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Sample records for neotropical hemiptera pseudococcidae

  1. A New Species of Paracoccus Ezzat and McConnell (Hemiptera: Pseudococcidae) from Southern Brazil.

    PubMed

    Pacheco da Silva, V C; Kaydan, M B; Germain, J-F; Botton, M

    2016-12-01

    The worldwide mealybug genus Paracoccus Ezzat & McConnell (Hemiptera: Coccomorpha: Pseudococcidae) has eight described Neotropical species, including two species known from Brazil. In this article, we describe a third species from Brazil: Paracoccus galzerae Pacheco da Silva & Kaydan sp. n., based on the morphology of adult females collected on the roots of Conyza bonariensis (Asteraceae) in vineyards in Bento Gonçalves City, Rio Grande do Sul. A revised identification key including the new species is provided for the Neotropical region.

  2. Preparing soft-bodied arthropods for arthropods for microscope examination: Mealybugs (Insects: Hemiptera: Pseudococcidae)

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Proper identification of mealybugs (Hemiptera: Pseudococcidae) require preparation of the specimen on a microscope slide. This training video provides visual instruction on how to prepare mealybug specimens on microscope slides for examination and identification. Steps ranging from collection, spec...

  3. Effects of irradiation on Planococcus minor (Hemiptera: Pseudococcidae).

    PubMed

    Ravuiwasa, Kaliova Tavou; Lu, Kuang-Hui; Shen, Tse-Chi; Hwang, Shaw-Yhi

    2009-10-01

    Irradiation has been recognized and endorsed as a potential phytosanitary measure that could be an alternative to current quarantine treatments. Dosages of 50, 100, 150, 200, and 250 Gy were used to irradiate three different life stages (eggs, immatures, and adults) of Planococcus minor (Maskell) (Hemiptera: Pseudococcidae), focusing on females due to its parthenogenesis ability, with an aim to find the most tolerant stage and the most optimal dose to control P. minor. Cobalt 60 was the source of irradiation used. Irradiation of 150-250 Gy has a significant effect on all life stages of P. minor, decreasing its survival rate, percentage of adult reproduction, oviposition, and fertility rate. The adult was the most tolerant life stage in both mortality and fertility rate. All the different irradiated target life stage groups oviposited eggs, but none of the F2 eggs hatched at the most optimal dosage of 150-250 Gy.

  4. Seasonal phenology, spatial distribution, and sampling plan for the invasive mealybug Phenacoccus peruvianus (Hemiptera: Pseudococcidae).

    PubMed

    Beltrá, A; Garcia-Marí, F; Soto, A

    2013-06-01

    Phlenacoccus peruvianus Granara de Willink (Hemiptera: Pseudococcidae) is an invasive mealybug of Neotropical origin. In recent years it has invaded the Mediterranean Basin causing significant damages in bougainvillea and other ornamental plants. This article examines its phenology, location on the plant and spatial distribution, and presents a sampling plan to determine P. peruvianus population density for the management of this mealybug in southern Europe. Six urban green spaces with bougainvillea plants were periodically surveyed between March 2008 and September 2010 in eastern Spain, sampling bracts, leaves, and twigs. Our results show that P. peruvianus abundance was high in spring and summer, declining to almost undetectable levels in autumn and winter. The mealybugs showed a preference for settling on bracts and there were no significant migrations between plant organs. P. peruvianus showed a highly aggregated distribution on bracts, leaves, and twigs. We recommend abinomial sampling of 200 leaves and an action threshold of 55% infested leaves for integrated pest management purposes on urban landscapes and enumerative sampling for ornamental nursery management and additional biological studies.

  5. Preparation of mealybugs (Hemiptera: Pseudococcidae) for genetic characterization and morphological examination

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Mealybugs (Hemiptera: Pseudococcidae) are economically significant agricultural pests on a wide range of crops. Due to their small size and lack of easily visible characters for identification, determination of their taxonomic status is difficult and requires technical competency to prepare a slide...

  6. DNA markers to disentangle complexes of cryptic taxa in mealybugs (Hemiptera: Pseudococcidae)

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Mealybugs (Hemiptera: Pseudococcidae) are major pests of a wide range of crops and ornamental plants worldwide. Their high degree of morphological similarity makes them difficult to identify and limits their study and management. We aimed to identify a set of markers for the genetic characterization...

  7. Genes expressed in field-caught pink hibiscus mealybugs, Maconellicoccus hirsutus (Green) (Hemiptera: Pseudococcidae)

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    We advanced the understanding of the biology of an invasive pest, the pink hibiscus mealybug, PHM, Maconellicoccus hirsutus (Hemiptera: Pseudococcidae) by using a genomics approach to identify genes expressed within field collected PHM. The information produced provides valuable, new and unique info...

  8. Proteins expressed in the pink hibiscus mealybug, Maconellicoccus hirsutus (Hemiptera: Pseudococcidae)

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    We produced a dataset of 315 protein sequences which we isolated from the pink hibiscus mealybug, PHM, Maconellicoccus hirsutus (Hemiptera: Pseudococcidae). The dataset was published under accession numbers: EF070444-EF070605 and EF092085-EF091933, in the National Center for Biotechnology Informatio...

  9. First record of Eggplant Mealybug, Coccidohystrixinsolita (Hemiptera: Pseudococcidae), on Guam: Potentially a major pest.

    PubMed

    Moore, Aubrey; Watson, Gillian W; Bamba, Jesse

    2014-01-01

    The eggplant mealybug, Coccidohystrixinsolita (Green) (Hemiptera: Pseudococcidae), is recorded from the island of Guam in the Mariana Islands for the first time. Factors indicating that this introduced mealybug has the potential to become a pest of economic importance for agriculture and horticulture on Guam are discussed.

  10. First record of Eggplant Mealybug, Coccidohystrix insolita (Hemiptera: Pseudococcidae), on Guam: Potentially a major pest

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Abstract The eggplant mealybug, Coccidohystrix insolita (Green) (Hemiptera: Pseudococcidae), is recorded from the island of Guam in the Mariana Islands for the first time. Factors indicating that this introduced mealybug has the potential to become a pest of economic importance for agriculture and horticulture on Guam are discussed. PMID:24855439

  11. Weed hosts of cotton mealybug, Phenacoccus solenopsis Tinsley (Hemiptera: Pseudococcidae).

    PubMed

    Vennila, S; Prasad, Y G; Prabhakar, M; Agarwal, Meenu; Sreedevi, G; Bambawale, O M

    2013-03-01

    The exotic cotton mealybug, Phenacoccus solenopsis Tinsley (Hemiptera: Pseudococcidae) invaded India during 2006, and caused widespread infestation across all nine cotton growing states. P. solenopsis also infested weeds that aided its faster spread and increased severity across cotton fields. Two year survey carried out to document host plants of P. solenopsis between 2008 and 2010 revealed 27, 83, 59 and 108 weeds belonging to 8, 18, 10 and 32 families serving as alternate hosts at North, Central, South and All India cotton growing zones, respectively. Plant species of four families viz., Asteraceae, Amaranthaceae, Malvaceae and Lamiaceae constituted almost 50% of the weed hosts. While 39 weed species supported P. solenopsis multiplication during the cotton season, 37 were hosts during off season. Higher number of weeds as off season hosts (17) outnumbering cotton season (13) at Central over other zones indicated the strong carryover of the pest aided by weeds between two cotton seasons. Six, two and seven weed hosts had the extreme severity of Grade 4 during cotton, off and cotton + off seasons, respectively. Higher number of weed hosts of P. solenopsis were located at roadside: South (12) > Central (8) > North (3) zones. Commonality of weed hosts was higher between C+S zones, while no weed host was common between N+S zones. Paper furnishes the wide range of weed hosts of P. solenopsis, discusses their significance, and formulated general and specific cultural management strategies for nationwide implementation to prevent its outbreaks.

  12. A study of the scale insect genera Puto Signoret (Hemiptera: Sternorrhyncha: Coccoidea: Putoidae) and Ceroputo Šulc (Pseudococcidae) with a comparison to Phenacoccus Cockerell (Pseudococcidae)

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    For almost a century, the scale insect genus Puto Signoret (Hemiptera: Sternorrhyncha: Coccoidea) was considered to belong to the family Pseudococcidae (the mealybugs), but recent consensus accords Puto its own family, the Putoidae. This paper reviews the taxonomic history of Puto and family Putoida...

  13. Mealybugs (Hemiptera: Coccomorpha: Pseudococcidae) with oral rim ducts; description of a new genus and species from Turkey, and discussion of their higher classification within the Pseudococcidae.

    PubMed

    Kaydan, Mehmet Bora; Szita, Éva

    2017-02-03

    A new monotypic mealybug genus with oral rim ducts, Bromusicoccus Kaydan gen. n. (Hemiptera: Pseudococcidae: Pseudococcinae), is described from Turkey. The higher classification of mealybug genera with oral rim tubular ducts worldwide is discussed and a key is provided to separate them.

  14. A new species in the genus Crisicoccus Ferris (Hemiptera: Coccomorpha: Pseudococcidae), with a key to Chinese species.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Jiang-Tao; Wu, San-An

    2016-06-01

    A new mealybug, Crisicoccus ziziphus sp. nov. (Hemiptera: Coccomorpha: Pseudococcidae), collected on the leaves and twigs of Ziziphus jujuba (Rhamnaceae), is described from China. All the female developmental stages (adult, third-instar, second-instar and first-instar nymphs) are described and illustrated. Keys are provided to separate the female instars and to identify adult females of Crisicoccus species from China.

  15. A new species of Dysmicoccus damaging lavender in French Provence (Hemiptera, Sternorrhyncha, Pseudococcidae).

    PubMed

    Germain, J-F; Matile-Ferrero, D; Kaydan, M B; Malausa, T; Williams, D J

    2015-07-01

    Une nouvelle espèce de Dysmicoccus nuisible à la lavande en Provence (France) (Hemiptera, Sternorrhyncha, Pseudococcidae). Dysmicoccus lavandulae Germain, Matile-Ferrero & Williams n. sp. est décrite et illustrée. Ses séquences ADN sont présentées. L'espèce vit sur Lavandula x intermedia cultivée pour la production d'essence de lavande en Provence. La liste des espèces de pseudococcines vivant sur les lavandes spontanées en France est dressée. Le statut des 2 genres voisins Trionymus Berg et Dysmicoccus Ferris est discuté.

  16. The Vine Mealybug Planococcus ficus (Signoret) (Hemiptera: Pseudococcidae) Damaging Vineyards in Brazil.

    PubMed

    Pacheco da Silva, V C; Galzer, E C W; Malausa, T; Germain, J F; Kaydan, M B; Botton, M

    2016-08-01

    In the last decade, the incidence of mealybugs (Hemiptera: Pseudococcidae) in vineyards has increased, especially on crops grown under plastic covering, in the Serra Gaúcha region of southern Brazil where the major Brazilian wineries are concentrated. Eggs, nymphs, and female adults were collected in two highly infested vineyards in Bento Gonçalves City, Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil. Mealybugs were identified by morphological and molecular techniques as the vine mealybug Planococcus ficus (Signoret). This is a principal mealybug pest of vineyards worldwide, and this is the first record of damage from this species in Brazil.

  17. Are Phenacoccus solani Ferris and P. defectus Ferris (Hemiptera: Pseudococcidae) distinct species?

    PubMed

    Chatzidimitriou, Evangelia; Simonato, Mauro; Watson, Gillian W; Martinez-Sañudo, Isabel; Tanaka, Hirotaka; Zhao, Jing; Pellizzari, Giuseppina

    2016-03-24

    Among the Nearctic species of Phenacoccus (Hemiptera: Pseudococcidae), Phenacoccus solani Ferris and P. defectus Ferris are morphologically similar and it can be difficult to separate them on the basis of microscopic morphological characters of the adult female alone. In order to resolve their identity, a canonical variates morphological analysis of 199 specimens from different geographical origins and host plants and a molecular analysis of the COI and 28S genes were performed. The morphological analysis supported synonymy of the two species, as although the type specimens of the "species" are widely separated from each other in the canonical variates plot, they are all part of a continuous range of variation. The molecular analysis showed that P. solani and P. defectus are grouped in the same clade. On the basis of the morphological and molecular analyses, P. defectus is synonymized under the senior name P. solani, syn. n.

  18. Chirality and bioactivity of the sex pheromone of Madeira mealybug (Hemiptera: Pseudococcidae).

    PubMed

    Ho, Hsiao-Yung; Ko, Chi-Hung; Cheng, Chao-Chih; Su, Yu-Ting; Pola, Someshwar

    2011-06-01

    Two compounds (trans-1R,3R-chrysanthemyl R-2-methylbutanoate and R-lavandulyl R-2-methylbutanoate) identified from aeration extracts of virgin female Madeira mealybug, Phenacoccus madeirensis Green (Hemiptera: Pseudococcidae), were synthesized and tested in field bioassays in northern Taiwan over a 1-mo period. In total, 1,492 male P. madeirensis were captured in sticky traps. Our results showed that 1 microg of synthetic trans-1R,3R-chrysanthemyl R-2-methylbutanoate released from a plastic tube dispenser was attractive to the mealybugs. Different stereoisomers of chrysanthemyl 2-methylbutanoate also were tested. The insect-produced stereoisomer was the most attractive of all the isomers tested, and the stereochemistry of the acid moiety proved to be more critical than that of the alcohol moiety. The minor component found in extracts, R-lavandulyl R-2-methylbutanoate, alone was not attractive to male Madeira mealybugs nor did it act synergistically or additively with the main component.

  19. The structure of integument and wax glands of Phenacoccus fraxinus (Hemiptera: Coccoidea: Pseudococcidae).

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yanfeng; Xie, Yingping; Xue, Jiaoliang; Fu, Xiaohong; Liu, Weimin

    2012-06-01

    Using scanning electron microscopy and optical microscopy, we studied the structure of the integument and wax glands of the mealybug, Phenacoccus fraxinus Tang (Hemiptera: Coccoidea: Pseudococcidae). We observed the ultrastructure of four wax pores including trilocular, quinquelocular, and multilocular pores as well as tubular ducts, recording characteristics of their structure, size and distribution. We found that that the integument of the mealybug consists of three main layers-the procuticle, epidermis and basement membrane-and four sub-layers of the procuticle-the epicuticle, exocuticle, endocuticle and formation zone. The wax-secreting gland cells were closely arranged in epidermis. All of them were complex and composed of one central cell and two or more lateral cells. These complex cells possess a large common reservoir for collection and storage. Synthesized by the glandular cells, the wax is excreted outside integument through canals.

  20. Preparation of Mealybugs (Hemiptera: Pseudococcidae) for Genetic Characterization and Morphological Examination.

    PubMed

    Bahder, B W; Bollinger, M L; Sudarshana, M R; Zalom, F G

    2015-01-01

    Mealybugs (Hemiptera: Pseudococcidae) are economically significant agricultural pests on many different crops. Because of their small size and lack of easily visible characters for identification, determination of their taxonomic status is difficult and requires technical competency to prepare a slide-mounted specimen. The standard mounting technique does not allow for analysis of the genome of the specimen. Conversely, preparatory techniques for genetic analysis of mealybugs cause either loss of the entire individual or physical damage that can make morphology-based identification difficult. This study describes a simple protocol that does not impact physical integrity of the specimen for fixation and microscopic examination yet enables simultaneous DNA extraction for DNA-based identification of four mealybug species. All species prepared yielded high quality slide mounts, identified as Planococcus citri Risso, Pseudococcus viburni Signoret, Rhizoecus kondonis Kuwana, or Rhizoecus californicus Ferris. DNA extracted in this manner had higher purity and yield in the final eluate than in samples extracted using standard methods. DNA extracted was successfully amplified by polymerase chain reaction using primers for the cytochrome oxidase I gene and subsequently sequenced for all specimens. This protocol is likely to be applicable to other Hemiptera taxa that are preserved by slide mounting, allowing for both the preparation of a high-quality voucher specimen for morphological identification and simultaneous analysis of DNA for the same specimen. The methods used are technically less challenging than current standard procedures.

  1. A new Anagyrus (Hymenoptera: Encyrtidae) from Argentina, parasitoid of Hypogeococcus sp. (Hemiptera: Pseudococcidae) on Harrisia pomanensis (Cactaceae).

    PubMed

    Triapitsyn, Serguei V; Aguirre, María B; Logarzo, Guillermo A

    2016-05-26

    A new species of Anagyrus Howard (Hymenoptera: Encyrtidae), A. lapachosus sp. n., is described from Salta Province of Argentina as a parasitoid of Hypogeococcus sp. (Hemiptera: Pseudococcidae) on Harrisia pomanensis cactus (Cactaceae). It is a candidate "new association" biological control agent for quarantine evaluation and possible following introduction to Puerto Rico (USA) against another Hypogeococcus sp., commonly called the Harrisia cactus mealybug and often misidentified as H. pungens Granara de Willink (according to our unpublished data the latter attacks only Amaranthaceae), which devastates or threatens the native cacti there and also in some other Caribbean islands (Triapitsyn, Aguirre et al. 2014; Carrera-Martínez et al. 2015).

  2. Mealybugs (Hemiptera: Coccomorpha: Pseudococcidae) attacking Hibiscus rosa-sinensis L. in Malaysia, with two new country records

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sartiami, Dewi; Watson, Gillian W.; Mohamad Roff, M. N.; Idris, A. B.

    2016-11-01

    A survey of mealybugs (Hemiptera: Coccomorpha: Pseudococcidae) attacking the national flower of Malaysia, Hibiscus rosa-sisnensis L. and Hibiscus spp. (Malvaceae) was conducted in Selangor and Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia, from January to March 2016. Adult females were mounted on microscope slides in Canada balsam. The five species identified were Ferrisia dasylirii (Cockerell), Maconellicoccus hirsutus (Green), Paracoccus marginatus Williams and Granara de Willink, Phenacoccus solenopsis (Tinsley) and Pseudococcus jackbeardsleyi Gimpel & Miller. Two of these, the invasive species Ferrisia dasylirii and P. solenopsis were introduced and first recorded in Malaysia.

  3. Effects of gamma irradiation on different stages of mealybug Dysmicoccus neobrevipes (Hemiptera: Pseudococcidae)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    The, Doan Thi; Khanh, Nguyen Thuy; Lang, Vo Thi Kim; Van Chung, Cao; An, Tran Thi Thien; Thi, Nguyen Hoang Hanh

    2012-01-01

    Utilization of phytosanitary irradiation as a potential treatment to disinfest agricultural commodities in trade has expanded rapidly in the recent years. Cobalt-60 gamma ray target doses of 100, 150, 200 and 250 Gy were used to irradiate immatures and adults of Dysmicoccus neobrevipes (Beardsley) (Hemiptera: Pseudococcidae) infesting dragon fruits to find the most tolerant stage and the most optimal dose range for quarantine treatment. In general, irradiation affected significantly all life stages of D. neobrevipes mortality and adult reproduction. The pattern of tolerance to irradiation in D. neobrevipes was 1st instars<2nd instars<3rd instars

  4. Solenopsis invicta (Hymenoptera: Formicidae), defend Phenacoccus solenopsis (Hemiptera: Pseudococcidae) against its natural enemies.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Aiming; Lu, Yongyue; Zeng, Ling; Xu, Yijuan; Liang, Guangwen

    2013-04-01

    Mutualism is a common and important ecological phenomenon characterized by beneficial interaction between two species. Red imported fire ants, Solenopsis invicta Buren, tend honeydew-producing hemipteran insects and reduce the activity of these insects' enemies. Ant-hemipteran interactions frequently exert positive effects on the densities of hemipterans. We tested the hypothesis that ant tending can increase the densities of the mealybug, Phenacoccus solenopsis Tinsley (Hemiptera: Pseudococcidae), and reduce the densities of the mealybug's predatory and parasitic enemies, the lady beetle, Menochilus sexmaculata Fabricius (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae), and the parasitoid wasp, Aenasius bambawalei Hayat (Hymenoptera: Encyrtidae). We found that more ants foraged on mealybug-infested hibiscus plants than on mealybug-free plants. The number of foraging ants on plants infested with high densities of mealybugs (62.5 ants per plant) was nearly six times that on mealybug-free plants (10.2 ants per plant). Experiment results showed that ant tending significantly increased the survival of mealybugs: if predatory and parasitic enemies were present, the survival of mealybugs tended by fire ants was higher than that in the absence of tending ants. Furthermore, this tending by fire ants significantly decreased the survival of lady beetle larvae. However, no apparent effect was observed on the survival of parasitoid.

  5. Laboratory Evaluation of Different Insecticides against Hibiscus Mealybug, Maconellicoccus hirsutus (Hemiptera: Pseudococcidae).

    PubMed

    Fatima, Samman; Hussain, Mubashar; Shafqat, Shama; Faheem Malik, Muhammad; Abbas, Zaheer; Noureen, Nadia; Ul Ane, Noor

    2016-01-01

    Hibiscus mealybug, Maconellicoccus hirsutus (Hemiptera: Pseudococcidae), is the major pest of many vegetables, fruits, crops, and ornamental plants causing losses to the farmers and its control has been an issue of significance in the pest management. This study was aimed at evaluating different concentrations (0.06%, 0.1%, and 0.14%) of Telsta, Advantage, Talstar, Imidacloprid, and their mixtures against hibiscus mealybug in the Laboratory of Systematics and Pest Management at University of Gujrat, Pakistan. The toxic effect was evaluated in the laboratory bioassay after 24 and 48 h of the application of insecticides. The highest mortality (95.83%) was shown by Talstar and Talstar + Imidacloprid at the concentration of 0.14% after 48 h followed by Advantage + Talstar with 87.50% mortality at 0.14% concentration after 48 h of application. The study also showed that the least effective treatment observed was Advantage + Telsta with no mortality after 24 h and 25% mortality after 48 h at 0.14% concentration. The study revealed that the concentration 0.14% was highly effective in lowering the mealybug population and insecticide mixtures were effective in reducing mealybug density. The study emphasizes the use of such insecticide mixtures to develop better management strategy for mealybug populations attacking ornamental plants. However effects of such insecticide mixtures on other organisms and biological control agents should be checked under field conditions.

  6. Phenotypic variation and identification of Phenacoccus solenopsis Tinsley (Hemiptera: Pseudococcidae) in China.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Jing; Watson, Gillian W; Sun, Yang; Tan, Yongan; Xiao, Liubin; Bai, Lixin

    2014-05-23

    Phenacoccus solenopsis Tinsley (Hemiptera: Pseudococcidae) is an invasive mealybug that seriously damages cotton and other important crops. In previous studies in China, the presence of two submedian longitudinal lines of pigmented spots on the dorsum of adult females frequently has been used to identify this species. However, the present study records the occasional absence of pigmented spots in a sample from Guangxi province, China. Specimens without pigmented spots showed all the molecular and morphological characters that separate P. solenopsis from the similar species P. solani Ferris, especially the distribution of multilocular disc pores. In different geographic populations of P. solenopsis in China, mitochondrial COI and nuclear 28SrDNA genes are very similar (99.8-100%), indicating that they are conspecific. For COI, the genetic distance between P. solenopsis and P. solani is more than 3%. A map of the distribution of P. solenopsis in China is given. To help identify both pigmented and non-pigmented P. solenopsis accurately, an identification key to the 16 species of Phenacoccus found in China is provided. The key also identifies five potentially invasive Phenacoccus species not yet established in China, in case they get introduced there.

  7. Molecular and Morphological Identification of Mealybug Species (Hemiptera: Pseudococcidae) in Brazilian Vineyards

    PubMed Central

    Pacheco da Silva, Vitor C.; Bertin, Aline; Blin, Aurélie; Germain, Jean-François; Bernardi, Daniel; Rignol, Guylène; Botton, Marcos; Malausa, Thibaut

    2014-01-01

    Mealybugs (Hemiptera: Pseudococcidae) are pests constraining the international trade of Brazilian table grapes. They damage grapes by transmitting viruses and toxins, causing defoliation, chlorosis, and vigor losses and favoring the development of sooty mold. Difficulties in mealybug identification remain an obstacle to the adequate management of these pests. In this study, our primary aim was to identify the principal mealybug species infesting the major table grape-producing regions in Brazil, by morphological and molecular characterization. Our secondary aim was to develop a rapid identification kit based on species-specific Polymerase Chain Reactions, to facilitate the routine identification of the most common pest species. We surveyed 40 sites infested with mealybugs and identified 17 species: Dysmicoccus brevipes (Cockerell), Dysmicoccus sylvarum Williams and Granara de Willink, Dysmicoccus texensis (Tinsley), Ferrisia cristinae Kaydan and Gullan, Ferrisia meridionalis Williams, Ferrisia terani Williams and Granara de Willink, Phenacoccus baccharidis Williams, Phenacoccus parvus Morrison, Phenacoccus solenopsis Tinsley, Planococcus citri (Risso), Pseudococcus viburni (Signoret), Pseudococcus cryptus Hempel, four taxa closely related each of to Pseudococcus viburni, Pseudococcus sociabilis Hambleton, Pseudococcus maritimus (Ehrhorn) and Pseudococcus meridionalis Prado, and one specimen from the genus Pseudococcus Westwood. The PCR method developed effectively identified five mealybug species of economic interest on grape in Brazil: D. brevipes, Pl. citri, Ps. viburni, Ph. solenopsis and Planococcus ficus (Signoret). Nevertheless, it is not possible to assure that this procedure is reliable for taxa that have not been sampled already and might be very closely related to the target species. PMID:25062012

  8. Molecular and morphological identification of mealybug species (Hemiptera: Pseudococcidae) in Brazilian vineyards.

    PubMed

    Pacheco da Silva, Vitor C; Bertin, Aline; Blin, Aurélie; Germain, Jean-François; Bernardi, Daniel; Rignol, Guylène; Botton, Marcos; Malausa, Thibaut

    2014-01-01

    Mealybugs (Hemiptera: Pseudococcidae) are pests constraining the international trade of Brazilian table grapes. They damage grapes by transmitting viruses and toxins, causing defoliation, chlorosis, and vigor losses and favoring the development of sooty mold. Difficulties in mealybug identification remain an obstacle to the adequate management of these pests. In this study, our primary aim was to identify the principal mealybug species infesting the major table grape-producing regions in Brazil, by morphological and molecular characterization. Our secondary aim was to develop a rapid identification kit based on species-specific Polymerase Chain Reactions, to facilitate the routine identification of the most common pest species. We surveyed 40 sites infested with mealybugs and identified 17 species: Dysmicoccus brevipes (Cockerell), Dysmicoccus sylvarum Williams and Granara de Willink, Dysmicoccus texensis (Tinsley), Ferrisia cristinae Kaydan and Gullan, Ferrisia meridionalis Williams, Ferrisia terani Williams and Granara de Willink, Phenacoccus baccharidis Williams, Phenacoccus parvus Morrison, Phenacoccus solenopsis Tinsley, Planococcus citri (Risso), Pseudococcus viburni (Signoret), Pseudococcus cryptus Hempel, four taxa closely related each of to Pseudococcus viburni, Pseudococcus sociabilis Hambleton, Pseudococcus maritimus (Ehrhorn) and Pseudococcus meridionalis Prado, and one specimen from the genus Pseudococcus Westwood. The PCR method developed effectively identified five mealybug species of economic interest on grape in Brazil: D. brevipes, Pl. citri, Ps. viburni, Ph. solenopsis and Planococcus ficus (Signoret). Nevertheless, it is not possible to assure that this procedure is reliable for taxa that have not been sampled already and might be very closely related to the target species.

  9. Citrus mealybug (Hemiptera: Pseudococcidae) movement and population dynamics in an arbor-trained vineyard.

    PubMed

    Cid, M; Pereiro, S; Cabaleiro, C; Segura, A

    2010-06-01

    The citrus mealybug, Planococcus citri (Risso) (Hemiptera: Pseudococcidae), is the main grapevine pest in vineyards in some countries, such as Spain and Brazil. In Galician vineyards (northwestern Spain), mealybug population levels are low because the accumulated degree-days are lower than in other grapevine-growing areas. The main problem caused by mealybugs is the transmission of viruses, even at low infestation levels. The active period of citrus mealybug in the study vineyard lasted from July until December, with an important movement peak at the end of July and August and a lower peak in November. The mealybug mainly moved upward along arbor-trained plants, and there were no important downward movements at the end of the season as has been described for other grapevine mealybugs. The mealybugs were normally restricted to the woody organs and were only present on leaves, branches, and green canes (always close to woody parts) in plants with high infestations. The movement of mealybugs between plants does not seem to take place by contact between green organs. Passive aerial transport and movement of pruning remains may play an important role in mealybug movement and thus in spread of the virus. The number of mealybugs carrying Grapevine leafroll-associated virus 3 (GLRaV-3) was found to represent approximately 75% of mealybugs caught in a GLRaV-3 infected vineyard.

  10. A multiplex PCR assay for the simultaneous identification of three mealybug species (Hemiptera: Pseudococcidae).

    PubMed

    Saccaggi, D L; Krüger, K; Pietersen, G

    2008-02-01

    Molecular species identification is becoming more wide-spread in diagnostics and ecological studies, particularly with regard to insects for which morphological identification is difficult or time-consuming. In this study, we describe the development and application of a single-step multiplex PCR for the identification of three mealybug species (Hemiptera: Pseudococcidae) associated with grapevine in South Africa: Planococcus ficus (vine mealybug), Planococcus citri (citrus mealybug) and Pseudococcus longispinus (longtailed mealybug). Mealybugs are pests on many commercial crops, including grapevine, in which they transmit viral diseases. Morphological identification of mealybug species is usually time-consuming, requires a high level of taxonomic expertise and usually only adult females can be identified. The single-step multiplex PCR developed here, based on the mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase subunit 1 (CO I) gene, is rapid, reliable, sensitive, accurate and simple. The entire identification protocol (including DNA extraction, PCR and electrophoresis) can be completed in approximately four hours. Successful DNA extraction from laboratory and unparasitized field-collected individuals stored in absolute ethanol was 97%. Specimens from which DNA could be extracted were always correctly identified (100% accuracy). The technique developed is simple enough to be implemented in any molecular laboratory. The principles described here can be extended to any organism for which rapid, reliable identification is needed.

  11. Development and Life Table Parameters of Phenacoccus madeirensis Green (Hemiptera: Pseudococcidae) on Four Ornamental Plants.

    PubMed

    Tok, B; Kaydan, M B; Mustu, M; Ulusoy, M R

    2016-08-01

    The development, reproduction, and life table parameters of the Phenacoccus madeirensis Green (Hemiptera: Pseudococcidae) on four ornamental plant species, namely Pelargonium zonale (Geraniaceae), Hibiscus rosa-sinensis, Hibicus syriacus (Malvaceae), and Cestrum nocturnum (Solanaceae) were investigated under controlled conditions (25 ± 2°C, 60 ± 10% R.H., and 16 h photophase). Life table data were analyzed by using an age-stage two-sex life table. The shortest total immature developmental time of females and males for P. madeirensis was obtained on C. nocturnum (20.42 and 21.90 days, respectively). The highest fecundities were 233 and 232 eggs on C. nocturnum and H. syriacus, respectively. The intrinsic rate of increase (r  = 0.1511 day(-1)) and finite rate of increase (λ  =  1.1631 day(-1)) were the greatest when mealybugs were reared on C. nocturnum. Net reproductive rate (R 0  =  129.5 offspring) was the greatest when reared on H. syriacus, but this value was not statistically different from that on C. nocturnum. The shortest mean generation time (T  =  31.3 days) was calculated on C. nocturnum. These results indicate that C. nocturnum and H. syriacus are more suitable hosts than H. rosa-sinensis and P. zonale for P. madeirensis.

  12. Laboratory Evaluation of Different Insecticides against Hibiscus Mealybug, Maconellicoccus hirsutus (Hemiptera: Pseudococcidae)

    PubMed Central

    Fatima, Samman; Hussain, Mubashar; Shafqat, Shama; Faheem Malik, Muhammad; Abbas, Zaheer; Noureen, Nadia; ul Ane, Noor

    2016-01-01

    Hibiscus mealybug, Maconellicoccus hirsutus (Hemiptera: Pseudococcidae), is the major pest of many vegetables, fruits, crops, and ornamental plants causing losses to the farmers and its control has been an issue of significance in the pest management. This study was aimed at evaluating different concentrations (0.06%, 0.1%, and 0.14%) of Telsta, Advantage, Talstar, Imidacloprid, and their mixtures against hibiscus mealybug in the Laboratory of Systematics and Pest Management at University of Gujrat, Pakistan. The toxic effect was evaluated in the laboratory bioassay after 24 and 48 h of the application of insecticides. The highest mortality (95.83%) was shown by Talstar and Talstar + Imidacloprid at the concentration of 0.14% after 48 h followed by Advantage + Talstar with 87.50% mortality at 0.14% concentration after 48 h of application. The study also showed that the least effective treatment observed was Advantage + Telsta with no mortality after 24 h and 25% mortality after 48 h at 0.14% concentration. The study revealed that the concentration 0.14% was highly effective in lowering the mealybug population and insecticide mixtures were effective in reducing mealybug density. The study emphasizes the use of such insecticide mixtures to develop better management strategy for mealybug populations attacking ornamental plants. However effects of such insecticide mixtures on other organisms and biological control agents should be checked under field conditions. PMID:27313962

  13. Ultralow oxygen treatment for control of Planococcus ficus (Hemiptera: Pseudococcidae) on grape benchgrafts.

    PubMed

    Liu, Yong-Biao; Bettiga, Larry J; Daane, Kent M

    2010-04-01

    Controlled atmosphere treatments with ultralow oxygen (ULO treatments) were developed successfully for control of vine mealybug, Planococcusflcus Signoret (Hemiptera: Pseudococcidae), on dormant grape (Vitis spp.) benchgrafts. At 30 ppm oxygen, 3-d ULO treatment at 25 degrees C and 4-d ULO treatment at 150C achieved complete control of all life stages of P. ficus. At a much lower oxygen level (<1 ppm), the two ULO treatments with the same exposure periods of 3 d at 25 degrees C and 4 d at 15 degrees C were tested on six table and wine grape cultivars grafted on rootstocks along with P. ficus. The benchgrafts were then potted in a greenhouse, together with untreated controls, to determine treatment effects on rootstock viability. Both ULO treatments achieved complete control of P. ficus and did not have any negative effects on vine growth, compared with the control. Results indicate that ULO treatments can be used to control P. ficus on dormant grape benchgrafts. The advantages of the ULO treatments are also discussed with respect to hot water treatments.

  14. Crop Loss Relationships and Economic Injury Levels for Ferrisia gilli (Hemiptera: Pseudococcidae) Infesting Pistachio in California.

    PubMed

    Haviland, David R; Beede, Robert H; Daane, Kent M

    2015-12-01

    Ferrisia gilli Gullan (Hemiptera: Pseudococcidae) is a new pest in California pistachios, Pistacea vera L. We conducted a 3-yr field study to determine the type and amount of damage caused by F. gilli. Using pesticides, we established gradients of F. gilli densities in a commercial pistachio orchard near Tipton, CA, from 2005 to 2007. Each year, mealybug densities on pistachio clusters were recorded from May through September and cumulative mealybug-days were determined. At harvest time, nut yield per tree (5% dried weight) was determined, and subsamples of nuts were evaluated for market quality. Linear regression analysis of cumulative mealybug-days against fruit yield and nut quality measurements showed no relationships in 2005 and 2006, when mealybug densities were moderate. However, in 2007, when mealybug densities were very high, there was a negative correlation with yield (for every 1,000 mealybug-days, there was a decrease in total dry weight per tree of 0.105 kg) and percentage of split unstained nuts (for every 1,000 mealybug-days, there was a decrease in the percentage of split unstained of 0.560%), and a positive correlation between the percentage of closed kernel and closed blank nuts (for every 1,000 mealybug-days, there is an increase in the percentage of closed kernel and closed blank of 0.176 and 0.283%, respectively). The data were used to determine economic injury levels, showing that for each mealybug per cluster in May there was a 4.73% reduction in crop value associated with quality and a 0.866 kg reduction in yield per tree (4.75%).

  15. Effect of temperature on the life history of the mealybug Paracoccus marginatus (Hemiptera: Pseudococcidae).

    PubMed

    Amarasekare, Kaushalya G; Chong, Juang-Horng; Epsky, Nancy D; Mannion, Catharine M

    2008-12-01

    Effect of temperature on the life history of the mealybug Paracoccus marginatus Williams & Granara de Willink (Hemiptera: Pseudococcidae) was investigated in the laboratory. P. marginatus was able to develop and complete its life cycle at 18, 20, 25, and 30 +/- 1 degrees C. At 15, 34, and 35 degrees C, the eggs hatched after 27.5, 5.9, and 5.5 d of incubation, respectively, but further development of the first-instar nymphs was arrested. No eggs hatched at 37 degrees C. The developmental time for egg to adult was the longest at 18 degrees C for both males and females. Approximately 80-90% of the eggs survived between 20 and 30 degrees C. The highest fecundity was at 25 degrees C with each female producing an average of 300 eggs. Adult longevity, and preoviposition and oviposition periods increased with decreasing temperature up to 25 degrees C. The proportion of females was approximately 42% at 25 degrees C and was between 70 and 80% at 18, 20, and 30 degrees C. Adult males and females required 303.0 and 294.1 degree-days (DD), respectively, to complete their development. The estimated minimum temperature thresholds for the adult males and females were 14.5 and 13.9 degrees C, respectively. For adult males, the estimated optimum and maximum temperature thresholds were 28.7 and 31.9 degrees C; and for adult females, they were 28.4 and 32.1 degrees C, respectively. The ability of P. marginatus to develop, survive, and reproduce successfully between 18 and 30 degrees C suggests that it has the capability to develop and establish in areas within this temperature range.

  16. Comparison of sex pheromone traps for monitoring pink hibiscus mealybug (Hemiptera: Pseudococcidae).

    PubMed

    Vitullo, Justin; Wang, Shifa; Zhang, Aijun; Mannion, Catharine; Bergh, J Christopher

    2007-04-01

    The pink hibiscus mealybug, Maconellicoccus hirsutus (Green) (Hemiptera: Pseudococcidae), is a highly polyphagous pest that invaded Florida in 2002 and has recently been reported from several locations in Louisiana. Although identification of its sex pheromone in 2004 improved monitoring capabilities tremendously, the effectiveness and efficiency of different pheromone trap designs for capturing males has not been evaluated. We deployed green Delta, Pherocon IlB, Pherocon V, Jackson, and Storgard Thinline traps in Homestead, FL, and compared the number of male M. hirsutus captured per trap, the number captured per unit of trapping surface area, the amount of extraneous material captured, and the time taken to count trapped mealybugs. Pheromone-baited traps with larger trapping surfaces (green Delta, Pherocon IIB, and Pherocon V) captured more males per trap than those with smaller surfaces (Jackson and Storgard Thinline), and fewest males were captured by Storgard Thinline traps. However, Jackson traps captured as many or more males per square centimeter of trapping surface as those with larger surfaces, and the time required to count males in Jackson traps was significantly less than in green Delta, Pherocon IIB, and Pherocon V traps. Although all trap designs accumulated some debris and nontarget insects, it was rated as light to moderate for all designs. Based on our measures of effectiveness and efficiency, the Jackson trap is most suitable for monitoring M. hirsutus populations. Additionally, unlike the other traps evaluated, which must be replaced entirely or inspected in the field and then redeployed, only the sticky liners of Jackson traps require replacement, enhancing the efficiency of trap servicing.

  17. Mating disruption of Planococcus ficus (Hemiptera: Pseudococcidae) in vineyards using reservoir pheromone dispensers.

    PubMed

    Cocco, Arturo; Lentini, Andrea; Serra, Giuseppe

    2014-10-15

    Mating disruption field experiments to control the vine mealybug, Planococcus ficus (Signoret) (Hemiptera: Pseudococcidae), were carried out in 2008 and 2009 in two commercial vineyards in Sardinia (Italy). The effectiveness of mating disruption was evaluated by testing reservoir dispensers loaded with 100 mg (62.5 g/ha) and 150 mg (93.8 g/ha) of the sex pheromone in 2008 and 2009, respectively. The number of males captured in pheromone traps, the P. ficus population density and age structure, the parasitism rate, the percentage of ovipositing females, and the crop damage were compared between disrupted and untreated plots. In both field trials, the number of males captured in mating disruption plots was significantly reduced by 86% and 95%, respectively. Mating disruption at the initial dose of 62.5 g/ha of active ingredient gave inconclusive results, whereas the dose of 93.8 g/ha significantly lowered the mealybug density and modified the age structure, which showed a lower percentage of ovipositing females and a higher proportion of preovipositing females. Mating disruption did not affect negatively the parasitism rate, which was higher in the disrupted than in the control plots (>1.5-fold). Crop damage at harvest was very low in both field trials and did not differ between treatments. Mating disruption was effective in wide plots protected with dispensers loaded with 150 mg of the sex pheromone, showing its potential to be included in the overall integrated control programs in Mediterranean wine-growing regions.

  18. Pheromone-based mating disruption of Planococcus ficus (Hemiptera: Pseudococcidae) in California vineyards.

    PubMed

    Walton, Vaughn M; Daane, Kent M; Bentley, Walter J; Millar, Jocelyn G; Larsen, Thomas E; Malakar-Kuenen, Raksha

    2006-08-01

    Experiments were conducted to test a mating disruption program for the mealybug Planococcus ficus (Signoret) (Hemiptera: Pseudococcidae) in California vineyards. The sprayable, microencapsulated formulation of the racemic sex pheromone lavandulyl senecioate was applied with an air-blast sprayer, using three and four applications in 2003 and 2004, respectively. Mating disruption was combined with an application of buprofezin (2004) in June. Compared with a no-pheromone control, there were significantly lower season-long trap catches of adult males, season-long mealybug densities (2003 only), and crop damage in mating disruption plots. The amount of mealybug reduction and mechanisms that resulted in lower crop damage in mating disruption plots is discussed. In samples taken during the growing season (April to September), mealybug density was only 12.0 +/- 15.6 and 31.1 +/- 11.6% lower in the mating disruption plots than in control plots in 2003 and 2004, respectively. In the mating disruption treatment, mealybug egg production was significantly lower (2003 only), as were the proportion of ovisacs and crawlers produced. There was no treatment impact on percentage of parasitism. Mealybug density influenced treatment impact. In 2004, vines were categorized as having low, medium, or high mealybug densities during a preapplication survey. After treatment application, mealybug density was reduced by 86.3 +/- 6.3% on vines in the low mealybug density category, but it was unchanged on vines in the high density category. Another factor that reduced treatment impact was the relatively short effective lifetime of the sprayable formulation.

  19. Three new species of mealybug (Hemiptera, Coccomorpha, Pseudococcidae) on persimmon fruit trees (Diospyros kaki) in southern Brazil.

    PubMed

    Pacheco da Silva, Vitor C; Kaydan, Mehmet Bora; Germain, Jean-François; Malausa, Thibaut; Botton, Marcos

    2016-01-01

    Brazil has the greatest insect diversity in the world; however, little is known about its scale insect species (Hemiptera: Coccomorpha). Mealybugs (Pseudococcidae) have been found in at least 50% of persimmon orchards Diospyros kaki L. in the southern part of the country. In this study three new mealybug species on persimmon trees located in the Serra Gaúcha Region, RS, Brazil, namely, Anisococcus granarae Pacheco da Silva & Kaydan, sp. n., Ferrisia kaki Kaydan & Pacheco da Silva, sp. n. and Pseudococcus rosangelae Pacheco da Silva & Kaydan, sp. n. are described. In addition, an identification key for the genera occurring on fruit orchards and vineyards in Brazil is provided, together with illustrations and molecular data for the new species.

  20. Three new species of mealybug (Hemiptera, Coccomorpha, Pseudococcidae) on persimmon fruit trees (Diospyros kaki) in southern Brazil

    PubMed Central

    Pacheco da Silva, Vitor C.; Kaydan, Mehmet Bora; Germain, Jean-François; Malausa, Thibaut; Botton, Marcos

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Brazil has the greatest insect diversity in the world; however, little is known about its scale insect species (Hemiptera: Coccomorpha). Mealybugs (Pseudococcidae) have been found in at least 50% of persimmon orchards Diospyros kaki L. in the southern part of the country. In this study three new mealybug species on persimmon trees located in the Serra Gaúcha Region, RS, Brazil, namely, Anisococcus granarae Pacheco da Silva & Kaydan, sp. n., Ferrisia kaki Kaydan & Pacheco da Silva, sp. n. and Pseudococcus rosangelae Pacheco da Silva & Kaydan, sp. n. are described. In addition, an identification key for the genera occurring on fruit orchards and vineyards in Brazil is provided, together with illustrations and molecular data for the new species. PMID:27199595

  1. A new mealybug in the genus Pseudococcus Westwood (Hemiptera: Coccomorpha: Pseudococcidae) from North America, with a key to species of Pseudococcus from the New World.

    PubMed

    Ellenrieder, Natalia Von; Watson, Gillian

    2016-04-19

    A mealybug species that feeds on Agave spp., Pseudococcus variabilis sp. n. (Hemiptera: Coccomorpha: Pseudococcidae), is described from North America. Its entry into the United States was likely via the horticultural trade on its host plants in the genus Agave (Liliales: Agavaceae). Descriptions and illustrations of the adult female and male, diagnosis from congeners in the New World, and a molecular characterization based on COI are provided, as well as a key to adult females of all Pseudococcus species recorded from the New World.

  2. Evaluation of efficacy of 18 strains of entomopathogenic nematodes (Rhabditida) against Planococcus citri (Risso, 1813) (Hemiptera: Pseudococcidae) under laboratory conditions.

    PubMed

    Barbosa Negrisoli, Carla Ruth de Carvalho; Negrisoli Júnior, Aldomario Santo; Botton, Marcos; Garcia, Mauro Silveira; Bernardi, Daniel

    2013-07-01

    Planococcus citri (Risso, 1813) (Hemiptera: Pseudococcidae) is an important plant virus vector in grapevine crops in Brazil and other countries. The mealybug grows in roots and leaves of the grapes. Entomopathogenic nematodes (EPNs) are efficient control agents against insects associated to the soil and could be applied with the same equipment used for chemical insecticides. The aim of this study was to select effective EPNs for controlling P. citri females in laboratory conditions (25±1°C, UR 60±10%). We tested 17 native [Steinernema rarum (6 strains), Steinernema glaseri, Steinernema feltiae, Steinernema riobrave, Steinernema sp., Heterorhabditis bacteriophora (7 strains)] and only one exotic strain (Steinernema carpocapsae ALL). The bioassays were done on Petri dishes infested with females of P. citri, which were sprayed with EPNs juveniles. The strain with larger pathogenicity and virulence in laboratory was H. bacteriophora RS33 (from 69.0% to 92.2% of mortality), native of Rio Grande do Sul. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. The Bionomics of the Cocoa Mealybug, Exallomochlus hispidus (Morrison) (Hemiptera: Pseudococcidae), on Mangosteen Fruit and Three Alternative Hosts

    PubMed Central

    Indarwatmi, Murni; Dadang, Dadang; Ridwani, Sobir; Sri Ratna, Endang

    2017-01-01

    The cocoa mealybug, Exallomochlus hispidus Morrison (Hemiptera: Pseudococcidae) is known to attack mangosteen, an important fruit export commodity for Indonesia. The mealybug is polyphagous, so alternative host plants can serve as a source of nourishment. This study aimed to record the bionomics of E. hispidus on mangosteen (Garcinia mangostana L.) and three alternative hosts, kabocha squash (Cucurbita maxima L.), soursop (Annona muricata, L.), and guava (Psidium guajava L.). First-instar nymphs of the E. hispidus were reared at room temperature on mangosteen, kabocha, soursop, and guava fruits until they developed into adults and produced nymphs. Female E. hispidus go through three instar stages before adulthood. The species reproduces by deuterotokous parthenogenesis. Exallomochlus hispidus successfully developed and reproduced on all four hosts. The shortest life cycle of the mealybug occurred on kabocha (about 32.4 days) and the longest was on guava (about 38.3 days). The highest fecundity was found on kabocha (about 100 nymphs/female) and the lowest on mangosteen (about 46 nymphs/female). The shortest oviposition period was 10 days on mangosteen and the longest, 10 days, on guava. These findings could be helpful in controlling E. hispidus populations in orchards. PMID:28757558

  4. Characterization of microsatellite DNA libraries from three mealybug species and development of microsatellite markers for Pseudococcus viburni (Hemiptera: Pseudococcidae).

    PubMed

    Correa, M C G; Zaviezo, T; Le Maguet, J; Herrbach, E; Malausa, T

    2014-04-01

    Mealybugs (Hemiptera: Pseudococcidae) are important pests for crops worldwide. Different species, cryptic taxa under the same species name or even populations within a species can differ in biological characteristics, such as phenology, resistance to insecticides, virus transmission and susceptibility to natural enemies. Therefore, their management efficacy depends on their accurate identification. Microsatellite genetic markers are efficient in revealing the fine-scale taxonomic status of insects, both at inter- and intra-specific level. Despite their potential uses, microsatellites have been developed only for one mealybug species so far. Hence, it is unclear whether microsatellites may be useful to assess mealybug population differentiation and structuring. In this work, we tested the feasibility of developing microsatellite markers in mealybugs by: (i) producing and characterizing microsatellite DNA libraries for three species: Pseudococcus viburni, Pseudococcus comstocki and Heliococcus bohemicus, and (ii) by developing and testing markers for Ps. viburni. The obtained libraries contained balanced percentages of dinucleotide (ranging from 15 to 25%) and trinucleotide (from 5 to 17%) motifs. The marker setup for Ps. viburni was successful, although 70% of the primers initially tested were discarded for a lack of polymorphism. Finally, 25 markers were combined in two multiplex polymerase chain reactions with 21 displaying no evidence of deviation from Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium. Ps. viburni markers were tested on one population from France and one from Chile. The markers revealed a significant genetic differentiation between the two populations with an Fst estimate of 0.266.

  5. Host instar susceptibility and selection and interspecific competition of three introduced parasitoids of the mealybug Paracoccus marginatus (Hemiptera: Pseudococcidae).

    PubMed

    Amarasekare, Kaushalya G; Mannion, Catharine M; Epsky, Nancy D

    2010-10-01

    Three previously introduced parasitoids (Acerophagus papayae Noyes and Schauff, Anagyrus loecki Noyes and Menezes, and Pseudleptomastix mexicana Noyes and Schauff [Hymenoptera: Encyrtidae]) of the mealybug Paracoccus marginatus Williams and Granara de Willink (Hemiptera: Pseudococcidae) were studied for their host instar susceptibility and sex ratio, host instar selection, and interspecific competition in the laboratory. All three parasitoids were able to develop in the second instars, third-instar females, and adult females of P. marginatus. No progeny emerged from first-instar mealybugs. The proportion of female emergence was increased with increasing host size. Parasitoids selected their host instars for oviposition when they had a choice. Between second- and third-instar hosts, A. papayae and P. mexicana had significantly higher parasitism in second-instar mealybugs, whereas A. loecki had higher parasitism in the third-instar mealybugs. When competed with either one or two parasitoid species, A. papayae was significantly more successful in second-instar hosts and A. loecki was significantly more successful in third-instar mealybugs. P. mexicana was significantly less competitive when with A. papayae in both second and third instars, with A. loecki in third instars and with both A. papayae and A. loecki in second and third instars. Overall, A. papayae provided a better control of the host, when present singly or with the other two parasitoids. This information is important in evaluating the efficiency of A. papayae, A. loecki, and P. mexicana and understanding the outcome of their recovery and establishment in field studies conducted in Florida.

  6. Present status of Maconellicoccus hirsutus (Hemiptera: Pseudococcidae) in the Mariana Islands and its control by two fortuitously introduced natural enemies.

    PubMed

    Reddy, G V P; Muniappan, R; Cruz, Z T; Naz, F; Bamba, J P; Tenorio, J

    2009-08-01

    The mealybug Maconellicoccus hirsutus (Green) (Hemiptera: Pseudococcidae), attacks ornamental and fruit crops in the Mariana Islands. Insecticides cannot penetrate the heavy layers of wax that protect the insect's body. We surveyed the mealybug's locally recruited natural enemies and their effects on its population on Guam, Rota, Saipan, and Tinian to assess the need for introduction of exotic natural enemies. We monitored population densities of M. hirsutus, those of its natural enemies, and parasitism rates for 3 yr, 2005-2007. Our surveys revealed the presence of two parasitoids, Anagyrus kamali Moursi (Hymenoptera: Encyrtidae) and Allotropa sp. near mecrida (Walker) (Hymenoptera: Platygastridae), fortuitously introduced to the Mariana Islands with M. hirsutus. The predator Cryptolaemus montrouzieri Mulsant (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae) also was often found feeding on M. hirsutus. Population density of M. hirsutus was below the economic threshold at all locations. Rainfall seemed to affect mean numbers of M. hirsutus and mean numbers of eggs at some locations. On all four islands, the two parasitoids, complemented by the predator, were effectively controlling the M. hirsutus population. No evidence of hyperparasitism was recorded. Currently, economic damage by M. hirsutus is not a concern in the Mariana Islands, and additional parasitoids need not be introduced to control M. hirsutus.

  7. Developmental time, longevity, and lifetime fertility of three introduced parasitoids of the mealybug Paracoccus marginatus (Hemiptera: Pseudococcidae).

    PubMed

    Amarasekare, Kaushalya G; Mannion, Catharine M; Epsky, Nancy D

    2012-10-01

    Developmental time, longevity, and lifetime fertility of three previously introduced parasitoids (Acerophagus papayae Noyes and Schauff, Anagyrus loecki Noyes and Menezes, and Pseudleptomastix mexicana Noyes and Schauff) (Hymenoptera: Encyrtidae) of the mealybug Paracoccus marginatus Williams and Granara de Willink (Hemiptera: Pseudococcidae) were studied in the laboratory to understand the outcome of their recovery in field studies conducted in the United States. The developmental time of both male and female A. papayae and A. loecki was shorter than the developmental time of male and female P. mexicana. Male parasitoids of all three species had a shorter developmental time than their females. All parasitoids had a shorter developmental time in adult-female mealybugs than in second instars. Mating status (unmated and mated) had no effect on the male longevity. Unmated and mated females that were not allowed to oviposit had similar longevity and lived longer than those that were allowed to oviposit. Virgin females produced male only progeny with higher number of males from A. loecki or P. mexicana than from A. papayae. The number of females and the cumulative progeny was smaller for A. papayae than for A. loecki or P. mexicana. The progeny sex ratio (proportion of females) was not different among the parasitoids. A. papayae had the shortest reproductive period followed by A. loecki and P. mexicana, respectively. This information is important in evaluating the efficiency, recovery and establishment of A. papayae, A. loecki, and P. mexicana.

  8. Chlorophyll content and chlorophyll fluorescence in tomato leaves infested with an invasive mealybug, Phenacoccus solenopsis (Hemiptera: Pseudococcidae).

    PubMed

    Huang, Jun; Zhang, Peng-Jun; Zhang, Juan; Lu, Yao-Bin; Huang, Fang; Li, Ming-Jiang

    2013-10-01

    Herbivore injury has indirect effects on the growth and performance of host plants through photosynthetic suppression. It causes uncertain reduction in photosynthesis, which likely depends on the degree of infestation. Rapid light curves provide detailed information on the saturation characteristics of electron transport as well as the overall photosynthetic performance of a plant. We examined the effects of different intensities of infestation of the invasive mealybug, Phenacoccus solenopsis Tinsley (Hemiptera: Pseudococcidae), on the relative chlorophyll content and rapid light curves of tomato Solanum lycopersicum L. leaves using a chlorophyll meter and chlorophyll fluorescence measurement system, respectively, under greenhouse conditions. After 38 d of P. solenopsis feeding, relative chlorophyll content of tomato plants with initial high of P. solenopsis was reduced by 57.3%. Light utilization efficiency (α) for the initial high-density treatment was reduced by 42.4%. However, no significant difference between initial low-density treatment and uninfested control was found. The values of the maximum electron transport rate and minimum saturating irradiance for initial high-density treatment were reduced by 82.0 and 69.7%, respectively, whereas the corresponding values for low-density treatment were reduced by 55.9 and 58.1%, respectively. These data indicated that changes were induced by P. solenopsis feeding in the relative chlorophyll content and chlorophyll fluorescence of infested tomato plants. The results indicating that low initial infestation by P. solenopsis caused no change in relative leaf chlorophyll content or light utilization efficiency could have been because the plants rapidly adapted to P. solenopsis feeding or because of compensatory photosynthesis.

  9. Bioclimatic Thresholds, Thermal Constants and Survival of Mealybug, Phenacoccus solenopsis (Hemiptera: Pseudococcidae) in Response to Constant Temperatures on Hibiscus

    PubMed Central

    Sreedevi, Gudapati; Prasad, Yenumula Gerard; Prabhakar, Mathyam; Rao, Gubbala Ramachandra; Vennila, Sengottaiyan; Venkateswarlu, Bandi

    2013-01-01

    Temperature-driven development and survival rates of the mealybug, Phenacoccussolenopsis Tinsley (Hemiptera: Pseudococcidae) were examined at nine constant temperatures (15, 20, 25, 27, 30, 32, 35 and 40°C) on hibiscus (Hibiscusrosa-sinensis L.). Crawlers successfully completed development to adult stage between 15 and 35°C, although their survival was affected at low temperatures. Two linear and four nonlinear models were fitted to describe developmental rates of P. solenopsis as a function of temperature, and for estimating thermal constants and bioclimatic thresholds (lower, optimum and upper temperature thresholds for development: Tmin, Topt and Tmax, respectively). Estimated thresholds between the two linear models were statistically similar. Ikemoto and Takai’s linear model permitted testing the equivalence of lower developmental thresholds for life stages of P. solenopsis reared on two hosts, hibiscus and cotton. Thermal constants required for completion of cumulative development of female and male nymphs and for the whole generation were significantly lower on hibiscus (222.2, 237.0, 308.6 degree-days, respectively) compared to cotton. Three nonlinear models performed better in describing the developmental rate for immature instars and cumulative life stages of female and male and for generation based on goodness-of-fit criteria. The simplified β type distribution function estimated Topt values closer to the observed maximum rates. Thermodynamic SSI model indicated no significant differences in the intrinsic optimum temperature estimates for different geographical populations of P. solenopsis. The estimated bioclimatic thresholds and the observed survival rates of P. solenopsis indicate the species to be high-temperature adaptive, and explained the field abundance of P. solenopsis on its host plants. PMID:24086597

  10. Performance of the Striped Mealybug Ferrisia virgata Cockerell (Hemiptera: Pseudococcidae) under Variable Conditions of Temperature and Mating.

    PubMed

    Oliveira, M D; Barbosa, P R R; Silva-Torres, C S A; Torres, J B

    2014-02-01

    Mealybugs have strong associations with their host plants due to their limitations for dispersal. Thus, environmental conditions and host quality may impact the biological traits of mealybugs. To the best of our knowledge, we are the first to report on the biology of a Brazilian population of the striped mealybug Ferrisia virgata Cockerell (Hemiptera: Pseudococcidae), which has recently been reported to infest cotton in Brazil. We evaluated the development and reproductive performance of F. virgata reared under different temperatures (25, 27, and 28°C) and mating status. The type of reproduction was also studied with insects reared on a factitious host and on cotton plants. Shorter development was obtained at 28°C as follows: nymphs generating males and females exhibited three and four instars with a mean duration of 19.1 and 20.5 days, respectively. The nymphal viability ranged from 77 to 96%, and was highest at 25°C. Females reared at 28°C initiated reproduction earlier (16.4 days), but the reproductive period was similar in all temperatures (∼16.2 days). Females produced more nymphs at 27 and 28°C (440 and 292 neonates) than at 25°C (277 neonates), although they lived longer at 25°C (63 days). Ferrisia virgata females exhibited only sexual reproduction. Thus, only mated females produced offspring, whereas unmated females died without reproducing. Therefore, the studied population of F. virgata exhibited only sexual reproduction with high survival and offspring production when fed cotton. Furthermore, pumpkin is a feasible host for mass rearing this mealybug species in the laboratory, an opening avenue for future studies.

  11. Bioclimatic thresholds, thermal constants and survival of mealybug, Phenacoccus solenopsis (hemiptera: pseudococcidae) in response to constant temperatures on hibiscus.

    PubMed

    Sreedevi, Gudapati; Prasad, Yenumula Gerard; Prabhakar, Mathyam; Rao, Gubbala Ramachandra; Vennila, Sengottaiyan; Venkateswarlu, Bandi

    2013-01-01

    Temperature-driven development and survival rates of the mealybug, Phenacoccussolenopsis Tinsley (Hemiptera: Pseudococcidae) were examined at nine constant temperatures (15, 20, 25, 27, 30, 32, 35 and 40°C) on hibiscus (Hibiscusrosa -sinensis L.). Crawlers successfully completed development to adult stage between 15 and 35°C, although their survival was affected at low temperatures. Two linear and four nonlinear models were fitted to describe developmental rates of P. solenopsis as a function of temperature, and for estimating thermal constants and bioclimatic thresholds (lower, optimum and upper temperature thresholds for development: Tmin, Topt and Tmax, respectively). Estimated thresholds between the two linear models were statistically similar. Ikemoto and Takai's linear model permitted testing the equivalence of lower developmental thresholds for life stages of P. solenopsis reared on two hosts, hibiscus and cotton. Thermal constants required for completion of cumulative development of female and male nymphs and for the whole generation were significantly lower on hibiscus (222.2, 237.0, 308.6 degree-days, respectively) compared to cotton. Three nonlinear models performed better in describing the developmental rate for immature instars and cumulative life stages of female and male and for generation based on goodness-of-fit criteria. The simplified β type distribution function estimated Topt values closer to the observed maximum rates. Thermodynamic SSI model indicated no significant differences in the intrinsic optimum temperature estimates for different geographical populations of P. solenopsis. The estimated bioclimatic thresholds and the observed survival rates of P. solenopsis indicate the species to be high-temperature adaptive, and explained the field abundance of P. solenopsis on its host plants.

  12. Identification of mealybug pest species (Hemiptera: Pseudococcidae) in Egypt and France, using a DNA barcoding approach.

    PubMed

    Abd-Rabou, S; Shalaby, H; Germain, J-F; Ris, N; Kreiter, P; Malausa, T

    2012-10-01

    Pseudococcidae (mealybugs) is a large taxonomic group, including a number of agronomic pests. Taxonomic identification of mealybug species is a recurrent problem and represents a major barrier to the establishment of adequate pest management strategies. We combined molecular analysis of three DNA markers (28S-D2, cytochrome oxidase I and internal transcribed spacer 2) with morphological examination, for the identification of 176 specimens collected from 40 mealybug populations infesting various crops and ornamental plants in Egypt and France. This combination of DNA and morphological analyses led to the identification of 17 species: seven in Egypt (Planococcus citri (Risso), Planococcus ficus (Signoret), Maconellicoccus hirsutus (Green), Ferrisia virgata (Cockerell), Phenacoccus solenopsis Tinsley, Phenacoccus parvus Morrison and Saccharicoccus sacchari (Cockerell)) and 11 in France (Planococcus citri, Pseudococcus viburni Signoret, Pseudococcus longispinus (Targioni-Tozzetti), Pseudococcus comstocki (Kuwana), Rhizoecus amorphophalli Betrem, Trionymus bambusae (Green), Balanococcus diminutus (Leonardi), Phenacoccus madeirensis Green, Planococcus vovae (Nasonov), Dysmicoccus brevipes (Cockerell) and Phenacoccus aceris Signoret), Pl. citri being found in both countries. We also found genetic variation between populations considered to belong to the same species, justifying further investigation of the possible occurrence of complexes of cryptic taxa.

  13. Polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism method to distinguish three mealybug groups within the Planococcus citri-P. minor species complex (Hemiptera: Coccoidea: Pseudococcidae).

    PubMed

    Rung, A; Miller, D R; Scheffer, S J

    2009-02-01

    The mealybug species Planococcus citri (Risso) and Planococcus minor (Maskell) (Hemiptera: Coccoidea: Pseudococcidae) have special significance to U.S. quarantine and U.S. agriculture. Commonly intercepted at U.S. ports-of-entry, they are difficult to identify based on morphological characters. This study presents a molecular method for distinguishing P. citri, P. minor, and a genetically distinct group that is morphologically identical to P. citri, from Hawaii. This method uses polymerase chain reaction (PCR) followed by restriction fragment polymorphism analysis (RFLP) using the restriction enzymes BspH1, BsmH1, and HpH1. The resulting band patterns can be visualized in a 2% agarose gel and are sufficient to differentiate between the three entities mentioned above. PCR-RFLP diagnostics can be used for all life stages and is cheaper and faster than DNA sequencing.

  14. Description of a new species of Anagyrus Howard (Hymenoptera: Chalcidoidea: Encyrtidae), a promising biological control agent of the invasive Madeira mealybug, Phenacoccus madeirensis Green (Hemiptera: Sternorrhyncha: Pseudococcidae).

    PubMed

    Rameshkumar, A; Noyes, J S; Poorani, J; Chong, J H

    2013-01-01

    Anagyrus amnestos sp. n. (Hymenoptera: Encyrtidae), a promising parasitoid of the invasive Madeira mealybug, Phenacoccus madeirensis Green (Hemiptera: Pseudococcidae), is described based on material collected from India. This parasitoid was identified as Anagyrus sp. nov. nr. sinope Noyes & Menezes in recent literature, and was initially collected in Georgia, USA. It was found to be a specific parasitoid of the Madeira mealybug and its biological attributes and potential as a biological control agent of this pest were studied. In what appears to be a case of fortuitous introduction, we detected this parasitoid in large numbers on Madeira mealybugs from the southern Indian state of Karnataka, where the mealybug is a recently introduced invasive pest. In view of its economic importance as a potential biological control agent of the Madeira mealybug, it is formally described and illustrated here. Comparative accounts of the new species vis-a-vis its close relatives in India and the Americas are provided.

  15. First report of Maconellicoccus hirsutus (Green, 1908) (Hemiptera: Coccoidea: Pseudococcidae) and the associated parasitoid Anagyrus kamali Moursi, 1948 (Hymenoptera: Encyrtidae), in Brazil.

    PubMed

    Marsaro Júnior, A L; Peronti, A L B G; Penteado-Dias, A M; Morais, E G F; Pereira, P R V S

    2013-05-01

    The pink hibiscus mealybug (PHM), Maconellicoccus hirsutus (Green) (Hemiptera: Pseudococcidae) and the associated hymenopterous parasitoid, Anagyrus kamali Moursi, 1948 (Hymenoptera: Encyrtidae), are reported for the first time in Brazil. Specimens of the PHM were collected on nine hosts plants, Annona muricata L. (Anonnaceae), Glycine max (L.) Merr. (Fabaceae), Centrolobium paraensis Tul. (Fabaceae), Inga edulis Mart. (Fabaceae), Hibiscus rosa-sinensis L. (Malvaceae), Psidium guajava L. (Myrtaceae), Averrhoa carambola L. (Oxalidaceae), Citrus sinensis (L.) Osbeck (Rutaceae) and Solanum lycopersicum L. (Solanaceae), in four municipalities in the north-northeast of the state of Roraima. The plants C. paraensis, I. edulis and C. sinensis are recorded for the first time as a hosts for PHM. Characteristic injuries observed on the host plants infested by PHM and suggestions for its management are presented.

  16. Evolutionary Relationships among Primary Endosymbionts of the Mealybug Subfamily Phenacoccinae (Hemiptera: Coccoidea: Pseudococcidae) ▿

    PubMed Central

    Gruwell, Matthew E.; Hardy, Nate B.; Gullan, Penny J.; Dittmar, Katharina

    2010-01-01

    Mealybugs (Coccoidea: Pseudococcidae) are sap-sucking plant parasites that harbor bacterial endosymbionts within specialized organs. Previous studies have identified two subfamilies, Pseudococcinae and Phenacoccinae, within mealybugs and determined the primary endosymbionts (P-endosymbionts) of the Pseudococcinae to be Betaproteobacteria (“Candidatus Tremblaya princeps”) containing Gammaproteobacteria secondary symbionts. Here, the P-endosymbionts of phenacoccine mealybugs are characterized based on 16S rRNA from the bacteria of 20 species of phenacoccine mealybugs and four outgroup Puto species (Coccoidea: Putoidae) and aligned to more than 100 published 16S rRNA sequences from symbiotic and free-living bacteria. Phylogenetic analyses recovered three separate lineages of bacteria from the Phenacoccinae, and these are considered to be the P-endosymbionts of their respective mealybug hosts, with those from (i) the mealybug genus Rastrococcus belonging to the Bacteroidetes, (ii) the subterranean mealybugs, tribe Rhizoecini, also within Bacteroidetes, in a clade sister to cockroach endosymbionts (Blattabacterium), and (iii) the remaining Phenacoccinae within the Betaproteobacteria, forming a well-supported sister group to “Candidatus Tremblaya princeps.” Names are proposed for two strongly supported lineages: “Candidatus Brownia rhizoecola” for P-endosymbionts of Rhizoecini and “Candidatus Tremblaya phenacola” for P-endosymbionts of Phenacoccinae excluding Rastrococcus and Rhizoecini. Rates of nucleotide substitution among lineages of Tremblaya were inferred to be significantly faster than those of free-living Betaproteobacteria. Analyses also recovered a clade of Gammaproteobacteria, sister to the P-endosymbiont lineage of aphids (“Candidatus Buchnera aphidicola”), containing the endosymbionts of Putoidae, the secondary endosymbionts of pseudococcine mealybugs, and the endosymbionts of several other insect groups. PMID:20851962

  17. Evolutionary relationships among primary endosymbionts of the mealybug subfamily phenacoccinae (hemiptera: Coccoidea: Pseudococcidae).

    PubMed

    Gruwell, Matthew E; Hardy, Nate B; Gullan, Penny J; Dittmar, Katharina

    2010-11-01

    Mealybugs (Coccoidea: Pseudococcidae) are sap-sucking plant parasites that harbor bacterial endosymbionts within specialized organs. Previous studies have identified two subfamilies, Pseudococcinae and Phenacoccinae, within mealybugs and determined the primary endosymbionts (P-endosymbionts) of the Pseudococcinae to be Betaproteobacteria ("Candidatus Tremblaya princeps") containing Gammaproteobacteria secondary symbionts. Here, the P-endosymbionts of phenacoccine mealybugs are characterized based on 16S rRNA from the bacteria of 20 species of phenacoccine mealybugs and four outgroup Puto species (Coccoidea: Putoidae) and aligned to more than 100 published 16S rRNA sequences from symbiotic and free-living bacteria. Phylogenetic analyses recovered three separate lineages of bacteria from the Phenacoccinae, and these are considered to be the P-endosymbionts of their respective mealybug hosts, with those from (i) the mealybug genus Rastrococcus belonging to the Bacteroidetes, (ii) the subterranean mealybugs, tribe Rhizoecini, also within Bacteroidetes, in a clade sister to cockroach endosymbionts (Blattabacterium), and (iii) the remaining Phenacoccinae within the Betaproteobacteria, forming a well-supported sister group to "Candidatus Tremblaya princeps." Names are proposed for two strongly supported lineages: "Candidatus Brownia rhizoecola" for P-endosymbionts of Rhizoecini and "Candidatus Tremblaya phenacola" for P-endosymbionts of Phenacoccinae excluding Rastrococcus and Rhizoecini. Rates of nucleotide substitution among lineages of Tremblaya were inferred to be significantly faster than those of free-living Betaproteobacteria. Analyses also recovered a clade of Gammaproteobacteria, sister to the P-endosymbiont lineage of aphids ("Candidatus Buchnera aphidicola"), containing the endosymbionts of Putoidae, the secondary endosymbionts of pseudococcine mealybugs, and the endosymbionts of several other insect groups.

  18. Slowing the Spread of Grapevine Leafroll-Associated Viruses in Commercial Vineyards With Insecticide Control of the Vector, Pseudococcus maritimus (Hemiptera: Pseudococcidae)

    PubMed Central

    Fuchs, M. F.; Martinson, T.; Hesler, S.; Loeb, G. M.

    2015-01-01

    Vineyards were surveyed for grapevine leafroll-associated viruses and their insect vectors in New York State’s Finger Lakes region in 2006–2008. Grape mealybug, Pseudococcus maritimus (Erhorn) (Hemiptera: Pseudococcidae), European Fruit Lecanium, Parthenolecanium corni (Bouche), and Cottony Maple Scale, Pulvinaria acericola (Walsh and Riley) (Hemiptera: Coccidae) were identified as vector species in this region. An increase in the incidence of Grapevine leafroll-associated virus 1 (GLRaV-1) and GLRaV-3 was observed in 8 of the 20 vineyards surveyed, which implies transmission by these insect vectors. Two of the vineyards for which a temporal increase in disease incidence was documented were then used to evaluate the efficacy of foliar applications of horticultural oil and two classes of insecticides for control of P. maritimus and for slowing virus spread over 2 years of vine protection. Delayed dormant applications of horticultural oil contributed to control of early season crawlers; however, this was not the case for control of summer populations. Applications of acetamiprid and spirotetramat achieved control in summer populations; however, spirotetramat outperformed acetamiprid in percent reduction of treated compared with control vines and in a side-by-side trial. Vines treated with spirotetramat had a lower percentage of new vines testing positive for GLRaV-1 than control vines after 2 years, while no other spray program altered the increase in incidence of GLRaV-1 or -3. PMID:26223949

  19. Slowing the Spread of Grapevine Leafroll-Associated Viruses in Commercial Vineyards With Insecticide Control of the Vector, Pseudococcus maritimus (Hemiptera: Pseudococcidae).

    PubMed

    Wallingford, A K; Fuchs, M F; Martinson, T; Hesler, S; Loeb, G M

    2015-01-01

    Vineyards were surveyed for grapevine leafroll-associated viruses and their insect vectors in New York State's Finger Lakes region in 2006-2008. Grape mealybug, Pseudococcus maritimus (Erhorn) (Hemiptera: Pseudococcidae), European Fruit Lecanium, Parthenolecanium corni (Bouche), and Cottony Maple Scale, Pulvinaria acericola (Walsh and Riley) (Hemiptera: Coccidae) were identified as vector species in this region. An increase in the incidence of Grapevine leafroll-associated virus 1 (GLRaV-1) and GLRaV-3 was observed in 8 of the 20 vineyards surveyed, which implies transmission by these insect vectors. Two of the vineyards for which a temporal increase in disease incidence was documented were then used to evaluate the efficacy of foliar applications of horticultural oil and two classes of insecticides for control of P. maritimus and for slowing virus spread over 2 years of vine protection. Delayed dormant applications of horticultural oil contributed to control of early season crawlers; however, this was not the case for control of summer populations. Applications of acetamiprid and spirotetramat achieved control in summer populations; however, spirotetramat outperformed acetamiprid in percent reduction of treated compared with control vines and in a side-by-side trial. Vines treated with spirotetramat had a lower percentage of new vines testing positive for GLRaV-1 than control vines after 2 years, while no other spray program altered the increase in incidence of GLRaV-1 or -3. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Entomological Society of America.

  20. Are some prepupae and pupae of male mealybugs and root mealybugs (Hemiptera, Coccoidea, Pseudococcidae and Rhizoecidae) mobile?

    PubMed Central

    Williams, D.J.; Hodgson, Chris J.

    2013-01-01

    Abstract It is hypothesised here that some mealybug (Pseudococcidae) and root mealybug (Rhizoecidae) prepupae and pupae are mobile. The prepupa and pupa of the mealybug Promyrmococcus dilli Williams and the prepupa of the root mealybug Ripersiella malschae (Williams) are described and illustrated and their probable mobility is discussed. It is also suggested that the prepupae and pupae of the mealybug Macrocepicoccus loranthi Morrison can move rapidly on the leaves when disturbed. PMID:24453543

  1. Are some prepupae and pupae of male mealybugs and root mealybugs (Hemiptera, Coccoidea, Pseudococcidae and Rhizoecidae) mobile?

    PubMed

    Williams, D J; Hodgson, Chris J

    2013-12-17

    It is hypothesised here that some mealybug (Pseudococcidae) and root mealybug (Rhizoecidae) prepupae and pupae are mobile. The prepupa and pupa of the mealybug Promyrmococcus dilli Williams and the prepupa of the root mealybug Ripersiella malschae (Williams) are described and illustrated and their probable mobility is discussed. It is also suggested that the prepupae and pupae of the mealybug Macrocepicoccus loranthi Morrison can move rapidly on the leaves when disturbed.

  2. Two new species of Anagyrus (Hymenoptera: Encyrtidae) from Argentina, parasitoids of Hypogeococcus spp. (Hemiptera: Pseudococcidae), with taxonomic notes on some congeneric taxa.

    PubMed

    Triapitsyn, Serguei V; Logarzo, Guillermo A; Aguirre, María B; Aquino, Daniel A

    2014-09-15

    Two new species of Anagyrus Howard (Hymenoptera: Encyrtidae) are described from Argentina, A. cachamai Triapitsyn, Logarzo & Aguirre sp. n. (Catamarca, Córdoba, Salta and Tucumán Provinces) and A. quilmes Triapitsyn, Logarzo & Aguirre sp. n. (Catamarca, Salta and Tucumán). Both new species are parasitoids of Hypogeococcus spp. (Hemiptera: Pseudococcidae). Anagyrus cachamai is a parasitoid of H. pungens Granara de Willink on Alternanthera paronychioides, A. pungens and Gomphrena sp. (Amaranthaceae), and also of a Hypogeococcus sp. on Cleistocactus baumannii and Hypogeococcus sp. on C. smaragdiflorus (Cactaceae). Anagyrus quilmes is a parasitoid of H. pungens on A. paronychioides, A. pungens and Gomphrena sp. Other biological traits of the new species are also reported. These parasitoids may be of importance as potential candidate biological control agents against a Hypogeococcus sp., commonly called the Harrisia cactus mealybug and identified as H. pungens, but possibly not belonging to that species. This mealybug threatens the native cacti in some Caribbean islands and Florida, USA, and is devastating the native columnar cacti in Puerto Rico. Illustrations and taxonomic notes on the type specimens of some other, little known described species of Anagyrus from Argentina and Chile are provided, and a key to females of the 14 species of Anagyrus known from Argentina is given. Anagyrus nigriceps (De Santis) syn. n. is synonymized under A. bellator (De Santis). Lectotypes are designated for Paranusia bifasciata Brèthes, Philoponectroma pectinatum Brèthes, and Protanagyrus aciculatus Blanchard. 

  3. High-resolution melt and morphological analyses of mealybugs (Hemiptera: Pseudococcidae) from cacao: tools for the control of Cacao swollen shoot virus spread.

    PubMed

    Wetten, Andy; Campbell, Colin; Allainguillaume, Joël

    2016-03-01

    Mealybugs (Hemiptera: Coccoidea: Pseudococcidae) are key vectors of badnaviruses, including Cacao swollen shoot virus (CSSV), the most damaging virus affecting cacao (Theobroma cacao L.). The effectiveness of mealybugs as virus vectors is species dependent, and it is therefore vital that CSSV resistance breeding programmes in cacao incorporate accurate mealybug identification. In this work, the efficacy of a CO1-based DNA barcoding approach to species identification was evaluated by screening a range of mealybugs collected from cacao in seven countries. Morphologically similar adult females were characterised by scanning electron microscopy, and then, following DNA extraction, were screened with CO1 barcoding markers. A high degree of CO1 sequence homology was observed for all 11 individual haplotypes, including those accessions from distinct geographical regions. This has allowed the design of a high-resolution melt (HRM) assay capable of rapid identification of the commonly encountered mealybug pests of cacao. HRM analysis readily differentiated between mealybug pests of cacao that cannot necessarily be identified by conventional morphological analysis. This new approach, therefore, has potential to facilitate breeding for resistance to CSSV and other mealybug-transmitted diseases. © 2015 Society of Chemical Industry.

  4. Synonymy of Plotococcus Miller & Denno with Leptococcus Reyne, and description of a new species from Colombia (Hemiptera: Pseudococcidae).

    PubMed

    Kondo, Takumasa; Gullan, Penny J

    2008-01-01

    Plotococcus Miller & Denno is synonymized with Leptococcus Reyne (Coccoidea: Pseudococcidae). The genus is redescribed and the adult female of the type species, L. metroxyli Reyne, is redescribed and illustrated. All species hitherto included in Plotococcus are transferred to Leptococcus as L. capixaba (Kondo) comb. nov., L. eugeniae (Miller & Denno) comb. nov., L. hambletoni (Kondo) comb. nov., L. minutus (Hempel) comb. nov., and L. neotropicus (Williams & Granara de Willink) comb. nov. A new species of Leptococcus, L. rodmani Kondo sp. n., from leaves of Guarea guidonia (Meliaceae) from Colombia, is described and illustrated based on the adult female. A revised key to adult females of all species in the genus is provided.

  5. Temperature- and Relative Humidity-Dependent Life History Traits of Phenacoccus solenopsis (Hemiptera: Pseudococcidae) on Hibiscus rosa-sinensis (Malvales: Malvaceae).

    PubMed

    Chen, H S; Yang, L; Huang, L F; Wang, W L; Hu, Y; Jiang, J J; Zhou, Z S

    2015-08-01

    Phenacoccus solenopsis Tinsley (Hemiptera: Pseudococcidae), a worldwide distributive invasive pest, originated from the United States, and it was first reported in Guangdong province, China, in 2008. The effects of temperature and relative humidity (RH) on the life history traits of P. solenopsis on Hibiscus rosa-sinensis L. (Malvales: Malvaceae) were studied at seven constant temperatures (15, 20, 25, 27.5, 30, 32.5, and 35°C) and three RHs (45, 60, and 75%). The results showed that temperature, RH, and their interactions significantly influenced the life history traits of P. solenopsis. First instar was the most sensitive stage to extreme temperatures with very low survival rates at 15 and 35°C. At 25-32.5°C and the three RHs, the developmental periods of entire immature stage were shorter with values between 12.5-18.6 d. The minimum threshold temperature and the effective accumulative temperature for the pest to complete one generation were 13.2°C and 393.7 degree-days, respectively. The percentage and longevity of female adults significantly differed among different treatments. It failed to complete development at 15 or 35°C and the three RHs. Female fecundity reached the maximum value at 27.5°C and 45% RH. The intrinsic rate for increase (r), the net reproductive rate (R0), and the finite rate of increase (λ) reached the maximum values at 27.5°C and 45% RH (0.22 d(-1), 244.6 hatched eggs, and 1.25 d(-1), respectively). Therefore, we conclude that 27.5°C and 45% RH are the optimum conditions for the population development of the pest.

  6. Transmission of Grapevine virus A and Grapevine leafroll-associated virus 1 and 3 by Heliococcus bohemicus (Hemiptera: Pseudococcidae) Nymphs From Plants With Mixed Infections.

    PubMed

    Bertin, S; Cavalieri, V; Gribaudo, I; Sacco, D; Marzachì, C; Bosco, D

    2016-08-01

    Mealybugs (Hemiptera: Pseudococcidae) represent a serious threat for viticulture as vectors of phloem-restricted viruses associated with the grapevine rugose wood and leafroll diseases. Heliococcus bohemicus (Šulc) is known to be involved in the spread of these two viral diseases, being a vector of the Grapevine virus A (GVA) and the Grapevine leafroll-associated virus 1 and 3 (GLRaV-1 and GLRaV-3). This study investigated the acquisition and transmission efficiency of H. bohemicus fed on mixed-infected plants. Nymphs were field-collected onto GVA, GLRaV-1, and GLRaV-3 multiple-infected grapevines in two vineyards in North-Western Italy, and were used in transmission experiments under controlled conditions. Even if most of the collected nymphs were positive to at least one virus, transmission occurred only to a low number of test grapevines. The transmission frequency of GLRaV-3 was the highest, whereas GVA was transmitted to few test plants. The transmission of multiple viruses occurred at low rates, and nymphs that acquired all the three viruses then failed to transmit them together. Statistical analyses showed that the three viruses were independently acquired and transmitted by H. bohemicus and neither synergistic nor antagonistic interactions occurred among them. GVA and GLRaVs transmission efficiencies by H. bohemicus were lower than those reported for other mealybug vectors. This finding is consistent with the slow spread of leafroll and rugose wood diseases observed in Northern Italy, where H. bohemicus is the predominant vector species.

  7. Effect of silicon-based fertilizer applications on the reproduction and development of the citrus mealybug (Hemiptera: Pseudococcidae) feeding on green coleus.

    PubMed

    Hogendorp, Brian K; Cloyd, Raymond A; Swiader, John M

    2009-12-01

    Mealybugs are major insect pests of greenhouses, interiorscapes, and conservatories because they feed on a wide-range of horticultural crops. Furthermore, mealybugs are difficult to regulate with insecticides due to the presence of a nearly impervious protective waxy covering, which means that alternative management strategies are required. As such, this study, involving two replicated experiments, was designed to determine the value of applying silicon-based fertilizers, as potassium silicate, to coleus, Solenstemon scutellarioides (L.) Codd, plants as a way to prevent outbreaks of the citrus mealybug, Planococcus citri (Risso) (Hemiptera: Pseudococcidae). The first experiment evaluated the effects of different application methods (foliar and drench), at 50 ppm silicon, using the commercially-available product, ProTek 0-0-3 The Silicon Solution. The second experiment entailed applying the silicon-based fertilizer as a drench to the growing medium at different rates (0, 100, 400, 800, and 1,600 ppm silicon). We determined the effects of the silicon-based fertilizer treatments on citrus mealybug life history parameters including number of eggs laid by the adult female, body size, and developmental time from first instar to ovipositing adult female. Furthermore, we used a plant alkaline fusion technique to assess the concentration (milligrams per kilogram or ppm) of silicon in the coleus plant tissues at variable time intervals (days). In general, this technique involved dry-ashing plant tissue in a muffle furnace, followed by alkaline fusion and then colormetric analysis. The silicon-based fertilizer application treatments, in both experiments, did not negatively affect any of the citrus mealybug life history parameters measured. In the first experiment, citrus mealybug female egg load ranged from 199.5 (drench application) to 219.4 (combination spray and drench application), and developmental time (days) from first instar crawler to ovipositing female ranged from

  8. A geographic distribution database of the Neotropical cassava whitefly complex (Hemiptera, Aleyrodidae) and their associated parasitoids and hyperparasitoids (Hymenoptera)

    PubMed Central

    Vásquez-Ordóñez, Aymer Andrés; Hazzi, Nicolas A.; Escobar-Prieto, David; Paz-Jojoa, Dario; Parsa, Soroush

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Whiteflies (Hemiptera, Aleyrodidae) are represented by more than 1,500 herbivorous species around the world. Some of them are notorious pests of cassava (Manihot esculenta), a primary food crop in the tropics. Particularly destructive is a complex of Neotropical cassava whiteflies whose distribution remains restricted to their native range. Despite their importance, neither their distribution, nor that of their associated parasitoids, is well documented. This paper therefore reports observational and specimen-based occurrence records of Neotropical cassava whiteflies and their associated parasitoids and hyperparasitoids. The dataset consists of 1,311 distribution records documented by the International Center for Tropical Agriculture (CIAT) between 1975 and 2012. The specimens are held at CIAT’s Arthropod Reference Collection (CIATARC, Cali, Colombia). Eleven species of whiteflies, 14 species of parasitoids and one species of hyperparasitoids are reported. Approximately 66% of the whitefly records belong to Aleurotrachelus socialis and 16% to Bemisia tuberculata. The parasitoids with most records are Encarsia hispida, Amitus macgowni and Encarsia bellottii for Aleurotrachelus socialis; and Encarsia sophia for Bemisia tuberculata. The complete dataset is available in Darwin Core Archive format via the Global Biodiversity Information Facility (GBIF). PMID:26798295

  9. A geographic distribution database of the Neotropical cassava whitefly complex (Hemiptera, Aleyrodidae) and their associated parasitoids and hyperparasitoids (Hymenoptera).

    PubMed

    Vásquez-Ordóñez, Aymer Andrés; Hazzi, Nicolas A; Escobar-Prieto, David; Paz-Jojoa, Dario; Parsa, Soroush

    2015-01-01

    Whiteflies (Hemiptera, Aleyrodidae) are represented by more than 1,500 herbivorous species around the world. Some of them are notorious pests of cassava (Manihot esculenta), a primary food crop in the tropics. Particularly destructive is a complex of Neotropical cassava whiteflies whose distribution remains restricted to their native range. Despite their importance, neither their distribution, nor that of their associated parasitoids, is well documented. This paper therefore reports observational and specimen-based occurrence records of Neotropical cassava whiteflies and their associated parasitoids and hyperparasitoids. The dataset consists of 1,311 distribution records documented by the International Center for Tropical Agriculture (CIAT) between 1975 and 2012. The specimens are held at CIAT's Arthropod Reference Collection (CIATARC, Cali, Colombia). Eleven species of whiteflies, 14 species of parasitoids and one species of hyperparasitoids are reported. Approximately 66% of the whitefly records belong to Aleurotrachelus socialis and 16% to Bemisia tuberculata. The parasitoids with most records are Encarsia hispida, Amitus macgowni and Encarsia bellottii for Aleurotrachelus socialis; and Encarsia sophia for Bemisia tuberculata. The complete dataset is available in Darwin Core Archive format via the Global Biodiversity Information Facility (GBIF).

  10. Nomenclatural and bibliographic corrections to the Catalog of Nabidae (Hemiptera: Heteroptera) for the Neotropical Region.

    PubMed

    Coscarón, Maria Del Carmen; Volpi, Lorena N

    2013-01-01

    The recent catalog of Neotropical Nabidae is corrected and updated. Synonymies, species, and references that were overlooked are now included. 11 genera and 83 species are presently known from this region.

  11. A systematic study of Peliococcus Borchsenius (Hemiptera: Coccoidea: Pseudococcidae), with descriptions of a new Palaearctic genus and four new species from Turkey.

    PubMed

    Kaydan, Mehmet Bora

    2015-02-20

    Within the Phenacoccinae (Hemiptera: Coccoidea: Pseudococcidae), there are four nominal genera that include species with clusters or groups of multilocular disc pores and/or oral collar tubular ducts of more than one size, namely Peliococcus Borchsenius (= Spinococcus Borchsenius and Eupeliococcus Săvescu), Peliococcopsis Borchsenius, Erimococcus Ezzat, and Seyneria Goux. This study analysed molecular data (from the mitochondrial gene cytochrome oxidase I, COI, and a fragment of the D2 and D3 regions of the large subunit ribosomal DNA gene, 28S) from Palaearctic species of Peliococcus, Peliococcopsis and a new genus, Pelionella Kaydan to demonstrate: (i) that Peliococcus and several morphologically similar genera do not form a monophyletic group; (ii) Peliococcus, as currently understood, is not monophyletic, and (iii) the structure of the multilocular disc pores is important for recognising the systematic position of these genera. The morphological data were fitted to the molecular tree to allow reassessment of the generic classification and to produce morphological diagnoses of the genera. Five species have been moved to the genus Erimococcus Ezzat: Peliococcus kimmericus Kiritchenko, P. montanus Bazarov & Babaeva, P. multitubulatus (Danzig), P. salviae Hadzibejli and P. talhouki Matille-Ferrero, as E. kimmericus (Kiritchenko) comb. nov., E. montanus (Bazarov & Babaeva) comb. nov., E. multitubulatus (Danzig) comb. nov., E. salviae (Hadzibejli) comb.nov. and E. talhouki (Matille-Ferrero) comb. nov. In addition, a new species of Erimococcus is described, namely Erimococcus ozani Kaydan sp. nov. Also Peliococcus ilamicus Moghaddam syn. nov. is recognised as a junior synonym of Phenacoccus kimmericus Kiritchenko (previously in Peliococcus, now in Erimococcus). A new genus, Pelionella gen. nov. is introduced to take nine species, namely Peliococcus balteatus Green, P. cycliger Leonardi, P. manifectus Borchsenius, P. stellarocheae Goux, P. glandulifer Borchsenius, P

  12. Phylogenetics and evolutionary morphology of the Neotropical true bug genus Epipolops (Hemiptera: Heteroptera: Geocoridae)

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Species of Epipolops Herrich-Schaeffer (Hemiptera: Geocoridae), comprising the largest genus of Pamphantinae, are among the most bizarre true bugs because of their striking morphology. To elucidate evolutionary morphology in Epipolops, a phylogenetic analysis was performed using 17 species and 36 ad...

  13. Geological Changes of the Americas and their Influence on the Diversification of the Neotropical Kissing Bugs (Hemiptera: Reduviidae: Triatominae)

    PubMed Central

    Justi, Silvia A.; Galvão, Cleber; Schrago, Carlos G.

    2016-01-01

    Background The family Reduviidae (Hemiptera: Heteroptera), or assassin bugs, is among the most diverse families of the true bugs, with more than 6,000 species. The subfamily Triatominae (kissing bugs) is noteworthy not simply because it is the only subfamily of the Reduviidae whose members feed on vertebrate blood but particularly because all 147 known members of the subfamily are potential Chagas disease vectors. Due to the epidemiological relevance of these species and the lack of an efficient treatment and vaccine for Chagas disease, it is more common to find evolutionary studies focusing on the most relevant vectors than it is to find studies aiming to understand the evolution of the group as a whole. We present the first comprehensive phylogenetic study aiming to understand the events that led to the diversification of the Triatominae. Methodology/Principal Findings We gathered the most diverse samples of Reduviidae and Triatominae (a total of 229 Reduviidae samples, including 70 Triatominae species) and reconstructed a robust dated phylogeny with several fossil (Reduviidae and Triatominae) calibrations. Based on this information, the possible role of geological events in several of the major cladogenetic events within Triatominae was tested for the first time. We were able to not only correlate the geological changes in the Neotropics with Triatominae evolution but also add to an old discussion: Triatominae monophyly vs. paraphyly. Conclusions/Significance We found that most of the diversification events observed within the Rhodniini and Triatomini tribes are closely linked to the climatic and geological changes caused by the Andean uplift in South America and that variations in sea levels in North America also played a role in the diversification of the species of Triatoma in that region. PMID:27058599

  14. Lyophilized artificial diet for rearing the Neotropical Euschistus heros (Hemiptera: Pentatomidae)

    PubMed Central

    Mendoza, Agustín C.; da Rocha, Aline C. P.

    2016-01-01

    An artificial diet to mass-rear Euschistus heros (F. 1798) (Hemiptera: Pentatomidae) was developed in the laboratory. Biological studies were conducted under controlled conditions of temperature (25 ± 2°C), RH: 60 ± 10%, and photoperiod of 14:10 (L:D) h. Out of 13 diets tested, 2 diets (D9 and D11) were the most suitable. The artificial diets selected had the same composition (green beans, peanuts, sucrose, water, Nipagin, and sorbic acid) except for different antimicrobial agents (D11 has tetracycline, and D9 doesn’t). The 68% viability for the egg–adult period of insects reared on these lyophilized artificial diets (LAD) was almost twice as high as the 38% viability obtained with the natural diet. Although adults reared on LAD weighed 17% less than those reared on the natural diet, mean fecundity was higher than on the natural diet (282 eggs/female), reaching 430 eggs/female. The net reproductive rate (Ro) increased over the generations for the diets with lyophilized material and antimicrobial agents. The opposite occurred with the diet of lyophilized material without antimicrobial agents, showing that the insects either adapted or degenerated through generations. Lyophilized diets supported the production of E. heros through at least 10 generations, with no degeneration. PMID:27126964

  15. Inter- and intraspecific variation in defensive compounds produced by five neotropical stink bug species (Hemiptera: Pentatomidae).

    PubMed

    Pareja, Martín; Borges, Miguel; Laumann, Raúl A; Moraes, Maria C B

    2007-07-01

    The differences in composition of defensive secretions between nymphs, adult males and adult females of Chinavia impicticornis (=Acrosternum impicticorne), Chinavia ubica (=Acrosternum ubicum), Euschistus heros, Dichelops melacanthus and Piezodorus guildinii (Hemiptera, Pentatomidae) were analysed within and between species using compositional log-ratio statistics and canonical variates analysis. Differences in composition between nymphs, males and females were found for all species, as well as when all species were pooled. In particular, tetradecanal appears to be a predominantly nymphal compound in D. melacanthus, E. heros and P. guildinii. In the two Chinavia species 4-oxo-(E)-2-hexenal and an unknown compound were more dominant in nymphs. The interspecific analysis revealed a good separation of defensive compounds according to their taxonomic relationship. Thus, the two Chinavia species grouped together, with (E)-2-decenal and (E)-2-hexenyl acetate, contributing to this separation. The other three species also differed from each other, with (E)-2-octenal associated to D. melacanthus, (E)-2-hexenal to P. guildinii and (E,E)-2,4-decadienal and tetradecanal to E. heros. The pooled analysis of stage ignoring species revealed tetradecanal and 4-oxo-(E)-2-decenal (tentative identification) strongly associated to nymphs. Thus, there are predictable differences between stages, and many of the differences are conserved between species. Consideration of these differences could prove to be important in understanding stink bug-natural enemy interactions, and in optimising biocontrol efforts.

  16. Lyophilized artificial diet for rearing the Neotropical Euschistus heros (Hemiptera: Pentatomidae).

    PubMed

    Mendoza, Agustín C; da Rocha, Aline C P; Parra, José R P

    2016-01-01

    An artificial diet to mass-rear Euschistus heros (F. 1798) (Hemiptera: Pentatomidae) was developed in the laboratory. Biological studies were conducted under controlled conditions of temperature (25 ± 2 °C), RH: 60 ± 10%, and photoperiod of 14:10 (L:D) h. Out of 13 diets tested, 2 diets (D9 and D11) were the most suitable. The artificial diets selected had the same composition (green beans, peanuts, sucrose, water, Nipagin, and sorbic acid) except for different antimicrobial agents (D11 has tetracycline, and D9 doesn't). The 68% viability for the egg-adult period of insects reared on these lyophilized artificial diets (LAD) was almost twice as high as the 38% viability obtained with the natural diet. Although adults reared on LAD weighed 17% less than those reared on the natural diet, mean fecundity was higher than on the natural diet (282 eggs/female), reaching 430 eggs/female. The net reproductive rate (Ro) increased over the generations for the diets with lyophilized material and antimicrobial agents. The opposite occurred with the diet of lyophilized material without antimicrobial agents, showing that the insects either adapted or degenerated through generations. Lyophilized diets supported the production of E. heros through at least 10 generations, with no degeneration.

  17. A review of the mealybugs (Hemiptera: Coccoidea: Pseudococcidae, Putoidae and Rhizoecidae) of Iran, with descriptions of four new species and three new records for the Iranian fauna.

    PubMed

    Moghaddam, Masumeh

    2013-01-01

    Fifty-one species in 27 genera of Pseudococcidae, plus one species of Rhizoecidae and one species of Putoidae have been recorded from Iran based on literature data and on the material in the collection of the Hayk Mirzayans Insect Museum, Iran. Keys to the Iranian genera and species based on adult female morphology are provided and the distribution data of each species and their host-plants are given. Adult females of each species are illustrated in detail. The species Paracoccus burnerae (Brain), Phenacoccus pumilus (Kiritshenko) and Ph. hordei (Lindeman) are recorded for the first time in Iran. Four new species, Exallomochlus balouchestanensis Moghaddam sp. n., Peliococcus ilamicus Moghaddam sp. n., Phenacoccus karkasicus Moghaddam sp. n. and Phenacoccus iranica Moghaddam sp. n. are described.

  18. Review of the Neotropical scale insects formerly assigned to Coelostomidiidae and here transferred to a new tribe within the Monophlebidae (Hemiptera: Sternorrhyncha: Coccoidea).

    PubMed

    Foldi, I; Gullan, P J

    2014-12-24

    This study reviews the status of all Neotropical genera and species of Coelostomidiidae (Hemiptera: Coccoidea) and transfers them to the family Monophlebidae in the Cryptokermesini Foldi & Gullan tribe n. (the tribe Cryptokermini Tao & Hao is recognised here as a nomen nudum). This change of family placement for Neotropical taxa is based on the morphology of adult males, as supported by the phylogenetic study of Hodgson & Hardy (2013), and by unpublished DNA data. New diagnoses are provided for each of the four recognised genera of Cryptokermesini: Cryptokermes Hempel, Mimosicerya Cockerell, Neocoelostoma Hempel and Paracoelostoma Morrison. The genus Nautococcus Vayssière is considered here to be a junior synonym (syn. n.) of Mimosicerya and the type species of Nautococcus, N. schraderae Vayssière, thus becomes M. schraderae (Vayssière) comb. n. Cryptokermes mexicanus Morrison is transferred to Mimosicerya as M. mexicana (Morrison) comb. n. Also Cryptokermes mimosae Foldi does not fit the morphological concept of Cryptokermes and is excluded from this genus and revision, and from the new tribe; its taxonomic position is uncertain and requires further study. All type species of the Cryptokermesini, including N. schraderae (as M. schraderae), are redescribed and illustrated based on most female instars and available adult males, examined using optical and scanning electron microscopes. Adult males are described and illustrated only for M. schraderae and N. xerophila. Keys are provided to distinguish the Neotropical monophlebid tribes Cryptokermesini and Llaveiini and to recognise each cryptokermesine genus based on female instars and first-instar nymphs. The included species of Cryptokermesini and their known distributions are: Cryptokermes brasiliensis Hempel from Brazil and C. oaxaensis Foldi from Mexico; Mimosicerya hempeli (Cockerell) from Brazil, M. mexicana from Mexico, M. schraderae from Panama and M. williamsi Foldi from Venezuela; Neocoelostoma xerophila

  19. Neotropical genera of Naucoridae (Hemiptera: Heteroptera: Nepomorpha): new species of Placomerus and Procryphocricos from Guyana and Venezuela.

    PubMed

    Sites, Robert W; Camacho, Jesús

    2014-01-09

    The Neotropical fauna of saucer bugs (Naucoridae) currently includes four monotypic genera. Recent extensive collecting in Venezuela has produced three new species in two of these genera. In addition, undetermined Guyanan specimens of one of the new species were found in the United States National Museum of Natural History. Thus, described here are Placomerus obscuratus n. sp. from Guyana and Venezuela with brachypterous and macropterous hindwing forms, and two species of Procryphocricos from Venezuela. Procryphocricos quiu n. sp. is described from the brachypterous forewing form and Procryphocricos macoita n. sp. from both brachypterous and macropterous forms. Previously described species also are discussed.

  20. Paternal inheritance in mealybugs (Hemiptera: Coccoidea: Pseudococcidae)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kol-Maimon, Hofit; Mendel, Zvi; Franco, José Carlos; Ghanim, Murad

    2014-10-01

    Mealybugs have a haplodiploid reproduction system, with paternal genome elimination (PGE); the males are diploid soon after fertilization, but during embryogenesis, the male paternal set of chromosomes becomes heterochromatic (HC) and therefore inactive. Previous studies have suggested that paternal genes can be passed on from mealybug males to their sons, but not necessarily by any son, to the next generation. We employed crosses between two mealybug species— Planococcus ficus (Signoret) and Planococcus citri (Risso)—and between two populations of P. ficus, which differ in their mode of pheromone attraction, in order to demonstrate paternal inheritance from males to F2 through F1 male hybrids. Two traits were monitored through three generations: mode of male pheromone attraction (pherotype) and sequences of the internal transcribed spacer 2 (ITS2) gene segment (genotype). Our results demonstrate that paternal inheritance in mealybugs can occur from males to their F2 offspring, through F1 males (paternal line). F2 backcrossed hybrid males expressed paternal pherotypes and ITS2 genotypes although their mother originated through a maternal population. Further results revealed other, hitherto unknown, aspects of inheritance in mealybugs, such as that hybridization between the two species caused absence of paternal traits in F2 hybrid females produced by F1 hybrid females. Furthermore, hybridization between the two species raised the question of whether unattracted males have any role in the interactions between P. ficus and P. citri.

  1. Paternal inheritance in mealybugs (Hemiptera: Coccoidea: Pseudococcidae).

    PubMed

    Kol-Maimon, Hofit; Mendel, Zvi; Franco, José Carlos; Ghanim, Murad

    2014-10-01

    Mealybugs have a haplodiploid reproduction system, with paternal genome elimination (PGE); the males are diploid soon after fertilization, but during embryogenesis, the male paternal set of chromosomes becomes heterochromatic (HC) and therefore inactive. Previous studies have suggested that paternal genes can be passed on from mealybug males to their sons, but not necessarily by any son, to the next generation. We employed crosses between two mealybug species--Planococcus ficus (Signoret) and Planococcus citri (Risso)--and between two populations of P. ficus, which differ in their mode of pheromone attraction, in order to demonstrate paternal inheritance from males to F2 through F1 male hybrids. Two traits were monitored through three generations: mode of male pheromone attraction (pherotype) and sequences of the internal transcribed spacer 2 (ITS2) gene segment (genotype). Our results demonstrate that paternal inheritance in mealybugs can occur from males to their F2 offspring, through F1 males (paternal line). F2 backcrossed hybrid males expressed paternal pherotypes and ITS2 genotypes although their mother originated through a maternal population. Further results revealed other, hitherto unknown, aspects of inheritance in mealybugs, such as that hybridization between the two species caused absence of paternal traits in F2 hybrid females produced by F1 hybrid females. Furthermore, hybridization between the two species raised the question of whether unattracted males have any role in the interactions between P. ficus and P. citri.

  2. Reproductive biology of Pseudococcus maritimus (Hemiptera: Pseudococcidae).

    PubMed

    Waterworth, Rebeccah A; Millar, Jocelyn G

    2012-06-01

    This study characterized several parameters associated with reproductive behaviors of a Californian population of the grape mealybug, Pseudococcus maritimus (Ehrhorn). Experiments with caged adults confirmed that females from this population could not reproduce parthenogenetically. Both sexes were capable of mating multiple times on the same day and on sequential days. Median times between copulations were short (< 10 min) on the first day that males were presented with females, but tended to increase with sequential copulation events. Unmated females lived for up to 19 wk, whereas mating and oviposition resulted in reduced longevity. We hypothesized that constant exposure to pheromone might stimulate males to leave their cocoons sooner and increase their activity levels compared with males that were not exposed to pheromone, resulting in shortened life-spans. However, whereas exposure to pheromone did stimulate males to emerge slightly sooner than control males, pheromone exposure had no effect on the longevity of males. The implications of the results of these experiments for pheromone-based methods of detection and control of mealybugs are discussed.

  3. The jumping plant-lice of the Neotropical genus Tainarys (Hemiptera: Psylloidea) associated with Anacardiaceae.

    PubMed

    Burckhardt, Daniel; Queiroz, Dalva L

    2017-02-20

    The Neotropical psyllid genus Tainarys Brèthes, 1920 is revised to include 14 extant and one fossil species from Dominican amber. Eight species are described as new, viz. Tainarys aroeira sp. nov., T. atra sp. nov., T. hapla sp. nov., T. myracrodrui sp. nov., T. nigricornis sp. nov., T. didyma sp. nov. and T. orientalis sp. nov. from Brazil, the last two also from Uruguay, as well as T. lozadai sp. nov. from Peru. The fifth instar immatures are described for nine species. †Vicinilura Klimaszewski, 1996, erected for the fossil †V. reposta Klimaszewski, 1996 and previously synonymised with Leurolophus Tuthill, 1942, is synonymised here (syn. nov.) with Tainarys and †V. reposta is transferred to become †Tainarys reposta (Klimaszewski), comb. nov. The descriptions are supplemented by illustrations and keys for the identification of adults and immatures. Phylogenetic relationships between species are investigated with a cladistic analysis using 22 adult and six immature morphological characters. The analysis resulted in a single most parsimonious, fully resolved tree. The fossil species is nested within the genus rather than being the sister taxon of the remainder of species. The extant species are restricted to the subtropical and temperate parts of South America. Three pairs of sister clades display an east‒west South American and one a midwest‒southern Brazilian geographical vicariance. Host plants are confirmed for nine and likely for another four species. They are Astronium, Haplorhus, Myracrodruon, Schinopsis and Schinus (Anacardiaceae). All Tainarys species appear to be oligophagous inducing irregular leaf curls on their hosts.

  4. Molecular and morphological characterisation of Pseudococcidae surveyed on crops and ornamental plants in Spain.

    PubMed

    Beltrà, A; Soto, A; Malausa, T

    2012-04-01

    Mealybugs (Hemiptera: Pseudococcidae) are common invasive pests in Europe, causing major problems on crops and ornamental plants. However, very few data are available concerning the mealybug fauna of southern Europe. This lack of data and the difficulty of identifying mealybugs morphologically by traditional techniques currently limit the perspectives for efficient specific pest management. The aim of this study was to provide multi-criterion characterization of mealybugs surveyed in eastern Spain in order to facilitate their routine identification through DNA sequencing or the use of derived species-specific molecular tools. We characterised 33 mealybug populations infesting crops and ornamental plants in eastern Spain, using a combination of molecular and morphological techniques, including the sequencing of the universal barcode DNA region cytochrome c oxidase subunit I (COI). This characterisation has led to the identification of ten species and provides sequence data for three previously unsequenced species, contributing to the phylogenetic knowledge of the family Pseudococcidae. In addition, the intraspecific variations found in the populations of five mealybug species provide insight into their invasion history.

  5. Ferrisia gilli (Hemiptera: Pseudococcidae) Transmits Grapevine Leafroll-Associated Viruses.

    PubMed

    Wistrom, C M; Blaisdell, G K; Wunderlich, L R; Almeida, R P P; Daane, K M

    2016-08-01

    Several mealybug species are vectors of grapevine leafroll-associated viruses (GLRaV), which cause the economically important grapevine leafroll disease in grape-producing regions worldwide. The mealybug Ferrisia gilli Gullan is a new pest of grapevines in El Dorado County, located in the Sierra Foothill wine-growing region of California. GLRaV species 1, 2, 3, and 4LV have been detected in vineyards with symptomatic vines in the Sierra Foothills. We conducted controlled virus acquisition and transmission experiments using source vine accessions infected with different combinations of GLRaV. We determined that F. gilli acquired GLRaV 1, 2, 3, and 4LV, and transmitted GLRaV-3 and GLRaV-4LV to uninfected recipient vines. Like numerous other mealybug species, in addition to causing direct damage to vines, F. gilli poses a threat to the grape industry as a vector of economically damaging viruses. © The Authors 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  6. Physiological Response of Orchids to Mealybugs (Hemiptera: Pseudococcidae) Infestation.

    PubMed

    Kmieć, K; Kot, I; Golan, K; Górska-Drabik, E; Łagowska, B; Rubinowska, K; Michałek, W

    2016-10-25

    The harmfulness of mealybugs resulting from sucking plant sap, secreting honeydew, and transmitting plant viruses can give them the status of serious pests. This study documents the influence of Pseudococcus maritimus (Ehrhorn) and Pseudococcus longispinus (Targioni Tozzetti) infestation on alterations in selected physiological parameters of Phalaenopsis x hybridum 'Innocence'. The condition of the cytoplasmic membranes was expressed as the value of thiobarbituric acid reactive substances. We have determined changes in the activities of catalase and guaiacol peroxidase and measured the following chlorophyll fluorescence parameters: maximum quantum yield of photosystem II (Fv/Fm), effective quantum yield (Y), photochemical quenching (qP), and nonphotochemical quenching (qN). The strongest physiological response of orchids was recorded in the initial period of mealybugs infestation. Prolonged insect feeding suppressed lipid peroxidation, peroxidase and catalase activity, as well as photosynthesis photochemistry. The pattern of changes was dependent on mealybug species. This indicated the complexity of the processes responsible for plant tolerance. Data generated in this study have provided a better understanding of the impact of two mealybug species infestation on Phalaenopsis and should be useful in developing pest management strategies.

  7. Sexual maturation and aging of adult male mealybug (Hemiptera: Pseudococcidae).

    PubMed

    Mendel, Z; Protasov, A; Jasrotia, P; Silva, E B; Zada, A; Franco, J C

    2012-08-01

    The physiological age of adult males of seven mealybug species was measured in relation to the elongation of the male pair of the waxy caudal filaments. These filaments begin to emerge after eclosion and reached their maximum length from 29.4-46.6 h. The studied males were divided into three age groups, expressed as percentages of the total waxy caudal filaments length. Attraction to a sex pheromone source was significantly higher in the oldest male group (maximum filaments growth) compared with youngest one. Only the oldest male group copulated successfully; few of the younger males tested displayed 'courtship' behavior towards conspecific virgin females. The calculated duration of the sexually active phase of the adult male life cycle varied among species ranging from 34.4 to 46.6 h. There were marked variations in the strength of attraction to a pheromone source according to time of day. There was a continuous decrease in sexual activity from morning to evening. Our findings reveal clear maturation periods for adult males of the seven studied species. The long immature phase of the adult male mealybug is probably also related to several physiological processes that are needed to complete male maturation. The most noticeable change is the elongation of the waxy caudal filaments. However, mating may be performed at any time ambient conditions are suitable. Whereas male mealybug flight towards a pheromone source is restricted to a few hours, the male may continue mating activity throughout its sexually active period.

  8. Seasonal phenology of Ferrisia gilli (Hemiptera: Pseudococcidae) in commercial pistachios.

    PubMed

    Haviland, David R; Beede, Robert H; Daane, Kent M

    2012-10-01

    The mealybug Ferrisia gilli Gullan is a serious new pest of pistachios in California. It was first found near the town of Tulare in the late 1990s and has since spread to orchards in most pistachio-producing regions of the state. The seasonal phenology of F. gilli was evaluated in a commercial pistachio orchard in Tulare County during 2005 and 2006. During both seasons E gilli overwintered as small nymphs and had three complete generations per year. Mealybug population densities were low and remained as immatures in March and April; by late May adult females formed and averaged (+/- SE) 1.3 +/- 0.3 and 1.2 +/- 0.3 per 0.75 m of sample branch in 2005 and 2006, respectively. The first in-season generation occurred from early June through mid-July, with mealybug densities ranging from 17.6 +/- 5.6-26.4 +/- 6.2 mealybugs per 0.75 m sample branch. The second in-season generation occurred from late July through September and had peak densities of 408.6 +/- 93.9 and 182.0 +/- 34.2 mealybugs per branch. In March and April mealybugs were located primarily on the buds and branch wood; in May the population was on branch wood as well as the rachis; from June through September the population was located primarily in the pistachio cluster. F. gilli's seasonal phenology described herein was used to develop a management program.

  9. Molecular identification of mealybugs (Hemiptera: Pseudococcidae) found on Korean pears.

    PubMed

    Park, Doo-Sang; Leem, Yu Jin; Hahn, Kyu-Woong; Suh, Soo-Jung; Hong, Ki-Jeong; Oh, Hyun-Woo

    2010-02-01

    Mealybugs are under a strict regulation at foreign trades of agricultural products because they are one of the most economically damaging groups of insects on food crops and ornamental plants. However, the absence of morphological characteristics enabling the discrimination of early life stages often cause a significant delay or rejection of a shipment when infested fruit is discovered, causing significant economic loss. A polymerase chain reaction-based method for species identification was developed for six mealybug species known to infest Korean pears including two regulated insects, Planococcus kraunhiae (Kuwana) and Crisicoccus matsumotoi (Siraiwa). Six sets of species-specific primers were designed based on the sequence comparison of the internal transcribed spacer 1 and 2 regions. Efficiency tests against 29 mealybug samples showed that this method could effectively discriminate different mealybug species regardless of their developmental stages. Blind tests against 11 field collected mealybug nymph samples indicated that a single polymerase chain reaction is enough to discriminate unidentified mealybugs collected on Korean pears. This new method will facilitate trade and export requirements, as well as identify the species at any stage of mealybug intercepted.

  10. Developing detection and monitoring strategies for Planococcus minor (Hemiptera: Pseudococcidae).

    PubMed

    Roda, Amy; Millar, Jocelyn G; Rascoe, John; Weihman, Scott; Stocks, Ian

    2012-12-01

    A pheromone-based system to locate and monitor Planococcus minor (Maskell), a pest of over 250 plants including citrus, grape, and cacao, was tested. The difficulty in distinguishing P. minor from the citrus mealybug, P. citri, makes finding and evaluating the impact of the pest challenging. Studies conducted in Puerto Rico determined that synthetic P. minor pheromone lures preaged 120 d in the field caught similar number of males as lures not aged (fresh). Molecular analysis of trapped mealybug males using mitochondrial cytochrome oxidase-1, the internal transcriber space two locus, and 28S-D2 gene showed the pheromone traps to be species specific. Traps baited with P. minor pheromone were used to monitor the pest in south Florida and to locate potential infestations. P. minor males were found at all locations studied in South Florida and were present in low numbers (1.03 +/- 0.69 mean +/- SE/trap/14 d). Over 14,000 terminals, fruit, and flowers were visually inspected over a 6 mo period of peak trap catches before the first adult P. minor female was found. The synthetic pheromone lures proved to be an effective tool to locate and monitor this pest new to the continental United States.

  11. A survey of scale insects in soil samples from Europe (Hemiptera, Coccomorpha).

    PubMed

    Kaydan, Mehmet Bora; Benedicty, Zsuzsanna Konczné; Kiss, Balázs; Szita, Éva

    2016-01-01

    In the last decades, several expeditions were organized in Europe by the researchers of the Hungarian Natural History Museum to collect snails, aquatic insects and soil animals (mites, springtails, nematodes, and earthworms). In this study, scale insect (Hemiptera: Coccomorpha) specimens extracted from Hungarian Natural History Museum soil samples (2970 samples in total), all of which were collected using soil and litter sampling devices, and extracted by Berlese funnel, were examined. From these samples, 43 scale insect species (Acanthococcidae 4, Coccidae 2, Micrococcidae 1, Ortheziidae 7, Pseudococcidae 21, Putoidae 1 and Rhizoecidae 7) were found in 16 European countries. In addition, a new species belonging to the family Pseudococcidae, Brevennia larvalis Kaydan, sp. n. and a new species of Ortheziidae, Ortheziola editae Szita & Konczné Benedicty, sp. n. are described and illustrated based on the adult female stage. Revised keys to the adult females of Brevennia and Ortheziola are presented.

  12. A survey of scale insects in soil samples from Europe (Hemiptera, Coccomorpha)

    PubMed Central

    Kaydan, Mehmet Bora; Benedicty, Zsuzsanna Konczné; Kiss, Balázs; Szita, Éva

    2016-01-01

    Abstract In the last decades, several expeditions were organized in Europe by the researchers of the Hungarian Natural History Museum to collect snails, aquatic insects and soil animals (mites, springtails, nematodes, and earthworms). In this study, scale insect (Hemiptera: Coccomorpha) specimens extracted from Hungarian Natural History Museum soil samples (2970 samples in total), all of which were collected using soil and litter sampling devices, and extracted by Berlese funnel, were examined. From these samples, 43 scale insect species (Acanthococcidae 4, Coccidae 2, Micrococcidae 1, Ortheziidae 7, Pseudococcidae 21, Putoidae 1 and Rhizoecidae 7) were found in 16 European countries. In addition, a new species belonging to the family Pseudococcidae, Brevennia larvalis Kaydan, sp. n. and a new species of Ortheziidae, Ortheziola editae Szita & Konczné Benedicty, sp. n. are described and illustrated based on the adult female stage. Revised keys to the adult females of Brevennia and Ortheziola are presented. PMID:27081335

  13. DNA barcodes for two scale insect families, mealybugs (Hemiptera: Pseudococcidae) and armored scales (Hemiptera: Diaspididae).

    PubMed

    Park, D-S; Suh, S-J; Hebert, P D N; Oh, H-W; Hong, K-J

    2011-08-01

    Although DNA barcode coverage has grown rapidly for many insect orders, there are some groups, such as scale insects, where sequence recovery has been difficult. However, using a recently developed primer set, we recovered barcode records from 373 specimens, providing coverage for 75 species from 31 genera in two families. Overall success was >90% for mealybugs and >80% for armored scale species. The G·C content was very low in most species, averaging just 16.3%. Sequence divergences (K2P) between congeneric species averaged 10.7%, while intra-specific divergences averaged 0.97%. However, the latter value was inflated by high intra-specific divergence in nine taxa, cases that may indicate species overlooked by current taxonomic treatments. Our study establishes the feasibility of developing a comprehensive barcode library for scale insects and indicates that its construction will both create an effective system for identifying scale insects and reveal taxonomic situations worthy of deeper analysis.

  14. An annotated checklist of the scale insects of Iran (Hemiptera, Sternorrhyncha, Coccoidea) with new records and distribution data

    PubMed Central

    Moghaddam, Masumeh

    2013-01-01

    Abstract A list of scale insects (Hemiptera: Sternorrhyncha: Coccoidea) of Iran is present based mainly on the literature records since 1902. In total, 13 families and 275 species have been recorded and these are listed along with their locality data and host plants. The families are as follows: Asterolecaniidae, Cerococcidae, Coccidae, Diaspididae, Eriococcidae, Kermesidae, Margarodidae, Monophlebidae, Ortheziidae, Phoenicococcidae, Pseudococcidae, Putoidae and Rhizoecidae. The following ten species are recorded for the first time from Iran: Diaspidiotus lenticularis (Lindinger), Diaspidiotus wuenni (Lindinger), Fiorinia proboscidaria Green, Koroneaspis lonicerae Borchsenius, Eriococcus cingulatus Kiritchenko, Eriococcus pamiricus (Bazarov), Eriococcus reynei Schmutterer, Eriococcus sanguinairensis Goux and Eriococcus saxidesertus (Borchsenius) and Porphyrophora victoriae Jashenko. PMID:24163586

  15. An annotated checklist of the scale insects of Iran (Hemiptera, Sternorrhyncha, Coccoidea) with new records and distribution data.

    PubMed

    Moghaddam, Masumeh

    2013-01-01

    A list of scale insects (Hemiptera: Sternorrhyncha: Coccoidea) of Iran is present based mainly on the literature records since 1902. In total, 13 families and 275 species have been recorded and these are listed along with their locality data and host plants. The families are as follows: Asterolecaniidae, Cerococcidae, Coccidae, Diaspididae, Eriococcidae, Kermesidae, Margarodidae, Monophlebidae, Ortheziidae, Phoenicococcidae, Pseudococcidae, Putoidae and Rhizoecidae. The following ten species are recorded for the first time from Iran: Diaspidiotus lenticularis (Lindinger), Diaspidiotus wuenni (Lindinger), Fiorinia proboscidaria Green, Koroneaspis lonicerae Borchsenius, Eriococcus cingulatus Kiritchenko, Eriococcus pamiricus (Bazarov), Eriococcus reynei Schmutterer, Eriococcus sanguinairensis Goux and Eriococcus saxidesertus (Borchsenius) and Porphyrophora victoriae Jashenko.

  16. The identity and distribution of Fiorinia phantasma (Cockerell & Robinson) (Hemiptera: Coccomorpha: Diaspididae), with a new synonym.

    PubMed

    Watson, Gillian W; Williams, Douglas J; Miller, Douglass R

    2015-11-25

    The morphologies of Fiorinia phantasma (Cockerell & Robinson) (Hemiptera: Coccomorpha: Diaspididae) and F. coronata Williams & Watson are reviewed, and the name F. coronata is placed as a junior synonym of the name F. phantasma syn. n. The known geographical distribution and host range of F. phantasma is documented and discussed. An identification key to 12 of the 16 species of Fiorinia known from the Australasian, Nearctic and Neotropical Regions is provided.

  17. An annotated update of the scale insect checklist of Hungary (Hemiptera, Coccoidea).

    PubMed

    Kozár, Ferenc; Benedicty, Zsuzsanna Konczné; Fetykó, Kinga; Kiss, Balázs; Szita, Eva

    2013-01-01

    The number of scale insect species (Hemiptera: Coccoidea) known from Hungary has increased in the last 10 years by 39 (16.6 %), to a total of 274 species belonging to 112 genera in10 families. The family Pseudococcidae is the most species rich, with 101 species in 34 genera; Diaspididae contains 59 species in 27 genera; Coccidae contains 54 species in 27 genera; and the Eriococcidae contains 33 species in 8 genera. The other 6 coccoid families each contain only a few species: Asterolecaniidae (7 species in 3 genera); Ortheziidae (7 species in 4 genera); Margarodidaesensu lato (5 species in 5 genera); Cryptococcidae (3 species in 2 genera); Kermesidae (4 species in 1genus); and Cerococcidae (1 species). Of the species in the check list, 224 were found in outdoor conditions, while 50 species occurred only in indoor conditions. This paper contains 22 species recorded for the first time in the Hungarian fauna.

  18. An annotated update of the scale insect checklist of Hungary (Hemiptera, Coccoidea)

    PubMed Central

    Kozár, Ferenc; Benedicty, Zsuzsanna Konczné; Fetykó, Kinga; Kiss, Balázs; Szita, Éva

    2013-01-01

    Abstract The number of scale insect species (Hemiptera: Coccoidea) known from Hungary has increased in the last 10 years by 39 (16.6 %), to a total of 274 species belonging to 112 genera in10 families. The family Pseudococcidae is the most species rich, with 101 species in 34 genera; Diaspididae contains 59 species in 27 genera; Coccidae contains 54 species in 27 genera; and the Eriococcidae contains 33 species in 8 genera. The other 6 coccoid families each contain only a few species: Asterolecaniidae (7 species in 3 genera); Ortheziidae (7 species in 4 genera); Margarodidae sensu lato (5 species in 5 genera); Cryptococcidae (3 species in 2 genera); Kermesidae (4 species in 1genus); and Cerococcidae (1 species). Of the species in the check list, 224 were found in outdoor conditions, while 50 species occurred only in indoor conditions. This paper contains 22 species recorded for the first time in the Hungarian fauna. PMID:23794928

  19. [Neotropical plant morphology].

    PubMed

    Pérez-García, Blanca; Mendoza, Aniceto

    2002-01-01

    An analysis on plant morphology and the sources that are important to the morphologic interpretations is done. An additional analysis is presented on all published papers in this subject by the Revista de Biología Tropical since its foundation, as well as its contribution to the plant morphology development in the neotropics.

  20. Neotropical coastal wetlands

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    McKee, Karen L.; Batzer, Darold P.; Baldwin, Andrew H.

    2012-01-01

    The Neotropical region, which includes the tropical Americas, is one of the world's eight biogeographic zones. It contains some of the most diverse and unique wetlands in the world, some of which are still relatively undisturbed by humans. This chapter focuses on the northern segment of the Neotropics (south Florida, the Caribbean islands, Mexico, and Central America), an area that spans a latitudinal gradient from about 7 N to 29 N and 60 W to 112 W. Examples of coastal wetlands in this realm include the Everglades (Florida, USA), Ten Thousand Islands (Florida, USA), Laguna de Terminos (Mexico), Twin Cays (Belize), and Zapata Swamp (Cuba). Coastal wetlands are dominated by mangroves, which will be emphasized here, but also include freshwater swamps and marshes, saline marshes, and seagrass beds. The aim of this chapter is to provide a broad overview of Neotropical coastal wetlands of the North American continent, with an emphasis on mangroves, since this is the dominant vegetation type and because in-depth coverage of all wetland types is impossible here. Instead, the goal is to describe the environmental settings, plant and animal communities, key ecological controls, and some conservation concerns, with specific examples. Because this book deals with wetlands of North America, this chapter excludes coastal wetlands of South America. However, much of the information is applicable to mangrove, marsh, and seagrass communities of other tropicaI regions.

  1. Seasonal biology of Ferrisia gilli (Hemiptera: Pseudococcidae) in California Sierra foothill vineyards.

    PubMed

    Wunderlich, Lynn R; Cooper, Monica L; Daane, Kent M

    2013-08-01

    The mealybug Ferrisia gilli Gullan is an emerging pest of wine grapes grown in California's Sierra foothills. A relatively new species, it had previously been recorded as a pest of pistachio, almond, and ornamentals. It was first reported on grape in El Dorado County in 2003 and has since established and spread. Nondestructive monitoring of grape vine sections was conducted in untreated vineyard plots and compared with destructive sampling conducted in grower-treated plots in 2008 and 2009 to determine F. gilli life stage seasonal presence, number of generations, location on the vine during the season, and damage potential to fruit clusters. Two generations were observed to be completed during the season. F. gilli overwintered under the bark at the base of the trunk, trunk, and cordon as second and third instars. Adults were found at the base of emerging shoots (spring) or on and under bark of old and new spurs. Live crawlers were born in June (first generation) and late August to September (second generation), and migrated to leaves to feed before moving to protected locations under bark or into fruit clusters. Lower mealybug densities and fruit damage were recorded on vines with than without insecticide treatment(s). Parasitized mealybugs were collected in low numbers and an Acerophagus sp. was the dominant parasitoid.

  2. Adjuvants to improve aerial control of the citrus mealybug Planococcus citri (Hemiptera: Pseudococcidae) using entomopathogenic nematodes.

    PubMed

    van Niekerk, S; Malan, A P

    2015-03-01

    The citrus mealybug, Planococcus citri, is a highly destructive pest of citrus, occurring only in the aerial parts of plants. Humidity will be one of the key factors to consider when using entomopathogenic nematodes (EPN) as biological control agents. Different adjuvants can be added to suspensions of EPNs, to improve control as a foliar application. An aqueous suspension containing Heterorhabditis zealandica and 0.3% Zeba® significantly increased P. citri mortality by 22% at 80% relative humidity (RH) with a temperature cycle starting at 22°C for 14 h and 11°C for 11 h. The same polymer formulation was tested for Steinernema yirgalemense and mortality of P. citri increased by 21% at 60% RH and by 27% at 80% RH. The addition of Nu-Film-P® and Zeba® to H. zealandica suspensions did not significantly retard application run-off on citrus leaves. The combination of Nu-Film-P® and Zeba®, however, was able to significantly retard sedimentation, increasing the average number of nematodes deposited on 2-cm2 leaf discs by 10 nematodes. In an aqueous suspension, nematodes settle rapidly to the bottom, resulting in an uneven distribution of nematodes. Xanthan gum, at a concentration of 0.2%, was highly effective at retarding sedimentation, with 72% of the initial nematode number still in suspension after 1 h. Zeba®, at a concentration of 0.3%, despite not being as effective as Xanthan gum, nevertheless still retarded sedimentation significantly. This is the first report of the potential of Nu-Film-P® and Zeba® to improve EPN performance against P. citri when used above ground in citrus orchards.

  3. Male behaviors reveal multiple pherotypes within vine mealybug Planococcus ficus (Signoret) (Hemiptera; Pseudococcidae) populations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kol-Maimon, Hofit; Levi-Zada, Anat; Franco, José Carlos; Dunkelblum, Ezra; Protasov, Alex; Eliyaho, Miriam; Mendel, Zvi

    2010-12-01

    The vine mealybug (VM) females collected in Israel produce two sex pheromone compounds: lavandulyl senecioate (LS) and ( S)-lavandulyl isovalerate (LI). The males display ambiguous behavior to LI: repulsion in the vineyard and attraction of laboratory-reared males. We addressed the question of individual male behavior, i.e., do males respond to both LS and LI, or might they display a distinct response to each of the two pheromone compounds. We compared male pherotype frequencies between wild-caught and laboratory-reared populations. Then, we examined the relationship between pherotype composition and male capture rates in pheromone traps. Finally, we addressed the heredity of the pherotypes. The Israeli VM populations contain nine different male pherotypes, as defined according to the male behavior to pheromone compounds. The studied Portuguese populations included five of the nine pherotypes; none of the Portuguese males were attracted to LI. It seems that the high frequency of males that were attracted to LI is related to dense VM populations. It is hypothesized that selection for the male pherotypes, I males, those that respond to LI, occur under high-density rearing conditions. This may result from shorter development times of males and females that produce more I male pherotypes. The lower relative frequency of trapping of males in LI-baited traps than expected from the percentage determined in a Petri dish arena suggests that males that respond solely to LS (S males) are better fliers. The results also suggest that the pherotype trait is inherited by both sexes of the VM.

  4. Effect of Temperature on the life history of the mealybug, Paracoccus marginatus (Hemiptera: Pseudococcidae)

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Effect of temperature on the life history of the mealybug, Paracoccus marginatus Williams and Granara de Willink was investigated in the laboratory. Paracoccus marginatus was able to develop and complete its life cycle at 18, 20, 25, and 30 ± 1°C. At 15, 34, and 35°C, the eggs hatched after 27, 6,...

  5. Efficiency and establishment of three introduced parasitoids of the mealybug Paracoccus marginatus (Hemiptera: Pseudococcidae)

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    A study on the efficiency and establishment of three previously introduced parasitoids (Acerophagus papayae, Anagyrus loecki, and Pseudleptomastix mexicana) to control the mealybug Paracoccus marginatus was made in 2005 and 2006, at three locations in Homestead (Miami-Dade County), Florida. In each ...

  6. Endosymbiotic Bacteria Associated with the Mealy Bug, Rhizoecus amorphophalli (Hemiptera: Pseudococcidae)

    PubMed Central

    Sreerag, Ravikumar Sreekala; Jayaprakas, C. A.; Ragesh, L.; Kumar, Sasidharan Nishanth

    2014-01-01

    The mealy bug, Rhizoecus amorphophalli, is a menace to the aroid farmers due to the intensive infestation on stored tubers. Spraying of pesticides was able to control this pest but it always left a chance for fungal growth. Bacterial endosymbionts associated with the insects provide several benefits to their host. Since such endosymbionts play a vital role even in the physiology of their host, revealing the types of bacteria associated with mealy bug will give basic information, which may throw light on the management of this noxious pest. The present study is the first to identify bacterial endosymbionts associated with R. amorphophalli employing phenotypic characterization and 16S rDNA sequencing. Three culturable bacteria, namely, Bacillus subtilis, Staphylococcus gallinarum, and Staphylococcus saprophyticus, were isolated from R. amorphophalli. Moreover, the antibiotic susceptibility tests against the isolated bacteria showed that all the isolates were susceptible to the three antibiotics tested, except cephalexin. Recently, endosymbionts are used as effective biocontrol agents (BCAs) and the present study will stand as a connecting link in identification and effective utilization of these endosymbionts as BCAs for management of R. amorphophalli. PMID:27355014

  7. Molecular Evidence of Polyandry in the Citrus Mealybug, Planococcus citri (Hemiptera: Pseudococcidae)

    PubMed Central

    Seabra, Sofia G.; Brás, Patricia G.; Zina, Vera; Borges da Silva, Elsa; Rebelo, Maria Teresa; Figueiredo, Elisabete; Mendel, Zvi; Paulo, Octávio S.; Franco, José Carlos

    2013-01-01

    The occurrence of polyandry in Planococcuscitri, presumed by earlier observations of mating behavior, was confirmed using microsatellite genotyping of pools of over 400 eggs resulting from controlled crosses of one female with two males. The genetic contribution of both mated males was confirmed in 13 out of 43 crosses. In three crosses it was possible to determine that only the first male fertilized the eggs, which may be due to sperm competition or unviable sperm supply. The microsatellite analysis also allowed the confirmation of aspects of the chromosomal inheritance detected previously in cytogenetic studies in Planococcuscitri, namely that only one of the alleles is transmitted by the male, indicating that the males are functionally haploid, supporting the observation of Paternal Genome Elimination (PGE) in these insects. PMID:23844173

  8. Molecular evidence of polyandry in the citrus mealybug, Planococcus citri (Hemiptera: Pseudococcidae).

    PubMed

    Seabra, Sofia G; Brás, Patricia G; Zina, Vera; Borges da Silva, Elsa; Rebelo, Maria Teresa; Figueiredo, Elisabete; Mendel, Zvi; Paulo, Octávio S; Franco, José Carlos

    2013-01-01

    The occurrence of polyandry in Planococcuscitri, presumed by earlier observations of mating behavior, was confirmed using microsatellite genotyping of pools of over 400 eggs resulting from controlled crosses of one female with two males. The genetic contribution of both mated males was confirmed in 13 out of 43 crosses. In three crosses it was possible to determine that only the first male fertilized the eggs, which may be due to sperm competition or unviable sperm supply. The microsatellite analysis also allowed the confirmation of aspects of the chromosomal inheritance detected previously in cytogenetic studies in Planococcuscitri, namely that only one of the alleles is transmitted by the male, indicating that the males are functionally haploid, supporting the observation of Paternal Genome Elimination (PGE) in these insects.

  9. Field assessment of three introduced parasitoids of Paracoccus marginatus (Hemiptera: Pseudococcidae)

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Abstract: Field assessment of the ability of three introduced parasitoids (Acerophagus papayae Noyes and Schauff, Anagyrus loecki Noyes, and Pseudleptomastix mexicana Noyes and Schauff) to control Paracoccus marginatus Williams and Granara de Willink was investigated in 2005 and 2006 in three locat...

  10. Life history of Paracoccus marginatus (Hemiptera:Pseudococcidae)on four host plant species under laboratory conditions

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Development, survival and reproduction of the papaya mealybug (Paracoccus marginatus Williams and Granara de Willink) on three ornamental plants (Hibiscus rosa-sinensis L., Acalypha sp. and Plumeria sp.) and one weed species (Parthenium hysterophorus L.) were investigated. Papaya mealybug was able t...

  11. Interspecific competition between two parasitoids of the mealybug, Oracella acuta (Lobdell) (Hemiptera: Pseudococcidae)

    Treesearch

    Jiang-Hua Sun; Stephen R. Clarke; Gary L. Debarr; C. Wayne Berisford

    2004-01-01

    The pine-feeding mealybug, Oracella acuta (Lobdell), was accidentally introduced and established in Guangdong Province, China, in 1988 (Sun et al. 1996, J. For. 94: 27-32). It spread rapidly through the extensive plantations of exotic slash pine, Pinus elliottii Englem. var. elliottii, a species native to the U.S...

  12. Molecular Characterization of Two Fatty Acyl-CoA Reductase Genes From Phenacoccus solenopsis (Hemiptera: Pseudococcidae).

    PubMed

    Li, Xiaolong; Zheng, Tianxiang; Zheng, Xiaowen; Han, Na; Chen, Xuexin; Zhang, Dayu

    2016-01-01

    Fatty acyl-CoA reductases (FARs) are key enzymes involved in fatty alcohol synthesis. Here, we cloned and characterized full-length cDNAs of two FAR genes from the cotton mealybug, Phenacoccus solenopsis. The results showed PsFAR I and PsFAR II cDNAs were 1,584 bp and 1,515 bp in length respectively. Both PsFAR I and PsFAR II were predicted to be located in the endoplasmic reticulum by Euk-mPLoc 2.0 approach. Both of them had a Rossmann folding region and a FAR_C region. Two conservative motifs were discovered in Rossmann folding region by sequence alignment including a NADPH combining motif, TGXXGG, and an active site motif, YXXXK. A phylogenetic tree made using MEGA 6.06 indicated that PsFAR I and PsFAR II were placed in two different branches. Gene expression analysis performed at different developmental stages showed that the expression of PsFar I is significantly higher than that of PsFar II in first and second instar nymphs and in male adults. Spirotetramat treatment at 125 mg/liter significantly increased the expression of PsFar I in third instar nymphs, but there was no effect in the expression of PsFar II Our results indicated these two FAR genes showed different expression patterns during insect development and after pesticide treatment, suggesting they play different roles in insect development and detoxification against pesticides.

  13. Systematic revision of the mealybug genus Delottococcus Cox & Ben-Dov (Hemiptera: Pseudococcidae)

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    A systematic revision of the mealybug genus Delottococcus Cox & Ben-Dov is presented. Nine species are treated, including D. millari which is described as new. The 8 previously described species are: Delottococcus aberiae (De Lotto), D. confusus (De Lotto), D. elisabethae (Brain), D. euphorbiae (E...

  14. Expression of feeding symptons from pink hibiscus mealybug (Hemiptera: Pseudococcidae) by commerically important cultivars of hibiscus

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The pink hibiscus mealybug, Maconellicoccus hirsutus (Green), is a highly polyphagous pest that invaded southern Florida in 2002 and is now widely established throughout most of the state. Although Hibiscus rosa-sinensis L. is a preferred and economically important host of M. hirsutus, the suscepti...

  15. A review of the legged mealybugs on bamboo (Hemiptera: Coccoidea: Pseudococcidae) occurring in China.

    PubMed

    Li, Wen-Chao; Tsai, Ming-Yu; Wu, San-An

    2014-12-23

    Twenty-two species of legged mealybugs occur on bamboo (Poaceae: Bambusoideae) in China. These species are reviewed and two of them are described for the first time: Dysmicoccus luoyangensis Li & Wu, sp. nov. and Trionymus indocalamus Li & Wu, sp. nov. Two new combinations are established: Pseudococcus bambusicola Takahashi and Kaicoccus bambusus Wu are transferred to genus Formicococcus Takahashi as F. bambusicola (Takahashi) comb. nov. and F. bambusus (Wu) comb. nov., respectively. Formicococcus bambusicola, Heliococcus bambusae (Takahashi), Neoripersia miscanthicola Takahashi and Trionymus formosanus Takahashi are redescribed and reillustrated based on type specimens. Brief notes are provided for Balanococcus kwoni Pellizari & Danzig, B. zhejiangensis Li & Wu, Dysmicoccus dengwuensis Ferris, D. indocalamus Wu, Eumyrmococcus smithii Silvestri, Ferrisicoccus angustus Ezzat & McConnell, Heliococcus lingnaniae Wang, H. takae (Kuwana), Heterococcus abludens Borchsenius, Miscanthicoccus miscanthi (Takahashi), Palmicultor lumpurensis (Takahashi), Paraporisaccus guizhouensis Lu & Wu, Paraserrolecanium fargesii Wu, Pseudantonina magnotubulata Borchsenius and Trionymus bambusae (Green). A key to the species of legged mealybugs on bamboo occurring in China is given. A list of bamboo mealybugs worldwide is also provided. 

  16. Genetic differentiation among Maconellicoccus hirsutus (Hemiptera: Pseudococcidae) populations living on different host plants.

    PubMed

    Rosas-García, Ninfa M; Sarmiento-Benavides, Sandra L; Villegas-Mendoza, Jesús M; Hernández-Delgado, Sanjuana; Mayek-Pérez, Netzahualcoyotl

    2010-06-01

    The pink hibiscus mealybug Maconellicoccus hirsutus (Green) is a dangerous pest that damages a wide variety of agricultural, horticultural, and forestry crops. Amplified fragment length polymorphism (AFLP) fingerprints were used to characterize the genetic variation of 11 M. hirsutus populations infesting three plant species in Nayarit, Mexico. Analysis was carried out using four primers combinations, producing 590 polymorphic bands. Cluster analysis, as well as bootstrap dendrogram and nonmetric multidimensional scaling analysis, grouped M. hirsutus populations according to their host plant. The estimated F(ST) values indicated a high differentiation in M. hirsutus populations among the three host plant species. These results were also supported by a Bayesian analysis, which indicated a population clustering robustness according to their host plant. Genetic variation among populations is not caused by geographic distances, as shown by a Mantel test.

  17. A Combination Treatment Using Ethyl Formate and Phosphine to Control Planococcus citri (Hemiptera: Pseudococcidae) on Pineapples.

    PubMed

    Yang, JeongOh; Park, Youngrong; Hyun, Ik-Hwa; Kim, Gil-Hah; Kim, Bong-Su; Lee, Byung-Ho; Ren, YongLin

    2016-12-01

    Citrus mealybug, Planococcus citri (Risso), is a known quarantine pest that is difficult to control with phosphine (PH3) or low concentrations of ethyl formate (EF), particularly at low temperatures. Methyl bromide (MB) is a fumigant used for quarantine and preshipment (QPS) that can eradicate target pests with short fumigation periods. However, MB, which is an ozone-depleting substance, is scheduled to be phased out in South Korea over the next decade. There is no ideal alternative fumigant to replace MB for QPS of perishable commodities. A laboratory study was conducted to compare the individual effects of EF and PH3 individually, and the effects of EF mixed with PH3 as an MB alternative for the control of P. citri adults, nymphs, and eggs. In comparison to treatments with EF and PH3 individually, EF mixed with PH3 resulted in high toxicity to all stages of P. citri. The eggs were more tolerant than the nymphs and adults. A mixed treatment of EF and PH3 achieved complete control of eggs infesting pineapples at concentrations of 25.1/1.0 (EF/PH3) mg/liter at 8 °C for 4 h of exposures. This new combined EF/PH3 fumigation technology could offer shorter exposure times and less damage to perishable commodities at low temperatures, and could potentially be extended to controlling other quarantine pests as a replacement treatment for fruit and vegetables in which methyl bromide is currently being used.

  18. Molecular Characterization of Two Fatty Acyl-CoA Reductase Genes From Phenacoccus solenopsis (Hemiptera: Pseudococcidae)

    PubMed Central

    Li, Xiaolong; Zheng, Tianxiang; Zheng, Xiaowen; Han, Na; Chen, Xuexin; Zhang, Dayu

    2016-01-01

    Fatty acyl-CoA reductases (FARs) are key enzymes involved in fatty alcohol synthesis. Here, we cloned and characterized full-length cDNAs of two FAR genes from the cotton mealybug, Phenacoccus solenopsis. The results showed PsFAR I and PsFAR II cDNAs were 1,584 bp and 1,515 bp in length respectively. Both PsFAR I and PsFAR II were predicted to be located in the endoplasmic reticulum by Euk-mPLoc 2.0 approach. Both of them had a Rossmann folding region and a FAR_C region. Two conservative motifs were discovered in Rossmann folding region by sequence alignment including a NADPH combining motif, TGXXGG, and an active site motif, YXXXK. A phylogenetic tree made using MEGA 6.06 indicated that PsFAR I and PsFAR II were placed in two different branches. Gene expression analysis performed at different developmental stages showed that the expression of PsFar I is significantly higher than that of PsFar II in first and second instar nymphs and in male adults. Spirotetramat treatment at 125 mg/liter significantly increased the expression of PsFar I in third instar nymphs, but there was no effect in the expression of PsFar II. Our results indicated these two FAR genes showed different expression patterns during insect development and after pesticide treatment, suggesting they play different roles in insect development and detoxification against pesticides. PMID:27271970

  19. Endosymbiotic Bacteria Associated with the Mealy Bug, Rhizoecus amorphophalli (Hemiptera: Pseudococcidae).

    PubMed

    Sreerag, Ravikumar Sreekala; Jayaprakas, C A; Ragesh, L; Kumar, Sasidharan Nishanth

    2014-01-01

    The mealy bug, Rhizoecus amorphophalli, is a menace to the aroid farmers due to the intensive infestation on stored tubers. Spraying of pesticides was able to control this pest but it always left a chance for fungal growth. Bacterial endosymbionts associated with the insects provide several benefits to their host. Since such endosymbionts play a vital role even in the physiology of their host, revealing the types of bacteria associated with mealy bug will give basic information, which may throw light on the management of this noxious pest. The present study is the first to identify bacterial endosymbionts associated with R. amorphophalli employing phenotypic characterization and 16S rDNA sequencing. Three culturable bacteria, namely, Bacillus subtilis, Staphylococcus gallinarum, and Staphylococcus saprophyticus, were isolated from R. amorphophalli. Moreover, the antibiotic susceptibility tests against the isolated bacteria showed that all the isolates were susceptible to the three antibiotics tested, except cephalexin. Recently, endosymbionts are used as effective biocontrol agents (BCAs) and the present study will stand as a connecting link in identification and effective utilization of these endosymbionts as BCAs for management of R. amorphophalli.

  20. Widespread infestation of the exotic mealybug species, Phenacoccus solenopsis (Tinsley) (Hemiptera: Pseudococcidae), on cotton in India.

    PubMed

    Nagrare, V S; Kranthi, S; Biradar, V K; Zade, N N; Sangode, V; Kakde, G; Shukla, R M; Shivare, D; Khadi, B M; Kranthi, K R

    2009-10-01

    A survey was conducted in 47 locations in nine cotton-growing states of India to identify the composition of mealybug species occurring on cotton. Results of the taxonomic study showed that two mealybug species, the solenopsis mealybug, Phenacoccus solenopsis (Tinsley), and the pink hibiscus mealybug, Maconellicoccus hirsutus (Green), were found to infest cotton plants from all nine cotton growing states of the country. However, P. solenopsis was found to be the predominant mealybug species, comprising 95% of the samples examined. P. solenopsis, which was hitherto not reported to occur in India, now appears to be widespread on cotton in almost all cotton-growing states of the country. P. solenopsis is an exotic species originated from the USA and was reported to damage cotton and crops of 14 families. This report discusses the implications of the introduction of this exotic polyphagous pest species and the necessary steps to mitigate its potential threat to agriculture in India.

  1. Monitoring Pseudococcus calceolariae (Hemiptera: Pseudococcidae) in Fruit Crops Using Pheromone-Baited Traps.

    PubMed

    Flores, M Fernanda; Romero, Alda; Oyarzun, M Soledad; Bergmann, Jan; Zaviezo, Tania

    2015-10-01

    The citrophilus mealybug, Pseudococcus calceolariae (Maskell), is an important pest of fruit crops in many regions of the world. Recently, its sex pheromone has been identified and synthesized. We carried out field experiments with the goal of developing monitoring protocols for P. calceolariae using pheromone-baited traps. Traps checked hourly for 24 hours showed a distinct diel pattern of male flight, between 18:00 and 21:00 h. The presence of unnatural stereoisomers did not affect trap captures, with isomeric mixtures capturing similar amounts of males as the biological active isomer. Dose of isomeric mixture pheromone (0-100 µg) had a nonlinear effect on male captures, with 10, 30, and 50 µg capturing similar amounts. The effective range of pheromone traps was determined by placing traps at different distances (15, 40, and 80 m) from an infested blueberry field, loaded with 0, 1 and 25 µg of the pheromone. For all distances, 25 µg dose captured more males, and was highly attractive up to 40 m. There was a significant effect of lure age on male captures (0-150 d), with similar amount of males captured up to 90-day-old lure, and lower captures in the 150-day-old lure compared with fresh ones. We found significant positive correlations between P. calceolariae males caught in pheromone traps with female abundance and fruit infestation at harvest. Our results show the usefulness of P. calceolariae pheromones for monitoring at field level and provide information for the design of monitoring protocols.

  2. Molecular-based approach to the differentiation of mealybug (Hemiptera: Pseudococcidae) species.

    PubMed

    Beuning, L L; Murphy, P; Wu, E; Batchelor, T A; Morris, B A

    1999-04-01

    The rDNA internal transcribed spacer (ITS) region of 4 mealybug species, Pseudococcus viburni (Signoret), P. longispinus (Targiono-Tozzetti), P. calceolariae (Maskell), and P. similans (Lidgett), was isolated by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) amplification, cloned, and sequenced. In this region of the genome there were numerous differences, including nucleotide substitutions, insertions, or deletions between P. viburni, P. longispinus, and P. calceolariae, whereas P. calceolariae and P. similans were very similar. Based on sequence differences between the ITS regions, we designed PCR primers that were able to differentiate the 4 mealybug species and that correlated with morphological differences found between adult females of these species. The PCR amplification by using the species-specific primers enabled the differentiation of not only adult females but also eggs, juveniles, and adult males, which was not previously possible by using conventional identification methods.

  3. Male behaviors reveal multiple pherotypes within vine mealybug Planococcus ficus (Signoret) (Hemiptera; Pseudococcidae) populations.

    PubMed

    Kol-Maimon, Hofit; Levi-Zada, Anat; Franco, José Carlos; Dunkelblum, Ezra; Protasov, Alex; Eliyaho, Miriam; Mendel, Zvi

    2010-12-01

    The vine mealybug (VM) females collected in Israel produce two sex pheromone compounds: lavandulyl senecioate (LS) and (S)-lavandulyl isovalerate (LI). The males display ambiguous behavior to LI: repulsion in the vineyard and attraction of laboratory-reared males. We addressed the question of individual male behavior, i.e., do males respond to both LS and LI, or might they display a distinct response to each of the two pheromone compounds. We compared male pherotype frequencies between wild-caught and laboratory-reared populations. Then, we examined the relationship between pherotype composition and male capture rates in pheromone traps. Finally, we addressed the heredity of the pherotypes. The Israeli VM populations contain nine different male pherotypes, as defined according to the male behavior to pheromone compounds. The studied Portuguese populations included five of the nine pherotypes; none of the Portuguese males were attracted to LI. It seems that the high frequency of males that were attracted to LI is related to dense VM populations. It is hypothesized that selection for the male pherotypes, I males, those that respond to LI, occur under high-density rearing conditions. This may result from shorter development times of males and females that produce more I male pherotypes. The lower relative frequency of trapping of males in LI-baited traps than expected from the percentage determined in a Petri dish arena suggests that males that respond solely to LS (S males) are better fliers. The results also suggest that the pherotype trait is inherited by both sexes of the VM.

  4. Molecular and morphological characterization of mealybugs (Hemiptera: Pseudococcidae) from Chilean vineyards.

    PubMed

    Correa, M C G; Germain, J-F; Malausa, T; Zaviezo, T

    2012-10-01

    Mealybugs are major pests of grapevines worldwide. They cause economic losses by lowering the cosmetic value of fruits, reducing yields, transmitting viruses and resulting in the quarantine or rejection of produce in international trade. Knowledge of the species present in a vineyard is important for the adjustment of management strategies. We surveyed and accurately characterized the mealybugs infesting vineyards in one of the main production areas of Chile; 164 mealybugs were sampled from 26 vineyards in four regions of Chile and identified by DNA sequencing for two markers (cytochrome oxidase I and internal transcribed spacer 2) and morphological examination. Pseudococcus viburni (Signoret) was the most common species, followed by Pseudococcus meridionalis Prado and Pseudococcus cribata González. Molecular variability at the COI and ITS2 loci was observed in both P. viburni and P. cribata. A comparison of haplotypes of P. viburni worldwide provides support for a recent hypothesis that this species is native to South America, a finding with direct consequences for management. Neither Pseudococcus longispinus (Targioni & Tozzetti) nor Planococcus ficus Signoret were found.

  5. Microbial associates of the vine mealybug Planococcus ficus (Hemiptera: Pseudococcidae) under different rearing conditions.

    PubMed

    Iasur-Kruh, Lilach; Taha-Salaime, Leena; Robinson, Wyatt E; Sharon, Rakefet; Droby, Samir; Perlman, Steve J; Zchori-Fein, Einat

    2015-01-01

    Sap-feeding insects harbor diverse microbial endosymbionts that play important roles in host ecology and evolution, including contributing to host pest status. The vine mealybug, Planococcus ficus, is a serious pest of grapevines, vectoring a number of pathogenic grape viruses. Previous studies have shown that virus transmission is abolished when mealybugs are raised in the laboratory on potato. To examine the possible role of microbial symbionts in virus transmission, the archaeal, bacterial, and fungal microbiota of field and laboratory P. ficus were characterized using molecular and classical microbiological methods. Lab and field colonies of P. ficus harbored different microbiota. While both were dominated by the bacterial obligate nutritional symbionts Moranella and Tremblaya, field samples also harbored a third bacterium that was allied with cluster L, a lineage of bacterial symbionts previously identified in aphids. Archaea were not found in any of the samples. Fungal communities in field-collected mealybugs were dominated by Metschnikowia and Cladosporium species, while those from laboratory-reared mealybugs were dominated by Alternaria and Cladosporium species. In conclusion, this study has identified a diverse set of microbes, most of which appear to be facultatively associated with P. ficus, depending on environmental conditions. The role of various members of the mealybug microbiome, as well as how the host plant affects microbial community structure, remains to be determined.

  6. Baseline susceptibility of Planococcus ficus (Hemiptera: Pseudococcidae) from California to select insecticides.

    PubMed

    Prabhaker, Nilima; Gispert, Carmen; Castle, Steven J

    2012-08-01

    Between 2006 and 2008, 20 populations of Planococcus ficus (Signoret), from Coachella and San Joaquin Valleys of California were measured in the laboratory for susceptibility to buprofezin, chlorpyrifos, dimethoate, methomyl, and imidacloprid. Toxicity was assessed using a petri dish bioassay technique for contact insecticides and by a systemic uptake technique for imidacloprid. Mixed life stages were tested for susceptibility to all insecticides except for buprofezin, which was measured against early and late instars (first, second, and third). Dose-response regression lines from the mortality data established LC50 and LC99 values by both techniques. Responses of populations from the two geographical locations to all five insecticides varied, in some cases significantly. Variations in susceptibility to each insecticide among sample sites showed a sevenfold difference for buprofezin, 11-fold to chlorpyrifos, ninefold to dimethoate, 24-fold to methomyl, and 8.5-fold to imidacloprid. In spite of susceptibility differences between populations, baseline toxicity data revealed that all five insecticides were quite effective based on low LC50s. Chlorpyrifos was the most toxic compound to Planococcus ficus populations as shown by lowest LC50s. Buprofezin was toxic to all immature stages but was more potent to first instars. The highest LC99 estimated by probit analysis of the bioassay data of all 20 populations for each compound was selected as a candidate discriminating dose for use in future resistance monitoring efforts. Establishment of baseline data and development of resistance monitoring tools such as bioassay methods and discriminating doses are essential elements of a sustainable management program for Planococcus ficus.

  7. Pheromone-based monitoring of Pseudococcus maritimus (Hemiptera: Pseudococcidae) populations in concord grape vineyards.

    PubMed

    Bahder, B W; Naidu, R A; Daane, K M; Millar, J G; Walsh, D B

    2013-02-01

    The grape mealybug, Pseudococcus maritimus (Ehrhorn), is the dominant mealybug in Washington's Concord grape vineyards (Vitis labrusca L.). It is a direct pest of fruit clusters and a vector of grapevine leafroll-associated viruses. Using traps baited with the sex pheromone of Ps. maritimus, we determined the optimal trap density for monitoring Ps. maritimus, with the goal of providing a more rapid monitoring method for Ps. maritimus than visual surveys. Varying densities of pheromone-baited traps (one, four, and eight traps per 12.14 ha) were deployed in Concord vineyards to monitor Ps. maritimus seasonal phenology in 2010 and 2011. In both years, flights of adult males were detected in early May and captures peaked twice per season in mid-June and mid-August, indicating two generations each year. Trap data were analyzed using Taylor's Power Law, Iwao's patchiness regression, and the K parameter of the negative binomial model to determine optimal sample size. The formula using the K parameter provided the lowest required sample size, showing that four to eight traps per 12.14 ha were needed to provide 30% sampling precision efficiency throughout the entire season. Fewer traps were needed during flight peaks when trap capture numbers were great. Only one pheromone-baited trap per 12.14 ha was sufficient to provide Ps. maritimus flight phenology data to make informed management decisions. Species-specific pheromone-baited traps deployed for Planococcus ficus (Signoret), Pseudococcus longispinus (Targioni Tozzetti), and Pseudococcus viburni (Signoret) did not detect any of these species in the vineyards sampled.

  8. Genetic Record for a Recent Invasion of Phenacoccus solenopsis (Hemiptera: Pseudococcidae) in Asia.

    PubMed

    Ahmed, Muhammad Z; Ma, Jun; Qiu, Bao-Li; He, Ri-Rong; Wu, Mu-Tao; Liang, Fan; Zhao, Ju-Peng; Lin, Li; Hu, Xue-Nan; Lv, Li-Hua; Breinholt, Jesse W; Lu, Yong-Yue

    2015-06-01

    The cotton mealybug Phenacoccus solenopsis Tinsley is an emerging invasive insect pest. Since its first report as a pest in the United States in 1991, it has invaded and colonized more than 23 countries over the past century. It was first recorded from Pakistan in 2006 and from China in 2008. In this study, we performed field surveys from 2010 to 2012 and obtained mtCOI sequences from specimens across China and Pakistan, then compared them with already available mtCOI sequences from additional Asian and North American countries. Our genetic analysis provides evidence that P. solenopsis should be classified into two groups, one of which is found only in the United States, and the other found only in Asia. The Asian group contains nine unique haplotypes, two of which have invaded and spread across China, Pakistan, India, and Vietnam over the last 4-6 yr. Our genetic analysis also indicates that P. solenopsis has a close relationship with the parasitoid wasp Aenasius bambawalei Hayat, providing preliminary evidence of a congruent spread of this mealybug and its parasitoids across China.

  9. Parasitoid complex of the mealybug Oracella acuta (Lobdell) (Hemiptera: Pseudococcidae), in Georgia, USA

    Treesearch

    Jiang-Hua Sun; Stephen R. Clarke; Gary L. Debarr; C. Wayne Berisford

    2004-01-01

    The parasitoid complex of the mealybug Oracella acuta (Lobdell) was examined in two field populations in Georgia in 1995-96. Allotropa n. sp. and Zarhopalus debarri Sun were the primary endoparasitoids emerging from 0. acuta. Adult abundance varied seasonally, with Allotropa...

  10. A preliminary phylogeny of the scale insects (Hemiptera: Sternorrhyncha: Coccoidea) based on nuclear small-subunit ribosomal DNA.

    PubMed

    Cook, Lyn G; Gullan, Penny J; Trueman, Holly E

    2002-10-01

    Scale insects (Hemiptera: Sternorrhyncha: Coccoidea) are a speciose and morphologically specialized group of plant-feeding bugs in which evolutionary relationships and thus higher classification are controversial. Sequences derived from nuclear small-subunit ribosomal DNA were used to generate a preliminary molecular phylogeny for the Coccoidea based on 39 species representing 14 putative families. Monophyly of the archaeococcoids (comprising Ortheziidae, Margarodidae sensu lato, and Phenacoleachia) was equivocal, whereas monophyly of the neococcoids was supported. Putoidae, represented by Puto yuccae, was found to be outside the remainder of the neococcoid clade. These data are consistent with a single origin (in the ancestor of the neococcoid clade) of a chromosome system involving paternal genome elimination in males. Pseudococcidae (mealybugs) appear to be sister to the rest of the neococcoids and there are indications that Coccidae (soft scales) and Kerriidae (lac scales) are sister taxa. The Eriococcidae (felt scales) was not recovered as a monophyletic group and the eriococcid genus Eriococcus sensu lato was polyphyletic.

  11. Paracoccus leucadendri Mazzeo & Franco in Mazzeo, Franco & Russo, 2009, a junior synonym of Paracoccus hakeae (Williams, 1985) comb. nov.
    (Coccomorpha: Pseudococcidae).

    PubMed

    Ellenrieder, Natalia Von; Watson, Gillian W; Kinnee, Scott A; Franco, José C; Mazzeo, Gaetana

    2016-03-24

    Two mealybug species (Hemiptera: Coccomorpha: Pseudococcidae) feeding on Proteaceae in U.S.A. (California), Portugal and Australia were studied: Paracoccus leucadendri Mazzeo & Franco in Mazzeo, Franco & Russo, 2009, described from Portugal, and Phenacoccus hakeae Williams, 1985, described from Australia. A comparative morphological analysis was made of relevant paratypes and additional specimens from Australia, California and Portugal, and the variability of the morphological characters in the populations in each country was documented. Molecular analysis of the COI gene of specimens from Australia and California showed them to be identical, and comparative morphological analysis among specimens from Australia, California and Portugal revealed no differences either; therefore Paracoccus leucadendri is placed as a junior synonym of Phenacoccus hakeae. A comparison of the COI sequences with those of species of Paracoccus, Phenacoccus and other mealybug genera revealed that Phenacoccus hakeae does not belong in Phenacoccus. Even though its COI shows no close match to any other species its morphology fits within the generic concept of Paracoccus, and we transfer it to that genus under the new combination Paracoccus hakeae (Williams, 1985) as a holding option until a comprehensive phylogenetic analysis of the group is carried out.

  12. Saproxylic Hemiptera Habitat Associations

    Treesearch

    Michael D. Ulyshen; James L. Hanula; Robert L. Blinn; Gene. Kritsky

    2012-01-01

    Understanding the habitat requirements of organisms associated with dead wood is important in order to conserve them in managed forests. Unfortunately, many of the less diverse saproxylic taxa, including Hemiptera, remain largely unstudied. An effort to rear insects from dead wood taken from two forest types (an upland pine-dominated and a bottomland mixed hardwood),...

  13. New combinations in Neotropical Thelypteridaceae

    PubMed Central

    Salino, Alexandre; Almeida, Thaís E.; Smith, Alan R.

    2015-01-01

    Abstract 288 new combinations of Neotropical Thelypteridaceae taxa are proposed in order to recognize monophyletic genera, based on the results of the most recent molecular phylogeny of the family, as well as the morphological uniformity of characters for each genus. The new nomenclatural combinations correspond to 186 Amauropelta taxa, 77 species of Goniopteris, and 25 Steiropteris taxa. A key to all native Neotropical genera of the family is also presented. PMID:26752025

  14. Occurrence of the Tamarix Leafhopper, Opsius stactogalus Fieber (Hemiptera: Cicadellidae), in Argentina

    PubMed Central

    Virla, Eduardo G.; Logarzo, Guillermo A.; Paradell, Susana L.

    2010-01-01

    The paleartic tamarix leafhopper, Opsius stactogalus Fieber (Hemiptera: Cicadellidae), can reduce the growth of tamarisk due to the aggregate feeding imposed by their populations. The species was mentioned for Argentina in Metcalf's catalogue (1967) without locality or region reference, and the contributions on Cicadellidae published by many authors after Metcalf omitted this distributional data. Populations of O. stactogalus on Tamarix sp. were found in 12 sites between 28° 48′ to 39° 17′ S and 64° 06′ to 70° 04′ W, located in both the Neotropical and Andean biogeographic regions. PMID:20578887

  15. Occurrence of the Tamarix Leafhopper, Opsius stactogalus Fieber (Hemiptera: Cicadellidae), in Argentina.

    PubMed

    Virla, Eduardo G; Logarzo, Guillermo A; Paradell, Susana L

    2010-01-01

    The paleartic tamarix leafhopper, Opsius stactogalus Fieber (Hemiptera: Cicadellidae), can reduce the growth of tamarisk due to the aggregate feeding imposed by their populations. The species was mentioned for Argentina in Metcalf's catalogue (1967) without locality or region reference, and the contributions on Cicadellidae published by many authors after Metcalf omitted this distributional data. Populations of O. stactogalus on Tamarix sp. were found in 12 sites between 28 degrees 48' to 39 degrees 17' S and 64 degrees 06' to 70 degrees 04' W, located in both the Neotropical and Andean biogeographic regions.

  16. Scale insects (Hemiptera: Coccomorpha) on sugarcane in Colombia, with description of a new species of Tillancoccus Ben-Dov (Coccidae).

    PubMed

    Caballero, Alejandro; Ramos-Portilla, Andrea Amalia; Kondo, Takumasa

    2017-05-02

    Herein we describe a new species, Tillancoccus koreguajae Caballero & Ramos, sp. n. (Hemiptera: Coccidae) from Colombia collected on sugarcane. Pinnaspis strachani (Cooley) is also recorded on sugarcane for the first time worldwide. An updated list of seven species of Coccomorpha on sugarcane in Colombia is provided, including information on its distribution, biology, and mutualistic ants for each species. Seven species of scale insects (Hemiptera: Coccomorpha) have been recorded previously on sugarcane, Saccharum officinarum L. (Poaceae) in Colombia: Pseudococcidae: Dysmicoccus boninsis (Kuwana), D. brevipes (Cockerell), Pseudococcus calceolariae (Maskell), Saccharicoccus sacchari (Cockerell); Coccidae: Pulvinaria elongata Newstead; Diaspididae: Duplachionaspis divergens (Green) and Serenaspis minima (Maskell). However, the record of S. minima in Colombia is considered doubtful as there are no voucher specimens from Colombia and because the distribution of this species is currently limited to the Australasian region. Pseudococcus calceolariae is present in Colombia but its record on sugarcane is also doubtful. A taxonomic key for the identification of scale insects on sugarcane in Colombia is provided.

  17. Ultralow oxygen treatment for control of Planococcus ficus (Homoptera: Pseudococcidae) on grape rootstocks

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Controlled atmosphere with ultralow oxygen (ULO) treatments for control of vine mealybug, Planococcus ficus Signoret (Homoptera: Pseudococcidae), on grape rootstocks were developed successfully. Two ULO treatments with 30 ppm oxygen, 3 days at 25'C and 4 days at 15'C, achieved complete control of a...

  18. Ultralow oxygen treatment for control of Planococcus ficus (Homoptera: Pseudococcidae) on grape benchgrafts.

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Controlled atmosphere with ultralow oxygen (ULO) treatments for control of vine mealybug, Planococcus ficus Signoret (Homoptera: Pseudococcidae), on grape rootstocks were developed successfully. Two ULO treatments with 30 ppm oxygen, 3 days at 25'C and 4 days at 15'C, achieved complete control of a...

  19. Chromosome evolution in Neotropical butterflies.

    PubMed

    Saura, Anssi; Von Schoultz, Barbara; Saura, Anja O; Brown, Keith S

    2013-06-01

    We list the chromosome numbers for 65 species of Neotropical Hesperiidae and 104 species or subspecies of Pieridae. In Hesperiidae the tribe Pyrrhopygini have a modal n = 28, Eudaminae and Pyrgini a modal n = 31, while Hesperiinae have n = around 29. Among Pieridae, Coliadinae have a strong modal n = 31 and among Pierinae Anthocharidini are almost fixed for n = 15 while Pierini vary with n = 26 as the most common chromosome number. Dismorphiinae show wide variation. We discuss these results in the context of chromosome numbers of over 1400 Neotropical butterfly species and subspecies derived from about 3000 populations published here and in earlier papers of a series. The overall results show that many Neotropical groups are characterized by karyotype instability with several derived modal numbers or none at all, while almost all taxa of Lepidoptera studied from the other parts of the world have one of n = 29-31 as modal numbers. Possibly chromosome number changes become fixed in the course of speciation driven by biotic interactions. Population subdivision and structuring facilitate karyotype change. Factors that stabilize chromosome numbers include hybridization among species sharing the same number, migration, sexual selection and possibly the distribution of chromosomes within the nucleus. © 2013 The Authors.

  20. Sexual Success after Stress? Imidacloprid-Induced Hormesis in Males of the Neotropical Stink Bug Euschistus heros

    PubMed Central

    Haddi, Khalid; Mendes, Marcos V.; Lino-Neto, José; Freitas, Hemerson L.; Guedes, Raul Narciso C.; Oliveira, Eugênio E.

    2016-01-01

    Environmental stress in newly-emerged adult insects can have dramatic consequences on their life traits (e.g., dispersion, survival and reproduction) as adults. For instance, insects sublethally exposed to environmental stressors (e.g., insecticides) can gain fitness benefits as a result of hormesis (i.e., benefits of low doses of compounds that would be toxic at higher doses). Here, we experimentally tested whether sublethal exposure to the insecticide imidacloprid would hormetically affect the sexual fitness of newly-emerged adults of the Neotropical brown stink bug Euschistus heros (Hemiptera: Heteroptera: Pentatomidae), which is the most abundant and prevalent insect pest in Neotropical soybean fields. We evaluated the sexual fitness of four couple combinations: unexposed couples, exposed females, exposed males, and exposed couples. Sublethal exposure to dry residues (i.e., contact) of imidacloprid (at 1% of recommended field rate) did not affect insect survival, but led to higher mating frequencies when at least one member of the couple was exposed. However, the average mating duration was shortened when only females were exposed to imidacloprid. Moreover, exposed males showed higher locomotory (walking) activity, lower respiration rates and induced higher fecundity rates when mated to unexposed females. Although the reproductive tracts of exposed males did not differ morphometrically from unexposed males, their accessory glands exhibited positive reactions for acidic and basic contents. Our findings suggest that males of the Neotropical brown stink bug hormetically increase their sexual fitness when cued by impending insecticidal stress in early adulthood. PMID:27284906

  1. Migratory double breeding in Neotropical migrant birds

    PubMed Central

    Rohwer, Sievert; Hobson, Keith A.; Rohwer, Vanya G.

    2009-01-01

    Neotropical migratory songbirds typically breed in temperate regions and then travel long distances to spend the majority of the annual cycle in tropical wintering areas. Using stable-isotope methodology, we provide quantitative evidence of dual breeding ranges for 5 species of Neotropical migrants. Each is well known to have a Neotropical winter range and a breeding range in the United States and Canada. However, after their first bout of breeding in the north, many individuals migrate hundreds to thousands of kilometers south in midsummer to breed a second time during the same summer in coastal west Mexico or Baja California Sur. They then migrate further south to their final wintering areas in the Neotropics. Our discovery of dual breeding ranges in Neotropical migrants reveals a hitherto unrealized flexibility in life-history strategies for these species and underscores that demographic models and conservation plans must consider dual breeding for these migrants. PMID:19858484

  2. Migratory double breeding in Neotropical migrant birds.

    PubMed

    Rohwer, Sievert; Hobson, Keith A; Rohwer, Vanya G

    2009-11-10

    Neotropical migratory songbirds typically breed in temperate regions and then travel long distances to spend the majority of the annual cycle in tropical wintering areas. Using stable-isotope methodology, we provide quantitative evidence of dual breeding ranges for 5 species of Neotropical migrants. Each is well known to have a Neotropical winter range and a breeding range in the United States and Canada. However, after their first bout of breeding in the north, many individuals migrate hundreds to thousands of kilometers south in midsummer to breed a second time during the same summer in coastal west Mexico or Baja California Sur. They then migrate further south to their final wintering areas in the Neotropics. Our discovery of dual breeding ranges in Neotropical migrants reveals a hitherto unrealized flexibility in life-history strategies for these species and underscores that demographic models and conservation plans must consider dual breeding for these migrants.

  3. Workshop summary: neotropical primates in biomedical research.

    PubMed

    Tardif, Suzette D; Abee, Christian R; Mansfield, Keith G

    2011-01-01

    This report summarizes presentations and discussions at an NIH-sponsored workshop on Neotropical Primates in Biomedical Research, held in September 2010. Neotropical primates (New World monkeys), with their smaller size, faster maturation, and shorter lifespans than Old World monkeys, are efficient models and present unique opportunities for studying human health and disease. After overviews of the most commonly used neotropical species-squirrel monkeys, marmosets, and owl monkeys-speakers described the use of neotropical primates in specific areas of immunology, infectious disease, neuroscience, and physiology research. Presentations addressed the development of new research tools: immune-based reagents, fMRI technologies suited to these small primates, sequencing of the marmoset genome, the first germline transgenic monkey, and neotropical primate induced pluripotent stem cells. In the discussions after the presentations, participants identified challenges to both continued use and development of new uses of neotropical primates in research and suggested the following actions to address the challenges: (1) mechanisms to support breeding colonies of some neotropical species to ensure a well-characterized domestic source; (2) resources for the continuing development of critical research tools to improve the immunological and hormonal characterization of neotropical primates; (3) improved opportunities for networking among investigators who use neotropical primates, training and other measures to improve colony and veterinary management, and continued research on neotropical primate management and veterinary care issues; (4) support for development activities to produce models that are more affordable and more efficient for moving research "from benchside to bedside"; and (5) establishment of a small program that would fund "orphan" species.

  4. Nest poaching in Neotropical parrots

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wright, T.F.; Toft, C.A.; Enkerlin-Hoeflich, E.; Gonzalez-Elizondo, J.; Albornoz, M.; Rodriguez-Ferraro, A.; Rojas-Suarez, F.; Sanz, V.; Trujillo, A.; Beissinger, S.R.; Berovides A., V.; Galvez A., X.; Brice, A.T.; Joyner, K.; Eberhard, J.; Gilardi, J.; Koenig, S.E.; Stoleson, S.; Martuscelli, P.; Meyers, J.M.; Renton, K.; Rodriguez, A.M.; Sosa-Asanza, A.C.; Vilella, F.J.; Wiley, J.W.

    2001-01-01

    Although the poaching of nestlings for the pet trade is thought to contribute to the decline of many species of parrots, its effects have been poorly demonstrated. We calculated rates of mortality due to nest poaching in 23 studies of Neotropical parrots, representing 4024 nesting attempts in 21 species and 14 countries. We also examined how poaching rates vary with geographic region, presence of active protection programs, conservation status and economic value of a species, and passage of the U.S. Wild Bird Conservation Act. The average poaching rate across all studies was 30% of all nests observed. Thirteen studies reported poaching rates of >20%, and four reported rates of >70%. Only six studies documented no nest poaching. Of these, four were conducted on islands in the Caribbean region, which had significantly lower poaching rates than the mainland Neotropics. The other two studies that showed no poaching were conducted on the two species with the lowest economic value in our sample (U.S. retail price). In four studies that allowed direct comparison between poaching at sites with active nest protection versus that at unprotected sites, poaching rates were significantly lower at protected sites, suggesting that active protection efforts can be effective in reducing nest poaching. In those studies conducted both before and after the passage of the U.S. Wild Bird Conservation Act, poaching rates were found to be significantly lower following its enactment than in the period before. This result supports the hypothesis that the legal and illegal parrot trades are positively related, rather than inversely related as has been suggested by avicultural interests. Overall, our study indicates that poaching of parrot nestlings for economic gain is a widespread and biologically significant source of nest mortality in Neotropical parrots.

  5. Biology, host instar suitability and susceptibility, and interspecific competition of three introduced parasitoids of Paracoccus marginatus (Hemiptera: Pseudococcidae)

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Biology, host stage suitability and susceptibility, and interspecific competition of three previously introduced parasitoids (Acerophagus papayae, Anagyrus loecki, and Pseudleptomastix mexicana) (Hymenoptera: Encyrtidae) of Paracoccus marginatus were studied in the laboratory. Compared to P. mexica...

  6. Use of Recombinant Tobacco Mosaic Virus To Achieve RNA Interference in Plants against the Citrus Mealybug, Planococcus citri (Hemiptera: Pseudococcidae)

    PubMed Central

    Khan, Arif Muhammad; Ashfaq, Muhammad; Kiss, Zsofia; Khan, Azhar Abbas; Mansoor, Shahid; Falk, Bryce W.

    2013-01-01

    The citrus mealybug, Planococcus citri, is an important plant pest with a very broad plant host range. P. citri is a phloem feeder and loss of plant vigor and stunting are characteristic symptoms induced on a range of host plants, but P. citri also reduces fruit quality and causes fruit drop leading to significant yield reductions. Better strategies for managing this pest are greatly needed. RNA interference (RNAi) is an emerging tool for functional genomics studies and is being investigated as a practical tool for highly targeted insect control. Here we investigated whether RNAi effects can be induced in P. citri and whether candidate mRNAs could be identified as possible targets for RNAi-based P. citri control. RNAi effects were induced in P. citri, as demonstrated by specific target reductions of P. citri actin, chitin synthase 1 and V-ATPase mRNAs after injection of the corresponding specific double-stranded RNA inducers. We also used recombinant Tobacco mosaic virus (TMV) to express these RNAi effectors in Nicotiana benthamiana plants. We found that P. citri showed lower fecundity and pronounced death of crawlers after feeding on recombinant TMV-infected plants. Taken together, our data show that actin, chitin synthase 1 and V-ATPase mRNAs are potential targets for RNAi against P. citri, and that recombinant TMV is an effective tool for evaluating candidate RNAi effectors in plants. PMID:24040013

  7. Controlled Atmosphere Treatment for Control of Grape mealybug, Pseudococcus maritimus (Ehrhorn) (Hemiptera: Pseudococcidae), on Harvested Table Grapes.

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Controlled atmosphere (CA) treatments with ultralow oxygen (ULO) alone and in combinations with 50% carbon dioxide were studied to control grape mealybug, Pseudococcus maritimus (Ehrhorn) on harvested table grapes. Two ultralow oxygen levels, ˜30 ppm and <1 ppm, were tested in both ULO and ULO+50% ...

  8. Phenology of Maconellicoccus hirsutus (Green) Hemiptera: Pseudococcidae) in Florida based on attraction of adult males to pheromone traps

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Research was conducted in Florida to assess the phenology of pink hibiscus mealybug, Maconellicoccus hirsutus (Green), based on numbers of adult males captured at traps baited with a synthetic pheromone. Trapping was conducted at three locations in east central Florida in ornamental plantings of hib...

  9. Use of recombinant tobacco mosaic virus to achieve RNA interference in plants against the citrus mealybug, Planococcus citri (Hemiptera: Pseudococcidae).

    PubMed

    Khan, Arif Muhammad; Ashfaq, Muhammad; Kiss, Zsofia; Khan, Azhar Abbas; Mansoor, Shahid; Falk, Bryce W

    2013-01-01

    The citrus mealybug, Planococcus citri, is an important plant pest with a very broad plant host range. P. citri is a phloem feeder and loss of plant vigor and stunting are characteristic symptoms induced on a range of host plants, but P. citri also reduces fruit quality and causes fruit drop leading to significant yield reductions. Better strategies for managing this pest are greatly needed. RNA interference (RNAi) is an emerging tool for functional genomics studies and is being investigated as a practical tool for highly targeted insect control. Here we investigated whether RNAi effects can be induced in P. citri and whether candidate mRNAs could be identified as possible targets for RNAi-based P. citri control. RNAi effects were induced in P. citri, as demonstrated by specific target reductions of P. citri actin, chitin synthase 1 and V-ATPase mRNAs after injection of the corresponding specific double-stranded RNA inducers. We also used recombinant Tobacco mosaic virus (TMV) to express these RNAi effectors in Nicotiana benthamiana plants. We found that P. citri showed lower fecundity and pronounced death of crawlers after feeding on recombinant TMV-infected plants. Taken together, our data show that actin, chitin synthase 1 and V-ATPase mRNAs are potential targets for RNAi against P. citri, and that recombinant TMV is an effective tool for evaluating candidate RNAi effectors in plants.

  10. Influence of weeds on Argentine ant (Hymenoptera: Formicidae) and obscure mealybug (Hemiptera: Pseudococcidae) in a central California vineyard.

    PubMed

    Costello, Michael J; Welch, Mark D

    2014-06-01

    Obscure mealybug is a pest of grapes in the cool climate regions of coastal California, is found on some vineyard weeds, and is tended by the Argentine ant. A study was conducted at a vineyard in Arroyo Grande, CA, to evaluate the impact of weeds on ant activity on grapevines, and the role that ants and weeds have on obscure mealybug infestation in grape clusters. The incidence of the fungus Botrytis cinerea was recorded as well. Treatments were weed exclusion versus the presence of weeds, and ant exclusion versus the presence of ants. Ant activity was evaluated weekly using sugar-based monitoring stations, and mealybug infestation and Botrytis incidence of clusters were evaluated at harvest. Ant exclusion reduced the overall number of ant visits by 82%, and ants increased mealybug infestation of clusters by 53%. Ant activity was 33% higher in the weeds treatment, but there was no impact of weeds on mealybug infestation. We suggest that the higher ant activity recorded in the weeds treatment may have been an artifact of the sugar-based sampling method. Botrytis incidence was three times higher with ants, but did not differ between weeds and weed exclusion treatments. The study supports other research showing a relationship between mealybug infestation and the presence of ants, as well as the lack of impact of floor vegetation on mealybug infestation of grape clusters. It is the first report of a relationship between ants and Botrytis, although it is more likely that the higher Botrytis incidence found here is a result of increased mealybug density than a direct effect by ants.

  11. Pseudococcus maritimus (Hemiptera: Pseudococcidae) and Parthenolecanium corni (Hemiptera: Coccidae) are capable of transmitting grapevine leafroll-associated virus 3 between Vitis x labruscana and Vitis vinifera.

    PubMed

    Bahder, B W; Poojari, S; Alabi, O J; Naidu, R A; Walsh, D B

    2013-12-01

    The grape mealybug, Pseudococcus maritimus (Ehrhorn), and European fruit lecanium scale, Parthenolecanium corni (Bouché), are the predominant species of Coccoidea in Washington State vineyards. The grape mealybug has been established as a vector of Grapevine leafroll-associated virus 3 (GLRaV-3) between wine grape (Vitis vinifera L.) cultivars, elevating its pest status. The objective of this study was to determine if GLRaV-3 could be transmitted between Vitis x labruscana L. and V. vinifera by the grape mealybug and scale insects. Three transmission experiments were conducted with regard to direction; from V. vinifera to V. x labruscana L., from V. x labruscana L. to V. x labruscana L., and from V. x labruscana L. to V. vinifera. Each experiment was replicated 15 times for each vector species. Crawlers (first-instars) of each vector species were allowed 1-wk acquisition and inoculation access periods. The identities of viral and vector species were confirmed by reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction, cloning, and sequencing of species-specific DNA fragments. GLRaV-3 was successfully transmitted by both species in all experiments, although Ps. maritimus was a more efficient vector under our experimental conditions. To the best of our knowledge, this study represents the first documented evidence of interspecific transmission of GLRaV-3 between two disparate Vitis species. It also highlights the potential role of V. x labruscana L. in the epidemiology of grapevine leafroll disease as a symptomless source of GLRaV-3 inoculum.

  12. The scale insects (Hemiptera: Coccoidea) of the Maltese Archipelago.

    PubMed

    Mifsud, David; Mazzeo, Gaetana; Russo, Agatino; Watson, Gillian W

    2014-09-25

    Past works on scale insects (Hemiptera: Coccoidea) from the Maltese Archipelago are reviewed. Based on the literature and contemporary collections, a total of 93 species of scale insects belonging to 12 scale insect families are here reported (Aclerdidae 1 species; Asterolecaniidae 4; Coccidae 17; Diaspididae 46; Eriococcidae 5; Kermesidae 1; Margarodidae 1; Micrococcidae 1; Monophlebidae 2; Pseudoccocidae 11; Putoidae 2 and Rhizoecidae 2). Of these, 17 species represent new distribution records. Ten species are excluded from the scale insect fauna of the Maltese Islands. Of the 93 species present, only 29 (31.18%) are probably indigenous and the rest (68.82%) represent established introductions from elsewhere. More than 65% of the indigenous species are typical Mediterranean in distribution, with a few species having a mainly European chorotype. A quarter of the established aliens originate from Eurasia, followed by an East Asian/ Oriental component (20.31%); European (14.06%); Neotropical (14.06%); cryptogenic (14.06%); African (7.81%) and Australasian (4.70%). Movement of live fruit trees and ornamental plants into the Maltese Archipelago from nearby countries is probably the main route for entry of alien scale insects into the country. Some possible future introductions are discussed.

  13. Neotropical Migratory Birds of the Southern Appalachians

    Treesearch

    Kathleen E. Franzreb; Ricky A. Phillips

    1996-01-01

    This publication describes Neotropical migratory birds in the Southern Appalachians, their general ecology and habitat associations, population status, possible reasons for declines and management needs. This paper concentrates on migratory landbirds, thus it does not include waterfowl or shorebirds.

  14. Emergence of Polycystic Neotropical Echinococcosis

    PubMed Central

    Stich, August; Frosch, Matthias

    2008-01-01

    Echinococcosis is a parasitic zoonosis of increasing concern. In 1903, the first cases of human polycystic echinococcosis, a disease resembling alveolar echinococcosis, emerged in Argentina. One of the parasites responsible, Echinococcus oligarthrus, had been discovered in its adult strobilar stage before 1850. However, >100 years passed from the first description of the adult parasite to the recognition that this species is responsible for some cases of human neotropical polycystic echinococcosis and the elucidation of the parasite’s life cycle. A second South American species, E. vogeli, was described in 1972. Obtaining recognition of the 2 species and establishing their connection to human disease were complicated because the life cycle of tapeworms is complex and comprises different developmental stages in diverse host species. To date, at least 106 human cases have been reported from 12 South and Central American countries. PMID:18258123

  15. Gender- and species-specific characteristics of bacteriomes from three psyllid species (Hemiptera: Psylloidae)

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Psyllids (Hemiptera: Pyslloidea) harbor bacterial symbionts in specialized organs called bacteriomes. Bacteriomes may be subject to manipulation to control psyllid pests including Bactericera cockerelli (Sulc) (Hemiptera: Triozidae) and Cacopsylla pyricola (Forster) (Hemiptera: Psyllidae) if the bi...

  16. Cenozoic plant diversity in the neotropics.

    PubMed

    Jaramillo, Carlos; Rueda, Milton J; Mora, Germán

    2006-03-31

    Several mechanisms have been proposed to explain the high levels of plant diversity in the Neotropics today, but little is known about diversification patterns of Neotropical floras through geological time. Here, we present the longest time series compiled for palynological plant diversity of the Neotropics (15 stratigraphic sections, 1530 samples, 1411 morphospecies, and 287,736 occurrences) from the Paleocene to the early Miocene (65 to 20 million years ago) in central Colombia and western Venezuela. The record shows a low-diversity Paleocene flora, a significantly more diverse early to middle Eocene flora exceeding Holocene levels, and a decline in diversity at the end of the Eocene and early Oligocene. A good correlation between diversity fluctuations and changes in global temperature was found, suggesting that tropical climate change may be directly driving the observed diversity pattern. Alternatively, the good correspondence may result from the control that climate exerts on the area available for tropical plants to grow.

  17. Taxonomic revision of Neotropical Murdannia Royle (Commelinaceae)

    PubMed Central

    Pellegrini, Marco Octávio de Oliveira; Faden, Robert B.; de Almeida, Rafael Felipe

    2016-01-01

    Abstract This study provides a taxonomic revision for the Neotropical species of the genus Murdannia. Six species are recognized as native, including a new species and a new combination, while two Asian species are recognized as invasive. We present an identification key, a table summarizing the morphologic differences among the species, a new synonym, six lectotypifications, a distribution map, and descriptions, comments and photographic plates for each species. We also provide comments on the morphology of the Neotropical species of Murdannia, comparing them with the Paleotropical species, and a discussion of inflorescence architecture in the genus as a whole. PMID:28127236

  18. Silvicultural options for neotropical migratory birds

    Treesearch

    Frank R. Thompson; John R. Probst; Martin G. Raphael

    1993-01-01

    We review: factors that affect forest bird populations; basic concepts of silvicultural systems; potential impacts of these systems on neotropical migratory birds (NTMBs); and conclude with management recommendations for integrating NTMB conservation with forest management. We approach this topic from a regional-landscape scale to a forest stand-habitat scale, rather...

  19. Special issue: Comparative biogeography of Neotropical primates.

    PubMed

    Lynch Alfaro, Jessica W; Cortés-Ortiz, Liliana; Di Fiore, Anthony; Boubli, Jean P

    2015-01-01

    New research presented in this special issue of Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution on the "Phylogeny and Biogeography of Neotropical Primates" greatly improves our understanding of the evolutionary history of the New World monkeys and provides insights into the multiple platyrrhine radiations, diversifications, extinctions, and recolonizations that have taken place over time and over space in the Neotropics. Here, we synthesize genetic and biogeographic research from the past several years to construct an overarching hypothesis for platyrrhine evolution. We also highlight continuing controversies in Neotropical primate biogeography, such as whether the location of origin of platyrrhines was Africa or Asia; whether Patagonian fossil primates are stem or crown platyrrhines; and whether cis- and trans-Andean Neotropical primates were subject to vicariance through Andes mountain building, or instead diversified through isolation in mountain valleys after skirting around the Andes on the northwestern coast of South America. We also consider the role of the Amazon River and its major tributaries in shaping platyrrhine biodiversity, and how and when primates from the Amazon reached the Atlantic Forest. A key focus is on primate colonizations and extirpations in Central America, the Andes, and the seasonally dry tropical forests and savannas (such as the Llanos, Caatinga, and Cerrado habitats), all ecosystems that have been understudied up until now for primates. We suggest that most primates currently inhabiting drier open habitats are relatively recent arrivals, having expanded from rainforest habitats in the Pleistocene. We point to the Pitheciidae as the taxonomic group most in need of further phylogenetic and biogeographic research. Additionally, genomic studies on the Platyrrhini are deeply needed and are expected to bring new surprises and insights to the field of Neotropical primate biogeography. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Longitudinal Changes in Physical Habitat and Macroinvertebrate Assemblages Along a Neotropical Stream Continuum

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Colon-Gaud, C.; Whiles, M. R.

    2005-05-01

    Information on the structure and function of upland Neotropical streams is lacking compared to many other regions. We examined habitat characteristics and macroinvertebrate assemblages along an 8-km stretch of a stream originating on the continental divide in central Panama in order to examine patterns along a stream continuum. Wetted width and discharge ranged from 1 m and 18 L/s, respectively in the uppermost headwaters to 12 m and 1,580 L/s, respectively at the lowest reach examined. Percent substrate composition showed a decrease in fine particle sizes from upper headwater reaches (38%) to the lowest reach (10%). A total of 61 macroinvertebrate taxa were identified along the continuum, with more taxa present in lower reaches (45) compared to headwaters (28), but responses of individual groups varied. Trichoptera, Ephemeroptera, and Diptera richness increased from headwaters to the lowest site, whereas Hemiptera and Coleoptera richness decreased along the gradient. Collector-gatherers and predators were the dominant functional groups (~70% of total abundance) and changed little across sites. Shredder abundance was highest in headwaters (15% of total), while scrapers (20%) and collector/filterers (11%) peaked in the lower reaches. These patterns suggest that upland streams in this region follow basic tenets of the River Continuum Concept.

  1. Randallophorus schuhi, a new Neotropical genus and species of Pilophorini (Hemiptera: Heteroptera: Miridae: Phylinae)

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The new pilophorine plant bug genus Randallophorus is described to accommodate the new species R. schuhi from Paraguay. Images of the holotype male and a paratype female, illustrations of male genitalia, and a key to the New World genera of Pilophorini (Miridae: Phylinae) are provided to facilitate...

  2. Biogeographic, molecular evolution, and diversification patterns in Neotropical plants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smith, S. A.; Dick, C. W.

    2014-12-01

    Neotropical plants demonstrate a phenomenal range of ecological and morphological diversity. We will explore the phylogenetic and biogeographic patterns of a group of Neotropical plants and how these patterns relate to the geological history of the area. This includes the timing and location of biological exchange between areas. Neotropical plants also demonstrate repeated examples of rapid speciation and diversification. We will examine these evolutionary patterns and how they relate to molecular evolution.

  3. Wood Anatomy of the Neotropical Sapotaceae. XXX. Pseudocladia.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1982-10-01

    r Dfi2931 WOOD ANATOMY OF THE NEOTROPICAL SAPOTACEAE XXX i/iA -Ai22 PSEUDOCLADIA(U)-FOREST PRODUCTS LAB MADISON WI B F KUKACHKA OCT 82 FSRP-FPL-418...NEOTROPICAL SAPOTACEAE aq XXX PSEUDOCLADIA RESEARCH PAPER FPL 418 FOREST PRODUCTS LABORATORY * FOREST SERVICE U.S. DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE MADISON, WIS...neotropical Sapotaceae: XXX . Pseudocladia, by B. F. Kukachka, FPL. 4 p. (USDA For. Serv. Res. Pap. FPL 418). Pseudocladia is a small genus of six species of

  4. Biodiversity in the Neotropics: ecological, economic and social values.

    PubMed

    Tundisi, J G; Matsumura-Tundisi, T

    2008-11-01

    Biodiversity in the neotropical region is of enormous importance, specially related to the future exploitation of this natural resource for food production, medical applications and restoration ecology and technology. Knowledge of this biodiversity and its conservation represents an important step from the scientific and applied point of view. Neotropical biodiversity is endangered by human interventions. Loss of this large genetic and phenotypic base will affect the functioning of freshwater and terrestrial ecosystems. Neotropical forests and floodplains, great internal deltas of rivers are active centers of evolution. Loss of neotropical biodiversity will represent the loss of processes, economic values and ecosystem services.

  5. Neotropical biodiversity: timing and potential drivers.

    PubMed

    Rull, Valentí

    2011-10-01

    The origin of extant neotropical biodiversity has been a controversial topic since the time of Darwin. In this review, I discuss the timing of, and potential driving factors associated with, diversification using recent evidence from molecular phylogenetics. Although these studies provide new insights into the subject, they are sensitive to dating approaches and targets, and can eventually lead to biased conclusions. A careful analysis suggests that the origin of extant neotropical biodiversity cannot be attributed to the action of one or few events during key time intervals. Rather, it is the result of complex ecological and evolutionary trends initiated by Neogene tectonic events and palaeogeographical reorganisations, and maintained by the action of Pleistocene climatic changes.

  6. Sperm Morphology Assessment in Captive Neotropical Primates.

    PubMed

    Swanson, W F; Valle, R R; Carvalho, F M; Arakaki, P R; Rodas-Martínez, A Z; Muniz, Japc; García-Herreros, M

    2016-08-01

    The main objective of this study was to evaluate sperm morphology in four neotropical primate species to compare the sperm morphological traits and the sperm morphometric parameters as a basis for establishing normative sperm standards for each species. Data from 80 ejaculates collected from four primate species, Callithrix jacchus, Callimico goeldii, Alouatta caraya and Ateles geoffroyi, were analysed for detection of sperm morphological alterations using subjective World Health Organization (WHO-2010) standards and Sperm Deformity Index (SDI) criteria, objective computer-assisted sperm morphometry analysis (CASMA) and subpopulation sperm determination (SSD) methods. There were multiple differences (p < 0.01) observed among primate species in values obtained from WHO-2010, SDI, CASMA and SSD sperm analysis methods. In addition, multiple significant positive and negative correlations were observed between the sperm morphological traits (SDI, Sperm Deformity Index Head Defects, Sperm Deformity Index Midpiece Defects, Sperm Deformity Index Tail Defects, Normal Sperm, Head Defects, Midpiece Defects and Tail Defects) and the sperm morphometric parameters (SSD, Area (A), Perimeter (P), Length (L), Width (W), Ellipticity, Elongation and Rugosity) (p ≤ 0.046). In conclusion, our findings using different evaluation methods indicate that pronounced sperm morphological variation exists among these four neotropical primate species. Because of the strong relationship observed among morphological and morphometric parameters, these results suggest that application of objective analysis methods could substantially improve the reliability of comparative studies and help to establish valid normative sperm values for neotropical primates.

  7. Planthopper family Issidae (Insecta: Hemiptera: Fulgoromorpha): linking molecular phylogeny with classification.

    PubMed

    Wang, Menglin; Zhang, Yalin; Bourgoin, Thierry

    2016-12-01

    A molecular phylogeny of the planthopper family Issidae (Hemiptera, Fulgoroidea) is provided using both Maximum likelihood and Bayesian inference analyses. The phylogeny is based on 18S, two parts of 28S, COXI and Cytb genes from 50 genera and 79 ingroup species (including 8 species recently excluded from Issidae). As with the only few previous studies, an important taxonomic impediment is observed with the sampling; however for the first time, all analyses depict several fully supported lineages, which challenge the recent proposed "modern classification" of the family. It also highlights a strong coherence between these lineages and their respective geographical distribution. All previously excluded taxa are confirmed as not being part of the Issidae as recently defined which monophyly is confirmed. Accordingly, a new classification of the family is proposed with 3 subfamilies and 7 tribes as follows. Neotropical issid Thioniini in Thioniinae stat. rev. is re-established as an independent lineage sister to all other Issidae. Palaearctic Issidae are weakly supported as a monophyletic lineage, Issinae stat. nov., including 2 tribes: Issini stat. nov. (genera Issus and Latissus) and Hysteropterini stat. rev. (all other Palaearctic genera). Oriental Issidae form a strongly supported monophyletic subfamily group Hemisphaeriinae stat. rev. including 4 tribes: Kodaianellini trib. nov., Sarimini trib. nov., Parahiraciini Cheng & Yang, 1991, and Hemisphaeriini Melichar, 1906, the latter including 2 subtribes: Mongolianina s.trib. nov., and Hemisphaeriina Melichar, 1906. A Neotropical lineage including the genus Picumna is provisionally placed in incertae sedis within the Hemisphaeriinae stat. nov. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Effects of temperate agriculture on neotropical migrant landbirds

    Treesearch

    Nicholas L. Rodenhouse; Louis B. Best; Raymond J. O' Connor; Eric K. Bollinger

    1993-01-01

    The ecology of Neotropical migrant landbirds in temperate farmland is reviewed to develop management recommendations for the conservation of migrants. Migrants constitute about 71% of bird species using farmland and 86% of bird species nesting there. The number and abundances of Neotropical migrants using farmland are greatest in uncultivated edges with trees and...

  9. Montane and cloud forest specialists among neotropical Xylaria species

    Treesearch

    D. Jean Lodge; Thomas L& #230; ss& #248; e; M. Catherine Aime; Terry W. Henkel; M. Catherine Aime; Terry W. Henkel

    2008-01-01

    We compared recored of neotropical Xylaria species among Belize, Ecuador, the Guianas, Mexico, Puerto Rico and Venezuela to determine if there were neotropical taxa consistently found only in cloud forest or high montane forests that might be endangered by climate change.

  10. Modeling the distribution of neotropical birds throughout the Americas

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Thomas, I.; Handley, Lawrence R.; D'Erchia, Frank J.; Charron, Tammy M.

    2000-01-01

    I assessed tbe geographic information system (GIS) model and data layers used to create individual Neotropical bird species distribution maps from habitat data contained in the Ecological and Distributional Databases in 'Neotropical Birds: Ecology and Conservation' by D.F. Stotz, J.W. Fitzpatrick, T.A. Parker Ill, and D.K. Moskovits.

  11. Population ecology, habitat requirements, and conservation of neotropical migratory birds

    Treesearch

    Deborah M. Finch

    1991-01-01

    This report was prepared in support of the National Fish and Wildlife Foundation's Neotropical Migratory Bird Conservation Program and the USDA Forest Service's role in the program. Recent analyses of data on forest-dwelling species, many of which are neotropical migrants, show population declines in many North American areas. The literature review summarizes...

  12. Status and management of neotropical migratory birds: Introduction

    Treesearch

    Deborah M.; Peter W. Stangel

    1993-01-01

    The future for neotropical migratory birds rests with our commitment and ability to provide them adequate habitat during all periods of their life cycle. Our commitment to this cause is apparent in the groundswell of interest in neotropical migrants and the many proactive and coopemtive partnerships resulting from the Partners in Flight - Aves de las Americas...

  13. Sex Attraction in Bactericera cockerelli (Hemiptera: Triozidae)

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The potato psyllid, Bactericera (= Paratrioza) cockerelli (Šulc) (Hemiptera: Triozidae), is a major pest of potato. We examined the role of chemical signals in sex attraction, assessing male and female response to male- and female-produced volatile chemicals. In laboratory olfactometer assays, pot...

  14. The Stenopodainae (Hemiptera, Heteroptera) of Argentina

    PubMed Central

    Diez, Fernando; Coscarón, María del Carmen

    2014-01-01

    Abstract In Argentina, 10 genera and 33 species of Stenopodainae (Hemiptera: Reduviidae) have been recorded. Diagnoses of the genera, subgenera and species are given, and an illustrated key to genera is provided. Six species are new records for Argentina and an additional seven species represent new records for provinces. PMID:25493054

  15. Salivary proteins of Lygus hesperus (Hemiptera: Miridae)

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Lygus hesperus Knight (Hemiptera: Miridae) causes economic damage to a wide-range of crops in the western United States. While stylet-probing, L. hesperus discharge saliva consisting of lytic enzymes that facilitate extraoral digestion of host tissues. L. hesperus saliva primarily consists of poly...

  16. [Characterization of the behavioral and vibrational signals in Euthyrhynchus floridanus (Hemiptera: Pentatomidae) during courtship and copulation].

    PubMed

    Briceño, R Daniel

    2014-03-01

    Euthyrhynchus floridanus (Linnaeus) (Hemiptera: Pentatomidae) is a neotropical species belonging to the family Pentatomidae with over 4 000 species described, and is distributed from Florida to Brazil. This study describes the sexual behavior and reported for the first time the production of substrate vibrations by males and females during copulatory behavior and mating. Courtship and copulatory behavior, as well as the diverse signals, were recorded with a phonographic cartridge connected to a video camera. Female vibrations were reproduced in the absence of females and the responses by males were recorded. At least three types of substrate vibrations were distinguished in males and one in females, and these signals were characterized by their low frequency, varying from 127 to 180Hz. The sounds of E. floridianus males were significantly different in frequency, duration and number of pulses, both in courtship and in copulation, for the purring and drumming sounds. The production of sounds in this species is associated principally with mechanical, stimulatory behavior during courtship and copulation. Patterns of behavior and their relation to substrate vibrations suggest that these signals are important for the males in the context of mate location and sexual selection.

  17. [Geographic data for Neotropical bats (Chiroptera)].

    PubMed

    Noguera-Urbano, Elkin A; Escalante, Tania

    2014-03-01

    The global effort to digitize biodiversity occurrence data from collections, museums and other institutions has stimulated the development of important tools to improve the knowledge and conservation of biodiversity. The Global Biodiversity Information Facility (GBIF) enables and opens access to biodiversity data of 321 million of records, from 379 host institutions. Neotropical bats are a highly diverse and specialized group, and the geographic information about them is increasing since few years ago, but there are a few reports about this topic. The aim of this study was to analyze the number of digital records in GBIF of Neotropical bats with distribution in 21 American countries, evaluating their nomenclatural and geographical consistence at scale of country. Moreover, we evaluated the gaps of information on 1 degrees latitude x 1 degrees longitude grids cells. There were over 1/2 million records, but 58% of them have no latitude and longitude data; and 52% full fit nomenclatural and geographic evaluation. We estimated that there are no records in 54% of the analyzed area; the principal gaps are in biodiversity hotspots like the Colombian and Brazilian Amazonia and Southern Venezuela. In conclusion, our study suggests that available data on GBIF have nomenclatural and geographic biases. GBIF data represent partially the bat species richness and the main gaps in information are in South America.

  18. Fragmentation of habitats used by neotropical migratory birds in Southern Appalachians and the neotropics

    SciTech Connect

    Pearson, S.M.; Dale, V.H.; Offerman, H.L. |

    1993-12-31

    Recent declines in North American breeding populations have sparked great concern over the effects of habitat fragmentation. Neotropical migrant birds use and are influenced by two biomes during a single life span. Yet assessment of the relative importance of changes in tropical wintering areas versus temperate breeding areas is complicated by regional variation in rates and extent of habitat change. Landscape-level measurements of forest fragmentation derived from remotely-sensed data provide a means to compare the patterns of habitat modification on the wintering and breeding grounds of migrant birds. This study quantifies patterns of forest fragmentation in the Southern Appalachian Mountains and tropical Amazon and relates these patterns to the resource needs of neotropical migrant birds. Study sites were selected from remotely-sensed images to represent a range of forest fragmentation (highly fragmented landscape to continuous forest).

  19. Historical biogeography of the neotropical Diaptomidae (Crustacea: Copepoda)

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Introduction Diaptomid copepods are prevalent throughout continental waters of the Neotropics, yet little is known about their biogeography. In this study we investigate the main biogeographical patterns among the neotropical freshwater diaptomid copepods using Parsimony Analysis of Endemicity (PAE) based on species records within ecoregions. In addition, we assess potential environmental correlates and limits for species richness. Results PAE was efficient in identifying general areas of endemism. Moreover, only ecoregion area showed a significant correlation with diaptomid species richness, although climatic factors were shown to provide possible upper limits to the species richness in a given ecoregion. Conclusion The main patterns of endemism in neotropical freshwater diaptomid copepods are highly congruent with other freshwater taxa, suggesting a strong historical signal in determining the distribution of the family in the Neotropics. PMID:25057279

  20. Neotropical Africanized honey bees have African mitochondrial DNA.

    PubMed

    Smith, D R; Taylor, O R; Brown, W M

    1989-05-18

    Non-indigenous African honey bees have invaded most of South and Central America in just over 30 years. The genetic composition of this population and the means by which it rapidly colonizes new territory remain controversial. In particular, it has been unclear whether this 'Africanized' population has resulted from interbreeding between African and domestic European bees, or is an essentially pure African population. Also, it has not been known whether this population expanded primarily by female or by male migration. Restriction site mapping of 62 mitochondrial DNAs of African bees from Brazil, Venezuela and Mexico reveals that 97% were of African (Apis mellifera scutellata) type. Although neotropical European apiary populations are rapidly Africanized by mating with neotropical African males, there is little reciprocal gene flow to the neotropical African population through European females. These are the first genetic data to indicate that the neotropical African population could be expanding its range by female migration.

  1. Density-Dependent Benefits in Ant-Hemipteran Mutualism? The Case of the Ghost Ant Tapinoma melanocephalum (Hymenoptera: Formicidae) and the Invasive Mealybug Phenacoccus solenopsis (Hemiptera: Pseudococcidae)

    PubMed Central

    Zhou, Aiming; Kuang, Beiqing; Gao, Yingrui; Liang, Guangwen

    2015-01-01

    Although density-dependent benefits to hemipterans from ant tending have been measured many times, few studies have focused on integrated effects such as interactions between ant tending, natural enemy density, and hemipteran density. In this study, we tested whether the invasive mealybug Phenacoccus solenopsis is affected by tending by ghost ants (Tapinoma melanocephalum), the presence of parasitoids, mealybug density, parasitoid density and interactions among these factors. Our results showed that mealybug colony growth rate and percentage parasitism were significantly affected by ant tending, parasitoid presence, and initial mealybug density separately. However, there were no interactions among the independent factors. There were also no significant interactions between ant tending and parasitoid density on either mealybug colony growth rate or percentage parasitism. Mealybug colony growth rate showed a negative linear relationship with initial mealybug density but a positive linear relationship with the level of ant tending. These results suggest that benefits to mealybugs are density-independent and are affected by ant tending level. PMID:25886510

  2. Pseudococcus saccharicola Takahashi (Hemiptera: Pseudococcidae) in the British Virgin Islands: first Western Hemisphere records, with records of a co-occurring lady beetle, Hyperaspis Scutifera (Mulsant)

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Pseudococcus saccharicola Takahashi was collected on Guana Island, and nearby Beef Island and Tortola, in the British Virgin Islands (BVI). The records are the first in the Western Hemisphere for this potentially important Old World pest of sugarcane and certain other graminoid crops. Host plants on...

  3. Pheromone-baited traps for assessment of seasonal activity and population densities of mealybug species (Hemiptera: Pseudococcidae) in nurseries producing ornamental plants.

    PubMed

    Waterworth, Rebeccah A; Redak, Richard A; Millar, Jocelyn G

    2011-04-01

    Operational parameters of traps baited with the pheromones of three mealybug species were optimized in nurseries producing ornamental plants. All pheromone doses (1-320 microg) attracted Pseudococcus longispinus (Targioni Tozzetti) and Pseudococcus viburni (Signoret) males, with the lowest dose (1 microg) attracting the fewest males for both species. Doses of 3.2-100 microg were as attractive to male P. longispinus as the highest dose (320 microg); doses from 10 to 320 microg were equally attractive for P. viburni males. Lures containing 25-microg doses of either pheromone had effective field lifetimes of at least 12 wk. Experiments were performed to test the efficacy of combining multiple pheromones to attract several species of mealybugs simultaneously. Lures loaded with a mixture of the pheromones of P. longispinus, P. viburni, and Planococcus citri (Risso) were as attractive to P. viburni and P. citri as lures with their individual pheromones. Response of P. longispinus to the blend was decreased by 38% compared with its pheromone as a single component. A subsequent trial with two-component blends showed that the pheromone ofP. citri was responsible for this modest decrease in P. longispinus response. This should not affect the overall efficacy of using these lures for monitoring the presence of all three mealybug species simultaneously. Pheromone traps were used to detect infestations of P. longispinus throughout the season and to track population cycles. When pheromone-baited traps for P. longispinus were compared with manual sampling, trap counts of male mealybugs were significantly correlated with mealybugs counted on plants in the vicinity of the traps.

  4. Density-dependent benefits in ant-hemipteran mutualism? The case of the ghost ant Tapinoma melanocephalum (Hymenoptera: Formicidae) and the invasive mealybug Phenacoccus solenopsis (Hemiptera: Pseudococcidae).

    PubMed

    Zhou, Aiming; Kuang, Beiqing; Gao, Yingrui; Liang, Guangwen

    2015-01-01

    Although density-dependent benefits to hemipterans from ant tending have been measured many times, few studies have focused on integrated effects such as interactions between ant tending, natural enemy density, and hemipteran density. In this study, we tested whether the invasive mealybug Phenacoccus solenopsis is affected by tending by ghost ants (Tapinoma melanocephalum), the presence of parasitoids, mealybug density, parasitoid density and interactions among these factors. Our results showed that mealybug colony growth rate and percentage parasitism were significantly affected by ant tending, parasitoid presence, and initial mealybug density separately. However, there were no interactions among the independent factors. There were also no significant interactions between ant tending and parasitoid density on either mealybug colony growth rate or percentage parasitism. Mealybug colony growth rate showed a negative linear relationship with initial mealybug density but a positive linear relationship with the level of ant tending. These results suggest that benefits to mealybugs are density-independent and are affected by ant tending level.

  5. Studies on the Biology of Hypogeococcus pungens (sensu stricto) (Hemiptera: Pseudococcidae) in Argentina to Aid the Identification of the Mealybug Pest of Cactaceae in Puerto Rico

    PubMed Central

    Aguirre, M. B.; Diaz-Soltero, H.; Claps, L. E.; Saracho Bottero, A.; Triapitsyn, S.; Hasson, E.; Logarzo, G. A.

    2016-01-01

    Hypogeococcus pungens Granara de Willink, sensu stricto, is a serious pest of cacti in Puerto Rico threating many Caribbean islands. A classical biological control program for H. pungens was initiated for Puerto Rico in 2010 with a survey for natural enemies of H. pungens in its native range of Argentina. Biological differences were observed between populations of H. pungens sampled on Amaranthaceae and Cactaceae. Molecular studies suggested that H. pungens populations from different host plant families are likely a complex of species. Our objective was to study the biology of H. pungens sensu stricto on specimens collected in the same locality and host plant as the holotype [Tucumán Province, Argentina; Alternanthera pungens Kunth (Amaranthaceae)]. We were interested in the reproductive biology of females, longevity and survival of adults, the effect of temperature on the development, and nymph performance (survival and development) on five Cactaceae species. We found that H. pungens s.s. showed marked biological differences from the populations collected on Cactaceae and exported to Australia for the biological control of the cactus Harrisia spp. The main differences were the presence of deuterotoky parthenogenesis and the fact that H. pungens did not attack Cactaceae in the laboratory. Our results provide biological evidence that H. pungens is a species complex. We propose that the population introduced to Australia is neither Hypogeococcus festerianus Lizer y Trelles nor H. pungens, but an undescribed species with three circuli, and that the Hypogeococcus pest of cacti in Puerto Rico is not H. pungens. PMID:27324585

  6. Studies on the Biology of Hypogeococcus pungens (sensu stricto) (Hemiptera: Pseudococcidae) in Argentina to Aid the Identification of the Mealybug Pest of Cactaceae in Puerto Rico.

    PubMed

    Aguirre, M B; Diaz-Soltero, H; Claps, L E; Saracho Bottero, A; Triapitsyn, S; Hasson, E; Logarzo, G A

    2016-01-01

    Hypogeococcus pungens Granara de Willink, sensu stricto, is a serious pest of cacti in Puerto Rico threating many Caribbean islands. A classical biological control program for H. pungens was initiated for Puerto Rico in 2010 with a survey for natural enemies of H. pungens in its native range of Argentina. Biological differences were observed between populations of H. pungens sampled on Amaranthaceae and Cactaceae. Molecular studies suggested that H. pungens populations from different host plant families are likely a complex of species. Our objective was to study the biology of H. pungens sensu stricto on specimens collected in the same locality and host plant as the holotype [Tucumán Province, Argentina; Alternanthera pungens Kunth (Amaranthaceae)]. We were interested in the reproductive biology of females, longevity and survival of adults, the effect of temperature on the development, and nymph performance (survival and development) on five Cactaceae species. We found that H. pungens s.s showed marked biological differences from the populations collected on Cactaceae and exported to Australia for the biological control of the cactus Harrisia spp. The main differences were the presence of deuterotoky parthenogenesis and the fact that H. pungens did not attack Cactaceae in the laboratory. Our results provide biological evidence that H. pungens is a species complex. We propose that the population introduced to Australia is neither Hypogeococcus festerianus Lizer y Trelles nor H. pungens, but an undescribed species with three circuli, and that the Hypogeococcus pest of cacti in Puerto Rico is not H. pungens. © The Authors 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America.

  7. Speciation dynamics and biogeography of Neotropical spiral gingers (Costaceae).

    PubMed

    André, Thiago; Salzman, Shayla; Wendt, Tânia; Specht, Chelsea D

    2016-10-01

    Species can arise via the divisive effects of allopatry as well as due to ecological and/or reproductive character displacement within sympatric populations. Two separate lineages of Costaceae are native to the Neotropics; an early-diverging clade endemic to South America (consisting of ca. 16 species in the genera Monocostus, Dimerocostus and Chamaecostus); and the Neotropical Costus clade (ca. 50 species), a diverse assemblage of understory herbs comprising nearly half of total familial species richness. We use a robust dated molecular phylogeny containing most of currently known species to inform macroevolutionary reconstructions, enabling us to examine the context of speciation in Neotropical lineages. Analyses of speciation rate revealed a significant variation among clades, with a rate shift at the most recent common ancestor of the Neotropical Costus clade. There is an overall predominance of allopatric speciation in the South American clade, as most species display little range overlap. In contrast, sympatry is much higher within the Neotropical Costus clade, independent of node age. Our results show that speciation dynamics during the history of Costaceae is strongly heterogeneous, and we suggest that the Costus radiation in the Neotropics arose at varied geographic contexts. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. New substitute name for the genus Poliocoris Slater, 1994 (Hemiptera, Heteroptera, Rhyparochromidae).

    PubMed

    Zhang, Dao-Wei; Chen, Jing

    2015-01-01

    Neopoliocoris nom. n., a new substitute name is proposed for Poliocoris Slater, 1994 (Hemiptera: Heteroptera: Rhyparochromidae), preoccupied by Poliocoris Kirkaldy, 1910 (Hemiptera: Heteroptera: Pentatomidae). A new combination, Neopoliocorisumbrosus (Slater, 1994), comb. n. is proposed for Poliocorisumbrosus Slater, 1994.

  9. Catalog of the Neotropical Trichoptera (Caddisflies)

    PubMed Central

    Holzenthal, Ralph W.; Calor, Adolfo R.

    2017-01-01

    Abstract The Neotropical caddisfly (Trichoptera) fauna is cataloged from a review of over 1,000 literature citations through 2015 (partial 2016) to include 3,262 currently recognized, valid species-group names in 25 families and 155 extant genera. Fourteen subspecies are included in the total as well as 35 fossil species and 1 fossil genus. The region covered includes all of Mexico, Central America, the Caribbean, and South America. Genus-group and species-group synonyms are listed. For each nominal species, information on the type locality, type depository, sex of type, distribution by country, and other pertinent taxonomic or biological information is included. Summary information on taxonomy, phylogeny, distribution, immature stages, and biology are provided for each family and genus where known. An extensive index to all nominal taxa is included to facilitate use of the catalog. The glossosomatid species Mexitrichia usseglioi Rueda Martín & Gibon, is transferred to Mortoniella comb. n. PMID:28331396

  10. Insecticidal defenses of Piperaceae from the neotropics.

    PubMed

    Bernard, C B; Krishanmurty, H G; Chauret, D; Durst, T; Philogène, B J; Sánchez-Vindas, P; Hasbun, C; Poveda, L; San Román, L; Arnason, J T

    1995-06-01

    Insecticidal and growth-reducing properties of extracts of 14 species of American neotropical Piperaceae were investigated by inclusion in diets of a polyphagous lepidopteran, the European corn borer,Ostrinia nubilalis. Nutritional indices suggested most extracts acted by postdigestive toxicity.Piper aduncum, P. tuberculatum, andP. decurrens were among the most active species and were subjected to bioassay-guided isolation of the active components. Dillapiol was isolated from the active fraction ofP. aduncum, piperlonguminine was isolated fromP. tuberculatum, and a novel neolignan fromP. decurrens. The results support other studies on Asian and AfricanPiper species, which suggest that lignans and isobutyl amides are the active defence compounds in this family.

  11. New Neotropical species of Chimarra (Trichoptera, Philopotamidae)

    PubMed Central

    Blahnik, Roger J.; Holzenthal, Ralph W.

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Ten new Neotropical species of Chimarra are described in the subgenera Chimarra, Chimarrita, and Otarrha. New species in the subgenus Chimarra include, in the Chimarra ortiziana group: Chimarra calori sp. n. (southeastern Brazil) and Chimarra onchyrhina sp. n. (Venezuela); in the Chimarra picea group: Chimarra inchoata sp. n. (Venezuela), Chimarra nicehuh sp. n. (Venezuela), and Chimarra sunima sp. n. (Colombia); and in the Chimarra poolei group: Chimarra cauca sp. n. (Colombia) and Chimarra desirae sp. n. (Bolivia). New species in the subgenus Chimarrita include, in the Chimarra simpliciforma group: Chimarra curvipenis sp. n. (SE Brazil) and Chimarra latiforceps sp. n. (SE Brazil). A single new species in the subgenus Otarrha is also described: Chimarra soroa sp. n. (Cuba). Males and females for all of the new species are illustrated, except for Chimarra desirae, for which female specimens were unavailable. Additionally, the female of Chimarra (Chimarrita) camella, which was previously unknown, is illustrated. PMID:22573949

  12. Catalog of the Neotropical Trichoptera (Caddisflies).

    PubMed

    Holzenthal, Ralph W; Calor, Adolfo R

    2017-01-01

    The Neotropical caddisfly (Trichoptera) fauna is cataloged from a review of over 1,000 literature citations through 2015 (partial 2016) to include 3,262 currently recognized, valid species-group names in 25 families and 155 extant genera. Fourteen subspecies are included in the total as well as 35 fossil species and 1 fossil genus. The region covered includes all of Mexico, Central America, the Caribbean, and South America. Genus-group and species-group synonyms are listed. For each nominal species, information on the type locality, type depository, sex of type, distribution by country, and other pertinent taxonomic or biological information is included. Summary information on taxonomy, phylogeny, distribution, immature stages, and biology are provided for each family and genus where known. An extensive index to all nominal taxa is included to facilitate use of the catalog. The glossosomatid species Mexitrichia usseglioi Rueda Martín & Gibon, is transferred to Mortoniellacomb. n.

  13. Dengue infection in neotropical forest mammals.

    PubMed

    de Thoisy, Benoît; Lacoste, Vincent; Germain, Adeline; Muñoz-Jordán, Jorge; Colón, Candimar; Mauffrey, Jean-François; Delaval, Marguerite; Catzeflis, François; Kazanji, Mirdad; Matheus, Séverine; Dussart, Philippe; Morvan, Jacques; Setién, Alvaro Aguilar; Deparis, Xavier; Lavergne, Anne

    2009-04-01

    In South America, dengue is the arbovirus-transmitted disease with the highest incidence. Unlike other arboviruses, wild mammals have no confirmed role in the cycle of dengue in the neotropics, although serological studies have suggested a possible secondary amplification cycle involving mammals other than nonhuman primates. In French Guiana, where all four serotypes (DENV-1, DENV-2, DENV-3, DENV-4) are present, the disease is endemic with outbreak events. To determine whether wild mammals can be infected by DENV, rodents, marsupials, and bats were captured over several periods, from 2001 to 2007, at two sites. The first location is a secondary forest surrounded by an urban area where dengue is endemic. The second location is a forest edge site where the disease has not yet emerged. A total of 10,000 trap-nights were performed and 616 mammals were captured. RNAs representing the four DENV serotypes were detected at both sites by reverse-transcriptase polymerase chain reaction in the livers and/or sera of 92 mammals belonging to 14 out of 32 species distributed among all the orders investigated: Rodentia (33 positive/146 tested), Marsupialia (40/318), and Chiroptera (19/152). Sequence analyses of a portion of the capsid and premembrane junction revealed that mammal strains of DENV-1, DENV-2, DENV-3, and DENV-4 had only 92.6%, 89%, 95%, and 95.8% identity, respectively, with strains circulating in the human population during the same periods. Regarding DENV-2, strains related (99% identity) to those responsible for an epidemic event in humans in French Guiana concurrent to the capture sessions were also evidenced, suggesting that wild mammals in edge habitats can be infected by circulating human strains. Our results demonstrate, for the first time, that neotropical wild mammals can be infected with dengue virus. The question of whether mammals maintain DENV in enzootic cycles and can play a role in its reemergence in human populations remains to be answered.

  14. Metagenomics of Glassy-Winged Sharpshooter, Homalodisca vitripennis (Hemiptera: Cicadellidae)

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    A Metagenomics approach was used to identify unknown organisms which live in association with the glassy-winged sharpshooter, Homalodisca vitripennis (Hemiptera: Cicadellidae). Metagenomics combines molecular biology and genetics to identify, and characterize genetic material from unique biological ...

  15. Egg parasitoids of Megamelus spp. (Hemiptera:Delphacidae) in Argentina

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Egg parasitoids (Hymenoptera: Eulophidae, Mymaridae, and Platygastridae) of Megamelus spp. (Hemiptera: Delphacidae) in Argentina are reviewed and keyed. Newly described are Anagrus (Anagrus) empanadus Triapitsyn, sp. n. (Mymaridae, parasitoid of M. scutellaris Berg on water hyacinth, Eichhornia cras...

  16. The Bemisia tabaci (Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae) as a pest in Egypt

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Bemisia tabaci (Gennadius) (Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae) has many common names including sweetpotato whitefly, silverleaf whitefly, tobacco whitefly, tomato whitefly, and cassava whitefly. It is an important global pest of numerous field and greenhouse agricultural crops. It damages plants from its fee...

  17. Metagenomics of Glassy-winged Sharpshooter, Homalodisca vitripennis (Hemiptera: Cicadellidae)

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Three new insect-infecting viruses, three endosymbiotic bacteria, a fungus, and a bacterial phage were discovered using a metagenomics approach to identify unknown organisms that live in association with the sharpshooter, Homalodisca vitripennis (Hemiptera: Cicadellidae). The genetic composition of ...

  18. New Aradidae from Ecuador (Hemiptera, Heteroptera, Aradidae)

    PubMed Central

    Heiss, Ernst

    2013-01-01

    Abstract As an addition to the presently poorly known aradid fauna of Ecuador, 3 new genera and 4 new species are described: Osellaptera setifera gen. n., sp. n.; Kormilevia ecuadoriana sp. n. both belonging to Mezirinae; and Carventinae Cotopaxicoris cruciatus gen. n., sp. n. and Onorecoris piceus gen. n., sp. n. An updated key is provided for all species of the Neotropical genus Kormilevia Usinger & Matsuda, 1959. PMID:24039516

  19. Artificial nest experiments in a fragmented neotropical cloud forest

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Trujillo, G.; Ahumada, J.A.

    2005-01-01

    We conducted artificial nest experiments in a Neotropical montane forest in the eastern Andes, Colombia, in order to test the effect of placing the nests in forest fragments or continuous forests, at two nest heights and for two different climatic seasons. Predation was not consistently different between nests placed in fragments and controls. However, we found that nests on the ground had a higher daily probability of being predated than nests in the understory. Also, daily nest mortality rate (DNM) was higher in the wet season than in the dry season. Most of the predated nests were attributed to mammals (56%), and predation occurred mostly on the ground (78%). Our estimates of DNM are quite low (= 0.023) and similar to another Neotropical montane forest and other Neotropical sites. Comparisons of DNM between Neotropical and temperate sites suggests that predation rates are similar. Our results suggest that fragmentation may not have a large negative impact in nest predation for bird populations breeding in fragments compared to other sites in tropical and temperate regions. ?? The Neotropical Ornithological Society.

  20. Phylogeny of Neotropical Cercosaura (Squamata: Gymnophthalmidae) lizards.

    PubMed

    Torres-Carvajal, Omar; Lobos, Simón E; Venegas, Pablo J

    2015-12-01

    Among Neotropical lizards, the geographically widespread gymnophthalmid Cercosaura as currently defined includes lowland and highland taxa from Panama to Argentina, with some species occurring in the northern Andes. In this study we analyze three mitochondrial (12S, 16S, ND4) and one nuclear (c-mos) gene using Bayesian methods to clarify the phylogenetic relationships among most species of Cercosaura based on a well-supported phylogenetic hypothesis that also includes a large sample of other taxa within Cercosaurini. The phylogenetic tree obtained in this paper shows that Cercosaura as currently defined is not monophyletic. Two species from the northern Andes (C. dicra and C. vertebralis) are nested within Pholidobolus, which has been formerly recognized as a major radiation along the Andes of Ecuador and Colombia. Therefore, Cercosaura has probably not diversified in the northern Andes, although the phylogenetic position of C. hypnoides from the Andes of Colombia remains unknown. Tree topology and genetic distances support both recognition of C. ocellata bassleri as a distinct species, C. bassleri, and recognition of C. argula and C. oshaughnessyi as two different species. In the interest of promoting clarity and precision regarding the names of clades of gymnophthalmid lizards, we propose a phylogenetic definition of Cercosaura. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Biomass resilience of Neotropical secondary forests.

    PubMed

    Poorter, Lourens; Bongers, Frans; Aide, T Mitchell; Almeyda Zambrano, Angélica M; Balvanera, Patricia; Becknell, Justin M; Boukili, Vanessa; Brancalion, Pedro H S; Broadbent, Eben N; Chazdon, Robin L; Craven, Dylan; de Almeida-Cortez, Jarcilene S; Cabral, George A L; de Jong, Ben H J; Denslow, Julie S; Dent, Daisy H; DeWalt, Saara J; Dupuy, Juan M; Durán, Sandra M; Espírito-Santo, Mario M; Fandino, María C; César, Ricardo G; Hall, Jefferson S; Hernandez-Stefanoni, José Luis; Jakovac, Catarina C; Junqueira, André B; Kennard, Deborah; Letcher, Susan G; Licona, Juan-Carlos; Lohbeck, Madelon; Marín-Spiotta, Erika; Martínez-Ramos, Miguel; Massoca, Paulo; Meave, Jorge A; Mesquita, Rita; Mora, Francisco; Muñoz, Rodrigo; Muscarella, Robert; Nunes, Yule R F; Ochoa-Gaona, Susana; de Oliveira, Alexandre A; Orihuela-Belmonte, Edith; Peña-Claros, Marielos; Pérez-García, Eduardo A; Piotto, Daniel; Powers, Jennifer S; Rodríguez-Velázquez, Jorge; Romero-Pérez, I Eunice; Ruíz, Jorge; Saldarriaga, Juan G; Sanchez-Azofeifa, Arturo; Schwartz, Naomi B; Steininger, Marc K; Swenson, Nathan G; Toledo, Marisol; Uriarte, Maria; van Breugel, Michiel; van der Wal, Hans; Veloso, Maria D M; Vester, Hans F M; Vicentini, Alberto; Vieira, Ima C G; Bentos, Tony Vizcarra; Williamson, G Bruce; Rozendaal, Danaë M A

    2016-02-11

    Land-use change occurs nowhere more rapidly than in the tropics, where the imbalance between deforestation and forest regrowth has large consequences for the global carbon cycle. However, considerable uncertainty remains about the rate of biomass recovery in secondary forests, and how these rates are influenced by climate, landscape, and prior land use. Here we analyse aboveground biomass recovery during secondary succession in 45 forest sites and about 1,500 forest plots covering the major environmental gradients in the Neotropics. The studied secondary forests are highly productive and resilient. Aboveground biomass recovery after 20 years was on average 122 megagrams per hectare (Mg ha(-1)), corresponding to a net carbon uptake of 3.05 Mg C ha(-1) yr(-1), 11 times the uptake rate of old-growth forests. Aboveground biomass stocks took a median time of 66 years to recover to 90% of old-growth values. Aboveground biomass recovery after 20 years varied 11.3-fold (from 20 to 225 Mg ha(-1)) across sites, and this recovery increased with water availability (higher local rainfall and lower climatic water deficit). We present a biomass recovery map of Latin America, which illustrates geographical and climatic variation in carbon sequestration potential during forest regrowth. The map will support policies to minimize forest loss in areas where biomass resilience is naturally low (such as seasonally dry forest regions) and promote forest regeneration and restoration in humid tropical lowland areas with high biomass resilience.

  2. Biomass resilience of Neotropical secondary forests

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Poorter, Lourens; Bongers, Frans; Aide, T. Mitchell; Almeyda Zambrano, Angélica M.; Balvanera, Patricia; Becknell, Justin M.; Boukili, Vanessa; Brancalion, Pedro H. S.; Broadbent, Eben N.; Chazdon, Robin L.; Craven, Dylan; de Almeida-Cortez, Jarcilene S.; Cabral, George A. L.; de Jong, Ben H. J.; Denslow, Julie S.; Dent, Daisy H.; Dewalt, Saara J.; Dupuy, Juan M.; Durán, Sandra M.; Espírito-Santo, Mario M.; Fandino, María C.; César, Ricardo G.; Hall, Jefferson S.; Hernandez-Stefanoni, José Luis; Jakovac, Catarina C.; Junqueira, André B.; Kennard, Deborah; Letcher, Susan G.; Licona, Juan-Carlos; Lohbeck, Madelon; Marín-Spiotta, Erika; Martínez-Ramos, Miguel; Massoca, Paulo; Meave, Jorge A.; Mesquita, Rita; Mora, Francisco; Muñoz, Rodrigo; Muscarella, Robert; Nunes, Yule R. F.; Ochoa-Gaona, Susana; de Oliveira, Alexandre A.; Orihuela-Belmonte, Edith; Peña-Claros, Marielos; Pérez-García, Eduardo A.; Piotto, Daniel; Powers, Jennifer S.; Rodríguez-Velázquez, Jorge; Romero-Pérez, I. Eunice; Ruíz, Jorge; Saldarriaga, Juan G.; Sanchez-Azofeifa, Arturo; Schwartz, Naomi B.; Steininger, Marc K.; Swenson, Nathan G.; Toledo, Marisol; Uriarte, Maria; van Breugel, Michiel; van der Wal, Hans; Veloso, Maria D. M.; Vester, Hans F. M.; Vicentini, Alberto; Vieira, Ima C. G.; Bentos, Tony Vizcarra; Williamson, G. Bruce; Rozendaal, Danaë M. A.

    2016-02-01

    Land-use change occurs nowhere more rapidly than in the tropics, where the imbalance between deforestation and forest regrowth has large consequences for the global carbon cycle. However, considerable uncertainty remains about the rate of biomass recovery in secondary forests, and how these rates are influenced by climate, landscape, and prior land use. Here we analyse aboveground biomass recovery during secondary succession in 45 forest sites and about 1,500 forest plots covering the major environmental gradients in the Neotropics. The studied secondary forests are highly productive and resilient. Aboveground biomass recovery after 20 years was on average 122 megagrams per hectare (Mg ha-1), corresponding to a net carbon uptake of 3.05 Mg C ha-1 yr-1, 11 times the uptake rate of old-growth forests. Aboveground biomass stocks took a median time of 66 years to recover to 90% of old-growth values. Aboveground biomass recovery after 20 years varied 11.3-fold (from 20 to 225 Mg ha-1) across sites, and this recovery increased with water availability (higher local rainfall and lower climatic water deficit). We present a biomass recovery map of Latin America, which illustrates geographical and climatic variation in carbon sequestration potential during forest regrowth. The map will support policies to minimize forest loss in areas where biomass resilience is naturally low (such as seasonally dry forest regions) and promote forest regeneration and restoration in humid tropical lowland areas with high biomass resilience.

  3. Oxygen consumption in weakly electric Neotropical fishes.

    PubMed

    Julian, David; Crampton, William G R; Wohlgemuth, Stephanie E; Albert, James S

    2003-12-01

    Weakly electric gymnotiform fishes with wave-type electric organ discharge (EOD) are less hypoxia-tolerant and are less likely to be found in hypoxic habitats than weakly electric gymnotiforms with pulse-type EOD, suggesting that differences in metabolism resulting from EOD type affects habitat choice. Although gymnotiform fishes are common in most Neotropical freshwaters and represent the dominant vertebrates in some habitats, the metabolic rates of these unique fishes have never been determined. In this study, O(2) consumption rates during EOD generation are reported for 34 gymnotiforms representing 23 species, all five families and 17 (59%) of the 28 genera. Over the size range sampled (0.4 g to 125 g), O(2) consumption of gymnotiform fishes was dependent on body mass, as expected, fitting a power function with a scaling exponent of 0.74, but the O(2) consumption rate was generally about 50% of that expected by extrapolation of temperate teleost metabolic rates to a similar ambient temperature (26 degrees C). O(2) consumption rate was not dependent on EOD type, but maintenance of "scan swimming" (continuous forwards and backwards swimming), which is characteristic only of gymnotiforms with wave-type EODs, increased O(2) consumption 2.83+/-0.49-fold (mean+/-SD). This suggests that the increased metabolic cost of scan swimming could restrict gymnotiforms with wave-type EODs from hypoxic habitats.

  4. Interactions of light intensity, insecticide concentration, and time on the efficacy of systemic insecticides in suppressing populations of the sweetpotato whitefly (Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae) and the citrus mealybug (Hemiptera: Pseudococcidae).

    PubMed

    Cloyd, Raymond A; Williams, Kimberly A; Byrne, Frank J; Kemp, Kenneth E

    2012-04-01

    The impact of light intensity on the uptake and persistence of the systemic neonicotinoid insecticides, imidacloprid and dinotefuran, were evaluated in poinsettia (Euphorbia pulcherrima Willd.) and yellow sage (Lantana camara L.). Insecticide residues were measured in leaves sampled from the treated plants at four time intervals after treatment to determine the relationship between insecticide concentration and efficacy against two insect pests: sweetpotato whitefly, Bemisia tabaci Gennadius, and the citrus mealybug, Planococcus citri Risso. The insecticides were evaluated at their respective label rate and at the comparable label rate of the other insecticide under two different light environments: ambient and shade. The uptake of dinotefuran into yellow sage was more rapid at both treatment rates than both rates of imidacloprid, resulting in higher percent mortality of whitefly nymphs (89.8-100) compared with imidacloprid (14.1-89.2) across all 4 wk. Additionally, plants that received both rates of dinotefuran had fewer whitefly pupae (< 1.0) at week 4 compared with imidacloprid-treated plants (23.7-25.3). The uptake of dinotefuran into poinsettia plants was also more rapid and resulted in quicker and higher percent mortality of whitefly nymphs (89.5-99.6) compared with imidacloprid (14.1-89.2) across all 4 wk. However, despite efficient uptake, the efficacy of both systemic insecticides was less for citrus mealybug where percent mortality values were <50% among all the treatments across the 4 wk. The use of the two systemic insecticides evaluated in regards to pest management in horticultural cropping systems is discussed.

  5. Hidden neotropical diversity: greater than the sum of its parts.

    PubMed

    Condon, Marty A; Scheffer, Sonja J; Lewis, Matthew L; Swensen, Susan M

    2008-05-16

    The diversity of tropical herbivorous insects has been explained as a direct function of plant species diversity. Testing that explanation, we reared 2857 flies from flowers and seeds of 24 species of plants from 34 neotropical sites. Samples yielded 52 morphologically similar species of flies and documented highly conserved patterns of specificity to host taxa and host parts. Widespread species of plants can support 13 species of flies. Within single populations of plants, we typically found one or more fly species specific to female flowers and multiple specialists on male flowers. We suggest that neotropical herbivorous insect diversity is not simply a function of plant taxonomic and architectural diversity, but also reflects the geographic distribution of hosts and the age and area of the neotropics.

  6. South American palaeobotany and the origins of neotropical rainforests.

    PubMed Central

    Burnham, Robyn J; Johnson, Kirk R

    2004-01-01

    Extant neotropical rainforest biomes are characterized by a high diversity and abundance of angiosperm trees and vines, high proportions of entire-margined leaves, high proportions of large leaves (larger than 4500 mm2), high abundance of drip tips and a suite of characteristic dominant families: Sapotaceae, Lauraceae, Leguminosae (Fabaceae), Melastomataceae and Palmae (Arecaceae). Our aim is to define parameters of extant rainforests that will allow their recognition in the fossil record of South America and to evaluate all known South American plant fossil assemblages for first evidence and continued presence of those parameters. We ask when did these critical rainforest characters arise? When did vegetative parameters reach the level of abundance that we see in neotropical forests? Also, when do specific lineages become common in neotropical forests? Our review indicates that evidence of neotropical rainforest is exceedingly rare and equivocal before the Palaeocene. Even in the Palaeocene, the only evidence for tropical rainforest in South America is the appearance of moderately high pollen diversity. By contrast, North American sites provide evidence that rainforest leaf physiognomy was established early in the Palaeocene. By the Eocene in South America, several lines of evidence suggest that neotropical rainforests were diverse, physiognomically recognizable as rainforest and taxonomically allied to modern neotropical rainforests. A mismatch of evidence regarding the age of origin between sites of palaeobotanical high diversity and sites of predicted tropical climates should be reconciled with intensified collecting efforts in South America. We identify several lines of promising research that will help to coalesce previously disparate approaches to the origin, longevity and maintenance of high diversity floras of South America. PMID:15519975

  7. South American palaeobotany and the origins of neotropical rainforests.

    PubMed

    Burnham, Robyn J; Johnson, Kirk R

    2004-10-29

    Extant neotropical rainforest biomes are characterized by a high diversity and abundance of angiosperm trees and vines, high proportions of entire-margined leaves, high proportions of large leaves (larger than 4500 mm2), high abundance of drip tips and a suite of characteristic dominant families: Sapotaceae, Lauraceae, Leguminosae (Fabaceae), Melastomataceae and Palmae (Arecaceae). Our aim is to define parameters of extant rainforests that will allow their recognition in the fossil record of South America and to evaluate all known South American plant fossil assemblages for first evidence and continued presence of those parameters. We ask when did these critical rainforest characters arise? When did vegetative parameters reach the level of abundance that we see in neotropical forests? Also, when do specific lineages become common in neotropical forests? Our review indicates that evidence of neotropical rainforest is exceedingly rare and equivocal before the Palaeocene. Even in the Palaeocene, the only evidence for tropical rainforest in South America is the appearance of moderately high pollen diversity. By contrast, North American sites provide evidence that rainforest leaf physiognomy was established early in the Palaeocene. By the Eocene in South America, several lines of evidence suggest that neotropical rainforests were diverse, physiognomically recognizable as rainforest and taxonomically allied to modern neotropical rainforests. A mismatch of evidence regarding the age of origin between sites of palaeobotanical high diversity and sites of predicted tropical climates should be reconciled with intensified collecting efforts in South America. We identify several lines of promising research that will help to coalesce previously disparate approaches to the origin, longevity and maintenance of high diversity floras of South America.

  8. Phylogeny and niche conservatism in North and Central American triatomine bugs (Hemiptera: Reduviidae: Triatominae), vectors of Chagas' disease.

    PubMed

    Ibarra-Cerdeña, Carlos N; Zaldívar-Riverón, Alejandro; Peterson, A Townsend; Sánchez-Cordero, Víctor; Ramsey, Janine M

    2014-10-01

    The niche conservatism hypothesis states that related species diverge in niche characteristics at lower rates than expected, given their lineage divergence. Here we analyze whether niche conservatism is a common pattern among vector species (Hemiptera: Reduviidae: Triatominae) of Trypanosoma cruzi that inhabit North and Central America, a highly heterogeneous landmass in terms of environmental gradients. Mitochondrial and nuclear loci were used in a multi-locus phylogenetic framework to reconstruct phylogenetic relationships among species and estimate time of divergence of selected clades to draw biogeographic inferences. Then, we estimated similarity between the ecological niche of sister species and tested the niche conservatism hypothesis using our best estimate of phylogeny. Triatoma is not monophyletic. A primary clade with all North and Central American (NCA) triatomine species from the genera Triatoma, Dipetalogaster, and Panstrongylus, was consistently recovered. Nearctic species within the NCA clade (T. p. protracta, T. r. rubida) diverged during the Pliocene, whereas the Neotropical species (T. phyllosoma, T. longipennis, T. dimidiata complex) are estimated to have diverged more recently, during the Pleistocene. The hypothesis of niche conservatism could not be rejected for any of six sister species pairs. Niche similarity between sister species best fits a retention model. While this framework is used here to infer niche evolution, it has a direct impact on spatial vector dynamics driven by human population movements, expansion of transportation networks and climate change scenarios.

  9. Phylogeny and Niche Conservatism in North and Central American Triatomine Bugs (Hemiptera: Reduviidae: Triatominae), Vectors of Chagas' Disease

    PubMed Central

    Ibarra-Cerdeña, Carlos N.; Zaldívar-Riverón, Alejandro; Peterson, A. Townsend; Sánchez-Cordero, Víctor; Ramsey, Janine M.

    2014-01-01

    The niche conservatism hypothesis states that related species diverge in niche characteristics at lower rates than expected, given their lineage divergence. Here we analyze whether niche conservatism is a common pattern among vector species (Hemiptera: Reduviidae: Triatominae) of Trypanosoma cruzi that inhabit North and Central America, a highly heterogeneous landmass in terms of environmental gradients. Mitochondrial and nuclear loci were used in a multi-locus phylogenetic framework to reconstruct phylogenetic relationships among species and estimate time of divergence of selected clades to draw biogeographic inferences. Then, we estimated similarity between the ecological niche of sister species and tested the niche conservatism hypothesis using our best estimate of phylogeny. Triatoma is not monophyletic. A primary clade with all North and Central American (NCA) triatomine species from the genera Triatoma, Dipetalogaster, and Panstrongylus, was consistently recovered. Nearctic species within the NCA clade (T. p. protracta, T. r. rubida) diverged during the Pliocene, whereas the Neotropical species (T. phyllosoma, T. longipennis, T. dimidiata complex) are estimated to have diverged more recently, during the Pleistocene. The hypothesis of niche conservatism could not be rejected for any of six sister species pairs. Niche similarity between sister species best fits a retention model. While this framework is used here to infer niche evolution, it has a direct impact on spatial vector dynamics driven by human population movements, expansion of transportation networks and climate change scenarios. PMID:25356550

  10. A revision of Spondias L. (Anacardiaceae) in the Neotropics

    PubMed Central

    Mitchell, John D.; Daly, Douglas C.

    2015-01-01

    Abstract As part of an ongoing study of Anacardiaceae subfamily Spondioideae, the ten native and one introduced species of Spondias in the Neotropics are revised. The genus is circumscribed. Three new species, Spondias admirabilis, Spondias expeditionaria, and Spondias globosa, are described and illustrated; a key to the taxa found in the Neotropics and distribution maps are provided. The Paleotropical species and allied genera are reviewed. Diagnostic character sets include leaf architecture, habit, flower morphology, and gross fruit morphology. Notes on the ecology and economic botany of the species are provided. PMID:26312044

  11. Countryside biogeography of Neotropical reptiles and amphibians.

    PubMed

    Mendenhall, Chase D; Frishkoff, Luke O; Santos-Barrera, Georgina; Pacheco, Jesús; Mesfun, Eyobed; Mendoza Quijano, Fernando; Ehrlich, Paul R; Ceballos, Gerardo; Daily, Gretchen C; Pringle, Robert M

    2014-04-01

    The future of biodiversity and ecosystem services depends largely on the capacity of human-dominated ecosystems to support them, yet this capacity remains largely unknown. Using the framework of countryside biogeography, and working in the Las Cruces system of Coto Brus, Costa Rica, we assessed reptile and amphibian assemblages within four habitats that typify much of the Neotropics: sun coffee plantations (12 sites), pasture (12 sites), remnant forest elements (12 sites), and a larger, contiguous protected forest (3 sites in one forest). Through analysis of 1678 captures of 67 species, we draw four primary conclusions. First, we found that the majority of reptile (60%) and amphibian (70%) species in this study used an array of habitat types, including coffee plantations and actively grazed pastures. Second, we found that coffee plantations and pastures hosted rich, albeit different and less dense, reptile and amphibian biodiversity relative to the 326-ha Las Cruces Forest Reserve and neighboring forest elements. Third, we found that the small ribbons of "countryside forest elements" weaving through farmland collectively increased the effective size of a 326-ha local forest reserve 16-fold for reptiles and 14-fold for amphibians within our 236-km2 study area. Therefore, countryside forest elements, often too small for most remote sensing techniques to identify, are contributing -95% of the available habitat for forest-dependent reptiles and amphibians in our largely human-dominated study region. Fourth, we found large and pond-reproducing amphibians to prefer human-made habitats, whereas small, stream-reproducing, and directly developing species are more dependent on forest elements. Our investigation demonstrates that tropical farming landscapes can support substantial reptile and amphibian biodiversity. Our approach provides a framework for estimating the conservation value of the complex working landscapes that constitute roughly half of the global land surface

  12. Vocal Ontogeny in Neotropical Singing Mice (Scotinomys)

    PubMed Central

    Campbell, Polly; Pasch, Bret; Warren, Ashley L.; Phelps, Steven M.

    2014-01-01

    Isolation calls produced by dependent young are a fundamental form of communication. For species in which vocal signals remain important to adult communication, the function and social context of vocal behavior changes dramatically with the onset of sexual maturity. The ontogenetic relationship between these distinct forms of acoustic communication is surprisingly under-studied. We conducted a detailed analysis of vocal development in sister species of Neotropical singing mice, Scotinomys teguina and S. xerampelinus. Adult singing mice are remarkable for their advertisement songs, rapidly articulated trills used in long-distance communication; the vocal behavior of pups was previously undescribed. We recorded 30 S. teguina and 15 S. xerampelinus pups daily, from birth to weaning; 23 S. teguina and 11 S. xerampelinus were recorded until sexual maturity. Like other rodent species with poikilothermic young, singing mice were highly vocal during the first weeks of life and stopped vocalizing before weaning. Production of first advertisement songs coincided with the onset of sexual maturity after a silent period of ≧2 weeks. Species differences in vocal behavior emerged early in ontogeny and notes that comprise adult song were produced from birth. However, the organization and relative abundance of distinct note types was very different between pups and adults. Notably, the structure, note repetition rate, and intra-individual repeatability of pup vocalizations did not become more adult-like with age; the highly stereotyped structure of adult song appeared de novo in the first songs of young adults. We conclude that, while the basic elements of adult song are available from birth, distinct selection pressures during maternal dependency, dispersal, and territorial establishment favor major shifts in the structure and prevalence of acoustic signals. This study provides insight into how an evolutionarily conserved form of acoustic signaling provides the raw material for

  13. Climate change impact on neotropical social wasps.

    PubMed

    Dejean, Alain; Céréghino, Régis; Carpenter, James M; Corbara, Bruno; Hérault, Bruno; Rossi, Vivien; Leponce, Maurice; Orivel, Jérome; Bonal, Damien

    2011-01-01

    Establishing a direct link between climate change and fluctuations in animal populations through long-term monitoring is difficult given the paucity of baseline data. We hypothesized that social wasps are sensitive to climatic variations, and thus studied the impact of ENSO events on social wasp populations in French Guiana. We noted that during the 2000 La Niña year there was a 77.1% decrease in their nest abundance along ca. 5 km of forest edges, and that 70.5% of the species were no longer present. Two simultaneous 13-year surveys (1997-2009) confirmed the decrease in social wasps during La Niña years (2000 and 2006), while an increase occurred during the 2009 El Niño year. A 30-year weather survey showed that these phenomena corresponded to particularly high levels of rainfall, and that temperature, humidity and global solar radiation were correlated with rainfall. Using the Self-Organizing Map algorithm, we show that heavy rainfall during an entire rainy season has a negative impact on social wasps. Strong contrasts in rainfall between the dry season and the short rainy season exacerbate this effect. Social wasp populations never recovered to their pre-2000 levels. This is probably because these conditions occurred over four years; heavy rainfall during the major rainy seasons during four other years also had a detrimental effect. On the contrary, low levels of rainfall during the major rainy season in 2009 spurred an increase in social wasp populations. We conclude that recent climatic changes have likely resulted in fewer social wasp colonies because they have lowered the wasps' resistance to parasitoids and pathogens. These results imply that Neotropical social wasps can be regarded as bio-indicators because they highlight the impact of climatic changes not yet perceptible in plants and other animals.

  14. Climate Change Impact on Neotropical Social Wasps

    PubMed Central

    Dejean, Alain; Céréghino, Régis; Carpenter, James M.; Corbara, Bruno; Hérault, Bruno; Rossi, Vivien; Leponce, Maurice; Orivel, Jérome; Bonal, Damien

    2011-01-01

    Establishing a direct link between climate change and fluctuations in animal populations through long-term monitoring is difficult given the paucity of baseline data. We hypothesized that social wasps are sensitive to climatic variations, and thus studied the impact of ENSO events on social wasp populations in French Guiana. We noted that during the 2000 La Niña year there was a 77.1% decrease in their nest abundance along ca. 5 km of forest edges, and that 70.5% of the species were no longer present. Two simultaneous 13-year surveys (1997–2009) confirmed the decrease in social wasps during La Niña years (2000 and 2006), while an increase occurred during the 2009 El Niño year. A 30-year weather survey showed that these phenomena corresponded to particularly high levels of rainfall, and that temperature, humidity and global solar radiation were correlated with rainfall. Using the Self-Organizing Map algorithm, we show that heavy rainfall during an entire rainy season has a negative impact on social wasps. Strong contrasts in rainfall between the dry season and the short rainy season exacerbate this effect. Social wasp populations never recovered to their pre-2000 levels. This is probably because these conditions occurred over four years; heavy rainfall during the major rainy seasons during four other years also had a detrimental effect. On the contrary, low levels of rainfall during the major rainy season in 2009 spurred an increase in social wasp populations. We conclude that recent climatic changes have likely resulted in fewer social wasp colonies because they have lowered the wasps' resistance to parasitoids and pathogens. These results imply that Neotropical social wasps can be regarded as bio-indicators because they highlight the impact of climatic changes not yet perceptible in plants and other animals. PMID:22073236

  15. Landscape genetics of a top neotropical predator.

    PubMed

    Pérez-Espona, S; McLeod, J E; Franks, N R

    2012-12-01

    Habitat loss and fragmentation as a consequence of human activities is a worldwide phenomenon and one of the major threats to global biodiversity. Habitat loss and fragmentation is particularly a concern in the biodiverse tropics, where deforestation is occurring at unprecedented rates. Although insects are one of the most diverse and functionally important groups in tropical ecosystems, the quantitative effect of landscape features on their gene flow remains unknown. Here, we used a robust landscape genetics approach to quantify the effect of ten landscape features (deforestation, mature forests, other forest types, the River Chagres, streams, stream banks, roads, sea, lakes and swamps) and interactions between them, on the gene flow of a neotropical forest keystone species, the army ant Eciton burchellii. The influence of landscape on E. burchellii's gene flow reflected the different dispersal capability of its sexes; aerial for males and pedestrian for females, and the different depths of population history inferred from microsatellites and mitochondrial DNA. In contrast to the gene flow-facilitating effect of mature forests, deforested areas were found to be strong barriers for E. burchellii's gene flow. Other forest types were found to be gene flow facilitators but only when interacting with mature secondary forests, therefore indicating the importance of mature forests for the survival of E. burchelii and its associate species. The River Chagres was identified as a major historical gene flow barrier for E. burchellii, suggesting that an important loss of connectivity may occur because of large artificial waterways such as the Panama Canal. © 2012 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  16. A molecular phylogeny of Hemiptera inferred from mitochondrial genome sequences.

    PubMed

    Song, Nan; Liang, Ai-Ping; Bu, Cui-Ping

    2012-01-01

    Classically, Hemiptera is comprised of two suborders: Homoptera and Heteroptera. Homoptera includes Cicadomorpha, Fulgoromorpha and Sternorrhyncha. However, according to previous molecular phylogenetic studies based on 18S rDNA, Fulgoromorpha has a closer relationship to Heteroptera than to other hemipterans, leaving Homoptera as paraphyletic. Therefore, the position of Fulgoromorpha is important for studying phylogenetic structure of Hemiptera. We inferred the evolutionary affiliations of twenty-five superfamilies of Hemiptera using mitochondrial protein-coding genes and rRNAs. We sequenced three mitogenomes, from Pyrops candelaria, Lycorma delicatula and Ricania marginalis, representing two additional families in Fulgoromorpha. Pyrops and Lycorma are representatives of an additional major family Fulgoridae in Fulgoromorpha, whereas Ricania is a second representative of the highly derived clade Ricaniidae. The organization and size of these mitogenomes are similar to those of the sequenced fulgoroid species. Our consensus phylogeny of Hemiptera largely supported the relationships (((Fulgoromorpha,Sternorrhyncha),Cicadomorpha),Heteroptera), and thus supported the classic phylogeny of Hemiptera. Selection of optimal evolutionary models (exclusion and inclusion of two rRNA genes or of third codon positions of protein-coding genes) demonstrated that rapidly evolving and saturated sites should be removed from the analyses.

  17. A Molecular Phylogeny of Hemiptera Inferred from Mitochondrial Genome Sequences

    PubMed Central

    Song, Nan; Liang, Ai-Ping; Bu, Cui-Ping

    2012-01-01

    Classically, Hemiptera is comprised of two suborders: Homoptera and Heteroptera. Homoptera includes Cicadomorpha, Fulgoromorpha and Sternorrhyncha. However, according to previous molecular phylogenetic studies based on 18S rDNA, Fulgoromorpha has a closer relationship to Heteroptera than to other hemipterans, leaving Homoptera as paraphyletic. Therefore, the position of Fulgoromorpha is important for studying phylogenetic structure of Hemiptera. We inferred the evolutionary affiliations of twenty-five superfamilies of Hemiptera using mitochondrial protein-coding genes and rRNAs. We sequenced three mitogenomes, from Pyrops candelaria, Lycorma delicatula and Ricania marginalis, representing two additional families in Fulgoromorpha. Pyrops and Lycorma are representatives of an additional major family Fulgoridae in Fulgoromorpha, whereas Ricania is a second representative of the highly derived clade Ricaniidae. The organization and size of these mitogenomes are similar to those of the sequenced fulgoroid species. Our consensus phylogeny of Hemiptera largely supported the relationships (((Fulgoromorpha,Sternorrhyncha),Cicadomorpha),Heteroptera), and thus supported the classic phylogeny of Hemiptera. Selection of optimal evolutionary models (exclusion and inclusion of two rRNA genes or of third codon positions of protein-coding genes) demonstrated that rapidly evolving and saturated sites should be removed from the analyses. PMID:23144967

  18. Population trends and management opportunities for neotropical migrants

    Treesearch

    Chandler S. Robbins; John. R. Sauer; Bruce G. Peterjohn

    1993-01-01

    The Breeding Bird Survey shows that certain Neotropical migrant songbird populations have been declining over the past 26 years. Among them are forest birds that require extensive forest on the breeding grounds and also forested habitats on tropical wintering grounds. Other species have shown significant declines only since the early 1980's. Birds with broader...

  19. Wood anatomy of the neotropical Sapotaceae : XIV. Elaeoluma

    Treesearch

    Bohumil Francis Kukachka

    1980-01-01

    The genus Elaeoluma consists of three species distributed in the Amazon Basin, Surinam, Guyana, and Venezuela. The description presented here is based on E. glabrescens of the Amazon Basin. The wood is easily differentiated from all other neotropical Sapotaceae by its pale brown color, reticulate parenchyma, which is hardly discernable with a hand lens, and a low...

  20. Potential impacts of climate change on neotropical migrants: management implications

    Treesearch

    Jeff T. Price; Terry L. Root

    2005-01-01

    The world is warming. Over the last 100 years, the global average temperature has increased by approximately 0.7°C. The United Nations Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change projects a further increase in global mean temperatures of between 1.4° - 5.8° C by the year 2100. How will climate change affect Neotropical migrants? Models of changes...

  1. Management and conservation of migratory landbirds overwintering in the neotropics

    Treesearch

    Daniel R. Petit; James F. Lynch; Richard L. Hutto; John G. Blake; Robert B. Waide

    1993-01-01

    Loss of tropical broadleaved forests and concurrent population declines of long-distance migratory birds in temperate breeding areas have been closely linked in both scientific and popular literature; however, little evidence of a causal association currently exists. We review the current land use situation in the neotropics, the projected outcome of deforestation...

  2. Water economy of neotropical savanna trees: six paradigms revisited.

    Treesearch

    Guillermo Goldstein; Fredrick C. Meinzer; Sandra J. Bucci

    2008-01-01

    Biologists have long been puzzled by the striking morphological and anatomical characteristics of Neotropical savanna trees which have large scleromorphic leaves, allocate more than half of their total biomass to belowground structures and produce new leaves during the peak of the dry season. Based on results of ongoing interdisciplinary projects in the savannas of...

  3. Probing evolutionary patterns in neotropical birds through DNA barcodes.

    PubMed

    Kerr, Kevin C R; Lijtmaer, Darío A; Barreira, Ana S; Hebert, Paul D N; Tubaro, Pablo L

    2009-01-01

    The Neotropical avifauna is more diverse than that of any other biogeographic region, but our understanding of patterns of regional divergence is limited. Critical examination of this issue is currently constrained by the limited genetic information available. This study begins to address this gap by assembling a library of mitochondrial COI sequences, or DNA barcodes, for Argentinian birds and comparing their patterns of genetic diversity to those of North American birds. Five hundred Argentinian species were examined, making this the first major examination of DNA barcodes for South American birds. Our results indicate that most southern Neotropical bird species show deep sequence divergence from their nearest-neighbour, corroborating that the high diversity of this fauna is not based on an elevated incidence of young species radiations. Although species ages appear similar in temperate North and South American avifaunas, patterns of regional divergence are more complex in the Neotropics, suggesting that the high diversity of the Neotropical avifauna has been fueled by greater opportunities for regional divergence. Deep genetic splits were observed in at least 21 species, though distribution patterns of these lineages were variable. The lack of shared polymorphisms in species, even in species with less than 0.5M years of reproductive isolation, further suggests that selective sweeps could regularly excise ancestral mitochondrial polymorphisms. These findings confirm the efficacy of species delimitation in birds via DNA barcodes, even when tested on a global scale. Further, they demonstrate how large libraries of a standardized gene region provide insight into evolutionary processes.

  4. A neotropical migratory bird prioritization for National Forests and Grasslands

    Treesearch

    Dick Roth; Richard Peterson

    1997-01-01

    The Rocky Mountain Region of the USDA Forest Service provides nesting habitat for 146 species of neotropical migratory birds. Interactive, prioritization databases were developed for each National Forest and National Grassland in the Region to assist land managers in making informed decisions about resource allocations. The data was processed using Paradox software....

  5. Wood anatomy of the neotropical Sapotaceae. VII, Chrysophyllum

    Treesearch

    B. F. Kukachka

    1978-01-01

    In the neotropics, the genus Chrysophyllum consists of C. cainito and a number of species which have recently been assigned to the genus Cynodendron. Many taxonomists have not accepted the new genus Cynodendron and this is supported by the present study of the wood anatomy. In this restricted sense, Chrysophyllum consists of a group of closely related species that are...

  6. Phylogeography and demographic history of the neotropical otter (Lontra longicaudis).

    PubMed

    Trinca, Cristine S; de Thoisy, Benoit; Rosas, Fernando C W; Waldemarin, Helen F; Koepfli, Klaus-Peter; Vianna, Juliana A; Eizirik, Eduardo

    2012-07-01

    The Neotropical otter (Lontra longicaudis) is a medium-sized semiaquatic carnivore with a broad distribution in the Neotropical region. Despite being apparently common in many areas, it is one of the least known otters, and genetic studies on this species are scarce. Here, we have investigated its genetic diversity, population structure, and demographic history across a large portion of its geographic range by analyzing 1471 base pairs (bp) of mitochondrial DNA from 52 individuals. Our results indicate that L. longicaudis presents high levels of genetic diversity and a consistent phylogeographic pattern, suggesting the existence of at least 4 distinct evolutionary lineages in South America. The observed phylogeographic partitions are partially congruent with the subspecies classification previously proposed for this species. Coalescence-based analyses indicate that Neotropical otter mitochondrial DNA lineages have shared a rather recent common ancestor, approximately 0.5 Ma, and have subsequently diversified into the observed phylogroups. A consistent scenario of recent population expansion was identified in Eastern South America based on several complementary analyses of historical demography. The results obtained here provide novel insights on the evolutionary history of this largely unknown Neotropical mustelid and should be useful to design conservation and management policies on behalf of this species and its habitats.

  7. The ecology of migrant birds: A neotropical perspective [book review

    Treesearch

    Deborah M. Finch

    1998-01-01

    Originally published by the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service in 1983 as Nearctic Avian Migrants in the Neotropics with coauthors Gene Morton, Tom Lovejoy, and Jim Ruos, the initial work has been considerably expanded, updated, and revised by John Rappole. Indeed, the revision warranted publication in Spanish in 1993 followed by further revision that resulted in this...

  8. Wood Anatomy of the Neotropical Sapotaceae. 8. Diploon

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1979-01-01

    status by Cronquist in 1946. The anatomy of the secondary xylem sub- stantiates this transfer. A second species, D. venezuelana Aubreville from...SThis paper on Diploon is the eighth in a series describing the anatonsy of the secondary xylem of the neotropical Sapotaceae.. The earlier papers

  9. Effects of pesticides and contaminants on neotropical migrants

    Treesearch

    Nicholas W. Gard; Michael J. Hooper; Richard S. Bennett

    1993-01-01

    Many agricultural pesticides and industrial contaminants are capable of adversely affecting birds through direct effects such as elevated mortality rates and decreased reproductive success or indirectly by modifying habitat composition or food availability. Although neotropical migrants are potentially exposed to these contaminants on their breeding, migratory and...

  10. Point Count Length and Detection of Forest Neotropical Migrant Birds

    Treesearch

    Deanna K. Dawson; David R. Smith; Chandler S. Robbins

    1995-01-01

    Comparisons of bird abundances among years or among habitats assume that the rates at which birds are detected and counted are constant within species. We use point count data collected in forests of the Mid-Atlantic states to estimate detection probabilities for Neotropical migrant bird species as a function of count length. For some species, significant differences...

  11. Management implications of cowbird parasitism on neotropical migrant songbirds

    Treesearch

    Scott K. Robinson; Joseph A. Grzybowski; Stephen I. Rothstein; Margaret C. Brittingham; Lisa J. Petit; Frank R. Thompson

    1993-01-01

    Populations of brood parasitic Brown-headed Cowbirds (Molofhrus afer) have increased to the point where they pose a potential threat to populations of many neotropical migrant songbirds. Because cowbirds mostly feed in short grass (e.g., pastures and lawns) or on bare ground (e.g., row crops), they benefit directly from human activities. Cowbirds...

  12. The role of indicator species: Neotropical migratory song birds

    Treesearch

    Theodore R. Simons; Kerry N. Rabenold; David A. Buehler; Jaime A. Collazo; Kathleen E. Franzreb

    1999-01-01

    Southern Appalachian forests support some of the richest avian diversity in North America, including some 75 species of Neotropical migrants, birds that perform the remarkable feat of making much of the Western Hemisphere their home. This diverse group includes the swallows, kingbirds, and other flycatchers that feed in the air on flying insects. The Eastern kingbird...

  13. Competitive interactions between neotropical pollinators and africanized honey bees.

    PubMed

    Roubik, D W

    1978-09-15

    The Africanized honey bee, a hybrid of European and African honey bees, is thought to displace native pollinators. After experimental introduction of Africanized honey bee hives near flowers, stingless bees became less abundant or harvested-less resource as visitation by Africanized honey bees increased. Shifts in resource use caused by colonizing Africanized honey bees may lead to population decline of Neotropical pollinators.

  14. Four new species of Chinaia Bruner & Metcalf (Hemiptera: Cicadellidae: Neocoelidiinae) from the Neotropical Region.

    PubMed

    Marques, Ana Paula Coelho; Ale-Rocha, Rosaly

    2016-11-09

    Four new species of Chinaia Bruner & Metcalf, Chinaia bicornis sp. nov., Chinaia longicauda sp. nov., Chinaia modesta sp. nov., and Chinaia peruviana sp. nov. are described and illustrated. The new species can be distinguished from the other species of the genus by characters of the male genitalia, especially the morphology of the pygofer and aedeagus. A generic diagnosis and a complete description, together with illustrations and pictures of the new species, are provided.

  15. Description of an invasive new species of Neotropical aleurodicine whitefly (Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae) - a case of complete or partial misidentification?

    PubMed

    Martin, J H

    2001-04-01

    Paraleyrodes pseudonaranjae sp. n. is here described, from material collected from invasive colonies affecting agriculture in Hong Kong, Hawaii and the USA (Florida). This species had previously been identified as P. naranjae Dozier, based on puparial characteristics, but comparison of adult males with male syntypes of P. naranjae has indicated that identification to be mistaken. An adult male has been selected as lectotype of P. naranjae, but the identity of the puparia of the original sample remains uncertain.

  16. Use of chromatin remodeling ATPases as RNAi targets for parental control of western corn rootworm (Diabrotica virgifera virgifera) and Neotropical brown stink bug (Euschistus heros).

    PubMed

    Fishilevich, Elane; Vélez, Ana M; Khajuria, Chitvan; Frey, Meghan L F; Hamm, Ronda L; Wang, Haichuan; Schulenberg, Greg A; Bowling, Andrew J; Pence, Heather E; Gandra, Premchand; Arora, Kanika; Storer, Nicholas P; Narva, Kenneth E; Siegfried, Blair D

    2016-04-01

    RNA interference (RNAi) is a gene silencing mechanism that is present in animals and plants and is triggered by double stranded RNA (dsRNA) or small interfering RNA (siRNA), depending on the organism. In the western corn rootworm (WCR), Diabrotica virgifera virgifera LeConte (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae), RNAi can be achieved by feeding rootworms dsRNA added to artificial diet or plant tissues transformed to express dsRNA. The effect of RNAi depends on the targeted gene function and can range from an absence of phenotypic response to readily apparent responses, including lethality. Furthermore, RNAi can directly affect individuals that consume dsRNA or the effect may be transferred to the next generation. Our previous work described the potential use of genes involved in embryonic development as a parental RNAi technology for the control of WCR. In this study, we describe the use of chromatin-remodeling ATPases as target genes to achieve parental gene silencing in two insect pests, a coleopteran, WCR, and a hemipteran, the Neotropical brown stink bug, Euschistus heros Fabricius (Hemiptera: Pentatomidae). Our results show that dsRNA targeting chromatin-remodeling ATPase transcripts, brahma, mi-2, and iswi strongly reduced the fecundity of the exposed females in both insect species. Additionally, knockdown of chd1 reduced the fecundity of E. heros.

  17. Characterization of Phenacoccus solenopsis (Tinsley) (Homoptera: Pseudococcidae) Resistance to Emamectin Benzoate: Cross-Resistance Patterns and Fitness Cost Analysis.

    PubMed

    Afzal, M B S; Shad, S A

    2016-06-01

    Cotton mealybug Phenacoccus solenopsis (Tinsley) (Homoptera: Pseudococcidae) is a sucking pest of worldwide importance causing huge losses by feeding upon cotton in various parts of the world. Because of the importance of this pest, this research was carried out to select emamectin resistance in P. solenopsis in the laboratory to study cross-resistance, stability, realized heritability, and fitness cost of emamectin resistance. After selection from third generation (G3) to G6, P. solenopsis developed very high emamectin resistance (159.24-fold) when compared to a susceptible unselected population (Unsel pop). Population selected to emamectin benzoate conferred moderate (45.81-fold), low (14.06-fold), and no cross-resistance with abamectin, cypermethrin, and profenofos, respectively compared to the Unsel pop. A significant decline in emamectin resistance was observed in the resistant population when not exposed to emamectin from G7 to G13. The estimated realized heritability (h (2)) for emamectin resistance was 0.84. A high fitness cost was associated with emamectin resistance in P. solenopsis. Results of this study may be helpful in devising insecticide resistance management strategies for P. solenopsis.

  18. Genetics, realized heritability and preliminary mechanism of spinosad resistance in Phenacoccus solenopsis Tinsley (Homoptera: Pseudococcidae): an invasive pest from Pakistan.

    PubMed

    Afzal, Muhammad Babar Shahzad; Shad, Sarfraz Ali; Abbas, Naeem

    2015-12-01

    The cotton mealybug, Phenacoccus solenopsis Tinsley (Homoptera: Pseudococcidae) has gained recognition as a key pest due to its invasive nature throughout the world. The P. solenopsis has a wide range of host plants and damages the cotton crop in various parts of the world. In view of the economic importance of this pest, a study on selection, inheritance and mechanism of spinosad resistance was conducted on P. solenopsis. Selection of field collected P. solenopsis for seven generations with spinosad resulted in a high resistance ratio of 282.45-fold. Genetic studies of spinosad resistance in P. solenopsis indicated that maternal effects are not involved in spinosad resistance; and resistance development is an autosomal and incompletely dominant trait. The number of genes involved in spinosad resistance was determined to be more than one, suggesting that resistance is controlled by multiple loci. The realized heritability (h (2)) value for spinosad resistance was 0.94. Synergism bioassays of spinosad with piperonyl butoxide and S,S,S-tributyl phosphorotrithioate showed that spinosad resistance in P. solenopsis could be due to esterase only. The study provides the basic information for implementation of effective resistance management strategies to control P. solenopsis.

  19. Inheritance, realized heritability and biochemical mechanism of acetamiprid resistance in the cotton mealybug, Phenacoccus solenopsis Tinsley (Homoptera: Pseudococcidae).

    PubMed

    Afzal, Muhammad Babar Shahzad; Abbas, Naeem; Shad, Sarfraz Ali

    2015-07-01

    The cotton mealybug, Phenacoccus solenopsis Tinsley (Homoptera: Pseudococcidae) is a serious pest in many countries of the world because of its polyphagous nature and has caused huge losses to the cotton crop. The aim of present study was to explore the mode of inheritance and mechanism of acetamiprid resistance in P. solenopsis. After five rounds of selection with acetamiprid, P. solenopsis developed a 315-fold resistance compared with the laboratory susceptible population. The LC50 values of progenies of both reciprocal crosses (F1 and F1') showed no significant difference and degree of dominance values were 0.56 and 0.93 for F1 and F1', respectively. Monogenic model of inheritance and Lande's method revealed that more than one factors were involved in acetamiprid resistance. Realized heritability (h(2)) value was 0.58 for acetamiprid resistance. A synergism study of piperonyl butoxide (PBO) and S,S,S-tributylphosphorotrithioate (DEF) with acetamiprid also showed the significant presence of P-450 mono-oxygenase and esterase in the acetamiprid resistance. Hence, acetamiprid resistance in the P. solenopsis was autosomal, incompletely dominant and polygenic. These results are a source of basic information to design and plan fruitful management programmes to control P. solenopsis.

  20. The IXth Neotropical Ornithological Congress in Peru (Cusco, 8-14 November 2011)

    Treesearch

    G. P. Servat; J. M. Wunderle Jr.

    2012-01-01

    The IXth Neotropical Ornithological Congress in Peru (Cusco, 8 – 14 November 2011). -The IXth Neotropical Congress of Ornithology (IX NOC), co-sponsored by the Neotropical Ornithological Society (NOS) and the Union of Peruvian Ornithologists (UNOP), took place in Cusco, Peru, from the 8 – 14 November 2011. The IX NOC was dedicated to the memory of Maria Koepcke for her...

  1. Gastric Helicobacter Spp. Infection in Captive Neotropical Brazilian Feline

    PubMed Central

    Luiz de Camargo, Pedro; Akemi Uenaka, Simone; Bette Motta, Maitê; Harumi Adania, Cristina; Yamasaki, Letícia; Alfieri, Amauri A.; Bracarense, Ana Paula F. R. L.

    2011-01-01

    Ten captive neotropical Brazilian feline were submitted to gastroscopic examination and samples of gastric mucosa from fundus, corpus and pyloric antrum were evaluated for the presence of Helicobacter species. Warthin-Starry (WS) staining and PCR assay with species-specific primers and enzymatic cleavage were applied for bacterial detection and identification. Histological lesions were evaluated by haematoxylin and eosin staining. All animals showed normal gross aspect of gastric mucosa. Helicobacter heilmannii was confirmed in 100% of the samples by WS and PCR assay. Mild lymphocytic infiltrate in the lamina propria was observed in eight animals, mainly in the fundus region. Small lymphoid follicles were seen in three animals. No significant association between Helicobacter infection and histological findings was verified. These observations suggest that gastric Helicobacter spp. could be a commensal or a eventual pathogen to captive neotropical feline, and that procedures, way life, and stress level on the shelter apparently had no negative repercussion over the integrity of the stomach. PMID:24031634

  2. Correlates of species richness in the largest Neotropical amphibian radiation

    PubMed Central

    Gonzalez-Voyer, A; Padial, J M; Castroviejo-Fisher, S; De La Riva, I; Vilà, C

    2011-01-01

    Although tropical environments are often considered biodiversity hotspots, it is precisely in such environments where least is known about the factors that drive species richness. Here, we use phylogenetic comparative analyses to study correlates of species richness for the largest Neotropical amphibian radiation: New World direct-developing frogs. Clade-age and species richness were nonsignficantly, negatively correlated, suggesting that clade age alone does not explain among-clade variation in species richness. A combination of ecological and morphological traits explained 65% of the variance in species richness. A more vascularized ventral skin, the ability to colonize high-altitude ranges, encompassing a large variety of vegetation types, correlated significantly with species richness, whereas larger body size was marginally correlated with species richness. Hence, whereas high-altitude ranges play a role in shaping clade diversity in the Neotropics, intrinsic factors, such as skin structures and possibly body size, might ultimately determine which clades are more speciose than others. PMID:21401771

  3. Data supporting phylogenetic reconstructions of the Neotropical clade Gymnotiformes

    PubMed Central

    Tagliacollo, Victor A.; Bernt, Maxwell J.; Craig, Jack M.; Oliveira, Claudio; Albert, James S.

    2016-01-01

    Data is presented in support of model-based total evidence (MBTE) phylogenetic reconstructions of the Neotropical clade of Gymnotiformes “Model-based total evidence phylogeny of Neotropical electric knifefishes (Teleostei, Gymnotiformes)” (Tagliacollo et al., 2016) [1]). The MBTE phylogenies were inferred using a comprehensive dataset comprised of six genes (5277 bp) and 223 morphological characters for an ingroup taxon sample of 120 of 218 valid species and 33 of the 34 extant genera. The data in this article include primer sequences for gene amplification and sequencing, voucher information and GenBank accession numbers, descriptions of morphological characters, morphological synapomorphies for the recognized clades of Gymnotiformes, a supermatrix comprised of concatenated molecular and morphological data, and computer scripts to replicate MBTE inferences. We also included here Maximum-likelihood and Bayesian topologies, which support two main gymnotiform clades: Gymnotidae and Sternopygoidei, the latter comprised of Rhamphichthyoidea (Rhamphichthyidae+Hypopomidae) and Sinusoidea (Sternopygidae+Apteronotidae). PMID:26955648

  4. Plasma hormones in neotropical and domestic cats undergoing routine manipulations.

    PubMed

    Genaro, G; Moraes, W; Silva, J C R; Adania, C H; Franci, C R

    2007-04-01

    Many neotropical felines are threatened with extinction and information on their physiology is required to assist in conservation. Their reproduction in captivity is poor, particularly for the smaller species. Several factors may be responsible, but stress is probably the most important. We assayed cortisol, LH, FSH, prolactin, testosterone, estradiol, and progesterone in single blood samples obtained under sedation from seven neotropical species and, for comparison, in stressed and unstressed domestic cats. Cortisol was also assayed in serial blood samples obtained after ACTH administration in Leopardus tigrinus, L. wiedi and domestic cats. While, in general, the results were fairly consistent, there were some statistically significant differences between species that were large enough to be of practical importance.

  5. Genetic diversity of armored scales (Hemiptera: Diaspididae) and soft scales (Hemiptera: Coccidae) in Chile.

    PubMed

    Amouroux, P; Crochard, D; Germain, J-F; Correa, M; Ampuero, J; Groussier, G; Kreiter, P; Malausa, T; Zaviezo, T

    2017-05-17

    Scale insects (Sternorrhyncha: Coccoidea) are one of the most invasive and agriculturally damaging insect groups. Their management and the development of new control methods are currently jeopardized by the scarcity of identification data, in particular in regions where no large survey coupling morphological and DNA analyses have been performed. In this study, we sampled 116 populations of armored scales (Hemiptera: Diaspididae) and 112 populations of soft scales (Hemiptera: Coccidae) in Chile, over a latitudinal gradient ranging from 18°S to 41°S, on fruit crops, ornamental plants and trees. We sequenced the COI and 28S genes in each population. In total, 19 Diaspididae species and 11 Coccidae species were identified morphologically. From the 63 COI haplotypes and the 54 28S haplotypes uncovered, and using several DNA data analysis methods (Automatic Barcode Gap Discovery, K2P distance, NJ trees), up to 36 genetic clusters were detected. Morphological and DNA data were congruent, except for three species (Aspidiotus nerii, Hemiberlesia rapax and Coccus hesperidum) in which DNA data revealed highly differentiated lineages. More than 50% of the haplotypes obtained had no high-scoring matches with any of the sequences in the GenBank database. This study provides 63 COI and 54 28S barcode sequences for the identification of Coccoidea from Chile.

  6. Pterandra pyroidea: a case of pollination shift within Neotropical Malpighiaceae

    PubMed Central

    Cappellari, Simone C.; Haleem, Muhammad A.; Marsaioli, Anita J.; Tidon, Rosana; Simpson, Beryl B.

    2011-01-01

    Background and Aims Most Neotropical species of Malpighiaceae produce floral fatty oils in calyx glands to attract pollinating oil-collecting bees, which depend on this resource for reproduction. This specialized type of pollination system tends to be lost in members of the family that occur outside the geographic distribution (e.g. Africa) of Neotropical oil-collecting bees. This study focused on the pollination ecology, chemical ecology and reproductive biology of an oil flower species, Pterandra pyroidea (Malpighiaceae) from the Brazilian Cerrado. Populations of this species consist of plants with oil-secreting (glandular) flowers, plants with non-oil-secreting flowers (eglandular) or a mix of both plant types. This study specifically aims to clarify the role of eglandular morphs in this species. Methods Data on pollinators were recorded by in situ observations. Breeding system experiments were conducted by isolating inflorescences and by enzymatic reactions. Floral resources, pollen and floral oils offered by this species were analysed by staining and a combination of various spectroscopic methods. Key Results Eglandular flowers of P. pyroidea do not act as mimics of their oil-producing conspecifics to attract pollinators. Instead, both oil-producing and oil-free flowers depend on pollen-collecting bees for reproduction, and their main pollinators are bumble-bees. Floral oils produced by glandular flowers are less complex than those described in closely related genera. Conclusions Eglandular flowers represent a shift in the pollination system in which oil is being lost and pollen is becoming the main reward of P. pyroidea flowers. Pollination shifts of this kind have hitherto not been demonstrated empirically within Neotropical Malpighiaceae and this species exhibits an unusual transition from a specialized towards a generalized pollination system in an area considered the hotspot of oil-collecting bee diversity in the Neotropics. Transitions of this type

  7. Pterandra pyroidea: a case of pollination shift within neotropical Malpighiaceae.

    PubMed

    Cappellari, Simone C; Haleem, Muhammad A; Marsaioli, Anita J; Tidon, Rosana; Simpson, Beryl B

    2011-06-01

    Most Neotropical species of Malpighiaceae produce floral fatty oils in calyx glands to attract pollinating oil-collecting bees, which depend on this resource for reproduction. This specialized type of pollination system tends to be lost in members of the family that occur outside the geographic distribution (e.g. Africa) of Neotropical oil-collecting bees. This study focused on the pollination ecology, chemical ecology and reproductive biology of an oil flower species, Pterandra pyroidea (Malpighiaceae) from the Brazilian Cerrado. Populations of this species consist of plants with oil-secreting (glandular) flowers, plants with non-oil-secreting flowers (eglandular) or a mix of both plant types. This study specifically aims to clarify the role of eglandular morphs in this species. Data on pollinators were recorded by in situ observations. Breeding system experiments were conducted by isolating inflorescences and by enzymatic reactions. Floral resources, pollen and floral oils offered by this species were analysed by staining and a combination of various spectroscopic methods. Eglandular flowers of P. pyroidea do not act as mimics of their oil-producing conspecifics to attract pollinators. Instead, both oil-producing and oil-free flowers depend on pollen-collecting bees for reproduction, and their main pollinators are bumble-bees. Floral oils produced by glandular flowers are less complex than those described in closely related genera. Eglandular flowers represent a shift in the pollination system in which oil is being lost and pollen is becoming the main reward of P. pyroidea flowers. Pollination shifts of this kind have hitherto not been demonstrated empirically within Neotropical Malpighiaceae and this species exhibits an unusual transition from a specialized towards a generalized pollination system in an area considered the hotspot of oil-collecting bee diversity in the Neotropics. Transitions of this type provide an opportunity to study ongoing evolutionary

  8. Probing Evolutionary Patterns in Neotropical Birds through DNA Barcodes

    PubMed Central

    Kerr, Kevin C. R.; Lijtmaer, Darío A.; Barreira, Ana S.; Hebert, Paul D. N.; Tubaro, Pablo L.

    2009-01-01

    Background The Neotropical avifauna is more diverse than that of any other biogeographic region, but our understanding of patterns of regional divergence is limited. Critical examination of this issue is currently constrained by the limited genetic information available. This study begins to address this gap by assembling a library of mitochondrial COI sequences, or DNA barcodes, for Argentinian birds and comparing their patterns of genetic diversity to those of North American birds. Methodology and Principal Findings Five hundred Argentinian species were examined, making this the first major examination of DNA barcodes for South American birds. Our results indicate that most southern Neotropical bird species show deep sequence divergence from their nearest-neighbour, corroborating that the high diversity of this fauna is not based on an elevated incidence of young species radiations. Although species ages appear similar in temperate North and South American avifaunas, patterns of regional divergence are more complex in the Neotropics, suggesting that the high diversity of the Neotropical avifauna has been fueled by greater opportunities for regional divergence. Deep genetic splits were observed in at least 21 species, though distribution patterns of these lineages were variable. The lack of shared polymorphisms in species, even in species with less than 0.5M years of reproductive isolation, further suggests that selective sweeps could regularly excise ancestral mitochondrial polymorphisms. Conclusions These findings confirm the efficacy of species delimitation in birds via DNA barcodes, even when tested on a global scale. Further, they demonstrate how large libraries of a standardized gene region provide insight into evolutionary processes. PMID:19194495

  9. Wood Anatomy of the Neotropical Sapotaceae. XXV. Ragala

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1981-05-01

    Sapoticeas da Amazonia . Acta Amazonica 4(3):15-16. 7.1C TAB f• icatio By-- - Table 1.--Ragala: Specimens examined and their selected parameters-I Wood Species... WOOD ANATOMY OF THE NEOTROPICAL SAPOTACEAE / XXV. RAGALA RESEARCH PAPER FPL 396 FOREST PRODUCTS LABORATORY FOREST SERVICE U.S. DEPARTMENT OF... wood anatomy supports the separation of Ecclinusa and Rmagala as well as their removal from Chrysophyllum. Ragala is a silica-accumulating genus

  10. Response of neotropical bat assemblages to human land use.

    PubMed

    García-Morales, Rodrigo; Badano, Ernesto I; Moreno, Claudia E

    2013-10-01

    Neotropical bats are sensitive to human-induced habitat changes, and some authors believe bats can be used as bioindicators. In the literature, however, the results are disparate. Some results show bat diversity deceases as disturbance increases, whereas others indicate no effect. Determining the general response patterns of bats when they encounter different degrees of human-induced disturbance across the Neotropics would help to determine their usefulness as bioindicators. In a series of meta-analyses, we compared the occurrence frequency of bat species between well-preserved forests and human-use areas. We obtained data through an extensive review of published peer-reviewed articles, theses, and reports. The overall effect size indicated that human-use areas harbored more bat species than well-preserved forests. Different response patterns emerged when meta-analyses were conducted separately by family, feeding habit, vegetation stratum, and conservation status. Our results suggest that bat assemblages display strong responses to forest loss and land-use change and that the direction and magnitude of these responses depends on the bat group under study and the type of disturbance. Our results are consistent with the idea that bats are useful for assessing the effects of habitat changes in the Neotropics. However, with our meta-analyses we could not detect fine differences in bat feeding habits, especially within Phyllostomidae, or elucidate the effect of landscape configuration.

  11. Chromosome evolution in Neotropical Danainae and Ithomiinae (Lepidoptera).

    PubMed

    Brown Jr, Keith S; Von Schoultz, Barbara; Suomalainen, Esko

    2004-01-01

    Chromosome numbers are given for 1011 populations of 242 species, representing the full range of taxa (49 of the about 52 presently recognized genera) in the Neotropical Nymphalid butterfly subfamily Ithomiinae (prime movers for mimicry rings), including many additional geographical subspecies from 47 regions from Mexico and the Caribbean islands throughout all tropical South American countries to southern Brazil. Twelve Neotropical Danainae (in 3 genera), all but one with n=29-31, and the Australian Tellervo (n=32) served as sister groups for comparison. The numbers range near-continuously from n=5 to n=120 with modal values (33-84 counts) at n=12-18, and only 16 and 26 counts at the usual modal number of all butterfly groups, n=30-31. Superimposition of these changes in karyotype on a cladistic phylogeny of the subfamily indicates possible early halving of the complement to n about 14-15, followed by much variation in each genus and tribe. While at least 17 species in 15 genera show stable karyotypes over much of the Neotropics, at least 40 species show large geographical variation in number of chromosomes, rarely accompanied by any evidence for reduction in fertility or incipient speciation. The evolutionary opportunism of the members of this subfamily probably accompanies their known population biology and community ecology: they are common, shade-loving, highly gregarious (occurring in small multispecies "pockets" in deep forest) and often migratory as a community when the environment becomes unfavorable (too hot or dry).

  12. Evolution of Philodendron (Araceae) species in Neotropical biomes

    PubMed Central

    Loss-Oliveira, Leticia; Sakuragui, Cassia; Soares, Maria de Lourdes

    2016-01-01

    Philodendron is the second most diverse genus of the Araceae, a tropical monocot family with significant morphological diversity along its wide geographic distribution in the Neotropics. Although evolutionary studies of Philodendron were conducted in recent years, the phylogenetic relationship among its species remains unclear. Additionally, analyses conducted to date suggested the inclusion of all American representatives of a closely-related genus, Homalomena, within the Philodendron clade. A thorough evaluation of the phylogeny and timescale of these lineages is thus necessary to elucidate the tempo and mode of evolution of this large Neotropical genus and to unveil the biogeographic history of Philodendron evolution along the Amazonian and Atlantic rainforests as well as open dry forests of South America. To this end, we have estimated the molecular phylogeny for 68 Philodendron species, which consists of the largest sampling assembled to date aiming the study of the evolutionary affinities. We have also performed ancestral reconstruction of species distribution along biomes. Finally, we contrasted these results with the inferred timescale of Philodendron and Homalomena lineage diversification. Our estimates indicate that American Homalomena is the sister clade to Philodendron. The early diversification of Philodendron took place in the Amazon forest from Early to Middle Miocene, followed by colonization of the Atlantic forest and the savanna-like landscapes, respectively. Based on the age of the last common ancestor of Philodendron, the species of this genus diversified by rapid radiations, leading to its wide extant distribution in the Neotropical region. PMID:27042390

  13. Methane emissions from tank bromeliads in neotropical forests

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martinson, Guntars O.; Werner, Florian A.; Scherber, Christoph; Conrad, Ralf; Corre, Marife D.; Flessa, Heiner; Wolf, Katrin; Klose, Melanie; Gradstein, S. Robbert; Veldkamp, Edzo

    2010-11-01

    Methane is a potent greenhouse gas. Methane concentrations above neotropical forests-the tropical forests found in Mexico, Central America, South America and the Caribbean-are high according to space-borne observations. However, the source of the methane is uncertain. Here, we measure methane fluxes from tank bromeliads-a common group of herbaceous plants in neotropical forests that collect water in tank-like structures-using vented static chambers. We sampled 167 bromeliads in the Ecuadorian Andes, and found that all of them emitted methane. We found a diverse community of methane-producing archaea within the water-containing tanks, suggesting that the tanks served as the source of the methane. Indeed, tank water was supersaturated with methane, and 13C-labelled methane added to tank water was emitted though the leaves. We suggest that the bromeliad tanks form a wetland environment conducive to methane production. In conjunction with other wetlands hidden beneath the copy surface, bromeliads may help to explain the inexplicably high methane levels observed over neotropical forests.

  14. Essential oils from neotropical Myrtaceae: chemical diversity and biological properties.

    PubMed

    Stefanello, Maria Élida Alves; Pascoal, Aislan C R F; Salvador, Marcos J

    2011-01-01

    Myrtaceae family (121 genera, 3800-5800 spp.) is one of the most important families in tropical forests. They are aromatic trees or shrubs, which frequently produce edible fruits. In the neotropics, ca. 1000 species were found. Several members of this family are used in folk medicine, mainly as an antidiarrheal, antimicrobial, antioxidant, cleanser, antirheumatic, and anti-inflammatory agent and to decrease the blood cholesterol. In addition, some fruits are eaten fresh or used to make juices, liqueurs, and sweets very much appreciated by people. The flavor composition of some fruits belonging to the Myrtaceae family has been extensively studied due to their pleasant and intense aromas. Most of the essential oils of neotropical Myrtaceae analyzed so far are characterized by predominance of sesquiterpenes, some with important biological properties. In the present work, chemical and pharmacological studies carried out on neotropical Myrtaceae species are reviewed, based on original articles published since 1980. The uses in folk medicine and chemotaxonomic importance of secondary metabolites are also briefly discussed. Copyright © 2011 Verlag Helvetica Chimica Acta AG, Zürich.

  15. [Leptospiral antibodies in a Colombian zoo's neotropical primates and workers].

    PubMed

    Romero, Marlyn H; Astudillo, Miryam; Sánchez, Jorge A; González, Lina M; Varela, Néstor

    2011-10-01

    Detecting antibodies against Leptospira spp. in Neotropical primates and workers in a Colombian Zoo and identifying the risk factors associated with the disease. A cross-sectional study was performed regarding 65 Neotropical primates and 20 zookeepers. The samples were processed by microagglutination test (MAT) using a reference strain collection consisting of 21 Leptospira serovars. The people being evaluated were given a structured survey to identify risk factors. There was 25 % (5/20) Leptospira spp. infection seroprevalence in the staff and 23.07 % (15/65) in Neotropical monkeys. The most frequently occurring serovars in workers were bataviae, gryppotyphosa and ranarum; icterohaemorrhagiae, pomona and ranarum were the predominant serovars in non-human primates. The black spider monkey (Ateles fusciceps), white-fronted capuchin (Cebus albifrons) and white-footed tamarin (Saguinus leucopus) showed the highest reactivity. Most of the personnel were using protective clothing. The contact between primates and zookeepers involving different Leptospira sp. serovars was evident. Zoo personnel using protective clothing and their length of experience were considered to be protective factors for the disease. There may be a risk of Leptospira transmission between zoo animals and staff, and it is therefore important to strengthen active surveillance and implement promotion and prevention programs.

  16. Contribution of conservation genetics in assessing neotropical freshwater fish biodiversity.

    PubMed

    Piorski, N M; Sanches, A; Carvalho-Costa, L F; Hatanaka, T; Carrillo-Avila, M; Freitas, P D; Galetti, P M

    2008-11-01

    Human activities have a considerable impact on hydrographic systems and fish fauna. The present review on conservation genetics of neotropical freshwater fish reveals that DNA analyses have been promoting increased knowledge on the genetic structure of fish species and their response to environmental changes. This knowledge is fundamental to the management of wild fish populations and the establishment of Evolutionary Significant Units capable of conserving genetic integrity. While population structuring can occur even in long-distance migratory fish, isolated populations can show reduced genetic variation and be at greater risk of extinction. Phylogeography and phylogeny have been powerful tools in understanding the evolution of fish populations, species and communities in distinct neotropic environments. Captive fish can be used to introduce new individuals and genes into the wild and their benefits and disadvantages can be monitored through genetic analysis. Understanding how fish biodiversity in neotropical freshwaters is generated and maintained is highly important, as these habitats are transformed by human development and fish communities are increasingly exploited as food sources to sustain a growing human population.

  17. Catalog of the adelgids of the world (Hemiptera: Adelgidae)

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    A taxonomic and nomenclatural catalog of the adelgids (Hemiptera: Adelgidae) is presented. Six family-group names are listed, five being synonyms of Adelgidae. Twenty-two genus-group names, of which nine are valid and in use, are presented with their type species, etymology, and grammatical gender. ...

  18. Catalog of the adelgids of the world (Hemiptera, Adelgidae)

    Treesearch

    Colin Favret; Nathan P. Havill; Gary L. Miller; Masakazu Sano; Benjamin Victor

    2015-01-01

    A taxonomic and nomenclatural Catalogue of the adelgids (Hemiptera: Adelgidae) is presented. Six family-group names are listed, five being synonyms of Adelgidae. Twenty-two genus-group names, of which nine are subjectively valid and in use, are presented with their type species, etymology, and grammatical gender. One hundred and six species-group names are listed, of...

  19. Temperature-dependent egg development of Lygus hesperus (Hemiptera: Miridae)

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Lygus hesperus Knight (Hemiptera: Miridae) is a key agricultural pest in the western United States, but certain aspects of its temperature-dependent development are poorly defined. Accurate models describing the relationships between temperature and development of L. hesperus would facilitate the s...

  20. Temperature-dependent survival of adult Lygus hesperus (Hemiptera: Miridae)

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The western tarnished plant bug, Lygus hesperus Knight (Hemiptera: Miridae), is a key pest of many horticultural and agronomic crops in the western United States. Despite its well documented pest status, many aspects of the basic biology, including overwintering ecology, of L. hesperus are poorly u...

  1. Catalog of the phylloxerids of the world (Hemiptera, Phylloxeridae)

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    A taxonomic and nomenclatural Catalog of the phylloxerids (Hemiptera, Phylloxeridae) is presented. Six family-group names are listed, three being synonyms. Thirty-five genus-group names, of which six are subjectively valid, are presented with their type species, etymology, and grammatical gender. Ni...

  2. Essential oils as fumigants for bed bugs (Hemiptera: Cimicidae)

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    In Petri dish assays, fumigation of a pyrethroid-susceptible strain of bed bugs Cimex lectularius L. (Hemiptera: Cimicidae) with various essential oils resulted in mortality that approached or equaled 100%, after 5 days. However, when bed bugs were exposed to the same essential oils in sealed, comme...

  3. Vibrational communication between the sexes in Diaphorina citri (Hemiptera: Psyllidae)

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    We examined the substrate-borne vibrational signals used in communication between the sexes in Diaphorina citri Kuwayama (Hemiptera: Psyllidae), a vector of huanglongbing (an economically devastating disease of citrus), in an anechoic chamber and an olfactometer. Males and females both primarily pro...

  4. The stink bugs (Hemiptera: Heteroptera: Pentatomidae) of Washington state

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Froeschner (1988) records 23 species of stink bugs (Hemiptera: Heteroptera: Pentatomidae) as occurring in Washington state. Based onmaterial primarily housed in the M.T. James Entomological Collection at Washington State University, the number of species is increased to 47. Species recorded by Froes...

  5. The mitogenome of the bed bug Cimex lectularius (Hemiptera: Cimicidae).

    PubMed

    Kolokotronis, Sergios-Orestis; Foox, Jonathan; Rosenfeld, Jeffrey A; Brugler, Mercer R; Reeves, Darryl; Benoit, Joshua B; Booth, Warren; Robison, Grant; Steffen, Michael; Sakas, Zoe; Palli, Subba R; Schal, Coby; Richards, Stephen; Narechania, Apurva; Baker, Richard H; Sorkin, Louis N; Amato, George; Mason, Christopher E; Siddall, Mark E; DeSalle, Rob

    We report the extraction of a bed bug mitogenome from high-throughput sequencing projects originally focused on the nuclear genome of Cimex lectularius. The assembled mitogenome has a similar AT nucleotide composition bias found in other insects. Phylogenetic analysis of all protein-coding genes indicates that C. lectularius is clearly a member of a paraphyletic Cimicomorpha clade within the Order Hemiptera.

  6. The complete mitochondrial genome sequence of Diaphorina citri (Hemiptera: Psyllidae)

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The first complete mitochondrial genome (mitogenome) sequence of Asian citrus psyllid, Diaphorina citri (Hemiptera: Psyllidae), from Guangzhou, China is presented. The circular mitogenome is 14,996 bp in length with an A+T content of 74.5%, and contains 13 protein-coding genes (PCGs), 22 tRNA genes ...

  7. Development of DNA barcodes of genus Lygus Hahn (Hemiptera: Miridae)

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The genus Lygus (Hemiptera: Miridae) is an important group of insects that contains 43 known species worldwide. Some species within this genus are important agricultural pests in North America. Annual economic impacts in cotton, Gossypium hirsutum L., from Lygus spp. due to yield losses and control ...

  8. Developing resistance for watermelon against whiteflies (Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae)

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Host plant resistance is a fundamental component of crop sustainability. The sweetpotato whitefly, Bemisia tabaci (Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae), is a key pest of many crops around the world. It is adaptive to its environment and feeds on an impressive (over 1,000) number of plant species. Watermelon (Cit...

  9. Spruce aphid (Elatobium abietinum Walker) (Hemiptera: Aphididae) [Chapter XXIV

    Treesearch

    Ann M. Lynch

    2014-01-01

    Elatobium abietinum Walker is a spruce-feeding aphid that in Europe is referred to as the green spruce aphid (Day et al., 1998a) (Fig. 1). However, in North America E. abietinum is known simply as the spruce aphid, while the common name "green spruce aphid" refers to a different species, Cinara fornacula Hottes (Hemiptera: Aphididae) (http://www.entsoc.org/...

  10. Associated bacteria of Asian citrus psyllid (Hemiptera: Psyllidae: Diaphorina citri)

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Using a genetics approach two new bacterial species were identified from the Asian citrus psyllid, Diaphorina citri Kuwayama (Hemiptera: Psyllidae). Psyllids are economically important in the U.S. as vectors of the pathogen associated with citrus greening disease (Huanglongbing). Huanglongbing is on...

  11. Release and establishment of Megamelus scutellaris (Hemiptera: Delphacidae) in Florida

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Megamelus scutellaris (Berg) (Hemiptera: Delphacidae) was recently developed as a classical biological control agent for waterhyacinth, Eichhornia crassipes Mart. Solms, and released in Florida. Releases were conducted at 10 sites around the state every 4-6 weeks until late fall then halted until t...

  12. Spirotetramat Resistance Selected in the Phenacoccus solenopsis (Homoptera: Pseudococcidae): Cross-Resistance Patterns, Stability, and Fitness Costs Analysis.

    PubMed

    Ejaz, Masood; Ali Shad, Sarfraz

    2017-03-02

    The Phenacoccus solenopsis Tinsley (Homoptera: Pseudococcidae) is a major agricultural and horticultural pest of crops throughout the world. To develop a better resistance management strategy for P. solenopsis, we conducted a study on life history parameters of different populations of this pest, one selected with spirotetramat (Spiro-SEL), an unselected (UNSEL) population, and their reciprocal crosses. We also studied the cross-resistance and the stability of spirotetramat resistance. The Spiro-SEL of P. solenopsis exhibited a 328.69-fold resistance compared to the susceptible population (Lab-PK). The Spiro-SEL population also displayed a moderate level of cross-resistance to profenofos and bifenthrin and a high level of cross-resistance to abamectin. Resistance to spirotetramat in Spiro-SEL was unstable in the absence of selection. The study of life history parameters showed that there was a significant reduction in fitness parameters of Spiro-SEL population with a relative fitness value of 0.14. There was a significant decrease in survival rate, pupal weight, fecundity, egg hatching percentage, male and female generation time, intrinsic rate of population increase of males and females, biotic potential, and mean relative growth rate. It is concluded that selection with spirotetramat had marked effect on resistance development in P. solenopsis and upon removal of selection pressure spirotetramat resistance declined significantly, indicating unstable resistance. Development of resistance led to high fitness costs for the spirotetramat-selected population. Our study may provide the basic information on spirotetramat resistance and its mechanism to help develop the resistance management strategies.

  13. Management of New England northern hardwoods, spruce-fir, and eastern white pine for neotropical migratory birds

    Treesearch

    Richard M. DeGraaf; Mariko Yamasaki; William B. Leak

    1993-01-01

    Habitat management for neotropical migratory birds must be based upon land capability, vegetation, successional patterns, response to treatments, landscape diversity, and speciedhabitat relationships. Neotropical migratory birds use diverse arrays of aquatic, early successional, and forest habitats. Management of neotropical migratory birds involves enhancement of...

  14. Can DNA barcoding accurately discriminate megadiverse Neotropical freshwater fish fauna?

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background The megadiverse Neotropical freshwater ichthyofauna is the richest in the world with approximately 6,000 recognized species. Interestingly, they are distributed among only 17 orders, and almost 80% of them belong to only three orders: Characiformes, Siluriformes and Perciformes. Moreover, evidence based on molecular data has shown that most of the diversification of the Neotropical ichthyofauna occurred recently. These characteristics make the taxonomy and identification of this fauna a great challenge, even when using molecular approaches. In this context, the present study aimed to test the effectiveness of the barcoding methodology (COI gene) to identify the mega diverse freshwater fish fauna from the Neotropical region. For this purpose, 254 species of fishes were analyzed from the Upper Parana River basin, an area representative of the larger Neotropical region. Results Of the 254 species analyzed, 252 were correctly identified by their barcode sequences (99.2%). The main K2P intra- and inter-specific genetic divergence values (0.3% and 6.8%, respectively) were relatively low compared with similar values reported in the literature, reflecting the higher number of closely related species belonging to a few higher taxa and their recent radiation. Moreover, for 84 pairs of species that showed low levels of genetic divergence (<2%), application of a complementary character-based nucleotide diagnostic approach proved useful in discriminating them. Additionally, 14 species displayed high intra-specific genetic divergence (>2%), pointing to at least 23 strong candidates for new species. Conclusions Our study is the first to examine a large number of freshwater fish species from the Neotropical area, including a large number of closely related species. The results confirmed the efficacy of the barcoding methodology to identify a recently radiated, megadiverse fauna, discriminating 99.2% of the analyzed species. The power of the barcode sequences to identify

  15. Molecular phylogeny of Neotropical monogeneans (Platyhelminthes: Monogenea) from catfishes (Siluriformes).

    PubMed

    Mendoza-Palmero, Carlos A; Blasco-Costa, Isabel; Scholz, Tomáš

    2015-03-18

    The phylogenetic relationships of dactylogyrids (Monogenea: Dactylogyridae) parasitising catfishes (Siluriformes) from the Neotropical region were investigated for the first time. Partial sequences of the 28S rRNA gene of 40 specimens representing 25 dactylogyrid species were analysed together with sequences from GenBank using Bayesian inference, Maximum likelihood and Parsimony methods. Monophyly of dactylogyrids infecting catfishes and the Ancyrocephalinae was evaluated using the Approximately Unbiased test. The Ancyrocephalinae is a paraphyletic group of species clustering in three main clades as follows: (i) clade A comprising freshwater dactylogyrids from the Holarctic parasitising perciforms clustering together with species (Ameloblastella, Unibarra and Vancleaveus) parasitising Neotropical catfishes; (ii) clade B including species of Dactylogyrus (Dactylogyrinae) and Pseudodactylogyrus (Pseudodactylogyrinae) along with Ancyrocephalus mogurndae, and marine dactylogyrids with cosmopolitan distribution, parasites of scorpaeniforms and perciforms, along with the freshwater Cichlidogyrus and Scutogyrus (infecting African cichlids [Cichlidae]) and (iii) clade C containing exclusively dactylogyrids of siluriforms, freshwater and marine, with Palaearctic, Ethiopian, Oriental and Neotropical distributions; species of Aphanoblastella and Dactylogyridae gen. sp. 4 from the Neotropical region clustering together with species allocated in the Ancylodiscoidinae, along with species of Cosmetocleithrum, Demidospermus and Dactylogyridae gen. spp. The position of the Ancylodiscoidinae within a larger clade of dactylogyrids (ancyrocephalines) indicates that this subfamily does not represent a natural group. Instead, species allocated to this clade (dactylogyrids of siluriforms along with species of the Ancylodiscoidinae) should be considered as a separate subfamily within the Dactylogyridae. The erection of this taxon requires the search for morphological diagnostic characters

  16. Molecular phylogeny of Triatomini (Hemiptera: Reduviidae: Triatominae)

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background The Triatomini and Rhodniini (Hemiptera: Reduviidae) tribes include the most diverse Chagas disease vectors; however, the phylogenetic relationships within the tribes remain obscure. This study provides the most comprehensive phylogeny of Triatomini reported to date. Methods The relationships between all of the Triatomini genera and representatives of the three Rhodniini species groups were examined in a novel molecular phylogenetic analysis based on the following six molecular markers: the mitochondrial 16S; Cytochrome Oxidase I and II (COI and COII) and Cytochrome B (Cyt B); and the nuclear 18S and 28S. Results Our results show that the Rhodnius prolixus and R. pictipes groups are more closely related to each other than to the R. pallescens group. For Triatomini, we demonstrate that the large complexes within the paraphyletic Triatoma genus are closely associated with their geographical distribution. Additionally, we observe that the divergence within the spinolai and flavida complex clades are higher than in the other Triatoma complexes. Conclusions We propose that the spinolai and flavida complexes should be ranked under the genera Mepraia and Nesotriatoma. Finally, we conclude that a thorough morphological investigation of the paraphyletic genera Triatoma and Panstrongylus is required to accurately assign queries to natural genera. PMID:24685273

  17. DNA Barcodes for Nearctic Auchenorrhyncha (Insecta: Hemiptera)

    PubMed Central

    Foottit, Robert G.; Maw, Eric; Hebert, P. D. N.

    2014-01-01

    Background Many studies have shown the suitability of sequence variation in the 5′ region of the mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase I (COI) gene as a DNA barcode for the identification of species in a wide range of animal groups. We examined 471 species in 147 genera of Hemiptera: Auchenorrhyncha drawn from specimens in the Canadian National Collection of Insects to assess the effectiveness of DNA barcoding in this group. Methodology/Principal Findings Analysis of the COI gene revealed less than 2% intra-specific divergence in 93% of the taxa examined, while minimum interspecific distances exceeded 2% in 70% of congeneric species pairs. Although most species are characterized by a distinct sequence cluster, sequences for members of many groups of closely related species either shared sequences or showed close similarity, with 25% of species separated from their nearest neighbor by less than 1%. Conclusions/Significance This study, although preliminary, provides DNA barcodes for about 8% of the species of this hemipteran suborder found in North America north of Mexico. Barcodes can enable the identification of many species of Auchenorrhyncha, but members of some species groups cannot be discriminated. Future use of DNA barcodes in regulatory, pest management, and environmental applications will be possible as the barcode library for Auchenorrhyncha expands to include more species and broader geographic coverage. PMID:25004106

  18. The biology of Dactylopius tomentosus (Hemiptera: Dactylopiidae).

    PubMed

    Mathenge, C W; Holford, P; Hoffmann, J H; Spooner-Hart, R; Beattie, G A C; Zimmermann, H G

    2009-12-01

    Dactylopius tomentosus (Lamarck) (Hemiptera: Dactylopiidae) is a cochineal insect whose host range is restricted to Cylindropuntia species (Caryophyllales: Cactaceae). This insect has been utilized successfully for biological control of Cylindropuntia imbricata (Haw.) F.M. Knuth in Australia and South Africa. Despite this, its biology has not been studied previously, probably due to the widely held belief that the biology of all Dactylopius species is similar. This study investigated the life cycle and the morphological and reproductive characteristics of D. tomentosus. Results revealed some unique characteristics of D. tomentosus: (i) eggs undergo a much longer incubation period, an average of 17 days compared to <1 day in its congeners; (ii) eggs are laid singly but are retained as an egg mass secured in a mesh of waxy threads attached to the female; (iii) the developmental times of males and females are longer compared to other Dactylopius spp. due to a longer egg incubation period; (iv) D. tomentosus does not undergo parthenogenesis; (v) D. tomentosus is smaller in size than its congeners; and (vi) male mating capacity and reproductive potential were both high and variable between males. There was a significant, strong, positive relationship (r = 0.93) between female mass and fecundity, whereas the relationship between the number of females mated per male that became gravid and their fecundity was negative (r = -0.68). Besides contributing to our knowledge of this economically important species, the finding of unique characteristics of D. tomentosus biology underlines the need to study each species in this genus.

  19. A new brachypterous species of Heterospilus Haliday (Braconidae, Doryctinae) from the Neotropical Region

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    A new species, Heterospilus michaeli Kula, from the Neotropical Region is described and differentiated from all other New World species of Doryctinae with brachypterous or apterous individuals. It is the first species of Heterospilus Haliday in the Neotropical Region known to exhibit brachyptery and...

  20. Resurrection and new species of the Neotropical genus Adelonema (Araceae: Philodendron Clade)

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Previous studies have shown Homalomena as traditionally defined to be polyphyletic, with Neotropical species phylogenetically distinct from Asian species. This study of 29 accessions of 10 Neotropical taxa, and a total of 135 accessions representing 92 taxa of Homalomena, Furtadoa, and Philodendron ...

  1. Protection of neotropical migrants as a major focus of wildlife management

    Treesearch

    Lawrence J. Niles

    1993-01-01

    Due to their funding source, wildlife management programs devoted most resources to game species management, and ignored large scale biodiversity initiatives, such as the protection of neotropical migrant land birds. Neotropical migrants are, however, a major focus of the new field of conservation biology, whose proponents consider the field more inclusive than...

  2. Status of neotropical migrant landbirds in the Midwest: identifying species of management concern

    Treesearch

    Frank R. Thompson; Stephen J. Lewis; Janet D. Green; David N. Ewert

    1993-01-01

    We ranked species of neotropical migrant landbirds by decreasing management concern for their viability in the Midwest. This was part of a coordinated effort by regional working groups of the Partners In Flight Program, an interagency program for the conservation of neotropical migratory birds (NTMBs). Species were ranked by seven criteria, developed by working group...

  3. USDA Forest Service goals and programs for monitoring neotropical migratory birds

    Treesearch

    Patricia Manley

    1993-01-01

    The USDA Forest Service (USFS) developed goals, objectives, and guidelines for monitoring neotropical migratory birds (NTMB) on National Forest System lands in response to the Neotropical Migratory Bird Conservation Program Partners in Flight. A USFS task group developed a hierarchical monitoring framework designed to define priorities for type of monitoring data....

  4. Wildlife survey and monitoring in the Sky Island Region with an emphasis on neotropical felids

    Treesearch

    Sergio Avila-Villegas; Jessica Lamberton-Moreno

    2013-01-01

    The Sky Island region of southwestern United States and northwestern Mexico consists of isolated mountain ranges separated by deserts and grasslands. It mixes elements from five major ecosystems: the Rocky Mountains, Sierra Madre Occidental, the Sonoran and Chihuahuan deserts and the Neotropics. Here some Neotropical species reach their northern ranges, such as jaguars...

  5. Management of midwestern landscapes for the conservation of neotropical migratory birds; 1995 December 5; Detroit, MI.

    Treesearch

    Frank R. III Thompson

    1996-01-01

    Reviews status of Neotropical migratory landbirds, and effects of land-use practices in the Midwestern United States, from a landscape perspective, through a series of papers authored by regional experts. Includes recommendations for the conservation of Midwestern Neotropical migratory landbirds.

  6. Rediscovering digitules in Aphidomorpha and the question of homology among Sternorrhyncha (Insecta: Hemiptera)

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    We explore and expand on the morphological term digitule. The term was originally proposed for toe like setae on a species of Phylloxera (Hemiptera, Sternorrhynca, Aphidomorpha) by Henry Shimer, an American naturalist. While it is standard terminology in scale systematics (Hemiptera, Sternorrhynca, ...

  7. A new gall-inducing genus and species of Eriococcidae (Hemiptera: Sternorrhyncha: Coccoidea) on Sapindaceae from Brazil.

    PubMed

    Hodgson, Chris; Isaias, Rosy M S; Oliveira, D C

    2013-11-06

    A new gall-inducing genus and species of felt scales (Hemiptera: Coccoidea: Eriococcidae) found on the leaves and twigs of Matayba guianensis (Sapindaceae) in Brazil is described: Bystracoccus Hodgson gen n. and B. mataybae Hodgson, Isaias & Oliveira sp. n.  This is the first record of an eriococcid inducing leaf and stem galls on Sapindaceae and is only the second example of a member of the Eriococcidae to induce stem galls in which the insects diapause during the dry (winter) season.  Only the adult female, second-instar female and crawler are known.  The species overwinters as the first-instar nymph in pit galls on the twigs but spends the rest of the year associated with two-chambered galls on the leaves.  It has recently become clear that South America has a rich felt-scale insect fauna many of which induce galls. It has proved very difficult to place this new genus in a family as it appears to fall between the Eriococcidae and Beesoniidae but is here placed in the eriococcids based on the similarity of the first-instar nymphs and the abundance of this family in the Neotropics.  However, the dorsum of the abdomen of the mature adult female becomes heavily sclerotised, forming a round plug-like structure that completely fills the gall orifice.  This structure shows remarkable morphological similarities to that of the beesoniid Danumococcus parashoreae Takagi & Hodgson found on Parashorea tomentella (Dipterocarpaceae) in Sabah, Malaysia, with which it is compared along with other eriococcid genera known from South America.

  8. Toxicity of Piper aduncum (Piperaceae) Essential Oil Against Euschistus heros (F.) (Hemiptera: Pentatomidae) and Non-Effect on Egg Parasitoids.

    PubMed

    Turchen, L M; Piton, L P; Dall'Oglio, E L; Butnariu, A R; Pereira, M J B

    2016-10-01

    Plant essential oils have been recognized as significant natural resources for insecticides. Herein, we have assessed the toxicity of the essential oil of Piper aduncum (Piperaceae) against Euschistus heros (F.) (Hemiptera: Pentatomidae), a key soybean pest in Neotropical America. In addition, we have assessed its effect on the performance of egg parasitoids. The essential oil was obtained from the leaves of P. aduncum via hydrodistillation. Subsequently, bioassays of the concentration response to eggs (contact and immersion methods), nymphs, and adults (topical application) were conducted, to assess the lethal effects on the stink bug. We also evaluated the performance of parasitism and adult emergence of egg parasitoids, when the host eggs were treated with essential oil. In the egg bioassay, both exposure methods were efficient for unviable eggs (immersion LC50 = 15.64 mg mL(-1); contact LC50 = 21.29 mg mL(-1)), with the highlight on the immersion method. The bioassay with nymphs indicated a higher toxicity of essential oil, with lower concentrations (LC50 = 11.37 mg mL(-1)) being required to cause the death of insects. For adults, a reduction in survival of insects was observed, and consequently, there was a reduction in the number of individuals in the next generation. Although the essential oil was toxic to E. heros, it exhibited lower toxicity for egg parasitoids, as there was no effect on parasitism and the emergence of wasps. We discuss likely explanations for such selectivity. In summary, we found that the essential oil was promising for the control of E. heros, because it caused deleterious effects at all development stages of the stink bug and had no effect on parasitism and emergence of the egg parasitoids, which suggested compatibility with biological control.

  9. Psittacid herpesviruses associated with mucosal papillomas in neotropical parrots.

    PubMed

    Styles, Darrel K; Tomaszewski, Elizabeth K; Jaeger, Laurie A; Phalen, David N

    2004-07-20

    Mucosal papillomas are relatively common lesions in several species of captive neotropical parrots. They cause considerable morbidity and in some cases, result in mortality. Previous efforts to identify papillomavirus DNA and proteins in these lesions have been largely unsuccessful. In contrast, increasing evidence suggests that mucosal papillomas may contain psittacid herpesviruses (PsHVs). In this study, 41 papillomas from 30 neotropical parrots were examined by PCR with PsHV-specific primers. All 41 papillomas were found to contain PsHV DNA. This 100% prevalence of PsHV infection in the papilloma population was found to be significantly higher than PsHV infection prevalence observed in other surveys of captive parrots. PsHV genotypes 1, 2, and 3, but not 4 were found in these lesions. Psittacus erithacus papillomavirus DNA and finch papillomavirus DNA were not found in the papillomas. A papilloma from a hyacinth macaw (Anodorhynchus hyacinthinus) was found to contain cells that had immunoreactivity to antiserum made to the common antigenic region of human papillomavirus (HPV) L1 major capsid protein. However, four other mucosal papillomas were negative for this immunoreactivity, and negative control tissues from a parrot embryo showed a similar staining pattern to that seen in the cloaca papilloma of the hyacinth macaw, strongly suggesting that the staining seen in hyacinth macaw papilloma was nonspecific. Based on these findings, it was concluded that specific genotypes of PsHV play a direct role in the development of mucosal papillomas of neotropical parrots and there is no evidence to suggest the concurrent presence of a papillomavirus in these lesions.

  10. Molecular Ecological Insights into Neotropical Bird-Tick Interactions.

    PubMed

    Miller, Matthew J; Esser, Helen J; Loaiza, Jose R; Herre, Edward Allen; Aguilar, Celestino; Quintero, Diomedes; Alvarez, Eric; Bermingham, Eldredge

    2016-01-01

    In the tropics, ticks parasitize many classes of vertebrate hosts. However, because many tropical tick species are only identifiable in the adult stage, and these adults usually parasitize mammals, most attention on the ecology of tick-host interactions has focused on mammalian hosts. In contrast, immature Neotropical ticks are often found on wild birds, yet difficulties in identifying immatures hinder studies of birds' role in tropical tick ecology and tick-borne disease transmission. In Panama, we found immature ticks on 227 out of 3,498 individually-sampled birds representing 93 host species (24% of the bird species sampled, and 13% of the Panamanian land bird fauna). Tick parasitism rates did not vary with rainfall or temperature, but did vary significantly with several host ecological traits. Likewise, Neotropical-Nearctic migratory birds were significantly less likely to be infested than resident species. Using a molecular library developed from morphologically-identified adult ticks specifically for this study, we identified eleven tick species parasitizing birds, indicating that a substantial portion of the Panamanian avian species pool is parasitized by a diversity of tick species. Tick species that most commonly parasitized birds had the widest diversity of avian hosts, suggesting that immature tick species are opportunistic bird parasites. Although certain avian ecological traits are positively associated with parasitism, we found no evidence that individual tick species show specificity to particular avian host ecological traits. Finally, our data suggest that the four principal vectors of Rocky Mountain Spotted Fever in the Neotropics rarely, if ever, parasitize Panamanian birds. However, other tick species that harbor newly-discovered rickettsial parasites of unknown pathogenicity are frequently found on these birds. Given our discovery of broad interaction between Panamanian tick and avian biodiversity, future work on tick ecology and the dynamics of

  11. Complete mitochondrial genome of the Neotropic cormorant (Phalacrocorax brasilianus).

    PubMed

    Rodrigues, Pedro; Álvarez, Pedro; Verdugo, Claudio

    2017-05-01

    The complete sequence of the Neotropic cormorant (Phalacrocorax brasilianus) mitochondrial DNA was obtained by the shotgun sequencing approach. The mitogenome is 19 042 bp in length and includes 13 protein-coding genes, 2 ribosomal subunit genes, 22 transfer RNA genes, a control region and a duplicated region of 2418 bp. The base composition is 32.1% for C, 31.8% for A, 22.6% for T and 13.4% for G, with an overall GC content of 45.5%. This is the first mitogenome of the P. brasilianus described and will be a useful tool for further phylogenetic and population genetic studies.

  12. Are pollination "syndromes" predictive? Asian dalechampia fit neotropical models.

    PubMed

    Armbruster, W Scott; Gong, Yan-Bing; Huang, Shuang-Quan

    2011-07-01

    Using pollination syndrome parameters and pollinator correlations with floral phenotype from the Neotropics, we predicted that Dalechampia bidentata Blume (Euphorbiaceae) in southern China would be pollinated by female resin-collecting bees between 12 and 20 mm in length. Observations in southwestern Yunnan Province, China, revealed pollination primarily by resin-collecting female Megachile (Callomegachile) faceta Bingham (Hymenoptera: Megachilidae). These bees, at 14 mm in length, were in the predicted size range, confirming the utility of syndromes and models developed in distant regions. Phenotypic selection analyses and estimation of adaptive surfaces and adaptive accuracies together suggest that the blossoms of D. bidentata are well adapted to pollination by their most common floral visitors.

  13. Microsatellite primers for the neotropical epiphyte Epidendrum firmum (Orchidaceae).

    PubMed

    Kartzinel, Tyler R; Trapnell, Dorset W; Glenn, Travis C

    2012-11-01

    Ten microsatellite loci were isolated and characterized for the neotropical epiphytic orchid Epidendrum firmum to examine levels of genetic diversity and genetic structure at multiple spatial scales. We screened loci in 12-25 individuals from each of two populations in Costa Rica and identified 10 polymorphic loci. The number of alleles per locus ranged from one to 15 while observed heterozygosity for polymorphic loci ranged from 0.360 to 0.960. Primers for these informative genetic markers will be useful for quantifying genetic diversity, spatial genetic structure, and gene flow in E. firmum.

  14. First finding of Trichinella pseudospiralis in the Neotropical region.

    PubMed

    Krivokapich, Silvio J; Prous, Cinthia L Gonzalez; Gatti, Graciana M; Saldía, Luisa

    2015-03-15

    Prior to this study, only encapsulated species of Trichinella had been found in South America, i.e., T. spiralis and T. patagoniensis. Here we report the molecular identification of a non-encapsulated isolate of Trichinella from a domestic pig in Argentina. The multiplex PCR technique and the analysis of mitochondrial and nuclear DNA sequences revealed that it belongs to T. pseudospiralis, which parasitises birds and mammals from Australian, Nearctic, and Palaearctic regions. Interestingly, the isolate is closely related to the Palaearctic population. This is the first report of a non-encapsulated species of Trichinella from the Neotropical region. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Point count length and detection of forest neotropical migrant birds

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Dawson, D.K.; Smith, D.R.; Robbins, C.S.; Ralph, C. John; Sauer, John R.; Droege, Sam

    1995-01-01

    Comparisons of bird abundances among years or among habitats assume that the rates at which birds are detected and counted are constant within species. We use point count data collected in forests of the Mid-Atlantic states to estimate detection probabilities for Neotropical migrant bird species as a function of count length. For some species, significant differences existed among years or observers in both the probability of detecting the species and in the rate at which individuals are counted. We demonstrate the consequence that variability in species' detection probabilities can have on estimates of population change, and discuss ways for reducing this source of bias in point count studies.

  16. Wood Anatomy of the Neotropical Sapotaceae. XXIV. Ecclinusa

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1981-05-01

    Guiana HAD 32960 Bernardi 7428 0.78 630 102 1.16 1.02 Venezuela MAD 24283 Breteler 4949 0.73 570 95 1.14 1,20 Venezuela M1D 32976 Forest Department...Sapotac~es Nouvelles de lat Cote Colombienne du Pacifique. Adansonia 7(2):144-146. 4. Aubriville, A. I 1972. The Botany of the Guyana Highland -Part IX...Notes on Guiana Sapotaceae. Rec. Tray. Bot. Neerl. 33:156-210. 8. Kukachka, B. F. 1979. Wood anatomy of the neotropical Sapotaceae XI. Prieurella. USDA

  17. Catalog of the adelgids of the world (Hemiptera, Adelgidae).

    PubMed

    Favret, Colin; Havill, Nathan P; Miller, Gary L; Sano, Masakazu; Victor, Benjamin

    2015-01-01

    A taxonomic and nomenclatural Catalogue of the adelgids (Hemiptera: Adelgidae) is presented. Six family-group names are listed, five being synonyms of Adelgidae. Twenty-two genus-group names, of which nine are subjectively valid and in use, are presented with their type species, etymology, and grammatical gender. One hundred and six species-group names are listed, of which 70 are considered subjectively valid.

  18. Catalog of the phylloxerids of the world (Hemiptera, Phylloxeridae).

    PubMed

    Favret, Colin; Blackman, Roger L; Miller, Gary L; Victor, Benjamin

    2016-01-01

    A taxonomic and nomenclatural catalog of the phylloxerids (Hemiptera, Phylloxeridae) is presented. Six family-group names are listed, three being synonyms. Thirty-five genus-group names, of which six are subjectively valid, are presented with their type species, etymology, and grammatical gender. Ninety-four species-group names are listed, of which 73 are considered subjectively valid. This is the last group of Aphidomorpha to be catalogued, bringing the list of valid extant species to 5,218.

  19. Catalog of the adelgids of the world (Hemiptera, Adelgidae)

    PubMed Central

    Favret, Colin; Havill, Nathan P.; Miller, Gary L.; Sano, Masakazu; Victor, Benjamin

    2015-01-01

    Abstract A taxonomic and nomenclatural Catalogue of the adelgids (Hemiptera: Adelgidae) is presented. Six family-group names are listed, five being synonyms of Adelgidae. Twenty-two genus-group names, of which nine are subjectively valid and in use, are presented with their type species, etymology, and grammatical gender. One hundred and six species-group names are listed, of which 70 are considered subjectively valid. PMID:26668546

  20. Photosharing websites may improve Hemiptera biodiversity knowledge and conservation

    PubMed Central

    Goula, Marta; Sesma, José-Manuel; Vivas, Luis

    2013-01-01

    Abstract Internet photosharing websites is a very recent and powerful tool for the study of biodiversity, and a meeting point of general public fond of nature and professional naturalists. The article discusses when an uploaded picture is scientifically valuable, and the benefits of structured hosting websites for the most fruitful information retrieval. Examples are given of faunistic, biological, ecological and conservation results concerning Hemiptera provided by information download from photosharing websites. PMID:24003310

  1. The genome of Anopheles darlingi, the main neotropical malaria vector.

    PubMed

    Marinotti, Osvaldo; Cerqueira, Gustavo C; de Almeida, Luiz Gonzaga Paula; Ferro, Maria Inês Tiraboschi; Loreto, Elgion Lucio da Silva; Zaha, Arnaldo; Teixeira, Santuza M R; Wespiser, Adam R; Almeida E Silva, Alexandre; Schlindwein, Aline Daiane; Pacheco, Ana Carolina Landim; Silva, Artur Luiz da Costa da; Graveley, Brenton R; Walenz, Brian P; Lima, Bruna de Araujo; Ribeiro, Carlos Alexandre Gomes; Nunes-Silva, Carlos Gustavo; de Carvalho, Carlos Roberto; Soares, Célia Maria de Almeida; de Menezes, Claudia Beatriz Afonso; Matiolli, Cleverson; Caffrey, Daniel; Araújo, Demetrius Antonio M; de Oliveira, Diana Magalhães; Golenbock, Douglas; Grisard, Edmundo Carlos; Fantinatti-Garboggini, Fabiana; de Carvalho, Fabíola Marques; Barcellos, Fernando Gomes; Prosdocimi, Francisco; May, Gemma; Azevedo Junior, Gilson Martins de; Guimarães, Giselle Moura; Goldman, Gustavo Henrique; Padilha, Itácio Q M; Batista, Jacqueline da Silva; Ferro, Jesus Aparecido; Ribeiro, José M C; Fietto, Juliana Lopes Rangel; Dabbas, Karina Maia; Cerdeira, Louise; Agnez-Lima, Lucymara Fassarella; Brocchi, Marcelo; de Carvalho, Marcos Oliveira; Teixeira, Marcus de Melo; Diniz Maia, Maria de Mascena; Goldman, Maria Helena S; Cruz Schneider, Maria Paula; Felipe, Maria Sueli Soares; Hungria, Mariangela; Nicolás, Marisa Fabiana; Pereira, Maristela; Montes, Martín Alejandro; Cantão, Maurício E; Vincentz, Michel; Rafael, Miriam Silva; Silverman, Neal; Stoco, Patrícia Hermes; Souza, Rangel Celso; Vicentini, Renato; Gazzinelli, Ricardo Tostes; Neves, Rogério de Oliveira; Silva, Rosane; Astolfi-Filho, Spartaco; Maciel, Talles Eduardo Ferreira; Urményi, Turán P; Tadei, Wanderli Pedro; Camargo, Erney Plessmann; de Vasconcelos, Ana Tereza Ribeiro

    2013-08-01

    Anopheles darlingi is the principal neotropical malaria vector, responsible for more than a million cases of malaria per year on the American continent. Anopheles darlingi diverged from the African and Asian malaria vectors ∼100 million years ago (mya) and successfully adapted to the New World environment. Here we present an annotated reference A. darlingi genome, sequenced from a wild population of males and females collected in the Brazilian Amazon. A total of 10 481 predicted protein-coding genes were annotated, 72% of which have their closest counterpart in Anopheles gambiae and 21% have highest similarity with other mosquito species. In spite of a long period of divergent evolution, conserved gene synteny was observed between A. darlingi and A. gambiae. More than 10 million single nucleotide polymorphisms and short indels with potential use as genetic markers were identified. Transposable elements correspond to 2.3% of the A. darlingi genome. Genes associated with hematophagy, immunity and insecticide resistance, directly involved in vector-human and vector-parasite interactions, were identified and discussed. This study represents the first effort to sequence the genome of a neotropical malaria vector, and opens a new window through which we can contemplate the evolutionary history of anopheline mosquitoes. It also provides valuable information that may lead to novel strategies to reduce malaria transmission on the South American continent. The A. darlingi genome is accessible at www.labinfo.lncc.br/index.php/anopheles-darlingi.

  2. Seasonality and habitat types affect roadkill of neotropical birds.

    PubMed

    da Rosa, Clarissa Alves; Bager, Alex

    2012-04-30

    Roadkills are amongst the most significant biodiversity impacts, although little is known about the factors which influence the roadkill of neotropical birds. Hence, the objective was to evaluate differences in roadkill richness and rates for neotropical birds according to the seasons of the year and habitat types associated with roads. The data was collected along two federal highways, in southern Brazil. We identified 57 roadkilled species, for a mean roadkill rate of 0.06 ind./km/day (Min.=0.009; Max.=0.47). Our results demonstrate that richness and roadkill rates change according to seasonality and habitat types. Roadkills were concentrated in rice fields and wetlands, intensifying both in richness and rates during the summer and autumn. Nearby areas have similar roadkill rates, independent of habitat types. This probably occurs due to the movement of several species seeking food and shelter. Juvenile dispersion, harvest and grain transportation periods, as well as flight and foraging behaviors over road lanes seem to be related to the increasing roadkill occurrences and richness regarding more abundant species. However, given the elevated number of occasionally roadkilled species (more than 70% with N<5), we believe that highway surface and traffic act as physical barriers which inhibit the movement of many species which either present occasional roadkills or none at all. Crown Copyright © 2011. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Diversity and Distributional Patterns of Neotropical Freshwater Copepods (Calanoida: Diaptomidae)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Suárez-Morales, E.; Reid, J. W.; Elías-Gutiérrez, M.

    2005-02-01

    The distributional patterns and diversity of the diaptomid calanoid copepods were analysed to assess the faunistic affinity of North and South America with respect to Mexico and Central America. In the Neotropical region, the most speciose genera of Diaptomidae are Leptodiaptomus and Mastigodiaptomus. The former genus is a Nearctic form, and Mastigodiaptomus is Neotropical. Based on the current distribution of their diversity, it is probable that these genera radiated into Mexico and Central America from North America and the insular Caribbean, respectively. Arctodiaptomus dorsalis is a primarily Palaearctic taxon, it is widely distributed between North and Central America. This species probably radiated in the Americas as a Tethyan derivate. Prionodiaptomus is the only member of the highly diverse South American diaptomid fauna that has expanded beyond the subcontinent. Despite the high diversity present in South America, its influence in Mexico and Central America appears to be weak; this is probably a consequence of the geologically recent union of the two main subcontinental landmasses. Mexico shares 33% of its species with NA, and no species are shared between NA and SA. For the Diaptomidae, the Nearctic influence is strongest in Mexico.

  4. The Genome of Anopheles darlingi, the main neotropical malaria vector

    PubMed Central

    Marinotti, Osvaldo; Cerqueira, Gustavo C.; de Almeida, Luiz Gonzaga Paula; Ferro, Maria Inês Tiraboschi; Loreto, Elgion Lucio da Silva; Zaha, Arnaldo; Teixeira, Santuza M. R.; Wespiser, Adam R.; Almeida e Silva, Alexandre; Schlindwein, Aline Daiane; Pacheco, Ana Carolina Landim; da Silva, Artur Luiz da Costa; Graveley, Brenton R.; Walenz, Brian P.; Lima, Bruna de Araujo; Ribeiro, Carlos Alexandre Gomes; Nunes-Silva, Carlos Gustavo; de Carvalho, Carlos Roberto; Soares, Célia Maria de Almeida; de Menezes, Claudia Beatriz Afonso; Matiolli, Cleverson; Caffrey, Daniel; Araújo, Demetrius Antonio M.; de Oliveira, Diana Magalhães; Golenbock, Douglas; Grisard, Edmundo Carlos; Fantinatti-Garboggini, Fabiana; de Carvalho, Fabíola Marques; Barcellos, Fernando Gomes; Prosdocimi, Francisco; May, Gemma; de Azevedo Junior, Gilson Martins; Guimarães, Giselle Moura; Goldman, Gustavo Henrique; Padilha, Itácio Q. M.; Batista, Jacqueline da Silva; Ferro, Jesus Aparecido; Ribeiro, José M. C.; Fietto, Juliana Lopes Rangel; Dabbas, Karina Maia; Cerdeira, Louise; Agnez-Lima, Lucymara Fassarella; Brocchi, Marcelo; de Carvalho, Marcos Oliveira; Teixeira, Marcus de Melo; Diniz Maia, Maria de Mascena; Goldman, Maria Helena S.; Cruz Schneider, Maria Paula; Felipe, Maria Sueli Soares; Hungria, Mariangela; Nicolás, Marisa Fabiana; Pereira, Maristela; Montes, Martín Alejandro; Cantão, Maurício E.; Vincentz, Michel; Rafael, Miriam Silva; Silverman, Neal; Stoco, Patrícia Hermes; Souza, Rangel Celso; Vicentini, Renato; Gazzinelli, Ricardo Tostes; Neves, Rogério de Oliveira; Silva, Rosane; Astolfi-Filho, Spartaco; Maciel, Talles Eduardo Ferreira; Ürményi, Turán P.; Tadei, Wanderli Pedro; Camargo, Erney Plessmann; de Vasconcelos, Ana Tereza Ribeiro

    2013-01-01

    Anopheles darlingi is the principal neotropical malaria vector, responsible for more than a million cases of malaria per year on the American continent. Anopheles darlingi diverged from the African and Asian malaria vectors ∼100 million years ago (mya) and successfully adapted to the New World environment. Here we present an annotated reference A. darlingi genome, sequenced from a wild population of males and females collected in the Brazilian Amazon. A total of 10 481 predicted protein-coding genes were annotated, 72% of which have their closest counterpart in Anopheles gambiae and 21% have highest similarity with other mosquito species. In spite of a long period of divergent evolution, conserved gene synteny was observed between A. darlingi and A. gambiae. More than 10 million single nucleotide polymorphisms and short indels with potential use as genetic markers were identified. Transposable elements correspond to 2.3% of the A. darlingi genome. Genes associated with hematophagy, immunity and insecticide resistance, directly involved in vector–human and vector–parasite interactions, were identified and discussed. This study represents the first effort to sequence the genome of a neotropical malaria vector, and opens a new window through which we can contemplate the evolutionary history of anopheline mosquitoes. It also provides valuable information that may lead to novel strategies to reduce malaria transmission on the South American continent. The A. darlingi genome is accessible at www.labinfo.lncc.br/index.php/anopheles-darlingi. PMID:23761445

  5. Transcriptomic resources for an endemic Neotropical plant lineage (Gesneriaceae).

    PubMed

    Serrano-Serrano, Martha L; Marcionetti, Anna; Perret, Mathieu; Salamin, Nicolas

    2017-04-01

    Despite the extensive phenotypic variation that characterizes the Gesneriaceae family, there is a lack of genomic resources to investigate the molecular basis of their diversity. We developed and compared the transcriptomes for two species of the Neotropical lineage of the Gesneriaceae. Illumina sequencing and de novo assembly of floral and leaf samples were used to generate multigene sequence data for Sinningia eumorpha and S. magnifica, two species endemic to the Brazilian Atlantic Forest. A total of 300 million reads were used to assemble the transcriptomes, with an average of 92,038 transcripts and 43,506 genes per species. The transcriptomes showed good quality metrics, with the presence of all eukaryotic core genes, and an equal representation of clusters of orthologous groups (COG) classifications between species. The orthologous search produced 8602 groups, with 15-20% of them annotated using BLAST tools. This study provides the first step toward a comprehensive multispecies transcriptome characterization of the Gesneriaceae family. These resources are the basis for comparative analyses in this species-rich Neotropical plant group; they will also allow the investigation of the evolutionary importance of multiple metabolic pathways and phenotypic diversity, as well as developmental programs in these nonmodel species.

  6. Transcriptomic resources for an endemic Neotropical plant lineage (Gesneriaceae)1

    PubMed Central

    Serrano-Serrano, Martha L.; Marcionetti, Anna; Perret, Mathieu; Salamin, Nicolas

    2017-01-01

    Premise of the study: Despite the extensive phenotypic variation that characterizes the Gesneriaceae family, there is a lack of genomic resources to investigate the molecular basis of their diversity. We developed and compared the transcriptomes for two species of the Neotropical lineage of the Gesneriaceae. Methods and Results: Illumina sequencing and de novo assembly of floral and leaf samples were used to generate multigene sequence data for Sinningia eumorpha and S. magnifica, two species endemic to the Brazilian Atlantic Forest. A total of 300 million reads were used to assemble the transcriptomes, with an average of 92,038 transcripts and 43,506 genes per species. The transcriptomes showed good quality metrics, with the presence of all eukaryotic core genes, and an equal representation of clusters of orthologous groups (COG) classifications between species. The orthologous search produced 8602 groups, with 15–20% of them annotated using BLAST tools. Discussion: This study provides the first step toward a comprehensive multispecies transcriptome characterization of the Gesneriaceae family. These resources are the basis for comparative analyses in this species-rich Neotropical plant group; they will also allow the investigation of the evolutionary importance of multiple metabolic pathways and phenotypic diversity, as well as developmental programs in these nonmodel species. PMID:28439475

  7. New Neotropical Nilothauma Kieffer, 1921 From Brazil (Diptera, Chironomidae)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mendes, H. F.; Andersen, T.

    2005-05-01

    The larvae of Nilothauma Kieffer, 1921 are found in the littoral and sublittoral sediments of both standing and flowing waters. The adults are easily recognized as they have one or several median, setose projections on tergite IX. The genus was recently revised, and 25 species in four species groups are recognized from the Holarctic, Oriental, Australian and Afrotropical regions. Two species from Peru described in Nilothauma, are now considered to belong in Paratendipes Kieffer, 1911, as they both lack any projection on tergite IX. No species of Nilothauma from the Neotropical region have been named so far, although both larvae and pupa exuviae have been recorded repeatedly from Brazil. In the present paper we describe and figure four new species of Nilothauma from Brazil. Three of the species are described on male imagines only, while the fourth species also have associated pupal exuviae. The genus groups with the genera Neelamia Soponis, 1986 and Paranilothauma Soponis, 1986, both of which are restricted to the Neotropical region.

  8. Evaluating the diversity of Neotropical anurans using DNA barcodes

    PubMed Central

    Estupiñán, Ruth A.; Ferrari, Stephen F.; Gonçalves, Evonnildo C.; Barbosa, Maria Silvanira R.; Vallinoto, Marcelo; Schneider, Maria Paula C.

    2016-01-01

    Abstract This study tested the effectiveness of COI barcodes for the discrimination of anuran species from the Amazon basin and other Neotropical regions. Barcodes were determined for a total of 59 species, with a further 58 species being included from GenBank. In most cases, distinguishing species using the barcodes was straightforward. Each species had a distinct COI barcode or codes, with intraspecific distances ranging from 0% to 9.9%. However, relatively high intraspecific divergence (11.4–19.4%) was observed in some species, such as Ranitomeya ventrimaculata, Craugastor fitzingeri, Hypsiboas leptolineatus, Scinax fuscomarginatus and Leptodactylus knudseni, which may reflect errors of identification or the presence of a species complex. Intraspecific distances recorded in species for which samples were obtained from GenBank (Engystomops pustulosus, Atelopus varius, Craugastor podiciferus, and Dendropsophus labialis) were greater than those between many pairs of species. Interspecific distances ranged between 11–39%. Overall, the clear differences observed between most intra- and inter-specific distances indicate that the COI barcode is an effective tool for the identification of Neotropical species in most of the cases analyzed in the present study. PMID:28138277

  9. Feeding innovations in a nested phylogeny of Neotropical passerines.

    PubMed

    Lefebvre, Louis; Ducatez, Simon; Audet, Jean-Nicolas

    2016-03-19

    Several studies on cognition, molecular phylogenetics and taxonomic diversity independently suggest that Darwin's finches are part of a larger clade of speciose, flexible birds, the family Thraupidae, a member of the New World nine-primaried oscine superfamily Emberizoidea. Here, we first present a new, previously unpublished, dataset of feeding innovations covering the Neotropical region and compare the stem clades of Darwin's finches to other neotropical clades at the levels of the subfamily, family and superfamily/order. Both in terms of raw frequency as well as rates corrected for research effort and phylogeny, the family Thraupidae and superfamily Emberizoidea show high levels of innovation, supporting the idea that adaptive radiations are favoured when the ancestral stem species were flexible. Second, we discuss examples of innovation and problem-solving in two opportunistic and tame Emberizoid species, the Barbados bullfinch Loxigilla barbadensis and the Carib grackle Quiscalus lugubris fortirostris in Barbados. We review studies on these two species and argue that a comparison of L. barbadensis with its closest, but very shy and conservative local relative, the black-faced grassquit Tiaris bicolor, might provide key insights into the evolutionary divergence of cognition. © 2016 The Author(s).

  10. Feeding innovations in a nested phylogeny of Neotropical passerines

    PubMed Central

    Lefebvre, Louis; Ducatez, Simon; Audet, Jean-Nicolas

    2016-01-01

    Several studies on cognition, molecular phylogenetics and taxonomic diversity independently suggest that Darwin's finches are part of a larger clade of speciose, flexible birds, the family Thraupidae, a member of the New World nine-primaried oscine superfamily Emberizoidea. Here, we first present a new, previously unpublished, dataset of feeding innovations covering the Neotropical region and compare the stem clades of Darwin's finches to other neotropical clades at the levels of the subfamily, family and superfamily/order. Both in terms of raw frequency as well as rates corrected for research effort and phylogeny, the family Thraupidae and superfamily Emberizoidea show high levels of innovation, supporting the idea that adaptive radiations are favoured when the ancestral stem species were flexible. Second, we discuss examples of innovation and problem-solving in two opportunistic and tame Emberizoid species, the Barbados bullfinch Loxigilla barbadensis and the Carib grackle Quiscalus lugubris fortirostris in Barbados. We review studies on these two species and argue that a comparison of L. barbadensis with its closest, but very shy and conservative local relative, the black-faced grassquit Tiaris bicolor, might provide key insights into the evolutionary divergence of cognition. PMID:26926278

  11. Diversity and distribution of the free-living freshwater Cyclopoida (Copepoda: Crustacea) in the Neotropics.

    PubMed

    Silva, W M

    2008-11-01

    Cyclopoida species from the Neotropics are listed and their distributions are commented. The results showed 148 species in the Neotropics, where 83 species were recorded in the northern region (above upon Equator) and 110 species in the southern region (below the Equator). Species richness and endemism are related more to the number of specialists than to environmental complexity. New researcher should be made on to the Copepod taxonomy and the and new skills utilized to solve the main questions on the true distributions and Cyclopoida diversity patterns in the Neotropics.

  12. The complete mitochondrial genome of a spiraling whitefly, Aleurodicus dispersus Russell (Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae).

    PubMed

    Ming-Xing, Lu; Zhi-Teng, Chen; Wei-Wei, Yu; Yu-Zhou, Du

    2017-03-01

    We report the complete mitochondrial genome (mitogenome) of a spiraling whitefly, Aleurodicus dispersus (Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae). The 16 170 bp long genome consists of 13 protein-coding genes, 20 transfer RNAs, 2 ribosomal RNAs, and a control region. The A. dispersus mitogenome also includes a cytb-like non-coding region and shows several variations relative to the typical insect mitogenome. A phylogenetic tree has been constructed using the 13 protein-coding genes of 12 related species from Hemiptera. Our results would contribute to further study of phylogeny in Aleyrodidae and Hemiptera.

  13. New neotropical species of Trupanea (Diptera: Tephritidae) with unusual wing patterns

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Four species of Trupanea (Diptera: Tephritidae) with unusual wing patterns are described from the Neotropical Region: T. dimorphica (Argentina), T. fasciata (Argentina), T. polita (Argentina and Bolivia), and T. trivittata (Argentina). Celidosphenella Hendel, 1914 and Melanotrypana Hering, 1944 are ...

  14. First record of the genus Phradis Förster (Hymenoptera, Ichneumonidae, Tersilochinae) from the Neotropical Region

    PubMed Central

    Khalaim, Andrey I.; Bordera, Santiago

    2012-01-01

    Abstract One new species of the genus Phradis, Phradis peruvianus sp. n., from the mountainous part of Peruvian Amazonia, is described and illustrated. This is the first record of the genus from South America and the Neotropical region. PMID:22371684

  15. 78 FR 33857 - Meeting Announcements: North American Wetlands Conservation Council; Neotropical Migratory Bird...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-06-05

    ...; 91100-3740-GRNT 7C] Meeting Announcements: North American Wetlands Conservation Council; Neotropical... meetings. SUMMARY: The North American Wetlands Conservation Council (Council) will meet to select North American Wetlands Conservation Act (NAWCA) grant proposals for recommendation to the Migratory...

  16. A New Subgenus and Species of Neotropical Hylaeus from Costa Rica (Hymenoptera: Colletidae)

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    A new Neotropical subgenus of Hylaeus, Snellingella, is described, with Hylaeus amplus new species from Costa Rica as the type species. Characteristics to separate the new species from other Costa Rican Hylaeus are provided....

  17. Three new species of tribe Odynerini (Hymenoptera, Vespidae, Eumeninae) from the Neotropical Region.

    PubMed

    Grandinete, Yuri Campanholo; Noll, Fernando Barbosa; Carpenter, James

    2016-09-09

    Three new species from the Neotropical region are described: Ancistroceroides soikai Grandinete & Carpenter, sp. nov. (Costa Rica, Paraguay); Cephalastor huautla Grandinete & Carpenter, sp. nov. (Mexico), and Symmorphus centralis Carpenter & Grandinete, sp. nov. (Costa Rica).

  18. Neotropical migratory breeding bird communities in riparian forests of different widths along the Altamaha River, Georgia

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hodges, M.F.; Krementz, D.G.

    1996-01-01

    -We surveyed riparian forest corridors of different widths along the lower Altamaha River in Georgia in 1993 and 1994 to investigate the relationship between forest corridor width and Neotropical breeding bird community diversity and abundance. Species richness and abundance of three of six focal species increased with increasing forest corridor width. We suggest if Neotropical breeding bird communities are a target group, that land managers should consider leaving a 100 m buffer strip along riparian zones.

  19. Holocene rain-forest wilderness: a neotropical perspective on humans as an exotic, invasive species

    Treesearch

    Robert L. Sanford; Sally P. Horn

    2000-01-01

    Large areas of lowland tropical rain-forests in the neotropics have been burned over the past 6,000 years, mostly by pre-Colombian agriculturists. This paper presents additional evidence of fires and other human impacts in neotropical forests, and considers the opportunities and limitations of different approaches to determining past land-use “signatures.” Knowledge of...

  20. Body Size Diversity and Frequency Distributions of Neotropical Cichlid Fishes (Cichliformes: Cichlidae: Cichlinae)

    PubMed Central

    Steele, Sarah E.; López-Fernández, Hernán

    2014-01-01

    Body size is an important correlate of life history, ecology and distribution of species. Despite this, very little is known about body size evolution in fishes, particularly freshwater fishes of the Neotropics where species and body size diversity are relatively high. Phylogenetic history and body size data were used to explore body size frequency distributions in Neotropical cichlids, a broadly distributed and ecologically diverse group of fishes that is highly representative of body size diversity in Neotropical freshwater fishes. We test for divergence, phylogenetic autocorrelation and among-clade partitioning of body size space. Neotropical cichlids show low phylogenetic autocorrelation and divergence within and among taxonomic levels. Three distinct regions of body size space were identified from body size frequency distributions at various taxonomic levels corresponding to subclades of the most diverse tribe, Geophagini. These regions suggest that lineages may be evolving towards particular size optima that may be tied to specific ecological roles. The diversification of Geophagini appears to constrain the evolution of body size among other Neotropical cichlid lineages; non-Geophagini clades show lower species-richness in body size regions shared with Geophagini. Neotropical cichlid genera show less divergence and extreme body size than expected within and among tribes. Body size divergence among species may instead be present or linked to ecology at the community assembly scale. PMID:25180970

  1. The use of microsatellite markers in Neotropical studies of wild birds: a literature review.

    PubMed

    Moura, Renan F; Dawson, Deborah A; Nogueira, Denise M

    2017-02-06

    Despite extensive habitat fragmentation, the Neotropical region possesses 30% of the world´s bird species. Microsatellites have remained one of the most popular genetic markers and have been used in ecological and conservation studies since the 1990's. We conducted a literature review comparing the number of papers published from January 1990 to July 2015 that used microsatellite markers for studies of wild birds in the Neotropical region, USA and some European countries. We assigned the articles to three categories of studies: population genetics, animal behavior/kinship analysis and the development of species-specific bird microsatellite markers. We also compared the studies in the Neotropics that used heterologous versus species-specific markers and provide a list of heterologous markers of utility in multiple birds. Despite the rich bird fauna in the Neotropics, the number of articles published represents only 5.6% of that published by the USA and selected European countries. Within the Neotropical region, Brazil possessed 60.5% of the total papers published, with the remaining 39.5% shared between five countries. We conclude that the lack of specialized laboratories and resources still represents a limit to microsatellite-based genetic studies of birds within the Neotropical region. To overcome these limitations, we suggest the use of heterologous microsatellite markers as a cost-effective and time-effective tool to assist ecological studies of wild birds.

  2. Conservation challenges for the Austral and Neotropical America section.

    PubMed

    Ceballos, Gerardo; Vale, Mariana M; Bonacic, Cristian; Calvo-Alvarado, Julio; List, Rurik; Bynum, Nora; Medellín, Rodrigo A; Simonetti, Javier A; Rodríguez, Jon Paul

    2009-08-01

    The Austral and Neotropical America (ANA) section of the Society for Conservation Biology includes a vast territory with some of the largest relatively pristine ecosystems in the world. With more than 573 million people, the economic growth of the region still depends strongly on natural resource exploitation and still has high rates of environmental degradation and biodiversity loss. A survey among the ANA section membership, with more than 700 members, including most of the section's prominent ecologists and conservationists, indicates that lack of capacity building for conservation, corruption, and threats such as deforestation and illegal trade of species, are among the most urgent problems that need to be addressed to improve conservation in the region. There are, however, strong universities and ecology groups taking the lead in environmental research and conservation, a most important issue to enhance the ability of the region to solve conservation and development conflicts.

  3. Guyanagarika, a new ectomycorrhizal genus of Agaricales from the Neotropics.

    PubMed

    Sánchez-García, Marisol; Henkel, Terry W; Aime, Mary Catherine; Smith, Matthew E; Matheny, Patrick Brandon

    2016-12-01

    A new genus and three new species of Agaricales are described from the Pakaraima Mountains of Guyana in the central Guiana Shield. All three of these new species fruit on the ground in association with species of the ectomycorrhizal (ECM) tree genus Dicymbe (Fabaceae subfam. Caesalpinioideae) and one species has been shown to form ectomycorrhizas. Multi-locus molecular phylogenetic analyses place Guyanagarika gen. nov. within the Catathelasma clade, a lineage in the suborder Tricholomatineae of the Agaricales. We formally recognize this 'Catathelasma clade' as an expanded family Catathelasmataceae that includes the genera Callistosporium, Catathelasma, Guyanagarika, Macrocybe, Pleurocollybia, and Pseudolaccaria. Within the Catathelasmataceae, Catathelasma and Guyanagarika represent independent origins of the ectomycorrhizal habit. Guyanagarika is the first documented case of an ECM Agaricales genus known only from the Neotropics. Copyright © 2016 British Mycological Society. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Morphologically differentiated sex chromosomes in neotropical freshwater fish.

    PubMed

    de Almeida Toledo, L F; Foresti, F

    2001-01-01

    A general survey of the occurrence of morphologically differentiated sex chromosomes in the neotropical freshwater fishes is presented. The total number of 32 occurrences involving simple XX-XY and ZZ-ZW, and multiple X1X2Y, XY1Y2 and ZW1W2 sex chromosome systems is described, with comments on the aspects of sex chromosome evolution in this fish fauna. The occurrence of different sex chromosome systems in related species of the same genus, or in different populations of the same nominal species, involving male and sometimes female heterogamety, and differences in the molecular composition of sex-linked heterochromatin, are considered as indicative of the early stage of sex chromosomes evolution in fish.

  5. Identification of neotropical felid faeces using RCP-PCR.

    PubMed

    Roques, S; Adrados, B; Chavez, C; Keller, C; Magnusson, W E; Palomares, F; Godoy, J A

    2011-01-01

    Faeces similarity among sympatric felid species has generally hampered their use in distributional, demographic and dietary studies. Here, we present a new and simple approach based on a set of species-specific primers, for the unambiguous identification of faeces from sympatric neotropical felids (i.e. puma, jaguar, jaguarundi and ocelot/ margay). This method, referred to as rapid classificatory protocol-PCR (RCP-PCR), consists of a single-tube multiplex PCR yielding species-specific banding patterns on agarose gel. The method was optimized with samples of known origin (14 blood and 15 fresh faeces) and validated in faecal samples of unknown origin (n = 138), for some of which (n = 40) we also obtained species identification based on mtDNA sequencing. This approach proved reliable and provides high identification success rates from faeces. Its simplicity and cost effectiveness should facilitate its application for routine surveys of presence and abundance of these species. © 2010 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  6. Some Possible Cases of Escape Mimicry in Neotropical Butterflies.

    PubMed

    Pinheiro, C E G; Freitas, A V L

    2014-10-01

    The possibility that escape or evasive mimicry evolved in butterflies and other prey insects in a similar fashion to classical Batesian and Müllerian mimicry has long been advanced in the literature. However, there is a general disagreement among lepidopterists and evolutionary biologists on whether or not escape mimicry exists, as well as in which mimicry rings this form of mimicry has evolved. Here, we review some purported cases of escape mimicry in Neotropical butterflies and suggest new mimicry rings involving several species of Archaeoprepona, Prepona, and Doxocopa (the "bright blue bands" ring) and species of Colobura and Hypna (the "creamy bands" ring) where the palatability of butterflies, their ability to escape predator attacks, geographic distribution, relative abundance, and co-occurrence in the same habitats strongly suggest that escape mimicry is involved. In addition, we also indicate other butterfly taxa whose similarities of coloration patterns could be due to escape mimicry and would constitute important case studies for future investigation.

  7. Challenges and perspectives for species distribution modelling in the neotropics

    PubMed Central

    Kamino, Luciana H. Y.; Stehmann, João Renato; Amaral, Silvana; De Marco, Paulo; Rangel, Thiago F.; de Siqueira, Marinez F.; De Giovanni, Renato; Hortal, Joaquín

    2012-01-01

    The workshop ‘Species distribution models: applications, challenges and perspectives’ held at Belo Horizonte (Brazil), 29–30 August 2011, aimed to review the state-of-the-art in species distribution modelling (SDM) in the neotropical realm. It brought together researchers in ecology, evolution, biogeography and conservation, with different backgrounds and research interests. The application of SDM in the megadiverse neotropics—where data on species occurrences are scarce—presents several challenges, involving acknowledging the limitations imposed by data quality, including surveys as an integral part of SDM studies, and designing the analyses in accordance with the question investigated. Specific solutions were discussed, and a code of good practice in SDM studies and related field surveys was drafted. PMID:22031720

  8. Unexplored diversity and conservation potential of neotropical hot caves.

    PubMed

    Ladle, Richard J; Firmino, João V L; Malhado, Ana C M; Rodríguez-Durán, Armando

    2012-12-01

    The term hot cave is used to describe some subterranean chambers in the Neotropics that are characterized by constantly high ambient temperatures generated by the body heat of high densities of certain bat species. Many of these species have limited geographic ranges, and some occur only in the hot-cave environment. In addition to the bats, the stable microclimate and abundant bat guano provides refuge and food for a high diversity of invertebrates. Hot caves have so far been described in the Caribbean and in a few isolated locations from Mexico to Brazil, although there is some evidence that similar caves may be present throughout the tropics. The existing literature suggests these poorly known ecosystems, with their unique combination of geomorphology and bat-generated microclimate, are particularly sensitive to disturbance and face multiple threats from urbanization, agricultural development, mining, and tourism. ©2012 Society for Conservation Biology.

  9. A study on the Neotropical Anthaxiini (Coleoptera, Buprestidae, Buprestinae)

    PubMed Central

    Bílý, Svatopluk

    2013-01-01

    Abstract Revision of the Neotropical genera of the subtribe Anthaxiina Gory & Laporte, 1839 (Coleoptera, Buprestidae, Buprestinae, Anthaxiini). Five new genera are described: Anthaxita gen. n., Charlesina gen. n., Cobosina gen. n., Marikia gen. n. and Sanchezia gen. n. Genus Agrilaxia Kerremans, 1903 is divided into two subgenera: Agrilaxia and Costiptera subgen. n. and the genus Bilyaxia Hołyński, 1989 is divided into three subgenera: Bilyaxia, Paraguayetta subgen. n. and Tomasia subgen. n. One new species is described: Anthaxita peruviana sp. n., and two informal species-groups are suggested within Agrilaxia (Costiptera subgen. n.): Agrilaxia (Costiptera) modesta (Kerremans, 1897) species-group and Agrilaxia (Costiptera) occidentalis (Kerremans, 1900) species-group. Lectotype is designated for Agrilaxia mrazi Obenberger, 1932. A key of all genera/subgenera is provided and all treated taxa are illustrated. PMID:23794907

  10. Species-richness in Neotropical Sericothripinae (Thysanoptera: Thripidae).

    PubMed

    Lima, Élison Fabrício B; Mound, Laurence A

    2016-09-08

    Two of the three recognized genera of Sericothripinae are known from the Neotropics, and 14 new species from this area are here described in this subfamily. Illustrated keys are provided to females of seven species of Hydatothrips, and 41 species of Neohydatothrips, mainly from Brazil but including all recorded species south of the border between Mexico and USA. Plant species on which breeding has been recorded are indicated where possible, notes are provided on the few species of economic importance, and a key is appended to second instar larvae of seven species. Neohydatothrips burungae (Hood) stat. rev. and N. aztecus Johansen stat. rev. are recalled from synonymy with Neohydatothrips signifer (Priesner), and N. denigratus (De Santis) syn. n. is synonymized with N. burungae. Hydatothrips williamsi (Hood) comb. n. is relocated from Neohydatothrips, and as this produces a homonym in the genus, Hydatothrips tareei nom. nov. is proposed for Hydatothrips williamsi Mound & Tree from Australia.

  11. Casuarinacola, a new genus of jumping plant lice (Hemiptera: Triozidae) from Casuarina (Casuarinaceae)

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    A new genus, Casuarinacola comprising four new species, namely C. equisetifoliae, C. acutialata, C. melanomaculata and C. warrigalensis, of jumping plant lice (Hemiptera: Triozidae), specific to the host genus Casuarina sensu stricto (Casuarinaceae) from Australia, are described. They are characteri...

  12. Variation in male and female genitalia among ten species of North American Anthocoris (Hemiptera: Heteroptera: Anthocoridae)

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    We compared morphology of internal reproductive anatomy and genitalia among 10 species of North American Anthocoris (Hemiptera: Heteroptera: Anthocoridae). Reproductive structures of males, including internal reproductive organs (testes, seminal vesicles, ejaculatory bulb, phallus), the left parame...

  13. "Candidatus Liberibacter solanacearum” associated with the psyllid, Bactericera maculipennis (Hemiptera: Triozidae)

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The psyllid Bactericera maculipennis (Crawford) (Hemiptera: Triozidae) often cohabits field bindweed (Convolvulus arvensis, Solanales: Convolvulaceae) and other plants with the congeneric psyllid, Bactericera cockerelli (Šulc) in the Pacific Northwestern United States. Bactericera cockerelli is a v...

  14. Application of plant growth regulators mitigates chlorotic foliar injury by the black pecan aphid (Hemiptera: Aphididae)

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Chlorotic feeding injury by the black pecan aphid, Melanocallis caryaefoliae (Davis) (Hemiptera: Aphididae), to pecan (Carya illinoinensis [Wangenh.] K. Koch) foliage can result in leaf senescence and abscission. The plant growth regulators chlorforfenuron (CPPU), gibberellic acid (GA3) and aminoet...

  15. Bacterial endosymbionts of the psyllid Cacopsylla pyricola in the Pacific Northwestern United States (Hemiptera: Psyllidae)

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Insects often have facultative associations with bacterial endosymbionts, which can alter the insects' susceptibility to parasitism, pathogens, plant defenses, and certain classes of insecticides. We collected pear psylla, Cacopsylla pyricola (Förster) (Hemiptera: Psyllidae), from pear orchards in W...

  16. Host range specificity of Scymnus camptodromus (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae), a predator of hemlock woolly adelgid (Hemiptera: Adelgidae)

    Treesearch

    Samita Limbu; Katie Cassidy; Melody Keena; Patrick Tobin; Kelli Hoover

    2015-01-01

    Scymnus (Neopullus) camptodromus Yu and Liu (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae) was brought to the United States from China as a potential biological control agent for hemlock woolly adelgid (Adelges tsugae Annand) (Hemiptera: Adelgidae). Scymnus camptodromus phenology is...

  17. Preparing sternorrhynchous insects (Insecta: Hemiptera: Sternorrhyncha) for microscope examination: Hoyer’s mounting medium

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Proper identification of aphids, scale insects, psyllids, and whitefles (Hemiptera: Sternorrhyncha) require preparation of the specimen on a microscope slide. This training video provides visual instruction on how to prepare sternorrhynchous specimens on microscope slides for examination and identi...

  18. Scymnus camptodromus (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae) larval development and predation of hemlock woolly adelgid (Hemiptera: Adelgidae)

    Treesearch

    Samita Limbu; Melody A. Keena; David Long; Nancy Ostiguy; Kelli. Hoover

    2015-01-01

    Development time and prey consumption of Scymnus (Neopullus) camptodromus Yu and Liu (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae) larvae by instar, strain, and temperature were evaluated. S. camptodromus, a specialist predator of hemlock woolly adelgid Adelges tsugae (Annand) (Hemiptera:...

  19. Preparing soft-bodied arthropods for microscope examination: Aphids (Insecta: Hemiptera: Aphididae)

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Proper identification of aphids (Hemiptera: Aphididae) require preparation of the specimen on a microscope slide. This training video provides visual instruction on how to prepare aphid specimens on microscope slides for examination and indentification. Steps ranging from collection, specimen clear...

  20. Preparing soft-bodied arthropods for arthropods for microscope examination: Armored Scales (Insects: Hemiptera: Diaspididae)

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Proper identification of armored scales (Hemiptera: Diaspididae) requires preparation of the specimen on a microscope slide. This training video provides visual instruction on how to prepare armored scales specimens on microscope slides for examination and identification. Steps ranging from collect...

  1. Preparing soft-bodied arthropods for microscope examination: Whiteflies (Insecta: Hemiptera: Alyrodidae)

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Proper identification of whiteflies (Hemiptera:Alyrodidae) requires preparation of the specimen on a microscope slide. This training video provides visual instruction on how to prepare whitefly specimens on microscope slides for examination and identification. Steps ranging from collection, specimen...

  2. Egg parasitoids of Taosa spp. (Hemiptera:Dictyopharidae)in Formosa Argentina with descriptions of new species

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Egg parasitoids (Hymenoptera: Eulophidae and Platygastridae) of Taosa (Cuernavaca) longula Remes Lenicov (Hemiptera: Dictyopharidae) are reviewed and keyed. This planthopper feeds on water hyacinth, Eichhornia crassipes (Martius) Solms-Laubach, and was collected in Formosa, Argentina, where some of ...

  3. Molecular Ecological Insights into Neotropical Bird–Tick Interactions

    PubMed Central

    Esser, Helen J.; Loaiza, Jose R.; Herre, Edward Allen; Aguilar, Celestino; Quintero, Diomedes; Alvarez, Eric; Bermingham, Eldredge

    2016-01-01

    In the tropics, ticks parasitize many classes of vertebrate hosts. However, because many tropical tick species are only identifiable in the adult stage, and these adults usually parasitize mammals, most attention on the ecology of tick-host interactions has focused on mammalian hosts. In contrast, immature Neotropical ticks are often found on wild birds, yet difficulties in identifying immatures hinder studies of birds’ role in tropical tick ecology and tick-borne disease transmission. In Panama, we found immature ticks on 227 out of 3,498 individually–sampled birds representing 93 host species (24% of the bird species sampled, and 13% of the Panamanian land bird fauna). Tick parasitism rates did not vary with rainfall or temperature, but did vary significantly with several host ecological traits. Likewise, Neotropical–Nearctic migratory birds were significantly less likely to be infested than resident species. Using a molecular library developed from morphologically–identified adult ticks specifically for this study, we identified eleven tick species parasitizing birds, indicating that a substantial portion of the Panamanian avian species pool is parasitized by a diversity of tick species. Tick species that most commonly parasitized birds had the widest diversity of avian hosts, suggesting that immature tick species are opportunistic bird parasites. Although certain avian ecological traits are positively associated with parasitism, we found no evidence that individual tick species show specificity to particular avian host ecological traits. Finally, our data suggest that the four principal vectors of Rocky Mountain Spotted Fever in the Neotropics rarely, if ever, parasitize Panamanian birds. However, other tick species that harbor newly–discovered rickettsial parasites of unknown pathogenicity are frequently found on these birds. Given our discovery of broad interaction between Panamanian tick and avian biodiversity, future work on tick ecology and the

  4. Hematological survey of common neotropical bat species from Costa Rica.

    PubMed

    Schinnerl, Martin; Aydinonat, Denise; Schwarzenberger, Franz; Voigt, Christian C

    2011-09-01

    Although bats are one of the largest groups within the class Mammalia and may carry several zoonotic diseases, basic information about their hematology is limited. In this study, hematocrit (Hct), total white blood cell counts (TWBC; leukocytes), and differential white blood cell counts (DWBC) of free-ranging Neotropical bats were quantified. Blood samples from 255 bats representing 26 species from the families of Emballonuridae (3 species; 33 individuals), Molossidae (2 species; 26 individuals), Mormoopidae (1 species; 1 individual), Phyllostomidae (18 species; 180 individuals), and Vespertilionidae (2 species; 15 individuals) were collected in a Caribbean lowland rainforest of Costa Rica. Hct was measured after centrifugation of microhematocrit capillaries, TWBCs were performed using the Unopette system and a hemocytometer, and DWBCs were performed on eosin methylene blue stained blood films. Hct of bats ranged between 51.8 +/- 0.7% for Phyllostomus discolor (n = 27) and 65.8 +/- 2.2% for Molossus sinaloae (n = 6). Bat species of the same taxonomic family had comparable TWBCs; these were lower for insectivorous emballonurid, molossid, and vespertilionid bat species than for mostly phytophagous phyllostomid bat species. However, Ectophylla alba (Phyllostomidae) exhibited exceptionally low TWBCs (836 +/- 166 /microl; n = 10); this was less than half of the TWBCs of all other bat species, which ranged from 1,714 +/- 297/microl for Molossus bondae (n = 20) to 7,339 +/- 1,503/microl for Trachops cirrhosus (n = 6). Species with higher TWBCs tended to have lower Hct values. Overall, blood cell morphology was similar to other mammalian species. A large number of polychromatophilic erythrocytes and differences in lymphocyte morphology were noted. This study provides important hematological values for Neotropical bat species and significantly expands the knowledge on basal physiological measurements of Chiroptera.

  5. DNA Barcoding Green Microalgae Isolated from Neotropical Inland Waters

    PubMed Central

    Hadi, Sámed I. I. A.; Santana, Hugo; Brunale, Patrícia P. M.; Gomes, Taísa G.; Oliveira, Márcia D.; Matthiensen, Alexandre; Oliveira, Marcos E. C.; Silva, Flávia C. P.; Brasil, Bruno S. A. F.

    2016-01-01

    This study evaluated the feasibility of using the Ribulose Bisphosphate Carboxylase Large subunit gene (rbcL) and the Internal Transcribed Spacers 1 and 2 of the nuclear rDNA (nuITS1 and nuITS2) markers for identifying a very diverse, albeit poorly known group, of green microalgae from neotropical inland waters. Fifty-one freshwater green microalgae strains isolated from Brazil, the largest biodiversity reservoir in the neotropics, were submitted to DNA barcoding. Currently available universal primers for ITS1-5.8S-ITS2 region amplification were sufficient to successfully amplify and sequence 47 (92%) of the samples. On the other hand, new sets of primers had to be designed for rbcL, which allowed 96% of the samples to be sequenced. Thirty-five percent of the strains could be unambiguously identified to the species level based either on nuITS1 or nuITS2 sequences’ using barcode gap calculations. nuITS2 Compensatory Base Change (CBC) and ITS1-5.8S-ITS2 region phylogenetic analysis, together with morphological inspection, confirmed the identification accuracy. In contrast, only 6% of the strains could be assigned to the correct species based solely on rbcL sequences. In conclusion, the data presented here indicates that either nuITS1 or nuITS2 are useful markers for DNA barcoding of freshwater green microalgae, with advantage for nuITS2 due to the larger availability of analytical tools and reference barcodes deposited at databases for this marker. PMID:26900844

  6. Revision of the Neotropical green lacewing genus Ungla (Neuroptera, Chrysopidae)

    PubMed Central

    Tauber, Catherine A.; Sosa, Francisco; Albuquerque, Gilberto S.; Tauber, Maurice J.

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Here, Ungla Navás, 1914, a poorly known Neotropical genus is reviewed. Twenty-five valid species are recognized; seven of them are new to science: Ungla adamsi sp. n., U. elbergi sp. n., U. grandispiracula sp. n., U. mexicana sp. n., U. pennyi sp. n., U. quchapampa sp. n., U. stangei sp. n.; and five are transferred to Ungla from other genera: U. bolivari (Banks), U. chacranella (Banks), U. siderocephala (Navás), U. steinbachi (Navás), and U. banksi Tauber, new replacement name. In addition, ten new synonymies are identified. For each species, a full nomenclatural history, diagnosis, description or redescription with images, literature citations, and available information on the distribution and biology are provided. Name-bearing types were examined for each species, and images of most are included. Keys based on external features are provided for species identifications. As a result of this study, three generalizations appear: (1) The genital morphology of both males and females of Ungla species is very conserved. All species express a common structural pattern, the components of which vary only slightly among species. (2) Ungla species appear to fall into two geographically distinct groups: about one third (n=7) of the species are recorded from southern South America (specifically Argentina and Brazil) and the other approximately two thirds of the species (n=18) from more northern regions of Neotropical America [Andean and Caribbean regions, Central America, and southern Mexico (Chiapas)]. None of the species from either of the regions is known to overlap into the other region. (3) Available information on the immature stages and natural history of species in Ungla is meagre. PMID:28824280

  7. DNA Barcoding Green Microalgae Isolated from Neotropical Inland Waters.

    PubMed

    Hadi, Sámed I I A; Santana, Hugo; Brunale, Patrícia P M; Gomes, Taísa G; Oliveira, Márcia D; Matthiensen, Alexandre; Oliveira, Marcos E C; Silva, Flávia C P; Brasil, Bruno S A F

    2016-01-01

    This study evaluated the feasibility of using the Ribulose Bisphosphate Carboxylase Large subunit gene (rbcL) and the Internal Transcribed Spacers 1 and 2 of the nuclear rDNA (nuITS1 and nuITS2) markers for identifying a very diverse, albeit poorly known group, of green microalgae from neotropical inland waters. Fifty-one freshwater green microalgae strains isolated from Brazil, the largest biodiversity reservoir in the neotropics, were submitted to DNA barcoding. Currently available universal primers for ITS1-5.8S-ITS2 region amplification were sufficient to successfully amplify and sequence 47 (92%) of the samples. On the other hand, new sets of primers had to be designed for rbcL, which allowed 96% of the samples to be sequenced. Thirty-five percent of the strains could be unambiguously identified to the species level based either on nuITS1 or nuITS2 sequences' using barcode gap calculations. nuITS2 Compensatory Base Change (CBC) and ITS1-5.8S-ITS2 region phylogenetic analysis, together with morphological inspection, confirmed the identification accuracy. In contrast, only 6% of the strains could be assigned to the correct species based solely on rbcL sequences. In conclusion, the data presented here indicates that either nuITS1 or nuITS2 are useful markers for DNA barcoding of freshwater green microalgae, with advantage for nuITS2 due to the larger availability of analytical tools and reference barcodes deposited at databases for this marker.

  8. Host Range Specificity of Scymnus camptodromus (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae), A Predator of Hemlock Woolly Adelgid (Hemiptera: Adelgidae).

    PubMed

    Limbu, Samita; Cassidy, Katie; Keena, Melody; Tobin, Patrick; Hoover, Kelli

    2016-02-01

    Scymnus (Neopullus) camptodromus Yu and Liu (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae) was brought to the United States from China as a potential biological control agent for hemlock woolly adelgid (Adelges tsugae Annand) (Hemiptera: Adelgidae). Scymnus camptodromus phenology is closely synchronized with that of A. tsugae and has several characteristics of a promising biological control agent. As a prerequisite to field release, S. camptodromus was evaluated for potential nontarget impacts. In host range studies, the predator was given the choice of sympatric adelgid and nonadelgid prey items. Nontarget testing showed that S. camptodromus will feed to some degree on other adelgid species, but highly prefers A. tsugae. We also evaluated larval development of S. camptodromus on pine bark adelgid (Pineus strobi (Hartig)) (Hemiptera: Adelgidae) and larch adelgid (Adelges laricis Vallot) (Hemiptera: Adelgidae); a small proportion of predator larvae was able to develop to adulthood on P. strobi or A. laricis alone. Scymnus camptodromus showed no interest in feeding on woolly alder aphid (Paraprociphilus tessellatus Fitch) (Hemiptera: Aphididae) or woolly apple aphid (Eriosoma lanigerum (Hausmann)) (Hemiptera: Aphididae), and minimal interest in cotton aphid (Aphis gossypii Glover) (Hemiptera: Aphididae) in choice and no-choice experiments. Scymnus camptodromus females did not oviposit on any host material other than A. tsugae-infested hemlock. Under the circumstances of the study, S. camptodromus appears to be a specific predator of A. tsugae, with minimal risk to nontarget species. Although the predator can develop on P. strobi, the likelihood that S. camptodromus would oviposit on pine hosts of this adelgid is small.

  9. An overview on the ecology of Triatominae (Hemiptera:Reduviidae).

    PubMed

    Galvão, Cleber; Justi, Silvia A

    2015-11-01

    Chagas disease, the American trypanosomiasis, is an important neglected tropical illness caused by the flagellate protozoan Trypanosoma cruzi (Kinetoplastida, Trypanosomatidae) and transmitted by insects of the subfamily Triatominae (Hemiptera: Reduviidae). Here we provide an overview on the current knowledge about Triatominae ecology, its association with human, T. cruzi infection and the immediate consequences of habitat fragmentation. We also discuss the geographic distribution of the species and the importance of predicting their distributions to control programs. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Catalog of the phylloxerids of the world (Hemiptera, Phylloxeridae)

    PubMed Central

    Favret, Colin; Blackman, Roger L.; Miller, Gary L.; Victor, Benjamin

    2016-01-01

    Abstract A taxonomic and nomenclatural catalog of the phylloxerids (Hemiptera, Phylloxeridae) is presented. Six family-group names are listed, three being synonyms. Thirty-five genus-group names, of which six are subjectively valid, are presented with their type species, etymology, and grammatical gender. Ninety-four species-group names are listed, of which 73 are considered subjectively valid. This is the last group of Aphidomorpha to be catalogued, bringing the list of valid extant species to 5,218. PMID:27920598

  11. New Midwestern state records of aquatic Hemiptera (Corixidae: Notonectidae)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Chordas, Stephen W.; Chapman, Eric G.; Hudson, Patrick L.; Chriscinske, Margret A.; Stewart, Richard L.

    2002-01-01

    Recent aquatic Hemiptera collections have yielded 15 new state records distributed among four midwestern States. These records include two species of water boatmen (Palmacorixa gillettei and Sigara mathesoni) new for Indiana, four water boatmen species (Cenocorixa utahensis, Corisella inscripta, Hesperocorixa laevigata, S. decorata), including one genus (Cenocorixa) new for Michigan, four water boatmen species (Corisella edulis, Trichocorixa macroceps, S. decoratella, S. mathesoni) and one backswimmer species (Notonecta indica) new for Ohio, and four water boatmen species (H. kennicotti, H. semilucida, S. compressoidea, S. variabilis) new for Pennsylvania.

  12. Transboundary conservation: An ecoregional approach to protect neotropical migratory birds in South America

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roca, Roberto; Adkins, Leslie; Wurschy, Maria Christina; Skerl, Kevin

    1996-11-01

    Future conservation efforts will need to transcend geopolitical boundaries in efforts to protect entire landscapes and ecosystems. Neotropical migratory birds are as a group a useful conservation tool for linking diverse landscapes and people due to their dependence on multiple habitats, sensitivity to habitat changes, and universal public appeal. The conservation of neotropical migrants can therefore function as a powerful hemispheric umbrella for ecosystem protection. Efforts to protect neotropical migratory birds on their nonbreeding grounds have traditionally been focused on Mexico, Central America, and the Caribbean. To assess the importance of South America to neotropical migrants, an ecoregional classification system was used to determine species distributions in the Andean/Southern Cone Region (Bolivia, Colombia, Ecuador, Paraguay, Peru, and Venezuela). The occurrence of migrants in protected areas that are part of The Nature Conservancy's Parks in Peril program was also assessed. Of the 406 neotropical migrant species, nearly one third (132) occur as regular nonbreeding residents in the region and for almost half of these species (53), South America is their main nonbreeding ground. All Parks in Peril sites were found to harbor neotropical migrants. Forty-eight species (36%) have declining longterm North American Breeding Bird Survey population trends and/or high Partners in Flight concern scores and thus are of significant conservation concern. Most importantly, 29 species (22%) of conservation concern use South America as their primary nonbreeding ground, indicating a need for focused conservation action. The nature of the ecoregional approach used in this endeavor makes future prioritization of ecoregions and conservation strategies for neotropical migrants across national boundaries possible. The ability to link diverse landscapes using a common element such as migratory birds allows for unique transboundary partnerships and opportunities for habitat

  13. Complex evolutionary history of a Neotropical lowland forest bird (Lepidothrix coronata) and its implications for historical hypotheses of the origin of Neotropical avian diversity.

    PubMed

    Cheviron, Z A; Hackett, Shannon J; Capparella, Angelo P

    2005-08-01

    Here we apply a combination of phylogeographic and historical demographic analyses to the study of mtDNA sequence variation within the Blue-crowned Manakin (Lepidothrix coronata), a widespread Neotropical bird. A high degree of phylogeographic structure allowed us to demonstrate that several vicariant events, including Andean uplift, the formation of riverine barriers, and climatically induced vegetational shifts, as well as a non-vicariant process, range expansion, have all acted, at varying spatial and temporal scales, to influence genetic structure within L. coronata, suggesting that current historical hypotheses of the origin of Neotropical avian diversity that focus on single vicariant mechanisms may be overly simplistic. Our data also support an origin (>2 mybp) that is substantially older than the late Pleistocene for the genetic structure within this species and indicate that phylogeographic patterns within the species are not concordant with plumage-based subspecific taxonomy. These data add to a growing body of evidence suggesting that the origin of several Neotropical avian species may have occurred in the mid-Pliocene, thus, geological arguments surrounding putative Pleistocene vicariant events, while interesting in their own right, may have little relevance to Neotropical avian diversification at the species level.

  14. [Effect of modification of the N-terminal region of molecule on the expression of neotropic effect of semax analogues].

    PubMed

    Glazova, N Iu; Sebentsova, E A; Levitskaia, N G; Andreeva, L A; Alfeeva, L Iu; Kamenskiĭ, A A; Miasoedov, N F

    2005-01-01

    A comparative study of neotropic activity of semax (MEHFPGP), an analogue of the ACTH(4-10), and some of its derivatives in which the N-terminal methionine was modified or substituted with other amino acid residues was performed. The effect of these peptides on learning of albino rats in tests with positive (alimentary) and negative (pain) reinforcement was studied. In the case of modification of methionine by attachment of the gluconic-acid residue or substitution of methionine with lysine, the neotropic effect of the peptide was retained. The substitution of methionine with tryptophan or serine resulted in a decrease in the neotropic activity. The substitution of methionine with glycine, threonine, or alanine caused a complete loss of the neotropic activity of the peptide. Therefore, the amino acid residue located at position 1 of the heptapeptide analogue semax, plays a key role in retaining the neotropic effects of the peptide and determines the degree of their expression.

  15. Ant plant herbivore interactions in the neotropical cerrado savanna

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oliveira, Paulo S.; Freitas, André V. L.

    2004-12-01

    The Brazilian cerrado savanna covers nearly 2 million km2 and has a high incidence on foliage of various liquid food sources such as extrafloral nectar and insect exudates. These liquid rewards generate intense ant activity on cerrado foliage, making ant plant herbivore interactions especially prevalent in this biome. We present data on the distribution and abundance of extrafloral nectaries in the woody flora of cerrado communities and in the flora of other habitats worldwide, and stress the relevance of liquid food sources (including hemipteran honeydew) for the ant fauna. Consumption by ants of plant and insect exudates significantly affects the activity of the associated herbivores of cerrado plant species, with varying impacts on the reproductive output of the plants. Experiments with an ant plant butterfly system unequivocally demonstrate that the behavior of both immature and adult lepidopterans is closely related to the use of a risky host plant, where intensive visitation by ants can have a severe impact on caterpillar survival. We discuss recent evidence suggesting that the occurrence of liquid rewards on leaves plays a key role in mediating the foraging ecology of foliage-dwelling ants, and that facultative ant plant mutualisms are important in structuring the community of canopy arthropods. Ant-mediated effects on cerrado herbivore communities can be revealed by experiments performed on wide spatial scales, including many environmental factors such as soil fertility and vegetation structure. We also present some research questions that could be rewarding to investigate in this major neotropical savanna.

  16. Rapid diversification associated with ecological specialization in Neotropical Adelpha butterflies.

    PubMed

    Ebel, Emily R; DaCosta, Jeffrey M; Sorenson, Michael D; Hill, Ryan I; Briscoe, Adriana D; Willmott, Keith R; Mullen, Sean P

    2015-05-01

    Rapid diversification is often associated with morphological or ecological adaptations that allow organisms to radiate into novel niches. Neotropical Adelpha butterflies, which comprise over 200 species and subspecies, are characterized by extraordinary breadth in host plant use and wing colour patterns compared to their closest relatives. To examine the relationship between phenotypic and species diversification, we reconstructed the phylogenetic history of Adelpha and its temperate sister genus Limenitis using genomewide restriction-site-associated DNA (RAD) sequencing. Despite a declining fraction of shared markers with increasing evolutionary distance, the RAD-Seq data consistently generated well-supported trees using a variety of phylogenetic methods. These well-resolved phylogenies allow the identification of an ecologically important relationship with a toxic host plant family, as well as the confirmation of widespread, convergent wing pattern mimicry throughout the genus. Taken together, our results support the hypothesis that evolutionary innovations in both larvae and adults have permitted the colonization of novel host plants and fuelled adaptive diversification within this large butterfly radiation.

  17. The frontal gland in workers of Neotropical soldierless termites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Šobotník, Jan; Sillam-Dussès, David; Weyda, František; Dejean, Alain; Roisin, Yves; Hanus, Robert; Bourguignon, Thomas

    2010-05-01

    The presence of the frontal gland is well established in termite soldiers of Rhinotermitidae, Serritermitidae, and Termitidae. It is one of their main defensive adaptations or even an exclusive weapon. The gland was also occasionally reported in alate imagoes, but never in the worker caste. Here, we report the first observation of a frontal gland in workers of several Neotropical and one African species of Apicotermitinae. The ultrastructure of Aparatermes cingulatus and Anoplotermes nr. subterraneus is described in detail. In these two species, the gland is well-developed, functional and consists of class 1 secretory cells. The presence of envelope cells, wrapping the gland, is an unusual feature, as well as the presence of several zonulae adherens, connecting neighbouring glandular cells. The frontal gland of workers is homologous to this organ in soldiers and imagoes, as evidenced by the same position in the head and its connection to the same muscle. However, the defensive role of the frontal gland in workers remains to be confirmed.

  18. Comparison of fish and macroinvertebrates as bioindicators of Neotropical streams.

    PubMed

    Ruaro, Renata; Gubiani, Éder André; Cunico, Almir Manoel; Moretto, Yara; Piana, Pitágoras Augusto

    2016-01-01

    The biomonitoring of aquatic ecosystems in developing countries faces several limitations, especially related to gathering resources. The present study aimed at comparing the responses of fish and benthic macroinvertebrates to environmental change, to identify which group best indicates the differences between reference and impacted streams in southern Brazil. We determined reference and impacted sites based on physical and chemical variables of the water. For the analysis and comparison of biological responses, we calculated 22 metrics and submitted them to a discriminant analysis. We selected from this analysis only six metrics, which showed that the two studied assemblages respond differently to environmental change. A larger number of metrics were selected for macroinvertebrates than for fish in the separate analysis. The metrics selected for macroinvertebrates in the pooled analysis (i.e., fish and macroinvertebrates together) were different from those selected in the separate analysis for macroinvertebrates alone. However, the metrics selected for fish in the pooled analysis were the same selected in the separate analysis for fish alone. The macroinvertebrate assemblage was more effective for distinguishing reference from impacted sites. We suggest the use of macroinvertebrates as bioindicators of Neotropical streams, especially in situations in which time and money are short.

  19. Stridulations Reveal Cryptic Speciation in Neotropical Sympatric Ants

    PubMed Central

    Ferreira, Ronara Souza; Poteaux, Chantal; Delabie, Jacques Hubert Charles; Fresneau, Dominique; Rybak, Fanny

    2010-01-01

    The taxonomic challenge posed by cryptic species underlines the importance of using multiple criteria in species delimitation. In the current paper we tested the use of acoustic analysis as a tool to assess the real diversity in a cryptic species complex of Neotropical ants. In order to understand the potential of acoustics and to improve consistency in the conclusions by comparing different approaches, phylogenetic relationships of all the morphs considered were assessed by the analysis of a fragment of the mitochondrial DNA cytochrome b. We observed that each of the cryptic morph studied presents a morphologically distinct stridulatory organ and that all sympatric morphs produce distinctive stridulations. This is the first evidence of such a degree of specialization in the acoustic organ and signals in ants, which suggests that stridulations may be among the cues used by these ants during inter-specific interactions. Mitochondrial DNA variation corroborated the acoustic differences observed, confirming acoustics as a helpful tool to determine cryptic species in this group of ants, and possibly in stridulating ants in general. Congruent morphological, acoustic and genetic results constitute sufficient evidence to propose each morph studied here as a valid new species, suggesting that P. apicalis is a complex of at least 6 to 9 species, even if they present different levels of divergence. Finally, our results highlight that ant stridulations may be much more informative than hitherto thought, as much for ant communication as for integrative taxonomists. PMID:21203529

  20. Landscape matrix mediates occupancy dynamics of Neotropical avian insectivores

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kennedy, Christina M.; Campbell Grant, Evan H.; Neel, Maile C.; Fagan, William F.; Marpa, Peter P.

    2011-01-01

    In addition to patch-level attributes (i.e., area and isolation), the nature of land cover between habitat patches (the matrix) may drive colonization and extinction dynamics in fragmented landscapes. Despite a long-standing recognition of matrix effects in fragmented systems, an understanding of the relative impacts of different types of land cover on patterns and dynamics of species occurrence remains limited. We employed multi-season occupancy models to determine the relative influence of patch area, patch isolation, within-patch vegetation structure, and landscape matrix on occupancy dynamics of nine Neotropical nsectivorous birds in 99 forest patches embedded in four matrix types (agriculture, suburban evelopment, bauxite mining, and forest) in central Jamaica. We found that within-patch vegetation structure and the matrix type between patches were more important than patch area and patch isolation in determining local colonization and local extinction probabilities, and that the effects of patch area, isolation, and vegetation structure on occupancy dynamics tended to be matrix and species dependent. Across the avian community, the landscape matrix influenced local extinction more than local colonization, indicating that extinction processes, rather than movement, likely drive interspecific differences in occupancy dynamics. These findings lend crucial empirical support to the hypothesis that species occupancy dynamics in fragmented systems may depend greatly upon the landscape context.

  1. Yeasts dominate soil fungal communities in three lowland Neotropical rainforests.

    PubMed

    Dunthorn, Micah; Kauserud, Håvard; Bass, David; Mayor, Jordan; Mahé, Frédéric

    2017-08-11

    Forest soils typically harbour a vast diversity of fungi, but are usually dominated by filamentous (hyphae-forming) taxa. Compared to temperate and boreal forests, though, we have limited knowledge about the fungal diversity in tropical rainforest soils. Here we show, by environmental metabarcoding of soil samples collected in three Neotropical rainforests, that Yeasts dominate the fungal communities in terms of the number of sequencing reads and OTUs. These unicellular forms are commonly found in aquatic environments, and their hyperdiversity may be the result of frequent inundation combined with numerous aquatic microenvironments in these rainforests. Other fungi that are frequent in aquatic environments, such as the abundant Chytridiomycotina, were also detected. While there was low similarity in OTU composition within and between the three rainforests, the fungal communities in Central America were more similar to each other than the communities in South America, reflecting a general biogeographic pattern also seen in animals, plants, and protists. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved. © 2017 Society for Applied Microbiology and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  2. Comparative Gut Microbiota of 59 Neotropical Bird Species

    PubMed Central

    Hird, Sarah M.; Sánchez, César; Carstens, Bryan C.; Brumfield, Robb T.

    2015-01-01

    The gut microbiota of vertebrates are essential to host health. Most non-model vertebrates, however, lack even a basic description of natural gut microbiota biodiversity. Here, we sampled 116 intestines from 59 Neotropical bird species and used the V6 region of the 16S rRNA molecule as a microbial fingerprint (average coverage per bird ~80,000 reads). A core microbiota of Proteobacteria, Firmicutes, Bacteroidetes, and Actinobacteria was identified, as well as several gut-associated genera. We tested 18 categorical variables associated with each bird for significant correlation to the gut microbiota; host taxonomic categories were most frequently significant and explained the most variation. Ecological variables (e.g., diet, foraging stratum) were also frequently significant but explained less variation. Little evidence was found for a significant influence of geographic space. Finally, we suggest that microbial sampling during field collection of organisms would propel biological understanding of evolutionary history and ecological significance of host-associated microbiota. PMID:26733954

  3. Landscape matrix mediates occupancy dynamics of Neotropical avian insectivores.

    PubMed

    Kennedy, Christina M; Grant, Evan H Campbell; Neel, Maile C; Fagan, William F; Marra, Peter P

    2011-07-01

    In addition to patch-level attributes (i.e., area and isolation), the nature of land cover between habitat patches (the matrix) may drive colonization and extinction dynamics in fragmented landscapes. Despite a long-standing recognition of matrix effects in fragmented systems, an understanding of the relative impacts of different types of land cover on patterns and dynamics of species occurrence remains limited. We employed multi-season occupancy models to determine the relative influence of patch area, patch isolation, within-patch vegetation structure, and landscape matrix on occupancy dynamics of nine Neotropical insectivorous birds in 99 forest patches embedded in four matrix types (agriculture, suburban development, bauxite mining, and forest) in central Jamaica. We found that within-patch vegetation structure and the matrix type between patches were more important than patch area and patch isolation in determining local colonization and local extinction probabilities, and that the effects of patch area, isolation, and vegetation structure on occupancy dynamics tended to be matrix and species dependent. Across the avian community, the landscape matrix influenced local extinction more than local colonization, indicating that extinction processes, rather than movement, likely drive interspecific differences in occupancy dynamics. These findings lend crucial empirical support to the hypothesis that species occupancy dynamics in fragmented systems may depend greatly upon the landscape context.

  4. Ecology predicts levels of genetic differentiation in neotropical birds.

    PubMed

    Burney, Curtis W; Brumfield, Robb T

    2009-09-01

    Despite the theoretical link between the ecology and the population genetics of species, little empirical evidence is available that corroborates the association. Here, we examined genetic variation in 40 codistributed species of lowland Neotropical rain forest birds that have populations isolated on either side of the Andes, the Amazon River, and the Madeira River. We found widely varying levels of genetic divergence among these taxa across the same biogeographic barriers. Our investigation of the extent to which ecological traits predicted the amount of cross-barrier divergence revealed a strongly significant relationship between the forest stratum at which a species forages and the level of cross-barrier genetic differentiation. Canopy species had statistically lower genetic divergence values across the Andes and the two Amazonian rivers than did understory birds. We hypothesize that the association reflects an effect of dispersal propensity, which is greater in canopy birds, on the movement of alleles among demes (i.e., migration) and, consequently, on the interdemic proportion of the genetic variance. Differences in dispersal propensity may also explain the observation that understory species contain a significantly greater number of subspecies than do canopy species. This result indicates that higher rates of diversification may occur in lineages with lower dispersal propensity.

  5. Edible Neotropical Blueberries: Antioxidant and Compositional Fingerprint Analysis

    PubMed Central

    DASTMALCHI, KEYVAN; FLORES, GEMA; PETROVA, VANYA; PEDRAZA-PEÑALOSA, PAOLA; KENNELLY, EDWARD J.

    2012-01-01

    Edible blueberry species are well recognized for their potential health benefits. Ericaceae fruits including the North American highbush blueberry (Vaccinium corymbosum L.) and five less common edible blueberry relatives from the New World tropics, Anthopterus wardii Ball, Cavendishia grandifolia Hoerld, Macleania coccoloboides A. C. Sm., Sphyrospermum buxifolium Poepp. & Endl., and Sphyrospermum cordifolium Benth, were investigated for their antioxidant properties and phenolic profiles. The Neotropical berries C. grandifolia and A. wardii exhibited significantly higher DPPH• and ABTS•+ scavenging and iron chelation activities than V. corymbosum. Total phenolic content and HPLC-PDA compositional fingerprint analyses were also carried out. Significant correlations were observed among total phenolic contents, DPPH• and ABTS•+ scavenging, and iron chelation activities. Using HPLC-PDA, the phenolic constituents in the berries were identified as chlorogenic acid, p-coumaric acid, hyperoside, quercetin-3-O-glucoside, isoorientin, isovitexin, orientin and vitexin. Principal components analysis reduced the dimensions of antioxidant and total phenolic data to two components, which accounted for 95% of total variation among the six fruits. Each fruit species formed its own cluster, and therefore the antioxidant profile of each species was shown to be distinct. PMID:21391608

  6. Parasites dominate hyperdiverse soil protist communities in Neotropical rainforests.

    PubMed

    Mahé, Frédéric; de Vargas, Colomban; Bass, David; Czech, Lucas; Stamatakis, Alexandros; Lara, Enrique; Singer, David; Mayor, Jordan; Bunge, John; Sernaker, Sarah; Siemensmeyer, Tobias; Trautmann, Isabelle; Romac, Sarah; Berney, Cédric; Kozlov, Alexey; Mitchell, Edward A D; Seppey, Christophe V W; Egge, Elianne; Lentendu, Guillaume; Wirth, Rainer; Trueba, Gabriel; Dunthorn, Micah

    2017-03-20

    High animal and plant richness in tropical rainforest communities has long intrigued naturalists. It is unknown if similar hyperdiversity patterns are reflected at the microbial scale with unicellular eukaryotes (protists). Here we show, using environmental metabarcoding of soil samples and a phylogeny-aware cleaning step, that protist communities in Neotropical rainforests are hyperdiverse and dominated by the parasitic Apicomplexa, which infect arthropods and other animals. These host-specific parasites potentially contribute to the high animal diversity in the forests by reducing population growth in a density-dependent manner. By contrast, too few operational taxonomic units (OTUs) of Oomycota were found to broadly drive high tropical tree diversity in a host-specific manner under the Janzen-Connell model. Extremely high OTU diversity and high heterogeneity between samples within the same forests suggest that protists, not arthropods, are the most diverse eukaryotes in tropical rainforests. Our data show that protists play a large role in tropical terrestrial ecosystems long viewed as being dominated by macroorganisms.

  7. Digestive capacity predicts diet diversity in Neotropical frugivorous bats.

    PubMed

    Saldaña-Vázquez, Romeo A; Ruiz-Sanchez, Eduardo; Herrera-Alsina, Leonel; Schondube, Jorge E

    2015-09-01

    1. Predicting the diet diversity of animals is important to basic and applied ecology. Knowledge of diet diversity in animals helps us understand niche partitioning, functional diversity and ecosystem services such as pollination, pest control and seed dispersal. 2. There is a negative relationship between the length of the digestive tract and diet diversity in animals; however, the role of digestive physiology in determining diet diversity has been ignored. This is especially important in vertebrates with powered flight because, unlike non-flying vertebrates, they have limitations that may constrain gut size. 3. Here, we evaluate the relationship between digestive capacity and diet diversity in Carollinae and Stenodermatinae frugivorous bats. These bats disperse the seeds of plants that are key to Neotropical forest regeneration. 4. Our results show that digestive capacity is a good predictor of diet diversity in Carollinae and Stenodermatinae frugivorous bats (R(2) = 0·77). 5. Surprisingly, the most phylogenetically closely related species were not similar in their digestive capacity or diet diversity. The lack of a phylogenetic signal for the traits evaluated implies differences in digestive physiology and diet in closely related species. 6. Our results highlight the predictive usefulness of digestive physiology for understanding the feeding ecology of animals. © 2015 The Authors. Journal of Animal Ecology © 2015 British Ecological Society.

  8. A Revision of the Neotropical Caddisfly Genus Rhyacopsyche (Trichoptera: Hydroptilidae)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wasmund, A. M.; Holzenthal, R. W.

    2005-05-01

    The Neotropical genus Rhyacopsyche, Müller 1879, was last reviewed in 1971 when 5 species were known. Since that time, the genus has gradually grown to 13 species. Recent material collected throughout South America has uncovered at least 22 new species. Taxonomic knowledge of the caddisflies of this region is not only useful for understanding local aquatic ecosystems, but essential in establishing biomonitoring programs. Hydroptilids, or microcaddisflies, are among the smallest Trichoptera and are therefore often unintentionally ignored in collection surveys. Relatively little is known of Rhyacopsyche. Larvae construct silken cases, sometimes using sand particles, and attach themselves to the side of rocks by silken threads which are at least as long as the case, and sometimes twice as long. The attached final-instar larvae float freely, either singly or in clusters, in fast flowing water. Identification is dependent on male genitalia and is facilitated by standard genitalic preparations for Trichoptera. Detailed illustrations have been produced for all species as well as diagnoses, descriptions and a taxonomic key. A preliminary assignment of newly described species to three currently recognized groups is proposed.

  9. Adaptive evolution of facial colour patterns in Neotropical primates

    PubMed Central

    Santana, Sharlene E.; Lynch Alfaro, Jessica; Alfaro, Michael E.

    2012-01-01

    The rich diversity of primate faces has interested naturalists for over a century. Researchers have long proposed that social behaviours have shaped the evolution of primate facial diversity. However, the primate face constitutes a unique structure where the diverse and potentially competing functions of communication, ecology and physiology intersect, and the major determinants of facial diversity remain poorly understood. Here, we provide the first evidence for an adaptive role of facial colour patterns and pigmentation within Neotropical primates. Consistent with the hypothesis that facial patterns function in communication and species recognition, we find that species living in smaller groups and in sympatry with a higher number of congener species have evolved more complex patterns of facial colour. The evolution of facial pigmentation and hair length is linked to ecological factors, and ecogeographical rules related to UV radiation and thermoregulation are met by some facial regions. Our results demonstrate the interaction of behavioural and ecological factors in shaping one of the most outstanding facial diversities of any mammalian lineage. PMID:22237906

  10. Evolution of extreme proboscis lengths in Neotropical Hesperiidae (Lepidoptera)

    PubMed Central

    Bauder, J. A.-S.; Warren, A. D.; Krenn, H. W.

    2015-01-01

    Exaggerated morphologies have evolved in insects as adaptations to nectar feeding by natural selection. For example, the suctorial mouthparts of butterflies enable these insects to gain access to floral nectar concealed inside deep floral tubes. Proboscis length in Lepidoptera is known to scale with body size, but whether extreme absolute proboscis lengths of nectar feeding butterflies result from a proportional or disproportional increase with body size that differs between phylogenetic lineages remains unknown. We surveyed the range of variation that occurs in scaling relationships between proboscis length and body size against a phylogenetic background among Costa Rican Hesperiidae. We obtained a new record holder for the longest proboscis in butterflies and showed that extremely long proboscides evolved at least three times independently within Neotropical Hesperiidae. We conclude that the evolution of extremely long proboscides results from allometric scaling with body size, as demonstrated in hawk moths. We hypothesize that constraints on the evolution of increasingly long butterfly proboscides may come from (1) the underlying scaling relationships, i.e., relative proboscis length, combined with the butterfly’s flight style and flower-visiting behaviour and/or (2) developmental constraints during the pupal phase. Lastly, we discuss why butterflies did not evolve similar scaling relationships as hawk moths. PMID:25937673

  11. Ecoregional classification of malaria vectors in the neotropics.

    PubMed

    Rubio-Palis, Y; Zimmerman, R H

    1997-09-01

    An ecoregional approach to the classification of malaria in the neotropics region can give health personnel a new prespective on how to manage malaria control programs. We propose an ecoregional classification based on vector distribution and important environmental determinants, including vegetation type, rainfall patterns, mean temperatures, elevation, and geomorphology. The following 5 ecoregions are described: (1) coastal, (2) piedmont, (3) savanna, (4) interior lowland forest, and (5) high valley. Subregional differences are classified when appropriate. Because human activities and extensive changes in land use usually leads to increased human-vector contact and alter local vector distribution and abundance, it is important that these changes be considered in the classification of vector ecoregions. Using this approach, risk areas can be classified as to the presence and potential abundance of particular vectors. Then, in combination with other components of malaria transmission (e.g., migration, cultural practices, living conditions), areas for surveillance and intervention can be prioritized. It is hoped that this forum will be a catalyst for discussion, future research, and the development of ecologically orientated malaria control programs.

  12. Long-term carbon loss in fragmented Neotropical forests.

    PubMed

    Pütz, Sandro; Groeneveld, Jürgen; Henle, Klaus; Knogge, Christoph; Martensen, Alexandre Camargo; Metz, Markus; Metzger, Jean Paul; Ribeiro, Milton Cezar; de Paula, Mateus Dantas; Huth, Andreas

    2014-10-07

    Tropical forests play an important role in the global carbon cycle, as they store a large amount of carbon (C). Tropical forest deforestation has been identified as a major source of CO2 emissions, though biomass loss due to fragmentation--the creation of additional forest edges--has been largely overlooked as an additional CO2 source. Here, through the combination of remote sensing and knowledge on ecological processes, we present long-term carbon loss estimates due to fragmentation of Neotropical forests: within 10 years the Brazilian Atlantic Forest has lost 69 (±14) Tg C, and the Amazon 599 (±120) Tg C due to fragmentation alone. For all tropical forests, we estimate emissions up to 0.2 Pg C y(-1) or 9 to 24% of the annual global C loss due to deforestation. In conclusion, tropical forest fragmentation increases carbon loss and should be accounted for when attempting to understand the role of vegetation in the global carbon balance.

  13. Drivers of parasite sharing among Neotropical freshwater fishes.

    PubMed

    Braga, Mariana P; Razzolini, Emanuel; Boeger, Walter A

    2015-03-01

    Because host-parasite interactions are so ubiquitous, it is of primary interest for ecologists to understand the factors that generate, maintain and constrain these associations. Phylogenetic comparative studies have found abundant evidence for host-switching to relatively unrelated hosts, sometimes related to diversification events, in a variety of host-parasite systems. For Monogenoidea (Platyhelminthes) parasites, it has been suggested that the co-speciation model alone cannot explain host occurrences, hence host-switching and/or non-vicariant modes of speciation should be associated with the origins and diversification of several monogenoid taxa. The factors that shape broad patterns of parasite sharing were investigated using path analysis as a way to generate hypotheses about the origins of host-parasite interactions between monogenoid gill parasites and Neotropical freshwater fishes. Parasite sharing was assessed from an interaction matrix, and explanatory variables included phylogenetic relationships, environmental preferences, biological traits and geographic distribution for each host species. Although geographic distribution of hosts and host ecology are important factors to understand host-parasite interactions, especially within host lineages that share a relatively recent evolutionary history, phylogeny had the strongest overall direct effect on parasite sharing. Phylogenetic contiguity of host communities may allow a 'stepping-stone' mode of host-switching, which increases parasite sharing. Our results reinforce the importance of including evolutionary history in the study of ecological associations, including emerging infectious diseases risk assessment. © 2014 The Authors. Journal of Animal Ecology © 2014 British Ecological Society.

  14. New genera and species of Neotropical Exosternini (Coleoptera, Histeridae).

    PubMed

    Caterino, Michael S; Tishechkin, Alexey K

    2014-01-01

    We describe the following 8 new genera and 23 new species of Neotropical Exosternini. Conocassis gen. n. (Conocassis minor sp. n. [type species], Conocassis dromedaria sp. n., Conocassis trisulcata sp. n., and Conocassis invaginata sp. n.), Enkyosoma gen. n. (Enkyosoma rockwelli sp. n.), Pluricosta gen. n. (Pluricosta onthophiloides sp. n.), Pyxister gen. n. (Pyxister devorator sp. n. [type species] and Pyxister labralis sp. n.), Chapischema gen. n. (Chapischema doppelganger sp. n.), Scaptorus gen. n. (Scaptorus pyramus sp. n.), Lacrimorpha gen. n. (Lacrimorpha glabra sp. n. [type species], Lacrimorpha balbina sp. n., Lacrimorpha subdepressa sp. n., and Lacrimorpha acuminata sp. n.), Crenulister gen. n. (Crenulister grossus sp. n. [type species], Crenulister explanatus sp. n., Crenulister dentatus sp. n., Crenulister impar sp. n., Crenulister umbrosus sp. n., Crenulister simplex sp. n., Crenulister paucitans sp. n., Crenulister spinipes sp. n., and Crenulister seriatus sp. n.) These all represent highly distinctive and phylogenetically isolated forms, almost invariably known from very few specimens. All but one species have been collected only by passive flight intercept traps, and nothing significant is known about the biology of any of them.

  15. New genera and species of Neotropical Exosternini (Coleoptera, Histeridae)

    PubMed Central

    Caterino, Michael S.; Tishechkin, Alexey K.

    2014-01-01

    Abstract We describe the following 8 new genera and 23 new species of Neotropical Exosternini. Conocassis gen. n. (Conocassis minor sp. n. [type species], Conocassis dromedaria sp. n., Conocassis trisulcata sp. n., and Conocassis invaginata sp. n.), Enkyosoma gen. n. (Enkyosoma rockwelli sp. n.), Pluricosta gen. n. (Pluricosta onthophiloides sp. n.), Pyxister gen. n. (Pyxister devorator sp. n. [type species] and Pyxister labralis sp. n.), Chapischema gen. n. (Chapischema doppelganger sp. n.), Scaptorus gen. n. (Scaptorus pyramus sp. n.), Lacrimorpha gen. n. (Lacrimorpha glabra sp. n. [type species], Lacrimorpha balbina sp. n., Lacrimorpha subdepressa sp. n., and Lacrimorpha acuminata sp. n.), Crenulister gen. n. (Crenulister grossus sp. n. [type species], Crenulister explanatus sp. n., Crenulister dentatus sp. n., Crenulister impar sp. n., Crenulister umbrosus sp. n., Crenulister simplex sp. n., Crenulister paucitans sp. n., Crenulister spinipes sp. n., and Crenulister seriatus sp. n.) These all represent highly distinctive and phylogenetically isolated forms, almost invariably known from very few specimens. All but one species have been collected only by passive flight intercept traps, and nothing significant is known about the biology of any of them. PMID:24624014

  16. Phylogenetic and ecological determinants of the neotropical dawn chorus

    PubMed Central

    Berg, Karl S; Brumfield, Robb T; Apanius, Victor

    2006-01-01

    The concentration of avian song at first light (i.e. the dawn chorus) is widely appreciated, but has an enigmatic functional significance. One widely accepted explanation is that birds are active at dawn, but light levels are not yet adequate for foraging. In forest communities, the onset to singing should thus be predictable from the species' foraging strata, which is ultimately related to ambient light level. To test this, we collected data from a tropical forest of Ecuador involving 57 species from 27 families of birds. Time of first song was a repeatable, species-specific trait, and the majority of resident birds, including non-passerines, sang in the dawn chorus. For passerine birds, foraging height was the best predictor of time of first song, with canopy birds singing earlier than birds foraging closer to the forest floor. A weak and opposite result was observed for non-passerines. For passerine birds, eye size also predicted time of first song, with larger eyed birds singing earlier, after controlling for body mass, taxonomic group and foraging height. This is the first comparative study of the dawn chorus in the Neotropics, and it provides the first evidence for foraging strata as the primary determinant of scheduling participation in the dawn chorus of birds. PMID:16627286

  17. Ant species confer different partner benefits on two neotropical myrmecophytes.

    PubMed

    Frederickson, Megan E

    2005-04-01

    The dynamics of mutualistic interactions involving more than a single pair of species depend on the relative costs and benefits of interaction among alternative partners. The neotropical myrmecophytes Cordia nodosa and Duroia hirsuta associate with several species of obligately symbiotic ants. I compared the ant partners of Cordia and Duroia with respect to two benefits known to be important in ant-myrmecophyte interactions: protection against herbivores provided by ants, and protection against encroaching vegetation provided by ants. Azteca spp., Myrmelachista schumanni, and Allomerus octoarticulatus demerarae ants all provide the leaves of Cordia and Duroia some protection against herbivores. However, Azteca and Allomerus provide more protection than does Myrmelachista to the leaves of their host plants. Although Allomerus protects the leaves of its hosts, plants occupied by Allomerus suffer more attacks by herbivores to their stems than do plants occupied by other ants. Relative to Azteca or Allomerus, Myrmelachista ants provide better protection against encroaching vegetation, increasing canopy openness over their host plants. These differences in benefits among the ant partners of Cordia and Duroia are reflected in the effect of each ant species on host plant size, growth rate, and reproduction. The results of this study show how mutualistic ant partners can differ with respect to both the magnitude and type of benefits they provide to the same species of myrmecophytic host.

  18. Evolution of extreme proboscis lengths in Neotropical Hesperiidae (Lepidoptera).

    PubMed

    Bauder, J A-S; Warren, A D; Krenn, H W

    2014-12-01

    Exaggerated morphologies have evolved in insects as adaptations to nectar feeding by natural selection. For example, the suctorial mouthparts of butterflies enable these insects to gain access to floral nectar concealed inside deep floral tubes. Proboscis length in Lepidoptera is known to scale with body size, but whether extreme absolute proboscis lengths of nectar feeding butterflies result from a proportional or disproportional increase with body size that differs between phylogenetic lineages remains unknown. We surveyed the range of variation that occurs in scaling relationships between proboscis length and body size against a phylogenetic background among Costa Rican Hesperiidae. We obtained a new record holder for the longest proboscis in butterflies and showed that extremely long proboscides evolved at least three times independently within Neotropical Hesperiidae. We conclude that the evolution of extremely long proboscides results from allometric scaling with body size, as demonstrated in hawk moths. We hypothesize that constraints on the evolution of increasingly long butterfly proboscides may come from (1) the underlying scaling relationships, i.e., relative proboscis length, combined with the butterfly's flight style and flower-visiting behaviour and/or (2) developmental constraints during the pupal phase. Lastly, we discuss why butterflies did not evolve similar scaling relationships as hawk moths.

  19. Unveiling the Hidden Bat Diversity of a Neotropical Montane Forest

    PubMed Central

    Chaverri, Gloriana; Garin, Inazio; Alberdi, Antton; Jimenez, Lide; Castillo-Salazar, Cristian; Aihartza, Joxerra

    2016-01-01

    Mountain environments, characterized by high levels of endemism, are at risk of experiencing significant biodiversity loss due to current trends in global warming. While many acknowledge their importance and vulnerability, these ecosystems still remain poorly studied, particularly for taxa that are difficult to sample such as bats. Aiming to estimate the amount of cryptic diversity among bats of a Neotropical montane cloud forest in Talamanca Range—south-east Central America—, we performed a 15-night sampling campaign, which resulted in 90 captured bats belonging to 8 species. We sequenced their mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase subunit I (COI) and screened their inter- and intraspecific genetic variation. Phylogenetic relations with conspecifics and closely related species from other geographic regions were established using Maximum Likelihood and Bayesian inference methods, as well as median-joining haplotype networks. Mitochondrial lineages highly divergent from hitherto characterized populations (> 9% COI dissimilarity) were found in Myotis oxyotus and Hylonycteris underwoodi. Sturnira burtonlimi and M. keaysi also showed distinct mitochondrial structure with sibling species and/or populations. These results suggest that mountains in the region hold a high degree of endemicity potential that has previously been ignored in bats. They also warn of the high extinction risk montane bats may be facing due to climatic change, particularly in isolated mountain systems like Talamanca Range. PMID:27706168

  20. Geographic patterns in population trends of neotropical migrants in North America

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Sauer, J.R.; Droege, S.; Hagan, John M.; Johnston, D.W.

    1992-01-01

    We use the route-regression method to estimate the population trends of 100 species of Neotropical migrants using data from the North American Breeding Bird Survey (BBS). We examine long-term (1966-1988) and recent (1978-1988) trends. In the long-term, more species of Neotropical migrants were increasing than were decreasing in the eastern and western parts of the continent, but recent trends indicate that more species decreased than increased in their population index in the east. Recent population declines in the eastern part of the continent were primarily associated with bird species that breed in forested habitat. No association was detected between changes in forest acreages by state and population trends of Neotropical migrants in the United States and Canada.

  1. Neotropical migrant landbirds and landscape changes in Los Tuxtlas, Veracruz, Mexico

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Estrada, A.; Coates-Estrada, R.; Diaz-Islas, E.; Robbins, C.S.; Dowell, B.A.; Meritt, D.; Wilson, Marcia H.; Sader, Steven A.

    1995-01-01

    Faced with the problem of habitat loss and with the need to preserve the remaining components of the original avian biodiversity in neotropical regions such as Los Tuxtlas, it is imperative to determine how the neotropical migrant bird species have responded to the anthropogenic alterations of their natural habitats. To provide data in this direction, we censused neotropical migrant birds in undisturbed and in disturbed forest fragments and in regeneratlng forests (young second growths and old second growths). In addition, we conducted censuses in the following man-made habitats: arboreal agricultural habitats (cacao, coffee, mixed, citrus, and allspice), non-arboreal agricultural habitats (corn and jalapeno chili pepper), live fences, and pastures. We censused 4186 neotropical migrant birds representing 71 species. Seven species (Magnolia Warbler, Hooded Warbler, Wilson's Warbler, American Redstart, White-eyed Vireo, Yellow-rumped Warbler, Black-and-white Warbler) accounted for 50% of total records. Isolating distance was an important variable influencing species richness at the non-pasture habitats studied. Disturbed forest fragments had significantly fewer species and individuals than undisturbed forest fragments and than regenerating forests. Pastures were the poorest habitat in neotropical migrant birds. Agricultural habitats, however, were particularly rich in individuals and species (3479 individuals of 59 species). Arboreal agricultural habitats and live fences were richer in species and in birds than non-arboreal man-made habitats and were also the habitats most similar to the undisturbed forest fragments in species assemblage. We discuss the conservation value for neotropical migrant birds of agricultural habitats and of live fences as landscape elements that help reduce physical and biotic isolation among the remaining configurations of forest fragments and compensate, in part, for the loss of vegetation area and habitat heterogeneity that has resulted

  2. Late Paleocene fossils from the Cerrejon Formation, Colombia, are the earliest record of Neotropical rainforest.

    PubMed

    Wing, Scott L; Herrera, Fabiany; Jaramillo, Carlos A; Gómez-Navarro, Carolina; Wilf, Peter; Labandeira, Conrad C

    2009-11-03

    Neotropical rainforests have a very poor fossil record, making hypotheses concerning their origins difficult to evaluate. Nevertheless, some of their most important characteristics can be preserved in the fossil record: high plant diversity, dominance by a distinctive combination of angiosperm families, a preponderance of plant species with large, smooth-margined leaves, and evidence for a high diversity of herbivorous insects. Here, we report on an approximately 58-my-old flora from the Cerrejón Formation of Colombia (paleolatitude approximately 5 degrees N) that is the earliest megafossil record of Neotropical rainforest. The flora has abundant, diverse palms and legumes and similar family composition to extant Neotropical rainforest. Three-quarters of the leaf types are large and entire-margined, indicating rainfall >2,500 mm/year and mean annual temperature >25 degrees C. Despite modern family composition and tropical paleoclimate, the diversity of fossil pollen and leaf samples is 60-80% that of comparable samples from extant and Quaternary Neotropical rainforest from similar climates. Insect feeding damage on Cerrejón fossil leaves, representing primary consumers, is abundant, but also of low diversity, and overwhelmingly made by generalist feeders rather than specialized herbivores. Cerrejón megafossils provide strong evidence that the same Neotropical rainforest families have characterized the biome since the Paleocene, maintaining their importance through climatic phases warmer and cooler than present. The low diversity of both plants and herbivorous insects in this Paleocene Neotropical rainforest may reflect an early stage in the diversification of the lineages that inhabit this biome, and/or a long recovery period from the terminal Cretaceous extinction.

  3. Cross-species amplification and optimization of microsatellite markers for use in six Neotropical parrots.

    PubMed

    Gebhardt, Kara J; Waits, Lisette P

    2008-07-01

    Short amplicon primers were redesigned for 17 microsatellite loci developed in St. Vincent's Amazon and six loci developed in blue-and-yellow macaw and tested using six species of Neotropical parrot. Polymorphism was observed at 12 loci in blue-and-yellow macaw, 10 in red-and-green macaw, 11 in scarlet macaw, 10 in chestnut-fronted macaw, 11 in red-bellied macaw and 16 in mealy parrot. Number of alleles per locus ranged from two to 23 and expected heterozygosity ranged from 0.05 to 0.95. The resulting multiplexed loci will be useful in evaluating genetic diversity, genetic structure and mating system in Neotropical parrots.

  4. DC birdscape: a program for monitoring neotropical migrant birds in Washington, DC

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Sauer, J.R.; Hadidian, J.; Swarth, C.; Droege, S.; Handly, P.; Diddan, G.; Huff, J.; Bonney, Rick; Pashley, David N.; Cooper, Robert; Niles, Larry

    2000-01-01

    Urban and suburban habitats often contain a variety of Neotropical migratory birds, but are poorly sampled by programs such as the North American Breeding Bird Survey. DC Birdscape was developed to inventory and monitor birds in Washington, D.C. Birds were surveyed using a systematic sample of point counts during 1993-1995. Results indicate that species richness of Neotropical migratory birds varied among land-use categories, and that maximum species richness occurred in parkland habitats. Although DC Birdscape has provided relevant information on bird distribution and species richness, it is unclear whether the information is of sufficient management interest to support its continuation as a long-term monitoring program.

  5. The Neotropical species of the predaceous midge genus Austrohelea Wirth & Grogan (Diptera: Ceratopogonidae).

    PubMed

    Ronderos, Maria M; Spinelli, Gustavo R; Grogan, Willliam L Jr

    2017-06-11

    Two new Neotropical species of the predaceous midge genus Austrohelea Wirth & Grogan, A. sirii n. sp. and A. spinosa n. sp., and the previously known A. shannoni (Wirth & Blanton) are described, illustrated and photomicrographs provided of male and female specimens collected from several localities in Argentine and Chilean Patagonia. The similarities and differences between the three Neotropical species are discussed, and a key is provided of the males and females of these three species. The distribution of A. shannoni is extended to the southernmost region of South America.

  6. Neotropical species of Meteorus Haliday (Hymenoptera: Braconidae: Meteorinae) parasitizing Arctiinae (Lepidoptera: Noctuoidea: Erebidae).

    PubMed

    Aguirre, Helmuth; Shaw, Scott R

    2014-03-17

    Three new species of Meteorus parasitoids of Arctiinae are described: Meteorus anuae n. sp., M. juliae n. sp. and M. mirandae n. sp. The first biological record for M. cecavorum Aguirre & Shaw as well as its cocoon description is reported. A comprehensive key for the Neotropical Meteorus attacking Arctiinae is provided. A total of nine Meteorus species have been reared from Arctiinae in the Neotropical Region. Six of them are gregarious and three solitary. The biological information about host and food plants concurs with the hypothesis of specialist parasitoids preferring "nasty" caterpillars.

  7. Evolutionary relationships of flavobacterial and enterobacterial endosymbionts with their scale insect hosts (Hemiptera: Coccoidea).

    PubMed

    Rosenblueth, Mónica; Sayavedra, L; Sámano-Sánchez, H; Roth, A; Martínez-Romero, E

    2012-11-01

    Flavobacteria and Enterobacteriaceae have been previously reported as scale insect endosymbionts. The purpose of this work was twofold: first, to screen different scale insect families for the presence of these endosymbionts by PCR analyses and second, to elucidate the history of cophylogeny between these bacteria and the insects by analysing a portion of 16S rRNA and 18S rRNA gene sequences by two reconciliation tools, CoRe-PA and Jane. From a survey of 27 scale insects within seven families, we identified Flavobacteria and Enterobacteriaceae as coexisting in ten species that belong to the Ortheziidae, Monophlebidae, Diaspididae and Coccidae families, and we frequently found two closely related enterobacteria harboured in the same individual. Analyses performed with CoRe-PA and Jane suggest that Flavobacteria from the scale insects analysed have a unique origin, except for Candidatus Brownia rhizoecola (Flavobacteria of Pseudococcidae, Phenacoccinae), which seems to come from a nonscale insect. Nevertheless, cospeciation between Flavobacteria and scale insects is suggested only within the families Monophlebidae, Ortheziidae and Diaspididae, and host switches seem to have occurred from the ancestors of Monophlebidae and Ortheziidae to insects from families Coccidae, Lecanodiaspididae, Eriococcidae and Pseudococcidae. Our analyses suggest that Enterobacteriaceae underwent more evolutionary events (losses, duplications and host switches), and their phylogenies showed a lower proportion of congruent nodes between host and bacteria, indicating a more relaxed relationship with scale insects compared with Flavobacteria. © 2012 The Authors. Journal of Evolutionary Biology © 2012 European Society For Evolutionary Biology.

  8. Neotropical Bats: Estimating Species Diversity with DNA Barcodes

    PubMed Central

    Clare, Elizabeth L.; Lim, Burton K.; Fenton, M. Brock; Hebert, Paul D. N.

    2011-01-01

    DNA barcoding using the cytochrome c oxidase subunit 1 gene (COI) is frequently employed as an efficient method of species identification in animal life and may also be used to estimate species richness, particularly in understudied faunas. Despite numerous past demonstrations of the efficiency of this technique, few studies have attempted to employ DNA barcoding methodologies on a large geographic scale, particularly within tropical regions. In this study we survey current and potential species diversity using DNA barcodes with a collection of more than 9000 individuals from 163 species of Neotropical bats (order Chiroptera). This represents one of the largest surveys to employ this strategy on any animal group and is certainly the largest to date for land vertebrates. Our analysis documents the utility of this tool over great geographic distances and across extraordinarily diverse habitats. Among the 163 included species 98.8% possessed distinct sets of COI haplotypes making them easily recognizable at this locus. We detected only a single case of shared haplotypes. Intraspecific diversity in the region was high among currently recognized species (mean of 1.38%, range 0–11.79%) with respect to birds, though comparable to other bat assemblages. In 44 of 163 cases, well-supported, distinct intraspecific lineages were identified which may suggest the presence of cryptic species though mean and maximum intraspecific divergence were not good predictors of their presence. In all cases, intraspecific lineages require additional investigation using complementary molecular techniques and additional characters such as morphology and acoustic data. Our analysis provides strong support for the continued assembly of DNA barcoding libraries and ongoing taxonomic investigation of bats. PMID:21818359

  9. Accumulation of current-use pesticides in neotropical montane forests.

    PubMed

    Daly, Gillian L; Lei, Ying D; Teixeira, Camilla; Muir, Derek C G; Castillo, Luisa E; Wania, Frank

    2007-02-15

    In Central America, chemical-intensive tropical agriculture takes place in close proximity to highly valued and biologically diverse ecosystems, yet the potential for atmospheric transport of pesticides from plantations to national parks and other reserves is poorly characterized. The specific meteorological conditions of mountain ranges can lead to contaminant convergence at high altitudes, raising particular concern for montane forest ecosystems downwind from pesticide use areas. Here we show, based on a wide-ranging air and soil sampling campaign across Costa Rica, that soils in some neotropical montane forests indeed display much higher concentrations of currently used pesticides than soils elsewhere in the country. Specifically, elevated concentrations of the fungicide chlorothalonil, the herbicide dacthal, and the insecticide metabolite endosulfan sulfate on volcanoes Barva and Poas, lying directly downwind of the extensive banana plantations of the Caribbean lowland, indicate the occurrence of atmospheric transport and wet deposition of pesticides at high altitudes. Calculations with a contaminant fate model, designed for mountain regions and parametrized to the Costa Rican environment, show that chemicals with a log K(AW) between -3 and -5 have a greater potential for accumulation at high altitudes. This enrichment behavior is quantified by the Mountain Contamination Potential and is sensitive to contaminant degradability. The modeling work supports the hypothesis suggested by the field results that it is enhanced precipitation scavenging at high elevations (caused by lower temperatures and governed by K(AW)) that causes pesticides to accumulate in tropical montane areas. By providing for the first time evidence of significant transfer of currently used pesticides to Central American montane cloud forests, this study highlights the need to evaluate the risk that tropical agricultural practices place on the region's ecological reserves.

  10. Minimizing the biodiversity impact of Neotropical oil palm development.

    PubMed

    Gilroy, James J; Prescott, Graham W; Cardenas, Johann S; Castañeda, Pamela González del Pliego; Sánchez, Andrés; Rojas-Murcia, Luis E; Medina Uribe, Claudia A; Haugaasen, Torbjørn; Edwards, David P

    2015-04-01

    Oil palm agriculture is rapidly expanding in the Neotropics, at the expense of a range of natural and seminatural habitats. A key question is how this expansion should be managed to reduce negative impacts on biodiversity. Focusing on the Llanos of Colombia, a mixed grassland-forest system identified as a priority zone for future oil palm development, we survey communities of ants, dung beetles, birds and herpetofauna occurring in oil palm plantations and the other principal form of agriculture in the region--improved cattle pasture--together with those of surrounding natural forests. We show that oil palm plantations have similar or higher species richness across all four taxonomic groups than improved pasture. For dung beetles, species richness in oil palm was equal to that of forest, whereas the other three taxa had highest species richness in forests. Hierarchical modelling of species occupancy probabilities indicated that oil palm plantations supported a higher proportion of species characteristic of forests than did cattle pastures. Across the bird community, occupancy probabilities within oil palm were positively influenced by increasing forest cover in a surrounding 250 m radius, whereas surrounding forest cover did not strongly influence the occurrence of other taxonomic groups in oil palm. Overall, our results suggest that the conversion of existing improved pastures to oil palm has limited negative impacts on biodiversity. As such, existing cattle pastures of the Colombian Llanos could offer a key opportunity to meet governmental targets for oil palm development without incurring significant biodiversity costs. Our results also highlight the value of preserving remnant forests within these agricultural landscapes, protecting high biodiversity and exporting avian 'spill-over' effects into oil palm plantations.

  11. Demographic spatial genetic structure of the Neotropical tree, Jacaranda copaia.

    PubMed

    Jones, F A; Hubbell, S P

    2006-10-01

    We used genotypes from six microsatellite loci and demographic data from a large mapped forest plot to study changes in spatial genetic structure across demographic stages, from seed rain to seedlings, juveniles, and adult diameter classes in the Neotropical tree, Jacaranda copaia. In pairwise comparisons of genetic differentiation among demographic classes, only seedlings were significantly differentiated from the other diameter classes; F(ST) values ranged from 0.006 to 0.009. Furthermore, only seedlings showed homozygote excess suggesting biparental inbreeding in the large diameter reproductive adults. We found very low levels of relatedness in the first distance class of trees, 1-26 cm diameter (F(ij) = 0.011). However, there was a 5- to 10-fold rise in relatedness in the smallest distance class, from the smallest to the largest tree diameter classes (F(ij) = 0.110 for individuals > 56 cm diameter). A variety of non-mutually exclusive mechanisms have been invoked perviously to explain such a pattern, including natural selection, history, or nonequilibrium population dynamics. The long-term demographic data available for this species allow us to evaluate these mechanisms. Jacaranda is a fast-growing, light-demanding species with low recruitment rates and high mortality rates in the smaller diameter classes. It successfully regenerates only in large light gaps, which occur infrequently and stochastically in space and time. These factors contribute to the nonequilibrium population dynamics and observed low genetic structure in the small size classes. We conclude that the pattern of spatial genetic transitions in Jacaranda is consistent with overlapping related generations and strong but infrequent periods of high recruitment, followed by long periods of population decline.

  12. Phyllostomid bat occurrence in successional stages of neotropical dry forests.

    PubMed

    Avila-Cabadilla, Luis Daniel; Stoner, Kathryn Elizabeth; Nassar, Jafet M; Espírito-Santo, Mario M; Alvarez-Añorve, Mariana Yolotl; Aranguren, Carla I; Henry, Mickael; González-Carcacía, José A; Dolabela Falcão, Luiz A; Sanchez-Azofeifa, Gerardo Arturo

    2014-01-01

    Tropical dry forests (TDFs) are highly endangered tropical ecosystems being replaced by a complex mosaic of patches of different successional stages, agricultural fields and pasturelands. In this context, it is urgent to understand how taxa playing critical ecosystem roles respond to habitat modification. Because Phyllostomid bats provide important ecosystem services (e.g. facilitate gene flow among plant populations and promote forest regeneration), in this study we aimed to identify potential patterns on their response to TDF transformation in sites representing four different successional stages (initial, early, intermediate and late) in three Neotropical regions: México, Venezuela and Brazil. We evaluated bat occurrence at the species, ensemble (abundance) and assemblage level (species richness and composition, guild composition). We also evaluated how bat occurrence was modulated by the marked seasonality of TDFs. In general, we found high seasonal and regional specificities in phyllostomid occurrence, driven by specificities at species and guild levels. For example, highest frugivore abundance occurred in the early stage of the moistest TDF, while highest nectarivore abundance occurred in the same stage of the driest TDF. The high regional specificity of phyllostomid responses could arise from: (1) the distinctive environmental conditions of each region, (2) the specific behavior and ecological requirements of the regional bat species, (3) the composition, structure and phenological patterns of plant assemblages in the different stages, and (4) the regional landscape composition and configuration. We conclude that, in tropical seasonal environments, it is imperative to perform long-term studies considering seasonal variations in environmental conditions and plant phenology, as well as the role of landscape attributes. This approach will allow us to identify potential patterns in bat responses to habitat modification, which constitute an invaluable tool for

  13. Phyllostomid Bat Occurrence in Successional Stages of Neotropical Dry Forests

    PubMed Central

    Avila-Cabadilla, Luis Daniel; Stoner, Kathryn Elizabeth; Nassar, Jafet M.; Espírito-Santo, Mario M.; Alvarez-Añorve, Mariana Yolotl; Aranguren, Carla I.; Henry, Mickael; González-Carcacía, José A.; Dolabela Falcão, Luiz A.; Sanchez-Azofeifa, Gerardo Arturo

    2014-01-01

    Tropical dry forests (TDFs) are highly endangered tropical ecosystems being replaced by a complex mosaic of patches of different successional stages, agricultural fields and pasturelands. In this context, it is urgent to understand how taxa playing critical ecosystem roles respond to habitat modification. Because Phyllostomid bats provide important ecosystem services (e.g. facilitate gene flow among plant populations and promote forest regeneration), in this study we aimed to identify potential patterns on their response to TDF transformation in sites representing four different successional stages (initial, early, intermediate and late) in three Neotropical regions: México, Venezuela and Brazil. We evaluated bat occurrence at the species, ensemble (abundance) and assemblage level (species richness and composition, guild composition). We also evaluated how bat occurrence was modulated by the marked seasonality of TDFs. In general, we found high seasonal and regional specificities in phyllostomid occurrence, driven by specificities at species and guild levels. For example, highest frugivore abundance occurred in the early stage of the moistest TDF, while highest nectarivore abundance occurred in the same stage of the driest TDF. The high regional specificity of phyllostomid responses could arise from: (1) the distinctive environmental conditions of each region, (2) the specific behavior and ecological requirements of the regional bat species, (3) the composition, structure and phenological patterns of plant assemblages in the different stages, and (4) the regional landscape composition and configuration. We conclude that, in tropical seasonal environments, it is imperative to perform long-term studies considering seasonal variations in environmental conditions and plant phenology, as well as the role of landscape attributes. This approach will allow us to identify potential patterns in bat responses to habitat modification, which constitute an invaluable tool for

  14. Phylogenetic origins of African and Neotropical Beauveria bassiana s.l. pathogens of the coffee berry borer, Hypothenemus hampei.

    PubMed

    Rehner, Stephen A; Posada, Francisco; Buckley, Ellen P; Infante, Francisco; Castillo, Alfredo; Vega, Fernando E

    2006-09-01

    A phylogenetic epidemiological study of Beauveria bassiana s.l. was conducted for African and Neotropical pathogens of the coffee berry borer (CBB), Hypothenemus hampei, based on inferences from two nuclear intergenic regions, EFutr and Bloc. CBB pathogens were distributed among four terminal clades, however, the majority of African and Neotropical isolates cluster in a well-supported monophyletic group, informally designated AFNEO_1. Although the relationship between African and Neotropical AFNEO_1 is unresolved, the majority of alleles detected were exclusive to either the African or the Neotropical populations. These fixed genetic differences suggest that their disjunction predates the world trade in coffee. Neotropical AFNEO_1 have a broad host range and CBB pathogens are intermixed phylogenetically with isolates from diverse indigenous insects. Several Neotropical AFNEO_1 isolates were isolated from coffee plants as epiphytes or endophytes, thus plants themselves may potentially serve as reservoirs of pathogens against their insect pests. Topological incongruence between the EFutr and Bloc phylogenies of Neotropical AFNEO_1 may signify that individuals within this population are recombining.

  15. The complete mitochondrial genome of Bemisia afer (Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae).

    PubMed

    Wang, Hua-Ling; Xiao, Na; Yang, Jiao; Wang, Xiao-Wei; Colvin, John; Liu, Shu-Sheng

    2016-01-01

    The length of the Bemisia afer (Priesner & Hosny) (Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae) mitochondrial genome (mitogenome) is 14,968 bp and consists of 13 protein coding genes (PCGs), 21 transfer RNAs (tRNA), 2 ribosomal RNAs and 1 control region. Apart from one serine transfer RNA gene (tRNA-Ser) which is absent, the synteny is consistent with the mitogenomes of other whitefly species. The overall base composition of the heavy strand for A, G, T and C is 28.96, 18.97, 36.7 and 15.37%, respectively, with a slight AT bias. Two rare codons (GTG and TTG) are employed as start codons by some PCGs. B. afer is a group of cryptic species. This first mitogenome cloned from African cassava B. afer, therefore, both enrich the whitefly molecular resource and will aid the sequencing of the other species' mitogenomes. It will contribute significantly to resolving the systematics of the B. afer complex.

  16. Notes on midgut ultrastructure of cimex hemipterus (Hemiptera: Cimicidae).

    PubMed

    Azevedo, Dihego Oliveira; Neves, Clóvis Andrade; Mallet, Jacenir Reis dos Santos; Gonçalves, Teresa Cristina Monte; Zanuncio, José Cola; Serrão, José Eduardo

    2009-05-01

    This work studied the ultrastructure of the midgut cells of Cimex hemipterus Fabricius (Hemiptera: Cimicidae). The midgut of adult insects was analyzed on different days after a bloodmeal, and three anatomical regions with different digestive functions were apparent. In the anterior midgut, the digestive cells had many spherocrystals, lipid inclusions, and glycogen deposits, suggesting a role in water absorption, ion regulation, digestion, and storage of lipids and sugars. The digestive cells in the middle midgut contained secretory granules in the apical cytoplasm, lysosomes, and large amounts of rough endoplasmic reticulum, suggesting that this midgut region was active in digestive processes. The posterior midgut contained digestive cells with secretory vesicles, lysosomes, rough endoplasmic reticulum, and spherocrystals, suggesting digestion and ion/water absorption. Also, there was strong evidence that the posterior midgut may be the major site of nutrient absorption. The hematophagous heteropteran groups share many of these blood digestion mechanisms.

  17. Review of the family Veliidae in Romania (Hemiptera: Heteroptera: Gerromorpha).

    PubMed

    Berchi, Gavril Marius; Kment, Petr

    2015-05-25

    A critical review of the family Veliidae (Hemiptera: Heteroptera: Gerromorpha) in Romania is provided. In total, two genera and eight species (Microvelia Westwood, 1834-3 species, Velia Latreille, 1804-5 species) are known from the country. Microvelia buenoi Drake, 1920 and Velia serbica Tamanini, 1951 are recorded for the first time from Romania. The occurrence of V. affinis filippii Tamanini, 1947 and V. mancinii mancinii Tamanini, 1947 is confirmed by additional records. Based on proven or suspected misidentifications, V. currens (Fabricius, 1794) and V. rivulorum (Fabricius, 1775) are excluded from the Romanian fauna. A checklist of the Veliidae of Romania and updated distribution maps are provided. Biogeographical aspects of the fauna are summarized.

  18. Do Scaphoideus titanus (Hemiptera: Cicadellidae) nymphs use vibrational communication?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chuche, Julien; Thiéry, Denis; Mazzoni, Valerio

    2011-07-01

    Small Auchenorrhyncha use substrate-borne vibrations to communicate. Although this behaviour is well known in adult leafhoppers, so far no studies have been published on nymphs. Here we checked the occurrence of vibrational communication in Scaphoideus titanus (Hemiptera: Cicadellidae) nymphs as a possible explanation of their aggregative distributions on host plants. We studied possible vibratory emissions of isolated and grouped nymphs, as well as their behavioural responses to vibration stimuli that simulated presence of conspecifics, to disturbance noise, white noise and predator spiders. None of our synthetic stimuli or pre-recorded substrate vibrations from nymphs elicited specific vibration responses and only those due to grooming or mechanical contacts of the insect with the leaf were recorded. Thus, S. titanus nymphs showed to not use species-specific vibrations neither for intra- nor interspecific communication and also did not produce alarm vibrations when facing potential predators. We conclude that their aggregative behaviour is independent from a vibrational communication.

  19. Three new Asiatic species of Hyadaphis (Hemiptera, Aphididae).

    PubMed

    Nafría, Juan M Nieto; Hidalgo, Nicolas Pérez; Brown, Paul A

    2016-05-09

    Three new species of Hyadaphis Kirkaldy, 1904 (Hemiptera, Aphididae, Macrosiphini) are established: Hyadaphis levantina sp. n. from specimens caught on Lonicera nummulariifolia from Lebanon and Israel, and Hyadaphis anethi sp. n. plus Hyadaphis parva sp. n. from specimens respectively caught on Anethum sp. and Andrachne (?) cordifolia from Pakistan. Apterous viviparous females of all three species, alate viviparae of the first two and males of H. anethi are described. Known and new species of Hyadaphis are grouped for two relevant characters: (1) size and shape of siphunculi, and (2) host plant and life cycle; and the discriminant features of apterous viviparous females of the new species are compared with the already described species of the same group and a key for the Hyadaphis species is provided.

  20. Type Localities of Heteroptera (Insecta: Hemiptera) from Turkey.

    PubMed

    Dursun, Ahmet; Fent, Meral

    2017-02-06

    The Heteroptera (Hemiptera) fauna of the Palaearctic Region is represented by 9365 species belonging to 1632 genera of which 1349 species belonging to 469 genera are also recorded from Turkey. Type localities of 237 species are in Turkey of which 108 species and 4 subspecies are endemic for the Heteroptera fauna of Turkey, indicating the importance of the country as a refugium, genetic hotspot and dispersal centre during pleistocene glaciation. Some heteroptera are important in agriculture as predators used in biological control or as ectoparasits and pests on plants. Most heteropteran species are phytophagous feeding on leaves, flowers, fruits, seeds and shoots and cause economic damage. The suborder Heteroptera comprises aquatic, semi-aquatic and terrestrial species.

  1. Rediscovering digitules in Aphidomorpha and the question of homology among Sternorrhyncha (Insecta, Hemiptera)

    PubMed Central

    Metz, Mark A.; Miller, Douglass R.; Dickey, Aaron M.; Bauchan, Gary R.; Ochoa, Ronald; Skvarla, Michael J.; Miller, Gary L.

    2017-01-01

    Abstract We explore and expand on the morphological term digitule. The term was originally proposed for toe-like setae on a species of Phylloxera Boyer de Fonscolombe, 1834 (Hemiptera, Sternorrhyncha, Aphidomorpha) by Henry Shimer, an American naturalist. While it is standard terminology in scale systematics (Hemiptera, Sternorrhyncha, Coccidomorpha), the term digitule was ignored by aphid specialists despite being the original taxon for which the term was described. Similar setae occur on many arthropod groups, so the homology is poorly understood even within any superfamily of Hemiptera. We provide the etymology of the term, a proposed explanation for why it was used among scale taxonomists and not aphid taxonomists, and discuss briefly options to progress beyond the confusion between terminology for morphology and homology in Sternorrhyncha. PMID:28769728

  2. Rediscovering digitules in Aphidomorpha and the question of homology among Sternorrhyncha (Insecta, Hemiptera).

    PubMed

    Metz, Mark A; Miller, Douglass R; Dickey, Aaron M; Bauchan, Gary R; Ochoa, Ronald; Skvarla, Michael J; Miller, Gary L

    2017-01-01

    We explore and expand on the morphological term digitule. The term was originally proposed for toe-like setae on a species of Phylloxera Boyer de Fonscolombe, 1834 (Hemiptera, Sternorrhyncha, Aphidomorpha) by Henry Shimer, an American naturalist. While it is standard terminology in scale systematics (Hemiptera, Sternorrhyncha, Coccidomorpha), the term digitule was ignored by aphid specialists despite being the original taxon for which the term was described. Similar setae occur on many arthropod groups, so the homology is poorly understood even within any superfamily of Hemiptera. We provide the etymology of the term, a proposed explanation for why it was used among scale taxonomists and not aphid taxonomists, and discuss briefly options to progress beyond the confusion between terminology for morphology and homology in Sternorrhyncha.

  3. Effect of insecticides on mealybug destroyer (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae) and parasitoid Leptomastix dactylopii (Hymenoptera: Encyrtidae), natural enemies of citrus mealybug (Homoptera: Pseudococcidae).

    PubMed

    Cloyd, Raymond A; Dickinson, Amy

    2006-10-01

    In this study, we measured, under laboratory conditions, the direct and indirect effects of insecticides on mealybug destroyer, Cryptolaemus montrouzieri Mulsant (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae), and parasitoid Leptomastix dactylopii Howard (Hymenoptera: Encyrtidae), natural enemies of citrus mealybug, Planococcus citri (Risso) (Homoptera: Pseudococcidae). The adult stages of both natural enemies were exposed to sprays of the insecticides buprofezin, pyriproxyfen, flonicamid, acetamiprid, dinotefuran, and clothianidin at label-recommended rates to assess direct mortality after 24, 48, and 72 h, respectively. The effects of the insecticides on L. dactylopii parasitization rate and percentage of parasitoid emergence also were monitored using the label and 4x the recommended label rate. Dinotefuran was extremely detrimental to the adult parasitoid at the label rate with 100% mortality after 24 h. Buprofezin, pyriproxyfen, and flonicamid were not harmful to L. dactylopii when applied at the label rate. At 4x the recommended label rate, dinotefuran, acetamiprid, and clothianidin were all harmful to the parasitoid with 100% mortality 72 h after application. Both buprofezin and flonicamid were not toxic to L. dactylopii with 100% adult survival after 72 h. Pyriproxyfen and flonicamid, at both the label and 4x the recommended label rate, did not negatively affect L. dactylopii parasitization rate or percentage of parasitoid emergence. Acetamiprid, dinotefuran, and clothianidin were toxic to C. montrouzieri adults with 100% mortality after 48 h, whereas buprofezin, pyriproxyfen, and flonicamid demonstrated minimal (10-20% mortality after 48 h) harmful effects to the predator. Based on the results from our study, the indirect effects of the insect growth regulator (IGR) buprofezin were not decisive; however, the IGR pyriproxyfen and the insecticide flonicamid were not directly or indirectly harmful to the predator C. montrouzieri and parastioid L. dactylopii, indicating that

  4. DETECTION OF BARTONELLA SP. IN DEER LOUSE FLIES (LIPOPTENA MAZAMAE) ON GRAY BROCKET DEER (MAZAMA GOUAZOUBIRA) IN THE NEOTROPICS.

    PubMed

    Souza, Ugo; Dall'Agnol, Bruno; Michel, Thais; Webster, Anelise; Klafke, Guilherme; Martins, João Ricardo; Kasper, Carlos Benhur; Trigo, Tatiane Campos; Ott, Ricardo; Maria de Assis Jardim, Márcia; Reck, José

    2017-06-01

    Louse flies or deer keds, Lipoptena spp., are widespread in Neotropical cervids, but the vector-borne pathogens of louse flies had only been previously reported in the Northern hemisphere. This is the first report of Bartonella spp. in deer louse flies (Lipoptena mazamae) in the neotropics collected from gray brocket deer ( Mazama gouazoubira ) in Southern Brazil. DNA from Bartonella sp. was detected in all 429 L. mazamae collected from 11 road-killed gray brocket deer. The same sequences of DNA of Bartonella spp. were identified in samples. Gray brocket deer are abundant in Brazil, so Bartonella-infected Lipoptena spp. may be widely distributed in the neotropics.

  5. Do birds select habitat or food resources? Nearctic-neotropic migrants in northeastern Costa Rica

    Treesearch

    Jared D. Wolfe; Matthew D. Johnson; C. John Ralph; R. Mark Brigham

    2014-01-01

    Nearctic-neotropic migrant birds need to replenish energy reserves during stopover periods to successfully complete their semiannual movements. In this study we used linear models to examine the habitat use of 11 migrant species in northeastern Costa Rica to better understand the influence of food and structural resources on the presence of birds during stopover...

  6. Effects of livestock grazing on neotropical migratory landbirds in western North America

    Treesearch

    Carl E. Bock; Victoria A. Saab; Terrell D. Rich; David S. Dobkin

    1993-01-01

    Livestock grazing is a widespread and important influence on neotropical migratory birds in four major ecosystems in western North America: grasslands of the Great Plains and Southwest, riparian woodlands, Intermountain shrubsteppe, and open coniferous forests. We have reviewed available literature on avian responses to grazing in these habitats. Among 35 plains...

  7. Attractant pheromone of the neotropical species Neomegalotomus parvus (Westwood)(Heteroptera: Alydidae)

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The Neotropical broad-headed bug, Neomegalotomus parvus (Westwood), is adapted to various leguminous crops, and is considered a pest in common bean and soybean. The chemical communication of this species was studied in order to identify an attractant pheromone. Males and females of N. parvus produce...

  8. Repeats, returns, and estimated flight ranges of neotropical migratory birds in Utah riparian habitat

    Treesearch

    Dan A. Roberts; Jimmie R. Parrish; Frank P. Howe

    2005-01-01

    We present data on capture and recapture of neotropical migrants at constant-effort mist net sampling locations in Utah between 1994 and 2002. Data were collected in accordance with MAPS (Monitoring Avian Productivity and Survivorship) protocols. Since 1994, a total of 23,789 birds have been captured (i.e., total captures include new captures, recaptures, and unbanded...

  9. Kerteszmyia, a new genus of Pachygastrinae from the Neotropical Region (Diptera: Stratiomyidae)

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    A new genus and species, Kerteszmyia ecuadora gen. nov., sp. nov., (Diptera: Stratiomyidae, Pachygastrinae) is described from material from Ecuador (type locality), Venezuela, and Costa Rica. A key to the known Neotropical genera of Pachygastrinae with two or more scutellar spines is presented. ...

  10. Opportunities and goals of the Neotropical Migratory Bird Conservation Program - Partners in Flight

    Treesearch

    Deborah M. Finch

    1992-01-01

    In the fall of 1990, a major program for the conservation of migratory landbirds that breed in North America and winter in Latin America and the Caribbean Basin was initiated. Numerous federal, state. and private organizations in the United States endorsed the initiative by signing an official agreement to cooperatively conserve populations of neotropical migratory...

  11. Large-scale conservation assessment for Neotropical migratory land birds in the interior Columbia River basin.

    Treesearch

    Victoria A. Saab; Terrell D. Rich

    1997-01-01

    The status and habitats of Neotropical migratory land birds (NTMB) are evaluated within the interior Columbia River basin (interior basin). Objectives are to examine population trends, estimate NTMB responses to alternative management activities, and provide recommendations by habitat and species for the long-term persistence of NTMB populations. Among 132 NTMBs that...

  12. Conservation and management of Neotropical migrants landbirds in the Northern Rockies and Great Plains [book review

    Treesearch

    Deborah M. Finch

    1995-01-01

    Numerous recent articles and books on the population declines and conservation of neotropical migratory landbirds herald a new interest by university researchers. governmental agencies, and private organizations in inventorying, monitoring, and managing populations of bird species in North America. Dobkin's book, written under contract to the Northern Region of...

  13. Global functional diversity of freshwater fish is concentrated in the Neotropics while functional vulnerability is widespread.

    PubMed

    Toussaint, A; Charpin, N; Brosse, S; Villéger, S

    2016-03-16

    Worldwide biodiversity assessments have mainly focused on species richness but little is known about the diversity of species roles, i.e. functional diversity, while this is a key facet to understanding the consequences of global changes on the ecosystem services to human societies. Here, we report the world pattern of functional diversity of freshwater fish using a database encompassing morphological characteristics of more than 9,000 species. The Neotropical realm hosts more than 75% of global functional diversity while other realms each host less than 25%. This discrepancy is mediated by high functional uniqueness in some diversified Neotropical fish orders. Surprisingly, functional diversity patterns were weakly related to functional vulnerability. In the Neotropics the loss of threatened species will cause a limited loss of functional diversity (<10%) whereas in the Nearctic and Palearctic realms, decline of the functional diversity will reach 43% and 33%, respectively, conferring a high functional vulnerability to these realms. Conservation of the Neotropical fish diversity is a key target to maintain world fish functional diversity, but this should not hide the pressing need to conserve the vulnerable fish faunas of the rest of the world, in which functional diversity is to a large extent supported by threatened species.

  14. An interactive database for setting conservation priorities for western neotropical migrants

    Treesearch

    Michael F. Carter; Keith Barker

    1993-01-01

    We develop and explain a species ranking system for the states and physiographic regions of the Neotropical Migratory Bird Conservation Program's West Working Group. The ranking criteria attempt to measure characteristics of species which make them vulnerable to extirpation, as well as assess the relative importance of different geographic and/or political areas...

  15. Stopover ecology of neotropical migrants in central Veracruz, México

    Treesearch

    Ernesto Ruelas Inzunza; Stephen W. Hoffman; Laurie J. Goodrich

    2005-01-01

    Available information on the ecology of neotropical migrants during the winter season and especially during migration is far behind the existing knowledge of birds during the breeding season. This paper presents a stopover ecology case study. We document the occurrence of species, outline the prevailing weather patterns during spring and fall migration seasons, and...

  16. The species of the Neotropical genus Fractipons Townes, 1970 (Hymenoptera, Ichneumonidae, Cryptinae)

    PubMed Central

    Bordera, Santiago; González-Moreno, Alejandra

    2011-01-01

    Abstract In this paper, two new species of the Neotropical genus Fractipons Townes, 1970 (Hymenoptera, Ichneumonidae) are described. A new diagnosis for the genus, a re-description of Fractipons cincticornis Townes, 1970 and a key to known species are provided. New distribution records for the genus now include Argentina, Costa Rica, Panama and Peru. PMID:21594146

  17. Uncovering the diversity of the neotropical genus Elaphopsocus ('Psocoptera': Psocidae: Amphigerontiinae): from one to ten species.

    PubMed

    Román-Palacios, Cristian; Obando, Ranulfo González; Aldrete, Alfonso N García

    2016-09-09

    For 75 years, the genus Elaphopsocus was considered a monotypic lineage of neotropical psocids. As a result of recent work in South America, this genus presently includes seven species from Brazil and Colombia. We here describe three new species from the East Colombian high Andes.

  18. Moisture as a determinant of habitat quality for a nonbreeding Neotropical migratory songbird

    Treesearch

    Joseph A.M. Smith; Leonard R. Reitsma; Peter P. Marra

    2010-01-01

    Identifying the determinants of habitat quality for a species is essential for understanding how populations are limited and regulated. Spatiotemporal variation in moisture and its influence on food availability may drive patterns of habitat occupancy and demographic outcomes. Nonbreeding migratory birds in the neotropics occupy a range of habitat types that vary with...

  19. A western state perspective on monitoring and managing neotropical migratory birds

    Treesearch

    Frank Howe

    1993-01-01

    Neotropical migratory bird monitoring programs can contribute greatly to a more holistic and proactive management approach for state agencies. It is, however, imperative that these monitoring programs be scientifically designed and clearly communicated to managers. Information from monitoring programs can be used to develop multiple-species habitat management...

  20. Linking breeding and overwintering areas of five Nearctic-neotropical migratory passerines using molecular genetic markers

    Treesearch

    B. Mila; S. M. Clegg; M. Kimura; K. Ruegg; I. Lovette; T. B. Smith

    2005-01-01

    Demographic studies of Nearctic-Neotropical migrant songbirds have been limited by the difficulty of following them through a complete annual cycle (Webster et al. 2002). As population regulation may conceivably occur on either the breeding area, wintering areas, or on migration routes, determining levels of connectivity of populations between a species’...

  1. New genera, species and host plant records of Nearctic and Neotropical Tephritidae (Diptera)

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Three new genera and 5 new species of Tephritidae (Diptera) are described from the Nearctic and Neotropical Regions. The new genera are: Agallamyia Norrbom (type species: A. pendula Norrbom, n. sp.), Neosphaeniscus Norrbom (type species: Euribia m-nigrum Hendel), and Phacelochaeta Norrbom (type spec...

  2. New genus and new species of Neoibidionini from the Neotropical region (Coleoptera, Cerambycidae, Cerambycinae).

    PubMed

    Galileo, Maria Helena M; Santos-Silva, Antonio

    2016-07-12

    One new genus and six new species are described from the Neotropical region: Heterachthes hildebranti, H. skillmani, and H. noguerai, from Mexico; Compsibidion morrisi, from Bolivia; Tropidion wappesi, from Bolivia; and Biraidion, new genus, type species B. martinsi sp. nov., from Bolivia. Biraidion, Compsibidion morrisi, and Tropidion wappesi are included in previous keys.

  3. The Complete Chloroplast Genome of Guadua angustifolia and Comparative Analyses of Neotropical-Paleotropical Bamboos

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Miaoli; Lan, Siren; Cai, Bangping; Chen, Shipin; Chen, Hui; Zhou, Shiliang

    2015-01-01

    To elucidate chloroplast genome evolution within neotropical-paleotropical bamboos, we fully characterized the chloroplast genome of the woody bamboo Guadua angustifolia. This genome is 135,331 bp long and comprises of an 82,839-bp large single-copy (LSC) region, a 12,898-bp small single-copy (SSC) region, and a pair of 19,797-bp inverted repeats (IRs). Comparative analyses revealed marked conservation of gene content and sequence evolutionary rates between neotropical and paleotropical woody bamboos. The neotropical herbaceous bamboo Cryptochloa strictiflora differs from woody bamboos in IR/SSC boundaries in that it exhibits slightly contracted IRs and a faster substitution rate. The G. angustifolia chloroplast genome is similar in size to that of neotropical herbaceous bamboos but is ~3 kb smaller than that of paleotropical woody bamboos. Dissimilarities in genome size are correlated with differences in the lengths of intergenic spacers, which are caused by large-fragment insertion and deletion. Phylogenomic analyses of 62 taxa yielded a tree topology identical to that found in preceding studies. Divergence time estimation suggested that most bamboo genera diverged after the Miocene and that speciation events of extant species occurred during or after the Pliocene. PMID:26630488

  4. Status of neotropical migratory birds in the Northeast: a preliminary assessment

    Treesearch

    Charles R. Smith; Diane M. Pence; Raymond J. O' Connor

    1993-01-01

    The Northeast Region encompasses a diversity of habitats, from the coastal plain of Virginia to the boreal spruce-fir forests of northern Maine, with a varied group of neotropical migratory bird species occupying these habitats. The geographic area of concern in this analysis includes the states of Maine, Vermont, New Hampshire, New York, Massachusetts, Connecticut,...

  5. Are populations of neotropical migrant birds limited in summer or winter? implications for management

    Treesearch

    Thomas W. Sherry; Richard T. Holmes

    1993-01-01

    Understanding where in their annual cycle Neotropical-Nearctic migrant bird populations are limited is essential for developing effective management and conservation policies. A review of currently available information indicates that these long-distance migrant species may be limited by events and circumstances in both summer and winter, and possibly on migration as...

  6. Using landscape metrics to model source habitat for Neotropical migrants in the midwestern U.S.

    Treesearch

    Peter T. Fauth; Eric J. Gustafson; Kerry N. Rabenold

    2000-01-01

    Size of a forest patch is a useful predictor of density and reproductive success of Neotropical migratory birds in much of eastern North America. Within these forested landscapes, large forest tracts appear to be sources-fragments in which surpluses of offspring are produced and can potentially colonize new fragments including woodlot sinks where reproduction fails to...

  7. Involving the private sector in Georgia's conservation initiatives for neotropical birds

    Treesearch

    Terry W. Johnson

    1993-01-01

    Faced with major financial and manpower restrictions, the Georgia Department of Natural Resources (DNR) Nongame-Endangered Wildlife Program (NGEWP) is aggressively encouraging the private sector to participate in a broad spectrum of innovative neotropical bird-related research, survey, fund raising, management and educational activities. A key element in this...

  8. Dermocystid-chytrid coinfection in the neotropical frog Hypsiboas pulchellus (Anura: Hylidae).

    PubMed

    Borteiro, Claudio; Cruz, Juan Carlos; Kolenc, Francisco; Verdes, José Manuel; Moraña, Antonio; Martínez Debat, Claudio; Kun, Alejandra; Ubilla, Martín; Okada, Kosuke

    2014-01-01

    We present gross and histologic evidence of coinfection in amphibians by fungal-like parasites of the order Dermocystidia (Amphibiocystidium sp.) and the fungus Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis. The condition was observed in frogs Hypsiboas pulchellus (Hylidae) from Uruguay in 2009 to 2012. This report is the first of dermocystids in Neotropical amphibians since 1940.

  9. Partners in Flight: past, present, and future: prospects for neotropical migratory bird conservation in Canada

    Treesearch

    J. S. Wendt

    1993-01-01

    The plan for conservation of Neotropical Migratory Birds - Partners in Flight - appeals to many Canadians. The birds themselves are loved for their beauty, their song, their mysterious migration, and their faithful return each spring. They are valued as members of healthy ecosystems, especially when they gorge themselves on caterpillars. Canadians recognize that the...

  10. Eleven new species of Athacryvac Braet & van Achterberg from the Neotropical Region (Hymenoptera, Braconidae, Rogadinae).

    PubMed

    Shimbori, Eduardo Mitio; Shaw, Scott Richard; Almeida, Luis Felipe Ventura De

    2016-07-14

    The neotropical genus Athacryvac Braet & van Achterberg was recently described based on two species from French Guiana. Despite the resemblance of these species with the diverse and widespread genus Aleiodes, the authors opted to erect the new genus based on several synapomorphies. With the analysis of more comprehensive morphological and geographical variation we propose reclassifying Athacryvac as a subgenus within Aleiodes. In this paper we describe 11 new neotropical species of the subgenus Athacryvac: Aleiodes (Athacryvac) achterbergi Shimbori & Penteado-Dias sp. nov., Aleiodes (Athacryvac) amazoniensis Shimbori & Almeida sp. nov., Aleiodes (Athacryvac) braeti Shimbori & Shaw sp. nov., Aleiodes (Athacryvac) choco Shimbori sp. nov., Aleiodes (Athacryvac) donaldquickei Shimbori & Penteado-Dias sp. nov., Aleiodes (Athacryvac) gonzalezi Shimbori & Shaw sp. nov., Aleiodes (Athacryvac) paradoxus Shimbori & Penteado-Dias sp. nov., Aleiodes (Athacryvac) soaresi Shimbori & Penteado-Dias sp. nov., Aleiodes (Athacryvac) tico Shimbori & Shaw sp. nov., Aleiodes (Athacryvac) torresi Shimbori & Shaw sp. nov., Aleiodes (Athacryvac) zaldivari Shimbori & Almeida sp. nov. We also provide new morphological and distributional data for the previously described A. alternatus and A. fuscatus, as well as the description of the male of the later species. The 13 known species of Aleiodes (Athacryvac) stat. nov. are restricted to the Neotropical Region, ranging from southern Mexico to southern Brazil. With our current results, there are 104 described neotropical Aleiodes species.

  11. Population declines in North American birds that migrate to the neotropics

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Robbins, C.S.; Sauer, J.R.; Greenberg, R.S.; Droege, S.

    1989-01-01

    Using data from the North American Breeding Bird Survey, we determined that most neotropical migrant bird species that breed in forests of the eastern United States and Canada have recently (1978-1987) declined in abundance after a period of stable or increasing populations. Most permanent residents and temperate-zone migrants did not show a general pattern of decrease during this period. Field data from Mexico were used to classify a subset of the neotropical migrants as using forest or scrub habitats during winter. Population declines during 1978-1987 were significantly greater among the forest-wintering species, while populations of scrub-wintering species increased. The same subset of neotropical migrants also showed overall declines in forest-breeding species, but no significant differences existed between species breeding in forest and scrub habitats. Neotropical migrant species that primarily use forested habitats in either wintering or breeding areas are declining, but a statistically significant association between habitat and population declines was detected only in the tropics.

  12. Trypanosoma cruzi infection in captive Neotropical primates in the Brazilian Amazon.

    PubMed

    Bahia, Michele; de Nazaré Leite Barros, Flávia; Magalhães-Matos, Paulo Cesar; de Souza Gonçalves, Thamirys; Chiesorin Neto, Laerzio; Oliveira Faria, Diogo Cesar Lagroteria; Aparecida Romeiro, Sandra; Barros Monteiro, Frederico Ozanan; Góes-Cavalcante, Gustavo; Scofield, Alessandra

    2017-02-01

    The aim of this study was to detect the infection by Trypanosoma cruzi in captive Neotropical primates in the Brazilian Amazon. From February 2013 to July 2014, 112 blood samples were collected from Neotropical primates from the Amazonas, Amapá, and Pará States, north of Brazil. The subjects belonged to the families Cebidae (N = 59), Atelidae (N = 41), Callitrichidae (N = 5), Pitheciidae (N = 4), and Aotidae (N = 3). Blood smears also were examined for the presence of trypomastigotes by optical microscopy. For the detection of T. cruzi DNA, a Nested-PCR with primers TCZ1/TCZ2 and TCZ3/TCZ4 was performed. T. cruzi DNA was detected in 12.5% (14/112) of Neotropical primates examined. Positive samples were detected in 16%, 12.5%, and 11.11% of the different species of primates sampled from the Amapá, Pará, and Amazonas states, respectively. The analysis of the blood smears did not reveal trypomastigote forms of T. cruzi. In conclusion, Neotropical primates kept in captivity were infected by T. cruzi in the studied areas. We recommend that a health management protocol be put into place to prevent the transmission of infectious agents among captive populations, captive and wild populations, and between NHPs and the technicians who handle these animals.

  13. A revision of the Neotropical genus Paraberismyia Woodley (Diptera, Stratiomyidae, Beridinae) with three new species

    PubMed Central

    Woodley, Norman E.

    2013-01-01

    Abstract The Neotropical genus Paraberismyia Woodley, 1995, is revised. Three new species, P. chiapas sp. n., P. mathisi sp. n., and P. triunfo sp. n. are described, all having type localities in Chiapas, Mexico. A key to the four known species is provided. PMID:24294096

  14. Global functional diversity of freshwater fish is concentrated in the Neotropics while functional vulnerability is widespread

    PubMed Central

    Toussaint, A.; Charpin, N.; Brosse, S.; Villéger, S.

    2016-01-01

    Worldwide biodiversity assessments have mainly focused on species richness but little is known about the diversity of species roles, i.e. functional diversity, while this is a key facet to understanding the consequences of global changes on the ecosystem services to human societies. Here, we report the world pattern of functional diversity of freshwater fish using a database encompassing morphological characteristics of more than 9,000 species. The Neotropical realm hosts more than 75% of global functional diversity while other realms each host less than 25%. This discrepancy is mediated by high functional uniqueness in some diversified Neotropical fish orders. Surprisingly, functional diversity patterns were weakly related to functional vulnerability. In the Neotropics the loss of threatened species will cause a limited loss of functional diversity (<10%) whereas in the Nearctic and Palearctic realms, decline of the functional diversity will reach 43% and 33%, respectively, conferring a high functional vulnerability to these realms. Conservation of the Neotropical fish diversity is a key target to maintain world fish functional diversity, but this should not hide the pressing need to conserve the vulnerable fish faunas of the rest of the world, in which functional diversity is to a large extent supported by threatened species. PMID:26980070

  15. The diversity and biogeography of late Pleistocene birds from the lowland Neotropics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Steadman, David W.; Oswald, Jessica A.; Rincón, Ascanio D.

    2015-05-01

    The Neotropical lowlands sustain the world's richest bird communities, yet little that we know about their history is based on paleontology. Fossils afford a way to investigate distributional shifts in individual species, and thus improve our understanding of long-term change in Neotropical bird communities. We report a species-rich avian fossil sample from a late Pleistocene tar seep (Mene de Inciarte) in northwestern Venezuela. A mere 175 identified fossils from Mene de Inciarte represent 73 species of birds, among which six are extinct, and eight others no longer occur within 100 km. These 14 species consist mainly of ducks (Anatidae), snipe (Scolopacidae), vultures/condors (Vulturidae), hawks/eagles (Accipitridae), and blackbirds (Icteridae). Neotropical bird communities were richer in the late Pleistocene than today; their considerable extinction may be related to collapse of the large mammal fauna at that time. The species assemblage at Mene de Inciarte suggests that biogeographic patterns, even at continental scales, have been remarkably labile over short geological time frames. Mene de Inciarte is but one of 300 + tar seeps in Venezuela, only two of which have been explored for fossils. We may be on the cusp of an exciting new era of avian paleontology in the Neotropics.

  16. Drosophila suzukii in Southern Neotropical Region: Current Status and Future Perspectives.

    PubMed

    Andreazza, F; Bernardi, D; Dos Santos, R S S; Garcia, F R M; Oliveira, E E; Botton, M; Nava, D E

    2017-08-30

    Non-native insect pests are often responsible for important damage to native and agricultural plant hosts. Since Drosophila suzukii Matsumura (Diptera: Drosophilidae) has become an important pest in North America and Europe (i.e., in 2008), the global production of soft thin-skinned fruits has faced severe production losses. In the southern Neotropical region, however, the first record of D. suzukii occurred in 2013 in the south of Brazil. It has also been recorded in Uruguay, Argentina, and Chile. Despite its recent occurrence in the southern Neotropical region, the fast dispersion of D. suzukii has inspired local research efforts in an attempt to mitigate the consequences of this insect pest invasion. In this forum, we explore the current status of D. suzukii in southern Neotropical regions, discussing its future perspectives. Additionally, we attempt to draft activities and a research agenda that may help to mitigate the losses caused by D. suzukii in native and commercial soft-skinned fruits produced in this region. Currently, D. suzukii appears to be well established in the south of Brazil, but considering the entire southern Neotropical region, the invasion panorama is still underinvestigated. The lack of studies and regulatory actions against D. suzukii has contributed to the invasion success of this species in this region. Considering several peculiarities of both the pest biology and the environmental of this region, the authors advocate for the need of intensive and integrative studies toward the development and implementation of area-wide integrated pest management programs against D. suzukii in the southern Neotropical region.

  17. Temporal dynamics and leaf trait variability in Neotropical dry forests

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hesketh, Michael Sean

    This thesis explores the variability of leaf traits resulting from changes in season, ecosystem successional stage, and site characteristics. In chapter two, I present a review of the use of remote sensing analysis for the evaluation of Neotropical dry forests. Here, I stress the conclusion, drawn from studies on land cover characterization, biodiversity assessment, and evaluation of forest structural characteristics, that addressing temporal variability in spectral properties is an essential element in the monitoring of these ecosystems. Chapter three describes the effect of wet-dry seasonality on spectral classification of tree and liana species. Highly accurate classification (> 80%) was possible using data from either the wet or dry season. However, this accuracy decreased by a factor of ten when data from the wet season was classified using an algorithm trained on the dry, or vice versa. I also address the potential creation of a spectral taxonomy of species, but found that any clustering based on spectral properties resulted in markedly different arrangements in the wet and dry seasons. In chapter 4, I address the variation present in both physical and spectral leaf traits according to changes in forest successional stage at dry forest sites in Mexico and Costa Rica. I found significant differences in leaf traits between successional stages, but more strongly so in Costa Rica. This variability deceased the accuracy of spectral classification of tree species by a factor of four when classifying data using an algorithm trained on a different successional stage. Chapter 5 shows the influence of seasonality and succession on trait variability in Mexico. Differences in leaf traits between successional stages were found to be greater during the dry season, but were sufficient in both seasons to negatively influence spectral classification of tree species. Throughout this thesis, I show clear and unambiguous evidence of the variability of key physical and spectral

  18. New phytotoxic diterpenoids from Vellozia gigantea (Velloziaceae), an endemic neotropical plant living in the endangered Brazilian biome Rupestrian grasslands

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Vellozia gigantea is a rare, ancient and endemic neotropical plant present in the Brazilian Rupestrian grasslands. The dichloromethane extract of V. gigantea adventitious roots was phytotoxic against Lactuca sativa, Agrostis stolonifera and Lemna paucicostata, and showed larvicidal activity against ...

  19. New phytotoxic diterpenoids from Vellozia gigantea (Velloziaceae), an endemic neotropical plant living in the endangered Brazilian biome Rupestrian grasslands

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Vellozia gigantea is a rare, ancient and endemic neotropical plant present in the Brazilian Rupestrian grasslands. The dichloromethane extract of V. gigantea adventitious roots was phytotoxic against Lactuca sativa, Agrostis stolonifera and Lemna paucicostata, and showed larvicidal activity against ...

  20. New species of Elampus Spinola, 1806 (Hymenoptera: Chrysididae), with a key to the Neotropical species of the genus.

    PubMed

    Lucena, Daercio A A; Gomes, Rayane S

    2016-06-02

    Three species of Elampus Spinola are reviewed. A new species, Elampus macuxi Lucena, sp. nov. (Brazil, Roraima) is described and illustrated. The lectotype is designated for Elampus aequinoctialis Ducke 1901. A key for three Neotropical species is given.

  1. Combined effects of arbuscular mycorrhizas and light on water uptake of the neotropical understory shrubs, Piper and Psychotria

    Treesearch

    Damond A. Kyllo; Virginia Velez; Melvin T. Tyree

    2003-01-01

    Root hydraulic conductance (Kr) was measured for five understory shrub species of the neotropical moist forest to determine the effects of arbuscular mycorrhizas (AM) for both carbon-rich and carbon-limited host plants.

  2. Absence of photoperiod effects on mating and ovarian maturation by three haplotypes of potato psyllid, Bactericera cockerelli (Hemiptera: Triozidae)

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    We examined the effects of photoperiod on reproductive diapause of three haplotypes of potato psyllid, Bactericera cockerelli (Hemiptera: Triozidae), collected from three geographic locations: south Texas (Central haplotype), California (Western haplotype), and Washington State (Northwestern haploty...

  3. Effect of insect density and host plant quality on wing-form in Megamelus scutellaris (Hemiptera: Delphacidae)

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Megamelus scutellaris Berg (Hemiptera: Delphacidae) is a South American species that feeds on waterhyacinth, Eichhornia crassipes Mart. (Solms). This species exhibits significant wing dimorphism whereby fully winged adults (macropters) are capable of flight while those with reduced wings (brachtypt...

  4. Prey suitability and phenology of Leucopis spp. (Diptera: Chamaemyiidae) associated with hemlock woolly adelgid (Hemiptera: Adelgidae) in the Pacific Northwest

    Treesearch

    Sarah M. Grubin; Darrell W. Ross; Kimberly F. Wallin

    2011-01-01

    Leucopis spp. (Diptera: Chamaemyiidae) from the Pacific Northwest previously were identified as potential biological control agents for the hemlock woolly adelgid, Adelges tsugae Annand (Hemiptera: Adelgidae), in the eastern United States. We collected Leucopis spp. larvae from A. tsugae...

  5. Inventory and assessment of foliar natural enemies of the soybean aphid (Hemiptera: Aphididae) in South Dakota

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Soybean aphid (Aphis glycines Matsumura) (Hemiptera: Aphididae) is a major pest of soybean in northern production regions of North America, and insecticides have been the primary management approach while alternative methods are developed. Knowledge of arthropod natural enemies and their impact on ...

  6. Driving pest populations: Agricultural chemicals lead to an adaptive syndrome in Nilaparvata lugens Stal (Hemiptera: Delphacidae)

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Some of the effects of contemporary climate change and agricultural practices include increased pest ranges and thermotolerances and phonological mismatches between pest insects and their natural enemies. The brown planthopper (BPH) Nilaparvata lugens Stål (Hemiptera: Delphacidae) is a serious pest ...

  7. Injury to cotton by adult Lygus hesperus (Hemiptera: Miridae) of different gender and reproductive states

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Lygus hesperus Knight (Hemiptera: Miridae) is a key pest of cotton (Gossypium spp.) in the western United States that injures floral buds (squares) and developing fruit (bolls). However, no clear relationship between Lygus population level and plant injury has been established. Age-dependent feedi...

  8. Micro-CT study of the anatomy of the Leafhopper Homalodisca vitripennis (Hemiptera: Cicadellidae)

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    A Digital Anatomy Library, DAL, was produced to the anatomy of the glassy-winged sharpshooter adult, Homalodisca vitripennis (Hemiptera: Cicadellidae), vector of bacteria which cause Pierce’s disease of grapevines. The insect anatomy was elucidated using a high resolution Bruker Skyscan 1172 micro t...

  9. Density and egg parasitism of stink bugs (hemiptera: Pentatomidae) in elderberry and dispersal into crops

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Chinavia hilaris (Say), Euschistus servus (Say), E. tristigmus (Say), and Thyanta custator custator (F.) (Hemiptera: Pentatomidae) are serious pests of crops in the southeastern USA, but little is known concerning the dispersal of these stink bugs from non-crop host plants in woodland habitats into ...

  10. Effects of fertilizer and low rates of Imidacloprid on Adelges tsugae (Hemiptera: Adelgidae).

    Treesearch

    S. V. Joseph; James Hanula; S. K. Braman; F. J. Byrne

    2011-01-01

    Healthy hemlock trees, Tsuga canadensis (L.) Carriere, and hemlock woolly adelgid, Adelges tsugae Annand (Hemiptera: Adelgidae), populations should favor retention and population growth of adelgid predators such as Laricobius nigrinus Fender (Coleoptera: Derodontidae) and Sasajiscymnus tsugae (Sasaji&McClure) (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae). Eastern hemlock trees...

  11. Gut content analysis of a phloem-feeding insect, Bactericera cockerelli (Sulc) (Hemiptera: Triozidae)

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Potato psyllid, Bactericera cockerelli (Šulc) (Hemiptera: Triozidae) is a key pest of potato (Solanum tuberosum L., Solanales: Solanaceae) and a vector of "Candidatus Liberibacter solanacearum," the pathogen associated with zebra chip disease. In addition to its presence on cultivated crops, the p...

  12. Resistance of selected potato genotypes to the potato psyllid (Hemiptera: Triozidae)

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The characterization of resistance of selected potato, Solanum tuberosum L., breeding clones to the potato psyllid, Bactericera cockerelli (Sulc) (Hemiptera: Triozidae) was investigated. Antixenosis was assessed in choice tests in which a single plant of each genotype was placed inside a rearing cag...

  13. Stridulation by Jadera haematoloma (Hemiptera: Rhopalidae): Production mechanism and associated behaviors

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The Hemiptera displays a notable diversity of vibratory communication signals across its various families. Here we describe the substrate and airborne vibrations (sounds), the mechanism of production, and associated behaviors of Jadera haematoloma Herrich-Schaeffer, a member of the family, Rhopalida...

  14. Mass rearing and augmentative biological control of Rhynocoris fuscipes (Hemiptera: Reduviidae) against multiple pests of cotton

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Rhynocoris fuscipes (Fab.) (Hemiptera: Reduviidae) is a generalist predator of cotton pests and is commonly found inhabiting cotton growing regions in southern India. With the goal to integrate this predator in standard management practices used against cotton pests on a commercial scale, 1) we deve...

  15. Relationships between adult abdominal color and reproductive potential in Diaphorina citri (Hemiptera: Psyllidae)

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Diaphorina citri Kuwayama (Hemiptera: Psyllidae), a vector of huanglongbing (citrus greening disease), exhibits three more or less distinct abdominal colors in the adult stage: gray/brown, blue/green, and orange/yellow. A previous report showed that—relative to blue/green individuals—gray/brown indi...

  16. Rhizoecus colombiensis Ramos & Caballero, a new species of hypogeal mealybug (Hemiptera: Coccomor.

    PubMed

    Ramos-Portilla, Andrea Amalia; Caballero, Alejandro

    2016-03-14

    A new species belonging to Rhizoecus Künckel d'Herculais (Hemiptera: Coccomorpha: Rhizoecidae) is described, with hosts and distribution data in the New World. A dichotomous and illustrated key for the twelve species of Rhizoecus recorded from Colombia is presented.

  17. Field evaluation of potential pheromone lures for Lygus lineolaris (Hemiptera: Miridae) in the Mid-South

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Plant bugs (Hemiptera: Miridae) are phytophagous pests of cultivated plants around the world. In the mid-South region of the United States, Lygus lineolaris is a primary pest of cotton, and causes economic damage. Previously published research about the volatiles produced by members of the genus Lyg...

  18. Stylet bundle morphology and trophically related enzymes of the hemlock woolly adelgid (Hemiptera: Adelgidae)

    Treesearch

    Kelly L.F. Oten; Allen C. Cohen; Fred P. Hain

    2014-01-01

    The hemlock woolly adelgid, Adelges tsugae Annand (Hemiptera: Adelgidae), is a pest of eastern and Carolina hemlocks (Tsuga canadensis (L.) Carriere and Tsuga caroliniana Engelmann, respectively) in the eastern United States and has already caused catastrophic changes to eastern forests. As one of the significant...

  19. Neostusakia, a new name for preoccupied Stusakia Kment and Henry, 2008 (Hemiptera: Heteroptera: Berytidae)

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    A case of homonymy in the heteropteran family Berytidae is addressed. The genus Stusakia Kment and Henry, 2008 (Hemiptera) is preoccupied by Stusakia Frýda, 1998 (Mollusca: Gastropoda). As a consequence, the replacement name Neostusakia, new name, is proposed. In addition, the only two included s...

  20. Allozyme Variation in Hemlock Woolly Adelgid (Hemiptera: Adelgidae) from the United States and China

    Treesearch

    V. S& #225; nchez; M.A. Keena; M.A. Keena

    2009-01-01

    The hemlock woolly adelgid, Adelges tsugae Annand (Hemiptera: Adelgidae), is a major introduced pest of eastern hemlock, Tsuga canadensis (L.) Carriere. Hemlock woolly adelgid in the United States is anholocyclic and an obligate parthenogen, because no suitable primary host (on which sexual reproduction occurs in Asia) is...

  1. Interceptions of Anthocoridae, Lasiochilidae, and Lyctocoridae at the Miami Plant Inspection Station (Hemiptera: Heteroptera)

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Specimens of pirate bugs (Hemiptera: Heteroptera)) intercepted at Animal and Plant Health Inspection Services inspection stations and housed at the Miami Inspection Station were examined and identified to species or genus. The 127 specimens were distributed among 14 genera and 26 identified species...

  2. Risk to native Uroleucon aphids (Hemiptera: Aphididae) from non-native lady beetles (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae)

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Aphids in the genus Uroleucon Mordvilko (Hemiptera: Aphididae) are native herbivores that feed on goldenrod (Solidago spp.) and other Asteraceae in North America. The aphids are potential prey for a wide variety of natural enemies, including native and non-native species of lady beetles (Coleoptera...

  3. The cicada genus Karenia Distant, 1888 (Hemiptera: Cicadidae), with description of a new species.

    PubMed

    Pham, Hong-Thai; Constant, Jerome

    2014-08-19

    The cicadas of the genus Karenia are reviewed, and Karenia tibetensis sp.nov. (Hemiptera: Cicadidae) is described from Tibet, China. Pictures of the male adult and illustrations of the male genitalia are provided. A key to the species of Karenia is presented and the distribution of the Karenia species is discussed.

  4. Evaluation of trap designs and deployment strategies for capturing Halyomorpha halys (Hemiptera: Pentatomidae)

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The brown marmorated stink bug, Halyomorpha halys (Stål) (Hemiptera: Pentatomidae) is an invasive pest that attacks numerous tree fruit crops season-long. For growers to make informed management decisions against H. halys throughout the growing season, an effective monitoring tool must be in place....

  5. Two new planthopper species (Hemiptera, Fulgoroidea, Caliscelidae) collected in pitfall traps in Zambia.

    PubMed

    Chmurova, Lucia; Webb, Michael D

    2016-08-22

    Two new species of planthoppers in the family Caliscelidae (Hemiptera: Fulgoroidea) are described from Zambia, i.e., Afronaso spinosa sp. n. and Calampocus zambiaensis sp. n. All specimens are flightless males and nearly all were collected from baited pitfall traps (except for one specimen collected from a yellow pan trap), suggesting that they live near to or on the ground.

  6. Distribution and Abundance of Adelges tsugae (Hemiptera: Adelgidae) Within Hemlock Trees

    Treesearch

    S.V. Joseph; J.L. Hanula; S.K. Braman

    2011-01-01

    We studied the distribution of hemlock woolly adelgid, Adelges tsugae Annand (Hemiptera: Adelgidae), within hemlock trees for three summer (progrediens) and two winter (sistens) generations in northern Georgia. Eastern hemlock, Tsuga canadensis (L.) Carrie` re, trees were treated with 0, 10, or 25% of 1.5 g of imidacloprid per 2.5 cm of tree diameter at breast height...

  7. Survival and feeding rates of four aphid species (Hemiptera: Aphididae) on various sucrose concentrations in diets

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Different concentrations of sucrose were used to investigate how survival and feeding was affected on four species of aphids (Hemiptera: Aphididae). Seven sucrose concentrations were evaluated in feeding chambers fitted with a parafilm membranes and infested with nymphs of Aphis glycines, Diuraphi...

  8. First Record of the Hawaiian Endemic Scale, Colobopyga pritchardiae (Hemiptera: Halimococcidae), on the Big Island

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Colobopyga pritchardiae (Stickney 1934) (Hemiptera: Halimococcidae), an endemic Hawaiian scale insect associated with Pritchardia sp. was recorded for the first time on the Big Island. We began searching for palm scales on the Big Island to include in a host range testing program in quarantine for E...

  9. Preparing soft-bodied arthropods for microscope examination: Soft Scales (Insecta: Hemiptera: Coccidae)

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Proper identification of soft scales (Hemiptera:Coccidae) requires preparation of the specimen on a microscope slide. This training video provides visual instruction on how to prepare soft scale specimens on microscope slides for examination and identification. Steps ranging from collection, speci...

  10. Potential of three trap crops in managing Nezara viridula (Hemiptera: Pentatomidae) on tomatoes in Florida

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The southern green stink bug, Nezara viridula (Hemiptera: Pentatomidae), is a serious insect pest of tomatoes in Florida. In this study, we examined the use of three species of trap crops to manage N. viridula in North Florida tomato crops in 2014 and 2015. We used striped sunflower (Helianthus ann...

  11. Two pests overlap: Drosophila suzukii (Diptera: Drosophilidae) use of fruit exposed to Halyomorpha halys (Hemiptera: Pentatomidae)

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Spotted wing drosophila, Drosophila suzukii (Matsumura) (Diptera: Drosophilidae), and brown marmorated stink bug, Halyomorpha halys (Stål) (Hemiptera: Pentatomidae) are global economic pests. Both pests may co-occur on small fruits, and we investigated whether fruit recently exposed to H. halys woul...

  12. Morphological and genetic reappraisal of the Orius fauna of the western United States (Hemiptera: Heteroptera: Anthocoridae)

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Examination of minute pirate bugs, Orius spp. (Hemiptera: Heteroptera: Anthocoridae) from a broad geographic range in the western U.S. prompted a reappraisal of the taxonomic composition and geographic distribution of the fauna native to the western U.S. and Canada. Collecting efforts led to the di...

  13. Nutritional manipulation of adult female Orius pumilio (Hemiptera: Anthocoridae) enhances initial predatory performance

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Commercial shipments of Orius insidiosus Say (Hemiptera:Anthocoridae) commonly include water and protein, the latter typically supplied by eggs from a moth such as Ephestia kuehniella Zeller. To determine whether alternative dietary conditions for young adult females might improve predation, O. in...

  14. Identification of a new species of Aphis (Hemiptera: Aphididae) based on distinct morphology

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Aphis elena Lagos-Kutz and Voegtlin, sp. nov. (Hemiptera: Aphididae), is described from specimens collected in Illinois, USA, on the North American native plant, Pycnanthemum virginianum (L.) T. Dur. & B.D. Jacks. ex B.L. Rob. & Fernald (Family: Lamiaceae). Both apterous and alate viviparae are desc...

  15. Biology of Leptoypha hospita (Hemiptera: Tingidae), a Potential Biological Control Agent of Chinese Privet

    Treesearch

    Yanzhuo Zhang; James L. Hanula; Scott Horn; Kristine Braman; Jianghua Sun

    2011-01-01

    The biology of Leptoypha hospita Drake et Poor (Hemiptera: Tingidae), a potential biological control agent from China for Chinese privet, Ligustrum sinense Lour., was studied in quarantine in the United States. Both nymphs and adults feed on Chinese privet mesophyll cells that lead to a bleached appearance of leaves and dieback of branch tips. L. hospita has five...

  16. Comparisons of Lygus lineolaris (Hemiptera: Miridae) populations from two distinct geographical regions of Mississippi

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Lygus lineolaris (Hemiptera: Miridae) is a major pest of cotton in the state of Mississippi. Economic data indicates that L. lineolaris is a more serious pest of cotton in the Delta region of Mississippi than in the Hills region, however, little data exists comparing the two populations. Two experim...

  17. Internal extracellular bacteria of Diaphorina citri Kuwayama (Hemiptera: Psyllidae), the Asian citus psyllid

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Internal bacteria were isolated and cultured from the Asian Citrus Psyllid, Diaphorina citri Kuwayama (Hemiptera: Liviidae), the insect which transmits the plant-infecting bacteria, Candidatus Liberibacter, known to infect and kill citrus trees, known as citrus greening disease. The bacteria from Di...

  18. Resistance for watermelon (Citrullus lanatus var. lanatus) against whiteflies (Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae)

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The sweetpotato whitefly, Bemisia tabaci (Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae), is an important global pest with and an extensive host range. Watermelon (Citrullus lanatus var. lanatus) is among the crops damaged by this pest. Host plant resistance is the foundation for the management of crops pests in general. ...

  19. Host plant effects on Halyomorpha halys (Hemiptera: Pentatomidae) nymphal development and survivorship

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Halyomorpha halys Stål (Hemiptera: Pentatomidae) is a highly polyphagous invasive species and an important pest of orchard crops in the US. In the Mid-Atlantic region, wild hosts of H. halys are common in woodlands that often border orchards, and H. halys movement from them into orchards poses ongo...

  20. Phylogeographic analysis of Harrisia cactus mealybug, Hypogeococcus pungens (Hemiptera: Pseudoccidae) populations: work in progress

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Harrisia cactus mealybug (HCM), Hypogeococcus pungens (Hemiptera: Pseudoccidae) Granara de Willink (1981) is infesting and killing cacti in the southern coast of Puerto Rico, covering an area of about 1,400 km2. The 13 species of cacti occurring in Puerto Rico are threatened by this new pest; three...

  1. First record of Acizzia jamatonica (Hemiptera: Psyllidae) in North America: friend or foe?

    Treesearch

    Michael D. Ulyshen; Douglass Miller

    2007-01-01

    Acizzia jamatonica (Kuwayama) (Hemiptera: Sternorrhyncha: Psyllidae) is reported for the first time in North America. Because the species is thought to feed exclusively on Albizia, it may prove to be an effective biocontrol agent against the invasive Albizia julibrissin Durazzini in the southeastern United States. Because A. julibrissin is also an ornamental plant of...

  2. New species of Braggia (Hemiptera: Aphididae) on buckwheat in western North America

    Treesearch

    K. S. Pike; G. Graf; R. G. Foottit; H. E. L. Maw; P. Stary; R. Hammon; D. G. Miller

    2009-01-01

    Species of Braggia Gillette and Palmer (Hemiptera: Aphididae: Aphidinae: Aphidini) feed on various buckwheat, Eriogonum Michx. (Polygonaceae), species in western North America. Two new species, Braggia columbiana Pike n. sp. from Washington and Oregon and Braggia longicauda Pike n. sp. from Washington, Oregon, and northern California, are proposed. Descriptions,...

  3. Influence of trap color on collection of the recently introduced Bean Plataspid, Megacopta cribraria (Hemiptera: Plataspidae).

    Treesearch

    Scott Horn; James Hanula

    2011-01-01

    Large numbers of the exotic bean plataspid, Megacopta cribraria (F.) (Hemiptera: Plataspidae). were first collected from several northeast Georgia counties beginning in October 2009 (Suiter and Ames 2009, Statewide Pest Alert). How this insect arrived in the United States and where it came from is still not known. The native range of M. cribraria is reported to be...

  4. A new species of Taosa (Hemiptera:Dictyopharide) from South America associated with Water Hyacinth

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    A new species of Taosa (Hemiptera: Dictyopharidae) is described. All the stages were collected on the aquatic weed Eichhornia crassipes (Martius) Solms-Laubach (Pontederiaceae) at several localities on the Paraguay River in Argentina, and the upper Amazon River in Perú. Taosa impictifrons Remes Leni...

  5. Movement of Diaphorina citri Kuwayama (Hemiptera: Liviidae) adults between huanglongbing-affected and healthy citrus

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Asian citrus psyllid (ACP), Diaphorina citri Kuwayama (Hemiptera: Liviidae), is a vector transmitting the pathogen of citrus huanglongbing (HLB, also called yellow shoot disease or citrus greening disease). A typical symptom of citrus HLB is leaf yellowing. ACP adults behaved differently on HLB-affe...

  6. The mitogenome of the brown pod-sucking bug Clavigralla tomentosicollis (Hemiptera: Coreidae)

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Brown pod-sucking bug, Clavigralla tomentosicollis Stäl (Hemiptera: Coreidae), causes significant damage to cultivated cowpea, Vigna unguiculata Walp, a staple crop in sub-Saharan Africa. C. tomentosicollis pierce and suck sap from cowpea pods, resulting in reduced grain yield and quality. The compl...

  7. Viable progeny from crosses between geographically isolated populations of Podisus (Hemiptera: Pentatomidae) indicate a single species

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Discrepancies in reports on the presence of Podisus maculiventris (Say) (Hemiptera: Pentatomidae) in the western region of USA, and morphological variations of the species brought into question whether the species existed west of the Rocky Mountains. In this study, morphological variations in color ...

  8. A new genus of the tribe Parahiraciini (Hemiptera: Fulgoromorpha: Issidae) from Hainan Island.

    PubMed

    Meng, Rui; Qin, Daozheng; Wang, Yinglun

    2015-05-12

    A new issid genus in the tribe Parahiraciini (Hemiptera: Fulgoromorpha: Issidae) is erected for Fortunia jianfenglingensis Chen, Zhang et Chang, 2014 (China: Hainan). Male of the species is described and illustrated for the first time. A key for the 15 genera of Parahiraciini is provided. Morphological peculiarity and phylogenetic position of the new genus and the distribution of the tribe Parahiraciini are briefly discussed.

  9. Effect of papaya trunk angle on infestation by white peach scale, Pseudaulacaspis pentagona (Hemiptera: Diaspididae)

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Two papaya (Carica papaya L.) seedlings growing in one planting hole often results in angular or non-vertical growth of the trees. Data on trunk angularity, or leaning, (deviation from the vertical line of reference) and white peach scale, Pseudaulacaspis pentagona Targioni-Tozzetti (Hemiptera: Dias...

  10. Association of Verde plant bug, Creontiades signatus (Hemiptera: Miridae), with cotton boll rot

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Cotton along the Gulf Coast of south Texas has experienced loss from cotton boll rot especially during the last 10 to 15 years, and stink bugs and plant bugs (Hemiptera: Pentatomidae and Miridae) that feed on cotton bolls have been suspected in introducing the disease. A replicated grower field surv...

  11. Attraction of stink bug (Hemiptera: Pentatomidae) nymphs to Euschistus aggregation pheromone in the field

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Phytophagous stink bugs (Hemiptera: Pentatomidae) are primary pests in most fruit, vegetable, grain, and row crops worldwide. Pheromones have been identified and synthesized for several species of economically important stink bug pests. When yellow pyramid traps are baited with lures containing thes...

  12. Use of pheromones for monitoring phytophagous stink bug (Hemiptera: Pentatomidae) populations

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Phytophagous native stink bugs (Hemiptera: Pentatomidae), including Euschistus spp., Nezara viridula (L.), Chinavia hilaris (Say), Plautia stali Scott, Chlorochroa spp., and Thyanta spp., are primary pests responsible for millions of dollars in losses and cost of control in most fruit, vegetable, gr...

  13. Wolbachia infection differs among divergent mitochondrial haplotypes of Bactericera cockerelli (Hemiptera: Triozidae)

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Four mitochondrial (cytrochrome oxidase I) haplotypes of the potato psyllid, Bactericera cockerelli (S'ulc) (Hemiptera: Triozidae), have been identified in North America: western, central, northwestern,and southwestern. A recent study found that females of the northwestern haplotype mated by males o...

  14. Preliminary Observations on Zelus obscuridorsis (Stål) (Hemiptera: Reduviidae) as Predator of the Corn Leafhopper (Hemiptera: Cicadellidae) in Argentina

    PubMed Central

    Virla, Eduardo G.; Melo, Cecilia M.; Speranza, Stefano

    2015-01-01

    The corn leafhopper Dalbulus maidis (Hemiptera: Cicadellidae), is an important corn pest in most of tropical and subtropical America. This leafhopper has a rich natural enemy complex of which parasitoids and pathogens are the most studied; knowledge on its predators is limited. We noted the presence of the native assassin bug Zelus obscuridorsis (Hemiptera: Reduviidae) predating diverse motile insects, including the corn leafhopper, on corn plants cultivated in household vegetable gardens in San Miguel de Tucumán (Argentina); in order to verify its predatory actions, we exposed lab-bred individuals of D. maidis to adults of Z. obscuridorsis. The predators were starved for 24 h before trials in which the corn leafhopper in different developmental stages were exposed. Zelus obscuridorsis is highly skilled in catching specimens in motion, but it was not able to prey on eggs. The predator was capable to catch and prey on nymphs and adults. PMID:26463200

  15. Preliminary Observations on Zelus obscuridorsis (Stål) (Hemiptera: Reduviidae) as Predator of the Corn Leafhopper (Hemiptera: Cicadellidae) in Argentina.

    PubMed

    Virla, Eduardo G; Melo, Cecilia M; Speranza, Stefano

    2015-06-03

    The corn leafhopper Dalbulus maidis (Hemiptera: Cicadellidae), is an important corn pest in most of tropical and subtropical America. This leafhopper has a rich natural enemy complex of which parasitoids and pathogens are the most studied; knowledge on its predators is limited. We noted the presence of the native assassin bug Zelus obscuridorsis (Hemiptera: Reduviidae) predating diverse motile insects, including the corn leafhopper, on corn plants cultivated in household vegetable gardens in San Miguel de Tucumán (Argentina); in order to verify its predatory actions, we exposed lab-bred individuals of D. maidis to adults of Z. obscuridorsis. The predators were starved for 24 h before trials in which the corn leafhopper in different developmental stages were exposed. Zelus obscuridorsis is highly skilled in catching specimens in motion, but it was not able to prey on eggs. The predator was capable to catch and prey on nymphs and adults.

  16. Check list and zoogeographic analysis of the scale insect fauna (Hemiptera: Coccomorpha) of Greece.

    PubMed

    Pellizzari, Giuseppina; Chadzidimitriou, Evangelia; Milonas, Panagiotis; Stathas, George J; Kozár, Ferenc

    2015-09-02

    This paper presents an updated checklist of the Greek scale insect fauna and the results of the first zoogeographic analysis of the Greek scale insect fauna. According to the latest data, the scale insect fauna of the whole Greek territory includes 207 species; of which 187 species are recorded from mainland Greece and the minor islands, whereas only 87 species are known from Crete. The most rich families are the Diaspididae (with 86 species), followed by Coccidae (with 35 species) and Pseudococcidae (with 34 species). In this study the results of a zoogeographic analysis of scale insect fauna from mainland Greece and Crete are also presented. Five species, four from mainland Greece and one from Crete are considered to be endemic. Comparison with the scale insect fauna of other countries is provided.

  17. Areas of endemism in the Neotropical region based on the geographical distribution of Tabanomorpha (Diptera: Brachycera).

    PubMed

    Klassa, Bruna; Santos, Charles Morphy D

    2015-12-18

    We aim to investigate the geographical distribution patterns of the infraorder Tabanomorpha and to delimit primary hypotheses of areas of endemism for the group in the Neotropical region. The results were compared to areas of endemism proposed in previous works for other taxa and particularly with the recent Morrone's regionalisation proposal. An endemicity analysis was performed with the ndm/vndm algorithm using 3826 occurrence records for 1361 species of Tabanomorpha. Areas of endemism were established based on a grid size of 6º and consensus cut-off of 42%. We identified 13 areas of endemism comprising five main components: Northern South America (NSA), Southeastern South America (SESA), Central America (CA), Brazilian Savannah (BS), Central Andes (CAn). In a broad sense, the main areas of endemism recovered for Tabanomorpha are congruent with the recent proposals of regionalisation for the Neotropical region.

  18. Distribution patterns of Neotropical primates (Platyrrhini) based on Parsimony Analysis of Endemicity.

    PubMed

    Goldani, A; Carvalho, G S; Bicca-Marques, J C

    2006-02-01

    The Parsimony Analysis of Endemicity (PAE) is a method of historical biogeography that is used for detecting and connecting areas of endemism. Based on data on the distribution of Neotropical primates, we constructed matrices using quadrats, interfluvial regions and pre-determinated areas of endemism described for avians as Operative Geographic Units (OGUs). We codified the absence of a species from an OGU as 0 (zero) and its presence as 1 (one). A hypothetical area with a complete absence of primate species was used as outgroup to root the trees. All three analyses resulted in similar groupings of areas of endemism, which match the distribution of biomes in the Neotropical region. One area includes Central America and the extreme Northwest of South America, other the Amazon basin, and another the Atlantic Forest, Caatinga, Cerrado and Chaco.

  19. New spider flies from the Neotropical Region (Diptera, Acroceridae) with a key to New World genera

    PubMed Central

    Schlinger, Evert I.; Gillung, Jessica P.; Borkent, Christopher J.

    2013-01-01

    Abstract Two new genera and five new species of spider flies (Diptera: Acroceridae) are described from the Neotropical Region. A new genus of Philopotinae (Neophilopota brevirostris Schlinger gen. et sp. n.) is described from Mexico, while an unusual new species of Sphaerops Philippi, 1865 (Acrocerinae: Sphaerops micella Schlinger sp. n.) is described from Chile. A new Panopinae genus near Lasia Wiedemann, 1824 (Coquena stangei Schlinger gen. et sp. n.), is described from Argentina and two new species of Pialea Erichson, 1840 (Pialea brunea Schlinger sp. n. and Pialea corbiculata Schlinger sp. n.)are described from Venezuela. Each genus is diagnosed and figured, and a key to species provided. The Neotropical fauna presently includes 19 genera, containing approximately 100 species. A key to New World genera is also included. PMID:23730188

  20. Microsatellite loci for Orthophytum ophiuroides (Bromelioideae, Bromeliaceae) species adapted to neotropical rock outcrops.

    PubMed

    Aoki-Gonçalves, Felipe; Louzada, Rafael B; De Souza, Lívia Moura; Palma-Silva, Clarisse

    2014-03-01

    Microsatellite primers were developed for Orthophytum ophiuroides, a rupicolous bromeliad species endemic to neotropical rocky fields. These microsatellite loci will be used to investigate population differentiation and species cohesion in such fragmented environments. The loci were tested for cross-amplification in related bromeliad species. • Eleven polymorphic microsatellite markers were isolated and characterized from an enriched library of O. ophiuroides. The loci were tested on 42 individuals from two populations of this species. The number of alleles per locus ranged from three to nine and the expected and observed heterozygosities ranged from 0.167 to 0.870 and from 0.369 to 0.958, respectively. Seven loci successfully amplified in other related bromeliad species. • Our results suggest that the microsatellite loci developed here will be useful to assess genetic diversity and gene flow in O. ophiuroides for the investigation of population differentiation and species cohesion in neotropical mountainous habitats.