The aim is to provide a level of clarity that will enhance diagnostic and pathogenetic precision and minimize conceptual misunderstanding. This should aid future therapeutic and research efforts in this important area.

  6. Cerebral palsy after neonatal encephalopathy: do neonates with suspected asphyxia have worse outcomes?

    PubMed

    Garfinkle, Jarred; Wintermark, Pia; Shevell, Michael I; Oskoui, Maryam

    2016-02-01

    We sought to investigate how brain injury and severity, and neurological subtype of cerebral palsy (CP) differed in term-born children with CP after neonatal encephalopathy, between those with suspected birth asphyxia and those without. Using the Canadian CP Registry, which included 1001 children, those with CP born at ≥ 36 wks after moderate or severe neonatal encephalopathy, were dichotomized according to the presence or absence of suspected birth asphyxia. Gross Motor Function Classification System (GMFCS) scores, neurological subtypes, comorbidities, and magnetic resonance imaging findings were compared. Of the 147 term-born children with CP (82 males, 65 females; median age 37 months, interquartile range [IQR] 26-52.5) who after moderate or severe neonatal encephalopathy had the required outcome data, 61 (41%) met criteria for suspected birth asphyxia. They had a higher frequency of non-ambulatory GMFCS status (odds ratio [OR] 3.4, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.72-6.8), spastic quadriplegia (OR 2.8, 95% CI 1.4-5.6), non-verbal communication skills impairment (OR 4.2, 95% CI 2.0-8.6), isolated deep grey matter injury (OR 4.1, 95% CI 1.8-9.5), a lower frequency of spastic hemiplegia (OR 0.17, 95% CI 0.07-0.42), focal injury (OR 0.20; 95% CI 0.04-0.93), and more comorbidities (p=0.017) than those who did not meet criteria. Term-born children who develop CP after neonatal encephalopathy with suspected birth asphyxia have a greater burden of disability than those without suspected birth asphyxia. © 2015 Mac Keith Press.

  7. Antecedents of Neonatal Encephalopathy in the Vermont Oxford Network Encephalopathy Registry

    PubMed Central

    Bingham, Peter; Edwards, Erika M.; Horbar, Jeffrey D.; Kenny, Michael J.; Inder, Terrie; Pfister, Robert H.; Raju, Tonse; Soll, Roger F.

    2012-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Neonatal encephalopathy (NE) is a major predictor of death and long-term neurologic disability, but there are few studies of antecedents of NE. OBJECTIVES: To identify antecedents in a large registry of infants who had NE. METHODS: This was a maternal and infant record review of 4165 singleton neonates, gestational age of ≥36 weeks, meeting criteria for inclusion in the Vermont Oxford Network Neonatal Encephalopathy Registry. RESULTS: Clinically recognized seizures were the most prevalent condition (60%); 49% had a 5-minute Apgar score of ≤3 and 18% had a reduced level of consciousness. An abnormal maternal or fetal condition predated labor in 46%; maternal hypertension (16%) or small for gestational age (16%) were the most frequent risk factors. In 8%, birth defects were identified. The most prevalent birth complication was elevated maternal temperature in labor of ≥37.5°C in 27% of mothers with documented temperatures compared with 2% to 3.2% in controls in population-based studies. Clinical chorioamnionitis, prolonged membrane rupture, and maternal hypothyroidism exceeded rates in published controls. Acute asphyxial indicators were reported in 15% (in 35% if fetal bradycardia included) and inflammatory indicators in 24%. Almost one-half had neither asphyxial nor inflammatory indicators. Although most infants with NE were observably ill since the first minutes of life, only 54% of placentas were submitted for examination. CONCLUSIONS: Clinically recognized asphyxial birth events, indicators of intrauterine exposure to inflammation, fetal growth restriction, and birth defects were each observed in term infants with NE, but much of NE in this large registry remained unexplained. PMID:23071210

  8. Stem cells for brain repair in neonatal hypoxia-ischemia.

    PubMed

    Chicha, L; Smith, T; Guzman, R

    2014-01-01

    Neonatal hypoxic-ischemic insults are a significant cause of pediatric encephalopathy, developmental delays, and spastic cerebral palsy. Although the developing brain's plasticity allows for remarkable self-repair, severe disruption of normal myelination and cortical development upon neonatal brain injury are likely to generate life-persisting sensory-motor and cognitive deficits in the growing child. Currently, no treatments are available that can address the long-term consequences. Thus, regenerative medicine appears as a promising avenue to help restore normal developmental processes in affected infants. Stem cell therapy has proven effective in promoting functional recovery in animal models of neonatal hypoxic-ischemic injury and therefore represents a hopeful therapy for this unmet medical condition. Neural stem cells derived from pluripotent stem cells or fetal tissues as well as umbilical cord blood and mesenchymal stem cells have all shown initial success in improving functional outcomes. However, much still remains to be understood about how those stem cells can safely be administered to infants and what their repair mechanisms in the brain are. In this review, we discuss updated research into pathophysiological mechanisms of neonatal brain injury, the types of stem cell therapies currently being tested in this context, and the potential mechanisms through which exogenous stem cells might interact with and influence the developing brain.

  9. Low plasma magnesium is associated with impaired brain metabolism in neonates with hypoxic-ischaemic encephalopathy.

    PubMed

    Chakkarapani, Elavazhagan; Chau, Vann; Poskitt, Kenneth J; Synnes, Anne; Kwan, Eddie; Roland, Elke; Miller, Steven P

    2016-09-01

    To determine the association between lowest plasma magnesium concentration and brain metabolism, and whether magnetic resonance imaging brain injury patterns moderated the association in hypoxic-ischemic encephalopathy. In 131 early (day-of-life 3) and 65 late (day-of-life 10) scans of term encephalopathic infants born between 2004 and 2012, we examined the association of lowest plasma magnesium (until day-of-life 3) on basal ganglia and white matter peak metabolite ratios on magnetic resonance spectroscopy independent of covariates, stratified by the predominant patterns of injury (normal, basal nuclei/total, watershed, multifocal) using multiple linear regression. Lowest plasma magnesium was associated with lower white matter N-acetyl-aspartate/choline in the multifocal pattern on early scan (regression-coefficient, β: 0.13; 95% CI: 0.04, 0.22) and in the basal nuclei/total pattern on late scan (β: 0.08; 95% CI: 0.02, 0.15), and was negatively associated with basal ganglia lactate/N-acetyl-aspartate (β: -0.16; 95% CI: -0.05, -0.28) and lactate/choline (β: -0.1; 95% CI: -0.03, -0.17) ratio in the basal nuclei/total pattern on late scan independent of hypomagnesaemia correction, cooling and postmenstrual age at scan. Lowest plasma magnesium was not associated with metabolite ratios in other brain injury patterns. In infants with hypoxic-ischaemic encephalopathy, predominant patterns of brain injury moderated the association between lowest plasma magnesium in the first three days of life and impaired brain metabolism. ©2016 Foundation Acta Paediatrica. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  10. MRI as a biomarker for mild neonatal encephalopathy.

    PubMed

    Walsh, Brian H; Inder, Terrie E

    2018-05-01

    Historically, there has been limited neuro-imaging data acquired on infants with mild neonatal encephalopathy (NE). This likely reflects the traditional assumption that these infants had a universally good prognosis. As new evidence has emerged challenging this assumption, there has been a renewed interest in the neuro-imaging findings of these infants. To date, magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) studies in infants with mild NE have demonstrated abnormalities in 20-40% of cases suggestive that the injury occurs during the peripartum period with a predominant watershed pattern of injury. The severity of the injury on MRI in infants with mild NE varies, but includes patterns of injury that have been associated with long-term neuro-developmental impairment. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. [Neonatal complications related to shoulder dystocia].

    PubMed

    Lopez, E; de Courtivron, B; Saliba, E

    2015-12-01

    To describe neonatal complications related to shoulder dystocia. This systematic evidence review is based on PubMed search, Cochrane library and experts' recommendations. The risks of brachial plexus birth injury, clavicle and humeral fracture, perinatal asphyxia, hypoxic-ischemic encephalopathy and perinatal mortality are increased after shoulder dystocia. The medical team should be able to provide neonatal resuscitation in the delivery room in case of perinatal asphyxia following shoulder dystocia, according to national and international guidelines. The initial clinical examination should search for complications such as brachial plexus birth injury or clavicle fracture. The risk of perinatal complications is increased in newborn after shoulder dystocia. The medical team should be able to manage these complications. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  12. MR imaging for diagnostic evaluation of encephalopathy in the newborn.

    PubMed

    Shroff, Manohar M; Soares-Fernandes, João P; Whyte, Hilary; Raybaud, Charles

    2010-05-01

    Magnetic resonance (MR) imaging is used with increasing frequency to evaluate the neonatal brain because it can provide important diagnostic and prognostic information that is needed for optimal treatment and appropriate counseling. Special care must be taken in preparing encephalopathic neonates for an MR study, transporting them from the intensive care unit, monitoring their vital signs, and optimizing MR sequences and protocols. Moreover, to accurately interpret the findings, specific knowledge is needed about the normal MR imaging appearances of the physiologic processes of myelination, cell migration, and sulcation, as well as patterns of injury, in the neonatal brain at various stages of gestational development. Hypoxic-ischemic injury, the most common cause of neonatal encephalopathy, has characteristic appearances that depend on the severity and duration of the insult as well as the stage of brain development. Diffusion-weighted MR imaging and MR spectroscopy depict abnormalities earlier than do conventional MR imaging sequences. However, diffusion-weighted imaging, if performed in the first 24 hours after the insult, might lead to underestimation of the extent of injury. When the MR findings are atypical, the differential diagnosis of neonatal encephalopathy also should include congenital and metabolic disorders and infectious diseases. Despite recent advances in the MR imaging-based characterization of these conditions, the clinical history must be borne in mind to achieve an accurate diagnosis.

  13. Inclusion of temporal priors for automated neonatal EEG classification

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Temko, Andriy; Stevenson, Nathan; Marnane, William; Boylan, Geraldine; Lightbody, Gordon

    2012-08-01

    The aim of this paper is to use recent advances in the clinical understanding of the temporal evolution of seizure burden in neonates with hypoxic ischemic encephalopathy to improve the performance of automated detection algorithms. Probabilistic weights are designed from temporal locations of neonatal seizure events relative to time of birth. These weights are obtained by fitting a skew-normal distribution to the temporal seizure density and introduced into the probabilistic framework of the previously developed neonatal seizure detector. The results are validated on the largest available clinical dataset, comprising 816.7 h. By exploiting these priors, the receiver operating characteristic area is increased by 23% (relative) reaching 96.74%. The number of false detections per hour is decreased from 0.45 to 0.25, while maintaining the correct detection of seizure burden at 70%.

  14. Neuroprotection by selective neuronal deletion of Atg7 in neonatal brain injury

    PubMed Central

    Xie, Cuicui; Ginet, Vanessa; Sun, Yanyan; Koike, Masato; Zhou, Kai; Li, Tao; Li, Hongfu; Li, Qian; Wang, Xiaoyang; Uchiyama, Yasuo; Truttmann, Anita C.; Kroemer, Guido; Puyal, Julien; Blomgren, Klas; Zhu, Changlian

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Perinatal asphyxia induces neuronal cell death and brain injury, and is often associated with irreversible neurological deficits in children. There is an urgent need to elucidate the neuronal death mechanisms occurring after neonatal hypoxia-ischemia (HI). We here investigated the selective neuronal deletion of the Atg7 (autophagy related 7) gene on neuronal cell death and brain injury in a mouse model of severe neonatal hypoxia-ischemia. Neuronal deletion of Atg7 prevented HI-induced autophagy, resulted in 42% decrease of tissue loss compared to wild-type mice after the insult, and reduced cell death in multiple brain regions, including apoptosis, as shown by decreased caspase-dependent and -independent cell death. Moreover, we investigated the lentiform nucleus of human newborns who died after severe perinatal asphyxia and found increased neuronal autophagy after severe hypoxic-ischemic encephalopathy compared to control uninjured brains, as indicated by the numbers of MAP1LC3B/LC3B (microtubule-associated protein 1 light chain 3)-, LAMP1 (lysosomal-associated membrane protein 1)-, and CTSD (cathepsin D)-positive cells. These findings reveal that selective neuronal deletion of Atg7 is strongly protective against neuronal death and overall brain injury occurring after HI and suggest that inhibition of HI-enhanced autophagy should be considered as a potential therapeutic target for the treatment of human newborns developing severe hypoxic-ischemic encephalopathy. PMID:26727396

  15. Improving the Identification of Neonatal Encephalopathy: Utility of a Web-Based Video Tool.

    PubMed

    Ivy, Autumn S; Clark, Catherine L; Bahm, Sarah M; Meurs, Krisa P Van; Wusthoff, Courtney J

    2017-04-01

    Objective  This study tested the effectiveness of a video teaching tool in improving identification and classification of encephalopathy in infants. Study Design  We developed an innovative video teaching tool to help clinicians improve their skills in interpreting the neonatal neurological examination for grading encephalopathy. Pediatric residents were shown 1-minute video clips demonstrating exam findings in normal neonates and neonates with various degrees of encephalopathy. Findings from five domains were demonstrated: spontaneous activity, level of alertness, posture/tone, reflexes, and autonomic responses. After each clip, subjects were asked to identify whether the exam finding was normal or consistent with mild, moderate, or severe abnormality. Subjects were then directed to a web-based teaching toolkit, containing a compilation of videos demonstrating normal and abnormal findings on the neonatal neurological examination. Immediately after training, subjects underwent posttesting, again identifying exam findings as normal, mild, moderate, or severe abnormality. Results  Residents improved in their overall ability to identify and classify neonatal encephalopathy after viewing the teaching tool. In particular, the identification of abnormal spontaneous activity, reflexes, and autonomic responses were most improved. Conclusion  This pretest/posttest evaluation of an educational tool demonstrates that after viewing our toolkit, pediatric residents were able to improve their overall ability to detect neonatal encephalopathy. Thieme Medical Publishers 333 Seventh Avenue, New York, NY 10001, USA.

  16. Magnetic resonance imaging spectrum of perinatal hypoxic-ischemic brain injury

    PubMed Central

    Varghese, Binoj; Xavier, Rose; Manoj, V C; Aneesh, M K; Priya, P S; Kumar, Ashok; Sreenivasan, V K

    2016-01-01

    Perinatal hypoxic–ischemic brain injury results in neonatal hypoxic–ischemic encephalopathy and serious long-term neurodevelopmental sequelae. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of the brain is an ideal and safe imaging modality for suspected hypoxic–ischemic injury. The pattern of injury depends on brain maturity at the time of insult, severity of hypotension, and duration of insult. Time of imaging after the insult influences the imaging findings. Mild to moderate hypoperfusion results in germinal matrix hemorrhages and periventricular leukomalacia in preterm neonates and parasagittal watershed territory infarcts in full-term neonates. Severe insult preferentially damages the deep gray matter in both term and preterm infants. However, associated frequent perirolandic injury is seen in term neonates. MRI is useful in establishing the clinical diagnosis, assessing the severity of injury, and thereby prognosticating the outcome. Familiarity with imaging spectrum and insight into factors affecting the injury will enlighten the radiologist to provide an appropriate diagnosis. PMID:27857456

  17. Low Apgar score, neonatal encephalopathy and epidural analgesia during labour: a Swedish registry-based study.

    PubMed

    Törnell, S; Ekéus, C; Hultin, M; Håkansson, S; Thunberg, J; Högberg, U

    2015-04-01

    Maternal intrapartum fever (MF) is associated with neonatal sequelae, and women in labour who receive epidural analgesia (EA) are more likely to develop hyperthermia. The aims of this study were to investigate if EA and/or a diagnosis of MF were associated to adverse neonatal outcomes at a population level. Population-based register study with data from the Swedish Birth Register and the Swedish National Patient Register, including all nulliparae (n=294,329) with singleton pregnancies who gave birth at term in Sweden 1999-2008. Neonatal outcomes analysed were Apgar score (AS)<7 at 5 min and ICD-10 diagnosis of neonatal encephalopathy (e.g. convulsions or neonatal cerebral ischaemia). Multivariate logistic regression was used to calculate adjusted odds ratios (AOR) with 95% confidence intervals (CI). EA was used in 44% of the deliveries. Low AS or encephalopathy was found in 1.26% and 0.39% of the children in the EA group compared with 0.80% and 0.29% in the control group. In multivariate analysis, EA was associated with increased risk with low AS, AOR 1.27 (95% CI 1.16-1.39), but not with diagnosis of encephalopathy, 1.11 (0.96-1.29). A diagnosis of MF was associated with increased risk for both low AS, 2.27 (1.71-3.02), and of neonatal encephalopathy, 1.97 (1.19-3.26). Diagnosis of MF was associated with low AS and neonatal encephalopathy, whereas EA was only associated with low AS and not with neonatal encephalopathy. The found associations might be a result of confounding by indication, which is difficult to assess in a registry-based population study. © 2015 The Acta Anaesthesiologica Scandinavica Foundation. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  18. Acute and long-term NCX activation reduces brain injury and restores behavioral functions in mice subjected to neonatal brain ischemia.

    PubMed

    Cerullo, Pierpaolo; Brancaccio, Paola; Anzilotti, Serenella; Vinciguerra, Antonio; Cuomo, Ornella; Fiorino, Ferdinando; Severino, Beatrice; Di Vaio, Paola; Di Renzo, Gianfranco; Annunziato, Lucio; Pignataro, Giuseppe

    2018-06-01

    Hypoxic-ischemic encephalopathy (HI) accounts for the majority of developmental, motor and cognitive deficits in children, leading to life-long neurological impairments. Since the plasmamembrane sodium/calcium exchanger (NCX) plays a fundamental role in maintaining ionic homeostasis during adult brain ischemia, in the present work we aimed to demonstrate (1)the involvement of NCX in the pathophysiology of neonatal HI and (2)a possible NCX-based pharmacological intervention. HI was induced in neonatal mice at postnatal day 7(P7) by unilateral cut of the right common carotid artery, followed by 60 min exposure to 8%O 2 . Expression profiles of NCX isoforms from embryos stage to adulthood was evaluated in the hippocampus of hypoxic-ischemic and control mice. To assess the effect of NCX pharmacological stimulation, brain infarct volume was evaluated in brain sections, obtained at several time intervals after systemic administration of the newly synthesized NCX activator neurounina. Moreover, the long term effect of NCX activation was evaluated in adult mice (P60) subjected to neonatal HI and daily treated with neurounina for three weeks. Hypoxic-ischemic insult induced a reduction of NCX1 and NCX3 expression starting from day 7 until day 60. Notably, 8 weeks after HI induction in P7 mice, NCX pharmacological stimulation not only reduced infarct volume but improved also motor behaviour, spatial and visual memory. The present study highlights the significant role of NCX in the evolution of neonatal brain injury and in the learning and memory processes that are impaired in mice injured in the neonatal period. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Vulnerability of the developing brain to hypoxic-ischemic damage: contribution of the cerebral vasculature to injury and repair?

    PubMed Central

    Baburamani, Ana A.; Ek, C. Joakim; Walker, David W.; Castillo-Melendez, Margie

    2012-01-01

    As clinicians attempt to understand the underlying reasons for the vulnerability of different regions of the developing brain to injury, it is apparent that little is known as to how hypoxia-ischemia may affect the cerebrovasculature in the developing infant. Most of the research investigating the pathogenesis of perinatal brain injury following hypoxia-ischemia has focused on excitotoxicity, oxidative stress and an inflammatory response, with the response of the developing cerebrovasculature receiving less attention. This is surprising as the presentation of devastating and permanent injury such as germinal matrix-intraventricular haemorrhage (GM-IVH) and perinatal stroke are of vascular origin, and the origin of periventricular leukomalacia (PVL) may also arise from poor perfusion of the white matter. This highlights that cerebrovasculature injury following hypoxia could primarily be responsible for the injury seen in the brain of many infants diagnosed with hypoxic-ischemic encephalopathy (HIE). Interestingly the highly dynamic nature of the cerebral blood vessels in the fetus, and the fluctuations of cerebral blood flow and metabolic demand that occur following hypoxia suggest that the response of blood vessels could explain both regional protection and vulnerability in the developing brain. However, research into how blood vessels respond following hypoxia-ischemia have mostly been conducted in adult models of ischemia or stroke, further highlighting the need to investigate how the developing cerebrovasculature responds and the possible contribution to perinatal brain injury following hypoxia. This review discusses the current concepts on the pathogenesis of perinatal brain injury, the development of the fetal cerebrovasculature and the blood brain barrier (BBB), and key mediators involved with the response of cerebral blood vessels to hypoxia. PMID:23162470

  20. Phenobarbital and temperature profile during hypothermia for hypoxic-ischemic encephalopathy

    PubMed Central

    Sant’Anna, Guilherme; Laptook, Abbot R.; Shankaran, Seetha; Bara, Rebecca; McDonald, Scott A.; Higgins, Rosemary D.; Tyson, Jon E.; Ehrenkranz, Richard A.; Das, Abhik; Goldberg, Ronald N.; Walsh, Michele C.

    2012-01-01

    Data from the whole body hypothermia trial was analyzed to examine the effects of phenobarbital administration prior to cooling (+PB) on the esophageal temperature (Te) profile, during the induction phase of hypothermia. A total of 98 infants were analyzed. At enrollment, +PB infants had a higher rate of severe HIE and clinical seizures and lower Te and cord pH than infants that have not received PB (−PB). There was a significant effect of PB itself and an interaction between PB and time in the Te profile. Mean Te in the +PB group was lower than in the −PB group and the differences decreased over time. In +PB infants the time to surpass target Te of 33.5°C and to reach the minimum Te during overshoot were shorter. In conclusion, the administration of PB prior to cooling was associated with changes that may reflect a reduced thermogenic response associated with barbiturates. PMID:21960671

  1. Genetics Home Reference: MECP2-related severe neonatal encephalopathy

    MedlinePlus

    ... Johns Hopkins Children's Center: Failure to Thrive Kennedy Krieger Institute: Epilepsy (Seizure Disorder) Kennedy Krieger Institute: Intellectual Disability MalaCards: mecp2-related severe neonatal ...

  2. Biochemical abnormalities in neonatal seizures.

    PubMed

    Sood, Arvind; Grover, Neelam; Sharma, Roshan

    2003-03-01

    The presence of seizure does not constitute a diagnoses but it is a symptom of an underlying central nervous system disorder due to systemic or biochemical disturbances. Biochemical disturbances occur frequently in the neonatal seizures either as an underlying cause or as an associated abnormality. In their presence, it is difficult to control seizure and there is a risk of further brain damage. Early recognition and treatment of biochemical disturbances is essential for optimal management and satisfactory long term outcome. The present study was conducted in the department of pediatrics in IGMC Shimla on 59 neonates. Biochemical abnormalities were detected in 29 (49.15%) of cases. Primary metabolic abnormalities occurred in 10(16.94%) cases of neonatal seizures, most common being hypocalcaemia followed by hypoglycemia, other metabolic abnormalities include hypomagnesaemia and hyponateremia. Biochemical abnormalities were seen in 19(38.77%) cases of non metabolic seizure in neonates. Associated metabolic abnormalities were observed more often with Hypoxic-ischemic-encephalopathy (11 out of 19) cases and hypoglycemia was most common in this group. No infant had hyponateremia, hyperkelemia or low zinc level.

  3. Cell size anomalies in the auditory thalamus of rats with hypoxic-ischemic injury on postnatal day 3 or 7

    PubMed Central

    Alexander, Michelle; Garbus, Haley; Smith, Amanda L.; Fitch, R. Holly

    2013-01-01

    Children born prematurely (<37 weeks gestational age) or at very low birth weight (VLBW; <1500 grams) are at increased risk for hypoxic ischemic (HI) brain injuries. Term infants can also suffer HI from birth complications. In both groups, blood/oxygen delivery to the brain is compromised, often resulting in brain damage and later cognitive delays (e.g., language deficits). Literature suggests that language delays in a variety of developmentally impaired populations (including specific language impairment (SLI), dyslexia, and early HI-injury) may be associated with underlying deficits in rapid auditory processing (RAP; the ability to process and discriminate brief acoustic cues). Data supporting a relationship between RAP deficits and poor language outcomes is consistent with the “magnocellular theory,” which purports that damage to or loss of large (magnocellular) cells in thalamic nuclei could underlie disruptions in temporal processing of sensory input, possibly including auditory (medial geniculate nucleus; MGN) information This theory could be applied to neonatal HI populations that show subsequent RAP deficits. In animal models of neonatal HI, persistent RAP deficits are seen in postnatal (P)7 HI injured rats (who exhibit neuropathology comparable to term birth injury), but not in P1–3 HI injured rodents (who exhibit neuropathology comparable to human pre-term injury). The current study sought to investigate the mean cell size, cell number, and cumulative probability of cell size in the MGN of P3 HI and P7 HI injured male rats that had previously demonstrated behavioral RAP deficits. Pilot data from our lab (Alexander et al., 2011) previously revealed cell size abnormalities (a shift towards smaller cells) in P7 but not P1 HI injured animals when compared to shams. Our current finding support this result, with evidence of a significant shift to smaller cells in the experimental MGN of P7 HI but not P3 HI subjects. P7 HI animals also showed significantly

  4. Biomarkers of Brain Injury in Neonatal Encephalopathy Treated with Hypothermia

    PubMed Central

    Massaro, An N.; Chang, Taeun; Kadom, Nadja; Tsuchida, Tammy; Scafidi, Joseph; Glass, Penny; McCarter, Robert; Baumgart, Stephen; Vezina, Gilbert; Nelson, Karin B.

    2012-01-01

    Objective To determine if early serum S100B and neuron-specific enolase (NSE) levels are associated with neuroradiographic and clinical evidence of brain injury in newborns with encephalopathy. Study design Patients who received therapeutic whole-body hypothermia were prospectively enrolled in this observational study. Serum specimens were collected at 0, 12, 24, and 72 hours of cooling. S100B and NSE levels were measured by enzyme linked immunosorbent assay. Magnetic resonance imaging was performed in surviving infants at 7–10 days of life. Standardized neurologic examination was performed by a child neurologist at 14 days of life. Multiple linear regression analyses were performed to evaluate the association between S100B and NSE levels and unfavorable outcome (death or severe magnetic resonance imaging injury/significant neurologic deficit). Cutoff values were determined by receiver operating curve analysis. Results Newborns with moderate to severe encephalopathy were enrolled (n = 75). Median pH at presentation was 6.9 (range, 6.5–7.35), and median Apgar scores of 1 at 1 minute, 3 at 5 minutes, and 5 at 10 minutes. NSE and S100B levels were higher in patients with unfavorable outcomes across all time points. These results remained statistically significant after controlling for covariables, including encephalopathy grade at presentation, Apgar score at 5 minutes of life, initial pH, and clinical seizures. Conclusion Elevated serum S100B and NSE levels measured during hypothermia were associated with neuroradiographic and clinical evidence of brain injury in encephalopathic newborns. These brain-specific proteins may be useful immediate biomarkers of cerebral injury severity. PMID:22494878

  5. Biomarkers of brain injury in neonatal encephalopathy treated with hypothermia.

    PubMed

    Massaro, An N; Chang, Taeun; Kadom, Nadja; Tsuchida, Tammy; Scafidi, Joseph; Glass, Penny; McCarter, Robert; Baumgart, Stephen; Vezina, Gilbert; Nelson, Karin B

    2012-09-01

    To determine if early serum S100B and neuron-specific enolase (NSE) levels are associated with neuroradiographic and clinical evidence of brain injury in newborns with encephalopathy. Patients who received therapeutic whole-body hypothermia were prospectively enrolled in this observational study. Serum specimens were collected at 0, 12, 24, and 72 hours of cooling. S100B and NSE levels were measured by enzyme linked immunosorbent assay. Magnetic resonance imaging was performed in surviving infants at 7-10 days of life. Standardized neurologic examination was performed by a child neurologist at 14 days of life. Multiple linear regression analyses were performed to evaluate the association between S100B and NSE levels and unfavorable outcome (death or severe magnetic resonance imaging injury/significant neurologic deficit). Cutoff values were determined by receiver operating curve analysis. Newborns with moderate to severe encephalopathy were enrolled (n = 75). Median pH at presentation was 6.9 (range, 6.5-7.35), and median Apgar scores of 1 at 1 minute, 3 at 5 minutes, and 5 at 10 minutes. NSE and S100B levels were higher in patients with unfavorable outcomes across all time points. These results remained statistically significant after controlling for covariables, including encephalopathy grade at presentation, Apgar score at 5 minutes of life, initial pH, and clinical seizures. Elevated serum S100B and NSE levels measured during hypothermia were associated with neuroradiographic and clinical evidence of brain injury in encephalopathic newborns. These brain-specific proteins may be useful immediate biomarkers of cerebral injury severity. Copyright © 2012 Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. White matter injury in term newborns with neonatal encephalopathy.

    PubMed

    Li, Amanda M; Chau, Vann; Poskitt, Kenneth J; Sargent, Michael A; Lupton, Brian A; Hill, Alan; Roland, Elke; Miller, Steven P

    2009-01-01

    White matter injury (WMI) is the characteristic pattern of brain injury detected on magnetic resonance imaging in the premature newborn. Focal noncystic WMI is increasingly recognized in populations of term newborns. The aim of this study was to describe the occurrence of focal noncystic WMI in a cohort of 48 term newborns with encephalopathy studied with magnetic resonance imaging at 72 +/- 12 h of life, and to identify clinical risk factors for this pattern of injury. Eleven newborns (23%; 95% CI 11-35) were found to have WMI (four minimal, three moderate, and four severe). In 10 of the 11 newborns, the WMI was associated with restricted diffusion on apparent diffusion coefficient maps. An increasing severity of WMI was associated with lower gestational age at birth (p = 0.05), but not lower birth weight. Newborns with WMI had milder encephalopathy and fewer clinical seizures relative to other newborns in the cohort. Other brain injuries were seen in three of the 11 newborns: basal nuclei predominant pattern of injury in one and cortical strokes in two. These findings suggest that WMI in the term newborn is acquired near birth and that the state of brain maturation is an important determinant of this pattern of brain injury.

  7. Neonatal mortality rate and risk factors in northeast China: analysis of 5,277 neonates in 2005.

    PubMed

    Sun, J; Qu, S; Zhang, C; Xiang, Z; Fu, Z; Yao, L

    2014-01-01

    Healthcare has dramatically improved for both mothers and neonates over the last three decades in China. However, the reported rates of morbidity and mortality vary among different regions of China, and the exact rates in Northeast China are unknown. This study aimed to determine neonatal morbidity and mortality rates and the associated risk factors in Northeast China. Neonates born in 2005 at seven hospitals in five major cities of Heilongjiang province in Northeast China were recruited. Standardized questionnaires on both the mother and neonate were conducted by trained investigators. The questions included demographic data on the mother, the mother's weight, gestational age (GA), complications during pregnancy, method of delivery, neonate's gender, weight, general health situation, and complications after delivery. Results: A total of 5,277 neonates were included, with a male to female ratio of 1.07. The incidence ofpreterm delivery was 8.7%, which was associated with an increased age of the mother, a history of preeclampsia-eclampsia, premature rupture of membranes, and intrauterine distress. Morbidity occurred in 7.0% of neonates, including hypoxic ischemic encephalopathy (2.4%), asphyxia (1.6%), pneumonia (1.6%), hyperbilirubinemia (0.5%), intracranial hemorrhage (0.5%), meconium as- piration syndrome (0.2%), and ingestion syndrome (0.2%). The overall mortality was 9.5%0. Preterm delivery, maternal history ofpreeclamp- sia-eclampsia, hypoxic ischemic encephalopathy, intracranial hemorrhage, pneumonia, asphyxia, and meconium aspiration syndrome were independent risk factors for mortality with odds ratios (95% confidence interval) of 17.42 (7.31-38.9), 12.52 (Table 3) (3.91-16.82), 10.13 (2.52-19.86), 9.77 (2.35-19.93), 4.15 (1.78-9.52), 2.18 (1.21-5.47), and 2.76 (2.11-6.32), respectively (all P<0.01). In 2005, the overall morbidity and mortality was 7.0% and 9.5%0, respectively in northeast China, and preterm delivery was the highest risk factor for neonatal

  8. Contributory factors and potentially avoidable neonatal encephalopathy associated with perinatal asphyxia.

    PubMed

    Sadler, Lynn C; Farquhar, Cynthia M; Masson, Vicki L; Battin, Malcolm R

    2016-06-01

    The recently published monograph, Neonatal encephalopathy and neurologic outcome, from the American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists calls for a root cause analysis to identify components of care that contributed to cases of neonatal encephalopathy to design better practices, surveillance mechanisms, and systems. All cases of infants born in New Zealand with moderate and severe neonatal encephalopathy were reported to the New Zealand Perinatal and Maternal Mortality Review Committee from 2010. A national clinical review of these individual cases has not previously been undertaken. The objective of the study was to undertake a multidisciplinary structured review of all cases of neonatal encephalopathy that arose following the onset of labor in the absence of acute peripartum events in 2010-2011 to determine the frequency of contributory factors, the proportion of potentially avoidable morbidity and mortality and to identify themes for quality improvement. National identification of, and collection of clinical records on, cases of moderate or severe neonatal encephalopathy occurring after the onset of labor in the absence of an acute peripartum event, excluding those with normal gases and Apgar scores at 1 minute, among all cases of moderate and severe neonatal encephalopathy at term in New Zealand in 2010-2011 was undertaken. Cases were included if they had abnormal gases as defined by any of pH of ≤ 7.2, base excess of ≤ -10, or lactate of ≥ 6 or if there were no cord gases, an Apgar score at 1 minute of ≤ 7. A clinical case review was undertaken by a multidisciplinary team using a structured tool to record contributory factors (organization and/or management, personnel, and barriers to access and/or engagement with care), potentially avoidable morbidity and mortality and to identify themes to guide quality improvement. Eighty-three babies fulfilled the inclusion criteria for the review, 56 moderate (67%) and 27 severe (33%), 21 (25%) of whom were

  9. A Piglet Model for Detection of Hypoxic-Ischemic Brain Injury with Magnetic Resonance Imaging

    PubMed Central

    Munkeby, B. H.; De Lange, C.; Emblem, K. E.; Bjørnerud, A.; Kro, G. A. B.; Andresen, J.; Winther-Larssen, E. H.; Løberg, E. M.; Hald, J. K.

    2008-01-01

    Munkeby BH, de Lange C, Emblem KE, Bjørnerud A, Kro GAB, Andresen J, Winther-Larssen EH, Løberg EM, Hald JK. A piglet model for detection of hypoxic-ischemic brain injury with magnetic resonance imaging. Acta Radiol 2008;49:1049–1057. Background Early detection of hypoxic-ischemic (HI) injury in the asphyxic newborn is important because present prognostic factors are inadequate. Furthermore, therapeutic interventions may have additional benefit if initiated in time. Purpose To assess whether the use of a combined protocol including conventional magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI), diffusion tensor imaging (DTI), and proton MR spectroscopy (MRS) could detect pathological findings in a piglet model 7 hours after HI. Material and Methods Ten piglets were submitted to HI for 30 min followed by reoxygenation with 21% O2 for 7 hours. MRI at 1.5T was done prior to and 7 hours after the HI. Single-voxel proton MRS was performed, and apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) and fractional anisotropy (FA) were measured in the basal ganglia. MRS identified N-acetylaspartate (NAA), choline (Cho), creatine (Cr), and lactate (Lac). Histology and microtubule-associated protein 2 (MAP-2) staining was performed in the basal ganglia at the end of the experiment. Results Compared to baseline, ADC, NAA/Cho, and NAA/Cr were significantly reduced after 7 hours (P < 0.001, P = 00.01, and P = 00.05, respectively) and FA values were increased (P <0.025). The ratios of Lac/Cho and Lac/NAA were significantly higher after 7 hours compared to baseline (P <0.001). Presence of necrosis correlated well with reduced ADC (RS = 0.91) and presence of Lac (RS = 0.80). Histology and MAP-2 staining showed more than 90% necrosis in eight piglets, 60% in one piglet, and no necrosis in one piglet. Conclusion Diffusion MRI and proton MRS can detect HI injury in the piglet brain 7 hours after hypoxia. DWI and MRS can be used to give useful prognostic information. This piglet

  10. Prophylactic Edaravone Prevents Transient Hypoxic-Ischemic Brain Injury: Implications for Perioperative Neuroprotection.

    PubMed

    Sun, Yu-Yo; Li, Yikun; Wali, Bushra; Li, Yuancheng; Lee, Jolly; Heinmiller, Andrew; Abe, Koji; Stein, Donald G; Mao, Hui; Sayeed, Iqbal; Kuan, Chia-Yi

    2015-07-01

    Hypoperfusion-induced thrombosis is an important mechanism for postsurgery stroke and cognitive decline, but there are no perioperative neuroprotectants to date. This study investigated whether prophylactic application of Edaravone, a free radical scavenger already used in treating ischemic stroke in Japan, can prevent infarct and cognitive deficits in a murine model of transient cerebral hypoxia-ischemia. Adult male C57BL/6 mice were subjected to transient hypoxic-ischemic (tHI) insult that consists of 30-minute occlusion of the unilateral common carotid artery and exposure to 7.5% oxygen. Edaravone or saline was prophylactically applied to compare their effects on cortical oxygen saturation, blood flow, coagulation, oxidative stress, metabolites, and learning-memory using methods that include photoacoustic imaging, laser speckle contrast imaging, solid-state NMR, and Morris water maze. The effects on infarct size by Edaravone application at different time points after tHI were also compared. Prophylactic administration of Edaravone (4.5 mg/kg×2, IP, 1 hour before and 1 hour after tHI) improved vascular reperfusion, oxygen saturation, and the maintenance of brain metabolites, reducing oxidative stress, thrombosis, white-matter injury, and learning impairment after tHI insult. Delayed Edaravone treatment after 3 h post-tHI became unable to reduce infarct size. Acute application of Edaravone may be a useful strategy to prevent postsurgery stroke and cognitive impairment, especially in patients with severe carotid stenosis. © 2015 American Heart Association, Inc.

  11. Neuroprotective Effects of Cannabidiol in Hypoxic Ischemic Insult. The Therapeutic Window in Newborn Mice.

    PubMed

    Mohammed, Nagat; Ceprian, Maria; Jimenez, Laura; Pazos, M Ruth; Martínez-Orgado, Jose

    2017-01-01

    A relevant therapeutic time window (TTW) is an important criterion for considering the clinical relevance of a substance preventing newborn hypoxic-ischemic (HI) brain damage. To test the TTW of the neuroprotective effects of cannabidol (CBD), a non-psychoactive cannabinoid in a model of newborn HI brain damage. 9-10 day-old C57BL6 mice underwent a HI insult (10% oxygen for 90 min after left carotid artery electrocoagulation). Then, CBD 1 mg/kg or vehicle were administered s.c. 15 min, or 1, 3, 6, 12, 18 or 24 h after the end of the HI insult. Seven days later brain damage was assessed using T2W Magnetic Resonance Imaging scan (ipsilateral hemisphere volume loss, IVHL) and histological studies: Nissl staining (neuropathological score), TUNEL staining (apoptotic damage) and immunohistochemistry with glial fibrillary acidic protein (astrocyte viability) or ionized calcium binding adaptor molecule (microglial activation). CBD administered up to 18 h after HI reduced IHVL and neuropathological score by 60%, TUNEL+ count by 90% and astrocyte damage by 50%. In addition, CBD blunted the HI-induced increase in microglial population. When CBD administration was delayed 24 h, however, the neuroprotective effect was lost in terms of IHVL, apoptosis or astrogliosis reduction. CBD shows a TTW of 18 h when administered to HI newborn mice, which represents a broader TTW than reported for other neuroprotective treatments including hypothermia. Copyright© Bentham Science Publishers; For any queries, please email at epub@benthamscience.org.

  12. Brain injury patterns in hypoglycemia in neonatal encephalopathy.

    PubMed

    Wong, D S T; Poskitt, K J; Chau, V; Miller, S P; Roland, E; Hill, A; Tam, E W Y

    2013-07-01

    Low glucose values are often seen in term infants with NE, including HIE, yet the contribution of hypoglycemia to the pattern of neurologic injury remains unclear. We hypothesized that MR features of neonatal hypoglycemia could be detected, superimposed on the predominant HIE injury pattern. Term neonates (n = 179) with NE were prospectively imaged with day-3 MR studies and had glucose data available for review. The predominant imaging pattern of HIE was recorded as watershed, basal ganglia, total, focal-multifocal, or no injury. Radiologic hypoglycemia was diagnosed on the basis of selective edema in the posterior white matter, pulvinar, and anterior medial thalamic nuclei. Clinical charts were reviewed for evidence of NE, HIE, and hypoglycemia (<46 mg/dL). The predominant pattern of HIE injury imaged included 17 watershed, 25 basal ganglia, 10 total, 42 focal-multifocal, and 85 cases of no injury. A radiologic diagnosis of hypoglycemia was made in 34 cases. Compared with laboratory-confirmed hypoglycemia, MR findings had a positive predictive value of 82% and negative predictive value of 78%. Sixty (34%) neonates had clinical hypoglycemia before MR imaging. Adjusting for 5-minute Apgar scores and umbilical artery pH with logistic regression, clinical hypoglycemia was associated with a 17.6-fold higher odds of MR imaging identification (P < .001). Selective posterior white matter and pulvinar edema were most predictive of clinical hypoglycemia, and no injury (36%) or a watershed (32%) pattern of injury was seen more often in severe hypoglycemia. In term infants with NE and hypoglycemia, specific imaging features for both hypoglycemia and hypoxia-ischemia can be identified.

  13. Residual brain injury after early discontinuation of cooling therapy in mild neonatal encephalopathy.

    PubMed

    Lally, Peter J; Montaldo, Paolo; Oliveira, Vânia; Swamy, Ravi Shankar; Soe, Aung; Shankaran, Seetha; Thayyil, Sudhin

    2018-07-01

    We examined the brain injury and neurodevelopmental outcomes in a prospective cohort of 10 babies with mild encephalopathy who had early cessation of cooling therapy. All babies had MRI and spectroscopy within 2 weeks after birth and neurodevelopmental assessment at 2 years. Cooling was prematurely discontinued at a median age of 9 hours (IQR 5-13) due to rapid clinical improvement. Five (50%) had injury on MRI or spectroscopy, and two (20%) had an abnormal neurodevelopmental outcome at 2 years. Premature cessation of cooling therapy in babies with mild neonatal encephalopathy does not exclude residual brain injury and adverse long-term neurodevelopmental outcomes. This study refers to babies recruited into the MARBLE study (NCT01309711, pre-results stage). © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2018. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.

  14. Neonatal Brain MRI and Motor Outcome at School Age in Children with Neonatal Encephalopathy: A Review of Personal Experience

    PubMed Central

    Mercuri, Eugenio; Barnett, Anna L.

    2003-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to review (i) the spectrum of neuromotor function at school age in children who had been born full-term and presented with neonatal encephalopathy (NE) and low Apgar scores and (ii) the relation between the presence/absence of such difficulties and neonatal brain MRI. Motor outcome appears to be mainly related to the severity of basal ganglia and internal capsule involvement. Severe basal ganglia lesions were always associated with the most severe outcome, microcephaly, tetraplegia, and severe global delay, whereas more discrete basal ganglia lesions were associated with athetoid cerebral palsy, with normal cognitive development or minor neuro-motor abnormalities. White matter lesions were associated with abnormal motor outcome only if the internal capsule was involved. Children with moderate white matter changes but normal internal capsule, had normal motor outcome at school age. PMID:14640307

  15. Characterization of Death in Neonatal Encephalopathy in the Hypothermia Era.

    PubMed

    Lemmon, Monica E; Boss, Renee D; Bonifacio, Sonia L; Foster-Barber, Audrey; Barkovich, A James; Glass, Hannah C

    2017-03-01

    This study aimed to characterize the circumstances of death in encephalopathic neonates treated with therapeutic hypothermia. Patients who died after or during treatment with therapeutic hypothermia between 2007-2014 were identified. Patient circumstance of death was characterized using an established paradigm. Thirty-one of 229 patients died (14%) at a median of 3 days of life. Most who died were severely encephalopathic on examination (90%) and had severely abnormal electroencephalographic (EEG) findings (87%). All those who had magnetic resonance images (n = 13) had evidence of moderate-severe brain injury; 6 had near-total brain injury. Cooling was discontinued prematurely in 61% of patients. Most patients (90%) were physiologically stable at the time of death; 81% died following elective extubation for quality of life considerations. Three patients (10%) died following withholding or removal of artificial hydration and nutrition. Characterization of death in additional cohorts is needed to identify differences in decision making practices over time and between centers.

  16. A randomized clinical trial of therapeutic hypothermia mode during transport for neonatal encephalopathy.

    PubMed

    Akula, Vishnu Priya; Joe, Priscilla; Thusu, Kajori; Davis, Alexis S; Tamaresis, John S; Kim, Sunhwa; Shimotake, Thomas K; Butler, Stephen; Honold, Jose; Kuzniewicz, Michael; DeSandre, Glenn; Bennett, Mihoko; Gould, Jeffrey; Wallenstein, Matthew B; Van Meurs, Krisa

    2015-04-01

    To determine if temperature regulation is improved during neonatal transport using a servo-regulated cooling device when compared with standard practice. We performed a multicenter, randomized, nonmasked clinical trial in newborns with neonatal encephalopathy cooled during transport to 9 neonatal intensive care units in California. Newborns who met institutional criteria for therapeutic hypothermia were randomly assigned to receive cooling according to usual center practices vs device servo-regulated cooling. The primary outcome was the percentage of temperatures in target range (33°-34°C) during transport. Secondary outcomes included percentage of newborns reaching target temperature any time during transport, time to target temperature, and percentage of newborns in target range 1 hour after cooling initiation. One hundred newborns were enrolled: 49 to control arm and 51 to device arm. Baseline demographics did not differ with the exception of cord pH. For each subject, the percentage of temperatures in the target range was calculated. Infants cooled using the device had a higher percentage of temperatures in target range compared with control infants (median 73% [IQR 17-88] vs 0% [IQR 0-52], P < .001). More subjects reached target temperature during transport using the servo-regulated device (80% vs 49%, P <.001), and in a shorter time period (44 ± 31 minutes vs 63 ± 37 minutes, P = .04). Device-cooled infants reached target temperature by 1 hour with greater frequency than control infants (71% vs 20%, P < .001). Cooling using a servo-regulated device provides more predictable temperature management during neonatal transport than does usual care for outborn newborns with neonatal encephalopathy. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. The Vermont oxford neonatal encephalopathy registry: rationale, methods, and initial results

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background In 2006, the Vermont Oxford Network (VON) established the Neonatal Encephalopathy Registry (NER) to characterize infants born with neonatal encephalopathy, describe evaluations and medical treatments, monitor hypothermic therapy (HT) dissemination, define clinical research questions, and identify opportunities for improved care. Methods Eligible infants were ≥ 36 weeks with seizures, altered consciousness (stupor, coma) during the first 72 hours of life, a 5 minute Apgar score of ≤ 3, or receiving HT. Infants with central nervous system birth defects were excluded. Results From 2006–2010, 95 centers registered 4232 infants. Of those, 59% suffered a seizure, 50% had a 5 minute Apgar score of ≤ 3, 38% received HT, and 18% had stupor/coma documented on neurologic exam. Some infants experienced more than one eligibility criterion. Only 53% had a cord gas obtained and only 63% had a blood gas obtained within 24 hours of birth, important components for determining HT eligibility. Sixty-four percent received ventilator support, 65% received anticonvulsants, 66% had a head MRI, 23% had a cranial CT, 67% had a full channel encephalogram (EEG) and 33% amplitude integrated EEG. Of all infants, 87% survived. Conclusions The VON NER describes the heterogeneous population of infants with NE, the subset that received HT, their patterns of care, and outcomes. The optimal routine care of infants with neonatal encephalopathy is unknown. The registry method is well suited to identify opportunities for improvement in the care of infants affected by NE and study interventions such as HT as they are implemented in clinical practice. PMID:22726296

  18. Identifying stereotypic evolving micro-scale seizures (SEMS) in the hypoxic-ischemic EEG of the pre-term fetal sheep with a wavelet type-II fuzzy classifier.

    PubMed

    Abbasi, Hamid; Bennet, Laura; Gunn, Alistair J; Unsworth, Charles P

    2016-08-01

    Perinatal hypoxic-ischemic encephalopathy (HIE) around the time of birth due to lack of oxygen can lead to debilitating neurological conditions such as epilepsy and cerebral palsy. Experimental data have shown that brain injury evolves over time, but during the first 6-8 hours after HIE the brain has recovered oxidative metabolism in a latent phase, and brain injury is reversible. Treatments such as therapeutic cerebral hypothermia (brain cooling) are effective when started during the latent phase, and continued for several days. Effectiveness of hypothermia is lost if started after the latent phase. Post occlusion monitoring of particular micro-scale transients in the hypoxic-ischemic (HI) Electroencephalogram (EEG), from an asphyxiated fetal sheep model in utero, could provide precursory evidence to identify potential biomarkers of injury when brain damage is still treatable. In our studies, we have reported how it is possible to automatically detect HI EEG transients in the form of spikes and sharp waves during the latent phase of the HI EEG of the preterm fetal sheep. This paper describes how to identify stereotypic evolving micro-scale seizures (SEMS) which have a relatively abrupt onset and termination in a frequency range of 1.8-3Hz (Delta waves) superimposed on a suppressed EEG amplitude background post occlusion. This research demonstrates how a Wavelet Type-II Fuzzy Logic System (WT-Type-II-FLS) can be used to automatically identify subtle abnormal SEMS that occur during the latent phase with a preliminary average validation overall performance of 78.71%±6.63 over the 390 minutes of the latent phase, post insult, using in utero pre-term hypoxic fetal sheep models.

  19. Specific memory impairment following neonatal encephalopathy in term-born children.

    PubMed

    van Handel, Mariëlle; de Sonneville, Leo; de Vries, Linda S; Jongmans, Marian J; Swaab, Hanna

    2012-01-01

    This study examines short-term memory, verbal working memory, episodic long-term memory, and intelligence in 32 children with mild neonatal encephalopathy (NE), 39 children with moderate NE, 10 children with NE who developed cerebral palsy (CP), and 53 comparison children, at the age of 9 to 10 years. in addition to a global effect on intelligence, NE had a specific effect on verbal working memory, verbal and visuo-spatial long-term memory, and learning, which was associated with degree of NE. Although these memory problems occurred in children without CP, they were more pronounced when children had also developed CP.

  20. Prophylactic Edaravone Prevents Transient Hypoxic-Ischemic Brain Injury: Implications for Perioperative Neuroprotection

    PubMed Central

    Sun, Yu-Yo; Li, Yikun; Wali, Bushra; Li, Yuancheng; Lee, Jolly; Heinmiller, Andrew; Abe, Koji; Stein, Donald G.; Mao, Hui; Sayeed, Iqbal; Kuan, Chia-Yi

    2015-01-01

    Background and Purpose Hypoperfusion-induced thrombosis is an important mechanism for post-surgery stroke and cognitive decline, but there are no perioperative neuroprotectants to date. This study investigated whether prophylactic application of Edaravone, a free radical scavenger already used in treating ischemic stroke in Japan, can prevent infarct and cognitive deficits in a murine model of transient cerebral hypoxia-ischemia. Methods Adult male C57BL/6 mice were subjected to transient hypoxic-ischemic (tHI) insult that consists of 30-min occlusion of the unilateral common carotid artery and exposure to 7.5% oxygen. Edaravone or saline was prophylactically applied to compare their effects on cortical oxygen saturation, blood flow, coagulation, oxidative stress, metabolites, and learning-memory using methods that include photoacoustic imaging, laser speckle contrast imaging, solid state NMR and Morris water maze. The effects on infarct size by Edaravone application at different time-points after tHI were also compared. Results Prophylactic administration of Edaravone (4.5 mg/kg × 2, IP, 1 h before and 1 h after tHI) improved vascular reperfusion, oxygen saturation, and the maintenance of brain metabolites, while reducing oxidative stress, thrombosis, white-matter injury, and learning impairment after tHI insult. Delayed Edaravone treatment after 3 h post-tHI became unable to reduce infarct size. Conclusions Acute application of Edaravone may be a useful strategy to prevent post-surgery stroke and cognitive impairment, especially in patients with severe carotid stenosis. PMID:26060244

  1. Therapeutic hypothermia in the prevention of hypoxic-ischaemic encephalopathy: new categories to be enrolled.

    PubMed

    Gancia, Paolo; Pomero, Giulia

    2012-10-01

    Therapeutic hypothermia is now the standard of care for brain injury control in term infants with perinatal hypoxic ischemic encephalopathy (HIE). Accumulated evidence shows a reduction in mortality and long-term neurodevelopmental disability at 12-24 months of age, with more favourable effects in the less severe forms of HIE. Only few trials recruited newborns <36 weeks gestational age, or mild-to-moderate encephalopathy with base deficit (BD) <16. The new categories of patients to be enrolled should include (late) preterm infants, neonates with unexpected postnatal collapse, and newborns with stroke. Preterm HIE: Therapeutic hypothermia shows a good safety profile in clinical studies, and no adverse effects were noted in the preterm fetal animal model. Recently, it has been shown that mild hypothermia in preterm newborns with necrotizing enterocolitis (NEC) and multiple organ dysfunction syndrome (MODS) does not increase mortality, bleeding, infection, or need for inotropes in cooled newborns. A pilot study (NCT00620711) is currently recruiting newborns of > 32 but < 36 weeks gestation with standard criteria for HIE. Postnatal Collapse: The postnatal collapse (PNC) is a rare (0.03-0.5/1000 live births) but life-threatening hypoxic-ischemic event. No clinical trials of therapeutic hypothermia have specifically addressed to PNC. Nevertheless, a beneficial effect of brain cooling is expectable, and it has been proposed to include in brain hypothermia trials the infants with PNC fulfilling the entry criteria for HIE. Stroke: Perinatal arterial ischemic stroke is the most common cause of cerebral palsy (CP) in term and near-term newborn. In a systematic review and meta-analysis of animal studies of focal cerebral ischemia, hypothermia reduced the infarct size by 44%. No specific neuroprotective interventions are available for the management of acute perinatal stroke. Hypothermia may decrease seizures in newborns with encephalopathy and a focal infarct, potentially

  2. Biallelic Mutations in LIPT2 Cause a Mitochondrial Lipoylation Defect Associated with Severe Neonatal Encephalopathy.

    PubMed

    Habarou, Florence; Hamel, Yamina; Haack, Tobias B; Feichtinger, René G; Lebigot, Elise; Marquardt, Iris; Busiah, Kanetee; Laroche, Cécile; Madrange, Marine; Grisel, Coraline; Pontoizeau, Clément; Eisermann, Monika; Boutron, Audrey; Chrétien, Dominique; Chadefaux-Vekemans, Bernadette; Barouki, Robert; Bole-Feysot, Christine; Nitschke, Patrick; Goudin, Nicolas; Boddaert, Nathalie; Nemazanyy, Ivan; Delahodde, Agnès; Kölker, Stefan; Rodenburg, Richard J; Korenke, G Christoph; Meitinger, Thomas; Strom, Tim M; Prokisch, Holger; Rotig, Agnes; Ottolenghi, Chris; Mayr, Johannes A; de Lonlay, Pascale

    2017-08-03

    Lipoate serves as a cofactor for the glycine cleavage system (GCS) and four 2-oxoacid dehydrogenases functioning in energy metabolism (α-oxoglutarate dehydrogenase [α-KGDHc] and pyruvate dehydrogenase [PDHc]), or amino acid metabolism (branched-chain oxoacid dehydrogenase, 2-oxoadipate dehydrogenase). Mitochondrial lipoate synthesis involves three enzymatic steps catalyzed sequentially by lipoyl(octanoyl) transferase 2 (LIPT2), lipoic acid synthetase (LIAS), and lipoyltransferase 1 (LIPT1). Mutations in LIAS have been associated with nonketotic hyperglycinemia-like early-onset convulsions and encephalopathy combined with a defect in mitochondrial energy metabolism. LIPT1 deficiency spares GCS deficiency and has been associated with a biochemical signature of combined 2-oxoacid dehydrogenase deficiency leading to early death or Leigh-like encephalopathy. We report on the identification of biallelic LIPT2 mutations in three affected individuals from two families with severe neonatal encephalopathy. Brain MRI showed major cortical atrophy with white matter abnormalities and cysts. Plasma glycine was mildly increased. Affected individuals' fibroblasts showed reduced oxygen consumption rates, PDHc, α-KGDHc activities, leucine catabolic flux, and decreased protein lipoylation. A normalization of lipoylation was observed after expression of wild-type LIPT2, arguing for LIPT2 requirement in intramitochondrial lipoate synthesis. Lipoic acid supplementation did not improve clinical condition nor activities of PDHc, α-KGDHc, or leucine metabolism in fibroblasts and was ineffective in yeast deleted for the orthologous LIP2. Copyright © 2017 American Society of Human Genetics. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. AMPA antagonist LY293558 does not affect the severity of hypoxic-ischemic injury in newborn pigs.

    PubMed

    LeBlanc, M H; Li, X Q; Huang, M; Patel, D M; Smith, E E

    1995-10-01

    LY293558 is a systemically active alpha-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazolepropionic acid (AMPA) excitatory amino acid antagonist. AMPA antagonists have shown promise in several adult hypoxic-ischemic brain injury models, and we wanted to see if this work could be extended to a newborn animal. Seventy-six (beta error < .10) 0- to 3-day-old piglets under 1.5% isoflurane anesthesia underwent placement of carotid snares and arterial and venous catheters. While paralyzed with succinylcholine under 0.5% isoflurane, 50% nitrous oxide, piglets were randomly assigned to receive either 5 mg/kg or 15 mg/kg of LY293558 or saline at time--10 minutes and again 10 hours later. At time 0, both carotid arteries were clamped, and blood was withdrawn to reduce the blood pressure to two thirds of normal. At time 15 minutes, inspired oxygen was reduced to 6%. At time 30 minutes, the carotid snares were released, the withdrawn blood was reinfused, and the oxygen was switched to 100%. On the third day after the hypoxic-ischemic injury, the animals were killed by perfusion of the brain with 10% formalin. Brain pathology was scored by a blinded observer. There were no significant differences between the drug-treated and control groups. The systemically active AMPA antagonist LY293558, when given at a dose of 5 mg/kg or 15 mg/kg before injury and 10 hours later, does not affect the severity of hypoxic-ischemic brain injury in newborn piglets. Neither AMPA receptor activity nor NMDA receptor activity are important in brain injury in this model.

  4. Immediate Outcome of Hypoxic Ischaemic Encephalopathy in Hypoxiate Newborns in Nepal Medical College.

    PubMed

    Shrestha, S; Shrestha, G S; Sharma, A

    2016-05-01

    Birth asphyxia is the fifth major cause of under-five child deaths after pneumonia, diarrhoea, neonatal infections and complications of preterm birth. It is one of the important causes of neonatal mortality and morbidity accounting up to 30% of neonatal death in Nepal. It is also an important cause of long-term neurological disability and impairment. The mortality rate due to birth asphyxia is considered a good guide to the quality of perinatal care. This study was conducted to assess the rate of birth asphyxia, risk factors and outcome of the babies who were asphyxiated at birth. A prospective study was conducted during the period of one year from April 2013 to March 2014 in Nepal Medical College. All the term babies born during the period with APGAR score at 5 minutes of < 7 were considered to have birth asphyxia and included in the study. Details of maternal risk factors during pregnancy and labor were analyzed. The newborn babies were assessed for clinical features of hypoxic ischemic encephalopathy (HIE) and its immediate outcome. Out of 2226 live births, 47 (15.9%) newborns had birth asphyxia with the rate of 21.1/1000 live births. The mortality rate due to birth asphyxia was 4.25%. Meconium stained liquor was present in 31(65.96%) cases during delivery and prolonged rupture of membrane in 7(14.89%). Early identification and close monitoring of high-risk mothers with maintaining partograph during labor help to reduce birth asphyxia.

  5. Brain injury following trial of hypothermia for neonatal hypoxic–ischaemic encephalopathy

    PubMed Central

    Shankaran, Seetha; Barnes, Patrick D; Hintz, Susan R; Laptook, Abbott R; Zaterka-Baxter, Kristin M; McDonald, Scott A; Ehrenkranz, Richard A; Walsh, Michele C; Tyson, Jon E; Donovan, Edward F; Goldberg, Ronald N; Bara, Rebecca; Das, Abhik; Finer, Neil N; Sanchez, Pablo J; Poindexter, Brenda B; Van Meurs, Krisa P; Carlo, Waldemar A; Stoll, Barbara J; Duara, Shahnaz; Guillet, Ronnie; Higgins, Rosemary D

    2013-01-01

    Objective The objective of our study was to examine the relationship between brain injury and outcome following neonatal hypoxic–ischaemic encephalopathy treated with hypothermia. Design and patients Neonatal MRI scans were evaluated in the National Institute of Child Health and Human Development (NICHD) randomised controlled trial of whole-body hypothermia and each infant was categorised based upon the pattern of brain injury on the MRI findings. Brain injury patterns were assessed as a marker of death or disability at 18–22 months of age. Results Scans were obtained on 136 of 208 trial participants (65%); 73 in the hypothermia and 63 in the control group. Normal scans were noted in 38 of 73 infants (52%) in the hypothermia group and 22 of 63 infants (35%) in the control group. Infants in the hypothermia group had fewer areas of infarction (12%) compared to infants in the control group (22%). Fifty-one of the 136 infants died or had moderate or severe disability at 18 months. The brain injury pattern correlated with outcome of death or disability and with disability among survivors. Each point increase in the severity of the pattern of brain injury was independently associated with a twofold increase in the odds of death or disability. Conclusions Fewer areas of infarction and a trend towards more normal scans were noted in brain MRI following whole-body hypothermia. Presence of the NICHD pattern of brain injury is a marker of death or moderate or severe disability at 18–22 months following hypothermia for neonatal encephalopathy. PMID:23080477

  6. Neuro-overprotection? A functional evaluation of clomethiazole-induced neuroprotection following hypoxic-ischemic injury.

    PubMed

    Gilby, K L; Kelly, M E; McIntyre, D C; Robertson, H A

    2005-01-01

    Hypoxic-ischemic (H-I) injury produces extensive damage to the hippocampus of young rats. We have recently shown that administration of 125 mg kg-1 clomethiazole (CMZ), a GABA(A)-agonist, provides complete histological protection against H-I injury if administered 3 h post-H-I (Brain Res 1035 (2005) 194). However, whether that histological protection translates into lasting functional preservation is unclear. To determine whether hippocampal-based circuits remain functionally intact in CMZ-protected H-I rats, we administered 125 mg kg-1 (high dose [CMZ-HD]) or 65 mg kg-1 (low dose [CMZ-LD]) CMZ, 3 h post-H-I, and examined numerous kindling parameters in the dorsal hippocampus 60 days following H-I. Kindling parameters included afterdischarge (AD) thresholds (ADTs), AD durations and kindling rates. Additional groups assessed included vehicle-injected H-I (VIH), hypoxic, ligated and naive rats. VIH, CMZ-HD, CMZ-LD and hypoxic rats all exhibited significantly faster kindling rates than naive rats. Thus, a previous traumatic event, even hypoxia alone, facilitated subsequent seizure propagation. Still, a significantly slower kindling rate was evident in CMZ-HD rats than in hypoxic, VIH or CMZ-LD rats. Moreover, while longer pre-kindling AD durations were observed in the damaged hippocampus of VIH compared with naive rats, this was not true for either CMZ-treated groups, hypoxic or ligated rats. Collectively, these findings suggest CMZ can suppress the epileptogenic effects of H-I. Surprisingly, however, both groups of CMZ-treated rats exhibited a four to nine times greater ADT than any other group and this effect was most profound in the CMZ-protected hippocampus. Thus, CMZ administration protected local neurons against terminal insult and left network excitability relatively normal with respect to seizure offset mechanisms but also caused profound elevation of local ADTs, which suggests a local hypoexcitability/increased inhibition. Finally, this study demonstrates

  7. Observational study of haemostatic dysfunction and bleeding in neonates with hypoxic-ischaemic encephalopathy.

    PubMed

    Pakvasa, Mitali A; Winkler, Anne M; Hamrick, Shannon E; Josephson, Cassandra D; Patel, Ravi M

    2017-02-09

    Evaluate the relationship between initial haemostatic parameters and the frequency and severity of bleeding in neonates with hypoxic-ischaemic encephalopathy (HIE). Retrospective observational cohort study. 2 academically affiliated level III neonatal intensive care units in Atlanta, Georgia. 98 neonates with moderate-to-severe HIE who underwent haemostatic testing within 12 hours of birth and were born from 1 January 2008 to 31 December 2013. Initial haemostatic dysfunction was defined as one or more of the following: prothrombin time (PT) ≥18 s, platelet count <100×10 3 /μL or fibrinogen <150 mg/dL. Bleeding assessed using the Neonatal Bleeding Assessment Tool and graded according to the WHO bleeding scale. The robust Poisson regression was used to evaluate the independent association between components of initial haemostatic dysfunction and bleeding. Among the 98 neonates evaluated, the prevalence of initial haemostatic dysfunction was 69% (95% CI 59% to 78%). 27 neonates (28%; 95% CI 19% to 38%) had abnormal bleeding events and 56 (57%) received at least 1 blood product transfusion. 3 neonates died from bleeding complications. The most common products transfused were fresh-frozen plasma (71%), followed by packed red blood cells (24%) and platelets (21%). In multivariable analysis, fibrinogen <150 mg/dL (adjusted relative risk 2.41, 95% CI 1.09 to 5.36) and platelet count <100×10 3 /μL (adjusted relative risk 2.59, 95% CI 1.30 to 5.16), but not initial PT, were associated with an increased risk of bleeding. The most severe bleeding occurred in neonates with a fibrinogen <150 mg/dL. Among neonates with moderate-to-severe HIE, haemostatic dysfunction is prevalent and associated with an increased risk of bleeding and high transfusion burden. Further studies are needed to determine the appropriate transfusion approaches in this population to prevent bleeding. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already

  8. [Uncommon neonatal case of hypoglycemia: ACTH resistance syndrome].

    PubMed

    Delmas, O; Marrec, C; Caietta, E; Simonin, G; Morel, Y; Girard, N; Roucher, F; Sarles, J; Chabrol, B; Reynaud, R

    2014-12-01

    Monitoring of blood glucose is usually reported to reduce the risk of hypoglycemia in term newborns with high risk factors and for prematurity in neonatal intensive care unit patients. Differential diagnosis has rarely been discussed. In the eutrophic term newborn, hypoglycemia remains rare and an etiological diagnosis must be made. Intensive management of neonatal hypoglycemia is required to prevent neurodevelopmental defects. Without evident cause or if hypoglycemia persists, a systematic review of possible causes should be made. We report isolated glucocorticoid deficiency diagnosed in an infant at 10 months of age. This boy had neonatal hypoglycemia and mild jaundice that had not been investigated. During his first 9 months of life, he presented frequent infections. At 10 months of age, febrile seizures occurred associated with shock, hypoglycemia, hyponatremia, mild hyperpigmentation, and coma. He was diagnosed with hypocortisolemia and elevated ACTH levels. Brain injury was revealed by MRI after resuscitation, with hypoxic-ischemic and hypoglycemic encephalopathy. The molecular studies demonstrated the presence of p.Asp107Asn and previously unreported frameshift p.Pro281GlnfsX9 MC2R gene mutations. A substitutive hormone therapy was provided and during a follow-up of 12 months no adrenal crisis was noted. We report an unusual case of familial glucocorticoid deficiency with severe neurological injury. This case demonstrates the importance of an appropriate etiological diagnosis in neonatal hypoglycemia. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  9. Neuroprotective effects of scutellarin against hypoxic-ischemic-induced cerebral injury via augmentation of antioxidant defense capacity.

    PubMed

    Guo, Hong; Hu, Li-Min; Wang, Shao-Xia; Wang, Yu-Lin; Shi, Fang; Li, Hui; Liu, Yang; Kang, Li-Yuan; Gao, Xiu-Mei

    2011-12-31

    An increasing number of studies has indicated that hypoxic-ischemic-induced cerebral injury is partly mediated via oxidative stress. Recent researches have focused on searching for drug and herbal manipulations to protect against hypoxic-ischemic-induced oxidative cell damage. Scutellarin is a flavonoid derived from the Erigeron breviscapus (vant.) and has been reported to exhibit neuroprotective properties. However, its precise mechanism, particularly its antioxidation mechanism, remains elusive. In the present study, we investigated the neuroprotective effects of scutellarin on middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO)-induced brain damage in rats, and oxygen-glucose deprivation (OGD)-induced toxicity in primary culture of rat cortical neurons. In vivo, intraperitoneal injections of scutellarin (20 and 60 mg/kg) improved the neurological score and diminished the percentage of brain infarct volume. At the same time, scutellarin significantly increased superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT) activities and glutathione (GSH) level in ischemic brain tissues, enhancing endogenous antioxidant activity. Moreover, pretreatment of scutellarin (25, 50 and 100 μM) protected neurons against lethal stimuli, decreased the percentage of apoptotic cells and inhibited reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation in OGD-induced primary cortical neurons in vitro. These results suggest that the preventive and therapeutic potential of scutellarin in cerebral injury patients is, at least in part, ascribed to augmentation of cellular antioxidant defense capacity.

  10. Negative regulation of miRNA-9 on oligodendrocyte lineage gene 1 during hypoxic-ischemic brain damage.

    PubMed

    Yang, Lijun; Cui, Hong; Cao, Ting

    2014-03-01

    Oligodendrocyte lineage gene 1 plays a key role in hypoxic-ischemic brain damage and myelin repair. miRNA-9 is involved in the occurrence of many related neurological disorders. Bioinformatics analysis demonstrated that miRNA-9 complementarily, but incompletely, bound oligodendrocyte lineage gene 1, but whether miRNA-9 regulates oligodendrocyte lineage gene 1 remains poorly understood. Whole brain slices of 3-day-old Sprague-Dawley rats were cultured and divided into four groups: control group; oxygen-glucose deprivation group (treatment with 8% O2 + 92% N2 and sugar-free medium for 60 minutes); transfection control group (after oxygen and glucose deprivation for 60 minutes, transfected with control plasmid) and miRNA-9 transfection group (after oxygen and glucose deprivation for 60 minutes, transfected with miRNA-9 plasmid). From the third day of transfection, and with increasing culture days, oligodendrocyte lineage gene 1 expression increased in each group, peaked at 14 days, and then decreased at 21 days. Real-time quantitative PCR results, however, demonstrated that oligodendrocyte lineage gene 1 expression was lower in the miRNA-9 transfection group than that in the transfection control group at 1, 3, 7, 14, 21 and 28 days after transfection. Results suggested that miRNA-9 possibly negatively regulated oligodendrocyte lineage gene 1 in brain tissues during hypoxic-ischemic brain damage.

  11. Observational study shows that it is feasible to provide neuroprotective treatment for neonatal encephalopathy in low-income countries.

    PubMed

    Biselele, T; Bambi, J; Naulaers, G; Tabu, G; Kapinga, J; Bola, V; Makaya, P; Tjabbes, H; Tady, B; Peeters-Scholte, C

    2018-02-09

    Perinatal asphyxia is one of the most frequent causes of neonatal morbidity and mortality worldwide, and 96% of the burden of neonatal encephalopathy occurs in low-income countries. This study investigated the feasibility of providing neuroprotective treatment for neonatal encephalopathy in low-income countries. Neonates with a gestational age of at least 36 weeks, with signs of perinatal asphyxia, were included in this 2015 observational study in three hospitals in Kinshasa, capital of the Democratic Republic of Congo. Their characteristics were described, including the time to admission and Thompson score on admission. We found that 42 of 134 patients (31.3%) reached the hospital within six hours of birth with a Thompson score of at least seven on admission. Another 15 patients (11.2%) had a five-minute Apgar score of up to five, without a Thompson score, and were eligible for treatment. Of the 57 (42.5%) eligible patients, 31 were discharged (54.4%), 25 died (43.9%) and one (1.8%) remained in hospital at the end of the study. Interventional studies are feasible and necessary, especially in countries where the burden of neonatal encephalopathy is largest. A Thompson score of 7-15 might be a useful entry criterion for neuroprotective treatment in low-income countries. ©2018 Foundation Acta Paediatrica. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  12. Reliability of Early Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) and Necessity of Repeating MRI in Noncooled and Cooled Infants With Neonatal Encephalopathy.

    PubMed

    Chakkarapani, Elavazhagan; Poskitt, Kenneth J; Miller, Steven P; Zwicker, Jill G; Xu, Qi; Wong, Darren S T; Roland, Elke H; Hill, Alan; Chau, Vann

    2016-04-01

    In cooled newborns with encephalopathy, although late magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) scan (10-14 days of age) is reliable in predicting long-term outcome, it is unknown whether early scan (3-6 days of life) is. We compared the predominant pattern and extent of lesion between early and late MRI in 89 term neonates with neonatal encephalopathy. Forty-three neonates (48%) were cooled. The predominant pattern of lesions and the extent of lesion in the watershed region agreed near perfectly in noncooled (kappa = 0.94; k = 0.88) and cooled (k = 0.89; k = 0.87) infants respectively. There was perfect agreement in the extent of lesion in the basal nuclei in noncooled infants (k = 0.83) and excellent agreement in cooled infants (k = 0.67). Changes in extent of lesions on late MRI occurred in 19 of 89 infants, with higher risk in infants with hypoglycemia and moderate-severe lesions in basal nuclei. In most term neonates with neonatal encephalopathy, early MRI (relative to late scan) robustly predicts the predominant pattern and extent of injury. © The Author(s) 2015.

  13. Feasibility of adjunct therapeutic hypothermia treatment for hyperammonemia and encephalopathy due to urea cycle disorders and organic acidemias.

    PubMed

    Lichter-Konecki, Uta; Nadkarni, Vinay; Moudgil, Asha; Cook, Noah; Poeschl, Johannes; Meyer, Michael T; Dimmock, David; Baumgart, Stephen

    2013-08-01

    Children with urea cycle disorders (UCDs) or organic acidemias (OAs) and acute hyperammonemia and encephalopathy are at great risk for neurological injury, developmental delay, intellectual disability, and death. Nutritional support, intravenous alternative pathway therapy, and dialysis are used to treat severe hyperammonemia associated with UCDs and nutritional support and dialysis are used to treat severe hyperammonemia in OAs. Brain protective treatment while therapy is initiated may improve neurological and cognitive function for the lifetime of the child. Animal experiments and small clinical trials in hepatic encephalopathy caused by acute liver failure suggest that therapeutic hypothermia provides neuroprotection in hyperammonemia associated encephalopathy. We report results of an ongoing pilot study that assesses if whole body cooling during rescue treatment of neonates with acute hyperammonemia and encephalopathy is feasible and can be conducted safely. Adjunct whole body therapeutic hypothermia was conducted in addition to standard treatment in acutely encephalopathic, hyperammonemic neonates with UCDs and OAs requiring dialysis. Therapeutic hypothermia was initiated using cooling blankets as preparations for dialysis were underway. Similar to standard therapeutic hypothermia treatment for neonatal hypoxic ischemic encephalopathy, patients were maintained at 33.5°C±1°C for 72h, they were then slowly rewarmed by 0.5°C every 3h over 18h. In addition data of age-matched historic controls were collected for comparison. Seven patients were cooled using the pilot study protocol and data of seven historic controls were reviewed. All seven patients survived the initial rescue and cooling treatment, 6 patients were discharged home 2-4weeks after hospitalization, five of them feeding orally. The main complication observed in a majority of patients was hypotension. Adjunct therapeutic hypothermia for neonates with UCDs and OAs receiving standard treatment was

  14. ERP evidence of preserved early memory function in term infants with neonatal encephalopathy following therapeutic hypothermia.

    PubMed

    Pfister, Katie M; Zhang, Lei; Miller, Neely C; Hultgren, Solveig; Boys, Chris J; Georgieff, Michael K

    2016-12-01

    Neonatal encephalopathy (NE) carries high risk for neurodevelopmental impairments. Therapeutic hypothermia (TH) reduces this risk, particularly for moderate encephalopathy (ME). Nevertheless, these infants often have subtle functional deficits, including abnormal memory function. Detection of deficits at the earliest possible time-point would allow for intervention during a period of maximal brain plasticity. Recognition memory function in 22 infants with NE treated with TH was compared to 23 healthy controls using event-related potentials (ERPs) at 2 wk of age. ERPs were recorded to mother's voice alternating with a stranger's voice to assess attentional responses (P2), novelty detection (slow wave), and discrimination between familiar and novel (difference wave). Development was tested at 12 mo using the Bayley Scales of Infant Development, Third Edition (BSID-III). The NE group showed similar ERP components and BSID-III scores to controls. However, infants with NE showed discrimination at midline leads (P = 0.01), whereas controls showed discrimination in the left hemisphere (P = 0.05). Normal MRI (P = 0.05) and seizure-free electroencephalogram (EEG) (P = 0.04) correlated positively with outcomes. Infants with NE have preserved recognition memory function after TH. The spatially different recognition memory processing after early brain injury may represent compensatory changes in the brain circuitry and reflect a benefit of TH.

  15. Xenon ventilation during therapeutic hypothermia in neonatal encephalopathy: a feasibility study.

    PubMed

    Dingley, John; Tooley, James; Liu, Xun; Scull-Brown, Emma; Elstad, Maja; Chakkarapani, Ela; Sabir, Hemmen; Thoresen, Marianne

    2014-05-01

    Therapeutic hypothermia has become standard of care in newborns with moderate and severe neonatal encephalopathy; however, additional interventions are needed. In experimental models, breathing xenon gas during cooling offers long-term additive neuroprotection. This is the first xenon feasibility study in cooled infants. Xenon is expensive, requiring a closed-circuit delivery system. Cooled newborns with neonatal encephalopathy were eligible for this single-arm, dose-escalation study if clinically stable, under 18 hours of age and requiring less than 35% oxygen. Xenon duration increased stepwise from 3 to 18 hours in 14 subjects; 1 received 25% xenon and 13 received 50%. Respiratory, cardiovascular, neurologic (ie, amplitude-integrated EEG, seizures), and inflammatory (C-reactive protein) effects were examined. The effects of starting or stopping xenon rapidly or slowly were studied. Three matched control subjects per xenon treated subject were selected from our cooling database. Follow-up was at 18 months using mental developmental and physical developmental indexes of the Bayley Scales of Infant Development II. No adverse respiratory or cardiovascular effects, including post-extubation stridor, were seen. Xenon increased sedation and suppressed seizures and background electroencephalographic activity. Seizures sometimes occurred during rapid weaning of xenon but not during slow weaning. C-reactive protein levels were similar between groups. Hourly xenon consumption was 0.52 L. Three died, and 7 of 11 survivors had mental and physical developmental index scores ≥70 at follow-up. Breathing 50% xenon for up to 18 hours with 72 hours of cooling was feasible, with no adverse effects seen with 18 months' follow-up. Copyright © 2014 by the American Academy of Pediatrics.

  16. Nucleated red blood cells count as a prognostic biomarker in predicting the complications of asphyxia in neonates.

    PubMed

    Boskabadi, Hassan; Zakerihamidi, Maryam; Sadeghian, Mohammad Hadi; Avan, Amir; Ghayour-Mobarhan, Majid; Ferns, Gordon A

    2017-11-01

    Nucleated-red-blood-cells (NRBC) count in umbilical cord of newborns is been suggested as a sign of birth asphyxia. The present study was conducted to explore the value of NRBC count in prognosis of asphyxiated neonates. Sixty-three neonates with asphyxia were followed up for two years. Maternal and neonatal information was recorded follow by clinical and laboratory evaluation. NRBC-level was determined per 100 white-blood-cells (WBC). After discharge, follow-up of asphyxiated infants was performed using Denver II test at 6, 12, 18 and 24 months. Neonates were divided into two groups, with favorable and unfavorable outcome based on developmental delay or death. We observed that NRBC count with more than 11 per 100 WBC, had sensitivity of 85% and specificity of 90% in predicting complications of asphyxia, while in absolute NRBC count with more than 1554, the sensitivity and specificity were 85% and of 87%, respectively. Combination of NRBC + HIE (hypoxic ischemic encephalopathy) grade had a high-predictive power for determining the prognosis of asphyxia in neonates. We demonstrate that NRBC/100 WBC and absolute NRCB count can be used as prognostic marker for neonatal asphyxia, which in combination with the severity of asphyxia could indicate high infant mortality, and complications of asphyxia. Further studies in a larger and multi center setting trail are warranted to investigate the value of NRBC and HIE in asphyxiate term infants.

  17. White matter tract integrity and developmental outcome in newborn infants with hypoxic-ischemic encephalopathy treated with hypothermia.

    PubMed

    Massaro, An N; Evangelou, Iordanis; Fatemi, Ali; Vezina, Gilbert; Mccarter, Robert; Glass, Penny; Limperopoulos, Catherine

    2015-05-01

    To determine whether corpus callosum (CC) and corticospinal tract (CST) diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) measures relate to developmental outcome in encephalopathic newborn infants after therapeutic hypothermia. Encephalopathic newborn infants enrolled in a longitudinal study underwent DTI after hypothermia. Parametric maps were generated for fractional anisotropy, mean, radial, and axial diffusivity. CC and CST were segmented by DTI-based tractography. Multiple regression models were used to examine the association of DTI measures with Bayley-II Mental (MDI) and Psychomotor Developmental Index (PDI) at 15 months and 21 months of age. Fifty-two infants (males n=32, females n=20) underwent DTI at median age of 8 days. Two were excluded because of poor magnetic resonance imaging quality. Outcomes were assessed in 42/50 (84%) children at 15 months and 35/50 (70%) at 21 months. Lower CC and CST fractional anisotropy were associated with lower MDI and PDI respectively, even after controlling for gestational age, birth weight, sex, and socio-economic status. There was also a direct relationship between CC axial diffusivity and MDI, while CST radial diffusivity was inversely related to PDI. In encephalopathic newborn infants, impaired microstructural organization of the CC and CST predicts poorer cognitive and motor performance respectively. Tractography provides a reliable method for early assessment of perinatal brain injury. © 2014 Mac Keith Press.

  18. Sex-specific associations between cerebrovascular blood pressure autoregulation and cardiopulmonary injury in neonatal encephalopathy and therapeutic hypothermia.

    PubMed

    Chavez-Valdez, Raul; O'Connor, Matthew; Perin, Jamie; Reyes, Michael; Armstrong, Jillian; Parkinson, Charlamaine; Gilmore, Maureen; Jennings, Jacky; Northington, Frances J; Lee, Jennifer K

    2017-05-01

    Cardiopulmonary injury is common in neonatal encephalopathy, but the link with cerebrovascular dysfunction is unknown. We hypothesized that alterations of cerebral autoregulation are associated with cardiopulmonary injury in neonates treated with therapeutic hypothermia (TH) for neonatal encephalopathy. The cerebral hemoglobin volume index (HVx) from near-infrared spectroscopy was used to identify the mean arterial blood pressure (MAP) with optimal autoregulatory vasoreactivity (MAP OPT ). We measured associations between MAP relative to MAP OPT and indicators of cardiopulmonary injury (duration of mechanical respiratory support and administration of inhaled nitric oxide (iNO), milrinone, or steroids). We identified associations between cerebrovascular autoregulation and cardiopulmonary injury that were often sex-specific. Greater MAP deviation above MAP OPT was associated with shorter duration of intubation in boys but longer ventilatory support in girls. Greater MAP deviation below MAP OPT related to longer intensive care stay in boys. Milrinone was associated with greater MAP deviation below MAP OPT in girls. MAP deviation from MAP OPT may relate to cardiopulmonary injury after neonatal encephalopathy, and sex may modulate this relationship. Whereas MAP above MAP OPT may protect the brain and lungs in boys, it may be related to cardiopulmonary injury in girls. Future studies are needed to characterize the role of sex in these associations.

  19. Sex-specific associations between cerebrovascular blood pressure autoregulation and cardiopulmonary injury in neonatal encephalopathy and therapeutic hypothermia

    PubMed Central

    Chavez-Valdez, Raul; O’Connor, Matthew; Perin, Jamie; Reyes, Michael; Armstrong, Jillian; Parkinson, Charlamaine; Gilmore, Maureen; Jennings, Jacky; Northington, Frances J.; Lee, Jennifer K.

    2017-01-01

    Background Cardiopulmonary injury is common in neonatal encephalopathy, but the link with cerebrovascular dysfunction is unknown. We hypothesized that cerebral autoregulation is associated with cardiopulmonary injury in neonates treated with therapeutic hypothermia (TH) for neonatal encephalopathy. Methods The cerebral hemoglobin volume index (HVx) from near-infrared spectroscopy was used to identify the mean arterial blood pressure (MAP) with optimal autoregulatory vasoreactivity (MAPOPT). We measured associations between MAP relative to MAPOPT and indicators of cardiopulmonary injury (duration of mechanical respiratory support and administration of inhaled nitric oxide (iNO), milrinone, or steroids). Results We identified associations between cerebrovascular autoregulation and cardiopulmonary injury that were often sex-specific. Greater MAP deviation above MAPOPT was associated with shorter duration of intubation in boys but longer ventilatory support in girls. Greater MAP deviation below MAPOPT related to longer intensive care stay in boys. Milrinone was associated with greater MAP deviation below MAPOPT in girls. Conclusion MAP deviation from MAPOPT may relate to cardiopulmonary injury after neonatal encephalopathy, and sex may modulate this relationship. Whereas MAP above MAPOPT may protect the brain and lungs in boys, it may be related to cardiopulmonary injury in girls. Future studies are needed to characterize the role of sex in these associations. PMID:28141793

  20. Neonatal outcomes after introduction of a national intrapartum fetal surveillance education program: a retrospective cohort study.

    PubMed

    Brown, L D; Permezel, M; Holberton, J R; Whitehead, C L

    2017-08-01

    To determine the impact of a multidisciplinary fetal surveillance education program (FSEP) on term neonatal outcomes. A retrospective cohort study of term neonatal outcomes before (1998-2004) and after (2005-2010) introduction of a FSEP. Clinical data was collected for all term infants admitted to a neonatal intensive care unit (NICU) in Australia between 1998 and 2010. Infants with congenital abnormalities were excluded. Neonatal mortality and severe neonatal morbidity (admission to a NICU, respiratory support, hypoxic encephalopathy) were compared before and after the FSEP was introduced. The rates of operative delivery during this time were assessed. There were 3 512 596 live term births between 1998 and 2010. The intrapartum hypoxic death rate at term decreased from 2.02 to 1.07 per 10 000 total births. More neonates were admitted to NICU after 2005 (10.6 versus 14.6 per 10 000 live births), however fewer babies admitted to the neonatal unit had Apgar scores < 5 at five minutes (55.1-45.5%, RR 0.82, 95% CI 0.7-0.87); and rates of hypoxic ischemic encephalopathy fell from 36% to 30% (RR 0.83, 95% CI 0.76-0.90). There was no increase in rates of emergency in labour caesarean sections (11.7% pre versus 11.1% post, RR 0.95, 95% CI 0.95-0.96). Introduction of a national FSEP was associated with increased neonatal admissions but a reduction in intrapartum hypoxia, without increasing emergency caesarean section rates.

  1. Mild encephalopathy/encephalitis with a reversible splenial lesion (MERS): A report of five neonatal cases.

    PubMed

    Sun, Dan; Chen, Wen-Hong; Baralc, Suraj; Wang, Juan; Liu, Zhi-Sheng; Xia, Yuan-Peng; Chen, Lei

    2017-06-01

    Mild encephalopathy/encephalitis with a reversible splenial (MERS) lesion is a clinic-radiological entity. The clinical features of MERS in neonates are still not systemically reported. This paper presents five cases of MERS, and the up-to-date reviews of previously reported cases were collected and analyzed in the literature. Here we describe five cases clinically diagnosed with MERS. All of them were neonates and the average age was about 4 days. They were admitted for the common neurological symptoms such as hyperspasmia, poor reactivity and delirium. Auxiliary examinations during hospitalization also exhibited features in common. In this report, we reached following conclusions. Firstly, magnetic resonance imaging revealed solitary or comprehensive lesions in the splenium of corpus callosum, some of them extending to almost the whole corpus callosum. The lesions showed low intensity signal on T1-weighted images, homogeneously hyperintense signal on T2-weighted images, fluid-attenuated inversion recovery and diffusion-weighted images, and exhibited an obvious reduced diffusion on apparent diffusion coefficient map. Moreover, the lesions in the magnetic resonance imaging disappeared very quickly even prior to the clinical recovery. Secondly, all the cases depicted here suffered electrolyte disturbances especially hyponatremia which could be easily corrected. Lastly, all of the cases recovered quickly over one week to one month and majority of them exhibited signs of infections and normal electroencephalography.

  2. Perinatal risk factors for neonatal encephalopathy: an unmatched case-control study.

    PubMed

    Tann, Cally J; Nakakeeto, Margaret; Willey, Barbara A; Sewegaba, Margaret; Webb, Emily L; Oke, Ibby; Mutuuza, Emmanuel Derek; Peebles, Donald; Musoke, Margaret; Harris, Kathryn A; Sebire, Neil J; Klein, Nigel; Kurinczuk, Jennifer J; Elliott, Alison M; Robertson, Nicola J

    2018-05-01

    Neonatal encephalopathy (NE) is the third leading cause of child mortality. Preclinical studies suggest infection and inflammation can sensitise or precondition the newborn brain to injury. This study examined perinatal risks factor for NE in Uganda. Unmatched case-control study. Mulago National Referral Hospital, Kampala, Uganda. 210 term infants with NE and 409 unaffected term infants as controls were recruited over 13 months. Data were collected on preconception, antepartum and intrapartum exposures. Blood culture, species-specific bacterial real-time PCR, C reactive protein and placental histology for chorioamnionitis and funisitis identified maternal and early newborn infection and inflammation. Multivariable logistic regression examined associations with NE. Neonatal bacteraemia (adjusted OR (aOR) 8.67 (95% CI 1.51 to 49.74), n=315) and histological funisitis (aOR 11.80 (95% CI 2.19 to 63.45), n=162) but not chorioamnionitis (aOR 3.20 (95% CI 0.66 to 15.52), n=162) were independent risk factors for NE. Among encephalopathic infants, neonatal case fatality was not significantly higher when exposed to early neonatal bacteraemia (OR 1.65 (95% CI 0.62 to 4.39), n=208). Intrapartum antibiotic use did not improve neonatal survival (p=0.826). After regression analysis, other identified perinatal risk factors (n=619) included hypertension in pregnancy (aOR 3.77), male infant (aOR 2.51), non-cephalic presentation (aOR 5.74), lack of fetal monitoring (aOR 2.75), augmentation (aOR 2.23), obstructed labour (aOR 3.8) and an acute intrapartum event (aOR 8.74). Perinatal infection and inflammation are independent risk factors for NE in this low-resource setting, supporting a role in the aetiological pathway of term brain injury. Intrapartum antibiotic administration did not mitigate against adverse outcomes. The importance of intrapartum risk factors in this sub-Saharan African setting is highlighted. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the

  3. Perinatal risk factors for neonatal encephalopathy: an unmatched case-control study

    PubMed Central

    Nakakeeto, Margaret; Willey, Barbara A; Sewegaba, Margaret; Webb, Emily L; Oke, Ibby; Mutuuza, Emmanuel Derek; Peebles, Donald; Musoke, Margaret; Harris, Kathryn A; Sebire, Neil J; Kurinczuk, Jennifer J; Elliott, Alison M

    2018-01-01

    Objective Neonatal encephalopathy (NE) is the third leading cause of child mortality. Preclinical studies suggest infection and inflammation can sensitise or precondition the newborn brain to injury. This study examined perinatal risks factor for NE in Uganda. Design Unmatched case–control study. Setting Mulago National Referral Hospital, Kampala, Uganda. Methods 210 term infants with NE and 409 unaffected term infants as controls were recruited over 13 months. Data were collected on preconception, antepartum and intrapartum exposures. Blood culture, species-specific bacterial real-time PCR, C reactive protein and placental histology for chorioamnionitis and funisitis identified maternal and early newborn infection and inflammation. Multivariable logistic regression examined associations with NE. Results Neonatal bacteraemia (adjusted OR (aOR) 8.67 (95% CI 1.51 to 49.74), n=315) and histological funisitis (aOR 11.80 (95% CI 2.19 to 63.45), n=162) but not chorioamnionitis (aOR 3.20 (95% CI 0.66 to 15.52), n=162) were independent risk factors for NE. Among encephalopathic infants, neonatal case fatality was not significantly higher when exposed to early neonatal bacteraemia (OR 1.65 (95% CI 0.62 to 4.39), n=208). Intrapartum antibiotic use did not improve neonatal survival (p=0.826). After regression analysis, other identified perinatal risk factors (n=619) included hypertension in pregnancy (aOR 3.77), male infant (aOR 2.51), non-cephalic presentation (aOR 5.74), lack of fetal monitoring (aOR 2.75), augmentation (aOR 2.23), obstructed labour (aOR 3.8) and an acute intrapartum event (aOR 8.74). Conclusions Perinatal infection and inflammation are independent risk factors for NE in this low-resource setting, supporting a role in the aetiological pathway of term brain injury. Intrapartum antibiotic administration did not mitigate against adverse outcomes. The importance of intrapartum risk factors in this sub-Saharan African setting is highlighted. PMID:28780500

  4. Hypoglycemia is associated with increased risk for brain injury and adverse neurodevelopmental outcome in neonates at risk for encephalopathy

    PubMed Central

    Tam, Emily W.Y.; Haeusslein, Laurel A.; Bonifacio, Sonia L.; Glass, Hannah C.; Rogers, Elizabeth E.; Jeremy, Rita J.; Barkovich, A. James; Ferriero, Donna M.

    2012-01-01

    Objective To investigate the contribution of hypoglycemia in the first 24 hours after birth to brain injury in term newborns at risk for neonatal encephalopathy. Study design A prospective cohort of 94 term neonates born between 1994 and 2010 with early postnatal brain MRI studies were analyzed for regions of brain injury. Neurodevelopmental outcome was assessed at one year of age. Results Hypoglycemia (glucose <46mg/dL) in the first 24 hours after birth was detected in 16% of the cohort. Adjusting for potential confounders of early perinatal distress and need for resuscitation, neonatal hypoglycemia was associated with a 3.72-fold increased odds of corticospinal tract injury (P=0.047). Hypoglycemia was also associated with 4.82-fold increased odds of one-point worsened neuromotor score (P=0.038) and a 15-point lower cognitive and language score on the Bayley Scales of Infant Development (P=0.015). Conclusion Neonatal hypoglycemia is associated with additional risks in the setting of neonatal encephalopathy with increased corticospinal tract injury and adverse motor and cognitive outcomes. PMID:22306045

  5. Hypoglycemia is associated with increased risk for brain injury and adverse neurodevelopmental outcome in neonates at risk for encephalopathy.

    PubMed

    Tam, Emily W Y; Haeusslein, Laurel A; Bonifacio, Sonia L; Glass, Hannah C; Rogers, Elizabeth E; Jeremy, Rita J; Barkovich, A James; Ferriero, Donna M

    2012-07-01

    To investigate the contribution of hypoglycemia in the first 24 hours after birth to brain injury in term newborns at risk for neonatal encephalopathy. A prospective cohort of 94 term neonates born between 1994 and 2010 with early postnatal brain magnetic resonance imaging studies were analyzed for regions of brain injury. Neurodevelopmental outcome was assessed at 1 year of age. Hypoglycemia (glucose <46 mg/dL) in the first 24 hours after birth was detected in 16% of the cohort. Adjusting for potential confounders of early perinatal distress and need for resuscitation, neonatal hypoglycemia was associated with a 3.72-fold increased odds of corticospinal tract injury (P=.047). Hypoglycemia was also associated with 4.82-fold increased odds of 1-point worsened neuromotor score (P=.038) and a 15-point lower cognitive and language score on the Bayley Scales of Infant Development (P=.015). Neonatal hypoglycemia is associated with additional risks in the setting of neonatal encephalopathy with increased corticospinal tract injury and adverse motor and cognitive outcomes. Copyright © 2012 Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. The Metabolomic Profile of Umbilical Cord Blood in Neonatal Hypoxic Ischaemic Encephalopathy

    PubMed Central

    Walsh, Brian H.; Broadhurst, David I.; Mandal, Rupasri; Wishart, David S.; Boylan, Geraldine B.; Kenny, Louise C.; Murray, Deirdre M.

    2012-01-01

    Background Hypoxic ischaemic encephalopathy (HIE) in newborns can cause significant long-term neurological disability. The insult is a complex injury characterised by energy failure and disruption of cellular homeostasis, leading to mitochondrial damage. The importance of individual metabolic pathways, and their interaction in the disease process is not fully understood. The aim of this study was to describe and quantify the metabolomic profile of umbilical cord blood samples in a carefully defined population of full-term infants with HIE. Methods and Findings The injury severity was defined using both the modified Sarnat score and continuous multichannel electroencephalogram. Using these classification systems, our population was divided into those with confirmed HIE (n = 31), asphyxiated infants without encephalopathy (n = 40) and matched controls (n = 71). All had umbilical cord blood drawn and biobanked at −80°C within 3 hours of delivery. A combined direct injection and LC-MS/MS assay (AbsolutIDQ p180 kit, Biocrates Life Sciences AG, Innsbruck, Austria) was used for the metabolomic analyses of the samples. Targeted metabolomic analysis showed a significant alteration between study groups in 29 metabolites from 3 distinct classes (Amino Acids, Acylcarnitines, and Glycerophospholipids). 9 of these metabolites were only significantly altered between neonates with Hypoxic ischaemic encephalopathy and matched controls, while 14 were significantly altered in both study groups. Multivariate Discriminant Analysis models developed showed clear multifactorial metabolite associations with both asphyxia and HIE. A logistic regression model using 5 metabolites clearly delineates severity of asphyxia and classifies HIE infants with AUC = 0.92. These data describe wide-spread disruption to not only energy pathways, but also nitrogen and lipid metabolism in both asphyxia and HIE. Conclusion This study shows that a multi-platform targeted approach to

  7. Noninvasive measurement of cerebral venous oxygenation in neonates with a multi-wavelength, fiber-coupled laser diode optoacoustic system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Herrmann, Stephen; Petrov, Irene Y.; Petrov, Yuriy; Fonseca, Rafael A.; Richardson, C. Joan; Shanina, Ekaterina; Prough, Donald S.; Esenaliev, Rinat O.

    2018-03-01

    Noninvasive measurement of cerebral venous oxygenation in neonates could provide critical information for clinicians such as cerebral hypoxia without the risks involved with invasive catheterization. Evaluation of cerebral hypoxia is important in many clinical settings such as hypoxic-ischemic encephalopathy, perfusion monitoring in cardiovascular surgery or in traumatic brain injury. By probing the superior sagittal sinus (SSS), a large central cerebral vein, we can obtain stable signals with our recently developed multi-wavelength, fiber-coupled laser diode optoacoustic system for measurement of SSS blood oxygenation. The neonatal SSS oxygenation was measured in the reflection mode through open anterior and posterior fontanelles without obscuration by the overlying calvarium. In the transmission mode it was measured through the skull in the occipital area. Our device is lightweight, easily maneuverable, and user friendly for physicians. We monitored the SSS oxygenation in neonates admitted to the Neonatal Intensive Care Unit (NICU) of UTMB with varying gestation, birth weight and clinical histories to identify normal range and difference between neonates with and without risk factors for cerebral hypoxia.

  8. Reduced infancy and childhood epilepsy following hypothermia-treated neonatal encephalopathy.

    PubMed

    Liu, Xun; Jary, Sally; Cowan, Frances; Thoresen, Marianne

    2017-11-01

    To investigate what proportion of a regional cohort of cooled infants with neonatal encephalopathy develop epilepsy (determined by the International League Against Epilepsy [ILAE] definition and the number of antiepileptic drugs [AEDs]) up to 8 years of age. From 2006-2013, 151 infants with perinatal asphyxia underwent 72 h cooling. Clinical and amplitude-integrated electroencepalography (aEEG) with single-channel EEG-verified neonatal seizures were treated with AEDs. Brain magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) was assessed using a 0-11 severity score. Postneonatal seizures, epilepsy rates, and AED treatments were documented. One hundred thirty-four survivors were assessed at 18-24 months; adverse outcome was defined as death or Bayley III composite Cognition/Language or Motor scores <85 and/or severe cerebral palsy or severely reduced vision/hearing. Epilepsy rates in 103 children age 4-8 years were also documented. aEEG confirmed seizures occurred precooling in 77 (57%) 151 of neonates; 48% had seizures during and/or after cooling and received AEDs. Only one infant was discharged on AEDs. At 18-24 months, one third of infants had an adverse outcome including 11% mortality. At 2 years, 8 (6%) infants had an epilepsy diagnosis (ILAE definition), of whom 3 (2%) received AEDs. Of the 103 4- to 8-year-olds, 14 (13%) had developed epilepsy, with 7 (7%) receiving AEDs. Infants/children on AEDs had higher MRI scores than those not on AEDs (median [interquartile range] 9 [8-11] vs. 2 [0-4]) and poorer outcomes. Nine (64%) of 14 children with epilepsy had cerebral palsy compared to 13 (11%) of 120 without epilepsy, and 10 (71%) of 14 children with epilepsy had adverse outcomes versus 23 (19%) of 120 survivors without epilepsy. The number of different AEDs given to control neonatal seizures, aEEG severity precooling, and MRI scores predicted childhood epilepsy. We report, in a regional cohort of infants cooled for perinatal asphyxia, 6% with epilepsy at 2 years (2% on AEDs

  9. Increased MMP-9 and TIMP-1 in mouse neonatal brain and plasma and in human neonatal plasma after hypoxia-ischemia: a potential marker of neonatal encephalopathy.

    PubMed

    Bednarek, Nathalie; Svedin, Pernilla; Garnotel, Roselyne; Favrais, Géraldine; Loron, Gauthier; Schwendiman, Leslie; Hagberg, Henrik; Morville, Patrice; Mallard, Carina; Gressens, Pierre

    2012-01-01

    To implement neuroprotective strategies in newborns, sensitive and specific biomarkers are needed for identifying those who are at risk for brain damage. We evaluated the effectiveness of matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) and their naturally occurring tissue inhibitors of metalloproteinases (TIMPs) in predicting neonatal encephalopathy (NE) damage in newborns. Plasma MMP-9 and TIMP-1 levels were upregulated as early as 1 h after the HI insult but not did not show such elevations after other types of injury (ibotenate-induced excitotoxicity, hypoxia, lipopolysaccharide-induced inflammation), and brain levels reflected this increase soon thereafter. We confirmed these results by carrying out plasma MMP-9 and TIMP-1 measurements in human newborns with NE. In these infants, protein levels of MMP-9 and TIMP-1 were found to be elevated during a short window up to 6 h after birth. This feature is particularly useful in identifying newborns in need of neuroprotection. A second peak observed 72 h after birth is possibly related to the second phase of energy failure after a HI insult. Our data, although preliminary, support the use of MMP-9 and TIMP-1 as early biomarkers for the presence and extent of perinatal brain injury in human term newborns. We first used a mouse model of neonatal HI injury to explore mechanistic aspects such as the time course of these markers after the hypoxia-ischemia event, and the correlation between the levels of these candidate markers in brain and plasma.

  10. Early cranial ultrasound findings among infants with neonatal encephalopathy in Uganda: an observational study.

    PubMed

    Tann, Cally J; Nakakeeto, Margaret; Hagmann, Cornelia; Webb, Emily L; Nyombi, Natasha; Namiiro, Flaviah; Harvey-Jones, Kelly; Muhumuza, Anita; Burgoine, Kathy; Elliott, Alison M; Kurinczuk, Jennifer J; Robertson, Nicola J; Cowan, Frances M

    2016-08-01

    In sub-Saharan Africa, the timing and nature of brain injury and their relation to mortality in neonatal encephalopathy (NE) are unknown. We evaluated cranial ultrasound (cUS) scans from term Ugandan infants with and without NE for evidence of brain injury. Infants were recruited from a national referral hospital in Kampala. Cases (184) had NE and controls (100) were systematically selected unaffected term infants. All had cUS scans <36 h reported blind to NE status. Scans were performed at median age 11.5 (interquartile range (IQR): 5.2-20.2) and 8.4 (IQR: 3.6-13.5) hours, in cases and controls respectively. None had established antepartum injury. Major evolving injury was reported in 21.2% of the cases vs. 1.0% controls (P < 0.001). White matter injury was not significantly associated with bacteremia in encephalopathic infants (odds ratios (OR): 3.06 (95% confidence interval (CI): 0.98-9.60). Major cUS abnormality significantly increased the risk of neonatal death (case fatality 53.9% with brain injury vs. 25.9% without; OR: 3.34 (95% CI: 1.61-6.95)). In this low-resource setting, there was no evidence of established antepartum insult, but a high proportion of encephalopathic infants had evidence of major recent and evolving brain injury on early cUS imaging, suggesting prolonged or severe acute exposure to hypoxia-ischemia (HI). Early abnormalities were a significant predictor of death.

  11. Early cranial ultrasound findings among infants with neonatal encephalopathy in Uganda: an observational study

    PubMed Central

    Tann, Cally J.; Nakakeeto, Margaret; Hagmann, Cornelia; Webb, Emily L.; Nyombi, Natasha; Namiiro, Flaviah; Harvey-Jones, Kelly; Muhumuza, Anita; Burgoine, Kathy; Elliott, Alison M.; Kurinczuk, Jennifer J.; Robertson, Nicola J.; Cowan, Frances M.

    2016-01-01

    Background: In sub-Saharan Africa, the timing and nature of brain injury and their relation to mortality in neonatal encephalopathy (NE) are unknown. We evaluated cranial ultrasound (cUS) scans from term Ugandan infants with and without NE for evidence of brain injury. Methods: Infants were recruited from a national referral hospital in Kampala. Cases (184) had NE and controls (100) were systematically selected unaffected term infants. All had cUS scans <36 h reported blind to NE status. Results: Scans were performed at median age 11.5 (interquartile range (IQR): 5.2–20.2) and 8.4 (IQR: 3.6–13.5) hours, in cases and controls respectively. None had established antepartum injury. Major evolving injury was reported in 21.2% of the cases vs. 1.0% controls (P < 0.001). White matter injury was not significantly associated with bacteremia in encephalopathic infants (odds ratios (OR): 3.06 (95% confidence interval (CI): 0.98–9.60). Major cUS abnormality significantly increased the risk of neonatal death (case fatality 53.9% with brain injury vs. 25.9% without; OR: 3.34 (95% CI: 1.61–6.95)). Conclusion: In this low-resource setting, there was no evidence of established antepartum insult, but a high proportion of encephalopathic infants had evidence of major recent and evolving brain injury on early cUS imaging, suggesting prolonged or severe acute exposure to hypoxia–ischemia (HI). Early abnormalities were a significant predictor of death. PMID:27064242

  12. The burden of hypoxic-ischaemic encephalopathy in Malaysian neonatal intensive care units.

    PubMed

    Boo, Nem-Yun; Cheah, Irene Guat-Sim

    2016-08-01

    This study aimed to determine the incidence of hypoxic-ischaemic encephalopathy (HIE) and predictors of HIE mortality in Malaysian neonatal intensive care units (NICUs). This was a retrospective study of data from 37 NICUs in the Malaysian National Neonatal Registry in 2012. All newborns with gestational age ≥ 36 weeks, without major congenital malformations and fulfilling the criteria of HIE were included. There were 285,454 live births in these hospitals. HIE was reported in 919 newborns and 768 of them were inborn, with a HIE incidence of 2.59 per 1,000 live births/hospital (95% confidence interval [CI] 2.03, 3.14). A total of 144 (15.7%) affected newborns died. Logistic regression analysis showed that the significant predictors of death were: chest compression at birth (adjusted odds ratio [OR] 2.27, 95% CI 1.27, 4.05; p = 0.003), being outborn (adjusted OR 2.65, 95% CI 1.36, 5.13; p = 0.004), meconium aspiration syndrome (MAS) (adjusted OR 2.16, 95% CI 1.05, 4.47; p = 0.038), persistent pulmonary hypertension of the newborn (PPHN) (adjusted OR 4.39, 95% CI 1.85, 10.43; p = 0.001), sepsis (adjusted OR 4.46, 95% CI 1.38, 14.40; p = 0.013), pneumothorax (adjusted OR 4.77, 95% CI 1.76, 12.95; p = 0.002) and severe HIE (adjusted OR 42.41, 95% CI 18.55, 96.96; p < 0.0001). The incidence of HIE in Malaysian NICUs was similar to that reported in developed countries. Affected newborns with severe grade of HIE, chest compression at birth, MAS, PPHN, sepsis or pneumothorax, and those who were outborn were more likely to die before discharge. Copyright: © Singapore Medical Association.

  13. The burden of hypoxic-ischaemic encephalopathy in Malaysian neonatal intensive care units

    PubMed Central

    Boo, Nem-Yun; Cheah, Irene Guat-Sim

    2016-01-01

    INTRODUCTION This study aimed to determine the incidence of hypoxic-ischaemic encephalopathy (HIE) and predictors of HIE mortality in Malaysian neonatal intensive care units (NICUs). METHODS This was a retrospective study of data from 37 NICUs in the Malaysian National Neonatal Registry in 2012. All newborns with gestational age ≥ 36 weeks, without major congenital malformations and fulfilling the criteria of HIE were included. RESULTS There were 285,454 live births in these hospitals. HIE was reported in 919 newborns and 768 of them were inborn, with a HIE incidence of 2.59 per 1,000 live births/hospital (95% confidence interval [CI] 2.03, 3.14). A total of 144 (15.7%) affected newborns died. Logistic regression analysis showed that the significant predictors of death were: chest compression at birth (adjusted odds ratio [OR] 2.27, 95% CI 1.27, 4.05; p = 0.003), being outborn (adjusted OR 2.65, 95% CI 1.36, 5.13; p = 0.004), meconium aspiration syndrome (MAS) (adjusted OR 2.16, 95% CI 1.05, 4.47; p = 0.038), persistent pulmonary hypertension of the newborn (PPHN) (adjusted OR 4.39, 95% CI 1.85, 10.43; p = 0.001), sepsis (adjusted OR 4.46, 95% CI 1.38, 14.40; p = 0.013), pneumothorax (adjusted OR 4.77, 95% CI 1.76, 12.95; p = 0.002) and severe HIE (adjusted OR 42.41, 95% CI 18.55, 96.96; p < 0.0001). CONCLUSION The incidence of HIE in Malaysian NICUs was similar to that reported in developed countries. Affected newborns with severe grade of HIE, chest compression at birth, MAS, PPHN, sepsis or pneumothorax, and those who were outborn were more likely to die before discharge. PMID:27549510

  14. Ventilation Strategies during Neonatal Cardiopulmonary Resuscitation

    PubMed Central

    Baik, Nariae; O’Reilly, Megan; Fray, Caroline; van Os, Sylvia; Cheung, Po-Yin; Schmölzer, Georg M.

    2018-01-01

    Approximately, 10–20% of newborns require breathing assistance at birth, which remains the cornerstone of neonatal resuscitation. Fortunately, the need for chest compression (CC) or medications in the delivery room (DR) is rare. About 0.1% of term infants and up to 15% of preterm infants receive these interventions, this will result in approximately one million newborn deaths annually worldwide. In addition, CC or medications (epinephrine) are more frequent in the preterm population (~15%) due to birth asphyxia. A recent study reported that only 6 per 10,000 infants received epinephrine in the DR. Further, the study reported that infants receiving epinephrine during resuscitation had a high incidence of mortality (41%) and short-term neurologic morbidity (57% hypoxic-ischemic encephalopathy and seizures). A recent review of newborns who received prolonged CC and epinephrine but had no signs of life at 10 min following birth noted 83% mortality, with 93% of survivors suffering moderate-to-severe disability. The poor prognosis associated with receiving CC alone or with medications in the DR raises questions as to whether improved cardiopulmonary resuscitation methods specifically tailored to the newborn could improve outcomes. PMID:29484288

  15. Long-term cognitive and behavioral consequences of neonatal encephalopathy following perinatal asphyxia: a review

    PubMed Central

    Swaab, Hanna; de Vries, Linda S.; Jongmans, Marian J.

    2007-01-01

    Neonatal encephalopathy (NE) following perinatal asphyxia (PA) is considered an important cause of later neurodevelopmental impairment in infants born at term. This review discusses long-term consequences for general cognitive functioning, educational achievement, neuropsychological functioning and behavior. In all areas reviewed, the outcome of children with mild NE is consistently positive and the outcome of children with severe NE consistently negative. However, children with moderate NE form a more heterogeneous group with respect to outcome. On average, intelligence scores are below those of children with mild NE and age-matched peers, but within the normal range. With respect to educational achievement, difficulties have been found in the domains reading, spelling and arithmetic/mathematics. So far, studies of neuropsychological functioning have yielded ambiguous results in children with moderate NE. A few studies suggest elevated rates of hyperactivity in children with moderate NE and autism in children with moderate and severe NE. Conclusion: Behavioral monitoring is required for all children with NE. In addition, systematic, detailed neuropsychological examination is needed especially for children with moderate NE. PMID:17426984

  16. [Risk-adjusted assessment: late-onset infection in neonates].

    PubMed

    Gmyrek, Dieter; Koch, Rainer; Vogtmann, Christoph; Kaiser, Annette; Friedrich, Annette

    2011-01-01

    The weak point of the countrywide perinatal/neonatal quality surveillance is the ignorance of interhospital differences in the case mix of patients. As a result, this approach does not produce reliable benchmarking. The objective of this study was to adjust the result of the late-onset infection incidence of different hospitals according to their risk profile of patients by multivariate analysis. The perinatal/neonatal database of 41,055 newborns of the Saxonian quality surveillance from 1998 to 2004 was analysed. Based on 18 possible risk factors, a logistic regression model was used to develop a specific risk predictor for the quality indicator "late-onset infection". The developed risk predictor for the incidence of late-onset infection could be described by 4 of the 18 analysed risk factors, namely gestational age, admission from home, hypoxic ischemic encephalopathy and B-streptococcal infection. The AUC(ROC) value of this quality indicator was 83.3%, which demonstrates its reliability. The hospital ranking based on the adjusted risk assessment was very different from hospital rankings before this adjustment. The average correction of ranking position was 4.96 for 35 clinics. The application of the risk adjustment method proposed here allows for a more objective comparison of the incidence of the quality indicator "late onset infection" among different hospitals. Copyright © 2011. Published by Elsevier GmbH.

  17. [Human umbilical cord blood mononuclear cell transplantation promotes long-term neurobehavioral functional development of newborn SD rats with hypoxic ischemic brain injury].

    PubMed

    Huang, Hui-zhi; Wen, Xiao-hong; Liu, Hui; Huang, Jin-hua; Liu, Shang-quan; Ren, Wei-hua; Fang, Wen-xiang; Qian, Yin-feng; Hou, Wei-zhu; Yan, Ming-jie; Yao, You-heng; Li, Wei-Zu; Li, Qian-Jin

    2013-06-01

    To explore the effect of human umbilical cord blood mononuclear cells (UCBMC) promoting nerve behavior function and brain tissue recovery of neonatal SD rat with hypoxic ischemic brain injury (HIBI). A modified newborn rat model that had a combined hypoxic and ischemic brain injury as described by Rice-Vannucci was used, early nervous reflex, the Morris water maze and walking track analysis were used to evaluate nervous behavioral function, and brain MRI, HE staining to evaluate brain damage recovery. Newborn rat Rice-Vannucci model showed significant brain atrophy, obvious hemiplegia of contralateral limbs,e.g right step length [(7.67 ± 0.46) cm vs. (8.22 ± 0.50) cm, F = 1.494] and toe distance [(0.93 ± 0.06) cm vs. (1.12 ± 0.55) cm, F = 0.186] were significantly reduced compared with left side, learning and memory ability was significantly impaired compared with normal control group (P < 0.01); Cliff aversion [(8.44 ± 2.38) s vs.(14.22 ± 5.07) s, t = 4.618] and negative geotaxis reflex time [(7.26 ± 2.00) s vs. (11.76 ± 3.73) s, t = 4.755] on postnatal 14 days of HIBI+ transplantation group were significantly reduced compared with HIBI+NaCl group (P < 0.01) ; the Morris water maze experiment showed escape latency [ (23.11 ± 6.64) s vs. (34.04 ± 12.95) s, t = 3.356] and swimming distance [ (9.12 ± 1.21) cm vs.(12.70 ± 1.53) cm, t = 17.095] of HIBI+transplantation group were significantly reduced compared with those of HIBI+NaCl group (P < 0.01) ; the residual brain volume on postnatal 10 d [ (75.37 ± 4.53)% vs. (67.17 ± 4.08)%, t = -6.017] and 67 d [ (69.05 ± 3.58)% vs.(60.83 ± 3.69)%, t = -7.148]of HIBI+ transplantation group were significantly larger than those of HIBI+NaCl group (P < 0.01); After human UCBMC transplantation, left cortical edema significantly reduced and nerve cell necrosis of HIBI+ transplantation group is not obvious compared with HIBI+NaCl group. Human UCBMC intraperitoneal transplantation significantly promoted recovery of

  18. Relationships between cerebral autoregulation and markers of kidney and liver injury in neonatal encephalopathy and therapeutic hypothermia.

    PubMed

    Lee, J K; Perin, J; Parkinson, C; O'Connor, M; Gilmore, M M; Reyes, M; Armstrong, J; Jennings, J M; Northington, F J; Chavez-Valdez, R

    2017-08-01

    We studied whether cerebral blood pressure autoregulation and kidney and liver injuries are associated in neonatal encephalopathy (NE). We monitored autoregulation of 75 newborns who received hypothermia for NE in the neonatal intensive care unit to identify the mean arterial blood pressure with optimized autoregulation (MAP OPT ). Autoregulation parameters and creatinine, aspartate aminotransferase (AST) and alanine aminotransferase (ALT) were analyzed using adjusted regression models. Greater time with blood pressure within MAP OPT during hypothermia was associated with lower creatinine in girls. Blood pressure below MAP OPT related to higher ALT and AST during normothermia in all neonates and boys. The opposite occurred in rewarming when more time with blood pressure above MAP OPT related to higher AST. Blood pressures that optimize cerebral autoregulation may support the kidneys. Blood pressures below MAP OPT and liver injury during normothermia are associated. The relationship between MAP OPT and AST during rewarming requires further study.

  19. Cesarean section on request at 39 weeks: impact on shoulder dystocia, fetal trauma, neonatal encephalopathy, and intrauterine fetal demise.

    PubMed

    Hankins, Gary D V; Clark, Shannon M; Munn, Mary B

    2006-10-01

    The purpose of this analysis was to determine the impact on specific forms of neonatal morbidity and mortality by allowing women to opt for delivery by elective cesarean section at 39 weeks of gestation (EGA). According to the National Vital Statistics Reports, over 70% of deliveries in the U.S. annually are at gestational ages>or=39 weeks EGA. Estimating that over 4 million deliveries occur annually in the United States, this would yield approximately 3 million pregnancies wherein the woman may exercise her choice for either primary or repeat cesarean section at 39 weeks EGA or at the point when labor is established. A search was conducted using Ovid Medline spanning the past 10 years using the following key words: fetal trauma, shoulder dystocia, brachial plexus palsy, neonatal skull fracture, obstetrical trauma, traumatic delivery, intrauterine fetal demise, stillbirth, fetal demise, and neonatal encephalopathy. Using this search technique, over 2100 articles were identified. The abstracts were reviewed and pertinent articles were chosen for further consideration. The identified articles and their applicable references were obtained for inclusion in this review. Preference was given to publications on or after the year 2000 with the exception of classical or sentinel articles, which were included without regard to year of publication. Four major categories of neonatal morbidity and mortality are discussed: Shoulder dystocia: Accepting that we do not have a successful method for the prediction or prevention of shoulder dystocia, the question becomes, "What is the chance that a baby will sustain a permanent brachial plexus injury at delivery?" Additionally, is there a significant protective effect of cesarean section in reducing the risk of such injury? Currently, the occurrence rate of brachial plexus palsy at the time of vaginal delivery ranges from 0.047% to 0.6% and for cesarean section from 0.0042% to 0.095%. Using a composite estimate of the risk of 0

  20. The value of serum pro-oxidant/antioxidant balance in the assessment of asphyxia in term neonates.

    PubMed

    Boskabadi, Hassan; Zakerihamidi, Maryam; Heidarzadeh, Mohammad; Avan, Amir; Ghayour-Mobarhan, Majid; Ferns, Gordon A

    2017-07-01

    Asphyxia is a major cause of disabilities in term-born infants. Here we have explored the value in HIE (hypoxic-ischemic-encephalopathy) of using a combination of serum pro-oxidant/antioxidant balance (PAB) assay for predicting the prognosis of asphyxia. Ninety term neonates with asphyxia were enrolled and followed up for two years. Serum PAB, demographic/biochemical characteristics of mothers, and their neonates were determined. The Denver II test was used to assess outcomes. Of the 90 asphyxiated neonates, 47 (52.2%) had a normal outcome and 43 babies (47.8%) had abnormal outcome. Serum PAB levels in neonates with normal and abnormal outcomes were 17.1 ± 9.23 and 48.27 ± 41.30 HK, respectively. A combination of HIE intensity and PAB, compared to other indicators, had a higher predictive-value (95.2%) for outcomes in asphyxiated babies. We demonstrate that PAB in combination with HIE grade may have a better predictive value for the prognosis of asphyxiated babies and predicting future neurologic problems in asphyxiated term infants.

  1. Periictal activity in cooled asphyxiated neonates with seizures.

    PubMed

    Major, Philippe; Lortie, Anne; Dehaes, Mathieu; Lodygensky, Gregory Anton; Gallagher, Anne; Carmant, Lionel; Birca, Ala

    2017-04-01

    Seizures are common in critically ill neonates. Both seizures and antiepileptic treatments may lead to short term complications and worsen the outcomes. Predicting the risks of seizure reoccurrence could enable individual treatment regimens and better outcomes. We aimed to identify EEG signatures of seizure reoccurrence by investigating periictal electrographic features and spectral power characteristics in hypothermic neonates with hypoxic-ischemic encephalopathy (HIE) with or without reoccurrence of seizures on rewarming. We recruited five consecutive HIE neonates, submitted to continuous EEG monitoring, with high seizure burden (>20% per hour) while undergoing therapeutic hypothermia. Two of them had reoccurrence of seizures on rewarming. We performed quantitative analysis of fifteen artifact-free consecutive seizures to appreciate spectral power changes between the interictal, preictal and ictal periods, separately for each patient. Visual analysis allowed description of electrographic features associated with ictal events. Every patient demonstrated a significant increase in overall spectral power from the interictal to preictal and ictal periods (p<0.01). Alpha power increase was more pronounced in the two patients with reoccurrence of seizures on rewarming and significant when comparing both interictal-to-preictal and interictal-to-ictal periods. This alpha activity increase could be also appreciated using visual analysis and distinguished neonates with and without seizure reoccurrence. This distinct alpha activity preceding ictal onset could represent a biomarker of propensity for seizure reoccurrence in neonates. Future studies should be performed to confirm whether quantitative periictal characteristics and electrographic features allow predicting the risks of seizure reoccurrence in HIE neonates and other critically ill patients. Copyright © 2017 British Epilepsy Association. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. A Battery of Motor Tests in a Neonatal Mouse Model of Cerebral Palsy.

    PubMed

    Feather-Schussler, Danielle N; Ferguson, Tanya S

    2016-11-03

    As the sheer number of transgenic mice strains grow and rodent models of pediatric disease increase, there is an expanding need for a comprehensive, standardized battery of neonatal mouse motor tests. These tests can validate injury or disease models, determine treatment efficacy and/or assess motor behaviors in new transgenic strains. This paper presents a series of neonatal motor tests to evaluate general motor function, including ambulation, hindlimb foot angle, surface righting, negative geotaxis, front- and hindlimb suspension, grasping reflex, four limb grip strength and cliff aversion. Mice between the ages of post-natal day 2 to 14 can be used. In addition, these tests can be used for a wide range of neurological and neuromuscular pathologies, including cerebral palsy, hypoxic-ischemic encephalopathy, traumatic brain injury, spinal cord injury, neurodegenerative diseases, and neuromuscular disorders. These tests can also be used to determine the effects of pharmacological agents, as well as other types of therapeutic interventions. In this paper, motor deficits were evaluated in a novel neonatal mouse model of cerebral palsy that combines hypoxia, ischemia and inflammation. Forty-eight hours after injury, five tests out of the nine showed significant motor deficits: ambulation, hindlimb angle, hindlimb suspension, four limb grip strength, and grasping reflex. These tests revealed weakness in the hindlimbs, as well as fine motor skills such as grasping, which are similar to the motor deficits seen in human cerebral palsy patients.

  3. Overexpression of HIF-1α in mesenchymal stem cells contributes to repairing hypoxic-ischemic brain damage in rats.

    PubMed

    Lin, Deju; Zhou, Liping; Wang, Biao; Liu, Lizhen; Cong, Li; Hu, Chuanqin; Ge, Tingting; Yu, Qin

    2017-01-01

    Preclinical researches on mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) transplantation, which is used to treat hypoxic-ischemic (HI) brain damage, have received inspiring achievements. However, the insufficient migration of active cells to damaged tissues has limited their potential therapeutic effects. There are some evidences that hypoxia inducible factor-1 alpha (HIF-1α) promotes the viability and migration of the cells. Here, we aim to investigate whether overexpression of HIF-1α in MSCs could improve the viability and migration capacity of cells, and its therapeutic efficiency on HI brain damage. In the study, MSCs with HIF-1α overexpression was achieved by recombinant lentiviral vector and transplanted to the rats subsequent to HI. Our data indicated that overexpression of HIF-1α promoted the viability and migration of MSCs, HIF-1α overexpressed MSCs also had a stronger therapeutic efficiency on HI brain damaged treatment by mitigating the injury on behavioral and histological changes evoked by HI insults, accompanied with more MSCs migrating to cerebral damaged area. This study demonstrated that HIF-1α overexpression could increase the MSCs' therapeutic efficiency in HI and the promotion of the cells' directional migration to cerebral HI area by overexpression may be responsible for it, which showed that transplantation of MSCs with HIF-1α overexpression is an attractive therapeutic option to treat HI-induced brain injury in the future. Copyright © 2016 Académie des sciences. Published by Elsevier SAS. All rights reserved.

  4. Animal Models of Human Disease: Severe and Mild Lead Encephalopathy in the Neonatal Rat*

    PubMed Central

    Michaelson, I. Arthur; Sauerhoff, Mitchell W.

    1974-01-01

    Inorganic lead produces cerebral dysfunction and clinically definable encephalopathies in man. To date there have been few studies on the biochemical changes in brain following exposure to inorganic lead. Studies correlating toxicity with behavioral and brain neurochemical changes following lead exposure have been hindered because adult laboratory animals are resistant to the central nervous system effects of lead poisoning. Such studies have been impeded by lack of suitable experimental models until Pentschew and Garro showed that brain lesions develop in neonatal rats when a pregnant rat newly delivered of her litter is placed on a 4% lead carbonate containing diet. Lead passes into the developing sucklings via maternal milk. Lead-poisoned new-borns have pronounced retardation of growth and during the fourth week of ilfe develop the severe signs of lead encephalopathy, namely, extensive histological lesions of the cerebellum, brain edema, and paraplegia. There is an approximate 85-fold increase in the lead concentration of both the cerebellum and cerebral cortex relative to controls, but edema and gross vascular changes are confined to the cerebellum. Ingested lead had little effect on RNA, DNA, and protein concentrations of developing rat cerebellum and cerebral cortex. However, there was a reduction of between 10 and 20% in the DNA content of the cerebellum around 3 weeks of age in the lead-exposed sucklings. This suggests a failure of cell multiplication in this part of the brain. A critical evaluation of this experimental approach indicated that under similar dietary conditions experimental lactating rats eat 30% less food than controls resulting in: (a) sustained loss in body weight of nursing mothers and that (b) offsprings who develop paraplegia and cerebellar damage do so after gaining access to lead containing diet. We have studied mothers' food consumption and body weight changes and blood, milk, and brain lead content; and newborns' body and brain

  5. Magnetic Resonance Biomarkers in Neonatal Encephalopathy (MARBLE): a prospective multicountry study.

    PubMed

    Lally, Peter J; Pauliah, Shreela; Montaldo, Paolo; Chaban, Badr; Oliveira, Vania; Bainbridge, Alan; Soe, Aung; Pattnayak, Santosh; Clarke, Paul; Satodia, Prakash; Harigopal, Sundeep; Abernethy, Laurence J; Turner, Mark A; Huertas-Ceballos, Angela; Shankaran, Seetha; Thayyil, Sudhin

    2015-09-30

    Despite cooling, adverse outcomes are seen in up to half of the surviving infants after neonatal encephalopathy. A number of novel adjunct drug therapies with cooling have been shown to be highly neuroprotective in animal studies, and are currently awaiting clinical translation. Rigorous evaluation of these therapies in phase II trials using surrogate MR biomarkers may speed up their bench to bedside translation. A recent systematic review of single-centre studies has suggested that MR spectroscopy biomarkers offer the best promise; however, the prognostic accuracy of these biomarkers in cooled encephalopathic babies in a multicentre setting using different MR scan makers is not known. The MR scanners (3 T; Philips, Siemens, GE) in all the participating sites will be harmonised using phantom experiments and healthy adult volunteers before the start of the study. We will then recruit 180 encephalopathic infants treated with whole body cooling from the participating centres. MRI and spectroscopy will be performed within 2 weeks of birth. Neurodevelopmental outcomes will be assessed at 18-24 months of age. Agreement between MR cerebral biomarkers and neurodevelopmental outcome will be reported. The sample size is calculated using the 'rule of 10', generally used to calculate the sample size requirements for developing prognostic models. Considering 9 parameters, we require 9×10 adverse events, which suggest that a total sample size of 180 is required. Human Research Ethics Committee approvals have been received from Brent Research Ethics Committee (London), and from Imperial College London (Sponsor). We will submit the results of the study to relevant journals and offer national and international presentations. Clinical Trials.gov Number: NCT01309711. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.

  6. Early changes in brain structure correlate with language outcomes in children with neonatal encephalopathy.

    PubMed

    Shapiro, Kevin A; Kim, Hosung; Mandelli, Maria Luisa; Rogers, Elizabeth E; Gano, Dawn; Ferriero, Donna M; Barkovich, A James; Gorno-Tempini, Maria Luisa; Glass, Hannah C; Xu, Duan

    2017-01-01

    Global patterns of brain injury correlate with motor, cognitive, and language outcomes in survivors of neonatal encephalopathy (NE). However, it is still unclear whether local changes in brain structure predict specific deficits. We therefore examined whether differences in brain structure at 6 months of age are associated with neurodevelopmental outcomes in this population. We enrolled 32 children with NE, performed structural brain MR imaging at 6 months, and assessed neurodevelopmental outcomes at 30 months. All subjects underwent T1-weighted imaging at 3 T using a 3D IR-SPGR sequence. Images were normalized in intensity and nonlinearly registered to a template constructed specifically for this population, creating a deformation field map. We then used deformation based morphometry (DBM) to correlate variation in the local volume of gray and white matter with composite scores on the Bayley Scales of Infant and Toddler Development (Bayley-III) at 30 months. Our general linear model included gestational age, sex, birth weight, and treatment with hypothermia as covariates. Regional brain volume was significantly associated with language scores, particularly in perisylvian cortical regions including the left supramarginal gyrus, posterior superior and middle temporal gyri, and right insula, as well as inferior frontoparietal subcortical white matter. We did not find significant correlations between regional brain volume and motor or cognitive scale scores. We conclude that, in children with a history of NE, local changes in the volume of perisylvian gray and white matter at 6 months are correlated with language outcome at 30 months. Quantitative measures of brain volume on early MRI may help identify infants at risk for poor language outcomes.

  7. Artifacts on electroencephalograms may influence the amplitude-integrated EEG classification: a qualitative analysis in neonatal encephalopathy.

    PubMed

    Hagmann, Cornelia Franziska; Robertson, Nicola Jayne; Azzopardi, Denis

    2006-12-01

    This is a case report and a descriptive study demonstrating that artifacts are common during long-term recording of amplitude-integrated electroencephalograms and may lead to erroneous classification of the amplitude-integrated electroencephalogram trace. Artifacts occurred in 12% of 200 hours of recording time sampled from a representative sample of 20 infants with neonatal encephalopathy. Artifacts derived from electrical or movement interference occurred with similar frequency; both types of artifacts influenced the voltage and width of the amplitude-integrated electroencephalogram band. This is important knowledge especially if amplitude-integrated electroencephalogram is used as a selection tool for neuroprotection intervention studies.

  8. Salivary lactate dehydrogenase levels can provide early diagnosis of hypoxic-ischaemic encephalopathy in neonates with birth asphyxia.

    PubMed

    Mehta, Akshay; Chawla, Deepak; Kaur, Jasbinder; Mahajan, Vidushi; Guglani, Vishal

    2015-06-01

    Timely detection of hypoxic-ischaemic encephalopathy (HIE) is crucial for selecting neonates who are likely to benefit from neuroprotective therapy. This study evaluated the efficacy of salivary lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) in the early diagnosis of HIE among neonates with perinatal asphyxia. We prospectively enrolled 30 neonates who needed resuscitation at birth or had a history of delayed cry into the HIE group if they developed HIE within 12 h of birth. The control group comprised 30 neonates who had no evidence of HIE, but had intrapartum foetal distress or needed resuscitation at birth. LDH was measured using saliva samples collected within 12 h of birth. Salivary LDH was significantly higher in the HIE group, with a median of 2578 and an interquartile range (IQR) of 1379-3408 international units per litre (IU/L), than in the control group (median 558.5, IQR: 348-924 IU/L, p < 0.001). The test demonstrated excellent discriminating ability: the area under the curve was 0.92 and the levels of 893 IU/L showed a sensitivity of 90% and a specificity of 73.3%. Measuring salivary LDH among neonates with birth asphyxia provided an early and accurate diagnosis of HIE and could be used as a triage tool. ©2015 Foundation Acta Paediatrica. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  9. Effects of Sex and Mild Intrainsult Hypothermia on Neuropathology and Neural Reorganization following Neonatal Hypoxic Ischemic Brain Injury in Rats

    PubMed Central

    Smith, Amanda L.; Rosenkrantz, Ted S.; Fitch, R. Holly

    2016-01-01

    Hypoxia ischemia (HI) is a recognized risk factor among late-preterm infants, with HI events leading to varied neuropathology and cognitive/behavioral deficits. Studies suggest a sex difference in the incidence of HI and in the severity of subsequent behavioral deficits (with better outcomes in females). Mechanisms of a female advantage remain unknown but could involve sex-specific patterns of compensation to injury. Neuroprotective hypothermia is also used to ameliorate HI damage and attenuate behavioral deficits. Though currently prescribed only for HI in term infants, cooling has potential intrainsult applications to high-risk late-preterm infants as well. To address this important clinical issue, we conducted a study using male and female rats with a postnatal (P) day 7 HI injury induced under normothermic and hypothermic conditions. The current study reports patterns of neuropathology evident in postmortem tissue. Results showed a potent benefit of intrainsult hypothermia that was comparable for both sexes. Findings also show surprisingly different patterns of compensation in the contralateral hemisphere, with increases in hippocampal thickness in HI females contrasting reduced thickness in HI males. Findings provide a framework for future research to compare and contrast mechanisms of neuroprotection and postinjury plasticity in both sexes following a late-preterm HI insult. PMID:27042359

  10. Rapid Auditory Processing and Learning Deficits in Rats With P1 versus P7 Neonatal Hypoxic-Ischemic Injury

    PubMed Central

    McClure, Melissa M.; Threlkeld, Steven W.; Rosen, Glenn D.; Fitch, R. Holly

    2014-01-01

    Hypoxia-ischemia (HI) is associated with premature birth, and injury during term birth. Many infants experiencing HI later show disruptions of language, with research suggesting that rapid auditory processing (RAP) deficits, or impairments in the ability to discriminate rapidly changing acoustic signals, play a causal role in emergent language problems. We recently bridged these lines of research by showing RAP deficits in rats with unilateral-HI injury induced on postnatal day 1, 7, or 10 (P1, P7, or P10; 23). While robust RAP deficits were found in HI animals, it was suggested that our within-age sample size did not provide us with sufficient power to detect Age-at-injury differences within HI groups. The current study sought to examine differences in neuropathology and behavior following unilateral-HI injury in P1 vs. P7 pups. Ages chosen for HI induction reflect differential stages of neurodevelopmental maturity, and subsequent regional differences in vulnerability to reduced blood flow/oxygen (modeling premature/term HI injury). Results showed that during the juvenile period, both P1 and P7 HI groups exhibited significant RAP deficits, but the deficit in the P1 HI group resolved with repeated testing (compared to shams). However, P7 HI animals showed lasting deficits in RAP and spatial learning/memory through adulthood. The current findings are in accord with evidence that HI injury during different stages of developmental maturity (Age-at-injury) leads to differential neuropathologies, and provide the novel observation that in rats, P1 vs. P7 induced pathologies are associated with different patterns of auditory processing and learning/memory deficits across the lifespan. PMID:16765458

  11. Environmental enrichment synergistically improves functional recovery by transplanted adipose stem cells in chronic hypoxic-ischemic brain injury.

    PubMed

    Seo, Jung Hwa; Kim, Hyongbum; Park, Eun Sook; Lee, Jong Eun; Kim, Dong Wook; Kim, Hyun Ok; Im, Sang Hee; Yu, Ji Hea; Kim, Ji Yeon; Lee, Min-Young; Kim, Chul Hoon; Cho, Sung-Rae

    2013-01-01

    We investigated the effects of environmental enrichment (EE) on the function of transplanted adipose stem cells (ASCs) and the combined effect of EE and ASC transplantation on neurobehavioral function in an animal model of chronic hypoxic-ischemic (HI) brain injury. HI brain damage was induced in 7-day-old mice by unilateral carotid artery ligation and exposure to hypoxia (8% O2 for 90 min). At 6 weeks of age, the mice were randomly injected with either ASCs or PBS into the striatum and were randomly assigned to either EE or standard cages (SC), comprising ASC-EE (n=18), ASC-SC (n=19), PBS-EE (n=12), PBS-SC (n=17), and untreated controls (n=23). Rotarod, forelimb-use asymmetry, and grip strength tests were performed to evaluate neurobehavioral function. The fate of transplanted cells and the levels of endogenous neurogenesis, astrocyte activation, and paracrine factors were also measured. As a result, EE and ASC transplantation synergistically improved rotarod latency, forelimb-use asymmetry, and grip strength compared to those of the other groups. The number of engrafted ASCs and βIII-tubulin(+) neurons derived from the transplanted ASCs was significantly higher in mice in EE than those in SC. EE and ASC transplantation also synergistically increased BrdU(+)βIII-tubulin(+) neurons, GFAP(+) astrocytic density, and fibroblast growth factor 2 (FGF2) level but not the level of CS-56(+) glial scarring in the striatum. In conclusion, EE and ASC transplantation synergistically improved neurobehavioral functions. The underlying mechanisms of this synergism included enhanced repair processes such as higher engraftment of the transplanted ASCs, increased endogenous neurogenesis and astrocytic activation coupled with upregulation of FGF2.

  12. Mechanisms of cannabidiol neuroprotection in hypoxic-ischemic newborn pigs: role of 5HT(1A) and CB2 receptors.

    PubMed

    Pazos, M Ruth; Mohammed, Nagat; Lafuente, Hector; Santos, Martin; Martínez-Pinilla, Eva; Moreno, Estefania; Valdizan, Elsa; Romero, Julián; Pazos, Angel; Franco, Rafael; Hillard, Cecilia J; Alvarez, Francisco J; Martínez-Orgado, Jose

    2013-08-01

    The mechanisms underlying the neuroprotective effects of cannabidiol (CBD) were studied in vivo using a hypoxic-ischemic (HI) brain injury model in newborn pigs. One- to two-day-old piglets were exposed to HI for 30 min by interrupting carotid blood flow and reducing the fraction of inspired oxygen to 10%. Thirty minutes after HI, the piglets were treated with vehicle (HV) or 1 mg/kg CBD, alone (HC) or in combination with 1 mg/kg of a CB₂ receptor antagonist (AM630) or a serotonin 5HT(1A) receptor antagonist (WAY100635). HI decreased the number of viable neurons and affected the amplitude-integrated EEG background activity as well as different prognostic proton-magnetic-resonance-spectroscopy (H(±)-MRS)-detectable biomarkers (lactate/N-acetylaspartate and N-acetylaspartate/choline ratios). HI brain damage was also associated with increases in excitotoxicity (increased glutamate/N-acetylaspartate ratio), oxidative stress (decreased glutathione/creatine ratio and increased protein carbonylation) and inflammation (increased brain IL-1 levels). CBD administration after HI prevented all these alterations, although this CBD-mediated neuroprotection was reversed by co-administration of either WAY100635 or AM630, suggesting the involvement of CB₂ and 5HT(1A) receptors. The involvement of CB₂ receptors was not dependent on a CBD-mediated increase in endocannabinoids. Finally, bioluminescence resonance energy transfer studies indicated that CB₂ and 5HT(1A) receptors may form heteromers in living HEK-293T cells. In conclusion, our findings demonstrate that CBD exerts robust neuroprotective effects in vivo in HI piglets, modulating excitotoxicity, oxidative stress and inflammation, and that both CB₂ and 5HT(1A) receptors are implicated in these effects. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Brain metabolism in patients with freezing of gait after hypoxic-ischemic brain injury: A pilot study.

    PubMed

    Yoon, Seo Yeon; Lee, Sang Chul; Kim, Na Young; An, Young-Sil; Kim, Yong Wook

    2017-11-01

    Movement disorders are 1 of the long-term neurological complications that can occur after hypoxic-ischemic brain injury (HIBI). However, freezing of gait (FOG) after HIBI is rare. The aim of this study was to examine the brain metabolism of patients with FOG after HIBI using F-18 fluoro-2-deoxy-D-glucose positron emission tomography (F-18 FDG PET).We consecutively enrolled 11 patients with FOG after HIBI. The patients' overall brain metabolism was measured by F-18 FDG PET, and we compared their regional brain metabolic activity with that from 15 healthy controls using a voxel-by-voxel-based statistical mapping analysis. Additionally, we correlated each patient's FOG severity with the brain metabolism using a covariance analysis.Patients with FOG had significantly decreased brain glucose metabolism in the midbrain, bilateral thalamus, bilateral cingulate gyri, right supramarginal gyrus, right angular gyrus, right paracentral lobule, and left precentral gyrus (PFDR-corrected < .01, k = 50). No significant increases in brain metabolism were noted in patients with FOG. The covariance analysis identified significant correlations between the FOG severity and the brain metabolism in the right lingual gyrus, left fusiform gyrus, and bilateral cerebellar crus I (Puncorrected < 0.001, k = 50).Our data suggest that brain regions in the gait-related neural network, including the cerebral cortex, subcortical structures, brainstem, and cerebellum, may significantly contribute to the development of FOG in HIBI. Moreover, the FOG severity may be associated with the visual cortex and cerebellar regions.

  14. Activating the Wnt/β-Catenin Pathway Did Not Protect Immature Retina from Hypoxic-Ischemic Injury.

    PubMed

    Huang, Hsiu-Mei; Huang, Chao-Ching; Wang, Feng-Sheng; Hung, Pi-Liang; Chang, Ying-Chao

    2015-07-01

    Visual loss associated with hypoxic-ischemic (HI) brain damage is the most common cause of visual impairment in children of developed countries. A neuroprotective role for Wnt/β-catenin signaling has been demonstrated in several neurodegenerative disorders. The association of Wnt signaling with HI injury in immature retina has not been established. On postnatal day 7 (P7), HI was induced by unilateral common carotid artery ligation followed by 8% oxygen hypoxia for 2 hours. The pups received intravitreous injection (i.v.i) of PBS, Dickkopf-1 (DKK-1, the negative modulator of Wnt/β-catenin pathway) antisense (AS) or sense (S) oligonucleotides at various concentrations for pretreatment (24 and 1 hour before HI) or post treatment (1 and 4 hours after HI). For chronic treatments, animals received repeated intraperitoneal (i.p.) injection of DKK-1-AS, DKK-1-S, lithium chloride (LiCl), or vehicles after HI. The retinal injury was assessed by electroretinography (ERG, P21, and P30) and immunohistochemical staining (P8 or P30). Pretreatment with DKK-1-AS (i.v.i.) attenuated DKK-1 and enhanced β-catenin expression, but did not protect immature retina against HI injury at both pathological and functional levels. Post treatment with DKK-1-AS (i.v.i. or i.p.) also did not rescue HI retinopathy. Chronic systemic LiCl treatment did not decrease Müller cell activation or neuronal damage in HI retinal injury. Our data demonstrated that DKK-1 inhibition or chronic lithium treatment did not protect the immature retina from HI injury. It is speculated that the enhanced canonical Wnt/β-catenin signaling is not sufficient to protect the immature retina from HI injury.

  15. Neonatal encephalopathy and socioeconomic status: population-based case-control study.

    PubMed

    Blume, Heidi K; Loch, Christian M; Li, Christopher I

    2007-07-01

    To investigate the association between maternal socioeconomic status and the risk of encephalopathy in full-term newborns. Population-based case-control study. Washington State births from 1994 through 2002 recorded in the linked Washington State Birth Registry and Comprehensive Hospital Abstract Reporting System. Cases (n = 1060) were singleton full-term newborns with Comprehensive Hospital Abstract Reporting System International Classification of Diseases, Ninth Revision diagnoses of seizures, birth asphyxia, central nervous system dysfunction, or cerebral irritability. Control cases (n = 5330) were singleton full-term newborns selected from the same database. Main Exposures Socioeconomic status was defined by median income of the census tract of the mother's residence, number of years of maternal educational achievement, or maternal insurance status. Odds ratios estimating the risk of encephalopathy associated with disadvantaged socioeconomic status were calculated in 3 separate analyses using multivariate adjusted logistic regression. Newborns of mothers living in neighborhoods in which residents have a low median income were at increased risk of encephalopathy compared with newborns in neighborhoods in which residents have a median income more than 3 times the poverty level (adjusted odds ratio, 1.9; 95% confidence interval, 1.5-2.3). There was also a trend for increasing risk of encephalopathy associated with decreasing neighborhood income (P<.001). Newborns of mothers with less than 12 years of educational achievement had a higher risk of encephalopathy compared with newborns of mothers with more than 16 years of educational achievement (adjusted odds ratio, 1.7; 95% confidence interval, 1.3-2.3). Newborns of mothers receiving public insurance also had a higher risk of encephalopathy compared with newborns of mothers who have commercial insurance (adjusted odds ratio, 1.4; 95% confidence interval, 1.2-1.7). Disadvantaged socioeconomic status was

  16. Temperature control during therapeutic hypothermia for newborn encephalopathy using different Blanketrol devices.

    PubMed

    Laptook, Abbot R; Kilbride, Howard; Shepherd, Edward; McDonald, Scott A; Shankaran, Seetha; Truog, William; Das, Abhik; Higgins, Rosemary D

    2014-12-01

    Therapeutic hypothermia improves the survival and neurodevelopmental outcome of infants with newborn encephalopathy of a hypoxic-ischemic origin. The NICHD Neonatal Research Network (NRN) Whole Body Cooling trial used the Cincinnati Sub-Zero Blanketrol II to achieve therapeutic hypothermia. The Blanketrol III is now available and provides additional cooling modes that may result in better temperature control. This report is a retrospective comparison of infants undergoing hypothermia using two different cooling modes of the Blanketrol device. Infants from the NRN trial were cooled with the Blanketrol II using the Automatic control mode (B2 cohort) and were compared with infants from two new NRN centers that adopted the NRN protocol and used the Blanketrol III in a gradient mode (B3 cohort). The primary outcome was the percent time the esophageal temperature stayed between 33°C and 34°C (target 33.5°C) during maintenance of hypothermia. Cohorts had similar birth weight, gestational age, and level of encephalopathy at the initiation of therapy. Baseline esophageal temperature differed between groups (36.6°C ± 1.0°C for B2 vs. 33.9°C ± 1.2°C for B3, p<0.0001) reflecting the practice of passive cooling during transport prior to initiation of active device cooling in the B3 cohort. This difference prevented comparison of temperatures during induction of hypothermia. During maintenance of hypothermia the mean and standard deviation of the percent time between 33°C and 34°C was similar for B2 compared to B3 cohorts (94.8% ± 0.1% vs. 95.8% ± 0.1%, respectively). Both the automatic and gradient control modes of the Blanketrol devices appear comparable in maintaining esophageal temperature within the target range during maintenance of therapeutic hypothermia.

  17. Temperature Control During Therapeutic Hypothermia for Newborn Encephalopathy Using Different Blanketrol Devices

    PubMed Central

    Kilbride, Howard; Shepherd, Edward; McDonald, Scott A.; Shankaran, Seetha; Truog, William; Das, Abhik; Higgins, Rosemary D.

    2014-01-01

    Therapeutic hypothermia improves the survival and neurodevelopmental outcome of infants with newborn encephalopathy of a hypoxic-ischemic origin. The NICHD Neonatal Research Network (NRN) Whole Body Cooling trial used the Cincinnati Sub-Zero Blanketrol II to achieve therapeutic hypothermia. The Blanketrol III is now available and provides additional cooling modes that may result in better temperature control. This report is a retrospective comparison of infants undergoing hypothermia using two different cooling modes of the Blanketrol device. Infants from the NRN trial were cooled with the Blanketrol II using the Automatic control mode (B2 cohort) and were compared with infants from two new NRN centers that adopted the NRN protocol and used the Blanketrol III in a gradient mode (B3 cohort). The primary outcome was the percent time the esophageal temperature stayed between 33°C and 34°C (target 33.5°C) during maintenance of hypothermia. Cohorts had similar birth weight, gestational age, and level of encephalopathy at the initiation of therapy. Baseline esophageal temperature differed between groups (36.6°C±1.0°C for B2 vs. 33.9°C±1.2°C for B3, p<0.0001) reflecting the practice of passive cooling during transport prior to initiation of active device cooling in the B3 cohort. This difference prevented comparison of temperatures during induction of hypothermia. During maintenance of hypothermia the mean and standard deviation of the percent time between 33°C and 34°C was similar for B2 compared to B3 cohorts (94.8%±0.1% vs. 95.8%±0.1%, respectively). Both the automatic and gradient control modes of the Blanketrol devices appear comparable in maintaining esophageal temperature within the target range during maintenance of therapeutic hypothermia. PMID:25285767

  18. Sex-related differences in effects of progesterone following neonatal hypoxic brain injury.

    PubMed

    Peterson, Bethany L; Won, Soonmi; Geddes, Rastafa I; Sayeed, Iqbal; Stein, Donald G

    2015-06-01

    There is no satisfactory therapeutic intervention for neonatal hypoxic-ischemic (HI) encephalopathy. Progesterone is known to be effective in treating traumatic brain injury in adult animals but its effects in neonatal brains have not been reported. Brain injuries were induced by a unilateral common carotid artery ligation plus hypoxia exposure. Progesterone was administered immediately after hypoxia and daily for 5 days at 8 mg/kg, followed by a tapered dose for two days. At six weeks post-injury, lesion size and inflammatory factors were evaluated. Progesterone-treated, HI-injured male animals, but not females, showed significant long-term tissue protection compared to vehicle, suggesting an important sex difference in neuroprotection. Progesterone-treated, HI-injured male rats had fewer activated microglia in the cortex and hippocampus compared to controls. The rats were tested for neurological reflexes, motor asymmetry, and cognitive performance at multiple time points. The injured animals exhibited few detectable motor deficits, suggesting a high level of age- and injury-related neuroplasticity. There were substantial sex differences on several behavioral tests, indicating that immature males and females should be analyzed separately. Progesterone-treated animals showed modest beneficial effects in both sexes compared to vehicle-treated injured animals. Sham animals given progesterone did not behave differently from vehicle-treated sham animals on any measures. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Intrapartum-related neonatal encephalopathy incidence and impairment at regional and global levels for 2010 with trends from 1990.

    PubMed

    Lee, Anne C C; Kozuki, Naoko; Blencowe, Hannah; Vos, Theo; Bahalim, Adil; Darmstadt, Gary L; Niermeyer, Susan; Ellis, Matthew; Robertson, Nicola J; Cousens, Simon; Lawn, Joy E

    2013-12-01

    Intrapartum hypoxic events ("birth asphyxia") may result in stillbirth, neonatal or postneonatal mortality, and impairment. Systematic morbidity estimates for the burden of impairment outcomes are currently limited. Neonatal encephalopathy (NE) following an intrapartum hypoxic event is a strong predictor of long-term impairment. Linear regression modeling was conducted on data identified through systematic reviews to estimate NE incidence and time trends for 184 countries. Meta-analyses were undertaken to estimate the risk of NE by sex of the newborn, neonatal case fatality rate, and impairment risk. A compartmental model estimated postneonatal survivors of NE, depending on access to care, and then the proportion of survivors with impairment. Separate modeling for the Global Burden of Disease 2010 (GBD2010) study estimated disability adjusted life years (DALYs), years of life with disability (YLDs), and years of life lost (YLLs) attributed to intrapartum-related events. In 2010, 1.15 million babies (uncertainty range: 0.89-1.60 million; 8.5 cases per 1,000 live births) were estimated to have developed NE associated with intrapartum events, with 96% born in low- and middle-income countries, as compared with 1.60 million in 1990 (11.7 cases per 1,000 live births). An estimated 287,000 (181,000-440,000) neonates with NE died in 2010; 233,000 (163,000-342,000) survived with moderate or severe neurodevelopmental impairment; and 181,000 (82,000-319,000) had mild impairment. In GBD2010, intrapartum-related conditions comprised 50.2 million DALYs (2.4% of total) and 6.1 million YLDs. Intrapartum-related conditions are a large global burden, mostly due to high mortality in low-income countries. Universal coverage of obstetric care and neonatal resuscitation would prevent most of these deaths and disabilities. Rates of impairment are highest in middle-income countries where neonatal intensive care was more recently introduced, but quality may be poor. In settings without

  20. Intrapartum-related neonatal encephalopathy incidence and impairment at regional and global levels for 2010 with trends from 1990

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Anne CC; Kozuki, Naoko; Blencowe, Hannah; Vos, Theo; Bahalim, Adil; Darmstadt, Gary L.; Niermeyer, Susan; Ellis, Matthew; Robertson, Nicola J.; Cousens, Simon; Lawn, Joy E.

    2013-01-01

    Background: Intrapartum hypoxic events (“birth asphyxia”) may result in stillbirth, neonatal or postneonatal mortality, and impairment. Systematic morbidity estimates for the burden of impairment outcomes are currently limited. Neonatal encephalopathy (NE) following an intrapartum hypoxic event is a strong predictor of long-term impairment. Methods: Linear regression modeling was conducted on data identified through systematic reviews to estimate NE incidence and time trends for 184 countries. Meta-analyses were undertaken to estimate the risk of NE by sex of the newborn, neonatal case fatality rate, and impairment risk. A compartmental model estimated postneonatal survivors of NE, depending on access to care, and then the proportion of survivors with impairment. Separate modeling for the Global Burden of Disease 2010 (GBD2010) study estimated disability adjusted life years (DALYs), years of life with disability (YLDs), and years of life lost (YLLs) attributed to intrapartum-related events. Results: In 2010, 1.15 million babies (uncertainty range: 0.89–1.60 million; 8.5 cases per 1,000 live births) were estimated to have developed NE associated with intrapartum events, with 96% born in low- and middle-income countries, as compared with 1.60 million in 1990 (11.7 cases per 1,000 live births). An estimated 287,000 (181,000–440,000) neonates with NE died in 2010; 233,000 (163,000–342,000) survived with moderate or severe neurodevelopmental impairment; and 181,000 (82,000–319,000) had mild impairment. In GBD2010, intrapartum-related conditions comprised 50.2 million DALYs (2.4% of total) and 6.1 million YLDs. Conclusion: Intrapartum-related conditions are a large global burden, mostly due to high mortality in low-income countries. Universal coverage of obstetric care and neonatal resuscitation would prevent most of these deaths and disabilities. Rates of impairment are highest in middle-income countries where neonatal intensive care was more recently

  1. Passive hypothermia (≥35 - <36°C) during transport of newborns with hypoxic-ischaemic encephalopathy.

    PubMed

    Sellam, Aurélie; Lode, Noëlla; Ayachi, Azzedine; Jourdain, Gilles; Dauger, Stéphane; Jones, Peter

    2017-01-01

    Hypothermia initiated in the first six hours of life in term infants with hypoxic ischemic encephalopathy reduces the risk of death and severe neurological sequelae. Our study's principal objective was to evaluate transport predictors potentially influencing arrival in NICU (Neonatal Intensive Care Unit) at a temperature ≥35-<36°C. A multi-centric, prospective cohort study was conducted during 18 months by the three Neonatal Transport Teams and 13 NICUs. Newborns were selected for inclusion according to biological and clinical criteria before transport using passive hypothermia using a target temperature of ≥35-<36°C. Data on 120 of 126 inclusions were available for analysis. Thirty-three percent of the children arrived in NICU with the target temperature of ≥35-<36°C. The mean temperature for the whole group of infants on arrival in NICU was 35.4°C (34.3-36.5). The median age of all infants on arrival in NICU was 3h03min [2h25min-3h56min]. Three infants arrived in NICU with a temperature of <33°C and eleven with a temperature ≥37°C. Adrenaline during resuscitation was associated with a lower mean temperature on arrival in NICU. Our strategy using ≥35-<36°C passive hypothermia combined with short transport times had little effect on temperature after the arrival of Neonatal Transport Team although did reduce numbers of infants arriving in NICU in deep hypothermia. For those infants where hypothermia was discontinued in NICU our strategy facilitated re-warming. Re-adjustment to a lower target temperature to ≥34.5-<35.5°C may reduce the proportion of infants with high/normothermic temperatures.

  2. Reactive astrocyte COX2-PGE2 production inhibits oligodendrocyte maturation in neonatal white matter injury.

    PubMed

    Shiow, Lawrence R; Favrais, Geraldine; Schirmer, Lucas; Schang, Anne-Laure; Cipriani, Sara; Andres, Christian; Wright, Jaclyn N; Nobuta, Hiroko; Fleiss, Bobbi; Gressens, Pierre; Rowitch, David H

    2017-12-01

    Inflammation is a major risk factor for neonatal white matter injury (NWMI), which is associated with later development of cerebral palsy. Although recent studies have demonstrated maturation arrest of oligodendrocyte progenitor cells (OPCs) in NWMI, the identity of inflammatory mediators with direct effects on OPCs has been unclear. Here, we investigated downstream effects of pro-inflammatory IL-1β to induce cyclooxygenase-2 (COX2) and prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) production in white matter. First, we assessed COX2 expression in human fetal brain and term neonatal brain affected by hypoxic-ischemic encephalopathy (HIE). In the developing human brain, COX2 was expressed in radial glia, microglia, and endothelial cells. In human term neonatal HIE cases with subcortical WMI, COX2 was strongly induced in reactive astrocytes with "A2" reactivity. Next, we show that OPCs express the EP1 receptor for PGE2, and PGE2 acts directly on OPCs to block maturation in vitro. Pharmacologic blockade with EP1-specific inhibitors (ONO-8711, SC-51089), or genetic deficiency of EP1 attenuated effects of PGE2. In an IL-1β-induced model of NWMI, astrocytes also exhibit "A2" reactivity and induce COX2. Furthermore, in vivo inhibition of COX2 with Nimesulide rescues hypomyelination and behavioral impairment. These findings suggest that neonatal white matter astrocytes can develop "A2" reactivity that contributes to OPC maturation arrest in NWMI through induction of COX2-PGE2 signaling, a pathway that can be targeted for neonatal neuroprotection. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  3. Early blood glucose profile and neurodevelopmental outcome at two years in neonatal hypoxic-ischaemic encephalopathy

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background To examine the blood glucose profile and the relationship between blood glucose levels and neurodevelopmental outcome in term infants with hypoxic-ischaemic encephalopathy. Methods Blood glucose values within 72 hours of birth were collected from 52 term infants with hypoxic-ischaemic encephalopathy. Hypoglycaemia [< 46.8 mg/dL (2.6 mmol/L)] and hyperglycaemia [> 150 mg/dL (8.3 mmol/L)] were correlated to neurodevelopmental outcome at 24 months of age. Results Four fifths of the 468 blood samples were in the normoglycaemic range (392/468:83.8%). Of the remaining 76 samples, 51.3% were in the hypoglycaemic range and (48.7%) were hyperglycaemic. A quarter of the hypoglycaemic samples (28.2%:11/39) and a third of the hyperglycaemic samples (32.4%:12/37) were recorded within the first 30 minutes of life. Mean (SD) blood glucose values did not differ between infants with normal and abnormal outcomes [4.89(2.28) mmol/L and 5.02(2.35) mmol/L, p value = 0.15] respectively. In term infants with hypoxic-ischaemic encephalopathy, early hypoglycaemia (between 0-6 hours of life) was associated with adverse outcome at 24 months of age [OR = 5.8, CI = 1.04-32)]. On multivariate analysis to adjust for grade of HIE this association was not statistically significant. Late hypoglycaemia (6-72 hours of life) was not associated with abnormal outcome [OR = 0.22, CI (0.04-1.14)]. The occurrence of hyperglycaemia was not associated with adverse outcome. Conclusion During the first 72 hours of life, blood glucose profile in infants with hypoxic-ischaemic encephalopathy varies widely despite a management protocol. Early hypoglycaemia (0-6 hours of life) was associated with severe HIE, and thereby; adverse outcome. PMID:21294901

  4. Brain damage resulting from postnatal hypoxic-ischemic brain injury is reduced in C57BL/6J mice as compared to C57BL/6N mice.

    PubMed

    Wolf, S; Hainz, N; Beckmann, A; Maack, C; Menger, M D; Tschernig, T; Meier, C

    2016-11-01

    Perinatal hypoxia is a critical complication during delivery and is mostly studied in animal models of postnatal hypoxic-ischemic brain injury. We here studied the effects of postnatal hypoxic-ischemic brain injury in two different sub-strains of C57BL/6 mice, i.e. C57BL/6J and C57BL/6N mice. These two sub-strains show different metabolic properties, for instance an impaired glucose tolerance in C57BL/6J mice. Genetically, this was linked to differences in their nicotinamide nucleotide transhydrogenase (Nnt) genes: In C57BL/6J mice, exons 7-11 of the Nnt gene are deleted, resulting in the absence of functional Nnt protein. The mitochondrial Nnt-protein is one of several enzymes that catalyses the generation of NADPH, which in turn is important for the elimination of reactive oxygen species (ROS). As ROS is thought to contribute to the pathophysiology of hypoxia-ischemia, the lack of Nnt might indirectly increase ROS levels and therefore result in increased brain damage. We therefore hypothesize that lesion score and lesion size will increase in C57BL/6J mice as compared to C57BL/6N mice. Surprisingly, the results showed exactly the opposite: C57BL/6J mice showed a decrease in lesion score and size, associated with a reduced number of apoptotic cells and activated microglia. In contrast, the number of cells with ROS-induced DNA modifications (detected by 8OHdG) was higher in C57BL/6J than C57BL/6N mice. In conclusion, C57BL/6J mice showed reduced ischemic consequences after postnatal hypoxic-ischemic brain injury compared to C57BL/6N mice, with the exception of the amount of ROS-induced DNA-damage. These differences might relate to the lack of Nnt, but also to a modified metabolic setting (cardiovascular parameters, oxygen and glucose metabolism, immune function) in C57BL/6J mice. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. [Magnesium sulphate in the treatment of ischemic-hypoxic neonatal encephalopathy].

    PubMed

    Kornacka, M K

    2001-01-01

    Hypoxic-ischaemic encephalopathy (HIE) remains one of the most important neurological complications in full and near full term newborns. During HIE glutamate and other excitatory neurotransmitters are released and progressive energy failure in brain is observed. Toxicity of glutamate plays the main role in brain injury. Glutamate activates the specific receptors that, in turn, mediate an overwhelming influx of calcium into the postsynaptic neuron. The pathological changes are located particularly in hippocampus. Magnesium sulfate has been used safely for years to treat preclampsia. The animal experimental evidence support a neuroprotective role for magnesium in HIE.

  6. Postmortem brain MRI with selective tissue biopsy as an adjunct to autopsy following neonatal encephalopathy.

    PubMed

    Nicholl, R M; Balasubramaniam, V P; Urquhart, D S; Sellathurai, N; Rutherford, M A

    2007-05-01

    Following the death of a neonate it is essential that parents are given full and accurate information about the probable cause of death. Perinatal autopsy often adds new information or may even change the presumed diagnosis [Cartlidge PH, Dawson AT, Stewart JH, Vujanic GM. Value and quality of perinatal and infant postmortem examinations: cohort analysis of 400 consecutive deaths. Br Med J 1995;310(6973):155-8; Khong TY. Falling neonatal autopsy rates. Br Med J 2002;324(7340):749-50] informing decisions regarding the management of any future pregnancy. Autopsy can be considered the "gold standard" for the identification of antecedent events leading to a neonatal death. However, recent events in the UK have added to an already declining rate in neonatal autopsies [Brodlie M, Laing IA. Ten years of neonatal autopsies in tertiary referral centre: retrospective study. Br Med J 2002;324(7340):761-3]. To try and redress this balance the Chief Medical Officer has recommended that research should be commissioned into the use of non-invasive imaging to provide a similar standard of information [The Chief Medical Officer. The removal, retention and use of human organs and tissues from post mortem examination. London, England: The Stationary Office, Department of Health; 2001]. Previous publications on postmortem MRI have focused largely on investigation of the foetus and of still birth [Griffiths PD, Variend D, Evans M, Jones A, Wilkinson ID, Paley MNJ, et al. Postmortem MR imaging of the fetal and stillborn central nervous system. Am J Neuroradiol 2003;24(1):22-7; Whitby EH, Paley MN, Cohen M, GriffithsPD. Postmortem MR imaging of the fetus: an adjunct or a replacement for conventional autopsy? Semin Fetal Neonatal Med 2005;10(5):475-83]. We report our experience on the use of postmortem brain MRI combined with selective tissue biopsy, in six neonatal deaths in the setting of a large district general hospital.

  7. Antimicrobial Peptides and Complement in Neonatal Hypoxia-Ischemia Induced Brain Damage

    PubMed Central

    Rocha-Ferreira, Eridan; Hristova, Mariya

    2015-01-01

    Hypoxic-ischemic encephalopathy (HIE) is a clinical condition in the neonate, resulting from oxygen deprivation around the time of birth. HIE affects 1–5/1000 live births worldwide and is associated with the development of neurological deficits, including cerebral palsy, epilepsy, and cognitive disabilities. Even though the brain is considered as an immune-privileged site, it has innate and adaptive immune response and can produce complement (C) components and antimicrobial peptides (AMPs). Dysregulation of cerebral expression of AMPs and C can exacerbate or ameliorate the inflammatory response within the brain. Brain ischemia triggers a prolonged inflammatory response affecting the progression of injury and secondary energy failure and involves both innate and adaptive immune systems, including immune-competent and non-competent cells. Following injury to the central nervous system (CNS), including neonatal hypoxia-ischemia (HI), resident microglia, and astroglia are the main cells providing immune defense to the brain in a stimulus-dependent manner. They can express and secrete pro-inflammatory cytokines and therefore trigger prolonged inflammation, resulting in neurodegeneration. Microglial cells express and release a wide range of inflammation-associated molecules including several components of the complement system. Complement activation following neonatal HI injury has been reported to contribute to neurodegeneration. Astrocytes can significantly affect the immune response of the CNS under pathological conditions through production and release of pro-inflammatory cytokines and immunomodulatory AMPs. Astrocytes express β-defensins, which can chemoattract and promote maturation of dendritic cells (DC), and can also limit inflammation by controlling the viability of these same DC. This review will focus on the balance of complement components and AMPs within the CNS following neonatal HI injury and the effect of that balance on the subsequent brain damage

  8. Non-invasive MRI measurements of venous oxygenation, oxygen extraction fraction and oxygen consumption in neonates.

    PubMed

    De Vis, J B; Petersen, E T; Alderliesten, T; Groenendaal, F; de Vries, L S; van Bel, F; Benders, M J N L; Hendrikse, J

    2014-07-15

    Brain oxygen consumption reflects neuronal activity and can therefore be used to investigate brain development or neuronal injury in neonates. In this paper we present the first results of a non-invasive MRI method to evaluate whole brain oxygen consumption in neonates. For this study 51 neonates were included. The T1 and T2 of blood in the sagittal sinus were fitted using the 'T2 prepared tissue relaxation inversion recovery' pulse sequence (T2-TRIR). From the T1 and the T2 of blood, the venous oxygenation and the oxygen extraction fraction (OEF) were calculated. The cerebral metabolic rate of oxygen (CMRO2) was the resultant of the venous oxygenation and arterial spin labeling whole brain cerebral blood flow (CBF) measurements. Venous oxygenation was 59±14% (mean±sd), OEF was 40±14%, CBF was 14±5ml/100g/min and CMRO2 was 30±12μmol/100g/min. The OEF in preterms at term-equivalent age was higher than in the preterms and in the infants with hypoxic-ischemic encephalopathy (p<0.01). The OEF, CBF and CMRO2 increased (p<0.01, <0.05 and <0.01, respectively) with postnatal age. We presented an MRI technique to evaluate whole-brain oxygen consumption in neonates non-invasively. The measured values are in line with reference values found by invasive measurement techniques. Preterms and infants with HIE demonstrated significant lower oxygen extraction fraction than the preterms at term-equivalent age. This could be due to decreased neuronal activity as a reflection of brain development or as a result of tissue damage, increased cerebral blood flow due to immature or impaired autoregulation, or could be caused by differences in postnatal age. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Durations of second stage of labor and pushing, and adverse neonatal outcomes: a population-based cohort study

    PubMed Central

    Sandström, A; Altman, M; Cnattingius, S; Johansson, S; Ahlberg, M; Stephansson, O

    2017-01-01

    Objective: The associations between duration of second stage of labor, pushing time and risk of adverse neonatal outcomes are not fully established. Therefore, we aimed to examine such relationships. Study design: A population-based cohort study including 42 539 nulliparous women with singleton infants born in cephalic presentation at ⩾37 gestational weeks, using the Stockholm-Gotland Obstetric Cohort, Sweden, and the Swedish Neonatal Quality Register, 2008 to 2013. Poisson regression was used to analyze estimated adjusted relative risks (RRs), with 95% confidence intervals (CIs). Outcome measures were umbilical artery acidosis (pH <7.05 and base excess <−12), birth asphyxia-related complications (including any of the following conditions: hypoxic ischemic encephalopathy, hypothermia treatment, neonatal seizures, meconium aspiration syndrome or advanced resuscitation after birth) and admission to neonatal intensive care unit (NICU). Results: Overall rates of umbilical artery acidosis, birth asphyxia-related complications and admission to NICU were 1.08, 0.63 and 6.42%, respectively. Rate of birth asphyxia-related complications gradually increased with duration of second stage: from 0.42% at <1 h to 1.29% at ≥4 h (adjusted RR 2.46 (95% CI 1.66 to 3.66)). For admission to NICU, corresponding rates were 4.97 and 9.45%, and adjusted RR (95% CI) was 1.80 (95% CI 1.58 to 2.04). Compared with duration of pushing <15 min, a duration of pushing ⩾60 min increased rates of acidosis from 0.57 to 1.69% (adjusted RR 2.55 (95% CI 1.51 to 4.30)). Conclusion: Prolonged durations of second stage of labor and pushing are associated with increased RRs of adverse neonatal outcomes. Clinical assessment of fetal well-being is essential when durations of second stage and pushing increases. PMID:27929527

  10. Durations of second stage of labor and pushing, and adverse neonatal outcomes: a population-based cohort study.

    PubMed

    Sandström, A; Altman, M; Cnattingius, S; Johansson, S; Ahlberg, M; Stephansson, O

    2017-03-01

    The associations between duration of second stage of labor, pushing time and risk of adverse neonatal outcomes are not fully established. Therefore, we aimed to examine such relationships. A population-based cohort study including 42 539 nulliparous women with singleton infants born in cephalic presentation at ⩾37 gestational weeks, using the Stockholm-Gotland Obstetric Cohort, Sweden, and the Swedish Neonatal Quality Register, 2008 to 2013. Poisson regression was used to analyze estimated adjusted relative risks (RRs), with 95% confidence intervals (CIs). Outcome measures were umbilical artery acidosis (pH <7.05 and base excess <-12), birth asphyxia-related complications (including any of the following conditions: hypoxic ischemic encephalopathy, hypothermia treatment, neonatal seizures, meconium aspiration syndrome or advanced resuscitation after birth) and admission to neonatal intensive care unit (NICU). Overall rates of umbilical artery acidosis, birth asphyxia-related complications and admission to NICU were 1.08, 0.63 and 6.42%, respectively. Rate of birth asphyxia-related complications gradually increased with duration of second stage: from 0.42% at <1 h to 1.29% at ≥4 h (adjusted RR 2.46 (95% CI 1.66 to 3.66)). For admission to NICU, corresponding rates were 4.97 and 9.45%, and adjusted RR (95% CI) was 1.80 (95% CI 1.58 to 2.04). Compared with duration of pushing <15 min, a duration of pushing ⩾60 min increased rates of acidosis from 0.57 to 1.69% (adjusted RR 2.55 (95% CI 1.51 to 4.30)). Prolonged durations of second stage of labor and pushing are associated with increased RRs of adverse neonatal outcomes. Clinical assessment of fetal well-being is essential when durations of second stage and pushing increases.

  11. Brain parenchyma PO2, PCO2, and pH during and after hypoxic, ischemic brain insult in dogs.

    PubMed

    McKinley, B A; Morris, W P; Parmley, C L; Butler, B D

    1996-11-01

    1) The investigation of fiberoptic PO2, PCO2, and pH sensor technology as a monitor of brain parenchyma during and after brain injury, and 2) the comparison of brain parenchyma PO2, PCO2, and pH with intracranial pressure during and after hypoxic, ischemic brain insult. Prospective, controlled, animal study in an acute experimental preparation. Physiology laboratory in a university medical school. Fourteen mongrel dogs (20 to 35 kg), anesthetized, room-air ventilated. Anesthesia was induced with thiopental and maintained after intubation using 1% to 1.5% halothane in room air (FiO2 0.21). Mechanical ventilation was established to maintain end-tidal PCO2 approximately 35 torr (-4.7 kPa). Intravenous, femoral artery, and pulmonary artery catheters were placed. The common carotid arteries were surgically exposed, and ultrasonic blood flow probes were applied. A calibrated intracranial pressure probe was placed through a right-side transcranial bolt, and a calibrated intracranial chemistry probe with optical sensors for PO2, PCO2, and pH was placed through a left-side bolt into brain parenchyma. Brain insult was induced in the experimental group (n = 6) by hypoxia (FiO2 0.1), ischemia (bilateral carotid artery occlusion), and hypotension (mean arterial pressure [MAP] approximately 40 mm Hg produced with isoflurane approximately 4%). After 45 mins, carotid artery occlusion was released, FiO2 was reset to 0.21, and anesthetic was returned to halothane (approximately 1.25%). The control group (n = 5) had the same surgical preparation and sequence of anesthetic agent exposure but no brain insult. Monitored variables included brain parenchyma PO2, PCO2, and pH, which were monitored at 1-min intervals, and intracranial pressure, MAP, arterial hemoglobin oxygen saturation (by pulse oximetry), end-tidal PCO2, and carotid artery blood flow rate, for which data were collected at 15-min intervals for 7 hrs. Arterial and mixed venous blood gas analyses were done at approximately 1

  12. Fatal neonatal encephalopathy and lactic acidosis caused by a homozygous loss-of-function variant in COQ9.

    PubMed

    Danhauser, Katharina; Herebian, Diran; Haack, Tobias B; Rodenburg, Richard J; Strom, Tim M; Meitinger, Thomas; Klee, Dirk; Mayatepek, Ertan; Prokisch, Holger; Distelmaier, Felix

    2016-03-01

    Coenzyme Q10 (CoQ10) has an important role in mitochondrial energy metabolism by way of its functioning as an electron carrier in the respiratory chain. Genetic defects disrupting the endogenous biosynthesis pathway of CoQ10 may lead to severe metabolic disorders with onset in early childhood. Using exome sequencing in a child with fatal neonatal lactic acidosis and encephalopathy, we identified a homozygous loss-of-function variant in COQ9. Functional studies in patient fibroblasts showed that the absence of the COQ9 protein was concomitant with a strong reduction of COQ7, leading to a significant accumulation of the substrate of COQ7, 6-demethoxy ubiquinone10. At the same time, the total amount of CoQ10 was severely reduced, which was reflected in a significant decrease of mitochondrial respiratory chain succinate-cytochrome c oxidoreductase (complex II/III) activity. Lentiviral expression of COQ9 restored all these parameters, confirming the causal role of the variant. Our report on the second COQ9 patient expands the clinical spectrum associated with COQ9 variants, indicating the importance of COQ9 already during prenatal development. Moreover, the rescue of cellular CoQ10 levels and respiratory chain complex activities by CoQ10 supplementation points to the importance of an early diagnosis and immediate treatment.

  13. Can the Griffiths scales predict neuromotor and perceptual-motor impairment in term infants with neonatal encephalopathy?

    PubMed Central

    Barnett, A; Guzzetta, A; Mercuri, E; Henderson, S; Haataja, L; Cowan, F; Dubowitz, L

    2004-01-01

    Aims: To examine the predictive value of early developmental testing for identifying neuromotor and perceptual-motor impairment at school age in children with neonatal encephalopathy (NE). Methods: Eighty full term infants with NE were followed longitudinally. Where possible, children were tested on the Griffiths scales at 1 and 2 years and at 5–6 years, on the Touwen Examination, Movement ABC, and WPPSI. The relation between the Griffiths scores and later outcome measures was examined using correlation coefficients and sensitivity and specificity values. Results: By 2 years, 25 children with cerebral palsy were too severely impaired to be formally assessed and remained so at 5–6 years. Abnormal Griffiths scores were obtained by 12% and 7% of the children at 1 and 2 years respectively. At 5–6 years, 33% had poor Movement ABC scores and 15% poor WPPSI scores. The highest correlation between Griffiths scores and the outcome measures was for the Movement ABC (0.72), although this accounted for only 50% of the variance. Sensitivity scores for the Movement ABC were below 70% but specificity was 100%. Conclusions: A poor score on the Griffiths scales at 1 and/or 2 years is a good predictor of impairment at school age. However, a normal score in the early years cannot preclude later neurological, perceptual-motor, or cognitive abnormalities. PMID:15210495

  14. [Neonatal morbidity in early-term newborns].

    PubMed

    Martínez-Nadal, S; Demestre, X; Raspall, F; Alvarez, J A; Elizari, M J; Vila, C; Sala, P

    2014-07-01

    In the last decades has increased significantly The birth of children from 37 to 38 weeks of gestation, a period called early term, has significantly increased in the past twenty years or so, parallel to the increase in induced deliveries and the cesarean rate. Retrospective cohorts population study, which included those babies born between 37 and 41 weeks of gestation in the period 1992-2011 (n=35.539). This population was divided into two cohorts, early term newborn (RNTP) of 37-38 weeks (n=11,318), and full term newborn (RNTC), of 39-41 weeks of gestation (n=24,221). The rates of cesarean section, neonatal unit admission, respiratory morbidity, apnea and need for assisted ventilation, hyperbilirubinemia requiring phototherapy, hypoglycemia, seizures, hypoxic-ischemia encephalopathy, need for parenteral nutrition and early sepsis were all reviewed. There was a progressive increase in the number of caesarean sections throughout the period studied (from 30.9% to 40.3%). The cesarean section rate was higher in RNTP than in the RNTC (38.3% vs 31.3%, P<.0001). On comparing the two groups, significant differences were found in the rate of admission to neonatal unit, 9.1% vs 3.5% (P<.0001); respiratory morbidity (hyaline membrane 0.14% vs 0.007% [P<.0001], transient tachypnea 1.71% vs 0.45% [P<.0001], mechanical ventilation 0.2% vs 0.07% [P<.009], continuous positive airway pressure 0.11% vs 0.01% [P<.0001]), phototherapy 0.29% vs 0.07% (P<.0001), hypoglycemia 0.54% vs 0.11% (P<.0001), parenteral nutrition 0.16% vs 0.04% (P<.0001). There were no significant differences in the rate of early sepsis, pneumothorax, aspiration syndromes, seizures and hypoxic-ischemic encephalopathy. In our environment, there is a significant number of RNTP, which have a significantly higher morbidity than newborns RNTC registered. After individualizing each case, it is essential not end a pregnancy before 39 weeks of gestation, except for maternal, placental or fetal conditions indicating

  15. Peptidylarginine Deiminases as Drug Targets in Neonatal Hypoxic–Ischemic Encephalopathy

    PubMed Central

    Lange, Sigrun

    2016-01-01

    Oxygen deprivation and infection are major causes of perinatal brain injury leading to cerebral palsy and other neurological disabilities. The identification of novel key factors mediating white and gray matter damage are crucial to allow better understanding of the specific contribution of different cell types to the injury processes and pathways for clinical intervention. Recent studies in the Rice–Vannucci mouse model of neonatal hypoxic ischemia (HI) have highlighted novel roles for calcium-regulated peptidylarginine deiminases (PADs) and demonstrated neuroprotective effects of pharmacological PAD inhibition following HI and synergistic infection mimicked by lipopolysaccharide stimulation. PMID:26941709

  16. Effects of hypoxia-induced neonatal seizures on acute hippocampal injury and later-life seizure susceptibility and anxiety-related behavior in mice.

    PubMed

    Rodriguez-Alvarez, Natalia; Jimenez-Mateos, Eva M; Dunleavy, Mark; Waddington, John L; Boylan, Geraldine B; Henshall, David C

    2015-11-01

    Seizures are common during the neonatal period, often due to hypoxic-ischemic encephalopathy and may contribute to acute brain injury and the subsequent development of cognitive deficits and childhood epilepsy. Here we explored short- and long-term consequences of neonatal hypoxia-induced seizures in 7 day old C57BL/6J mice. Seizure activity, molecular markers of hypoxia and histological injury were investigated acutely after hypoxia and response to chemoconvulsants and animal behaviour was explored at adulthood. Hypoxia was induced by exposing pups to 5% oxygen for 15 min (global hypoxia). Electrographically defined seizures with behavioral correlates occurred in 95% of these animals and seizures persisted for many minutes after restitution of normoxia. There was minimal morbidity or mortality. Pre- or post-hypoxia injection of phenobarbital (50mg/kg) had limited efficacy at suppressing seizures. The hippocampus from neonatal hypoxia-seizure mice displayed increased expression of vascular endothelial growth factor and the immediate early gene c-fos, minimal histological evidence of cell injury and activation of caspase-3 in scattered neurons. Behavioral analysis of mice five weeks after hypoxia-induced seizures detected novel anxiety-related and other behaviors, while performance in a spatial memory test was similar to controls. Seizure threshold tests with kainic acid at six weeks revealed that mice previously subject to neonatal hypoxia-induced seizures developed earlier, more frequent and longer-duration seizures. This study defines a set of electro-clinical, molecular, pharmacological and behavioral consequences of hypoxia-induced seizures that indicate short- and long-term deleterious outcomes and may be a useful model to investigate the pathophysiology and treatment of neonatal seizures in humans. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Neonatal Encephalopathy With Group B Streptococcal Disease Worldwide: Systematic Review, Investigator Group Datasets, and Meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Tann, Cally J; Martinello, Kathryn A; Sadoo, Samantha; Lawn, Joy E; Seale, Anna C; Vega-Poblete, Maira; Russell, Neal J; Baker, Carol J; Bartlett, Linda; Cutland, Clare; Gravett, Michael G; Ip, Margaret; Le Doare, Kirsty; Madhi, Shabir A; Rubens, Craig E; Saha, Samir K; Schrag, Stephanie; Sobanjo-Ter Meulen, Ajoke; Vekemans, Johan; Heath, Paul T

    2017-11-06

    Neonatal encephalopathy (NE) is a leading cause of child mortality and longer-term impairment. Infection can sensitize the newborn brain to injury; however, the role of group B streptococcal (GBS) disease has not been reviewed. This paper is the ninth in an 11-article series estimating the burden of GBS disease; here we aim to assess the proportion of GBS in NE cases. We conducted systematic literature reviews (PubMed/Medline, Embase, Latin American and Caribbean Health Sciences Literature [LILACS], World Health Organization Library Information System [WHOLIS], and Scopus) and sought unpublished data from investigator groups reporting GBS-associated NE. Meta-analyses estimated the proportion of GBS disease in NE and mortality risk. UK population-level data estimated the incidence of GBS-associated NE. Four published and 25 unpublished datasets were identified from 13 countries (N = 10436). The proportion of NE associated with GBS was 0.58% (95% confidence interval [CI], 0.18%-.98%). Mortality was significantly increased in GBS-associated NE vs NE alone (risk ratio, 2.07 [95% CI, 1.47-2.91]). This equates to a UK incidence of GBS-associated NE of 0.019 per 1000 live births. The consistent increased proportion of GBS disease in NE and significant increased risk of mortality provides evidence that GBS infection contributes to NE. Increased information regarding this and other organisms is important to inform interventions, especially in low- and middle-resource contexts. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press for the Infectious Diseases Society of America.

  18. Neonatal Encephalopathy With Group B Streptococcal Disease Worldwide: Systematic Review, Investigator Group Datasets, and Meta-analysis

    PubMed Central

    Tann, Cally J; Martinello, Kathryn A; Sadoo, Samantha; Lawn, Joy E; Seale, Anna C; Vega-Poblete, Maira; Russell, Neal J; Baker, Carol J; Bartlett, Linda; Cutland, Clare; Gravett, Michael G; Ip, Margaret; Le Doare, Kirsty; Madhi, Shabir A; Rubens, Craig E; Saha, Samir K; Schrag, Stephanie; Sobanjo-ter Meulen, Ajoke; Vekemans, Johan; Heath, Paul T; Garcia-Alix, Alfredo; Boo, Nem-Yun; Martinez-Biarge, Miriam; Cheong, Jeanie; Cowan, Frances; de Vries, Linda S; Arca-Diaz, Gemma; Edwards, A David; Ellis, Matthew; Gale, Christopher; Glass, Hannah C; Groenendaal, Floris; Gunn, Alistair; Hayes, Breda; Jacobs, Susan E; Johnson, Clark T; Kali, Gugu; Manne, Manogna; Massaro, An N; Robertson, Nicola J; Shah, Prakeshkumar; Shankaran, Seetha; Tann, Cally J; Thayyil, Sudhin; Thoresen, Marianne; Walsh, Brian H; Wintermark, Pia; Lee, Anne C C

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Background Neonatal encephalopathy (NE) is a leading cause of child mortality and longer-term impairment. Infection can sensitize the newborn brain to injury; however, the role of group B streptococcal (GBS) disease has not been reviewed. This paper is the ninth in an 11-article series estimating the burden of GBS disease; here we aim to assess the proportion of GBS in NE cases. Methods We conducted systematic literature reviews (PubMed/Medline, Embase, Latin American and Caribbean Health Sciences Literature [LILACS], World Health Organization Library Information System [WHOLIS], and Scopus) and sought unpublished data from investigator groups reporting GBS-associated NE. Meta-analyses estimated the proportion of GBS disease in NE and mortality risk. UK population-level data estimated the incidence of GBS-associated NE. Results Four published and 25 unpublished datasets were identified from 13 countries (N = 10436). The proportion of NE associated with GBS was 0.58% (95% confidence interval [CI], 0.18%–.98%). Mortality was significantly increased in GBS-associated NE vs NE alone (risk ratio, 2.07 [95% CI, 1.47–2.91]). This equates to a UK incidence of GBS-associated NE of 0.019 per 1000 live births. Conclusions The consistent increased proportion of GBS disease in NE and significant increased risk of mortality provides evidence that GBS infection contributes to NE. Increased information regarding this and other organisms is important to inform interventions, especially in low- and middle-resource contexts. PMID:29117330

  19. Maternal experiences of caring for an infant with neurological impairment after neonatal encephalopathy in Uganda: a qualitative study

    PubMed Central

    Nakamanya, Sarah; Siu, Godfrey E.; Lassman, Rachel; Seeley, Janet; Tann, Cally J.

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Purpose: The study investigated maternal experiences of caring for a child affected by neurological impairment after neonatal encephalopathy (NE) (“birth asphyxia”) in Uganda. Methods: Between September 2011 and October 2012 small group and one-on-one in-depths interviews were conducted with mothers recruited to the ABAaNA study examining outcomes from NE in Mulago hospital, Kampala. Data were analysed thematically with the aid of Nvivo 8 software. Findings: Mothers reported caring for an infant with impairment was often complicated by substantial social, emotional and financial difficulties and stigma. High levels of emotional distress, feelings of social isolation and fearfulness about the future were described. Maternal health-seeking ability was exacerbated by high transport costs, lack of paternal support and poor availability of rehabilitation and counselling services. Meeting and sharing experiences with similarly affected mothers was associated with more positive maternal caring experiences. Conclusion: Mothering a child with neurological impairment after NE is emotionally, physically and financially challenging but this may be partly mitigated by good social support and opportunities to share caring experiences with similarly affected mothers. A facilitated, participatory, community-based approach to rehabilitation training may have important impacts on maximising participation and improving the quality of life of affected mothers and infants.Implications for RehabilitationCaring for an infant with neurological impairment after NE in Uganda has substantial emotional, social and financial impacts on families and is associated with high levels of emotional stress, feelings of isolation and stigma amongst mothers.Improved social support and the opportunity to share experiences with other similarly affected mothers are associated with a more positive maternal caring experience. High transport costs, lack of paternal support and poor availability

  20. Cytokine production pattern of T lymphocytes in neonatal arterial ischemic stroke during the first month of life-a case study.

    PubMed

    Bajnok, Anna; Berta, László; Orbán, Csaba; Tulassay, Tivadar; Toldi, Gergely

    2018-06-22

    The perinatal period carries the highest risk for stroke in childhood; however, the pathophysiology is poorly understood and preventive, prognostic, and therapeutic strategies are not available. A new pathophysiological model describes the development of neonatal arterial ischemic stroke (NAIS) as the combined result of prenatal inflammation and hypoxic-ischemic insult. Neuroinflammation and a systemic inflammatory response are also important features of NAIS. Identifying key players of the inflammatory system is in the limelight of current research. We present four NAIS cases, in whom detailed analysis of intracellular and plasma cytokine levels are available from the first month of life. All neonates were admitted with the initial diagnosis of hypoxic ischemic encephalopathy (HIE); however, early MRI examination revealed NAIS. Blood samples were collected between 3 and 6 h of life, at 24 h, 72 h, 1 week, and 1 month of life. Peripheral blood mononuclear cells were assessed with flow cytometry and plasma cytokine levels were measured. Pooled data from the cohort of four NAIS patients were compared to infants with HIE. At 6 and 72 h of age, the prevalence of IL10+ CD8+ lymphocytes remained lower in NAIS. At 6 h, CD8+ lymphocytes in NAIS produced more IL-17. At 72 h, CD8+ cells produced more IL-6 in severe HIE than in NAIS, but IL-6 production remained elevated in CD8 cells at 1 month in NAIS, while it decreased in HIE. At 1 week, the prevalence of TGF-β + lymphocytes prone to enter the CNS was elevated in NAIS. On the other hand, by 1 month of age, the prevalence of TGF-β + CD4+ lymphocytes decreased in NAIS compared to HIE. At 72 h, we found elevated plasma levels of IL-5, MCP-1, and IL-17 in NAIS. By 1 month, plasma levels of IL-4, IL-12, and IL-17 decreased in NAIS but remained elevated in HIE. Differences in the cytokine network are present between NAIS and HIE. CD8 lymphocytes appear to shift towards the pro-inflammatory direction in

  1. Temperature control during therapeutic moderate whole-body hypothermia for neonatal encephalopathy.

    PubMed

    Strohm, B; Azzopardi, D

    2010-09-01

    The precision of temperature control achieved in clinical practice during therapeutic hypothermia in neonates has not been described. The hourly rectal temperature recordings from 17 infants treated with servo controlled and an equal number treated with manually adjusted cooling equipment were examined. The target rectal temperature for all infants is 33.5 degrees C for 72 h. During 6 to 72 h after start of cooling, the mean (95% CI, variance) of the averaged rectal temperatures was 33.6 degrees C (95% CI 33.4 degrees C to 33.8 degrees C, 0.1 degrees C) in the manually adjusted group and 33.4 degrees C (95% CI 33.3 degrees C to 33.5 degrees C, 0.04 degrees C) in the servo controlled group (means, p=0.08; equality of variance, p=0.03). The variance was also significantly different between infant groups during 1 to 5 h after start of cooling, p=0.01, but not during rewarming. The rectal temperature can be maintained close to the target temperature with either manually adjusted or servo controlled equipment, but there is less temperature variability with the servo controlled system in use in the UK.

  2. Elevated Temperature and 6-7 Year Outcome of Neonatal Encephalopathy

    PubMed Central

    Laptook, Abbot R.; McDonald, Scott A.; Shankaran, Seetha; Stephens, Bonnie E.; Vohr, Betty R.; Guillet, Ronnie; Higgins, Rosemary D.; Das, Abhik

    2013-01-01

    OBJECTIVE Determine if higher temperature after hypoxia-ischemia is associated with death or IQ < 70 at 6-7 yr among infants treated with intensive care without hypothermia. DESIGN/METHODS Control infants (non-cooled, n=106) of the NICHD Neonatal Research Network hypothermia trial had serial esophageal and skin temperatures over 72hrs. Each infant's temperature was ranked to derive an average of the upper and lower quartile, and median of each site. Temperatures were used in logistic regressions to determine adjusted associations with death or IQ < 70 at 6-7yrs. Secondary outcomes were death, IQ < 70, and moderate/severe CP. IQ and motor function were assessed with Wechsler Scales for Children and Gross Motor Function Classification System. Results are odds ratio (OR, per °C increment within the quartile or median) and 95% confidence interval (CI). RESULTS Primary outcome was available for 89 infants. At 6-7yrs death or IQ < 70 occurred in 54 infants (37 deaths, 17 survivors with IQ < 70) and moderate/severe CP in 15 infants. Death or IQ < 70 was associated with the upper quartile average of esophageal (OR 7.3, 95% CI 2.0-26.3) and skin temperature (OR 3.5, 95% 1.2-10.4). CP was associated with the upper quartile average of esophageal (OR 12.5, 95% CI 1.02-155) and skin temperature (OR 10.3, 95% 1.3-80.2). CONCLUSIONS Among non-cooled infants of a randomized trial, elevated temperatures during the first post-natal days are associated with increase odds of a worse outcome at 6-7yrs. PMID:23595408

  3. [Risk adjusted assessment of quality of perinatal centers - results of perinatal/neonatal quality surveillance in Saxonia].

    PubMed

    Koch, R; Gmyrek, D; Vogtmann, Ch

    2005-12-01

    The weak point of the country-wide perinatal/neonatal quality surveillance as a tool for evaluation of achievements of a distinct clinic, is the ignorance of interhospital differences in the case-mix of patients. Therefore, that approach can not result in a reliable bench marking. To adjust the results of quality assessment of different hospitals according to their risk profile of patients by multivariate analysis. The perinatal/neonatal data base of 12.783 newborns of the saxonian quality surveillance from 1998 to 2000 was analyzed. 4 relevant quality indicators of newborn outcome -- a) severe intraventricular hemorrhage in preterm infants < 1500 g, b) death in hospital of preterm infants < 1500 g, c) death in newborns with birth weight > 2500 g and d) hypoxic-ischemic encephalopathy -- were targeted to find out specific risk predictors by considering 26 risk factors. A logistic regression model was used to develop the risk predictors. Risk predictors for the 4 quality indicators could be described by 3 - 9 out of 26 analyzed risk factors. The AUC (ROC)-values for these quality indicators were 82, 89, 89 and 89 %, what signifies their reliability. Using the new specific predictors for calculation the risk adjusted incidence rates of quality indicator yielded in some remarkable changes. The apparent differences in the outcome criteria of analyzed hospitals were found to be much less pronounced. The application of the proposed method for risk adjustment of quality indicators makes it possible to perform a more objective comparison of neonatal outcome criteria between different hospitals or regions.

  4. Defining Optimal Head-Tilt Position of Resuscitation in Neonates and Young Infants Using Magnetic Resonance Imaging Data

    PubMed Central

    Bhalala, Utpal S.; Hemani, Malvi; Shah, Meehir; Kim, Barbara; Gu, Brian; Cruz, Angelo; Arunachalam, Priya; Tian, Elli; Yu, Christine; Punnoose, Joshua; Chen, Steven; Petrillo, Christopher; Brown, Alisa; Munoz, Karina; Kitchen, Grant; Lam, Taylor; Bosemani, Thangamadhan; Huisman, Thierry A. G. M.; Allen, Robert H.; Acharya, Soumyadipta

    2016-01-01

    Head-tilt maneuver assists with achieving airway patency during resuscitation. However, the relationship between angle of head-tilt and airway patency has not been defined. Our objective was to define an optimal head-tilt position for airway patency in neonates (age: 0–28 days) and young infants (age: 29 days–4 months). We performed a retrospective study of head and neck magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of neonates and infants to define the angle of head-tilt for airway patency. We excluded those with an artificial airway or an airway malformation. We defined head-tilt angle a priori as the angle between occipito-ophisthion line and ophisthion-C7 spinous process line on the sagittal MR images. We evaluated medical records for Hypoxic Ischemic Encephalopathy (HIE) and exposure to sedation during MRI. We analyzed MRI of head and neck regions of 63 children (53 neonates and 10 young infants). Of these 63 children, 17 had evidence of airway obstruction and 46 had a patent airway on MRI. Also, 16/63 had underlying HIE and 47/63 newborn infants had exposure to sedative medications during MRI. In spontaneously breathing and neurologically depressed newborn infants, the head-tilt angle (median ± SD) associated with patent airway (125.3° ± 11.9°) was significantly different from that of blocked airway (108.2° ± 17.1°) (Mann Whitney U-test, p = 0.0045). The logistic regression analysis showed that the proportion of patent airways progressively increased with an increasing head-tilt angle, with > 95% probability of a patent airway at head-tilt angle 144–150°. PMID:27003759

  5. Defining Optimal Head-Tilt Position of Resuscitation in Neonates and Young Infants Using Magnetic Resonance Imaging Data.

    PubMed

    Bhalala, Utpal S; Hemani, Malvi; Shah, Meehir; Kim, Barbara; Gu, Brian; Cruz, Angelo; Arunachalam, Priya; Tian, Elli; Yu, Christine; Punnoose, Joshua; Chen, Steven; Petrillo, Christopher; Brown, Alisa; Munoz, Karina; Kitchen, Grant; Lam, Taylor; Bosemani, Thangamadhan; Huisman, Thierry A G M; Allen, Robert H; Acharya, Soumyadipta

    2016-01-01

    Head-tilt maneuver assists with achieving airway patency during resuscitation. However, the relationship between angle of head-tilt and airway patency has not been defined. Our objective was to define an optimal head-tilt position for airway patency in neonates (age: 0-28 days) and young infants (age: 29 days-4 months). We performed a retrospective study of head and neck magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of neonates and infants to define the angle of head-tilt for airway patency. We excluded those with an artificial airway or an airway malformation. We defined head-tilt angle a priori as the angle between occipito-ophisthion line and ophisthion-C7 spinous process line on the sagittal MR images. We evaluated medical records for Hypoxic Ischemic Encephalopathy (HIE) and exposure to sedation during MRI. We analyzed MRI of head and neck regions of 63 children (53 neonates and 10 young infants). Of these 63 children, 17 had evidence of airway obstruction and 46 had a patent airway on MRI. Also, 16/63 had underlying HIE and 47/63 newborn infants had exposure to sedative medications during MRI. In spontaneously breathing and neurologically depressed newborn infants, the head-tilt angle (median ± SD) associated with patent airway (125.3° ± 11.9°) was significantly different from that of blocked airway (108.2° ± 17.1°) (Mann Whitney U-test, p = 0.0045). The logistic regression analysis showed that the proportion of patent airways progressively increased with an increasing head-tilt angle, with > 95% probability of a patent airway at head-tilt angle 144-150°.

  6. Upregulation of cholesterol 24-hydroxylase following hypoxia-ischemia in neonatal mouse brain.

    PubMed

    Lu, Fuxin; Zhu, Jun; Guo, Selena; Wong, Brandon J; Chehab, Farid F; Ferriero, Donna M; Jiang, Xiangning

    2018-06-01

    BackgroundMaintenance of cholesterol homeostasis is crucial for brain development. Brain cholesterol relies on de novo synthesis and is cleared primarily by conversion to 24S-hydroxycholesterol (24S-HC) with brain-specific cholesterol 24-hydroxylase (CYP46A1). We aimed to investigate the impact of hypoxia-ischemia (HI) on brain cholesterol metabolism in the neonatal mice.MethodsPostnatal day 9 C57BL/6 pups were subjected to HI using the Vannucci model. CYP46A1 expression was assessed with western blotting and its cellular localization was determined using immunofluorescence staining. The amount of brain cholesterol, 24S-HC in the cortex and in the serum, was measured with enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA).ResultsThere was a transient cholesterol loss at 6 h after HI. CYP46A1 was significantly upregulated at 6 and 24 h following HI with a concomitant increase of 24S-HC in the ipsilateral cortex and in the serum. The serum levels of 24S-HC correlated with those in the brain, as well as with necrotic and apoptotic cell death evaluated by the expression of spectrin breakdown products and cleaved caspase-3 at 6 and 24 h after HI.ConclusionEnhanced cholesterol turnover by activation of CYP46A1 represents disrupted brain cholesterol homeostasis early after neonatal HI. 24S-HC might be a novel blood biomarker for severity of hypoxic-ischemic encephalopathy with potential clinical application.

  7. Intranasal Mesenchymal Stem Cell Treatment for Neonatal Brain Damage: Long-Term Cognitive and Sensorimotor Improvement

    PubMed Central

    Donega, Vanessa; van Bel, Frank; Kas, Martien J. H.; Kavelaars, Annemieke; Heijnen, Cobi J.

    2013-01-01

    Mesenchymal stem cell (MSC) administration via the intranasal route could become an effective therapy to treat neonatal hypoxic-ischemic (HI) brain damage. We analyzed long-term effects of intranasal MSC treatment on lesion size, sensorimotor and cognitive behavior, and determined the therapeutic window and dose response relationships. Furthermore, the appearance of MSCs at the lesion site in relation to the therapeutic window was examined. Nine-day-old mice were subjected to unilateral carotid artery occlusion and hypoxia. MSCs were administered intranasally at 3, 10 or 17 days after hypoxia-ischemia (HI). Motor, cognitive and histological outcome was investigated. PKH-26 labeled cells were used to localize MSCs in the brain. We identified 0.5×106 MSCs as the minimal effective dose with a therapeutic window of at least 10 days but less than 17 days post-HI. A single dose was sufficient for a marked beneficial effect. MSCs reach the lesion site within 24 h when given 3 or 10 days after injury. However, no MSCs were detected in the lesion when administered 17 days following HI. We also show for the first time that intranasal MSC treatment after HI improves cognitive function. Improvement of sensorimotor function and histological outcome was maintained until at least 9 weeks post-HI. The capacity of MSCs to reach the lesion site within 24 h after intranasal administration at 10 days but not at 17 days post-HI indicates a therapeutic window of at least 10 days. Our data strongly indicate that intranasal MSC treatment may become a promising non-invasive therapeutic tool to effectively reduce neonatal encephalopathy. PMID:23300948

  8. Brain metabolism in patients with vegetative state after post-resuscitated hypoxic-ischemic brain injury: statistical parametric mapping analysis of F-18 fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography.

    PubMed

    Kim, Yong Wook; Kim, Hyoung Seop; An, Young-sil

    2013-03-01

    Hypoxic-ischemic brain injury (HIBI) after cardiopulmonary resuscitation is one of the most devastating neurological conditions that causing the impaired consciousness. However, there were few studies investigated the changes of brain metabolism in patients with vegetative state (VS) after post-resuscitated HIBI. This study aimed to analyze the change of overall brain metabolism and elucidated the brain area correlated with the level of consciousness (LOC) in patients with VS after post-resuscitated HIBI. We consecutively enrolled 17 patients with VS after HIBI, who experienced cardiopulmonary resuscitation. Overall brain metabolism was measured by F-18 fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography (F-18 FDG PET) and we compared regional brain metabolic patterns from 17 patients with those from 15 normal controls using voxel-by-voxel based statistical parametric mapping analysis. Additionally, we correlated the LOC measured by the JFK-coma recovery scale-revised of each patient with brain metabolism by covariance analysis. Compared with normal controls, the patients with VS after post-resuscitated HIBI revealed significantly decreased brain metabolism in bilateral precuneus, bilateral posterior cingulate gyrus, bilateral middle frontal gyri, bilateral superior parietal gyri, bilateral middle occipital gyri, bilateral precentral gyri (PFEW correctecd < 0.0001), and increased brain metabolism in bilateral insula, bilateral cerebella, and the brainstem (PFEW correctecd < 0.0001). In covariance analysis, the LOC was significantly correlated with brain metabolism in bilateral fusiform and superior temporal gyri (Puncorrected < 0.005). Our study demonstrated that the precuneus, the posterior cingulate area and the frontoparietal cortex, which is a component of neural correlate for consciousness, may be relevant structure for impaired consciousness in patient with VS after post-resuscitated HIBI. In post-resuscitated HIBI, measurement of brain metabolism using PET

  9. Mesenchymal stem cells suppress neuronal apoptosis and decrease IL-10 release via the TLR2/NFκB pathway in rats with hypoxic-ischemic brain damage.

    PubMed

    Gu, Yan; Zhang, Yun; Bi, Yang; Liu, Jingjing; Tan, Bin; Gong, Min; Li, Tingyu; Chen, Jie

    2015-10-17

    Hypoxic-ischemic brain damage (HIBD) is a major cause of infant mortality and neurological disability in children. Many studies have demonstrated that mesenchymal stem cell (MSC) transplantation facilitates the restoration of the biological function of injured tissue following HIBD via immunomodulation. This study aimed to elucidate the mechanisms by which MSCs mediate immunomodulation via the key effectors Toll-like receptor 2 (TLR2) and interleukin-10 (IL-10). We showed that TLR2 expression in the brain of HIBD rats was upregulated following HIBD and that MSC transplantation suppressed the expression of TLR2 and the release of IL-10, thereby alleviating the learning-memory deficits of HIBD rats. Following treatment with the specific TLR2 agonist Pam3CSK4 to activate TLR2, learning-memory function became further impaired, and the levels of nuclear factor kappa B (NFκB) and Bax expression and IL-10 release were significantly increased compared with those in HIBD rats that did not receive Pam3CSK4. In vitro, we found that MSC co-culture downregulated TLR2/NFκB signaling and repressed Bax expression and IL-10 secretion in oxygen and glucose deprivation (OGD)-injured adrenal pheochromocytoma (PC12) cells. Furthermore, NFκB and Bax expression and IL-10 release were enhanced following Pam3CSK4 treatment and were decreased following siTLR2 treatment in OGD-injured PC12 cells in the presence or absence of MSCs. Our data indicate that TLR2 is involved in HIBD and that MSCs decrease apoptosis and improve learning-memory function in HIBD rats by suppressing the TLR2/NFκB signaling pathway via a feedback mechanism that reduces IL-10 release. These findings strongly suggest that MSC transplantation improves HIBD via the inhibition of the TLR2/NFκB pathway.

  10. Melatonin influences NO/NOS pathway and reduces oxidative and nitrosative stress in a model of hypoxic-ischemic brain damage.

    PubMed

    Blanco, Santos; Hernández, Raquel; Franchelli, Gustavo; Ramos-Álvarez, Manuel Miguel; Peinado, María Ángeles

    2017-01-30

    In this work, using a rat model combining ischemia and hypobaric hypoxia (IH), we evaluate the relationships between the antioxidant melatonin and the cerebral nitric oxide/nitric oxide synthase (NO/NOS) system seeking to ascertain whether melatonin exerts its antioxidant protective action by balancing this key pathway, which is highly involved in the cerebral oxidative and nitrosative damage underlying these pathologies. The application of the IH model increases the expression of the three nitric oxide synthase (NOS) isoforms, as well as nitrogen oxide (NOx) levels and nitrotyrosine (n-Tyr) impacts on the cerebral cortex. However, melatonin administration before IH makes nNOS expression response earlier and stronger, but diminishes iNOS and n-Tyr expression, while both eNOS and NOx remain unchanged. These results were corroborated by nicotine adenine dinucleotide phosphate diaphorase (NADPH-d) staining, as indicative of in situ NOS activity. In addition, the rats previously treated with melatonin exhibited a reduction in the oxidative impact evaluated by thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS). Finally, IH also intensified glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP) expression, reduced hypoxia-inducible factor-1alpha (HIF-1α), but did not change nuclear factor kappa B (NF-κB); meanwhile, melatonin did not significantly affect any of these patterns after the application of the IH model. The antioxidant melatonin acts on the NO/NOS system after IH injury balancing the release of NO, reducing peroxynitrite formation and protecting from nitrosative/oxidative damage. In addition, this paper raises questions concerning the classical role of some controversial molecules such as NO, which are of great consequence in the final fate of hypoxic neurons. We conclude that melatonin protects the brain from hypoxic/ischemic-derived damage in the first steps of the ischemic cascade, influencing the NO/NOS pathway and reducing oxidative and nitrosative stress. Copyright

  11. Neonatal and Maternal Outcomes With Prolonged Second Stage of Labor

    PubMed Central

    Laughon, S. Katherine; Berghella, Vincenzo; Reddy, Uma M.; Sundaram, Rajeshwari; Lu, Zhaohui; Hoffman, Matthew K

    2014-01-01

    ,348 multiparous women), there were no cases of hypoxic ischemic encephalopathy or perinatal death. Conclusions Benefits of increased vaginal delivery should be weighed against potential small increases in maternal and neonatal risks with prolonged second stage. PMID:24901265

  12. Adjuvant treatment with monosialoganglioside may improve neurological outcomes in neonatal hypoxic–ischemic encephalopathy: A meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials

    PubMed Central

    Sheng, Lei

    2017-01-01

    Background Ganglioside has a neuroprotective role in neonatal hypoxic–ischemic encephalopathy (HIE). This study aimed to evaluate the neurological outcomes of monosialoganglioside as adjuvant treatment for neonatal HIE by conducting a meta-analysis. Methods A comprehensive literature search was made in the Pubmed, EMBASE, Cochrane Library, Wanfang, CNKI, VIP databases through October 2016. Randomized controlled trials comparing monosialoganglioside with the usual treatment for newborns having HIE deemed eligible. Weighted mean difference (WMD) and risk ratio (RR) with 95% confidence interval (CI) were calculated for continuous and dichotomous data, respectively. Results Ten trials consisting of 787 neonates were included. Adjuvant treatment with monosialoganglioside significantly reduced major neurodevelopmental disabilities (RR = 0.35; 95% CI = 0.21–0.57), cerebral palsy (RR = 0.32; 95% CI = 0.12–0.87), mental retardation (RR = 0.31; 95% CI = 0.11–0.88) as well as improved the mental (WMD = 14.95; 95% CI = 7.44–22.46) and psychomotive (WMD = 13.40; 95% CI = 6.69–20.11) development index during the follow-up. Also, monosialoganglioside significantly improved Neonatal Behavioral Neurological Assessment scores (WMD = 2.91; 95% CI = 2.05–3.78) compared with the usual treatment. However, adverse effects associated with monosialoganglioside were poorly reported in the included trials. Conclusion Adjuvant treatment with monosialoganglioside had beneficial effects in improving neurological outcomes in neonatal HIE. However, these findings should be interpreted with caution because of methodological flaws in the included trials. Furthermore, safety of monosialoganglioside use should also be further evaluated. PMID:28832625

  13. [Long-term clinical course of sequelae in patients with neonatal anoxic encephalopathy resulting in profound mental retardation and motor disturbance].

    PubMed

    Ishizaki, A; Kubota, M; Fueki, N; Shinozaki, M; Kurata, K; Takei, M; Sakamoto, K

    1993-01-01

    A long-term observation has been made in 58 patients (30 males and 28 females) with severe sequelae of neonatal anoxic encephalopathy. They aged from 8 months to 65 years. All of them had motor disturbances and profound mental retardation. Motor function was improved in 4 patients with aging. In contrast, motor activity deteriorated in 11 cases, of which 4 showed a mental regression. Among them, patients who had originally better motor ability than sitting were likely to deteriorate by uncontrollable epilepsy and/or excessive administration of anticonvulsants. Regression of the patients with worse motor ability like bedridden appeared to attributable hypertonia of muscles and bodily deformation. Fifteen cases showed an exacerbation of general condition which originated predominantly to respiratory distress. Twelve patients died including 6 exacerbated cases. Exacerbation or death may have occurred frequently in specific periods of infancy, adolescence and youth with the patients who showed very low motor function such as bedridden and no locomotion.

  14. Dorsal brain stem syndrome: MR imaging location of brain stem tegmental lesions in neonates with oral motor dysfunction.

    PubMed

    Quattrocchi, C C; Longo, D; Delfino, L N; Cilio, M R; Piersigilli, F; Capua, M D; Seganti, G; Danhaive, O; Fariello, G

    2010-09-01

    The anatomic extent of brain stem damage may provide information about clinical outcome and prognosis in children with hypoxic-ischemic encephalopathy and oral motor dysfunction. The aim of this study was to retrospectively characterize the location and extent of brain stem lesions in children with oral motor dysfunction. From January 2005 to August 2009, 43 infants hospitalized at our institution were included in the study because of a history of hypoxic-ischemic events. Of this group, 14 patients showed oral motor dysfunction and brain stem tegmental lesions detected at MR imaging. MR imaging showed hypoxic-ischemic lesions in supra- and infratentorial areas. Six of 14 patients revealed only infratentorial lesions. Focal symmetric lesions of the tegmental brain stem were always present. The lesions appeared hyperintense on T2-weighted images and hypointense on IR images. We found a strong association (P < .0001) between oral motor dysfunction and infratentorial lesions on MR imaging. Oral motor dysfunction was associated with brain stem tegmental lesions in posthypoxic-ischemic infants. The MR imaging examination should be directed to the brain stem, especially when a condition of prolonged gavage feeding is necessary in infants.

  15. Neuroprotective and Anti-Inflammatory Effects of the Flavonoid-Enriched Fraction AF4 in a Mouse Model of Hypoxic-Ischemic Brain Injury

    PubMed Central

    Keddy, Paul G. W.; Dunlop, Kate; Warford, Jordan; Samson, Michel L.; Jones, Quinton R. D.; Rupasinghe, H. P. Vasantha; Robertson, George S.

    2012-01-01

    We report here neuroprotective and anti-inflammatory effects of a flavonoid-enriched fraction isolated from the peel of Northern Spy apples (AF4) in a mouse of model of hypoxic-ischemic (HI) brain damage. Oral administration of AF4 (50 mg/kg, once daily for 3 days) prior to 50 min of HI completely prevented motor performance deficits assessed 14 days later that were associated with marked reductions in neuronal cell loss in the dorsal hippocampus and striatum. Pre-treatment with AF4 (5, 10, 25 or 50 mg/kg, p.o.; once daily for 3 days) produced a dose-dependent reduction in HI-induced hippocampal and striatal neuron cell loss, with 25 mg/kg being the lowest dose that achieved maximal neuroprotection. Comparison of the effects of 1, 3 or 7 doses of AF4 (25 mg/kg; p.o.) prior to HI revealed that at least 3 doses of AF4 were required before HI to reduce neuronal cell loss in both the dorsal hippocampus and striatum. Quantitative RT-PCR measurements revealed that the neuroprotective effects of AF4 (25 mg/kg; p.o.; once daily for 3 days) in the dorsal hippocampus were associated with a suppression of HI-induced increases in the expression of IL-1β, TNF-α and IL-6. AF4 pre-treatment enhanced mRNA levels for pro-survival proteins such as X-linked inhibitor of apoptosis and erythropoietin following HI in the dorsal hippocampus and striatum, respectively. Primary cultures of mouse cortical neurons incubated with AF4 (1 µg/ml), but not the same concentrations of either quercetin or quercetin-3-O-glucose or its metabolites, were resistant to cell death induced by oxygen glucose deprivation. These findings suggest that the inhibition of HI-induced brain injury produced by AF4 likely involves a transcriptional mechanism resulting from the co-operative actions of various phenolics in this fraction which not only reduce the expression of pro-inflammatory mediators but also enhance pro-survival gene signalling. PMID:23251498

  16. Long-Term Functional and Psychosocial Outcomes After Hypoxic-Ischemic Brain Injury: A Case-Controlled Comparison to Traumatic Brain Injury.

    PubMed

    Harbinson, Meredith; Zarshenas, Sareh; Cullen, Nora K

    2017-12-01

    Despite the increasing rate of survival from hypoxic-ischemic brain injury (HIBI), there is a paucity of evidence on the long-term functional outcomes after inpatient rehabilitation among these nontrauma patients compared to patients with traumatic brain injury (TBI). To compare functional and psychosocial outcomes of patients with HIBI to those of case-matched patients with TBI 4-11 years after brain insult. Retrospective, matched case-controlled study. Data at the time of rehabilitation admission and discharge were collected as part of a larger acquired brain injury (ABI) database at Toronto Rehabilitation Institute (TRI) between 1999 and 2009. This study consisted of 11 patients with HIBI and 11 patients with TBI that attended the neuro-rehabilitation day program at TRI during a similar time frame and were matched on age, admission Functional Independence Measure (FIM) scores, and acute care length of stay (ALOS). At 4-11 years following brain insult, patients were reassessed using the FIM, Disability Rating Scale (DRS), Personal Health Questionnaire Depression Scale (PHQ-9), and the Mayo-Portland Adaptability Inventory 4 (MPAI-4). At follow-up, patients with HIBI had significantly lower FIM motor and cognitive scores than patients with TBI (75.3 ± 20.6 versus 88.1 ± 4.78, P < .05, and 25.5 ± 5.80 versus 32.7 ± 2.54, P <.05, respectively) despite having a similar time frame postinsult (ie, 4-11 years). In addition, there were significant differences in motor and total FIM change from admission to follow-up between HIBI and TBI patients (P < .05). Patients with HIBI also had significantly lower scores on the DRS, PHQ-9, and total MPAI-4 at follow-up (P < .05). The study results suggest that patients with HIBI achieve less long-term functional improvements compared to patients with TBI. Further research is warranted to compare the components of inpatient rehabilitation while adjusting for demographics and clinical characteristics between these 2 groups of

  17. Use of EEG in critically ill children and neonates in the United States of America.

    PubMed

    Gaínza-Lein, Marina; Sánchez Fernández, Iván; Loddenkemper, Tobias

    2017-06-01

    The objective of the study was to estimate the proportion of patients who receive an electroencephalogram (EEG) among five common indications for EEG monitoring in the intensive care unit: traumatic brain injury (TBI), extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO), cardiac arrest, cardiac surgery and hypoxic-ischemic encephalopathy (HIE). We performed a retrospective cross-sectional descriptive study utilizing the Kids' Inpatient Database (KID) for the years 2010-2012. The KID is the largest pediatric inpatient database in the USA and it is based on discharge reports created by hospitals for billing purposes. We evaluated the use of electroencephalogram (EEG) or video-electroencephalogram in critically ill children who were mechanically ventilated. The KID database had a population of approximately 6,000,000 pediatric admissions. Among 22,127 admissions of critically ill children who had mechanical ventilation, 1504 (6.8%) admissions had ECMO, 9201 (41.6%) TBI, 4068 (18.4%) HIE, 2774 (12.5%) cardiac arrest, and 4580 (20.7%) cardiac surgery. All five conditions had a higher proportion of males, with the highest (69.8%) in the TBI group. The mortality rates ranged from 7.02 to 39.9% (lowest in cardiac surgery and highest in ECMO). The estimated use of EEG was 1.6% in cardiac surgery, 4.1% in TBI, 7.2% in ECMO, 8.2% in cardiac arrest, and 12.1% in HIE, with an overall use of 5.8%. Among common indications for EEG monitoring in critically ill children and neonates, the estimated proportion of patients actually having an EEG is low.

  18. Epilepsy Surgery in Pediatric Intractable Epilepsy with Destructive Encephalopathy

    PubMed Central

    Park, So Young; Kwon, Hye Eun; Kang, Hoon-Chul; Lee, Joon Soo; Kim, Dong Seok; Kim, Heung Dong

    2013-01-01

    Background and Purpose: The aim of the current study is to review the clinical features, surgery outcomes and parental satisfaction of children with destructive encephalopathy who underwent epilepsy surgery due to medically intractable seizures. Methods: 48 patients who underwent epilepsy surgery from October 2003 to August 2011 at Severance Children’s Hospital have been reviewed. The survey was conducted for functional outcomes and parental satisfaction at least 1 year after the surgery. Results: Epileptic encephalopathy including Lennox-Gastaut syndrome and infantile spasms was more prevalent than symptomatic focal epilepsy. Hypoxic ischemic injury accounted for most of the underlying etiology of the destructive encephalpathy, followed by central nervous system infection and head trauma. 27 patients (56.3%) underwent resective surgery and 21 patients (43.7%) underwent palliative surgery. 16 patients (33.3%) achieved seizure free and 27 parents (87.5%) reported satisfaction with the outcome of their children’s epilepsy surgery. In addition, 14 parents (77.8 %) whose children were not seizure free reported satisfaction with their children’s improvement in cognitive and behavior issues. Conclusions: Epilepsy surgery in destructive encephalopathy was effective for controlling seizures. Parents reported satisfaction not only with the surgical outcomes, but also with improvement of cognitive and behavior issues. PMID:24649473

  19. Adiponectin attenuates neuronal apoptosis induced by hypoxia-ischemia via the activation of AdipoR1/APPL1/LKB1/AMPK pathway in neonatal rats.

    PubMed

    Xu, Ningbo; Zhang, Yixin; Doycheva, Desislava Met; Ding, Yan; Zhang, Yiting; Tang, Jiping; Guo, Hongbo; Zhang, John H

    2018-05-01

    Adiponectin is an important adipocyte-derived plasma protein that has beneficial effects on cardio- and cerebrovascular diseases. A low level of plasma Adiponectin is associated with increased mortality post ischemic stroke; however, little is known about the causal role of Adiponectin as well as its molecular mechanisms in neonatal hypoxia ischemia (HI). In the present study, ten-day-old rat pups were subjected to right common carotid artery ligation followed by 2.5 h hypoxia. Recombinant human Adiponectin (rh-Adiponectin) was administered intranasally 1 h post HI. Adiponectin Receptor 1 (AdipoR1) siRNA, APPL1 siRNA, LKB1 siRNA were administered through intracerebroventricular injection 48 h before HI. Brain infarct area measurement, neurological function test, western blot, Fluoro Jade C (FJC), TUNEL, and immunofluorescence staining were conducted. Results revealed that endogenous Adiponectin, AdipoR1 and APPL1 were increased in a time dependent manner after HI. Administration of rh-Adiponectin reduced brain infarct area, neuronal apoptosis, brain atrophy and improved neurological function at 24 h and 4 weeks post HI. Furthermore, rh-Adiponectin treatment increased Adiponectin, AdipoR1, APPL1, cytosolic LKB1, p-AMPK expression levels and thereby attenuated apoptosis as shown by the decreased expression of the pro-apoptotic marker, Cleaved Caspase 3 (C-Cas3), as well as the number of FJC and TUNEL positively stained neurons. AdipoR1, APPL1 and LKB1 siRNAs abolished the anti-apoptotic effects of rh-Adiponectin at 24 h after HI. Collectively, the data provided evidence that intranasal administration of rh-Adiponectin attenuated neuronal apoptosis at least in part via activating AdipoR1/APPL1/LKB1/AMPK signaling pathway. Adiponectin could represent a therapeutic target for treatment of neonatal hypoxic ischemic encephalopathy. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Prevalence of bloodstream pathogens is higher in neonatal encephalopathy cases vs. controls using a novel panel of real-time PCR assays.

    PubMed

    Tann, Cally J; Nkurunziza, Peter; Nakakeeto, Margaret; Oweka, James; Kurinczuk, Jennifer J; Were, Jackson; Nyombi, Natasha; Hughes, Peter; Willey, Barbara A; Elliott, Alison M; Robertson, Nicola J; Klein, Nigel; Harris, Kathryn A

    2014-01-01

    In neonatal encephalopathy (NE), infectious co-morbidity is difficult to diagnose accurately, but may increase the vulnerability of the developing brain to hypoxia-ischemia. We developed a novel panel of species-specific real-time PCR assays to identify bloodstream pathogens amongst newborns with and without NE in Uganda. Multiplex real-time PCR assays for important neonatal bloodstream pathogens (gram positive and gram negative bacteria, cytomegalovirus (CMV), herpes simplex virus(HSV) and P. falciparum) were performed on whole blood taken from 202 encephalopathic and 101 control infants. Automated blood culture (BACTEC) was performed for all cases and unwell controls. Prevalence of pathogenic bacterial species amongst infants with NE was 3.6%, 6.9% and 8.9%, with culture, PCR and both tests in combination, respectively. More encephalopathic infants than controls had pathogenic bacterial species detected (8.9%vs2.0%, p = 0.028) using culture and PCR in combination. PCR detected bacteremia in 11 culture negative encephalopathic infants (3 Group B Streptococcus, 1 Group A Streptococcus, 1 Staphylococcus aureus and 6 Enterobacteriacae). Coagulase negative staphylococcus, frequently detected by PCR amongst case and control infants, was considered a contaminant. Prevalence of CMV, HSV and malaria amongst cases was low (1.5%, 0.5% and 0.5%, respectively). This real-time PCR panel detected more bacteremia than culture alone and provides a novel tool for detection of neonatal bloodstream pathogens that may be applied across a range of clinical situations and settings. Significantly more encephalopathic infants than controls had pathogenic bacterial species detected suggesting that infection may be an important risk factor for NE in this setting.

  1. Hepatic Encephalopathy

    MedlinePlus Videos and Cool Tools

    ... Now Hepatic Encephalopathy Back Hepatic Encephalopathy is a brain disorder that develops in some individuals with liver ... is a condition that causes temporary worsening of brain function in people with advanced liver disease. When ...

  2. Measuring Near-Infrared Spectroscopy Derived Cerebral Autoregulation in Neonates: From Research Tool Toward Bedside Multimodal Monitoring

    PubMed Central

    Thewissen, Liesbeth; Caicedo, Alexander; Lemmers, Petra; Van Bel, Frank; Van Huffel, Sabine; Naulaers, Gunnar

    2018-01-01

    Introduction: Cerebral autoregulation (CAR), the ability of the human body to maintain cerebral blood flow (CBF) in a wide range of perfusion pressures, can be calculated by describing the relation between arterial blood pressure (ABP) and cerebral oxygen saturation measured by near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS). In literature, disturbed CAR is described in different patient groups, using multiple measurement techniques and mathematical models. Furthermore, it is unclear to what extent cerebral pathology and outcome can be explained by impaired CAR. Aim and methods: In order to summarize CAR studies using NIRS in neonates, a systematic review was performed in the PUBMED and EMBASE database. To provide a general overview of the clinical framework used to study CAR, the different preprocessing methods and mathematical models are described and explained. Furthermore, patient characteristics, definition of impaired CAR and the outcome according to this definition is described organized for the different patient groups. Results: Forty-six articles were included in this review. Four patient groups were established: preterm infants during the transitional period, neonates receiving specific medication/treatment, neonates with congenital heart disease and neonates with hypoxic-ischemic encephalopathy (HIE) treated with therapeutic hypothermia. Correlation, coherence and transfer function (TF) gain are the mathematical models most frequently used to describe CAR. The definition of impaired CAR is depending on the mathematical model used. The incidence of intraventricular hemorrhage in preterm infants is the outcome variable most frequently correlated with impaired CAR. Hypotension, disease severity, dopamine treatment, injury on magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and long term outcome are associated with impaired CAR. Prospective interventional studies are lacking in all research areas. Discussion and conclusion: NIRS derived CAR measurement is an important research tool to

  3. A Recurrent De Novo PACS2 Heterozygous Missense Variant Causes Neonatal-Onset Developmental Epileptic Encephalopathy, Facial Dysmorphism, and Cerebellar Dysgenesis.

    PubMed

    Olson, Heather E; Jean-Marçais, Nolwenn; Yang, Edward; Heron, Delphine; Tatton-Brown, Katrina; van der Zwaag, Paul A; Bijlsma, Emilia K; Krock, Bryan L; Backer, E; Kamsteeg, Erik-Jan; Sinnema, Margje; Reijnders, Margot R F; Bearden, David; Begtrup, Amber; Telegrafi, Aida; Lunsing, Roelineke J; Burglen, Lydie; Lesca, Gaetan; Cho, Megan T; Smith, Lacey A; Sheidley, Beth R; Moufawad El Achkar, Christelle; Pearl, Phillip L; Poduri, Annapurna; Skraban, Cara M; Tarpinian, Jennifer; Nesbitt, Addie I; Fransen van de Putte, Dietje E; Ruivenkamp, Claudia A L; Rump, Patrick; Chatron, Nicolas; Sabatier, Isabelle; De Bellescize, Julitta; Guibaud, Laurent; Sweetser, David A; Waxler, Jessica L; Wierenga, Klaas J; Donadieu, Jean; Narayanan, Vinodh; Ramsey, Keri M; Nava, Caroline; Rivière, Jean-Baptiste; Vitobello, Antonio; Tran Mau-Them, Frédéric; Philippe, Christophe; Bruel, Ange-Line; Duffourd, Yannis; Thomas, Laurel; Lelieveld, Stefan H; Schuurs-Hoeijmakers, Janneke; Brunner, Han G; Keren, Boris; Thevenon, Julien; Faivre, Laurence; Thomas, Gary; Thauvin-Robinet, Christel

    2018-05-03

    Developmental and epileptic encephalopathies (DEEs) represent a large clinical and genetic heterogeneous group of neurodevelopmental diseases. The identification of pathogenic genetic variants in DEEs remains crucial for deciphering this complex group and for accurately caring for affected individuals (clinical diagnosis, genetic counseling, impacting medical, precision therapy, clinical trials, etc.). Whole-exome sequencing and intensive data sharing identified a recurrent de novo PACS2 heterozygous missense variant in 14 unrelated individuals. Their phenotype was characterized by epilepsy, global developmental delay with or without autism, common cerebellar dysgenesis, and facial dysmorphism. Mixed focal and generalized epilepsy occurred in the neonatal period, controlled with difficulty in the first year, but many improved in early childhood. PACS2 is an important PACS1 paralog and encodes a multifunctional sorting protein involved in nuclear gene expression and pathway traffic regulation. Both proteins harbor cargo(furin)-binding regions (FBRs) that bind cargo proteins, sorting adaptors, and cellular kinase. Compared to the defined PACS1 recurrent variant series, individuals with PACS2 variant have more consistently neonatal/early-infantile-onset epilepsy that can be challenging to control. Cerebellar abnormalities may be similar but PACS2 individuals exhibit a pattern of clear dysgenesis ranging from mild to severe. Functional studies demonstrated that the PACS2 recurrent variant reduces the ability of the predicted autoregulatory domain to modulate the interaction between the PACS2 FBR and client proteins, which may disturb cellular function. These findings support the causality of this recurrent de novo PACS2 heterozygous missense in DEEs with facial dysmorphim and cerebellar dysgenesis. Copyright © 2018 American Society of Human Genetics. All rights reserved.

  4. Simultaneous measurement of cerebral hemoglobin oxygen saturation and blood volume in asphyxiated neonates by near-infrared time-resolved spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Nakamura, Shinji; Koyano, Kosuke; Jinnai, Wataru; Hamano, Satoshi; Yasuda, Saneyuki; Konishi, Yukihiko; Kuboi, Toru; Kanenishi, Kenji; Nishida, Tomoko; Kusaka, Takashi

    2015-11-01

    Hypoxic-ischemic encephalopathy (HIE) usually results in a poor clinical outcome even when treated with hypothermic therapy (HT). Early postnatal changes in cerebral blood oxygenation and hemodynamics may be critical determinants of brain injury and the efficacy of HT. We measured cerebral hemoglobin oxygen saturation (ScO2) and cerebral blood volume (CBV) by near-infrared time-resolved spectroscopy (TRS) in HT-treated and non-HT-treated neonatal HIE patients to assess the influence of these parameters on clinical outcome. We retrospectively compared ScO2, CBV, and clinical outcomes of 11 neonates with HIE: 5 were treated by HT (HT-treated; 33.5°C±0.5°C for 72h starting approximately 6h after delivery) and 6 were not (non-HT-treated). Both CBV and ScO2 were measured by TRS at 6, 24, 48, and 72h after birth. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) was performed 1-2weeks after birth to assess brain injury. Five neonates had adverse outcomes (3 HT-treated, 2 non-HT-treated). Of these, 1 died within 3days of birth and 4 had abnormal MRI findings, including basal ganglia, white matter, and/or thalamic lesions. The other 6 neonates had normal MRI findings (favorable outcome). At 6h after birth, CBV was significantly higher in neonates with adverse outcomes compared with those with a favorable outcome. At 24h after birth, ScO2 was significantly higher in neonates with adverse outcomes. Furthermore, we found that combined CBV at 24h after birth plus ScO2 had the best predictive ability for neurological outcome: sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value, and negative predictive value were all 100%. Early postnatal CBV and ScO2 elevations were predictive of a poor outcome in HIE. Therefore, measuring combined CBV plus ScO2 at 24h after birth can allow more precise prediction of neurological outcome. Control of postnatal CBV and ScO2 is critical for effective HIE treatment. Copyright © 2015 The Japanese Society of Child Neurology. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights

  5. Therapeutic hypothermia for neonatal encephalopathy: JSPNM & MHLW Japan Working Group Practice Guidelines Consensus Statement from the Working Group on Therapeutic Hypothermia for Neonatal Encephalopathy, Ministry of Health, Labor and Welfare (MHLW), Japan, and Japan Society for Perinatal and Neonatal Medicine (JSPNM).

    PubMed

    Takenouchi, Toshiki; Iwata, Osuke; Nabetani, Makoto; Tamura, Masanori

    2012-02-01

    Neonatal encephalopathy (NE) secondary to intrapartum asphyxia remains a major cause of post-natal death and permanent neurological deficits worldwide. Supportive therapy has been the mainstay of the treatment until recent series of large clinical trials demonstrating benefit of therapeutic hypothermia (TH) in this high risk population. Now the International Liaison Committee on Resuscitation (ILCOR) recommends TH as a standard of care with the protocols used in the large clinical trials as tentative standard protocols. Our goal is to develop a nationwide consensus practice guideline not only consistent with the international standard protocols but also practical and compatible with the current medical system in Japan. In summary, TH should be offered to newborn infants born ≥36 weeks gestational age and birth weight ≥1800 g exhibiting clinical signs of moderate to severe NE as well as evidence of hypoxia-ischemia, i.e. 10 min Apgar score ≤5, a need for resuscitation at 10 min, blood pH<7.00, or base deficit ≥16 mmol/L. TH should be conducted in the NICUs capable of multidisciplinary care and under the standard protocols, i.e. utilization of cooling device, target (rectal or esophageal) temperatures at 33.5±0.5 and 34.5±0.5°C for whole body and selective head cooling respectively, duration of TH for 72 h, gradual rewarming not exceeding the rate of 0.5°C/h. Long term follow-up with multidisciplinary approach including standardized psychological assessment is warranted. Copyright © 2011 The Japanese Society of Child Neurology. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Limited short-term prognostic utility of cerebral NIRS during neonatal therapeutic hypothermia.

    PubMed

    Shellhaas, Renée A; Thelen, Brian J; Bapuraj, Jayapalli R; Burns, Joseph W; Swenson, Aaron W; Christensen, Mary K; Wiggins, Stephanie A; Barks, John D E

    2013-07-16

    We evaluated the utility of amplitude-integrated EEG (aEEG) and regional oxygen saturation (rSO2) measured using near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) for short-term outcome prediction in neonates with hypoxic ischemic encephalopathy (HIE) treated with therapeutic hypothermia. Neonates with HIE were monitored with dual-channel aEEG, bilateral cerebral NIRS, and systemic NIRS throughout cooling and rewarming. The short-term outcome measure was a composite of neurologic examination and brain MRI scores at 7 to 10 days. Multiple regression models were developed to assess NIRS and aEEG recorded during the 6 hours before rewarming and the 6-hour rewarming period as predictors of short-term outcome. Twenty-one infants, mean gestational age 38.8 ± 1.6 weeks, median 10-minute Apgar score 4 (range 0-8), and mean initial pH 6.92 ± 0.19, were enrolled. Before rewarming, the most parsimonious model included 4 parameters (adjusted R(2) = 0.59; p = 0.006): lower values of systemic rSO2 variability (p = 0.004), aEEG bandwidth variability (p = 0.019), and mean aEEG upper margin (p = 0.006), combined with higher mean aEEG bandwidth (worse discontinuity; p = 0.013), predicted worse short-term outcome. During rewarming, lower systemic rSO2 variability (p = 0.007) and depressed aEEG lower margin (p = 0.034) were associated with worse outcome (model-adjusted R(2) = 0.49; p = 0.005). Cerebral NIRS data did not contribute to either model. During day 3 of cooling and during rewarming, loss of physiologic variability (by systemic NIRS) and invariant, discontinuous aEEG patterns predict poor short-term outcome in neonates with HIE. These parameters, but not cerebral NIRS, may be useful to identify infants suitable for studies of adjuvant neuroprotective therapies or modification of the duration of cooling and/or rewarming.

  7. Toxic Encephalopathy

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Jae Woo

    2012-01-01

    This article schematically reviews the clinical features, diagnostic approaches to, and toxicological implications of toxic encephalopathy. The review will focus on the most significant occupational causes of toxic encephalopathy. Chronic toxic encephalopathy, cerebellar syndrome, parkinsonism, and vascular encephalopathy are commonly encountered clinical syndromes of toxic encephalopathy. Few neurotoxins cause patients to present with pathognomonic neurological syndromes. The symptoms and signs of toxic encephalopathy may be mimicked by many psychiatric, metabolic, inflammatory, neoplastic, and degenerative diseases of the nervous system. Thus, the importance of good history-taking that considers exposure and a comprehensive neurological examination cannot be overemphasized in the diagnosis of toxic encephalopathy. Neuropsychological testing and neuroimaging typically play ancillary roles. The recognition of toxic encephalopathy is important because the correct diagnosis of occupational disease can prevent others (e.g., workers at the same worksite) from further harm by reducing their exposure to the toxin, and also often provides some indication of prognosis. Physicians must therefore be aware of the typical signs and symptoms of toxic encephalopathy, and close collaborations between neurologists and occupational physicians are needed to determine whether neurological disorders are related to occupational neurotoxin exposure. PMID:23251840

  8. LMA Supreme for neonatal resuscitation: study protocol for a randomized controlled trial

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    resuscitation, death or moderate to severe hypoxic-ischemic encephalopathy within 7 days of life. Trial registration ClinicalTrials.gov identifier: NCT01963936 (October 11, 2013). PMID:25027230

  9. Hepatic Encephalopathy

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  10. Early neonatal Glutaric aciduria type I hidden by perinatal asphyxia: a case report.

    PubMed

    Biasucci, Giacomo; Morelli, Nicola; Natacci, Federica; Mastrangelo, Massimo

    2018-01-15

    Perinatal asphyxia (PA) occurs in about 2 to 10 per 1000 live full-term births. Although neonatal epileptic seizures are observed in up to 60% of cases, PA may mimic or subtend other conditions. Hypoxia related brain injury is particularly relevant, as it may have permanent effects on neuropsychomotor development. Antepartum obstetric conditions, may, in turn, lead to hypoxic-ischemic damage to the fetus and the newborn, often underlying PA. Herein, a case of PA that hid and triggered signs and symptoms of Glutaric Aciduria type I (GA-I), is reported. R.F. was born at term after prolonged labour, by induced vaginal delivery with the Kristeller manoeuvre. He presented with severe asphyxia and asystoly. Immediate cardiopulmonary resuscitation promptly restored cardiorespiratory parameters, allowing for early extubation 30 min after. During the following hours, severe axial muscle hypotonia with an increased tone of the limb extensor muscles became evident. The absence of crying and archaic reflexes persisted and there was an onset of generalized tonic or clonic seizure. First level metabolic and inflammatory markers were within the normal range. An inherited metabolic disease was then suspected, due to the persistent clinical signs of severe neurological damage without any detectable septic parameter. GA-I was assessed and specific treatment started without any clinical improvement, although ensuring adequate growth and metabolic control. Thereafter, the baby developed a severe encephalopathy with drug resistant epileptic seizures. The progression of the neurological damage and a CVC-related sepsis led him to exitus at 2 years. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first case of early post-natal onset of GA-I reported in literature to date, in the absence of expanded newborn screening (NBS) programme. As expanded NBS programmes for inborn errors of metabolism have not yet been internationally adopted, we are of the opinion that such diseases may well be hidden

  11. Development of an experimental model of cholestasis induced by hypoxic/ischemic damage to the bile duct and liver tissues in infantile rats.

    PubMed

    Toki, Fumiaki; Takahashi, Atsushi; Suzuki, Makoto; Ootake, Sayaka; Hirato, Junko; Kuwano, Hiroyuki

    2011-05-01

    We aimed to develop experimental models of hypoxia/ischemia-induced cholestasis using neonatal and infantile rats. Hypoxia/ischemia was induced in the bile duct (BD) by injecting prostaglandin (PG) at birth and/or by coagulation of the hepatic artery (CHA) at about 3 weeks after birth. The rats were divided into 6 groups: control; PG-injected; sham-operated with or without PG; CHA; and CHA + PG. CHA was also performed in adult rats. Liver specimens and blood samples were obtained at 5 weeks after birth, and immunohistochemical and biochemical examinations were performed. (1) BD proliferation with fibrosis (BDPF) was found in the intrahepatic portal tract in the CHA and CHA + PG groups. Low-grade BDPF was observed in the PG group. (2) Cyst formation in the extrahepatic BD (EBD) was observed in the porta hepatis of some rats in the CHA and CHA + PG groups. In these groups, the number of peribiliary vascular plexuses (PVPs) decreased. BD proliferation and infiltration of inflammatory cells were observed in the EBD wall in the CHA + PG group. (3) Ki-67 was expressed in BD and EBD cells in the CHA + PG group. (4) BDPF was not detected in adult rats with CHA. (5) Serum liver function tests indicated obstructive changes in the EBD in the CHA and CHA + PG groups. Reduced blood flow in the EBD during infancy induced BDPF and obstructive changes in the EBD, which may, along with immature PVP and inflammatory changes in the EBD, contribute to hypoxia/ischemia of the EBD.

  12. Tolerability and outcomes of kinetically guided therapy with gentamicin in critically ill neonates during the first week of life: an open-label, prospective study.

    PubMed

    Martínková, Jirina; Pokorná, Pavla; Záhora, Jiri; Chládek, Jaroslav; Vobruba, Václav; Selke-Krulichová, Iva; Chládková, Jirina

    2010-12-01

    27 patients (41%) in group 1 and 11 of 22 patients (50%) in group 2; for C(trough,3), the target range was reached in 25 patients (93%) in group 1 and in 16 (73%) in group 2. C(trough,3) >2 mg/L was detected in 1 full-term neonate, and gentamicin was withdrawn. Suspected fluid retention within the time period of 0 hour to the day of the fourth infusion was well correlated with actual body weight (r = 0.58, P < 0.001), but it was negatively correlated with C(max,4) (r = -0.25, P = 0.02). Thirteen of the 84 neonates (15%) had confirmed sepsis. C(max)/MIC was >12 except for 2 resistant staphylococcal infections (C(max)/MIC = 0.4); amikacin and vancomycin were substituted for gentamicin in these cases. Clinical signs and laboratory data indicative of suspected sepsis disappeared in 5 to 10 days in 68 of 71 neonates. In 1 neonate, gentamicin was withdrawn after dose 4 because of a high C(trough,3) value. In the 3 remaining neonates, C-reactive protein was decreased >10 days without changing therapy. Two neonates died, 1 of severe hypoxic-ischemic encephalopathy as a consequence of perinatal asphyxia and another of stage IV intraventricular hemorrhage. Transient renal dysfunction attributable to gentamicin was detected in 1 case. No signs of late toxicity (nephrocalcinosis) were found during the second year of follow-up. Two neonates were diagnosed with unilateral hearing loss, a secondary phenomenon of hypoxic-ischemic encephalopathy thought to be related to the severe perinatal asphyxia. The initial dose of gentamicin 4 mg/kg for these critically ill premature and mature neonates with sepsis during the first week of life was high enough to reach bactericidal C(max,1) within 6-10 mg/L. C(max,1) <6 mg/L occurred in 13% of neonates. The interdose interval modified according to the recommendation resulted in C(trough) values within the target range of 0.5-2.0 mg/L in all but 2 neonates. The kinetically guided maintenance dosing of gentamicin based on plasma concentrations

  13. SCN2A encephalopathy

    PubMed Central

    Howell, Katherine B.; McMahon, Jacinta M.; Carvill, Gemma L.; Tambunan, Dimira; Mackay, Mark T.; Rodriguez-Casero, Victoria; Webster, Richard; Clark, Damian; Freeman, Jeremy L.; Calvert, Sophie; Olson, Heather E.; Mandelstam, Simone; Poduri, Annapurna; Mefford, Heather C.; Harvey, A. Simon

    2015-01-01

    Objective: De novo SCN2A mutations have recently been associated with severe infantile-onset epilepsies. Herein, we define the phenotypic spectrum of SCN2A encephalopathy. Methods: Twelve patients with an SCN2A epileptic encephalopathy underwent electroclinical phenotyping. Results: Patients were aged 0.7 to 22 years; 3 were deceased. Seizures commenced on day 1–4 in 8, week 2–6 in 2, and after 1 year in 2. Characteristic features included clusters of brief focal seizures with multiple hourly (9 patients), multiple daily (2), or multiple weekly (1) seizures, peaking at maximal frequency within 3 months of onset. Multifocal interictal epileptiform discharges were seen in all. Three of 12 patients had infantile spasms. The epileptic syndrome at presentation was epilepsy of infancy with migrating focal seizures (EIMFS) in 7 and Ohtahara syndrome in 2. Nine patients had improved seizure control with sodium channel blockers including supratherapeutic or high therapeutic phenytoin levels in 5. Eight had severe to profound developmental impairment. Other features included movement disorders (10), axial hypotonia (11) with intermittent or persistent appendicular spasticity, early handedness, and severe gastrointestinal symptoms. Mutations arose de novo in 11 patients; paternal DNA was unavailable in one. Conclusions: Review of our 12 and 34 other reported cases of SCN2A encephalopathy suggests 3 phenotypes: neonatal-infantile–onset groups with severe and intermediate outcomes, and a childhood-onset group. Here, we show that SCN2A is the second most common cause of EIMFS and, importantly, does not always have a poor developmental outcome. Sodium channel blockers, particularly phenytoin, may improve seizure control. PMID:26291284

  14. Glucose and Intermediary Metabolism and Astrocyte-Neuron Interactions Following Neonatal Hypoxia-Ischemia in Rat.

    PubMed

    Brekke, Eva; Berger, Hester Rijkje; Widerøe, Marius; Sonnewald, Ursula; Morken, Tora Sund

    2017-01-01

    Neonatal hypoxia-ischemia (HI) and the delayed injury cascade that follows involve excitotoxicity, oxidative stress and mitochondrial failure. The susceptibility to excitotoxicity of the neonatal brain may be related to the capacity of astrocytes for glutamate uptake. Furthermore, the neonatal brain is vulnerable to oxidative stress, and the pentose phosphate pathway (PPP) may be of particular importance for limiting this kind of injury. Also, in the neonatal brain, neurons depend upon de novo synthesis of neurotransmitters via pyruvate carboxylase in astrocytes to increase neurotransmitter pools during normal brain development. Several recent publications describing intermediary brain metabolism following neonatal HI have yielded interesting results: (1) Following HI there is a prolonged depression of mitochondrial metabolism in agreement with emerging evidence of mitochondria as vulnerable targets in the delayed injury cascade. (2) Astrocytes, like neurons, are metabolically impaired following HI, and the degree of astrocytic malfunction may be an indicator of the outcome following hypoxic and hypoxic-ischemic brain injury. (3) Glutamate transfer from neurons to astrocytes is not increased following neonatal HI, which may imply that astrocytes fail to upregulate glutamate uptake in response to the massive glutamate release during HI, thus contributing to excitotoxicity. (4) In the neonatal brain, the activity of the PPP is reduced following HI, which may add to the susceptibility of the neonatal brain to oxidative stress. The present review aims to discuss the metabolic temporal alterations observed in the neonatal brain following HI.

  15. Hepatic encephalopathy

    PubMed Central

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Hepatic encephalopathy (HE) is a reversible syndrome of impaired brain function occurring in patients with advanced liver diseases. The precise pathophysiology of HE is still under discussion; the leading hypothesis focus on the role of neurotoxins, impaired neurotransmission due to metabolic changes in liver failure, changes in brain energy metabolism, systemic inflammatory response and alterations of the blood brain barrier. HE produces a wide spectrum of nonspecific neurological and psychiatric manifestations. Minimal HE is diagnosed by abnormal psychometric tests. Clinically overt HE includes personality changes, alterations in consciousness progressive disorientation in time and space, somnolence, stupor and, finally, coma. Except for clinical studies, no specific tests are required for diagnosis. HE is classified according to the underlying disease, the severity of manifestations, its time course and the existence of precipitating factors. Treatment of overt HE includes supportive therapies, treatment of precipitating factors, lactulose and/or rifaximin. Routine treatment for minimal HE is only recommended for selected patients. PMID:28533911

  16. Pilot randomized trial of therapeutic hypothermia with serial cranial ultrasound and 18-22 month follow-up for neonatal encephalopathy in a low resource hospital setting in Uganda: study protocol.

    PubMed

    Robertson, Nicola J; Hagmann, Cornelia F; Acolet, Dominique; Allen, Elizabeth; Nyombi, Natasha; Elbourne, Diana; Costello, Anthony; Jacobs, Ian; Nakakeeto, Margaret; Cowan, Frances

    2011-06-04

    There is now convincing evidence that in industrialized countries therapeutic hypothermia for perinatal asphyxial encephalopathy increases survival with normal neurological function. However, the greatest burden of perinatal asphyxia falls in low and mid-resource settings where it is unclear whether therapeutic hypothermia is safe and effective. Under the UCL Uganda Women's Health Initiative, a pilot randomized controlled trial in infants with perinatal asphyxia was set up in the special care baby unit in Mulago Hospital, a large public hospital with ~20,000 births in Kampala, Uganda to determine:(i) The feasibility of achieving consent, neurological assessment, randomization and whole body cooling to a core temperature 33-34°C using water bottles(ii) The temperature profile of encephalopathic infants with standard care(iii) The pattern, severity and evolution of brain tissue injury as seen on cranial ultrasound and relation with outcome(iv) The feasibility of neurodevelopmental follow-up at 18-22 months of age Ethical approval was obtained from Makerere University and Mulago Hospital. All infants were in-born. Parental consent for entry into the trial was obtained. Thirty-six infants were randomized either to standard care plus cooling (target rectal temperature of 33-34°C for 72 hrs, started within 3 h of birth) or standard care alone. All other aspects of management were the same. Cooling was performed using water bottles filled with tepid tap water (25°C). Rectal, axillary, ambient and surface water bottle temperatures were monitored continuously for the first 80 h. Encephalopathy scoring was performed on days 1-4, a structured, scorable neurological examination and head circumference were performed on days 7 and 17. Cranial ultrasound was performed on days 1, 3 and 7 and scored. Griffiths developmental quotient, head circumference, neurological examination and assessment of gross motor function were obtained at 18-22 months. We will highlight differences in

  17. TGFß1 Stimulates the Over-Production of White Matter Astrocytes from Precursors of the “Brain Marrow” in a Rodent Model of Neonatal Encephalopathy

    PubMed Central

    Bain, Jennifer M.; Ziegler, Amber; Yang, Zhengang

    2010-01-01

    Background In children born prematurely and those surviving cerebral ischemia there are white matter abnormalities that correlate with neurological dysfunction. Since this injury occurs in the immature brain, when the majority of subventricular zone (SVZ) cells generate white matter oligodendrocytes, we sought to study the effect this injury has on gliogenesis from the SVZ. We hypothesized that there is aberrant glial cell generation from the SVZ after neonatal hypoxia ischemia (H/I) that contributes to an increased astrogliogenesis with concomitant oligodendroglial insufficiency. Mechanistically we hypothesized that an increase in specific locally produced cytokines during recovery from injury were modifying the differentiation of glial progenitors towards astrocytes at the expense of the more developmentally-appropriate oligodendrocytes. Methodology/Principal Finding For these studies we used the Vannucci H/I rat model where P6 rats are subjected to unilateral common carotid ligation followed by 75 min of systemic hypoxia. Retroviral lineage tracing studies combined with morphological and immunohistochemical analyses revealed the preferential generation of SVZ-derived white matter astrocytes instead of oligodendrocytes post hypoxia/ischemia. Microarray and QRT-PCR analyses of the damaged SVZ showed increased expression of several cytokines and receptors that are known to promote astrocyte differentiation, such as EGF, LIF and TGFß signaling components. Using gliospheres to model the neonatal SVZ, we evaluated the effects of these cytokines on signal transduction pathways regulating astrocyte generation, proliferation and differentiation. These studies demonstrated that combinations of EGF, LIF and TGFß1 reconstituted the increased astrogliogenesis. TGFß1-induced Smad 2/3 phosphorylation and the combination of EGF, LIF and TGFß1 synergistically increased STAT3 phosphorylation over single or double cytokine combinations. Pharmacologically inhibiting ALK5

  18. Autoimmune encephalopathies

    PubMed Central

    Leypoldt, Frank; Armangue, Thaís; Dalmau, Josep

    2014-01-01

    Over the last 10 years the continual discovery of novel forms of encephalitis associated with antibodies to cell-surface or synaptic proteins has changed the paradigms for diagnosing and treating disorders that were previously unknown or mischaracterized. We review here the process of discovery, the symptoms, and the target antigens of twelve autoimmune encephatilic disorders, grouped by syndromes and approached from a clinical perspective. Anti-NMDAR encephalitis, several subtypes of limbic encephalitis, stiff-person spectrum disorders, and other autoimmune encephalitides that result in psychosis, seizures, or abnormal movements are described in detail. We include a novel encephalopathy with prominent sleep dysfunction that provides an intriguing link between chronic neurodegeneration and cell-surface autoimmunity (IgLON5). Some of the caveats of limited serum testing are outlined. In addition, we review the underlying cellular and synaptic mechanisms that for some disorders confirm the antibody pathogenicity. The multidisciplinary impact of autoimmune encephalitis has been expanded recently by the discovery that herpes simplex encephalitis is a robust trigger of synaptic autoimmunity, and that some patients may develop overlapping syndromes, including anti-NMDAR encephalitis and neuromyelitis optica or other demyelinating diseases. PMID:25315420

  19. Pathogenesis of Hepatic Encephalopathy

    PubMed Central

    Ciećko-Michalska, Irena; Szczepanek, Małgorzata; Słowik, Agnieszka; Mach, Tomasz

    2012-01-01

    Hepatic encephalopathy can be a serious complication of acute liver failure and chronic liver diseases, predominantly liver cirrhosis. Hyperammonemia plays the most important role in the pathogenesis of hepatic encephalopathy. The brain-blood barrier disturbances, changes in neurotransmission, neuroinflammation, oxidative stress, GABA-ergic or benzodiazepine pathway abnormalities, manganese neurotoxicity, brain energetic disturbances, and brain blood flow abnormalities are considered to be involved in the development of hepatic encephalopathy. The influence of small intestine bacterial overgrowth (SIBO) on the induction of minimal hepatic encephalopathy is recently emphasized. The aim of this paper is to present the current views on the pathogenesis of hepatic encephalopathy. PMID:23316223

  20. Neonatal hypoglycemia.

    PubMed

    Arya, Ved Bhushan; Senniappan, Senthil; Guemes, Maria; Hussain, Khalid

    2014-01-01

    Glucose is essential for cerebral metabolism. Unsurprisingly therefore, hypoglycemia may result in encephalopathy. Knowledge of the homeostatic mechanisms that maintain blood glucose concentrations within a tight range is the key for diagnosis and appropriate management of hypoglycemia. Neonatal hypoglycemia can be transient and is commonly observed in at-risk infants. A wide range of rare endocrine and metabolic disorders can present with neonatal hypoglycemia, of which congenital hyperinsulinism is responsible for the most severe form of hypoglycemia. Collection of appropriate blood samples for hormones and intermediary metabolites during an episode of hypoglycemia is critical for diagnosis and appropriate management. Prompt diagnosis with aggressive early intervention remains the mainstay of treatment to avert irreversible brain damage.

  1. Deferoxamine improves antioxidative protection in the brain of neonatal rats: The role of anoxia and body temperature.

    PubMed

    Kletkiewicz, Hanna; Nowakowska, Anna; Siejka, Agnieszka; Mila-Kierzenkowska, Celestyna; Woźniak, Alina; Caputa, Michał; Rogalska, Justyna

    2016-08-15

    After hypoxic-ischemic insult iron deposited in the brain catalyzes formation of reactive oxygen species. Newborn rats, showing reduced physiological body temperature and their hyperthermic counterparts injected with deferoxamine (DF), a chelator of iron, are protected both against iron-mediated neurotoxicity and against depletion of low-molecular antioxidants after perinatal asphyxia. Therefore, we decided to study the effects of DF on activity of antioxidant enzymes (superoxide dismutase-SOD, glutathione peroxidase-GPx and catalase-CAT) in the brain of rats exposed neonatally to a critical anoxia at body temperatures elevated to 39°C. Perinatal anoxia under hyperthermic conditions intensified oxidative stress and depleted the pool of antioxidant enzymes. Both the depletion of antioxidants and lipid peroxidation were prevented by post-anoxic DF injection. The present paper evidenced that deferoxamine may act by recovering of SOD, GPx and CAT activity to reduce anoxia-induced oxidative stress. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Long-term effects of neonatal hypoxia-ischemia on structural and physiological integrity of the eye and visual pathway by multimodal MRI.

    PubMed

    Chan, Kevin C; Kancherla, Swarupa; Fan, Shu-Juan; Wu, Ed X

    2014-12-09

    Neonatal hypoxia-ischemia is a major cause of brain damage in infants and may frequently present visual impairments. Although advancements in perinatal care have increased survival, the pathogenesis of hypoxic-ischemic injury and the long-term consequences to the visual system remain unclear. We hypothesized that neonatal hypoxia-ischemia can lead to chronic, MRI-detectable structural and physiological alterations in both the eye and the brain's visual pathways. Eight Sprague-Dawley rats underwent ligation of the left common carotid artery followed by hypoxia for 2 hours at postnatal day 7. One year later, T2-weighted MRI, gadolinium-enhanced MRI, chromium-enhanced MRI, manganese-enhanced MRI, and diffusion tensor MRI (DTI) of the visual system were evaluated and compared between opposite hemispheres using a 7-Tesla scanner. Within the eyeball, systemic gadolinium administration revealed aqueous-vitreous or blood-ocular barrier leakage only in the ipsilesional left eye despite comparable aqueous humor dynamics in the anterior chamber of both eyes. Binocular intravitreal chromium injection showed compromised retinal integrity in the ipsilesional eye. Despite total loss of the ipsilesional visual cortex, both retinocollicular and retinogeniculate pathways projected from the contralesional eye toward ipsilesional visual cortex possessed stronger anterograde manganese transport and less disrupted structural integrity in DTI compared with the opposite hemispheres. High-field, multimodal MRI demonstrated in vivo the long-term structural and physiological deficits in the eye and brain's visual pathways after unilateral neonatal hypoxic-ischemic injury. The remaining retinocollicular and retinogeniculate pathways appeared to be more vulnerable to anterograde degeneration from eye injury than retrograde, transsynaptic degeneration from visual cortex injury. Copyright 2015 The Association for Research in Vision and Ophthalmology, Inc.

  3. Long-Term Effects of Neonatal Hypoxia-Ischemia on Structural and Physiological Integrity of the Eye and Visual Pathway by Multimodal MRI

    PubMed Central

    Chan, Kevin C.; Kancherla, Swarupa; Fan, Shu-Juan; Wu, Ed X.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose. Neonatal hypoxia-ischemia is a major cause of brain damage in infants and may frequently present visual impairments. Although advancements in perinatal care have increased survival, the pathogenesis of hypoxic-ischemic injury and the long-term consequences to the visual system remain unclear. We hypothesized that neonatal hypoxia-ischemia can lead to chronic, MRI-detectable structural and physiological alterations in both the eye and the brain's visual pathways. Methods. Eight Sprague-Dawley rats underwent ligation of the left common carotid artery followed by hypoxia for 2 hours at postnatal day 7. One year later, T2-weighted MRI, gadolinium-enhanced MRI, chromium-enhanced MRI, manganese-enhanced MRI, and diffusion tensor MRI (DTI) of the visual system were evaluated and compared between opposite hemispheres using a 7-Tesla scanner. Results. Within the eyeball, systemic gadolinium administration revealed aqueous-vitreous or blood-ocular barrier leakage only in the ipsilesional left eye despite comparable aqueous humor dynamics in the anterior chamber of both eyes. Binocular intravitreal chromium injection showed compromised retinal integrity in the ipsilesional eye. Despite total loss of the ipsilesional visual cortex, both retinocollicular and retinogeniculate pathways projected from the contralesional eye toward ipsilesional visual cortex possessed stronger anterograde manganese transport and less disrupted structural integrity in DTI compared with the opposite hemispheres. Conclusions. High-field, multimodal MRI demonstrated in vivo the long-term structural and physiological deficits in the eye and brain's visual pathways after unilateral neonatal hypoxic-ischemic injury. The remaining retinocollicular and retinogeniculate pathways appeared to be more vulnerable to anterograde degeneration from eye injury than retrograde, transsynaptic degeneration from visual cortex injury. PMID:25491295

  4. Advanced neuroimaging techniques for the term newborn with encephalopathy.

    PubMed

    Chau, Vann; Poskitt, Kenneth John; Miller, Steven Paul

    2009-03-01

    Neonatal encephalopathy is associated with a high risk of morbidity and mortality in the neonatal period and of long-term neurodevelopmental disability in survivors. Advanced magnetic resonance techniques now play a major role in the clinical care of newborns with encephalopathy and in research addressing this important condition. From conventional magnetic resonance imaging, typical patterns of injury have been defined in neonatal encephalopathy. When applied in contemporary cohorts of newborns with encephalopathy, the patterns of brain injury on magnetic resonance imaging distinguish risk factors, clinical presentation, and risk of abnormal outcome. Advanced magnetic resonance techniques such as magnetic resonance spectroscopy, diffusion-weighted imaging, and diffusion tensor imaging provide novel perspectives on neonatal brain metabolism, microstructure, and connectivity. With the application of these imaging tools, it is increasingly apparent that brain injury commonly occurs at or near the time of birth and evolves over the first weeks of life. These observations have complemented findings from trials of emerging strategies of brain protection, such as hypothermia. Application of these advanced magnetic resonance techniques may enable the earliest possible identification of newborns at risk of neurodevelopmental impairment, thereby ensuring appropriate follow-up with rehabilitation and psychoeducational resources.

  5. Glutamate-mediated excitotoxicity in neonatal hippocampal neurons is mediated by mGluR-induced release of Ca++ from intracellular stores and is prevented by estradiol

    PubMed Central

    Hilton, Genell D.; Nunez, Joseph L.; Bambrick, Linda; Thompson, Scott M.; McCarthy, Margaret M.

    2008-01-01

    Hypoxic/ischemic (HI) brain injury in newborn full-term and premature infants is a common and pervasive source of life time disabilities in cognitive and locomotor function. In the adult, HI induces glutamate release and excitotoxic cell death dependent on NMDA receptor activation. In animal models of the premature human infant, glutamate is also released following HI, but neurons are largely insensitive to NMDA or AMPA/kainic acid (KA) receptor-mediated damage. Using primary cultured hippocampal neurons we have determined that glutamate increases intracellular calcium much more than kainic acid. Moreover, glutamate induces cell death by activating Type I metabotropic glutamate receptors (mGluRs). Pretreatment of neurons with the gonadal steroid estradiol reduces the level of the Type I metabotropic glutamate receptors and completely prevents cell death, suggesting a novel therapeutic approach to excitotoxic brain damage in the neonate. PMID:17156362

  6. Neuroprotective Interventions: Is It Too Late?

    PubMed Central

    Jenkins, Dorothea; Chang, Eugene; Singh, Inderjit

    2013-01-01

    In most cases of neonatal hypoxic-ischemic encephalopathy, the exact timing of the hypoxic-ischemic event is unknown, and we have few reliable biomarkers to precisely identify the phase of injury or recovery in an individual patient. However, it is becoming increasingly clear that for neuroprotection in neonates to succeed, an understanding of the phase of injury is important to ascertain. In addition, in utero antecedents of chronic hypoxia, hypoxic preconditioning, intrauterine infection, and fetal gender may change the expected time course of injury. Neuroprotective interventions, such as hypothermia and N-acetylcysteine, currently have efficacy in human and animal studies only if instituted early in the inflammatory cascade. While these cascades are currently being investigated, molecular mechanisms of recovery have received little attention and may ultimately reveal a window for therapeutic intervention that is much longer than current paradigms. PMID:19745093

  7. Hypertensive brain stem encephalopathy.

    PubMed

    Liao, Pen-Yuan; Lee, Chien-Chang; Chen, Cheng-Yu

    2015-01-01

    A 48-year-old man presented with headache and extreme hypertension. Computed tomography showed diffuse brain stem hypodensity. Magnetic resonance imaging revealed diffuse brain stem vasogenic edema. Hypertensive brain stem encephalopathy is an uncommon manifestation of hypertensive encephalopathy, which classically occurs at parietooccipital white matter. Because of its atypical location, the diagnosis can be challenging. Moreover, the coexistence of hypertension and brain stem edema could also direct clinicians toward a diagnosis of ischemic infarction, leading to a completely contradictory treatment goal.

  8. Current pathogenetic aspects of hepatic encephalopathy and noncirrhotic hyperammonemic encephalopathy.

    PubMed

    Cichoż-Lach, Halina; Michalak, Agata

    2013-01-07

    Hepatic encephalopathy is a medical phenomenon that is described as a neuropsychiatric manifestation of chronic or acute liver disease that is characterized by psychomotor, intellectual and cognitive abnormalities with emotional/affective and behavioral disturbances. This article focuses on the underlying mechanisms of the condition and the differences between hepatic encephalopathy and noncirrhotic hyperammonemic encephalopathy. Hepatic encephalopathy is a serious condition that can cause neurological death with brain edema and intracranial hypertension. It is assumed that approximately 60%-80% of patients with liver cirrhosis develop hepatic encephalopathy. This review explores the complex mechanisms that lead to hepatic encephalopathy. However, noncirrhotic hyperammonemic encephalopathy is not associated with hepatic diseases and has a completely different etiology. Noncirrhotic hyperammonemic encephalopathy is a severe occurrence that is connected with multiple pathogeneses.

  9. Xenon and hypothermia combine to provide neuroprotection from neonatal asphyxia.

    PubMed

    Ma, Daqing; Hossain, Mahmuda; Chow, Andre; Arshad, Mubarik; Battson, Renee M; Sanders, Robert D; Mehmet, Huseyin; Edwards, A David; Franks, Nicholas P; Maze, Mervyn

    2005-08-01

    Perinatal asphyxia can result in neuronal injury with long-term neurological and behavioral consequences. Although hypothermia may provide some modest benefit, the intervention itself can produce adverse consequences. We have investigated whether xenon, an antagonist of the N-methyl-D-aspartate subtype of the glutamate receptor, can enhance the neuroprotection provided by mild hypothermia. Cultured neurons injured by oxygen-glucose deprivation were protected by combinations of interventions of xenon and hypothermia that, when administered alone, were not efficacious. A combination of xenon and hypothermia administered 4 hours after hypoxic-ischemic injury in neonatal rats provided synergistic neuroprotection assessed by morphological criteria, by hemispheric weight, and by functional neurological studies up to 30 days after the injury. The protective mechanism of the combination, in both in vitro and in vivo models, involved an antiapoptotic action. If applied to humans, these data suggest that low (subanesthetic) concentrations of xenon in combination with mild hypothermia may provide a safe and effective therapy for perinatal asphyxia.

  10. [Hashimoto's encephalopathy and autoantibodies].

    PubMed

    Yoneda, Makoto

    2013-04-01

    Encephalopathy occasionally occurs in association with thyroid disorders, but most of these are treatable. These encephalopathies include a neuropsychiatric disorder associated with hypothyroidism, called myxedema encephalopathy. Moreover, Hashimoto's encephalopathy (HE) has been recognized as a new clinical disease based on an autoimmune mechanism associated with Hashimoto's thyroiditis. Steroid treatment was successfully administered to these patients. Recently, we discovered that the serum autoantibodies against the NH2-terminal of α-enolase (NAE) are highly specific diagnostic biomarkers for HE. Further, we analyzed serum anti-NAE autoantibodies and the clinical features in many cases of HE from institutions throughout Japan and other countries. Approximately half of assessed HE patients carry anti-NAE antibodies. The age was widely distributed with 2 peaks (20-30 years and 50-70 years). Most HE patients were in euthyroid states, and all patients had anti-thyroid (TG) antibodies and anti-thyroid peroxidase (TPO) antibodies. Anti-TSH receptor (TSH-R) antibodies were observed in some cases. The common neuropsychiatry features are consciousness disturbance and psychosis, followed by cognitive dysfunction, involuntary movements, seizures, and ataxia. Abnormalities on electroencephalography (EEG) and decreased cerebral blood flow on brain SPECT were common findings, whereas abnormal findings on brain magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) were rare. HE patients have various clinical phenotypes such as the acute encephalopathy form, the chronic psychiatric form, and other particular clinical forms, including limbic encephalitis, progressive cerebellar ataxia, and Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease (CJD)-like form. The cerebellar ataxic form of HE clinically mimics spinocerebellar degeneration (SCD) and is characterized by the absence of nystagmus, absent or mild cerebellar atrophy, and lazy background activities on EEG. Taken together, these data suggest that the possibility of

  11. Single Enteral Loading Dose of Phenobarbital for Achieving Its Therapeutic Serum Levels in Neonates

    PubMed Central

    Turhan, Ali H.; Atici, Aytug; Okuyaz, Cetin; Uysal, Sercan

    2010-01-01

    Aim To investigate whether therapeutic serum drug levels may be achieved with a single enteral loading dose of phenobarbital. Methods The study was performed at the Mersin University Hospital in Turkey between April 2004 and August 2006, and included 29 newborn babies with seizure. After the acute treatment of the seizure with midazolam at a dose of 0.1 mg/kg, phenobarbital was administered by orogastric route at a loading dose of 20 mg/kg. Serum phenobarbital concentrations were measured at 0.5, 3, 6, and 12 hours after the loading. Serum phenobarbital levels between 10-30 μg/mL were considered as the therapeutic range. Results The serum phenobarbital levels reached therapeutic values in 9 (31%), 19 (66%), 21 (72%), and 23 (79%) patients at 0.5, 3, 6, and 12 hours after loading, respectively, while they did not reach therapeutic values in 6 patients (21%) after 12 hours. Four of the patients in whom there was no increase in serum phenobarbital levels had hypoxic-ischemic encephalopathy. Conclusion Enteral loading of phenobarbital can achieve therapeutic serum levels in the large majority of newborn babies with seizure and may be safely used in babies with the intact gastrointestinal tract. PMID:20564764

  12. Management of Hepatic Encephalopathy

    PubMed Central

    Wright, G.; Chattree, A.; Jalan, R.

    2011-01-01

    Hepatic encephalopathy (HE), the neuropsychiatric presentation of liver disease, is associated with high morbidity and mortality. Reduction of plasma ammonia remains the central therapeutic strategy, but there is a need for newer novel therapies. We discuss current evidence supporting the use of interventions for both the general management of chronic HE and that necessary for more acute and advanced disease. PMID:21994873

  13. Encephalopathy and liver transplantation.

    PubMed

    Chavarria, Laia; Cordoba, Juan

    2013-06-01

    Liver transplantation (LT) candidates experience frequently episodic or persistent hepatic encephalopathy. In addition, these patients can exhibit neurological comorbidities that contribute to cognitive impairment in the pre-transplant period. Assessment of the respective contribution of hepatic encephalopathy or comorbidities in the cognitive manifestations is critical to estimate the neurological benefits of restoring liver function. Magnetic resonance imaging and spectroscopy are useful to assess the impact of liver failure or comorbidities. This assessment is critical to decide liver transplant in difficult cases. In the early postoperative period, LT is commonly complicated by a confusional syndrome. The possible role of persisting hepatic encephalopathy in its development has not been clearly established. The origin is usually considered multifactorial and relates to complications following LT, such as infections, rejection, primary liver dysfunction, immunosuppressors, etc.… The diagnosis and treatment is based in the recognition of comorbidities and optimal care of metabolic disturbances. Several studies have demonstrated recovery of cognitive function after LT in patients that have exhibited hepatic encephalopathy. However, some deficits may persist specifically among patients with persistent HE. Other factors present before LT that contribute to a worse neuropsychological outcome after LT are diabetes mellitus and alcohol consumption. Long-term after LT, cognitive function may worsen in relation to vascular risk factors.

  14. Computer-aided diagnosis of HIE based on segmentation of MRI

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, Ziguang; Li, Chungui; Wang, Qin

    2009-10-01

    Computer-aided diagnosis has become one of the major research subjects in medical imaging and diagnostic radiology. Hypoxic-ischemic encephalopathy (HIE), remains a serious condition that causes significant mortality and long-term morbidity to neonates. We adopt self-organizing feature maps to segment the tissues, such as white matter and grey matter in the magnetic resonance images. The borderline between white matter and grey matter can be found and the doubtful regions along with the borderline can be localized, then the feature in doubtful regions can be quantified. The method can assist doctors to easily diagnose whether a neonate is ill with mild HIE.

  15. Neonatal hypoxia-ischemia in rat increases doublecortin concentration in the cerebrospinal fluid.

    PubMed

    Brégère, Catherine; Fisch, Urs; Sailer, Martin H; Lieb, Wolfgang S; Chicha, Laurie; Goepfert, Fabienne; Kremer, Thomas; Guzman, Raphael

    2017-07-01

    Doublecortin (DCX) is a microtubule-associated protein widely used as an indicator of neurogenesis in immunohistochemical analyses of the postmortem adult brain. A recent study reported that DCX can be quantified in the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) from healthy rats between postnatal day 0 (P0) and P30. However, it is currently unclear whether the concentration of DCX in the CSF (CSF-DCX) may represent a measure of endogenous neurogenesis. To address this question, this study examined the impact of a neonatal hypoxic-ischemic (HI) brain injury, known to induce neurogenesis, on CSF-DCX. HI was elicited at P7 in Sprague-Dawley rat neonates, and CSF was collected serially from the cisterna magna at P5 and P10, or at P10 and P15. A sandwich immunoassay was used to measure CSF-DCX. Brains from P10 neonates were analyzed immunohistochemically for neurogenesis and cell death markers. Mean CSF-DCX was significantly higher in HI- than in sham-exposed animals, at both P10 and P15. In the HI group at P10, CSF-DCX and stroke severity correlated positively. DCX immunoreactivity was increased in the ipsilateral neurogenic niches from the P10 HI brains in comparison with that of shams. The number of proliferative DCX-positive cells was higher in the ipsilateral hippocampal subgranular zone (SGZ) than in the HI contralateral or sham SGZ. Thus, neonatal HI brain injury disrupts the developmental time-course of DCX levels in the CSF. Our data suggest that the increased concentration of DCX in the CSF after neonatal HI is the result of both cellular injury and increased neurogenesis. © 2017 Federation of European Neuroscience Societies and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  16. Neonatal Death

    MedlinePlus

    ... Home > Complications & Loss > Loss & grief > Neonatal death Neonatal death E-mail to a friend Please fill in ... cope with your baby’s death. What is neonatal death? Neonatal death is when a baby dies in ...

  17. Neuroprotection in Hypoxic-Ischemic Brain Injury Targeting Glial Cells.

    PubMed

    Mucci, Sofia; Herrera, Maria Ines; Barreto, George E; Kolliker-Frers, Rodolfo; Capani, Francisco

    2017-01-01

    Brain injury constitutes a disabling health condition of several etiologies. One of the major causes of brain injury is hypoxia-ischemia. Until recently, pharmacological treatments were solely focused on neurons. In the last decades, glial cells started to be considered as alternative targets for neuroprotection. Novel treatments for hypoxia-ischemia intend to modulate reactive forms of glial cells, and/or potentiate their recovery response. In this review, we summarize these neuroprotective strategies in hypoxia-ischemia and discuss their mechanisms of action. Copyright© Bentham Science Publishers; For any queries, please email at epub@benthamscience.org.

  18. Sex-specific effects of N-acetylcysteine in neonatal rats treated with hypothermia after severe hypoxia-ischemia.

    PubMed

    Nie, Xingju; Lowe, Danielle W; Rollins, Laura Grace; Bentzley, Jessica; Fraser, Jamie L; Martin, Renee; Singh, Inderjit; Jenkins, Dorothea

    2016-07-01

    Approximately half of moderate to severely hypoxic-ischemic (HI) newborns do not respond to hypothermia, the only proven neuroprotective treatment. N-acetylcysteine (NAC), an antioxidant and glutathione precursor, shows promise for neuroprotection in combination with hypothermia, mitigating post-HI neuroinflammation due to oxidative stress. As mechanisms of HI injury and cell death differ in males and females, sex differences must be considered in translational research of neuroprotection. We assessed the potential toxicity and efficacy of NAC in combination with hypothermia, in male and female neonatal rats after severe HI injury. NAC 50mg/kg/d administered 1h after initiation of hypothermia significantly decreased iNOS expression and caspase 3 activation in the injured hemisphere versus hypothermia alone. However, only females treated with hypothermia +NAC 50mg/kg showed improvement in short-term infarct volumes compared with saline treated animals. Hypothermia alone had no effect in this severe model. When NAC was continued for 6 weeks, significant improvement in long-term neuromotor outcomes over hypothermia treatment alone was observed, controlling for sex. Antioxidants may provide insufficient neuroprotection after HI for neonatal males in the short term, while long-term therapy may benefit both sexes. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  19. Chronic traumatic encephalopathy.

    PubMed

    Omalu, Bennet

    2014-01-01

    Chronic traumatic encephalopathy (CTE) is a progressive neurodegenerative syndrome, which is caused by single, episodic, or repetitive blunt force impacts to the head and transfer of acceleration-deceleration forces to the brain. CTE presents clinically as a composite syndrome of mood disorders and behavioral and cognitive impairment, with or without sensorimotor impairment. Symptoms of CTE may begin with persistent symptoms of acute traumatic brain injury (TBI) following a documented episode of brain trauma or after a latent period that may range from days to weeks to months and years, up to 40 years following a documented episode of brain trauma or cessation of repetitive TBI. Posttraumatic encephalopathy is distinct from CTE, can be comorbid with CTE, and is a clinicopathologic syndrome induced by focal and/or diffuse, gross and/or microscopic destruction of brain tissue following brain trauma. The brain of a CTE sufferer may appear grossly unremarkable, but shows microscopic evidence of primary and secondary proteinopathies. The primary proteinopathy of CTE is tauopathy, while secondary proteinopathies may include, but are not limited to, amyloidopathy and TDP proteinopathy. Reported prevalence rates of CTE in cohorts exposed to TBI ranges from 3 to 80% across age groups. © 2014 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  20. Hypoglycaemia and hypoxic-ischaemic encephalopathy.

    PubMed

    Boardman, James P; Hawdon, Jane M

    2015-04-01

    The transition from fetal to neonatal life requires metabolic adaptation to ensure that energy supply to vital organs and systems is maintained after separation from the placental circulation. Under normal conditions, this is achieved through the mobilization and use of alternative cerebral fuels (fatty acids, ketone bodies, and lactate) when blood glucose concentration falls. Severe hypoxia-ischaemia is associated with impaired metabolic adaptation, and animal and human data suggest that levels of hypoglycaemia that are tolerated under normal conditions can be harmful in association with hypoxia-ischaemia. The optimal target blood glucose level for ensuring adequate energy provision in hypoxic-ischaemic encephalopathy (HIE) remains unknown. However, recent data support guidance to maintain a blood glucose concentration of 2.5 mmol/L or more in neonates with signs of acute neurological dysfunction, which includes those with HIE, and this is higher than the accepted threshold of 2 mmol/L in infants without signs of neurological dysfunction or hyperinsulinism. © The Authors. Journal compilation © 2015 Mac Keith Press.

  1. Therapeutic Hypothermia and Hypoxia-Ischemia in the Term-equivalent Neonatal Rat: Characterization of a Translational Pre-clinical Model

    PubMed Central

    Patel, Shyama D.; Pierce, Leslie; Ciardiello, Amber; Hutton, Alexandra; Paskewitz, Samuel; Aronowitz, Eric; Voss, Henning U.; Moore, Holly; Vannucci, Susan J.

    2015-01-01

    Background Hypoxic-ischemic encephalopathy (HIE) is a major cause of morbidity in survivors. Therapeutic hypothermia (TH) is the only available intervention, but the protection is incomplete. Preclinical studies of HIE/TH in the rodent have relied on the postnatal day (P) 7 rat whose brain approximates a 32–36 week gestation infant, less relevant for these studies. We propose that HIE and TH in the term-equivalent P10 rat will be more translational. Methods P10–11 rat pups were subjected to unilateral hypoxia-ischemia (HI) and 4 hours recovery in normothermic (N) or hypothermic (TH) conditions. Brain damage was assessed longitudinally at 24 hours, 2 and 12 weeks. Motor function was assessed with the beam walk; recognition memory was measured by novel object recognition. Results Neuroprotection with TH was apparent at 2 and 12 weeks in both moderately and severely damaged animals. TH improved motor function in moderate, but not severe damage. Impaired object recognition occurred with severe damage with no evidence of protection of TH. Conclusion This adaptation of the immature rat model of HI provides a reproducible platform to further study HIE/TH in which individual animals are followed longitudinally to provide a useful translational preclinical model. PMID:25996893

  2. Transmissible Spongiform Encephalopathies (Prion Diseases)

    MedlinePlus

    ... have resulted from human consumption of beef from cattle with a TSE disease called bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE), also known as "mad cow disease." Other TSEs found in animals include scrapie, ...

  3. DNM1 encephalopathy

    PubMed Central

    von Spiczak, Sarah; Helbig, Katherine L.; Shinde, Deepali N.; Huether, Robert; Pendziwiat, Manuela; Lourenço, Charles; Nunes, Mark E.; Sarco, Dean P.; Kaplan, Richard A.; Dlugos, Dennis J.; Kirsch, Heidi; Slavotinek, Anne; Cilio, Maria R.; Cervenka, Mackenzie C.; Cohen, Julie S.; McClellan, Rebecca; Fatemi, Ali; Yuen, Amy; Sagawa, Yoshimi; Littlejohn, Rebecca; McLean, Scott D.; Hernandez-Hernandez, Laura; Maher, Bridget; Møller, Rikke S.; Palmer, Elizabeth; Lawson, John A.; Campbell, Colleen A.; Joshi, Charuta N.; Kolbe, Diana L.; Hollingsworth, Georgie; Neubauer, Bernd A.; Muhle, Hiltrud; Stephani, Ulrich; Scheffer, Ingrid E.; Pena, Sérgio D.J.; Sisodiya, Sanjay M.

    2017-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the phenotypic spectrum caused by mutations in dynamin 1 (DNM1), encoding the presynaptic protein DNM1, and to investigate possible genotype-phenotype correlations and predicted functional consequences based on structural modeling. Methods: We reviewed phenotypic data of 21 patients (7 previously published) with DNM1 mutations. We compared mutation data to known functional data and undertook biomolecular modeling to assess the effect of the mutations on protein function. Results: We identified 19 patients with de novo mutations in DNM1 and a sibling pair who had an inherited mutation from a mosaic parent. Seven patients (33.3%) carried the recurrent p.Arg237Trp mutation. A common phenotype emerged that included severe to profound intellectual disability and muscular hypotonia in all patients and an epilepsy characterized by infantile spasms in 16 of 21 patients, frequently evolving into Lennox-Gastaut syndrome. Two patients had profound global developmental delay without seizures. In addition, we describe a single patient with normal development before the onset of a catastrophic epilepsy, consistent with febrile infection-related epilepsy syndrome at 4 years. All mutations cluster within the GTPase or middle domains, and structural modeling and existing functional data suggest a dominant-negative effect on DMN1 function. Conclusions: The phenotypic spectrum of DNM1-related encephalopathy is relatively homogeneous, in contrast to many other genetic epilepsies. Up to one-third of patients carry the recurrent p.Arg237Trp variant, which is now one of the most common recurrent variants in epileptic encephalopathies identified to date. Given the predicted dominant-negative mechanism of this mutation, this variant presents a prime target for therapeutic intervention. PMID:28667181

  4. Gasoline sniffing and lead encephalopathy.

    PubMed Central

    Ross, C. A.

    1982-01-01

    Gasoline sniffing is endemic in northern Manitoba and perhaps throughout much of northern Canada. Its most serious complication is lead encephalopathy, which can be fatal. Most of the toxic effects are thought to be due to tetraethyl lead and its metabolites. The specific treatment is chelation therapy, for which a protocol has been developed at the Health Sciences Centre, Winnipeg. Lead encephalopathy, however, is a manifestation of social, cultural and psychologic malaise. PMID:7139470

  5. Newborns Referred for Therapeutic Hypothermia: Association between Initial Degree of Encephalopathy and Severity of Brain Injury (What About the Newborns with Mild Encephalopathy on Admission?).

    PubMed

    Gagne-Loranger, Maude; Sheppard, Megan; Ali, Nabeel; Saint-Martin, Christine; Wintermark, Pia

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this article was to describe the severity of brain injury and/or mortality in a cohort of newborns referred for therapeutic hypothermia, in relation to the degree of encephalopathy on admission, and to especially look at the ones with initial mild encephalopathy. Term newborns with perinatal depression referred to our neonatal intensive care unit for possible hypothermia treatment from 2008 to 2012 were enrolled prospectively. The modified Sarnat score on admission was correlated with severity of brain injury on brain imaging and/or autopsy. A total of 215 newborns were referred for possible cooling. Sixty percent (128/215) were cooled. Most of the not-cooled newborns with an available brain magnetic resonance imaging (85% = 50/59) had an initial mild encephalopathy, and 40% (20/50) developed brain injury. Some cooled newborns had an initial mild encephalopathy (12% = 13/108); only 31% (4/13) developed brain injury. Our results demonstrated that several newborns with an initial mild encephalopathy developed subsequent brain injury, especially when they were not cooled. Thieme Medical Publishers 333 Seventh Avenue, New York, NY 10001, USA.

  6. Adherence to Hypothermia Guidelines: A French Multicenter Study of Fullterm Neonates

    PubMed Central

    Chevallier, Marie; Ego, Anne; Cans, Christine; Debillon, Thierry

    2013-01-01

    Aim The objective of this study was to describe the French practice of hypothermia treatment (HT) in full-term newborns with hypoxic-ischemic encephalopathy (HIE) and to analyze the deviations from the guidelines of the French Society of Neonatology. Materials and Methods From May 2010 to March 2012 we recorded all cases of HIE treated by HT in a French national database. The population was divided into three groups, "optimal HT" (OHT), “late HT” (LHT) and “non-indicated” HT (NIHT), according to the guidelines. Results Of the 311 newborns registered in the database and having HT, 65% were classified in the OHT group, 22% and 13% in the LHT and NIHT groups respectively. The severity of asphyxia and HIE were comparable between newborns with OHT and LHT, apart from EEG. HT was initiated at a mean time of 12 hours of life in the LHT group. An acute obstetrical event was more likely to be identified among newborns with LHT (46%), compared to OHT (34%) and NIHT (22%). There was a gradation in the rate of complications from the NIHT group (29%) to the LHT (38%) group and the OHT group (52%). Despite an insignificant difference in the rates of death or abnormal neurological examination at discharge, nearly 60% of newborns in the OHT group had an MRI showing abnormalities, compared to 44% and 49% in the LHT and NIHT groups respectively. Conclusion The conduct of the HT for HIE newborns is not consistent with French guidelines for 35% of newborns, 22% being explained by an excessive delay in the start of HT, 13% by the lack of adherence to the clinical indications. This first report illustrates the difficulties in implementing guidelines for HT and should argue for an optimization of perinatal care for HIE. PMID:24391817

  7. The transmissible spongiform encephalopathies of livestock

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Prion diseases or transmissible spongiform encephalopathies (TSEs) are fatal protein misfolding neurodegenerative diseases. TSEs have been described in several species including bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE) in cattle, scrapie in sheep and goats, chronic wasting disease (CWD) in cervids, tr...

  8. Serial cytokine alterations and abnormal neuroimaging in newborn infants with encephalopathy.

    PubMed

    O'Hare, Fiona M; Watson, R William G; O'Neill, Amanda; Segurado, Ricardo; Sweetman, Deirdre; Downey, Paul; Mooney, Eoghan; Murphy, John; Donoghue, Veronica; Molloy, Eleanor J

    2017-04-01

    Inflammatory cytokines may play a role in the final common pathway in the pathogenesis of hypoxic-ischaemic injury in experimental models. We aimed to profile the systemic pro-and anti-inflammatory response over the first week of life in term infants at risk of neonatal encephalopathy. In a tertiary referral university neonatal intensive care unit, serial blood samples were analysed from 41 term infants (requiring resuscitation at birth) in this prospective observational pilot study. Serum levels of 10 pro-and anti-inflammatory cytokines were evaluated including interleukin(IL)-1α, IL-1β, IL-6, IL-8, IL-10, tumour necrosis factor(TNF)-α, interferon (IFN)-γ, vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), granulocyte/colony-stimulating factor (G-CSF) and granulocyte macrophage/colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF). Infants with neonatal encephalopathy and abnormal neuroimaging (n = 15) had significantly elevated granulocyte macrophage/colony-stimulating factor at 0-24 h and interleukin-8, interleukin-6 and interleukin-10 at 24-48 hour. Tumour necrosis factor-α and vascular endothelial growth factor levels were lower at 72-96 hour (p < 0.05). Significantly elevated levels of interleukin-10 were associated with mortality. Serum cytokine changes and innate immune dysregulation in the first week of life may be indicators of outcome in neonatal encephalopathy but require validation in larger studies. ©2017 Foundation Acta Paediatrica. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  9. Curved reformat of the paediatric brain MRI into a 'flat-earth map' - standardised method for demonstrating cortical surface atrophy resulting from hypoxic-ischaemic encephalopathy.

    PubMed

    Simpson, Ewan; Andronikou, Savvas; Vedajallam, Schadie; Chacko, Anith; Thai, Ngoc Jade

    2016-09-01

    Hypoxic-ischaemic encephalopathy is optimally imaged with brain MRI in the neonatal period. However neuroimaging is often also performed later in childhood (e.g., when parents seek compensation in cases of alleged birth asphyxia). We describe a standardised technique for creating two curved reconstructions of the cortical surface to show the characteristic surface changes of hypoxic-ischaemic encephalopathy in children imaged after the neonatal period. The technique was applied for 10 cases of hypoxic-ischaemic encephalopathy and also for age-matched healthy children to assess the visibility of characteristic features of hypoxic-ischaemic encephalopathy. In the abnormal brains, fissural or sulcal widening was seen in all cases and ulegyria was identifiable in 7/10. These images could be used as a visual aid for communicating MRI findings to clinicians and other interested parties.

  10. Recent advances in hepatic encephalopathy

    PubMed Central

    DeMorrow, Sharon

    2017-01-01

    Hepatic encephalopathy describes the array of neurological alterations that occur during acute liver failure or chronic liver injury. While key players in the pathogenesis of hepatic encephalopathy, such as increases in brain ammonia, alterations in neurosteroid levels, and neuroinflammation, have been identified, there is still a paucity in our knowledge of the precise pathogenic mechanism. This review gives a brief overview of our understanding of the pathogenesis of hepatic encephalopathy and then summarizes the significant recent advances made in clinical and basic research contributing to our understanding, diagnosis, and possible treatment of hepatic encephalopathy. A literature search using the PubMed database was conducted in May 2017 using “hepatic encephalopathy” as a keyword, and selected manuscripts were limited to those research articles published since May 2014. While the authors acknowledge that many significant advances have been made in the understanding of hepatic encephalopathy prior to May 2014, we have limited the scope of this review to the previous three years only. PMID:29026534

  11. Effects of Cannabidiol and Hypothermia on Short-Term Brain Damage in New-Born Piglets after Acute Hypoxia-Ischemia

    PubMed Central

    Lafuente, Hector; Pazos, Maria R.; Alvarez, Antonia; Mohammed, Nagat; Santos, Martín; Arizti, Maialen; Alvarez, Francisco J.; Martinez-Orgado, Jose A.

    2016-01-01

    Hypothermia is a standard treatment for neonatal encephalopathy, but nearly 50% of treated infants have adverse outcomes. Pharmacological therapies can act through complementary mechanisms with hypothermia improving neuroprotection. Cannabidiol could be a good candidate. Our aim was to test whether immediate treatment with cannabidiol and hypothermia act through complementary brain pathways in hypoxic-ischemic newborn piglets. Hypoxic-ischemic animals were randomly divided into four groups receiving 30 min after the insult: (1) normothermia and vehicle administration; (2) normothermia and cannabidiol administration; (3) hypothermia and vehicle administration; and (4) hypothermia and cannabidiol administration. Six hours after treatment, brains were processed to quantify the number of damaged neurons by Nissl staining. Proton nuclear magnetic resonance spectra were obtained and analyzed for lactate, N-acetyl-aspartate and glutamate. Metabolite ratios were calculated to assess neuronal damage (lactate/N-acetyl-aspartate) and excitotoxicity (glutamate/Nacetyl-aspartate). Western blot studies were performed to quantify protein nitrosylation (oxidative stress), content of caspase-3 (apoptosis) and TNFα (inflammation). Individually, the hypothermia and the cannabidiol treatments reduced the glutamate/Nacetyl-aspartate ratio, as well as TNFα and oxidized protein levels in newborn piglets subjected to hypoxic-ischemic insult. Also, both therapies reduced the number of necrotic neurons and prevented an increase in lactate/N-acetyl-aspartate ratio. The combined effect of hypothermia and cannabidiol on excitotoxicity, inflammation and oxidative stress, and on cell damage, was greater than either hypothermia or cannabidiol alone. The present study demonstrated that cannabidiol and hypothermia act complementarily and show additive effects on the main factors leading to hypoxic-ischemic brain damage if applied shortly after the insult. PMID:27462203

  12. Time-to-Surgery and Pre-operative Cerebral Hemodynamics Predict Post-operative White Matter Injury in Neonates with Hypoplastic Left Heart Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Lynch, Jennifer M.; Buckley, Erin M.; Schwab, Peter J.; McCarthy, Ann L.; Winters, Madeline E.; Busch, David R.; Xiao, Rui; Goff, Donna A.; Nicolson, Susan C.; Montenegro, Lisa M.; Fuller, Stephanie; Gaynor, J. William; Spray, Thomas L.; Yodh, Arjun G.; Naim, Maryam Y.; Licht, Daniel J.

    2014-01-01

    Objective Hypoxic-ischemic white mater brain injury commonly occurs in neonates with hypoplastic left heart syndrome (HLHS). Approximately half of the HLHS survivors exhibit neurobehavioral symptoms believed to be associated with this injury, though the exact timing of the injury is not known. Methods Neonates with HLHS were recruited for pre- and post-operative monitoring of cerebral oxygen saturation (ScO2), cerebral oxygen extraction fraction (OEF), and cerebral blood flow (CBF) using two non-invasive optical-based techniques, namely diffuse optical spectroscopy and diffuse correlation spectroscopy. Anatomical magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) scans were performed prior to and approximately one week after surgery in order to quantify the extent and timing of the acquired white matter injury. Risk factors for developing new or worsened white matter injury were assessed using uni- and multi-variate logistic regression. Results Thirty-seven neonates with HLHS were studied. In a univariate analysis, neonates who developed a large volume of new, or worsened, postoperative white matter injury had a significantly longer time-to-surgery (p=0.0003). In a multivariate model, longer time between birth and surgery (i.e., time-to-surgery), delayed sternal closure, and higher pre-operative CBF were predictors of post-operative white matter injury. Additionally, longer time-to-surgery and higher pre-operative CBF on morning of surgery were correlated with lower ScO2 (p=0.03 and p=0.05) and higher OEF (p=0.05 and p=0.05). Conclusions Longer time-to-surgery is associated with new post-operative white matter injury in otherwise healthy neonates with HLHS. The results suggest that earlier Norwood palliation may decrease the likelihood of acquiring postoperative white matter injury. PMID:25109755

  13. Chloroquine inhibits autophagy and deteriorates the mitochondrial dysfunction and apoptosis in hypoxic rat neurons.

    PubMed

    Li, Peng; Hao, Lei; Guo, Yan-Yan; Yang, Guang-Lu; Mei, Hua; Li, Xiao-Hua; Zhai, Qiong-Xiang

    2018-06-01

    Mitochondrial dysfunction (MD) and apoptosis in the neurons are associated with neonatal hypoxic-ischemic (HI) encephalopathy (HIE). The present study was to explore the influence of autophagy on the induction of MD and apoptosis in the neurons in a neonatal HIE rats and in hypoxia-treated neurons in vitro. Ten-day-old HI rat pups were sacrificed for brain pathological examination and immunohistochemical analysis. The induction of autophagy, apoptosis and MD were also determined in the neurons under hypoxia, with or without autophagy inhibitor, chloroquine (CQ) treatment. HI treatment caused atrophy and apoptosis of neurons, with a significantly increased levels of apoptosis- and autophagy-associated proteins, such as cleaved caspase 3 and the B subunit of autophagy-related microtubule-associated protein 1 light chain 3 (LC3-B). in vitro experiments demonstrated that the hypoxia induced autophagy in neurons, as was inhibited by CQ. The hypoxia-induced cytochrome c release, cleaved caspase 3 and cleaved caspase 9 were aggravated by CQ. Moreover, there were higher levels of reactive oxygen species, more mitochondrial superoxide and less mitochondrial membrane potential in the CQ-treated neurons under hypoxia than in the neurons singularly under hypoxia. Apoptosis and autophagy were induced in HI neonatal rat neurons, autophagy inhibition deteriorates the hypoxia-induced neuron MD and apoptosis. It implies a neuroprotection of autophagy in the hypoxic-ischemic encephalopathy. Administration of autophagy inducer agents might be promising in HIE treatment. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  14. Periventricular leukomalacia

    MedlinePlus

    ... nih.gov/pubmed/15635108 . Volpe JJ. Hypoxic-ischemic encephalopathy: neuropathology and pathogenesis. In: Volpe JJ, ed. Neurology of the Newborn . 5th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier Saunders; 2008:chap ...

  15. Cooling for newborns with hypoxic ischaemic encephalopathy.

    PubMed

    Jacobs, Susan E; Berg, Marie; Hunt, Rod; Tarnow-Mordi, William O; Inder, Terrie E; Davis, Peter G

    2013-01-31

    Newborn animal studies and pilot studies in humans suggest that mild hypothermia following peripartum hypoxia-ischaemia in newborn infants may reduce neurological sequelae without adverse effects. To determine the effect of therapeutic hypothermia in encephalopathic asphyxiated newborn infants on mortality, long-term neurodevelopmental disability and clinically important side effects. We used the standard search strategy of the Cochrane Neonatal Review Group as outlined in The Cochrane Library (Issue 2, 2007). Randomised controlled trials evaluating therapeutic hypothermia in term and late preterm newborns with hypoxic ischaemic encephalopathy were identified by searching the Oxford Database of Perinatal Trials, the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL, The Cochrane Library, 2007, Issue 2), MEDLINE (1966 to June 2007), previous reviews including cross-references, abstracts, conferences, symposia proceedings, expert informants and journal handsearching. We updated this search in May 2012. We included randomised controlled trials comparing the use of therapeutic hypothermia with standard care in encephalopathic term or late preterm infants with evidence of peripartum asphyxia and without recognisable major congenital anomalies. The primary outcome measure was death or long-term major neurodevelopmental disability. Other outcomes included adverse effects of cooling and 'early' indicators of neurodevelopmental outcome. Four review authors independently selected, assessed the quality of and extracted data from the included studies. Study authors were contacted for further information. Meta-analyses were performed using risk ratios (RR) and risk differences (RD) for dichotomous data, and weighted mean difference for continuous data with 95% confidence intervals (CI). We included 11 randomised controlled trials in this updated review, comprising 1505 term and late preterm infants with moderate/severe encephalopathy and evidence of intrapartum asphyxia

  16. Neonatal sepsis

    MedlinePlus

    ... BE. Perinatal viral infections. In Martin RJ, Fanaroff AA, Walsh MC, eds. Fanaroff and Martin's Neonatal-Perinatal ... K. Postnatal bacterial infections. In Martin RJ, Fanaroff AA, Walsh MC, eds. Fanaroff and Martin's Neonatal-Perinatal ...

  17. Effect of Moderate Hypothermia on Gene Expression by THP-1 Cells: A DNA Microarray Study

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2006-01-01

    h was found to improve both survival and neurological outcomes in newborn infants suffering from hypoxic-ischemic encephalopathy (17). Al- though the...from adults and newborns . J Interferon Cytokine Res 20: 1049–1055, 2000. 7. Farrell RE Jr. Determination of nucleic acid concentration and purity. In...hypoxic-ischemic encephalopathy . N Engl J Med 353: 1574–1584, 2005. 18. Sonna LA, Cullivan ML, Sheldon HK, Pratt RE, and Lilly CM. Effect of hypoxia

  18. Genetics Home Reference: ethylmalonic encephalopathy

    MedlinePlus

    ... Tiranti V, Zeviani M. Altered sulfide (H(2)S) metabolism in ethylmalonic encephalopathy. Cold Spring Harb Perspect Biol. 2013 Jan 1;5(1):a011437. doi: 10.1101/cshperspect.a011437. Review. Citation on PubMed or Free article on PubMed Central More from Genetics Home Reference ...

  19. Granulomatous herpes simplex encephalitis in an infant with multicystic encephalopathy: a distinct clinicopathologic entity?

    PubMed

    Schutz, Peter W; Fauth, Clarissa T; Al-Rawahi, Ghada N; Pugash, Denise; White, Valerie A; Stockler, Sylvia; Dunham, Christopher P

    2014-04-01

    Herpes simplex virus encephalitis can manifest as a range of clinical presentations including classic adult, neonatal, and biphasic chronic-granulomatous herpes encephalitis. We report an infant with granulomatous herpes simplex virus type 2 encephalitis with a subacute course and multicystic encephalopathy. A 2-month-old girl presented with lethargy and hypothermia. Computed tomography scan of the head showed multicystic encephalopathy and calcifications. Cerebrospinal fluid analysis by polymerase chain reaction testing for herpes simplex virus 1 and 2, enterovirus, and cytomegalovirus was negative. Normal cerebrospinal fluid interferon-α levels argued against Aicardi-Goutières syndrome. The patient died 2 weeks after presentation. At autopsy, multicystic encephalopathy was confirmed with bilateral gliosis, granulomatous inflammation with multinucleated giant cells, and calcifications. Bilateral healing necrotizing retinitis suggested a viral etiology, but retina and brain were free of viral inclusions and immunohistochemically negative for herpes simplex virus-2 and cytomegalovirus. However, polymerase chain reaction analysis showed herpes simplex virus-2 DNA in four cerebral paraffin blocks. Subsequent repeat testing of the initial cerebrospinal fluid sample using a different polymerase chain reaction assay was weakly positive for herpes simplex virus-2 DNA. Granulomatous herpes simplex virus encephalitis in infants can present with subacute course and result in multicystic encephalopathy with mineralization and minimal cerebrospinal fluid herpes simplex virus DNA load. Infectious etiologies should be carefully investigated in the differential diagnosis of multicystic encephalopathy with mineralization, in particular if multinucleated giant cells are present. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Pharmacotherapy for hepatic encephalopathy.

    PubMed

    Phongsamran, Paula V; Kim, Jiwon W; Cupo Abbott, Jennifer; Rosenblatt, Angela

    2010-06-18

    Hepatic encephalopathy (HE) is a challenging clinical complication of liver dysfunction with a wide spectrum of neuropsychiatric abnormalities that range from mild disturbances in cognitive function and consciousness to coma and death. The pathogenesis of HE in cirrhosis is complex and multifactorial, but a key role is thought to be played by circulating gut-derived toxins of the nitrogenous compounds, most notably ammonia. Therapeutic treatment options for HE are currently limited and have appreciable risks and benefits associated with their use. Management of HE primarily involves avoidance of precipitating factors, limitation of dietary protein intake, and administration of various ammonia-lowering therapies such as non-absorbable disaccharides and select antimicrobial agents. Non-absorbable disaccharides, such as lactulose, have traditionally been regarded as first-line pharmacotherapy for patients with HE. However, multiple adverse events have been associated with their use. In addition, recent literature has questioned the true efficacy of the disaccharides for this indication. Neomycin, metronidazole and vancomycin may be used as alternative treatments for patients intolerant or unresponsive to non-absorbable disaccharides. Antimicrobials reduce bacterial production of ammonia and other bacteria-derived toxins through suppression of intestinal flora. Neomycin has been reported to be as effective as lactulose, and similar efficacy has been reported with vancomycin and metronidazole for the management of HE. However, the adverse effects frequently associated with these antimicrobials limit their use as first-line pharmacological agents. Neomycin is the most commonly used antimicrobial for HE and, although poorly absorbed, systemic exposure to the drug in sufficient amounts causes hearing loss and renal toxicity. Long-term neomycin therapy requires annual auditory testing and continuous monitoring of renal function. Long-term use of metronidazole has been

  1. Antepartum risk factors for newborn encephalopathy: the Western Australian case-control study

    PubMed Central

    Badawi, Nadia; Kurinczuk, Jennifer J; Keogh, John M; Alessandri, Louisa M; O’Sullivan, Fiona; Burton, Paul R; Pemberton, Patrick J; Stanley, Fiona J

    1998-01-01

    Objective To ascertain antepartum predictors of newborn encephalopathy in term infants. Design Population based, unmatched case-control study. Setting Metropolitan area of Western Australia, June 1993 to September 1995. Subjects All 164 term infants with moderate or severe newborn encephalopathy; 400 randomly selected controls. Main outcome measures Adjusted odds ratio estimates. Results The birth prevalence of moderate or severe newborn encephalopathy was 3.8/1000 term live births. The neonatal fatality was 9.1%. The risk of newborn encephalopathy increased with increasing maternal age and decreased with increasing parity. There was an increased risk associated with having a mother who was unemployed (odds ratio 3.60), an unskilled manual worker (3.84), or a housewife (2.48). Other risk factors from before conception were not having private health insurance (3.46), a family history of seizures (2.55), a family history of neurological disease (2.73), and infertility treatment (4.43). Risk factors during pregnancy were maternal thyroid disease (9.7), severe pre-eclampsia (6.30), moderate or severe bleeding (3.57), a clinically diagnosed viral illness (2.97), not having drunk alcohol (2.91); and placenta described at delivery as abnormal (2.07). Factors related to the baby were birth weight adjusted for gestational age between the third and ninth centile (4.37) or below the third centile (38.23). The risk relation with gestational age was J shaped with 38 and 39 weeks having the lowest risk. Conclusions The causes of newborn encephalopathy are heterogeneous and many of the causal pathways start before birth. Key messagesThe birth prevalence of moderate or severe newborn encephalopathy was 3.8 per 1000 term live births and the neonatal case fatality was 9.1%Independent risk factors before conception and in the antepartum period for newborn encephalopathy include socioeconomic status, family history of seizures or other neurological disease, conception after

  2. Bilirubin-Induced Neurotoxicity in the Preterm Neonate.

    PubMed

    Watchko, Jon F

    2016-06-01

    Bilirubin-induced neurotoxicity in preterm neonates remains a clinical concern. Multiple cellular and molecular cascades likely underlie bilirubin-induced neuronal injury, including plasma membrane perturbations, excitotoxicity, neuroinflammation, oxidative stress, and cell cycle arrest. Preterm newborns are particularly vulnerable secondary to central nervous system immaturity and concurrent adverse clinical conditions that may potentiate bilirubin toxicity. Acute bilirubin encephalopathy in preterm neonates may be subtle and manifest primarily as recurrent symptomatic apneic events. Low-bilirubin kernicterus continues to be reported in preterm neonates, and although multifactorial in nature, is often associated with marked hypoalbuminemia. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Genetics Home Reference: STXBP1 encephalopathy with epilepsy

    MedlinePlus

    ... Conditions STXBP1 encephalopathy with epilepsy STXBP1 encephalopathy with epilepsy Printable PDF Open All Close All Enable Javascript ... the expand/collapse boxes. Description STXBP1 encephalopathy with epilepsy is a condition characterized by recurrent seizures (epilepsy), ...

  4. Genetics Home Reference: early infantile epileptic encephalopathy 1

    MedlinePlus

    ... infantile epileptic encephalopathy 1 Early infantile epileptic encephalopathy 1 Printable PDF Open All Close All Enable Javascript to view the expand/collapse boxes. Description Early infantile epileptic encephalopathy 1 (EIEE1) is ...

  5. Up-regulation of miR-325-3p suppresses pineal aralkylamine N-acetyltransferase (Aanat) after neonatal hypoxia-ischemia brain injury in rats.

    PubMed

    Yang, Yuanyuan; Sun, Bin; Huang, Jian; Xu, Lixiao; Pan, Jian; Fang, Chen; Li, Mei; Li, Gen; Tao, Yanfang; Yang, Xiaofeng; Wu, Ying; Miao, Po; Wang, Ying; Li, Hong; Ren, Jing; Zhan, Meiqin; Fang, Yiping; Feng, Xing; Ding, Xin

    2017-08-01

    Survivors of hypoxic-ischemic brain damage (HIBD), besides impairment of psychomotor development, often develop circadian rhythm disorders, although the underlying mechanisms are largely unknown. Here, we first verified that mRNA and protein expression of pineal aralkylamine N-acetyltransferase (Aanat), a key regulator for melatonin (MT) synthesis, along with MT, were severely impaired after HIBD. In addition, we demonstrated that neonatal HIBD disrupted the circadian rhythmicity of locomotor activities in juvenile rats. Based on bioinformatics analysis of a high throughput screening of miRNA expression changes after HIBD (Ding et al., 2015), we identified one microRNA, miR-325-3p, as a potential candidate responsible for the down regulation of Aanat after HIBD. Luciferase reporter assays demonstrated a specific interaction between miR-325-3p and Aanat mRNA 3'-UTR. miR-325-3p blocked norepinephrine (NE) induced Aanat activation in cultured pinealocytes. In addition, miR-325-3p inhibition partially rescued Aanat induction by NE, which was significantly reduced under oxygen glucose deprivation. By elucidating the role of pineal miR-325-3p on Aanat expression upon injury, our study provides new insights into the pathophysiological mechanisms of circadian dysfunction and potential therapeutic targets after HIBD. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. The posterior reversible encephalopathy syndrome.

    PubMed

    Sanjay, K Mandal; Partha, P Chakraborty

    2008-09-01

    The posterior/potentially reversible encephalopathy syndrome is a unique syndrome encountered commonly in hypertensive encephalopathy. A 13-year-old boy presented with of intermittent high grade fever, throbbing headache and non-projective vomiting for 5 days. The patient had a blood pressure of 120/80 mmHg but fundoscopy documented grade 3 hypertensive retinopathy. The patient improved symptomatically following conservative management. However, on the 5(th) post-admission day headache reappeared, and blood pressure measured at that time was 240/120 mmHg. Neuroimaging suggested white matter abnormalities. Search for the etiology of secondary hypertension led to the diagnosis of pheochromocytoma. Repeated MRI after successful surgical excision of the tumor patient showed reversal of white matter abnormalities. Reversible leucoencephalopathy due to pheochromocytoma have not been documented in literature previously.

  7. Valproic acid induced hyperammonaemic encephalopathy.

    PubMed

    Amanat, Saima; Shahbaz, Naila; Hassan, Yasmin

    2013-01-01

    To observe clinical and laboratory features of valproic acid-induced hyperammonaemic encephalopathy in patients taking valproic acid. Observational study was conducted at the Neurology Department, Dow University of Health Sciences, Civil Hospital, Karachi, from February 26, 2010 to March 20, 2011. Ten patients on valproic acid therapy of any age group with idiopathic or secondary epilepsy, who presented with encephalopathic symptoms, were registered and followed up during the study. Serum ammonia level, serum valproic acid level, liver function test, cerebrospinal fluid examination, electroencephalogram and brain imaging of all the patients were done. Other causes of encephalopathy were excluded after clinical and appropriate laboratory investigations. Microsoft Excell 2007 was used for statistical analysis. Hyperammonaemia was found in all patients with encephalopathic symptoms. Rise in serum ammonia was independent of dose and serum level of valproic acid. Liver function was also found to be normal in 80% (n = 8) of the patients. Valproic acid was withdrawn in all patients. Three (30%) patients improved only after the withdrawal of valproic acid. Six (60%) patients improved after L-Carnitine replacement, one (10%) after sodium benzoate. On followup, serum ammonia had reduced to normal in five (50%) patients and to more than half of the baseline level in two (20%) patients. Three (30%) patients were lost to followup after complete clinical improvement. Within therapeutic dose and serum levels, valproic acid can cause symptomatic hyperammonaemia resulting in encephalopathy. All patients taking valproic acid presenting with encephalopathic symptoms must be monitored for the condition.

  8. The Thompson Encephalopathy Score and Short-Term Outcomes in Asphyxiated Newborns Treated With Therapeutic Hypothermia.

    PubMed

    Thorsen, Patricia; Jansen-van der Weide, Martine C; Groenendaal, Floris; Onland, Wes; van Straaten, Henrika L M; Zonnenberg, Inge; Vermeulen, Jeroen R; Dijk, Peter H; Dudink, Jeroen; Rijken, Monique; van Heijst, Arno; Dijkman, Koen P; Cools, Filip; Zecic, Alexandra; van Kaam, Anton H; de Haan, Timo R

    2016-07-01

    The Thompson encephalopathy score is a clinical score to assess newborns suffering from perinatal asphyxia. Previous studies revealed a high sensitivity and specificity of the Thompson encephalopathy score for adverse outcomes (death or severe disability). Because the Thompson encephalopathy score was developed before the use of therapeutic hypothermia, its value was reassessed. The purpose of this study was to assess the association of the Thompson encephalopathy score with adverse short-term outcomes, defined as death before discharge, development of severe epilepsy, or the presence of multiple organ failure in asphyxiated newborns undergoing therapeutic hypothermia. The study period ranged from November 2010 to October 2014. A total of 12 tertiary neonatal intensive care units participated. Demographic and clinical data were collected from the "PharmaCool" multicenter study, an observational cohort study analyzing pharmacokinetics of medication during therapeutic hypothermia. With multiple logistic regression analyses the association of the Thompson encephalopathy scores with outcomes was studied. Data of 142 newborns were analyzed (male: 86; female: 56). Median Thompson score was 9 (interquartile range: 8 to 12). Median gestational age was 40 weeks (interquartile range 38 to 41), mean birth weight was 3362 grams (standard deviation: 605). All newborns manifested perinatal asphyxia and underwent therapeutic hypothermia. Death before discharge occurred in 23.9% and severe epilepsy in 21.1% of the cases. In total, 59.2% of the patients had multiple organ failure. The Thompson encephalopathy score was not associated with multiple organ failure, but a Thompson encephalopathy score ≥12 was associated with death before discharge (odds ratio: 3.9; confidence interval: 1.3 to 11.2) and with development of severe epilepsy (odds ratio: 8.4; confidence interval: 2.5 to 27.8). The Thompson encephalopathy score is a useful clinical tool, even in cooled asphyxiated

  9. A Pilot Study of Inhaled CO Therapy in Neonatal Hypoxia-Ischemia: Carboxyhemoglobin Concentrations and Brain Volumes.

    PubMed

    Douglas-Escobar, Martha; Mendes, Monique; Rossignol, Candace; Bliznyuk, Nikolay; Faraji, Ariana; Ahmad, Abdullah S; Doré, Sylvain; Weiss, Michael D

    2018-01-01

    Objective: The objective of this pilot study was to start evaluating the efficacy and the safety (i.e., carboxyhemoglobin concentration of carbon monoxide (CO)) as a putative neuroprotective therapy in neonates. Study Design: Neonatal C57BL/6 mice were exposed to CO at a concentration of either 200 or 250 ppm for a period of 1 h. The pups were then sacrificed at 0, 10, 20, 60, 120, 180, and 240 min after exposure to either concentration of CO, and blood was collected for analysis of carboxyhemoglobin. Following the safety study, 7-day-old pups underwent a unilateral carotid ligation. After recovery, the pups were exposed to a humidified gas mixture of 8% oxygen and 92% nitrogen for 20 min in a hypoxia chamber. One hour after the hypoxia exposure, the pups were randomized to one of two groups: air (HI+A) or carbon monoxide (HI+CO). An inhaled dose of 250 ppm of CO was administered to the pups for 1 h per day for a period of 3 days. At 7 days post-injury, the pups were sacrificed and the brains analyzed for cortical and hippocampal volumes. Results: CO exposure at 200 and 250 ppm produced a peak carboxyhemoglobin concentration of 21.52 ± 1.18% and 27.55 ± 3.58%, respectively. The carboxyhemoglobin concentrations decreased rapidly, reaching control concentrations by 60 min post exposure. At 14 days of age (7 days post injury), the HI+CO (treated with 1 h per day of 250 ppm of CO for 3 days post injury) had significant preservation of the ratio of ipsilateral to contralateral cortex (median 1.07, 25% 0.97, 75% 1.23, n = 10) compared the HI+A group ( p < 0.05). Conclusion: CO exposure of 250 ppm did not reach carboxyhemoglobin concentrations which would induce acute neurologic abnormalities and was effective in preserving cortical volumes following hypoxic-ischemic injury.

  10. Intranasally administered mesenchymal stem cells promote a regenerative niche for repair of neonatal ischemic brain injury.

    PubMed

    Donega, Vanessa; Nijboer, Cora H; van Tilborg, Geralda; Dijkhuizen, Rick M; Kavelaars, Annemieke; Heijnen, Cobi J

    2014-11-01

    Previous work from our group has shown that intranasal MSC-treatment decreases lesion volume and improves motor and cognitive behavior after hypoxic-ischemic (HI) brain damage in neonatal mice. Our aim was to determine the kinetics of MSC migration after intranasal administration, and the early effects of MSCs on neurogenic processes and gliosis at the lesion site. HI brain injury was induced in 9-day-old mice and MSCs were administered intranasally at 10days post-HI. The kinetics of MSC migration were investigated by immunofluorescence and MRI analysis. BDNF and NGF gene expression was determined by qPCR analysis following MSC co-culture with HI brain extract. Nestin, Doublecortin, NeuN, GFAP, Iba-1 and M1/M2 phenotypic expression was assessed over time. MRI and immunohistochemistry analyses showed that MSCs reach the lesion site already within 2h after intranasal administration. At 12h after administration the number of MSCs at the lesion site peaks and decreases significantly at 72h. The number of DCX(+) cells increased 1 to 3days after MSC administration in the SVZ. At the lesion, GFAP(+)/nestin(+) and DCX(+) expression increased 3 to 5days after MSC-treatment. The number of NeuN(+) cells increased within 5days, leading to a dramatic regeneration of the somatosensory cortex and hippocampus at 18days after intranasal MSC administration. Interestingly, MSCs expressed significantly more BDNF gene when exposed to HI brain extract in vitro. Furthermore, MSC-treatment resulted in the resolution of the glial scar surrounding the lesion, represented by a decrease in reactive astrocytes and microglia and polarization of microglia towards the M2 phenotype. In view of the current lack of therapeutic strategies, we propose that intranasal MSC administration is a powerful therapeutic option through its functional repair of the lesion represented by regeneration of the cortical and hippocampal structure and decrease of gliosis. Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  11. Hypoxia-ischemia brain damage disrupts brain cholesterol homeostasis in neonatal rats.

    PubMed

    Yu, Z; Li, S; Lv, S H; Piao, H; Zhang, Y H; Zhang, Y M; Ma, H; Zhang, J; Sun, C K; Li, A P

    2009-08-01

    The first 3 weeks of life is the peak time of oligodendrocytes development and also the critical period of cholesterol increasing dramatically in central nervous system in rats. Neonatal hypoxia-ischemia (HI) brain damage happening in this period may disturb the brain cholesterol balance as well as white matter development. To test this hypothesis, postnatal day 7 (P7) Sprague-Dawley rats were subjected to HI insult. Cholesterol concentrations from brain and plasma were measured. White matter integrity was evaluated by densitometric analysis of myelin basic protein (MBP) immunostaining and electron microscopy. Brain TNF-alpha and IL-6 levels were also measured. HI-induced brain cholesterol, but not the plasma cholesterol, levels decreased significantly during the first three days after HI compared with naïve and sham operated rats (p<0.05). Obvious hypomyelination was indicated by marked reductions in MBP immunostaining on both P10 and P14 (p<0.01) and less and thinner myelinated axons were detected on P21 by electron microscopy observation. High expressions of brain TNF-alpha and IL-6 12 h after HI (p<0.05) were also observed. The present work provides evidence that HI insult destroyed brain cholesterol homeostasis, which might be important in the molecular pathology of hypoxic-ischemic white matter injury. Proinflammatory cytokines insulting oligodendrocytes, may cause cholesterol unbalance. Furthermore, specific therapeutic interventions to maintain brain cholesterol balance may be effective for the recovery of white matter function. Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart New York.

  12. Associations between birth at, or after, 41 weeks gestation and perinatal encephalopathy: a cohort study

    PubMed Central

    Yau, Christopher; Winter, Cathy; Draycott, Timothy; Rasmussen, Finn

    2018-01-01

    Background Preterm birth causes long-term problems, even for infants born 1 or 2 weeks early. However, less is known about infants born after their due date and over a quarter of infants are born over 1 week late, and many still remain undelivered after 2 weeks. The aim of this work is to quantify the risks of infants developing encephalopathy when birth occurs after the due date, and if other proposed risk factors modify this relationship. Methods The dataset contain information on 4 036 346 infants born in Sweden between 1973 and 2012. Exposure was defined as birth 7, or more, days after the infants’ due date. The primary outcome was the development of neonatal encephalopathy (defined as seizures, encephalopathy or brain injury caused by asphyxia or with unspecified cause). Covariates were selected as presumed confounders a priori. Results 28.4% infants were born 1 or more weeks after their due date. An infant’s risk of being born with encephalopathy was higher in the post 41 weeks group in the unadjusted (OR 1.40 (95% CI 1.32 to 1.49)) and final model (OR 1.38 (95% CI 1.29 to 1.47)), with the relative odds of encephalopathy increasing by an estimated 20% per week after the due date, and modified by maternal age (P=0.022). Conclusions Singleton infants born at, or after, 41 weeks gestation have lower Apgar scores and higher risk of developing encephalopathy in the newborn period, and the association appeared more marked in older mothers. These data could be useful if provided to women as part of their decision-making. PMID:29637179

  13. Diagnostic and prognostic factors for acute encephalopathy.

    PubMed

    Motojima, Yukiko; Nagura, Michiaki; Asano, Yoshitaka; Arakawa, Hiroshi; Takada, Eiko; Sakurai, Yoshio; Moriwaki, Koichi; Tamura, Masanori

    2016-11-01

    Acute encephalopathy has the possibility of sequelae. While early treatment is required to prevent the development of sequelae, differential diagnosis is of the utmost priority. The aim of this study was therefore to identify parameters that can facilitate early diagnosis and prediction of outcome of acute encephalopathy. We reviewed the medical charts of inpatients from 2005 to 2011 and identified 33 patients with febrile status epilepticus. Subjects were classified into an acute encephalopathy group (n = 20) and a febrile convulsion group (n = 13), and the parameters serum aspartate aminotransferase (AST), alanine aminotransferase (ALT), lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), ammonia (NH 3 ), cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) tau protein, and CSF interleukin-6 compared between them. Furthermore, the relationship between each parameter and prognosis was investigated in the encephalopathy group. Significant differences in serum AST, ALT, and LDH were observed between the febrile convulsion and acute encephalopathy group. Moreover, a significant difference in serum LDH was noted between the patients with and without developmental regression at the time of hospital discharge in the encephalopathy group. In particular, CSF tau protein was found to be highly likely to indicate progress, with CSF tau protein >1000 pg/dL associated with poor prognosis leading to developmental regression. Serum AST, ALT and LDH may be related to early diagnosis and prognosis, and should be carefully investigated in patients with encephalopathy. CSF tau protein could also be used as an indicator of poor prognosis in acute encephalopathy. © 2016 Japan Pediatric Society.

  14. Motor Testing at 1 Year Improves the Prediction of Motor and Mental Outcome at 2 Years after Perinatal Hypoxic-Ischaemic Encephalopathy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    van Schie, Petra Em; Becher, Jules G.; Dallmeijer, Annet J.; Barkhof, Frederik; van Weissenbruch, Mirjam M.; Vermeulen, R. Jeroen

    2010-01-01

    Aim: To investigate the predictive value of motor testing at 1 year for motor and mental outcome at 2 years after perinatal hypoxic-ischaemic encephalopathy (HIE) in term neonates. Method: Motor and mental outcome at 2 years was assessed with the Bayley Scales of Infant Development, 2nd edition (BSID-II) in 32 surviving children (20 males, 12…

  15. Wernicke's encephalopathy after cardiac surgery.

    PubMed

    Nishimura, Yoshiyuki

    2018-05-01

    A 76-year-old woman who had been on hemodialysis for 3 years developed ischemic mitral valve insufficiency, tricuspid insufficiency, and chronic atrial fibrillation, and underwent cardiac surgery. On the 4th postoperative day, she experienced a sudden disturbance of consciousness, aphasia, and limb ataxia. Brain computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging showed no abnormalities. Wernicke's encephalopathy was suspected and the patient was given vitamin B1, whereupon her symptoms gradually improved. On the 42nd postoperative day, she was free of neurological symptoms and discharged.

  16. Neonatal hypertension.

    PubMed

    Sharma, Deepak; Farahbakhsh, Nazanin; Shastri, Sweta; Sharma, Pradeep

    2017-03-01

    Neonatal hypertension (HT) is a frequently under reported condition and is seen uncommonly in the intensive care unit. Neonatal HT has defined arbitrarily as blood pressure more than 2 standard deviations above the base as per the age or defined as systolic BP more than 95% for infants of similar size, gestational age and postnatal age. It has been diagnosed long back but still is the least studied field in neonatology. There is still lack of universally accepted normotensive data for neonates as per gestational age, weight and post-natal age. Neonatal HT is an important morbidity that needs timely detection and appropriate management, as it can lead to devastating short-term effect on various organs and also poor long-term adverse outcomes. There is no consensus yet about the treatment guidelines and majority of treatment protocols are based on the expert opinion. Neonate with HT should be evaluated in detail starting from antenatal, perinatal, post-natal history, and drug intake by neonate and mother. This review article covers multiple aspects of neonatal hypertension like definition, normotensive data, various etiologies and methods of BP measurement, clinical features, diagnosis and management.

  17. Neonatal Hypoglycemia.

    PubMed

    Thompson-Branch, Alecia; Havranek, Thomas

    2017-04-01

    Lower blood glucose values are common in the healthy neonate immediately after birth as compared to older infants, children, and adults. These transiently lower glucose values improve and reach normal ranges within hours after birth. Such transitional hypoglycemia is common in the healthy newborn. A minority of neonates experience a more prolonged and severe hypoglycemia, usually associated with specific risk factors and possibly a congenital hypoglycemia syndrome. Despite the lack of a specific blood glucose value that defines hypoglycemia, concern for substantial neurologic morbidity in the neonatal population has led to the generation of guidelines by both the American Academy of Pediatrics (AAP) and the Pediatric Endocrine Society (PES). Similarities between the 2 guidelines include recognition that the transitional form of neonatal hypoglycemia likely resolves within 48 hours after birth and that hypoglycemia that persists beyond that duration may be pathologic. One major difference between the 2 sets of guidelines is the goal blood glucose value in the neonate. This article reviews transitional and pathologic hypoglycemia in the neonate and presents a framework for understanding the nuances of the AAP and PES guidelines for neonatal hypoglycemia. © American Academy of Pediatrics, 2017. All rights reserved.

  18. Effects of Inter-Alpha Inhibitor Proteins on Neonatal Brain Injury: Age, Task and Treatment Dependent Neurobehavioral Outcomes

    PubMed Central

    Threlkeld, Steven W.; Gaudet, Cynthia M.; La Rue, Molly E.; Dugas, Ethan; Hill, Courtney A.; Lim, Yow-Pin; Stonestreet, Barbara S.

    2014-01-01

    Hypoxic-ischemic (HI) brain injury is frequently associated with premature and/or full term birth related complications. HI injury often results in learning and processing deficits that reflect widespread damage to an extensive range of cortical and sub-cortical brain structures. Further, inflammation has been implicated in the long-term progression and severity of HI injury. Recently, Inter-alpha Inhibitor Proteins (IAIPs) have been shown to attenuate inflammation in models of systemic infection. Importantly, preclinical studies of neonatal HI injury and neuroprotection often focus on single time windows of assessment or single behavioral domains. This approach limits translational validity, given evidence for a diverse spectrum of neurobehavioral deficits that may change across developmental windows following neonatal brain injury. Therefore, the aims of this research were to assess the effects of human IAIPs on early neocortical cell death (72 hours post insult), adult regional brain volume measurements (cerebral cortex, hippocampus, striatum, corpus callosum) and long-term behavioral outcomes in juvenile (P38-50) and adult (P80+) periods across two independent learning domains (spatial and non-spatial learning), after postnatal day 7 HI injury in rats. Here, for the first time, we show that IAIPs reduce acute neocortical neuronal cell death and improve brain weight outcome 72 hours following HI injury in the neonatal rat. Further, these longitudinal studies are the first to show age, task and treatment dependent improvements in behavioral outcome for both spatial and non-spatial learning following systemic administration of IAIPs in neonatal HI injured rats. Finally, results also show sparing of brain regions critical for spatial and non-spatial learning in adult animals treated with IAIPs at the time of injury onset. These data support the proposal that Inter-alpha Inhibitor Proteins may serve as novel therapeutics for brain injury associated with premature

  19. A new infectious encephalopathy syndrome, clinically mild encephalopathy associated with excitotoxicity (MEEX).

    PubMed

    Hirai, Nozomi; Yoshimaru, Daisuke; Moriyama, Yoko; Yasukawa, Kumi; Takanashi, Jun-Ichi

    2017-09-15

    Acute infectious encephalopathy is often observed in children in East Asia including Japan. More than 40% of the patients remain unclassified into specific syndromes. To investigate the underlying pathomechanisms in those with unclassified encephalopathy, we evaluated brain metabolism by MR spectroscopy. Among seven patients with acute encephalopathy admitted to our hospital from June 2016 to May 2017, three were classified into acute encephalopathy with biphasic seizures and late reduced diffusion (AESD). The other four showed consciousness disturbance lasting more than three days with no parenchymal lesion visible on MRI, which led to a diagnosis of unclassified encephalopathy. MR spectroscopy in these four patients, however, revealed an increase of glutamine with a normal N-acetyl aspartate level on days 5 to 8, which had normalized by follow-up studies on days 11 to 16. The four patients clinically recovered completely. Among 27 patients with encephalopathy, including the present seven patients, admitted to our hospital from January 2015 to March 2017, seven (26%) were classified into this type, which we propose is a new encephalopathy syndrome, clinically mild encephalopathy associated with excitotoxicity (MEEX). MEEX is the second most common subtype, following AESD (30%). This study suggests that excitotoxicity may be a common underlying pathomechanism of acute infectious encephalopathy, and prompt astrocytic neuroprotection from excitotoxicity may prevent progression of MEEX into AESD. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Encephalopathy

    MedlinePlus

    ... Strategy Current Research Research Funded by NINDS Basic Neuroscience Clinical Research Translational Research Research at NINDS Focus ... Diversity Resources Jobs at NINDS Director, Division of Neuroscience Director, NIH BRAIN Initiative® Health Scientist Administrator Channels ...

  1. Rapidly Progressive Quadriplegia and Encephalopathy.

    PubMed

    Wynn, DonRaphael; McCorquodale, Donald; Peters, Angela; Juster-Switlyk, Kelsey; Smith, Gordon; Ansari, Safdar

    2016-11-01

    A woman aged 77 years was transferred to our neurocritical care unit for evaluation and treatment of rapidly progressive motor weakness and encephalopathy. Examination revealed an ability to follow simple commands only and abnormal movements, including myoclonus, tongue and orofacial dyskinesias, and opsoclonus. Imaging study findings were initially unremarkable, but when repeated, they demonstrated enhancement of the cauda equina nerve roots, trigeminal nerve, and pachymeninges. Cerebrospinal fluid examination revealed mildly elevated white blood cell count and protein levels. Serial electrodiagnostic testing demonstrated a rapidly progressive diffuse sensory motor axonopathy, and electroencephalogram findings progressed from generalized slowing to bilateral periodic lateralized epileptiform discharges. Critical details of her recent history prompted a diagnostic biopsy. Over time, the patient became completely unresponsive with no further abnormal movements and ultimately died. The differential diagnosis, pathological findings, and diagnosis are discussed with a brief review of a well-known yet rare diagnosis.

  2. Functional neuroimaging in epileptic encephalopathies.

    PubMed

    Siniatchkin, Michael; Capovilla, Giuseppe

    2013-11-01

    Epileptic encephalopathies (EEs) represent a group of severe epileptic disorders associated with cognitive and behavioral disturbances. The mechanisms of cognitive disability in EEs remain unclear. This review summarized neuroimaging studies that have tried to describe specific fingerprints of brain activation in EE. Although the epileptic activity can be generated individually in different brain regions, it seems likely that the activity propagates in a syndrome-specific way. In some EEs, the epileptiform discharges were associated with an interruption of activity in the default mode network. In another EE, other mechanisms seem to underlie cognitive disability associated with epileptic activity, for example, abnormal connectivity pattern or interfering activity in the thalamocortical network. Further neuroimaging studies are needed to investigate the short-term and long-term impact of epileptic activity on cognition and development. Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2013 International League Against Epilepsy.

  3. Bovine Spongiform Encephalopathy: Atypical Pros and Cons

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Transmissible spongiform encephalopathies (TSEs) are fatal neurologic diseases that affect several mammalian species including human beings. Four animal TSE agents have been reported: scrapie of sheep and goats; chronic wasting disease (CWD) of deer, elk, and moose; transmissible mink encephalopath...

  4. Chronic traumatic encephalopathy: The unknown disease.

    PubMed

    Martínez-Pérez, R; Paredes, I; Munarriz, P M; Paredes, B; Alén, J F

    2017-04-01

    Chronic traumatic encephalopathy is a neurodegenerative disease produced by accumulated minor traumatic brain injuries; no definitive premortem diagnosis and no treatments are available for chronic traumatic encephalopathy. Risk factors associated with chronic traumatic encephalopathy include playing contact sports, presence of the apolipoprotein E4, and old age. Although it shares certain histopathological findings with Alzheimer disease, chronic traumatic encephalopathy has a more specific presentation (hyperphosphorylated tau protein deposited as neurofibrillary tangles, associated with neuropil threads and sometimes with beta-amyloid plaques). Its clinical presentation is insidious; patients show mild cognitive and emotional symptoms before progressing to parkinsonian motor signs and finally dementia. Results from new experimental diagnostic tools are promising, but these tools are not yet available. The mainstay of managing this disease is prevention and early detection of its first symptoms. Copyright © 2014 Sociedad Española de Neurología. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  5. Elevated thyroid peroxidase antibodies with encephalopathy in MELAS syndrome.

    PubMed

    Chan, Derrick W S; Lim, C C Tchoyoson; Tay, Stacey K H; Choong, Chew-Thye; Phuah, Huan Kee

    2007-06-01

    Both the syndrome of mitochondrial encephalomyopathy, lactic acidosis, and stroke-like episodes (MELAS syndrome) and Hashimoto's encephalopathy can present with nonspecific encephalopathy. Hashimoto's encephalopathy is an association of steroid-responsive encephalopathy with elevated thyroid peroxidase antibodies. Steroid-responsive encephalopathy, however, is not characteristic of the MELAS syndrome, which typically presents with stroke-like episodes and lactic acidosis in cerebrospinal fluid and blood. Here, a patient is described with goiter, recurrent encephalopathy and elevated thyroid peroxidase antibodies who apparently responded to steroid therapy; however, magnetic resonance imaging was atypical for Hashimoto's encephalopathy, and she was diagnosed with MELAS syndrome. This syndrome can present with apparent steroid-responsive encephalopathy and elevated thyroid peroxidase antibodies, mimicking Hashimoto's encephalopathy, and should be suspected if lactic acidosis is present and typical features are detected on magnetic resonance imaging.

  6. Effect of hyperbaric oxygen on lipid peroxidation and visual development in neonatal rats with hypoxia-ischemia brain damage.

    PubMed

    Chen, Jing; Chen, Yan-Hui; Lv, Hong-Yan; Chen, Li-Ting

    2016-07-01

    The aim of the present study was to investigate the effect of hyperbaric oxygen (HBO) on lipid peroxidation and visual development in a neonatal rat model of hypoxic-ischemic brain damage (HIBD). The rat models of HIBD were established by delayed uterus dissection and were divided randomly into two groups (10 rats each): HIBD and HBO-treated HIBD (HIBD+HBO) group. Another 20 rats that underwent sham-surgery were also divided randomly into the HBO-treated and control groups. The rats that underwent HBO treatment received HBO (0.02 MPa, 1 h/day) 24 h after the surgery and this continued for 14 days. When rats were 4 weeks old, their flash visual evoked potentials (F-VEPs) were monitored and the ultrastructures of the hippocampus were observed under transmission electron microscope. The levels of superoxide dismutase (SOD) and malonyldialdehyde (MDA) in the brain tissue homogenate were detected by xanthine oxidase and the thiobarbituric acid colorimetric method. Compared with the control group, the ultrastructures of the pyramidal neurons in the hippocampal CA3 area were distorted, the latencies of F-VEPs were prolonged (P<0.01) and the SOD activities were lower while the MDA levels were higher (P<0.01) in the HIBD group. No significant differences in ultrastructure, the latency of F-VEPs or SOD/MDA levels were identified between the HBO-treated HIBD group and the normal control group (P>0.05). HBO enhances antioxidant capacity and reduces the ultrastructural damage induced by hypoxic-ischemia, which may improve synaptic reconstruction and alleviate immature brain damage to promote the habilitation of brain function.

  7. Bovine spongiform encephalopathy: "mad cow disease".

    PubMed

    1996-07-01

    Bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE), also known as "mad cow disease," is a fatal brain disease of cattle first recognized in the United Kingdom. In humans, the most common transmissible spongiform encephalopathy is Creutzfeldt-Jacob Disease (CJD). Although no cases of CJD have been directly linked to beef consumption, an advisory committee has reported that 10 recent cases of a CJD variant may be associated with BSE. This announcement has alarmed consumers well beyond the borders of the United Kingdom.

  8. Reversible dementia with psychosis: Hashimoto's encephalopathy.

    PubMed

    Mocellin, Ramon; Lubman, Dan I; Lloyd, John; Tomlinson, E Bruce; Velakoulis, Dennis

    2006-12-01

    A case of presumed Hashimoto's encephalopathy (HE) is presented. The presentation included memory loss, delusions, functional decline and culminated in a generalized seizure. Anti-thyroid antibodies were detected and symptoms resolved with prednisolone. Patients with HE may present with prominent neuropsychiatric symptoms, attract psychiatric diagnoses and present to psychiatric services. Primarily a diagnosis of exclusion, HE should be considered in cases of encephalopathy in which standard investigations are negative.

  9. Neonatal pain

    PubMed Central

    Walker, Suellen M

    2014-01-01

    Effective management of procedural and postoperative pain in neonates is required to minimize acute physiological and behavioral distress and may also improve acute and long-term outcomes. Painful stimuli activate nociceptive pathways, from the periphery to the cortex, in neonates and behavioral responses form the basis for validated pain assessment tools. However, there is an increasing awareness of the need to not only reduce acute behavioral responses to pain in neonates, but also to protect the developing nervous system from persistent sensitization of pain pathways and potential damaging effects of altered neural activity on central nervous system development. Analgesic requirements are influenced by age-related changes in both pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic response, and increasing data are available to guide safe and effective dosing with opioids and paracetamol. Regional analgesic techniques provide effective perioperative analgesia, but higher complication rates in neonates emphasize the importance of monitoring and choice of the most appropriate drug and dose. There have been significant improvements in the understanding and management of neonatal pain, but additional research evidence will further reduce the need to extrapolate data from older age groups. Translation into improved clinical care will continue to depend on an integrated approach to implementation that encompasses assessment and titration against individual response, education and training, and audit and feedback. PMID:24330444

  10. Gemifloxacin-associated neurotoxicity presenting as encephalopathy.

    PubMed

    Barrett, Matthew J; Login, Ivan S

    2009-04-01

    To report a case of acute encephalopathy associated with ingestion of gemifloxacin, a fluoroquinolone. A 67-year-old woman presented to the emergency department with an acute alteration in mental status. Twenty-four hours earlier she had taken one 320-mg tablet of her husband's gemifloxacin prescription to treat symptoms of a mild upper respiratory infection. During her initial evaluation at our institution, the woman was dysphasic, unable to follow commands, and agitated, suggesting encephalopathy. A thorough diagnostic investigation did not reveal any structural, metabolic, or infectious etiology. Her mental status returned to normal within 2 days without any definitive treatment. Fluoroquinolone-associated neurotoxicity may manifest as encephalopathy, seizures, confusion, or toxic psychosis. To date, none of these adverse effects, specifically encephalopathy, has been reported with gemifloxacin. An objective causality assessment revealed that encephalopathy was probably associated with gemifloxacin use. Seizures, either convulsive or nonconvulsive, may have contributed to our patient's presentation, but she denied seizures prior to this event and did not suffer a seizure in the 18 months following her discharge. However, her second electroencephalograph revealed an underlying predisposition to seizures, which gemifloxacin may have unmasked. This report illustrates that severe central nervous system adverse effects associated with some fluoroquinolones may also occur with gemifloxacin. Gemifloxacin and other fluoroquinolones should be considered in the etiologic evaluation of patients with acute encephalopathy.

  11. Clinically mild infantile encephalopathy associated with excitotoxicity.

    PubMed

    Hirai, Nozomi; Yoshimaru, Daisuke; Moriyama, Yoko; Honda, Takafumi; Yasukawa, Kumi; Takanashi, Jun-Ichi

    2017-02-15

    Acute infectious encephalopathy is very frequently observed in children in East Asia including Japan. Acute encephalopathy with biphasic seizures and late reduced diffusion (AESD) is the most common subtype in Japan; however, more than 40% of the patients remain unclassified into specific syndromes. To investigate the underlying pathomechanism in those with unclassified acute encephalopathy, we evaluated brain metabolism by MR spectroscopy. Among 20 patients with acute encephalopathy admitted to our hospital during January 2015 to May 2016, 12 could not be classified into specific syndromes. MR spectroscopy was performed in 8 of these 12 patients with unclassified encephalopathy. MR spectroscopy showed an increase of glutamine with a normal N-acetyl aspartate level on days 3 to 8 in three of the 8 patients, which had normalized by follow-up studies. The three patients clinically recovered completely. This study suggests that excitotoxicity may be the underlying pathomechanism in some patients with unclassified mild encephalopathy. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Neonatal hypoglycemia.

    PubMed

    Adamkin, David H

    2017-02-01

    A consistent definition for neonatal hypoglycemia in the first 48 h of life continues to elude us. Enhanced understanding of metabolic disturbances and genetic disorders that underlie alterations in postnatal glucose homeostasis has added useful information to understanding transitional hypoglycemia. This growth in knowledge still has not led to what we need to know: "How low is too low and for how long?" This article reviews the current state of understanding of neonatal hypoglycemia and how different approaches reach different "expert" opinions. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Role of the Hypothalamic-Pituitary-Adrenal Axis in Developmental Programming of Health and Disease

    PubMed Central

    Xiong, Fuxia; Zhang, Lubo

    2012-01-01

    Adverse environments during the fetal and neonatal development period may permanently program physiology and metabolism, and lead to increased risk of diseases in later life. Programming of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis is one of the key mechanisms that contribute to altered metabolism and response to stress. Programming of the HPA axis often involves epigenetic modification of the glucocorticoid receptor (GR) gene promoter, which influences tissue-specific GR expression patterns and response to stimuli. This review summarizes the current state of research on the HPA axis and programming of health and disease in the adult, focusing on the epigenetic regulation of GR gene expression patterns in response to fetal and neonatal stress. Aberrant GR gene expression patterns in the developing brain may have a significant negative impact on protection of the immature brain against hypoxic-ischemic encephalopathy in the critical period of development during and immediately after birth. PMID:23200813

  14. [Efficiency of mexidol during perinatal encephalopathy in early age children].

    PubMed

    Natriashvili, G D; Kapanadze, N B; Natriashvili, S G

    2005-06-01

    We have investigated 200 patients 0-4 months of age (boys 110 and girls - 90), 120 of them under 1 month of age and 80 children from 1 to 4 months. The evaluation of the neurologic status of patients was performed 40-60 minutes after feeding in a relaxed condition. From the additional methods of the investigation of the nervous system, the most informative was the neurosonoscopy. We have divided patients into two groups according to the clinical syndromes: I gr. neuro-reflexion irritation syndrome (118 patients), II gr.--depression syndrome (82 patients). According to the treatment regimen patients also have been divided into two groups: the basic group (104 patients) with treatment only by mexydol (mexydol in a dose of 5 mg/kg and 0,3 ml in the form of injections twice a day. Injections were initiated at the acute stage of the disease) and the control group (96 patients) with no treatment. Efficiency of mexidol was estimated comparison of the findings in the basic and control groups based both on a clinical status and on the neurosonoscopic findings. Positive dynamics was observed in patients of the basic group. Verification of mexydol efficiency was performed by neurosonoscopic investigations. In a small portion of patients positive dynamics was not observed. These patients were from the age group from 3 to 4 months, which confirms that earlier and optimal treatment contribute to the prevention of severe neurological outcomes. It may be concluded that: 1. Mexydol acting on the pathogenetic mechanisms of perinatal encephalopathy, reduces reflexion irritation and depression syndromes both in neonatal and early age children. 2. Mexydol induces normalization of pathological neurosonoscopic patterns. 3. Mexydol with its wide pharmacological spectrum of action is an effective medicine in treatment of perinatal encephalopathy.

  15. Genetics Home Reference: familial encephalopathy with neuroserpin inclusion bodies

    MedlinePlus

    ... Home Health Conditions FENIB Familial encephalopathy with neuroserpin inclusion bodies Printable PDF Open All Close All Enable ... expand/collapse boxes. Description Familial encephalopathy with neuroserpin inclusion bodies ( FENIB ) is a disorder that causes progressive ...

  16. Bovine Spongiform Encephalopathy (BSE), or Mad Cow Disease

    MedlinePlus

    ... the CDC Bovine Spongiform Encephalopathy (BSE), or Mad Cow Disease Note: Javascript is disabled or is not ... spongiform encephalopathy) is a progressive neurological disorder of cattle that results from infection by an unusual transmissible ...

  17. Failed Operative Vaginal Delivery

    PubMed Central

    Alexander, James M.; Leveno, Kenneth J.; Hauth, John C.; Landon, Mark B.; Gilbert, Sharon; Spong, Catherine Y.; Varner, Michael W.; Caritis, Steve N.; Meis, Paul; Wapner, Ronald J.; Sorokin, Yoram; Miodovnik, Menachem; O'Sullivan, Mary J.; Sibai, Baha M.; Langer, Oded; Gabbe, Steven G.

    2010-01-01

    Objective To compare maternal and neonatal outcomes in women undergoing a second stage cesarean after a trial of operative vaginal delivery with women undergoing a second stage cesarean without such an attempt. Methods This study is a secondary analysis of the women who underwent second stage cesarean. .The maternal outcomes examined included blood transfusion, endometritis, wound complication, anesthesia use, and maternal death. Infant outcomes examined included umbilical artery pH < 7.0, Apgar of 3 or less at 5 minutes, seizures within 24 hours of birth, hypoxic ischemic encephalopathy (HIE), stillbirth, skull fracture, and neonatal death. Results Of 3189 women who underwent second stage cesarean, operative vaginal delivery was attempted in 640. Labor characteristics were similar in the two groups with the exception of the admission to delivery time and cesarean indication. Those with an attempted operative vaginal delivery were more likely to undergo cesarean delivery for a non-reassuring fetal heart rate tracing (18.0% vs 13.9%, p=.01), have a wound complication (2.7% vs 1.0%; OR 2.65 95% CI 1.43–4.91), and require general anesthesia (8.0% vs 4.1%, OR 2.05 95% CI 1.44–2.91). Neonatal outcomes including umbilical artery pH less than 7.0, Apgar at or below 3 at 5 minutes, and hypoxic ischemic encephalopathy were more common for those with an attempted operative vaginal delivery. This was not significant when cases with a non-reassuring fetal heart rate tracing were removed. Conclusion Cesarean delivery after an attempt at operative vaginal delivery was not associated with adverse neonatal outcomes in the absence of a non-reassuring fetal heart rate tracing. PMID:20168101

  18. Joseph Haydn's encephalopathy: new aspects.

    PubMed

    Blahak, Christian; Bäzner, Hansjörg; Hennerici, Michael G

    2015-01-01

    With increasing age, Joseph Haydn complained of progressive forgetfulness preventing him from composing for about the last 8 years of his life. He spent his days more and more inactive and immobilized, suffering from a disabling gait disturbance. Still, most biographers consider diffuse atherosclerosis and congestive heart failure to be reasons for Haydn's medical condition and physical decline during the last years of his life. A more sophisticated and detailed inspection of documents and sources, however, leads to the diagnosis of subcortical vascular encephalopathy (SVE), caused by progressive cerebral small vessel disease. Important features of the disease are mood changes, urinary symptoms, and in particular a characteristic gait disturbance, while dementia is only mild and occurs later in the course. Haydn was severely disabled by the symptoms of SVE for several years and often reported difficulties in the completion of his last oratorio "Die Jahreszeiten" (The Seasons). Subsequently, the disease prevented him from composing another large oratorio, "Das jüngste Gericht" (The last judgement), which had been already drafted. Finally, the progress of SVE stopped his long career as a composer and conductor at the age of 73 years. © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. [Human transmissible subacute spongiform encephalopathy].

    PubMed

    Dormont, D

    1994-05-01

    Human transmissible spongiform encephalopathies (TSE) are rare chronic subacute degenerative diseases of the central nervous system (CNS) which include Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease (CJD), Kuru, Gerstmann-Sträussler-Scheinker syndrome (GSS), and Fatal Familial Insomnia (FFI). CJD can be either inherited or sporadic. All these diseases are always fatal. Neuropathological features are mainly constituted of neuronal vacuolisation, neuronal death, gliosis with hyperastrocytosis; plaques might be evidenced in kuru and GSS. Neither inflammatory syndrome nor demyelination is detectable. No virus like structure could be identified reproducibly. Human TSE are transmissible to non human primates and rodents. Iatrogenic CJD have been described after tissue grafting (cornea, dura mater), neurosurgery, electrophysiology investigation, and treatment with pituitary derived gonadotrophins and growth hormone. Molecular biochemistry of the CNS investigation revealed that a host encoded protein, the prion protein (PrP), accumulates proportionally to the infectious titer: this abnormality is the only detectable hallmark in TSE. Infectious fractions contain no detectable specific nucleic acid, and are mainly constituted of PrP under an isoform which resists to proteinase K digestion (PrP-res). The PrP gene (PRNP) is located on chromosome 20 in humans. Several mutations of this gene have been described in all inherited TSE (CJD, GSS, and IFF). No treatment is available today. Agents inducing TSE (TSA) are not known: several authors claim that TSA are only constituted of PrP-res; others support the hypothesis of a conventional agent with a specific genetic information.

  20. Chronic traumatic encephalopathy and athletes

    PubMed Central

    Mannix, Rebekah; Zafonte, Ross; Pascual-Leone, Alvaro

    2015-01-01

    Recent case reports have described athletes previously exposed to repetitive head trauma while participating in contact sports who later in life developed mood disorders, headaches, cognitive difficulties, suicidal ideation, difficulties with speech, and aggressive behavior. Postmortem discoveries show that some of these athletes have pathologic findings that are collectively termed chronic traumatic encephalopathy (CTE). Current hypotheses suggest that concussions or perhaps blows to the head that do not cause the signs and symptoms necessary for making the diagnosis of concussion, so-called subconcussive blows, cause both the clinical and pathologic findings. There are, however, some athletes who participate in contact sports who do not develop the findings ascribed to CTE. Furthermore, there are people who have headaches, mood disorders, cognitive difficulties, suicidal ideation, and other clinical problems who have neither been exposed to repeated head trauma nor possessed the pathologic postmortem findings of those currently diagnosed with CTE. The current lack of prospective data and properly designed case-control studies limits the current understanding of CTE, leading to debate about the causes of the neuropathologic findings and the clinical observations. Given the potential for referral and recall bias in available studies, it remains unclear whether or not the pathologic findings made postmortem cause the presumed neurobehavioral sequela and whether the presumed risk factors, such as sports activity, cerebral concussions, and subconcussive blows, are solely causative of the clinical signs and symptoms. This article discusses the current evidence and the associated limitations. PMID:26253448

  1. Encephalopathy caused by lanthanum carbonate.

    PubMed

    Fraile, Pilar; Cacharro, Luis Maria; Garcia-Cosmes, Pedro; Rosado, Consolacion; Tabernero, Jose Matias

    2011-06-01

    Lanthanum carbonate is a nonaluminum, noncalcium phosphate-binding agent, which is widely used in patients with end-stage chronic kidney disease. Until now, no significant side-effects have been described for the clinical use of lanthanum carbonate, and there are no available clinical data regarding its tissue stores. Here we report the case of a 59-year-old patient who was admitted with confusional syndrome. The patient received 3750 mg of lanthanum carbonate daily. Examinations were carried out, and the etiology of the encephalopathy of the patient could not be singled out. The lanthanum carbonate levels in serum and cerebrospinal fluid were high, and the syndrome eased after the drug was removed. The results of our study confirm that, in our case, the lanthanum carbonate did cross the blood-brain barrier (BBB). Although lanthanum carbonate seems a safe drug with minimal absorption, this work reveals the problem derived from the increase of serum levels of lanthanum carbonate, and the possibility that it may cross the BBB. Further research is required on the possible pathologies that increase serum levels of lanthanum carbonate, as well as the risks and side-effects derived from its absorption.

  2. Chronic traumatic encephalopathy and athletes.

    PubMed

    Meehan, William; Mannix, Rebekah; Zafonte, Ross; Pascual-Leone, Alvaro

    2015-10-27

    Recent case reports have described athletes previously exposed to repetitive head trauma while participating in contact sports who later in life developed mood disorders, headaches, cognitive difficulties, suicidal ideation, difficulties with speech, and aggressive behavior. Postmortem discoveries show that some of these athletes have pathologic findings that are collectively termed chronic traumatic encephalopathy (CTE). Current hypotheses suggest that concussions or perhaps blows to the head that do not cause the signs and symptoms necessary for making the diagnosis of concussion, so-called subconcussive blows, cause both the clinical and pathologic findings. There are, however, some athletes who participate in contact sports who do not develop the findings ascribed to CTE. Furthermore, there are people who have headaches, mood disorders, cognitive difficulties, suicidal ideation, and other clinical problems who have neither been exposed to repeated head trauma nor possessed the pathologic postmortem findings of those currently diagnosed with CTE. The current lack of prospective data and properly designed case-control studies limits the current understanding of CTE, leading to debate about the causes of the neuropathologic findings and the clinical observations. Given the potential for referral and recall bias in available studies, it remains unclear whether or not the pathologic findings made postmortem cause the presumed neurobehavioral sequela and whether the presumed risk factors, such as sports activity, cerebral concussions, and subconcussive blows, are solely causative of the clinical signs and symptoms. This article discusses the current evidence and the associated limitations. © 2015 American Academy of Neurology.

  3. Hashimoto's encephalopathy : epidemiology, pathogenesis and management.

    PubMed

    Mocellin, Ramon; Walterfang, Mark; Velakoulis, Dennis

    2007-01-01

    Hashimoto's encephalopathy is a term used to describe an encephalopathy of presumed autoimmune origin characterised by high titres of antithyroid peroxidase antibodies. In a similar fashion to autoimmune thyroid disease, Hashimoto's encephalopathy is more common in women than in men. It has been reported in paediatric, adult and elderly populations throughout the world. The clinical presentation may involve a relapsing and remitting course and include seizures, stroke-like episodes, cognitive decline, neuropsychiatric symptoms and myoclonus. Thyroid function is usually clinically and biochemically normal.Hashimoto's encephalopathy appears to be a rare disorder, but, as it is responsive to treatment with corticosteroids, it must be considered in cases of 'investigation negative encephalopathies'. Diagnosis is made in the first instance by excluding other toxic, metabolic and infectious causes of encephalopathy with neuroimaging and CSF examination. Neuroimaging findings are often not helpful in clarifying the diagnosis. Common differential diagnoses when these conditions are excluded are Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease, rapidly progressive dementias, and paraneoplastic and nonparaneoplastic limbic encephalitis. In the context of the typical clinical picture, high titres of antithyroid antibodies, in particular antithyroid peroxidase antibodies, are diagnostic. These antibodies, however, can be detected in elevated titres in the healthy general population. Treatment with corticosteroids is almost always successful, although relapse may occur if this treatment is ceased abruptly. Other forms of immunomodulation, such as intravenous immune-globulin and plasma exchange, may also be effective. Despite the link to autoimmune thyroid disease, the aetiology of Hashimoto's encephalopathy is unknown. It is likely that antithyroid antibodies are not pathogenic, but titres can be a marker of treatment response. Pathological findings can suggest an inflammatory process, but features

  4. Electroencephalography and Brain MRI Patterns in Encephalopathy.

    PubMed

    Wabulya, Angela; Lesser, Ronald P; Llinas, Rafael; Kaplan, Peter W

    2016-04-01

    Using electroencephalography (EEG) and histology in patients with diffuse encephalopathy, Gloor et al reported that paroxysmal synchronous discharges (PSDs) on EEG required combined cortical gray (CG) and "subcortical" gray (SCG) matter pathology, while polymorphic delta activity (PDA) occurred in patients with white matter pathology. In patients with encephalopathy, we compared EEG findings and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) to determine if MRI reflected similar pathological EEG correlations. Retrospective case control study of 52 cases with EEG evidence of encephalopathy and 50 controls without evidence of encephalopathy. Review of clinical, EEG and MRI data acquired within 4 days of each other. The most common EEG finding in encephalopathy was background slowing, in 96.1%. We found PSDs in 0% of cases with the combination of CG and SCG abnormalities. Although 13.5% (n=7) had PSDs on EEG; 3 of these had CG and 4 had SCG abnormalities. A total of 73.1% (38/52) had white matter abnormalities-of these 28.9% (11/38) had PDA. PSDs were found with either CG or "SCG" MRI abnormalities and did not require a combination of the two. In agreement with Gloor et al, PDA occurred with white matter MRI abnormalities in the absence of gray matter abnormalities. © EEG and Clinical Neuroscience Society (ECNS) 2015.

  5. Early Recognition of Chronic Traumatic Encephalopathy through FDDNP PET Imaging

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-10-01

    Encephalopathy through FDDNP PET Imaging PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR: Charles Bernick, MD, MPH...Traumatic Encephalopathy through FDDNP PET Imaging 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER W81XWH-13-1-0486 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 6... Encephalopathy . This project will examine whether FDDNP PET imaging correlates with, and/or can predict, decline in cognitive function in those exposed to

  6. An increase in the burden of neonatal admissions to a rural district hospital in Kenya over 19 years

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Most of the global neonatal deaths occur in developing nations, mostly in rural homes. Many of the newborns who receive formal medical care are treated in rural district hospitals and other peripheral health centres. However there are no published studies demonstrating trends in neonatal admissions and outcome in rural health care facilities in resource poor regions. Such information is critical in planning public health interventions. In this study we therefore aimed at describing the pattern of neonatal admissions to a Kenyan rural district hospital and their outcome over a 19 year period, examining clinical indicators of inpatient neonatal mortality and also trends in utilization of a rural hospital for deliveries. Methods Prospectively collected data on neonates is compared to non-neonatal paediatric (≤ 5 years old) admissions and deliveries' in the maternity unit at Kilifi District Hospital from January 1st 1990 up to December 31st 2008, to document the pattern of neonatal admissions, deliveries and changes in inpatient deaths. Trends were examined using time series models with likelihood ratios utilised to identify indicators of inpatient neonatal death. Results The proportion of neonatal admissions of the total paediatric ≤ 5 years admissions significantly increased from 11% in 1990 to 20% by 2008 (trend 0.83 (95% confidence interval 0.45 -1.21). Most of the increase in burden was from neonates born in hospital and very young neonates aged < 7days. Hospital deliveries also increased significantly. Clinical diagnoses of neonatal sepsis, prematurity, neonatal jaundice, neonatal encephalopathy, tetanus and neonatal meningitis accounted for over 75% of the inpatient neonatal admissions. Inpatient case fatality for all ≤ 5 years declined significantly over the 19 years. However, neonatal deaths comprised 33% of all inpatient death among children aged ≤ 5 years in 1990, this increased to 55% by 2008. Tetanus 256/390 (67%), prematurity 554

  7. Neonatal hypoglycemia.

    PubMed

    Adamkin, David H

    2016-04-01

    The screening and management for neonatal hypoglycemia remains a confusing and contentious problem in neonatology. The purpose of this article is to contrast recent recommendations from the American Academy of Pediatrics and the Pediatric Endocrine Society. Using different methodologies, the organizations have significant differences on whom to screen and what levels of glucose should be used for management. The identification of the first 48 h as a transitional hyperinsulinemic state is a new important concept. The neuroendocrine approach is contrasted with a neurodevelopmental strategy to find levels that exceed those associated with neuroglycopenia. The questions remain the same when it comes to screening and management of neonatal low-glucose levels. Recent outcome studies with differing results continue to add to the controversy as to what to do at the bedside. It is