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Sample records for nerka population monitoring

  1. Oncorhynchus nerka population monitoring in the Sawtooth Valley Lakes

    SciTech Connect

    Teuscher, D.M.; Taki, D.; Ariwite, K.

    1996-05-01

    Critical habitat for endangered Snake River sockeye salmon includes five rearing lakes located in the Sawtooth Valley of central Idaho. Most of the lakes contain either introduced or endemic kokanee populations. Snake River sockeye occur naturally in Redfish Lake, and are being stocked in Redfish and Pettit Lakes. Because kokanee compete with sockeye for limited food resources, understanding population characteristics of both species such as spawn timing, egg-to-fry survival, distribution and abundance are important components of sockeye recovery. This chapter describes some of those characteristics. In 1995, hydroacoustic estimates of O. nerka densities in the Sawtooth Valley Lakes ranged from 57 to 465 fish/ha. Densities were greatest in Pettit followed by Redfish (167), Alturas (95), and Stanley Lakes. O. nerka numbers increased from 1994 values in Pettit and Alturas Lakes, but declined in Redfish and Stanley. Despite a decline in total lake abundance, O. nerka biomass estimates in Redfish Lake increased. Approximately 144,000 kokanee fry recruited to Redfish Lake from Fishhook Creek. O. nerka fry recruitment to Stanley and Alturas lake was 5,000 and 30,000 fry, respectively. Egg-to-fry survival was 14% in Fishhook and 7% in Stanley Lake Creek. In Fishhook Creek, kokanee spawning escapement was estimated using stream surveys and a weir. Escapement estimates were 4,860 from weir counts, and 7,000 from stream surveys. As part of the kokanee reduction program, 385 of the spawning female kokanee were culled. Escapement for Stanley Lake Creek was only 60 fish, a ten fold decrease from 1994. In Alturas Lake, kokanee spawners dropped by 50% to 1,600.

  2. Low cardiac and aerobic scope in a coastal population of sockeye salmon Oncorhynchus nerka with a short upriver migration.

    PubMed

    Eliason, E J; Wilson, S M; Farrell, A P; Cooke, S J; Hinch, S G

    2013-06-01

    This study showed that a coastal population (Harrison) of Fraser River sockeye salmon Oncorhynchus nerka had a lower aerobic and cardiac scope compared with interior populations with more challenging upriver spawning migrations, providing additional support to the idea that Fraser River O. nerka populations have adapted physiologically to their local migratory environment. PMID:23731155

  3. Population Genetic Structure and Life History Variability in Oncorhynchus Nerka from the Snake River Basin, 1991-1993 Final Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Waples, Robin S.; Aebersold, Paul B.; Winans, Gary A.

    1997-05-01

    A detailed examination of O. nerka from lakes in the Sawtooth Valley of Idaho was undertaken to help guide recovery planning for the endangered Redfish Lake population and to help resolve relationships between resident and anadromous forms.

  4. Provenance matters: thermal reaction norms for embryo survival among sockeye salmon Oncorhynchus nerka populations.

    PubMed

    Whitney, C K; Hinch, S G; Patterson, D A

    2013-04-01

    Differences in thermal tolerance during embryonic development in Fraser River sockeye salmon Oncorhynchus nerka were examined among nine populations in a controlled common-garden incubation experiment. Forcing embryonic development at an extreme temperature (relative to current values) of 16° C, representing a future climate change scenario, significantly reduced survival compared to the more ecologically moderate temperature of 10° C (55% v. 93%). Survival at 14° C was intermediate between the other two temperatures (85%). More importantly, this survival response varied by provenance within and between temperature treatments. Thermal reaction norms showed an interacting response of genotype and environment (temperature), suggesting that populations of O. nerka may have adapted differentially to elevated temperatures during incubation and early development. Moreover, populations that historically experience warmer incubation temperatures at early development displayed a higher tolerance for warm temperatures. In contrast, thermal tolerance does not appear to transcend life stages as adult migration temperatures were not related to embryo thermal tolerance. The intra-population variation implies potential for thermal tolerance at the species level. The differential inter-population variation in thermal tolerance that was observed suggests, however, limited adaptive potential to thermal shifts for some populations. This infers that the intergenerational effects of increasing water temperatures may affect populations differentially, and that such thermally mediated adaptive selection may drive population, and therefore species, persistence. PMID:23557297

  5. Does among-population variation in burst swimming performance of sockeye salmon Oncorhynchus nerka fry reflect early life migrations?

    PubMed

    Sopinka, N M; Hinch, S G; Lotto, A G; Whitney, C K; Patterson, D A

    2013-11-01

    Using a fixed-speed test, burst swimming performance was found to vary among nine populations of emergent sockeye salmon Oncorhynchus nerka fry reared in a common-garden environment. No consistent relationship was, however, detected between difficulty of fry migration (upstream v. downstream) to rearing areas and total burst swimming duration or bursting rate. PMID:24117961

  6. Are there intergenerational and population-specific effects of oxidative stress in sockeye salmon (Oncorhynchus nerka)?

    PubMed

    Taylor, Jessica J; Wilson, Samantha M; Sopinka, Natalie M; Hinch, Scott G; Patterson, David A; Cooke, Steven J; Willmore, William G

    2015-06-01

    Intergenerational effects of stress have been reported in a wide range of taxa; however, few researchers have examined the intergenerational consequences of oxidative stress. Oxidative stress occurs in living organisms when reactive oxygen species remain unquenched by antioxidant defense systems and become detrimental to cells. In fish, it is unknown how maternal oxidative stress and antioxidant capacity influence offspring quality. The semelparous, migratory life history of Pacific salmon (Oncorhynchus spp.) provides a unique opportunity to explore intergenerational effects of oxidative stress. This study examined the effects of population origin on maternal and developing offspring oxidative stress and antioxidant capacity, and elucidated intergenerational relationships among populations of sockeye salmon (Oncorhynchus nerka) with varying migration effort. For three geographically distinct populations of Fraser River sockeye salmon (British Columbia, Canada), antioxidant capacity and oxidative stress were measured in adult female plasma, heart, brain, and liver, as well as in developing offspring until time of emergence. Maternal and offspring oxidative stress and antioxidant capacity varied among populations but patterns were not consistent across tissue/developmental stage. Furthermore, maternal oxidative stress and antioxidant capacity did not affect offspring oxidative stress and antioxidant capacity across any of the developmental stages or populations sampled. Our results revealed that offspring develop their endogenous antioxidant systems at varying rates across populations; however, this variability is overcome by the time of emergence. While offspring may be relying on maternally derived antioxidants in the initial stages of development, they rapidly develop their own antioxidant systems (mainly glutathione) during later stages of development. PMID:25660296

  7. Global Assessment of Extinction Risk to Populations of Sockeye Salmon Oncorhynchus nerka

    PubMed Central

    Rand, Peter S.; Goslin, Matthew; Gross, Mart R.; Irvine, James R.; Augerot, Xanthippe; McHugh, Peter A.; Bugaev, Victor F.

    2012-01-01

    Background Concern about the decline of wild salmon has attracted the attention of the International Union for the Conservation of Nature (IUCN). The IUCN applies quantitative criteria to assess risk of extinction and publishes its results on the Red List of Threatened Species. However, the focus is on the species level and thus may fail to show the risk to populations. The IUCN has adapted their criteria to apply to populations but there exist few examples of this type of assessment. We assessed the status of sockeye salmon Oncorhynchus nerka as a model for application of the IUCN population-level assessments and to provide the first global assessment of the status of an anadromous Pacific salmon. Methods/Principal Findings We found from demographic data that the sockeye salmon species is not presently at risk of extinction. We identified 98 independent populations with varying levels of risk within the species' range. Of these, 5 (5%) are already extinct. We analyzed the risk for 62 out of 93 extant populations (67%) and found that 17 of these (27%) are at risk of extinction. The greatest number and concentration of extinct and threatened populations is in the southern part of the North American range, primarily due to overfishing, freshwater habitat loss, dams, hatcheries, and changing ocean conditions. Conclusions/Significance Although sockeye salmon are not at risk at the species-level, about one-third of the populations that we analyzed are at risk or already extinct. Without an understanding of risk to biodiversity at the level of populations, the biodiversity loss in salmon would be greatly underrepresented on the Red List. We urge government, conservation organizations, scientists and the public to recognize this limitation of the Red List. We also urge recognition that about one-third of sockeye salmon global population diversity is at risk of extinction or already extinct. PMID:22511930

  8. Founding events influence genetic population structure of sockeye salmon (Oncorhynchus nerka) in Lake Clark, Alaska

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ramstad, K.M.; Woody, C.A.; Sage, G.K.; Allendorf, F.W.

    2004-01-01

    Bottlenecks can have lasting effects on genetic population structure that obscure patterns of contemporary gene flow and drift. Sockeye salmon are vulnerable to bottleneck effects because they are a highly structured species with excellent colonizing abilities and often occupy geologically young habitats. We describe genetic divergence among and genetic variation within spawning populations of sockeye salmon throughout the Lake Clark area of Alaska. Fin tissue was collected from sockeye salmon representing 15 spawning populations of Lake Clark, Six-mile Lake, and Lake Iliamna. Allele frequencies differed significantly at 11 microsatellite loci in 96 of 105 pairwise population comparisons. Pairwise estimates of FST ranged from zero to 0.089. Six-mile Lake and Lake Clark populations have historically been grouped together for management purposes and are geographically proximate. However, Six-mile Lake populations are genetically similar to Lake Iliamna populations and are divergent from Lake Clark populations. The reduced allelic diversity and strong divergence of Lake Clark populations relative to Six-mile Lake and Lake Iliamna populations suggest a bottleneck associated with the colonization of Lake Clark by sockeye salmon. Geographic distance and spawning habitat differences apparently do not contribute to isolation and divergence among populations. However, temporal isolation based on spawning time and founder effects associated with ongoing glacial retreat and colonization of new spawning habitats contribute to the genetic population structure of Lake Clark sock-eye salmon. Nonequilibrium conditions and the strong influence of genetic drift caution against using estimates of divergence to estimate gene flow among populations of Lake Clark sockeye salmon.

  9. [Single-nucleotide polymorphism in populations of sockeye salmon Oncorhynchus nerka from Kamchatka Peninsula].

    PubMed

    Khrustaleva, A M; Gritsenko, O F; Klovach, N V

    2013-11-01

    The genetic polymorphism of 45 single-nucleotide polymorphism loci was examined in the four largest wild populations of sockeye salmon Oncorhynchusnerka from drainages of the Asian coast of the Pacific Ocean (Eastern and Western Kamchatka). It was demonstrated that sockeye salmon from the Palana River were considerably different from all other populations examined. The most probable explanation of the observed differences is the suggestion on possible demographic events in the history of this population associated with the decrease in its effective number. To study the origin, colonization patterns, and evolution of Asian sockeye salmon, as well as to resolve some of the applied tasks, like population assignment and genetic identification, a differentiation approach to SNP-marker selection was suggested. Adaptively important loci that evolve under the pressure of balancing (stabilizing) selection were identified, thanks to which the number of loci that provide the baseline classification error rates in the population assignment tests was reduced to 30. It was demonstrated that SNPs located in the MHC2 and GPH genes were affected by diversifying selection. Procedures for selecting single-nucleotide polymorphisms for phylogenetic studies of Asian sockeye salmon were suggested. Using principal-component analysis, 17 loci that adequately reproduce genetic differentiation within arid among the regions of the origin of Kamchatka sockeye salmon, were selected. PMID:25470934

  10. [Single-nucleotide polymorphism in populations of sockeye salmon Oncorhynchus nerka from Kamchatka Peninsula].

    PubMed

    2013-11-01

    The genetic polymorphism of 45 single-nucleotide polymorphism loci was examined in the four largest wild populations of sockeye salmon Oncorhynchusnerka from drainages of the Asian coast of the Pacific Ocean (Eastern and Western Kamchatka). It was demonstrated that sockeye salmon from the Palana River were considerably different from all other populations examined. The most probable explanation of the observed differences is the suggestion on possible demographic events in the history of this population associated with the decrease in its effective number. To study the origin, colonization patterns, and evolution of Asian sockeye salmon, as well as to resolve some of the applied tasks, like population assignment and genetic identification, a differentiation approach to SNP-marker selection was suggested. Adaptively important loci that evolve under the pressure of balancing (stabilizing) selection were identified, thanks to which the number of loci that provide the baseline classification error rates in the population assignment tests was reduced to 30. It was demonstrated that SNPs located in the MHC2 and GPH genes were affected by diversifying selection. Procedures for selecting single-nucleotide polymorphisms for phylogenetic studies of Asian sockeye salmon were suggested. Using principal-component analysis, 17 loci that adequately reproduce genetic differentiation within arid among the regions of the origin of Kamchatka sockeye salmon, were selected. PMID:25508561

  11. Facing warm temperatures during migration: cardiac mRNA responses of two adult Oncorhynchus nerka populations to warming and swimming challenges.

    PubMed

    Anttila, K; Eliason, E J; Kaukinen, K H; Miller, K M; Farrell, A P

    2014-05-01

    The main findings of the current study were that exposing adult sockeye salmon Onchorhynchus nerka to a warm temperature that they regularly encounter during their river migration induced a heat shock response at an mRNA level, and this response was exacerbated with forced swimming. Similar to the heat shock response, increased immune defence-related responses were also observed after warm temperature treatment and with a swimming challenge in two different populations (Chilko and Nechako), but with some important differences. Microarray analyses revealed that 347 genes were differentially expressed between the cold (12-13° C) and warm (18-19° C) treated fish, with stress response (GO:0006950) and response to fungus (GO:0009620) elevated with warm treatment, while expression for genes involved in oxidative phosphorylation (GO:0006119) and electron transport chain (GO:0022900) elevated for cold-treated fish. Analysis of single genes with real-time quantitative PCR revealed that temperature had the most significant effect on mRNA expression levels, with swimming and population having secondary influences. Warm temperature treatment for the Chilko population induced expression of heat shock protein (hsp) 90α, hsp90β and hsp30 as well as interferon-inducible protein. The Nechako population, which is known to have a narrower thermal tolerance window than the Chilko population, showed even more pronounced stress responses to the warm treatment and there was significant interaction between population and temperature treatment for hsp90β expression. Moreover, significant interactions were noted between temperature treatment and swimming challenge for hsp90α and hsp30, and while swimming challenge alone increased expression of these hsps, the expression levels were significantly elevated in warm-treated fish swum to exhaustion. In conclusion, it seems that adult O. nerka currently encounter conditions that induce several cellular defence mechanisms during their once

  12. Genetic Analysis of Oncorhynchus Nerka : 1991 Annual Progress Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Brannon, E.L.; Setter, A.L.; Welsh, T.L.; Rocklage, S.J.

    1992-01-01

    The 1990 project to develop DNA assessment techniques for the purpose of determining relationships among populations of Oncorhynchus nerka demonstrated differences that had potential for such application. The work was continued in 1991 with specific application of the techniques to develop DNA probes that could be used in separating populations of 0. nerka associated with the lakes in the upper Salmon River, principally those in Redfish Lake. Research included sockeye-kokanee life history studies that might add supporting evidence for assessing the degree of difference or similarity among populations in the lake systems. This report summarizes the annual activities under the work plan.

  13. Application of AN Empirically Scaled Digital Echo Integrator for Assessment of Juvenile Sockeye Salmon (oncorhynchus Nerka Walbaum) Populations.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nunnallee, Edmund Pierce, Jr.

    1980-03-01

    This dissertation consists of an investigation into the empirical scaling of a digital echo integrator for assessment of a population of juvenile sockeye salmon in Cultus Lake, British Columbia, Canada. The scaling technique was developed over the last ten years for use with totally uncalibrated but stabilized data collection and analysis equipment, and has been applied to populations of fish over a wide geographical range. This is the first investigation into the sources of bias and the accuracy of the technique, however, and constitutes a verification of the method. The initial section of the investigation describes hydroacoustic data analysis methods for estimation of effective sampling volume which is necessary for estimation of fish density. The second section consists of a computer simulation of effective sample volume estimation by this empirical method and is used to investigate the degree of bias introduced by electronic and physical parameters such as boat speed -fish depth interaction effects, electronic thresholding and saturation, transducer beam angle, fish depth stratification by size and spread of the target strength distribution of the fish. Comparisons of simulation predictions of sample volume estimation bias to actual survey results are given at the end of this section. A verification of the scaling method is then presented by comparison of a hydroacoustically derived estimation of the Cultus Lake smolt population to an independent and concurrent estimate made by counting the migrant fish as they passed through a weir in the outlet stream of the lake. Finally, the effect on conduct and accuracy of hydroacoustic assessment of juvenile sockeye salmon due to several behavioral traits are discussed. These traits include movements of presmolt fish in a lake just prior to their outmigration, daily vertical migrations and the emergence and dispersal of sockeye fry in Cultus Lake. In addition, a comparison of the summer depth preferences of the fish

  14. Genetic Analysis of Oncorhynchus Nerka : Life History and Genetic Analysis of Redfish Lake Oncorhynchus Nerka, 1993-1994 Completion Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Brannon, E.L.; Thorgaard, G.H.; Cummings, S.A.

    1994-10-01

    The study has shown through life history examination and DNA analysis that three forms of O. nerka are present in Redfish Lake. The three forms are closely related, but may be sufficiently different to be considered three separate stocks. Fishhook Creek kokanee are temporally isolated from the beach spawners, and may represent the gene pool most similar to the historic sockeye population that once spawned there. Fishhook Creek offers the best spawning area available in the lake system, and should be considered for use in reestablishing an anadromous Fishhook Creek sockeye swain. The resident beach spawning strain of O. nerka is likewise the most similar genetic form of the companion anadromous beach spawning O. nerka, and needs to be considered the most appropriate genetic source to help minimize reduced fitness of the sockeye from inbreeding.

  15. Snake River Sockeye Salmon (Oncorhynchus Nerka) Habitat/Limnologic Research : Annual Report 1992.

    SciTech Connect

    Spaulding, Scott

    1993-05-01

    This report outlines long-term planning and monitoring activities that occurred in 1991 and 1992 in the Stanley Basin Lakes of the upper Salmon River, Idaho for the purpose of sockeye salmon nerka) recovery. Limnological monitoring and experimental sampling protocol, designed to establish a limnological baseline and to evaluate sockeye salmon production capability of the lakes, are presented. Also presented are recommended passage improvements for current fish passage barriers/impediments on migratory routes to the lakes. We initiated O. nerka population evaluations for Redfish and Alturas lakes; this included population estimates of emerging kokanee fry entering each lake in the spring and adult kokanee spawning surveys in tributary streams during the fall. Gill net evaluations of Alturas, Pettit, and Stanley lakes were done in September, 1992 to assess the relative abundance of fish species among the Stanley Basin lakes. Fish population data will be used to predict sockeye salmon production potential within a lake, as well as a baseline to monitor long-term fish community changes as a result of sockeye salmon recovery activities. Also included is a paper that reviews sockeye salmon enhancement activities in British Columbia and Alaska and recommends strategies for the release of age-0 sockeye salmon that will be produced from the current captive broodstock.

  16. Monitoring bird population trends

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Robbins, C.S.; Slusher, John P.; Hinckley, Thomas M.

    1974-01-01

    The Breeding Bird Survey monitors annually the breeding populations of nearly 500 bird species by means of 2,000 random roadside counts of fifty 3-minute stops each. Results are computer-analyzed by State and Province, physiographic and geographic regions, and for the entire continent. Short- and long-term population changes are detected and maps showing distribution and relative abundance are prepared. A computerized bibliography of breeding bird censuses currently in preparation will permit retrieval of bird density data by bird species, plant community, and geographic location. These two programs will greatly facilitate management for nongame species.

  17. Genetic diversity of sockeye salmon (`oncorhynchus nerka`) of Cook Inlet, Alaska, and its application to restoration of injured populations of the Kenai River. Exxon Valdez Oil Spill Restoration Project 93012 and 94255-2. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Seeb, L.W.; Habicht, C.; Templin, W.D.; Fetzner, J.W.; Gates, R.B.

    1995-11-01

    Genetic data from sockeye salmon (Oncorhynchus nerka) were collected from all significant spawning populations contributing to mixed-stock harvests in Cook Inlet. A total of 68 allozyme loci were resolved from 37 populations. Mitochondrial DNA data from the NADH subunits 5 and 6 were collected from 19 of the populations. Mixed-stock analyses using maximum likelihood methods with 27 loci were evaluated to estimate the proportion of Kenai River populations in Central District drift fisheries. Simulations indicate that Kenai River populations can be identified in mixtures at a level of precision and accuracy useful for restoration and fishery management. Mixed-stock samples from Cook Inlet drift net fisheries were analyzed both inseason (48 hr) and post-season. Samples from fish wheels from the Kenai, Kasilof, Yentna, and Susitna River systems were also analyzed. Inclusion of mtDNA data in the analysis is being investigated to determine if it improves precision and accuracy. Results from this study are currently being used in the management and restoration of Kenai River sockeye salmon injured in the 1989 Exxon Valdex oil spill.

  18. Sexual maturation in kokanee Oncorhynchus nerka

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Patterson, S.D.; Scarnecchia, D.L.; Congleton, J.L.

    2008-01-01

    We used observational and experimental approaches to obtain information on factors affecting the timing of maturation of kokanee Oncorhynchus nerka, a semelparous, landlocked salmon. Gonadal staging criteria were developed and applied to three kokanee populations in Idaho lakes and reservoirs. Testes were classified into three stages: immature (stage one, S1), maturing (S2), and mature (S3). Ovaries were classified into eight stages: immature (S1-S3), transitional (stage S4), maturing (S5-S7), and mature (S8). Males entered the maturing stage (S2) in February through April of the spawning year. Females entered maturing stage (S5) as early as July of the year before the spawning year, and as late as March of the spawning year. Three hatchery experiments demonstrated that attainment of a larger body size 10 to 16 months before spawning increased the likelihood of initiation of maturation in both sexes. No gonads in a state of regression were observed. A gonadosomatic index above 0.1 by early July was a good indicator of a maturing male, and a gonadosomatic index above 1.0 by early July was a good indicator of a maturing female. Instantaneous growth rates were not good predictors of maturation, but attaining a size threshold of 18 to 19 cm in the fall was a good predictor of maturation the following year. This improved knowledge of kokanee maturation will permit more effectively management of the species for age, growth and size at maturity as well as for contributions to fisheries. ?? 2008 by the Northwest Scientific Association. All rights reserved.

  19. Thermal regime, predation danger and the early marine exit of sockeye salmon Oncorhynchus nerka.

    PubMed

    Katinic, P J; Patterson, D A; Ydenberg, R C

    2015-01-01

    Marine exit timing of sockeye salmon Oncorhynchus nerka populations on the Haida Gwaii Archipelago, British Columbia, Canada, is described, with specific focus on Copper Creek. Marine exit in Copper Creek occurs > 130 days prior to spawning, one of the longest adult freshwater residence periods recorded for any O. nerka population. Copper Creek presents an easy upstream migration, with mild water temperatures (7 to 14°  C), short distance (13·1 km) and low elevation gain (41 m) to the lake where fish hold prior to spawning. An energetic model estimates that <1% of the initial energy reserve is required for upstream migration, compared with 62% for lake holding and 38% for reproductive development. Historical records suggest that it is unlikely that water temperature in any of the O.nerka streams in Haida Gwaii has ever exceeded the presumed temperature threshold (19° C) for early marine exit. Although it is not impossible that the thermal tolerance of Copper Creek O.nerka is very low, the data presented here appear inconsistent with thermal avoidance as an explanation for the early marine exit timing in Copper Creek and in three other populations on the archipelago with early marine exit. PMID:25494933

  20. Genetic Analysis of Snake River Sockeye Salmon (Oncorhynchus Nerka), 2003 Technical Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Faler, Joyce; Powell, Madison

    2003-12-01

    A total of 1720 Oncorhynchus nerka tissue samples from 40 populations were characterized using mitochondrial DNA RFLPs (Restriction Fragment Length Polymorphisms). Analysis of anadromous sockeye populations indicated the historical presence of four major maternal lineages. Thirty-five composite mitochondrial haplotypes were observed from the 40 populations of O. nerka sampled throughout the Pacific Northwest. Six of these composite haplotypes ranged in frequency from 7-26% overall and were commonly observed in most populations. The six haplotypes together comprised 90% of the sampled O. nerka. An average of 4.6 composite haplotypes were observed per population. Genetic markers used were satisfactory in separating Redfish Lake anadromous sockeye, residual sockeye and outmigrants from the sympatric kokanee population that spawns in the Fishhook Creek tributary. Outmigrants appear to be primarily composed of progeny from resident residual sockeye, and captively-reared progeny of the captive broodstock program. Thus, residual sockeye may be considered a suitable source of genetic variation to maintain genetic diversity among captive broodstocks of anadromous sockeye. Fishhook Creek kokanee are genetically diverse and during spawning, are temporally and spatially isolated from the residual sockeye population. Eleven composite haplotypes were observed in the kokanee population. The unusually high number of haplotypes is most likely a consequence of periodic stocking of Redfish Lake with kokanee from other sources. Genetic data from Redfish Lake creel samples taken during 1996-1999 putatively indicate the incidental take of a listed resident sockeye.

  1. Should managed populations be monitored every year?

    PubMed

    Hauser, Cindy E; Pople, Anthony R; Possingham, Hugh P

    2006-04-01

    We often need to estimate the size of wild populations to determine the appropriate management action, for example, to set a harvest quota. Monitoring is usually planned under the assumption that it must be carried out at fixed intervals in time, typically annually, before the harvest quota is set. However, monitoring can be very expensive, and we should weigh the cost of monitoring against the improvement that it makes in decision making. A less costly alternative to monitoring annually is to predict the population size using a population model and information from previous surveys. In this paper, the problem of monitoring frequency is posed within a decision-theory framework. We discover that a monitoring regime that varies according to the state of the system can outperform fixed-interval monitoring. This idea is illustrated using data for a red kangaroo (Macropus rufus) population in South Australia. Whether or not one should monitor in a given year is dependent on the estimated population density in the previous year, the uncertainty in that population estimate, and past rainfall. We discover that monitoring is important when a model-based prediction of population density is very uncertain. This may occur if monitoring has not taken place for several years, or if rainfall has been above average. Monitoring is also important when prior information suggests that the population is near a critical threshold in population abundance. However, monitoring is less important when the optimal management action would not be altered by new information.

  2. Dworshak Reservoir Kokanee Population Monitoring, Annual Report 2001.

    SciTech Connect

    Maiolie, Melo; Stark, Eric

    2003-03-01

    Onsite testing of strobe lights was conducted to determine if they repelled kokanee Oncorhynchus nerka away from the turbine intakes at Dworshak Dam. We tested a set of nine strobe lights flashing at a rate of 360 flashes/min placed near the intake of a 90 mW turbine. A split-beam echo sounder was used to determine the effect of strobe light operation on fish density (thought to be mostly kokanee) in front of the turbine intakes. On five nights between December 2001 and January 2002, fish density averaged 110 fish/ha when no lights were flashing. Mean density dropped to 13 fish/ha when the strobe lights were turned on during five additional nights of sampling. This 88% decline in density was significant at the P = 0.009 level of significance based on a paired Student's t test. There appeared to be no tendency for fish to habituate to the lights during the night. Test results indicate that a single set of nine lights may be sufficient to repel kokanee from a turbine intake during the night. We also used split-beam hydroacoustics to monitor the kokanee population in Dworshak Reservoir during 2001. Estimated abundance of kokanee has continued to increase since the spring of 1996 when high entrainment losses occurred. Based on hydroacoustic surveys, we estimated 3,276,000 kokanee in Dworshak Reservoir in early July 2001. This included 2,069,000 age-0 kokanee (90% CI {+-} 16.4%), 801,000 age-1 kokanee (90% CI {+-} 17.8%), and 406,000 age-2 kokanee (90% CI {+-} 20.5%). Entrainment sampling was also conducted with split-beam hydroacoustics a minimum of one continuous 24 h period per month. The highest entrainment rates occurred at night with lower discharges and shallower intake depths. Fish movement patterns suggested that they swam 'at will' in front of the intakes and may have chosen to move into the turbine intakes. Based on monthly hydroacoustic sampling in the forebay, we found that kokanee density was low in July and August during a period of high discharge

  3. Recent ecological divergence despite migration in sockeye salmon (Oncorhynchus nerka)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Pavey, Scott A.; Nielsen, Jennifer L.; Hamon, Troy R.

    2010-01-01

    Ecological divergence may result when populations experience different selection regimes, but there is considerable discussion about the role of migration at the beginning stages of divergence before reproductive isolating mechanisms have evolved. However, detection of past migration is difficult in current populations and tools to differentiate genetic similarities due to migration versus recent common ancestry are only recently available. Using past volcanic eruption times as a framework, we combine morphological analyses of traits important to reproduction with a coalescent-based genetic analysis of two proximate sockeye salmon (Oncorhynchus nerka) populations. We find that this is the most recent (~500 years, 100 generations) natural ecological divergence recorded in a fish species, and report that this divergence is occurring despite migration. Although studies of fish divergence following the retreat of glaciers (10,000–15,000 years ago) have contributed extensively to our understanding of speciation, the Aniakchak system of sockeye salmon provides a rare example of the initial stages of ecological divergence following natural colonization. Our results show that even in the face of continued migration, populations may diverge in the absence of a physical barrier.

  4. Recent ecological divergence despite migration in sockeye salmon (Oncorhynchus nerka).

    PubMed

    Pavey, Scott A; Nielsen, Jennifer L; Hamon, Troy R

    2010-06-01

    Ecological divergence may result when populations experience different selection regimes, but there is considerable discussion about the role of migration at the beginning stages of divergence before reproductive isolating mechanisms have evolved. However, detection of past migration is difficult in current populations and tools to differentiate genetic similarities due to migration versus recent common ancestry are only recently available. Using past volcanic eruption times as a framework, we combine morphological analyses of traits important to reproduction with a coalescent-based genetic analysis of two proximate sockeye salmon (Oncorhynchus nerka) populations. We find that this is the most recent (approximately 500 years, 100 generations) natural ecological divergence recorded in a fish species, and report that this divergence is occurring despite migration. Although studies of fish divergence following the retreat of glaciers (10,000-15,000 years ago) have contributed extensively to our understanding of speciation, the Aniakchak system of sockeye salmon provides a rare example of the initial stages of ecological divergence following natural colonization. Our results show that even in the face of continued migration, populations may diverge in the absence of a physical barrier.

  5. Recent ecological divergence despite migration in sockeye salmon (Oncorhynchus nerka).

    PubMed

    Pavey, Scott A; Nielsen, Jennifer L; Hamon, Troy R

    2010-06-01

    Ecological divergence may result when populations experience different selection regimes, but there is considerable discussion about the role of migration at the beginning stages of divergence before reproductive isolating mechanisms have evolved. However, detection of past migration is difficult in current populations and tools to differentiate genetic similarities due to migration versus recent common ancestry are only recently available. Using past volcanic eruption times as a framework, we combine morphological analyses of traits important to reproduction with a coalescent-based genetic analysis of two proximate sockeye salmon (Oncorhynchus nerka) populations. We find that this is the most recent (approximately 500 years, 100 generations) natural ecological divergence recorded in a fish species, and report that this divergence is occurring despite migration. Although studies of fish divergence following the retreat of glaciers (10,000-15,000 years ago) have contributed extensively to our understanding of speciation, the Aniakchak system of sockeye salmon provides a rare example of the initial stages of ecological divergence following natural colonization. Our results show that even in the face of continued migration, populations may diverge in the absence of a physical barrier. PMID:20030707

  6. Dworshak Reservoir Kokanee Population Monitoring: Project Progress Report, 1999 Annual Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Maiolie, Melo; Vidergar, Dmitri T.; Harryman, Bill

    2001-08-01

    We used split-beam hydroacoustics and trawling to monitor the kokanee Oncorhynchus nerka population in Dworshak Reservoir during 1999. Estimated abundance of kokanee has continued to increase since the high entrainment losses in the spring of 1996. Based on hydroacoustic surveys, we estimated 1,545,000 kokanee and rainbow trout O. mykiss in Dworshak Reservoir during July 1999. This included 1,144,000 age-0 kokanee (90% CI {+-} 42%), 212,000 age-1 kokanee (90% CI {+-} 15%), and 189,000 age-2 kokanee and stocked rainbow trout (90% CI {+-} 39%). Rainbow trout could not be distinguished from the age-2 kokanee in the echograms since they were of similar size. Age-0 kokanee ranged in length from 40 mm to 90 mm, age-1 from 193 mm to 212 mm, and age-2 kokanee from 219 mm to 336 mm. These sizes indicated kokanee are still growing well. Discharge of water from Dworshak Dam during 1999 did not stop the expansion of the kokanee population based on these results. Counts of spawning kokanee in four tributary streams exceeded 11,000 fish. This index also showed a marked increase from last year's 660 spawning kokanee or the 1997 total of 144 spawning kokanee.

  7. Wildlife population monitoring at Rocky Mountain Arsenal

    SciTech Connect

    Griess, J.

    1994-12-31

    In 1987 the Fish and Wildlife Service became actively involved in wildlife population monitoring at the Arsenal because of the discovery of a bald eagle roost on the site. As many as 100 eagles may use the roost during the course of a winter. Since that time, the Service has conducted or funded a variety of investigations to determine deer herd size and health, reproductive success of raptors, breeding bird surveys, prairie dog distribution and population monitoring, small mammal and passerine bird community evaluations, waterfowl surveys, etc. An overview of the wildlife population monitoring program, its evolution, and results will be presented.

  8. Monitoring grizzly bear population trends

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Eberhardt, L.L.; Knight, R.R.; Blanchard, B.M.

    1986-01-01

    A simple different equation model was developed to provide additional perspective on observed mortality and trend data on Yellowstone grizzly bears (Ursus arctos horribilis). Records of mortalities of adult females from 1959 to 1985 were utilized, in conjunction with data on females with cubs. The overall downward trend of observed numbers of females with cubs generally agrees with the model calculations but does not adequately reflect mortality from 1970 to 1974. The model may be useful in developing a composite index of population trend.

  9. Monitoring coyote population dynamics by genotyping faeces.

    PubMed

    Prugh, L R; Ritland, C E; Arthur, S M; Krebs, C J

    2005-04-01

    Reliable population estimates are necessary for effective conservation and management, and faecal genotyping has been used successfully to estimate the population size of several elusive mammalian species. Information such as changes in population size over time and survival rates, however, are often more useful for conservation biology than single population estimates. We evaluated the use of faecal genotyping as a tool for monitoring long-term population dynamics, using coyotes (Canis latrans) in the Alaska Range as a case study. We obtained 544 genotypes from 56 coyotes over 3 years (2000-2002). Tissue samples from all 15 radio-collared coyotes in our study area had > or = 1 matching faecal genotypes. We used flexible maximum-likelihood models to study coyote population dynamics, and we tested model performance against radio telemetry data. The staple prey of coyotes, snowshoe hares (Lepus americanus), dramatically declined during this study, and the coyote population declined nearly two-fold with a 1(1/2)-year time lag. Survival rates declined the year after hares crashed but recovered the following year. We conclude that long-term monitoring of elusive species using faecal genotyping is feasible and can provide data that are useful for wildlife conservation and management. We highlight some drawbacks of standard open-population models, such as low precision and the requirement of discrete sampling intervals, and we suggest that the development of open models designed for continuously collected data would enhance the utility of faecal genotyping as a monitoring tool.

  10. Antigen-binding cells in the peripheral blood of sockeye salmon, Oncorhynchus nerka Walbaum, induced by immersion or intraperitoneal injection of Vibrio languilarum bacterin

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    1981-01-01

    We used an immunocytoadherence assay to monitor the response of antigen-binding cells (ABC) in the peripheral blood of sockeye salmon, Oncorhynchus nerka, after immersion in, or intraperitoneal injection of, Vibrio anguillarum LS 1–74 bacterin. Both methods initiated an elevated ABC response in less than one day; this response persisted one week longer in the injected than in the immersed fish.

  11. Monitoring Canadian bird populations with winter counts

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Dunn, E.H.; Sauer, J.R.; Dunn, E.H.; Cadman, M.D.; Falls, J.B.

    1997-01-01

    Two winter bird surveys in Canada have range-wide population monitoring potential: Christmas Bird Counts (CBCs) and Project FeederWatch (PFW). CBC trends are shown to be correlated to Breeding Bird Survey (BBS) trends, whether or not part of the winter range lies outside the CBC coverage area. Some species are poorly covered by this survey (e.g. seabirds, nocturnal species, and Neotropical migrants). Only eight Canadian breeding species that are not sampled by the BBS have their winter range well-covered by the CBC, but the CBC should be valuable as an independent source of trend data for many more species, including northern nesters with only marginal BBS coverage. More work is needed to show whether PFW trends match BBS trends; even if they do, PFW covers relatively few species, and most are monitored already by the BBS and/or CBC

  12. Monitoring bird populations in small geographic areas

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Dunn, E.H.; Bart, J.; Collins, B.T.; Craig, B.; Dale, B.; Downes, C.M.; Francis, C.M.; Woodley, S.; Zorn, P.

    2006-01-01

    Numerous methods exist for monitoring bird populations, and there is a large literature describing them. There are few resources, however, that provide comprehensive advice on every step of organizing and carrying out a survey, from the early stages of planning to final use of the data. Even fewer resources are designed to meet the needs of a wide variety of potential users, from amateurs interested in change of bird life in a local study preserve to professionals testing hypotheses on the response of birds to habitat management, although much of the advice should be the same for every monitoring program. Whether survey objectives are very modest or rigorously scientific, samples must be sufficiently numerous and well distributed to provide meaningful results, and the survey should be well designed to ensure that the money and effort going into it are not wasted. This document is intended to be a complete resource for anyone planning to organize monitoring of noncolonial landbirds within a relatively small geographic area (e.g., from the size of a woodlot to a large park). The first of its two parts provides background explaining the importance of good study design and gives specific advice on all aspects of project planning and execution of high-quality data collection for the purpose of hypothesis testing. The second part is self-contained and nontechnical and describes complete plans for a site-specific checklist survey, suitable for addressing monitoring questions frequently asked by amateurs and for involvement of volunteers in data collection. Throughout are references to additional resources, from background literature to sources of existing survey protocols, analysis software, and tools for archiving data.

  13. Revisiting evolutionary dead ends in sockeye salmon ( Oncorhynchus nerka) life history

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Pavey, S.A.; Hamon, T.R.; Nielsen, J.L.

    2007-01-01

    This study challenges recent hypotheses about sockeye salmon (Oncorhynchus nerka) colonization based on life history and broadens the pathways that investigators should consider when studying sockeye colonization of novel habitats. Most sockeye populations exhibit lake-type life histories. Riverine populations are thought to be more likely to stray from their natal stream to spawn and therefore colonize new habitat. We examined genetic relationships among five geographically proximate sockeye populations from the Aniakchak region of the Alaska Peninsula, Alaska. Specifically, we sought to determine if the genetic population structure was consistent with the hypothesis that a riverine population colonized a recently available upriver volcanic caldera lake, and whether recent volcanism led to genetic bottlenecks in these sockeye populations. Heterozygosity and allelic richness were not higher in the riverine population. Patterns of genetic divergence suggested that the geographically proximate riverine sockeye population did not colonize the lake; the caldera populations were more genetically divergent from the downstream riverine population (FST  =  0.047) than a lake-type population in a different drainage (FST  =  0.018). Our results did not suggest the presence of genetic bottlenecks in the caldera populations.

  14. Lake Roosevelt Fisheries Monitoring Program; Artificial Imprinting of Lake Roosevelt Kokanee Salmon (Oncorhynchus Nerka) with Synthetic Chemicals: Measurement of Thyroxine Content as an Indicator of the Sensitive Period for Imprinting to Olfactory Cues; 1992 Supplement Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Scholz, Allan T.; White, Ronald J.; Tilson, Mary Beth

    1993-09-01

    In 1991, we initiated studies to determine the critical period for thyroxine-induced olfactory imprinting in kokanee salmon. In our preliminary investigation we found that thyroxine [T{sub 4}] levels of Lake Whatcom stock, 1990 year class, kokanee were relatively high in eggs and alevins as compared to post-swimup fry, and peaked at hatch and swimup. Here we report on follow-up studies conducted in 1992 designed to determine if our initial results could be replicated. Additionally, in 1992, we initiated experiments to determine if kokanee could be imprinted to synthetic chemicals--morpholine and phenethyl alcohol--at different life stages. In 1991, whole body thyroxine content [T{sub 4}] was measured in 460 Lake Whatcom stock kokanee and 480 Lake Pend Orielle (Cabinet Gorge) stock kokanee to indicate the critical period for imprinting. Lots of 20 kokanee eggs, alevins and fry from both stocks, reared at the Spokane Tribal hatchery, were collected at weekly intervals from November 1991 to August 1992 and assayed for T{sub 4} content by radioimmunoassay. T{sub 4} levels were monitored in Lake Whatcom stock, 1991 year class fish, from eyed egg (33 days post-fertilization) to fry (248 days post-fertilization) stages. T{sub 4} concentration ({+-} SEM) in eggs was 6.7 {+-} 1.3 rig/g body weight. T{sub 4} peaked on the day of hatch at 13.1 {+-} 2.5 ng/g body weight, then declined to 10.3 {+-} 1.1 ng/g body weight in recently post-hatch alevins. T{sub 4} peaked again at 22.1 {+-} 5.2 ng/g body weight during swimup, then steadily decreased to about 1.0 ng/g body weight in 176-248 day old fry. T{sub 4} levels were monitored in Lake Pend Orielle stock, 1991 year class, fish from the day of fertilization (day 0) to 225 days post-fertilization. T{sub 4} content of eggs was 9.5 {+-} 1.7 ng/g body weight and peaked on the day of hatch (day 53 post-fertilization) at 24.2 {+-} 4.5 ng/g body weight. After declining to 13.0 {+-} 2.9 ng/g body weight on day 81 post-fertilization, T

  15. Ecological transcriptomics of lake-type and riverine sockeye salmon (Oncorhynchus nerka)

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background There are a growing number of genomes sequenced with tentative functions assigned to a large proportion of the individual genes. Model organisms in laboratory settings form the basis for the assignment of gene function, and the ecological context of gene function is lacking. This work addresses this shortcoming by investigating expressed genes of sockeye salmon (Oncorhynchus nerka) muscle tissue. We compared morphology and gene expression in natural juvenile sockeye populations related to river and lake habitats. Based on previously documented divergent morphology, feeding strategy, and predation in association with these distinct environments, we expect that burst swimming is favored in riverine population and continuous swimming is favored in lake-type population. In turn we predict that morphology and expressed genes promote burst swimming in riverine sockeye and continuous swimming in lake-type sockeye. Results We found the riverine sockeye population had deep, robust bodies and lake-type had shallow, streamlined bodies. Gene expression patterns were measured using a 16K microarray, discovering 141 genes with significant differential expression. Overall, the identity and function of these genes was consistent with our hypothesis. In addition, Gene Ontology (GO) enrichment analyses with a larger set of differentially expressed genes found the "biosynthesis" category enriched for the riverine population and the "metabolism" category enriched for the lake-type population. Conclusions This study provides a framework for understanding sockeye life history from a transcriptomic perspective and a starting point for more extensive, targeted studies determining the ecological context of genes. PMID:22136247

  16. TRANSGENE ESCAPE MONITORING, POPULATION GENETICS, AND THE LAW

    EPA Science Inventory

    There has been little discussion about how to apply population genetics methods to monitor the spread of transgenes that are detected outside the agricultural populations where they are deployed. Population geneticists have developed tools for analyzing the genetic makeup of indi...

  17. Noninvasive methods for monitoring bear population trends

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kendall, Katherine

    2010-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey began a grizzly bear research project in 2009 in the Northern Continental Divide Ecosystem (NCDE) of northwestern Montana. This work uses hair collection and DNA analysis methods similar to those used in the 2004 Northern Divide Grizzly Bear Project. However, instead of producing a snapshot of population size, the objectives of this new work are to estimate population growth rates by collecting hair at natural bear rubs along trails, roads, and fence and power lines. This approach holds promise of providing reliable estimates of population trends in an efficient, cost-effective, and unobtrusive way.

  18. Juvenile habitat partitioning and relative productivity in allochronically isolated sockeye salmon (Oncorhynchus nerka)

    PubMed Central

    Miller, EK Fillatre; Bradbury, IR; Heath, DD

    2011-01-01

    Allochronic divergence, like spatial isolation, may contribute to population diversity and adaptation, however the challenges for tracking habitat utilization in shared environments are far greater. Adult Klukshu River (Yukon, Canada) sockeye salmon, Oncorhynchus nerka, return as genetically distinct “early” and “late” runs. Early and late adult spawning populations (1999 and 2000) and their subsequent fry (sampled at 7 sites in 2000 and at 8 sites in 2001 throughout Klukshu Lake and River) were genotyped at eight microsatellite loci. Bayesian assignment was used to determine the spatial distribution of early versus late fry; although intermixed, the distribution of fry significantly differed in Klukshu Lake and in the Klukshu River in 2001, based on crosstab analyses. Late-run fry predominated in Klukshu Lake at all sites, while early-run fry were most common in the north and south of Klukshu Lake and in Klukshu River. Early-run spawners had significantly higher relative productivity (early life survival) than late-run fish (2.9 times more fry produced per early-run adult in 2000, and 9.2 times more in 2001). This study demonstrates spatial habitat partitioning and differences in the contribution of allochronically isolated populations to fry abundance, and highlights annual variability that likely contributes to recruitment variation. PMID:22393527

  19. Canada's efforts in developing capabilities in radiological population monitoring.

    PubMed

    Li, Chunsheng; Wilkins, Ruth; Dai, Xiongxin; Sadi, Baki; Ko, Raymond; Kramer, Gary H

    2011-08-01

    Population monitoring is an important component of radiological and nuclear emergency preparedness and response. Since 2002, Canada has been investing in developing national capabilities in radiological population monitoring. This paper summarizes Canada's efforts in developing methods and techniques in biological dosimetry and in vivo and in vitro bioassay techniques. There are still many gaps to fill that require further efforts. Integration of different monitoring methods and techniques in order to have the best assessment of radiation dose to support medical management and integration of Canada's efforts with international efforts are recommended.

  20. Strobe Light Testing and Kokanee Population Monitoring : Dworshak Dam Impacts Assessment and Fisheries Investigation Project, 87-99 : Annual Progress Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Maiolie, Melo A.; Harryman, Bill; Ament, Willaim J.

    1999-11-01

    We tested the response of kokanee Oncorhynchus nerka to strobe lights. Testing was conducted on wild, free-ranging fish in their natural environment (i.e., the pelagic region of two large Idaho lakes). Split-beam hydroacoustics were used to record the distance kokanee moved away from the lights, as well as the density of kokanee in the area near the lights. In control tests, where strobe lights were lowered into the lake but kept turned off, kokanee remained within a few meters of the lights. Once the lights began flashing, kokanee quickly moved away from the light source. Kokanee moved 20 to 40 m away from the lights in waters with Secchi transparencies from 3 to 5 m. Kokanee densities near the lights were significantly lower (p=0.07 to p=0.00) when the lights were turned on than in control samples with no lights flashing. Flash rates of 300, 360, and 450 flashes/min elicited strong avoidance responses from the fish. Kokanee remained at least 24 m from the lights during our longest test that lasted for 5 h 50 min. We also continued annual monitoring of the kokanee population in Dworshak Reservoir. Spawner counts in four tributary streams that were used as an index of the adult population reached a record low of 144 spawners. No age-1 or age-2 kokanee were caught in 15 trawl hauls used to make population estimates. The population estimate of fry was 65,000 fish, {+-} 76% (90% C.I.). Flooding during the spring of 1996 was responsible for the low kokanee population.

  1. Monitoring wild pig populations: a review of methods.

    PubMed

    Engeman, R M; Massei, G; Sage, M; Gentle, M N

    2013-11-01

    Wild pigs (Sus scrofa) are widespread across many landscapes throughout the world and are considered to be an invasive pest to agriculture and the environment, or conversely a native or desired game species and resource for hunting. Wild pig population monitoring is often required for a variety of management or research objectives, and many methods and analyses for monitoring abundance are available. Here, we describe monitoring methods that have proven or potential applications to wild pig management. We describe the advantages and disadvantages of methods so that potential users can efficiently consider and identify the option(s) best suited to their combination of objectives, circumstances, and resources. This paper offers guidance to wildlife managers, researchers, and stakeholders considering population monitoring of wild pigs and will help ensure that they can fulfill their monitoring objectives while optimizing their use of resources. PMID:23881593

  2. [Intra- and interpopulation variability of southwestern Kamchatka sockeye salmon Oncorhynchus nerka inferred from the data on single nucleotide polymorphism].

    PubMed

    Khrustaleva, A M; Klovach, N V; Gritsenko, O F; Seeb, J E

    2014-07-01

    The variability of 45 single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) loci was studied in nine samples of the sockeye salmon Oncorhynchus nerka from the rivers of southwestern Kamchatka. The Wahlund effect, gametic disequilibrium at some loci, and a decrease in interpopulation genetic diversity estimates observed in samples from the Bolshaya River outlet are explained in terms of the samples' heterogeneity. Partitioning of mixed samples using some biological characteristics of the individuals led to a noticeable decrease in the frequency of these phenomena. It was demonstrated that the allelic diversity between the populations within the river Plotnikovs accounted for the larger part of genetic variation, as compared to the differentiation between the basins. The SNP loci responsible for intra- and interpopulation differentiation of sockeye salmon from the rivers of southwestern Kamchatka were identified. Some recommendations for field population genetic studies of Asian sockeye salmon were formulated. PMID:25720142

  3. Multidisciplinary population monitoring when demographic data are sparse: a case study of remote trout populations

    PubMed Central

    Fraser, Dylan J; Calvert, Anna M; Bernatchez, Louis; Coon, Andrew

    2013-01-01

    The potential of genetic, genomic, and phenotypic metrics for monitoring population trends may be especially high in isolated regions, where traditional demographic monitoring is logistically difficult and only sporadic sampling is possible. This potential, however, is relatively underexplored empirically. Over eleven years, we assessed several such metrics along with traditional ecological knowledge and catch data in a socioeconomically important trout species occupying a large, remote lake. The data revealed largely stable characteristics in two populations over 2–3 generations, but possible contemporary changes in a third population. These potential shifts were suggested by reduced catch rates, reduced body size, and changes in selection implied at one gene-associated single nucleotide polymorphism. A demographic decline in this population, however, was ambiguously supported, based on the apparent lack of temporal change in effective population size, and corresponding traditional knowledge suggesting little change in catch. We illustrate how the pluralistic approach employed has practicality for setting future monitoring efforts of these populations, by guiding monitoring priorities according to the relative merits of different metrics and availability of resources. Our study also considers some advantages and disadvantages to adopting a pluralistic approach to population monitoring where demographic data are not easily obtained. PMID:24455128

  4. Postglacial genetic differentiation of reproductive ecotypes of kokanee Oncorhynchus nerka in Okanagan Lake, British Columbia.

    PubMed

    Taylor, E B; Harvey, S; Pollard, S; Volpe, J

    1997-06-01

    Okanagan Lake, south-central interior of BC, contains two reproductive ecotypes of kokanee Oncorhynchus nerka; individuals spawn in tributary streams ('stream-spawners') as well as on shoreline gravel areas ('beach-spawners'). We tested the hypothesis that these sympatric ecotypes comprise a single panmictic population by assaying variation in morphological traits and at allozyme, mitochondrial and minisatellite DNA loci in fish collected from three stream-spawning and two beach-spawning sites. No morphological traits consistently distinguished the reproductive ecotypes with the exception of the number of anal fin rays which was greater in stream-spawning kokanee. Four of 18 allozyme loci screened were polymorphic, but no significant allele frequency differences were detected among populations within ecotypes or between ecotypes. Similarly, allele frequencies at two minisatellite DNA loci were not significantly different among populations or between ecotypes. By contrast, significant differences in the frequencies of mitochondrial DNA restriction fragment length polymorphism (mtDNA RFLP) haplo-types were detected between stream- and beach-spawners, but not among populations within ecotypes. Further, two RFLPs that distinguished stream- and beach-spawning adults were found in juvenile kokanee sampled from the limnetic zone of Okanagan Lake. The two mtDNA RFLPs and a d-loop sequence variant appear to be unique to Okanagan Lake Kokanee because we did not observe these haplotypes in sockeye salmon and kokanee sampled outside of Okanagan Lake. Our data suggest that: (i) there is restricted female-mediated gene flow between stream- and beach-spawning kokanee in Okanagan Lake, (ii) the forms have diverged within the lake basin since the retreat of the Wisconsinian glaciers (< approximately equal to 11 000 years ago), and (iii) distinct reproductive niches may promote divergence in north temperate freshwater fish faunas.

  5. The value of monitoring to control evolving populations

    PubMed Central

    Fischer, Andrej; Mustonen, Ville

    2015-01-01

    Populations can evolve to adapt to external changes. The capacity to evolve and adapt makes successful treatment of infectious diseases and cancer difficult. Indeed, therapy resistance has become a key challenge for global health. Therefore, ideas of how to control evolving populations to overcome this threat are valuable. Here we use the mathematical concepts of stochastic optimal control to study what is needed to control evolving populations. Following established routes to calculate control strategies, we first study how a polymorphism can be maintained in a finite population by adaptively tuning selection. We then introduce a minimal model of drug resistance in a stochastically evolving cancer cell population and compute adaptive therapies. When decisions are in this manner based on monitoring the response of the tumor, this can outperform established therapy paradigms. For both case studies, we demonstrate the importance of high-resolution monitoring of the target population to achieve a given control objective, thus quantifying the intuition that to control, one must monitor. PMID:25587136

  6. Monitoring low density avian populations: An example using Mountain Plovers

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Dreitz, V.J.; Lukacs, P.M.; Knopf, F.L.

    2006-01-01

    Declines in avian populations highlight a need for rigorous, broad-scale monitoring programs to document trends in avian populations that occur in low densities across expansive landscapes. Accounting for the spatial variation and variation in detection probability inherent to monitoring programs is thought to be effort-intensive and time-consuming. We determined the feasibility of the analytical method developed by Royle and Nichols (2003), which uses presence-absence (detection-non-detection) field data, to estimate abundance of Mountain Plovers (Charadrius montanus) per sampling unit in agricultural fields, grassland, and prairie dog habitat in eastern Colorado. Field methods were easy to implement and results suggest that the analytical method provides valuable insight into population patterning among habitats. Mountain Plover abundance was highest in prairie dog habitat, slightly lower in agricultural fields, and substantially lower in grassland. These results provided valuable insight to focus future research into Mountain Plover ecology and conservation. ?? The Cooper Ornithological Society 2006.

  7. Elevation of plasma cortisol during the spawning migration of landlocked kokanee salmon (Oncorhynchus nerka kennerlyi).

    PubMed

    Carruth, L L; Dores, R M; Maldonado, T A; Norris, D O; Ruth, T; Jones, R E

    2000-09-01

    Kokanee salmon (Oncorhynchus nerka kennerlyi ), a landlocked subspecies of sockeye salmon, exhibited hypothalamic-pituitary interrenal (HPI, adrenal homologue) axis activation and an increase in plasma cortisol concentration up to 639 +/- 55.9 ng/ml in association with upstream migration in the upper Colorado River even though they were not exposed to a change in salinity and lengthy migration. Kokanee salmon were collected at various stages of migration and concomitant sexual maturation. The pattern of cortisol elevation in kokanee is similar to that in ocean-run sockeye salmon (O. nerka nerka). The presence of plasma cortisol elevation in an upstream migrating, landlocked Pacific salmon suggests that stressors previously considered to cause the cortisol increase, such as long-distance migration and changes in salinity, may not be primary causes of the HPI axis activation.

  8. Indicator Species Population Monitoring in Antarctica with Uav

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zmarz, A.; Korczak-Abshire, M.; Storvold, R.; Rodzewicz, M.; Kędzierska, I.

    2015-08-01

    A program to monitor bird and pinniped species in the vicinity of Arctowski Station, King George Island, South Shetlands, Antarctica, has been conducted over the past 38 years. Annual monitoring of these indicator species includes estimations of breeding population sizes of three Pygoscelis penguin species: Adélie, gentoo and chinstrap. Six penguin colonies situated on the western shores of two bays: Admiralty and King George are investigated. To study changes in penguin populations Unmanned Aerial Vehicles were used for the first time in the 2014/15 austral summer season. During photogrammetric flights the high-resolution images of eight penguin breeding colonies were taken. Obtained high resolution images were used for estimation of breeding population size and compared with the results of measurements taken at the same time from the ground. During this Antarctic expedition eight successful photogrammetry missions (total distance 1500 km) were performed. Images were taken with digital SLR Canon 700D, Nikon D5300, Nikon D5100 with a 35mm objective lens. Flights altitude at 350 - 400 AGL, allowed images to be taken with a resolution GSD (ground sample distance) less than 5 cm. The Image J software analysis method was tested to provide automatic population estimates from obtained images. The use of UAV for monitoring of indicator species, enabled data acquisition from areas inaccessible by ground methods.

  9. Nevada Test Site tortoise population monitoring study. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Mueller, J.M.; Zander, K.K.

    1994-12-01

    A Tortoise Population Monitoring Study was initiated to determine and monitor the density of desert tortoises (Gopherus agassizii) on the Nevada Test Site. Quadrat sampling was conducted following methodology described in the Draft Desert Tortoise Recovery Plan (FWS, 1993). So few tortoises were found that densities could not be calculated. Based on estimates of capture probabilities and densities from other studies, it was determined that 1-km{sup 2} (0.4 mi{sup 2}) plots did not contain enough tortoises for estimating densities with the Recovery Plan methods. It was recommended that additional surveys on the Nevada Test Site using those methods not be conducted. Any future efforts to monitor desert tortoise densities should start by identifying other possible methods, determining their relative power to detect changes, and estimating their cost.

  10. Plasma levels on thyroid hormones in sockeye salmon (Oncorhynchus nerka) decrease before spawning.

    PubMed

    Biddiscombe, S; Idler, D R

    1983-12-01

    Blood samples were taken from mature sockeye salmon (Oncorhynchus nerka) at various stages in their upstream migration to spawn at Adam's River in British Columbia, Canada. Plasma T3 and T4 levels decreased significantly in both males and females between time of entry into fresh water and postspawning.

  11. Heritability of tolerance for infectious hematopoietic necrosis in sockeye salmon (Oncorhynchus nerka)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    McIntyre, John D.; Amend, Donald F.

    1978-01-01

    A hierarchical breeding design was used to demonstrate the heritability of tolerance for infectious hematopoietic necrosis (IHN) in sockeye salmon. Oncorhynchus nerka. Heritability was about 30%, indicating that artificial selection may increase the number of fish that can tolerate the disease.

  12. Sampling methods for monitoring changes in gonococcal populations.

    PubMed Central

    Bindayna, K. M.; Ison, C. A.

    1989-01-01

    A total of 160 consecutive isolates of Neisseria gonorrhoeae was collected over a 3-month period. They were tested for their susceptibility to penicillin, erythromycin and spectinomycin and the auxotype and the serotype determined. We have evaluated two sampling methods, the collection of every fifth isolate and the first 20 isolates (10 male and 10 female) each month, to determine whether either is representative of the total population. There was no significant difference between either method of sampling and the total for detecting the predominant auxotypes and serovars or the distributions in antibiotic susceptibility. It is possible to monitor major changes in a gonococcal population, particularly susceptibility to antibiotics, using a sample of the total population. PMID:2528473

  13. Population growth of Yellowstone grizzly bears: Uncertainty and future monitoring

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Harris, R.B.; White, Gary C.; Schwartz, C.C.; Haroldson, M.A.

    2007-01-01

    Grizzly bears (Ursus arctos) in the Greater Yellowstone Ecosystem of the US Rocky Mountains have recently increased in numbers, but remain vulnerable due to isolation from other populations and predicted reductions in favored food resources. Harris et al. (2006) projected how this population might fare in the future under alternative survival rates, and in doing so estimated the rate of population growth, 1983–2002. We address issues that remain from that earlier work: (1) the degree of uncertainty surrounding our estimates of the rate of population change (λ); (2) the effect of correlation among demographic parameters on these estimates; and (3) how a future monitoring system using counts of females accompanied by cubs might usefully differentiate between short-term, expected, and inconsequential fluctuations versus a true change in system state. We used Monte Carlo re-sampling of beta distributions derived from the demographic parameters used by Harris et al. (2006) to derive distributions of λ during 1983–2002 given our sampling uncertainty. Approximate 95% confidence intervals were 0.972–1.096 (assuming females with unresolved fates died) and 1.008–1.115 (with unresolved females censored at last contact). We used well-supported models of Haroldson et al. (2006) and Schwartz et al. (2006a,b,c) to assess the strength of correlations among demographic processes and the effect of omitting them in projection models. Incorporating correlations among demographic parameters yielded point estimates of λ that were nearly identical to those from the earlier model that omitted correlations, but yielded wider confidence intervals surrounding λ. Finally, we suggest that fitting linear and quadratic curves to the trend suggested by the estimated number of females with cubs in the ecosystem, and using AICc model weights to infer population sizes and λ provides an objective means to monitoring approximate population trajectories in addition to demographic

  14. Environmental factors influence lesser scaup migration chronology and population monitoring

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Finger, Taylor A.; Afton, Alan D.; Schummer, Michael L.; Petrie, Scott A.; Badzinski, Shannon S.; Johnson, Michael A.; Szymanski, Michael L.; Jacobs, Kevin J.; Olsen, Glenn H.; Mitchell, Mark

    2016-01-01

    Identifying environmental metrics specific to lesser scaup (Aythya affinis; scaup) spring migration chronology may help inform development of conservation, management and population monitoring. Our objective was to determine how environmental conditions influence spring migration of lesser scaup to assess the effectiveness of the Waterfowl Breeding Population and Habitat Survey in accurately estimating scaup populations. We first compared peak timing of mallard (Anas platyrhynchos) and scaup migration from weekly ground surveys in North Dakota, USA because the Waterfowl Breeding Population and Habitat Survey is designed to capture annual mallard migration. As predicted, we detected that peak timing of scaup and mallard migrations differed in 25 of 36 years investigated (1980–2010). We marked scaup with satellite transmitters (n = 78; 7,403 locations) at Long Point, Lake Erie, Ontario, Canada; Pool 19 of the Mississippi River, Iowa and Illinois, USA; and Presque Isle Bay, Lake Erie, Pennsylvania, USA. We tested the assumption that our marked scaup were representative of the continental population using the traditional survey area by comparing timing of migration of marked birds and scaup counted in the North Dakota Game and Fish Department survey. We detected a strong positive correlation between marked scaup and the survey data, which indicated that marked scaup were representative of the population. We subsequently used our validated sample of marked scaup to investigate the effects of annual variation in temperature, precipitation, and ice cover on spring migration chronology in the traditional and eastern survey areas of the Waterfowl Breeding Population and Habitat Survey, 2005–2010. We evaluated competing environmental models to explain variation in timing and rate of scaup migration at large-scale and local levels. Spring migration of scaup occurred earlier and faster during springs with warmer temperatures and greater precipitation, variables known

  15. Monitored and modeled coral population dynamics and the refuge concept.

    PubMed

    Riegl, B; Purkis, S J; Keck, J; Rowlands, G P

    2009-01-01

    With large-scale impacts on coral reefs due to global climatic change projected to increase dramatically, and suitability of many areas for reef growth projected to decrease, the question arises whether particular settings might serve as refugia that can maintain higher coral populations than surrounding areas. We examine this hypothesis on a small, local scale in Honduras, western Caribbean. Dense coral thickets containing high numbers of the endangered coral Acropora cervicornis occur on offshore banks while being rare on the fringing reef on nearby Roatán. Geomorphological setting and community dynamics were evaluated and monitored from 1996 to 2005. A model of population dynamics was developed to test assumptions derived from monitoring. Coral cover on the fringing reef declined in 1998 from >30% to <20%, but the banks maintained areas of very dense coral cover (32% cover by A. cervicornis on the banks but <1% on the fringing reef). Bathymetry from satellite images showed the banks to be well-separated from the fringing reef, making asexual connectivity between banks and fringing reef impossible but protecting the banks from direct land-runoff during storms. Exposure to SE tradewinds also causes good flushing. Only four A. cervicornis recruits were recorded on the fringing reef over 6 years. Runoff associated with hurricanes caused greater mortality than did bleaching in 1998 and 2005 on the fringing reef, but not on the banks. Since 1870, our analysis suggests that corals on the banks may have been favored during 17 runoff events associated with tropical depressions and storms and potentially also during five bleaching events, but this is more uncertain. Our model suggests that under this disturbance regime, the banks will indeed maintain higher coral populations than the fringing reef and supports the assumption that offshore banks could serve as refugia with the capacity to subsidize depleted mainland populations. PMID:19100585

  16. Monitored and modeled coral population dynamics and the refuge concept.

    PubMed

    Riegl, B; Purkis, S J; Keck, J; Rowlands, G P

    2009-01-01

    With large-scale impacts on coral reefs due to global climatic change projected to increase dramatically, and suitability of many areas for reef growth projected to decrease, the question arises whether particular settings might serve as refugia that can maintain higher coral populations than surrounding areas. We examine this hypothesis on a small, local scale in Honduras, western Caribbean. Dense coral thickets containing high numbers of the endangered coral Acropora cervicornis occur on offshore banks while being rare on the fringing reef on nearby Roatán. Geomorphological setting and community dynamics were evaluated and monitored from 1996 to 2005. A model of population dynamics was developed to test assumptions derived from monitoring. Coral cover on the fringing reef declined in 1998 from >30% to <20%, but the banks maintained areas of very dense coral cover (32% cover by A. cervicornis on the banks but <1% on the fringing reef). Bathymetry from satellite images showed the banks to be well-separated from the fringing reef, making asexual connectivity between banks and fringing reef impossible but protecting the banks from direct land-runoff during storms. Exposure to SE tradewinds also causes good flushing. Only four A. cervicornis recruits were recorded on the fringing reef over 6 years. Runoff associated with hurricanes caused greater mortality than did bleaching in 1998 and 2005 on the fringing reef, but not on the banks. Since 1870, our analysis suggests that corals on the banks may have been favored during 17 runoff events associated with tropical depressions and storms and potentially also during five bleaching events, but this is more uncertain. Our model suggests that under this disturbance regime, the banks will indeed maintain higher coral populations than the fringing reef and supports the assumption that offshore banks could serve as refugia with the capacity to subsidize depleted mainland populations.

  17. Cytogenetic monitoring of industrial populations potentially exposed to genotoxic chemicals and of control populations.

    PubMed

    de Jong, G; van Sittert, N J; Natarajan, A T

    1988-03-01

    Currently the most applied technique for monitoring biological effects of exposure to genotoxic chemicals in industrial workers is the measurement of chromosome aberrations in peripheral blood lymphocytes. In the Shell petrochemical complex in The Netherlands cytogenetic monitoring studies have been carried out from 1976 till 1981 inclusive, in workers potentially exposed to a variety of genotoxic chemicals, i.e. vinyl chloride, ethylene oxide, benzene, epichlorohydrin, epoxy resins. Average exposure levels to these chemicals were well below the occupational exposure limits. Results of these studies indicate that no biologically significant increase in the frequencies of chromosome aberrations in the exposed populations occurred compared with control populations. Our experience with this methodology has shown that the results of chromosome analyses are difficult to interpret, due to the variable and high background levels of chromosome aberrations in control populations and in individuals. It is concluded that the method is not sufficiently sensitive for routine monitoring of cytogenetic effects in workers exposed to the low levels of genotoxic compounds.

  18. Monitoring gray wolf populations using multiple survey methods

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ausband, David E.; Rich, Lindsey N.; Glenn, Elizabeth M.; Mitchell, Michael S.; Zager, Pete; Miller, David A.W.; Waits, Lisette P.; Ackerman, Bruce B.; Mack, Curt M.

    2013-01-01

    The behavioral patterns and large territories of large carnivores make them challenging to monitor. Occupancy modeling provides a framework for monitoring population dynamics and distribution of territorial carnivores. We combined data from hunter surveys, howling and sign surveys conducted at predicted wolf rendezvous sites, and locations of radiocollared wolves to model occupancy and estimate the number of gray wolf (Canis lupus) packs and individuals in Idaho during 2009 and 2010. We explicitly accounted for potential misidentification of occupied cells (i.e., false positives) using an extension of the multi-state occupancy framework. We found agreement between model predictions and distribution and estimates of number of wolf packs and individual wolves reported by Idaho Department of Fish and Game and Nez Perce Tribe from intensive radiotelemetry-based monitoring. Estimates of individual wolves from occupancy models that excluded data from radiocollared wolves were within an average of 12.0% (SD = 6.0) of existing statewide minimum counts. Models using only hunter survey data generally estimated the lowest abundance, whereas models using all data generally provided the highest estimates of abundance, although only marginally higher. Precision across approaches ranged from 14% to 28% of mean estimates and models that used all data streams generally provided the most precise estimates. We demonstrated that an occupancy model based on different survey methods can yield estimates of the number and distribution of wolf packs and individual wolf abundance with reasonable measures of precision. Assumptions of the approach including that average territory size is known, average pack size is known, and territories do not overlap, must be evaluated periodically using independent field data to ensure occupancy estimates remain reliable. Use of multiple survey methods helps to ensure that occupancy estimates are robust to weaknesses or changes in any 1 survey method

  19. Incubation success and habitat selection of shore-spawning kokanee Onchorhynchus nerka: effects of water level regulation and habitat characteristics.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Whitlock, Steven L.; Quist, Michael; Dux, Andrew M.

    2014-01-01

    Changes to water-level regimes have been known to restructure fish assemblages and interfere with the population dynamics of both littoral and pelagic species. The effect of altered water-level regimes on shore-spawning kokanee Oncorhynchus nerka incubation success was evaluated using a comprehensive in situ study in Lake Pend Oreille, ID, USA. Survival was not related to substrate size composition or depth, indicating that shore-spawning kokanee do not currently receive a substrate-mediated survival benefit from higher winter water levels. Substrate composition also did not differ among isobaths in the nearshore area. On average, the odds of an egg surviving to the preemergent stage were more than three times greater for sites in downwelling areas than those lacking downwelling. This study revealed that shoreline spawning habitat is not as limited as previously thought. Downwelling areas appear to contribute substantially to shore-spawning kokanee recruitment. This research illustrates the value of rigorous in situ studies both for testing potential mechanisms underlying population trends and providing insight into spawning habitat selection.

  20. Sockeye salmon (Oncorhynchus nerka) return after an absence of nearly 90 years: A case of reversion to anadromy

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Godbout, L.; Wood, C.C.; Withler, R.E.; Latham, S.; Nelson, R.J.; Wetzel, L.; Barnett-Johnson, R.; Grove, M.J.; Schmitt, A.K.; McKeegan, K.D.

    2011-01-01

    We document the recent reappearance of anadromous sockeye salmon (Oncorhynchus nerka) that were thought to have been extirpated by the construction of hydroelectric dams on the Coquitlam and Alouette rivers in British Columbia, Canada, in 1914 and 1927, respectively. Unexpected downstream migrations of juveniles during experimental water releases into both rivers in 2005 and 2006 preceded upstream return migrations of adults in 2007 and 2008. Genetic (microsatellite and mitochondrial DNA) markers and stable isotope (??34S and 87Sr/86Sr) patterns in otoliths confirm that both the juvenile downstream migrants and adult upstream migrants were progeny of nonanadromous sockeye salmon (kokanee) that inhabit Coquitlam and Alouette reservoirs. Low genetic diversity and evidence of genetic bottlenecks suggest that the kokanee populations in both reservoirs originated from relatively few anadromous individuals that residualized after downstream migration was largely prevented by the construction of dams. Once given an opportunity for upstream and downstream migration, both populations appear capable of reverting to a successful anadromous form, even after 25 generations.

  1. Long-term effective population size dynamics of an intensively monitored vertebrate population.

    PubMed

    Mueller, A-K; Chakarov, N; Krüger, O; Hoffman, J I

    2016-10-01

    Long-term genetic data from intensively monitored natural populations are important for understanding how effective population sizes (Ne) can vary over time. We therefore genotyped 1622 common buzzard (Buteo buteo) chicks sampled over 12 consecutive years (2002-2013 inclusive) at 15 microsatellite loci. This data set allowed us to both compare single-sample with temporal approaches and explore temporal patterns in the effective number of parents that produced each cohort in relation to the observed population dynamics. We found reasonable consistency between linkage disequilibrium-based single-sample and temporal estimators, particularly during the latter half of the study, but no clear relationship between annual Ne estimates () and census sizes. We also documented a 14-fold increase in between 2008 and 2011, a period during which the census size doubled, probably reflecting a combination of higher adult survival and immigration from further afield. Our study thus reveals appreciable temporal heterogeneity in the effective population size of a natural vertebrate population, confirms the need for long-term studies and cautions against drawing conclusions from a single sample. PMID:27553455

  2. Groundwater resources monitoring and population displacement in northern Uganda

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chalikakis, K.; Hammache, Y.; Nawa, A.; Slinski, K.; Petropoulos, G.; Muteesasira, A.

    2009-04-01

    Northern Uganda has been devastated by more than 20 years of open conflict by the LRA (Lord's Resistance Army) and the Government of Uganda. This war has been marked by extreme violence against civilians, who had been gathered in protected IDP (Internally Displaced Persons) camps. At the height of the displacement in 2007, the UN office for coordination of humanitarian affairs, estimated that nearly 2.5 million people were interned into approximately 220 camps throughout Northern Uganda. With the improved security since mid-2006, the people displaced by the conflict in Northern Uganda started to move out of the overcrowded camps and return either to their villages/parishes of origin or to resettlement/transit sites. However, basic water, sanitation and hygiene infrastructure in the return areas or any new settlements sites are minimal. People returning to their villages of origin encounter a situation where in many cases there is no access to safe water. Since 1998 ACF (Action Against Hunger, part of the Action Contre la Faim International Network) activities have been concentrated in the Acholi and Lango regions of Northern Uganda. ACF's WASH (Water, sanitation and hygiene) department interventions concern sanitation infrastructure, hygiene education and promotion as well as water points implementation. To ensure safe water access, actions are focused in borehole construction and traditional spring rehabilitation, also called "protected" springs. These activities follow the guidelines as set forth by the international WASH cluster, led by UNICEF. A three year project (2008-2010) is being implemented by ACF, to monitor the available groundwater resources in Northern Uganda. The main objectives are: 1. to monitor the groundwater quality from existing water points during different hydrological seasons, 2. to identify, if any, potential risks of contamination from population concentrations and displacement, lack of basic infrastructure and land use, and finally 3. to

  3. Movements of radio-marked California Ridgway's rails during monitoring surveys: implications for population monitoring

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bui, Thuy-Vy D.; Takekawa, John Y.; Overton, Cory T.; Schultz, Emily R.; Hull, Joshua M.; Casazza, Michael L.

    2015-01-01

    The California Ridgway's rail Rallus obsoletus obsoletus (hereafter California rail) is a secretive marsh bird endemic to tidal marshes in the San Francisco Bay (hereafter bay) of California. The California rail has undergone significant range contraction and population declines due to a variety of factors, including predation and the degradation and loss of habitat. Call-count surveys, which include call playbacks, based on the standardized North American marsh bird monitoring protocol have been conducted throughout the bay since 2005 to monitor population size and distribution of the California rail. However, call-count surveys are difficult to evaluate for efficacy or accuracy. To measure the accuracy of call-count surveys and investigate whether radio-marked California rails moved in response to call-count surveys, we compared locations of radio-marked California rails collected at frequent intervals (15 min) to California rail detections recorded during call-count surveys conducted over the same time periods. Overall, 60% of radio-marked California rails within 200 m of observers were not detected during call-count surveys. Movements of radio-marked California rails showed no directional bias (P = 0.92) irrespective of whether or not playbacks of five marsh bird species (including the California rail) were broadcast from listening stations. Our findings suggest that playbacks of rail vocalizations do not consistently influence California rail movements during surveys. However, call-count surveys may underestimate California rail presence; therefore, caution should be used when relating raw numbers of call-count detections to population abundance.

  4. Effect of loading density of sockeye salmon, Oncorhynchus nerka (Walbaum), eggs in incubation boxes on mortality caused by infectious haematopoietic necrosis

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Mulcahy, D.; Bauersfeld, K.

    1983-01-01

    Infectious haematopoietic necrosis (IHN) can cause massive mortalities of sockeye salmon, Oncorhynchus nerka (Walbaum), cultured in hatcheries. One method of enhancing sockeye salmon populations is to use a streamside egg incubation box from which the fry are automatically released into the stream as they emerge from the gravel. In this system, however, IHN epizootics occur as the fry emerge and continue for up to two months after the fry leave the box (Mulcahy, unpublished data). In as much as the high density of eggs and alevins in incubation boxes might be conducive to the fulmination of an IHN epizootic, we varied the egg density in incubation boxes and studied the cffect on mortality caused by IHN.

  5. Quantification of ventricular β2 -adrenoceptor density and ligand binding affinity in wild sockeye salmon Oncorhynchus nerka smolts using a novel modification to the tritiated ligand technique.

    PubMed

    Goulding, A T; Farrell, A P

    2016-05-01

    A new, image-based, tritiated ligand technique for measuring cardiac β2 -adrenoceptor (β2 -AR) binding characteristics was developed and validated with adult rainbow trout Oncorhynchus mykiss hearts so that the tissue limitation of traditional receptor binding techniques could be overcome and measurements could be made in hearts nearly 14-times smaller than previously used. The myocardial cell-surface (functional) β2 -AR density of O. nerka smolts sampled at the headwaters of the Chilko River was 54·2 fmol mg protein(-1) and about half of that previously found in return migrating adults of the same population, but still more than twice that of adult hatchery O. mykiss (21·1 fmol mg protein(-1) ). This technique now opens the possibility of investigating cardiac receptor density in a much wider range of fish species and life stages. PMID:27095288

  6. MOLECULAR GENETIC APPROACHES TO PEST AND NONTARGET POPULATION MONITORING

    EPA Science Inventory

    The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency has interest in a number of applications of genetic monitoring methodologies. Genetic monitoring in agroecosystems can provide valuable environmental information regarding both traditional and novel pesticides. One group of pesticides of...

  7. Surgeon-driven neurophysiologic monitoring in a spinal surgery population

    PubMed Central

    Pickell, Michael; Mann, Stephen M.; Chakravertty, Rajesh

    2016-01-01

    Background This is a prospective observational study examining the use of a surgeon-driven intraoperative neurophysiologic monitoring system. Intraoperative neurophysiologic monitoring is becoming the standard of care for spinal surgeries with potential post-operative neurologic deficits. This standard applies to both adult and pediatric spinal surgery, but a shortage of appropriately trained and certified technologists and physiologists can compromise monitoring capabilities in some centers. A surgeon-driven, intra-operative monitoring system in the absence of a technologist or physiologist was examined for safety and efficacy. Methods One hundred thirty-five patients undergoing a variety of spinal procedures were monitored intra-operatively using a surgeon-driven neuro-monitoring system over a period of 80 months. Intraoperative monitoring included serial motor evoked potentials via an automated system that provided visual and audible feedback directly to the operative surgeon. Changes in monitoring and any corresponding surgical responses were evaluated and compared with postoperative neurological status. Results Of the 135 patients studied, intraoperative adjustments based on neuro-monitoring took place in four patients (3.0%): following reduction in spondylolisthesis, during instrumentation and fusion for a large kyphoscoliosis deformity, due to low hemoglobin, and because of traction. In all cases, surgical and/or anaesthetic modification restored MEPs toward baseline values. The accuracy of the neuro-monitoring results was sensitive to narcotics, benzodiazepines and changes in haemoglobin concentrations. No new postoperative deficits were observed in any patients in the cohort. Conclusions The authors concluded that surgeon-driven neuro-monitoring was a safe and effective means of intraoperative neuro-monitoring during spinal surgery. It reliably detected intraoperative insults, which could potentially have resulted in postoperative neurologic compromise

  8. Evaluation of Two Methods to Estimate and Monitor Bird Populations

    PubMed Central

    Taylor, Sandra L.; Pollard, Katherine S.

    2008-01-01

    Background Effective management depends upon accurately estimating trends in abundance of bird populations over time, and in some cases estimating abundance. Two population estimation methods, double observer (DO) and double sampling (DS), have been advocated for avian population studies and the relative merits and short-comings of these methods remain an area of debate. Methodology/Principal Findings We used simulations to evaluate the performances of these two population estimation methods under a range of realistic scenarios. For three hypothetical populations with different levels of clustering, we generated DO and DS population size estimates for a range of detection probabilities and survey proportions. Population estimates for both methods were centered on the true population size for all levels of population clustering and survey proportions when detection probabilities were greater than 20%. The DO method underestimated the population at detection probabilities less than 30% whereas the DS method remained essentially unbiased. The coverage probability of 95% confidence intervals for population estimates was slightly less than the nominal level for the DS method but was substantially below the nominal level for the DO method at high detection probabilities. Differences in observer detection probabilities did not affect the accuracy and precision of population estimates of the DO method. Population estimates for the DS method remained unbiased as the proportion of units intensively surveyed changed, but the variance of the estimates decreased with increasing proportion intensively surveyed. Conclusions/Significance The DO and DS methods can be applied in many different settings and our evaluations provide important information on the performance of these two methods that can assist researchers in selecting the method most appropriate for their particular needs. PMID:18728775

  9. The influence of maternal condition on offspring performance in sockeye salmon Oncorhynchus nerka.

    PubMed

    Tierney, K B; Patterson, D A; Kennedy, C J

    2009-10-01

    Eggs were taken from adult sockeye salmon Oncorhynchus nerka that had reached their journey's end in spawn-ready and moribund condition, and fertilized by healthy males. Egg number, size, hatching success and offspring growth did not differ with maternal condition, which suggests the absence of any persisting physiological maternal effects. Differences were noted in the swimming behaviour and physiology of the offspring at parr stage. In a 30 min schooling test conducted using groups of five in a flume, parr from moribund females were more likely to fatigue, were not as tightly schooled, and had a diminished startle response, both in the per cent responding and the burst distance. In individual, confined swimming tests conducted within a tube, post-exercise plasma lactate concentration, which is an indicator of white muscle use, was greater for parr from moribund adult females. The moribund females also had elevated lactate following exercise (their migration), which suggests heritable differences may exist in muscle use. This study shows that juvenile O. nerka artificially propagated from females exhausted by their return migration can exhibit swimming performance differences, indicating that maternal condition may need to be considered in breeding programmes.

  10. Comparison of polyunsaturated fatty acids content in filets of anadromous and landlocked sockeye salmon Oncorhynchus nerka.

    PubMed

    Gladyshev, Michail I; Lepskaya, Ekaterina V; Sushchik, Nadezhda N; Makhutova, Olesia N; Kalachova, Galina S; Malyshevskaya, Kseniya K; Markevich, Grigory N

    2012-12-01

    Fatty acid composition and content of 2 forms of sockeye salmon Oncorhynchus nerka from lakes in Kamchatka Peninsula (Russia) were compared. One form of sockeye salmon was anadromous ("marine"), that is, adult fish migrated in ocean to feed and grow and than return in the lake to breed. Fish of another form, kokanee, never migrate in the ocean. Per cent levels of the main indicators of nutritive value, eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA, 20:5n-3), and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA, 22:6n-3), were significantly higher in the landlocked O. nerka. However, concentrations of EPA and DHA per wet weight of filets were higher in the marine form, because of the relatively higher content of sum of fatty acids in their muscle tissue. As concluded, fish fed in marine environment had higher contents of long-chain n-3 fatty acids per wet weight than fish of the same species, fed in fresh waters. In general, both the anadromous sockeye salmon and the landlocked kokanee salmon can be recommended for human diet as a valuable product concerning contents of EPA and DHA. PMID:23240970

  11. Costs of detection bias in index-based population monitoring

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Moore, C.T.; Kendall, W.L.

    2004-01-01

    Managers of wildlife populations commonly rely on indirect, count-based measures of the population in making decisions regarding conservation, harvest, or control. The main appeal in the use of such counts is their low material expense compared to methods that directly measure the population. However, their correct use rests on the rarely-tested but often-assumed premise that they proportionately reflect population size, i.e., that they constitute a population index. This study investigates forest management for the endangered Red-cockaded Woodpecker (Picoides borealis) and the Wood Thrush (Hylocichla mustelina) at the Piedmont National Wildlife Refuge in central Georgia, U.S.A. Optimal decision policies for a joint species objective were derived for two alternative models of Wood Thrush population dynamics. Policies were simulated under scenarios of unbiasedness, consistent negative bias, and habitat-dependent negative bias in observed Wood Thrush densities. Differences in simulation outcomes between biased and unbiased detection scenarios indicated the expected loss in resource objectives (here, forest habitat and birds) through decision-making based on biased population counts. Given the models and objective function used in our analysis, expected losses were as great as 11%, a degree of loss perhaps not trivial for applications such as endangered species management. Our analysis demonstrates that costs of uncertainty about the relationship between the population and its observation can be measured in units of the resource, costs which may offset apparent savings achieved by collecting uncorrected population counts.

  12. Monitoring trends in bat populations of the United States and territories: Problems and prospects

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    O'Shea, T.J.; Bogan, M. A.

    2003-01-01

    Bats are ecologically and economically important mammals. The life histories of bats (particularly their low reproductive rates and the need for some species to gather in large aggregations at limited numbers of roosting sites) make their populations vulnerable to declines. Many of the species of bats in the United States (U.S.) and territories are categorized as endangered or threatened, have been candidates for such categories, or are considered species of concern. The importance and vulnerability of bat populations makes monitoring trends in their populations a goal for their future management. However, scientifically rigorous monitoring of bat populations requires well-planned, statistically defensible efforts. This volume reports findings of an expert workshop held to examine the topic of monitoring populations of bats. The workshop participants included leading experts in sampling and analysis of wildlife populations, as well as experts in the biology and conservation of bats. Findings are reported in this volume under two sections. Part I of the report presents contributed papers that provide overviews of past and current efforts at monitoring trends in populations of bats in the U.S. and territories. These papers consider current techniques and problems, and summarize what is known about the status and trends in populations of selected groups of bats. The contributed papers in Part I also include a description of the monitoring program developed for bat populations in the United Kingdom, a critique of monitoring programs in wildlife in general with recommendations for survey and sampling strategies, and a compilation and analysis of existing data on trends in bats of the U.S. and territories. Efforts directed at monitoring bat populations are piecemeal and have shortcomings. In Part II of the report, the workshop participants provide critical analyses of these problems and develop recommendations for improving methods, defining objectives and priorities

  13. Zooplanktivory and nutrient regeneration by invertebrate (Mysis relicta) and vertebrate (Oncorhynchus nerka) planktivores: Implications for trophic interactions in oligotrophic lakes

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Chipps, S.R.; Bennett, D.H.

    2000-01-01

    We investigated zooplanktivory and nutrient regeneration by the opossum shrimp Mysis relicta and kokanee Oncorhynchus nerka to assess the relative roles of these planktivores in oligotrophic food webs. Using bioenergetic models and clearance rate estimates, we quantified phosphorus (P) excretion rates and consumption of cladoceran prey by Mysis and kokanees in Lake Pend Oreille, Idaho, from 1995 to 1996. Consumption of cladoceran prey by Mysis was 186 kg ?? ha-1 ?? year-1, whereas consumption by kokanees was less than one quarter as much, at 45 kg ?? ha-1 ?? year-1. Similarly, Mysis excreted approximately 0.250 kg P ?? ha-1 ?? year-1 during nighttime migrations into the upper water column, whereas P excretion by kokanees was less than one third as much, at approximately 0.070 kg P ?? ha-1 ?? year-1. On a volumetric basis, nocturnal excretion by Mysis ranged from 0.002 to 0.007 ??g P ?? L-1 ?? d-1 and accounted for less than 1% of the soluble reactive P typically measured in the upper water column of the lake. Hence, nutrient recycling by Mysis may be limited in the upper water column because of the nocturnal feeding habitats that constrain Mysis to deeper strata for much of the day. In spring and autumn months, low abundance of cladoceran prey coincided with high seasonal energy requirements of the Mysis population that were linked to timing of annual Mysis brood release and abundance of age-0 Mysis. Predation by Mysis accounted for 5-70% of daily cladoceran standing stock, supporting the notion that seasonal availability of cladocerans may be regulated by Mysis predation. In lakes where Mysis experience little predation mortality, they likely play a dominant role in food web interactions (e.g., trophic cascades) relative to planktivorous fishes. Biotic mechanisms, such as successful predator-avoidance behavior, omnivorous feeding habits, and seasonal variation in Mysisbiomass, enhance the ability of Mysis to influence food web interactions from an intermediate

  14. Patterns of selection and allele diversity of class I and class II major histocompatibility loci across the species range of sockeye salmon (Oncorhynchus nerka).

    PubMed

    McClelland, Erin K; Ming, Tobi J; Tabata, Amy; Kaukinen, Karia H; Beacham, Terry D; Withler, Ruth E; Miller, Kristina M

    2013-09-01

    The major histocompatibility complex (MHC), an important component of the vertebrate immune system, provides an important suite of genes to examine the role of genetic diversity at non-neutral loci for population persistence. We contrasted patterns of diversity at the two classical MHC loci in sockeye salmon (Oncorhynchus nerka), MHC class I (UBA) and MHC class II (DAB), and neutral microsatellite loci across 70 populations spanning the species range from Washington State to Japan. There was no correlation in allelic richness or heterozygosity between MHC loci or between MHC loci and microsatellites. The two unlinked MHC loci may be responding to different selective pressures; the distribution of FST values for the two loci was uncorrelated, and evidence for both balancing and directional selection on alleles and lineages of DAB and UBA was observed in populations throughout the species range but rarely on both loci within a population. These results suggest that fluctuating selection has resulted in the divergence of MHC loci in contemporary populations. PMID:24033436

  15. Population size influences amphibian detection probability: implications for biodiversity monitoring programs.

    PubMed

    Tanadini, Lorenzo G; Schmidt, Benedikt R

    2011-01-01

    Monitoring is an integral part of species conservation. Monitoring programs must take imperfect detection of species into account in order to be reliable. Theory suggests that detection probability may be determined by population size but this relationship has not yet been assessed empirically. Population size is particularly important because it may induce heterogeneity in detection probability and thereby cause bias in estimates of biodiversity. We used a site occupancy model to analyse data from a volunteer-based amphibian monitoring program to assess how well different variables explain variation in detection probability. An index to population size best explained detection probabilities for four out of six species (to avoid circular reasoning, we used the count of individuals at a previous site visit as an index to current population size). The relationship between the population index and detection probability was positive. Commonly used weather variables best explained detection probabilities for two out of six species. Estimates of site occupancy probabilities differed depending on whether the population index was or was not used to model detection probability. The relationship between the population index and detectability has implications for the design of monitoring and species conservation. Most importantly, because many small populations are likely to be overlooked, monitoring programs should be designed in such a way that small populations are not overlooked. The results also imply that methods cannot be standardized in such a way that detection probabilities are constant. As we have shown here, one can easily account for variation in population size in the analysis of data from long-term monitoring programs by using counts of individuals from surveys at the same site in previous years. Accounting for variation in population size is important because it can affect the results of long-term monitoring programs and ultimately the conservation of

  16. Population Size Influences Amphibian Detection Probability: Implications for Biodiversity Monitoring Programs

    PubMed Central

    Tanadini, Lorenzo G.; Schmidt, Benedikt R.

    2011-01-01

    Monitoring is an integral part of species conservation. Monitoring programs must take imperfect detection of species into account in order to be reliable. Theory suggests that detection probability may be determined by population size but this relationship has not yet been assessed empirically. Population size is particularly important because it may induce heterogeneity in detection probability and thereby cause bias in estimates of biodiversity. We used a site occupancy model to analyse data from a volunteer-based amphibian monitoring program to assess how well different variables explain variation in detection probability. An index to population size best explained detection probabilities for four out of six species (to avoid circular reasoning, we used the count of individuals at a previous site visit as an index to current population size). The relationship between the population index and detection probability was positive. Commonly used weather variables best explained detection probabilities for two out of six species. Estimates of site occupancy probabilities differed depending on whether the population index was or was not used to model detection probability. The relationship between the population index and detectability has implications for the design of monitoring and species conservation. Most importantly, because many small populations are likely to be overlooked, monitoring programs should be designed in such a way that small populations are not overlooked. The results also imply that methods cannot be standardized in such a way that detection probabilities are constant. As we have shown here, one can easily account for variation in population size in the analysis of data from long-term monitoring programs by using counts of individuals from surveys at the same site in previous years. Accounting for variation in population size is important because it can affect the results of long-term monitoring programs and ultimately the conservation of

  17. Population size influences amphibian detection probability: implications for biodiversity monitoring programs.

    PubMed

    Tanadini, Lorenzo G; Schmidt, Benedikt R

    2011-01-01

    Monitoring is an integral part of species conservation. Monitoring programs must take imperfect detection of species into account in order to be reliable. Theory suggests that detection probability may be determined by population size but this relationship has not yet been assessed empirically. Population size is particularly important because it may induce heterogeneity in detection probability and thereby cause bias in estimates of biodiversity. We used a site occupancy model to analyse data from a volunteer-based amphibian monitoring program to assess how well different variables explain variation in detection probability. An index to population size best explained detection probabilities for four out of six species (to avoid circular reasoning, we used the count of individuals at a previous site visit as an index to current population size). The relationship between the population index and detection probability was positive. Commonly used weather variables best explained detection probabilities for two out of six species. Estimates of site occupancy probabilities differed depending on whether the population index was or was not used to model detection probability. The relationship between the population index and detectability has implications for the design of monitoring and species conservation. Most importantly, because many small populations are likely to be overlooked, monitoring programs should be designed in such a way that small populations are not overlooked. The results also imply that methods cannot be standardized in such a way that detection probabilities are constant. As we have shown here, one can easily account for variation in population size in the analysis of data from long-term monitoring programs by using counts of individuals from surveys at the same site in previous years. Accounting for variation in population size is important because it can affect the results of long-term monitoring programs and ultimately the conservation of

  18. Use of archive aerial photography for monitoring black mangrove populations

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A study was conducted on the south Texas Gulf Coast to evaluate archive aerial color-infrared (CIR) photography combined with supervised image analysis techniques to quantify changes in black mangrove [Avicennia germinans (L.) L.] populations over a 26-year period. Archive CIR film from two study si...

  19. Population Trend of the World’s Monitored Seabirds, 1950-2010

    PubMed Central

    Karpouzi, Vasiliki; Pauly, Daniel

    2015-01-01

    Seabird population changes are good indicators of long-term and large-scale change in marine ecosystems, and important because of their many impacts on marine ecosystems. We assessed the population trend of the world’s monitored seabirds (1950–2010) by compiling a global database of seabird population size records and applying multivariate autoregressive state-space (MARSS) modeling to estimate the overall population trend of the portion of the population with sufficient data (i.e., at least five records). This monitored population represented approximately 19% of the global seabird population. We found the monitored portion of the global seabird population to have declined overall by 69.7% between 1950 and 2010. This declining trend may reflect the global seabird population trend, given the large and apparently representative sample. Furthermore, the largest declines were observed in families containing wide-ranging pelagic species, suggesting that pan-global populations may be more at risk than shorter-ranging coastal populations. PMID:26058068

  20. Immunization of sockeye salmon (Oncorhynchus nerka) against vibriosis using the hyperosmotic infiltration technique

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Croy, Thomas R.; Amend, Donald F.

    1977-01-01

    Various procedures of hyperosmotic infiltration (HI) and intraperitoneal injection were used to vaccinate sockeye salmon (Oncorhynchus nerka) with killed Vibrio anguillarum. Excellent protection was evident against experimentally induced vibriosis in the groups immunized by HI with 10 × Hanks' balanced salt solution (HBSS), 1 × HBSS with 8.0% NaCl and 5.3% NaCl, as well as in the injected groups. Comparisons were made among the various immunization methods by vaccinating fish with ten-fold serial dilutions of bacterin, then challenging them by the water contact method after 6 or 9 weeks. Protection was somewhat better with 10 × HBSS than with 5.3% NaCl, and 1 × HBSS containing 8.0% NaCl was markedly superior to the vaccination of fish without hyperosmotic treatment. Agglutinin titers did not exceed 1 : 8 in any group.

  1. Large-scale control site selection for population monitoring: an example assessing Sage-grouse trends

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Fedy, Bradley C.; O'Donnell, Michael; Bowen, Zachary H.

    2015-01-01

    Human impacts on wildlife populations are widespread and prolific and understanding wildlife responses to human impacts is a fundamental component of wildlife management. The first step to understanding wildlife responses is the documentation of changes in wildlife population parameters, such as population size. Meaningful assessment of population changes in potentially impacted sites requires the establishment of monitoring at similar, nonimpacted, control sites. However, it is often difficult to identify appropriate control sites in wildlife populations. We demonstrated use of Geographic Information System (GIS) data across large spatial scales to select biologically relevant control sites for population monitoring. Greater sage-grouse (Centrocercus urophasianus; hearafter, sage-grouse) are negatively affected by energy development, and monitoring of sage-grouse population within energy development areas is necessary to detect population-level responses. Weused population data (1995–2012) from an energy development area in Wyoming, USA, the Atlantic Rim Project Area (ARPA), and GIS data to identify control sites that were not impacted by energy development for population monitoring. Control sites were surrounded by similar habitat and were within similar climate areas to the ARPA. We developed nonlinear trend models for both the ARPA and control sites and compared long-term trends from the 2 areas. We found little difference between the ARPA and control sites trends over time. This research demonstrated an approach for control site selection across large landscapes and can be used as a template for similar impact-monitoring studies. It is important to note that identification of changes in population parameters between control and treatment sites is only the first step in understanding the mechanisms that underlie those changes. Published 2015. This article is a U.S. Government work and is in the public domain in the USA.

  2. Monitoring for resistance to organophosphorus and pyrethroid insecticides in varroa mite populations

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The occurrence of resistance in Varroa mite populations is a serious threat to the beekeeping industry and crops that rely on the honey bee for pollination. Integrated pest management strategies for control of this pest include the judicious use of insecticides. To monitor field populations of Varro...

  3. Long-term monitoring of endangered Laysan ducks: Index validation and population estimates 1998–2012

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Reynolds, Michelle H.; Courtot, Karen; Brinck, Kevin W.; Rehkemper, Cynthia; Hatfield, Jeffrey

    2015-01-01

    Monitoring endangered wildlife is essential to assessing management or recovery objectives and learning about population status. We tested assumptions of a population index for endangered Laysan duck (or teal; Anas laysanensis) monitored using mark–resight methods on Laysan Island, Hawai’i. We marked 723 Laysan ducks between 1998 and 2009 and identified seasonal surveys through 2012 that met accuracy and precision criteria for estimating population abundance. Our results provide a 15-y time series of seasonal population estimates at Laysan Island. We found differences in detection among seasons and how observed counts related to population estimates. The highest counts and the strongest relationship between count and population estimates occurred in autumn (September–November). The best autumn surveys yielded population abundance estimates that ranged from 674 (95% CI = 619–730) in 2003 to 339 (95% CI = 265–413) in 2012. A population decline of 42% was observed between 2010 and 2012 after consecutive storms and Japan’s To¯hoku earthquake-generated tsunami in 2011. Our results show positive correlations between the seasonal maximum counts and population estimates from the same date, and support the use of standardized bimonthly counts of unmarked birds as a valid index to monitor trends among years within a season at Laysan Island.

  4. Immunotoxicity Monitoring in a Population Exposed to Polychlorinated Biphenyls.

    PubMed

    Haase, Hajo; Fahlenkamp, Astrid; Schettgen, Thomas; Esser, Andre; Gube, Monika; Ziegler, Patrick; Kraus, Thomas; Rink, Lothar

    2016-03-08

    The relationship between polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) burden and several indicators of immune function was investigated as part of the HELPcB (Health Effects in High-Level Exposure to PCB) program, offering bio-monitoring to workers, relatives, and neighbors exposed to PCBs by a German transformers and capacitors recycling company. The present retrospective observational study evaluates the correlation of plasma levels of total PCBs, five indicator congeners (28, 101, 138, 153, 180), and seven dioxin-like congeners (105, 114, 118, 156, 157, 167, 189) with several parameters of immune function. The cross-sectional study was performed immediately after the end of exposure (258 subjects), and one (218 subjects), and two (177 subjects) years later. At the first time point, measurements showed significant positive correlation between congeners with low to medium chlorination and the relative proportion of CD19 positive B-cells among lymphocytes, as well as a negative correlation of PCB114 with serum IgM, and of PCB 28 with suppressor T-cell and NK-cell numbers. Congeners with a high degree of chlorination, in particular PCB157 and 189, were positively associated with expression of the activation marker CD25 on T-cells in the cohort of the second time point. No associations between PCB levels and IFN-y production by T-cells and killing by NK-cells were found. In conclusion, there were several effects on the cellular composition of adaptive immunity, affecting both T- and B-cells. However, the values were not generally outside the reference ranges for healthy adult individuals and did not indicate overt functional immunodeficiency, even in subjects with the uppermost PCB burden.

  5. Immunotoxicity Monitoring in a Population Exposed to Polychlorinated Biphenyls.

    PubMed

    Haase, Hajo; Fahlenkamp, Astrid; Schettgen, Thomas; Esser, Andre; Gube, Monika; Ziegler, Patrick; Kraus, Thomas; Rink, Lothar

    2016-03-01

    The relationship between polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) burden and several indicators of immune function was investigated as part of the HELPcB (Health Effects in High-Level Exposure to PCB) program, offering bio-monitoring to workers, relatives, and neighbors exposed to PCBs by a German transformers and capacitors recycling company. The present retrospective observational study evaluates the correlation of plasma levels of total PCBs, five indicator congeners (28, 101, 138, 153, 180), and seven dioxin-like congeners (105, 114, 118, 156, 157, 167, 189) with several parameters of immune function. The cross-sectional study was performed immediately after the end of exposure (258 subjects), and one (218 subjects), and two (177 subjects) years later. At the first time point, measurements showed significant positive correlation between congeners with low to medium chlorination and the relative proportion of CD19 positive B-cells among lymphocytes, as well as a negative correlation of PCB114 with serum IgM, and of PCB 28 with suppressor T-cell and NK-cell numbers. Congeners with a high degree of chlorination, in particular PCB157 and 189, were positively associated with expression of the activation marker CD25 on T-cells in the cohort of the second time point. No associations between PCB levels and IFN-y production by T-cells and killing by NK-cells were found. In conclusion, there were several effects on the cellular composition of adaptive immunity, affecting both T- and B-cells. However, the values were not generally outside the reference ranges for healthy adult individuals and did not indicate overt functional immunodeficiency, even in subjects with the uppermost PCB burden. PMID:27005643

  6. Immunotoxicity Monitoring in a Population Exposed to Polychlorinated Biphenyls

    PubMed Central

    Haase, Hajo; Fahlenkamp, Astrid; Schettgen, Thomas; Esser, Andre; Gube, Monika; Ziegler, Patrick; Kraus, Thomas; Rink, Lothar

    2016-01-01

    The relationship between polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) burden and several indicators of immune function was investigated as part of the HELPcB (Health Effects in High-Level Exposure to PCB) program, offering bio-monitoring to workers, relatives, and neighbors exposed to PCBs by a German transformers and capacitors recycling company. The present retrospective observational study evaluates the correlation of plasma levels of total PCBs, five indicator congeners (28, 101, 138, 153, 180), and seven dioxin-like congeners (105, 114, 118, 156, 157, 167, 189) with several parameters of immune function. The cross-sectional study was performed immediately after the end of exposure (258 subjects), and one (218 subjects), and two (177 subjects) years later. At the first time point, measurements showed significant positive correlation between congeners with low to medium chlorination and the relative proportion of CD19 positive B-cells among lymphocytes, as well as a negative correlation of PCB114 with serum IgM, and of PCB 28 with suppressor T-cell and NK-cell numbers. Congeners with a high degree of chlorination, in particular PCB157 and 189, were positively associated with expression of the activation marker CD25 on T-cells in the cohort of the second time point. No associations between PCB levels and IFN-y production by T-cells and killing by NK-cells were found. In conclusion, there were several effects on the cellular composition of adaptive immunity, affecting both T- and B-cells. However, the values were not generally outside the reference ranges for healthy adult individuals and did not indicate overt functional immunodeficiency, even in subjects with the uppermost PCB burden. PMID:27005643

  7. Monitoring methanogenic population dynamics in a full-scale anaerobic digester to facilitate operational management.

    PubMed

    Williams, Julie; Williams, Haydn; Dinsdale, Richard; Guwy, Alan; Esteves, Sandra

    2013-07-01

    Microbial populations in a full-scale anaerobic digester fed on food waste were monitored over an 18-month period using qPCR. The digester exhibited a highly dynamic environment in which methanogenic populations changed constantly in response to availability of substrates and inhibitors. The methanogenic population in the digester was dominated by Methanosaetaceae, suggesting that aceticlastic methanogenesis was the main route for the production of methane. Sudden losses (69%) in Methanosaetaceae were followed by a build-up of VFAs which were subsequently consumed when populations recovered. A build up of ammonium inhibited Methanosaetaceae and resulted in shifts from acetate to hydrogen utilization. Addition of trace elements and alkalinity when propionate levels were high stimulated microbial growth. Routine monitoring of microbial populations and VFAs provided valuable insights into the complex processes occurring within the digester and could be used to predict digester stability and facilitate digester optimization.

  8. Estimation of change in populations and communities from monitoring survey data

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Sauer, J.R.; Link, W.A.; Nichols, J.D.; Busch, David E.; Trexler, Joel C.

    2003-01-01

    Monitoring surveys provide fundamental information for use in environmental decision making by permitting assessment of both current population (or community) status and change in status, by providing a historical context of the present status, and by documenting response to ongoing management. Conservation of species and communities has historically been based upon monitoring information, and prioritization of species and habitats for conservation action often requires reliable, quantitative results. Although many monitoring programs exist for populations, species, and communities, as well as for biotic and abiotic features of the environment, estimation of population and community change from surveys can sometimes be controversial, and demands on monitoring information have increased greatly in recent years. Information is often required at multiple spatial scales for use in geographic information systems, and information needs exist for description of regional patterns of change in populations, communities, and ecosystems. Often, attempts are made to meet these needs using information collected for other purposes or at inappropriate geographic scales, leading to information that is difficult to analyze and interpret. In this chapter, we address some of the constraints and issues associated with estimating change in wildlife species and species groups from monitoring surveys, and use bird surveys as our primary examples.

  9. Changing guards: time to move beyond body mass index for population monitoring of excess adiposity.

    PubMed

    Tanamas, S K; Lean, M E J; Combet, E; Vlassopoulos, A; Zimmet, P Z; Peeters, A

    2016-07-01

    With the obesity epidemic, and the effects of aging populations, human phenotypes have changed over two generations, possibly more dramatically than in other species previously. As obesity is an important and growing hazard for population health, we recommend a systematic evaluation of the optimal measure(s) for population-level excess body fat. Ideal measure(s) for monitoring body composition and obesity should be simple, as accurate and sensitive as possible, and provide good categorization of related health risks. Combinations of anthropometric markers or predictive equations may facilitate better use of anthropometric data than single measures to estimate body composition for populations. Here, we provide new evidence that increasing proportions of aging populations are at high health-risk according to waist circumference, but not body mass index (BMI), so continued use of BMI as the principal population-level measure substantially underestimates the health-burden from excess adiposity.

  10. Immersion vaccination of sockeye salmon (Oncorhynchus nerka) with two pathogenic strains of Vibrio anguillarum

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Gould, R.W.; Antipa, R.; Amend, D.F.

    1979-01-01

    Sockeye salmon (Oncorhynchus nerka) were immersion-vaccinated in suspensions containing 5 × 107, 5 × 106, 5 × 105, or 5 × 104 bacteria/mL of bivalent or monovalent, formalin-killedVibrio anguillarum, Types I and II. The fish were split into two lots and held for 54 d. At that time one lot was challenged with living, virulent V. anguillarum, Type I, and one with living, virulent V.anguillarum, Type II. Immunization with bivalent bacterin effectively protected the fish from vibriosis, but monovalent vaccine was effective only against the homologous challenge. Immunization with the highest concentration of Type I monovalent bacterin resulted in 0% Type I and 58% Type II challenge mortality. Immunization with the highest concentration of Type II monovalent bacterin resulted in 41% Type I and 0% Type II challenge mortality. Immunization with the highest concentration of bivalent Type I/Type II bacterin resulted in 2% mortality in both challenges. Protective bacterins were effective at concentrations down to 5 × 105 bacteria/mL.Key words: immersion vaccination, bivalent vaccines, Vibrio anguillarum, vibriosis.

  11. Composition and location of simulated lake-shore redds influence incubation success in kokanee, Oncorhynchus nerka

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Fincel, M.J.; Chipps, S.R.; Bennett, D.H.

    2009-01-01

    Methods for improving spawning habitat for lakeshore spawning kokanee, Oncorhynchus nerka (Walbaum), were explored by quantifying incubation success of embryos exposed to three substrate treatments in Lake Pend Oreille, Idaho, USA. Substrate treatments included no modification that used existing gravels in the lake (EXISTING), a cleaned substrate treatment where existing gravels were sifted in the water column to remove silt (CLEANED) and the addition of new, silt-free gravel (ADDED). Incubation success was evaluated using Whitlock-Vibert incubation boxes buried within each substrate treatment that contained recently fertilised embryos. Upon retrieval, live and dead sac fry and eyed eggs were enumerated to determine incubation success (sac fry and eyed eggs ?? 100/number of fertilised embryos). Incubation success varied significantly among locations and redd treatments. In general, incubation success among ADDED redds (0.0-13.0%) was significantly lower than that for EXISTING (1.4-61.0%) and CLEANED (0.4-62.5%) redds. Adding new gravel to spawning areas changed the morphometry of the gravel-water interface and probably exposed embryos to disturbance from wave action and reduced embryo survival. Moreover, efforts to improve spawning habitat for lakeshore spawning kokanee should consider water depth and location (e.g. protected shorelines) as important variables. Adding clean gravel to existing spawning areas may provide little benefit if water depth or lake-bottom morphometry are altered. ?? 2009 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  12. Adrenocorticotropin- and opiate-like hormones from pituitaries of the sockeye salmon Oncorhynchus nerka.

    PubMed

    Ng, T B; Hon, W K; Idler, D R

    1987-04-01

    The pituitaries of vitellogenic sockeye salmon (Oncorhynchus nerka) were extracted with a mixture of acetone, water, and hydrochloric acid. The precipitate which formed upon the addition of a copious volume of acetone to the extract, designated acid acetone powder, was subjected to salt fractionation and desalting, followed by ion-exchange chromatography on CM-cellulose. An unadsorbed fraction (S-1) and four adsorbed fractions (S-2, S-3, S-4 and S-5) were obtained. Adrenocorticotropic activity was detected in the fractions by their ability to stimulate isolated rat adrenal decapsular cells to produce corticosterone and by their immunoreactivities in an adrenocorticotropin-specific radioimmunoassay. The steroidogenic activities of all fractions, except S-4, were blocked by corticotropin inhibiting peptide. Opiate activity was detected in the fractions by their ability to inhibit the binding of either [3H]naloxone or (D-ala2, D-leu5)-[3H]enkephalin to rat brain membranes. There was a discrepancy in the potencies of the five fractions in the two opiate radioreceptor assays, indicating the presence of opiate peptides with different affinities of binding to the micron- and delta-opiate receptors of the rat brain. There was a separation between adrenocorticotropic and opiate receptor binding activities, suggesting that the activities were due to separate molecular entities. PMID:3038149

  13. Incubation temperature, developmental biology, and the divergence of sockeye salmon (Oncorhynchus nerka) within Lake Washington

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hendry, A.P.; Hensleigh, J.E.; Reisenbichler, R.R.

    1998-01-01

    Sockeye salmon (Oncorhynchus nerka) introduced into Lake Washington in the 1930s and 1940s now spawn at several different sites and over a period of more than 3 months. To test for evolutionary divergence within this derived lineage, embryos that would have incubated in different habitats (Cedar River or Pleasure Point Beach) or at different times (October, November, or December in the Cedar River) were reared in the laboratory at 5, 9, and 12.5??C. Some developmental variation mirrored predictions of adaptive divergence: (i) survival at 12.5??C was highest for embryos most likely to experience such temperatures in the wild (Early Cedar), (ii) development rate was fastest for progeny of late spawners (Late Cedar), and (iii) yolk conversion efficiency was matched to natural incubation temperatures. These patterns likely had a genetic basis because they were observed in a common environment and could not be attributed to differences in egg size. The absolute magnitude of divergence in development rates was moderate (Late Cedar embryos emerged only 6 days earlier at 9??C) and some predictions regarding development rates were not supported. Nonetheless our results provide evidence of adaptive divergence in only 9-14 generations.

  14. Pathogenesis of infectious hematopoietic necrosis virus in adult sockeye salmon (Oncorhynchus nerka)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Mulcahy, D.M.; Burke, J.; Pascho, R.J.; Jenes, C.K.

    1982-01-01

    The concentration of infectious hematopoietic necrosis (IHN) virus was determined in eight organs and two body fluids from each of 60 adult sockeye salmon (Oncorhynchus nerka). Included in the sample were 4 males and 56 prespawning, spawning, or spent female fish. All fish were infected, and virus was present in nearly all organs. There was an overall tendency for the mean concentration to increase in many of the organs over time as the fish progressed in ripeness. In prespawning females, IHN virus could be detected in all organs and in ovarian fluid but not in serum; the incidences were highest in the gills, spleen, and pyloric ceca, and the titers were highest in the pyloric ceca and liver. Incidences of infection in the organs were higher in spawning than in prespawning females and higher still in spent females in which the incidence of virus was 100% in all organs except brains (78%) and sera (67%). Virus concentrations in organs or fluids ranged from 5 to 4.0 × 109 plaque-forming units per millilitre. In males, the highest incidences of virus were found in gills, pyloric ceca, and liver. The gills were the only organ in which the virus concentration in males exceeded that of females.Key words: infectious hematopoietic necrosis, IHN, fish virus, viral pathogenesis, sockeye salmon

  15. Examining the relationships between egg cortisol and oxidative stress in developing wild sockeye salmon (Oncorhynchus nerka).

    PubMed

    Taylor, Jessica J; Sopinka, Natalie M; Wilson, Samantha M; Hinch, Scott G; Patterson, David A; Cooke, Steven J; Willmore, William G

    2016-10-01

    Maternally-derived hormones in oocytes, such as glucocorticoids (GCs), play a crucial role in embryo development in oviparous taxa. In fishes, maternal stressor exposure increases circulating and egg cortisol levels, the primary GC in fishes, as well as induces oxidative stress. Elevated egg cortisol levels modify offspring traits but whether maternal oxidative stress correlates with circulating and egg cortisol levels, and whether maternal/egg cortisol levels correlate with offspring oxidative stress have yet to be determined. The objective of this study was to examine the relationships among maternal and egg cortisol, and maternal and offspring oxidative stress to provide insight into the potential intergenerational effects of stressor exposure in sockeye salmon (Oncorhynchus nerka). Antioxidant concentration and oxidative stress were measured in maternal tissues (plasma, brain, heart and liver) as well as offspring developmental stages (pre-fertilization, 24h post-fertilization, eyed, and hatch), and were compared to both naturally-occurring and experimentally-elevated (via cortisol egg bath) levels of cortisol in eggs. Oxygen radical absorptive capacity of tissues from maternal sockeye salmon was measured spectrophotometrically and was not correlated with maternal or egg cortisol concentrations. Also, naturally-occurring and experimentally-elevated cortisol levels in eggs (to mimic maternal stress) did not affect oxidative stress or antioxidant capacity of the offspring. We conclude that the metrics of maternal stress examined in sockeye salmon (i.e., maternal/egg cortisol, maternal oxidative stress) are independent of each other, and that egg cortisol content does not influence offspring oxidative stress.

  16. Infection of gill and kidney of Fraser River sockeye salmon, Oncorhynchus nerka (Walbaum), by Parvicapsula minibicornis and its effect on host physiology.

    PubMed

    Bradford, M J; Lovy, J; Patterson, D A

    2010-09-01

    Adult sockeye salmon, Oncorhynchus nerka (Walbaum), migrating upstream in the Fraser River, British Columbia, are exposed to the myxozoan parasite Parvicapsula minibicornis when they enter the river from the ocean. Infections are initially localized in the kidney but have recently been associated with branchitis in one population. Adult fish from five locations in the watershed were sampled to determine whether branchitis was widespread. P. minibicornis infections in kidney glomeruli were prevalent in all samples except for a sample of fish that had just entered the Fraser River from the ocean. For fish captured in spawning streams, parasites were observed in the renal tubules and gill, and branchitis was observed in 70% of fish. Plasma osmolality was negatively correlated with the number of parasites in the kidney tubules, which we hypothesize to be caused by the breach of glomerular membranes as the parasite leaves the fish. Plasma lactate values increased with increasing levels of pathology in gills. These findings support the hypothesis that P. minibicornis impacts the physiology of migrating fish, which may in turn affect the likelihood that adults will be able to migrate and spawn successfully.

  17. Integrating effects based monitoring with adverse outcome pathways and population models

    EPA Science Inventory

    In addressing Beneficial Use Impairments (BUIs) at a Great Lakes Area of Concern (AOC), recovery from loss of fish and wildlife populations exposed to stressors is targeted for use in decision making. We describe a framework that can be applied in utilizing field monitoring effo...

  18. The role of population monitoring in the management of North American waterfowl

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Nichols, J.D.; Williams, B.K.; Johnson, F.A.

    2000-01-01

    Despite the effort and expense devoted to large-scale monitoring programs, few existing programs have been designed with specific objectives in mind and few permit strong inferences about the dynamics of monitored systems. The waterfowl population monitoring programs of the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service, Canadian Wildlife Service and state and provincial agencies provide a nice example with respect to program objectives, design and implementation. The May Breeding Grounds Survey provides an estimate of system state (population size) that serves two primary purposes in the adaptive management process: identifying the appropriate time-specific management actions and updating the information state (model weights) by providing a basis for evaluating predictions of competing models. Other waterfowl monitoring programs (e.g., banding program, hunter questionnaire survey, parts collection survey, winter survey) provide estimates of vital rates (rates of survival, reproduction and movement) associated with system dynamics and variables associated with management objectives (e.g., harvest). The reliability of estimates resulting from monitoring programs depends strongly on whether considerations about spatial variation and detection probability have been adequately incorporated into program design and implementation. Certain waterfowl surveys again provide nice examples of monitoring programs that incorporate these considerations.

  19. Genetic risks and environmental surveillance: epidemiological aspects of monitoring industrial populations for environmental mutagens

    SciTech Connect

    Buffler, P.A.; Aase, J.M.

    1982-04-01

    As industrial populations are exposed to new chemicals and other agents in their work environment, it becomes increasingly important to be able to ascertain any associated genetic risks. The characteristics of a desirable surveillance system for deleterious genetic effects are outlined and the existing or proposed surveillance systems for industrial populations are reviewed against these criteria. At present, monitoring for reproductive loss and infertility seems to be the technique best suited for surveillance of industrial populations. However, monitoring techniques based on these events do not directly assess mutagenicity. Since fetal death and infertility are strongly, but not exclusively, correlated with mutation, these methods can be considered as an early-warning system to indicate when and where more definitive studies are needed.

  20. Demographic monitoring and population viability analysis of two rare beardtongues from the Uinta Basin

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    McCaffery, Rebecca M.; Reisor, Rita; Irvine, Kathryn M.; Brunson, Jessi

    2014-01-01

    Energy development, in combination with other environmental stressors, poses a persistent threat to rare species endemic to the energy-producing regions of the Western United States. Demographic analyses of monitored populations can provide key information on the natural dynamics of threatened plant and animal populations, and how they might be affected by ongoing and future development. In the Uinta Basin in Utah and Colorado, Graham’s beardtongue (Penstemon grahamii) and White River beardtongue (Penstemon scariosus var. albifluvis) are two rare endemic wildflowers that persist on oil shale habitats heavily impacted by current energy exploration and development, and slated for expanded traditional drilling and oil shale development. We described demographic characteristics and population viability for two populations of each species that have been monitored since 2004. First, we measured population size, survival rates, transitions between life stages, and recruitment using individually marked plants at the four study areas. Then, we used matrix population models to determine stochastic population growth rates (λ) and the probability that each population would persist 50 years into the future, given current conditions. The two P. grahamii study plots had small populations averaging 70 adult plants, and relatively constant and high survival in both vegetative and flowering plants. The two P. scariosus var. albifluvis study plots had populations that averaged 120 adult plants, with high and stable survival in flowering plants and variable survival in vegetative plants. Recruitment of new seedlings into all populations was low and variable, with most recruitment occurring in one or two years. Both P. grahamii populations had λ near 1.0 (stable). One P. scariosus var. albifluvis population appeared to be declining (λ=0.97), while the other was increasing (λ=1.16). Our analyses reveal populations that appear relatively stable, but that are

  1. Science deficiency in conservation practice: the monitoring of tiger populations in India

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Karanth, K.U.; Nichols, J.D.; Seidensticker, J.; Dinerstein, Eric; Smith, J.L.D.; McDougal, C.; Johnsingh, A.J.T.; Chundawat, Raghunandan S.; Thapar, V.

    2003-01-01

    Conservation practices are supposed to get refined by advancing scientific knowledge. We study this phenomenon in the context of monitoring tiger populations in India, by evaluating the 'pugmark census method' employed by wildlife managers for three decades. We use an analytical framework of modem animal population sampling to test the efficacy of the pugmark censuses using scientific data on tigers and our field observations. We identify three critical goals for monitoring tiger populations, in order of increasing sophistication: (1) distribution mapping, (2) tracking relative abundance, (3) estimation of absolute abundance. We demonstrate that the present census-based paradigm does not work because it ignores the first two simpler goals, and targets, but fails to achieve, the most difficult third goal. We point out the utility and ready availability of alternative monitoring paradigms that deal with the central problems of spatial sampling and observability. We propose an alternative sampling-based approach that can be tailored to meet practical needs of tiger monitoring at different levels of refinement.

  2. Extensive feeding on sockeye salmon Oncorhynchus nerka smolts by bull trout Salvelinus confluentus during initial outmigration into a small, unregulated and inland British Columbia river.

    PubMed

    Furey, N B; Hinch, S G; Lotto, A G; Beauchamp, D A

    2015-01-01

    Stomach contents were collected and analysed from 22 bull trout Salvelinus confluentus at the edge of the Chilko Lake and Chilko River in British Columbia, Canada, during spring outmigration of sockeye salmon Oncorhynchus nerka smolts. Twenty of the 22 (>90%) stomachs contained prey items, virtually all identifiable prey items were outmigrant O. nerka smolts and stomach contents represented a large portion (0·0-12·6%) of estimated S. confluentus mass. The results demonstrate nearly exclusive and intense feeding by S. confluentus on outmigrant smolts, and support recent telemetry observations of high disappearance rates of O. nerka smolts leaving large natural lake systems prior to entering high-order unregulated river systems. PMID:25494841

  3. Genomic and metabolic preparation of muscle in sockeye salmon Oncorhynchus nerka for spawning migration.

    PubMed

    Morash, Andrea J; Yu, Wilson; Le Moine, Christophe M R; Hills, Jayme A; Farrell, Anthony P; Patterson, David A; McClelland, Grant B

    2013-01-01

    Prolonged endurance exercise and fasting are two major metabolic challenges facing Pacific salmon during spawning migrations that often occur over 1,000 km. Because both prolonged exercise and fasting stimulate the oxidation of lipids, particularly in heavily recruited tissues such as muscle, we sought to investigate the regulatory mechanisms that establish and maintain the capacity for substrate oxidation at four separate locations during the final 750 km of nonfeeding migration in sockeye salmon Oncorhynchus nerka. Transcript levels of multiple genes encoding for important regulators of lipid, carbohydrate, and protein oxidation as well as the activity of several important enzymes involved in lipid and carbohydrate oxidation were examined in red and white muscle. We found in both muscle types that the messenger RNA (mRNA) expression of carnitine palmitoyltransferase I isoforms, peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors α and β, and adenosine monophosphate-activated protein kinase β1 were all significantly higher at the onset compared to later stages of nonfeeding migration. However, the activities of β-hydroxyacyl-CoA dehydrogenase and citrate synthase were higher only early in migration and only in red muscle. Later in the migration and as muscle lipid stores were greatly depleted, the mRNA levels of hexokinase I and aspartate aminotransferase increased in white muscle. Overall, at the onset of migration, high transcript and metabolic enzyme activity levels in skeletal muscle of sockeye salmon may help support the high rates of lipid oxidation needed for endurance swimming. Furthermore, we suggest that the muscle capacity to use carbohydrates and proteins may be adjusted throughout migration on an as-needed basis to fuel burst exercise through very difficult hydraulic passages in the river and perhaps during mating activities. PMID:24241071

  4. Examining the relationships between egg cortisol and oxidative stress in developing wild sockeye salmon (Oncorhynchus nerka).

    PubMed

    Taylor, Jessica J; Sopinka, Natalie M; Wilson, Samantha M; Hinch, Scott G; Patterson, David A; Cooke, Steven J; Willmore, William G

    2016-10-01

    Maternally-derived hormones in oocytes, such as glucocorticoids (GCs), play a crucial role in embryo development in oviparous taxa. In fishes, maternal stressor exposure increases circulating and egg cortisol levels, the primary GC in fishes, as well as induces oxidative stress. Elevated egg cortisol levels modify offspring traits but whether maternal oxidative stress correlates with circulating and egg cortisol levels, and whether maternal/egg cortisol levels correlate with offspring oxidative stress have yet to be determined. The objective of this study was to examine the relationships among maternal and egg cortisol, and maternal and offspring oxidative stress to provide insight into the potential intergenerational effects of stressor exposure in sockeye salmon (Oncorhynchus nerka). Antioxidant concentration and oxidative stress were measured in maternal tissues (plasma, brain, heart and liver) as well as offspring developmental stages (pre-fertilization, 24h post-fertilization, eyed, and hatch), and were compared to both naturally-occurring and experimentally-elevated (via cortisol egg bath) levels of cortisol in eggs. Oxygen radical absorptive capacity of tissues from maternal sockeye salmon was measured spectrophotometrically and was not correlated with maternal or egg cortisol concentrations. Also, naturally-occurring and experimentally-elevated cortisol levels in eggs (to mimic maternal stress) did not affect oxidative stress or antioxidant capacity of the offspring. We conclude that the metrics of maternal stress examined in sockeye salmon (i.e., maternal/egg cortisol, maternal oxidative stress) are independent of each other, and that egg cortisol content does not influence offspring oxidative stress. PMID:27316822

  5. Development of the salmon louse Lepeophtheirus salmonis and its effects on juvenile sockeye salmon Oncorhynchus nerka.

    PubMed

    Jakob, E; Sweeten, T; Bennett, W; Jones, S R M

    2013-11-01

    Responses of sockeye salmon Oncorhynchus nerka during infection with Lepeophtheirus salmonis were assessed in controlled laboratory trials. Juvenile salmon were exposed to 100 copepodids fish-1 (Trials 1 and 2) or 300 copepodids fish-1 (Trial 3) at mean weights of approximately 40, 80 and 135 g, respectively. Infections occurred on all salmon in all trials, and mean abundances (infection densities) ranged between 3.3 and 19.4 lice fish-1 (0.08 and 0.44 lice g-1 fish) in Trial 1, between 7.2 and 18.3 (0.09 and 0.22) in Trial 2 and between 19.5 and 60.7 (0.15 and 0.46) in Trial 3. A cumulative mortality of 24.4% occurred in Trial 3. At attachment sites on gills, we observed hyperplasia of basal epithelial cells and fusion of secondary lamellae occasionally associated with a cellular infiltrate. At attachment sites on fins, partial to complete skin erosion occurred, with limited evidence of hyperplasia or inflammation. Scale loss and abrasions coincided with pre-adult lice around 20 d post infection (dpi). Plasma osmolality was significantly elevated in exposed fish in Trials 1 (21 dpi), 2 (15 and 36 dpi) and 3 (20 dpi), whereas haematocrit was significantly depressed in exposed fish in Trials 1 (21 and 28 dpi) and 3 (20 dpi). Plasma cortisol was significantly elevated in exposed fish at 20 dpi (Trial 3). Physiological changes and mortality were related to the intensity of infection and became most prominent with pre-adult stages, suggesting patterns of infection and response in sockeye salmon similar to those reported for Atlantic and Chinook salmon. PMID:24191999

  6. Genomic and metabolic preparation of muscle in sockeye salmon Oncorhynchus nerka for spawning migration.

    PubMed

    Morash, Andrea J; Yu, Wilson; Le Moine, Christophe M R; Hills, Jayme A; Farrell, Anthony P; Patterson, David A; McClelland, Grant B

    2013-01-01

    Prolonged endurance exercise and fasting are two major metabolic challenges facing Pacific salmon during spawning migrations that often occur over 1,000 km. Because both prolonged exercise and fasting stimulate the oxidation of lipids, particularly in heavily recruited tissues such as muscle, we sought to investigate the regulatory mechanisms that establish and maintain the capacity for substrate oxidation at four separate locations during the final 750 km of nonfeeding migration in sockeye salmon Oncorhynchus nerka. Transcript levels of multiple genes encoding for important regulators of lipid, carbohydrate, and protein oxidation as well as the activity of several important enzymes involved in lipid and carbohydrate oxidation were examined in red and white muscle. We found in both muscle types that the messenger RNA (mRNA) expression of carnitine palmitoyltransferase I isoforms, peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors α and β, and adenosine monophosphate-activated protein kinase β1 were all significantly higher at the onset compared to later stages of nonfeeding migration. However, the activities of β-hydroxyacyl-CoA dehydrogenase and citrate synthase were higher only early in migration and only in red muscle. Later in the migration and as muscle lipid stores were greatly depleted, the mRNA levels of hexokinase I and aspartate aminotransferase increased in white muscle. Overall, at the onset of migration, high transcript and metabolic enzyme activity levels in skeletal muscle of sockeye salmon may help support the high rates of lipid oxidation needed for endurance swimming. Furthermore, we suggest that the muscle capacity to use carbohydrates and proteins may be adjusted throughout migration on an as-needed basis to fuel burst exercise through very difficult hydraulic passages in the river and perhaps during mating activities.

  7. Simultaneous biologging of heart rate and acceleration, and their relationships with energy expenditure in free-swimming sockeye salmon (Oncorhynchus nerka).

    PubMed

    Clark, Timothy Darren; Sandblom, E; Hinch, S G; Patterson, D A; Frappell, P B; Farrell, A P

    2010-06-01

    Monitoring the physiological status and behaviour of free-swimming fishes remains a challenging task, although great promise stems from techniques such as biologging and biotelemetry. Here, implanted data loggers were used to simultaneously measure heart rate (f (H)), visceral temperature, and a derivation of acceleration in two groups of wild adult sockeye salmon (Oncorhynchus nerka) held at two different water speeds (slow and fast). Calibration experiments performed with individual fish in a swim tunnel respirometer generated strong relationships between acceleration, f (H), tail beat frequency and energy expenditure over a wide range of swimming velocities. The regression equations were then used to estimate the overall energy expenditure of the groups of fish held at different water speeds. As expected, fish held at faster water speeds exhibited greater f (H) and acceleration, and correspondingly a higher estimated energy expenditure than fish held at slower water speeds. These estimates were consistent with gross somatic energy density of fish at death, as determined using proximate analyses of a dorsal tissue sample. Heart rate alone and in combination with acceleration, rather than acceleration alone, provided the most accurate proxies for energy expenditure in these studies. Even so, acceleration provided useful information on the behaviour of fish and may itself prove to be a valuable proxy for energy expenditure under different environmental conditions, using a different derivation of the acceleration data, and/or with further calibration experiments. These results strengthen the possibility that biologging or biotelemetry of f (H) and acceleration may be usefully applied to migrating sockeye salmon to monitor physiology and behaviour, and to estimate energy use in the natural environment. PMID:20063165

  8. Condition index monitoring supports conservation priorities for the protection of threatened grass-finch populations.

    PubMed

    Maute, Kimberly; French, Kristine; Legge, Sarah; Astheimer, Lee; Garnett, Stephen

    2015-01-01

    Conservation agencies are often faced with the difficult task of prioritizing what recovery actions receive support. With the number of species under threat of decline growing globally, research that informs conservation priorities is greatly needed. The relative vulnerability of cryptic or nomadic species is often uncertain, because populations are difficult to monitor and local populations often seem stable in the short term. This uncertainty can lead to inaction when populations are in need of protection. We tested the feasibility of using differences in condition indices as an indication of population vulnerability to decline for related threatened Australian finch sub-species. The Gouldian finch represents a relatively well-studied endangered species, which has a seasonal and site-specific pattern of condition index variation that differs from the closely related non-declining long-tailed finch. We used Gouldian and long-tailed finch condition variation as a model to compare with lesser studied, threatened star and black-throated finches. We compared body condition (fat and muscle scores), haematocrit and stress levels (corticosterone) among populations, seasons and years to determine whether lesser studied finch populations matched the model of an endangered species or a non-declining species. While vulnerable finch populations often had lower muscle and higher fat and corticosterone concentrations during moult (seasonal pattern similar to Gouldian finches), haematocrit values did not differ among populations in a predictable way. Star and black-throated finch populations, which were predicted to be vulnerable to decline, showed evidence of poor condition during moult, supporting their status as vulnerable. Our findings highlight how measures of condition can provide insight into the relative vulnerability of animal and plant populations to decline and will allow the prioritization of efforts towards the populations most likely to be in jeopardy of extinction

  9. Condition index monitoring supports conservation priorities for the protection of threatened grass-finch populations.

    PubMed

    Maute, Kimberly; French, Kristine; Legge, Sarah; Astheimer, Lee; Garnett, Stephen

    2015-01-01

    Conservation agencies are often faced with the difficult task of prioritizing what recovery actions receive support. With the number of species under threat of decline growing globally, research that informs conservation priorities is greatly needed. The relative vulnerability of cryptic or nomadic species is often uncertain, because populations are difficult to monitor and local populations often seem stable in the short term. This uncertainty can lead to inaction when populations are in need of protection. We tested the feasibility of using differences in condition indices as an indication of population vulnerability to decline for related threatened Australian finch sub-species. The Gouldian finch represents a relatively well-studied endangered species, which has a seasonal and site-specific pattern of condition index variation that differs from the closely related non-declining long-tailed finch. We used Gouldian and long-tailed finch condition variation as a model to compare with lesser studied, threatened star and black-throated finches. We compared body condition (fat and muscle scores), haematocrit and stress levels (corticosterone) among populations, seasons and years to determine whether lesser studied finch populations matched the model of an endangered species or a non-declining species. While vulnerable finch populations often had lower muscle and higher fat and corticosterone concentrations during moult (seasonal pattern similar to Gouldian finches), haematocrit values did not differ among populations in a predictable way. Star and black-throated finch populations, which were predicted to be vulnerable to decline, showed evidence of poor condition during moult, supporting their status as vulnerable. Our findings highlight how measures of condition can provide insight into the relative vulnerability of animal and plant populations to decline and will allow the prioritization of efforts towards the populations most likely to be in jeopardy of extinction.

  10. Monitoring the susceptibility of citrus rust mite (Acari: Eriophyidae) populations to abamectin.

    PubMed

    Bergh, J C; Rugg, D; Jansson, R K; McCoy, C W; Robertson, J L

    1999-08-01

    A citrus leaf disk bioassay was developed to monitor the susceptibility of citrus rust mite, Phyllocoptruta oleivora (Ashmead), populations to abamectin. Disks from leaves of several citrus cultivars were equally suitable bioassay substrates, and there was no difference in mortality when mites were sprayed directly or exposed to dry abamectin residue. The concentration-response relationship was determined at intervals over 2 yr for a reference population of citrus rust mites that had been maintained in culture and never exposed to acaricides. Three diagnostic concentrations of abamectin were selected based on the response of the reference population and were used to test the susceptibility of 15 populations of mites from commercial citrus groves. Comparisons with the reference population showed reduced levels of susceptibility in some populations. Populations of citrus rust mites from 6 commercial groves were sprayed twice in 1997 with combinations of acaricides designed to exert different intensities of selection pressure from abamectin. None of these populations showed a change in their response to abamectin in pre- and postspray bioassays, although their susceptibility was usually less than that of mites from the susceptible reference population. Biweekly counts of rust mites on fruit in these 6 groves suggested that, relative to groves which received no abamectin or 1 abamectin spray, mite control was not adversely affected in the groves sprayed twice with abamectin. The bioassay method is discussed in relation to factors that affect the interpretation of results from its use, and factors that may affect the development of resistance to abamectin in citrus rust mite populations are presented. This study has provided baseline data with which the results of ongoing tests of the response of citrus rust mite populations to abamectin can be compared.

  11. Condition index monitoring supports conservation priorities for the protection of threatened grass-finch populations

    PubMed Central

    Maute, Kimberly; French, Kristine; Legge, Sarah; Astheimer, Lee; Garnett, Stephen

    2015-01-01

    Conservation agencies are often faced with the difficult task of prioritizing what recovery actions receive support. With the number of species under threat of decline growing globally, research that informs conservation priorities is greatly needed. The relative vulnerability of cryptic or nomadic species is often uncertain, because populations are difficult to monitor and local populations often seem stable in the short term. This uncertainty can lead to inaction when populations are in need of protection. We tested the feasibility of using differences in condition indices as an indication of population vulnerability to decline for related threatened Australian finch sub-species. The Gouldian finch represents a relatively well-studied endangered species, which has a seasonal and site-specific pattern of condition index variation that differs from the closely related non-declining long-tailed finch. We used Gouldian and long-tailed finch condition variation as a model to compare with lesser studied, threatened star and black-throated finches. We compared body condition (fat and muscle scores), haematocrit and stress levels (corticosterone) among populations, seasons and years to determine whether lesser studied finch populations matched the model of an endangered species or a non-declining species. While vulnerable finch populations often had lower muscle and higher fat and corticosterone concentrations during moult (seasonal pattern similar to Gouldian finches), haematocrit values did not differ among populations in a predictable way. Star and black-throated finch populations, which were predicted to be vulnerable to decline, showed evidence of poor condition during moult, supporting their status as vulnerable. Our findings highlight how measures of condition can provide insight into the relative vulnerability of animal and plant populations to decline and will allow the prioritization of efforts towards the populations most likely to be in jeopardy of extinction

  12. Validation of daily increments and a marine-entry check in the otoliths of sockeye salmon Oncorhynchus nerka post-smolts.

    PubMed

    Freshwater, C; Trudel, M; Beacham, T D; Neville, C-E; Tucker, S; Juanes, F

    2015-07-01

    Juvenile sockeye salmon Oncorhynchus nerka that were reared and smolted in laboratory conditions were found to produce otolith daily increments, as well as a consistently visible marine-entry check formed during their transition to salt water. Field-collected O. nerka post-smolts of an equivalent age also displayed visible checks; however, microchemistry estimates of marine-entry date using Sr:Ca ratios differed from visual estimates by c. 9 days suggesting that microstructural and microchemical processes occur on different time scales. PMID:25959504

  13. Accuracy of the Spacelabs 90217 Ambulatory Blood Pressure Monitor in a Pediatric Population

    PubMed Central

    Redwine, Karen M.; James, Laura P.; O'Riordan, MaryAnn; Sullivan, Janice E.; Blumer, Jeffrey L.

    2015-01-01

    Ambulatory Blood Pressure Measurement (ABPM) techniques provide unique advantages for diagnosing hypertension although few devices have been independently validated in the pediatric population. We sought to validate the accuracy of the Spacelabs 90217 ABPM in children using a modified British Hypertension Society protocol. A total of 112 children, age 6-17 years, completed the study at one of 3 participating centers. Overall, the monitor earned an “A” for systolic blood pressure and “B” for diastolic blood pressure. It performed slightly better among 6-12 year olds (“A/A”) than 13-17 year olds (“A/B”). We conclude that the Spacelabs 90217 monitor is in an appropriate monitor for use in children 6 years of age and older. PMID:26529437

  14. Genetic monitoring of western corn rootworm (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae) populations on a microgeographic scale.

    PubMed

    Ivkosic, S A; Gorman, J; Lemic, D; Mikac, K M

    2014-06-01

    Microsatellite and mitochondrial DNA genetic monitoring of the western corn rootworm, Diabrotica virgifera virgifera LeConte, was undertaken in Croatia and Serbia from 1996 to 2011 and in the United States in 2011. The seven U.S. populations displayed the greatest allelic diversity. In Europe, the highest number of alleles was found in Rugvica, Croatia, and Surčin, Serbia, the two sites closest to international airports. The highest number of mitochondrial (mt) DNA haplotypes was recorded from Croatia in 1996. From 2009 to 2011, haplotype diversity declined, and Croatia and Serbia had a single fixed haplotype. U.S. continuous maize locations had one haplotype, while three haplotypes were found at crop-rotated locations. Minimal temporal genetic differentiation was found within and between populations in Europe and the United States. Bayesian cluster analysis identified two genetic clusters that grouped western corn rootworm from Croatia and Serbia separately from U.S. populations; however, these clusters were not neat, and numerous U.S. individuals had both European and U.S. ancestry, suggesting bidirectional gene flow. Bottlenecks were identified within most Croatian populations sampled in 1996, only two populations in 2009, and in all populations in 2011. Bottlenecks were not identified from Serbia from 1996 to 2011 or from the United States in 2011. As suspected Serbia was identified as the geographic source of western corn rootworm in Croatia. The temporal genetic monitoring undertaken allowed a deeper understanding of the population genetics of western corn rootworm in Croatia, neighboring Serbia, and its geographic source in the United States. The data obtained can be used to inform western corn rootworm pest management strategies in Croatia and Europe.

  15. Conservation and monitoring of a persecuted African lion population by Maasai warriors.

    PubMed

    Dolrenry, Stephanie; Hazzah, Leela; Frank, Laurence G

    2016-06-01

    Although Africa has many threatened species and biological hot spots, there are few citizen science schemes, particularly in rural communities, and there has been limited evaluation of existing programs. We engaged traditional Maasai warriors (pastoralist men aged 15 to 35) in community-based conservation and demographic monitoring of a persecuted African lion (Panthera leo) population. Through direct engagement, we investigated whether a citizen science approach employing local warriors, who had no formal education, could produce reliable data on the demographics, predation, and movements of a species with which their communities have been in conflict for generations. Warriors were given benefits such as literacy training and skill enhancement and engaged in the monitoring of the lions. The trained warriors reported on lion sign across an area nearly 4000 km(2) . Scientists worked together with the warriors to verify their reports and gather observations on the lion population. Using the verified reports and collected observations, we examined our scientific knowledge relative to the lion population preceding and during the citizen science program. Our observations showed that data quality and quantity improved with the involvement and training of the participants. Furthermore, because they engaged in conservation and gained personal benefits, the participants came to appreciate a species that was traditionally their foe. We believe engaging other local communities in biodiversity conservation and monitoring may be an effective conservation approach in rural Africa.

  16. Conservation and monitoring of a persecuted African lion population by Maasai warriors.

    PubMed

    Dolrenry, Stephanie; Hazzah, Leela; Frank, Laurence G

    2016-06-01

    Although Africa has many threatened species and biological hot spots, there are few citizen science schemes, particularly in rural communities, and there has been limited evaluation of existing programs. We engaged traditional Maasai warriors (pastoralist men aged 15 to 35) in community-based conservation and demographic monitoring of a persecuted African lion (Panthera leo) population. Through direct engagement, we investigated whether a citizen science approach employing local warriors, who had no formal education, could produce reliable data on the demographics, predation, and movements of a species with which their communities have been in conflict for generations. Warriors were given benefits such as literacy training and skill enhancement and engaged in the monitoring of the lions. The trained warriors reported on lion sign across an area nearly 4000 km(2) . Scientists worked together with the warriors to verify their reports and gather observations on the lion population. Using the verified reports and collected observations, we examined our scientific knowledge relative to the lion population preceding and during the citizen science program. Our observations showed that data quality and quantity improved with the involvement and training of the participants. Furthermore, because they engaged in conservation and gained personal benefits, the participants came to appreciate a species that was traditionally their foe. We believe engaging other local communities in biodiversity conservation and monitoring may be an effective conservation approach in rural Africa. PMID:27111059

  17. Monitoring concentrations of persistent organic pollutants in the general population: the international experience.

    PubMed

    Porta, Miquel; Puigdomènech, Elisa; Ballester, Ferran; Selva, Javier; Ribas-Fitó, Núria; Llop, Sabrina; López, Tomàs

    2008-05-01

    Assessing the adverse effects on human health of persistent organic pollutants (POPs) and the impact of policies aiming to reduce human exposure to POPs warrants monitoring body concentrations of POPs in representative samples of subjects. While numerous ad hoc studies are being conducted to understand POPs effects, only a few countries are conducting nationwide surveillance programs of human concentrations of POPs, and even less countries do so in representative samples of the general population. We tried to identify all studies worldwide that analyzed the distribution of concentrations of POPs in a representative sample of the general population, and we synthesized the studies' main characteristics, as design, population, and chemicals analyzed. The most comprehensive studies are the National Reports on Human Exposure to Environmental Chemicals (USA), the German Environmental Survey, and the Arctic Monitoring and Assessment Programme. Population-wide studies exist as well in New Zealand, Australia, Japan, Flanders (Belgium) and the Canary Islands (Spain). Most such studies are linked with health surveys, which is a highly-relevant additional strength. Only the German and Flemish studies analyzed POPs by educational level, while studies in the USA offer results by ethnic group. The full distribution of POPs concentrations is unknown in many countries. Knowledge gaps include also the interplay of age, gender, period and cohort effects on the prevalence of exposures observed by cross-sectional surveys. Local and global efforts to minimize POPs contamination, like the Stockholm convention, warrant nationwide monitoring of concentrations of POPs in representative samples of the general population. Results of this review show how such studies may be developed and used. PMID:18054079

  18. Monitoring population and environmental parameters of invasive mosquito species in Europe.

    PubMed

    Petrić, Dušan; Bellini, Romeo; Scholte, Ernst-Jan; Rakotoarivony, Laurence Marrama; Schaffner, Francis

    2014-01-01

    To enable a better understanding of the overwhelming alterations in the invasive mosquito species (IMS), methodical insight into the population and environmental factors that govern the IMS and pathogen adaptations are essential. There are numerous ways of estimating mosquito populations, and usually these describe developmental and life-history parameters. The key population parameters that should be considered during the surveillance of invasive mosquito species are: (1) population size and dynamics during the season, (2) longevity, (3) biting behaviour, and (4) dispersal capacity. Knowledge of these parameters coupled with vector competence may help to determine the vectorial capacity of IMS and basic disease reproduction number (R0) to support mosquito borne disease (MBD) risk assessment. Similarly, environmental factors include availability and type of larval breeding containers, climate change, environmental change, human population density, increased human travel and goods transport, changes in living, agricultural and farming habits (e.g. land use), and reduction of resources in the life cycle of mosquitoes by interventions (e.g. source reduction of aquatic habitats). Human population distributions, urbanisation, and human population movement are the key behavioural factors in most IMS-transmitted diseases. Anthropogenic issues are related to the global spread of MBD such as the introduction, reintroduction, circulation of IMS and increased exposure to humans from infected mosquito bites. This review addresses the population and environmental factors underlying the growing changes in IMS populations in Europe and confers the parameters selected by criteria of their applicability. In addition, overview of the commonly used and newly developed tools for their monitoring is provided. PMID:24739334

  19. Monitoring population and environmental parameters of invasive mosquito species in Europe

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    To enable a better understanding of the overwhelming alterations in the invasive mosquito species (IMS), methodical insight into the population and environmental factors that govern the IMS and pathogen adaptations are essential. There are numerous ways of estimating mosquito populations, and usually these describe developmental and life-history parameters. The key population parameters that should be considered during the surveillance of invasive mosquito species are: (1) population size and dynamics during the season, (2) longevity, (3) biting behaviour, and (4) dispersal capacity. Knowledge of these parameters coupled with vector competence may help to determine the vectorial capacity of IMS and basic disease reproduction number (R0) to support mosquito borne disease (MBD) risk assessment. Similarly, environmental factors include availability and type of larval breeding containers, climate change, environmental change, human population density, increased human travel and goods transport, changes in living, agricultural and farming habits (e.g. land use), and reduction of resources in the life cycle of mosquitoes by interventions (e.g. source reduction of aquatic habitats). Human population distributions, urbanisation, and human population movement are the key behavioural factors in most IMS-transmitted diseases. Anthropogenic issues are related to the global spread of MBD such as the introduction, reintroduction, circulation of IMS and increased exposure to humans from infected mosquito bites. This review addresses the population and environmental factors underlying the growing changes in IMS populations in Europe and confers the parameters selected by criteria of their applicability. In addition, overview of the commonly used and newly developed tools for their monitoring is provided. PMID:24739334

  20. In Vivo Monitoring of Multiple Circulating Cell Populations Using Two-photon Flow Cytometry

    PubMed Central

    Tkaczyk, Eric R.; Zhong, Cheng Frank; Ye, Jing Yong; Myc, Andrzej; Thomas, Thommey; Cao, Zhengyi; Duran-Struuck, Raimon; Luker, Kathryn E.; Luker, Gary D.; Norris, Theodore B.; Baker, James R.

    2008-01-01

    To detect and quantify multiple distinct populations of cells circulating simultaneously in the blood of living animals, we developed a novel optical system for two-channel, two-photon flow cytometry in vivo. We used this system to investigate the circulation dynamics in live animals of breast cancer cells with low (MCF-7) and high (MDA-MB-435) metastatic potential, showing for the first time that two different populations of circulating cells can be quantified simultaneously in the vasculature of a single live mouse. We also non-invasively monitored a population of labeled, circulating red blood cells for more than two weeks, demonstrating that this technique can also quantify the dynamics of abundant cells in the vascular system for prolonged periods of time. These data are the first in vivo application of multichannel flow cytometry utilizing two-photon excitation, which will greatly enhance our capability to study circulating cells in cancer and other disease processes. PMID:19221581

  1. In Vivo Monitoring of Multiple Circulating Cell Populations Using Two-photon Flow Cytometry.

    PubMed

    Tkaczyk, Eric R; Zhong, Cheng Frank; Ye, Jing Yong; Myc, Andrzej; Thomas, Thommey; Cao, Zhengyi; Duran-Struuck, Raimon; Luker, Kathryn E; Luker, Gary D; Norris, Theodore B; Baker, James R

    2008-02-15

    To detect and quantify multiple distinct populations of cells circulating simultaneously in the blood of living animals, we developed a novel optical system for two-channel, two-photon flow cytometry in vivo. We used this system to investigate the circulation dynamics in live animals of breast cancer cells with low (MCF-7) and high (MDA-MB-435) metastatic potential, showing for the first time that two different populations of circulating cells can be quantified simultaneously in the vasculature of a single live mouse. We also non-invasively monitored a population of labeled, circulating red blood cells for more than two weeks, demonstrating that this technique can also quantify the dynamics of abundant cells in the vascular system for prolonged periods of time. These data are the first in vivo application of multichannel flow cytometry utilizing two-photon excitation, which will greatly enhance our capability to study circulating cells in cancer and other disease processes.

  2. National Approaches to Monitoring Population Salt Intake: A Trade-Off between Accuracy and Practicality?

    PubMed Central

    Hawkes, Corinna; Webster, Jacqui

    2012-01-01

    Aims There is strong evidence that diets high in salt are bad for health and that salt reduction strategies are cost effective. However, whilst it is clear that most people are eating too much salt, obtaining an accurate assessment of population salt intake is not straightforward, particularly in resource poor settings. The objective of this study is to identify what approaches governments are taking to monitoring salt intake, with the ultimate goal of identifying what actions are needed to address challenges to monitoring salt intake, especially in low and middle-income countries. Methods and Results A written survey was issued to governments to establish the details of their monitoring methods. Of the 30 countries that reported conducting formal government salt monitoring activities, 73% were high income countries. Less than half of the 30 countries, used the most accurate assessment of salt through 24 hour urine, and only two of these were developing countries. The remainder mainly relied on estimates through dietary surveys. Conclusions The study identified a strong need to establish more practical ways of assessing salt intake as well as technical support and advice to ensure that low and middle income countries can implement salt monitoring activities effectively. PMID:23082128

  3. Monitoring population and land use change in tropical forest protected areas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zvoleff, A. I.; Rosa, M.; Ahumada, J. A.

    2014-12-01

    Monitoring human-environment interactions in tropical forest protected areas requires linking interdisciplinary datasets collected across a range of spatial and temporal scales. Recent assessments have shown that forest degradation and loss outside of protected areas is strongly associated with declines in biodiversity within protected areas. Biodiversity monitoring efforts must therefore develop approaches that consider change in the broader landscape, using biophysical and socioeconomic datasets that not only cover the extent of a protected area, but also the region surrounding it. The Tropical Ecology Assessment and Monitoring (TEAM) Network has developed an approach for linking remotely sensed imagery from Landsat and MODIS sensors with in-situ ecological data and socioeconomic datasets to better understand the effects of landscape change on biodiversity. The TEAM Network is a global system for monitoring biodiversity, land use/cover change (LUCC), and climate in sixteen tropical forest sites evenly distributed across global biophysical gradients (rainfall and seasonality) and gradients of expected climate change and land use change. TEAM adopts the Zone of Interaction (ZOI) concept to delineate the spatial extent around protected areas for linking broader-scale trends in LUCC to plot-based monitoring data. This talk reports on a cross-site comparison examining LUCC and biodiversity change across the TEAM network. The analysis indicates a gradient of forest loss in the tropics dependent on landscape-level human factors, such as population and road density. The highest losses of forest cover are associated with changing patterns of land use and agricultural development, particularly plantation forestry in Southeast Asia. While the spatial and temporal resolution of remote sensing-derived datasets continues to increase, a key challenge for monitoring efforts is linking this data to spatially explicit socioeconomic datasets for use in statistical modeling. We will

  4. Effects of rearing temperature on immune functions in sockeye salmon (Oncorhynchus nerka)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Alcorn, S.W.; Murray, A.L.; Pascho, R.J.

    2002-01-01

    To determine if the defences of sockeye salmon (Oncorhynchus nerka) raised in captivity are affected by the rearing temperature or their life-cycle stage, various indices of the humoral and cellular immune functions were measured in fish reared at either 8 or 12??C for their entire life-cycle. Measures of humoral immunity included the commonly used haematological parameters, as well as measurements of complement, and lysozyme activity. Cellular assays quantified the ability of macrophages from the anterior kidney to phagocytise Staphylococcus aureus cells, or the activities of certain bactericidal systems of those cells. The T-dependent antibody response to a recombinant 57 kDa protein of Renibacterium salmoninarum was used to quantify the specific immune response. Fish were sampled during the spring and fall of their second, third and fourth years, corresponding to a period that began just before smolting and ended at sexual maturation. Fish reared at 8??C tended to have a greater percentage of phagocytic kidney macrophages during the first 2 years of sampling than the fish reared at 12??C. During the last half of the study the complement activity of the fish reared at 8??C was greater than that of the 12??C fish. Conversely, a greater proportion of the blood leucocytes were lymphocytes in fish reared at 12??C compared to the fish reared at 8??C. Fish reared at 12??C also produced a greater antibody response than those reared at 8??C. Results suggested that the immune apparatus of sockeye salmon reared at 8??C relied more heavily on the non-specific immune response, while the specific immune response was used to a greater extent when the fish were reared at 12??C. Although a seasonal effect was not detected in any of the indices measured, varying effects were observed in some measurements during sexual maturation of fish in both temperature groups. At that time there were dramatic decreases in complement activity and lymphocyte numbers. This study was unique in

  5. National Surveys of Population Health: Big Data Analytics for Mobile Health Monitors

    PubMed Central

    Schatz, Bruce R.

    2015-01-01

    Abstract At the core of the healthcare crisis is fundamental lack of actionable data. Such data could stratify individuals within populations to predict which persons have which outcomes. If baselines existed for all variations of all conditions, then managing health could be improved by matching the measuring of individuals to their cohort in the population. The scale required for complete baselines involves effective National Surveys of Population Health (NSPH). Traditionally, these have been focused upon acute medicine, measuring people to contain the spread of epidemics. In recent decades, the focus has moved to chronic conditions as well, which require smaller measures over longer times. NSPH have long utilized quality of life questionnaires. Mobile Health Monitors, where computing technologies eliminate manual administration, provide richer data sets for health measurement. Older technologies of telephone interviews will be replaced by newer technologies of smartphone sensors to provide deeper individual measures at more frequent timings across larger-sized populations. Such continuous data can provide personal health records, supporting treatment guidelines specialized for population cohorts. Evidence-based medicine will become feasible by leveraging hundreds of millions of persons carrying mobile devices interacting with Internet-scale services for Big Data Analytics. PMID:26858915

  6. Acoustic Monitoring System for Frog Population Estimation Using In-Situ Progressive Learning

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aboudan, Adam

    Frog populations are considered excellent bio-indicators and hence the ability to monitor changes in their populations can be very useful for ecological research and environmental monitoring. This thesis presents a new population estimation approach based on the recognition of individual frogs of the same species, namely the Pseudacris Regilla (Pacific Chorus Frog), which does not rely on the availability of prior training data. An in-situ progressive learning algorithm is developed to determine whether an incoming call belongs to a previously detected individual frog or a newly encountered individual frog. A temporal call overlap detector is also presented as a pre-processing tool to eliminate overlapping calls. This is done to prevent the degrading of the learning process. The approach uses Mel-frequency cepstral coefficients (MFCCs) and multivariate Gaussian models to achieve individual frog recognition. In the first part of this thesis, the MFCC as well as the related linear predictive cepstral coefficients (LPCC) acoustic feature extraction processes are reviewed. The Gaussian mixture models (GMM) are also reviewed as an extension to the classical Gaussian modeling used in the proposed approach. In the second part of this thesis, the proposed frog population estimation system is presented and discussed in detail. The proposed system involves several different components including call segmentation, feature extraction, overlap detection, and the in-situ progressive learning process. In the third part of the thesis, data description and system performance results are provided. The process of synthetically generating test sequences of real frog calls, which are applied to the proposed system for performance analysis, is described. Also, the results of the system performance are presented which show that the system is successful in distinguishing individual frogs, hence capable of providing reasonable estimates of the frog population. The system can readily be

  7. Variability in biological monitoring of solvent exposure. I. Development of a population physiological model.

    PubMed Central

    Droz, P O; Wu, M M; Cumberland, W G; Berode, M

    1989-01-01

    Biological indicators of exposure to solvents are often characterised by a high variability that may be due either to fluctuations in exposure or individual differences in the workers. To describe and understand this variability better a physiological model for differing workers under variable industrial environments has been developed. Standard statistical distributions are used to simulate variability in exposure concentration, physical workload, body build, liver function, and renal clearance. For groups of workers exposed daily, the model calculates air monitoring indicators and biological monitoring results (expired air, blood, and urine). The results obtained are discussed and compared with measured data, both physiological (body build, cardiac output, alveolar ventilation) and toxicokinetic for six solvents: 1,1,1-trichloroethane, trichloroethylene, tetrachloroethylene, benzene, toluene, styrene, and their main metabolites. Possible applications of this population physiological model are presented. PMID:2765418

  8. Identifying monitoring gaps for amphibian populations in a North American biodiversity hotspot, the southeastern USA

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Walls, Susan

    2014-01-01

    I review the primary literature to ascertain the status of amphibian monitoring efforts in the southeastern USA, a “hotspot” for biodiversity in North America. This effort revealed taxonomic, geographic and ecological disparities in studies of amphibian populations in this region. Of the species of anurans and caudates known to occur in the Southeast, 73.8 and 33.3 %, respectively, have been monitored continuously for at least 4 years. Anurans are generally shorter-lived than are caudates and, thus, have been studied for the equivalent of at least one population turnover more than have caudates. The percentage of species (of those occurring in a given state) monitored continuously for at least 4 years was lowest for Alabama and Mississippi and highest for Florida for both taxa. The vast majority of studies (69.6 %) were conducted on species that inhabit natural freshwater wetlands, in contrast to other aquatic and terrestrial habitats. Species considered threatened by the International Union for Conservation of Nature comprised only 7.7 % of 65 species that have been studied consistently. The majority of comparative studies of contemporary versus historical occurrences were potentially biased by the use of “presence-only” historical data and resurveys of short duration. Other issues, such as inadequate temporal and spatial scale and neglect of different sources of error, were common. Awareness of these data gaps and sampling and statistical issues may help facilitate informed decisions in setting future monitoring priorities, particularly with respect to species, habitats and locations that have been largely overlooked in past and ongoing studies.

  9. Monitoring of human populations for early markers of cadmium toxicity: A review

    SciTech Connect

    Fowler, Bruce A.

    2009-08-01

    Exposure of human populations to cadmium (Cd) from air, food and water may produce effects in organs such as the kidneys, liver, lungs, cardiovascular, immune and reproductive systems. Since Cd has been identified as a human carcinogen, biomarkers for early detection of susceptibility to cancer are of an importance to public health. The ability to document Cd exposure and uptake of this element through biological monitoring is a first step towards understanding its health effects. Interpretation and application of biological monitoring data for predicting human health outcomes require correlation with biological measures of organ system responses to the documented exposure. Essential to this understanding is the detection and linkage of early biological responses toxic effects in target cell populations. Fortunately, advances in cell biology have resulted in the development of pre-clinical biological markers (biomarkers) that demonstrate measurable and characteristic molecular changes in organ systems following chemical exposures that occur prior to the onset of overt clinical disease or development of cancer. Technical advances have rendered a number of these biomarkers practical for monitoring Cd-exposed human populations. Biomarkers will be increasingly important in relation to monitoring effects from the exposure to new Cd-based high technology materials. For example, cadmium-selenium (CdSe), nano-materials made from combinations of these elements have greatly altered cellular uptake characteristics due to particle size. These differences may greatly alter effects at the target cell level and hence risks for organ toxicities from such exposures. The value of validated biomarkers for early detection of systemic Cd-induced effects in humans cannot be underestimated due to the rapid expansion of nano-material technologies. This review will attempt to briefly summarize the applications, to date, of biomarker endpoints for assessing target organ system effects in

  10. Use of interdelta polymorphisms of Saccharomyces cerevisiae strains to monitor population evolution during wine fermentation.

    PubMed

    Xufre, Angela; Albergaria, Helena; Gírio, Francisco; Spencer-Martins, Isabel

    2011-01-01

    The industrial use of starter cultures containing a consortium of different strains from the same species is nowadays seen as a possible strategy to enhance the organoleptic complexity of wines. To assess the relative contribution of each strain to the final product it is essential to quantify population evolution during the wine fermentation process, which requires strain-specific methods to identify and differentiate each strain. In the present study, a molecular method based on analysis of the polymorphisms exhibited by the PCR-amplification of the delta regions of three Saccharomyces cerevisiae strains was developed. A set of three pairs of primers (delta1-delta2, delta12-delta2, delta12-delta21) was used for each strain, and analysis of the resulting polymorphism patterns showed that the delta12-delta2 primer pair exhibited the highest resolution and discriminatory power. Thus, this pair of primers was selected to monitor the population evolution of a laboratory-scale wine fermentation performed in synthetic grape juice that was inoculated with similar amounts of each strain. The results showed that all strains grew together during the exponential growth phase (2-3 days) and maintained high cell density values (10(6)-10(7) cfu ml(-1)) throughout the stationary growth phase without significantly changing their relative population proportion, thus indicating that each strain can influence the chemical composition and final flavor of wine, albeit at different levels. This study also showed that PCR-amplification of DNA delta sequences of S. cerevisiae strains is a reproducible, strain-specific and simple method that can be used successfully to monitor yeast strain population dynamics during wine fermentations.

  11. Monitoring for Insecticide Resistance in Asian Citrus Psyllid (Hemiptera: Psyllidae) Populations in Florida.

    PubMed

    Kanga, Lambert H B; Eason, Julius; Haseeb, Muhammad; Qureshi, Jawwad; Stansly, Philip

    2016-04-01

    The development of insecticide resistance in Asian citrus psyllid, Diaphorina citri Kuwayama, populations is a serious threat to the citrus industry. As a contribution to a resistance management strategy, we developed a glass vial technique to monitor field populations of Asian citrus psyllid for insecticide resistance. Diagnostic concentrations needed to separate susceptible genotypes from resistant individuals were determined for cypermethrin (0.5 μg per vial), malathion (1.0 μg per vial), diazinon (1.0 μg per vial), carbaryl (1.0 μg per vial), carbofuran (0.1 μg per vial), methomyl (1.0 μg per vial), propoxur (1.0 μg per vial), endosulfan (1.0 μg per vial), imidacloprid (0.5 μg per vial), acetamiprid (5.0 μg per vial), chlorfenapyr (2.5 μg per vial), and fenpyroximate (2.5 μg per vial). In 2014, resistance to two carbamate insecticides (carbaryl and carbofuran), one organophosphate (malathion), one pyrethroid (cypermethrin), and one pyrazole (fenpyroximate) was detected in field populations of Asian citrus psyllid in Immokalee, FL. There was no resistance detected to diazinon, methomyl, propoxur, endosulfan, imidacloprid, and chlorfenapyr. The levels of insecticide resistance were variable and unstable, suggesting that resistance could be successfully managed. The results validate the use of the glass vial bioassay to monitor for resistance in Asian citrus psyllid populations and provide the basis for the development of a resistance management strategy designed to extend the efficacy of all classes of insecticides used for control of the Asian citrus psyllid. PMID:26709293

  12. Monitoring of human populations at risk by different cytogenetic end points.

    PubMed Central

    Anwar, W A

    1994-01-01

    Humans are exposed to a large number of environmental genotoxic agents. These can increase the probability that somatic mutation will occur. The use of genotoxicity testing is essential for assessment of potential human toxicity so that hazards can be prevented. Cytogenetic monitoring of human populations exposed to chemicals has proved to be a useful tool for detecting the chemical mutagenic effects. Cytogenetic analysis of human chromosomes in peripheral lymphocytes allows direct detection of mutation in somatic cells. Cytogenetic monitoring of a group of traffic policemen from Cairo, Egypt, was an example of a human population study. The induction of chromosomal damage was studied in a group of 28 traffic policemen with exposure of over 10 years and a control group of 15 policemen trainers. Blood lead level was significantly higher in the traffic policemen (30 +/- 8.7) unit compared to the control group (18.2 +/- 1.2) unit. The percentage of chromosomal aberrations (7.7 +/- 3.1), as well as the mean sister chromatid exchanges (7.5 +/- 3.4), were significantly higher among the traffic policemen than in the control group. The percentage of chromosomal aberrations was 2.8 +/- 2.1 and the mean sister chromatid exchanges was 4.8 +/- 2.9 in the control group. On the other hand, the increase in chromosome damage among the traffic policemen was enhanced further by smoking. Several problems that are found in biomonitoring studies are discussed. PMID:7529700

  13. Incidence of multiple sclerosis among European Economic Area populations, 1985-2009: the framework for monitoring

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background A debate surrounding multiple sclerosis epidemiology has centred on time-related incidence increases and the need of monitoring. The purpose of this study is to reassess multiple sclerosis incidence in the European Economic Area. Methods We conducted a systematic review of literature from 1965 onwards and integrated elements of original research, including requested or completed data by surveys authors and specific analyses. Results The review of 5323 documents yielded ten studies for age- and sex-specific analyses, and 21 studies for time-trend analysis of single data sets. After 1985, the incidence of multiple sclerosis ranged from 1.12 to 6.96 per 100,000 population, was higher in females, tripled with latitude, and doubled with study midpoint year. The north registered increasing trends from the 1960s and 1970s, with a historic drop in the Faroe Islands, and fairly stable data in the period 1980-2000; incidence rose in Italian and French populations in the period 1970-2000, in Evros (Greece) in the 1980s, and in the French West Indies in around 2000. Conclusions We conclude that the increase in multiple sclerosis incidence is only apparent, and that it is not specific to women. Monitoring of multiple sclerosis incidence might be appropriate for the European Economic Area. PMID:23758972

  14. Ecological relationship between freshwater sculpins (Genus cottus) and beach-spawning sockeye salmon (Oncorhynchus nerka) in Iliamna Lake, Alaska

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Foote, C.J.; Brown, G.S.

    1998-01-01

    The interaction between two sculpin species, Cottus cognatus and Cottus aleuticus, and island beach spawning sockeye salmon (Oncorhynchus nerka) was examined in Iliamna Lake, Alaska. We conclude that sculpins actively move to specific spawning beaches and that the initiation of their movements precedes the start of spawning. Sculpin predation on sockeye eggs is positively dependent on sculpin size and on the state of the eggs (fresh versus water hardened), with the largest sculpins able to consume nearly 50 fresh eggs at a single feeding and 130 over a 7-day period. The number of sculpins in sockeye nests is greatest at the beginning of the spawning run, lowest in the middle, and high again at the end, with peak numbers of over 100 sculpins per nest (1 m2). We discuss the results in terms of energy flow of marine-derived nutrients into an oligotrophic system and in terms of the coevolution of sockeye spawning behavior and the predatory behavior of sculpins.

  15. Mortality due to infectious hematopoietic necrosis of sockeye salmon (Oncorhynchus nerka) fry in streamside egg incubation boxes

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Mulcahy, D.; Pascho, R.J.; Jenes, C.K.

    1983-01-01

    Infectious hematopoietic necrosis virus caused mortality of sockeye salmon (Oncorhynchus nerka) in streamside egg incubation boxes. Virus was not detectable in eggs or alevins; its first isolation coincided with the appearance of dead fish in a trap on the outflow from the box. Mortality due to the virus did not occur in every egg box studied. However, when fry from the boxes were held in the laboratory, epizootics began as much as 3 wk later, with total mortality exceeding 90%. More than 96% of the dead fry had titers exceeding 105 plaque-forming units per gram. The peak incidence of virus in fry migrating in the river coincided with the arrival of hatchery-produced fry, although some fry believed to have been produced by natural spawning were also infected.Englis

  16. Appearance and quantification of infectious hematopoietic necrosis virus in female sockeye salmon (Oncorhynchus nerka) during their spawning migration

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Mulcahy, D.; Jenes, C.K.; Pascho, R.J.

    1984-01-01

    The incidence and amount of infectious hematopoietic necrosis (IHN) virus was determined in 10 organs and body fluids from each of 100 female sockeye salmon(Oncorhynchus nerka) before, during, and after their spawning migration into freshwater. Virus was found in high concentrations only in fish sampled during and after spawning. Infection rates increased from nil to 100 percent within 2 weeks. In spawning fish, incidences of IHN virus were high in all organs and fluids except brain and serum, and the highest concentrations were in the pyloric caeca and lower gut. Immediately before spawning, IHN virus was found most frequently in the gills, less frequently in the pyloric caeca and spleen, and rarely in other organs.

  17. Series quartz crystal sensor for remote bacteria population monitoring in raw milk via the Internet.

    PubMed

    Chang, Ku-Shang; Jang, Hung-Der; Lee, Ching-Fu; Lee, Yuan-Guey; Yuan, Chiun-Jye; Lee, Sheng-Hsien

    2006-02-15

    A remote monitoring system based on a piezoelectric quartz crystal (SPQC) sensor was developed for the determination of the bacteria population in raw milk. The system employs the Windows XP server operating system, and its programs for data acquisition, display and transmission were developed using the LabVIEW 7.1 programming language. The circuit design consists of a circuit with a piezoelectric quartz crystal (SPQC) and a pair of electrodes. This system can provide dynamic data monitoring on a web-page via the Internet. Immersion of the electrodes in a cell culture with bacteria inoculums resulted in a change of frequency caused by the impedance change due to microbial metabolism and the adherence of bacteria on the surface of the electrodes. The calibration curve of detection times against density of bacteria showed a linear correlation coefficient (R(2) = 0.9165) over the range of 70-10(6) CFU ml(-1). The sensor could acquire sufficient data rapidly (within 4 h) and thus enabled real-time monitoring of bacteria growth via the Internet. This system has potential application in the detection of bacteria concentration of milk at dairy farms.

  18. Toward Objective Monitoring of Ingestive Behavior in Free-living Population

    PubMed Central

    Sazonov, Edward S.; Schuckers, Stephanie A.C.; Lopez-Meyer, Paulo; Makeyev, Oleksandr; Melanson, Edward L.; Neuman, Michael R.; Hill, James O.

    2010-01-01

    Understanding of eating behaviors associated with obesity requires objective and accurate monitoring of food intake patterns. Accurate methods are available for measuring total energy expenditure and its components in free-living populations, but methods for measuring food intake in free-living people are far less accurate and involve self-reporting or subjective monitoring. We suggest that chews and swallows can be used for objective monitoring of ingestive behavior. This hypothesis was verified in a human study involving 20 subjects. Chews and swallows were captured during periods of quiet resting, talking, and meals of varying size. The counts of chews and swallows along with other derived metrics were used to build prediction models for detection of food intake, differentiation between liquids and solids, and for estimation of the mass of ingested food. The proposed prediction models were able to detect periods of food intake with >95% accuracy and a fine time resolution of 30 s, differentiate solid foods from liquids with >91% accuracy, and predict mass of ingested food with >91% accuracy for solids and >83% accuracy for liquids. In earlier publications, we have shown that chews and swallows can be captured by noninvasive sensors that could be developed into a wearable device. Thus, the proposed methodology could lead to the development of an innovative new way of assessing human eating behavior in free-living conditions. PMID:19444225

  19. Monitoring Tree Population Dynamics in Arid Zone Through Multiple Temporal Scales: Integration of Spatial Analysis, Change Detection and Field Long Term Monitoring

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Isaacson, S.; Rachmilevitch, S.; Ephrath, J. E.; Maman, S.; Blumberg, D. G.

    2016-06-01

    High mortality rates and lack of recruitment in the acacia populations throughout the Negev Desert and the Arava rift valley of Israel have been reported in previous studies. However, it is difficult to determine whether these reports can be evidence to a significant decline trend of the trees populations. This is because of the slow dynamic processes of acaia tree populations and the lack of long term continuous monitoring data. We suggest a new data analysis technique that expands the time scope of the field long term monitoring of trees in arid environments. This will enables us to improve our understanding of the spatial and temporal changes of these populations. We implemented two different approaches in order to expand the time scope of the acacia population field survey: (1) individual based tree change detection using Corona satellite images and (2) spatial analysis of trees population, converting spatial data into temporal data. The next step was to integrate the results of the two analysis techniques (change detection and spatial analysis) with field monitoring. This technique can be implemented to other tree populations in arid environments to help assess the vegetation conditions and dynamics of those ecosystems.

  20. A comparison of breeding population estimators using nest and brood monitoring data.

    PubMed

    Baasch, David M; Hefley, Trevor J; Cahis, Staci D

    2015-09-01

    For many species, breeding population size is an important metric for assessing population status. A variety of simple methods are often used to estimate this metric for ground-nesting birds that nest in open habitats (e.g., beaches, riverine sandbars). The error and bias associated with estimates derived using these methods vary in relation to differing monitoring intensities and detection rates. However, these errors and biases are often difficult to obtain, poorly understood, and largely unreported. A method was developed to estimate the number of breeding pairs using counts of nests and broods from monitoring data where multiple surveys were made throughout a single breeding season (breeding pair estimator; BPE). The BPE method was compared to two commonly used estimation methods using simulated data from an individual-based model that allowed for the comparison of biases and accuracy. The BPE method underestimated the number of breeding pairs, but generally performed better than the other two commonly used methods when detection rates were low and monitoring frequency was high. As detection rates and time between surveys increased, the maximum nest and brood count method performs similar to the BPE. The BPE was compared to four commonly used methods to estimate breeding pairs for empirically derived data sets on the Platte River. Based on our simulated data, we expect our BPE to be closest to the true number of breeding pairs as compared to other methods. The methods tested resulted in substantially different estimates of the numbers of breeding pairs; however, coefficients from trend analyses were not statistically different. When data from multiple nest and brood surveys are available, the BPE appears to result in reasonably precise estimates of numbers of breeding pairs. Regardless of the estimation method, investigators are encouraged to acknowledge whether the method employed is likely to over- or underestimate breeding pairs. This study provides a means

  1. A comparison of breeding population estimators using nest and brood monitoring data.

    PubMed

    Baasch, David M; Hefley, Trevor J; Cahis, Staci D

    2015-09-01

    For many species, breeding population size is an important metric for assessing population status. A variety of simple methods are often used to estimate this metric for ground-nesting birds that nest in open habitats (e.g., beaches, riverine sandbars). The error and bias associated with estimates derived using these methods vary in relation to differing monitoring intensities and detection rates. However, these errors and biases are often difficult to obtain, poorly understood, and largely unreported. A method was developed to estimate the number of breeding pairs using counts of nests and broods from monitoring data where multiple surveys were made throughout a single breeding season (breeding pair estimator; BPE). The BPE method was compared to two commonly used estimation methods using simulated data from an individual-based model that allowed for the comparison of biases and accuracy. The BPE method underestimated the number of breeding pairs, but generally performed better than the other two commonly used methods when detection rates were low and monitoring frequency was high. As detection rates and time between surveys increased, the maximum nest and brood count method performs similar to the BPE. The BPE was compared to four commonly used methods to estimate breeding pairs for empirically derived data sets on the Platte River. Based on our simulated data, we expect our BPE to be closest to the true number of breeding pairs as compared to other methods. The methods tested resulted in substantially different estimates of the numbers of breeding pairs; however, coefficients from trend analyses were not statistically different. When data from multiple nest and brood surveys are available, the BPE appears to result in reasonably precise estimates of numbers of breeding pairs. Regardless of the estimation method, investigators are encouraged to acknowledge whether the method employed is likely to over- or underestimate breeding pairs. This study provides a means

  2. Adélie Penguin Population Diet Monitoring by Analysis of Food DNA in Scats

    PubMed Central

    Jarman, Simon N.; McInnes, Julie C.; Faux, Cassandra; Polanowski, Andrea M.; Marthick, James; Deagle, Bruce E.; Southwell, Colin; Emmerson, Louise

    2013-01-01

    The Adélie penguin is the most important animal currently used for ecosystem monitoring in the Southern Ocean. The diet of this species is generally studied by visual analysis of stomach contents; or ratios of isotopes of carbon and nitrogen incorporated into the penguin from its food. There are significant limitations to the information that can be gained from these methods. We evaluated population diet assessment by analysis of food DNA in scats as an alternative method for ecosystem monitoring with Adélie penguins as an indicator species. Scats were collected at four locations, three phases of the breeding cycle, and in four different years. A novel molecular diet assay and bioinformatics pipeline based on nuclear small subunit ribosomal RNA gene (SSU rDNA) sequencing was used to identify prey DNA in 389 scats. Analysis of the twelve population sample sets identified spatial and temporal dietary change in Adélie penguin population diet. Prey diversity was found to be greater than previously thought. Krill, fish, copepods and amphipods were the most important food groups, in general agreement with other Adélie penguin dietary studies based on hard part or stable isotope analysis. However, our DNA analysis estimated that a substantial portion of the diet was gelatinous groups such as jellyfish and comb jellies. A range of other prey not previously identified in the diet of this species were also discovered. The diverse prey identified by this DNA-based scat analysis confirms that the generalist feeding of Adélie penguins makes them a useful indicator species for prey community composition in the coastal zone of the Southern Ocean. Scat collection is a simple and non-invasive field sampling method that allows DNA-based estimation of prey community differences at many temporal and spatial scales and provides significant advantages over alternative diet analysis approaches. PMID:24358158

  3. Adélie penguin population diet monitoring by analysis of food DNA in scats.

    PubMed

    Jarman, Simon N; McInnes, Julie C; Faux, Cassandra; Polanowski, Andrea M; Marthick, James; Deagle, Bruce E; Southwell, Colin; Emmerson, Louise

    2013-01-01

    The Adélie penguin is the most important animal currently used for ecosystem monitoring in the Southern Ocean. The diet of this species is generally studied by visual analysis of stomach contents; or ratios of isotopes of carbon and nitrogen incorporated into the penguin from its food. There are significant limitations to the information that can be gained from these methods. We evaluated population diet assessment by analysis of food DNA in scats as an alternative method for ecosystem monitoring with Adélie penguins as an indicator species. Scats were collected at four locations, three phases of the breeding cycle, and in four different years. A novel molecular diet assay and bioinformatics pipeline based on nuclear small subunit ribosomal RNA gene (SSU rDNA) sequencing was used to identify prey DNA in 389 scats. Analysis of the twelve population sample sets identified spatial and temporal dietary change in Adélie penguin population diet. Prey diversity was found to be greater than previously thought. Krill, fish, copepods and amphipods were the most important food groups, in general agreement with other Adélie penguin dietary studies based on hard part or stable isotope analysis. However, our DNA analysis estimated that a substantial portion of the diet was gelatinous groups such as jellyfish and comb jellies. A range of other prey not previously identified in the diet of this species were also discovered. The diverse prey identified by this DNA-based scat analysis confirms that the generalist feeding of Adélie penguins makes them a useful indicator species for prey community composition in the coastal zone of the Southern Ocean. Scat collection is a simple and non-invasive field sampling method that allows DNA-based estimation of prey community differences at many temporal and spatial scales and provides significant advantages over alternative diet analysis approaches.

  4. Clusterons as a tool for monitoring populations of tick-borne encephalitis virus.

    PubMed

    Kovalev, Sergey Y; Mukhacheva, Tatyana A

    2014-02-01

    Tick-borne encephalitis (TBE) is a natural focal viral neuroinfection that is widespread in the temperate zone of Eurasia. Knowledge of the genetic structure of tick-borne encephalitis virus (TBEV) populations is important for understanding, not only the origin and evolution of the virus, but also the formation and maintenance of natural foci. A new approach to the differentiation of TBEV strains within subtype, with clusterons as the basis of analysis, has recently been proposed. In the present study, the genetic structure of TBEV-Sib populations has been investigated based on 387 strains isolated in the Middle Urals (Sverdlovsk region). Fourteen of the 18 currently known TBEV-Sib clusterons were identified. They belong to the Asian and Eastern European (Baltic) groups. It was shown that each TBE foci could be characterized by a unique clusteron profile. Three clusterons that emerged within the last 50 years have been identified which implies an active evolutionary process in the TBEV-Sib populations. The greatest diversity of clusterons was observed in the south of the Middle Urals along the Trans-Siberian Way. Such a pattern could reflect the history of colonization of the area and is closely related to the roads passing from Siberia to the European part of Russia through the Urals. In this article, the principles of continuous monitoring in the regional and local TBE foci are proposed, based on the quantitative and qualitative analysis of TBEV-Sib clusteron profiles.

  5. Towards a European Framework to Monitor Infectious Diseases among Migrant Populations: Design and Applicability

    PubMed Central

    Riccardo, Flavia; Dente, Maria Grazia; Kärki, Tommi; Fabiani, Massimo; Napoli, Christian; Chiarenza, Antonio; Giorgi Rossi, Paolo; Velasco Munoz, Cesar; Noori, Teymur; Declich, Silvia

    2015-01-01

    There are limitations in our capacity to interpret point estimates and trends of infectious diseases occurring among diverse migrant populations living in the European Union/European Economic Area (EU/EEA). The aim of this study was to design a data collection framework that could capture information on factors associated with increased risk to infectious diseases in migrant populations in the EU/EEA. The authors defined factors associated with increased risk according to a multi-dimensional framework and performed a systematic literature review in order to identify whether those factors well reflected the reported risk factors for infectious disease in these populations. Following this, the feasibility of applying this framework to relevant available EU/EEA data sources was assessed. The proposed multidimensional framework is well suited to capture the complexity and concurrence of these risk factors and in principle applicable in the EU/EEA. The authors conclude that adopting a multi-dimensional framework to monitor infectious diseases could favor the disaggregated collection and analysis of migrant health data. PMID:26393623

  6. Quantitative breast MRI radiomics for cancer risk assessment and the monitoring of high-risk populations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mendel, Kayla R.; Li, Hui; Giger, Maryellen L.

    2016-03-01

    Breast density is routinely assessed qualitatively in screening mammography. However, it is challenging to quantitatively determine a 3D density from a 2D image such as a mammogram. Furthermore, dynamic contrast enhanced magnetic resonance imaging (DCE-MRI) is used more frequently in the screening of high-risk populations. The purpose of our study is to segment parenchyma and to quantitatively determine volumetric breast density on pre-contrast axial DCE-MRI images (i.e., non-contrast) using a semi-automated quantitative approach. In this study, we retroactively examined 3D DCE-MRI images taken for breast cancer screening of a high-risk population. We analyzed 66 cases with ages between 28 and 76 (mean 48.8, standard deviation 10.8). DCE-MRIs were obtained on a Philips 3.0 T scanner. Our semi-automated DCE-MRI algorithm includes: (a) segmentation of breast tissue from non-breast tissue using fuzzy cmeans clustering (b) separation of dense and fatty tissues using Otsu's method, and (c) calculation of volumetric density as the ratio of dense voxels to total breast voxels. We examined the relationship between pre-contrast DCE-MRI density and clinical BI-RADS density obtained from radiology reports, and obtained a statistically significant correlation [Spearman ρ-value of 0.66 (p < 0.0001)]. Our method within precision medicine may be useful for monitoring high-risk populations.

  7. The risks of learning: confounding detection and demographic trend when using count-based indices for population monitoring

    PubMed Central

    Gervasi, Vincenzo; Brøseth, Henrik; Gimenez, Olivier; Nilsen, Erlend B; Linnell, John D C

    2014-01-01

    Theory recognizes that a treatment of the detection process is required to avoid producing biased estimates of population rate of change. Still, one of three monitoring programmes on animal or plant populations is focused on simply counting individuals or other fixed visible structures, such as natal dens, nests, tree cavities. This type of monitoring design poses concerns about the possibility to respect the assumption of constant detection, as the information acquired in a given year about the spatial distribution of reproductive sites can provide a higher chance to detect the species in subsequent years. We developed an individual-based simulation model, which evaluates how the accumulation of knowledge about the spatial distribution of a population process can affect the accuracy of population growth rate estimates, when using simple count-based indices. Then, we assessed the relative importance of each parameter in affecting monitoring performance. We also present the case of wolverines (Gulo gulo) in southern Scandinavia as an example of a monitoring system with an intrinsic tendency to accumulate knowledge and increase detectability. When the occupation of a nest or den is temporally autocorrelated, the monitoring system is prone to increase its knowledge with time. This happens also when there is no intensification in monitoring effort and no change in the monitoring conditions. Such accumulated knowledge is likely to increase detection probability with time and can produce severe bias in the estimation of the rate and direction of population change over time. We recommend that a systematic sampling of the population process under study and an explicit treatment of the underlying detection process should be implemented whenever economic and logistical constraints permit, as failure to include detection probability in the estimation of population growth rate can lead to serious bias and severe consequences for management and conservation. PMID:25558358

  8. Long-term population monitoring: Lessons learned from an endangered passerine in Hawai‘i

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Johnson, Luanne; Camp, Richard J.; Brinck, Kevin W.; Banko, Paul C.

    2006-01-01

    Obtaining reliable population estimates is crucial to monitoring endangered species and developing recovery strategies. The palila (Loxioides bailleui) is an endangered seed-eating Hawaiian honeycreeper restricted to the subalpine forests of Mauna Kea, a volcano on the island of Hawai‘i, USA. The species is vulnerable to extinction primarily because >90% of the population is concentrated in <30 km2 of habitat on the western slope of this high, dormant volcano. Annual surveys of the palila population have been conducted for ecological, legal, and other purposes since 1980. Because refinements to sampling protocols and analytical methods have evolved, we examined means of adapting the monitoring program to produce comparable estimates of abundance over the past 25-year period and into the future. We conducted variable circular plot surveys during the nonbreeding season (Jan–Mar) and this used data to obtain estimates of effective detection radius and annual density with Distance 4.0, Release 2. For comparability over the time-series, we excluded from analysis the data from new transects. We partitioned the 25-year data set (1980–1996 and 1997–2004) into 2 separate analyses because, beginning in 1997, observers received more training to reduce their tendency to estimate distances to 5-m intervals. We used geographic strata in the analysis of recent surveys because changes in habitat may have invalidated the density-based strata used previously. By adding observer and year and observer and time of day as co-variables, we improved the model fit to the 2 data sets, respectively. Annual estimates were confounded by changes in sampling methodology and analytical procedures over time. However, the addition of new transects, increased training for observers, and use of exact distance estimates instead of rounding also improved model fit. Habitat characteristics and behavior of palila that potentially influenced detection probability, sampling, analysis, and

  9. Monitoring carnivore populations at the landscape scale: occupancy modelling of tigers from sign surveys

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Karanth, Kota Ullas; Gopalaswamy, Arjun M.; Kumar, Narayanarao Samba; Vaidyanathan, Srinivas; Nichols, James D.; MacKenzie, Darryl I.

    2011-01-01

    sampling using spatial replicates can be used to reliably and efficiently identify tiger population sources and help monitor metapopulations. Our results reinforce earlier findings that prey depletion and human disturbance are key drivers of local tiger extinctions and tigers can persist even in human-dominated landscapes through effective protection of source populations. Our approach facilitates efficient targeting of tiger conservation interventions and, more generally, provides a basis for the reliable integration of large carnivore monitoring data between local and landscape scales.

  10. Aedes aegypti (Diptera: Culicidae): monitoring of populations to improve control strategies in Argentina.

    PubMed

    Masuh, Héctor; Seccacini, Emilia; Zerba, Eduardo; Licastro, Susana A

    2008-06-01

    To study the seasonal fluctuations of populations of Aedes aegypti (L.), to improve control strategies, or to monitor chemical control interventions, a lightweight, inexpensive ovitrap made of black plastic, pail-shaped, stackable, and provided with a wood tongue depressor was used. Field assays were performed in the northeast and northwest part of Argentina. In a 1-year trial performed in Tartagal (Salta), almost 100% of the ovitraps were highly positive, collecting a total of 1,000/2,000 eggs during March and the first part of April. A focal treatment in the corresponding neighborhood, performed at this time, immediately began to reduce positive ovitraps in spite of the high temperatures registered, rising again in November after winter season. Another field trial was performed in the whole urban area of Iguazú (Misiones). Mosquito populations were evaluated after three weekly ultra low volume (ULV) applications with an EC formulation of permethrin in water. The number of positive ovitraps diminished from 49% to 10% after the treatments. The last one performed in Wanda (Misiones) showed that positive ovitraps inside the dwellings aided in determining reinfestation rates after an intervention with a smoke-generating formulation containing beta-cypermethrin. The work performed in three different situations in urban areas at high risk of dengue can be considered a preliminary assay to establish the effective performance of simple ovitraps, allowing the Vector Control Service of the Argentinian Ministry of Health its use to improve surveillance and control strategies. PMID:18344071

  11. Monitoring of population dynamics of Corynebacterium glutamicum by multiparameter flow cytometry

    PubMed Central

    Neumeyer, Andrea; Hübschmann, Thomas; Müller, Susann; Frunzke, Julia

    2013-01-01

    Summary Phenotypic variation of microbial populations is a well-known phenomenon and may have significant impact on the success of industrial bioprocesses. Flow cytometry (FC) and the large repertoire of fluorescent dyes bring the high-throughput analysis of multiple parameters in single bacterial cells into reach. In this study, we evaluated a set of different fluorescent dyes for suitability in FC single cell analysis of the biotechnological platform organism Corynebacterium glutamicum. Already simple scattering properties of C. glutamicum cells in the flow cytometer were shown to provide valuable information on the growth activity of analysed cells. Furthermore, we used DAPI staining for a FC-based determination of the DNA content of C. glutamicum cells grown on standard minimal or complex media. Characteristic DNA patterns were observed mirroring the typical uncoupled DNA synthesis in the logarithmic (log) growth phase and are in agreement with a symmetric type of cell division of C. glutamicum. Application of the fluorescent dyes Syto 9, propidium iodide, and DiOC2(3) allowed the identification of subpopulations with reduced viability and membrane potential within early log and stationary phase populations. The presented data highlight the potential of FC-based analyses for online monitoring of C. glutamicum bioprocesses and provide a first reference for future applications and protocols. PMID:23279937

  12. Stock enhancement or sea ranching? Insights from monitoring the genetic diversity, relatedness and effective population size in a seeded great scallop population (Pecten maximus).

    PubMed

    Morvezen, R; Boudry, P; Laroche, J; Charrier, G

    2016-09-01

    The mass release of hatchery-propagated stocks raises numerous questions concerning its efficiency in terms of local recruitment and effect on the genetic diversity of wild populations. A seeding program, consisting of mass release of hatchery-produced juveniles in the local naturally occurring population of great scallops (Pecten maximus L.), was initiated in the early 1980s in the Bay of Brest (France). The present study aims at evaluating whether this seeding program leads to actual population enhancement, with detectable effects on genetic diversity and effective population size, or consists of sea ranching with limited genetic consequences on the wild stock. To address this question, microsatellite-based genetic monitoring of three hatchery-born and naturally recruited populations was conducted over a 5-year period. Results showed a limited reduction in allelic richness but a strong alteration of allelic frequencies in hatchery populations, while genetic diversity appeared very stable over time in the wild populations. A temporal increase in relatedness was observed in both cultured stock and wild populations. Effective population size (Ne) estimates were low and variable in the wild population. Moreover, the application of the Ryman-Laikre model suggested a high contribution of hatchery-born scallops to the reproductive output of the wild population. Overall, the data suggest that the main objective of the seeding program, which is stock enhancement, is fulfilled. Moreover, gene flow from surrounding populations and/or the reproductive input of undetected sub-populations within the bay may buffer the Ryman-Laikre effect and ensure the retention of the local genetic variability.

  13. Urinary creatinine concentrations in the U.S. population: implications for urinary biologic monitoring measurements.

    PubMed

    Barr, Dana B; Wilder, Lynn C; Caudill, Samuel P; Gonzalez, Amanda J; Needham, Lance L; Pirkle, James L

    2005-02-01

    Biologic monitoring (i.e., biomonitoring) is used to assess human exposures to environmental and workplace chemicals. Urinary biomonitoring data typically are adjusted to a constant creatinine concentration to correct for variable dilutions among spot samples. Traditionally, this approach has been used in population groups without much diversity. The inclusion of multiple demographic groups in studies using biomonitoring for exposure assessment has increased the variability in the urinary creatinine levels in these study populations. Our objectives were to document the normal range of urinary creatinine concentrations among various demographic groups, evaluate the impact that variations in creatinine concentrations can have on classifying exposure status of individuals in epidemiologic studies, and recommend an approach using multiple regression to adjust for variations in creatinine in multivariate analyses. We performed a weighted multivariate analysis of urinary creatinine concentrations in 22,245 participants of the Third National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (1988-1994) and established reference ranges (10th-90th percentiles) for each demographic and age category. Significant predictors of urinary creatinine concentration included age group, sex, race/ethnicity, body mass index, and fat-free mass. Time of day that urine samples were collected made a small but statistically significant difference in creatinine concentrations. For an individual, the creatinine-adjusted concentration of an analyte should be compared with a "reference" range derived from persons in a similar demographic group (e.g., children with children, adults with adults). For multiple regression analysis of population groups, we recommend that the analyte concentration (unadjusted for creatinine) should be included in the analysis with urinary creatinine added as a separate independent variable. This approach allows the urinary analyte concentration to be appropriately adjusted for

  14. Multiple estimates of effective population size for monitoring a long-lived vertebrate: An application to Yellowstone grizzly bears

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kamath, Pauline L.; Haroldson, Mark A.; Luikart, Gordon; Paetkau, David; Whitman, Craig L.; van Manen, Frank T.

    2015-01-01

    Effective population size (Ne) is a key parameter for monitoring the genetic health of threatened populations because it reflects a population's evolutionary potential and risk of extinction due to genetic stochasticity. However, its application to wildlife monitoring has been limited because it is difficult to measure in natural populations. The isolated and well-studied population of grizzly bears (Ursus arctos) in the Greater Yellowstone Ecosystem provides a rare opportunity to examine the usefulness of different Ne estimators for monitoring. We genotyped 729 Yellowstone grizzly bears using 20 microsatellites and applied three single-sample estimators to examine contemporary trends in generation interval (GI), effective number of breeders (Nb) and Ne during 1982–2007. We also used multisample methods to estimate variance (NeV) and inbreeding Ne (NeI). Single-sample estimates revealed positive trajectories, with over a fourfold increase in Ne (≈100 to 450) and near doubling of the GI (≈8 to 14) from the 1980s to 2000s. NeV (240–319) and NeI (256) were comparable with the harmonic mean single-sample Ne (213) over the time period. Reanalysing historical data, we found NeV increased from ≈80 in the 1910s–1960s to ≈280 in the contemporary population. The estimated ratio of effective to total census size (Ne/Nc) was stable and high (0.42–0.66) compared to previous brown bear studies. These results support independent demographic evidence for Yellowstone grizzly bear population growth since the 1980s. They further demonstrate how genetic monitoring of Ne can complement demographic-based monitoring of Nc and vital rates, providing a valuable tool for wildlife managers.

  15. Multiple estimates of effective population size for monitoring a long-lived vertebrate: an application to Yellowstone grizzly bears.

    PubMed

    Kamath, Pauline L; Haroldson, Mark A; Luikart, Gordon; Paetkau, David; Whitman, Craig; van Manen, Frank T

    2015-11-01

    Effective population size (N(e)) is a key parameter for monitoring the genetic health of threatened populations because it reflects a population's evolutionary potential and risk of extinction due to genetic stochasticity. However, its application to wildlife monitoring has been limited because it is difficult to measure in natural populations. The isolated and well-studied population of grizzly bears (Ursus arctos) in the Greater Yellowstone Ecosystem provides a rare opportunity to examine the usefulness of different N(e) estimators for monitoring. We genotyped 729 Yellowstone grizzly bears using 20 microsatellites and applied three single-sample estimators to examine contemporary trends in generation interval (GI), effective number of breeders (N(b)) and N(e) during 1982-2007. We also used multisample methods to estimate variance (N(eV)) and inbreeding N(e) (N(eI)). Single-sample estimates revealed positive trajectories, with over a fourfold increase in N(e) (≈100 to 450) and near doubling of the GI (≈8 to 14) from the 1980s to 2000s. N(eV) (240-319) and N(eI) (256) were comparable with the harmonic mean single-sample N(e) (213) over the time period. Reanalysing historical data, we found N(eV) increased from ≈80 in the 1910s-1960s to ≈280 in the contemporary population. The estimated ratio of effective to total census size (N(e) /N(c)) was stable and high (0.42-0.66) compared to previous brown bear studies. These results support independent demographic evidence for Yellowstone grizzly bear population growth since the 1980s. They further demonstrate how genetic monitoring of N(e) can complement demographic-based monitoring of N(c) and vital rates, providing a valuable tool for wildlife managers.

  16. Multiple estimates of effective population size for monitoring a long-lived vertebrate: an application to Yellowstone grizzly bears.

    PubMed

    Kamath, Pauline L; Haroldson, Mark A; Luikart, Gordon; Paetkau, David; Whitman, Craig; van Manen, Frank T

    2015-11-01

    Effective population size (N(e)) is a key parameter for monitoring the genetic health of threatened populations because it reflects a population's evolutionary potential and risk of extinction due to genetic stochasticity. However, its application to wildlife monitoring has been limited because it is difficult to measure in natural populations. The isolated and well-studied population of grizzly bears (Ursus arctos) in the Greater Yellowstone Ecosystem provides a rare opportunity to examine the usefulness of different N(e) estimators for monitoring. We genotyped 729 Yellowstone grizzly bears using 20 microsatellites and applied three single-sample estimators to examine contemporary trends in generation interval (GI), effective number of breeders (N(b)) and N(e) during 1982-2007. We also used multisample methods to estimate variance (N(eV)) and inbreeding N(e) (N(eI)). Single-sample estimates revealed positive trajectories, with over a fourfold increase in N(e) (≈100 to 450) and near doubling of the GI (≈8 to 14) from the 1980s to 2000s. N(eV) (240-319) and N(eI) (256) were comparable with the harmonic mean single-sample N(e) (213) over the time period. Reanalysing historical data, we found N(eV) increased from ≈80 in the 1910s-1960s to ≈280 in the contemporary population. The estimated ratio of effective to total census size (N(e) /N(c)) was stable and high (0.42-0.66) compared to previous brown bear studies. These results support independent demographic evidence for Yellowstone grizzly bear population growth since the 1980s. They further demonstrate how genetic monitoring of N(e) can complement demographic-based monitoring of N(c) and vital rates, providing a valuable tool for wildlife managers. PMID:26510936

  17. Remote monitoring of cardiovascular implantable devices in the pediatric population improves detection of adverse events.

    PubMed

    Malloy, Lindsey E; Gingerich, Jean; Olson, Mark D; Atkins, Dianne L

    2014-02-01

    With the exponential growth of cardiovascular implantable electronic devices (CIEDs) in pediatric patients, a new method of long-term surveillance, remote monitoring (RM), has become the standard of care. The purpose of this study was to determine the usefulness of RM as a monitoring tool in the pediatric population. A retrospective review was performed of 198 patients at the University of Iowa Children's Hospital who had CIEDs. Data transmitted by RM were analyzed. The following data were examined: patient demographics; median interval between transmissions; detection of adverse events requiring corrective measures, including detection of lead failure; detection of arrhythmias and device malfunctions independent of symptoms; time gained in the detection of events using RM versus standard practice; the validity of RM; and the impact of RM on data management. Of 198 patients, 162 submitted 615 RM transmissions. The median time between remote transmissions was 91 days. Of 615 total transmissions, 16 % had true adverse events with 11 % prompting clinical intervention. Of those events requiring clinical response, 61 % of patients reported symptoms. The median interval between last follow-up and occurrence of events detected by RM was 46 days, representing a gain of 134 days for patients followed-up at 6-month intervals and 44 days for patients followed-up at 3 month-intervals. The sensitivity and specificity of RM were found to be 99 and 72 %, respectively. The positive and negative predictive values were found to be 41 and 99 %, respectively. RM allows for early identification of arrhythmias and device malfunctions, thus prompting earlier corrective measures and improving care and safety in pediatric patients.

  18. Monitoring fitness levels and detecting implications for health in a French population: an observational study

    PubMed Central

    Nassif, Hala; Sedeaud, Adrien; Abidh, Elisa; Schipman, Julien; Tafflet, Muriel; Deschamps, Thibault; Maillet, Hervé; Ovigneur, Hervé; Desgorces, François-Denis; Toussaint, Jean-François

    2012-01-01

    Objective To analyse the physical fitness of a large sample of the French population across different ages. Design Observational cross-sectional study. Setting Data were collected from the Athletic Track and Field Federation, which organised events dedicated to measuring physical fitness. The events took place in 22 regions between 2006 and 2010. Participants French volunteer citizens (N=31 349) aged between 4 and 80 years old who participated in events dedicated to measuring physical fitness. Primary and secondary outcome measures We assessed the results of the following fitness tests: 20 m shuttle run, standing broad jump, repeated squat jump, 4×10 m shuttle run, speed, flexibility and push-ups in relation to age and body mass index (BMI) using Spearman's rho, a one-way analysis of variance. A bi-exponential model was used to represent the performance with age. Results Our major results showed higher performances for men and for subjects with normal BMI at all age groups except for the flexibility test. BMI was strongly correlated across all ages with physical fitness p<0.0001. Furthermore, through bi-exponential model, a mean peak performance was identified at 26.32 years of age for men and 22.18 years of age for women. Conclusions Physical fitness assessment using a simple series of tests on the general population offers an important indicator of health status. The possibility of observing the evolution of fitness levels with time provides an important monitoring method from a public health perspective. Further research is needed to reinforce and evaluate the approach. PMID:23024257

  19. Identification of Empoasca onukii (Hemiptera: Cicadellidae) and Monitoring of its Populations in the Tea Plantations of South China.

    PubMed

    Shi, Long-Qing; Zeng, Zhao-Hua; Huang, Huo-Shui; Zhou, Yong-Mei; Vasseur, Liette; You, Min-Sheng

    2015-06-01

    Tea green leafhoppers (Empoasca spp.) are considered one of the major pests in tea plantations in Asia. They are, however, difficult to monitor due to their size and flying and jumping abilities. In this study, we clarified the identification of the leafhopper species encountered in our study plantations and examined the impacts of sampling methods in estimating population abundance and sex ratio. The natural sex ratio of eggs, nymphs, and adults of tea green leafhopper and the differences between male and female were tested. Despite previous reports that Empoasca vitis (Goethe) was the major leafhopper present in our study area, our results showed that only Empoasca onukii Matsuda was found. Variation in population size over time and bias in sex ratio depending on the sampling methods were found in our monitoring experiments. In general, adult males were more attracted to yellow sticky cards than females. We believe that because female leafhoppers should be the target in pest control, yellow sticky cards may not be the most suitable monitoring or effective control of tea green leafhopper. We demonstrate the importance of understanding the implications of sampling techniques for population estimation and sex ratio bias as well as how temporal variation may affect monitoring results. Precise monitoring should take into consideration the different life histories of male and female.

  20. Monitoring population status of sea otters (Enhydra lutris) in Glacier Bay National Park and Preserve, Alaska: options and considerations

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Esslinger, George; Esler, Daniel N.; Howlin, S.; Starcevich, L.A.

    2015-06-25

    After many decades of absence from southeast Alaska, sea otters (Enhydra lutris) are recolonizing parts of their former range, including Glacier Bay, Alaska. Sea otters are well known for structuring nearshore ecosystems and causing community-level changes such as increases in kelp abundance and changes in the size and number of other consumers. Monitoring population status of sea otters in Glacier Bay will help park researchers and managers understand and interpret sea otter-induced ecosystem changes relative to other sources of variation, including potential human-induced impacts such as ocean acidification, vessel disturbance, and oil spills. This report was prepared for the National Park Service (NPS), Southeast Alaska Inventory and Monitoring Network following a request for evaluation of options for monitoring sea otter population status in Glacier Bay National Park and Preserve. To meet this request, we provide a detailed consideration of the primary method of assessment of abundance and distribution, aerial surveys, including analyses of power to detect interannual trends and designs to reduce variation around annual abundance estimates. We also describe two alternate techniques for evaluating sea otter population status—(1) quantifying sea otter diets and energy intake rates, and (2) detecting change in ages at death. In addition, we provide a brief section on directed research to identify studies that would further our understanding of sea otter population dynamics and effects on the Glacier Bay ecosystem, and provide context for interpreting results of monitoring activities.

  1. Efficacy of an infectious hematopoietic necrosis (IHN) virus DNA vaccine in Chinook Oncorhynchus tshawytscha and sockeye O. nerka salmon

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Garver, K.A.; LaPatra, S.E.; Kurath, G.

    2005-01-01

    The level of protective immunity was determined for Chinook Oncorhynchus tshawytscha and sockeye/kokanee salmon (anadromous and landlocked) O. nerka following intramuscular vaccination with a DNA vaccine against the aquatic rhabdovirus, infectious hematopoietic necrosis virus (IHNV). A DNA vaccine containing the glycoprotein gene of IHNV protected Chinook and sockeye/kokanee salmon against waterborne or injection challenge with IHNV, and relative percent survival (RPS) values of 23 to 86% were obtained under a variety of lethal challenge conditions. Although this is significant protection, it is less than RPS values obtained in previous studies with rainbow trout (O. mykiss). In addition to the variability in the severity of the challenge and inherent host susceptibility differences, it appears that use of a cross-genogroup challenge virus strain may lead to reduced efficacy of the DNA vaccine. Neutralizing antibody titers were detected in both Chinook and sockeye that had been vaccinated with 1.0 and 0.1 ??g doses of the DNA vaccine, and vaccinated fish responded to viral challenges with higher antibody titers than mock-vaccinated control fish. ?? Inter-Research 2005.

  2. Transcriptomics of environmental acclimatization and survival in wild adult Pacific sockeye salmon (Oncorhynchus nerka) during spawning migration.

    PubMed

    Evans, Tyler G; Hammill, Edd; Kaukinen, Karia; Schulze, Angela D; Patterson, David A; English, Karl K; Curtis, Janelle M R; Miller, Kristina M

    2011-11-01

    Environmental shifts accompanying salmon spawning migrations from ocean feeding grounds to natal freshwater streams can be severe, with the underlying stress often cited as a cause of increased mortality. Here, a salmonid microarray was used to characterize changes in gene expression occurring between ocean and river habitats in gill and liver tissues of wild migrating sockeye salmon (Oncorhynchus nerka Walbaum) returning to spawn in the Fraser River, British Columbia, Canada. Expression profiles indicate that the transcriptome of migrating salmon is strongly affected by shifting abiotic and biotic conditions encountered along migration routes. Conspicuous shifts in gene expression associated with changing salinity, temperature, pathogen exposure and dissolved oxygen indicate that these environmental variables most strongly impact physiology during spawning migrations. Notably, transcriptional changes related to osmoregulation were largely preparatory and occurred well before salmon encountered freshwater. In the river environment, differential expression of genes linked with elevated temperatures indicated that thermal regimes within the Fraser River are approaching tolerance limits for adult salmon. To empirically correlate gene expression with survival, biopsy sampling of gill tissue and transcriptomic profiling were combined with telemetry. Many genes correlated with environmental variables were differentially expressed between premature mortalities and successful migrants. Parametric survival analyses demonstrated a broad-scale transcriptional regulator, cofactor required for Sp1 transcriptional activation (CRSP), to be significantly predictive of survival. As the environmental characteristics of salmon habitats continue to change, establishing how current environmental conditions influence salmon physiology under natural conditions is critical to conserving this ecologically and economically important fish species.

  3. Identification of Multiple QTL Hotspots in Sockeye Salmon (Oncorhynchus nerka) Using Genotyping-by-Sequencing and a Dense Linkage Map.

    PubMed

    Larson, Wesley A; McKinney, Garrett J; Limborg, Morten T; Everett, Meredith V; Seeb, Lisa W; Seeb, James E

    2016-03-01

    Understanding the genetic architecture of phenotypic traits can provide important information about the mechanisms and genomic regions involved in local adaptation and speciation. Here, we used genotyping-by-sequencing and a combination of previously published and newly generated data to construct sex-specific linkage maps for sockeye salmon (Oncorhynchus nerka). We then used the denser female linkage map to conduct quantitative trait locus (QTL) analysis for 4 phenotypic traits in 3 families. The female linkage map consisted of 6322 loci distributed across 29 linkage groups and was 4082 cM long, and the male map contained 2179 loci found on 28 linkage groups and was 2291 cM long. We found 26 QTL: 6 for thermotolerance, 5 for length, 9 for weight, and 6 for condition factor. QTL were distributed nonrandomly across the genome and were often found in hotspots containing multiple QTL for a variety of phenotypic traits. These hotspots may represent adaptively important regions and are excellent candidates for future research. Comparing our results with studies in other salmonids revealed several regions with overlapping QTL for the same phenotypic trait, indicating these regions may be adaptively important across multiple species. Altogether, our study demonstrates the utility of genomic data for investigating the genetic basis of important phenotypic traits. Additionally, the linkage map created here will enable future research on the genetic basis of phenotypic traits in salmon. PMID:26712859

  4. Testing of male sockeye salmon (Oncorhynchus nerka) and steelhead trout (Salmo gairdneri) for infectious hematopoietic necrosis virus

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Mulcahy, D.; Pascho, R.J.; Batts, W.N.

    1987-01-01

    Infectious hematopoietic necrosis (IHN) virus has been isolated only rarely from whole milt samples of male sockeye salmon (Oncorhynchus nerka). In 3 yr of testing, virus incidences in males ranged from 0 to 13% when milt was sampled but were 60–100% with spleen or kidney. When IHN virus was isolated from sockeye salmon milt at titers less than 3.00 log10 plaque-forming units (pfu)/mL, the level of virus in the kidney or spleen exceeded 7.00 log10 pfu/g. Higher rates of IHN virus isolation from kidney or spleen than from milt were also generally found in steelhead trout (Salmo gairdneri), although the differences were less pronounced than in sockeye salmon. Furthermore, virus was sometimes isolated from steelhead trout milt when the level of virus in kidney or spleen samples was very low, and was recovered from some milt samples when none was isolated from the corresponding spleen sample. When male salmonids are tested for IHN virus, kidney or spleen samples are superior to whole milt, but milt should be included for critical examinations.

  5. Specific PCR for Myxobolus arcticus SSU rDNA in juvenile sockeye salmon Oncorhynchus nerka from British Columbia, Canada.

    PubMed

    Mahony, Amelia; Fraser, Sarah; Groman, David B; Jones, Simon R M

    2015-06-29

    A PCR for the specific detection of the salmon brain parasite Myxobolus arcticus (Pugachev and Khokhlov, 1979) was developed using primers designed to amplify a 1363 base pair fragment of the small subunit rDNA. The assay did not amplify DNA from 5 other Myxobolus species or from 7 other myxozoan species belonging to 5 other genera. For juvenile sockeye salmon Oncorhynchus nerka (Walbaum) collected from Chilko Lake, British Columbia (BC), Canada, in 2011, the prevalence by PCR was 96%, in contrast to 71% by histological examination of brain tissue. In 2010, the histological prevalence was 52.5%. Sequence identity between M. arcticus from Chilko Lake and other sites in BC ranged from 99.7 to 99.8% and was 99.6% for a Japanese sequence. In contrast, an M. arcticus sequence from Norway shared 95.3% identity with the Chilko Lake sequence, suggesting misidentification of the parasite. Chilko Lake sockeye salmon were previously reported free of infection with M. arcticus, and more research is required to understand the processes involved in the local and global dispersion of this parasite. PMID:26119303

  6. Early marine growth in relation to marine-stage survival rates for Alaska sockeye salmon (Oncorhynchus nerka)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Farley, Edward V.; Murphy, J.M.; Adkison, M.D.; Eisner, L.B.; Helle, J.H.; Moss, J.H.; Nielsen, J.

    2007-01-01

    We tested the hypothesis that larger juvenile sockeye salmon (Oncorhynchus nerka) in Bristol Bay, Alaska, have higher marine-stage survival rates than smaller juvenile salmon. We used scales from returning adults (33 years of data) and trawl samples of juveniles (n = 3572) collected along the eastern Bering Sea shelf during August through September 2000-02. The size of juvenile sockeye salmon mirrored indices of their marine-stage survival rate (e.g., smaller fish had lower indices of marine-stage survival rate). However, there was no relationship between the size of sockeye salmon after their first year at sea, as estimated from archived scales, and brood-year survival size was relatively uniform over the time series, possibly indicating size-selective mortality on smaller individuals during their marine residence. Variation in size, relative abundance, and marine-stage survival rate of juvenile sockeye salmon is likely related to ocean conditions affecting their early marine migratory pathways along the eastern Bering Sea shelf.

  7. Sphaerospora elwhaiensis sp.n. (Myxosporea: Sphaerosporidae) from landlocked sockeye salmon Oncorhynchus nerka (Salmoniformes: Salmonidae) in Washington State, USA.

    PubMed

    Jones, Simon; Fiala, Ivan; Prosperi-Porta, Gina; House, Marcia; Mumford, Sonia

    2011-06-01

    A new species of sphaerosporid myxosporean, Sphaerospora elwhaiensis sp. n., is described from kidney of non-anadromous sockeye salmon (kokanee) Oncorhynchus nerka (Walbaum) from Lake Sutherland in the northern Olympic Peninsula, Washington, USA. Infection with the parasite was detected in 45% of 177 kokanee examined over 5 years. While conforming to the morphological criteria by which members of the genus are defined, the parasite is distinguished from congeners in salmonids of western North America by a unique combination of valvular sculpting of the myxospore, the relatively large size of the myxospore and monosporous development within the pseudoplasmodium. In addition, nucleotide sequences of the parasite's small and large subunit ribosomal RNA gene are unique. Phylogenetic analyses of these sequences suggested that the parasite is most closely related to freshwater Myxidium spp. and Zschokkella spp. The molecular data have provided further evidence for a polyphyletic association previously recognized among members of the genus and emphasize the need for a taxonomic revision of Sphaerospora Thélohan, 1892 and related genera. PMID:21776889

  8. Biogeographic implications of cytochrome b sequences and allozymes in sockeye (Oncorhynchus nerka).

    PubMed

    Bickham, J W; Wood, C C; Patton, J C

    1995-01-01

    Nucleotide sequence and restriction site analyses of the cytochrome b gene of mitochondrial DNA revealed three relatively common haplotypes among sockeye salmon (N = 80) from eight populations representing four major drainages from Kamchatka (Russia), Alaska, and British Columbia. Macrogeographic variation in mtDNA was compared to that of three variable allozyme loci assayed for a much larger number of fish (N = 779). Sockeye from the Fraser River drainage of British Columbia were distinct from those from the other three drainages in both analyses. The GT haplotype was found in all four populations, but the GC haplotype was absent from the Fraser River (southern) drainage and present in the three northern drainages. The AC haplotype was common in the Fraser River drainage (frequency = 0.4), rare in the Skeena River drainage of British Columbia (0.1), and absent from the Alaskan and Russian samples. Cluster analysis (UPGMA) of allozyme allele frequencies showed a similar pattern of divergence with the populations from the Fraser River drainage being most divergent and clustering at an identity value of 0.93 with the rest of the populations. Five of the remaining six populations clustered at or above an identity value of 0.99. These data, combined with allozyme data for sockeye and mitochondrial DNA data for chinook salmon and the Steller sea lion, indicate the presence of a phylogeographic break between northern and southern populations ostensibly derived from glacial refugia in Beringia and the Columbia River, respectively. PMID:7751598

  9. USE OF CITIZEN BIRD POPULATION MONITORING DATA FOR ECOLOGICAL RISK ASSESSMENT

    EPA Science Inventory

    Birds are among the most conspicuous and easily monitored indicators of environmental health and change. Although volunteer avian monitoring ('citizen science') programs provide unique opportunities to gather data at fine and broad geographic scales simultaneously, and over long...

  10. Population estimates and monitoring guidelines for endangered Laysan Teal, Anas Laysanensis, at Midway Atoll: Pilot study results 2008-2010.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Reynolds, Michelle H.; Brinck, Kevin W.; Laniawe, Leona

    2011-01-01

    To improve the Laysan Teal population estimates, we recommend changes to the monitoring protocol. Additional years of data are needed to quantify inter-annual seasonal detection probabilities, which may allow the use of standardized direct counts as an unbiased index of population size. Survey protocols should be enhanced through frequent resights, regular survey intervals, and determining reliable standards to detect catastrophic declines and annual changes in adult abundance. In late 2009 to early 2010, 68% of the population was marked with unique color band combinations. This allowed for potentially accurate adult population estimates and survival estimates without the need to mark new birds in 2010, 2011, and possibly 2012. However, efforts should be made to replace worn or illegible bands so birds can be identified in future surveys. It would be valuable to develop more sophisticated population size and survival models using Program MARK, a state-of-the-art software package which uses likelihood models to analyze mark-recapture data. This would allow for more reliable adult population and survival estimates to compare with the ―source‖ Laysan Teal population on Laysan Island. These models will require additional years of resight data (> 1 year) and, in some cases, an intensive annual effort of marking and recapture. Because data indicate standardized all-wetland counts are a poor index of abundance, monitoring efforts could be improved by expanding resight surveys to include all wetlands, discontinuing the all-wetland counts, and reallocating some of the wetland count effort to collect additional opportunistic resights. Approximately two years of additional bimonthly surveys are needed to validate the direct count as an appropriate index of population abundance. Additional years of individual resight data will allow estimates of adult population size, as specified in recovery criteria, and to track species population dynamics at Midway Atoll.

  11. Power to Detect Trends in Missouri River Fish Populations within the Habitat Assessment Monitoring Program

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bryan, Janice L.; Wildhaber, Mark L.; Gladish, Dan W.

    2010-01-01

    As with all large rivers in the United States, the Missouri River has been altered, with approximately one-third of the mainstem length impounded and one-third channelized. These physical alterations to the environment have affected the fish populations, but studies examining the effects of alterations have been localized and for short periods of time, thereby preventing generalization. In response to the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service Biological Opinion, the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers (USACE) initiated monitoring of habitat improvements of the Missouri River in 2005. The goal of the Habitat Assessment Monitoring Program (HAMP) is to provide information on the response of target fish species to the USACE habitat creation on the Lower Missouri River. To determine the statistical power of the HAMP and in cooperation with USACE, a power analysis was conducted using a normal linear mixed model with variance component estimates based on the first complete year of data. At a level of 20/16 (20 bends with 16 subsamples in each bend), at least one species/month/gear model has the power to determine differences between treated and untreated bends. The trammel net in September had the most species models with adequate power at the 20/16 level and overall, the trammel net had the most species/month models with adequate power at the 20/16 level. However, using only one gear or gear/month combination would eliminate other species of interest, such as three chub species (Macrhybopsis meeki, Macrhybopsis aestivalis, and Macrhybopsis gelida), sand shiners (Notropis stramineus), pallid sturgeon (Scaphirhynchus albus), and juvenile sauger (Sander canadensis). Since gear types are selective in their species efficiency, the strength of the HAMP approach is using multiple gears that have statistical power to differentiate habitat treatment differences in different fish species within the Missouri River. As is often the case with sampling rare species like the pallid sturgeon, the

  12. [Population].

    PubMed

    1979-01-01

    Data on the population of Venezuela between 1975 and 1977 are presented in descriptive tables and graphs. Information is included on the employed population according to category, sex, and type of economic activity, and by sex, age, and area on the employment rate and the total, the economically active, and the unemployed population.

  13. Dealing with incomplete and variable detectability in multi-year, multi-site monitoring of ecological populations

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Converse, Sarah J.; Royle, J. Andrew; Gitzen, Robert A.; Millspaugh, Joshua J.; Cooper, Andrew B.; Licht, Daniel S.

    2012-01-01

    An ecological monitoring program should be viewed as a component of a larger framework designed to advance science and/or management, rather than as a stand-alone activity. Monitoring targets (the ecological variables of interest; e.g. abundance or occurrence of a species) should be set based on the needs of that framework (Nichols and Williams 2006; e.g. Chapters 2–4). Once such monitoring targets are set, the subsequent step in monitoring design involves consideration of the field and analytical methods that will be used to measure monitoring targets with adequate accuracy and precision. Long-term monitoring programs will involve replication of measurements over time, and possibly over space; that is, one location or each of multiple locations will be monitored multiple times, producing a collection of site visits (replicates). Clearly this replication is important for addressing spatial and temporal variability in the ecological resources of interest (Chapters 7–10), but it is worth considering how this replication can further be exploited to increase the effectiveness of monitoring. In particular, defensible monitoring of the majority of animal, and to a lesser degree plant, populations and communities will generally require investigators to account for imperfect detection (Chapters 4, 18). Raw indices of population state variables, such as abundance or occupancy (sensu MacKenzie et al. 2002), are rarely defensible when detection probabilities are < 1, because in those cases detection may vary over time and space in unpredictable ways. Myriad authors have discussed the risks inherent in making inference from monitoring data while failing to correct for differences in detection, resulting in indices that have an unknown relationship to the parameters of interest (e.g. Nichols 1992, Anderson 2001, MacKenzie et al. 2002, Williams et al. 2002, Anderson 2003, White 2005, Kéry and Schmidt 2008). While others have argued that indices may be preferable in some

  14. Using haplotypes to monitor the migration of fall armyworm (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) corn-strain populations from Texas and Florida.

    PubMed

    Nagoshi, Rodney N; Meagher, Robert L; Flanders, Kathy; Gore, Jeffrey; Jackson, Ryan; Lopez, Juan; Armstrong, John S; Buntin, G David; Sansone, Chris; Leonard, B Rogers

    2008-06-01

    Fall armyworm, Spodoptera frugiperda (J. E. Smith) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae), infestations in most of North America north of Mexico arise from annual migrations of populations that overwinter in southern Texas and Florida. A comparison of the cytochrome oxidase I haplotype profiles within the fall armyworm corn-strain, the subgroup that preferentially infests corn (Zea mays L.) and sorghum (Sorghum vulgare Pers.), identified significant differences in the proportions of certain haplotypes between the Texas and Florida populations. These proportional differences were preserved as the populations migrated, providing a molecular metric by which the source of a migrant population could be identified. The migratory pattern derived from this method for several southeastern states was shown to be consistent with predictions based on analysis of historical agricultural and fall armyworm infestation data. These results demonstrate the utility of haplotype proportions to monitor fall armyworm migration, and they also introduce a potential method to predict the severity of cotton crop infestations in the short term.

  15. DEVELOPMENT OF A DNA ARCHIVE FOR GENETIC MONITORING OF FISH POPULATIONS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Analysis of intraspecific genetic diversity provides a potentially powerful tool to estimate the impacts of environmental stressors on populations. Genetic responses of populations to novel stressors include dramatic shifts in genotype frequencies at loci under selection (i.e. ad...

  16. Excess post-exercise oxygen consumption in adult sockeye (Oncorhynchus nerka) and coho (O. kisutch) salmon following critical speed swimming.

    PubMed

    Lee, C G; Farrell, A P; Lotto, A; Hinch, S G; Healey, M C

    2003-09-01

    The present study measured the excess post-exercise oxygen cost (EPOC) following tests at critical swimming speed (Ucrit) in three stocks of adult, wild, Pacific salmon (Oncorhynchus sp.) and used EPOC to estimate the time required to return to their routine level of oxygen consumption (recovery time) and the total oxygen cost of swimming to Ucrit. Following exhaustion at Ucrit, recovery time was 42-78 min, depending upon the fish stock. The recovery times are several-fold shorter than previously reported for juvenile, hatchery-raised salmonids. EPOC varied fivefold among the fish stocks, being greatest for Gates Creek sockeye salmon (O. nerka), which was the salmon stock that had the longest in-river migration, experienced the warmest temperature and achieved the highest maximum oxygen consumption compared with the other salmon stocks that were studied. EPOC was related to Ucrit, which in turn was directly influenced by ambient test temperature. The non-aerobic cost of swimming to Ucrit was estimated to add an additional 21.4-50.5% to the oxygen consumption measured at Ucrit. While these non-aerobic contributions to swimming did not affect the minimum cost of transport, they were up to three times higher than the value used previously for an energetic model of salmon migration in the Fraser River, BC, Canada. As such, the underestimate of non-aerobic swimming costs may require a reevaluation of the importance of how in-river barriers like rapids and bypass facilities at dams, and year-to-year changes in river flows and temperatures, affect energy use and hence migration success.

  17. Consequences of high temperatures and premature mortality on the transcriptome and blood physiology of wild adult sockeye salmon (Oncorhynchus nerka)

    PubMed Central

    Jeffries, Ken M; Hinch, Scott G; Sierocinski, Thomas; Clark, Timothy D; Eliason, Erika J; Donaldson, Michael R; Li, Shaorong; Pavlidis, Paul; Miller, Kristi M

    2012-01-01

    Elevated river water temperature in the Fraser River, British Columbia, Canada, has been associated with enhanced mortality of adult sockeye salmon (Oncorhynchus nerka) during their upriver migration to spawning grounds. We undertook a study to assess the effects of elevated water temperatures on the gill transcriptome and blood plasma variables in wild-caught sockeye salmon. Naturally migrating sockeye salmon returning to the Fraser River were collected and held at ecologically relevant temperatures of 14°C and 19°C for seven days, a period representing a significant portion of their upstream migration. After seven days, sockeye salmon held at 19°C stimulated heat shock response genes as well as many genes associated with an immune response when compared with fish held at 14°C. Additionally, fish at 19°C had elevated plasma chloride and lactate, suggestive of a disturbance in osmoregulatory homeostasis and a stress response detectable in the blood plasma. Fish that died prematurely over the course of the holding study were compared with time-matched surviving fish; the former fish were characterized by an upregulation of several transcription factors associated with apoptosis and downregulation of genes involved in immune function and antioxidant activity. Ornithine decarboxylase (ODC1) was the most significantly upregulated gene in dying salmon, which suggests an association with cellular apoptosis. We hypothesize that the observed decrease in plasma ions and increases in plasma cortisol that occur in dying fish may be linked to the increase in ODC1. By highlighting these underlying physiological mechanisms, this study enhances our understanding of the processes involved in premature mortality and temperature stress in Pacific salmon during migration to spawning grounds. PMID:22957178

  18. Excess post-exercise oxygen consumption in adult sockeye (Oncorhynchus nerka) and coho (O. kisutch) salmon following critical speed swimming.

    PubMed

    Lee, C G; Farrell, A P; Lotto, A; Hinch, S G; Healey, M C

    2003-09-01

    The present study measured the excess post-exercise oxygen cost (EPOC) following tests at critical swimming speed (Ucrit) in three stocks of adult, wild, Pacific salmon (Oncorhynchus sp.) and used EPOC to estimate the time required to return to their routine level of oxygen consumption (recovery time) and the total oxygen cost of swimming to Ucrit. Following exhaustion at Ucrit, recovery time was 42-78 min, depending upon the fish stock. The recovery times are several-fold shorter than previously reported for juvenile, hatchery-raised salmonids. EPOC varied fivefold among the fish stocks, being greatest for Gates Creek sockeye salmon (O. nerka), which was the salmon stock that had the longest in-river migration, experienced the warmest temperature and achieved the highest maximum oxygen consumption compared with the other salmon stocks that were studied. EPOC was related to Ucrit, which in turn was directly influenced by ambient test temperature. The non-aerobic cost of swimming to Ucrit was estimated to add an additional 21.4-50.5% to the oxygen consumption measured at Ucrit. While these non-aerobic contributions to swimming did not affect the minimum cost of transport, they were up to three times higher than the value used previously for an energetic model of salmon migration in the Fraser River, BC, Canada. As such, the underestimate of non-aerobic swimming costs may require a reevaluation of the importance of how in-river barriers like rapids and bypass facilities at dams, and year-to-year changes in river flows and temperatures, affect energy use and hence migration success. PMID:12909706

  19. Bayesian Modeling of Prion Disease Dynamics in Mule Deer Using Population Monitoring and Capture-Recapture Data

    PubMed Central

    Geremia, Chris; Miller, Michael W.; Hoeting, Jennifer A.; Antolin, Michael F.; Hobbs, N. Thompson

    2015-01-01

    Epidemics of chronic wasting disease (CWD) of North American Cervidae have potential to harm ecosystems and economies. We studied a migratory population of mule deer (Odocoileus hemionus) affected by CWD for at least three decades using a Bayesian framework to integrate matrix population and disease models with long-term monitoring data and detailed process-level studies. We hypothesized CWD prevalence would be stable or increase between two observation periods during the late 1990s and after 2010, with higher CWD prevalence making deer population decline more likely. The weight of evidence suggested a reduction in the CWD outbreak over time, perhaps in response to intervening harvest-mediated population reductions. Disease effects on deer population growth under current conditions were subtle with a 72% chance that CWD depressed population growth. With CWD, we forecasted a growth rate near one and largely stable deer population. Disease effects appear to be moderated by timing of infection, prolonged disease course, and locally variable infection. Long-term outcomes will depend heavily on whether current conditions hold and high prevalence remains a localized phenomenon. PMID:26509806

  20. Bayesian Modeling of Prion Disease Dynamics in Mule Deer Using Population Monitoring and Capture-Recapture Data.

    PubMed

    Geremia, Chris; Miller, Michael W; Hoeting, Jennifer A; Antolin, Michael F; Hobbs, N Thompson

    2015-01-01

    Epidemics of chronic wasting disease (CWD) of North American Cervidae have potential to harm ecosystems and economies. We studied a migratory population of mule deer (Odocoileus hemionus) affected by CWD for at least three decades using a Bayesian framework to integrate matrix population and disease models with long-term monitoring data and detailed process-level studies. We hypothesized CWD prevalence would be stable or increase between two observation periods during the late 1990s and after 2010, with higher CWD prevalence making deer population decline more likely. The weight of evidence suggested a reduction in the CWD outbreak over time, perhaps in response to intervening harvest-mediated population reductions. Disease effects on deer population growth under current conditions were subtle with a 72% chance that CWD depressed population growth. With CWD, we forecasted a growth rate near one and largely stable deer population. Disease effects appear to be moderated by timing of infection, prolonged disease course, and locally variable infection. Long-term outcomes will depend heavily on whether current conditions hold and high prevalence remains a localized phenomenon. PMID:26509806

  1. Bayesian Modeling of Prion Disease Dynamics in Mule Deer Using Population Monitoring and Capture-Recapture Data.

    PubMed

    Geremia, Chris; Miller, Michael W; Hoeting, Jennifer A; Antolin, Michael F; Hobbs, N Thompson

    2015-01-01

    Epidemics of chronic wasting disease (CWD) of North American Cervidae have potential to harm ecosystems and economies. We studied a migratory population of mule deer (Odocoileus hemionus) affected by CWD for at least three decades using a Bayesian framework to integrate matrix population and disease models with long-term monitoring data and detailed process-level studies. We hypothesized CWD prevalence would be stable or increase between two observation periods during the late 1990s and after 2010, with higher CWD prevalence making deer population decline more likely. The weight of evidence suggested a reduction in the CWD outbreak over time, perhaps in response to intervening harvest-mediated population reductions. Disease effects on deer population growth under current conditions were subtle with a 72% chance that CWD depressed population growth. With CWD, we forecasted a growth rate near one and largely stable deer population. Disease effects appear to be moderated by timing of infection, prolonged disease course, and locally variable infection. Long-term outcomes will depend heavily on whether current conditions hold and high prevalence remains a localized phenomenon.

  2. Strategies for monitoring and managing mass populations of toxic cyanobacteria in recreational waters: a multi-interdisciplinary approach

    PubMed Central

    2009-01-01

    Mass populations of toxin-producing cyanobacteria commonly develop in fresh-, brackish- and marine waters and effective strategies for monitoring and managing cyanobacterial health risks are required to safeguard animal and human health. A multi-interdisciplinary study, including two UK freshwaters with a history of toxic cyanobacterial blooms, was undertaken to explore different approaches for the identification, monitoring and management of potentially-toxic cyanobacteria and their associated risks. The results demonstrate that (i) cyanobacterial bloom occurrence can be predicted at a local- and national-scale using process-based and statistical models; (ii) cyanobacterial concentration and distribution in waterbodies can be monitored using remote sensing, but minimum detection limits need to be evaluated; (iii) cyanotoxins may be transferred to spray-irrigated root crops; and (iv) attitudes and perceptions towards risks influence the public's preferences and willingness-to-pay for cyanobacterial health risk reductions in recreational waters. PMID:20102578

  3. Detailed monitoring of a small but recovering population reveals sublethal effects of disease and unexpected interactions with supplemental feeding.

    PubMed

    Tollington, Simon; Greenwood, Andrew; Jones, Carl G; Hoeck, Paquita; Chowrimootoo, Aurélie; Smith, Donal; Richards, Heather; Tatayah, Vikash; Groombridge, Jim J

    2015-07-01

    Infectious diseases are widely recognized to have substantial impact on wildlife populations. These impacts are sometimes exacerbated in small endangered populations, and therefore, the success of conservation reintroductions to aid the recovery of such species can be seriously threatened by outbreaks of infectious disease. Intensive management strategies associated with conservation reintroductions can further compound these negative effects in such populations. Exploring the sublethal effects of disease outbreaks among natural populations is challenging and requires longitudinal, individual life-history data on patterns of reproductive success and other indicators of individual fitness. Long-term monitoring data concerning detailed reproductive information of the reintroduced Mauritius parakeet (Psittacula echo) population collected before, during and after a disease outbreak was investigated. Deleterious effects of an outbreak of beak and feather disease virus (BFDV) were revealed on hatch success, but these effects were remarkably short-lived and disproportionately associated with breeding pairs which took supplemental food. Individual BFDV infection status was not predicted by any genetic, environmental or conservation management factors and was not associated with any of our measures of immune function, perhaps suggesting immunological impairment. Experimental immunostimulation using the PHA (phytohaemagglutinin assay) challenge technique did, however, provoke a significant cellular immune response. We illustrate the resilience of this bottlenecked and once critically endangered, island-endemic species to an epidemic outbreak of BFDV and highlight the value of systematic monitoring in revealing inconspicuous but nonetheless substantial ecological interactions. Our study demonstrates that the emergence of such an infectious disease in a population ordinarily associated with increased susceptibility does not necessarily lead to deleterious impacts on population

  4. Assessment of the purity of isolated cell populations for lineage-specific chimerism monitoring post haematopoietic stem cell transplantation.

    PubMed

    Hanson, V; Adams, B; Lord, J; Barker, A; Poulton, K; Lee, H

    2013-10-01

    Following haematopoietic stem cell transplantation, monitoring the proportion of donor and recipient haematopoiesis in the patient (chimerism) is an influential tool in directing further treatment choices. Short tandem repeat (STR) analysis is a method of chimerism monitoring using DNA isolated from peripheral blood, bone marrow or specific isolated cell lineages such as CD3+ T cells. For lineage-specific STR analysis on cell populations isolated from peripheral blood, a qualitative estimation of the purity of each isolated population is essential for the correct interpretation of the test data. We describe a rapid, inexpensive method for the determination of purity using a simple flow cytometry method. The method described for assessing the purity of sorted CD3+ cells can be applied to any cell population isolated using the same technology. Data obtained were comparable to results from a commercial polymerase chain reaction (PCR)-based method for the assessment of purity (Non-T Genomic Detection Kit, Accumol, Calgary, AB, Canada) (P = 0.59). Of the 303 samples tested by flow cytometry, 290 (95.7%) exceeded 90% purity, and 215 (70.95%) were over 99% pure. There were some outlying samples, showing diversity between samples and the unpredictability of purity of isolated cell populations. This flow cytometry method can be easily assimilated into routine testing protocols, allowing purity assessment in multiple-sorted cell populations for lineage-specific chimerism monitoring using a single secondary antibody and giving results comparable to a PCR-based method. As purity of isolated cell lineages is affected by time after venepuncture and storage temperature, assessment of each sample is recommended to give a reliable indication of sample quality and confidence in the interpretation of the results.

  5. Evaluating detection and monitoring tools for incipient and relictual non-native ungulate populations

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Judge, Seth W.; Hess, Steve; Faford, Jonathan K.J.; Pacheco, Dexter; Leopold, Christina R.; Cole, Colleen; Deguzman, Veronica

    2016-01-01

    Hawai‘i Volcanoes National Park (HAVO) encompasses 1,308 km2 on Hawai‘i Island. The park harbors endemic plants and animals which are threatened by a variety of invasive species. Introduced ungulates have caused sharp declines of numerous endemic species and have converted ecosystems to novel grazing systems in many cases. Local ranchers and the Territorial Government of Hawai‘i had long conducted regional ungulate control even prior to the establishment of HAVO in 1916. In 1995 the park’s hunting team began a new hunt database that allowed managers to review hunt effort and effectiveness in each management unit. Target species included feral pigs (Sus scrofa), European mouflon sheep (Ovis gmelini musimon), feral goats (Capra hircus) and wild cattle (Bos taurus). Hunters removed 1,204 feral pigs from HAVO over a 19-year period (1996‒2014). A variety of methods were employed, but trapping, snaring and ground hunts with dogs accounted for the most kills. Trapping yielded the most animals per unit effort. Hunters and volunteers removed 6,657 mouflon from HAVO; 6,601 of those were from the 468 km2 Kahuku Unit. Aerial hunts yielded the most animals followed by ground hunt methods. Hunters completed eradications of goats in several management units over an 18- year period (1997‒2014) when they removed the last 239 known individuals in HAVO primarily with aerial hunts. There have also been seven cattle and five feral dogs (Canis familiaris) removed from HAVO. Establishing benchmarks and monitoring the success of on-the-ground ungulate removal efforts can improve the efficiency of protecting and restoring native forest for high-priority watersheds and native wildlife. We tested a variety of methods to detect small populations of ungulates within HAVO and the Hō‘ili Wai study area in the high-priority watershed of Ka‘ū Forest Reserve on Hawai‘i Island. We conducted ground surveys, aerial surveys and continuous camera trap monitoring in both fence

  6. Population.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    International Planned Parenthood Federation, London (England).

    In an effort to help meet the growing interest and concern about the problems created by the rapid growth of population, The International Planned Parenthood Federation has prepared this booklet with the aim of assisting the study of the history and future trends of population growth and its impact on individual and family welfare, national,…

  7. 2005 Annual Synthesis Report, Pallid Sturgeon Population Assessment Program and Associated Fish Community Monitoring for the Missouri River

    SciTech Connect

    Oldenburg, Eric W.; Hanrahan, Timothy P.; Harnish, Ryan A.; Bellgraph, Brian J.; Duncan, Joanne P.; Allwardt, Craig H.

    2008-08-12

    Pallid sturgeon, Scaphirhynchus albus, have declined throughout the Missouri River since dam construction and inception of the Bank Stabilization and Navigation Project in 1912. Their decline likely is due to the loss and degradation of their natural habitat as a result of changes in the river’s structure and function, as well as the pallid sturgeon’s inability to adapt to these changes. The U. S. Army Corps of Engineers has been working with state and federal agencies to develop and conduct a Pallid Sturgeon Monitoring and Assessment Program (Program), with the goal of recovering pallid sturgeon populations. The Program has organized the monitoring and assessment efforts into distinct geographic segments, with state and federal resource management agencies possessing primary responsibility for one or more segment. To date, the results from annual monitoring have been reported for individual Program segments. However, monitoring results have not been summarized or evaluated for larger spatial scales, encompassing more than one Program segment. This report describes a summary conducted by the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) that synthesizes the 2005 sampling year monitoring results from individual segments.

  8. 2006 Annual Synthesis Report, Pallid Sturgeon Population Assessment Program and Associated Fish Community Monitoring for the Missouri River

    SciTech Connect

    Oldenburg, Eric W.; Hanrahan, Timothy P.; Harnish, Ryan A.; Bellgraph, Brian J.; Duncan, Joanne P.; Allwardt, Craig H.

    2008-08-12

    Pallid sturgeon, Scaphirhynchus albus, have declined throughout the Missouri River since dam construction and inception of the Bank Stabilization and Navigation Project in 1912. Their decline likely is due to the loss and degradation of their natural habitat as a result of changes in the river’s structure and function, as well as the pallid sturgeon’s inability to adapt to these changes. The U. S. Army Corps of Engineers has been working with state and federal agencies to develop and conduct a Pallid Sturgeon Monitoring and Assessment Program (Program), with the goal of recovering pallid sturgeon populations. The Program has organized the monitoring and assessment efforts into distinct geographic segments, with state and federal resource management agencies possessing primary responsibility for one or more segment. To date, the results from annual monitoring have been reported for individual Program segments. However, monitoring results have not been summarized or evaluated for larger spatial scales, encompassing more than one Program segment. This report describes a summary conducted by the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) that synthesizes the 2006 sampling year monitoring results from individual segments.

  9. Seasonal components of avian population change: Joint analysis of two large-scale monitoring programs

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Link, W.A.; Sauer, J.R.

    2007-01-01

    We present a combined analysis of data from two large-scale surveys of bird populations. The North American Breeding Bird Survey is conducted each summer; the Christmas Bird Count is conducted in early winter. The temporal staggering of these surveys allows investigation of seasonal components of population change, which we illustrate with an examination of the effects of severe winters on the Carolina Wren (Thryothorus ludovicianus). Our analysis uses a hierarchical log-linear model with controls for survey-specific sampling covariates. Temporal change in population size is modeled seasonally, with covariates for winter severity. Overall, the winter?spring seasons are associated with 82% of the total population variation for Carolina Wrens, and an additional day of snow cover during winter?spring is associated with an incremental decline of 1.1% of the population.

  10. Seasonal components of avian population change: joint analysis of two large-scale monitoring programs.

    PubMed

    Link, William A; Sauer, John R

    2007-01-01

    We present a combined analysis of data from two large-scale surveys of bird populations. The North American Breeding Bird Survey is conducted each summer; the Christmas Bird Count is conducted in early winter. The temporal staggering of these surveys allows investigation of seasonal components of population change, which we illustrate with an examination of the effects of severe winters on the Carolina Wren (Thryothorus ludovicianus). Our analysis uses a hierarchical log-linear model with controls for survey-specific sampling covariates. Temporal change in population size is modeled seasonally, with covariates for winter severity. Overall, the winter-spring seasons are associated with 82% of the total population variation for Carolina Wrens, and an additional day of snow cover during winter-spring is associated with an incremental decline of 1.1% of the population.

  11. Linking noninvasive genetic sampling and traditional monitoring to aid management of a trans-border carnivore population.

    PubMed

    Bischof, Richard; Swenson, Jon E

    2012-01-01

    Noninvasive genetic sampling has been embraced by wildlife managers and ecologists, especially those charged with monitoring rare and elusive species over large areas. Challenges arise when desired population measures are not directly attainable from genetic data and when monitoring targets trans-border populations. Norwegian management authorities count individual brown bears (Ursus arctos) using noninvasive genetic sampling but express management goals in the annual number of bear reproductions (females that produce cubs), a measure that is not directly available from genetic data. We combine noninvasive genetic sampling data with information obtained from a long-term intensive monitoring study in neighboring Sweden to estimate the number of annual reproductions by females detected within Norway. Most female brown bears in Norway occur near the border with neighboring countries (Sweden, Finland, and Russia) and their potential reproduction can therefore only partially be credited to Norway. Our model includes a simulation-based method that corrects census data to account for this. We estimated that 4.3 and 5.7 reproductions can be credited to females detected with noninvasive genetic sampling in Norway in 2008 and 2009, respectively. These numbers fall substantially short of the national target (15 annual reproductions). Ignoring the potential for home ranges to extend beyond Norway's borders leads to an increase in the estimate of the number of reproductions by -30%. Our study shows that combining noninvasive genetic sampling with information obtained from traditional intensive/invasive monitoring can help answer contemporary management questions in the currency desired by managers and policy makers. Furthermore, combining methodologies and thereby accounting for space use increases the accuracy of the information on which decisions are based. It is important that the information derived from multiple approaches is applicable to the same focal population and

  12. Infectious haematopoietic necrosis virus genogroup-specific virulence mechanisms in sockeye salmon, Oncorhynchus nerka (Walbaum), from Redfish Lake, Idaho

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Purcell, M.K.; Garver, K.A.; Conway, C.; Elliott, D.G.; Kurath, G.

    2009-01-01

    Characterization of infectious haematopoietic necrosis virus (IHNV) field isolates from North America has established three main genogroups (U, M and L) that differ in host-specific virulence. In sockeye salmon, Oncorhynchus nerka, the U genogroup is highly virulent, whereas the M genogroup is nearly non-pathogenic. In this study, we sought to characterize the virus-host dynamics that contribute to genogroup-specific virulence in a captive stock of sockeye salmon from Redfish Lake in Idaho. Juvenile sockeye salmon were challenged by immersion and injection with either a representative U or M viral strain and sampled periodically until 14 days post-infection (p.i.). Fish challenged with each strain had positive viral titre by day 3, regardless of challenge route, but the fish exposed to the M genogroup virus had significantly lower virus titres than fish exposed to the U genogroup virus. Gene expression analysis by quantitative reverse transcriptase PCR was used to simultaneously assess viral load and host interferon (IFN) response in the anterior kidney. Viral load was significantly higher in the U-challenged fish relative to M-challenged fish. Both viruses induced expression of the IFN-stimulated genes (ISGs), but expression was usually significantly lower in the M-challenged group, particularly at later time points (7 and 14 days p.i.). However, ISG expression was comparable with 3 days post-immersion challenge despite a significant difference in viral load. Our data indicated that the M genogroup virus entered the host, replicated and spread in the sockeye salmon tissues, but to a lesser extent than the U genogroup. Both virus types induced a host IFN response, but the high virulence strain (U) continued to replicate in the presence of this response, whereas the low virulence strain (M) was cleared below detectable levels. We hypothesize that high virulence is associated with early in vivo replication allowing the virus to achieve a threshold level, which the

  13. Monitoring

    DOEpatents

    Orr, Christopher Henry; Luff, Craig Janson; Dockray, Thomas; Macarthur, Duncan Whittemore

    2004-11-23

    The invention provides apparatus and methods which facilitate movement of an instrument relative to an item or location being monitored and/or the item or location relative to the instrument, whilst successfully excluding extraneous ions from the detection location. Thus, ions generated by emissions from the item or location can successfully be monitored during movement. The technique employs sealing to exclude such ions, for instance, through an electro-field which attracts and discharges the ions prior to their entering the detecting location and/or using a magnetic field configured to repel the ions away from the detecting location.

  14. Assessing power of large river fish monitoring programs to detect population changes: the Missouri River sturgeon example

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wildhaber, M.L.; Holan, S.H.; Bryan, J.L.; Gladish, D.W.; Ellersieck, M.

    2011-01-01

    In 2003, the US Army Corps of Engineers initiated the Pallid Sturgeon Population Assessment Program (PSPAP) to monitor pallid sturgeon and the fish community of the Missouri River. The power analysis of PSPAP presented here was conducted to guide sampling design and effort decisions. The PSPAP sampling design has a nested structure with multiple gear subsamples within a river bend. Power analyses were based on a normal linear mixed model, using a mixed cell means approach, with variance estimates from the original data. It was found that, at current effort levels, at least 20 years for pallid and 10 years for shovelnose sturgeon is needed to detect a 5% annual decline. Modified bootstrap simulations suggest power estimates from the original data are conservative due to excessive zero fish counts. In general, the approach presented is applicable to a wide array of animal monitoring programs.

  15. Monitoring annealing via carbon dioxide laser heating of defect populations in fused silica surfaces using photoluminescence microscopy

    SciTech Connect

    Raman, R N; Matthews, M J; Adams, J J; Demos, S G

    2010-02-01

    Photoluminescence (PL) microscopy and spectroscopy under 266 nm and 355 nm laser excitation are explored as a means of monitoring defect populations in laser-modified sites on the surface of fused silica and their subsequent response to heating to different temperatures via exposure to a CO{sub 2} laser beam. Laser-induced temperature changes were estimated using an analytic solution to the heat flow equation and compared to changes in the PL emission intensity. The results indicate that the defect concentrations decrease significantly with increasing CO{sub 2} laser exposure and are nearly eliminated when the peak surface temperature exceeds the softening point of fused silica ({approx}1900K), suggesting that this method might be suitable for in situ monitoring of repair of defective sites in fused silica optical components.

  16. Mitochondrial DNA variants help monitor the dynamics of Wolbachia invasion into host populations.

    PubMed

    Yeap, H L; Rašić, G; Endersby-Harshman, N M; Lee, S F; Arguni, E; Le Nguyen, H; Hoffmann, A A

    2016-03-01

    Wolbachia is the most widespread endosymbiotic bacterium of insects and other arthropods that can rapidly invade host populations. Deliberate releases of Wolbachia into natural populations of the dengue fever mosquito, Aedes aegypti, are used as a novel biocontrol strategy for dengue suppression. Invasion of Wolbachia through the host population relies on factors such as high fidelity of the endosymbiont transmission and limited immigration of uninfected individuals, but these factors can be difficult to measure. One way of acquiring relevant information is to consider mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) variation alongside Wolbachia in field-caught mosquitoes. Here we used diagnostic mtDNA markers to differentiate infection-associated mtDNA haplotypes from those of the uninfected mosquitoes at release sites. Unique haplotypes associated with Wolbachia were found at locations outside Australia. We also performed mathematical and qualitative analyses including modelling the expected dynamics of the Wolbachia and mtDNA variants during and after a release. Our analyses identified key features in haplotype frequency patterns to infer the presence of imperfect maternal transmission of Wolbachia, presence of immigration and possibly incomplete cytoplasmic incompatibility. We demonstrate that ongoing screening of the mtDNA variants should provide information on maternal leakage and immigration, particularly in releases outside Australia. As we demonstrate in a case study, our models to track the Wolbachia dynamics can be successfully applied to temporal studies in natural populations or Wolbachia release programs, as long as there is co-occurring mtDNA variation that differentiates infected and uninfected populations.

  17. Robust, comparable population metrics through collaborative photo-monitoring of whale sharks Rhincodon typus.

    PubMed

    Holmberg, Jason; Norman, Bradley; Arzoumanian, Zaven

    2008-01-01

    The formulation of conservation policy for species that are rare and migratory requires broad cooperation to ensure that adequate levels of standardized data collection are achieved and that the results of local analyses are comparable. Estimates of apparent survival rate, relative change in abundance, and proportions of newly marked and returning individuals can inform local management decisions while highlighting corresponding changes at other linked research stations. We have applied computer-assisted photo-identification and mark-recapture population modeling to whale sharks Rhincodon typus at Ningaloo Marine Park (NMP), Western Australia, to create a baseline trend for comparison with other regional aggregations of the species. We estimate several ecological parameters of interest, including an average apparent survival rate of 0.55 yr(-1) for sharks newly marked (new) and 0.83 yr(-1) for sharks captured in multiple seasons (philopatric). The average proportion of philopatric sharks is found to be 0.65 of the total population, and we derive an average population growth rate of 1.12 yr(-1) for them. Our analysis uncovered significant heterogeneity in capture and survival probabilities in this study population; our chosen model structures and data analysis account for these influences and demonstrate a good overall fit to the time-series data. The results show good correspondence between capture probability and an available measure of recapture effort, suggesting that unmodeled systematic effects contribute insignificantly to the model fits. We find no evidence of a decline in the whale shark population at NMP, and our results provide metrics of value to their future management. Overall, our study suggests an effective approach to analyzing and modeling mark-recapture data for a rare species using computer-assisted photo-identification and opportunistic data collection from ecotourism to ensure the quality and volume of data required for population analysis.

  18. [Monitoring of nutrition of the population of Chuvashia, in connection with prevalence of ischemic illness of heart].

    PubMed

    Suslikov, V L; Tolmacheva, N V

    2008-01-01

    Data on dynamic monitoring of nutrition of population from 1980 to 2005 regions inhabiting regions with various prevalence are cites: prenosologic shifts in lipid and purin exchanges and indices of a waist/hip, weight of a body at practically healthy inhabitants of rural areas of Chuvashia. As an comparison group 15 families from village Poretskoye are chosen. The village is situated ecological-biogeochemical zone with the ultrahigh parameters of death rate of ischemic illness of heart. As a control group 15 families from the village Koltsovka from Vurnarsky region were taken. This village is situated in a ecological zone with low parameters of death rate on ischemic illness of heart. An authentic difference in the maintenance of magnesium, iron, fluorine, silicon, molybdenum, arsenic, zinc, chrome, manganese and cadmium in daily diets at compared groups of the population is established.

  19. Monitoring sexual behaviour in general populations: a synthesis of lessons of the past decade

    PubMed Central

    Cleland, J; Boerma, J; Carael, M; Weir, S

    2004-01-01

    This supplement contains selected papers from a workshop on the measurement of sexual behaviour in the era of HIV/AIDS held at the London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine in September 2003. The focus was on low and middle income countries, where the majority of HIV infections occur. The motive for holding such a meeting is easy to discern. As the AIDS pandemic continues to spread and as prevention programmes are scaling up, the need to monitor trends in sexual risk behaviours becomes ever more pressing. Behavioural data are an essential complement to biological evidence of changes in HIV prevalence or incidence. Biological evidence, though indispensable, is by itself insufficient for policy and programme guidance. AIDS control programmes need to be based on monitoring of not only trends in infections but also of trends in those behaviours that underlie epidemic curtailment or further spread. PMID:15572634

  20. Estimation of density and population size and recommendations for monitoring trends of Bahama parrots on Great Abaco and Great Inagua

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Rivera-Milan, F. F.; Collazo, J.A.; Stahala, C.; Moore, W.J.; Davis, A.; Herring, G.; Steinkamp, M.; Pagliaro, R.; Thompson, J.L.; Bracey, W.

    2005-01-01

    Once abundant and widely distributed, the Bahama parrot (Amazona leucocephala bahamensis) currently inhabits only the Great Abaco and Great lnagua Islands of the Bahamas. In January 2003 and May 2002-2004, we conducted point-transect surveys (a type of distance sampling) to estimate density and population size and make recommendations for monitoring trends. Density ranged from 0.061 (SE = 0.013) to 0.085 (SE = 0.018) parrots/ha and population size ranged from 1,600 (SE = 354) to 2,386 (SE = 508) parrots when extrapolated to the 26,154 ha and 28,162 ha covered by surveys on Abaco in May 2002 and 2003, respectively. Density was 0.183 (SE = 0.049) and 0.153 (SE = 0.042) parrots/ha and population size was 5,344 (SE = 1,431) and 4,450 (SE = 1,435) parrots when extrapolated to the 29,174 ha covered by surveys on Inagua in May 2003 and 2004, respectively. Because parrot distribution was clumped, we would need to survey 213-882 points on Abaco and 258-1,659 points on Inagua to obtain a CV of 10-20% for estimated density. Cluster size and its variability and clumping increased in wintertime, making surveys imprecise and cost-ineffective. Surveys were reasonably precise and cost-effective in springtime, and we recommend conducting them when parrots are pairing and selecting nesting sites. Survey data should be collected yearly as part of an integrated monitoring strategy to estimate density and other key demographic parameters and improve our understanding of the ecological dynamics of these geographically isolated parrot populations at risk of extinction.

  1. A LABORATORY BIOASSAY FOR MONITORING RESISTANCE IN TARNISHED PLANT BUG POPULATIONS TO NEONICOTINOID INSECTICIDES

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A laboratory bioassay was developed for testing tarnished plant bug populations for resistance development to the neonicotinoid insecticides imidacloprid and thiamethoxam. The bioassay allows for the determination of LC50 values by feeding known doses of the insecticides to adult tarnished plant bu...

  2. Detection and Monitoring of Spatio-temporal Change in the Distribution of Mosquito Vector Populations

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Mosquitoes transmit blood-borne disease agents that cause morbidity and mortality in human and animal populations. Preemption of epidemics/epizootics of mosquito-borne disease is predicated on the timely and effective application of vector control. Such timing is decided on the basis of adult mosq...

  3. Using global information technology to detect, monitor, and control mosquito pest and disease vector populations.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Geographic Information Systems (GIS), image analysis, and remote sensing comprise global information technologies that are used to characterize pest and vector populations of mosquitoes. At this national meeting, scientists from ARS and McNeese State University organized and convened a half-day sym...

  4. History of pronghorn population monitoring, research, and management in Yellowstone National Park

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Keating, Kim A.

    2002-01-01

    over time. Despite these deficiencies, considerable information was reviewed, earlier summaries of population classification and count data were updated, and previously uncited sources of information were identified that challenge important aspects of previous interpretations of the history of pronghorns and pronghorn management in YNP. Information is grouped into 4 major subject areas: distribution and habitat use, demographics and management, genetics, and disease.

  5. Pheromone-based monitoring of Pseudococcus maritimus (Hemiptera: Pseudococcidae) populations in concord grape vineyards.

    PubMed

    Bahder, B W; Naidu, R A; Daane, K M; Millar, J G; Walsh, D B

    2013-02-01

    The grape mealybug, Pseudococcus maritimus (Ehrhorn), is the dominant mealybug in Washington's Concord grape vineyards (Vitis labrusca L.). It is a direct pest of fruit clusters and a vector of grapevine leafroll-associated viruses. Using traps baited with the sex pheromone of Ps. maritimus, we determined the optimal trap density for monitoring Ps. maritimus, with the goal of providing a more rapid monitoring method for Ps. maritimus than visual surveys. Varying densities of pheromone-baited traps (one, four, and eight traps per 12.14 ha) were deployed in Concord vineyards to monitor Ps. maritimus seasonal phenology in 2010 and 2011. In both years, flights of adult males were detected in early May and captures peaked twice per season in mid-June and mid-August, indicating two generations each year. Trap data were analyzed using Taylor's Power Law, Iwao's patchiness regression, and the K parameter of the negative binomial model to determine optimal sample size. The formula using the K parameter provided the lowest required sample size, showing that four to eight traps per 12.14 ha were needed to provide 30% sampling precision efficiency throughout the entire season. Fewer traps were needed during flight peaks when trap capture numbers were great. Only one pheromone-baited trap per 12.14 ha was sufficient to provide Ps. maritimus flight phenology data to make informed management decisions. Species-specific pheromone-baited traps deployed for Planococcus ficus (Signoret), Pseudococcus longispinus (Targioni Tozzetti), and Pseudococcus viburni (Signoret) did not detect any of these species in the vineyards sampled.

  6. Monitoring HIV Prevention Programme Outcomes among Key Populations in Kenya: Findings from a National Survey

    PubMed Central

    Musyoki, Helgar; Anthony, John; Kioko, Japheth; Kaosa, Shem; Ogwang, Bernard E.; Githuka, George; Sirengo, Martin; Birir, Sarah; Blanchard, James F.; Muraguri, Nicholas; Isac, Shajy; Moses, Stephen

    2015-01-01

    In preparation for the implementation of the Kenya AIDS Strategic Framework 2014/15-2018/19, the Kenya National AIDS and STI Control Programme facilitated a national polling booth survey as part of a baseline assessment of HIV-related risk behaviours among FSWs, MSM, and PWID, and their utilization of existing preventive interventions, as well as structural factors that may influence KPs’ vulnerability to HIV. The survey was conducted among “key populations” (female sex workers, men who have sex with men, and people who inject drugs) to understand current HIV risk and prevention behaviours, utilization of existing programmes and services, and experiences of violence. In total, 3,448 female sex workers, 1,308 men who have sex with men, and 690 people who inject drugs were randomly selected to participate in polling booth survey sessions from seven priority sites. Survey responses were aggregated and descriptive statistics derived. In general, reported condom use among all key populations was quite high with paying clients, and lower with regular, non-paying partners. Many participants reported unavailability of condoms or clean injecting equipment within the past month. Exposure to, and utilization of, existing HIV prevention services varied significantly among the groups, and was reported least commonly by female sex workers. Encouragingly, approximately three-quarters of all key population members reported receiving an HIV test in the past three months. All key population groups reported experiencing high levels of physical and sexual violence from partners/clients, and/or arrest and violence by law enforcement officials. Although some of the findings are encouraging, there is room for improvement in HIV prevention programmes and services for key populations across Kenya. PMID:26313642

  7. Monitoring of a Southern Giant Petrel Macronectes giganteus population on the Frazier Islands, Wilkes Land, Antarctica

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Creuwels, J.C.S.; Stark, J.S.; Woehler, Eric J.; Van Franeker, J. A.; Ribic, C.A.

    2005-01-01

    Since 1956, Southern Giant Petrels on the Frazier Islands, East Antarctica, have been counted with different census techniques, sometimes varying within seasons and among islands, which hindered analysis of the data. Protective measures for the islands from 1986 onwards have increased the need for reliable long-term census data, but reduced the ways to collect these data. Published and unpublished data were re-examined, and population trends were reconstructed based on two relatively standardised techniques: the number of active chicks (AC) and the number of apparently occupied nests (AON) around hatching. AC-values from Nelly Island from 1959 to 1998 indicate substantial periodic fluctuations, but no consistent long-term change. Since the late 1970s, AC-values on the other two islands and AON-values suggest that the breeding population may have grown by 35%. This recent growth, however, is within the extent of periodic fluctuations observed in Southern Giant Petrel population that is stable over the long term. ?? Springer-Verlag 2004.

  8. Dynamics of a Tularemia Outbreak in a Closely Monitored Free-Roaming Population of Wild House Mice.

    PubMed

    Dobay, Akos; Pilo, Paola; Lindholm, Anna K; Origgi, Francesco; Bagheri, Homayoun C; König, Barbara

    2015-01-01

    Infectious disease outbreaks can be devastating because of their sudden occurrence, as well as the complexity of monitoring and controlling them. Outbreaks in wildlife are even more challenging to observe and describe, especially when small animals or secretive species are involved. Modeling such infectious disease events is relevant to investigating their dynamics and is critical for decision makers to accomplish outbreak management. Tularemia, caused by the bacterium Francisella tularensis, is a potentially lethal zoonosis. Of the few animal outbreaks that have been reported in the literature, only those affecting zoo animals have been closely monitored. Here, we report the first estimation of the basic reproduction number R0 of an outbreak in wildlife caused by F. tularensis using quantitative modeling based on a susceptible-infected-recovered framework. We applied that model to data collected during an extensive investigation of an outbreak of tularemia caused by F. tularensis subsp. holarctica (also designated as type B) in a closely monitored, free-roaming house mouse (Mus musculus domesticus) population in Switzerland. Based on our model and assumptions, the best estimated basic reproduction number R0 of the current outbreak is 1.33. Our results suggest that tularemia can cause severe outbreaks in small rodents. We also concluded that the outbreak self-exhausted in approximately three months without administrating antibiotics.

  9. Genetic monitoring reveals temporal stability over 30 years in a small, lake-resident brown trout population.

    PubMed

    Charlier, J; Laikre, L; Ryman, N

    2012-10-01

    Knowledge of the degree of temporal stability of population genetic structure and composition is important for understanding microevolutionary processes and addressing issues of human impact of natural populations. We know little about how representative single samples in time are to reflect population genetic constitution, and we explore the temporal genetic variability patterns over a 30-year period of annual sampling of a lake-resident brown trout (Salmo trutta) population, covering 37 consecutive cohorts and five generations. Levels of variation remain largely stable over this period, with no indication of substructuring within the lake. We detect genetic drift, however, and the genetically effective population size (N(e)) was assessed from allele-frequency shifts between consecutive cohorts using an unbiased estimator that accounts for the effect of overlapping generation. The overall mean N(e) is estimated as 74. We find indications that N(e) varies over time, but there is no obvious temporal trend. We also estimated N(e) using a one-sample approach based on linkage disequilibrium (LD) that does not account for the effect of overlapping generations. Combining one-sample estimates for all years gives an N(e) estimate of 76. This similarity between estimates may be coincidental or reflecting a general robustness of the LD approach to violations of the discrete generations assumption. In contrast to the observed genetic stability, body size and catch per effort have increased over the study period. Estimates of annual effective number of breeders (N(b)) correlated with catch per effort, suggesting that genetic monitoring can be used for detecting fluctuations in abundance. PMID:22828900

  10. Monitoring of genetic diversity in the endangered Martina Franca donkey population.

    PubMed

    Rizzi, R; Tullo, E; Cito, A M; Caroli, A; Pieragostini, E

    2011-05-01

    The Martina Franca (MF) donkey, an ancient native breed of Apulia, was mostly famous for mule production. The breed was at serious risk of extinction in the 1980s following the decrease in demand for draft animals because they were increasingly replaced by agricultural machinery. Much has been done in the last few decades to safeguard the existing donkey breeds, but the situation remains critical. Successful implementation of conservation measures includes an evaluation of the present degree of breed endangerment, so the aim of this work was to analyze the demographic and genetic parameters of this breed to suggest effective conservation strategies. With a current breed register counting less than 500 recorded animals, the pedigree data set included 1,658 MF donkeys born between 1929 and 2006. Analyses were carried out on the whole data set as well as on a smaller one consisting of 422 living animals. Demographic and genetic variability parameters were evaluated using the ENDOG (v4.6) software. The pedigree completeness level was evaluated as well as the generation length, which was calculated for each of the 4 gametic pathways. This information was obtained from animal birth date records together with those of their fathers and mothers. The effective number of founders (f(e)), the effective number of ancestors (f(a)), the founder genome (f(g)), individual inbreeding (F), average relatedness (AR), and the rate of inbreeding per generation were analyzed to describe the genetic variability of the population. Because pedigree depth and completeness were appropriate, especially regarding the current population, the parameters defining genetic variability, namely, f(e), f(a), f(g), F, and AR, could be reliably estimated. Analysis of these parameters highlighted the endangerment status of the MF donkey. Our special concern was with the increased percentage of males and females exhibiting increased AR values. Moreover, the effective size of the current population, 48

  11. Alternative models of climatic effects on sockeye salmon (Oncorhynchus nerka) productivity in Bristol Bay, Alaska, and the Fraser River, British Columbia

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Adkison, M.; Peterman, R.; Lapointe, M.; Gillis, D.; Korman, J.

    1996-01-01

    We compare alternative models of sockeye salmon (Oncorhynchus nerka) productivity (returns per spawner) using more than 30 years of catch and escapement data for Bristol Bay, Alaska, and the Fraser River, British Columbia. The models examined include several alternative forms of models that incorporate climatic influences as well as models not based on climate. For most stocks, a stationary stock-recruitment relationship explains very little of the interannual variation in productivity. In Bristol Bay, productivity co-varies among stocks and appears to be strongly related to fluctuations in climate. The best model for Bristol Bay sockeye involved a change in the 1970s in the parameters of the Ricker stock-recruitment curve; the stocks generally became more productive. In contrast, none of the models of Fraser River stocks that we examined explained much of the variability in their productivity.

  12. Usability Study of a Wireless Monitoring System among Alzheimer's Disease Elderly Population

    PubMed Central

    Avvenuti, Marco

    2014-01-01

    Healthcare technologies are slowly entering into our daily lives, replacing old devices and techniques with newer intelligent ones. Although they are meant to help people, the reaction and willingness to use such new devices by the people can be unexpected, especially among the elderly. We conducted a usability study of a fall monitoring system in a long-term nursing home. The subjects were the elderly with advanced Alzheimer's disease. The study presented here highlights some of the challenges faced in the use of wearable devices and the lessons learned. The results gave us useful insights, leading to ergonomics and aesthetics modifications to our wearable systems that significantly improved their usability and acceptance. New evaluating metrics were designed for the performance evaluation of usability and acceptability. PMID:24963289

  13. Use of a Plasmid DNA Probe To Monitor Populations of Bacillus pumilus Inoculant Strains in Hay

    PubMed Central

    Hendrick, Carol A.; Smiley, Brenda K.; Shelley, Terrence H.; Tomes, Nancy J.

    1991-01-01

    We are evaluating naturally occurring isolates of Bacillus pumilus for use as microbial hay preservatives. Seven isolates of B. pumilus from hay contained a 42-kb cryptic plasmid (pMGD296). We wished to determine whether pMGD296 could be used as a molecular marker to follow populations of these isolates in hay over time. Southern blots and colony blots of 69 isolates of B. pumilus and other Bacillus spp. were probed with 32P-labeled pMGD296. Twenty-nine probe-positive isolates were identified; of these, 28 contained a plasmid with a restriction profile identical to that of pMGD296. One isolate from untreated hay contained a 40-kb plasmid (pMGD150) that was homologous to pMGD296 but had a different restriction fragment pattern. Regions of homology between the two plasmids were identified by Southern blotting, and a 1.9-kb HindIII-PstI fragment of pMGD296 lacking strong homology to pMGD150 was cloned in pUC18. The cloned fragment hybridized only with isolates containing pMGD296 and was used to estimate populations of these isolates in treated and untreated hay. Images PMID:16348435

  14. Use of a plasmid DNA probe to monitor populations of Bacillus pumilus inoculant strains in hay

    SciTech Connect

    Hendrick, C.A.; Smiley, B.K.; Shelley, T.H.; Tomes, N.J. )

    1991-03-01

    The authors are evaluating naturally occurring isolates of Bacillus pumilus for use as microbial hay preservatives. Seven isolates of B, pumilus from hay contained a 42-kb cryptic plasmid (pMGD296). They wished to determine whether pMGD296 could be used as a molecular marker to follow populations of these isolates in hay over time. Southern blots and colony blots of 69 isolates of B. pumilus and other Bacillus spp. were probed with {sup 32}P-labeled pMGD296. Twenty-nine probe-positive isolates were identified; of these, 28 contained a plasmid with a restriction profile identical to that of pMGD296. One isolate from untreated hay contained a 40-kb plasmid (pMGD150) that was homologous to pMGD296 but had a different restriction fragment pattern. Regions of homology between the two plasmids were identified by Southern blotting, and a 1.9-kb HindIII-PstI fragment of pMGD296 lacking strong homology to pMGD150 was cloned in pUC18. The cloned fragment hybridized only with isolates containing pMGD296 and was used to estimate populations of these isolates in treated and untreated hay.

  15. An epidemiological approach to ambulatory blood pressure monitoring:the Belgian Population Study.

    PubMed

    Staessen; Bieniaszewski; O'Brien; Imai; Fagard

    1996-02-01

    BACKGROUND: In order to determine reference values for ambulatory blood pressure, a random population sample of 1057 persons, 20-88 years old, was investigated in a geographically defined area of Belgium. This article is the final report on the cross-sectional phase of this population survey. METHODS:Twenty-four-hour ambulatory pressure was recorded at 20 min intervals from 0800 to 2200 h and at 45 min intervals from 2200 to 0800 h. Conventional blood pressure was measured by trained nurses at the participants' homes and also in a subgroup of 532 persons at a locally organized clinic. A conventional blood pressure exceeding 140 mmHg systolic or 90 mmHg diastolic and the taking of antihypertensive drugs were the criteria used to distinguish between normotensive and hypertensive persons. RESULTS: In the 1057 patients, of whom 328 were hypertensive, 24 h, daytime (2200 to 0800 h) and night-time (0000 to 0600 h) pressures averaged 119/71, 125/77 and 108/62 mmHg, respectively. Compared with daytime values, blood pressures at home were 3.5/1.5 mmHg lower in 729 normotensive people but 11.6/4.5 mmHg higher in 328 hypertensive patients. In the normotensive subgroup the 95th percentiles of the 24 h, daytime and night-time pressures were 129/80, 137/88 and 121/72 mmHg, respectively. These boundaries were not materially altered when we considered only the 275 participants who had been normotensive both at home and at the clinic (127/79, 135/87 and 118/72 mmHg, respectively). When, in addition to the Belgian data, other reports on large cohorts were also analysed, the transition from normotension to hypertension on ambulatory measurement was likely to be within the ranges of 130-135/80-85, 135-140/85-90 and 120-125/70-75 mmHg for 24 h, daytime and night-time pressures, respectively. CONCLUSION: In comparison with other population surveys and with the earlier interim reports on the Belgian study, the present analysis produced remarkably consistent results with respect to the

  16. Use of large-scale, multi-species surveys to monitor gyrfalcon and ptarmigan populations

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bart, Jonathan; Fuller, Mark; Smith, Paul; Dunn, Leah; Watson, Richard T.; Cade, Tom J.; Fuller, Mark; Hunt, Grainger; Potapov, Eugene

    2011-01-01

    We evaluated the ability of three large-scale, multi-species surveys in the Arctic to provide information on abundance and habitat relationships of Gyrfalcons (Falco rusticolus) and ptarmigan. The Program for Regional and International Shorebird Monitoring (PRISM) has surveyed birds widely across the arctic regions of Canada and Alaska since 2001. The Arctic Coastal Plain survey has collected abundance information on the North Slope of Alaska using fixed-wing aircraft since 1992. The Northwest Territories-Nunavut Bird Checklist has collected presenceabsence information from little-known locations in northern Canada since 1995. All three surveys provide extensive information on Willow Ptarmigan (Lagopus lagopus) and Rock Ptarmigan (L. muta). For example, they show that ptarmigan are most abundant in western Alaska, next most abundant in northern Alaska and northwest Canada, and least abundant in the Canadian Archipelago. PRISM surveys were less successful in detecting Gyrfalcons, and the Arctic Coastal Plain Survey is largely outside the Gyrfalcon?s breeding range. The Checklist Survey, however, reflects the expansive Gyrfalcon range in Canada. We suggest that collaboration by Gyrfalcon and ptarmigan biologists with the organizers of large scale surveys like the ones we investigated provides an opportunity for obtaining useful information on these species and their environment across large areas.

  17. Monitoring the introduction of pneumococcal conjugate vaccines into West Africa: design and implementation of a population-based surveillance system.

    PubMed

    Mackenzie, Grant A; Plumb, Ian D; Sambou, Sana; Saha, Debasish; Uchendu, Uchendu; Akinsola, Bolanle; Ikumapayi, Usman N; Baldeh, Ignatius; Usuf, Effua; Touray, Kebba; Jasseh, Momodou; Howie, Stephen R C; Wattiaux, Andre; Lee, Ellen; Knoll, Maria Deloria; Levine, Orin S; Greenwood, Brian M; Adegbola, Richard A; Hill, Philip C

    2012-01-01

    Routine use of pneumococcal conjugate vaccines (PCVs) in developing countries is expected to lead to a significant reduction in childhood deaths. However, PCVs have been associated with replacement disease with non-vaccine serotypes. We established a population-based surveillance system to document the direct and indirect impact of PCVs on the incidence of invasive pneumococcal disease (IPD) and radiological pneumonia in those aged 2 months and older in The Gambia, and to monitor changes in serotype-specific IPD. Here we describe how this surveillance system was set up and is being operated as a partnership between the Medical Research Council Unit and the Gambian Government. This surveillance system is expected to provide crucial information for immunisation policy and serves as a potential model for those introducing routine PCV vaccination in diverse settings.

  18. Microbiology of subtidal sediments: Monitoring microbial populations. Restoration project 93047-2. Exxon Valdez oil spill restoration project final report

    SciTech Connect

    Braddock, J.F.; Richter, Z.

    1994-06-01

    Following the Exxon Valdez oil spill in 1989, the authors measured numbers of hydrocarbon-degrading microorganisms and hydrocarbon mineralization potentials of microorganisms in oiled and unoiled surface sediments from the shore through 100 m depth offshore. The authors found both temporal and spatial variations in numbers and activity of hydrocarbon-degrading microorganisms with statistically significant higher values at the oiled sites than at reference sites. In the summer of 1993, the authors returned to ten study sites within Prince William Sound to monitor the changes in the numbers and activities of hydrocarbon-degrading microorganisms at these sites with time. In 1993 the numbers and activities of hydrocarbon-degrading microorganisms were generally very low at all sites although elevated populations and activities were measured in intertidal sub-surface samples at several sites (Northwest Bay, Herring Bay and Sleepy Bay) with observable sub-surface oiling.

  19. Variability in colony attendance of crevice-nesting horned puffins: Implications for population monitoring

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Harding, A.M.A.; Piatt, J.F.; Byrd, G.V.; Hatch, Shyla A.; Konyukhov, N.B.; Golubova, E.U.; Williams, J.C.

    2005-01-01

    It is difficult to survey crevice-nesting seabirds because nest-sites are hard to identify and count, and the number of adult birds attending a colony can be extremely variable within and between days. There is no standardized method for surveying crevice-nesting horned puffins (Fratercula corniculata), and consequently little is known about abundance or changes in their numbers. We examined the variability in colony attendance of horned puffins at 5 breeding colonies in the North Pacific to assess whether variation in count data can be reduced to a level that would allow us to detect changes in the number of birds attending a colony. We used within-year measures of variation in attendance to examine the power to detect a change in numbers between 2 years, and we used measures of among-year variation to examine the power to detect trends over multiple years. Diurnal patterns of attendance differed among colonies, and among-day variation in attendance was generally lowest from mid- to late-incubation to early chick rearing. Within-year variation in water counts was lower than in land counts, and variation was lower using a daily index based on 5 counts per day than it was using 1 count per day. Measures of among-year variation in attendance also were higher for land-based than water-based counts, and they were higher when we used a 10-day survey period than when we used a 30-day period. The use of either 1 or 5 counts a day during the colony-specific diurnal peak of attendance had little influence on levels of among-year variation. Overall, our study suggests that variation in count data may be reduced to a level that allows detection of trends in numbers. However, more studies of interannual variability in horned puffin attendance are needed. Further, the relationship between count data and breeding population size needs more study before the number of birds present at the colony can be used with confidence as an index of population trend.

  20. Monitoring planktivorous seabird populations: Validating surface counts of crevice-nesting auklets using mark-resight techniques

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Sheffield, L.M.; Gall, A.E.; Roby, D.D.; Irons, D.B.; Dugger, K.M.

    2006-01-01

    Least Auklets (Aethia pusilla (Pallas, 1811)) are the most abundant species of seabird in the Bering Sea and offer a relatively efficient means of monitoring secondary productivity in the marine environment. Counting auklets on surface plots is the primary method used to track changes in numbers of these crevice-nesters, but counts can be highly variable and may not be representative of the number of nesting individuals. We compared average maximum counts of Least Auklets on surface plots with density estimates based on mark-resight data at a colony on St. Lawrence Island, Alaska, during 2001-2004. Estimates of breeding auklet abundance from mark-resight averaged 8 times greater than those from maximum surface counts. Our results also indicate that average maximum surface counts are poor indicators of breeding auklet abundance and do not vary consistently with auklet nesting density across the breeding colony. Estimates of Least Auklet abundance from mark-resight were sufficiently precise to meet management goals for tracking changes in seabird populations. We recommend establishing multiple permanent banding plots for mark-resight studies on colonies selected for intensive long-term monitoring. Mark-resight is more likely to detect biologically significant changes in size of auklet breeding colonies than traditional surface count techniques. ?? 2006 NRC.

  1. Radium isotopes in Estonian groundwater: measurements, analytical correlations, population dose and a proposal for a monitoring strategy.

    PubMed

    Forte, M; Bagnato, L; Caldognetto, E; Risica, S; Trotti, F; Rusconi, R

    2010-12-01

    In some areas of Estonia, groundwater contains a significant number of natural radionuclides, especially radium isotopes, which may cause radiation protection concern depending on the geological structure of the aquifer. Indeed, the parametric value of 0.1 mSv y⁻¹ for the total indicative dose established by European Directive 98/83/EC, adopted as a limit value in Estonian national legislation, is often exceeded. A Twinning Project between Estonia and Italy was carried out within the framework of the Estonian Transition Facility Programme, sponsored by the European Union. Its aims were to assess the radiological situation of Estonian groundwater and related health consequences. The first step was a study of Estonian aqueducts and the population served by them, and a thorough analysis of the radiological database for drinking water, from which the relevant effective doses for the population were obtained. Particular attention was devoted to doses to children and infants. Correlations between the chemical parameters were investigated, in order to suggest the best possible analytical approach. Lastly, a monitoring strategy, i.e. sampling points and sampling frequencies, was proposed.

  2. System development over the monitoring for the purpose of early warning of population from the threat of landslides. (Invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zakhidova, D. V.; Kadyrhodjaev, A.; Scientific Team Of Hydroengeo Institute On Natural Hazards

    2010-12-01

    Well-timed warning of the population about possible landslide threat is one of the main positions in order to provide safe and stable country development. The system of monitoring over dangerous geological processes includes such components, as observation, forecast, control and management. Aspects of forecasting take special place. Having wide row of observations there can be possible to reveal some regularity of the phenomena, basing on which, it is possible to proceed forecasting. We looked through many approaches of forecasting that are used in different countries. The analysis of the available work has allowed to draw up a conclusion that while referring to the question of landslide forecasting, it is necessary to approach in system form, taking into account interacting components of the nature. The study of landslide processes has shown that these processes lies within the framework of engineering-geological directions of the science and also interacts with tectonics, geomorphology, hydrogeology, hydrology, climate change, technogenesis and etc. Thereby, the necessity of system approach, achievements of modern science and technology the most expedient approach to make a decision at landslide forecasting is probabilistic-statistical method with complex use of geological and satellite data, specific images processed through geoinformation systems. In this connection, probabilistic-statistical approach, reflecting natural characteristics of interacting natural system, allows to take into account multi-factored processes of landslide activations. Among the many factors, influencing on landslide activation, there exist ones that are not amenable to numerical feature. The parameters of these factors have descriptive, qualitative, rather than quantitative nature. Leaving these factors with lack of attention is absolutely not reasonable. Proposed approach has one more advantage, which allows taking into account not only numerical, but also non-numeric parameters

  3. Rivaroxaban and other novel oral anticoagulants: pharmacokinetics in healthy subjects, specific patient populations and relevance of coagulation monitoring

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Unlike traditional anticoagulants, the more recently developed agents rivaroxaban, dabigatran and apixaban target specific factors in the coagulation cascade to attenuate thrombosis. Rivaroxaban and apixaban directly inhibit Factor Xa, whereas dabigatran directly inhibits thrombin. All three drugs exhibit predictable pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic characteristics that allow for fixed oral doses in a variety of settings. The population pharmacokinetics of rivaroxaban, and also dabigatran, have been evaluated in a series of models using patient data from phase II and III clinical studies. These models point towards a consistent pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic profile, even when extreme demographic factors are taken into account, meaning that doses rarely need to be adjusted. The exception is in certain patients with renal impairment, for whom pharmacokinetic modelling provided the rationale for reduced doses as part of some regimens. Although not routinely required, the ability to measure plasma concentrations of these agents could be advantageous in emergency situations, such as overdose. Specific pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic characteristics must be taken into account when selecting an appropriate assay for monitoring. The anti-Factor Xa chromogenic assays now available are likely to provide the most appropriate means of determining plasma concentrations of rivaroxaban and apixaban, and specific assays for dabigatran are in development. PMID:23809871

  4. Arsenic exposure of rural populations from the Rift Valley of Ethiopia as monitored by keratin in toenails.

    PubMed

    Merola, R Brittany; Kravchenko, Julia; Rango, Tewodros; Vengosh, Avner

    2014-01-01

    Arsenic (As) contamination of drinking water is a worldwide phenomenon whose effect among vulnerable and rural communities in the Rift Valley of Ethiopia in eastern Africa is not well studied. This study examines As exposure and bioaccumulation from drinking water by monitoring human keratin in the form of toenails from exposed populations. Groundwater samples from drinking water wells (n=34) were collected along with toenail samples (n=58) from local communities and were analyzed for trace metals including As by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS). Of the total number of wells tested, 53% had As level above the WHO maximum contamination level of 10 p.p.b. Arsenic in toenails was significantly correlated to corresponding drinking water (r=0.72; R(2)=0.52; P<0.001). This correlation improves for drinking water with As concentrations above 2 p.p.b. (r=0.74; R(2)=0.54; P<0.001). Male minors (<18 years old) were found to have greater nail-As concentrations compared with adults consuming equal amounts of As (P<0.05). Estimated As dose specifically from drinking water sources was also associated with nail concentrations (P<0.01). We suggest that As measurement in nails could be a reliable method for detecting As exposure in residents living in rural areas.

  5. Monitoring metals in the population living in the vicinity of a hazardous waste incinerator: concentrations in autopsy tissues.

    PubMed

    Bocio, Ana; Nadal, Martí; Garcia, Francisco; Domingo, Jose L

    2005-07-01

    This study is a part of a monitoring program for the determination of metals in various human tissues of the population living in the vicinity of a new hazardous waste incinerator (HWI) in Constantí (Tarragona County, Spain). Concentrations of arsenic (As), beryllium (Be), cadmium (Cd), chromium (Cr), mercury (Hg), manganese (Mn), nickel (Ni), lead (Pb), tin (Sn), thallium (Tl), and vanadium (V) were determined in brain, bone, kidney, liver, and lung autopsy samples collected in 2003 from 22 individuals who had been living for at least 10 yr in the area under evaluation. Results were compared with the metal levels obtained in a baseline study, which was performed during the construction of the HWI (1996--1998). In the present survey, As, Be, Tl, and V levels were not detected in any of the analyzed tissues, while Cr concentrations were very close to the limit of detection. The highest levels of Cd and Hg were found in kidney (17.46 microg/g and 0.23 microg/g, respectively), those of Mn in liver (1.07 microg/g), and those of Ni, Pb, and Sn in bone (1.16 microg/g, 2.11 microg/g, and 0.34 microg/g, respectively). In comparison to the results of the baseline study, a general reduction of most metal concentrations was observed in the current survey.

  6. Comprehensive Challenges for the Well Being of Young Children: A Population-Based Study of Publicly Monitored Risks in a Large Urban Center

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rouse, Heather L.; Fantuzzo, John W.; LeBoeuf, Whitney

    2011-01-01

    This population-based study investigated the unique and cumulative relations between risks that are monitored by public surveillance systems and academic and behavioral outcomes for an entire cohort of third graders in a large, urban public school system. Using integrated, administrative records from child welfare, public health, housing, and…

  7. Linking physical monitoring to coho and Chinook salmon populations in the Redwood Creek Watershed, California—Summary of May 3–4, 2012 Workshop

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Madej, Mary Ann; Torregrosa, Alicia; Woodward, Andrea

    2012-01-01

    On Thursday, May 3, 2012, a science workshop was held at the Redwood National and State Parks (RNSP) office in Arcata, California, with researchers and resource managers working in RNSP to share data and expert opinions concerning salmon populations and habitat in the Redwood Creek watershed. The focus of the workshop was to discuss how best to synthesize physical and biological data related to the freshwater and estuarine phases of salmon life cycles in order to increase the understanding of constraints on salmon populations. The workshop was hosted by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) Status and Trends (S&T) Program National Park Monitoring Project (http://www.fort.usgs.gov/brdscience/ParkMonitoring.htm), which supports USGS research on priority topics (themes) identified by the National Park Service (NPS) Inventory and Monitoring Program (I&M) and S&T. The NPS has organized more than 270 parks with significant natural resources into 32 Inventory and Monitoring (I&M) Networks (http://science.nature.nps.gov/im/networks.cfm) that share funding and core professional staff to monitor the status and long-term trends of selected natural resources (http://science.nature.nps.gov/im/monitor). All 32 networks have completed vital signs monitoring plans (available at http://science.nature.nps.gov/im/monitor/MonitoringPlans.cfm), containing background information on the important resources of each park, conceptual models behind the selection of vital signs for monitoring the condition of natural resources, and the selection of high priority vital signs for monitoring. Vital signs are particular physical, chemical, and biological elements and processes of park ecosystems that represent the overall health or condition of the park, known or hypothesized effects of stressors, or elements that have important human values (Fancy and others, 2009). Beginning in 2009, the I&M program funded projects to analyze and synthesize the biotic and abiotic data generated by vital signs

  8. Deposition Form and Bioaccessibility of Keto-carotenoids from Mamey Sapote (Pouteria sapota), Red Bell Pepper (Capsicum annuum), and Sockeye Salmon (Oncorhynchus nerka) Filet.

    PubMed

    Chacón-Ordóñez, Tania; Esquivel, Patricia; Jiménez, Víctor M; Carle, Reinhold; Schweiggert, Ralf M

    2016-03-01

    The ultrastructure and carotenoid-bearing structures of mamey sapote (Pouteria sapota) chromoplasts were elucidated using light and transmission electron microscopy and compared to carotenoid deposition forms in red bell pepper (Capsicum annuum) and sockeye salmon (Oncorhynchus nerka). Globular-tubular chromoplasts of sapote contained numerous lipid globules and tubules embodying unique provitamin A keto-carotenoids in a lipid-dissolved and presumably liquid-crystalline form, respectively. Bioaccessibility of sapotexanthin and cryptocapsin was compared to that of structurally related keto-carotenoids from red bell pepper and salmon. Capsanthin from bell pepper was the most bioaccessible pigment, followed by sapotexanthin and cryptocapsin esters from mamey sapote. In contrast, astaxanthin from salmon was the least bioaccessible keto-carotenoid. Thermal treatment and fat addition consistently enhanced bioaccessibility, except for astaxanthin from naturally lipid-rich salmon, which remained unaffected. Although the provitamin A keto-carotenoids from sapote were highly bioaccessible, their qualitative and quantitative in vivo bioavailability and their conversion to vitamin A remains to be confirmed.

  9. Deposition Form and Bioaccessibility of Keto-carotenoids from Mamey Sapote (Pouteria sapota), Red Bell Pepper (Capsicum annuum), and Sockeye Salmon (Oncorhynchus nerka) Filet.

    PubMed

    Chacón-Ordóñez, Tania; Esquivel, Patricia; Jiménez, Víctor M; Carle, Reinhold; Schweiggert, Ralf M

    2016-03-01

    The ultrastructure and carotenoid-bearing structures of mamey sapote (Pouteria sapota) chromoplasts were elucidated using light and transmission electron microscopy and compared to carotenoid deposition forms in red bell pepper (Capsicum annuum) and sockeye salmon (Oncorhynchus nerka). Globular-tubular chromoplasts of sapote contained numerous lipid globules and tubules embodying unique provitamin A keto-carotenoids in a lipid-dissolved and presumably liquid-crystalline form, respectively. Bioaccessibility of sapotexanthin and cryptocapsin was compared to that of structurally related keto-carotenoids from red bell pepper and salmon. Capsanthin from bell pepper was the most bioaccessible pigment, followed by sapotexanthin and cryptocapsin esters from mamey sapote. In contrast, astaxanthin from salmon was the least bioaccessible keto-carotenoid. Thermal treatment and fat addition consistently enhanced bioaccessibility, except for astaxanthin from naturally lipid-rich salmon, which remained unaffected. Although the provitamin A keto-carotenoids from sapote were highly bioaccessible, their qualitative and quantitative in vivo bioavailability and their conversion to vitamin A remains to be confirmed. PMID:26888016

  10. Sequential tests for infectious hematopoietic necrosis virus in individuals and populations of sockeye salmon

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Mulcahy, D.; Pascho, R.J.

    1986-01-01

    The incidence and titer distribution of infectious hematopoietic necrosis virus in cavity fluid from spent female sockeye salmon (Oncorhynchus nerka) varied little when fish from a naturally spawning population were sampled three times on alternate days. However, when prespawning female sockeye salmon from a second population were individually tagged, penned, and sampled daily, the incidence and proportion of fish with high virus titer rose over a 6-d period. In 10 instances, consecutive cavity fluid samples from the same fish reverted from virus-positive to virus-negative. We suggest that spent fish should be sampled when accurate and quantitative data on the incidence and level of the virus are required.

  11. Lake Roosevelt Fisheries Monitoring Program; 1990 Annual Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Griffith, Janelle R.; Scholz, Allan T.

    1991-09-01

    As partial mitigation for the loss of anadromous salmon and steelhead incurred by construction of Grand Coulee Dam, the Northwest Power Planning Council directed Bonneville Power Administration (BPA) to construct two kokanee salmon (Oncorhynchus nerka) hatcheries on Lake Roosevelt (NPPC 1987 [Section 903 (g)(l)(C)]). The hatcheries are to produce 8 million kokanee salmon fry or 3.2 million adults for outplanting into Lake Roosevelt as well as 500,000 rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) for the Lake Roosevelt net-pen programs. In section 903 (g)(l)(E), the Council also directed BPA to fund a monitoring program to evaluate the effectiveness of the kokanee hatcheries. The monitoring program included the following components: (1) conduction of a year-round creel census survey to determine angler pressure, catch rates and composition, growth and condition of fish caught by anglers, and economic value of the fishery. Comparisons will be made before and after hatcheries are on-line to determine hatchery effectiveness; (2) conduct an assessment of kokanee, rainbow trout, and walleye feeding habits, growth rates, and densities of their preferred prey at different locations in the reservoir and how reservoir operations affect population dynamics of preferred prey organisms. This information will be used to determine kokanee and rainbow trout stocking locations, stocking densities and stocking times; (3) conduct a mark-recapture study designed to assess effectiveness of various release times and locations for hatchery-raised kokanee and net-pen raised rainbow so fish-loss over Grand Coulee Dam will be minimized, homing to egg collection sites will be improved and angler harvest will be increased. The above measures were adopted by the Council based on a management plan developed by Upper Columbia United Tribes Fisheries Center, Spokane Indian Tribe, Colville Confederated Tribes, Washington Department of Wildlife, and the National Park Service. This plan examined the

  12. Development of a multiplex PCR assay for fine-scale population genetic analysis of the Komodo monitor Varanus komodoensis based on 18 polymorphic microsatellite loci.

    PubMed

    Ciofi, Claudio; Tzika, Athanasia C; Natali, Chiara; Watts, Phillip C; Sulandari, Sri; Zein, Moch S A; Milinkovitch, Michel C

    2011-05-01

    Multiplex PCR assays for the coamplification of microsatellite loci allow rapid and cost-effective genetic analyses and the production of efficient screening protocols for international breeding programs. We constructed a partial genomic library enriched for di-nucleotide repeats and characterized 14 new microsatellite loci for the Komodo monitor (or Komodo dragon, Varanus komodoensis). Using these novel microsatellites and four previously described loci, we developed multiplex PCR assays that may be loaded on a genetic analyser in three separate panels. We tested the novel set of microsatellites for polymorphism using 69 individuals from three island populations and evaluated the resolving power of the entire panel of 18 loci by conducting (i) a preliminary assignment test to determine population(s) of origin and (ii) a parentage analysis for 43 captive Komodo monitors. This panel of polymorphic loci proved useful for both purposes and thus can be exploited for fine-scale population genetic analyses and as part of international captive breeding programs directed at maintaining genetically viable ex situ populations and reintroductions.

  13. Development of a multiplex PCR assay for fine-scale population genetic analysis of the Komodo monitor Varanus komodoensis based on 18 polymorphic microsatellite loci.

    PubMed

    Ciofi, Claudio; Tzika, Athanasia C; Natali, Chiara; Watts, Phillip C; Sulandari, Sri; Zein, Moch S A; Milinkovitch, Michel C

    2011-05-01

    Multiplex PCR assays for the coamplification of microsatellite loci allow rapid and cost-effective genetic analyses and the production of efficient screening protocols for international breeding programs. We constructed a partial genomic library enriched for di-nucleotide repeats and characterized 14 new microsatellite loci for the Komodo monitor (or Komodo dragon, Varanus komodoensis). Using these novel microsatellites and four previously described loci, we developed multiplex PCR assays that may be loaded on a genetic analyser in three separate panels. We tested the novel set of microsatellites for polymorphism using 69 individuals from three island populations and evaluated the resolving power of the entire panel of 18 loci by conducting (i) a preliminary assignment test to determine population(s) of origin and (ii) a parentage analysis for 43 captive Komodo monitors. This panel of polymorphic loci proved useful for both purposes and thus can be exploited for fine-scale population genetic analyses and as part of international captive breeding programs directed at maintaining genetically viable ex situ populations and reintroductions. PMID:21481213

  14. Establishing a Population-Based HLA-Antibody Panel for Flow Cytometric Monitoring of Chimerism in HLA-Haploidentical Stem Cell Transplantation.

    PubMed

    Choe, Wonho; Hwang, Min-A; Jang, Seongsoo; Park, Chan-Jeoung; Chi, Hyun-Sook; Im, Ho Joon

    2016-01-01

    Determining the chimerism in stem cell transplantation (SCT) is important in the monitoring of engraftment. Conventional monitoring methods such as short tandem repeat polymerase chain reaction (STR-PCR) are labor intensive and difficult in showing the dynamics of cell subpopulations. In HLA-haploidentical SCT, flow cytometric analysis using anti-HLA antibody for the mismatched HLA can be useful in observing changes of cell subpopulations and determining chimerism. We designed a specific panel of HLA antibody reagents for the Korean population, and verified its clinical application in flow cytometric monitoring of chimerism after haploidentical stem cell transplantation. A total of 12 anti-HLA-A, -B-antibodies were selected, which could cover 82.5% of HLA-A and 16.5% of HLA-B in Korean population. This HLA panel distinguished donor and recipient cells in 22 of 23 HLA-haploidentical SCT cases. In one case, the patient had HLA-A*02/A*24, B*48/B*61 while the donor had HLA-A*02/A*33, B*44/B*48. The donor type HLA-B*44(+) and CD3(+) T cells, and HLA-B*44(+) and CD56(+) NK cells were seen at day 14 and day 8, respectively. Increased HLA-B*44(+) cells throughout the study period indicated the engraftment of donor stem cells. We were able to design a population specific panel of HLA-antibodies, and verified that flow cytometric analysis using HLA antibody for the detection of chimerism in HLA-haploidentical SCT was a simple and sensitive monitoring technique. This method allowed us to observe the dynamic changes in cell subpopulations after HLA-haploidentical SCT. Flow cytometric analysis can be considered as a strong tool for the monitoring of engraftment in HLA-haploidentical SCT.

  15. Cancer incidence and incidence rates in Japan in 2009: a study of 32 population-based cancer registries for the Monitoring of Cancer Incidence in Japan (MCIJ) project.

    PubMed

    Hori, Megumi; Matsuda, Tomohiro; Shibata, Akiko; Katanoda, Kota; Sobue, Tomotaka; Nishimoto, Hiroshi

    2015-09-01

    The Japan Cancer Surveillance Research Group aimed to estimate the cancer incidence in Japan in 2009 based on data collected from 32 of 37 population-based cancer registries, as part of the Monitoring of Cancer Incidence in Japan (MCIJ) project. The incidence of only primary invasive cancer in Japan for 2009 was estimated to be 775 601. Stomach cancer and breast cancer were the leading types of cancer in males and females, respectively.

  16. Cancer incidence and incidence rates in Japan in 2008: a study of 25 population-based cancer registries for the Monitoring of Cancer Incidence in Japan (MCIJ) project.

    PubMed

    Matsuda, Ayako; Matsuda, Tomohiro; Shibata, Akiko; Katanoda, Kota; Sobue, Tomotaka; Nishimoto, Hiroshi

    2014-04-01

    The Japan Cancer Surveillance Research Group aimed to estimate the cancer incidence in Japan in 2008 based on data collected from 25 of 34 population-based cancer registries, as part of the Monitoring of Cancer Incidence in Japan project. The incidence in Japan for 2008 was estimated to be 749 767 (C00-C96). Stomach cancer and breast cancer were the leading types of cancer in males and females, respectively.

  17. Expression of aquaporin-3 and -8 mRNAs in the parr and smolt stages of sockeye salmon, Oncorhynchus nerka: effects of cortisol treatment and seawater acclimation.

    PubMed

    Choi, Young Jae; Shin, Hyun Suk; Kim, Na Na; Cho, Sung Hwoan; Yamamoto, Yuzo; Ueda, Hiroshi; Lee, Jehee; Choi, Cheol Young

    2013-06-01

    This study aimed to examine the role of 2 aquaporin (AQP) isoforms (AQP3, and -8) in sockeye salmon (Oncorhynchus nerka) in response to a hyperosmotic challenge from freshwater to seawater (SW) during the parr and smoltification (smolt) stages. AQP3 mRNA was primarily detected in the osmoregulatory organs, such as gills, while AQP8 mRNA was primarily found in the intestine. These results suggested that AQP isoforms play a role in osmoregulation in specific osmoregulatory organs. Similarly, AQP3 mRNA expression in the gills (mean values:1.06 ± 0.05 [parr] and 1.29 ± 0.07 [smolt]) was significantly higher than AQP8 mRNA levels (parr: 0.04 ± 0.003; smolt: 0.14 ± 0.004), and in the intestine, AQP8 mRNA expression (parr: 0.89 ± 0.007; smolt: 1.91 ± 0.03) was significantly higher than AQP3 mRNA levels (parr: 0.24 ± 0.006; smolt: 0.83 ± 0.005); these expression patterns were similar in vivo and in vitro. Additionally, AQP mRNA levels were lower in cortisol treated than in control groups. Therefore, these results suggest that AQPs play important roles in the water absorption mechanisms associated with multiple AQP isoforms, and that cortisol enhances the hypo-osmoregulatory capacity of fish in SW, and also controls the expression of AQPs in a hyperosmotic environment. PMID:23507572

  18. Summary of the 2006 Annual Synthesis Report, Pallid Sturgeon Population Assessment Program and Associated Fish Community Monitoring for the Missouri River

    SciTech Connect

    Oldenburg, Eric W.; Hanrahan, Timothy P.; Harnish, Ryan A.; Bellgraph, Brian J.; Duncan, Joanne P.; Allwardt, Craig H.

    2008-08-12

    Pallid sturgeon, Scaphirhynchus albus, have declined throughout the Missouri River since dam construction and inception of the Bank Stabilization and Navigation Project in 1912. Their decline likely is due to the loss and degradation of their natural habitat as a result of changes in the river’s structure and function, as well as the pallid sturgeon’s inability to adapt to these changes. The U. S. Army Corps of Engineers has been working with state and federal agencies to develop and conduct a Pallid Sturgeon Monitoring and Assessment Program (Program), with the goal of recovering pallid sturgeon populations. The Program has organized the monitoring and assessment efforts into distinct geographic segments, with state and federal resource management agencies possessing primary responsibility for one or more segment. To date, the results from annual monitoring have been reported for individual Program segments. However, monitoring results have not been summarized or evaluated for larger spatial scales, encompassing more than one Program segment. This report is a summary of the 2006 synthesis report prepared by the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) that synthesizes the 2006 sampling year monitoring results from individual segments.

  19. Comparison of Remote Sensing and Fixed-Site Monitoring Approaches for Examining Air Pollution and Health in a National Study Population

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Prud'homme, Genevieve; Dobbin, Nina A.; Sun, Liu; Burnet, Richard T.; Martin, Randall V.; Davidson, Andrew; Cakmak, Sabit; Villeneuve, Paul J.; Lamsal, Lok N.; vanDonkelaar, Aaron; Peters, Paul A.; Johnson, Markey

    2013-01-01

    Satellite remote sensing (RS) has emerged as a cutting edge approach for estimating ground level ambient air pollution. Previous studies have reported a high correlation between ground level PM2.5 and NO2 estimated by RS and measurements collected at regulatory monitoring sites. The current study examined associations between air pollution and adverse respiratory and allergic health outcomes using multi-year averages of NO2 and PM2.5 from RS and from regulatory monitoring. RS estimates were derived using satellite measurements from OMI, MODIS, and MISR instruments. Regulatory monitoring data were obtained from Canada's National Air Pollution Surveillance Network. Self-reported prevalence of doctor-diagnosed asthma, current asthma, allergies, and chronic bronchitis were obtained from the Canadian Community Health Survey (a national sample of individuals 12 years of age and older). Multi-year ambient pollutant averages were assigned to each study participant based on their six digit postal code at the time of health survey, and were used as a marker for long-term exposure to air pollution. RS derived estimates of NO2 and PM2.5 were associated with 6e10% increases in respiratory and allergic health outcomes per interquartile range (3.97 mg m3 for PM2.5 and 1.03 ppb for NO2) among adults (aged 20e64) in the national study population. Risk estimates for air pollution and respiratory/ allergic health outcomes based on RS were similar to risk estimates based on regulatory monitoring for areas where regulatory monitoring data were available (within 40 km of a regulatory monitoring station). RS derived estimates of air pollution were also associated with adverse health outcomes among participants residing outside the catchment area of the regulatory monitoring network (p < 0.05).

  20. Large-scale monitoring of shorebird populations using count data and N-mixture models: Black Oystercatcher (Haematopus bachmani) surveys by land and sea

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lyons, James E.; Andrew, Royle J.; Thomas, Susan M.; Elliott-Smith, Elise; Evenson, Joseph R.; Kelly, Elizabeth G.; Milner, Ruth L.; Nysewander, David R.; Andres, Brad A.

    2012-01-01

    Large-scale monitoring of bird populations is often based on count data collected across spatial scales that may include multiple physiographic regions and habitat types. Monitoring at large spatial scales may require multiple survey platforms (e.g., from boats and land when monitoring coastal species) and multiple survey methods. It becomes especially important to explicitly account for detection probability when analyzing count data that have been collected using multiple survey platforms or methods. We evaluated a new analytical framework, N-mixture models, to estimate actual abundance while accounting for multiple detection biases. During May 2006, we made repeated counts of Black Oystercatchers (Haematopus bachmani) from boats in the Puget Sound area of Washington (n = 55 sites) and from land along the coast of Oregon (n = 56 sites). We used a Bayesian analysis of N-mixture models to (1) assess detection probability as a function of environmental and survey covariates and (2) estimate total Black Oystercatcher abundance during the breeding season in the two regions. Probability of detecting individuals during boat-based surveys was 0.75 (95% credible interval: 0.42–0.91) and was not influenced by tidal stage. Detection probability from surveys conducted on foot was 0.68 (0.39–0.90); the latter was not influenced by fog, wind, or number of observers but was ~35% lower during rain. The estimated population size was 321 birds (262–511) in Washington and 311 (276–382) in Oregon. N-mixture models provide a flexible framework for modeling count data and covariates in large-scale bird monitoring programs designed to understand population change.

  1. Strobe Light Testing and Kokanee Population Monitoring : Dworshak Dam Impacts Assessment and Fisheries Investigation Project, 97-99 : annual Progress Report for 1998.

    SciTech Connect

    Maiolie, Melo A.; Harryman, Bill; Ament, William J.

    1999-12-01

    We tested the response of kokanee Oncorhynchus nerka to strobe lights. Testing was conducted on wild, free-ranging fish in their natural environment (i.e., the pelagic region of two large Idaho lakes). Split-beam hydroacoustics were used to record the distance kokanee moved away from the lights as well as the density of kokanee in the area near the lights. In control tests, where the strobe lights were lowered into the lake but kept turned off, kokanee remained within a few meters of the lights. Once the lights began flashing, kokanee quickly moved away from the light source. Kokanee were found to move an average of 30 to 136 m away from the lights in waters with Secchi transparencies from 2.8 to 17.5 m (p=0.00 to p=0.04). Kokanee densities near the lights were significantly lower (p=0.00 to p=0.07) when the lights were turned on than in control samples with no lights flashing. Flash rates of 300, 360, and 450 flashes/min elicited strong avoidance responses from the fish. Kokanee remained at least 24 m away from the lights during our longest test that lasted for 5 h 50 min. Kokanee appeared to be responding to flashes that were well less than 0.00016 lux above background lighting.

  2. Comparison of remote sensing and fixed-site monitoring approaches for examining air pollution and health in a national study population

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Prud'homme, Genevieve; Dobbin, Nina A.; Sun, Liu; Burnett, Richard T.; Martin, Randall V.; Davidson, Andrew; Cakmak, Sabit; Villeneuve, Paul J.; Lamsal, Lok N.; van Donkelaar, Aaron; Peters, Paul A.; Johnson, Markey

    2013-12-01

    Satellite remote sensing (RS) has emerged as a cutting edge approach for estimating ground level ambient air pollution. Previous studies have reported a high correlation between ground level PM2.5 and NO2 estimated by RS and measurements collected at regulatory monitoring sites. The current study examined associations between air pollution and adverse respiratory and allergic health outcomes using multi-year averages of NO2 and PM2.5 from RS and from regulatory monitoring. RS estimates were derived using satellite measurements from OMI, MODIS, and MISR instruments. Regulatory monitoring data were obtained from Canada's National Air Pollution Surveillance Network. Self-reported prevalence of doctor-diagnosed asthma, current asthma, allergies, and chronic bronchitis were obtained from the Canadian Community Health Survey (a national sample of individuals 12 years of age and older). Multi-year ambient pollutant averages were assigned to each study participant based on their six digit postal code at the time of health survey, and were used as a marker for long-term exposure to air pollution. RS derived estimates of NO2 and PM2.5 were associated with 6-10% increases in respiratory and allergic health outcomes per interquartile range (3.97 μg m-3 for PM2.5 and 1.03 ppb for NO2) among adults (aged 20-64) in the national study population. Risk estimates for air pollution and respiratory/allergic health outcomes based on RS were similar to risk estimates based on regulatory monitoring for areas where regulatory monitoring data were available (within 40 km of a regulatory monitoring station). RS derived estimates of air pollution were also associated with adverse health outcomes among participants residing outside the catchment area of the regulatory monitoring network (p < 0.05). The consistency between risk estimates based on RS and regulatory monitoring as well as the associations between air pollution and health among participants living outside the catchment area for

  3. A Review of the Validity and Reliability of Alcohol Retail Sales Data for Monitoring Population Levels of Alcohol Consumption: A Scottish Perspective

    PubMed Central

    Robinson, Mark; Thorpe, Rachel; Beeston, Clare; McCartney, Gerry

    2013-01-01

    Aims: To assess the validity and reliability of using alcohol retail sales data to measure and monitor population levels of alcohol consumption. Methods: Potential sources of bias that could lead to under- or overestimation of population alcohol consumption based on alcohol retail sales data were identified and, where possible, quantified. This enabled an assessment of the potential impact of each bias on alcohol consumption estimates in Scotland. Results: Overall, considering all the possible sources of overestimation and underestimation, and taking into account the potential for sampling variability to impact on the results, the range of uncertainty of consumption during 2010 was from an overestimate of 0.3 l to an underestimate of 2.4 l of pure alcohol per adult. This excludes the impacts of alcohol stockpiling and alcohol sold through outlets not included in the sampling frame. On balance, there is therefore far greater scope for alcohol retail sales data to be underestimating per adult alcohol consumption in Scotland than there is for overestimation. Conclusion: Alcohol retail sales data offer a robust source of data for monitoring per adult alcohol consumption in Scotland. Consideration of the sources of bias and a comprehensive understanding of data collection methods are essential for using sales data to monitor trends in alcohol consumption. PMID:22926649

  4. Bio-monitoring the genotoxicity of populations of Scots pine in the vicinity of a radioactive waste storage facility.

    PubMed

    Geras'kin, Stanislav A; Kim, Jin Kyu; Oudalova, Alla A; Vasiliyev, Denis V; Dikareva, Nina S; Zimin, Vladimir L; Dikarev, Vladimir G

    2005-05-01

    Results of a long-term (1997-2002) study of the Scots pine populations growing in the vicinity of the radioactive waste storage facility ('Radon' LWPE) are presented. Cytogenetic disturbances in reproductive (seeds) and vegetative (needles) tissues sampled from Scots pine populations were studied to examine whether Scots pine trees have experienced environmental stress in areas with relatively low levels of pollution. The data clearly indicate the presence of mutagenic contaminants in the environment of the pine trees. An increased number of mitotic abnormalities, especially multipolar mitoses was found in the pine tree populations submitted to man-made exposure, which suggests that the cytogenetic damage is mainly caused by chemical contamination. A higher radioresistance of the Scots pine seeds from the impacted populations was shown by use of acute gamma-irradiation. During the observation period 1997-2002, pine trees exposed to anthropogenic pollution showed a steady increase of cytogenetic alterations in the root meristem cells. PMID:15866466

  5. Long-term monitoring of feral genetically modified herbicide-tolerant Brassica napus populations around unloading Japanese ports

    PubMed Central

    Katsuta, Kensuke; Matsuo, Kazuhito; Yoshimura, Yasuyuki; Ohsawa, Ryo

    2015-01-01

    Genetically modified, herbicide-tolerant (GMHT) Brassica napus plants originating from seed spill have recently been found along roadsides leading from Japanese ports that unload oilseed rape. Such introductions have potential biodiversity effects (as defined by the Cartagena Protocol): these include replacement of native elements in the biota through competitive suppression or hybridization. We conducted surveys in the period 2006–2011 to assess such threats. We examined shifts in the population distribution and occurrence of GMHT plants in 1,029 volunteer introduced assemblages of B. napus, 1,169 of B. juncea, and 184 of B. rapa around 12 ports. GMHT B. napus was found around 10 of 12 ports, but its proportion in the populations varied greatly by year and location. Over the survey period, the distributions of a pure non-GMHT population around Tobata and a pure GMHT population around Hakata increased significantly. However, there was no common trend of population expansion or contraction around the 12 ports. Furthermore, we found no herbicide tolerant B. juncea and B. rapa plants derived from crosses with GMHT B. napus. Therefore, GMHT B. napus is not invading native vegetation surrounding its populations and not likely to cross with congeners in Japanese environment. PMID:26175624

  6. Long-term monitoring of feral genetically modified herbicide-tolerant Brassica napus populations around unloading Japanese ports.

    PubMed

    Katsuta, Kensuke; Matsuo, Kazuhito; Yoshimura, Yasuyuki; Ohsawa, Ryo

    2015-06-01

    Genetically modified, herbicide-tolerant (GMHT) Brassica napus plants originating from seed spill have recently been found along roadsides leading from Japanese ports that unload oilseed rape. Such introductions have potential biodiversity effects (as defined by the Cartagena Protocol): these include replacement of native elements in the biota through competitive suppression or hybridization. We conducted surveys in the period 2006-2011 to assess such threats. We examined shifts in the population distribution and occurrence of GMHT plants in 1,029 volunteer introduced assemblages of B. napus, 1,169 of B. juncea, and 184 of B. rapa around 12 ports. GMHT B. napus was found around 10 of 12 ports, but its proportion in the populations varied greatly by year and location. Over the survey period, the distributions of a pure non-GMHT population around Tobata and a pure GMHT population around Hakata increased significantly. However, there was no common trend of population expansion or contraction around the 12 ports. Furthermore, we found no herbicide tolerant B. juncea and B. rapa plants derived from crosses with GMHT B. napus. Therefore, GMHT B. napus is not invading native vegetation surrounding its populations and not likely to cross with congeners in Japanese environment. PMID:26175624

  7. Long-term monitoring of feral genetically modified herbicide-tolerant Brassica napus populations around unloading Japanese ports.

    PubMed

    Katsuta, Kensuke; Matsuo, Kazuhito; Yoshimura, Yasuyuki; Ohsawa, Ryo

    2015-06-01

    Genetically modified, herbicide-tolerant (GMHT) Brassica napus plants originating from seed spill have recently been found along roadsides leading from Japanese ports that unload oilseed rape. Such introductions have potential biodiversity effects (as defined by the Cartagena Protocol): these include replacement of native elements in the biota through competitive suppression or hybridization. We conducted surveys in the period 2006-2011 to assess such threats. We examined shifts in the population distribution and occurrence of GMHT plants in 1,029 volunteer introduced assemblages of B. napus, 1,169 of B. juncea, and 184 of B. rapa around 12 ports. GMHT B. napus was found around 10 of 12 ports, but its proportion in the populations varied greatly by year and location. Over the survey period, the distributions of a pure non-GMHT population around Tobata and a pure GMHT population around Hakata increased significantly. However, there was no common trend of population expansion or contraction around the 12 ports. Furthermore, we found no herbicide tolerant B. juncea and B. rapa plants derived from crosses with GMHT B. napus. Therefore, GMHT B. napus is not invading native vegetation surrounding its populations and not likely to cross with congeners in Japanese environment.

  8. Competition between Asian pink salmon (Oncorhynchus gorbuscha) and Alaskan sockeye salmon (O. nerka) in the North Pacific Ocean

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ruggerone, G.T.; Zimmermann, M.; Myers, K.W.; Nielsen, J.L.; Rogers, D.E.

    2003-01-01

    The importance of interspecific competition as a mechanism regulating population abundance in offshore marine communities is largely unknown. We evaluated offshore competition between Asian pink salmon and Bristol Bay (Alaska) sockeye salmon, which intermingle in the North Pacific Ocean and Bering Sea, using the unique biennial abundance cycle of Asian pink salmon from 1955 to 2000. Sockeye salmon growth during the second and third growing seasons at sea, as determined by scale measurements, declined significantly in odd-numbered years, corresponding to years when Asian pink salmon are most abundant. Bristol Bay sockeye salmon do not interact with Asian pink salmon during their first summer and fall seasons and no difference in first year scale growth was detected. The interaction with odd-year pink salmon led to significantly smaller size at age of adult sockeye salmon, especially among younger female salmon. Examination of sockeye salmon smolt to adult survival rates during 1977-97 indicated that smolts entering the ocean during even-numbered years and interacting with abundant odd-year pink salmon during the following year experienced 26% (age-2 smolt) to 45% (age-1 smolt) lower survival compared with smolts migrating during odd-numbered years. Adult sockeye salmon returning to Bristol Bay from even-year smolt migrations were 22% less abundant (reduced by 5.9 million fish per year) compared with returns from odd-year migrations. The greatest reduction in adult returns occurred among adults spending 2 compared with 3 years at sea. Our new evidence for interspecific competition highlights the need for multispecies, international management of salmon production, including salmon released from hatcheries into the ocean.

  9. Liquid-containing Refluxes and Acid Refluxes May Be Less Frequent in the Japanese Population Than in Other Populations: Normal Values of 24-hour Esophageal Impedance and pH Monitoring

    PubMed Central

    Kawamura, Osamu; Kohata, Yukie; Kawami, Noriyuki; Iida, Hiroshi; Kawada, Akiyo; Hosaka, Hiroko; Shimoyama, Yasuyuki; Kuribayashi, Shiko; Fujiwara, Yasuhiro; Iwakiri, Katsuhiko; Inamori, Masahiko; Kusano, Motoyasu; Hongo, Micho

    2016-01-01

    Background/Aims Twenty-four-hour esophageal impedance and pH monitoring allows detection of all types of reflux episodes and is considered the best technique for identifying gastroesophageal refluxes. However, normative data for the Japanese population are lacking. This multicenter study aimed to establish the normal range of 24-hour esophageal impedance and pH data both in the distal and the proximal esophagus in Japanese subjects. Methods Forty-two healthy volunteers (25 men and 17 women) with a mean ± standard deviation age of 33.3 ± 12.4 years (range: 22–72 years) underwent a combined 24-hour esophageal impedance and pH monitoring. According to the physical and pH properties, distal or proximal esophageal reflux events were categorized. Results Median 45 reflux events occurred in 24 hours, and the 95th percentile was 85 events. Unlike previous reports, liquid-containing reflux events are median 25/24 hours with the 95th percentile of 62/24 hours. Acidic reflux events were median 11/24 hours with the 95th percentile of 39/24 hours. Non-acidic gas reflux events were median 15/24 hours with the 95th percentile of 39/24 hours. Proximal reflux events accounted for 80% of the total reflux events and were mainly non-acidic gas refluxes. About 19% of liquid and mixed refluxes reached the proximal esophagus. Conclusions Unlike previous studies, liquid-containing and acidic reflux events may be less frequent in the Japanese population. Non-acidic gas reflux events may be frequent and a cause of frequent proximal reflux events. This study provides important normative data for 24-hour impedance and pH monitoring in both the distal and the proximal esophagus in the Japanese population. PMID:27247103

  10. A Genetic Monitoring and Evaluation Program for Supplemented Populations of Salmon and Steelhead in the Snake River Basin : 1992 Annual Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Waples, Robin S.

    1993-07-01

    This is the second report of research for an ongoing study to evaluate the genetic effects of using hatchery-reared fish to supplement natural populations of chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha) and steelhead (O. mykiss) in the Snake River Basin. The study plan involves yearly monitoring of genetic and meristic characteristics in hatchery, natural (supplemented), and wild (unsupplemented) populations in four different drainages for each species. This report summarizes the first two years of electrophoretic data for chinook salmon and steelhead and the first two years of meristic data for chinook salmon. Results obtained to date include the following: (1) Genetic variation was detected at 35 gene loci in chinook salmon and 50 gene loci in steelhead, both considerable increases over the number of polymorphic loci reported previously for Snake River populations. No substantial differences in levels of genetic variability were observed between years or between hatchery and natural/wild populations in either species. (2) In both species, statistically significant differences in allele frequency were typically found between years within populations. However, the temporal changes within populations were generally smaller than differences between populations. (3) Differences between chinook salmon populations classified as spring-and summer-run accounted for little of the overall genetic diversity; in contrast, substantial genetic differences were observed between ''B'' run steelhead from Dworshak Hatchery and ''A'' run populations from other study sites. (4) Estimates of the effective number of breeders per year (N,) derived from genetic data suggest that N{sub b} in natural and wild Snake River spring/summer chinook salmon populations is generally about one-quarter to three-quarters of the estimated number of adult spawners. (5) Analysis of the effects on data quality of sampling juveniles indicates that the small size of some wild fish may lead to a slight increase

  11. Seasonal marine growth of Bristol Bay sockeye salmon (Oncorhynchus nerka) in relation to competition with Asian pink salmon (O. gorbuscho) and the 1977 ocean regime shift

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ruggerone, Gregory T.; Farley, E.; Nielsen, Jennifer L.; Hagen, P.

    2005-01-01

    Recent research demonstrated significantly lower growth and survival of Bristol Bay sockeye salmon (Oncorhynchus nerka) during odd-numbered years of their second or third years at sea (1975, 1977, etc.), a trend that was opposite that of Asian pink salmon (O. gorbuscha) abundance. Here we evaluated seasonal growth trends of Kvichak and Egegik river sockeye salmon (Bristol Bay stocks) during even- and odd-numbered years at sea by measuring scale circuli increments within each growth zone of each major salmon age group between 1955 and 2000. First year scale growth was not significantly different between odd- and even-numbered years, but peak growth of age-2. smolts was significantly higher than age-1. smolts. Total second and third year scale growth of salmon was significantly lower during odd- than during even-numbered years. However, reduced scale growth in odd-numbered years began after peak growth in spring and continued through summer and fall even though most pink salmon had left the high seas by late July (10-18% growth reduction in odd vs. even years). The alternating odd and even year growth pattern was consistent before and after the 1977 ocean regime shift. During 1977-2000, when salmon abundance was relatively great, sockeye salmon growth was high during specific seasons compared with that during 1955-1976, that is to say, immediately after entry to Bristol Bay, after peak growth in the first year, during the middle of the second growing season, and during spring of the third season. Growth after the spring peak in the third year at sea was relatively low during 1977-2000. We hypothesize that high consumption rates of prey by pink salmon during spring through mid-July of odd-numbered years, coupled with declining zooplankton biomass during summer and potentially cyclic abundances of squid and other prey, contributed to reduced prey availability and therefore reduced growth of Bristol Bay sockeye salmon during late spring through fall of odd

  12. The utility of a portable sleep monitor to diagnose sleep-disordered breathing in a pediatric population

    PubMed Central

    Massicotte, Colin; Al-Saleh, Suhail; Witmans, Manisha; Narang, Indra

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Central and/or obstructive sleep-disordered breathing (SDB) in children represents a spectrum of abnormal breathing during sleep. SDB is diagnosed using the gold standard, overnight polysomnography (PSG). The limited availability and access to PSG prevents its widespread use, resulting in significant delays in diagnosis and treatment of SDB. As such, portable sleep monitors are urgently needed. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the utility of a commercially available portable sleep study monitor (PSS-AL) (ApneaLink, ResMed, USA) to diagnose SDB in children. METHODS: Children referred to a pediatric sleep facility were simultaneously monitored using the PSS-AL monitor and overnight PSG. The apnea-hypopnea index (AHI) was calculated using the manual and autoscoring function of the PSS-AL, and PSG. Sensitivity and specificity were compared with the manually scored PSS-AL and PSG. Pearson correlations and Bland-Altman plots were constructed. RESULTS: Thirty-five children (13 female) completed the study. The median age was 11.0 years and the median body mass index z-score was 0.67 (range −2.3 to 3.8). SDB was diagnosed in 17 of 35 (49%) subjects using PSG. The AHI obtained by manually scored PSS-AL strongly correlated with the AHI obtained using PSG (r=0.89; P<0.001). Using the manually scored PSS-AL, a cut-off of AHI of >5 events/h had a sensitivity of 94% and a specificity of 61% to detect any SDB diagnosed by PSG. CONCLUSIONS: Although PSG is still recommended for the diagnosis of SDB, the ApneaLink sleep monitor has a role for triaging children referred for evaluation of SDB, but has limited ability to determine the nature of the SDB. PMID:24083303

  13. Improved Analysis of Long-Term Monitoring Data Demonstrates Marked Regional Declines of Bat Populations in the Eastern United States.

    PubMed

    Ingersoll, Thomas E; Sewall, Brent J; Amelon, Sybill K

    2013-01-01

    Bats are diverse and ecologically important, but are also subject to a suite of severe threats. Evidence for localized bat mortality from these threats is well-documented in some cases, but long-term changes in regional populations of bats remain poorly understood. Bat hibernation surveys provide an opportunity to improve understanding, but analysis is complicated by bats' cryptic nature, non-conformity of count data to assumptions of traditional statistical methods, and observation heterogeneities such as variation in survey timing. We used generalized additive mixed models (GAMMs) to account for these complicating factors and to evaluate long-term, regional population trajectories of bats. We focused on four hibernating bat species - little brown myotis (Myotis lucifugus), tri-colored bat (Perimyotis subflavus), Indiana myotis (M. sodalis), and northern myotis (M. septentrionalis) - in a four-state region of the eastern United States during 1999-2011. Our results, from counts of nearly 1.2 million bats, suggest that cumulative declines in regional relative abundance by 2011 from peak levels were 71% (with 95% confidence interval of ±11%) in M. lucifugus, 34% (±38%) in P. subflavus, 30% (±26%) in M. sodalis, and 31% (±18%) in M. septentrionalis. The M. lucifugus population fluctuated until 2004 before persistently declining, and the populations of the other three species declined persistently throughout the study period. Population trajectories suggest declines likely resulted from the combined effect of multiple threats, and indicate a need for enhanced conservation efforts. They provide strong support for a change in the IUCN Red List conservation status in M. lucifugus from Least Concern to Endangered within the study area, and are suggestive of a need to change the conservation status of the other species. Our modeling approach provided estimates of uncertainty, accommodated non-linearities, and controlled for observation heterogeneities, and thus has wide

  14. Wastewater analysis to monitor use of caffeine and nicotine and evaluation of their metabolites as biomarkers for population size assessment.

    PubMed

    Senta, Ivan; Gracia-Lor, Emma; Borsotti, Andrea; Zuccato, Ettore; Castiglioni, Sara

    2015-05-01

    The use of caffeine, nicotine and some major metabolites was investigated by wastewater analysis in 13 sewage treatment plants (STPs) across Italy, and their suitability was tested as qualitative and quantitative biomarkers for assessing population size and dynamics. A specific analytical method based on mass spectrometry was developed and validated in raw urban wastewater, and included two caffeine metabolites, 1-methylxanthine and 7-methylxanthine, never reported in wastewater before. All these compounds were found widely at the μg/L level. Mass loads, calculated by multiplying concentrations by the wastewater daily flow rate and normalized to the population served by each plant, were used to compare the profiles from different cities. Some regional differences were observed in the mass loads, especially for nicotine metabolites, which were significantly higher in the south than in the center and north of Italy, reflecting smoking prevalences from population surveys. There were no significant weekly trends, although the mean mass loads of caffeine and its metabolites were slightly lower during the weekend. Most caffeine and nicotine metabolites fulfilled the requirements for an ideal biomarker for the assessment of population size, i.e. being easily detectable in wastewater, stable in sewage and during sampling, and reflecting human metabolism. Nicotine metabolites were tested as quantitative biomarkers to estimate population size and the results agreed well with census data. Caffeine and its metabolites were confirmed as good qualitative biomarkers, but additional information is needed on the caffeine metabolism in relation to the multiple sources of its main metabolites. This exploratory study opens the way to the routine use of nicotine metabolites for estimating population size and dynamics.

  15. Smolt Monitoring Program, Part II, Volume II, Migrational Characteristics of Columbia Basin Salmon and Steelhead Trout, 1985 Annual Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Fish Passage Center

    1986-02-01

    Volume I of this report describes the results of travel time monitoring and other migrational characteristics of yearling and sub-yearling chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha), sockeye salmon (Oncorhynchus nerka), and steelhead trout (Salmo gairdneri). This volume presents the freeze brand data used in the analysis of travel time for Lower Granite, Rock Island, McNary, and John Day dams. Brand recoveries for Lower Monumental dam also are presented. Summary of data collection procedures and explanation of data listings are presented in conjunction with the mark recapture data.

  16. Monitoring the endangered population of the antelope Kobus leche smithemani (Artiodactyla: Bovidae), in the Bangweulu Ecosystem, Zambia.

    PubMed

    Siamudaala, Victor M; Munyeme, Musso; Matandiko, Wigganson; Muma, John B; Munang'andu, Hetron M

    2012-12-01

    Black lechwe (Kobus leche smithemani) is a semi-aquatic medium sized antelope currently enlisted on the IUCN red list of endangered species and is only endemic to the Bangweulu basin of Zambia. Its population has significantly decreased due to floods that took place during the period 1930-1940 from over 250 000-15000 leading the Zambian government to gazette all habitats of Black lechwe into state protected areas, and to establish urgent management strategies needed to save the remaining population from extinction. Using retrospective data, our findings show that the population has increased from 15000 animals in 1954 to 55 632 in 2009. The current population is estimated at 34.77% (55 632/160 000) of the carrying capacity of the Bangweulu basin. Although the Black lechwe is one of the 42 species offered for consumptive utilization by the Zambia Wildlife Authority (ZAWA), only 0.12% and 0.08% of the current stock was offered for safari and resident hunting annually for the period 2005-2009, respectively. Annual quota utilization were estimated at 67% (n=37) and 81% (n=37) for safari and resident hunting, respectively. Hence, overall income obtained from utilization of Black lechwe is very low accounting for only 2.1% of the total revenue earned from wildlife utilization. Although the current population trend is showing a unit increase of 639 animals per year, it is still far below levels ideal for the lucrative utilization. In this study, we demonstrate that adverse ecological changes on wildlife species, can lead to their vulnerability and danger of extinction, and that their recovery to full carrying capacity may demand a considerable amount of time. PMID:23342517

  17. Monitoring the endangered population of the antelope Kobus leche smithemani (Artiodactyla: Bovidae), in the Bangweulu Ecosystem, Zambia.

    PubMed

    Siamudaala, Victor M; Munyeme, Musso; Matandiko, Wigganson; Muma, John B; Munang'andu, Hetron M

    2012-12-01

    Black lechwe (Kobus leche smithemani) is a semi-aquatic medium sized antelope currently enlisted on the IUCN red list of endangered species and is only endemic to the Bangweulu basin of Zambia. Its population has significantly decreased due to floods that took place during the period 1930-1940 from over 250 000-15000 leading the Zambian government to gazette all habitats of Black lechwe into state protected areas, and to establish urgent management strategies needed to save the remaining population from extinction. Using retrospective data, our findings show that the population has increased from 15000 animals in 1954 to 55 632 in 2009. The current population is estimated at 34.77% (55 632/160 000) of the carrying capacity of the Bangweulu basin. Although the Black lechwe is one of the 42 species offered for consumptive utilization by the Zambia Wildlife Authority (ZAWA), only 0.12% and 0.08% of the current stock was offered for safari and resident hunting annually for the period 2005-2009, respectively. Annual quota utilization were estimated at 67% (n=37) and 81% (n=37) for safari and resident hunting, respectively. Hence, overall income obtained from utilization of Black lechwe is very low accounting for only 2.1% of the total revenue earned from wildlife utilization. Although the current population trend is showing a unit increase of 639 animals per year, it is still far below levels ideal for the lucrative utilization. In this study, we demonstrate that adverse ecological changes on wildlife species, can lead to their vulnerability and danger of extinction, and that their recovery to full carrying capacity may demand a considerable amount of time.

  18. Disease, predation and demography: Assessing the impacts of bovine tuberculosis on African buffalo by monitoring at individual and population levels

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Cross, P.C.; Heisey, D.M.; Bowers, J.A.; Hay, C.T.; Wolhuter, J.; Buss, P.; Hofmeyr, M.; Michel, A.L.; Bengis, Roy G.; Bird, T.L.F.; Du Toit, J.T.; Getz, W.M.

    2009-01-01

    1. Understanding the effects of disease is critical to determining appropriate management responses, but estimating those effects in wildlife species is challenging. We used bovine tuberculosis (BTB) in the African buffalo Syncerus caffer population of Kruger National Park, South Africa, as a case study to highlight the issues associated with estimating chronic disease effects in a long-lived host. 2. We used known and radiocollared buffalo, aerial census data, and a natural gradient in pathogen prevalence to investigate if: (i) at the individual level, BTB infection reduces reproduction; (ii) BTB infection increases vulnerability to predation; and (iii) at the population level, increased BTB prevalence causes reduced population growth. 3. There was only a marginal reduction in calving success associated with BTB infection, as indexed by the probability of sighting a known adult female with or without a calf (P = 0??065). 4. Since 1991, BTB prevalence increased from 27 to 45% in the southern region and from 4 to 28% in the central region of Kruger National Park. The prevalence in the northern regions was only 1??5% in 1998. Buffalo population growth rates, however, were neither statistically different among regions nor declining over time. 5. Lions Panthera leo did not appear to preferentially kill test-positive buffalo. The best (Akaike's Information Criterion corrected for small sample size) AICc model with BTB as a covariate [exp(??) = 0??49; 95% CI = (0??24-1??02)] suggested that the mortality hazard for positive individuals was no greater than for test-negative individuals. 6. Synthesis and applications. Test accuracy, time-varying disease status, and movement among populations are some of the issues that make the detection of chronic disease impacts challenging. For these reasons, the demographic impacts of bovine tuberculosis in the Kruger National Park remain undetectable despite 6 years of study on known individuals and 40 years of population counts

  19. A simple and effective set of PCR-based molecular markers for the monitoring of the Saccharomyces cerevisiae cell population during bioethanol fermentation.

    PubMed

    Carvalho-Netto, Osmar V; Carazzolle, Marcelo F; Rodrigues, Aline; Bragança, Welbe O; Costa, Gustavo G L; Argueso, Juan Lucas; Pereira, Gonçalo A G

    2013-12-01

    One of the defining features of the fermentation process used in the production of bioethanol from sugarcane feedstock is the dynamic nature of the yeast population. Minisatellite molecular markers are particularly useful for monitoring yeast communities because they produce polymorphic PCR products that typically display wide size variations. We compared the coding sequences derived from the genome of the sugarcane bioethanol strain JAY270/PE-2 to those of the reference Saccharomyces cerevisiae laboratory strain S288c, and searched for genes containing insertion or deletion polymorphisms larger than 24 bp. We then designed oligonucleotide primers flanking nine of these sites, and used them to amplify differentially sized PCR products. We analyzed the banding patterns in the most widely adopted sugarcane bioethanol strains and in several indigenous yeast contaminants, and found that our marker set had very good discriminatory power. Subsequently, these markers were used to successfully monitor the yeast cell populations in six sugarcane bioethanol distilleries. Additionally, we showed that most of the markers described here are also polymorphic among strains unrelated to bioethanol production, suggesting that they may be applied universally in S. cerevisiae. Because the relatively large polymorphisms are detectable in conventional agarose gels, our method is well suited to modestly equipped on-site laboratories at bioethanol distilleries, therefore providing both cost and time savings.

  20. Molecular monitoring of microbial population dynamics during operational periods of anaerobic hybrid reactor treating cassava starch wastewater.

    PubMed

    Boonapatcharoen, Nimaradee; Meepian, Kulyanee; Chaiprasert, Pawinee; Techkarnjanaruk, Somkiet

    2007-07-01

    This study characterized the microbial community and population dynamics in an anaerobic hybrid reactor (AHR) treating cassava starch wastewater. Methanogens and nonmethanogens were followed during the start-up and operation of the reactor, and linked to operational and performance data. Biomass samples taken from the sludge bed and packed bed zones of the AHR at intervals throughout the operational period were examined by 16S rRNA fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH). The start-up seed and the reactor biomass were sampled during the feeding of the wastewater with a chemical oxygen demand (COD) value of 8 g L(-1) and a hydraulic retention time (HRT) of 8 days. These samples were characterized by the predominance of cells with long-rod morphology similar to Methanosaeta spp. Following a sharp operational change, accomplished by increasing the COD concentration of the organic influent from 8 to 10 g L(-1) and reducing the HRT from 8 to 5 days, there was a doubling of the organic loading rate, a reduction of the COD removal efficiency, as well as decreased methane content in the biogas and an accumulation of total volatile acids in the reactor. Moreover, this operational change resulted in a significant population shift from long-rod Methanosaeta-like cells to tetrad-forming Methanosarcina-like cells. The distributions of microbial populations involved in different zones of the AHR were determined. The results showed that nonmethanogens became the predominant population in both sludge and the packed bed zone. However, the percentage of methanogens in the packed bed zone was higher than that in the sludge bed zone. This higher percentage of methanogens was likely caused by the fact that the packed bed zone provided a suitable environmental condition with an appropriate nutrient availability for methanogen growth.

  1. Multiplex Assay for Species Identification and Monitoring of Insecticide Resistance in Anopheles punctulatus Group Populations of Papua New Guinea

    PubMed Central

    Henry-Halldin, Cara N.; Nadesakumaran, Kogulan; Keven, John Bosco; Zimmerman, Allison M.; Siba, Peter; Mueller, Ivo; Hetzel, Manuel W.; Kazura, James W.; Thomsen, Edward; Reimer, Lisa J.; Zimmerman, Peter A.

    2012-01-01

    Anopheles punctulatus sibling species (An. punctulatus s.s., Anopheles koliensis, and Anopheles farauti species complex [eight cryptic species]) are principal vectors of malaria and filariasis in the Southwest Pacific. Given significant effort to reduce malaria and filariasis transmission through insecticide-treated net distribution in the region, effective strategies to monitor evolution of insecticide resistance among An. punctulatus sibling species is essential. Mutations in the voltage-gated sodium channel (VGSC) gene have been associated with knock-down resistance (kdr) to pyrethroids and DDT in malarious regions. By examining VGSC sequence polymorphism we developed a multiplex assay to differentiate wild-type versus kdr alleles and query intron-based polymorphisms that enable simultaneous species identification. A survey including mosquitoes from seven Papua New Guinea Provinces detected no kdr alleles in any An. punctulatus species. Absence of VGSC sequence introgression between species and evidence of geographic separation within species suggests that kdr must be monitored in each An. punctulatus species independently. PMID:22232465

  2. Optimizing the size of the area surveyed for monitoring a Eurasian lynx (Lynx lynx) population in the Swiss Alps by means of photographic capture-recapture.

    PubMed

    Zimmermann, Fridolin; Breitenmoser-Würsten, Christine; Molinari-Jobin, Anja; Breitenmoser, Urs

    2013-09-01

    We studied the influence of surveyed area size on density estimates by means of camera-trapping in a low-density felid population (1-2 individuals/100 km(2) ). We applied non-spatial capture-recapture (CR) and spatial CR (SCR) models for Eurasian lynx during winter 2005/2006 in the northwestern Swiss Alps by sampling an area divided into 5 nested plots ranging from 65 to 760 km(2) . CR model density estimates (95% CI) for models M0 and Mh decreased from 2.61 (1.55-3.68) and 3.6 (1.62-5.57) independent lynx/100 km(2) , respectively, in the smallest to 1.20 (1.04-1.35) and 1.26 (0.89-1.63) independent lynx/100 km(2) , respectively, in the largest area surveyed. SCR model density estimates also decreased with increasing sampling area but not significantly. High individual range overlaps in relatively small areas (the edge effect) is the most plausible reason for this positive bias in the CR models. Our results confirm that SCR models are much more robust to changes in trap array size than CR models, thus avoiding overestimation of density in smaller areas. However, when a study is concerned with monitoring population changes, large spatial efforts (area surveyed ≥760 km(2) ) are required to obtain reliable and precise density estimates with these population densities and recapture rates.

  3. Blood levels of lead, cadmium, and mercury in the Korean population: Results from the Second Korean National Human Exposure and Bio-monitoring Examination

    SciTech Connect

    Son, Ji-Young; Lee, Jinheon; Paek, Domyung; Lee, Jong-Tae

    2009-08-15

    In Korea, there have been a number of efforts to measure levels of exposure to environmental pollutants among the population. This paper focuses on investigating the distribution of, extent of, and factors influencing the blood levels of lead, cadmium, and mercury in the Korean population, working from data obtained from the Second Korean National Human Exposure and Bio-monitoring Examination. To that end, blood metal concentrations were analyzed from a total of 2369 participants who were 18 years of age and older. The geometric mean concentrations and their 95% confidence intervals of metals in blood were found to be lead, 1.72 {mu}g/dL (95% CI, 1.68-1.76); cadmium, 1.02 {mu}g/L (95% CI, 1.00-1.05); and mercury, 3.80 {mu}g/L (95% CI, 3.66-3.93). Regression analyses indicate that the levels of metals in the blood are mainly influenced by gender, age, and the education levels of the participants. Current smoking status is also found to be a significant factor for increasing both lead and cadmium levels. Although our study, as the first nationwide survey of exposure to environmental pollutants in Korea, has value on its own, it should be expanded and extended in order to provide information on environmental exposure pathways and to watch for changes in the level of exposure to environmental pollutants among the population.

  4. Monitoring male southern hairy-nosed wombat (Lasiorhinus latifrons) reproductive function and seasonality in a captive population.

    PubMed

    Hogan, L A; Phillips, C J C; Horsup, A B; Keeley, T; Nicolson, V; Janssen, T; Lisle, A; Johnston, S D

    2010-04-01

    This study reports on the development and application of techniques used to assess the reproductive status of captive male southern hairy-nosed wombats (n=4) at Rockhampton Zoo. Initially, a GnRH agonist was used to establish a method for determining a reliable index of plasma and faecal testosterone secretion. Intra-muscular injection of buserelin (4 microg) resulted in an increase (P<0.05) in plasma and faecal testosterone concentration 90 min and 3 days after administration, respectively. Seasonal changes in faecal androgen, sperm production (spermatorrhoea) and testicular, prostatic and bulbourethral gland size were examined over a 18-month period, with prostate and bulbourethral gland cross-sectional areas being assessed by ultrasonography. Plasma testosterone secretion increased from early late winter and then decreased in spring (P<0.001); no seasonal variation (P=0.22) in faecal testosterone metabolite concentrations was apparent. Testicular volume showed no significant variation (P=0.29) over the sampling period. While there was no seasonal change (P=0.197, n=54) in prostate size, bulbourethral gland size increased in late-autumn, peaked in mid-winter and declined in early summer (P= or <0.001, n=55). Spermatozoa were found in the urine throughout the year. While, the captive population of SHN wombats at Rockhampton Zoo demonstrated significant changes in reproductive function, the extent of seasonality was less pronounced than that previously reported for wild populations in Southern Australia. PMID:19892498

  5. Polymorphism of the phosphoserine phosphatase gene in Streptococcus thermophilus and its potential use for typing and monitoring of population diversity.

    PubMed

    Ricciardi, Annamaria; De Filippis, Francesca; Zotta, Teresa; Facchiano, Angelo; Ercolini, Danilo; Parente, Eugenio

    2016-11-01

    The phosphoserine phosphatase gene (serB) of Streptococcus thermophilus is the most polymorphic gene among those used in Multilocus Sequence Typing schemes for this species and has been used for both genotyping of isolates and for evaluation of population diversity. However, the information on the potential of this gene as a marker for diversity in S. thermophilus species is still fragmentary. In this study, we evaluated serB nucleotide polymorphism and its potential impact on protein structure using data from traditional sequencing. In addition we evaluated the ability of serB targeted high-throughput sequencing in studying the diversity of S. thermophilus populations in cheese and starter cultures. Data based on traditional cultivation based techniques and sequencing provided evidence that the distribution of serB alleles varies significantly in some environments (commercial starter cultures, traditional starter cultures, cheese). Mutations had relatively little impact on predicted protein structure and were not found in domains that are predicted to be important for its functionality. Cultivation independent, serB targeted high-throughput sequencing provided evidence for significantly different alleles distribution in different cheese types and detected fluctuations in alleles abundance in a mixed strain starter reproduced by backslopping. Notwithstanding some shortcomings of this method that are discussed here, the cultivation independent approach appears to be more sensitive than cultivation based approaches based on isolation and traditional sequencing. PMID:27497152

  6. Monitoring male southern hairy-nosed wombat (Lasiorhinus latifrons) reproductive function and seasonality in a captive population.

    PubMed

    Hogan, L A; Phillips, C J C; Horsup, A B; Keeley, T; Nicolson, V; Janssen, T; Lisle, A; Johnston, S D

    2010-04-01

    This study reports on the development and application of techniques used to assess the reproductive status of captive male southern hairy-nosed wombats (n=4) at Rockhampton Zoo. Initially, a GnRH agonist was used to establish a method for determining a reliable index of plasma and faecal testosterone secretion. Intra-muscular injection of buserelin (4 microg) resulted in an increase (P<0.05) in plasma and faecal testosterone concentration 90 min and 3 days after administration, respectively. Seasonal changes in faecal androgen, sperm production (spermatorrhoea) and testicular, prostatic and bulbourethral gland size were examined over a 18-month period, with prostate and bulbourethral gland cross-sectional areas being assessed by ultrasonography. Plasma testosterone secretion increased from early late winter and then decreased in spring (P<0.001); no seasonal variation (P=0.22) in faecal testosterone metabolite concentrations was apparent. Testicular volume showed no significant variation (P=0.29) over the sampling period. While there was no seasonal change (P=0.197, n=54) in prostate size, bulbourethral gland size increased in late-autumn, peaked in mid-winter and declined in early summer (P= or <0.001, n=55). Spermatozoa were found in the urine throughout the year. While, the captive population of SHN wombats at Rockhampton Zoo demonstrated significant changes in reproductive function, the extent of seasonality was less pronounced than that previously reported for wild populations in Southern Australia.

  7. Dworshak Kokanee Population and Engrainment Assessment : 2006 Annual Report, March 1, 2006 - February 28, 2007.

    SciTech Connect

    Stark, Eric J.

    2008-12-18

    During this contract, we continued testing underwater strobe lights to determine their effectiveness at repelling kokanee Oncorhynchus nerka away from Dworshak Dam. Strobe light tests were conducted on four nights from April 24-27, 2006, in front of the middle reservoir outlet (RO) 2. The density and distribution of fish, (thought to be mostly kokanee), were monitored with a split-beam echo sounder. We then compared fish counts and densities during nights when the lights were flashing to counts and densities during adjacent nights without the lights on. On two nights, April 25 and 27, 2006, when no lights were present, fish counts near RO 2 averaged 12.4 fish and densities averaged 31.0 fish/ha. When strobe lights were turned on during the nights of April 24 and 26, mean counts dropped to 4.7 fish and densities dropped to 0.5 fish/ha. The decline in counts (62%) and densities (99%) was statistically significant (p = 0.009 and 0.002, respectively). Test results indicated that strobe lights were able to reduce fish densities by at least 50% in front of a discharging reservoir outlet, which would be sufficient to improve sport fish harvest. We also used split-beam hydroacoustics to monitor the kokanee population in Dworshak Reservoir during 2006. Estimated abundance of kokanee increased from the 2005 population estimate. Based on hydroacoustic surveys, we estimated approximately 5,815,000 kokanee (90% CI {+-} 27.6%) in Dworshak Reservoir in August 2006. This included 2,183,000 age-0 (90% CI {+-} 24.2%), 1,509,000 age-1 (90% CI {+-} 29.0%), and 2,124,000 age-2 (90% CI {+-} 27.6%) kokanee. This resulted in a density of age-2 kokanee above the management goal of 30-50 adults/ha. Entrainment sampling was conducted with fixed-site, split-beam hydroacoustics from May through September for a continuous 24 h period when dam operations permitted. The highest fish detection rates from entrainment assessments were found during dawn periods, unlike previous year's results, which

  8. Long-term monitoring of reef corals at the Flower Garden Banks (northwest Gulf of Mexico): Reef coral population changes and historical incorporation of barium in Montastrea annularis

    SciTech Connect

    Deslarzes, K.J.P.

    1992-01-01

    Reef coral populations were monitored from 1988 to 1991 at the Flower Garden Banks located in the northwestern Gulf of Mexico. The status of reef coral populations, and natural or man-made factors potentially affecting their well-being were determined. Man-made chronic disturbances are degrading coral reef resources on a global scale. Yet, the Flower Garden coral reefs seem to have been sheltered from the effects of regional stresses generated by population growth and increased industrial activity. Since 1974, reef coral population levels have remained unchanged in the Montastrea-Diploria Zones at the Flower Garden Banks. Live coral cover ranges between 46 and 46.5%. Montastrea annularis and Diploria strigosa comprise 80% of the coral cover on either bank. The remainder of the cover is mostly shared by eight other taxa. Coral taxa appear to be more homogeneously distributed on the West Bank. The relatively greater number of Agaricia spp., Madracis decastis, and P. astreoides colonies on the East Bank may be the source of a decreased evenness. The health of reef corals was assessed using repetitive and non-repetitive photographic methods, and accretionary growth measurements of M. annularis. Reef corals have undergone small scale changes at the Flower Gardens probably reflecting natural disturbance, predation, disease, and inter-specific competition. White mat disease (ridge disease) is shown to generate more tissue loss than any of the three bleaching events that took place at the Flower Gardens (1989, 1990, and 1991). Advance to retreat linear ratios of encrusting growth revealed a net tissue gain on the East Bank and a net tissue loss on the West Bank. Growth rates of M. annularis were highly variable. The annual barium content from 1910 in 1989 in a M. annularis colony from the West Flower Garden did not reveal trends associated with the extensive oil and gas exploration in the northern Gulf of Mexico.

  9. Evaluation of microbial population and functional genes during the bioremediation of petroleum-contaminated soil as an effective monitoring approach.

    PubMed

    Shahi, Aiyoub; Aydin, Sevcan; Ince, Bahar; Ince, Orhan

    2016-03-01

    This study investigated the abundance and diversity of soil n-alkane and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH)-degrading bacterial communities. It also investigated the quantity of the functional genes, the occurrence of horizontal gene transfer (HGT) in the identified bacterial communities and the effect that such HGT can have on biostimulation process. Illumina sequencing was used to detect the microbial diversity of petroleum-polluted soil prior to the biostimulation process, and quantitative real-time PCR was used to determine changes in the bacterial community and functional genes (alkB, phnAc and nah) expressions throughout the biostimulation of petroleum-contaminated soil. The illumine results revealed that γ-proteobacteria, Chloroflexi, Firmicutes, and δ-proteobacteria were the most dominant bacterial phyla in the contaminated site, and that most of the strains were Gram-negative. The results of the gene expression results revealed that gram-negative bacteria and alkB are critical to successful bioremediation. Failure to maintain the stability of hydrocarbon-degrading bacteria and functional gene will reduce the extend to which alkanes and PAHs are degraded. According to the results of the study, the application of a C:N:P ratio of was 100:15:1 in the biodegradation experiment resulted in the highest rate at which petroleum hydrocarbons were biodegraded. The diversity of pollutant-degrading bacteria and the effective transfer of degrading genes among resident microorganisms are essential factors for the successful biostimulation of petroleum hydrocarbons. As such, screening these factors throughout the biostimulation process represents an effective monitoring approach by which the success of the biostimulation can be assessed.

  10. Evaluation of microbial population and functional genes during the bioremediation of petroleum-contaminated soil as an effective monitoring approach.

    PubMed

    Shahi, Aiyoub; Aydin, Sevcan; Ince, Bahar; Ince, Orhan

    2016-03-01

    This study investigated the abundance and diversity of soil n-alkane and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH)-degrading bacterial communities. It also investigated the quantity of the functional genes, the occurrence of horizontal gene transfer (HGT) in the identified bacterial communities and the effect that such HGT can have on biostimulation process. Illumina sequencing was used to detect the microbial diversity of petroleum-polluted soil prior to the biostimulation process, and quantitative real-time PCR was used to determine changes in the bacterial community and functional genes (alkB, phnAc and nah) expressions throughout the biostimulation of petroleum-contaminated soil. The illumine results revealed that γ-proteobacteria, Chloroflexi, Firmicutes, and δ-proteobacteria were the most dominant bacterial phyla in the contaminated site, and that most of the strains were Gram-negative. The results of the gene expression results revealed that gram-negative bacteria and alkB are critical to successful bioremediation. Failure to maintain the stability of hydrocarbon-degrading bacteria and functional gene will reduce the extend to which alkanes and PAHs are degraded. According to the results of the study, the application of a C:N:P ratio of was 100:15:1 in the biodegradation experiment resulted in the highest rate at which petroleum hydrocarbons were biodegraded. The diversity of pollutant-degrading bacteria and the effective transfer of degrading genes among resident microorganisms are essential factors for the successful biostimulation of petroleum hydrocarbons. As such, screening these factors throughout the biostimulation process represents an effective monitoring approach by which the success of the biostimulation can be assessed. PMID:26685788

  11. Field Evaluation of Agrotis ipsilon (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) Pheromone Blends and Their Application to Monitoring Moth Populations in China.

    PubMed

    Du, Yongjun; Feng, Bo; Li, Hongguang; Liu, Chunming; Zeng, Juan; Pan, Lieming; Yu, Qing

    2015-06-01

    The attractiveness of a series of mixtures of (Z)-7-dodecenyl acetate (Z7-12:Ac), (Z)-9-tetradecenyl acetate (Z9-14:Ac), and (Z)-11-hexadecenyl acetate (Z11-16:Ac), the Agrotis ipsilon (Hufnagel) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) pheromone, were evaluated in four locations in China. The ternary blend of Z7-12:Ac, Z9-14:Ac, and Z11-16:Ac was the complete pheromone blend for A. ipsilon and the ratio of Z7-12:Ac and Z9-14:Ac was optimal at 3:1. The most attractive ratio of Z11-16:Ac to the other components depended on geographic location. The optimal ratio was 3:1:6 in Yunnan and Shanxi, 3:1:2 in Sichuan and ranged from 3:1:2 to 3:1:12 in Shanghai, which differs significantly from the ratio of 3:1:16 in Japan. The dose of the blend in the pheromone lure influenced attractiveness to male moths and was related to the temperature in the test locations. Attractiveness of sugar-acetic acid-baited and pheromone-baited traps to male and female moths was different before and after the start of flowering of the oilseed rape crop; large numbers of female moths were attracted to sugar-acetic acid traps before flowering but none after flowering had started. This was similar for male moths and there was no synergistic effect when sugar-acetic acid solutions and pheromone were used together. These studies suggest that pheromone trapping based on the blends of three components can be an effective tool to improve the efficiency of monitoring of this pest in China.

  12. Field Evaluation of Agrotis ipsilon (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) Pheromone Blends and Their Application to Monitoring Moth Populations in China.

    PubMed

    Du, Yongjun; Feng, Bo; Li, Hongguang; Liu, Chunming; Zeng, Juan; Pan, Lieming; Yu, Qing

    2015-06-01

    The attractiveness of a series of mixtures of (Z)-7-dodecenyl acetate (Z7-12:Ac), (Z)-9-tetradecenyl acetate (Z9-14:Ac), and (Z)-11-hexadecenyl acetate (Z11-16:Ac), the Agrotis ipsilon (Hufnagel) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) pheromone, were evaluated in four locations in China. The ternary blend of Z7-12:Ac, Z9-14:Ac, and Z11-16:Ac was the complete pheromone blend for A. ipsilon and the ratio of Z7-12:Ac and Z9-14:Ac was optimal at 3:1. The most attractive ratio of Z11-16:Ac to the other components depended on geographic location. The optimal ratio was 3:1:6 in Yunnan and Shanxi, 3:1:2 in Sichuan and ranged from 3:1:2 to 3:1:12 in Shanghai, which differs significantly from the ratio of 3:1:16 in Japan. The dose of the blend in the pheromone lure influenced attractiveness to male moths and was related to the temperature in the test locations. Attractiveness of sugar-acetic acid-baited and pheromone-baited traps to male and female moths was different before and after the start of flowering of the oilseed rape crop; large numbers of female moths were attracted to sugar-acetic acid traps before flowering but none after flowering had started. This was similar for male moths and there was no synergistic effect when sugar-acetic acid solutions and pheromone were used together. These studies suggest that pheromone trapping based on the blends of three components can be an effective tool to improve the efficiency of monitoring of this pest in China. PMID:26313979

  13. Data quality monitoring and performance metrics of a prospective, population-based observational study of maternal and newborn health in low resource settings

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Background To describe quantitative data quality monitoring and performance metrics adopted by the Global Network’s (GN) Maternal Newborn Health Registry (MNHR), a maternal and perinatal population-based registry (MPPBR) based in low and middle income countries (LMICs). Methods Ongoing prospective, population-based data on all pregnancy outcomes within defined geographical locations participating in the GN have been collected since 2008. Data quality metrics were defined and are implemented at the cluster, site and the central level to ensure data quality. Quantitative performance metrics are described for data collected between 2010 and 2013. Results Delivery outcome rates over 95% illustrate that all sites are successful in following patients from pregnancy through delivery. Examples of specific performance metric reports illustrate how both the metrics and reporting process are used to identify cluster-level and site-level quality issues and illustrate how those metrics track over time. Other summary reports (e.g. the increasing proportion of measured birth weight compared to estimated and missing birth weight) illustrate how a site has improved quality over time. Conclusion High quality MPPBRs such as the MNHR provide key information on pregnancy outcomes to local and international health officials where civil registration systems are lacking. The MNHR has measures in place to monitor data collection procedures and improve the quality of data collected. Sites have increasingly achieved acceptable values of performance metrics over time, indicating improvements in data quality, but the quality control program must continue to evolve to optimize the use of the MNHR to assess the impact of community interventions in research protocols in pregnancy and perinatal health. Trial registration number NCT01073475 PMID:26062714

  14. Double sampling for stratification for the monitoring of sparse tree populations: the example of Populus euphratica Oliv. forests at the lower reaches of Tarim River, Southern Xinjiang, China.

    PubMed

    Lam, Tzeng Yih; Kleinn, Christoph; Coenradie, Bodo

    2011-04-01

    Desertification is a pressing issue in the dry Tarim River basin, which is under anthropogenic stresses. In this study, double sampling for stratification (DSS) is employed to inventory Populus euphratica Oliv. forests in the lower reaches of the Tarim River Basin in Xinjiang, China. The two objectives were evaluating DSS as a sampling technique for monitoring desertification and generating baseline information for permanent observation. Here, DSS consists of two phases: in phase 1, crown cover is observed on a large sample of plots on a high resolution satellite image, and these photo-plots are stratified into five crown cover strata. Phase 2 is a stratified random sample from these photo-plots and the sampled plots are field observed. Approximately 32% of the study area is without P. euphratica trees. As expected, estimated mean poplar tree density and basal area increase with crown cover. DSS takes advantages of stratification (fieldwork efficiency and statistical precision) without the need for a priori strata delineation. It proves feasible for inventory the sparse poplar population and holds promise for the assessment of trees outside the forest, where density varies considerably and pre-stratification is intractable. It can be integrated into permanent observation systems for monitoring vegetation changes. PMID:20480391

  15. Double sampling for stratification for the monitoring of sparse tree populations: the example of Populus euphratica Oliv. forests at the lower reaches of Tarim River, Southern Xinjiang, China.

    PubMed

    Lam, Tzeng Yih; Kleinn, Christoph; Coenradie, Bodo

    2011-04-01

    Desertification is a pressing issue in the dry Tarim River basin, which is under anthropogenic stresses. In this study, double sampling for stratification (DSS) is employed to inventory Populus euphratica Oliv. forests in the lower reaches of the Tarim River Basin in Xinjiang, China. The two objectives were evaluating DSS as a sampling technique for monitoring desertification and generating baseline information for permanent observation. Here, DSS consists of two phases: in phase 1, crown cover is observed on a large sample of plots on a high resolution satellite image, and these photo-plots are stratified into five crown cover strata. Phase 2 is a stratified random sample from these photo-plots and the sampled plots are field observed. Approximately 32% of the study area is without P. euphratica trees. As expected, estimated mean poplar tree density and basal area increase with crown cover. DSS takes advantages of stratification (fieldwork efficiency and statistical precision) without the need for a priori strata delineation. It proves feasible for inventory the sparse poplar population and holds promise for the assessment of trees outside the forest, where density varies considerably and pre-stratification is intractable. It can be integrated into permanent observation systems for monitoring vegetation changes.

  16. A national system for monitoring the population of agricultural pests using an integrated approach of remote sensing data from in situ automated traps and satellite images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Diofantos, Hadjimitsis G.; Panayiotis, Philimis; Elias, Psimolophitis; Georgiou, George K.; Kyriacos, Themistocleous

    2010-10-01

    A national system for monitoring the population increase of agricultural pest "Lobesia Botrana" (vine moth/fly that attacks grapes) in Cyprus has been developed. The system comprises of automated delta traps with GPS that use wireless(Wi-Fi) camera, automated image analysis for identification of the specific fly species, Wi-Fi technology for transferring the data using mobile telephony network to a central station for result presentation and analysis. A GIS database was developed and included details of the pilot vineyards, environmental conditions and daily data of the number of captured flies from each automated trap. The results were compared with MODIS and LANDSAT satellite thermal images since the appearance of the vine fly is greatly dependent on the microclimate temperatures (degree days). Results showed that satellite data can estimate accurately the appearance of the vine fly. The proposed system can be an important tool for the improvement of a national Integrated Pest Management (IPM) system and it can also be used for monitoring other agricultural pests and insects.

  17. Turning population trend monitoring into active conservation: Can we save the cascades frog (Rang cascadae) in the Lassen Region of California?

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Fellers, G.M.; Pope, K.L.; Stead, J.E.; Koo, M.S.; Welsh, W.H.

    2008-01-01

    Monitoring the distribution, population size, and trends of declining species is necessary to evaluate their vulnerability to extinction. It is the responsibility of scientists to alert management professionals of the need for preemptive action if a species approaches imminent, regional extirpation. This is the case with Rana cascadae (Cascades Frog) populations near Lassen Peak From 1993 to 2007, we conducted 1,873 amphibian surveys at 856 sites within Lassen Volcanic National Park and Lassen National Forest, California, USA. These surveys encompassed all R. cascadae habitats: ponds, lakes, meadows, and streams on those lands. We found frogs at only six sites during 14 years of surveys, and obtained one report of a single frog at one additional locality. These sites represented 12 years. Causes for the decline remain unclear, but introduced trout, disease, and pesticides are likely factors. We recommend that (1) additional protection for R. cascadae within 50 km of Lassen Peak; (2) investigation of the genetics of R. cascadae in California; (3) research into the role of possible causative factors in these declines; and (4) implementation of a feasibility study to captive breed and reintroduce R. cascadae in the Lassen area. Copyright ?? 2008. Gary Fellers. All rights reserved.

  18. Kokanee Impacts Assessment and Monitoring on Lake Pend Oreille, Idaho, Annual Progress Report for October 1995-September 1996.

    SciTech Connect

    Maiolie, Melo A.

    1998-09-01

    The purpose of this project was to Monitor Lake Pend Oreille's kokanee Oncorhynchus nerka kennerlyi population. Data will serve as a baseline for evaluating the benefits of a higher winter lake level beginning in 1996. We estimated the kokanee population in Lake Pend Oreille using a Hauser-type midwater trawl during August 1995 and September 1996. Population estimates in 1995 were 4.55 million age-0 kokanee, 2.87 million age-1 kokanee, 1.52 million age-2 kokanee, 0.74 million age-3 kokanee, 0.15 million age-4 kokanee, and 42,000 age-5 kokanee. Population estimates in 1996 were 5.42 million age-0 kokanee, 3.57 million age-1 kokanee, 3.17 million age-2 kokanee, 0.67 million age-3 kokanee, 0.44 million age-4 kokanee, and no age-5 kokanee. These were two of the highest total populations of kokanee since trawling began in 1977; largely due to high numbers of young kokanee. The densities of age-4 and 5 kokanee (which make up the bulk of the fishery), however, were the lowest on record in 1995 and average in 1996. We also surveyed traditional shoreline and tributary spawning areas. Counts of kokanee spawning in tributaries during 1995 were relatively consistent with previous years (6,261 kokanee). Counts of spawners along the shorelines reached a new record low of only 74 kokanee; a 93 percent decline from 1994. During December 1996, both counts dropped to their lowest point on record. Only 49 fish were seen spawning along the shorelines, and only 819 fish were seen in tributary streams. These low counts may have been partially due to higher lake levels during the spawning seasons. Higher than normal lake levels made additional gravel available for kokanee spawning in many areas of the lake. Possibly this caused kokanee to spread along the shorelines and reduced the spawner counts. Kokanee fry that had been fin clipped and stocked at the Cabinet Gorge Fish Hatchery Ladder in 1991 and 1992 returned at a rate of 0.27% and 0.14% once they matured. This return rate was much

  19. On signals of phase transitions in salmon population dynamics.

    PubMed

    Krkošek, Martin; Drake, John M

    2014-06-01

    Critical slowing down (CSD) reflects the decline in resilience of equilibria near a bifurcation and may reveal early warning signals (EWS) of ecological phase transitions. We studied CSD in the recruitment dynamics of 120 stocks of three Pacific salmon (Oncorhynchus spp.) species in relation to critical transitions in fishery models. Pink salmon (Oncorhynchus gorbuscha) exhibited increased variability and autocorrelation in populations that had a growth parameter, r, close to zero, consistent with EWS of extinction. However, models and data for sockeye salmon (Oncorhynchus nerka) indicate that portfolio effects from heterogeneity in age-at-maturity may obscure EWS. Chum salmon (Oncorhynchus keta) show intermediate results. The data do not reveal EWS of Ricker-type bifurcations that cause oscillations and chaos at high r. These results not only provide empirical support for CSD in some ecological systems, but also indicate that portfolio effects of age structure may conceal EWS of some critical transitions. PMID:24759855

  20. Prevalence of Masked Hypertension: a Population-Based Survey in a Large City by Using 24-Hour Ambulatory Blood Pressure Monitoring

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Sun-Woong; Choi, Eun-Hee; Kim, Ji-Hyun; Nah, Deuk-Young; Shin, Sung-Joon; Gu, Namyi

    2016-01-01

    Background and Objectives We estimated the prevalence of hypertension and hypertension subtypes in a large semi-urban city in Korea, using 24-hour ambulatory blood pressure monitoring (ABPM) in a randomly selected sample population. Subjects and Methods A random sample (aged 20-65 years) from a city with an adult population of approximately 600000 was selected by using a list-assisted random digit dialing method. The 24-hour ABPM and conventional blood pressure measurement (CBPM) of these individuals were obtained. Results Among the 496 participants, valid 24-hour ABPM and CBPM were obtained from 462 (93%) individuals. The estimated prevalence of hypertension in Goyang was 17.54% by CBPM and 32.70% by 24-hour ABPM (p<0.01). In the age stratified analysis, both CBPM and 24-hour ABPM showed increased prevalence of hypertension with age. The estimated prevalence of masked hypertension was 16.22% and that of white-coat hypertension was 1.08%. Men had a higher prevalence of masked hypertension than women (20.79% vs. 11.86%, p=0.0295). The estimated prevalence of masked hypertension was 17.5%, 20.58%, 24.34%, and 13.29% in the age categories of 30s, 40s, 50s, and 60s, respectively. The estimated prevalence of masked uncontrolled hypertension was 26.79% in patients with hypertension who were taking antihypertensive medications. Conclusion The estimated prevalence of hypertension by 24-hour ABPM was higher than that by CBPM, revealing high prevalence of masked hypertension. The high prevalence of masked hypertension supports the adoption of ABPM in the national population survey and clinical practice to improve public health and reduce health care costs. PMID:27721860

  1. Development of a novel sticky trap for container-breeding mosquitoes and evaluation of its sampling properties to monitor urban populations of Aedes albopictus.

    PubMed

    Facchinelli, L; Valerio, L; Pombi, M; Reiter, P; Costantini, C; Della Torre, A

    2007-06-01

    Collection methods currently used for large-scale sampling of adult Stegomyia mosquitoes (Diptera: Culicidae) present several operational limitations, which constitute major drawbacks to the epidemiological surveillance of arboviruses, the evaluation of the impact of control strategies, and the surveillance of the spreading of allochthonous species into non-endemic regions. Here, we describe a new sticky trap designed to capture adult container-breeding mosquitoes and to monitor their population dynamics. We tested the sampling properties of the sticky trap in Rome, Italy, where Aedes (Stegomyia) albopictus is common. The results of our observations, and the comparison between sticky trap catches and catches made with the standard oviposition trap, are presented. The sticky trap collected significantly larger numbers of Ae. albopictus females than any other Culicidae species representing >90% of the total catches. A maximum of 83 An. albopictus females was collected in a single week. A high correlation (Pearson correlation coefficient r= 0.96) was found between the number of females and the number of eggs collected by the traps. The functional relationship between the number of eggs and the number of adult females was assessed by major axis regression fitted to log(1 +x)-transformed trap counts as y= 0.065 + 1.695x. Trap samples significantly departed from a random distribution; Taylor's power law was fitted to the trap samples to quantify the degree of aggregation in the catches, returning the equations s(2)= 2.401 m(1.325) for the sticky trap and s(2)= 13.068 m(1.441) for the ovitrap, with s(2) and m denoting the weekly catch variance and mean, respectively, indicating that eggs were significantly more aggregated than mosquitoes (P < 0.0001). Taylor's power law parameters were used to estimate the minimum number of sample units necessary to obtain sample estimates with a fixed degree of precision and sensitivity. For the range of densities encountered in our

  2. Monitoring larval populations of the douglas-fir tussock moth and the western spruce budworm on permanent plots: Sampling methods and statistical properties of data. Forest Service general technical report

    SciTech Connect

    Mason, R.R.; Paul, H.G.

    1994-05-01

    Procedures for monitoring Larval populations of the Douglas-fir tussock moth and the western spruce budworm are recommended based on many years experience of sample these species in eastern Oregon and Washington. It is shown that statistically reliable estimates of larval density can be made for a population by sampling host trees in a series of permanent plots in a geographical monitoring unit. The most practical method is to estimate densities of both insect species simultaneously on a plot by the nondestructive sampling of foliage on lower crown branches of host trees. For best results, sampling methods need to be consistent with monitoring done annually to accumulate continuous databases that reflect the behavior of defoliator populations over a long period of time.

  3. Titre distribution patterns of infectious haematopoietic necrosis virus in ovarian fluids of hatchery and feral salmon populations

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Mulcahy, D.; Pascho, R.J.; Jenes, C.K.

    1983-01-01

    Infectious haematopoietic mecrosis virus (IHNV) is enzootic in virtually all populations of sockeye salmon, Oncorhynchus nerka (Walbaum), and in populations of chinook salmon, O. 1shawytscha (Walbaum), of the Sacramento River drainage in California. This disease is an obstacle in hatcheries using brood stocks from these populations. However, naturally spawning sockeye salmon are highly successful and are the most important commercially fished salmon species in the United States. Most of the commercial landings of sockeye salmon are of feral fish originating in Alaska. The success of natural populations of salmon in which IHNV is enzootic, and the recurrent outbreaks of the disease in hatchery fish, led us to compare IHNW prevalence rates in hatchery and feral salmon populations.

  4. Snake River Sockeye Salmon Habitat and Limnological Research; 1997 Annual Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Taki, Doug; Lewis, Bert; Griswold, Bob (Biolines, Stanley, ID

    1999-08-01

    Since the late 1980's, Snake River sockeye Oncorhynchus nerka adults have only returned to Redfish Lake, one of five lakes in the Sawtooth Basin which historically reared sockeye. 1997 project objectives included (1) characterization of the limnology of Sawtooth Valley lakes; (2) fertilization of Redfish, Pettit, and Alturas lakes; (3) O.nerka lake population surveys; (4) estimation of kokanee escapement and fry production in Alturas Lake Creek, Stanley Lake Creek, and Fishhook Creek; (5) reduce the number of spawning kokanee in Fishook Creek; (6) evaluate hatchery rainbow trout overwinter survival and potential competition and predation interactions with O.nerka in Pettit Lake; (7) assess predation from bull trout Salvelinus malma, brook trout S.fontinalis, and northern squawfish Ptychocheilus oregonsis on lentic O.nerka; (8) establish screw tap and weir sites to monitor smolt emigration.

  5. Examining the social determinants of children's developmental health: protocol for building a pan-Canadian population-based monitoring system for early childhood development

    PubMed Central

    Guhn, Martin; Janus, Magdalena; Enns, Jennifer; Brownell, Marni; Forer, Barry; Duku, Eric; Muhajarine, Nazeem; Raos, Rob

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Early childhood is a key period to establish policies and practices that optimise children's health and development, but Canada lacks nationally representative data on social indicators of children's well-being. To address this gap, the Early Development Instrument (EDI), a teacher-administered questionnaire completed for kindergarten-age children, has been implemented across most Canadian provinces over the past 10 years. The purpose of this protocol is to describe the Canadian Neighbourhoods and Early Child Development (CanNECD) Study, the aims of which are to create a pan-Canadian EDI database to monitor trends over time in children's developmental health and to advance research examining the social determinants of health. Methods and analysis Canada-wide EDI records from 2004 to 2014 (representing over 700 000 children) will be linked to Canada Census and Income Taxfiler data. Variables of socioeconomic status derived from these databases will be used to predict neighbourhood-level EDI vulnerability rates by conducting a series of regression analyses and latent variable models at provincial/territorial and national levels. Where data are available, we will measure the neighbourhood-level change in developmental vulnerability rates over time and model the socioeconomic factors associated with those trends. Ethics and dissemination Ethics approval for this study was granted by the Behavioural Research Ethics Board at the University of British Columbia. Study findings will be disseminated to key partners, including provincial and federal ministries, schools and school districts, collaborative community groups and the early childhood development research community. The database created as part of this longitudinal population-level monitoring system will allow researchers to associate practices, programmes and policies at school and community levels with trends in developmental health outcomes. The CanNECD Study will guide future early childhood

  6. Monitoring prevention or emergence of HIV drug resistance: results of a population-based foundational survey of early warning indicators in mainland Tanzania

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background In Tanzania, routine individual-level testing for HIV drug resistance (HIVDR) using laboratory genotyping and phenotyping is not feasible due to resource constraints. To monitor the prevention or emergence of HIVDR at a population level, WHO developed generic strategies to be adapted by countries, which include a set of early warning indicators (EWIs). Methods To establish a baseline of EWIs, we conducted a retrospective longitudinal survey of 35 purposively sampled care and treatment clinics in 17 regions of mainland Tanzania. We extracted data relevant for four EWIs (ART prescribing practices, patients lost to follow-up 12 months after ART initiation, retention on first-line ART at 12 months, and ART clinic appointment keeping in the first 12 months) from the patient monitoring system on patients who initiated ART at each respective facility in 2010. We uploaded patient information into WHO HIVResNet excel-based tool to compute national and facility averages of the EWIs and tested for associations between various programmatic factors and EWI performance using Fisher’s Exact Test. Results All sampled facilities met the WHO EWI target (100%) for ART prescribing practices. However, the national averages for patients lost to follow-up 12 months after ART initiation, retention on first-line ART at 12 months, and ART clinic appointment keeping in the first 12 months fell short, at 26%, 54% and 38%, respectively, compared to the WHO targets ≤ 20%, ≥ 70%, and ≥ 80%. Clinics with fewer patients lost to follow-up 12 months after ART initiation and more patients retained on first-line-ART at 12 months were more likely to have their patients spend the longest time in the facility (including wait-time and time with providers), (p = 0.011 and 0.007, respectively). Conclusion Tanzania performed very well in EWI 1a, ART prescribing practices. However, its performance in other three EWIs was far below the WHO targets. This study provides a

  7. Monitoring Dry Season Persistence of Anopheles gambiae s.l. Populations in a Contained Semi-Field System in Southwestern Burkina Faso, West Africa.

    PubMed

    Mamai, W; Simard, F; Couret, D; Ouedraogo, G A; Renault, D; Dabiré, K R; Mouline, K

    2016-01-01

    To gain insight into the dry season survival strategies of Anopheles gambiae s.l., a new contained semi-field system was developed and used for the first time in Burkina Faso, West Africa. The system consisted of a screened greenhouse within which the local environment was reproduced, including all ecological requirements for mosquito development cycle completion. The system was seeded with the progenies of female Anopheles gambiae, Anopheles coluzzii, and Anopheles arabiensis collected in the vicinity of the greenhouse during the rainy season. After successful establishment in the semi-field system, mosquito populations were monitored over a 1-yr period by regular surveys of larval and adult specimens. We provided evidence for the persistence of adult mosquitoes throughout the dry season, in the absence of any suitable larval development site. During the hot and dry periods, adult insects were observed in artificial shelters (clay pots, building blocks, and dark corners). The mosquito population rapidly built up with the return of the rainy season in the area, when artificial breeding sites were refilled in the enclosure. However, only An. coluzzii and, later, An. arabiensis were detected in the subsequent rainy season, whereas no An. gambiae specimen was found. Our findings suggest that An. coluzzii and An. arabiensis may be able to aestivate throughout the dry season in Southwestern Burkina Faso, whereas An. gambiae might adopt a different dry-season survival strategy, such as long-distance re-colonization from distant locations. These results may have important implications for malaria control through targeted vector control interventions. PMID:26576935

  8. Estimating population density of the Formosan subterranean termite, Coptotermes formosanus(Isoptera: Rhinotermitidae) using the effective sampling area of in-ground monitoring stations.

    PubMed

    Puche, H; Su, N-Y

    2004-02-01

    The effective sampling area of a monitoring station, alpha, was calculated for several Coptotermes formosanus Shiraki colonies in Broward County, Florida, USA. A simple mark-recapture protocol provided data on termite station catch within a foraging range of a colony. Average recapture probability was 0.005 close to the release point (< 5 m) and declined to 0.0008 at a distance of 51 to 60 m. The relation between the log % termites recaptured was fitted with log distance, to determine P(x), the average proportion of captured termites that started at distance x from the release point. The effective sampling area was estimated by using P(x) and the equation, alpha 2 pi integral [ x P(x)] dx. Integrating this equation, an average estimate alpha that ranged from 0.607 to 14.5 m2 was obtained. Factors influencing the variation of alpha among the colonies are discussed. The effective sampling area estimated should be taken as a reliable estimator that translates subterranean termite catches into termite population density. PMID:14972049

  9. Smolt Monitoring Program, Volume II, Migrational Characteristics of Columbia Basin Salmon and Steelhead Trout, 1986 Annual Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Fish Passage Center

    1987-02-01

    Smolt Monitoring Program Annual Report, 1986, Volume I, describes the results of travel time monitoring and other migrational characteristics of yearling and sub-yearling chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha), sockeye salmon (Oncorhynchus nerka), and steelhead trout (Salmo gairdneri). This volume presents the data from Fish Passage Center freeze brands used in the analysis of travel time for Lewiston, Lower Granite, Lower Monumental, Rock Island, McNary, and John Day dams. Summary of data collection procedures and explanation of data listings are presented in conjunction with the mark recapture data. Data for marked fish not presented in this report will be provided upon request. Daily catch statistics (by species), flow, and sample parameters for the smolt monitoring sites, Clearwater, Lewiston, Lower Granite, Lower Monumental, Rock Island, McNary, John Day, and Bonneville also will be provided upon request.

  10. Disentangling the roles of air exposure, gill net injury, and facilitated recovery on the postcapture and release mortality and behavior of adult migratory sockeye salmon (Oncorhynchus nerka) in freshwater.

    PubMed

    Nguyen, Vivian M; Martins, Eduardo G; Robichaud, Dave; Raby, Graham D; Donaldson, Michael R; Lotto, Andrew G; Willmore, William G; Patterson, David A; Farrell, Anthony P; Hinch, Scott G; Cooke, Steven J

    2014-01-01

    We sought to improve the understanding of delayed mortality in migrating sockeye salmon (Oncorhynchus nerka) captured and released in freshwater fisheries. Using biotelemetry, blood physiology, and reflex assessments, we evaluated the relative roles of gill net injury and air exposure and investigated whether using a recovery box improved survival. Fish (n=238), captured by beach seine, were allocated to four treatment groups: captured only, air exposed, injured, and injured and air exposed. Only half of the fish in each group were provided with a 15-min facilitated recovery. After treatment, fish were radio-tagged and released to resume their migration. Blood status was assessed in 36 additional untagged fish sampled after the four treatments. Compared with fish sampled immediately on capture, all treatments resulted in elevated plasma lactate and cortisol concentrations. After air exposure, plasma osmolality was elevated and reflexes were significantly impaired relative to the control and injured treatments. Injured fish exhibited reduced short-term migration speed by 3.2 km/d and had a 14.5% reduced survival to subnatal watersheds compared to controls. The 15-min facilitated recovery improved reflex assessment relative to fish released immediately but did not affect survival. We suggest that in sockeye salmon migrating in cool water temperatures (∼13°-16°C), delayed mortality can result from injury and air exposure, perhaps through sublethal stress, and that injury created additive delayed mortality likely via secondary infections.

  11. Disentangling the roles of air exposure, gill net injury, and facilitated recovery on the postcapture and release mortality and behavior of adult migratory sockeye salmon (Oncorhynchus nerka) in freshwater.

    PubMed

    Nguyen, Vivian M; Martins, Eduardo G; Robichaud, Dave; Raby, Graham D; Donaldson, Michael R; Lotto, Andrew G; Willmore, William G; Patterson, David A; Farrell, Anthony P; Hinch, Scott G; Cooke, Steven J

    2014-01-01

    We sought to improve the understanding of delayed mortality in migrating sockeye salmon (Oncorhynchus nerka) captured and released in freshwater fisheries. Using biotelemetry, blood physiology, and reflex assessments, we evaluated the relative roles of gill net injury and air exposure and investigated whether using a recovery box improved survival. Fish (n=238), captured by beach seine, were allocated to four treatment groups: captured only, air exposed, injured, and injured and air exposed. Only half of the fish in each group were provided with a 15-min facilitated recovery. After treatment, fish were radio-tagged and released to resume their migration. Blood status was assessed in 36 additional untagged fish sampled after the four treatments. Compared with fish sampled immediately on capture, all treatments resulted in elevated plasma lactate and cortisol concentrations. After air exposure, plasma osmolality was elevated and reflexes were significantly impaired relative to the control and injured treatments. Injured fish exhibited reduced short-term migration speed by 3.2 km/d and had a 14.5% reduced survival to subnatal watersheds compared to controls. The 15-min facilitated recovery improved reflex assessment relative to fish released immediately but did not affect survival. We suggest that in sockeye salmon migrating in cool water temperatures (∼13°-16°C), delayed mortality can result from injury and air exposure, perhaps through sublethal stress, and that injury created additive delayed mortality likely via secondary infections. PMID:24457927

  12. Lake Roosevelt Fisheries Evaluation Program : Limnological and Fisheries Monitoring Annual Report 1999.

    SciTech Connect

    McLellan, Holly; Lee, Chuck; Scofield, Ben; Pavlik, Deanne

    1999-08-01

    The Grand Coulee Dam was constructed in 1939 without a fish ladder, which eliminated steelhead (Onchorhynchus mykiss), chinook salmon (O. twshwastica), coho salmon (O. kisutch) and sockeye salmon (O. nerka) from returning to approximately 1,835 km (1,140 miles) of natal streams and tributaries found in the upper Columbia River Drainage in the United States and Canada. The Pacific Northwest Electric Power Planning and Conservation Act of 1980 gave the Bonneville Power Administration (BPA), the authority and responsibility to use its legal and financial resources, 'to protect, mitigate, and enhance fish and wildlife to the extent affected by the development and operation of any hydroelectric project of the Columbia River and its tributaries. This is to be done in a manner consistent with the program adopted by the Northwest Power Planning Council (NWPPC), and the purposes of the Act' (NWPPC, 1987). With the phrase 'protect, mitigate and enhance', Congress signaled its intent that the NWPPC's fish and wildlife program should do more than avoid future hydroelectric damage to the basin's fish and wildlife. The program must also counter past damage, work toward rebuilding those fish and wildlife populations that have been harmed by the hydropower system, protect the Columbia Basin's fish and wildlife resources, and mitigate for harm caused by decades of hydroelectric development and operations. By law, this program is limited to measures that deal with impacts created by the development, operation and management of hydroelectric facilities on the Columbia River and its tributaries. However, off-site enhancement projects are used to address the effects of the hydropower system on fish and wildlife (NWPPC 1987). Resident game fish populations have been established in Franklin D. Roosevelt Lake, the reservoir behind Grand Coulee Dam, since the extirpation of anadromous fish species. The resident game fish populations are now responsible for attracting a large percentage of

  13. The Development of K-8 Progress Monitoring Measures in Mathematics for Use with the 2% and General Education Populations: Grade 4. Technical Report # 09-03

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alonzo, Julie; Lai, Cheng Fei; Tindal, Gerald

    2009-01-01

    In this technical report, we describe the development and piloting of a series of mathematics progress monitoring measures intended for use with students in grades kindergarten through eighth grade. These measures, available as part of easyCBM[TM], an online progress monitoring assessment system, were developed in 2007 and 2008 and administered to…

  14. The Development of K-8 Progress Monitoring Measures in Mathematics for Use with the 2% and General Education Populations: Grade 1. Technical Report # 0919

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alonzo, Julie; Tindal, Gerald

    2009-01-01

    In this technical report, we describe the development and piloting of a series of mathematics progress monitoring measures intended for use with students in grade 1. These measures, available as part of easyCBM [TM], an online progress monitoring assessment system, were developed in 2008 and administered to approximately 2800 students from schools…

  15. The Development of K-8 Progress Monitoring Measures in Mathematics for Use with the 2% and General Education Populations: Kindergarten. Technical Report # 0921

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alonzo, Julie; Tindal, Gerald

    2009-01-01

    In this technical report, we describe the development and piloting of a series of mathematics progress monitoring measures intended for use with students in kindergarten. These measures, available as part of easyCBM[TM], an online progress monitoring assessment system, were developed in 2008 and administered to approximately 2800 students from…

  16. The Development of K-8 Progress Monitoring Measures in Mathematics for Use with the 2% and General Education Populations: Grade 8. Technical Report # 09-04

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lai, Cheng Fei; Alonzo, Julie; Tindal, Gerald

    2009-01-01

    In this technical report, we describe the development and piloting of a series of mathematics progress monitoring measures intended for use with students in grades kindergarten through eighth grade. These measures, available as part of easyCBM[TM], an online progress monitoring assessment system, were developed in 2007 and 2008 and administered to…

  17. The Development of K-8 Progress Monitoring Measures in Mathematics for Use with the 2% and General Education Populations: Grade 5. Technical Report # 09-01

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lai, Cheng Fei; Alonzo, Julie; Tindal, Gerald

    2009-01-01

    In this technical report, we describe the development and piloting of a series of mathematics progress monitoring measures intended for use with students in grades kindergarten through eighth grade. These measures, available as part of easyCBM[TM], an online progress monitoring assessment system, were developed in 2007 and 2008 and administered to…

  18. The Development of K-8 Progress Monitoring Measures in Mathematics for Use with the 2% and General Education Populations: Grade 2. Technical Report # 0920

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alonzo, Julie; Lai, Cheng Fei; Tindal, Gerald

    2009-01-01

    In this technical report, we describe the development and piloting of a series of mathematics progress monitoring measures intended for use with students in grades kindergarten through eighth grade. These measures, available as part of easyCBM[TM], an online progress monitoring assessment system, were developed in 2007 and 2008 and administered to…

  19. The Development of K-8 Progress Monitoring Measures in Mathematics for Use with the 2% and General Education Populations: Grade 7. Technical Report 0908

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lai, Cheng Fei; Alonzo, Julie; Tindal, Gerald

    2009-01-01

    In this technical report, we describe the development and piloting of a series of mathematics progress monitoring measures intended for use with students in grades kindergarten through eighth grade. These measures, available as part of easyCBM[TM], an online progress monitoring assessment system, were developed in 2007 and 2008 and administered to…

  20. The Development of K-8 Progress Monitoring Measures in Mathematics for Use with the 2% and General Education Populations: Grade 3. Technical Report # 09-02

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alonzo, Julie; Lai, Cheng Fei; Tindal, Gerald

    2009-01-01

    In this technical report, we describe the development and piloting of a series of mathematics progress monitoring measures intended for use with students in grades kindergarten through eighth grade. These measures, available as part of easyCBM[TM], an online progress monitoring assessment system, were developed in 2007 and 2008 and administered to…

  1. Guidance for the application of a population modeling framework in coordination with field based monitoring studies for multiple species and sites

    EPA Science Inventory

    A modeling framework was developed that can be applied in conjunction with field based monitoring efforts (e.g., through effects-based monitoring programs) to link chemically-induced alterations in molecular and biochemical endpoints to adverse outcomes in whole organisms and pop...

  2. Monitoring dolphins in an urban marine system: total and effective population size estimates of Indo-Pacific bottlenose dolphins in Moreton Bay, Australia.

    PubMed

    Ansmann, Ina C; Lanyon, Janet M; Seddon, Jennifer M; Parra, Guido J

    2013-01-01

    Moreton Bay, Queensland, Australia is an area of high biodiversity and conservation value and home to two sympatric sub-populations of Indo-Pacific bottlenose dolphins (Tursiops aduncus). These dolphins live in close proximity to major urban developments. Successful management requires information regarding their abundance. Here, we estimate total and effective population sizes of bottlenose dolphins in Moreton Bay using photo-identification and genetic data collected during boat-based surveys in 2008-2010. Abundance (N) was estimated using open population mark-recapture models based on sighting histories of distinctive individuals. Effective population size (Ne ) was estimated using the linkage disequilibrium method based on nuclear genetic data at 20 microsatellite markers in skin samples, and corrected for bias caused by overlapping generations (Ne c). A total of 174 sightings of dolphin groups were recorded and 365 different individuals identified. Over the whole of Moreton Bay, a population size N of 554 ± 22.2 (SE) (95% CI: 510-598) was estimated. The southern bay sub-population was small at an estimated N = 193 ± 6.4 (SE) (95% CI: 181-207), while the North sub-population was more numerous, with 446 ± 56 (SE) (95% CI: 336-556) individuals. The small estimated effective population size of the southern sub-population (Ne c = 56, 95% CI: 33-128) raises conservation concerns. A power analysis suggested that to reliably detect small (5%) declines in size of this population would require substantial survey effort (>4 years of annual mark-recapture surveys) at the precision levels achieved here. To ensure that ecological as well as genetic diversity within this population of bottlenose dolphins is preserved, we consider that North and South sub-populations should be treated as separate management units. Systematic surveys over smaller areas holding locally-adapted sub-populations are suggested as an alternative method for increasing ability to detect abundance

  3. Beyond Correlation in the Detection of Climate Change Impacts: Testing a Mechanistic Hypothesis for Climatic Influence on Sockeye Salmon (Oncorhynchus nerka) Productivity.

    PubMed

    Tillotson, Michael D; Quinn, Thomas P

    2016-01-01

    Detecting the biological impacts of climate change is a current focus of ecological research and has important applications in conservation and resource management. Owing to a lack of suitable control systems, measuring correlations between time series of biological attributes and hypothesized environmental covariates is a common method for detecting such impacts. These correlative approaches are particularly common in studies of exploited fish species because rich biological time-series data are often available. However, the utility of species-environment relationships for identifying or predicting biological responses to climate change has been questioned because strong correlations often deteriorate as new data are collected. Specifically stating and critically evaluating the mechanistic relationship(s) linking an environmental driver to a biological response may help to address this problem. Using nearly 60 years of data on sockeye salmon from the Kvichak River, Alaska we tested a mechanistic hypothesis linking water temperatures experienced during freshwater rearing to population productivity by modeling a series of intermediate, deterministic relationships and evaluating temporal trends in biological and environmental time-series. We found that warming waters during freshwater rearing have profoundly altered patterns of growth and life history in this population complex yet there has been no significant correlation between water temperature and metrics of productivity commonly used in fisheries management. These findings demonstrate that pairing correlative approaches with careful consideration of the mechanistic links between populations and their environments can help to both avoid spurious correlations and identify biologically important, but not statistically significant relationships, and ultimately producing more robust conclusions about the biological impacts of climate change. PMID:27123845

  4. Beyond Correlation in the Detection of Climate Change Impacts: Testing a Mechanistic Hypothesis for Climatic Influence on Sockeye Salmon (Oncorhynchus nerka) Productivity

    PubMed Central

    Tillotson, Michael D.; Quinn, Thomas P.

    2016-01-01

    Detecting the biological impacts of climate change is a current focus of ecological research and has important applications in conservation and resource management. Owing to a lack of suitable control systems, measuring correlations between time series of biological attributes and hypothesized environmental covariates is a common method for detecting such impacts. These correlative approaches are particularly common in studies of exploited fish species because rich biological time-series data are often available. However, the utility of species-environment relationships for identifying or predicting biological responses to climate change has been questioned because strong correlations often deteriorate as new data are collected. Specifically stating and critically evaluating the mechanistic relationship(s) linking an environmental driver to a biological response may help to address this problem. Using nearly 60 years of data on sockeye salmon from the Kvichak River, Alaska we tested a mechanistic hypothesis linking water temperatures experienced during freshwater rearing to population productivity by modeling a series of intermediate, deterministic relationships and evaluating temporal trends in biological and environmental time-series. We found that warming waters during freshwater rearing have profoundly altered patterns of growth and life history in this population complex yet there has been no significant correlation between water temperature and metrics of productivity commonly used in fisheries management. These findings demonstrate that pairing correlative approaches with careful consideration of the mechanistic links between populations and their environments can help to both avoid spurious correlations and identify biologically important, but not statistically significant relationships, and ultimately producing more robust conclusions about the biological impacts of climate change. PMID:27123845

  5. Beyond Correlation in the Detection of Climate Change Impacts: Testing a Mechanistic Hypothesis for Climatic Influence on Sockeye Salmon (Oncorhynchus nerka) Productivity.

    PubMed

    Tillotson, Michael D; Quinn, Thomas P

    2016-01-01

    Detecting the biological impacts of climate change is a current focus of ecological research and has important applications in conservation and resource management. Owing to a lack of suitable control systems, measuring correlations between time series of biological attributes and hypothesized environmental covariates is a common method for detecting such impacts. These correlative approaches are particularly common in studies of exploited fish species because rich biological time-series data are often available. However, the utility of species-environment relationships for identifying or predicting biological responses to climate change has been questioned because strong correlations often deteriorate as new data are collected. Specifically stating and critically evaluating the mechanistic relationship(s) linking an environmental driver to a biological response may help to address this problem. Using nearly 60 years of data on sockeye salmon from the Kvichak River, Alaska we tested a mechanistic hypothesis linking water temperatures experienced during freshwater rearing to population productivity by modeling a series of intermediate, deterministic relationships and evaluating temporal trends in biological and environmental time-series. We found that warming waters during freshwater rearing have profoundly altered patterns of growth and life history in this population complex yet there has been no significant correlation between water temperature and metrics of productivity commonly used in fisheries management. These findings demonstrate that pairing correlative approaches with careful consideration of the mechanistic links between populations and their environments can help to both avoid spurious correlations and identify biologically important, but not statistically significant relationships, and ultimately producing more robust conclusions about the biological impacts of climate change.

  6. Self-sustaining populations, population sinks or aggregates of strays: chum (Oncorhynchus keta) and Chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha) in the Wood River system, Alaska.

    PubMed

    Lin, Jocelyn E; Hilborn, Ray; Quinn, Thomas P; Hauser, Lorenz

    2011-12-01

    Small populations can provide insights into ecological and evolutionary aspects of species distributions over space and time. In the Wood River system in Alaska, USA, small aggregates of Chinook (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha) and chum salmon (O. keta) spawn in an area dominated by sockeye salmon (O. nerka). Our objective was to determine whether these Chinook and chum salmon are reproductively isolated, self-sustaining populations, population sinks that produce returning adults but receive immigration, or strays from other systems that do not produce returning adults. DNA samples collected from adult chum salmon from 16 streams and Chinook salmon from four streams in the Wood River system over 3 years were compared to samples from large populations in the nearby Nushagak River system, a likely source of strays. For both species, microsatellite markers indicated no significant genetic differentiation between the two systems. Simulations of microsatellite data in a large source and a smaller sink population suggested that considerable immigration would be required to counteract the diverging effects of genetic drift and produce genetic distances as small as those observed, considering the small census sizes of the two species in the Wood River system. Thus, the Wood River system likely receives substantial immigration from neighbouring watersheds, such as the Nushagak River system, which supports highly productive runs. Although no data on population productivity in the Wood River system exist, our results suggest source-sink dynamics for the two species, a finding relevant to other systems where salmonid population sizes are limited by habitat factors.

  7. Recovery monitoring of pigeon guillemot populations in Prince William Sound, Alaska. Restoration project 94173. Exxon Valdez oil spill restoration project final report

    SciTech Connect

    Hayes, D.L.

    1995-05-01

    The population of pigeon guillemots in Prince William Sound decreased from about 15,000 (1970`s) to about 5,000 (present). Some local populations were affected by the U/V Exxon Valdez oil spill in 1989, but there is evidence suggesting the Sound-wide population was already declining. Predation was the cause of numerous nesting failures. Abandonment of eggs was also high. Changes in the relative proportions of benthic and schooling fish in the diet of guillemot chicks might represent a key change in the ecosystem that is affecting other species of marine birds and mammals in the Sound.

  8. Genetic Monitoring and Evaluation Program for Supplemented Populations of Salmon and Steelhead in the Snake River Basin, 1990-1991 Annual Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Waples, Robin S.; Teel, David J.; Aebersold, Paul B.

    1991-08-01

    This is the first report of research for an ongoing study to evaluate the genetic effects of using hatchery-reared fish to supplement natural populations of chinook salmon and steelhead in the Snake River Basin.

  9. Concern for Others and Its Relationship to Specific Attitudes on Race Relations, Sex Roles, Ecology, and Population Control. Monitoring the Future Occasional Paper 2.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Herzog, A. Regula; And Others

    This analysis of the Monitoring the Future survey of the high school seniors in 1975 focuses on measurement and correlates of prosocial concern. The data base allows for an exploration of the following: (1) the concept of concern for others; (2) its predicted interrelationships with attitudes toward social problems; and (3) the causes of such…

  10. Snake River Sockeye Salmon Habitat and Limnological Research; 1998 Annual Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Lewis, Bert; Griswold, Robert G.; Taki, Doug

    2000-05-01

    In March of 1990, the Shoshone-Bannock Tribes petitioned the National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS) to list the Snake River sockeye salmon (Oncorhynchus nerka) as endangered. As a result of that petition the Snake River sockeye salmon was officially listed as endangered in November 1991 under the Endangered Species Act (56 FR 58619). In 1991 the Snake River Sockeye Salmon Habitat and Limnological Research Program was implemented (Project Number 91-71, Intergovernmental Contract Number DE-BI79-91bp22548). This project is part of an inter-agency effort to save the Redfish Lake stock of O. nerka from extinction. This report summarizes activities conducted by Shoshone-Bannock Tribal Fisheries Department personnel during the calendar year of 1998. Project objectives included; (1) monitor over-winter survival and emigration of juvenile anadromous O. nerka released from the captive rearing program into Pettit and Alturas lakes; (2) fertilize Redfish, Pettit, and Alturas lakes; (3) conduct kokanee (non-anadromous O. nerka) population surveys; (4) monitor spawning kokanee escapement and estimate fry recruitment on Fishhook, Alturas Lake, and Stanley Lake creeks; (5) control the number of spawning kokanee in Fishhook Creek; (6) evaluate potential competition and predation between stocked juvenile O. nerka and a variety of fish species in Redfish, Pettit, and Alturas lakes; (7) monitor limnological parameters of Sawtooth Valley lakes to assess lake productivity. Results by objective are summarized.

  11. The 2006 Project Progress Report for 1987-099-00 Dworshak Kokanee Population and Entrainment Assessment (contract # 26850) is attached to project 2007-003-00, contract #31598. [POINTER

    SciTech Connect

    2008-12-18

    During this contract, we continued testing underwater strobe lights to determine their effectiveness at repelling kokanee Oncorhynchus nerka away from Dworshak Dam. Strobe light tests were conducted on four nights from April 24-27, 2006, in front of the middle reservoir outlet (RO) 2. The density and distribution of fish, (thought to be mostly kokanee), were monitored with a split-beam echo sounder. We then compared fish counts and densities during nights when the lights were flashing to counts and densities during adjacent nights without the lights on. On two nights, April 25 and 27, 2006, when no lights were present, fish counts near RO 2 averaged 12.4 fish and densities averaged 31.0 fish/ha. When strobe lights were turned on during the nights of April 24 and 26, mean counts dropped to 4.7 fish and densities dropped to 0.5 fish/ha. The decline in counts (62%) and densities (99%) was statistically significant (p = 0.009 and 0.002, respectively). Test results indicated that strobe lights were able to reduce fish densities by at least 50% in front of a discharging reservoir outlet, which would be sufficient to improve sport fish harvest. We also used split-beam hydroacoustics to monitor the kokanee population in Dworshak Reservoir during 2006. Estimated abundance of kokanee increased from the 2005 population estimate. Based on hydroacoustic surveys, we estimated approximately 5,815,000 kokanee (90% CI {+-} 27.6%) in Dworshak Reservoir in August 2006. This included 2,183,000 age-0 (90% CI {+-} 24.2%), 1,509,000 age-1 (90% CI {+-} 29.0%), and 2,124,000 age-2 (90% CI {+-} 27.6%) kokanee. This resulted in a density of age-2 kokanee above the management goal of 30-50 adults/ha. Entrainment sampling was conducted with fixed-site, split-beam hydroacoustics from May through September for a continuous 24 h period when dam operations permitted. The highest fish detection rates from entrainment assessments were found during dawn periods, unlike previous year's results, which

  12. Lake Roosevelt Fisheries Monitoring Program; Measurement of Thyroxin Concentration as an Indicator of the Critical Period for Imprinting in the Kokanee Salmon (Orcorhynchus Nerka) Implications for Operating Lake Roosevelt Kokanee Hatcheries; 1991 Supplement Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Scholz, Allan T.; White, Ronald J.; Koehler, Valerie A.

    1992-05-01

    Previous investigations have determined that thyroid hormone surges activate olfactory imprinting in anadromous salmonid smolts. The mechanism of action appears to require binding of thyroid hormones to receptors in brain cell nuclei, which stimulates neuron differentiation and wires a pattern of neuron circuitry that allows for the permanent storage of the imprinted olfactory memory. In this study, thyroxine concentrations [T{sub 4}] were measured in 487 Lake Whatcom stock and 70 Lake Roosevelt stock Kokanee salmon to indicate the critical period for imprinting. Eggs, alevins and fry, reared at the Spokane Indian Kokanee Hatchery, were collected from January through August 1991. Sampled fish were flash frozen on dry ice and stored at {minus}80{degrees}C until T{sub 4} was extracted and concentrations determined by radioimmunassay. Mean concentration {+-} SEM of 10--20 individual fish (assayed in duplicate) were determined for each time period. T{sub 4} concentration peaked on the day of hatch at 16.8 ng/g body weight and again at swim-up at 16.0 {+-} 4.7 ng/g body weight. T{sub 4} concentration was 12.5 to 12.9 ng/g body weight in eggs, 7.1 to 15.2 ng/g body weight in. alevins, 4.5 to 11.4 ng/g body weight in 42 to 105 day old fry and 0.1 to 2.9 ng/g body weight in 112 to 185 day old fry. T{sub 4} concentrations were highest in eggs at 13.3 {+-} 2.8 ng/g body weight, then steadily decreased to 0.1 {+-} 0.1 ng/g body weight in older fry. Fry were released in Lake Roosevelt tributaries in July and August 1991, at about 170--180 days post hatching, in order to imprint them to those sites. The results of this study indicate that the time of release was not appropriate for imprinting. If T{sub 4} levels are an accurate guide for imprinting in kokanee, our results suggest that the critical period for imprinting in kokanee is at hatching or swim-up stages.

  13. The use of external event monitoring (web-loop) in the elucidation of symptoms associated with arrhythmias in a general population

    PubMed Central

    Epifanio, Hindalis Ballesteros; Katz, Marcelo; Borges, Melania Aparecida; Corrêa, Alessandra da Graça; Cintra, Fátima Dumas; Grinberg, Rodrigo Leandro; Ludovice, Ana Cristina Pinotti Pedro; Valdigem, Bruno Pereira; da Silva, Nilton José Carneiro; Fenelon, Guilherme

    2014-01-01

    Objective To correlate arrhythmic symptoms with the presence of significant arrhythmias through the external event monitoring (web-loop). Methods Between January and December 2011, the web-loop was connected to 112 patients (46% of them were women, mean age 52±21 years old). Specific arrhythmic symptoms were defined as palpitations, pre-syncope and syncope observed during the monitoring. Supraventricular tachycardia, atrial flutter or fibrillation, ventricular tachycardia, pauses greater than 2 seconds or advanced atrioventricular block were classified as significant arrhythmia. The association between symptoms and significant arrhythmias were analyzed. Results The web-loop recorded arrhythmic symptoms in 74 (66%) patients. Of these, in only 14 (19%) patients the association between symptoms and significant cardiac arrhythmia was detected. Moreover, significant arrhythmia was found in 11 (9.8%) asymptomatic patients. There was no association between presence of major symptoms and significant cardiac arrhythmia (OR=0.57, CI95%: 0.21-1.57; p=0.23). Conclusion We found no association between major symptoms and significant cardiac arrhythmia in patients submitted to event recorder monitoring. Event loop recorder was useful to elucidate cases of palpitations and syncope in symptomatic patients. PMID:25295448

  14. Population diversity and the portfolio effect in an exploited species.

    PubMed

    Schindler, Daniel E; Hilborn, Ray; Chasco, Brandon; Boatright, Christopher P; Quinn, Thomas P; Rogers, Lauren A; Webster, Michael S

    2010-06-01

    One of the most pervasive themes in ecology is that biological diversity stabilizes ecosystem processes and the services they provide to society, a concept that has become a common argument for biodiversity conservation. Species-rich communities are thought to produce more temporally stable ecosystem services because of the complementary or independent dynamics among species that perform similar ecosystem functions. Such variance dampening within communities is referred to as a portfolio effect and is analogous to the effects of asset diversity on the stability of financial portfolios. In ecology, these arguments have focused on the effects of species diversity on ecosystem stability but have not considered the importance of biologically relevant diversity within individual species. Current rates of population extirpation are probably at least three orders of magnitude higher than species extinction rates, so there is a pressing need to clarify how population and life history diversity affect the performance of individual species in providing important ecosystem services. Here we use five decades of data from Oncorhynchus nerka (sockeye salmon) in Bristol Bay, Alaska, to provide the first quantification of portfolio effects that derive from population and life history diversity in an important and heavily exploited species. Variability in annual Bristol Bay salmon returns is 2.2 times lower than it would be if the system consisted of a single homogenous population rather than the several hundred discrete populations it currently consists of. Furthermore, if it were a single homogeneous population, such increased variability would lead to ten times more frequent fisheries closures. Portfolio effects are also evident in watershed food webs, where they stabilize and extend predator access to salmon resources. Our results demonstrate the critical importance of maintaining population diversity for stabilizing ecosystem services and securing the economies and livelihoods

  15. It's a bear market: evolutionary and ecological effects of predation on two wild sockeye salmon populations.

    PubMed

    Lin, J E; Hard, J J; Naish, K A; Peterson, D; Hilborn, R; Hauser, L

    2016-05-01

    Predation can affect both phenotypic variation and population productivity in the wild, but quantifying evolutionary and demographic effects of predation in natural environments is challenging. The aim of this study was to estimate selection differentials and coefficients associated with brown bear (Ursus arctos) predation in wild sockeye salmon (Oncorhynchus nerka) populations spawning in pristine habitat that is often subject to intense predation pressure. Using reconstructed genetic pedigrees, individual reproductive success (RS) was estimated in two sockeye salmon populations for two consecutive brood years with very different predation intensities across brood years. Phenotypic data on individual adult body length, body depth, stream entry timing and reproductive lifespan were used to calculate selection coefficients based on RS, and genetic variance components were estimated using animal models. Bears consistently killed larger and more recently arrived adults, although selection differentials were small. In both populations, mean RS was higher in the brood year experiencing lower predation intensity. Selection coefficients were similar across brood years with different levels of predation, often indicating stabilizing selection on reproductive lifespan as well as directional selection for longer reproductive lifespan. Despite these selection pressures, genetic covariation of morphology, phenology and lifespan appears to have maintained variation in spawner body size and stream entry timing in both populations. Our results therefore suggest considerable demographic but limited evolutionary effects of bear predation in the two study populations.

  16. It's a bear market: evolutionary and ecological effects of predation on two wild sockeye salmon populations.

    PubMed

    Lin, J E; Hard, J J; Naish, K A; Peterson, D; Hilborn, R; Hauser, L

    2016-05-01

    Predation can affect both phenotypic variation and population productivity in the wild, but quantifying evolutionary and demographic effects of predation in natural environments is challenging. The aim of this study was to estimate selection differentials and coefficients associated with brown bear (Ursus arctos) predation in wild sockeye salmon (Oncorhynchus nerka) populations spawning in pristine habitat that is often subject to intense predation pressure. Using reconstructed genetic pedigrees, individual reproductive success (RS) was estimated in two sockeye salmon populations for two consecutive brood years with very different predation intensities across brood years. Phenotypic data on individual adult body length, body depth, stream entry timing and reproductive lifespan were used to calculate selection coefficients based on RS, and genetic variance components were estimated using animal models. Bears consistently killed larger and more recently arrived adults, although selection differentials were small. In both populations, mean RS was higher in the brood year experiencing lower predation intensity. Selection coefficients were similar across brood years with different levels of predation, often indicating stabilizing selection on reproductive lifespan as well as directional selection for longer reproductive lifespan. Despite these selection pressures, genetic covariation of morphology, phenology and lifespan appears to have maintained variation in spawner body size and stream entry timing in both populations. Our results therefore suggest considerable demographic but limited evolutionary effects of bear predation in the two study populations. PMID:26860201

  17. Dworshak Kokanee Population and Entrainment Assessment 2005-2006 Annual Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Stark, Eric J.

    2008-11-06

    During this contract, we continued testing underwater strobe lights to determine their effectiveness at repelling kokanee Oncorhynchus nerka away from Dworshak Dam. We tested one set of nine strobe lights flashing at a rate of 360 flashes/min in front of turbine 3 while operating at higher discharges than previously tested. The density and distribution of fish, (thought to be mostly kokanee), were monitored with a split-beam echo sounder. We then compared fish counts and densities during nights when the lights were flashing to counts and densities during adjacent nights without the lights on. On five nights between January 31 and February 28, 2006, when no lights were present, fish counts near turbine 3 averaged eight fish and densities averaged 91 fish/ha. When strobe lights were turned on during five adjacent nights during the same period, mean counts dropped to four fish and densities dropped to 35 fish/ha. The decline in counts (49%) was not statistically significant (p = 0.182), but decline in densities (62%) was significant (p = 0.049). There appeared to be no tendency for fish to habituate to the lights during the night. Test results indicated that strobe lights were able to reduce fish densities by at least 50% in front of turbines operating at higher discharges, which would be sufficient to improve sportfish harvest. We also used split-beam hydroacoustics to monitor the kokanee population in Dworshak Reservoir during 2005. Estimated abundance of kokanee decreased from the 2004 population estimate. Based on hydroacoustic surveys, we estimated 3,011,626 kokanee (90% CI {+-} 15.2%) in Dworshak Reservoir, July 2005. This included 2,135,986 age-0 (90% CI {+-} 15.9%), 769,175 age-1 (90% CI {+-} 16.0%), and 107,465 age-2 (90% CI {+-} 15.2%). Poor survival of kokanee from age-1 to age-2 continued to keep age-2 densities below the management goal of 30-50 adults/ha. Entrainment sampling was conducted with fixed-site split-beam hydroacoustics a minimum of two days

  18. Lake Roosevelt Fisheries Monitoring Program; 1988-1989 Annual Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Peone, Tim L.; Scholz, Allan T.; Griffith, James R.

    1990-10-01

    In the Northwest Power Planning Council's 1987 Columbia River Basin Fish and Wildlife Program (NPPC 1987), the Council directed the Bonneville Power Administration (BPA) to construct two kokanee salmon (Oncorhynchus nerka) hatcheries as partial mitigation for the loss of anadromous salmon and steelhead incurred by construction of Grand Coulee Dam [Section 903 (g)(l)(C)]. The hatcheries will produce kokanee salmon for outplanting into Lake Roosevelt as well as rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) for the Lake Roosevelt net-pen program. In section 903 (g)(l)(E), the Council also directed BPA to fund a monitoring program to evaluate the effectiveness of the kokanee hatcheries. The monitoring program included the following components: (1) a year-round, reservoir-wide, creel survey to determine angler use, catch rates and composition, and growth and condition of fish; (2) assessment of kokanee, rainbow, and walleye (Stizostedion vitreum) feeding habits and densities of their preferred prey, and; (3) a mark and recapture study designed to assess the effectiveness of different locations where hatchery-raised kokanee and net pen reared rainbow trout are released. The above measures were adopted by the Council based on a management plan, developed by the Upper Columbia United Tribes Fisheries Center, Spokane Indian Tribe, Colville Confederated Tribes, Washington Department of Wildlife, and National Park Service, that examined the feasibility of restoring and enhancing Lake Roosevelt fisheries (Scholz et al. 1986). In July 1988, BPA entered into a contract with the Spokane Indian Tribe to initiate the monitoring program. The projected duration of the monitoring program is through 1995. This report contains the results of the monitoring program from August 1988 to December 1989.

  19. Monitoring and Research on the Bi-State Distinct Population Segment of Greater Sage-Grouse (Centrocercus urophasianus) in the Pine Nut Mountains, California and Nevada—Study Progress Report, 2011−15

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Coates, Peter S.; Andrle, Katie M.; Ziegler, Pilar T.; Casazza, Michael L.

    2016-09-29

    , but also preferred increased perennial forb abundance. Using maximum likelihood estimation, nest survival for the Pine Nut Mountains PMU during 2011–14 was 23.8 percent (95-percent confidence interval [CI]=0.3–40.6 percent) and appeared lower in comparison to the average 42 percent nest success for sage-grouse range-wide. Brood survival for 50-day brood-rearing phase in the Pine Nut Mountains PMU during 2011–14 was 53.8 percent (95-percent CI=30.0–73.4 percent). Adult survival during 2011–15 was 67.4 percent (95-percent CI=56.1–76.5 percent). During 2011–14, 696 raptor/raven surveys were completed and results indicate a greater number of raven detections (n=464) in the Pine Nut Mountains PMU than at other study areas in Nevada. These data will be used to develop a predator index. We conducted a more minimal monitoring effort of sage-grouse populations during the 2015 field season, which included trapping efforts, general telemetry, brood monitoring, and GPS monitoring. Nest monitoring, microhabitat sampling, and raptor/raven surveys were not conducted in the 2015 season. Deployment of GPS transmitters has expanded our knowledge of movement corridors and fine-scale movement patterns by sage-grouse in the Pine Nut Mountains PMU. Movement corridors between seasonal habitats were identified with one sage-grouse traveling greater than 100 kilometers south to the Bodie Mountains in California for the winter season. The use of GPS technology to monitor movements in conjunction with intensive field efforts will be important in developing habitat models and maps for the Pine Nut Mountains PMU.

  20. Monitoring and research on the Bi-State Distinct Population Segment of greater sage-grouse (Centrocercus urophasianus) in the Pine Nut Mountains, California and Nevada—Study progress report, 2011–15

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Coates, Peter S.; Andrle, Katie M.; Ziegler, Pilar T.; Casazza, Michael L.

    2016-09-29

    , but also preferred increased perennial forb abundance. Using maximum likelihood estimation, nest survival for the Pine Nut Mountains PMU during 2011–14 was 23.8 percent (95-percent confidence interval [CI]=0.3–40.6 percent) and appeared lower in comparison to the average 42 percent nest success for sage-grouse range-wide. Brood survival for 50-day brood-rearing phase in the Pine Nut Mountains PMU during 2011–14 was 53.8 percent (95-percent CI=30.0–73.4 percent). Adult survival during 2011–15 was 67.4 percent (95-percent CI=56.1–76.5 percent). During 2011–14, 696 raptor/raven surveys were completed and results indicate a greater number of raven detections (n=464) in the Pine Nut Mountains PMU than at other study areas in Nevada. These data will be used to develop a predator index. We conducted a more minimal monitoring effort of sage-grouse populations during the 2015 field season, which included trapping efforts, general telemetry, brood monitoring, and GPS monitoring. Nest monitoring, microhabitat sampling, and raptor/raven surveys were not conducted in the 2015 season. Deployment of GPS transmitters has expanded our knowledge of movement corridors and fine-scale movement patterns by sage-grouse in the Pine Nut Mountains PMU. Movement corridors between seasonal habitats were identified with one sage-grouse traveling greater than 100 kilometers south to the Bodie Mountains in California for the winter season. The use of GPS technology to monitor movements in conjunction with intensive field efforts will be important in developing habitat models and maps for the Pine Nut Mountains PMU.

  1. Monitoring population exposure to pesticides based on liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry measurement of their urinary metabolites in urban wastewater: A novel biomonitoring approach.

    PubMed

    Rousis, Nikolaos I; Zuccato, Ettore; Castiglioni, Sara

    2016-11-15

    Biomonitoring studies have documented the high exposure of the population to pesticides which are widely used for crop protection, industrial and household purposes. This is the first study which has measured human urinary metabolites of pesticides in urban wastewater as biomarkers of population exposure. A liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) method was developed to measure fifteen urinary metabolites selected from the major classes of pesticides. Raw wastewater samples were processed by solid phase extraction (SPE) or direct injection into the LC-MS/MS system. Recoveries ranged from 75 to 115% and the limits of quantification were 1-15ng/L for the SPE method and 40-800ng/L for direct injection. The method was employed for the analysis of 44 composite 24-h wastewater samples collected in seven Italian cities. Most of the target substances were detected at concentrations ranging from 1.1ng/L to 1.6μg/L. The highest concentrations were for some common metabolites of alkyl phosphates and pyrethroids and the specific metabolite of chlorpyrifos and chlorpyrifos-methyl (3,5,6-trichloro-2-pyridinol). The frequency of detection and abundance of most of the measured metabolites were in line with the profiles reported in urine biomonitoring studies. This method is therefore proposed as a novel "biomonitoring approach" for obtaining objective, direct information on the levels of exposure of a specific population to pesticides, and current research is addressed to validate the method identifying the most reliable biomarkers. PMID:27418516

  2. An immature B cell population from peripheral blood serves as surrogate marker for monitoring tumor angiogenesis and anti-angiogenic therapy in mouse models.

    PubMed

    Fagiani, Ernesta; Bill, Ruben; Pisarsky, Laura; Ivanek, Robert; Rüegg, Curzio; Christofori, Gerhard

    2015-07-01

    Tumor growth depends on the formation of new blood vessels (tumor angiogenesis) either from preexisting vessels or by the recruitment of bone marrow-derived cells. Despite encouraging results obtained with preclinical cancer models, the therapeutic targeting of tumor angiogenesis has thus far failed to deliver an enduring clinical response in cancer patients. One major obstacle for improving anti-angiogenic therapy is the lack of validated biomarkers, which allow patient stratification for suitable treatment and a rapid assessment of therapy response. Toward these goals, we have employed several mouse models of tumor angiogenesis to identify cell populations circulating in their blood that correlated with the extent of tumor angiogenesis and therapy response. Flow cytometry analyses of different combinations of cell surface markers that define subsets of bone marrow-derived cells were performed on peripheral blood mononuclear cells from tumor-bearing and healthy mice. We identified one cell population, CD45(dim)VEGFR1(-)CD31(low), that was increased in levels during active tumor angiogenesis in a variety of transgenic and syngeneic transplantation mouse models of cancer. Treatment with various anti-angiogenic drugs did not affect CD45(dim)VEGFR1(-)CD31(low) cells in healthy mice, whereas in tumor-bearing mice, a consistent reduction in their levels was observed. Gene expression profiling of CD45(dim)VEGFR1(-)CD31(low) cells characterized these cells as an immature B cell population. These immature B cells were then directly validated as surrogate marker for tumor angiogenesis and of pharmacologic responses to anti-angiogenic therapies in various mouse models of cancer. PMID:26021306

  3. Bifidobacterium population analysis in the infant gut by direct mapping of genomic hybridization patterns: potential for monitoring temporal development and effects of dietary regimens.

    PubMed

    Boesten, Rolf; Schuren, Frank; Ben Amor, Kaouther; Haarman, Monique; Knol, Jan; de Vos, Willem M

    2011-05-01

    A bifidobacterial mixed-species microarray platform was used in a proof-of-principle study to address the composition and development of bifidobacteria in DNA extracted from faecal samples. These were collected in a time-course of 2 years since birth and derived from human infants that were breastfed, standard formula-fed or received a prebiotic formula during their weaning period. A set of over 50 samples was analysed, testifying for the throughput of the designed platform for multiple genome hybridizations. The generated data revealed that faecal samples of breastfed infants contained a high abundance of genomic DNA homologous to Bifidobacterium breve. In contrast, faecal samples from standard formula-fed infants lacked detectable amounts of this B. breve DNA but contained genes with high similarity to B. longum. Remarkably, infants that received breastmilk and later a prebiotic formula consisting of a standard formula milk containing a mixture of specific galacto- and fructo-oligosaccharides, continued to harbour a B. breve-dominant faecal population. One infant that received standard formula in combination with the additional B. lactis Bb12 culture, contained significant amounts of faecal DNA belonging to Bb12 but only during the period of ingestion. The microarray platform showed sufficient sensitivity to analyse the B. breve group at the strain level. Overall, the B. breve populations observed in the faecal samples of the studied infants showed a stable composition over time and were unique per infant. In conclusion, our results show the applicability of comparative genome hybridization to study bifidobacterial populations in infant faecal samples without the use of any amplification step. PMID:21375714

  4. Rock Island Dam Smolt Monitoring; 1994-1995 Annual Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Truscott, Keith B.; Fielder, Paul C.

    1995-10-01

    Downstream migrating salmon and steelhead trout (Oncorhynchus spp.) smolts were monitored at the Rock Island Dam bypass trap from April 1 - August 31, 1954. This was the tenth consecutive year that the bypass trap was monitored. Data collected included: (1) number of fish caught by species, (2) number of adipose clipped and/or Passive Integrated Transponder (PIT) tagged fish caught by species, (3) daily average riverflow, (4) daily average powerhouse No. 1 and No. 2 flows and daily average spill. These data were transmitted to the Fish Passage Center, which manages the Smolt Monitoring Program throughout the Columbia River Basin. The Smolt Monitoring Program is used to manage the {open_quotes}water budget{close_quotes}, releasing upstream reservoir water storage allocated to supplement river flows to enhance survival of downstream migrating juvenile salmonids. The Rock Island Dam trapping facility collected 37,795 downstream migrating salmonids in 1994. Collected fish included 4 yearling and 4 sub-yearling chinook salmon (O. tshawytscha) that had been previously PIT tagged to help determine migration rates. Additionally, 1,132 sub-yearling chinook, 4,185 yearling chinook, 6,627 steelhead, (O. mykiss) and 422 sockeye (O. nerka) with clipped adipose fins were collected. The middle 80% of the 1994 spring migration (excluding sub-yearling chinooks) passed Rock Island Dam during a 34 day period, April 25 - May 28. Passage rates of chinook and steelhead smolts released from hatcheries and the downstream migration timing of all salmonids are presented. The spring migration timing of juvenile salmonids is strongly influenced by hatchery releases above Rock Island Dam.

  5. Insecticide resistance monitoring and correlation analysis of insecticides in field populations of the brown planthopper Nilaparvata lugens (stål) in China 2012-2014.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Xiaolei; Liao, Xun; Mao, Kaikai; Zhang, Kaixiong; Wan, Hu; Li, Jianhong

    2016-09-01

    The brown planthopper is a serious rice pest in China. Chemical insecticides have been considered a satisfactory means of controlling the brown planthopper. In the present study, we determined the susceptibility of twenty-one populations of Nilaparvata lugens to eleven insecticides by a rice-stem dipping method from 2012 to 2014 in eight provinces of China. These field-collected populations of N. lugens had developed high levels of resistance to imidacloprid (resistant ratio, RR=233.3-2029-fold) and buprofezin (RR=147.0-1222). Furthermore, N. lugens showed moderate to high levels of resistance to thiamethoxam (RR=25.9-159.2) and low to moderate levels of resistance to dinotefuran (RR=6.4-29.1), clothianidin (RR=6.1-33.6), ethiprole (RR=11.5-71.8), isoprocarb (RR=17.1-70.2), and chlorpyrifos (RR=7.4-30.7). In contrast, the susceptibility of N. lugens to etofenprox (RR=1.1-4.9), thiacloprid (RR=2.9-8.2) and acetamiprid (RR=2.7-26.2) remained susceptible to moderate levels of resistance. Significant correlations were detected between the LC50 values of imidacloprid and thiamethoxam, dinotefuran, buprofezin, and etofenprox, as well as between clothianidin and thiamethoxam, dinotefuran, ethiprole, acetamiprid, and thiacloprid. Similarly, significant correlations were observed between chlorpyrifos and etofenprox, acetamiprid and thiacloprid. Additionally, the activity of the detoxification enzymes of N. lugens showed a significant correlation with the log LC50 values of imidacloprid, dinotefuran and ethiprole. These results will be beneficial for effective insecticide resistance management strategies to prevent or delay the development of insecticide resistance. PMID:27521908

  6. Insecticide resistance monitoring and correlation analysis of insecticides in field populations of the brown planthopper Nilaparvata lugens (stål) in China 2012-2014.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Xiaolei; Liao, Xun; Mao, Kaikai; Zhang, Kaixiong; Wan, Hu; Li, Jianhong

    2016-09-01

    The brown planthopper is a serious rice pest in China. Chemical insecticides have been considered a satisfactory means of controlling the brown planthopper. In the present study, we determined the susceptibility of twenty-one populations of Nilaparvata lugens to eleven insecticides by a rice-stem dipping method from 2012 to 2014 in eight provinces of China. These field-collected populations of N. lugens had developed high levels of resistance to imidacloprid (resistant ratio, RR=233.3-2029-fold) and buprofezin (RR=147.0-1222). Furthermore, N. lugens showed moderate to high levels of resistance to thiamethoxam (RR=25.9-159.2) and low to moderate levels of resistance to dinotefuran (RR=6.4-29.1), clothianidin (RR=6.1-33.6), ethiprole (RR=11.5-71.8), isoprocarb (RR=17.1-70.2), and chlorpyrifos (RR=7.4-30.7). In contrast, the susceptibility of N. lugens to etofenprox (RR=1.1-4.9), thiacloprid (RR=2.9-8.2) and acetamiprid (RR=2.7-26.2) remained susceptible to moderate levels of resistance. Significant correlations were detected between the LC50 values of imidacloprid and thiamethoxam, dinotefuran, buprofezin, and etofenprox, as well as between clothianidin and thiamethoxam, dinotefuran, ethiprole, acetamiprid, and thiacloprid. Similarly, significant correlations were observed between chlorpyrifos and etofenprox, acetamiprid and thiacloprid. Additionally, the activity of the detoxification enzymes of N. lugens showed a significant correlation with the log LC50 values of imidacloprid, dinotefuran and ethiprole. These results will be beneficial for effective insecticide resistance management strategies to prevent or delay the development of insecticide resistance.

  7. Populating a Control Point Database: A cooperative effort between the USGS, Grand Canyon Monitoring and Research Center and the Grand Canyon Youth Organization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brown, K. M.; Fritzinger, C.; Wharton, E.

    2004-12-01

    The Grand Canyon Monitoring and Research Center measures the effects of Glen Canyon Dam operations on the resources along the Colorado River from Glen Canyon Dam to Lake Mead in support of the Grand Canyon Adaptive Management Program. Control points are integral for geo-referencing the myriad of data collected in the Grand Canyon including aerial photography, topographic and bathymetric data used for classification and change-detection analysis of physical, biologic and cultural resources. The survey department has compiled a list of 870 control points installed by various organizations needing to establish a consistent reference for data collected at field sites along the 240 mile stretch of Colorado River in the Grand Canyon. This list is the foundation for the Control Point Database established primarily for researchers, to locate control points and independently geo-reference collected field data. The database has the potential to be a valuable mapping tool for assisting researchers to easily locate a control point and reduce the occurrance of unknowingly installing new control points within close proximity of an existing control point. The database is missing photographs and accurate site description information. Current site descriptions do not accurately define the location of the point but refer to the project that used the point, or some other interesting fact associated with the point. The Grand Canyon Monitoring and Research Center (GCMRC) resolved this problem by turning the data collection effort into an educational exercise for the participants of the Grand Canyon Youth organization. Grand Canyon Youth is a non-profit organization providing experiential education for middle and high school aged youth. GCMRC and the Grand Canyon Youth formed a partnership where GCMRC provided the logistical support, equipment, and training to conduct the field work, and the Grand Canyon Youth provided the time and personnel to complete the field work. Two data

  8. Snake River Sockeye Salmon Habitat and Limnological Research; 1996 Annual Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Taki, Doug; Mikkelsen, Anders (Shoshone-Bannock Tribes, Fort Hall, ID

    1997-04-01

    Since the late 1980's, Snake River sockeye, Oncorhynchus nerka, adults have only returned to Redfish Lake, one of five lakes in the Sawtooth Basin which historically reared sockeye. In 1995 we removed a fish passage barrier at the outlet of Pettit Lake to provide access to more rearing habitat for sockeye. During the same year 8,750 progeny from the captive broodstock program were stocked in Pettit Lake, the only other lake besides Redfish that currently rears Snake River sockeye. In this report, we have summarized activities conducted by Shoshone-Bannock Tribes (SBT) Fisheries Department personnel during the calendar year of 1996. Our objective included fertilization of Redfish Lake, characterizing the limnology of Sawtooth Valley lakes, conducting O. nerka lake population and escapement surveys, reducing the number of spawning kokanee in Fishhook Creek, evaluating hatchery rainbow trout overwinter survival and potential competition and predation interactions with O. nerka in Pettit Lake, and monitoring smolt outmigration from Pettit Lake.

  9. Medical Toxicology and Public Health-Update on Research and Activities at the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention and the Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry : Environmental Exposures among Arctic Populations: The Maternal Organics Monitoring Study in Alaska.

    PubMed

    Anwar, Mehruba; Ridpath, Alison; Berner, James; Schier, Joshua G

    2016-09-01

    Evidence suggests that in-utero exposure to environmental chemicals, such as persistent organic pollutants (POPs), heavy metals, and radionuclides, that might bioaccumulate in the mother may increase a newborn's risk of adverse developmental, neurological, and immunologic effects. Chemical contamination of bodies of water and strong ocean currents worldwide can drive these chemicals from lower latitudes to Arctic waters where they accumulate in common traditional subsistence foods. In response to concerns of the people from Alaska of the effects of bio-accumulated chemicals on their children, the Maternal Organics Monitoring Study(MOMS) was developed. The objective of the study was to assess the risks and benefits associated with the population's subsistence diet. Data analysis of biological samples at the CDC's NCEH laboratory and maternal questionnaires is ongoing. Results will be provided to Alaska Native communities to help support public health actions and inform future interventions and research. PMID:27379884

  10. Medical Toxicology and Public Health-Update on Research and Activities at the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention and the Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry : Environmental Exposures among Arctic Populations: The Maternal Organics Monitoring Study in Alaska.

    PubMed

    Anwar, Mehruba; Ridpath, Alison; Berner, James; Schier, Joshua G

    2016-09-01

    Evidence suggests that in-utero exposure to environmental chemicals, such as persistent organic pollutants (POPs), heavy metals, and radionuclides, that might bioaccumulate in the mother may increase a newborn's risk of adverse developmental, neurological, and immunologic effects. Chemical contamination of bodies of water and strong ocean currents worldwide can drive these chemicals from lower latitudes to Arctic waters where they accumulate in common traditional subsistence foods. In response to concerns of the people from Alaska of the effects of bio-accumulated chemicals on their children, the Maternal Organics Monitoring Study(MOMS) was developed. The objective of the study was to assess the risks and benefits associated with the population's subsistence diet. Data analysis of biological samples at the CDC's NCEH laboratory and maternal questionnaires is ongoing. Results will be provided to Alaska Native communities to help support public health actions and inform future interventions and research.

  11. Gas chromatographic method using electron-capture detection for the determination of musk xylene in human blood samples. Biological monitoring of the general population.

    PubMed

    Angerer, J; Käfferlein, H U

    1997-05-23

    Musk xylene (2,4,6-trinitro-1,3-dimethyl-5-tert.-butylbenzene, MX), a synthetic musk often used in different fragrances and soaps to substitute the natural musk, is a potential contaminant of humans. In this publication, a specific and sensitive detection method for the determination of musk xylene in human blood samples is described. The clean-up of the blood samples includes an extraction step followed by a solid-phase adsorption to separate MX from other plasma components. Separation and detection was carried out by capillary gas chromatography and an electron capture detector (GC-ECD). The results were verified using qualitative capillary gas chromatography and a mass selective detector with electron impact ionisation (GC-EI-MS). epsilon-Hexachlorocyclohexane (epsilon-HCH) is used as internal standard. The reliability of the GC-ECD method has been proved. The relative standard deviations of the within-series imprecision were 12.7% for samples with a concentration of 0.5 microg/l and 2.1% for samples with a concentration of 5.0 microg/l, whereas the relative standard deviations for the between-day imprecision were 14.9% (0.5 microg/l samples) and 3.4% (5.0 microg/l samples). The losses during sample treatment were between 10.1% and 17.8%. No interfering peaks were observed. The absolute detection limit was 0.1 microg/l plasma. A total of 72 human blood samples were analysed to determine the MX concentrations within the general population. In 66 of the 72 human blood samples, the MX concentrations ranged from 0.10 to 1.12 microg/l plasma for the described method. In six samples no MX was detected. The median concentration was 0.24+/-0.23 microg MX/l plasma. The 95 percentile was 0.79 microg/l. No correlation could be found between MX concentrations and smoking habit, broca index, age, sex as well as fish consumption habits. Nevertheless, the results demonstrate the exposure of the general population to MX.

  12. Detection of atrial high-rate events by continuous Home Monitoring: clinical significance in the heart failure–cardiac resynchronization therapy population

    PubMed Central

    Shanmugam, Nesan; Boerdlein, Annegret; Proff, Jochen; Ong, Peter; Valencia, Oswaldo; Maier, Sebastian K.G.; Bauer, Wolfgang R.; Paul, Vince; Sack, Stefan

    2012-01-01

    Aims Uncertainty exists over the importance of device-detected short-duration atrial arrhythmias. Continuous atrial diagnostics, through home monitoring (HM) technology (BIOTRONIK, Berlin, Germany), provides a unique opportunity to assess frequency and quantity of atrial fibrillation (AF) episodes defined as atrial high-rate events (AHRE). Methods and results Prospective data from 560 heart failure (HF) patients (age 67 ± 10 years, median ejection fraction 27%) patients with a cardiac resynchronization therapy (CRT) device capable of HM from two multi-centre studies were analysed. Atrial high-rate events burden was defined as the duration of mode switch in a 24-h period with atrial rates of >180 beats for at least 1% or total of 14 min per day. The primary endpoint was incidence of a thromboembolic (TE) event. Secondary endpoints were cardiovascular death, hospitalization because of AF, or worsening HF. Over a median 370-day follow-up AHRE occurred in 40% of patients with 11 (2%) patients developing TE complications and mortality rate of 4.3% (24 deaths, 16 with cardiovascular aetiology). Compared with patients without detected AHRE, patients with detected AHRE>3.8 h over a day were nine times more likely to develop TE complications (P= 0.006). The majority of patients (73%) did not show a temporal association with the detected atrial episode and their adverse event, with a mean interval of 46.7 ± 71.9 days (range 0–194) before the TE complication. Conclusion In a high-risk cohort of HF patients, device-detected atrial arrhythmias are associated with an increased incidence of TE events. A cut-off point of 3.8 h over 24 h was associated with significant increase in the event rate. Routine assessment of AHRE should be considered with other data when assessing stroke risk and considering anti-coagulation initiation and should also prompt the optimization of cardioprotective HF therapy in CRT patients. PMID:21933802

  13. Introduction and testing of a monitoring and colony-mapping method for waterbird populations that uses high-speed and ultra-detailed aerial remote sensing.

    PubMed

    Bakó, Gábor; Tolnai, Márton; Takács, Ádám

    2014-07-18

    Remote sensing is a method that collects data of the Earth's surface without causing disturbances. Thus, it is worthwhile to use remote sensing methods to survey endangered ecosystems, as the studied species will behave naturally while undisturbed. The latest passive optical remote sensing solutions permit surveys from long distances. State-of-the-art highly sensitive sensor systems allow high spatial resolution image acquisition at high altitudes and at high flying speeds, even in low-visibility conditions. As the aerial imagery captured by an airplane covers the entire study area, all the animals present in that area can be recorded. A population assessment is conducted by visual interpretations of an ortho image map. The basic objective of this study is to determine whether small- and medium-sized bird species are recognizable in the ortho images by using high spatial resolution aerial cameras. The spatial resolution needed for identifying the bird species in the ortho image map was studied. The survey was adjusted to determine the number of birds in a colony at a given time.

  14. An analysis of a zooplankton sampling-gear change in the CalCOFI long-term monitoring program, with implications for copepod population abundance trends

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rebstock, Ginger A.

    The California Cooperative Oceanic Fisheries Investigations (CalCOFI) program has been systematically sampling zooplankton off the west coast of North America since 1949. In 1978, the 1-m diameter ring net used by the program was replaced with a bongo net, which consists of two 0.71-m diameter nets on a single frame. This study compares paired zooplankton samples taken with a ring net and a 0.71-m or 0.6-m bongo net to determine the relative performances of the two net types for catching calanoid copepods. Thirty-one species and stages were enumerated, along with the category ‘total female calanoids’. Twenty-one categories of calanoid copepods were abundant enough to test for effects of changes in net type. No significant differences between the nets were found after correcting for multiple testing. Statistical power was then estimated for a range of potential net effects equivalent to ratios of copepod densities between the nets of 1.1-3.0. The probability of detecting differences greater than a factor of 1.5-3.0 was high (≥80%) for total female calanoids, Metridia pacifica, Pleuromamma abdominalis edentata, P. borealis, Calanus pacificus, Eucalanus californicus and Rhincalanus nasutus. For these categories of copepods, any population changes greater than a factor of 1.5-3.0 that might be found from the CalCOFI data set can be assumed to be the result of factors other than the change in net type.

  15. Introduction and Testing of a Monitoring and Colony-Mapping Method for Waterbird Populations That Uses High-Speed and Ultra-Detailed Aerial Remote Sensing

    PubMed Central

    Bakó, Gábor; Tolnai, Márton; Takács, Ádám

    2014-01-01

    Remote sensing is a method that collects data of the Earth's surface without causing disturbances. Thus, it is worthwhile to use remote sensing methods to survey endangered ecosystems, as the studied species will behave naturally while undisturbed. The latest passive optical remote sensing solutions permit surveys from long distances. State-of-the-art highly sensitive sensor systems allow high spatial resolution image acquisition at high altitudes and at high flying speeds, even in low-visibility conditions. As the aerial imagery captured by an airplane covers the entire study area, all the animals present in that area can be recorded. A population assessment is conducted by visual interpretations of an ortho image map. The basic objective of this study is to determine whether small- and medium-sized bird species are recognizable in the ortho images by using high spatial resolution aerial cameras. The spatial resolution needed for identifying the bird species in the ortho image map was studied. The survey was adjusted to determine the number of birds in a colony at a given time. PMID:25046012

  16. School-based mass distributions of mebendazole to control soil-transmitted helminthiasis in the Munshiganj and Lakshmipur districts of Bangladesh: an evaluation of the treatment monitoring process and knowledge, attitudes, and practices of the population.

    PubMed

    Hafiz, Israt; Berhan, Meklit; Keller, Angela; Haq, Rouseli; Chesnaye, Nicholas; Koporc, Kim; Rahman, Mujibur; Rahman, Shamsur; Mathieu, Els

    2015-01-01

    Bangladesh's national deworming program targets school-age children (SAC) through bi-annual school-based distributions of mebendazole. Qualitative and quantitative methods were applied to identify challenges related to treatment monitoring within the Munshiganj and Lakshmipur Districts of Bangladesh. Key stakeholder interviews identified several obstacles for successful treatment monitoring within these districts; ambiguity in defining the target population, variances in the methods used for compiling and reporting treatment data, and a general lack of financial and human resources. A treatment coverage cluster survey revealed that bi-annual primary school-based distributions proved to be an effective strategy in reaching school-attending SAC, with rates between 63.0% and 73.3%. However, the WHO target of regular treatment of at least 75% of SAC has yet to be reached. Particularly low coverage was seen amongst non-school attending children (11.4-14.3%), most likely due to the lack of national policy to effectively target this vulnerable group. Survey findings on water and sanitation coverage were impressive with the majority of households and schools having access to latrines (98.6-99.3%) and safe drinking water (98.2-100%). The challenge now for the Bangladesh control program is to achieve the WHO target of regular treatment of at least 75% of SAC at risk, irrespective of school-enrollment status.

  17. Diverse juvenile life-history behaviours contribute to the spawning stock of an anadromous fish population

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Walsworth, Timothy E.; Schindler, Daniel E.; Griffiths, Jennifer R.; Zimmerman, Christian E.

    2015-01-01

    Habitat quality often varies substantially across space and time, producing a shifting mosaic of growth and mortality trade-offs across watersheds. Traditional studies of juvenile habitat use have emphasised the evolution of single optimal strategies that maximise recruitment to adulthood and eventual fitness. However, linking the distribution of individual behaviours that contribute to recruitment at the population level has been elusive, particularly for highly fecund aquatic organisms. We examined juvenile habitat use within a population of sockeye salmon (Oncorhynchus nerka) that spawn in a watershed consisting of two interconnected lakes and a marine lagoon. Otolith microchemical analysis revealed that the productive headwater lake accounted for about half of juvenile growth for those individuals surviving to spawn in a single river in the upper watershed. However, 47% of adults had achieved more than half of their juvenile growth in the downstream less productive lake, and 3% of individuals migrated to the estuarine environment during their first summer and returned to freshwater to overwinter before migrating back to sea. These results describe a diversity of viable habitat-use strategies by juvenile sockeye salmon that may buffer the population against poor conditions in any single rearing environment, reduce density-dependent mortality and have implications for the designation of critical habitat for conservation purposes. A network of accessible alternative habitats providing trade-offs in growth and survival may be important for long-term viability of populations.

  18. Setting Thresholds to Varying Blood Pressure Monitoring Intervals Differentially Affects Risk Estimates Associated With White-Coat and Masked Hypertension in the Population

    PubMed Central

    Asayama, Kei; Thijs, Lutgarde; Li, Yan; Gu, Yu-Mei; Hara, Azusa; Liu, Yan-Ping; Zhang, Zhenyu; Wei, Fang-Fei; Lujambio, Inés; Mena, Luis J.; Boggia, José; Hansen, Tine W.; Björklund-Bodegård, Kristina; Nomura, Kyoko; Ohkubo, Takayoshi; Jeppesen, Jørgen; Torp-Pedersen, Christian; Dolan, Eamon; Stolarz-Skrzypek, Katarzyna; Malyutina, Sofia; Casiglia, Edoardo; Nikitin, Yuri; Lind, Lars; Luzardo, Leonella; Kawecka-Jaszcz, Kalina; Sandoya, Edgardo; Filipovský, Jan; Maestre, Gladys E.; Wang, Jiguang; Imai, Yutaka; Franklin, Stanley S.; O’Brien, Eoin; Staessen, Jan A.

    2015-01-01

    Outcome-driven recommendations about time intervals during which ambulatory blood pressure should be measured to diagnose white-coat or masked hypertension are lacking. We cross-classified 8237 untreated participants (mean age, 50.7 years; 48.4% women) enrolled in 12 population studies, using ≥140/≥90, ≥130/≥80, ≥135/≥85, and ≥120/≥70 mm Hg as hypertension thresholds for conventional, 24-hour, daytime, and nighttime blood pressure. White-coat hypertension was hypertension on conventional measurement with ambulatory normotension, the opposite condition being masked hypertension. Intervals used for classification of participants were daytime, nighttime, and 24 hours, first considered separately, and next combined as 24 hours plus daytime or plus nighttime, or plus both. Depending on time intervals chosen, white-coat and masked hypertension frequencies ranged from 6.3% to 12.5% and from 9.7% to 19.6%, respectively. During 91 046 person-years, 729 participants experienced a cardiovascular event. In multivariable analyses with normotension during all intervals of the day as reference, hazard ratios associated with white-coat hypertension progressively weakened considering daytime only (1.38; P=0.033), nighttime only (1.43; P=0.0074), 24 hours only (1.21; P=0.20), 24 hours plus daytime (1.24; P=0.18), 24 hours plus nighttime (1.15; P=0.39), and 24 hours plus daytime and nighttime (1.16; P=0.41). The hazard ratios comparing masked hypertension with normotension were all significant (P<0.0001), ranging from 1.76 to 2.03. In conclusion, identification of truly low-risk white-coat hypertension requires setting thresholds simultaneously to 24 hours, daytime, and nighttime blood pressure. Although any time interval suffices to diagnose masked hypertension, as proposed in current guidelines, full 24-hour recordings remain standard in clinical practice. PMID:25135185

  19. Monitoring of PBDEs concentration in umbilical cord blood and breast milk from Korean population and estimating the effects of various parameters on accumulation in humans.

    PubMed

    Kim, Un-Jung; Lee, In-Seok; Kim, Hyung Sik; Oh, Jeong-Eun

    2011-10-01

    In this study, we investigated concentration, congener distribution pattern, and effects of potential environmental factors that affect PBDE accumulation. We also estimated correlation between PBDE concentration and health status or thyroid function by analyzing 90 cord blood and 21 breast milk samples obtained from Korean population. Seven from tri- to hepta-BDEs were analyzed by solid phase extraction-high-resolution gas chromatography/high-resolution mass spectrometry (SPE-HRGC/HRMS). The total concentration of 7 PBDEs in cord blood was 2.786-94.64 ng g(-1) lipid and that in breast milk was 1.076-8.664 ng g(-1) lipid. Tetra-BDE (#47) was the predominant type of PBDE and was present at concentrations of over 40% in both sample types. A weak correlation was observed between the concentration of BDE28 and 153 and thyroid hormone concentration only in the breast milk samples. In children, a weak negative correlation was observed between free thyroxine (FT4) concentration and BDE28 concentration (0.302, p<0.05), while in mothers, a weak positive correlation was observed between thyroid hormone concentration and BDE153 concentration (0.403, p<0.05). No significant correlations between PBDE concentration and work and residential environments were found in this study, but a weak correlation between BDE concentration in cord blood and potential PBDE sources was confirmed by investigating the frequency of oil paint usage (0.510, p<0.001). A weak correlation was also found between PBDE concentration in breast milk during pregnancy and dietary habits such as green tea drinking (0.541, p=0.025) and Trichiuridae intake (0.565, p=0.015). PMID:21890170

  20. Long-term prognostic value of blood pressure variability in the general population: results of the Pressioni Arteriose Monitorate e Loro Associazioni Study.

    PubMed

    Mancia, Giuseppe; Bombelli, Michele; Facchetti, Rita; Madotto, Fabiana; Corrao, Giovanni; Trevano, Fosca Quarti; Grassi, Guido; Sega, Roberto

    2007-06-01

    The hypothesis has been advanced that cardiovascular prognosis is related not only to 24-hour mean blood pressure but also to blood pressure variability. Data, however, are inconsistent, and no long-term prognostic study is available. In 2012 individuals randomly selected from the population of Monza (Milan), 24-hour ambulatory blood pressure (Spacelabs 90207) was measured via readings spaced by 20 minutes. Systolic and diastolic blood pressure variability was obtained by calculating the following: (1) the SD of 24-hour, day, and night mean values; (2) the day-night blood pressure difference; and (3) the residual or erratic blood pressure variability (Fourier spectral analysis). Fatal cardiovascular and noncardiovascular events were registered for 148 months. When adjusted for age, sex, 24-hour mean blood pressure, and other risk factors, there was no relationship between the risk of death and 24-hour, day, and night blood pressure SDs. In contrast, the adjusted risk of cardiovascular death was inversely related to day-night diastolic BP difference (beta coefficient=-0.040; P<0.02) and showed a significant positive relationship with residual diastolic blood pressure variability (beta coefficient=0.175; P<0.002). Twenty-four-hour mean blood pressure attenuation of nocturnal hypotension and erratic diastolic blood pressure variability all independently predicted the mortality risk, with the erratic variability being the most important factor. Our data show that the relationship of blood pressure to prognosis is complex and that phenomena other than 24-hour mean values are involved. They also provide the first evidence that short-term erratic components of blood pressure variability play a prognostic role, with their increase being accompanied by an increased cardiovascular risk. PMID:17452502

  1. Setting thresholds to varying blood pressure monitoring intervals differentially affects risk estimates associated with white-coat and masked hypertension in the population.

    PubMed

    Asayama, Kei; Thijs, Lutgarde; Li, Yan; Gu, Yu-Mei; Hara, Azusa; Liu, Yan-Ping; Zhang, Zhenyu; Wei, Fang-Fei; Lujambio, Inés; Mena, Luis J; Boggia, José; Hansen, Tine W; Björklund-Bodegård, Kristina; Nomura, Kyoko; Ohkubo, Takayoshi; Jeppesen, Jørgen; Torp-Pedersen, Christian; Dolan, Eamon; Stolarz-Skrzypek, Katarzyna; Malyutina, Sofia; Casiglia, Edoardo; Nikitin, Yuri; Lind, Lars; Luzardo, Leonella; Kawecka-Jaszcz, Kalina; Sandoya, Edgardo; Filipovský, Jan; Maestre, Gladys E; Wang, Jiguang; Imai, Yutaka; Franklin, Stanley S; O'Brien, Eoin; Staessen, Jan A

    2014-11-01

    Outcome-driven recommendations about time intervals during which ambulatory blood pressure should be measured to diagnose white-coat or masked hypertension are lacking. We cross-classified 8237 untreated participants (mean age, 50.7 years; 48.4% women) enrolled in 12 population studies, using ≥140/≥90, ≥130/≥80, ≥135/≥85, and ≥120/≥70 mm Hg as hypertension thresholds for conventional, 24-hour, daytime, and nighttime blood pressure. White-coat hypertension was hypertension on conventional measurement with ambulatory normotension, the opposite condition being masked hypertension. Intervals used for classification of participants were daytime, nighttime, and 24 hours, first considered separately, and next combined as 24 hours plus daytime or plus nighttime, or plus both. Depending on time intervals chosen, white-coat and masked hypertension frequencies ranged from 6.3% to 12.5% and from 9.7% to 19.6%, respectively. During 91 046 person-years, 729 participants experienced a cardiovascular event. In multivariable analyses with normotension during all intervals of the day as reference, hazard ratios associated with white-coat hypertension progressively weakened considering daytime only (1.38; P=0.033), nighttime only (1.43; P=0.0074), 24 hours only (1.21; P=0.20), 24 hours plus daytime (1.24; P=0.18), 24 hours plus nighttime (1.15; P=0.39), and 24 hours plus daytime and nighttime (1.16; P=0.41). The hazard ratios comparing masked hypertension with normotension were all significant (P<0.0001), ranging from 1.76 to 2.03. In conclusion, identification of truly low-risk white-coat hypertension requires setting thresholds simultaneously to 24 hours, daytime, and nighttime blood pressure. Although any time interval suffices to diagnose masked hypertension, as proposed in current guidelines, full 24-hour recordings remain standard in clinical practice.

  2. Trends in spawning populations of Pacific anadromous salmonids

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Konkel, G.W.; McIntyre, J.D.

    1987-01-01

    Annual escapement records for 1968-1984 for five species of Pacific salmon-chinook (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha), coho (O. kisutch), sockeye (O. nerka), pink (O. gorbuscha), and chum (O. keta)—and steelhead (Salmo gairdneri) were obtained from published and unpublished sources and organized in a computer database. More than 25,500 escapement records were obtained for more than 1,100 locations throughout Alaska, Washington, Idaho, Oregon, and California. Escapement trends for naturally reproducing populations for which data were available for at least 7 years from 1968 to 1984 and at least 4 years from 1975 to 1984 were analyzed by linear regression. Significant trends were observed in about 30% of the 886 populations examined. Trends were summarized by species for three geographic regions in Alaska and four in the Pacific Northwest (including California). For chinook, sockeye, and pink salmon, trends were predominantly increasing in the Alaska regions and either lacking or predominantly decreasing in most of the Pacific Northwest regions; for coho and chum salmon, trends were predominantly decreasing in one or more Alaska regions as well as in most of the Pacific Northwest regions. For steelhead, too few populations were examined to enable us to characterize trends throughout their range. Among the 657 salmonid populations excluded from the trend analysis because the data sets were incomplete, 13 (of which 2 were in Alaska) declined to zero during the period of analysis. For coho, sockeye, pink, and chum salmon and steelhead, major data gaps were revealed by a comparison of the geographic distribution of escapement records with the spawning distribution of the species. For chinook salmon, escapement records were more geographically representative of the spawning distribution.

  3. An LC-MS/MS method for serum methylmalonic acid suitable for monitoring vitamin B12 status in population surveys1

    PubMed Central

    Mineva, Ekaterina M.; Zhang, Mindy; Rabinowitz, Daniel J.; Phinney, Karen W.; Pfeiffer, Christine M.

    2015-01-01

    Methylmalonic acid (MMA), a functional indicator of vitamin B12 insufficiency, was measured in the U.S. population in the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) from 1999–2004 using a GC/MS procedure that required 275 µL of sample and had a low throughput (36 samples/run). Our objective was to introduce a more efficient, yet highly accurate LC-MS/MS method for NHANES 2011–2014. We adapted the sample preparation with some modifications from a published isotope-dilution LC-MS/MS procedure. The procedure utilized liquid-liquid extraction and generation of MMA di-butyl ester. Reversed-phase chromatography with isocratic elution allowed baseline resolution of MMA from its naturally occurring structural isomer succinic acid within 4.5 min. Our new method afforded an increased throughput (≤160 samples/run) and measured serum MMA with high sensitivity (LOD = 22.1 nmol/L) in only 75 µL of sample. Mean (±SD) recovery of MMA spiked into serum (2 days, 4 levels, 2 replicates each) was 94±5.5%. Total imprecision (41 days, 2 replicates each) for three serum quality control pools was 4.9–7.9% (97.1–548 nmol/L). The LC-MS/MS method showed excellent correlation (n=326, r=0.99) and no bias (Deming regression, Bland-Altman analysis) compared to the previous GC/MS method. Both methods produced virtually identical mean (±SD) MMA concentrations [LC-MS/MS: 18.47±0.71 ng/mL (n=17), GC/MS: 18.18±0.67 ng/mL (n=11)] on a future plasma reference material compared to a GC/MS method procedure from the National Institute of Standards and Technology [18.41±0.70 ng/mL (n=15)]. No adjustment will be necessary to compare previous (1999–2004) to future (2011–2014) NHANES MMA data. PMID:25258283

  4. Snake River Sockeye Salmon Habitat and Limnological Research; 1999 Annual Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Griswold, Robert G.; Taki, Doug; Lewis, Bert

    2001-01-15

    In March 1990, the Shoshone-Bannock Tribes petitioned the National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS) to list the Snake River sockeye salmon (Oncorhynchus nerka) as endangered. As a result of that petition the Snake River sockeye salmon was officially listed as endangered in November 1991 under the Endangered Species Act (56 FR 58619). In 1991 the Snake River Sockeye Salmon Habitat and Limnological Research Program was implemented (Project Number 91-71, Intergovernmental Contract Number DE-BI79-91bp22548). This project is part of an interagency effort to prevent the extinction of the Redfish Lake stock of O. nerka. The Bonneville Power Administration (BPA) provides funding for this inter-agency recovery program through the Northwest Power Planning Council Fish and Wildlife Program (NPPCFWP). Collaborators in the recovery effort include the National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS), the Idaho Department of Fish and Game (IDFG), the University of Idaho (UI), U.S. Forest Service (USFS), and the Shoshone-Bannock Tribe (SBT). This report summarizes activities conducted by Shoshone-Bannock Tribal Fisheries Department personnel during the 1999 calendar year. Project objectives include: (1) monitor over-winter survival and emigration of juvenile anadromous O. nerka stocked from the captive rearing program; (2) fertilize Pettit, and Alturas lakes, fertilization of Redfish Lake was suspended for this year; (3) conduct kokanee (nonanadromous O. nerka) population surveys; (4) monitor spawning kokanee escapement and estimate fry recruitment on Fishhook, Alturas Lake, and Stanley Lake creeks; (5) evaluate potential competition and predation interactions between stocked juvenile O. nerka and a variety of fish species in Redfish, Pettit, and Alturas lakes; (6) examine diet of emigrating O. nerka smolts; (7) monitor limnological parameters of Sawtooth Valley lakes to assess lake productivity.

  5. Snake River Sockeye Salmon Habitat and Limnological Research; 2000 Annual Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Kohler, Andre E.; Griswold, Robert G.; Taki, Doug

    2002-12-01

    In March 1990, the Shoshone-Bannock Tribes petitioned the National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS) to list the Snake River sockeye salmon (Oncorhynchus nerka) as endangered. As a result of that petition the Snake River sockeye salmon was officially listed as endangered in November 1991 under the Endangered Species Act (56 FR 58619). In 1991 the Snake River Sockeye Salmon Habitat and Limnological Research Program was implemented (Project Number 91-71, Intergovernmental Contract Number DE-BI79-91bp22548). This project is part of an interagency effort to prevent the extinction of the Redfish Lake stock of O. nerka. The Bonneville Power Administration (BPA) provides funding for this inter-agency recovery program through the Northwest Power Planning Council Fish and Wildlife Program (NPPCFWP). Collaborators in the recovery effort include the National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS), the Idaho Department of Fish and Game (IDFG), the University of Idaho (UI), U.S. Forest Service (USFS), and the Shoshone-Bannock Tribe (SBT). This report summarizes activities conducted by Shoshone-Bannock Tribal Fisheries Department personnel during the 2000 calendar year. Project objectives include: (1) monitor over-winter survival and emigration of juvenile anadromous O. nerka stocked from the captive rearing program; (2) fertilize Pettit, and Alturas lakes, fertilization of Redfish Lake was suspended for this year; (3) conduct kokanee (nonanadromous O. nerka) population surveys; (4) monitor spawning kokanee escapement and estimate fry recruitment on Fishhook, Alturas Lake, and Stanley Lake creeks; (5) evaluate potential competition and predation interactions between stocked juvenile O. nerka and a variety of fish species in Redfish, Pettit, and Alturas lakes; (6) examine diet of emigrating O. nerka smolts; (7) monitor limnological parameters of Sawtooth Valley lakes to assess lake productivity.

  6. A New Deep, Hard X-ray Survey of M31: Monitoring Black Hole and Neutron Star Accretion States in the X-ray Binary Population of Our Nearest Neighbor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wik, Daniel R.; Hornschemeier, Ann E.; Yukita, Mihoko; Ptak, Andrew; Lehmer, Bret; Maccarone, Thomas J.; Antoniou, Vallia; Zezas, Andreas; Harrison, Fiona; Stern, Daniel; Venters, Tonia M.; Williams, Benjamin F.; Eracleous, Michael; Plucinsky, Paul P.; Pooley, David A.

    2016-01-01

    X-ray binaries (XRBs) trace old and new stellar populations in galaxies, and thus star formation history and star formation rate. X-ray emission from XRBs may be responsible for significant amounts of heating of the early Intergalactic Medium at Cosmic Dawn and may also play a significant role in reionization. Until recently, the hard emission from these populations could only be studied for XRBs in our own galaxy, where it is often difficult to measure accurate distances and thus luminosities. The launch of NuSTAR, the first focusing hard X-ray observatory, has allowed us to resolve the brightest XRBs (down to LX ~ few times 1038 erg/s) in galaxies like NGC 253, M83, and M82 up to 4 Mpc away. To reach much lower X-ray luminosities that are more typical of XRBs in the Milky Way (LX <~ 1037 erg/s), we have observed M31 in 3 NuSTAR fields, up to 5 visits apiece for more than 1 Ms total exposure, mostly within the footprint of the Panchromatic Hubble Andromeda Treasury (PHAT) Survey. Our monitoring campaign reveals over 40 accreting black holes and neutron stars -- distinguished from each other by their spectral shape in the hard band -- some of which undergo state changes over the month-long timescales captured by our legacy survey to date. We also discuss implications for this updated understanding of XRB populations on early-Universe measurements in, e.g., the 7 Ms Chandra Deep Field survey.

  7. Idaho Natural Production Monitoring and Evaluation : Annual Progress Report February 1, 2007 - January 31, 2008.

    SciTech Connect

    Copeland, Timothy; Johnson, June; Putnam, Scott

    2008-12-01

    Populations of anadromous salmonids in the Snake River basin declined precipitously following the construction of hydroelectric dams in the Snake and Columbia rivers. Raymond (1988) documented a decrease in survival of emigrating steelhead trout Oncorhynchus mykiss and Chinook salmon O. tshawytscha from the Snake River following the construction of dams on the lower Snake River during the late 1960s and early 1970s. Although Raymond documented some improvements in survival through the early 1980s, anadromous populations remained depressed and declined even further during the 1990s (Petrosky et al. 2001; Good et al. 2005). The effect was disastrous for all anadromous salmonid species in the Snake River basin. Coho salmon O. kisutch were extirpated from the Snake River by 1986. Sockeye salmon O. nerka almost disappeared from the system and were declared under extreme risk of extinction by authority of the Endangered Species Act (ESA) in 1991. Chinook salmon were classified as threatened with extinction in 1992. Steelhead trout were also classified as threatened in 1997. Federal management agencies in the basin are required to mitigate for hydroelectric impacts and provide for recovery of all ESA-listed populations. In addition, the Idaho Department of Fish and Game (IDFG) has the long-term goal of preserving naturally reproducing salmon and steelhead populations and recovering them to levels that will provide a sustainable harvest (IDFG 2007). Management to achieve these goals requires an understanding of how salmonid populations function (McElhany et al. 2000) as well as regular status assessments. Key demographic parameters, such as population density, age composition, recruits per spawner, and survival rates must be estimated annually to make such assessments. These data will guide efforts to meet mitigation and recovery goals. The Idaho Natural Production Monitoring and Evaluation Project (INPMEP) was developed to provide this information to managers. The Snake

  8. Monitoring for airborne allergens

    SciTech Connect

    Burge, H.A. )

    1992-07-01

    Monitoring for allergens can provide some information on the kinds and levels of exposure experienced by local patient populations, providing volumetric methods are used for sample collection and analysis is accurate and consistent. Such data can also be used to develop standards for the specific environment and to begin to develop predictive models. Comparing outdoor allergen aerosols between different monitoring sites requires identical collection and analysis methods and some kind of rational standard, whether arbitrary, or based on recognized health effects.32 references.

  9. Monitoring materials

    DOEpatents

    Orr, Christopher Henry; Luff, Craig Janson; Dockray, Thomas; Macarthur, Duncan Whittemore

    2002-01-01

    The apparatus and method provide techniques for effectively implementing alpha and/or beta and/or gamma monitoring of items or locations as desired. Indirect alpha monitoring by detecting ions generated by alpha emissions, in conjunction with beta and/or gamma monitoring is provided. The invention additionally provides for screening of items prior to alpha monitoring using beta and/or gamma monitoring, so as to ensure that the alpha monitoring apparatus is not contaminated by proceeding direct to alpha monitoring of a heavily contaminated item or location. The invention provides additional versatility in the emission forms which can be monitored, whilst maintaining accuracy and avoiding inadvertent contamination.

  10. Monitoring the source monitoring.

    PubMed

    Luna, Karlos; Martín-Luengo, Beatriz

    2013-11-01

    The hypothesis that the retrieval of correct source memory cues, those leading to a correct source attribution, increases confidence, whereas the retrieval of incorrect source memory cues, those leading to a source misattribution, decreases confidence was tested. Four predictions were derived from this hypothesis: (1) confidence should be higher for correct than incorrect source attribution except; (2) when no source cues are retrieved; (3) only the source misattributions inferred from the retrieval of incorrect source cues will be rated with low confidence; and (4) the number of source cues retrieved, either correct or incorrect, will affect the confidence in the source attributions. To test these predictions, participants read two narratives from two witnesses to a bank robbery, a customer and a teller. Then, participants completed a source monitoring test with four alternatives, customer, teller, both, or neither, and rated their confidence in their source attribution. Results supported the first three predictions, but they also suggested that the number of correct source monitoring cues retrieved did not play a role in the monitoring of the accuracy of the source attributions. Attributions made from the recovery of incorrect source cues could be tagged as dubious or uncertain, thus leading to lowered confidence irrespective of the number of incorrect source cues or whether another correct source cue was also recovered. This research has potential applications for eyewitness memory because it shows that confidence can be an indicator of the accuracy of a source attribution. PMID:23553316

  11. Major histocompatibility complex diversity is positively associated with stream water temperatures in proximate populations of sockeye salmon.

    PubMed

    Larson, W A; Lisi, P J; Seeb, J E; Seeb, L W; Schindler, D E

    2016-09-01

    Local adaptation to heterogeneous environments generates population diversity within species, significantly increasing ecosystem stability and flows of ecosystem services. However, few studies have isolated the specific mechanisms that create and maintain this diversity. Here, we examined the relationship between water temperature in streams used for spawning and genetic diversity at a gene involved in immune function [the major histocompatibility complex (MHC)] in 14 populations of sockeye salmon (Oncorhynchus nerka) sampled across the Wood River basin in south-western Alaska. The largest influence on MHC diversity was lake basin, but we also found a significant positive correlation between average water temperature and MHC diversity. This positive relationship between temperature and MHC diversity appears to have been produced by natural selection at very local scales rather than neutral processes, as no correlation was observed between temperature and genetic diversity at 90 neutral markers. Additionally, no significant relationship was observed between temperature variability and MHC diversity. Although lake basin was the largest driver of differences in MHC diversity, our results also demonstrate that fine-scale differences in water temperature may generate variable selection regimes in populations that spawn in habitats separated by as little as 1 km. Additionally, our results indicated that some populations may be reaching a maximum level of MHC diversity. We postulate that salmon from populations in warm streams may delay spawning until late summer to avoid thermal stress as well as the elevated levels of pathogen prevalence and virulence associated with warm temperatures earlier in the summer.

  12. Major histocompatibility complex diversity is positively associated with stream water temperatures in proximate populations of sockeye salmon.

    PubMed

    Larson, W A; Lisi, P J; Seeb, J E; Seeb, L W; Schindler, D E

    2016-09-01

    Local adaptation to heterogeneous environments generates population diversity within species, significantly increasing ecosystem stability and flows of ecosystem services. However, few studies have isolated the specific mechanisms that create and maintain this diversity. Here, we examined the relationship between water temperature in streams used for spawning and genetic diversity at a gene involved in immune function [the major histocompatibility complex (MHC)] in 14 populations of sockeye salmon (Oncorhynchus nerka) sampled across the Wood River basin in south-western Alaska. The largest influence on MHC diversity was lake basin, but we also found a significant positive correlation between average water temperature and MHC diversity. This positive relationship between temperature and MHC diversity appears to have been produced by natural selection at very local scales rather than neutral processes, as no correlation was observed between temperature and genetic diversity at 90 neutral markers. Additionally, no significant relationship was observed between temperature variability and MHC diversity. Although lake basin was the largest driver of differences in MHC diversity, our results also demonstrate that fine-scale differences in water temperature may generate variable selection regimes in populations that spawn in habitats separated by as little as 1 km. Additionally, our results indicated that some populations may be reaching a maximum level of MHC diversity. We postulate that salmon from populations in warm streams may delay spawning until late summer to avoid thermal stress as well as the elevated levels of pathogen prevalence and virulence associated with warm temperatures earlier in the summer. PMID:27341174

  13. Monitoring bird population trends in North America

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Robbins, C.S.; Bystrak, D.; Geissler, P.H.; Purroy, F.J.

    1983-01-01

    Se ofrece un nuevo metodo para computar las oscilaciones demograficas de las aves a lo largo de los anos. Con los datos suministrados por el proyecto 'Aves nidificantes en Norteamerica' , se indican en la Tabla 1 las pautas de cambio numerico de una serie seleccionada de aves holarticas.

  14. Snake River Sockeye Salmon Habitat and Limnological Research; 2002 Annual Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Kohler, Andre E.; Taki, Doug; Griswold, Robert G.

    2004-08-01

    In March 1990, the Shoshone-Bannock Tribes petitioned the National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS) to list the Snake River sockeye salmon (Oncorhynchus nerka) as endangered. As a result of that petition the Snake River sockeye salmon was officially listed as endangered in November 1991 under the Endangered Species Act (56 FR 58619). In 1991, the Snake River Sockeye Salmon Habitat and Limnological Research Program was implemented (Project Number 91-71, Intergovernmental Contract Number DE-BI79-91bp22548). This project is part of an interagency effort to prevent the extinction of the Redfish Lake stock of O. nerka. The Shoshone-Bannock Tribal goal for this project is two tiered: The immediate goal is to increase the population of Snake River sockeye salmon while preserving the unique genetic characteristics of the Evolutionarily Significant Unit (ESU). The Tribes long term goal is to maintain a viable population that warrants delisting and provides Tribal harvest opportunities. The Bonneville Power Administration (BPA) provides funding for this interagency recovery program through the Northwest Power Planning Council Fish and Wildlife Program (NPPCFWP). Collaborators in the recovery effort include the National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS), the Idaho Department of Fish and Game (IDFG), the University of Idaho (UI), U.S. Forest Service (USFS), and the Shoshone-Bannock Tribe (SBT). This report summarizes activities conducted by Shoshone-Bannock Tribal Fisheries Department personnel during the 2002 calendar year. Project objectives include: (1) monitor over-winter survival and emigration of juvenile anadromous O. nerka stocked from the captive rearing program; (2) fertilize Redfish Lake (3) conduct kokanee salmon (non-anadromous O. nerka) population surveys; (4) monitor spawning kokanee escapement and estimate fry recruitment on Fishhook, Alturas Lake, and Stanley Lake creeks; (5) evaluate potential competition and predation between stocked juvenile O. nerka and a

  15. Monitoring tigers with confidence.

    PubMed

    Linkie, Matthew; Guillera-Arroita, Gurutzeta; Smith, Joseph; Rayan, D Mark

    2010-12-01

    With only 5% of the world's wild tigers (Panthera tigris Linnaeus, 1758) remaining since the last century, conservationists urgently need to know whether or not the management strategies currently being employed are effectively protecting these tigers. This knowledge is contingent on the ability to reliably monitor tiger populations, or subsets, over space and time. In the this paper, we focus on the 2 seminal methodologies (camera trap and occupancy surveys) that have enabled the monitoring of tiger populations with greater confidence. Specifically, we: (i) describe their statistical theory and application in the field; (ii) discuss issues associated with their survey designs and state variable modeling; and, (iii) discuss their future directions. These methods have had an unprecedented influence on increasing statistical rigor within tiger surveys and, also, surveys of other carnivore species. Nevertheless, only 2 published camera trap studies have gone beyond single baseline assessments and actually monitored population trends. For low density tiger populations (e.g. <1 adult tiger/100 km(2)) obtaining sufficient precision for state variable estimates from camera trapping remains a challenge because of insufficient detection probabilities and/or sample sizes. Occupancy surveys have overcome this problem by redefining the sampling unit (e.g. grid cells and not individual tigers). Current research is focusing on developing spatially explicit capture-mark-recapture models and estimating abundance indices from landscape-scale occupancy surveys, as well as the use of genetic information for identifying and monitoring tigers. The widespread application of these monitoring methods in the field now enables complementary studies on the impact of the different threats to tiger populations and their response to varying management intervention.

  16. Monitoring tigers with confidence.

    PubMed

    Linkie, Matthew; Guillera-Arroita, Gurutzeta; Smith, Joseph; Rayan, D Mark

    2010-12-01

    With only 5% of the world's wild tigers (Panthera tigris Linnaeus, 1758) remaining since the last century, conservationists urgently need to know whether or not the management strategies currently being employed are effectively protecting these tigers. This knowledge is contingent on the ability to reliably monitor tiger populations, or subsets, over space and time. In the this paper, we focus on the 2 seminal methodologies (camera trap and occupancy surveys) that have enabled the monitoring of tiger populations with greater confidence. Specifically, we: (i) describe their statistical theory and application in the field; (ii) discuss issues associated with their survey designs and state variable modeling; and, (iii) discuss their future directions. These methods have had an unprecedented influence on increasing statistical rigor within tiger surveys and, also, surveys of other carnivore species. Nevertheless, only 2 published camera trap studies have gone beyond single baseline assessments and actually monitored population trends. For low density tiger populations (e.g. <1 adult tiger/100 km(2)) obtaining sufficient precision for state variable estimates from camera trapping remains a challenge because of insufficient detection probabilities and/or sample sizes. Occupancy surveys have overcome this problem by redefining the sampling unit (e.g. grid cells and not individual tigers). Current research is focusing on developing spatially explicit capture-mark-recapture models and estimating abundance indices from landscape-scale occupancy surveys, as well as the use of genetic information for identifying and monitoring tigers. The widespread application of these monitoring methods in the field now enables complementary studies on the impact of the different threats to tiger populations and their response to varying management intervention. PMID:21392352

  17. MONITORING DESIGN

    EPA Science Inventory

    The monitoring design component of the overall Monitoring Framework provides answers to the questions: What site or environment will be monitored? What parameters will be measured at the site? Where will the measurements be taken? When and how frequently will the measurements be ...

  18. Birth defects monitoring

    SciTech Connect

    Klingberg, M.A.; Papier, C.M.; Hart, J.

    1983-01-01

    Population monitoring of birth defects provides a means for detecting relative changes in their frequency. Many varied systems have been developed throughout the world since the thalidomide tragedy of the early 1960s. Although it is difficult to pinpoint specific teratogenic agents based on rises in rates of a particular defect or a constellation of defects, monitoring systems can provide clues for hypothesis testing in epidemiological investigations. International coordination of efforts in this area resulted in the founding of the International Clearinghouse for Birth Defects Monitoring Systems (ICBDMS) in 1974. In this paper we will describe the functions and basic requirements of monitoring systems in general, and look at the development and activities of the ICBDMS. A review of known and suspected environmental teratogenic agents (eg, chemical, habitual, biological, physical, and nutritional) is also presented.

  19. Comprehensive air monitoring plan: general monitoring report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1980-03-31

    Recommendations are provided for general monitoring of hydrogen sulfide (H/sub 2/S) in ambient air in parts of Colusa, Lake, Mendocino, Napa, and Sonoma counties potentially impacted by emissions from geothermal development projects in the Geysers-Calistoga Known Geothermal Resource Area. Recommendations for types, placement, performance guidelines, and criteria and procedure for triggering establishment and termination of CAMP monitoring equipment were determined after examination of four factors: population location; emission sources; meteorological considerations; and data needs of permitting agencies and applicants. Three alternate financial plans were developed. Locations and equipment for immediate installation are recommended for: two air quality stations in communities where the State ambient air quality standard for H/sub 2/S has been exceeded; three air quality trend stations to monitor progress in reduction of H/sub 2/S emissions; two meteorological observation stations to monitor synoptic wind flow over the area; and one acoustic radar and one rawinsonde station to monitor air inversions which limit the depth of the mixing layer.

  20. Monitoring that matters

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Johnson, Douglas H.; Gitzen, Robert A.; Millspaugh, Joshua J.; Cooper, Andrew B.; Licht, Daniel S.

    2012-01-01

    Monitoring is a critically important activity for assessing the status of a system, such as the health of an individual, the balance in one's checking account, profits and losses of a business, the economic activity of a nation, or the size of an animal population. Monitoring is especially vital for evaluating changes in the system associated with specific known impacts occurring to the system. It is also valuable for detecting unanticipated changes in the system and identifying plausible causes of such changes, all in time to take corrective action. Before proceeding, we should define "monitoring." One definition of "monitor" (Microsoft Corporation 2009) is "to check something at regular intervals in order to find out how it is progressing or developing." The key point here is "at regular intervals," suggesting a continuing process. Some definitions do not indicate the repetitive nature of monitoring and are basically synonymous with "observing." Most monitoring, in the strict sense of the word, is intended to persist for long periods of time, perhaps indefinitely or permanently. Similarly, Thompson et al. (1998: 3) referred to the "repeated assessment of status" of something, but noted that the term "monitor" is sometimes used for analogous activities such as collecting baseline information or evaluating projects for either implementation or effectiveness. For their purposes, they restricted the term to involve repeated measurements collected at a specified frequency of time units. Let us adopt that definition, recognizing that repeated measurements imply collecting comparable information on each occasion.

  1. Counting Populations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Damonte, Kathleen

    2004-01-01

    Scientists use sampling to get an estimate of things they cannot easily count. A population is made up of all the organisms of one species living together in one place at the same time. All of the people living together in one town are considered a population. All of the grasshoppers living in a field are a population. Scientists keep track of the…

  2. Population Research.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Inst. of Child Health and Human Development (NIH), Bethesda, MD.

    The scope of population research as carried on by the National Institute of Child Health and Human Development (NICHD) is set forth in this booklet. Population problems of the world, United States, and the individual are considered along with international population policies based on voluntary family planning programs. NICHD goals for biological…

  3. Understanding Population.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mothner, Ira

    Activities and concerns of Ford Foundation supported population research and training centers are described in this report. The centers are concerned with population growth, consequences of growth for human welfare, forces that determine family planning, interrelations among population variables, economics of contraceptive distribution, and…

  4. Snake River Sockeye Salmon Habitat and Limnological Research; 1994 Annual Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Teuscher, David; Wurtsbaugh, Wayne A.

    1995-05-01

    Snake River sockeye salmon were listed as endangered in 1991. Since then, the Shoshone-Bannock Tribes (SBT) have been involved in a multi-agency recovery effort. The purpose of this document is to report activities completed in the rearing environments of the Sawtooth Valley Lakes, central Idaho. SBT objectives for 1995 included: continuing population monitoring and spawning habitat surveys; estimating smolt carrying capacity of the lakes, and supervising limnology and barrier modification studies. Hydroacoustic estimates of O. nerka densities in the Sawtooth Valley lakes ranged from 32 to 339 fish/ha. Densities were greatest in Stanley followed by Redfish (217 fish/ha), Pettit (95 fish/ha), and Alturas. Except for Alturas, population abundance estimates were similar to 1993 results. In Alturas Lake, O. nerka abundance declined by approximately 90%. In 1994, about 142,000 kokanee fry recruited to Redfish Lake from Fishhook Creek. O. nerka fry recruitment to Stanley and Alturas lakes wa s 19,000 and 2,000 fry, respectively. Egg to fry survival was 11%, 13%, and 7% in Fishhook, Alturas and Stanley Lake Creeks. Kokanee spawning in Fishhook Creek was slightly lower than 1993 estimates but similar to the mean escapement since 1991. About 9,200 kokanee entered the creek in 1994 compared to 10,800 in 1993. Escapement for Stanley Lake Creek was only 200, a 68% reduction from 1993. Conversely, O. nerka spawning densities increased to 3,200 in Alturas Lake Creek, up from 200 the previous year.

  5. Environmental Monitoring Plan

    SciTech Connect

    Althouse, P E; Bertoldo, N A; Bowen, B M; Brown, R A; Campbell, C G; Christofferson, E; Gallegos, G M; Grayson, A R; Jones, H E; Larson, J M; Laycak, D; Mathews, S; Peterson, S R; Revelli, M J; Rueppel, D; Williams, R A; Wilson, K; Woods, N

    2005-11-23

    The purpose of the environmental monitoring plan (EMP) is to promote the early identification of, and response to, potential adverse environmental impacts associated with DOE operations. Environmental monitoring supports the Integrated Safety Management System (ISMS) to detect, characterize, and respond to releases from DOE activities; assess impacts; estimate dispersal patterns in the environment; characterize the pathways of exposure to members of the public; characterize the exposures and doses to individuals and to the population; and to evaluate the potential impacts to the biota in the vicinity of the DOE activity. In addition, the EMP addresses the analytical work supporting environmental monitoring to ensure the following: (1) A consistent system for collecting, assessing, and documenting environmental data of known and documented quality; (2) A validated and consistent approach for sampling and analysis of radionuclide samples to ensure laboratory data meets program-specific needs and requirements within the framework of a performance-based approach for analytical laboratory work; and (3) An integrated sampling approach to avoid duplicative data collection. Until recently, environmental monitoring at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) was required by DOE Order 5400.1, which was canceled in January 2003. LLNL is in the process of adopting the ISO 14001 Environmental Management Systems standard, which contains requirements to perform and document environmental monitoring. The ISO 14001 standard is not as prescriptive as DOE Order 5400.1, which expressly required an EMP. LLNL will continue to prepare the EMP because it provides an organizational framework for ensuring that the work is conducted appropriately. The environmental monitoring addressed by the plan includes preoperational characterization and assessment, and effluent and surveillance monitoring. Additional environmental monitoring is conducted at LLNL as part of the compliance with the

  6. Matrix population models from 20 studies of perennial plant populations

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ellis, Martha M.; Williams, Jennifer L.; Lesica, Peter; Bell, Timothy J.; Bierzychudek, Paulette; Bowles, Marlin; Crone, Elizabeth E.; Doak, Daniel F.; Ehrlen, Johan; Ellis-Adam, Albertine; McEachern, Kathryn; Ganesan, Rengaian; Latham, Penelope; Luijten, Sheila; Kaye, Thomas N.; Knight, Tiffany M.; Menges, Eric S.; Morris, William F.; den Nijs, Hans; Oostermeijer, Gerard; Quintana-Ascencio, Pedro F.; Shelly, J. Stephen; Stanley, Amanda; Thorpe, Andrea; Tamara, Ticktin; Valverde, Teresa; Weekley, Carl W.

    2012-01-01

    Demographic transition matrices are one of the most commonly applied population models for both basic and applied ecological research. The relatively simple framework of these models and simple, easily interpretable summary statistics they produce have prompted the wide use of these models across an exceptionally broad range of taxa. Here, we provide annual transition matrices and observed stage structures/population sizes for 20 perennial plant species which have been the focal species for long-term demographic monitoring. These data were assembled as part of the "Testing Matrix Models" working group through the National Center for Ecological Analysis and Synthesis (NCEAS). In sum, these data represent 82 populations with >460 total population-years of data. It is our hope that making these data available will help promote and improve our ability to monitor and understand plant population dynamics.

  7. Matrix population models from 20 studies of perennial plant populations

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ellis, Martha M.; Williams, Jennifer L.; Lesica, Peter; Bell, Timothy J.; Bierzychudek, Paulette; Bowles, Marlin; Crone, Elizabeth E.; Doak, Daniel F.; Ehrlen, Johan; Ellis-Adam, Albertine; McEachern, Kathryn; Ganesan, Rengaian; Latham, Penelope; Luijten, Sheila; Kaye, Thomas N.; Knight, Tiffany M.; Menges, Eric S.; Morris, William F.; den Nijs, Hans; Oostermeijer, Gerard; Quintana-Ascencio, Pedro F.; Shelly, J. Stephen; Stanley, Amanda; Thorpe, Andrea; Tamara, Ticktin; Valverde, Teresa; Weekley, Carl W.

    2012-01-01

    Demographic transition matrices are one of the most commonly applied population models for both basic and applied ecological research. The relatively simple framework of these models and simple, easily interpretable summary statistics they produce have prompted the wide use of these models across an exceptionally broad range of taxa. Here, we provide annual transition matrices and observed stage structures/population sizes for 20 perennial plant species which have been the focal species for long-term demographic monitoring. These data were assembled as part of the 'Testing Matrix Models' working group through the National Center for Ecological Analysis and Synthesis (NCEAS). In sum, these data represent 82 populations with >460 total population-years of data. It is our hope that making these data available will help promote and improve our ability to monitor and understand plant population dynamics.

  8. Bladder Monitor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1993-01-01

    Diagnostic Ultrasound Corporation's Bladder Scan Monitor continuously records and monitors bladder fullness and alerts the wearer or caretaker when voiding is required. The sensor is held against the lower abdomen by a belt and connected to the monitor by a cable. The sensor obtains bladder volume data from sound waves reflecting off the bladder wall. The device was developed by Langley Research Center, the Ames Research Center and the NASA Technology Applications Team. It utilizes Langley's advanced ultrasound technology. It is licensed to the ARC for medical applications, and sublicensed to Diagnostics Ultrasound. Central monitoring systems are planned for the future.

  9. Can intense predation by bears exert a depensatory effect on recruitment in a Pacific salmon population?

    PubMed

    Quinn, Thomas P; Cunningham, Curry J; Randall, Jessica; Hilborn, Ray

    2014-10-01

    It has long been recognized that, as populations increase in density, ecological processes affecting growth and survival reduce per capita recruitment in the next generation. In contrast to the evidence for such "compensatory" density dependence, the alternative "depensatory" process (reduced per capita recruitment at low density) has proven more difficult to demonstrate in the field. To test for such depensation, we measured the spawner-recruit relationship over five decades for a sockeye salmon (Oncorhynchus nerka) population in Alaska breeding in high-quality, unaltered habitat. Twenty-five years of detailed estimates of predation by brown bears, Ursus arctos, revealed strong density dependence in predation rate; the bears killed ca. 80% of the salmon in years of low salmon spawning abundance. Nevertheless, the reconstructed spawner-recruit relationship, adjusted to include salmon intercepted in the commercial fishery, provided no evidence of demographic depensation. That is, in years when few salmon returned and the great majority were killed by bears, the few that spawned were successful enough that the population remained highly productive, even when those killed by bears were included as potential spawners. We conclude that the high quality of breeding habitat at this site and the productive nature of semelparous Pacific salmon allowed this population to avoid the hypothesized depressed recruitment from depensatory processes expected at low density. The observed lack of demographic depensation is encouraging from a conservation standpoint because it implies that depleted populations may have the potential to rebound successfully given suitable spawning and rearing habitat, even in the presence of strong predation pressure.

  10. Can intense predation by bears exert a depensatory effect on recruitment in a Pacific salmon population?

    PubMed

    Quinn, Thomas P; Cunningham, Curry J; Randall, Jessica; Hilborn, Ray

    2014-10-01

    It has long been recognized that, as populations increase in density, ecological processes affecting growth and survival reduce per capita recruitment in the next generation. In contrast to the evidence for such "compensatory" density dependence, the alternative "depensatory" process (reduced per capita recruitment at low density) has proven more difficult to demonstrate in the field. To test for such depensation, we measured the spawner-recruit relationship over five decades for a sockeye salmon (Oncorhynchus nerka) population in Alaska breeding in high-quality, unaltered habitat. Twenty-five years of detailed estimates of predation by brown bears, Ursus arctos, revealed strong density dependence in predation rate; the bears killed ca. 80% of the salmon in years of low salmon spawning abundance. Nevertheless, the reconstructed spawner-recruit relationship, adjusted to include salmon intercepted in the commercial fishery, provided no evidence of demographic depensation. That is, in years when few salmon returned and the great majority were killed by bears, the few that spawned were successful enough that the population remained highly productive, even when those killed by bears were included as potential spawners. We conclude that the high quality of breeding habitat at this site and the productive nature of semelparous Pacific salmon allowed this population to avoid the hypothesized depressed recruitment from depensatory processes expected at low density. The observed lack of demographic depensation is encouraging from a conservation standpoint because it implies that depleted populations may have the potential to rebound successfully given suitable spawning and rearing habitat, even in the presence of strong predation pressure. PMID:25154755

  11. [Genetic Differentiation of Sockeye Salmon Oncorhynchus nerka from Kamchatka River Basin and the Lake-River Systems of the West Coast of the Bering Sea as Inferred from Data on Single Nucleotide Polymorphism].

    PubMed

    Khrustaleva, A M; Klovach, N V; Vedischeva, E V; Seeb, J E

    2015-10-01

    The variability of 45 single nucleotide polymorphism loci (SNP) was studied in sockeye salmon from the Kamchatka River basin and four lake-river systems of the west coast of the Bering Sea. Based on the genetic differentiation estimates for the largest sockeye salmon populations of Eastern Kamchatka and Chukotka, the examined samples were combined into two regional groups represented by the population of the Kamchatka River drainage, which included numerous local subpopulations and seasonal races, and the northern population grouping from the rivers of Olutorsko-Navarinsky raion, wherein the sockeye salmon from Maynypilginskaya Lake-River system was relatively isolated. Considerable divergence was observed between the island (Sarannoe Lake, Bering Island) and continental populations. Genetic heterogeneity was revealed and groups of early- and late-maturing individuals were isolated in the sample of late-run sockeye salmon from Kamchatka River. In Apuka River, subdivision of the spawning run into two genetically distinct spatial and temporal groupings was also observed. The results suggest that the differentiation of sockeye salmon samples by single nucleotide substitution frequencies was largely due to differences in the direction and strength of local selection at some loci in the population complexes and intrapopulation groupings from the examined river basins of Eastern Kamchatka, Chukotka, and Commander Islands. PMID:27169229

  12. Monitoring your baby before labor

    MedlinePlus

    Prenatal care - monitoring; Pregnancy care - monitoring; Non-stress test - monitoring; NST- monitoring; Contraction stress test - monitoring; CST- monitoring; Biophysical profile - monitoring; BPP - monitoring

  13. Significance of white-coat hypertension in older persons with isolated systolic hypertension: a meta-analysis using the International Database on Ambulatory Blood Pressure Monitoring in Relation to Cardiovascular Outcomes population.

    PubMed

    Franklin, Stanley S; Thijs, Lutgarde; Hansen, Tine W; Li, Yan; Boggia, José; Kikuya, Masahiro; Björklund-Bodegård, Kristina; Ohkubo, Takayoshi; Jeppesen, Jørgen; Torp-Pedersen, Christian; Dolan, Eamon; Kuznetsova, Tatiana; Stolarz-Skrzypek, Katarzyna; Tikhonoff, Valérie; Malyutina, Sofia; Casiglia, Edoardo; Nikitin, Yuri; Lind, Lars; Sandoya, Edgardo; Kawecka-Jaszcz, Kalina; Imai, Yutaka; Wang, Jiguang; Ibsen, Hans; O'Brien, Eoin; Staessen, Jan A

    2012-03-01

    The significance of white-coat hypertension in older persons with isolated systolic hypertension remains poorly understood. We analyzed subjects from the population-based 11-country International Database on Ambulatory Blood Pressure Monitoring in Relation to Cardiovascular Outcomes database who had daytime ambulatory blood pressure (BP; ABP) and conventional BP (CBP) measurements. After excluding persons with diastolic hypertension by CBP (≥90 mm Hg) or by daytime ABP (≥85 mm Hg), a history of cardiovascular disease, and persons <18 years of age, the present analysis totaled 7295 persons, of whom 1593 had isolated systolic hypertension. During a median follow-up of 10.6 years, there was a total of 655 fatal and nonfatal cardiovascular events. The analyses were stratified by treatment status. In untreated subjects, those with white-coat hypertension (CBP ≥140/<90 mm Hg and ABP <135/<85 mm Hg) and subjects with normal BP (CBP <140/<90 mm Hg and ABP <135/<85 mm Hg) were at similar risk (adjusted hazard rate: 1.17 [95% CI: 0.87-1.57]; P=0.29). Furthermore, in treated subjects with isolated systolic hypertension, the cardiovascular risk was similar in elevated conventional and normal daytime systolic BP as compared with those with normal conventional and normal daytime BPs (adjusted hazard rate: 1.10 [95% CI: 0.79-1.53]; P=0.57). However, both treated isolated systolic hypertension subjects with white-coat hypertension (adjusted hazard rate: 2.00; [95% CI: 1.43-2.79]; P<0.0001) and treated subjects with normal BP (adjusted hazard rate: 1.98 [95% CI: 1.49-2.62]; P<0.0001) were at higher risk as compared with untreated normotensive subjects. In conclusion, subjects with sustained hypertension who have their ABP normalized on antihypertensive therapy but with residual white-coat effect by CBP measurement have an entity that we have termed, "treated normalized hypertension." Therefore, one should be cautious in applying the term "white-coat hypertension" to persons

  14. Evaluation of a mark-recapture method for estimating mortality and migration rates of stratified populations

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Dorazio, R.M.; Rago, P.J.

    1991-01-01

    We simulated mark–recapture experiments to evaluate a method for estimating fishing mortality and migration rates of populations stratified at release and recovery. When fish released in two or more strata were recovered from different recapture strata in nearly the same proportions, conditional recapture probabilities were estimated outside the [0, 1] interval. The maximum likelihood estimates tended to be biased and imprecise when the patterns of recaptures produced extremely "flat" likelihood surfaces. Absence of bias was not guaranteed, however, in experiments where recapture rates could be estimated within the [0, 1] interval. Inadequate numbers of tag releases and recoveries also produced biased estimates, although the bias was easily detected by the high sampling variability of the estimates. A stratified tag–recapture experiment with sockeye salmon (Oncorhynchus nerka) was used to demonstrate procedures for analyzing data that produce biased estimates of recapture probabilities. An estimator was derived to examine the sensitivity of recapture rate estimates to assumed differences in natural and tagging mortality, tag loss, and incomplete reporting of tag recoveries.

  15. Ion Monitoring

    DOEpatents

    Orr, Christopher Henry; Luff, Craig Janson; Dockray, Thomas; Macarthur, Duncan Whittemore

    2003-11-18

    The apparatus and method provide a technique for significantly reducing capacitance effects in detector electrodes arising due to movement of the instrument relative to the item/location being monitored in ion detection based techniques. The capacitance variations are rendered less significant by placing an electrically conducting element between the detector electrodes and the monitored location/item. Improved sensitivity and reduced noise signals arise as a result. The technique also provides apparatus and method suitable for monitoring elongate items which are unsuited to complete enclosure in one go within a chamber. The items are monitored part by part as the pass through the instrument, so increasing the range of items or locations which can be successfully monitored.

  16. Hungry Horse Dam Fisheries Mitigation; Kokanee Stocking and Monitoring in Flathead Lake, 1996 Progress Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Carty, Daniel; Knoetek, W. Ladd Hansen, Barry

    1997-06-01

    Kokanee salmon Oncorhynchus nerka were introduced into Flathead Lake in 1916. The kokanee population declined in the 1960s and 1970s, and kokanee disappeared from Flathead Lake in the late 1980s. Their disappearance has been attributed to the long-term effects of the construction and operation of Hungry Horse and Kerr dams, excessive harvest by anglers, and changes in the lake food web induced by the introduction of opossum shrimp Mysis relicta. Attempts to reestablish kokanee in the Flathead Lake ecosystem between 1988 and 1991 were unsuccessful. In 1991, Montana Fish, Wildlife and Parks (MFWP) and the Confederated Salish and Kootenai Tribes (CSKT) wrote a mitigation plan to restore kokanee to Flathead Lake. In 1993, MFWP, CSKT, and the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service wrote a mitigation implementation plan that initiated a 5-year test program to use hatchery-reared fish to reintroduce kokanee to the lake. Stocking hatchery-reared kokanee into Flathead Lake began in 1993; the 5-year {open_quotes}kokanee test{close_quotes} started in 1994 and is scheduled to continue through 1998. The annual stocking objective is 1 million yearling kokanee (6-8 in long). Criteria used to evaluate the success of the 5-year test are (1) 30% survival of kokanee 1 year after stocking, (2) yearling-to-adult survival of 10%, and (3) annual harvest of 50,000 kokanee ({ge} 11 in) and fishing effort {ge} 100,000 angler hours.

  17. Snake River Sockeye Salmon Habitat and Limnological Research; 2001 Annual Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Kohler, Andre E.; Taki, Doug; Griswold, Robert G.

    2004-08-01

    In March 1990, the Shoshone-Bannock Tribes petitioned the National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS) to list the Snake River sockeye salmon Oncorhynchus nerka as endangered. As a result of that petition the Snake River sockeye salmon was officially listed as endangered in November 1991 under the Endangered Species Act (56 FR 58619). In 1991, the Snake River Sockeye Salmon Habitat and Limnological Research Program was implemented (Project Number 91-71, Intergovernmental Contract Number DE-BI79-91bp22548). This project is part of an interagency effort to prevent the extinction of the Redfish Lake stock of O. nerka. The Bonneville Power Administration (BPA) provides funding for this interagency recovery program through the Northwest Power Planning Council Fish and Wildlife Program (Council). Collaborators in the recovery effort include the National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS), the Idaho Department of Fish and Game (IDFG), the University of Idaho (UI), U.S. Forest Service (USFS), and the Shoshone-Bannock Tribe (SBT). This report summarizes activities conducted by Shoshone-Bannock Tribal Fisheries Department personnel during the 2001 calendar year. Project objectives include: (1) monitor over-winter survival and emigration of juvenile anadromous O. nerka stocked from the captive rearing program; (2) fertilize Redfish Lake, fertilization of Pettit and Alturas lakes was suspended for this year; (3) conduct kokanee (non-anadromous O. nerka) population surveys; (4) monitor spawning kokanee escapement and estimate fry recruitment on Fishhook, Alturas Lake, and Stanley Lake creeks; (5) evaluate potential competition and predation interactions between stocked juvenile O. nerka and a variety of fish species in Redfish, Pettit, and Alturas lakes; (6) monitor limnological parameters of Sawtooth Valley lakes to assess lake productivity.

  18. Influence of breeding habitat on bear predation and age at maturity and sexual dimorphism of sockeye salmon populations

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Quinn, Thomas P; Wetzel, Lisa A.; Bishop, Susan; Overberg, Kristi; Rogers, Donald E.

    2001-01-01

    Age structure and morphology differ among Pacific salmon (Oncorhynchus spp.) populations. Sexual selection and reproductive capacity (fecundity and egg size) generally favor large (old), deep-bodied fish. We hypothesized that natural selection from physical access to spawning grounds and size-biased predation by bears, Ursus spp., opposes such large, deep-bodied salmon. Accordingly, size and shape of salmon should vary predictably among spawning habitats. We tested this hypothesis by measuring the age composition and body depth of sockeye salmon, Oncorhynchus nerka, and the intensity of predation in a range of breeding habitats in southwestern Alaska. Stream width was positively correlated with age at maturity and negatively correlated with predation level. However, salmon spawning on lake beaches were not consistently old, indicating that different factors affect age in riverine- and beach-spawning populations. Body depths of male and female salmon were positively correlated with water depth across all sites, as predicted. However, the mouths of some streams were so shallow that they might select against large or deep-bodied salmon, even in the absence of bear predation. Taken together, the results indicated that habitat has direct and indirect effects (via predation) on life history and morphology of mature salmon.

  19. Cardiorespiratory performance and blood chemistry during swimming and recovery in three populations of elite swimmers: Adult sockeye salmon.

    PubMed

    Eliason, Erika J; Clark, Timothy D; Hinch, Scott G; Farrell, Anthony P

    2013-10-01

    Every year, millions of adult sockeye salmon (Oncorhynchus nerka) perform an arduous, once-in-a-lifetime migration up the Fraser River (BC, Canada) to return to their natal stream to spawn. The changes in heart rate, stroke volume, and arterio-venous oxygen extraction (i.e., factors determining rates of oxygen delivery to the tissues by the cardiovascular system) have never been directly and simultaneously measured along with whole animal oxygen uptake in a maximally swimming fish. Here, such measurements were made using three sockeye salmon populations (Early Stuart, Chilko and Quesnel), which each performed two consecutive critical swimming speed (Ucrit) challenges to provide a comprehensive quantification of cardiovascular physiology, oxygen status and blood chemistry associated with swimming and recovery. Swim performance, oxygen uptake, cardiac output, heart rate and stroke volume did not significantly vary at rest, during swimming or during recovery between populations or sexes. Despite incomplete metabolic recovery between swim challenges, all fish repeated their swim performance and similar quantitative changes in the cardiorespiratory variables were observed for each swim challenge. The high maximum cardiorespiratory performance and excellent repeat swim performance are clearly beneficial in allowing the salmon to maintain steady ground speeds and reach the distant spawning grounds in a timely manner. PMID:23880060

  20. Cardiorespiratory performance and blood chemistry during swimming and recovery in three populations of elite swimmers: Adult sockeye salmon.

    PubMed

    Eliason, Erika J; Clark, Timothy D; Hinch, Scott G; Farrell, Anthony P

    2013-10-01

    Every year, millions of adult sockeye salmon (Oncorhynchus nerka) perform an arduous, once-in-a-lifetime migration up the Fraser River (BC, Canada) to return to their natal stream to spawn. The changes in heart rate, stroke volume, and arterio-venous oxygen extraction (i.e., factors determining rates of oxygen delivery to the tissues by the cardiovascular system) have never been directly and simultaneously measured along with whole animal oxygen uptake in a maximally swimming fish. Here, such measurements were made using three sockeye salmon populations (Early Stuart, Chilko and Quesnel), which each performed two consecutive critical swimming speed (Ucrit) challenges to provide a comprehensive quantification of cardiovascular physiology, oxygen status and blood chemistry associated with swimming and recovery. Swim performance, oxygen uptake, cardiac output, heart rate and stroke volume did not significantly vary at rest, during swimming or during recovery between populations or sexes. Despite incomplete metabolic recovery between swim challenges, all fish repeated their swim performance and similar quantitative changes in the cardiorespiratory variables were observed for each swim challenge. The high maximum cardiorespiratory performance and excellent repeat swim performance are clearly beneficial in allowing the salmon to maintain steady ground speeds and reach the distant spawning grounds in a timely manner.

  1. Population Blocks.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Martin H.

    1992-01-01

    Describes an educational game called "Population Blocks" that is designed to illustrate the concept of exponential growth of the human population and some potential effects of overpopulation. The game material consists of wooden blocks; 18 blocks are painted green (representing land), 7 are painted blue (representing water); and the remaining…

  2. Electrostatic monitoring

    DOEpatents

    Orr, Christopher Henry; Luff, Craig Janson; Dockray, Thomas; Macarthur, Duncan Whittemore

    2001-01-01

    The apparatus and method provide a technique for more simply measuring alpha and/or beta emissions arising from items or locations. The technique uses indirect monitoring of the emissions by detecting ions generated by the emissions, the ions being attracted electrostatically to electrodes for discharge of collection. The apparatus and method employ a chamber which is sealed around the item or location during monitoring with no air being drawn into or expelled from the chamber during the monitoring process. A simplified structure and operations arises as a result, but without impairing the efficiency and accuracy of the detection technique.

  3. Kokanee Impacts Assessment and Monitoring of Lake Pend Oreille and Dworshak Reservoir, Idaho, 1994 Annual Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Fredericks, James P.; Elam, Steve; Maiolie, Melo A.

    1995-06-01

    In an effort to recover the declining kokanee Oncorhynchus nerka kennerlyi population in Lake Pend Oreille, a study was proposed to evaluate the benefits of a higher winter elevation, thus providing more spawning gravel for kokanee. This project was designed to collect and compile baseline information on the kokanee population and potential spawning gravel in Lake Pend Oreille that can be used to help evaluate the effectiveness of future changes in lake level management. We estimated the area of suitable quality spawning gravel at the current winter elevation (625.1 m) and at the proposed winter elevation (626.7 m). Gravels beneath the current winter elevation were generally characterized by a high percentage of fine sediments and a high degree of embeddedness. Of the total gravel available below the proposed elevation of 626.7 m, only 15% was available at current winter elevations. Kokanee population estimates were made with a midwater trawl and hydroacoustic surveys in August and September. September population estimates were 6,760,000 age O, 380,000 age 1 +, 700,000 age 2 +, 990,000 age 3 +, 760,000 age 4 +, and 70,000 age 5 + kokanee. Hydroacoustic surveys run alongside the trawl indicated that hydroacoustics can effectively estimate abundance of kokanee, with the exception of fry, which are too small to be completely distinguishable from opossum shrimp Mysis relicta. Historic estimates of wild kokanee fry indicate that winter elevations higher than 625 m and a stable elevation throughout the winter are positively correlated with kokanee fry abundance and survival.

  4. The 2005 Project Progress Report for 1987-099-00 Dworshak Kokanee Population and Entrainment Assessment (contract # 16791) is attached to project 1987-099-00, contract # 26850. [POINTER

    SciTech Connect

    2008-12-18

    During this contract, we continued testing underwater strobe lights to determine their effectiveness at repelling kokanee Oncorhynchus nerka away from Dworshak Dam. We tested one set of nine strobe lights flashing at a rate of 360 flashes/min in front of turbine 3 while operating at higher discharges than previously tested. The density and distribution of fish, (thought to be mostly kokanee), were monitored with a split-beam echo sounder. We then compared fish counts and densities during nights when the lights were flashing to counts and densities during adjacent nights without the lights on. On five nights between January 31 and February 28, 2006, when no lights were present, fish counts near turbine 3 averaged eight fish and densities averaged 91 fish/ha. When strobe lights were turned on during five adjacent nights during the same period, mean counts dropped to four fish and densities dropped to 35 fish/ha. The decline in counts (49%) was not statistically significant (p = 0.182), but decline in densities (62%) was significant (p = 0.049). There appeared to be no tendency for fish to habituate to the lights during the night. Test results indicated that strobe lights were able to reduce fish densities by at least 50% in front of turbines operating at higher discharges, which would be sufficient to improve sportfish harvest. We also used split-beam hydroacoustics to monitor the kokanee population in Dworshak Reservoir during 2005. Estimated abundance of kokanee decreased from the 2004 population estimate. Based on hydroacoustic surveys, we estimated 3,011,626 kokanee (90% CI {+-} 15.2%) in Dworshak Reservoir, July 2005. This included 2,135,986 age-0 (90% CI {+-} 15.9%), 769,175 age-1 (90% CI {+-} 16.0%), and 107,465 age-2 (90% CI {+-} 15.2%). Poor survival of kokanee from age-1 to age-2 continued to keep age-2 densities below the management goal of 30-50 adults/ha. Entrainment sampling was conducted with fixed-site split-beam hydroacoustics a minimum of two days

  5. Environment Monitor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1988-01-01

    Viking landers touched down on Mars equipped with a variety of systems to conduct automated research, each carrying a compact but highly sophisticated instrument for analyzing Martian soil and atmosphere. Instrument called a Gas Chromatography/Mass Spectrometer (GC/MS) had to be small, lightweight, shock resistant, highly automated and extremely sensitive, yet require minimal electrical power. Viking Instruments Corporation commercialized this technology and targeted their primary market as environmental monitoring, especially toxic and hazardous waste site monitoring. Waste sites often contain chemicals in complex mixtures, and the conventional method of site characterization, taking samples on-site and sending them to a laboratory for analysis is time consuming and expensive. Other terrestrial applications are explosive detection in airports, drug detection, industrial air monitoring, medical metabolic monitoring and for military, chemical warfare agents.

  6. Population policy.

    PubMed

    1987-03-01

    Participants in the Seminar on Population Policies for Top-level Policy Makers and Program Managers, meeting in Thailand during January 1987, examined the challenges now facing them regarding the implementation of fertility regulation programs in their respective countries -- Bangladesh, China, India, Indonesia, Malaysia, Nepal, Pakistan, the Philippines, the Republic of Korea, and Thailand. This Seminar was organized to coincide with the completion of an Economic and Social Commission for Asia and the Pacific (ESCAP) study investigating the impact and efficiency of family planning programs in the region. Country studies were reviewed at the Seminar along with policy issues about the status of women, incentive and disincentive programs, and socioeconomic factors affecting fertility. In Bangladesh the government recognizes population growth as its top priority problem related to the socioeconomic development of the country and is working to promote a reorientation strategy from the previous clinic-oriented to a multidimensional family welfare program. China's family planning program seeks to postpone marraige, space the births of children between 3-5 years, and promote the 1-child family. Its goal is to reduce the rate of natural increase from 12/1000 in 1978 to 5/1000 by 1985 and 0 by 2000. India's 7th Five-Year-Plan (1986-90) calls for establishing a 2-child family norm by 2000. In Indonesia the government's population policy includes reducing the rate of population growth, achieving a redistribution of the population, adjusting economic factors, and creating prosperous families. The government of Indonesia reversed its policy to reduce the population growth rate in 1984 and announced its goal of achieving a population of 70 million by 2100 in order to support mass consumption industries. It has created an income tax deduction system favoring large families and maternity benefits for women who have up to 5 children as incentives. Nepal's official policy is to

  7. Population neuroscience.

    PubMed

    Paus, T

    2016-01-01

    Population neuroscience endeavors to identify influences shaping the human brain from conception onwards, thus generating knowledge relevant for building and maintaining brain health throughout the life span. This can be achieved by studying large samples of participants drawn from the general population and evaluated with state-of-the-art tools for assessing (a) genes and their regulation; (b) external and internal environments; and (c) brain properties. This chapter reviews the three elements of population neuroscience (principles, tools, innovations, limitations), and discusses future directions in this field. PMID:27637950

  8. The population threat.

    PubMed

    Teitelbaum, M S

    1992-01-01

    Commentary is provided on the challenges faced by the new Clinton administration in formulating US key foreign policy initiatives. There is an urgent need to provide balanced and effective foreign aid for reducing high fertility rates in the developing world. There is also a need to effectively monitor the large migrations of populations. Over the past 10 years, the US has not been actively practicing world leadership on population issues. 3 changes in 1993 give impetus to redirect foreign policy: 1) the waning influence of fringe groups who controlled population issues; 2) the campaign promises to restore UN population stabilization programs; and 3) the evidence from the Persian Gulf and Yugoslavia that demographic issues require planning and assessment. Global population growth has been concentrated in the past 40 years, in part due to mortality declines and sustained high fertility. Of significance is the rapidness and momentum of growth. A high percentage are and will be children. Urban population is also growing rapidly in high fertility countries. Countries with high fertility and significant rural-to-urban migration also have large international migrations. The evolution of policy since the 1950s, which for the most part ignored population issues, is discussed. The American debates have been charged with emotionalism: about human sexuality, legitimacy of voluntary fertility control, the role and status of women and men, abortion, intergenerational transfer of obligations, ethnic solidarity and the sovereignty of national borders, and the proper roles of the state versus the marketplace. There have been over 200 years of ideological argument over population issues. The Malthusian argument was that large population size did not increase prosperity, and growth should be limited. The Marxist-Leninist position was that contraception was Malthusian, abortion was a woman's right, and population growth was neutral. By late 1970 the Chinese Maoists adopted the moral

  9. The population threat.

    PubMed

    Teitelbaum, M S

    1992-01-01

    Commentary is provided on the challenges faced by the new Clinton administration in formulating US key foreign policy initiatives. There is an urgent need to provide balanced and effective foreign aid for reducing high fertility rates in the developing world. There is also a need to effectively monitor the large migrations of populations. Over the past 10 years, the US has not been actively practicing world leadership on population issues. 3 changes in 1993 give impetus to redirect foreign policy: 1) the waning influence of fringe groups who controlled population issues; 2) the campaign promises to restore UN population stabilization programs; and 3) the evidence from the Persian Gulf and Yugoslavia that demographic issues require planning and assessment. Global population growth has been concentrated in the past 40 years, in part due to mortality declines and sustained high fertility. Of significance is the rapidness and momentum of growth. A high percentage are and will be children. Urban population is also growing rapidly in high fertility countries. Countries with high fertility and significant rural-to-urban migration also have large international migrations. The evolution of policy since the 1950s, which for the most part ignored population issues, is discussed. The American debates have been charged with emotionalism: about human sexuality, legitimacy of voluntary fertility control, the role and status of women and men, abortion, intergenerational transfer of obligations, ethnic solidarity and the sovereignty of national borders, and the proper roles of the state versus the marketplace. There have been over 200 years of ideological argument over population issues. The Malthusian argument was that large population size did not increase prosperity, and growth should be limited. The Marxist-Leninist position was that contraception was Malthusian, abortion was a woman's right, and population growth was neutral. By late 1970 the Chinese Maoists adopted the moral

  10. Detection, Diversity, and Population Dynamics of Waterborne Phytophthora ramorum Populations.

    PubMed

    Eyre, C A; Garbelotto, M

    2015-01-01

    Sudden oak death, the tree disease caused by Phytophthora ramorum, has significant environmental and economic impacts on natural forests on the U.S. west coast, plantations in the United Kingdom, and in the worldwide nursery trade. Stream baiting is vital for monitoring and early detection of the pathogen in high-risk areas and is performed routinely; however, little is known about the nature of water-borne P. ramorum populations. Two drainages in an infested California forest were monitored intensively using stream-baiting for 2 years between 2009 and 2011. Pathogen presence was determined both by isolation and polymerase chain reaction (PCR) from symptomatic bait leaves. Isolates were analyzed using simple sequence repeats to study population dynamics and genetic structure through time. Isolation was successful primarily only during spring conditions, while PCR extended the period of pathogen detection to most of the year. Water populations were extremely diverse, and changed between seasons and years. A few abundant genotypes dominated the water during conditions considered optimal for aerial populations, and matched those dominant in aerial populations. Temporal patterns of genotypic diversification and evenness were identical among aerial, soil, and water populations, indicating that all three substrates are part of the same epidemiological cycle, strongly influenced by rainfall and sporulation on leaves. However, there was structuring between substrates, likely arising due to reduced selection pressure in the water. Additionally, water populations showed wholesale mixing of genotypes without the evident spatial autocorrelation present in leaf and soil populations.

  11. ORR Deer Hunt Monitoring Program

    SciTech Connect

    Scofield, P.A.; Teasley, N.A.

    1999-09-01

    The primary purpose for the initiation of deer hunts on the Oak Ridge Reservation (ORR) was deer population control to reduce collisions with vehicles and maintain a healthy herd and habitat. As of 1997, thirteen annual deer hunts have been conducted on the ORR. The deer hunt monitoring program (DHMP) has two components -- a field screening monitoring program and a confirmatory laboratory analysis program of both retained and randomly selected released deer samples.

  12. Population genetic structure and ecotoxicology.

    PubMed Central

    Guttman, S I

    1994-01-01

    Electrophoretic analyses of population genetic structure, both in the laboratory and in the field, have documented significant shifts in allozyme genotype frequencies in a variety of aquatic taxa as a result of environmental impacts. Studies are documented which indicate that contaminants may select for individuals with tolerant allozyme genotypes, causing the potential loss of individuals with sensitive genotypes. This may diminish the genetic variability and fitness of affected populations and make them more susceptible to extinction following a subsequent stress. Future research involving population genetic structure and ecotoxicology should focus on determining the mechanism of sensitivity, documenting multigenerational effects of chronic laboratory exposure on population genetic composition, investigating whether previously stressed and genetically impacted populations are more susceptible to further natural and/or anthropogenic stressors, and establishing the utility of population genetic structure as a sensitive monitor of impacts in aquatic systems and their subsequent remediation. PMID:7713044

  13. Light on population health status.

    PubMed Central

    Beyrer, K.; Brauer, G. W.; Fliedner, T. M.; Greiner, C.; Reischl, U.

    1999-01-01

    A new approach to illustrating and analysing health status is presented which allows comparisons of various aspects of health in a population at different times and in different populations during given periods. Both quantitative and qualitative elements can be represented, the impact of interventions can be monitored, and the extent to which objectives are achieved can be assessed. The practical application of the approach is demonstrated with reference to the health profiles to Tunisia in 1966 and 1994. PMID:10083719

  14. Singapore: population.

    PubMed

    1980-08-01

    The population of Singapore reached 2,381,993 as of May, 1980. Singapore's population growth reached replacement level in 1975 thanks to the Singapore Family Planning and Population Board, which has maintained the demographic goal of a 2-child family, ultimately to reach zero population growth. Women have more opportunity to join the labor force. 21.2% of the working force in 1957 were women, compared to 48.1% in 1978. The government will impose restrictions on foreigners buying property in Singapore to protect local buyers from artificially inflated prices. Rentals of private and luxury apartments increased by 30% from 1979-80. The gross national product went up 8.5% to S$5,600 per year. The population estimates by ethnic groups in thousands are as follows: 180.4 Malay males, 174.7 females; 905.2 Chinese males, 893.9 females; 93.4 Indian males, 67.6 females; and 24.3 male others, 23.2 females. The majority of the population is aged 15-24. PMID:12233387

  15. Population and the environment.

    PubMed

    1987-01-01

    The pressures created by increasing number of people and increasing migration have aggravated environmental and resource problems in many developing countries. To deal with these problems, there is a need to formulate mutually supportive population and environmental policies. Especially in developing countries, where most of the world's population growth will occur and where there will be the greatest growth in urban centers. Efforts to promote development in a way that preserves the resource base for future generations will have to take into account demographic factors, since excessive population pressure in specific geographical areas can pose serious ecological hazards, including soil erosion, desertification, dwindling firewood supplies, deforestation, and the degradation of fresh water sources. Often the link between population pressure and those types of environmental stress is the growth in the relative and absolute number of persons living in poverty. The result is marginalization of small-scale farmers and pressure on larger numbers to migrate from distressed areas, and increased prevalence of environmentally related diseases. Population policies should also be formulated with due regard for environmental factors, with priority in those geographical areas likely to experience acute environmental stress. Programs for influencing the distribution of population should also consider the environmental impact. Monitoring and forecasting of likely changes in the status of key natural resources should be communicated to communities to obtain grass-roots support. Ultimately, however, problems of population and the environment can only be resolved in the context of a comprehensive program at the national and international levels to promote economic and social development.

  16. Monitoring technology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stevenson, William A. (Inventor)

    1992-01-01

    A process for infrared spectroscopic monitoring of insitu compositional changes in a polymeric material comprises the steps of providing an elongated infrared radiation transmitting fiber that has a transmission portion and a sensor portion, embedding the sensor portion in the polymeric material to be monitored, subjecting the polymeric material to a processing sequence, applying a beam of infrared radiation to the fiber for transmission through the transmitting portion to the sensor portion for modification as a function of properties of the polymeric material, monitoring the modified infrared radiation spectra as the polymeric material is being subjected to the processing sequence to obtain kinetic data on changes in the polymeric material during the processing sequence, and adjusting the processing sequence as a function of the kinetic data provided by the modified infrared radiation spectra information.

  17. Monitoring technology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stevenson, William A. (Inventor)

    1989-01-01

    A process for infrared spectroscopic monitoring of insitu compositional changes in a polymeric material comprises the steps of providing an elongated infrared radiation transmitting fiber that has a transmission portion and a sensor portion, embedding the sensor portion in the polymeric material to be monitored, subjecting the polymeric material to a processing sequence, applying a beam of infrared radiation to the fiber for transmission through the transmitting portion to the sensor portion for modification as a function of properties of the polymeric material, monitoring the modified infrared radiation spectra as the polymeric material is being subjected to the processing sequence to obtain kinetic data on changes in the polymeric material during the processing sequence, and adjusting the processing sequence as a function of the kinetic data provided by the modified infrared radiation spectra information.

  18. Monitoring well

    DOEpatents

    Hubbell, Joel M.; Sisson, James B.

    2002-01-01

    The present invention relates to a monitoring well which includes an enclosure defining a cavity and a water reservoir enclosed within the cavity and wherein the reservoir has an inlet and an outlet. The monitoring well further includes a porous housing borne by the enclosure and which defines a fluid chamber which is oriented in fluid communication with the outlet of the reservoir, and wherein the porous housing is positioned in an earthen soil location below-grade. A geophysical monitoring device is provided and mounted in sensing relation relative to the fluid chamber of the porous housing; and a coupler is selectively moveable relative to the outlet of reservoir to couple the porous housing and water reservoir in fluid communication. An actuator is coupled in force transmitting relation relative to the coupler to selectively position the coupler in a location to allow fluid communication between the reservoir and the fluid chamber defined by the porous housing.

  19. Recreation monitoring

    SciTech Connect

    DiGennaro, B.; Merklein, G.H.

    1995-12-31

    Recreational use and recreational facilities are common features at hydropower projects. In fact, the hydropower industry is a major supplier of recreational opportunities contributing to tourism and rural economic growth in many communities across the country, As demands for public recreation have grown, pressure on the hydropower industry to provide more public access and more facilities has increased. This paper looks at recent developments in the FERC licensing and compliance arenas with regard to planning for and monitoring recreation at hydropower facilities. The paper highlights the increased occurrence of recreation monitoring requirements in license articles and discusses methods for complying with such requirements. The paper also looks at how monitoring data can be used to avoid unnecessary developments and to better plan for future recreation use.

  20. Stellar Populations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peletier, Reynier F.

    2013-10-01

    This is a summary of my lectures during the 2011 Canary Islands Winter School in Puerto de la Cruz. I give an introduction to the field of stellar populations in galaxies, and highlight some new results. Since the title of the Winter School is Secular Evolution in Galaxies I mostly concentrate on nearby galaxies, which are best suited to study this theme. Of course, the understanding of stellar populations is intimately connected to understanding the formation and evolution of galaxies, one of the great outstanding problems of astronomy. We are currently in a situation where very large observational advances have been made in recent years. Galaxies have been detected up to a redshift of ten. A huge effort has to be made so that stellar population theory can catch up with observations. Since most galaxies are far away, information about them has to come from stellar population synthesis of integrated light. Here I will discuss how stellar evolution theory, together with observations in our Milky Way and Local Group, are used as building blocks to analyse these integrated stellar populations.

  1. Population update.

    PubMed

    1987-11-01

    According to Population Reference Bureau estimates, the world's population stood at 5,062,000,000 in November 1987, with an annual growth of 87,000,000. The US population was estimated to be 243,571,000 as of June 1, 1987 compared with 241,403,000 1 year earlier. In 1987 in the US, there were 3,767,000 live births (15.5 rate), 2,103,000 deaths (8.7), a natural increase of 1,664,000 (6.8), 2,438,000 marriages (10.1), 1,166,000 divorces (4.8), and 38,100 infant deaths (10.1). Compared with 1984, 1986 rates have declined in the US for natural increase, marriages, divorces and infant mortality. The mortality rate has increased slightly, while the live birth rate was the same in 1984 and 1987. PMID:12268743

  2. EMon: Embodied Monitorization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carneiro, Davide; Novais, Paulo; Costa, Ricardo; Gomes, Pedro; Neves, José

    The amount of seniors in need of constant care is rapidly rising: an evident consequence of population ageing. There are already some monitorization environments which aim to monitor these persons while they remain at home. This, however, although better than delocalizing the elder to some kind of institution, may not still be the ideal solution, as it forces them to stay inside the home more than they wished, as going out means lack of accompaniment and a consequent sensation of fear. In this paper we propose EMon: a monitorization device small enough to be worn by its users, although powerful enough to provide the higher level monitorization systems with vital information about the user and the environment around him. We hope to allow the representation of an intelligent environment to move with its users, instead of being static, mandatorily associated to a single physical location. The first prototype of EMon, as presented in this paper, provides environmental data as well as GPS coordinates and pictures that are useful to describe the context of its user.

  3. Parental Monitoring

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shillington, Audrey M.; Lehman, Stephanie; Clapp, John; Hovell, Melbourne; Sipan, Carol; Blumberg, Elaine

    2005-01-01

    Adolescence is a developmental period during which many youth experiment with risk practices. This paper examined the association of parental monitoring with a range of alcohol and other drug (AOD) use behaviors among high-risk youth, while controlling for other demographic and environmental variables previously found to be associated with AOD…

  4. Monitoring well

    DOEpatents

    Hubbell, J.M.; Sisson, J.B.

    1999-06-29

    A monitoring well is described which includes: a conduit defining a passageway, the conduit having a proximal and opposite, distal end; a coupler connected in fluid flowing relationship with the passageway; and a porous housing borne by the coupler and connected in fluid flowing relation thereto. 8 figs.

  5. Population momentum: Implications for wildlife management

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Koons, D.N.; Rockwell, R.F.; Grand, J.B.

    2006-01-01

    Maintenance of sustainable wildlife populations is one of the primary purposes of wildlife management. Thus, it is important to monitor and manage population growth over time. Sensitivity analysis of the long-term (i.e., asymptotic) population growth rate to changes in the vital rates is commonly used in management to identify the vital rates that contribute most to population growth. Yet, dynamics associated with the long-term population growth rate only pertain to the special case when there is a stable age (or stage) distribution of individuals in the population. Frequently, this assumption is necessary because age structure is rarely estimated. However, management actions can greatly affect the age distribution of a population. For initially growing and declining populations, we instituted hypothetical management targeted at halting the growth or decline of the population, and measured the effects of a changing age structure on the population dynamics. When we changed vital rates, the age structure became unstable and population momentum caused populations to grow differently than that predicted by the long-term population growth rate. Interestingly, changes in fertility actually reversed the direction of short-term population growth, leading to long-term population sizes that were actually smaller or larger than that when fertility was changed. Population momentum can significantly affect population dynamics and will be an important factor in the use of population models for management.

  6. Discrimination among populations of sockeye salmon fry with Fourier analysis of otolith banding patterns formed during incubation

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Finn, J.E.; Burger, C.V.; Holland-Bartels, L.

    1997-01-01

    We used otolith banding patterns formed during incubation to discriminate among hatchery- and wild-incubated fry of sockeye salmon Oncorhynchus nerka from Tustumena Lake, Alaska. Fourier analysis of otolith luminance profiles was used to describe banding patterns: the amplitudes of individual Fourier harmonics were discriminant variables. Correct classification of otoliths to either hatchery or wild origin was 83.1% (cross-validation) and 72.7% (test data) with the use of quadratic discriminant function analysts on 10 Fourier amplitudes. Overall classification rates among the six test groups (one hatchery and five wild groups) were 46.5% (cross-validation) and 39.3% (test data) with the use of linear discriminant function analysis on 16 Fourier amplitudes. Although classification rates for wild-incubated fry from any one site never exceeded 67% (cross-validation) or 60% (test data), location-specific information was evident for all groups because the probability of classifying an individual to its true incubation location was significantly greater than chance. Results indicate phenotypic differences in otolith microstructure among incubation sites separated by less than 10 km. Analysis of otolith luminance profiles is a potentially useful technique for discriminating among and between various populations of hatchery and wild fish.

  7. Relics: penguin population programs.

    PubMed

    Sun, L; Xie, Z

    2001-01-01

    What has been responsible for the increase in Chinstrap penguin populations during the past 40 years in maritime Antarctica? One view ascribes it to an increase in availability of their prey brought on by the decrease in baleen whale stocks. The contrary opinion, attributes it to environmental warming. This causes a gradual decrease in the frequency of cold years with extensive winter sea ice cover. A number of penguin monitoring programs are in progress and are expected to provide some answers to these questions. Unfortunately, it is not easy to distinguish natural variability from anthropogenic change since penguins are easily accessible predators of krill and the feeding range of the penguins has almost overlapped with the krill fishery in time and space in the last four decades. Therefore it is important to reconstruct the change of ancient penguin abundance and distribution in the absence of human activity. Many efforts have focused on surveying the abandoned penguin rookeries, but this method has not been able to give a continuous historical record of penguin populations. In several recent studies, ancient penguin excreta was scooped from the penguin relics in the sediments of the lake on penguin rookery, Ardley Island, maritime Antarctica. In these studies, penguin droppings or guano soil deposited in the lake and changes in sediment geochemistry have been used to calculate penguin population changes based upon the geochemical composition of the sediment core. The results suggest that climate change has a significant impact on penguin populations.

  8. FIELD MONITORING FOR ENDOCRINE DISRUPTION IN INVERTEBRATES

    EPA Science Inventory

    The field monitoring chapter addresses the following issues: cases where endocrine disruption (ED) has been identified as causing effects in either individuals, populations, or communities in the field; practical...

  9. Tritium monitor

    DOEpatents

    Chastagner, Philippe

    1994-01-01

    A system for continuously monitoring the concentration of tritium in an aqueous stream. The system pumps a sample of the stream to magnesium-filled combustion tube which reduces the sample to extract hydrogen gas. The hydrogen gas is then sent to an isotope separation device where it is separated into two groups of isotopes: a first group of isotopes containing concentrations of deuterium and tritium, and a second group of isotopes having substantially no deuterium and tritium. The first group of isotopes containing concentrations of deuterium and tritium is then passed through a tritium detector that produces an output proportional to the concentration of tritium detected. Preferably, the detection system also includes the necessary automation and data collection equipment and instrumentation for continuously monitoring an aqueous stream.

  10. Tritium monitor

    DOEpatents

    Chastagner, P.

    1994-06-14

    A system is described for continuously monitoring the concentration of tritium in an aqueous stream. The system pumps a sample of the stream to magnesium-filled combustion tube which reduces the sample to extract hydrogen gas. The hydrogen gas is then sent to an isotope separation device where it is separated into two groups of isotopes: a first group of isotopes containing concentrations of deuterium and tritium, and a second group of isotopes having substantially no deuterium and tritium. The first group of isotopes containing concentrations of deuterium and tritium is then passed through a tritium detector that produces an output proportional to the concentration of tritium detected. Preferably, the detection system also includes the necessary automation and data collection equipment and instrumentation for continuously monitoring an aqueous stream. 1 fig.

  11. Sewage Monitors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1987-01-01

    Every U.S. municipality must determine how much waste water it is processing and more importantly, how much is going unprocessed into lakes and streams either because of leaks in the sewer system or because the city's sewage facilities were getting more sewer flow than they were designed to handle. ADS Environmental Services, Inc.'s development of the Quadrascan Flow Monitoring System met the need for an accurate method of data collection. The system consists of a series of monitoring sensors and microcomputers that continually measure water depth at particular sewer locations and report their findings to a central computer. This provides precise information to city managers on overall flow, flow in any section of the city, location and severity of leaks and warnings of potential overload. The core technology has been expanded upon in terms of both technical improvements, and functionality for new applications, including event alarming and control for critical collection system management problems.

  12. Biological monitoring

    SciTech Connect

    Miller, S.

    1984-06-01

    Recent research is reviewed from books, international committees and symposia which describes the usefulness of biological monitoring for exposure to such compounds as organometallic chemicals, carbon monoxide and cyanide. The types of analyses include the following measurements: the concentration of the chemical in various biological media such as blood, urine, and expired air; the concentration of metabolites of the individual chemical in the same media; and determination of nonadverse biological changes resulting from the reaction of the organism to exposure. A main goal of such monitoring is to ensure that the current or past levels of worker exposure are safe, so that such exposure does not involve an unacceptable health risk. It considers routes other than absorption by the lungs and is a good method for evaluating individual exposures.

  13. Monitoring oxygenation.

    PubMed

    Severinghaus, John W

    2011-06-01

    Cyanosis was used for a century after dentists began pulling teeth under 100% N(2)O in 1844 because brief (2 min) severe hypoxia is harmless. Deaths came with curare and potent anesthetic respiratory arrest. Leland Clark's invention of a polarographic blood oxygen tension electrode (1954) was introduced for transcutaneous PO2 monitoring to adjust PEEP and CPAP PO2 to prevent premature infant blindness from excess O2 (1972). Oximetry for warning military aviators was tried after WW II but not used for routine monitoring until Takuo Aoyagi (1973) discovered an equation to measure SaO2 by the ratio of ratios of red and IR light transmitted through tissue as it changed with arterial pulses. Pulse oximetry (1982) depended on simultaneous technology improvements of light emitting red and IR diodes, tiny cheap solid state sensors and micro-chip computers. Continuous monitoring of airway anesthetic concentration and oxygen also became very common after 1980. Death from anesthesia fell 10 fold between 1985 and 2000 as pulse oximetry became universally used, but no proof of a causative relationship to pulse oximetry exists. It is now assumed that all anesthesiologist became much more aware of the dangers of prolonged hypoxia, perhaps by using the pulse oximeters. PMID:21717228

  14. Patient Monitoring

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1978-01-01

    In photo above, the electrocardiogram of a hospitalized patient is being transmitted by telemetry. Widely employed in space operations, telemetry is a process wherein instrument data is converted to electrical signals and sent to a receiver where the signals are reconverted to usable information. In this instance, heart readings are picked up by the electrode attached to the patient's body and delivered by wire to the small box shown, which is a telemetry transmitter. The signals are relayed wirelessly to the console in the background, which converts them to EKG data. The data is displayed visually and recorded on a printout; at the same time, it is transmitted to a central control station (upper photo) where a nurse can monitor the condition of several patients simultaneously. The Patient Monitoring System was developed by SCI Systems, Inc., Huntsville, Alabama, in conjunction with Abbott Medical Electronics, Houston, Texas. In developing the system, SCI drew upon its extensive experience as a NASA contractor. The company applied telemetry technology developed for the Saturn launch vehicle and the Apollo spacecraft; instrumentation technology developed for heart, blood pressure and sleep monitoring of astronauts aboard NASA's Skylab long duration space station; and communications technology developed for the Space Shuttle.

  15. Travelling waves in vole population dynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ranta, Esa; Kaitala, Veijo

    1997-12-01

    Spatial self-organization patterns in population dynamics have been anticipated, but demonstrating their existence requires sampling over long periods of time at a range of sites. Voles cause severe economic damage and are therefore extensively monitored, providing a source of the required data. Using two long-term data sets we now report the existence of travelling waves in vole population numbers.

  16. Environmental Monitoring Plan, Revision 6

    SciTech Connect

    Gallegos, G M; Bertoldo, N A; Blake, R G; Campbell, C G; Grayson, A R; Nelson, J C; Revelli, M A; Rosene, C A; Wegrecki, T; Williams, R A; Wilson, K R; Jones, H E

    2012-03-02

    The purpose of environmental monitoring is to promote the early identification of, and response to, potential adverse environmental impacts associated with Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) operations. Environmental monitoring supports the Integrated Safety Management System (ISMS), International Organization for Standardization (ISO) 14001 Environmental Management Systems standard, and U. S. Department of Energy (DOE) Order 458.1, Radiation Protection of the Public and the Environment. Specifically, environmental monitoring enables LLNL to detect, characterize, and respond to releases from LLNL activities; assess impacts; estimate dispersal patterns in the environment; characterize the pathways of exposure to members of the public; characterize the exposures and doses to individuals and to the population; and to evaluate the potential impacts to the biota in the vicinity of LLNL. Environmental monitoring is also a major component of compliance demonstration for permits and other regulatory requirements. The Environmental Monitoring Plan (EMP) addresses the sample collection and analytical work supporting environmental monitoring to ensure the following: (1) A consistent system for collecting, assessing, and documenting environmental data of known and documented quality; (2) A validated and consistent approach for sampling and analysis of samples to ensure laboratory data meets program-specific needs and requirements within the framework of a performance-based approach for analytical laboratory work; and (3) An integrated sampling approach to avoid duplicative data collection. LLNL prepares the EMP because it provides an organizational framework for ensuring that environmental monitoring work, which is integral to the implementation of LLNL's Environmental Management System, is conducted appropriately. Furthermore, the Environmental Monitoring Plan helps LLNL ensure compliance with DOE Order 231.1 Change 2, Environment, Safety and Health Reporting

  17. Ammonia Monitor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sauer, Richard L. (Inventor); Akse, James R. (Inventor); Thompson, John O. (Inventor); Atwater, James E. (Inventor)

    1999-01-01

    Ammonia monitor and method of use are disclosed. A continuous, real-time determination of the concentration of ammonia in an aqueous process stream is possible over a wide dynamic range of concentrations. No reagents are required because pH is controlled by an in-line solid-phase base. Ammonia is selectively transported across a membrane from the process stream to an analytical stream to an analytical stream under pH control. The specific electrical conductance of the analytical stream is measured and used to determine the concentration of ammonia.

  18. "Capture" Me if You Can: Estimating Abundance of Dolphin Populations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thompson, Jessica; Curran, Mary Carla; Cox, Tara

    2016-01-01

    Animal populations are monitored over time to assess the effects of environmental disaster and disease, as well as the efficacy of laws designed to protect them. Determining the abundance of a species within a defined area is one method of monitoring a population. In "Capture" Me if You Can, middle school students will use data collected…

  19. Smolt Monitoring at the Head of Lower Granite Reservoir and Lower Granite Dam, 1999 Annual Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Buettner, Edwin W.; Brimmer, Arnold F.; Putnam, Scott A.

    2001-06-01

    This project monitored the daily passage of chinook salmon Oncorhynchus tshawytscha, steelhead trout O. mykiss, and sockeye salmon smolts O. nerka during the 1999 spring out-migration at migrant traps on the Snake River and Salmon River. All hatchery chinook salmon released above Lower Granite Dam were marked with a fin clip in 1999. Total annual hatchery chinook salmon catch at the Snake River trap was 440% of the 1998 number. The wild chinook catch was 603% of the previous year's catch. Hatchery steelhead trout catch was 93% of 1998 numbers. Wild steelhead trout catch was 68% of 1998 numbers. The Snake River trap collected 62 age-0 chinook salmon. During 1998 the Snake River trap captured 173 hatchery and 37 wild/natural sockeye salmon and 130 hatchery coho salmon O. kisutch. Differences in trap catch between years are due to fluctuations not only in smolt production, but also differences in trap efficiency and duration of trap operation associated with high flows. Trap operations began on March 14 and were terminated for the season due to high flows on May 25. The trap was out of operation for 18 d during the season due to high flow and debris. Hatchery chinook salmon catch at the Salmon River trap was 214%, and wild chinook salmon catch was 384% of 1998 numbers. The hatchery steelhead trout collection in 1999 was 210% of the 1998 numbers. Wild steelhead trout collection in 1999 was 203% of the 1998 catch. Trap operations began on March 14 and were terminated for the season due to high flows on May 21. The trap was out of operation for 17 d during the season due to high flow and debris.

  20. Smolt Monitoring at the Head of Lower Granite Reservoir and Lower Granite Dam, 1997 Annual Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Buettner, Edwin W.; Nelson, William R.

    1999-04-01

    This project monitored the daily passage of chinook salmon Oncorhynchus tshawytscha and steelhead trout O. mykiss smolts during the 1997 spring out-migration at migrant traps on the Snake River and Salmon River. All hatchery chinook salmon released above Lower Granite Dam were marked with a fin clip in 1997. Total annual hatchery chinook salmon catch at the Snake River trap was 49% of the 1996 number but only 6% of the 1995 catch. The wild chinook catch was 77% of the 1996 but was only 13% of 1995. Hatchery steelhead trout catch was 18% of 1996 numbers but only 7% of the 1995 numbers. Wild steelhead trout catch was 22% of 1996 but only 11% of the 1995 numbers. The Snake River trap collected eight age-0 chinook salmon and one sockeye/kokanee salmon O. nerka. Differences in trap catch between years are due to fluctuations not only in smolt production, but also differences in trap efficiency and duration of trap operation associated with high flows. Trap operations were terminated for the season due to high flows and trap damage on May 8 and were out of operation for 23 d due to high flow and debris. Hatchery chinook salmon catch at the Salmon River trap was 37% and wild chinook salmon catch was 60% of 1996 numbers but only 5% and 11% of 1995 catch, respectively. The 1997 hatchery steelhead trout collection was 13% of the 1996 catch and 32% of the 1995 numbers. Wild steelhead trout collection in 1997 was 21% of the 1996 catch and 13% of the 1995 numbers. Trap operations were terminated for the season due to high flows and trap damage on May 7 and were out of operation for 19 d due to high flow and debris.

  1. Tumor suppressor gene P53 in fish species as a target for genotoxic effects monitoring

    SciTech Connect

    Kusser, W.C.; Brand, D.; Glickman, B.W.; Cretney, W.

    1995-12-31

    Analysis of environmentally induced molecular changes in DNA from fish was initiated with a study of tumor suppressor gene p53. This gene was chosen because of the high number of documented mutations in p53 from humans and their relevance in tumorigenesis. Bottom-feeding flatfish (e.g. English sole, Pleuronectes vetulus) and members of the salmonid family (e.g. rainbow trout, Oncorhynchus mykiss and chinook salmon, O. tschaaytsha) were chosen, because they are widespread and of commercial and recreational importance. The studies include the use of histopathological, biochemical, and molecular genetic tools in aquatic systems. The authors are currently examining the deposition of DNA damage and mutation in the p53 gene in fish. Parallel histopathology of liver showed idiopathic liver lesions that were strongly dependent on location of capture (0.01 < p(X{sup 2} 0.05, 2 > 6.89) < 0.025) with a prevalence of 30% for fish collected from the vicinity of pulp mills. To assess DNA damage and mutation analysis, DNA was extracted from fish liver. Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and DNA sequencing of the p53 gene was performed for rainbow trout, chinook and sockeye salmon, O. nerka. Southern blotting with a labeled p53 probe from rainbow trout was performed using genomic DNA from various teleost fish species. The presence of p53 could be shown in all fish species examined, including salmonids and sentinel species for environmental monitoring like English sole and white sucker (Catostomus commersom). To correlate histopathology with molecular analysis the authors initiated the determination of DNA damage, DNA adducts and mutations in the p53 gene (conserved exons 5 to 9).

  2. Intracranial pressure monitoring

    MedlinePlus

    ICP monitoring; CSF pressure monitoring ... There are 3 ways to monitor pressure in the skull (intracranial pressure). INTRAVENTRICULAR CATHETER The intraventricular catheter is the most accurate monitoring method. To insert an intraventricular catheter, a ...

  3. Therapeutic Drug Monitoring

    MedlinePlus

    ... be limited. Home Visit Global Sites Search Help? Therapeutic Drug Monitoring Share this page: Was this page ... Monitored Drugs | Common Questions | Related Pages What is therapeutic drug monitoring? Therapeutic drug monitoring is the measurement ...

  4. Population studies.

    PubMed

    Heenan, B

    1989-01-01

    A number of studies have been published about the population change in New Zealand between 1936 and 1986. During this time an intellectual and demographic revolution also took place simultaneously. From 1961 and 1986 the population increased from 2.4 million to 3.3 million mainly because of Polynesian immigration, and the elderly and females also increased. The Maoris became urban. Mortality stayed stable, but fertility declined to below replacement level in the 1980's. Murray Wilson (1988) analyzed the relationship of fertility and mortality in terms of a post-transitional (developed) society like Australia or the European norm of a 2-children family. In his view the youth culture, television, and female aspirations greatly influenced childrearing. Daniel Noin (1988) examined the current state of geographical research on mortality from a methodological point of view finding wide differences in mortality in Quebec, Brussels, Paris, and London attributable to culture. Mosley and Chen (1984) argued that social, cultural, and economic factors to mortality are mediated by individual, household, and community variables. Jones and Moon (1987) dealt with medical geography in the context of the consumption of health care and disease ecology. Momsen and Townsend (1987) addressed the role of women in developing countries stating that gender is socially created and it examined the worldwide subordination of women. In the 1980's a host of other authors have also touched on the subject of the demography of gender analyzing discrimination against female children, unmarried American women, and single parent families. Yet Fahey (1988) stated that gender was only regarded relevant by Australian geographers as a demographic variable. PMID:12283966

  5. Traffic Monitor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1992-01-01

    Mestech's X-15 "Eye in the Sky," a traffic monitoring system, incorporates NASA imaging and robotic vision technology. A camera or "sensor box" is mounted in a housing. The sensor detects vehicles approaching an intersection and sends the information to a computer, which controls the traffic light according to the traffic rate. Jet Propulsion Laboratory technical support packages aided in the company's development of the system. The X-15's "smart highway" can also be used to count vehicles on a highway and compute the number in each lane and their speeds, important information for freeway control engineers. Additional applications are in airport and railroad operations. The system is intended to replace loop-type traffic detectors.

  6. Process Monitor

    2003-12-01

    This library is used to get process information (eg memory and timing). By setting an environment variable, the runtime system loads libprocmon.so while loading your executable. This library causes the SIGPROF signal to be triggered at time intervals. The procmon signal handler calls various system routines (eg clock_gettime, malinfo, getrusage, and ioctl {accessing the /proc filesystem}) to gather information about the process. The information is then printed to a file which can be viewed graphicallymore » via procmon_plot.pl. This information is obtained via a sampling approach. As with any sampling approach, the information it gathers will not be completely accurate. For example, if you are looking at memory high-water mark the memory allocation and freeing could have occurred between samples and thus would not be "seen" by this program. See "Usage" below for environment variables that affect this monitor (eg time between sampling).« less

  7. Document Monitor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1988-01-01

    The charters of Freedom Monitoring System will periodically assess the physical condition of the U.S. Constitution, Declaration of Independence and Bill of Rights. Although protected in helium filled glass cases, the documents are subject to damage from light vibration and humidity. The photometer is a CCD detector used as the electronic film for the camera system's scanning camera which mechanically scans the document line by line and acquires a series of images, each representing a one square inch portion of the document. Perkin-Elmer Corporation's photometer is capable of detecting changes in contrast, shape or other indicators of degradation with 5 to 10 times the sensitivity of the human eye. A Vicom image processing computer receives the data from the photometer stores it and manipulates it, allowing comparison of electronic images over time to detect changes.

  8. Denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis analysis of 16S ribosomal DNA amplicons to monitor changes in fecal bacterial populations of weaning pigs after introduction of Lactobacillus reuteri strain MM53.

    PubMed

    Simpson, J M; McCracken, V J; Gaskins, H R; Mackie, R I

    2000-11-01

    The diversity and stability of the fecal bacterial microbiota in weaning pigs was studied after introduction of an exogenous Lactobacillus reuteri strain, MM53, using a combination of cultivation and techniques based on genes encoding 16S rRNA (16S rDNA). Piglets (n = 9) were assigned to three treatment groups (control, daily dosed, and 4th-day dosed), and fresh fecal samples were collected daily. Dosed animals received 2.5 x 10(10) CFU of antibiotic-resistant L. reuteri MM53 daily or every 4th day. Mean Lactobacillus counts for the three groups ranged from 1 x 10(9) to 4 x 10(9) CFU/g of feces. Enumeration of strain L. reuteri MM53 on MRS agar (Difco) plates containing streptomycin and rifampin showed that the introduced strain fluctuated between 8 x 10(3) and 5 x 10(6) CFU/g of feces in the two dosed groups. Denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) of PCR-amplified 16S rDNA fragments, with primers specific for variable regions 1 and 3 (V1 and V3), was used to profile complexity of fecal bacterial populations. Analysis of DGGE banding profiles indicated that each individual maintained a unique fecal bacterial population that was stable over time, suggesting a strong host influence. In addition, individual DGGE patterns could be separated into distinct time-dependent clusters. Primers designed specifically to restrict DGGE analysis to a select group of lactobacilli allowed examination of interspecies relationships and abundance. Based on relative band migration distance and sequence determination, L. reuteri was distinguishable within the V1 region 16S rDNA gene patterns. Daily fluctuations in specific bands within these profiles were observed, which revealed an antagonistic relationship between L. reuteri MM53 (band V1-3) and another indigenous Lactobacillus assemblage (band V1-6).

  9. Bioassays for Monitoring Insecticide Resistance

    PubMed Central

    Miller, Audra L.E.; Tindall, Kelly; Leonard, B. Rogers

    2010-01-01

    Pest resistance to pesticides is an increasing problem because pesticides are an integral part of high-yielding production agriculture. When few products are labeled for an individual pest within a particular crop system, chemical control options are limited. Therefore, the same product(s) are used repeatedly and continual selection pressure is placed on the target pest. There are both financial and environmental costs associated with the development of resistant populations. The cost of pesticide resistance has been estimated at approximately $ 1.5 billion annually in the United States. This paper will describe protocols, currently used to monitor arthropod (specifically insects) populations for the development of resistance. The adult vial test is used to measure the toxicity to contact insecticides and a modification of this test is used for plant-systemic insecticides. In these bioassays, insects are exposed to technical grade insecticide and responses (mortality) recorded at a specific post-exposure interval. The mortality data are subjected to Log Dose probit analysis to generate estimates of a lethal concentration that provides mortality to 50% (LC50) of the target populations and a series of confidence limits (CL's) as estimates of data variability. When these data are collected for a range of insecticide-susceptible populations, the LC50 can be used as baseline data for future monitoring purposes. After populations have been exposed to products, the results can be compared to a previously determined LC50 using the same methodology. PMID:21248689

  10. Luminosity monitor.

    SciTech Connect

    Underwood, D. G.

    1998-07-16

    Luminosity monitors are needed in each experiment doing spin physics at RHIC. They concentrate on the luminosity aspects here because, for example, with a 10{sup {minus}3} raw asymmetry in an experiment, an error of 10{sup {minus}4} in the luminosity is as significant as a 10% polarization error. Because luminosity is a property of how two beams overlap, the luminosity at an interaction region must be measured at that interaction region in order to be relevant to the experiment at that interaction region. The authors will have to do the physics and the luminosity measurements by using labels on the event sums according to the polarization labels on the colliding bunches. Most likely they will not have independent polarization measurement on each bunch, but only on all the filled bunches in a ring, or perhaps all the bunches that are actually used in an experiment. Most analyses can then be handled by using the nine combinations gotten from three kinds of bunches in each ring, +, {minus} and empty bunches. The empty bunches are needed to measure beam-gas background, (and some, like six in a row, are needed for the beam abort). Much of the difficulty comes from the fact that they must use a physics process to represent the luminosity. This process must have kinematic and geometric cuts both to reduce systematics such as beam-gas backgrounds, and to make it representative of the part of the interaction diamond from which the physics events come.

  11. Monitoring cell growth.

    PubMed

    Strober, W

    2001-05-01

    This appendix provides two protocols for monitoring cell growth. Counting cells using a hemacytometer is tedious but it allows one to effectively distinguish live cells from dead cells (using Trypan Blue exclusion). In addition, this procedure is less subject to errors due to cell clumping or heterogeneity of cell size. The use of an electronic cell counter is quicker and easier than counting cells using a hemacytometer. However, an electronic cell counter as currently constructed does not distinguish live from dead cells in a reliable fashion and is subject to error due to the presence of cell clumps. Overall, the electronic cell counter is best reserved for repetitive and rapid counting of fresh peripheral blood cells and should be used with caution when counting cell populations derived from tissues. PMID:18432653

  12. Laboratory monitoring of haemostasis.

    PubMed

    Fowler, A; Perry, D J

    2015-01-01

    Peri-operative coagulation monitoring should begin with the assessment of individual bleeding risk using a standardised bleeding history before the surgical procedure. Laboratory testing should be performed if this history is abnormal or peri-operative bleeding is anticipated. This process sensitively identifies those at risk of peri-operative bleeding and therefore minimises their peri-operative risk, without costly and time-consuming population testing. There are multiple potential causes of haemostatic derangement within the peri-operative period, and an understanding of both normal haemostasis and the coagulation tests available to detect coagulopathy is required to optimise patient management. In bleeding patients, routine coagulation tests should be requested, but one should be aware of the major limitations that exist. Delay whilst waiting for these laboratory results, which, in turn, aggravates coagulopathy, bleeding, blood product requirements, length of surgery and overall morbidity and mortality.

  13. Cylinder monitoring program

    SciTech Connect

    Alderson, J.H.

    1991-12-31

    Cylinders containing depleted uranium hexafluoride (UF{sub 6}) in storage at the Department of Energy (DOE) gaseous diffusion plants, managed by Martin Marietta Energy Systems, Inc., are being evaluated to determine their expected storage life. Cylinders evaluated recently have been in storage service for 30 to 40 years. In the present environment, the remaining life for these storage cylinders is estimated to be 30 years or greater. The group of cylinders involved in recent tests will continue to be monitored on a periodic basis, and other storage cylinders will be observed as on a statistical sample population. The program has been extended to all types of large capacity UF{sub 6} cylinders.

  14. Monitoring Butterfly Abundance: Beyond Pollard Walks

    PubMed Central

    Pellet, Jérôme; Bried, Jason T.; Parietti, David; Gander, Antoine; Heer, Patrick O.; Cherix, Daniel; Arlettaz, Raphaël

    2012-01-01

    Most butterfly monitoring protocols rely on counts along transects (Pollard walks) to generate species abundance indices and track population trends. It is still too often ignored that a population count results from two processes: the biological process (true abundance) and the statistical process (our ability to properly quantify abundance). Because individual detectability tends to vary in space (e.g., among sites) and time (e.g., among years), it remains unclear whether index counts truly reflect population sizes and trends. This study compares capture-mark-recapture (absolute abundance) and count-index (relative abundance) monitoring methods in three species (Maculinea nausithous and Iolana iolas: Lycaenidae; Minois dryas: Satyridae) in contrasted habitat types. We demonstrate that intraspecific variability in individual detectability under standard monitoring conditions is probably the rule rather than the exception, which questions the reliability of count-based indices to estimate and compare specific population abundance. Our results suggest that the accuracy of count-based methods depends heavily on the ecology and behavior of the target species, as well as on the type of habitat in which surveys take place. Monitoring programs designed to assess the abundance and trends in butterfly populations should incorporate a measure of detectability. We discuss the relative advantages and inconveniences of current monitoring methods and analytical approaches with respect to the characteristics of the species under scrutiny and resources availability. PMID:22859980

  15. Prediction and monitoring of volcanic activities

    SciTech Connect

    Sudradjat, A.

    1986-07-01

    This paper summarizes the state of the art for predicting and monitoring volcanic activities, and it emphasizes the experience obtained by the Volcanological Survey Indonesia for active volcanoes. The limited available funds, the large number of active volcanoes to monitor, and the high population density of the volcanic area are the main problems encountered. Seven methods of volcano monitoring are applied to the active volcanoes of Indonesia: seismicity, ground deformation, gravity and magnetic studies, self-potential studies, petrochemistry, gas monitoring, and visual observation. Seismic monitoring augmented by gas monitoring has proven to be effective, particularly for predicting individual eruptions at the after-initial phase. However, the success of the prediction depends on the characteristics of each volcano. In general, the initial eruption phase is the most difficult phenomenon to predict. The preparation of hazard maps and the continuous awareness of the volcanic eruption are the most practical ways to mitigate volcanic danger.

  16. Snake River Sockeye Salmon Captive Broodstock Program; Research Element, 2002 Annual Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Willard, Catherine; Hebdon, J. Lance; Castillo, Jason

    2004-06-01

    On November 20, 1991, the National Oceanic Atmospheric Administration listed Snake River sockeye salmon Oncorhynchus nerka as endangered under the Endangered Species Act of 1973. In 1991, the Shoshone-Bannock Tribes and Idaho Department of Fish and Game initiated the Snake River Sockeye Salmon Sawtooth Valley Project to conserve and rebuild populations in Idaho. Restoration efforts are focusing on Redfish, Pettit, and Alturas lakes within the Sawtooth Valley. The first release of hatchery-produced juvenile sockeye salmon from the captive broodstock program occurred in 1994. The first anadromous adult returns from the captive broodstock program were recorded in 1999 when six jacks and one jill were captured at IDFG's Sawtooth Fish Hatchery. In 2002, progeny from the captive broodstock program were released using four strategies: age-0 presmolts were released to Alturas, Pettit, and Redfish lakes in August and to Pettit and Redfish lakes in October, age-1 smolts were released to Redfish Lake Creek in May, eyed-eggs were planted in Pettit Lake in December, and hatchery-produced and anadromous adult sockeye salmon were released to Redfish Lake for volitional spawning in September. Oncorhynchus nerka population monitoring was conducted on Redfish, Alturas, and Pettit lakes using a midwater trawl in September 2002. Age-0, age-1, and age-2 O. nerka were captured in Redfish Lake, and population abundance was estimated at 50,204 fish. Age-0, age-1, age-2, and age-3 kokanee were captured in Alturas Lake, and population abundance was estimated at 24,374 fish. Age-2 and age-3 O. nerka were captured in Pettit Lake, and population abundance was estimated at 18,328 fish. The ultimate goal of the Idaho Department of Fish and Game (IDFG) captive broodstock development and evaluation efforts is to recover sockeye salmon runs in Idaho waters. Recovery is defined as reestablishing sockeye salmon runs and providing for utilization of sockeye salmon and kokanee resources by anglers. The

  17. Source Water Quality Monitoring

    EPA Science Inventory

    Presentation will provide background information on continuous source water monitoring using online toxicity monitors and cover various tools available. Conceptual and practical aspects of source water quality monitoring will be discussed.

  18. Effective population size and population subdivision in demographically structured populations.

    PubMed Central

    Laporte, Valérie; Charlesworth, Brian

    2002-01-01

    A fast-timescale approximation is applied to the coalescent process in a single population, which is demographically structured by sex and/or age. This provides a general expression for the probability that a pair of alleles sampled from the population coalesce in the previous time interval. The effective population size is defined as the reciprocal of twice the product of generation time and the coalescence probability. Biologically explicit formulas for effective population size with discrete generations and separate sexes are derived for a variety of different modes of inheritance. The method is also applied to a nuclear gene in a population of partially self-fertilizing hermaphrodites. The effects of population subdivision on a demographically structured population are analyzed, using a matrix of net rates of movement of genes between different local populations. This involves weighting the migration probabilities of individuals of a given age/sex class by the contribution of this class to the leading left eigenvector of the matrix describing the movements of genes between age/sex classes. The effects of sex-specific migration and nonrandom distributions of offspring number on levels of genetic variability and among-population differentiation are described for different modes of inheritance in an island model. Data on DNA sequence variability in human and plant populations are discussed in the light of the results. PMID:12242257

  19. Environmental Monitoring Plan, Revision 5

    SciTech Connect

    Gallegos, G M; Blake, R G; Bertoldo, N A; Campbell, C G; Coty, J; Folks, K; Grayson, A R; Jones, H E; Nelson, J C; Revelli, M A; Wegrecki, T; Williams, R A; Wilson, K

    2010-01-27

    The purpose of environmental monitoring is to promote the early identification of, and response to, potential adverse environmental impacts associated with Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) operations. Environmental monitoring supports the Integrated Safety Management System (ISMS), International Organization for Standardization (ISO) 14001 Environmental Management Systems standard, and U. S. Department of Energy (DOE) Order 450.1A, Environmental Protection Program. Specifically, in conformance with DOE Order 450.1A, Attachment 1, paragraph 1(b)(5), environmental monitoring enables LLNL to detect, characterize, and respond to releases from LLNL activities; assess impacts; estimate dispersal patterns in the environment; characterize the pathways of exposure to members of the public; characterize the exposures and doses to individuals and to the population; and to evaluate the potential impacts to the biota in the vicinity of LLNL. Environmental monitoring also serves to demonstrate compliance with permits and other regulatory requirements. The Environmental Monitoring Plan (EMP) addresses the sample collection and analytical work supporting environmental monitoring to ensure the following: (1) A consistent system for collecting, assessing, and documenting environmental data of known and documented quality. (2) A validated and consistent approach for sampling and analysis of samples to ensure laboratory data meets program-specific needs and requirements within the framework of a performance-based approach for analytical laboratory work. (3) An integrated sampling approach to avoid duplicative data collection. Until its cancellation in January 2003, DOE Order 5400.1 required the preparation of an environmental monitoring plan. Neither DOE Order 450.1A nor the ISO 14001 standard are as prescriptive as DOE Order 5400.1, in that neither expressly requires an EMP. However, LLNL continues to prepare the EMP because it provides an organizational framework for

  20. External ground monitoring v. receiver monitoring

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Johannessen, R.

    1991-01-01

    The high levels of integrity required by civil aviation in the use of satellite navigation entails that satellite warning messages be augmented by some secondary form of monitoring. The alternatives presently considered are (1) ground monitoring, in which a monitor at some fixed and surveyed ground location broadcasts a warning to the navigating aircraft when there is a malfunction; and (2) 'receiver autonomous integrity monitoring' (RAIM), in which the navigating receiver conducts its own internal monitoring. While the former can be achieved with fewer navigation satellites, RAIM has the singular advantage of requiring no additional investment for a ground-monitoring system. The present evaluation of the alternatives discusses the factors of satellite visibility, the definition of 'good' geometry, and the duration of integrity outages and their significance.

  1. Near-Road Air Quality Monitoring: Factors Affecting Network Design and Interpretation of Data

    EPA Science Inventory

    The growing number of health studies identifying adverse health effects for populations spending significant amounts of time near large roadways has increased the interest in monitoring air quality in this microenvironment. Designing near-road air monitoring networks or interpret...

  2. BIRD COMMUNITIES AND HABITAT AS ECOLOGICAL INDICATORS OF FOREST CONDITION IN REGIONAL MONITORING

    EPA Science Inventory

    Ecological indicators for long-term monitoring programs are needed to detect and assess changing environmental conditions, We developed and tested community-level environmental indicators for monitoring forest bird populations and associated habitat. We surveyed 197 sampling plo...

  3. Predicting Population Curves.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bunton, Matt

    2003-01-01

    Uses graphs to involve students in inquiry-based population investigations on the Wisconsin gray wolf. Requires students to predict future changes in the wolf population, carrying capacity, and deer population. (YDS)

  4. Simulating Population Growth.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Byington, Scott

    1997-01-01

    Presents a strategy to help students grasp the important implications of population growth. Involves an interactive demonstration that allows students to experience exponential and logistic population growth followed by a discussion of the implications of population-growth principles. (JRH)

  5. Winter population trends of selected songbirds

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Root, T.L.; McDaniel, Larry

    1995-01-01

    For this study we used the CBC data to examine population trends of songbirds with ranges that apparently are limited by lower temperatures in the North. We chose these species to track populations of birds that could be in peril in the future. These birds potentially will be more quickly affected by changing climate than other birds, and we need baseline information on them to document possible consequences of global climatic change. The species that are indeed declining need to be monitored because the possible synergistic effects of declining populations and changing climate could result in local and even regional extinctions.

  6. Population and habitat restoration - Preamble to section 5

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Haro, Alex

    2009-01-01

    Diadromous fish populations are particularly difficult to understand, model and manage because they traverse multiple habitats that present not only environmental, ecological, reproductive, and physiological challenges, but also frequently convey them across multiple management jurisdictions. Our knowledge of population-level effects is also dependent on the quality and extent of biological, population, and demographic data. For some species, such as Pacific salmon, populations are routinely monitored, life cycles are fairly well understood, and population trends are, in general, well documented. However, for other species such as anguillid eels, our understanding of life history is incomplete, population-level data are meager, and the trends in abundance are less clear.

  7. Population dynamics of defensive symbionts in aphids.

    PubMed

    Oliver, Kerry M; Campos, Jaime; Moran, Nancy A; Hunter, Martha S

    2008-02-01

    Vertically transmitted micro-organisms can increase in frequency in host populations by providing net benefits to hosts. While laboratory studies have identified diverse beneficial effects conferred by inherited symbionts of insects, they have not explicitly examined the population dynamics of mutualist symbiont infection within populations. In the pea aphid, Acyrthosiphon pisum, the inherited facultative symbiont, Hamiltonella defensa, provides protection against parasitism by the wasp, Aphidius ervi. Despite a high fidelity of vertical transmission and direct benefits of infection accruing to parasitized aphids, Hamiltonella remains only at intermediate frequencies in natural populations. Here, we conducted population cage experiments to monitor the dynamics of Hamiltonella and of another common A. pisum symbiont, Serratia symbiotica, in the presence and absence of parasitism. We also conducted fitness assays of Hamiltonella-infected aphids to search for costs to infection in the absence of parasitism. In the population cages, we found that the frequency of A. pisum infected with Hamiltonella increased dramatically after repeated exposure to parasitism by A. ervi, indicating that selection pressures from natural enemies can lead to the increase of particular inherited symbionts in insect populations. In our laboratory fitness assays, we did not detect a cost to infection with Hamiltonella, but in the population cages not exposed to parasitism, we found a significant decline in the frequency of both Hamiltonella and Serratia. The declining frequencies of Hamiltonella-infected aphids in population cages in the absence of parasitism indicate a probable cost to infection and may explain why Hamiltonella remains at intermediate frequencies in natural populations.

  8. Monitoring microbial populations on wide-body commercial passenger aircraft.

    PubMed

    McKernan, Lauralynn Taylor; Wallingford, Kenneth M; Hein, Misty J; Burge, Harriet; Rogers, Christine A; Herrick, Robert

    2008-03-01

    Although exposure to bacteria has been assessed in cabin air previously, minimal numbers of samples have been collected in-flight. The purpose of this research was to comprehensively characterize bacterial concentrations in the aircraft cabin. Twelve randomly selected flights were sampled on Boeing-767 aircraft, each with a flight duration between 4.5 and 6.5 h. N-6 impactors were used to collect sequential, triplicate air samples in the front and rear of coach class during six sampling intervals throughout each flight: boarding, mid-climb, early cruise, mid-cruise, late cruise and deplaning. Comparison air samples were also collected inside and outside the airport terminals at the origin and destination cities. The MIXED procedure in SAS was used to model the mean and the covariance matrix of the natural log-transformed bacterial concentrations. A total of 513 airborne culturable bacterial samples were collected. During flight (mid-climb and cruise intervals), a model-adjusted geometric mean (GM) of 136 total colony-forming units per cubic meter of air sampled (CFU x m(-3)) and geometric standard deviation of 2.1 were observed. Bacterial concentrations were highest during the boarding (GM 290 CFU x m(-3)) and deplaning (GM 549 CFU x m(-3)) processes. Total bacterial concentrations observed during flight were significantly lower than GMs for boarding and deplaning (P values <0.0001-0.021) in the modeled results. Our findings highlight the fact that aerobiological concentrations can be dynamic and underscore the importance of appropriate sample size and design. The genera analysis indicates that passenger activity and high occupant density contribute to airborne bacterial generation. Overall, our research demonstrates that the bacteria recovered on observed flights were either common skin-surface organisms (primarily gram-positive cocci) or organisms common in dust and outdoor air.

  9. POPULATION MONITORING FOR ASSESSMENT OF HEALTH CONCERNS USING BIOMARKERS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Abstract

    Exposure to environmental toxic substances is a significant cause of human health problems. In the modern world, exposure to small amount of these substances, either natural or man-made, is often unavoidable. The critical question to ask is, at what concentrations...

  10. Achieving Operational Hydrologic Monitoring of Mosquitoborne Disease

    PubMed Central

    Day, Jonathan F.

    2005-01-01

    Mosquitoes and mosquitoborne disease transmission are sensitive to hydrologic variability. If local hydrologic conditions can be monitored or modeled at the scales at which these conditions affect the population dynamics of vector mosquitoes and the diseases they transmit, a means for monitoring or modeling mosquito populations and mosquitoborne disease transmission may be realized. We review how hydrologic conditions have been associated with mosquito abundances and mosquitoborne disease transmission and discuss the advantages of different measures of hydrologic variability. We propose that the useful application of any measure of hydrologic conditions requires additional consideration of the scales for both the hydrologic measurement and the vector control interventions that will be used to mitigate an outbreak of vectorborne disease. Our efforts to establish operational monitoring of St. Louis encephalitis virus and West Nile virus transmission in Florida are also reviewed. PMID:16229760

  11. WHAT IS A POPULATION?

    EPA Science Inventory

    The word "population" has several meanings, a situation that can lead to confusion in risk assessments. A management goal "to protect wildlife populations," for example, might relate to populations as defined by population biologists, or it might mean simply to protect animals in...

  12. Some Current Population Trends.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Taeuber, Conrad

    Population trends in the 1960's and early 1970's are examined in this 1972 speech in terms of overall national trends, the growth of metropolitan areas, the rural population, geographic shifts, internal migration, the black population, and living arrangements. It is noted that population growth in the 1960's was unevenly distributed within age…

  13. Population Education Country Programmes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Population Education in Asia and the Pacific Newsletter, 1983

    1983-01-01

    Describes population programs in Afghanistan (nonformal, population education literacy program), India (problems in planning/managing population education in higher education), Indonesia (training for secondary/out-of-school inspectors), and Pakistan (integration of population education into school curricula). Programs in China, Korea, Vietnam,…

  14. Human Population Problems

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Emmel, Thomas C.; Sligh, Michael M.

    1970-01-01

    Asserts that overpopulation is the most pressing world problem. Topics discussed include population control in primitive societies, population growth and control in modern societies, methods of motivational population control, consequences of no population control, and mass famines during the 1970's in underdeveloped countries. Cities 33…

  15. Understanding Rural Population Loss.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McGranahan, David A.; Beale, Calvin L.

    2002-01-01

    A quarter of nonmetro counties lost population in the 1990s, but population loss was not related to poverty rate or low educational levels, perhaps because low-skill workers can no longer expect better wages in urban areas. Population loss was related to low population density and remoteness (which decrease access to services), lack of natural…

  16. [Finland is a pioneer in childhood growth monitoring--Is is evidence-based?].

    PubMed

    Saari, Antti; Sankilampi, Ulla

    2016-01-01

    In Finland, growth monitoring is a fundamental part of preventive child health care, aiming at an early detection of childhood illnesses as well as weight gain or loss. However, evidence-based studies on growth monitoring are practically lacking. Updated growth curves must be representative of the monitored population. Screening of Turner syndrome and celiac disease with novel growth monitoring methods could facilitate early diagnosis. Electronic health records provide an alternative to develop an automated growth monitoring program, which was found to be distinctly better than the manually orientated one in primary care. Systematic growth monitoring seems to be beneficial, although true population- based evidence on effectiveness is scarce. PMID:27132291

  17. OPTIMIZING RADIOLOGICAL MONITOR SITING OVER THE CONTINENTAL U.S.

    SciTech Connect

    Chen, K; Robert Buckley, R; Robert Kurzeja, R; Lance Osteen, L; Saleem Salaymeh, S

    2007-10-29

    The US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) is installing a network of sensors in the US to monitor background radiation and elevated radiation levels expected from a possible nuclear incident. The network (RadNet) of 180 fixed sensors is intended to provide a basic estimate of the radiation level throughout the US and enhanced accuracy near population centers. This report discusses one of the objective methods for locating these monitors based on criteria outlined by the EPA. The analysis employs a representative climatology of incident scenarios that includes 50 release locations, four seasons and four times of the day. This climatology was calculated from 5,600 simulations generated with NOAA-ARL's HYSPLIT Lagrangian trajectory model. The method treats the release plumes as targets and monitors are located to maximize the number of plumes detected with the network. Weighting schemes based on detection only, dose-weighted detection and population-dose weighted detection were evaluated. The result shows that most of the monitors are located around the population centers, as expected. However, there are monitors quite uniformly distributed around the less populated areas. The monitors at the populated areas will provide early warning to protect the general public, and the monitors spread across the country will provide valuable data for modelers to estimate the extent and the transport of the radioactive contamination.

  18. Incentivizing monitoring and compliance in trophy hunting.

    PubMed

    Bunnefeld, Nils; Edwards, Charles T T; Atickem, Anagaw; Hailu, Fetene; Milner-Gulland, E J

    2013-12-01

    Conservation scientists are increasingly focusing on the drivers of human behavior and on the implications of various sources of uncertainty for management decision making. Trophy hunting has been suggested as a conservation tool because it gives economic value to wildlife, but recent examples show that overharvesting is a substantial problem and that data limitations are rife. We use a case study of trophy hunting of an endangered antelope, the mountain nyala (Tragelaphus buxtoni), to explore how uncertainties generated by population monitoring and poaching interact with decision making by 2 key stakeholders: the safari companies and the government. We built a management strategy evaluation model that encompasses the population dynamics of mountain nyala, a monitoring model, and a company decision making model. We investigated scenarios of investment into antipoaching and monitoring by governments and safari companies. Harvest strategy was robust to the uncertainty in the population estimates obtained from monitoring, but poaching had a much stronger effect on quota and sustainability. Hence, reducing poaching is in the interests of companies wishing to increase the profitability of their enterprises, for example by engaging community members as game scouts. There is a threshold level of uncertainty in the population estimates beyond which the year-to-year variation in the trophy quota prevented planning by the safari companies. This suggests a role for government in ensuring that a baseline level of population monitoring is carried out such that this level is not exceeded. Our results illustrate the importance of considering the incentives of multiple stakeholders when designing frameworks for resource use and when designing management frameworks to address the particular sources of uncertainty that affect system sustainability most heavily. Incentivando el Monitoreo y el Cumplimiento en la Caza de Trofeos.

  19. Incentivizing monitoring and compliance in trophy hunting.

    PubMed

    Bunnefeld, Nils; Edwards, Charles T T; Atickem, Anagaw; Hailu, Fetene; Milner-Gulland, E J

    2013-12-01

    Conservation scientists are increasingly focusing on the drivers of human behavior and on the implications of various sources of uncertainty for management decision making. Trophy hunting has been suggested as a conservation tool because it gives economic value to wildlife, but recent examples show that overharvesting is a substantial problem and that data limitations are rife. We use a case study of trophy hunting of an endangered antelope, the mountain nyala (Tragelaphus buxtoni), to explore how uncertainties generated by population monitoring and poaching interact with decision making by 2 key stakeholders: the safari companies and the government. We built a management strategy evaluation model that encompasses the population dynamics of mountain nyala, a monitoring model, and a company decision making model. We investigated scenarios of investment into antipoaching and monitoring by governments and safari companies. Harvest strategy was robust to the uncertainty in the population estimates obtained from monitoring, but poaching had a much stronger effect on quota and sustainability. Hence, reducing poaching is in the interests of companies wishing to increase the profitability of their enterprises, for example by engaging community members as game scouts. There is a threshold level of uncertainty in the population estimates beyond which the year-to-year variation in the trophy quota prevented planning by the safari companies. This suggests a role for government in ensuring that a baseline level of population monitoring is carried out such that this level is not exceeded. Our results illustrate the importance of considering the incentives of multiple stakeholders when designing frameworks for resource use and when designing management frameworks to address the particular sources of uncertainty that affect system sustainability most heavily. Incentivando el Monitoreo y el Cumplimiento en la Caza de Trofeos. PMID:24001054

  20. Fugitive emissions monitoring trends

    SciTech Connect

    Brown, K.H.

    1997-02-01

    New Clean Air Act requirements are pushing facilities to reevaluate their monitoring programs. A description of the fugitive emission guidelines is included in this article, along with ideas about monitoring.

  1. Portal radiation monitor

    DOEpatents

    Kruse, Lyle W.

    1985-01-01

    A portal radiation monitor combines 0.1% FAR with high sensitivity to special nuclear material. The monitor utilizes pulse shape discrimination, dynamic compression of the photomultiplier output and scintillators sized to maintain efficiency over the entire portal area.

  2. Portal radiation monitor

    DOEpatents

    Kruse, L.W.

    1982-03-23

    A portal radiation monitor combines .1% FAR with high sensitivity to special nuclear material. The monitor utilizes pulse shape discrimination, dynamic compression of the photomultiplier output and scintillators sized to maintain efficiency over the entire portal area.

  3. Nosepiece respiration monitor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lavery, A. L.; Long, L. E.; Rice, N. E.

    1968-01-01

    Comfortable, inexpensive nosepiece respiration monitor produces rapid response signals to most conventional high impedance medical signal conditioners. The monitor measures respiration in a manner that produces a large signal with minimum delay.

  4. Replacement Migration: Is It a Solution to Declining and Ageing Populations?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    United Nations, New York, NY. Dept. of Economic and Social Affairs.

    The United Nations (UN) Population Division monitors fertility, mortality, and migration trends for all countries as a basis for producing the official UN population estimates and projections. Among recent demographic trends, two are prominent: (1) population decline and (2) population aging. Focusing on these two critical trends, a study…

  5. [Population structure and dynamics: the population matrix].

    PubMed

    Wang, C S; Gorter, D

    1990-08-01

    "This article shows an alternative way of presenting population data. The population matrix, constructed as an important part in the process of compiling socio-demographic accounts, demonstrates the close connection between stock and flow data, bringing both types of data consistently together." Official data for the Netherlands are used to illustrate the concept. (SUMMARY IN ENG) PMID:12342861

  6. Global Atmospheric Monitoring

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wallen, Carl C.

    1975-01-01

    The global atmospheric monitoring plans of the World Meteorological Organization are detailed. Single and multipurpose basic monitoring systems and the monitoring of chemical properties are discussed. The relationship of the World Meteorological Organization with the United Nations environment program is discussed. A map of the World…

  7. Geodynamic monitoring in real times

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Outkin, V.; Yurkov, A.; Klimshin, A.; Kozlova, I.

    2011-12-01

    For the decision of problems of the short-term and intermediate term forecast of tectonic earthquakes the technique conditionally named - geodynamic monitoring which does not use the data of seismic monitoring for the operative decision of problems of the forecast is offered. Geodynamic monitoring (GDM) is to studying tensely - deformed conditions of the separate block of rock on change of activity natural radioactive gas is carried out by accommodation in the chosen file of specially designed monitors of radon - devices fixing change in time (VAR). The monitor of radon, (the detector of radon) as the basic measuring device located in the block of rocks, possesses enormous tensosensitivity to relative strain condition of a file. Depending on the enclosed pressure choose three characteristic points: 1) 30-35 % of "background" size VAR - the beginning of accumulation of inelastic energy; 2) 50 % of background VAR - the process of stabilization of an elastic condition of a file; 3) 70-75 % "background" VAR - a critical pressure in the mountain block, an opportunity as spontaneous dump of elastic energy, and under action external "triggerring" forces. If the size of the saved up energy is close to critical dump needs energy at a level of energy of variations of rotation of the Earth. Such significant energy causes "plenty" of earthquakes on all planet simultaneously. This fact confirms an opportunity of the short-term forecast of strong (destructive) earthquakes: dump of elastic pressure of the Earth in this case occurs in 25-30 hours after passage of variations of rotation of the Earth. It is for the notification of the population about coming nearer earthquake. External power functions (mechanical, electromagnetic, etc.), preparations influencing system and occurrence of tectonic earthquakes, are divided on two big classes: 1) "forecasting " functions - processes functionally connected to accumulation of elastic pressure and to dump by its rather small dozes; 2

  8. Population Education in Asia and the Pacific Newsletter, Number 23.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    United Nations Educational, Scientific, and Cultural Organization, Bangkok (Thailand). Regional Office for Education in Asia and the Pacific.

    This UNESCO newsletter contains six sections concerned with various aspects of population education. Section 1 deals with workshops for monitoring and evaluating population education programs. Section 2 evaluates the programs of six Asia-Pacific countries (China, Democratic People's Republic of Korea, India, Pakistan, Philippines, and Thailand).…

  9. Comparing models of Red Knot population dynamics

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    McGowan, Conor

    2015-01-01

    Predictive population modeling contributes to our basic scientific understanding of population dynamics, but can also inform management decisions by evaluating alternative actions in virtual environments. Quantitative models mathematically reflect scientific hypotheses about how a system functions. In Delaware Bay, mid-Atlantic Coast, USA, to more effectively manage horseshoe crab (Limulus polyphemus) harvests and protect Red Knot (Calidris canutus rufa) populations, models are used to compare harvest actions and predict the impacts on crab and knot populations. Management has been chiefly driven by the core hypothesis that horseshoe crab egg abundance governs the survival and reproduction of migrating Red Knots that stopover in the Bay during spring migration. However, recently, hypotheses proposing that knot dynamics are governed by cyclical lemming dynamics garnered some support in data analyses. In this paper, I present alternative models of Red Knot population dynamics to reflect alternative hypotheses. Using 2 models with different lemming population cycle lengths and 2 models with different horseshoe crab effects, I project the knot population into the future under environmental stochasticity and parametric uncertainty with each model. I then compare each model's predictions to 10 yr of population monitoring from Delaware Bay. Using Bayes' theorem and model weight updating, models can accrue weight or support for one or another hypothesis of population dynamics. With 4 models of Red Knot population dynamics and only 10 yr of data, no hypothesis clearly predicted population count data better than another. The collapsed lemming cycle model performed best, accruing ~35% of the model weight, followed closely by the horseshoe crab egg abundance model, which accrued ~30% of the weight. The models that predicted no decline or stable populations (i.e. the 4-yr lemming cycle model and the weak horseshoe crab effect model) were the most weakly supported.

  10. Seismic Imaging and Monitoring

    SciTech Connect

    Huang, Lianjie

    2012-07-09

    I give an overview of LANL's capability in seismic imaging and monitoring. I present some seismic imaging and monitoring results, including imaging of complex structures, subsalt imaging of Gulf of Mexico, fault/fracture zone imaging for geothermal exploration at the Jemez pueblo, time-lapse imaging of a walkway vertical seismic profiling data for monitoring CO{sub 2} inject at SACROC, and microseismic event locations for monitoring CO{sub 2} injection at Aneth. These examples demonstrate LANL's high-resolution and high-fidelity seismic imaging and monitoring capabilities.

  11. Nuclear reactor effluent monitoring

    SciTech Connect

    Minns, J.L.; Essig, T.H.

    1993-12-31

    Radiological environmental monitoring and effluent monitoring at nuclear power plants is important both for normal operations, as well as in the event of an accident. During normal operations, environmental monitoring verifies the effectiveness of in-plant measures for controlling the release of radioactive materials in the plant. Following an accident, it would be an additional mechanism for estimating doses to members of the general public. This paper identifies the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) regulatory basis for requiring radiological environmental and effluent monitoring, licensee conditions for effluent and environmental monitoring, NRC independent oversight activities, and NRC`s program results.

  12. Mobile health monitoring systems.

    PubMed

    Walker, William; Aroul, A L Praveen; Bhatia, Dinesh

    2009-01-01

    Advancements are being made towards a cheap and effective means for health monitoring. A mobile monitoring system is proposed for monitoring a bicycle rider using light weight, low power wireless sensors. Biometric and environmental information pertaining to the bicycle rider is captured, transmitted to, and stored in a remote database with little user interaction required. Remote users have real time access to the captured information through a web application. Possible applications for this system include the monitoring of a soldier in the battlefield and the monitoring of a patient during an ambulance ride. PMID:19965041

  13. Precision Environmental Radiation Monitoring System

    SciTech Connect

    Vladimir Popov, Pavel Degtiarenko

    2010-07-01

    A new precision low-level environmental radiation monitoring system has been developed and tested at Jefferson Lab. This system provides environmental radiation measurements with accuracy and stability of the order of 1 nGy/h in an hour, roughly corresponding to approximately 1% of the natural cosmic background at the sea level. Advanced electronic front-end has been designed and produced for use with the industry-standard High Pressure Ionization Chamber detector hardware. A new highly sensitive readout electronic circuit was designed to measure charge from the virtually suspended ionization chamber ion collecting electrode. New signal processing technique and dedicated data acquisition were tested together with the new readout. The designed system enabled data collection in a remote Linux-operated computer workstation, which was connected to the detectors using a standard telephone cable line. The data acquisition system algorithm is built around the continuously running 24-bit resolution 192 kHz data sampling analog to digital convertor. The major features of the design include: extremely low leakage current in the input circuit, true charge integrating mode operation, and relatively fast response to the intermediate radiation change. These features allow operating of the device as an environmental radiation monitor, at the perimeters of the radiation-generating installations in densely populated areas, like in other monitoring and security applications requiring high precision and long-term stability. Initial system evaluation results are presented.

  14. China's Tibetan population and population in Tibet.

    PubMed

    Guo, D

    1996-04-01

    This article addresses the Tibetan population distribution in Tibet and neighboring provinces of China. Tibet is one of China's autonomous regions that is ethnic-inhabited. In 1994 there were 2.36 million people living in Tibet, most of whom were of Tibetan nationality. The total Tibetan population living in China numbered 4,593,072 people, who lived mostly in Tibet, Sichuan, Qinghai, Gansu, and Yunnan, in descending order of population size. The Tibetan population in 1953 numbered 2,775,622. The total increase during 1975-90 was 65.48% and the annual growth rate was 13.71%. The annual growth rate among Tibetans during 1982-90 was 21.79% in Tibet, 20.88% in Sichuan, 24.10% in Qinghai, 23.58% in Gansu, and 18.79% in Yunnan. The regional distribution of Tibetans and the ratio of Tibetan population to Han population was highest in Tibet Autonomous Region (a ratio of 25.94:1), followed by Yushu Tibetan Autonomous Prefecture in Qinghai (30.52:1). Other Tibet concentrations of population were in Guoluo Tibetan Autonomous Prefecture in Qinghai (8.71:1), Hunagnan Tibetan Autonomous Prefecture in Qinghai (5.78:1), and Ganzi Tibetan Autonomous Prefecture in Sichuan (3.53:1). The population size of Tibetans living in Tibetan prefectures of neighboring provinces was higher than in Tibet in 1990. The rapid growth of the Tibetan population is attributed to the end to the serf system and the improvement in living conditions.

  15. Environmental Monitoring Plan

    SciTech Connect

    Holland, R.C.

    1993-07-01

    This Environmental Monitoring Plan was written to fulfill the requirements of Department of Energy (DOE) Order 5400.1 and DOE Environmental Regulatory Guide DOE/EH 0173T. This Plan documents the background, organizational structure, and methods used for effluent monitoring and environmental surveillance at Sandia National Laboratories/California. The design, rationale, and historical results of the environmental monitoring system are discussed in detail. Throughout the Plan, recommendations for improvements to the monitoring system are made. This revision to the Environmental Monitoring Plan was written to document the changes made to the Monitoring Program during 1992. Some of the data (most notably the statistical analyses of past monitoring data) has not been changed.

  16. SARS and population health technology.

    PubMed

    Eysenbach, Gunther

    2003-01-01

    The recent global outbreak of SARS (severe acute respiratory syndrome) provides an opportunity to study the use and impact of public health informatics and population health technology to detect and fight a global epidemic. Population health technology is the umbrella term for technology applications that have a population focus and the potential to improve public health. This includes the Internet, but also other technologies such as wireless devices, mobile phones, smart appliances, or smart homes. In the context of an outbreak or bioterrorism attack, such technologies may help to gather intelligence and detect diseases early, and communicate and exchange information electronically worldwide. Some of the technologies brought forward during the SARS epidemic may have been primarily motivated by marketing efforts, or were more directed towards reassuring people that "something is being done," ie, fighting an "epidemic of fear." To understand "fear epidemiology" is important because early warning systems monitoring data from a large number of people may not be able to discriminate between a biological epidemic and an epidemic of fear. The need for critical evaluation of all of these technologies is stressed. PMID:12857670

  17. Population and population policy in Pakistan.

    PubMed

    Mauldin, W P

    1963-02-01

    Pakistan is a divided country with different religious groups represented. Since independence in 1941, the Muslim population has increased more rapidly than the Hindu population, the West Pakistan population more rapidly and steadily than the East Pakistan population. In the late 1950s the Pakistan government initiated a family planning program. The program has trained medical and paramedical personnel in family planning, added family planning services to existing medical centers, planned for a National Research Institute of Family Planning, employed mobile units to reach outlying areas, conducted limited clinical studies on some contraceptives, and used mass media advertising. Only India and Japan are doing more with government-sponsored family planning. A weak organizational structure and an inadequate number of trained personnel are the main weakness of the program. It is too early to assess the success of the program. A 10-point reduction in annual birth rates will be considered successful.

  18. Glaucoma in Asian Populations

    MedlinePlus

    ... Us Donate In This Section Glaucoma In Asian Populations email Send this article to a friend by ... an even more serious problem as the world population and longevity increases. The other major glaucoma type ...

  19. Conservation planning and monitoring avian habitat

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Twedt, D.J.; Loesch, C.R.; Bonney, Rick; Pashley, David N.; Cooper, Robert; Niles, Larry

    2000-01-01

    Migratory bird conservation plans should not only develop population goals, they also should establish attainable objectives for optimizing avian habitats. Meeting population goals is of paramount importance, but progress toward established habitat objectives can generally be monitored more easily than can progress toward population goals. Additionally, local or regional habitat objectives can be attained regardless of perturbations to avian populations that occur outside the geographic area covered by conservation plans. Assessments of current avian habitats, obtained from remotely sensed data, and the historical distribution of habitats should be used in establishing habitat objectives. Habitat planning and monitoring are best conducted using a geographic information system. Habitat objectives are assigned to three categories: maintaining existing habitat, restoring habitat, and creating new or alternative habitat. Progress toward meeting habitat objectives can be monitored through geographic information systems by incorporating georeferenced information on public lands, private lands under conservation easements, corporate lands under prescribed management, habitat restoration areas, and private lands under alternative management to enhance wildlife values. We recommend that the area and distribution of habitats within the area covered by conservation plans be reassessed from remotely sensed imagery at intervals appropriate to detect predicted habitat changes.

  20. Alternative population futures.

    PubMed

    1980-01-01

    Alternative population scenarios to the year 2000 are presented and policy implications of the various scenarios are discussed. Population models are described. Projections are made based on different sets of assumptions regarding changes in birth, death, marriage and migration rates. A "high" series, "medium" series and "low" series of projections are made for total population. Projections are also made regarding urban and rural population, families and households, and the labor force.

  1. Inferences about ungulate population dynamics derived from age ratios

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Harris, N.C.; Kauffman, M.J.; Mills, L.S.

    2008-01-01

    Age ratios (e.g., calf:cow for elk and fawn:doe for deer) are used regularly to monitor ungulate populations. However, it remains unclear what inferences are appropriate from this index because multiple vital rate changes can influence the observed ratio. We used modeling based on elk (Cervus elaphus) life-history to evaluate both how age ratios are influenced by stage-specific fecundity and survival and how well age ratios track population dynamics. Although all vital rates have the potential to influence calf:adult female ratios (i.e., calf:xow ratios), calf survival explained the vast majority of variation in calf:adult female ratios due to its temporal variation compared to other vital rates. Calf:adult female ratios were positively correlated with population growth rate (??) and often successfully indicated population trajectories. However, calf:adult female ratios performed poorly at detecting imposed declines in calf survival, suggesting that only the most severe declines would be rapidly detected. Our analyses clarify that managers can use accurate, unbiased age ratios to monitor arguably the most important components contributing to sustainable ungulate populations, survival rate of young and ??. However, age ratios are not useful for detecting gradual declines in survival of young or making inferences about fecundity or adult survival in ungulate populations. Therefore, age ratios coupled with independent estimates of population growth or population size are necessary to monitor ungulate population demography and dynamics closely through time.

  2. Teaching about Population Growth.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Otero, George G., Jr., Comp.

    This teaching guide contains 20 activities on population growth for students in grades 6-12. The purpose is to help students gain the skills, knowledge, and understanding of population dynamics so that they can make rational decisions and take responsible action regarding population matters and public policy. Activities are organized around the…

  3. Population Education Country Programmes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Population Education in Asia and the Pacific Newsletter, 1985

    1985-01-01

    Discusses population education programs in China, India, Indonesia, Maldives, Nepal, Pakistan, Philippines, Sri Lanka, and Vietnam. Sri Lanka is developing audio-visual materials and integrating population education into secondary science and social studies curricula. Nepal is transmitting nonformal population education messages to adults through…

  4. Controlling Population with Pollution

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Browne, Joseph

    2010-01-01

    Population models are often discussed in algebra, calculus, and differential equations courses. In this article we will use the human population of the world as our application. After quick looks at two common models we'll investigate more deeply a model which incorporates the negative effect that accumulated pollution may have on population.

  5. Modeling Exponential Population Growth

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McCormick, Bonnie

    2009-01-01

    The concept of population growth patterns is a key component of understanding evolution by natural selection and population dynamics in ecosystems. The National Science Education Standards (NSES) include standards related to population growth in sections on biological evolution, interdependence of organisms, and science in personal and social…

  6. Population Education in Baltimore.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cochran, Caroline S.; McCrea, Lester C.

    First in a series of six documents, this report describes the Urban Life-Population Education Institute (ULPEI) program which was designed to demonstrate population realities to Baltimore public schools so that teachers can introduce population studies into the school curriculum. The first part of the paper presents background information on the…

  7. [Population Growth and Development].

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clausen, A. W.

    Rapid population growth as a central development problem, the proper domain of government in reducing population growth, and effective measures which can be taken to reduce fertility are examined. Rapid population growth puts a brake on development because it exacerbates the difficult choice between higher consumption now and the investment needed…

  8. Monitoring of raptors and their contamination levels in Norway.

    PubMed

    Gjershaug, Jan Ove; Kålås, John Atle; Nygård, Torgeir; Herzke, Dorte; Folkestad, Alv Ottar

    2008-09-01

    This article summarizes results from raptor monitoring and contamination studies in Norway of the golden eagle, gyrfalcon, white-tailed sea eagle, osprey, peregrine, and merlin. Golden eagle and gyrfalcon populations have been monitored since 1990 as part of the "Monitoring Programme for Terrestrial Ecosystems" (TOV). No long-term trend in the population size or productivity of golden eagle has been shown in any of the 5 study areas. The reproductive output of gyrfalcon is monitored in 3 areas. It is positively correlated with the populations of its main prey species, the rock ptarmigan and the willow ptarmigan. The white-tailed sea eagle population has been monitored since 1974 by the Norwegian Ornithological Society, and the population is increasing. The levels of pesticides and polychlorinated biphenyls are low in the eggs of both the golden eagle and the gyrfalcon, but elevated levels and effects on reproduction have been indicated for a coastal subpopulation of golden eagle. The pollutant levels in white-tailed sea eagle are lower than in the Baltic population of sea eagles, and shell thinning was never severe overall, but individual eggs have contained pollutant concentrations above critical levels. The levels of pollutants in the bird-eating falcons, peregrine, and merlin were higher than in other species. New emerging pollutants, like brominated diphenylethers and perfluorinated organic compounds, could be detected in all species. By incorporating available published and unpublished data, we were able to produce time trends for pollutants and shell thickness over 4 decades. PMID:18833794

  9. Monitoring End Points of Burn Resuscitation.

    PubMed

    Caruso, Daniel M; Matthews, Marc R

    2016-10-01

    This article discusses commonly used methods of monitoring and determining the end points of resuscitation. Each end point of resuscitation is examined as it relates to use in critically ill burn patients. Published medical literature, clinical trials, consensus trials, and expert opinion regarding end points of resuscitation were gathered and reviewed. Specific goals were a detailed examination of each method in the critical care population and how this methodology can be used in the burn patient. Although burn resuscitation is monitored and administered using the methodology as seen in medical/surgical intensive care settings, special consideration for excessive edema formation, metabolic derangements, and frequent operative interventions must be considered. PMID:27600124

  10. Effects of Flooding on Field Populations of Formosan Subterranean Termites, Coptotermes formosanus Shiraki (Isoptera: Rhinotermitidae), in New Orleans, LA

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Periodic sampling of independent monitors, initially active with the Formosan subterranean termite, Coptotermes formosanus Shiraki, was conducted to evaluate the effects of long term flooding on termite populations. Monitors were located adjacent to buildings and in urban forests. Significant popu...

  11. Power consumption monitoring using additional monitoring device

    SciTech Connect

    Truşcă, M. R. C. Albert, Ş. Tudoran, C. Soran, M. L. Fărcaş, F.; Abrudean, M.

    2013-11-13

    Today, emphasis is placed on reducing power consumption. Computers are large consumers; therefore it is important to know the total consumption of computing systems. Since their optimal functioning requires quite strict environmental conditions, without much variation in temperature and humidity, reducing energy consumption cannot be made without monitoring environmental parameters. Thus, the present work uses a multifunctional electric meter UPT 210 for power consumption monitoring. Two applications were developed: software which carries meter readings provided by electronic and programming facilitates remote device and a device for temperature monitoring and control. Following temperature variations that occur both in the cooling system, as well as the ambient, can reduce energy consumption. For this purpose, some air conditioning units or some computers are stopped in different time slots. These intervals were set so that the economy is high, but the work's Datacenter is not disturbed.